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Sample records for dough sponges

  1. Genetic control of wheat quality: interactions between chromosomal regions determining protein content and composition, dough rheology, and sponge and dough baking properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Gulay; Diffey, Simon; Cullis, Brian; Azanza, Fermin; Martin, David; Kelly, Alison; McIntyre, Lynne; Schmidt, Adele; Ma, Wujun; Nath, Zena; Kutty, Ibrahim; Leyne, P Emmett; Rampling, Lynette; Quail, Ken J; Morell, Matthew K

    2009-05-01

    While the genetic control of wheat processing characteristics such as dough rheology is well understood, limited information is available concerning the genetic control of baking parameters, particularly sponge and dough (S&D) baking. In this study, a quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis was performed using a population of doubled haploid lines derived from a cross between Australian cultivars Kukri x Janz grown at sites across different Australian wheat production zones (Queensland in 2001 and 2002 and Southern and Northern New South Wales in 2003) in order to examine the genetic control of protein content, protein expression, dough rheology and sponge and dough baking performance. The study highlighted the inconsistent genetic control of protein content across the test sites, with only two loci (3A and 7A) showing QTL at three of the five sites. Dough rheology QTL were highly consistent across the 5 sites, with major effects associated with the Glu-B1 and Glu-D1 loci. The Glu-D1 5 + 10 allele had consistent effects on S&D properties across sites; however, there was no evidence for a positive effect of the high dough strength Glu-B1-al allele at Glu-B1. A second locus on 5D had positive effects on S&D baking at three of five sites. This study demonstrated that dough rheology measurements were poor predictors of S&D quality. In the absence of robust predictive tests, high heritability values for S&D demonstrate that direct selection is the current best option for achieving genetic gain in this product category.

  2. Contraceptive Sponge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cause: Vaginal irritation or dryness Urinary tract or vaginal infection An increased risk of contracting STIs Toxic shock ... 24 hours to reduce the risk of an infection. Remove the contraceptive ... If your vaginal muscles are still holding the contraceptive sponge tightly, ...

  3. Vaginal sponge and spermicides

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... counter; Contraceptives - over the counter; Family planning - vaginal sponge; Contraception - vaginal sponge ... Spermicides and vaginal sponges do not work as well at preventing pregnancy as some other forms of birth control. However, using a spermicide ...

  4. Rheological Properties of Gluten Free Dough Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Tandazo, Stephany Aurea

    2013-01-01

    Bread is the one of the oldest processed foods and a major wheat based product. The basic process involves mixing of ingredients until the flour is converted into dough, followed by baking the dough into a loaf. A very important step in breadmaking is to know how to make good quality dough. However, the increasing knowledge of people being diagnosed with celiac disease (gluten intolerance) has encouraged scientists to develop healthier and better quality gluten-free products that would greatl...

  5. A micromechanics model for bread dough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, M. A. P.; Tarleton, E.; Charalambides, M. N.; Williams, J. G.

    2015-01-01

    The mechanical behaviour of dough and gluten was studied in an effort to investigate whether bread dough can be treated as a two phase (starch and gluten) composite material. The dough and gluten show rate dependent behaviour under tension, compression and shear tests, and non-linear unloading-reloading curves under cyclic compression tests. There is evidence from cryo-Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) that damage in the form of debonding between starch and gluten occurs when the sample is stretched. A composite finite element model was developed using starch as filler and gluten as matrix. The interaction between the starch and gluten was modelled as cohesive contact. The finite element analysis predictions agree with trends seen in experimental test data on dough and gluten, further evidence that debonding of starch and gluten is a possible damage mechanism in dough.

  6. A micromechanics model for bread dough

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammed, M. A. P; Tarleton, E.; Charalambides, M. N.; Williams, J. G.

    2015-01-01

    The mechanical behaviour of dough and gluten was studied in an effort to investigate whether bread dough can be treated as a two phase (starch and gluten) composite material. The dough and gluten show rate dependent behaviour under tension, compression and shear tests, and non-linear unloading-reloading curves under cyclic compression tests. There is evidence from cryo-Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) that damage in the form of debonding between starch and gluten occurs when the sample is stretched. A composite finite element model was developed using starch as filler and gluten as matrix. The interaction between the starch and gluten was modelled as cohesive contact. The finite element analysis predictions agree with trends seen in experimental test data on dough and gluten, further evidence that debonding of starch and gluten is a possible damage mechanism in dough

  7. A micromechanics model for bread dough

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohammed, M. A. P; Tarleton, E.; Charalambides, M. N.; Williams, J. G. [Imperial College London, Mechanical Engineering Department, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2015-01-22

    The mechanical behaviour of dough and gluten was studied in an effort to investigate whether bread dough can be treated as a two phase (starch and gluten) composite material. The dough and gluten show rate dependent behaviour under tension, compression and shear tests, and non-linear unloading-reloading curves under cyclic compression tests. There is evidence from cryo-Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) that damage in the form of debonding between starch and gluten occurs when the sample is stretched. A composite finite element model was developed using starch as filler and gluten as matrix. The interaction between the starch and gluten was modelled as cohesive contact. The finite element analysis predictions agree with trends seen in experimental test data on dough and gluten, further evidence that debonding of starch and gluten is a possible damage mechanism in dough.

  8. Use of glucose oxidase to improve refrigerated dough quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refrigerated dough encompasses a wide range of products including bread, rolls, pastries and pizza crust and is a very popular choice for consumers. Two of the largest problems that occur during refrigerated dough storage are dough syruping and loss of dough strength. The goal of this study was to e...

  9. Hybrid yeast strains capable of raising an extraordinarily broad range of dough types

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kowalski, S.; Zander, I.; Windisch, S.

    1981-01-01

    Over 200 hybrid yeast strains were screened and 11 of these found to have versatile fermentation characteristics. This paper reports the results obtained with these 11 strains compared with a commercially available strain of baker's yeast used for bread making and marketed as 'instant active dry yeast'. In contrast to bakers yeast, the hybrid strains fermented very well in yeast, hard biscuit, shortcake and heavy cake dough without prior sponge formation. The fermentation kinetics were investigated and the technical potential of such hybrid strains discussed on the basis of the fermentation kinetics.

  10. The impact of yeast fermentation on dough matrix properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei, Mohammad N; Jayaram, Vinay B; Verstrepen, Kevin J; Courtin, Christophe M

    2016-08-01

    Most studies on dough properties are performed on yeastless dough to exclude the complicating, time-dependent effect of yeast. Baker's yeast, however, impacts dough matrix properties during fermentation, probably through the production of primary (CO2 and ethanol) and secondary (glycerol, acetic acid and succinic acid) metabolites. The aim of this study is to obtain a better understanding of the changes in yeasted dough behavior introduced by fermentation, by investigating the impact of yeast fermentation on Farinograph dough consistency, dough spread, Kieffer rig dough extensibility and gluten agglomeration behavior in a fermented dough-batter gluten starch separation system. Results show that fermentation leads to a dough with less flow and lower extensibility that breaks more easily under stress and strain. The dough showed less elastic and more plastic deformation behavior. Gluten agglomerates were smaller for yeasted dough than for the unyeasted control. These changes probably have to be attributed to metabolites generated during fermentation. Indeed, organic acids and also ethanol in concentrations produced by yeast were previously shown to have similar effects in yeastless dough. These findings imply the high importance of yeast fermentation metabolites on dough matrix properties in industrial bread production. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Properties of short-dough biscuits in relation to structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baltsavias, A.; Jurgens, A.; Vliet, T. van

    1999-01-01

    The mechanical properties of short-dough biscuits of various composition were determined in three-point bending tests. The temperature during dough preparation and the dough water content affected the air volume fraction and the mechanical properties to an extent which depended on the fat content.

  12. Distributed simulation of mixing flow of dough

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baloch, A.

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports on a study concerned with the numerical simulation of incompressible complex mixing flows of viscoelastic fluids is of industrial importance, particularly relevance in the food processing industry, such as occurs in dough mixing. The flows considered are in a complex domain setting. The present problem is one of this form, expressed as the flow between an outer rotating cylindrical vessel all and a stationary cylindrical/stirrers. The context is one of mixing with in a cylindrical vessel, where stirrers are located on the mixing vessel lid, and placed in a concentric/eccentric position with respect to the central cylindrical axis of the vessel. Here, the motion is considered as driven by the rotation of the outer vessel wall, with various stirrer locations. Two dough mixers at various rotation speeds are studied; one with one stirrer and the other with two stirrers. With a singular circular stirrer, an eccentric configuration is adopted. A further eccentric case with two circular stirrers is also contrasted against the above, where a symmetrical arrangement is assumed. Numerical simulations are based on two dimensions in the cylindrical polar co-ordinates system. The results reflected close agreement with the equivalent experimental results. The motivation for this work is to develop and advance technology to model the mixing of dough. The ultimate target is to predict and adjust the design of dough mixers, so that optimal dough processing may be achieved notably, with reference to work input on the dough. The hardware platform is a network combination of homogeneous Intel Linux clusters of workstations. A semi-implicit time-stepping Taylor-Galerkin scheme is employed with PVM (Parallel Virtual Machine) message passing libraries as the message passing protocol. Parallel results are compared against single processor (sequentially) solutions, using the parallelism paradigm of domain decomposition. Linear speed-up with the number of processors is

  13. Sponge cell culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schippers, K.J.

    2013-01-01

    Marine sponges are a rich source of bioactive compounds with pharmaceutical potential and are the most prolific source of newly discovered bioactive compounds with more than 7,000 novel molecules discovered in 40 years. Despite its enormous potential, only a few sponge-derived bioactive

  14. Surgical sponges in small animal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeltzman, Phil; Downs, Myron

    2011-06-01

    Sponges are commonly used in veterinary practice. Uses for sponges in the operative arena include hemostasis, retraction, protection, dissection, and general wound management. Blood loss can be quantitated by counting blood-soaked sponges. Complications may arise when sponges are retained in the patient. Sponge retention is a risk whenever sponges are used during surgery, regardless of surgical procedure. This article reviews physical characteristics and proper uses of sponges, complications of sponge retention, and techniques to avoid retained sponges.

  15. Ethanol at levels produced by Saccharomyces cerevisiae during wheat dough fermentation has a strong impact on dough properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaram, Vinay B; Rezaei, Mohammad N; Cuyvers, Sven; Verstrepen, Kevin J; Delcour, Jan A; Courtin, Christophe M

    2014-09-24

    Yeast's role in bread making is primarily the fermentative production of carbon dioxide to leaven the dough. Fermentation also impacts dough matrix rheology, thereby affecting the quality of the end product. Surprisingly, the role of ethanol, the other yeast primary metabolite, has been ill studied in this context. Therefore, this study aims to assess the potential impact of ethanol on yeastless dough extensibility and spread and gluten agglomeration at concentrations at which it is produced in fermenting dough, i.e., up to 60 mmol per 100 g of flour. Reduced dough extensibility and dough spread were observed upon incorporation of ethanol in the dough formula, and were more pronounced for a weak than for a strong flour. Uniaxial and biaxial extension tests showed up to 50% decrease in dough extensibility and a dough strength increase of up to 18% for 60 mmol of ethanol/100 g of flour. Ethanol enhanced gluten agglomeration of a weak flour. Sequential extraction of flour in increasing ethanol concentrations showed that better gluten-solvent interaction is a possible explanation for the changed dough behavior.

  16. RHEOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF GLUTEN-FREE DOUGH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iva Burešová

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic oscillation rheometry was used to determine the viscoelastic properties of gluten-free dough prepared from amaranth, chickpea, millet, corn, quinoa, buckwheat and rice flours. The viscoelastic properties was described by storage modulus G´, loss modulus G´´ and phase angle tg(δ. The relationship between viscoelastic properties of gluten-free dough and bread-making quality was evaluated. The results of this study indicated that dynamic oscillation rheometry may be used to differentiate the bread-making quality of gluten-free flour. Bread-making quality of gluten-free flour is the best characterised by curve slope of storage modulus G´and phase angle tg(δ while bread made from the flour with storage modulus and phase angle with non-linear slope in low deformation frequencies 0.01–0.10 Hz achieved the largest volume.

  17. The sponge microbiome project

    KAUST Repository

    Moitinho-Silva, Lucas; Nielsen, Shaun; Amir, Amnon; Gonzalez, Antonio; Ackermann, Gail L.; Cerrano, Carlo; Astudillo-Garcia, Carmen; Easson, Cole; Sipkema, Detmer; Liu, Fang; Steinert, Georg; Kotoulas, Giorgos; McCormack, Grace P.; Feng, Guofang; Bell, James J.; Vicente, Jan; Bjö rk, Johannes R.; Montoya, Jose M.; Olson, Julie B.; Reveillaud, Julie; Steindler, Laura; Pineda, Mari-Carmen; Marra, Maria V.; Ilan, Micha; Taylor, Michael W.; Polymenakou, Paraskevi; Erwin, Patrick M.; Schupp, Peter J.; Simister, Rachel L.; Knight, Rob; Thacker, Robert W.; Costa, Rodrigo; Hill, Russell T.; Lopez-Legentil, Susanna; Dailianis, Thanos; Ravasi, Timothy; Hentschel, Ute; Li, Zhiyong; Webster, Nicole S.; Thomas, Torsten

    2017-01-01

    Marine sponges (phylum Porifera) are a diverse, phylogenetically deep-branching clade known for forming intimate partnerships with complex communities of microorganisms. To date, 16S rRNA gene sequencing studies have largely utilised different

  18. The sponge microbiome project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moitinho-Silva, Lucas; Nielsen, Shaun; Amir, Amnon; Gonzalez, Antonio; Ackermann, Gail L; Cerrano, Carlo; Astudillo-Garcia, Carmen; Easson, Cole; Sipkema, Detmer; Liu, Fang; Steinert, Georg; Kotoulas, Giorgos; McCormack, Grace P; Feng, Guofang; Bell, James J; Vicente, Jan; Björk, Johannes R; Montoya, Jose M; Olson, Julie B; Reveillaud, Julie; Steindler, Laura; Pineda, Mari-Carmen; Marra, Maria V; Ilan, Micha; Taylor, Michael W; Polymenakou, Paraskevi; Erwin, Patrick M; Schupp, Peter J; Simister, Rachel L; Knight, Rob; Thacker, Robert W; Costa, Rodrigo; Hill, Russell T; Lopez-Legentil, Susanna; Dailianis, Thanos; Ravasi, Timothy; Hentschel, Ute; Li, Zhiyong; Webster, Nicole S; Thomas, Torsten

    2017-10-01

    Marine sponges (phylum Porifera) are a diverse, phylogenetically deep-branching clade known for forming intimate partnerships with complex communities of microorganisms. To date, 16S rRNA gene sequencing studies have largely utilised different extraction and amplification methodologies to target the microbial communities of a limited number of sponge species, severely limiting comparative analyses of sponge microbial diversity and structure. Here, we provide an extensive and standardised dataset that will facilitate sponge microbiome comparisons across large spatial, temporal, and environmental scales. Samples from marine sponges (n = 3569 specimens), seawater (n = 370), marine sediments (n = 65) and other environments (n = 29) were collected from different locations across the globe. This dataset incorporates at least 268 different sponge species, including several yet unidentified taxa. The V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene was amplified and sequenced from extracted DNA using standardised procedures. Raw sequences (total of 1.1 billion sequences) were processed and clustered with (i) a standard protocol using QIIME closed-reference picking resulting in 39 543 operational taxonomic units (OTU) at 97% sequence identity, (ii) a de novo clustering using Mothur resulting in 518 246 OTUs, and (iii) a new high-resolution Deblur protocol resulting in 83 908 unique bacterial sequences. Abundance tables, representative sequences, taxonomic classifications, and metadata are provided. This dataset represents a comprehensive resource of sponge-associated microbial communities based on 16S rRNA gene sequences that can be used to address overarching hypotheses regarding host-associated prokaryotes, including host specificity, convergent evolution, environmental drivers of microbiome structure, and the sponge-associated rare biosphere. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  19. The sponge microbiome project

    KAUST Repository

    Moitinho-Silva, Lucas

    2017-08-16

    Marine sponges (phylum Porifera) are a diverse, phylogenetically deep-branching clade known for forming intimate partnerships with complex communities of microorganisms. To date, 16S rRNA gene sequencing studies have largely utilised different extraction and amplification methodologies to target the microbial communities of a limited number of sponge species, severely limiting comparative analyses of sponge microbial diversity and structure. Here, we provide an extensive and standardised dataset that will facilitate sponge microbiome comparisons across large spatial, temporal, and environmental scales. Samples from marine sponges (n = 3569 specimens), seawater (n = 370), marine sediments (n = 65) and other environments (n = 29) were collected from different locations across the globe. This dataset incorporates at least 268 different sponge species, including several yet unidentified taxa. The V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene was amplified and sequenced from extracted DNA using standardised procedures. Raw sequences (total of 1.1 billion sequences) were processed and clustered with (i) a standard protocol using QIIME closed-reference picking resulting in 39 543 operational taxonomic units (OTU) at 97% sequence identity, (ii) a de novo clustering using Mothur resulting in 518 246 OTUs, and (iii) a new high-resolution Deblur protocol resulting in 83 908 unique bacterial sequences. Abundance tables, representative sequences, taxonomic classifications, and metadata are provided. This dataset represents a comprehensive resource of sponge-associated microbial communities based on 16S rRNA gene sequences that can be used to address overarching hypotheses regarding host-associated prokaryotes, including host specificity, convergent evolution, environmental drivers of microbiome structure, and the sponge-associated rare biosphere.

  20. Sponge cell culture? A molecular identification method for sponge cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sipkema, D.; Heilig, G.H.J.; Akkermans, A.D.L.; Osinga, R.; Tramper, J.; Wijffels, R.H.

    2003-01-01

    Dissociated sponge cells are easily confused with unicellular organisms. This has been an obstacle in the development of sponge-cell lines. We developed a molecular detection method to identify cells of the sponge Dysidea avara in dissociated cell cultures. The 18S ribosomal RNA gene from a Dysidea

  1. Understanding the link between GMP and dough: from glutenin particles in flour towards developed dough

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Don, C.; Lichtendonk, W.J.; Plijter, J.J.; Hamer, R.J.

    2003-01-01

    Clear correlations exist for glutenin macropolymer (GMP) quantity and rheological properties vs. wheat quality and dough rheological properties, but real insight in understanding these links is still missing. The observation that GMP consists of glutenin particles opens up new possibilities to

  2. Understanding the link between GMP and dough: From glutenin particles in flour towards developed dough

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Don, C.; Lichtendonk, W.J.; Plijter, J.J.; Hamer, R.J.

    2003-01-01

    Clear correlations exist for glutenin macropolymer (GMP) quantity and rheological properties vs. wheat quality and dough rheological properties, but real insight in understanding these links is still missing. The observation that GMP consists of glutenin particles opens up new possibilities to

  3. Influence of enzymes and ascorbic acid on dough rheology and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Influence of enzymes and ascorbic acid on dough rheology and wheat bread quality. ... Journal Home > Vol 15, No 3 (2016) >. Log in or ... Seven bread formulations containing different concentrations of these ... The rheological properties of each dough formulation were determined by moisture, gluten and farinograph tests.

  4. The effects of commercial fibres on frozen bread dough

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JELENA FILIPOVIĆ

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The daily intake of dietary fibres in highly industrialized countries is at a low level and, therefore, adversely affecting human health. The objective of this research was to analyze the influence of different commercial fibres (originating from sugar beet pulp fibrex, and Jerusalem artichoke inulin HPX and GR in yeast dough at a level of 5 %, on the rheological properties of dough and the quality of bread during frozen storage. Frozen dough characteristics were determined using a Brabender maturograph and test baking was followed according the AACC procedure. The dough was frozen at –18 °C and stored over a period of 60 days. The results concerning the dough (proving time and stability and bread quality (volume and crumb quality were statistically analyzed by multivariance Manova and discriminative analysis, which indicated that there was a significant difference between dough without fibres and dough with different fibres (fibrex, inulin HPX and GR. The discrimination coefficient points that the greatest influence of fibres on the final proof and proving stability is after 30 days (6.250 and after 0 days (6.158, respectively, but the greatest influence of fibres on bread volume and bread crumb quality (15.488 and 3.638, respectively can be expected on non frozen dough, due to above mention their adverse the effect on gluten network.

  5. Growth and metabolism of sponges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, M.

    2009-01-01

    Sponges (phylum Porifera) are multi cellular filter-feeding invertebrate animals living attached to a substratum in mostly marine but also in freshwater habitats. The interest in sponges has increased rapidly since the discovery of potential new pharmaceutical compounds produced by many sponges. An

  6. Retained surgical sponge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyama, Masashi; Kurono, Kenji; Iida, Akihiko; Suzuki, Hirochika; Hara, Masaki; Mizutani, Hirokazu; Ohba, Satoru; Mizutani, Masaru; Nakajima, Yoichiro.

    1993-01-01

    The CT, US, and MRI findings of confirmed retained surgical sponges were reviewed. The CT examinations in eight lesions demonstrated round or oval masses with heterogeneous internal structures. The US examinations in 5 lesions demonstrated low echogenic masses with high echogenic internal structures, which suggested retained surgical sponges. MR imagings in three lesions showed slightly high intensity comparable to that of muscles on T1-weighted images and high signal intensity on T2-weighted images, suggesting fluid collections of high protein concentration. (author)

  7. Addition of glucose oxidase for the improvement of refrigerated dough quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refrigerated dough encompasses a wide range of products and is a very popular choice for consumers. Two of the largest problems that occur during refrigerated dough storage are dough syruping and loss of dough strength. The goal of this study was to evaluate glucose oxidase as an additive to refri...

  8. Sediment impacts on marine sponges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, James J; McGrath, Emily; Biggerstaff, Andrew; Bates, Tracey; Bennett, Holly; Marlow, Joseph; Shaffer, Megan

    2015-05-15

    Changes in sediment input to marine systems can influence benthic environments in many ways. Sponges are important components of benthic ecosystems world-wide and as sessile suspension feeders are likely to be impacted by changes in sediment levels. Despite this, little is known about how sponges respond to changes in settled and suspended sediment. Here we review the known impacts of sedimentation on sponges and their adaptive capabilities, whilst highlighting gaps in our understanding of sediment impacts on sponges. Although the literature clearly shows that sponges are influenced by sediment in a variety of ways, most studies confer that sponges are able to tolerate, and in some cases thrive, in sedimented environments. Critical gaps exist in our understanding of the physiological responses of sponges to sediment, adaptive mechanisms, tolerance limits, and the particularly the effect of sediment on early life history stages. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Production of pizza dough with reduced fermentation time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Limongi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to reduce the fermentation time of pizza dough by evaluating the development of the dough during fermentation using a Chopin® rheofermentometer and verifying the influence of time and temperature using a 2² factorial design. The focus was to produce characteristic soft pizza dough with bubbles and crispy edges and soft in the center. These attributes were verified by the Quantitative Descriptive Analysis (QDA. The dough was prepared with the usual ingredients, fermented at a temperature range from 27 to 33 ºC for 30 to 42 minutes, enlarged, added with tomato sauce, baked, and frozen. The influence of the variables time and temperature on the release of carbon dioxide (H'm was confirmed with positive and significant effect, using a rheofermentometer, which was not observed for the development or maximum height of the dough (Hm. The same fermentation conditions of the experimental design were used for the production of the pizza dough in the industrial process; it was submitted to Quantitative Descriptive Analysis (QDA, in which the samples were described by nine attributes. The results showed that some samples had the desired characteristics of pizza dough, demonstrated by the principal component analysis (PCA, indicating a 30 % fermentation time reduction when compared to the conventional process.

  10. The Sponge Hologenome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Torsten

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT A paradigm shift has recently transformed the field of biological science; molecular advances have revealed how fundamentally important microorganisms are to many aspects of a host’s phenotype and evolution. In the process, an era of “holobiont” research has emerged to investigate the intricate network of interactions between a host and its symbiotic microbial consortia. Marine sponges are early-diverging metazoa known for hosting dense, specific, and often highly diverse microbial communities. Here we synthesize current thoughts about the environmental and evolutionary forces that influence the diversity, specificity, and distribution of microbial symbionts within the sponge holobiont, explore the physiological pathways that contribute to holobiont function, and describe the molecular mechanisms that underpin the establishment and maintenance of these symbiotic partnerships. The collective genomes of the sponge holobiont form the sponge hologenome, and we highlight how the forces that define a sponge’s phenotype in fact act on the genomic interplay between the different components of the holobiont. PMID:27103626

  11. Generalized Morphology using Sponges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Gronde, Jasper J.; Roerdink, Jos B.T.M.

    2016-01-01

    Mathematical morphology has traditionally been grounded in lattice theory. For non-scalar data lattices often prove too restrictive, however. In this paper we present a more general alternative, sponges, that still allows useful definitions of various properties and concepts from morphological

  12. The sponge microbiome project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moitinho-Silva, Lucas; Nielsen, Shaun; Amir, Amnon; Gonzalez, Antonio; Ackermann, Gail L.; Cerrano, Carlo; Astudillo-Garcia, Carmen; Easson, Cole; Sipkema, Detmer; Liu, Fang; Steinert, Georg; Kotoulas, Giorgos; McCormack, Grace P.; Feng, Guofang; Bell, James J.; Vicente, Jan; Björk, Johannes R.; Montoya, Jose M.; Olson, Julie B.; Reveillaud, Julie; Steindler, Laura; Pineda, Mari Carmen; Marra, Maria V.; Ilan, Micha; Taylor, Michael W.; Polymenakou, Paraskevi; Erwin, Patrick M.; Schupp, Peter J.; Simister, Rachel L.; Knight, Rob; Thacker, Robert W.; Costa, Rodrigo; Hill, Russell T.; Lopez-Legentil, Susanna; Dailianis, Thanos; Ravasi, Timothy; Hentschel, Ute; Li, Zhiyong; Webster, Nicole S.; Thomas, Torsten

    2017-01-01

    Marine sponges (phylum Porifera) are a diverse, phylogenetically deep-branching clade known for forming intimate partnerships with complex communities of microorganisms. To date, 16S rRNA gene sequencing studies have largely utilised different extraction and amplification methodologies to target the

  13. THE BEHAVIOR OF DIFFERENT FIBERS AT BREAD DOUGH FREEZING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Filipović

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Three different types of commercial fibers (inulin originated from artichoke with long and short molecule chains and Fibrex - originated from sugar beet were incorporated into the dough formula as flour supplements at the level of 5 %. The influence of fiber characteristics on yeast dough (proving time and stability and bread quality (volume and crumb quality during 60 days freezing is presented. Data show that the addition of fibers in frozen yeast dough is positively contributing to preserving the quality of the final product and their influence depends on the characteristics of fibers.

  14. Genetics Home Reference: white sponge nevus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Twitter Home Health Conditions White sponge nevus White sponge nevus Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable ... to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description White sponge nevus is a condition characterized by the formation ...

  15. Mechanical properties of short doughs and their corresponding biscuits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baltsavias, A.

    1996-01-01


    The mechanical properties of short doughs of various composition were determined in small amplitude oscillatory experiments and in uniaxial compression. Regardless of composition, the linear region was very limited; beyond that, pronounced yielding and flow occurred. Conductimetry was

  16. Rising dough and baking bread at the Australian synchrotron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, S. C.; McCann, T.; Day, L.; Favaro, J.; Tuhumury, H.; Thompson, D.; Maksimenko, A.

    2016-01-01

    Wheat protein quality and the amount of common salt added in dough formulation can have a significant effect on the microstructure and loaf volume of bread. High-speed synchrotron micro-CT provides an ideal tool for observing the three dimensional structure of bread dough in situ during proving (rising) and baking. In this work, the synchrotron micro-CT technique was used to observe the structure and time evolution of doughs made from high and low protein flour and three different salt additives. These experiments showed that, as expected, high protein flour produces a higher volume loaf compared to low protein flour regardless of salt additives. Furthermore the results show that KCl in particular has a very negative effect on dough properties resulting in much reduced porosity. The hundreds of datasets produced and analysed during this experiment also provided a valuable test case for handling large quantities of data using tools on the Australian Synchrotron's MASSIVE cluster.

  17. Effect of different fibers on dough properties and biscuit quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco Canalis, María S; Steffolani, María E; León, Alberto E; Ribotta, Pablo D

    2017-03-01

    This study forms part of a broader project aimed at understanding the role of fibers from different sources in high-fat, high-sugar biscuits and at selecting the best fibers for biscuit quality. The main purpose of this work was to understand the rheological and structural properties involved in fiber-enriched biscuit dough. High-amylose corn starch (RSII), chemically modified starch (RSIV), oat fiber (OF) and inulin (IN) were used at two different levels of incorporation (6 and 12 g) in dough formulation. The influence of fiber on the properties of biscuit dough was studied via dynamic rheological tests, confocal microscopy and spreading behavior. Biscuit quality was assessed by width/thickness factor, texture and surface characteristics, total dietary fiber and sensory evaluation. Main results indicated that IN incorporation increased the capacity of dough spreading during baking and thus improved biscuit quality. OF reduced dough spreading during baking and strongly increased its resistance to deformation. RSII and RSIV slightly affected the quality of the biscuits. Sensory evaluation revealed that the panel liked IN-incorporated biscuits as much as control biscuits. The increase in total dietary fiber modified dough behavior and biscuit properties, and the extent of these effects depended on the type of fiber incorporated. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Gluten-free dough-making of specialty breads: Significance of blended starches, flours and additives on dough behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collar, Concha; Conte, Paola; Fadda, Costantino; Piga, Antonio

    2015-10-01

    The capability of different gluten-free (GF) basic formulations made of flour (rice, amaranth and chickpea) and starch (corn and cassava) blends, to make machinable and viscoelastic GF-doughs in absence/presence of single hydrocolloids (guar gum, locust bean and psyllium fibre), proteins (milk and egg white) and surfactants (neutral, anionic and vegetable oil) have been investigated. Macroscopic (high deformation) and macromolecular (small deformation) mechanical, viscometric (gelatinization, pasting, gelling) and thermal (gelatinization, melting, retrogradation) approaches were performed on the different matrices in order to (a) identify similarities and differences in GF-doughs in terms of a small number of rheological and thermal analytical parameters according to the formulations and (b) to assess single and interactive effects of basic ingredients and additives on GF-dough performance to achieve GF-flat breads. Larger values for the static and dynamic mechanical characteristics and higher viscometric profiles during both cooking and cooling corresponded to doughs formulated with guar gum and Psyllium fibre added to rice flour/starch and rice flour/corn starch/chickpea flour, while surfactant- and protein-formulated GF-doughs added to rice flour/starch/amaranth flour based GF-doughs exhibited intermediate and lower values for the mechanical parameters and poorer viscometric profiles. In addition, additive-free formulations exhibited higher values for the temperature of both gelatinization and retrogradation and lower enthalpies for the thermal transitions. Single addition of 10% of either chickpea flour or amaranth flour to rice flour/starch blends provided a large GF-dough hardening effect in presence of corn starch and an intermediate effect in presence of cassava starch (chickpea), and an intermediate reinforcement of GF-dough regardless the source of starch (amaranth). At macromolecular level, both chickpea and amaranth flours, singly added, determined

  19. Process for purifying zirconium sponge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abodishish, H.A.M.; Kimball, L.S.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a Kroll reduction process wherein a zirconium sponge contaminated with unreacted magnesium and by-product magnesium chloride is produced as a regulus, a process for purifying the zirconium sponge. It comprises: distilling magnesium and magnesium chloride from: a regulus containing a zirconium sponge and magnesium and magnesium chloride at a temperature above about 800 degrees C and at an absolute pressure less than about 10 mmHg in a distillation vessel to purify the zirconium sponge; condensing the magnesium and the magnesium chloride distilled from the zirconium sponge in a condenser; and then backfilling the vessel containing the zirconium sponge and the condenser containing the magnesium and the magnesium chloride with a gas; recirculating the gas between the vessel and the condenser to cool the zirconium sponge from above about 800 degrees C to below about 300 degrees C; and cooling the recirculating gas in the condenser containing the condensed magnesium and the condensed magnesium chloride as the gas cools the zirconium sponge to below about 300 degrees C

  20. 21 CFR 886.4790 - Ophthalmic sponge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ophthalmic sponge. 886.4790 Section 886.4790 Food... DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4790 Ophthalmic sponge. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic sponge is a device that is an absorbant sponge, pad, or spear made of folded gauze, cotton...

  1. The Mathematical Modeling Effective Viscosity of Whole Minced Wheat Grain Dough

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. I. Ponomareva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Study on the change of rheological properties of whole minced wheat grain dough during fermentation with additives. Retrieving dependencies to predict and manage effective viscosity of dough fermentation.

  2. Sponge systematics facing new challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárdenas, P; Pérez, T; Boury-Esnault, N

    2012-01-01

    Systematics is nowadays facing new challenges with the introduction of new concepts and new techniques. Compared to most other phyla, phylogenetic relationships among sponges are still largely unresolved. In the past 10 years, the classical taxonomy has been completely overturned and a review of the state of the art appears necessary. The field of taxonomy remains a prominent discipline of sponge research and studies related to sponge systematics were in greater number in the Eighth World Sponge Conference (Girona, Spain, September 2010) than in any previous world sponge conferences. To understand the state of this rapidly growing field, this chapter proposes to review studies, mainly from the past decade, in sponge taxonomy, nomenclature and phylogeny. In a first part, we analyse the reasons of the current success of this field. In a second part, we establish the current sponge systematics theoretical framework, with the use of (1) cladistics, (2) different codes of nomenclature (PhyloCode vs. Linnaean system) and (3) integrative taxonomy. Sponges are infamous for their lack of characters. However, by listing and discussing in a third part all characters available to taxonomists, we show how diverse characters are and that new ones are being used and tested, while old ones should be revisited. We then review the systematics of the four main classes of sponges (Hexactinellida, Calcispongiae, Homoscleromorpha and Demospongiae), each time focusing on current issues and case studies. We present a review of the taxonomic changes since the publication of the Systema Porifera (2002), and point to problems a sponge taxonomist is still faced with nowadays. To conclude, we make a series of proposals for the future of sponge systematics. In the light of recent studies, we establish a series of taxonomic changes that the sponge community may be ready to accept. We also propose a series of sponge new names and definitions following the PhyloCode. The issue of phantom species

  3. Fundamental and empirical rheological behaviour of wheat flour doughs and comparison with bread making performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, A. M.; vanVliet, T; Vereijken, JM

    The rheological characteristics of wheat flour doughs from the cultivars Obelisk and Katepwa and of biscuit flour doughs, and also of biscuit flour doughs containing glutens isolated from cv. Obelisk and cv. Katepwa flour, were compared and discussed in relation to bread making performance. Four

  4. Alveoconsistograph evaluation of rheological properties of rye doughs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callejo, M. J.; Bujeda, C.; Rodriguez, G.; Chaya, C.

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this work is to study the effect of rye flour on the rheological properties of doughs. Rye meals of two different extraction rate (65% and 85%) were blended in different proportions with wheat flours. The viscoelastic behaviour of the sample blends was determined by a Chopin alveograph. The effect of rye flour on dough rheology during mixing was determined by a Chopin consistograph. It was found that Chopin Consistograph methodology was not suitable for determining water absorption capacity in blends with rye. It has been confirmed that adjustment of dough hydration in baked products incorporating rye flour must be taken into account, depending not only on the wheat-to-rye ratio but also on the rye meals extraction rate. (Author) 35 refs.

  5. Structural analysis of gluten-free doughs by fractional rheological model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orczykowska, Magdalena; Dziubiński, Marek; Owczarz, Piotr

    2015-02-01

    This study examines the effects of various components of tested gluten-free doughs, such as corn starch, amaranth flour, pea protein isolate, and cellulose in the form of plantain fibers on rheological properties of such doughs. The rheological properties of gluten-free doughs were assessed by using the rheological fractional standard linear solid model (FSLSM). Parameter analysis of the Maxwell-Wiechert fractional derivative rheological model allows to state that gluten-free doughs present a typical behavior of viscoelastic quasi-solid bodies. We obtained the contribution dependence of each component used in preparations of gluten-free doughs (either hard-gel or soft-gel structure). The complicate analysis of the mechanical structure of gluten-free dough was done by applying the FSLSM to explain quite precisely the effects of individual ingredients of the dough on its rheological properties.

  6. Influence of enzymes and ascorbic acid on dough rheology and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The combined action of ascorbic acid and two commercial enzymatic complexes containing amylase and xylanase/amylase was analyzed to determine their effects on dough rheology and bread quality. Seven bread formulations containing different concentrations of these improvers were used in the analysis.

  7. Wheat flour dough Alveograph characteristics predicted by Mixolab regression models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codină, Georgiana Gabriela; Mironeasa, Silvia; Mironeasa, Costel; Popa, Ciprian N; Tamba-Berehoiu, Radiana

    2012-02-01

    In Romania, the Alveograph is the most used device to evaluate the rheological properties of wheat flour dough, but lately the Mixolab device has begun to play an important role in the breadmaking industry. These two instruments are based on different principles but there are some correlations that can be found between the parameters determined by the Mixolab and the rheological properties of wheat dough measured with the Alveograph. Statistical analysis on 80 wheat flour samples using the backward stepwise multiple regression method showed that Mixolab values using the ‘Chopin S’ protocol (40 samples) and ‘Chopin + ’ protocol (40 samples) can be used to elaborate predictive models for estimating the value of the rheological properties of wheat dough: baking strength (W), dough tenacity (P) and extensibility (L). The correlation analysis confirmed significant findings (P 0.70 for P, R²(adjusted) > 0.70 for W and R²(adjusted) > 0.38 for L, at a 95% confidence interval. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. FPGA Controller Design and Simulation of a Portable Dough Mixing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    With the advent of Microcontrollers, Application Specic Integrated Circuits, Digital Signal Processors (DSP) and Programmable Logic Devices, complex industrial systems and controls can now be integrated into portable embedded household electronic systems. In this paper, the design and simulation of a Dough Mixer ...

  9. Influence of eggs on the aroma composition of a sponge cake and on the aroma release in model studies on flavored sponge cakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozo-Bayón, Maria Angeles; Ruíz-Rodríguez, Alejandro; Pernin, Karine; Cayot, Nathalie

    2007-02-21

    The use of solvent-assisted flavor evaporation extraction (SAFE) and purge and trap in Tenax allowed the identification of more than 100 volatile compounds in a sponge cake (SC-e). Gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) of the SAFE extracts of crumb and crust were achieved in order to determine the most potent odorants of SC-e. The change in the traditional dough formulation of SC-e in which eggs were substituted by baking powder (SC-b) as the leavening agent produced important changes in some key aroma compounds. The release curves of some aroma compounds-some of them generated during baking and others added in the dough-were followed by cumulative headspace analysis. In the flavored SC-b, the aroma release curves showed a plateau after 15 min of purge, while the release increased proportionally with the purge time in the flavored SC-e. In general, except for some of the aroma compounds with the highest log P values, the rate of release of most of the added and generated aroma compounds was significantly influenced by the changes in the cake formulation. The higher rates of release found for the aroma compounds in SC-b could contribute to explain its rapid exhaustion of aroma compounds in the purge and trap experiments and might lead to poorer sensorial characteristics of this cake during storage.

  10. Continuous monitoring of dough fermentation and bread baking by magnetic resonance microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajd, Franci; Serša, Igor

    2011-04-01

    The consumer quality of baked products is closely related with dough structure properties. These are developed during dough fermentation and finalized during its baking. In this study, magnetic resonance microscopy (MRM) was employed in a study of dough fermentation and baking. A small hot air oven was installed inside a 2.35-T horizontal bore superconducting magnet. Four different samples of commercial bread mixes for home baking were used to prepare small samples of dough that were inserted in the oven and allowed to rise at 33 °C for 112 min; this was followed by baking at 180 °C for 49 min. The entire process was followed by dynamic T(1)-weighted 3D magnetic resonance imaging with 7 min of temporal resolution and 0.23×0.23×1.5 mm(3) of spatial resolution. Acquired images were analyzed to determine time courses of dough pore distribution, dough volume and bread crust thickness. Image analysis showed that both the number of dough pores and the normalized dough volume increased in a sigmoid-like fashion during fermentation and decreased during baking due to the bread crust formation. The presented magnetic resonance method was found to be efficient in analysis of dough structure properties and in discrimination between different dough types. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: FORAGER™ SPONGE TECHNOLOGY - DYNAPHORE, INC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Forager™ Sponge is an open-celled cellulose sponge incorporating an amine-containing chelating polymer that has selective affinity for dissolved heavy metals in both cationic and anionic states. The Forager™ Sponge technology can be utilized to remove and concentrate heavy me...

  12. Status and perspective of sponge chemosystematics.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erpenbeck, D.J.G.; van Soest, R.W.M.

    2007-01-01

    In addition to their pharmaceutical applications, sponges are an important source of compounds that are used to elucidate classification patterns and phylogenetic relationships. Here we present a review and outlook on chemosystematics in sponges in seven sections: Secondary metabolites in sponges;

  13. Sponges from Clipperton Island, East Pacific

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Soest, R.W.M.; Kaiser, K.L.; van Syoc, R.

    2011-01-01

    Twenty sponge species (totalling 190 individuals) were collected during the 1938, 1994 and 2004/5 expeditions to the remote island of Clipperton in the East Pacific Ocean. Seven species are widespread Indo-Pacific sponges; nine species comprise sponges new to science; four species were represented

  14. Dynamics of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Transcriptome during Bread Dough Fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslankoohi, Elham; Zhu, Bo; Rezaei, Mohammad Naser; Voordeckers, Karin; De Maeyer, Dries; Marchal, Kathleen; Dornez, Emmie

    2013-01-01

    The behavior of yeast cells during industrial processes such as the production of beer, wine, and bioethanol has been extensively studied. In contrast, our knowledge about yeast physiology during solid-state processes, such as bread dough, cheese, or cocoa fermentation, remains limited. We investigated changes in the transcriptomes of three genetically distinct Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains during bread dough fermentation. Our results show that regardless of the genetic background, all three strains exhibit similar changes in expression patterns. At the onset of fermentation, expression of glucose-regulated genes changes dramatically, and the osmotic stress response is activated. The middle fermentation phase is characterized by the induction of genes involved in amino acid metabolism. Finally, at the latest time point, cells suffer from nutrient depletion and activate pathways associated with starvation and stress responses. Further analysis shows that genes regulated by the high-osmolarity glycerol (HOG) pathway, the major pathway involved in the response to osmotic stress and glycerol homeostasis, are among the most differentially expressed genes at the onset of fermentation. More importantly, deletion of HOG1 and other genes of this pathway significantly reduces the fermentation capacity. Together, our results demonstrate that cells embedded in a solid matrix such as bread dough suffer severe osmotic stress and that a proper induction of the HOG pathway is critical for optimal fermentation. PMID:24056467

  15. Dynamics of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae transcriptome during bread dough fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslankoohi, Elham; Zhu, Bo; Rezaei, Mohammad Naser; Voordeckers, Karin; De Maeyer, Dries; Marchal, Kathleen; Dornez, Emmie; Courtin, Christophe M; Verstrepen, Kevin J

    2013-12-01

    The behavior of yeast cells during industrial processes such as the production of beer, wine, and bioethanol has been extensively studied. In contrast, our knowledge about yeast physiology during solid-state processes, such as bread dough, cheese, or cocoa fermentation, remains limited. We investigated changes in the transcriptomes of three genetically distinct Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains during bread dough fermentation. Our results show that regardless of the genetic background, all three strains exhibit similar changes in expression patterns. At the onset of fermentation, expression of glucose-regulated genes changes dramatically, and the osmotic stress response is activated. The middle fermentation phase is characterized by the induction of genes involved in amino acid metabolism. Finally, at the latest time point, cells suffer from nutrient depletion and activate pathways associated with starvation and stress responses. Further analysis shows that genes regulated by the high-osmolarity glycerol (HOG) pathway, the major pathway involved in the response to osmotic stress and glycerol homeostasis, are among the most differentially expressed genes at the onset of fermentation. More importantly, deletion of HOG1 and other genes of this pathway significantly reduces the fermentation capacity. Together, our results demonstrate that cells embedded in a solid matrix such as bread dough suffer severe osmotic stress and that a proper induction of the HOG pathway is critical for optimal fermentation.

  16. Towards a Simple Constitutive Model for Bread Dough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Roger I.

    2008-07-01

    Wheat flour dough is an example of a soft solid material consisting of a gluten (rubbery) network with starch particles as a filler. The volume fraction of the starch filler is high-typically 60%. A computer-friendly constitutive model has been lacking for this type of material and here we report on progress towards finding such a model. The model must describe the response to small strains, simple shearing starting from rest, simple elongation, biaxial straining, recoil and various other transient flows. A viscoelastic Lodge-type model involving a damage function. which depends on strain from an initial reference state fits the given data well, and it is also able to predict the thickness at exit from dough sheeting, which has been a long-standing unsolved puzzle. The model also shows an apparent rate-dependent yield stress, although no explicit yield stress is built into the model. This behaviour agrees with the early (1934) observations of Schofield and Scott Blair on dough recoil after unloading.

  17. Relationship of dough thermomechanical properties with oil uptake, cooking and textural properties of instant fried noodles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulia, Neelam; Khatkar, B S

    2014-04-01

    Instant noodles were prepared from fifteen diverse wheat cultivars varying widely in their flour quality and dough rheology. Dough thermomechanical parameters obtained by Mixolab and flour analytical properties were correlated with the quality of instant noodles including oil uptake, cooking quality and textural attributes. The Mixolab parameters dough development time and dough stability showed significant positive correlation with cooking time, cooked weight, overall acceptability, hardness, springiness, cohesiveness and chewiness of noodles, while negatively correlated with oil uptake and cooking loss, therefore, exhibiting a marked positive effect on quality of instant noodles. Lower protein breakdown represented by C2 torque was also positively related with overall acceptability, hardness, springiness, cohesiveness and chewiness of noodles. Stickiness/adhesiveness of noodles was revealed to be mainly conferred by falling number values (R (2 )= 0.671) and damaged starch (R (2 )= 0.523) content of wheat flour samples. Flour samples with lesser values of protein content, sodium dodecyl sulphate sedimentation volume, thermal stability of proteins, dough stability and dough development time were found to be linked with poor noodle quality. Medium strong flours performed better in noodle making, while weaker flours demonstrated poor noodle quality. Dough rheology of good noodle making flours was characterized with higher dough development time, dough stability, C2, C3, C4 as well as C5 values. Noodles with higher overall acceptability showed a more continuous and uniform protein starch matrix in comparison to the poor counterparts.

  18. Transcriptome data - Initial stage of dough fermentation - DGBY | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available List Contact us DGBY Transcriptome data - Initial stage of dough fermentation Data detail Data name Transcri...ptome data - Initial stage of dough fermentation DOI 10.18908/lsdba.nbdc00953-002 Description of data conten...ts Gene expression profiles of baker's yeast during initial dough-fermentation were investigated using liquid fermentation...aptation mechanisms of baker's yeast. Results showed the onset of fermentation caused drastic changes in gen...f baker's yeast during dough-fermentation, and will thus help clarify genomic res

  19. Mathematical modelling of pasta dough dynamic viscosity, thermal conductivity and diffusivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Ionuţ SIMION

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to study the mathematical variation of three main thermodynamic properties (dynamic viscosity, thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity of pasta dough obtained by mixing wheat semolina and water with dough humidity and deformation speed (for dynamic viscosity, respectively with dough humidity and temperature (for thermal diffusivity and conductivity. The realized regression analysis of existing graphical data led to the development of mathematical models with a high degree of accuracy. The employed statistical tests (least squares, relative error and analysis of variance revealed that the obtained equations are able to describe and predict the tendency of the dough thermodynamic properties.

  20. Effects of enzymes to improve sensory quality of frozen dough bread and analysis on its mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuan; Pei, Dudu; Teng, Yuefei; Liang, Jianfen

    2018-01-01

    Baking quality of frozen dough is negatively affected by dough weakening and by a reduction in both yeast viability and activity during freezing and frozen storage. The objective of this study was to investigate effects of different enzymes, such as α-amylase, xylanase, celluase, glucose oxidase, and lipase on the texture and sensory quality of bread after frozen storage, as well as on dough properties, in terms of fermentation characteristics, freezable water contents and microstructure. Except for α-amylase, other enzymes improved the bread sensory quality and got higher overall acceptability, especially xylanase. Dough fermentative behavior showed that the maximum heights of frozen dough were increased by 33.2, 19.7 and 7.4%, respectively with xylanase, cellulase and lipase. Cellulase lowered gas holding ability of dough. Thermodynamic properties indicated that addition of enzyme decreased the freezable water contents in frozen dough. Scanning electronic microscopy revealed that freezing and frozen storage disrupted dough gluten network causing separation of starch granules from the gluten matrix. Inclusion of cellulase, xylanase and lipase made the frozen dough having a more continuous gluten network and smoother surface, and glucose oxidase increased the stability of the gluten work.

  1. Harvesting yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) at different physiological phases significantly affects its functionality in bread dough fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei, Mohammad N; Dornez, Emmie; Jacobs, Pieter; Parsi, Anali; Verstrepen, Kevin J; Courtin, Christophe M

    2014-05-01

    Fermentation of sugars into CO2, ethanol and secondary metabolites by baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) during bread making leads to leavening of dough and changes in dough rheology. The aim of this study was to increase our understanding of the impact of yeast on dough related aspects by investigating the effect of harvesting yeast at seven different points of the growth profile on its fermentation performance, metabolite production, and the effect on critical dough fermentation parameters, such as gas retention potential. The yeast cells harvested during the diauxic shift and post-diauxic growth phase showed a higher fermentation rate and, consequently, higher maximum dough height than yeast cells harvested in the exponential or stationary growth phase. The results further demonstrate that the onset of CO2 loss from fermenting dough is correlated with the fermentation rate of yeast, but not with the amount of CO2 that accumulated up to the onset point. Analysis of the yeast metabolites produced in dough yielded a possible explanation for this observation, as they are produced in different levels depending on physiological phase and in concentrations that can influence dough matrix properties. Together, our results demonstrate a strong effect of yeast physiology at the time of harvest on subsequent dough fermentation performance, and hint at an important role of yeast metabolites on the subsequent gas holding capacity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Sponge Hybridomas: Applications and Implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pomponi, S.A.; Jevitt, A.; Patel, J.; Diaz, M.C.

    2013-01-01

    Many sponge-derived natural products with applications to human health have been discovered over the past three decades. In vitro production has been proposed as one biological alternative to ensure adequate supply of marine natural products for preclinical and clinical development of drugs.

  3. Chemical ecology of marine sponges

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Thakur, N.L.; Singh, A.

    . University of California Press, Berkeley/Los Angeles, 268 pp Bewley CA, He H, Williams DH, Faulkner DJ (1996) Aciculitins AC: cytotoxic and antifungal cyclic pep- tides from the lithistid sponge Aciculites orientalis. J Am Chem Soc 118(18):4314–4321 48 N...

  4. Barbabos Deep-Water Sponges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soest, van R.W.M.; Stentoft, N.

    1988-01-01

    Deep-water sponges dredged up in two locations off the west coast of Barbados are systematically described. A total of 69 species is recorded, among which 16 are new to science, viz. Pachymatisma geodiformis, Asteropus syringiferus, Cinachyra arenosa, Theonella atlantica. Corallistes paratypus,

  5. Effect of formulation on the quality of frozen bread dough

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam M. Salas-Mellado

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this work was to determine the influence of formulation on the stability of bread dough during frozen storage. Bread doughs containing gluten and trehalose were submitted to mechanical freezing at -30° C and stored frozen for 45 days. Two types of instant yeast were tested: (A for sweet doughs and (B for savoury doughs. Specific volume was significantly affected by the yeast type, type A showing better effect than type B. Frozen storage of the doughs negatively affected the specific volume, crumb hardness and technological score of the bread. The addition of 10% trehalose had a beneficial effect on the cell survival rate for both the yeasts.O principal objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a influência da formulação na estabilidade da massa de pão durante a estocagem congelada. As massas para pão contendo glúten Vital e trealose foram submetidas a congelamento mecânico de -30° C e estocadas na forma congelada por 45 dias. Foram testados dois tipos de leveduras instantâneas: (A para massas doces, e (B para massas salgadas. Foram avaliados na massa, os efeitos da formulação, tipo de levedura e a estocagem congelada, pelas características de extensibilidade e a contagem de leveduras viáveis, e no pão, pelo volume específico, a dureza do miolo e as características tecnológicas. Somente o volume específico foi influenciado pelo tipo de levedura, mostrando o tipo A um melhor efeito do que o tipo B. A estocagem congelada influenciou negativamente o volume específico, a dureza do miolo e a pontuação tecnológica do pão. A adição de 10% de trealose mostrou um efeito benéfico na taxa de sobrevivência celular para ambos tipos de leveduras.

  6. Wnt signaling and polarity in freshwater sponges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windsor Reid, Pamela J; Matveev, Eugueni; McClymont, Alexandra; Posfai, Dora; Hill, April L; Leys, Sally P

    2018-02-02

    The Wnt signaling pathway is uniquely metazoan and used in many processes during development, including the formation of polarity and body axes. In sponges, one of the earliest diverging animal groups, Wnt pathway genes have diverse expression patterns in different groups including along the anterior-posterior axis of two sponge larvae, and in the osculum and ostia of others. We studied the function of Wnt signaling and body polarity formation through expression, knockdown, and larval manipulation in several freshwater sponge species. Sponge Wnts fall into sponge-specific and sponge-class specific subfamilies of Wnt proteins. Notably Wnt genes were not found in transcriptomes of the glass sponge Aphrocallistes vastus. Wnt and its signaling genes were expressed in archaeocytes of the mesohyl throughout developing freshwater sponges. Osculum formation was enhanced by GSK3 knockdown, and Wnt antagonists inhibited both osculum development and regeneration. Using dye tracking we found that the posterior poles of freshwater sponge larvae give rise to tissue that will form the osculum following metamorphosis. Together the data indicate that while components of canonical Wnt signaling may be used in development and maintenance of osculum tissue, it is likely that Wnt signaling itself occurs between individual cells rather than whole tissues or structures in freshwater sponges.

  7. Steroids from marine sponges Suberites vestigium and Chrotella australiensis

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mishra, P.D; Wahidullah, S.; De; Kamat, S.Y.

    The sponges Suberites vestigium and Chrotella australiensis have been examined for steriods. Both the sponges contain C sub(27-29) mono and diunsaturated sterols, in addition sponge C. australiensis contains cholest-4-ene-3-one and 24-ethyl cholest...

  8. Effect of oxidative enzymes on bulk rheological properties of wheat flour doughs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dunnewind, B.; Vliet, T. van; Orsel, R.

    2002-01-01

    The use of enzymes such as peroxidases or glucose oxidase instead of chemical oxidants is a very interesting option for improving breadmaking performance of doughs. In this study the effect of such enzymes on bulk rheological properties of dough was quantified and their influence on the polymer

  9. Effect of Oxidative Enzymes on Bulk Rheological Properties of Wheat Flour Doughs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dunnewind, B.; Vliet, van T.; Orsel, R.

    2002-01-01

    The use of enzymes such as peroxidases or glucose oxidase instead of chemical oxidants is a very interesting option for improving breadmaking performance of doughs. In this study the effect of such enzymes on bulk rheological properties of dough was quantified and their influence on the polymer

  10. On the relationship between large-deformation properties of wheat flour dough and baking quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sliwinski, E.L.; Kolster, P.; Vliet, van T.

    2004-01-01

    Baking performance for bread and puff pastry was tested for Six European and two Canadian wheat cultivars and related to the rheological and fracture properties in uniaxial extension of optimally mixed flour-water doughs and doughs to which a mix of bakery additives was added. Extensive baking tests

  11. Glycerol production by fermenting yeast cells is essential for optimal bread dough fermentation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Aslankoohi

    Full Text Available Glycerol is the main compatible solute in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. When faced with osmotic stress, for example during semi-solid state bread dough fermentation, yeast cells produce and accumulate glycerol in order to prevent dehydration by balancing the intracellular osmolarity with that of the environment. However, increased glycerol production also results in decreased CO2 production, which may reduce dough leavening. We investigated the effect of yeast glycerol production level on bread dough fermentation capacity of a commercial bakery strain and a laboratory strain. We find that Δgpd1 mutants that show decreased glycerol production show impaired dough fermentation. In contrast, overexpression of GPD1 in the laboratory strain results in increased fermentation rates in high-sugar dough and improved gas retention in the fermenting bread dough. Together, our results reveal the crucial role of glycerol production level by fermenting yeast cells in dough fermentation efficiency as well as gas retention in dough, thereby opening up new routes for the selection of improved commercial bakery yeasts.

  12. Glycerol production by fermenting yeast cells is essential for optimal bread dough fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslankoohi, Elham; Rezaei, Mohammad Naser; Vervoort, Yannick; Courtin, Christophe M; Verstrepen, Kevin J

    2015-01-01

    Glycerol is the main compatible solute in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. When faced with osmotic stress, for example during semi-solid state bread dough fermentation, yeast cells produce and accumulate glycerol in order to prevent dehydration by balancing the intracellular osmolarity with that of the environment. However, increased glycerol production also results in decreased CO2 production, which may reduce dough leavening. We investigated the effect of yeast glycerol production level on bread dough fermentation capacity of a commercial bakery strain and a laboratory strain. We find that Δgpd1 mutants that show decreased glycerol production show impaired dough fermentation. In contrast, overexpression of GPD1 in the laboratory strain results in increased fermentation rates in high-sugar dough and improved gas retention in the fermenting bread dough. Together, our results reveal the crucial role of glycerol production level by fermenting yeast cells in dough fermentation efficiency as well as gas retention in dough, thereby opening up new routes for the selection of improved commercial bakery yeasts.

  13. Dough and hearth bread characteristics influenced by protein composition, protein content, DATEM, and their interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aamodt, A.; Magnus, E.M.; Hollung, K.; Uhlen, A.K.; Færgestad, E.M.

    2005-01-01

    The effects of protein composition, protein content, diacetyl tartaric acid ester of monoglycerides (DATEM), and their interaction on dough and bread characteristics were studied by small- and pilot-scale hearth bread baking, dough rheological testing using the Kieffer extensibility rig, and size

  14. Rheology, microstructure and baking characteristics of frozen dough containing Rhizopus chinensis lipase and transglutaminase

    Science.gov (United States)

    The beneficial effects of a new recombinant lipase (Rhizopus chinensis lipase, RCL) and transglutaminase (TG) were investigated on frozen dough systems and their breadmaking quality. Rheological properties and microstructure of doughs were measured using a dynamic rheometer, rheofermentometer F3, an...

  15. Influence of sodium chloride on shear flow induced starch-gluten separation from Soissons wheat dough

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zalm, van der E.E.J.; Goot, van der A.J.; Boom, R.M.

    2010-01-01

    Wheat dough can be separated into a starch-rich and a gluten-rich fraction by subjecting the dough to curvilinear shear flow. This paper presents the effect of salt (NaCl) addition on the shear-induced separation process. The separation (defined as the changes in protein concentration in the various

  16. Ultrasonic analysis to discriminate bread dough of different types of flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Álvarez, J.; Rosell, C. M.; García-Hernández, M. J.; Chávez, J. A.; Turó, A.; Salazar, J.

    2012-12-01

    Many varieties of bread are prepared using flour coming from wheat. However, there are other types of flours milled from rice, legumes and some fruits and vegetables that are also suitable for baking purposes, used alone or in combination with wheat flour. The type of flour employed strongly influences the dough consistency, which is a relevant property for determining the dough potential for breadmaking purposes. Traditional methods for dough testing are relatively expensive, time-consuming, off-line and often require skilled operators. In this work, ultrasonic analysis are performed in order to obtain acoustic properties of bread dough samples prepared using two different types of flour, wheat flour and rice flour. The dough acoustic properties can be related to its viscoelastic characteristics, which in turn determine the dough feasibility for baking. The main advantages of the ultrasonic dough testing can be, among others, its low cost, fast, hygienic and on-line performance. The obtained results point out the potential of the ultrasonic analysis to discriminate doughs of different types of flour.

  17. Effects of Bamboo Shoot Dietary Fiber on Mechanical Properties, Moisture Distribution, and Microstructure of Frozen Dough

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the effects of Bamboo shoot dietary fiber (BSDF on the mechanical properties, moisture distribution, and microstructure of frozen dough were investigated. The state and distribution of water in frozen dough was determined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (LNMR spectroscopy. The microstructure of frozen dough was studied. The structure of the gluten protein network found in wheat flour dough was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The result showed that the BSDF could significantly improve the viscoelasticity and extensibility of frozen dough after thawing in a dose-dependent manner. It was significantly improved with the increase in the addition amount of BSDF (P<0.05. DSC analysis showed that the freezable water content and thermal stability of frozen dough were increased after the addition of BSDF. LNMR analysis showed that the appropriate (<0.1% addition amount of BSDF could significantly (P<0.05 decline the contents of bound water. Meanwhile, the loose bound water and free water were raised significantly (P<0.05 after the addition of BSDF. Moreover, the addition of BSDF induces arrangement of starch granule and gluten network in frozen dough. BSDF can be used as a novel quality improver of frozen dough.

  18. Ultrasonic analysis to discriminate bread dough of different types of flour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García-Álvarez, J; García-Hernández, M J; Chávez, J A; Turó, A; Salazar, J; Rosell, C M

    2012-01-01

    Many varieties of bread are prepared using flour coming from wheat. However, there are other types of flours milled from rice, legumes and some fruits and vegetables that are also suitable for baking purposes, used alone or in combination with wheat flour. The type of flour employed strongly influences the dough consistency, which is a relevant property for determining the dough potential for breadmaking purposes. Traditional methods for dough testing are relatively expensive, time-consuming, off-line and often require skilled operators. In this work, ultrasonic analysis are performed in order to obtain acoustic properties of bread dough samples prepared using two different types of flour, wheat flour and rice flour. The dough acoustic properties can be related to its viscoelastic characteristics, which in turn determine the dough feasibility for baking. The main advantages of the ultrasonic dough testing can be, among others, its low cost, fast, hygienic and on-line performance. The obtained results point out the potential of the ultrasonic analysis to discriminate doughs of different types of flour.

  19. Who Produces Ianthelline? The Arctic Sponge Stryphnus fortis or its Sponge Epibiont Hexadella dedritifera: a Probable Case of Sponge-Sponge Contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárdenas, Paco

    2016-04-01

    The bromotyrosine derivative ianthelline was isolated recently from the Atlantic boreo-arctic deep-sea sponge Stryphnus fortis, and shown to have clear antitumor and antifouling effects. However, chemosystematics, field observations, and targeted metabolic analyses (using UPLC-MS) suggest that ianthelline is not produced by S. fortis but by Hexadella dedritifera, a sponge that commonly grows on S. fortis. This case highlights the importance of combining taxonomic and ecological knowledge to the field of sponge natural products research.

  20. Sponges from Clipperton Island, East Pacific

    OpenAIRE

    van Soest, R.W.M.; Kaiser, K.L.; van Syoc, R.

    2011-01-01

    Twenty sponge species (totalling 190 individuals) were collected during the 1938, 1994 and 2004/5 expeditions to the remote island of Clipperton in the East Pacific Ocean. Seven species are widespread Indo-Pacific sponges; nine species comprise sponges new to science; four species were represented only by small thin patches insufficient for proper characterization and could be only determined to genus. The new species may not be necessarily endemic to the island, as several show similarities ...

  1. Effect of mixing time and speed on experimental baking and dough testing with a 200g pin-mixer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Under mixing or over mixing the dough results in varied experimental loaf volumes. Bread preparation requires a trained baker to evaluate dough development and determine stop points of mixer. Instrumentation and electronic control of the dough mixer would allow for automatic mixing. This study us...

  2. Application of cell-surface engineering for visualization of yeast in bread dough: development of a fluorescent bio-imaging technique in the mixing process of dough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Tatsuro; Shiraga, Seizaburo; Araki, Tetsuya; Ueda, Mitsuyoshi; Yamada, Masaharu; Takeya, Koji; Sagara, Yasuyuki

    2009-07-01

    Cell-surface engineering (Ueda et al., 2000) has been applied to develop a novel technique to visualize yeast in bread dough. Enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) was bonded to the surface of yeast cells, and 0.5% EGFP yeasts were mixed into the dough samples at four different mixing stages. The samples were placed on a cryostat at -30 degrees C and sliced at 10 microm. The sliced samples were observed at an excitation wavelength of 480 nm and a fluorescent wavelength of 520 nm. The results indicated that the combination of the EGFP-displayed yeasts, rapid freezing, and cryo-sectioning made it possible to visualize 2-D distribution of yeast in bread dough to the extent that the EGFP yeasts could be clearly distinguished from the auto-fluorescent background of bread dough.

  3. Lactic acid fermentation of cassava dough into agbelima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoa-Awua, W K; Appoh, F E; Jakobsen, M

    1996-08-01

    The souring of cassava dough during fermentation into the fermented cassava meal, agbelima, was investigated. Four different types of traditional inocula were used to ferment the dough and increases in titrable acidity expressed as lactic acid from 0.31-0.38 to 0.78-0.91% (w/w) confirmed the fermentation to be a process of acidification. The microflora of all inocula and fermenting dough contained high counts of lactic acid bacteria, 10(8)-10(9) cfu/g in all inocula and 10(7)-10(8), 10(8)-10(9) and 10(9) cfu/g at 0, 24 and 48 h in all fermentations. Lactobacillus plantarum was the dominant species of lactic acid bacteria during all types of fermentation accounting for 51% of 171 representative isolates taken from various stages of fermentation. Other major lactic acid bacteria found were Lactobacillus brevis, 16%, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, 15% and some cocci including Streptococcus spp. whose numbers decreased with fermentation time. The lactic acid bacteria were responsible for the souring of agbelima through the production of lactic acid. All L. plantarum, L. brevis and L. mesenteroides isolates examined demonstrated linamarase as well as other enzymatic activities but did not possess tissue degrading enzymes like cellulase, pectin esterase and polygalacturonase. The aroma profile of agbelima did not vary with the type of inoculum used and in all samples the build-up of aroma compounds were dominated by a non-identified low molecular weight alcohol, 1-propanol, isoamyl alcohol, ethyl acetate, 3-methyl-1-butanol and acetoin. Substantial reductions occurred in the levels of cyanogenic compounds present in cassava during fermentation into agbelima and detoxification was enhanced by the use of inoculum.

  4. Bioactive alkaloids from marine sponges

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Singh, K.S.; Majik, M.S.

    lines while kuanoniamine C was less potent but showed high selectivity toward the estrogen dependent breast cancer cell line (Kijjoa et. al., 2007). Recently, Davis’s and coworkers, reported two new cytotoxici- ty peridoacridine alkaloids viz... 10 sponge, Trachycladus laevispirulifer. Excitingly, it displayed promising selective cytotoxicity against a panel of human cancer cell lines. 12.3.1. BISINDOLE ALKALOIDS Bis-indole alkaloids, consisting of two indole moieties...

  5. Experimental and numerical investigation of ram extrusion of bread dough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, M. A. P.; Wanigasooriya, L.; Charalambides, M. N.

    2016-10-01

    An experimental and numerical study on ram extrusion of bread dough was conducted. A laboratory ram extrusion rig was designed and manufactured, where dies with different angles and exit radii were employed. Rate dependent behaviour was observed from tests conducted at different extrusion speeds, and higher extrusion pressure was reported for dies with decreasing exit radius. A finite element simulation of extrusion was performed using the adaptive meshing technique in Abaqus. Simulations using a frictionless contact between the billet and die wall showed that the model underestimates the response at high entry angles. On the other hand, when the coefficient of friction value was set to 0.09 as measured from friction experiments, the dough response was overestimated, i.e. the model extrusion pressure was much higher than the experimentally measured values. When a critical shear stress limit, τmax, was used, the accuracy of the model predictions improved. The results showed that higher die angles require higher τmax values for the model and the experiments to agree.

  6. Modeling and optimization of dough recipe for breadsticks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivosheev, A. Yu; Ponomareva, E. I.; Zhuravlev, A. A.; Lukina, S. I.; Alekhina, N. N.

    2018-05-01

    During the work, the authors studied the combined effect of non-traditional raw materials on indicators of quality breadsticks, mathematical methods of experiment planning were applied. The main factors chosen were the dosages of flaxseed flour and grape seed oil. The output parameters were the swelling factor of the products and their strength. Optimization of the formulation composition of the dough for bread sticks was carried out by experimental- statistical methods. As a result of the experiment, mathematical models were constructed in the form of regression equations, adequately describing the process of studies. The statistical processing of the experimental data was carried out by the criteria of Student, Cochran and Fisher (with a confidence probability of 0.95). A mathematical interpretation of the regression equations was given. Optimization of the formulation of the dough for bread sticks was carried out by the method of uncertain Lagrange multipliers. The rational values of the factors were determined: the dosage of flaxseed flour - 14.22% and grape seed oil - 7.8%, ensuring the production of products with the best combination of swelling ratio and strength. On the basis of the data obtained, a recipe and a method for the production of breadsticks "Idea" were proposed (TU (Russian Technical Specifications) 9117-443-02068106-2017).

  7. Learning Particle Physics with DIY Play Dough Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thunyaniti, T.; Toedtanya, K.; Wuttiprom, S.

    2017-09-01

    The scientists once believed an atom was the smallest particle, nothing was smaller than this tiny particle. Later, they discovered an atom which consists of protons, neutrons and electrons, and they believed that these particles cannot be broken into the smaller particles. According to advanced technology, the scientists have discovered these particles are consisted of a smaller particles. The new particles are called quarks leptons and bosons which we called fundamental particle. Atomic structure cannot be observed directly, so it is complicated for studying these particles. To help the students get more understanding of its properties, so the researcher develops the learning pattern of fundamental particles from Play Dough Model for high school to graduate students. Four step of learning are 1) to introduces the concept of the fundamental particles discovery 2) to play the Happy Families game by using fundamental particles cards 3) to design and make their particle in a way that reflects its properties 4) to represents their particles from Play Dough Model. After doing activities, the students had more conceptual understanding and better memorability on fundamental particles. In addition, the students gained collaborative working experience among their friends also.

  8. Texturized pinto bean protein fortification in straight dough bread formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Courtney W; Hunt-Schmidt, Emily; Simsek, Senay; Hall, Clifford; Biswas, Atanu

    2014-09-01

    Pinto beans were milled and then air-classified to obtain a raw high protein fraction (RHPF) followed by extrusion to texturize the protein fraction. The texturized high protein fraction (THPF) was then milled to obtain flour, and combined with wheat flour at 5, 10, and 15% levels to make bread. The air-classification process produced flour with high concentration of lipids and phytic acid in the protein-rich fraction. However, extrusion significantly reduced hexane extractable lipid and phytic acid. However, the reduction observed may simply indicate a reduction in recovery due to bind with other components. Total protein and lysine contents in composite flours increased significantly as THPF levels increased in composite flour. Bread made with 5% THPF had 48% more lysine than the 100 % wheat flour (control). The THPF helped to maintain dough strength by reducing mixing tolerance index (MTI), maintaining dough stability and increasing departure time on Farinograph. Bread loaf volume was significantly reduced above 5% THPF addition. THPF increased water absorption causing an increase in bread weights by up to 6%. Overall, loaf quality deteriorated at 10 and 15% THPF levels while bread with 5% THPF was not significantly different from the control. These results support the addition of 5% THPF as a means to enhance lysine content of white pan bread.

  9. Renal acidification defects in medullary sponge kidney

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osther, P J; Hansen, A B; Røhl, H F

    1988-01-01

    Thirteen patients with medullary sponge kidney underwent a short ammonium chloride loading test to investigate their renal acidification capacity. All but 1 presented with a history of recurrent renal calculi and showed bilateral widespread renal medullary calcification on X-ray examination. Nine...... of renal calculi in medullary sponge kidney, have considerable therapeutic implications....

  10. Metal sponge for cryosorption pumping applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myneni, G.R.; Kneisel, P.

    1995-01-01

    A system has been developed for adsorbing gases at high vacuum in a closed area. The system utilizes large surface clean anodized metal surfaces at low temperatures to adsorb the gases. The large surface clean anodized metal is referred to as a metal sponge. The metal sponge generates or maintains the high vacuum by increasing the available active cryosorbing surface area. 4 figs

  11. Generation of miRNA sponge constructs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kluiver, Joost; Slezak-Prochazka, Izabella; Smigielska-Czepiel, Katarzyna; Halsema, Nancy; Kroesen, Bart-Jan; van den Berg, Anke

    2012-01-01

    MicroRNA (miRNA) sponges are RNA molecules with repeated miRNA antisense sequences that can sequester miRNAs from their endogenous targets and thus serve as a decoy. Stably expressed miRNA sponges are especially valuable for long-term loss-of-function studies and can be used in vitro and in vivo. We

  12. Macrofauna Associated with the Sponge Neopetrosia exigua ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in Marine Biology, Annamalai University, Parangipettai-608 502, Tamil Nadu, India. Keywords: Neopetrosia exigua, sponge, associated-fauna, species richness,. Mauritius, Indian Ocean. Abstract — The macrofaunal community associated with the sponge Neopetrosia exigua (Kirkpatrick, 1900) was studied across a ...

  13. Cell culture from sponges: pluripotency and immortality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caralt Bosch, de S.; Uriz, M.J.; Wijffels, R.H.

    2007-01-01

    Sponges are a source of compounds with potential pharmaceutical applications. In this article, methods of sponge cell culture for production of these bioactive compounds are reviewed, and new approaches for overcoming the problem of metabolite supply are examined. The use of embryos is proposed as a

  14. Effects of transgene-encoded high-molecular weight glutenin proteins in wheat flour blends and sponge and dough baking

    Science.gov (United States)

    HMW glutenin subunits are the most important determinants of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) bread-making quality, and subunit composition explains a large percentage of the variability observed between genotypes. Experiments were designed to elevate expression of a key native HMW glutenin subunit (1D...

  15. Mapping of Saccharomyces cerevisiae metabolites in fermenting wheat straight-dough reveals succinic acid as pH-determining factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaram, Vinay B; Cuyvers, Sven; Lagrain, Bert; Verstrepen, Kevin J; Delcour, Jan A; Courtin, Christophe M

    2013-01-15

    Fermenting yeast does not merely cause dough leavening, but also contributes to the bread aroma and might alter dough rheology. Here, the yeast carbon metabolism was mapped during bread straight-dough fermentation. The concentration of most metabolites changed quasi linearly as a function of fermentation time. Ethanol and carbon dioxide concentrations reached up to 60 mmol/100g flour. Interestingly, high levels of glycerol (up to 10 mmol/100g flour) and succinic acid (up to 1.6 mmol/100g flour) were produced during dough fermentation. Further tests showed that, contrary to current belief, the pH decrease in fermenting dough is primarily caused by the production of succinic acid by the yeast instead of carbon dioxide dissolution or bacterial organic acids. Together, our results provide a comprehensive overview of metabolite production during dough fermentation and yield insight into the importance of some of these metabolites for dough properties. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Critical assessment of the formation of hydrogen peroxide in dough by fermenting yeast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei, Mohammad N; Dornez, Emmie; Verstrepen, Kevin J; Courtin, Christophe M

    2015-02-01

    Fermentation of bread dough leads to strengthening of the dough matrix. This effect has previously been ascribed to the action of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) produced by yeast in dough. In this study, we re-evaluate the production of H2O2 by yeast in dough and aqueous fermentation broth. Results show that the previously reported high levels of H2O2 in fermenting dough were most probably due to the lack of specificity of the potassium dichromate/acetic acid-based method used. Using the chemiluminescent HyPerBlu assay, no yeast H2O2 production could be detected in fermented dough or broth. Even though the formation of low levels of H2O2 cannot be ruled out due to the presence of catalase in flour and the fast reaction of H2O2 with gluten proteins, our results suggest that the changes in dough matrix rheological properties upon fermentation are not due to production of H2O2 by yeast. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of Aspergillus niger xylanase on dough characteristics and bread quality attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Zulfiqar; Butt, Masood Sadiq; Ahmed, Anwaar; Riaz, Muhammad; Sabir, Syed Mubashar; Farooq, Umar; Rehman, Fazal Ur

    2014-10-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the impact of various treatments of xylanase produced by Aspergillus niger applied in bread making processes like during tempering of wheat kernels and dough mixing on the dough quality characteristics i.e. dryness, stiffness, elasticity, extensibility, coherency and bread quality parameters i.e. volume, specific volume, density, moisture retention and sensory attributes. Different doses (200, 400, 600, 800 and 1,000 IU) of purified enzyme were applied to 1 kg of wheat grains during tempering and 1 kg of flour (straight grade flour) during mixing of dough in parallel. The samples of wheat kernels were agitated at different intervals for uniformity in tempering. After milling and dough making of both types of flour (having enzyme treatment during tempering and flour mixing) showed improved dough characteristics but the improvement was more prominent in the samples receiving enzyme treatment during tempering. Moreover, xylanase decreased dryness and stiffness of the dough whereas, resulted in increased elasticity, extensibility and coherency and increase in volume & decrease in bread density. Xylanase treatments also resulted in higher moisture retention and improvement of sensory attributes of bread. From the results, it is concluded that dough characteristics and bread quality improved significantly in response to enzyme treatments during tempering as compared to application during mixing.

  18. Assessment of breadmaking performance of wheat flour dough by means of frequency dependent ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braunstein, D; Peressini, D; Page, J H; Strybulevych, A; Scanlon, M G

    2012-01-01

    Technological performance of wheat flour varies among different wheat varieties. Gluten plays a key role within the solid phase of dough in the formation and the retention of gas bubbles during breadmaking. Rheological tests are usually performed to predict breadmaking potential. The aim here was to investigate the ability of ultrasound to discriminate wheat doughs based on breadmaking qualities. The ultimate goal is the development of an online quality control system currently unavailable in the baked goods industry, rendering this work innovative. Samples were prepared from a strong wheat flour, with one control sample and one added with inulin and distilled monoglycerides, producing doughs of distinct breadmaking quality. Doughs were subjected to density determination, elongation tests, and ultrasound analysis. The ultrasound tests were performed in the frequency range of 300 kHz – 6 MHz. Ultrasonic phase velocity increased with increasing frequency to about 2 MHz, becoming constant and then decreasing from 3 MHz for the control sample. Distinct differences in attenuation coefficient between the fibre-enriched and control doughs were observed. Ultrasound can potentially add to a better understanding of dough quality and can discriminate between doughs of contrasting properties.

  19. Assessment of breadmaking performance of wheat flour dough by means of frequency dependent ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braunstein, D.; Page, J. H.; Strybulevych, A.; Peressini, D.; Scanlon, M. G.

    2012-12-01

    Technological performance of wheat flour varies among different wheat varieties. Gluten plays a key role within the solid phase of dough in the formation and the retention of gas bubbles during breadmaking. Rheological tests are usually performed to predict breadmaking potential. The aim here was to investigate the ability of ultrasound to discriminate wheat doughs based on breadmaking qualities. The ultimate goal is the development of an online quality control system currently unavailable in the baked goods industry, rendering this work innovative. Samples were prepared from a strong wheat flour, with one control sample and one added with inulin and distilled monoglycerides, producing doughs of distinct breadmaking quality. Doughs were subjected to density determination, elongation tests, and ultrasound analysis. The ultrasound tests were performed in the frequency range of 300 kHz - 6 MHz. Ultrasonic phase velocity increased with increasing frequency to about 2 MHz, becoming constant and then decreasing from 3 MHz for the control sample. Distinct differences in attenuation coefficient between the fibre-enriched and control doughs were observed. Ultrasound can potentially add to a better understanding of dough quality and can discriminate between doughs of contrasting properties.

  20. 21 CFR 880.2740 - Surgical sponge scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Surgical sponge scale. 880.2740 Section 880.2740... Devices § 880.2740 Surgical sponge scale. (a) Identification. A surgical sponge scale is a nonelectrically powered device used to weigh surgical sponges that have been used to absorb blood during surgery so that...

  1. Biological characterisation of Haliclona (?gellius) sp.: sponge and associated microorganisms.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sipkema, D.; Holmes, B.; Nichols, S.A.; Blanch, H.W.

    2009-01-01

    We have characterised the northern Pacific undescribed sponge Haliclona (?gellius) sp. based on rDNA of the sponge and its associated microorganisms. The sponge is closely related to Amphimedon queenslandica from the Great Barrier Reef as the near-complete 18S rDNA sequences of both sponges were

  2. Bacterial community profiles in low microbial abundance sponges

    KAUST Repository

    Giles, Emily

    2012-09-04

    It has long been recognized that sponges differ in the abundance of associated microorganisms, and they are therefore termed either \\'low microbial abundance\\' (LMA) or \\'high microbial abundance\\' (HMA) sponges. Many previous studies concentrated on the dense microbial communities in HMA sponges, whereas little is known about microorganisms in LMA sponges. Here, two LMA sponges from the Red Sea, two from the Caribbean and one from the South Pacific were investigated. With up to only five bacterial phyla per sponge, all LMA sponges showed lower phylum-level diversity than typical HMA sponges. Interestingly, each LMA sponge was dominated by a large clade within either Cyanobacteria or different classes of Proteobacteria. The overall similarity of bacterial communities among LMA sponges determined by operational taxonomic unit and UniFrac analysis was low. Also the number of sponge-specific clusters, which indicate bacteria specifically associated with sponges and which are numerous in HMA sponges, was low. A biogeographical or host-dependent distribution pattern was not observed. In conclusion, bacterial community profiles of LMA sponges are clearly different from profiles of HMA sponges and, remarkably, each LMA sponge seems to harbour its own unique bacterial community. © 2012 Federation of European Microbiological Societies.

  3. Bambara-wheat composite flour: rheological behavior of dough and functionality in bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erukainure, Ochuko L; Okafor, Jane N C; Ogunji, Akinyele; Ukazu, Happiness; Okafor, Ebele N; Eboagwu, Ijeoma L

    2016-11-01

    The rheological behavior and functional properties of doughs from bambara-wheat composite flour was investigated. Bambara-wheat composite flour was prepared by substituting wheat with 0%, 10%, 15%, and 20% of bambara flour. The rheological behavior of their dough was analyzed with Mixolab. Breads produced from the flour were analyzed for physical characteristics. Organoleptic analysis was carried out by 20 panelists. Mixolab analysis revealed, except for stability time, depreciating values for dough consistency (C1), protein weakening (C2), starch gelatinization (C3), amylase activity (C4), and retrogradation (C5) as the inclusion of bambara flour increased. Physical characteristics of the loaves revealed significant ( P  baking characteristics.

  4. Bread dough rheology: Computing with a damage function model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Roger I.; Qi, Fuzhong; Dai, Shaocong

    2015-01-01

    We describe an improved damage function model for bread dough rheology. The model has relatively few parameters, all of which can easily be found from simple experiments. Small deformations in the linear region are described by a gel-like power-law memory function. A set of large non-reversing deformations - stress relaxation after a step of shear, steady shearing and elongation beginning from rest, and biaxial stretching, is used to test the model. With the introduction of a revised strain measure which includes a Mooney-Rivlin term, all of these motions can be well described by the damage function described in previous papers. For reversing step strains, larger amplitude oscillatory shearing and recoil reasonable predictions have been found. The numerical methods used are discussed and we give some examples.

  5. Addition of different tuna meal levels to pizza dough

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Abreu Vasconcelos Campelo

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was to develop pizza dough with different levels of tuna meal (Tunnus spp.. In order to produce tuna meal, tuna torsos without fins were used, cooked for 1 hour, pressed, milled and dehydrated for 24 hours at 60 °C. Pizza dough was produced without (0% or with the addition of 5, 10, 15 and 20% of tuna meal, calculated based on the quantity of wheat flour. The tuna meal and different pizza pastries were analyzed for moisture content, crude protein, total lipids, ash, carbohydrates, caloric value and fatty acid profiles. Microbiological and sensory analyses were also carried out on the pizza pastries. The increasing addition of tuna meal resulted in gains in the crude protein (10.89 to 18.94%, total lipid (4.63 to 5.89% and ash (2.54 to 3.54% contents of the pizza pastries, not influencing the moisture content or caloric value. The inclusion of tuna meal linearly increased the quantity of n-3 series fatty acids in the pizza pastry, from 1.56 to 5.93 g/kg with the addition of 20% tuna meal. The ratio between the polyunsaturated and saturated fatty acids in the tuna meal and pizza pastries varied from 1.21 to 1.85. The microbiological analyses showed that the pizza pastries were produced under proper hygiene conditions. It was also observed that the addition of 5 to 20% of tuna meal to the pizza pastry did not significantly (p>0.05 alter the parameters of aroma, flavor, overall impression and purchase intention. It was therefore concluded that the addition of 5 to 20% tuna meal is effective in improving the nutritional value and fatty acid profile of pizza pastry.

  6. Effect of partially hydrolyzed guar gum on pasting, thermo-mechanical and rheological properties of wheat dough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudgil, Deepak; Barak, Sheweta; Khatkar, B S

    2016-12-01

    Partially hydrolyzed guar gum was prepared using enzymatic hydrolysis of native guar gum that can be utilized as soluble fiber source. The effect of partially hydrolyzed guar gum (PHGG) on pasting, thermo-mechanical and rheological properties of wheat flour was investigated using rapid visco-analyzer, Mixolab and Microdoughlab. Wheat flour was replaced with 1-5g PHGG per 100g of wheat flour on weight basis. PHGG addition decreased the peak, trough, breakdown, setback and final viscosity of wheat flour. Water absorption and amylase activity of wheat dough were increased whereas starch gelatinization and protein weakening of wheat dough were reduced as a result of PHGG addition to wheat flour. PHGG addition also increased the peak dough height, arrival time, dough development time, dough stability and peak energy of wheat dough system. However, dough softening was decreased after PHGG addition to wheat flour dough. Overall, it can be assumed that PHGG has influenced the properties of wheat flour dough system by decreasing the RVA viscosities and increasing the water absorption and starch gelatinization of wheat dough system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Sensory assessment of stiffness and rheological measurements on doughs of identical farinograph consistencies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloksma, A.H.; Meppelink, E.K.

    1973-01-01

    Significant differences were found in the sensory assessment of stiffness of doughs made from various wheat varieties with such water additions that their Brabender farinograph consistencies would have been identical. Sensory ratings correlated significantly with extensigraph and creep measurements.

  8. Effect of Oven Types on the Characteristics of Biscuits Made from Refrigerated and Frozen Doughs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Sait Dogan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Characteristics of sugar snap and chocolate chip cookies, and hazelnut biscuits made from refrigerated and frozen dough were studied. Doughs were stored at 4 °C for 6 weeks and at –18 °C for 6 months, respectively. Physical characteristics of the biscuit samples such as spread, baking loss, surface colour and density were determined. Dough colour was not affected by storage time and temperatures. Biscuit characteristics did not change significantly during storage. Spread ratio was significantly lower for the biscuits baked in the gas oven than for the biscuits baked in the electric oven. Biscuit dough can be refrigerated for 6 weeks, and frozen for 6 months. Results also suggest that unique quality differences exist between the two ovens. For sugar snap cookies and hazelnut biscuits the electric oven without air circulation was better, while for chocolate chip cookies gas oven with air circulation was more suitable.

  9. An overview on the additives used in improvement of dough flow behaving characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elnaz Ghobadi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Bread in all its diversity has cited as an ancient foodstuff for over 6000 years; bread dough, due to its viscoelastic behavior may consider as the most complicated rheological system, which highly effects on final products’ sensorial and textural properties. Since the research dough rheology is of being challenging issues, therefore this explains why dough rheology has been an attractive title for several decades. Recently, demand to use new formula and sources such as cassava which result in enhancement of digestibility and along with it, the incorporation of previously mentioned sources in cereal products, has been converted to a growingly investigation of rheological properties of dough. Substitution level of any novel sources directly effects on texture properties, even adverse affections, which evaluates by panelists therefore in this review we focus on different concepts of bread rheology and the affection of all added ingredients on physiochemical properties.

  10. Modelling of Wheat-Flour Dough Mixing as an Open-Loop Hysteretic Process

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Anderssen, R.; Kružík, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 2 (2013), s. 283-293 ISSN 1531-3492 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100750802 Keywords : Dissipation * Dough mixing * Rate-independent systems Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.628, year: 2013 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2013/MTR/kruzik-modelling of wheat-flour dough mixing as an open-loop hysteretic process.pdf

  11. Can a sponge fractionate isotopes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, B; Patel, S; Balani, M C

    1985-03-22

    The study has unequivocally demonstrated that siliceous sponges Spirastrella cuspidifera and Prostylyssa foetida from the same microecological niche exhibit a high degree of species specificity, while accumulating a host of heavy metal ions (Ni, Cr, Cd, Sn, Ti, Mo, Zr). S. cuspidifera accumulated, in addition, 60Co and 63Ni, showing discrimination against other radionuclides, 137Cs and 131I, present in the ambient waters receiving controlled low level waste discharges from a B.W.R. nuclear power station. P. foetida, on the other hand, accumulated only 131I and showed discrimination against other radionuclides including 60Co, although the stable iodine concentrations in both the sponges were the same. The specific activity of 60Co (in becquerels per gram of 59Co) in S. cuspidifera and 131I (in becquerels per gram of 127I) in P. foetida were at least two orders of magnitude greater than in the ambient sea water. That of 63Ni (in becquerels per gram of 62Ni) in S. cuspidifera, on the other hand, was lower by two orders of magnitude than in either abiotic matrices from the same environment. Thus, not only did both the species show bioaccumulation of a specific element, but also preferential uptake of isotopes of the same element, though they were equally available for intake. Such differential uptake of isotopes can possibly be explained in terms of two quite different mechanisms operating, each applicable in a particular case. One is that the xenobiotic isotope enters the environment in a physicochemical form or as a complex different from that of its natural counterpart. If equilibration with the latter is slow, so that the organism acquires the xenobiotic in an unfamiliar chemical context, it may treat it as a chemically distinct entity so that its concentration factor differs from that of stable isotope, thus changing the specific activity. Alternatively, if the xenobiotic is present in the same chemical form as the stable isotope, the only way in which specific

  12. Effect of sorbitol on dough rheology and quality of sugar replaced cookies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Shariati

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A high amount of sugar is used in bakery products, which may cause diabetes, high blood glucose levels and obesity. Due to these reasons, sugar is being replaced with substitutes. There is different carbohydrate-based sugar substitutes (polyols that can efficiently replace sugar. Among polyols, sorbitol is an efficient replacer that can mimic sugar with minimal effects on cookie quality. Effects of different sorbitol levels (0 to 12.5% were seen on the dough rheology. Mixographic studies showed that peak height and mixing time reduced with the addition of sorbitol. Farinographic studies showed that water absorption and the mixing tolerance index of dough reduced with the supplementation of sorbitol, whereas dough development time, arrival time, dough stability time and softening of dough increased. Extensographic studies revealed that sorbitol substitution produced hard, cohesive, adhesive and elastic dough. Sugar in cookies formulations was reduced from 100 to 50% by replacing with sorbitol 0 to 50%. Physical analysis of sorbitol containing cookies showed that the diameter and spread factor of cookies decreased with higher levels of sorbitol, whereas thickness, color, hardness and water activity of cookies increased. The calorific value of cookies decreased with the increasing levels of sorbitol. At upto 20% replacement of sugar, other parameters of cookies were not affected. Sensory evaluation of the cookies showed that hedonic points for sensory evaluation parameters reduced with the increasing levels of sorbitol, T2 (20% replacement showed maximum overall acceptability. Normal 0 false false false EN-GB X-NONE AR-SA

  13. Relation between ultrasonic properties, rheology and baking quality for bread doughs of widely differing formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peressini, Donatella; Braunstein, Dobrila; Page, John H; Strybulevych, Anatoliy; Lagazio, Corrado; Scanlon, Martin G

    2017-06-01

    The objective was to evaluate whether an ultrasonic reflectance technique has predictive capacity for breadmaking performance of doughs made under a wide range of formulation conditions. Two flours of contrasting dough strength augmented with different levels of ingredients (inulin, oil, emulsifier or salt) were used to produce different bread doughs with a wide range of properties. Breadmaking performance was evaluated by conventional large-strain rheological tests on the dough and by assessment of loaf quality. The ultrasound tests were performed with a broadband reflectance technique in the frequency range of 0.3-6 MHz. Principal component analysis showed that ultrasonic attenuation and phase velocity at frequencies between 0.3 and 3 MHz are good predictors for rheological and bread scoring characteristics. Ultrasonic parameters had predictive capacity for breadmaking performance for a wide range of dough formulations. Lower frequency attenuation coefficients correlated well with conventional quality indices of both the dough and the bread. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Antibacterial activity of the sponge Suberites domuncula and its primmorphs: Potential basis for epibacterial chemical defense

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Thakur, N; Hentschel, U.; Krasko, A; Pabel, C; Anil, A.C; Mueller, W.E.G.

    The epibacterial chemical defense of the marine sponge Suberites domuncula was explored by screening sponge extract, sponge primmorph (3-D aggregates containing proliferating cells) extract and sponge-associated as well as primmorph...

  15. AFSC/ABL: Salisbury Sound sponge recovery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In 1995, an area of the seafloor near Salisbury Sound was trawled to identify immediate effects on large, erect sponges and sea whips. Video transects were made in...

  16. Abdominal retained surgical sponges: CT appearance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalovidouris, A.; Kehagias, D.; Moulopoulos, L.; Gouliamos, A.; Pentea, S.; Vlahos, L. [Department of Radiology, University of Athens (Greece)

    1999-09-01

    Retention of surgical sponges is rare. They cause either an aseptic reaction without significant symptoms or an exudative reaction which results in early but nonspecific symptoms. Computed tomography is very useful for recognition of retained sponges. The appearance of retained sponges is widely variable. Air trapping into a surgical sponge results in the spongiform pattern which is characteristic but unfortunately uncommon. A low-density, high-density, or complex mass is found in the majority of cases, but these patterns are not specific. Sometimes, a thin high-density capsule may be seen. Rim or internal calcification is a rare finding. Finally, a radiopaque marker is not a reliable sign. Differentiation from abscess and hematoma is sometimes difficult. (orig.) With 11 figs., 12 refs.

  17. Abdominal retained surgical sponges: CT appearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalovidouris, A.; Kehagias, D.; Moulopoulos, L.; Gouliamos, A.; Pentea, S.; Vlahos, L.

    1999-01-01

    Retention of surgical sponges is rare. They cause either an aseptic reaction without significant symptoms or an exudative reaction which results in early but nonspecific symptoms. Computed tomography is very useful for recognition of retained sponges. The appearance of retained sponges is widely variable. Air trapping into a surgical sponge results in the spongiform pattern which is characteristic but unfortunately uncommon. A low-density, high-density, or complex mass is found in the majority of cases, but these patterns are not specific. Sometimes, a thin high-density capsule may be seen. Rim or internal calcification is a rare finding. Finally, a radiopaque marker is not a reliable sign. Differentiation from abscess and hematoma is sometimes difficult. (orig.)

  18. Antiviral lead compounds from marine sponges

    KAUST Repository

    Sagar, Sunil; Kaur, Mandeep; Minneman, Kenneth P.

    2010-01-01

    ). The most important antiviral lead of marine origin reported thus far is nucleoside Ara-A (vidarabine) isolated from sponge Tethya crypta. It inhibits viral DNA polymerase and DNA synthesis of herpes, vaccinica and varicella zoster viruses. However due

  19. Chitosan: collagen sponges. In vitro mineralization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, Virginia da C.A.; Silva, Gustavo M.; Plepis, Ana Maria G.

    2011-01-01

    The regeneration of bone tissue is a problem that affects many people and scaffolds for bone tissue growth has been widely studied. The aim of this study was the in vitro mineralization of chitosan, chitosan:native collagen and chitosan:anionic collagen sponges. The sponges were obtained by lyophilization and mineralization was made by soaking the sponges in alternating solutions containing Ca 2+ and PO 4 3- . The mineralization was confirmed by infrared spectroscopy, energy dispersive X-ray and X-ray diffraction observing the formation of phosphate salts, possibly a carbonated hydroxyapatite since Ca/P=1.80. The degree of mineralization was obtained by thermogravimetry calculating the amount of residue at 750 deg C. The chitosan:anionic collagen sponge showed the highest degree of mineralization probably due to the fact that anionic collagen provides additional sites for interaction with the inorganic phase. (author)

  20. EFISIENSI PENGGUNAAN TELUR DALAM PEMBUATAN SPONGE CAKE

    OpenAIRE

    Ida Ayu Putu Hemy Ekayani

    2011-01-01

    Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk membuat kue berpori (spong cake) dengan kualitas baik  dengan menggunakan jumlah telur minimal yang dibantu dengan penggunaan baking powder secara optimal untuk menurunkan biaya produksi yang disebabkan oleh mahalnya harga telur. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian laboratorium (eksperimen). Analisis data dilakukan secara deskriptif. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kualitas sponge cake terbaik dihasilkan dari dua variasi rancangan variasi kadar baking powder ...

  1. Succinic acid in levels produced by yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) during fermentation strongly impacts wheat bread dough properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaram, Vinay B; Cuyvers, Sven; Verstrepen, Kevin J; Delcour, Jan A; Courtin, Christophe M

    2014-05-15

    Succinic acid (SA) was recently shown to be the major pH determining metabolite produced by yeast during straight-dough fermentation (Jayaram et al., 2013), reaching levels as high as 1.6 mmol/100 g of flour. Here, the impact of such levels of SA (0.8, 1.6 and 2.4 mmol/100 g flour) on yeastless dough properties was investigated. SA decreased the development time and stability of dough significantly. Uniaxial extension tests showed a consistent decrease in dough extensibility upon increasing SA addition. Upon biaxial extension in the presence of 2.4 mmol SA/100 g flour, a dough extensibility decrease of 47-65% and a dough strength increase of 25-40% were seen. While the SA solvent retention capacity of flour increased with increasing SA concentration in the solvent, gluten agglomeration decreased with gluten yield reductions of over 50%. The results suggest that SA leads to swelling and unfolding of gluten proteins, thereby increasing their interaction potential and dough strength, but simultaneously increasing intermolecular electrostatic repulsive forces. These phenomena lead to the reported changes in dough properties. Together, our results establish SA as an important yeast metabolite for dough rheology. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Summary Statistics for Homemade ?Play Dough? -- Data Acquired at LLNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kallman, J S; Morales, K E; Whipple, R E; Huber, R D; Martz, A; Brown, W D; Smith, J A; Schneberk, D J; Martz, Jr., H E; White, III, W T

    2010-03-11

    Using x-ray computerized tomography (CT), we have characterized the x-ray linear attenuation coefficients (LAC) of a homemade Play Dough{trademark}-like material, designated as PDA. Table 1 gives the first-order statistics for each of four CT measurements, estimated with a Gaussian kernel density estimator (KDE) analysis. The mean values of the LAC range from a high of about 2700 LMHU{sub D} 100kVp to a low of about 1200 LMHUD at 300kVp. The standard deviation of each measurement is around 10% to 15% of the mean. The entropy covers the range from 6.0 to 7.4. Ordinarily, we would model the LAC of the material and compare the modeled values to the measured values. In this case, however, we did not have the detailed chemical composition of the material and therefore did not model the LAC. Using a method recently proposed by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), we estimate the value of the effective atomic number, Z{sub eff}, to be near 10. LLNL prepared about 50mL of the homemade 'Play Dough' in a polypropylene vial and firmly compressed it immediately prior to the x-ray measurements. We used the computer program IMGREC to reconstruct the CT images. The values of the key parameters used in the data capture and image reconstruction are given in this report. Additional details may be found in the experimental SOP and a separate document. To characterize the statistical distribution of LAC values in each CT image, we first isolated an 80% central-core segment of volume elements ('voxels') lying completely within the specimen, away from the walls of the polypropylene vial. All of the voxels within this central core, including those comprised of voids and inclusions, are included in the statistics. We then calculated the mean value, standard deviation and entropy for (a) the four image segments and for (b) their digital gradient images. (A digital gradient image of a given image was obtained by taking the absolute value of the difference

  3. Effect of addition of thermally modified cowpea protein on sensory acceptability and textural properties of wheat bread and sponge cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Lydia; Euston, Stephen R; Ahmed, Mohamed A

    2016-03-01

    This paper investigates the sensory acceptability and textural properties of leavened wheat bread and sponge cake fortified with cow protein isolates that had been denatured and glycated by thermal treatment. Defatted cowpea flour was prepared from cow pea beans and the protein isolate was prepared (CPI) and thermally denatured (DCPI). To prepare glycated cowpea protein isolate (GCPI) the cowpea flour slurry was heat treated before isolation of the protein. CPI was more susceptible to thermal denaturation than GCPI as determined by turbidity and sulphydryl groups resulting in greater loss of solubility. This is attributed to the higher glycation degree and higher carbohydrate content of GCPI as demonstrated by glycoprotein staining of SDS PAGE gels. Water absorption of bread dough was significantly enhanced by DCPI and to a larger extent GCPI compared to the control, resulting in softer texture. CPI resulted in significantly increased crumb hardness in baked bread than the control whereas DCPI or GCPI resulted in significantly softer crumb. Bread fortified with 4% DCPI or GCPI was similar to control as regards sensory and textural properties whereas 4% CPI was significantly different, limiting its inclusion level to 2%. There was a trend for higher sensory acceptability scores for GCPI containing bread compared DCPI. Whole egg was replaced by 20% by GCPI (3.5%) in sponge cake without affecting the sensory acceptability, whereas CPI and DCPI supplemented cakes were significantly different than the control. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Antagonistic activity of marine sponges associated Actinobacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selvakumar Dharmaraj

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To focus on the isolation and preliminary characterization of marine sponges associated Actinobacteria particularly Streptomyces species and also their antagonistic activities against bacterial and fungal pathogens. Methods: The sponges were collected from Kovalam and Vizhinjam port of south-west coast of Kerala, India. Isolation of strains was carried out from sponge extracts using international Streptomyces project media. For preliminary identification of the strains, morphological (mycelial colouration, soluble pigments, melanoid pigmentation, spore morphology, nutritional uptake (carbon utilisation, amonoacids influence, sodium chloride tolerance, physiological (pH, temperature and chemotaxonomical characterization were done. Antimicrobial studies were also carried out for the selected strains. Results: With the help of the spicule structures, the collected marine sponges were identified as Callyspongia diffusa, Mycale mytilorum, Tedania anhelans and Dysidea fragilis. Nearly 94 strains were primarily isolated from these sponges and further they were sub-cultured using international Streptomyces project media. The strains exhibited different mycelial colouration (aerial and substrate, soluble and melanoid pigmentations. The strains possessed three types of sporophore morphology namely rectus flexibilis, spiral and retinaculiaperti. Among the 94 isolates, seven exhibited antibacterial and antifungal activities with maximal zone of inhibition of 30 mm. The nutritional, physiological and chemotaxonomical characteristic study helped in the conventional identification of the seven strains and they all suggest that the strains to be grouped under the genus Streptomyces. Conclusions: The present study clearly helps in the preliminary identification of the isolates associated with marine sponges. Antagonistic activities prove the production of antimicrobial metabolites against the pathogens. Marine sponges associated Streptomyces are

  5. High energy density supercapacitors using macroporous kitchen sponges

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Wei; Baby, Rakhi Raghavan; Alshareef, Husam N.

    2012-01-01

    Macroporous, low-cost and recyclable kitchen sponges are explored as effective electrode platforms for supercapacitor devices. A simple and scalable process has been developed to fabricate MnO 2-carbon nanotube (CNT)-sponge supercapacitor electrodes

  6. Primary hafnium metal sponge and other forms, approved standard 1973

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    A specification is presented covering virgin hafnium metal commonly designated as sponge because of its porous, sponge-like texture; it may also be in other forms such as chunklets. The specification does not cover crystal bar

  7. High-performance nanostructured supercapacitors on a sponge

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Wei; Baby, Rakhi Raghavan; Hu, Liangbing; Xie, Xing; Cui, Yi; Alshareef, Husam N.

    2011-01-01

    A simple and scalable method has been developed to fabricate nanostructured MnO 2-carbon nanotube (CNT)-sponge hybrid electrodes. A novel supercapacitor, henceforth referred to as "sponge supercapacitor", has been fabricated using these hybrid

  8. Bacterial community profiles in low microbial abundance sponges

    KAUST Repository

    Giles, Emily; Kamke, Janine; Moitinho-Silva, Lucas; Taylor, Michael W.; Hentschel, Ute T E; Ravasi, Timothy; Schmitt, Susanne

    2012-01-01

    It has long been recognized that sponges differ in the abundance of associated microorganisms, and they are therefore termed either 'low microbial abundance' (LMA) or 'high microbial abundance' (HMA) sponges. Many previous studies concentrated

  9. First records of sponge-associated Actinomycetes from two coastal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    First records of sponge-associated Actinomycetes from two coastal sponges from Mauritius. Sandeep Shivram Beepat, Chandani Appadoo, Daniel Edgard Pierre Marie, Shamimtaz Bibi Sadally, Jose Pavao Mendes Paula, Kannan Sivakumar, Rashmi Ragothama Rao, Maryam Salah ...

  10. Ingredient Functionality in Multilayered Dough-margarine Systems and the Resultant Pastry Products: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooms, Nand; Pareyt, Bram; Brijs, Kristof; Delcour, Jan A

    2016-10-02

    Pastry products are produced from heterogeneous multilayered dough systems. The main ingredients are flour, water, fat and sugar for puff pastry, and the same plus yeast for fermented pastry. Key aspects in pastry production are (i) building laminated dough containing alternating layers of dough and bakery fat and (ii) maintaining this multilayered structure during processing to allow for steam entrapment for proper dough lift during baking. Although most authors agree on the importance of gluten and fat for maintaining the integrity of the different layers, detailed studies on their specific function are lacking. The exact mechanism of steam entrapment during dough lift and the relative contribution of water set free from the fat phase during baking also remain unclear. This review brings together current knowledge on pastry products and the factors determining (intermediate) product quality. Its focus is on flour constituents, fat, water, and (where applicable) yeast during the different production stages of pastry products. Future research needs are addressed as the knowledge on biochemical and physical changes occurring in flour constituents and other ingredients during pastry production and their effect on product quality is currently inadequate.

  11. Impact of water extractable arabinoxylan from rye bran on the frozen steamed bread dough quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pei; Tao, Han; Jin, Zhengyu; Xu, Xueming

    2016-06-01

    Impact of water extractable arabinoxylan from rye bran on frozen steamed bread dough quality was investigated in terms of the bread characteristics, ice crystallization, yeast activity as well as the gluten molecular weight distribution and glutenin macropolymer content in the present study. Results showed that water extractable arabinoxylan significantly improved bread characteristics during the 60-day frozen storage. Less water was crystallized in the water extractable arabinoxylan dough during storage, which could explain the alleviated yeast activity loss. For all the frozen dough samples, more soluble high molecular weight (Mw ≈ 91,000-688,000) and low molecular weight (Mw ≈ 91,000-16,000) proteins were derived from glutenin macropolymer depolymerization. Nevertheless, water extractable arabinoxylan dough developed higher glutenin macropolymer content with lowered level of soluble low molecular weight proteins throughout the storage. This study suggested water extractable arabinoxylan from rye bran had great potential to be served as an effective frozen steamed bread dough improver. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Prevention of GABA reduction during dough fermentation using a baker's yeast dal81 mutant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Akira; Nakamura, Toshihide

    2016-10-01

    γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is consumed by yeasts during fermentation. To prevent GABA reduction in bread dough, a baker's yeast mutant AY77 deficient in GABA assimilation was characterized and utilized for wheat dough fermentation. An amber mutation in the DAL81 gene, which codes for a positive regulator of multiple nitrogen degradation pathways, was found in the AY77 strain. The qPCR analyses of genes involved in nitrogen utilization showed that transcriptional levels of the UGA1 and DUR3 genes encoding GABA transaminase and urea transporter, respectively, are severely decreased in the AY77 cells. The AY77 strain cultivated by fed-batch culture using cane molasses exhibited inferior gas production during dough fermentation compared to that of wild-type strain AY13. However, when fed with molasses containing 0.5% ammonium sulfate, the mutant strain exhibited gas production comparable to that of the AY13 strain. In contrast to the AY13 strain, which completely consumed GABA in dough within 5 h, the AY77 strain consumed no GABA under either culture condition. Dough fermentation with the dal81 mutant strain should be useful for suppression of GABA reduction in breads. Copyright © 2016 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Addition of Vital Wheat Gluten to Enhance the Quality Characteristics of Frozen Dough Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Giannou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to enhance the quality and sensory characteristics of bread made from frozen dough. Both white and whole-wheat flour were used. In order to improve dough strength and stability during frozen storage, samples were supplemented with vital wheat gluten at the levels of 2%, 4%, 5%, and 6% of flour weight. The characteristics of baked samples were determined through weight loss, specific volume, crust, and crumb color, texture, and sensory evaluation. Dough behavior at sub-zero temperatures was further examined for control samples and samples with 6% gluten using Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC, while their low molecular sugar content (fructose, glucose, sucrose was measured using High Pressure Liquid Chromatography (HPLC, as it can be associated with yeast viability and dough freezing point depression. The most stable samples were those with 4% and 6% gluten (for white flour and those with 4% and 5% gluten (for whole-wheat flour. Gluten addition raised the freezing point of dough samples and preserved low molecular sugar generation after prolonged storage.

  14. Use of an ultrasonic reflectance technique to examine bubble size changes in dough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strybulevych, A.; Leroy, V.; Shum, A. L.; Koksel, H. F.; Scanlon, M. G.; Page, J. H.

    2012-12-01

    Bread quality largely depends on the manner in which bubbles are created and manipulated in the dough during processing. We have developed an ultrasonic reflectance technique to monitor bubbles in dough, even at high volume fractions, where near the bubble resonances it is difficult to make measurements using transmission techniques. A broadband transducer centred at 3.5 MHz in a normal incidence wave reflection set-up is used to measure longitudinal velocity and attenuation from acoustic impedance measurements. The technique is illustrated by examining changes in bubbles in dough due to two very different physical effects. In dough made without yeast, a peak in attenuation due to bubble resonance is observed at approximately 2 MHz. This peak diminishes rapidly and shifts to lower frequencies, indicative of Ostwald ripening of bubbles within the dough. The second effect involves the growth of bubble sizes due to gas generated by yeast during fermentation. This process is experimentally challenging to investigate with ultrasound because of very high attenuation. The reflectance technique allows the changes of the velocity and attenuation during fermentation to be measured as a function of frequency and time, indicating bubble growth effects that can be monitored even at high volume fractions of bubbles.

  15. EFFECT OF PLANT PROTEIN ISOLATES ON THE STRUCTURAL – MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF WHEAT DOUGH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeriy MAKHYNKO

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The results of using isolates of soya, pea and rice flour as well as of dry wheat gluten in the making of bread dough have been presented. Taking into account the high water absorption capacity of these products, effect of the protein isolates on the structural-mechanical properties of the dough has been investigated. On the basis of farinogram curves the additional quantity of water needed to obtain proper structure of dough made from all types of raw materials has been determined. A formula of calculation the additional quantity of water has been proposed. It proves that most quantity of water is needed for dough with isolate of soya protein – 2.3 g per 1 g of added isolate. Isolate of pea protein needs additionally 1.5 g of water, dry wheat gluten – 1.3 g, and isolate of rice protein – 0.9 g of water. The proposed calculation has been checked for mixes with different proportion of raw materials and its effectiveness has been proven. The calculation method was used to determine the additional quantity of water required to obtain wheat dough with necessary structural and mechanical properties.

  16. Effect of fructo-oligosaccharide and isomalto-oligosaccharide addition on baking quality of frozen dough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eun Young; Jang, Sung-Bum; Lim, Seung-Taik

    2016-12-15

    The baking quality of frozen doughs containing different levels of fructo-oligosaccharides (FO) or isomalto-oligosaccharides (IMO) (3-9%, w/w flour), and stored for 0-8weeks at -18°C, was examined. The addition of FO or IMO increased the proof volume of the dough and the loaf volume of bread prepared from frozen dough. A 6% addition of FO or IMO was optimum, giving the highest proof volume and bread loaf volume, but a higher concentration than 6% induced low baking quality including lower proof volume and bread loaf volume. The bread crumb was moister and softer after the addition of FO or IMO before, and even after, frozen storage. Darker crumb colour was observed in the bread after the addition of FO or IMO. The oligosaccharides added to the frozen dough were effective in improving the quality of bread made from frozen dough, except for resulting in a darker bread crumb. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Image analysis and mathematical modelling for the supervision of the dough fermentation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zettel, Viktoria; Paquet-Durand, Olivier; Hecker, Florian; Hitzmann, Bernd

    2016-10-01

    The fermentation (proof) process of dough is one of the quality-determining steps in the production of baking goods. Beside the fluffiness, whose fundaments are built during fermentation, the flavour of the final product is influenced very much during this production stage. However, until now no on-line measurement system is available, which can supervise this important process step. In this investigation the potential of an image analysis system is evaluated, that enables the determination of the volume of fermented dough pieces. The camera is moving around the fermenting pieces and collects images from the objects by means of different angles (360° range). Using image analysis algorithms the volume increase of individual dough pieces is determined. Based on a detailed mathematical description of the volume increase, which based on the Bernoulli equation, carbon dioxide production rate of yeast cells and the diffusion processes of carbon dioxide, the fermentation process is supervised. Important process parameters, like the carbon dioxide production rate of the yeast cells and the dough viscosity can be estimated just after 300 s of proofing. The mean percentage error for forecasting the further evolution of the relative volume of the dough pieces is just 2.3 %. Therefore, a forecast of the further evolution can be performed and used for fault detection.

  18. The effect of pineapple core fiber on dough rheology and the quality of mantou

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sy-Yu Shiau

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of dietary fiber offers the health benefit of lowering the risk of many chronic diseases. Pineapple core fiber (PCF in this study was extracted and incorporated into dough and mantou (i.e., steamed bread. The effects of PCF substitution and fiber size on textural and rheological properties of dough and mantou were evaluated by a texture analyzer. The substitution of wheat flour by PCF resulted in a stiffer and less extensible dough with or without fermentation. The hardness and gumminess of mantou significantly increased as the PCF substitution increased from 0% to 15%, but the cohesiveness, specific volume, and elasticity significantly decreased with the fiber substitution. Ten percent PCF-enriched dough and mantou with various fiber sizes had similar rheological and textural properties, except for the k1 and k2 values. By sensory evaluation, 5% PCF-enriched mantou and the control bread had better acceptability in texture, color, odor, and overall acceptability, compared to mantous enriched with 10% or 15% PCF. Significant correlations existed between the rheological properties of dough and textural parameters of mantou and between the sensory quality and textural parameters of mantou. Therefore, we suggest that fiber-enriched mantou can be prepared with 5% PCF substitution to increase the intake of dietary fiber and maintain the quality of mantou.

  19. Use of an ultrasonic reflectance technique to examine bubble size changes in dough

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strybulevych, A; Leroy, V; Page, J H; Shum, A L; Koksel, H F; Scanlon, M G

    2012-01-01

    Bread quality largely depends on the manner in which bubbles are created and manipulated in the dough during processing. We have developed an ultrasonic reflectance technique to monitor bubbles in dough, even at high volume fractions, where near the bubble resonances it is difficult to make measurements using transmission techniques. A broadband transducer centred at 3.5 MHz in a normal incidence wave reflection set-up is used to measure longitudinal velocity and attenuation from acoustic impedance measurements. The technique is illustrated by examining changes in bubbles in dough due to two very different physical effects. In dough made without yeast, a peak in attenuation due to bubble resonance is observed at approximately 2 MHz. This peak diminishes rapidly and shifts to lower frequencies, indicative of Ostwald ripening of bubbles within the dough. The second effect involves the growth of bubble sizes due to gas generated by yeast during fermentation. This process is experimentally challenging to investigate with ultrasound because of very high attenuation. The reflectance technique allows the changes of the velocity and attenuation during fermentation to be measured as a function of frequency and time, indicating bubble growth effects that can be monitored even at high volume fractions of bubbles.

  20. Effect of L-asparaginase on acrylamide mitigation in a fried-dough pastry model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukurová, Kristína; Morales, Francisco J; Bednáriková, Alena; Ciesarová, Zuzana

    2009-12-01

    A dough resembling traditional Spanish rosquillas was used as a model to represent classical fried-dough pastry to investigate the effects of asparaginase and heat treatment on amino acid levels and acrylamide mitigation. Wheat-based dough was deep fried at 180 and 200 degrees C for 4, 6, and 8 min. Two recipes were formulated by addition of different asparaginase levels (100 and 500 U/kg flour) to the dough. The temperature/time profile of the frying process, moisture, sugars, amino acids, acrylamide, and some indicators of the Maillard reaction (hydroxymethylfurfural, color, free fluorescence compounds, and browning) were determined to investigate the extent of the reaction and the effect on reactants. At the both levels of asparaginase used, 96-97% of the asparagine present was converted to aspartic acid, and consequently the acrylamide level was very efficiently reduced (up to 90%). The asparaginase also affected the content of glutamine and glutamic acid in dough, resulting in a 37% increase in glutamic acid compared with the untreated sample. Concerning color, browning and Maillard reaction parameters, no significant changes between untreated and enzymatically treated samples were observed, pointing out the potential industrial and domestic enzyme application.

  1. Textural and sensory properties of trifoliate yam (Dioscorea dumetorum) flour and stiff dough 'amala'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abiodun, O A; Akinoso, R

    2015-05-01

    The use of trifoliate yam (Dioscorea dumetorum) flour for stiff dough 'amala' production is one of the ways to curb under-utilization of the tuber. The study evaluates the textural and sensory properties of trifoliate yam flour and stiff dough. Freshly harvested trifoliate yam tubers were peeled, washed, sliced and blanched (60 (°)C for 10 min). The sliced yam were soaked in water for 12 h, dried and milled into flour. Pasting viscosities, functional properties, brown index and sensory attributes of the flour and stiff dough were analyzed. Peak, holding strength and final viscosities ranged from 84.09 to 213.33 RVU, 81.25 to 157.00 RVU and 127.58 to 236.17 RVU respectively. White raw flour had higher viscosity than the yellow flours. The swelling index, water absorption capacity and bulk density ranged from 1.46 to 2.28, 2.11 to 2.92 ml H2O/g and 0.71 to 0.88 g/cm(3) respectively. Blanching method employed improved the swelling index and water absorption capacity of flour. The brown index values of flour and stiff dough ranged from 6.73 to 18.36 and 14.63-46.72 respectively. Sensory evaluation revealed significant differences in the colour, odour and general acceptability of the product when compared with the stiff dough from white yam.

  2. A Method of Visualizing Three-Dimensional Distribution of Yeast in Bread Dough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Tatsurou; Do, Gab-Soo; Sugiyama, Junichi; Oguchi, Kosei; Shiraga, Seizaburou; Ueda, Mitsuyoshi; Takeya, Koji; Endo, Shigeru

    A novel technique was developed to monitor the change in three-dimensional (3D) distribution of yeast in frozen bread dough samples in accordance with the progress of mixing process. Application of a surface engineering technology allowed the identification of yeast in bread dough by bonding EGFP (Enhanced Green Fluorescent Protein) to the surface of yeast cells. The fluorescent yeast (a biomarker) was recognized as bright spots at the wavelength of 520 nm. A Micro-Slicer Image Processing System (MSIPS) with a fluorescence microscope was utilized to acquire cross-sectional images of frozen dough samples sliced at intervals of 1 μm. A set of successive two-dimensional images was reconstructed to analyze 3D distribution of yeast. Samples were taken from each of four normal mixing stages (i.e., pick up, clean up, development, and final stages) and also from over mixing stage. In the pick up stage yeast distribution was uneven with local areas of dense yeast. As the mixing progressed from clean up to final stages, the yeast became more evenly distributed throughout the dough sample. However, the uniformity in yeast distribution was lost in the over mixing stage possibly due to the breakdown of gluten structure within the dough sample.

  3. Property Assessment of Sponge Cake Added with Egg Replacer

    OpenAIRE

    Yaqiang He; Linlin Wang; Qian Lu

    2015-01-01

    Chicken egg which is always used in sponge cake production is likely to deteriorate during storage or transportation. This weakness prevents the wide use of chicken egg in sponge cake making. In order to solve this problem, egg replacer has been developed. In this study, effect of egg replacer on the property of sponge cake was analyzed. The result indicated egg replacer could improve the yield rate and specific volume of sponge cake. However, high content of egg replacer would negatively imp...

  4. Carbon conversion and metabolic rate in two marine sponges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, M.; Van Rijswijk, P.; Martens, D.; Egorova-Zachernyuk, T.A.; Middelburg, J.J.; Wijffels, R.H.

    2011-01-01

    The carbon metabolism of two marine sponges, Haliclona oculata and Dysidea avara, has been studied using a 13C isotope pulse-chase approach. The sponges were fed 13C-labeled diatoms (Skeletonema costatum) for 8 h and they took up between 75 and 85%. At different times, sponges were sampled for total

  5. 16 CFR 501.6 - Cellulose sponges, irregular dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cellulose sponges, irregular dimensions. 501... REQUIREMENTS AND PROHIBITIONS UNDER PART 500 § 501.6 Cellulose sponges, irregular dimensions. Variety packages of cellulose sponges of irregular dimensions, are exempted from the requirements of § 500.25 of this...

  6. Think like a sponge: The genetic signal of sensory cells in sponges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mah, Jasmine L; Leys, Sally P

    2017-11-01

    A complex genetic repertoire underlies the apparently simple body plan of sponges. Among the genes present in poriferans are those fundamental to the sensory and nervous systems of other animals. Sponges are dynamic and sensitive animals and it is intuitive to link these genes to behaviour. The proposal that ctenophores are the earliest diverging metazoan has led to the question of whether sponges possess a 'pre-nervous' system or have undergone nervous system loss. Both lines of thought generally assume that the last common ancestor of sponges and eumetazoans possessed the genetic modules that underlie sensory abilities. By corollary extant sponges may possess a sensory cell homologous to one present in the last common ancestor, a hypothesis that has been studied by gene expression. We have performed a meta-analysis of all gene expression studies published to date to explore whether gene expression is indicative of a feature's sensory function. In sponges we find that eumetazoan sensory-neural markers are not particularly expressed in structures with known sensory functions. Instead it is common for these genes to be expressed in cells with no known or uncharacterized sensory function. Indeed, many sensory-neural markers so far studied are expressed during development, perhaps because many are transcription factors. This suggests that the genetic signal of a sponge sensory cell is dissimilar enough to be unrecognizable when compared to a bilaterian sensory or neural cell. It is possible that sensory-neural markers have as yet unknown functions in sponge cells, such as assembling an immunological synapse in the larval globular cell. Furthermore, the expression of sensory-neural markers in non-sensory cells, such as adult and larval epithelial cells, suggest that these cells may have uncharacterized sensory functions. While this does not rule out the co-option of ancestral sensory modules in later evolving groups, a distinct genetic foundation may underlie the

  7. Effect of sodium chloride and sodium bicarbonate on the physicochemical properties of soft wheat flour doughs and gluten polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gengjun; Ehmke, Laura; Miller, Rebecca; Faa, Pierre; Smith, Gordon; Li, Yonghui

    2018-06-07

    Soft wheat flour doughs were prepared with different levels of salt (NaCl) and/or baking soda (NaHCO3). Oscillation rheology, elongational viscosity, and extensibility of doughs were tested to evaluate the effect of salt and/or baking soda on the physical properties of doughs. Furthermore, a series of physical-biochemical analytical techniques were used to investigate gluten polymerization in doughs, including Zeta potential analyzer, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), spectrophotometer, and reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). Addition of high levels of NaHCO3 (1.0 % fwb), either by itself or in combination with NaCl, increased dough strength, elongational viscosity, and viscoelasticity. RP-HPLC results demonstrated macromolecular aggregation of gluten proteins in the presence of NaCl and/or NaHCO3. Addition of NaHCO3 or NaCl also decreased both free sulfhydryl content and random coil structure of gluten isolated from the doughs. Overall, NaCl and/or NaHCO3 induced the changes of molecular conformation of gluten, which impacted the physicochemical qualities of soft wheat flour dough. Our study provides a better understanding of salt and baking soda functionality in the formation of soft flour dough, which will support the searching of feasible sodium reduction strategies in soft flour bakery products.

  8. Puff pastry with low saturated fat contents: The role of fat and dough physical interactions in the development of a layered structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renzetti, S.; Harder, R. de; Jurgens, A.

    2015-01-01

    In puff pastry, fat and dough rheological behavior during sheeting control pastry dough development by formation of the layered structure which is essential for product quality. The aim of this work was to unravel the influence of fat and dough physical interactions during sheeting, as affected by

  9. Effects of Grape Peels Addition on Mixing, Pasting and Fermentation Characteristics of Dough from 480 Wheat Flour Type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia MIRONEASA

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, white grape peels were incorporated in wheat flour at levels of 3, 5, 7 and 9% (w/w, with different particle sizes (large, L > 500 mm, medium, 200 mm > M < 500 mm and small fractions, S < 200 mm. The effects of the addition of grape peels flour (GPF to wheat flour on the viscoelastic properties of dough and both mixing and proofing behaviour is presented. By GPF addition an increase of water absorption and a decrease of dough stability were recorded, whereas dough development time is remarkable influenced by the particle sizes. Alpha-amylase activity and gelatinization temperature increases by the increased of GPF addition level. The presence of GPF at different levels and particle sizes in dough affected fermentation behaviour of dough with GPF. The whole study shown that grape peels can be used as ingredients in breadmaking in order to improve bread quality.

  10. Diversity and abundance of photosynthetic sponges in temperate Western Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brümmer Franz

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Photosynthetic sponges are important components of reef ecosystems around the world, but are poorly understood. It is often assumed that temperate regions have low diversity and abundance of photosynthetic sponges, but to date no studies have investigated this question. The aim of this study was to compare the percentages of photosynthetic sponges in temperate Western Australia (WA with previously published data on tropical regions, and to determine the abundance and diversity of these associations in a range of temperate environments. Results We sampled sponges on 5 m belt transects to determine the percentage of photosynthetic sponges and identified at least one representative of each group of symbionts using 16S rDNA sequencing together with microscopy techniques. Our results demonstrate that photosynthetic sponges are abundant in temperate WA, with an average of 63% of sponge individuals hosting high levels of photosynthetic symbionts and 11% with low to medium levels. These percentages of photosynthetic sponges are comparable to those found on tropical reefs and may have important implications for ecosystem function on temperate reefs in other areas of the world. A diverse range of symbionts sometimes occurred within a small geographic area, including the three "big" cyanobacterial clades, Oscillatoria spongeliae, "Candidatus Synechococcus spongiarum" and Synechocystis species, and it appears that these clades all occur in a wide range of sponges. Additionally, spongin-permeating red algae occurred in at least 7 sponge species. This study provides the first investigation of the molecular phylogeny of rhodophyte symbionts in sponges. Conclusion Photosynthetic sponges are abundant and diverse in temperate WA, with comparable percentages of photosynthetic to non-photosynthetic sponges to tropical zones. It appears that there are three common generalist clades of cyanobacterial symbionts of sponges which occur in a wide

  11. Study of process frozen dough of steamed bread added black rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Shuang; Wang Chonglin

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present work is to extent the storage period of wheat steamed bread added black rice. Based on index of sensory evaluation steamed bread. Effects of the use of film, Effects of electron beam irradiation on processing characteristics of wheat flour, yeast content, fermentation time before frozen, second fermentation time before steaming, combination of differerent additives on bread properties of frozen dough were investigate. The result showed that: the best frozen dough recipe were film processing, l% yeast, 1 h fermentation time before frozen , 45 min second fermentation time before steaming, 0.075% CMC, O.21 % Vc, 0.35% GMS. (authors)

  12. Monitoring of wheat lactic acid bacteria from the field until the first step of dough fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonzo, Antonio; Miceli, Claudia; Nasca, Anna; Franciosi, Elena; Ventimiglia, Giusi; Di Gerlando, Rosalia; Tuohy, Kieran; Francesca, Nicola; Moschetti, Giancarlo; Settanni, Luca

    2017-04-01

    The present work was carried out to retrieve the origin of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in sourdough. To this purpose, wheat LAB were monitored from ear harvest until the first step of fermentation for sourdough development. The influence of the geographical area and variety on LAB species/strain composition was also determined. The ears of four Triticum durum varieties (Duilio, Iride, Saragolla and Simeto) were collected from several fields located within the Palermo province (Sicily, Italy) and microbiologically investigated. In order to trace the transfer of LAB during the consecutive steps of manipulation, ears were transformed aseptically and, after threshing, milling and fermentation, samples of kernels, semolinas and doughs, respectively, were analysed. LAB were not found to dominate the microbial communities of the raw materials. In general, kernels harboured lower levels of microorganisms than ears and ears than semolinas. Several samples showing no development of LAB colonies acidified the enrichment broth suggesting the presence of LAB below the detection limit. After fermentation, LAB loads increased consistently for all doughs, reaching levels of 7.0-7.5 Log CFU/g on M17. The values of pH (5.0) and TTA (5.6 mL NaOH/10 g of dough) indicated the occurrence of the acidification process for several doughs. LAB were phenotypically and genotypically differentiated by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-PCR into eight groups including 51 strains belonging to the species Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus coryniformis, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactococcus lactis, Lactococcus garvieae, Enterococcus casseliflavus, Enterococcus faecium, Leuconostoc citreum, and Pediococcus pentosaceus. Lactobacilli constituted a minority the LAB community, while lactococci represented more than 50% of strains. Lower LAB complexity was found on kernels, while a richer biodiversity was observed in semolinas and fermented doughs. For broader microbiota characterisation in

  13. Wool fibril sponges with perspective biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patrucco, A.; Cristofaro, F.; Simionati, M.; Zoccola, M.; Bruni, G.; Fassina, L.; Visai, L.; Magenes, G.

    2016-01-01

    Sheep's wool was used as a natural source to prepare keratin microfibril sponges for scaffolding, by disruption of the histological structure of the fibres through mild alkali treatment, followed by ultrasonication, casting and salt-leaching. The wool sponges showed highly interconnected porosity (93%) and contain intrinsic sites of cellular recognition that mimic the extracellular matrix (ECM). They displayed good thermal and water stability due to the conversion of disulphide cystine bonds into shorter monosulphide lanthionine intermolecular bonds, but significantly swelled in water, because of the high hydrophilicity and porosity, with a volume increasing up to 38%. Nevertheless, sponges were stable in water without structural changes, with a neutral pH in aqueous media, and showed excellent resilience to repeated compression stresses. According to in vitro biocompatibility assays, wool fibril sponges showed a good cell adhesion and proliferation as proved by MTT, FDA assays and SEM observations. The unique structure of the cortical cell network made by wool keratin proteins with controlled-size macro-porosity suitable for cell guesting, and nutrient feeding, provides an excellent scaffold for future tissue engineering applications. - Highlights: • Scaffolds were prepared from wool exploiting the fibres' histology structure. • The scaffold showed high interconnected micro- and macro-porosity. • The microscopic structure is very similar to the extracellular bone matrix. • Scaffolds reversibly swell in water with high resilience to repeated compression. • Composites were cytocompatible and supported the growth of SAOS-2 cell line.

  14. Electron beam melting of sponge titanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanayama, Hiroshi; Kusamichi, Tatsuhiko; Muraoka, Tetsuhiro; Onouye, Toshio; Nishimura, Takashi

    1991-01-01

    Fundamental investigations were done on electron beam (EB) melting of sponge titanium by using 80 kW EB melting furnace. Results obtained are as follows: (1) To increase the melting yield of titanium in EB melting of sponge titanium, it is important to recover splashed metal by installation of water-cooled copper wall around the hearth and to decrease evaporation loss of titanium by keeping the surface temperature of molten metal just above the melting temperature of titanium without local heating. (2) Specific power consumption of drip melting of pressed sponge titanium bar and hearth melting of sponge titanium are approximately 0.9 kWh/kg-Ti and 0.5-0.7 kWh/kg-Ti, respectively. (3) Ratios of the heat conducted to water-cooled mould in the drip melting and to water-cooled hearth in the hearth melting to the electron beam input power are 50-65% and 60-65%, respectively. (4) Surface defects of EB-melted ingots include rap which occurs when the EB output is excessively great, and transverse cracks when the EB output is excessively small. To prevent surface defects, the up-down withdrawal method is effective. (author)

  15. EFISIENSI PENGGUNAAN TELUR DALAM PEMBUATAN SPONGE CAKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Ayu Putu Hemy Ekayani

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk membuat kue berpori (spong cake dengan kualitas baik  dengan menggunakan jumlah telur minimal yang dibantu dengan penggunaan baking powder secara optimal untuk menurunkan biaya produksi yang disebabkan oleh mahalnya harga telur. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian laboratorium (eksperimen. Analisis data dilakukan secara deskriptif. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kualitas sponge cake terbaik dihasilkan dari dua variasi rancangan variasi kadar baking powder dan telur yakni resep pertama dengan formulasi tepung terigu 100 gram, baking powder 6 gram, telur 100 gram, lemak 75 gram, dan tanpa penambahaan air; dan resep ke dua dengan formulasi tepung terigu 100 gram, baking powder 2 gram, telur 80 gram, lemak 75 gram, dan air 16 gram. Jumlah telur yang digunakaan dalam kedua resep tersebut cukup jauh berkurang dari resep umum yang menggunakan 180 gram telur untuk 100 gram tepung terigu. Temuan penelitian ini akan berimplikasi pada sponge cake dengan harga yang lebih murah, tetapi dengan kualitas yang tetap relatif baik dapat dihadirkan ke pasar.   Kata-kata kunci: spong cake,  kualitas, baking powder, biaya produksi

  16. Wool fibril sponges with perspective biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patrucco, A., E-mail: a.patrucco@bi.ismac.cnr.it [CNR-ISMAC, Italian National Research Council, Institute for Macromolecular Studies, Corso G. Pella 16, 13900, Biella (Italy); Cristofaro, F., E-mail: francesco.cristofaro01@universitadipavia.it [Department of Molecular Medicine, INSTM UdR of Pavia, University of Pavia, Viale Taramelli 3/B, 27100, Pavia (Italy); Centre for Health Technologies (CHT), University of Pavia, Via Ferrata 1, 27100, Pavia (Italy); Simionati, M., E-mail: m.simionati@bi.ismac.cnr.it [CNR-ISMAC, Italian National Research Council, Institute for Macromolecular Studies, Corso G. Pella 16, 13900, Biella (Italy); Zoccola, M., E-mail: m.zoccola@bi.ismac.cnr.it [CNR-ISMAC, Italian National Research Council, Institute for Macromolecular Studies, Corso G. Pella 16, 13900, Biella (Italy); Bruni, G., E-mail: giovanna.bruni@unipv.it [Department of Chemistry, — Physical-Chemistry Section, University of Pavia, Viale Taramelli 16, 27100, Pavia (Italy); Fassina, L., E-mail: lorenzo.fassina@unipv.it [Centre for Health Technologies (CHT), University of Pavia, Via Ferrata 1, 27100, Pavia (Italy); Department of Electrical, Computer and Biomedical Engineering, University of Pavia, Via Ferrata 1, 27100, Pavia (Italy); Visai, L., E-mail: livia.visai@unipv.it [Department of Molecular Medicine, INSTM UdR of Pavia, University of Pavia, Viale Taramelli 3/B, 27100, Pavia (Italy); Centre for Health Technologies (CHT), University of Pavia, Via Ferrata 1, 27100, Pavia (Italy); Department of Occupational Medicine, Toxicology and Environmental Risks, S. Maugeri Foundation, IRCCS, Via S. Boezio, 28, 27100, Pavia (Italy); Magenes, G., E-mail: giovanni.magenes@unipv.it [Centre for Health Technologies (CHT), University of Pavia, Via Ferrata 1, 27100, Pavia (Italy); Department of Electrical, Computer and Biomedical Engineering, University of Pavia, Via Ferrata 1, 27100, Pavia (Italy); and others

    2016-04-01

    Sheep's wool was used as a natural source to prepare keratin microfibril sponges for scaffolding, by disruption of the histological structure of the fibres through mild alkali treatment, followed by ultrasonication, casting and salt-leaching. The wool sponges showed highly interconnected porosity (93%) and contain intrinsic sites of cellular recognition that mimic the extracellular matrix (ECM). They displayed good thermal and water stability due to the conversion of disulphide cystine bonds into shorter monosulphide lanthionine intermolecular bonds, but significantly swelled in water, because of the high hydrophilicity and porosity, with a volume increasing up to 38%. Nevertheless, sponges were stable in water without structural changes, with a neutral pH in aqueous media, and showed excellent resilience to repeated compression stresses. According to in vitro biocompatibility assays, wool fibril sponges showed a good cell adhesion and proliferation as proved by MTT, FDA assays and SEM observations. The unique structure of the cortical cell network made by wool keratin proteins with controlled-size macro-porosity suitable for cell guesting, and nutrient feeding, provides an excellent scaffold for future tissue engineering applications. - Highlights: • Scaffolds were prepared from wool exploiting the fibres' histology structure. • The scaffold showed high interconnected micro- and macro-porosity. • The microscopic structure is very similar to the extracellular bone matrix. • Scaffolds reversibly swell in water with high resilience to repeated compression. • Composites were cytocompatible and supported the growth of SAOS-2 cell line.

  17. North Jamaican Deep Fore-Reef Sponges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lehnert, Helmut; Soest, van R.W.M.

    1996-01-01

    An unexpectedly high amount of new species, revealed within only one hour of summarized bottom time, leads to the conclusion that the sponge fauna of the steep slopes of the deep fore-reef is still largely unknown. Four mixed gas dives at depths between 70 and 90 m, performed in May and June, 1993,

  18. Lipid contents of the sponge Haliclona sp.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Parameswaran, P.S.; Das, B.; Kamat, S.Y.

    Several fatty acids, sterols, batyl alcohol and its analogs and an N-acylated sphingosine (ceramide) have been isolated from the lipid fraction of the extract of the sponge Haliclona sp. The major sterol is found to be cholesterol (54%), followed...

  19. Antiviral lead compounds from marine sponges

    KAUST Repository

    Sagar, Sunil

    2010-10-11

    Marine sponges are currently one of the richest sources of pharmacologically active compounds found in the marine environment. These bioactive molecules are often secondary metabolites, whose main function is to enable and/or modulate cellular communication and defense. They are usually produced by functional enzyme clusters in sponges and/or their associated symbiotic microorganisms. Natural product lead compounds from sponges have often been found to be promising pharmaceutical agents. Several of them have successfully been approved as antiviral agents for clinical use or have been advanced to the late stages of clinical trials. Most of these drugs are used for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and herpes simplex virus (HSV). The most important antiviral lead of marine origin reported thus far is nucleoside Ara-A (vidarabine) isolated from sponge Tethya crypta. It inhibits viral DNA polymerase and DNA synthesis of herpes, vaccinica and varicella zoster viruses. However due to the discovery of new types of viruses and emergence of drug resistant strains, it is necessary to develop new antiviral lead compounds continuously. Several sponge derived antiviral lead compounds which are hopedto be developed as future drugs are discussed in this review. Supply problems are usually the major bottleneck to the development of these compounds as drugs during clinical trials. However advances in the field of metagenomics and high throughput microbial cultivation has raised the possibility that these techniques could lead to the cost-effective large scale production of such compounds. Perspectives on biotechnological methods with respect to marine drug development are also discussed. 2010 by the authors; licensee MDPI.

  20. Qualitative effect of added gluten on dough properties and quality of Chinese steamed bread

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glutens isolated from fifteen soft red winter (SRW) wheat flours were added into a SRW wheat flour to obtain protein levels of 9.6% and 11.3% for determination of the qualitative effect of gluten protein on the dough properties and quality of northern-style Chinese steamed bread (CSB). Sodium dodecy...

  1. Stress Tolerance in Doughs of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Trehalase Mutants Derived from Commercial Baker’s Yeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shima, Jun; Hino, Akihiro; Yamada-Iyo, Chie; Suzuki, Yasuo; Nakajima, Ryouichi; Watanabe, Hajime; Mori, Katsumi; Takano, Hiroyuki

    1999-01-01

    Accumulation of trehalose is widely believed to be a critical determinant in improving the stress tolerance of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which is commonly used in commercial bread dough. To retain the accumulation of trehalose in yeast cells, we constructed, for the first time, diploid homozygous neutral trehalase mutants (Δnth1), acid trehalase mutants (Δath1), and double mutants (Δnth1 ath1) by using commercial baker’s yeast strains as the parent strains and the gene disruption method. During fermentation in a liquid fermentation medium, degradation of intracellular trehalose was inhibited with all of the trehalase mutants. The gassing power of frozen doughs made with these mutants was greater than the gassing power of doughs made with the parent strains. The Δnth1 and Δath1 strains also exhibited higher levels of tolerance of dry conditions than the parent strains exhibited; however, the Δnth1 ath1 strain exhibited lower tolerance of dry conditions than the parent strain exhibited. The improved freeze tolerance exhibited by all of the trehalase mutants may make these strains useful in frozen dough. PMID:10388673

  2. Effects of Wheat Gluten Hydrolysate and Its Ultrafiltration Fractions on Dough Properties and Bread Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mouming Zhao

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Two fractions (50-K and permeate from a proteolytic hydrolysate (degree of hydrolysis, DH=3.8 % of wheat gluten were separated using ultrafiltration (UF membrane with molecular mass cut-off of 50 kDa. The effects of the wheat gluten hydrolysate (WGH and its UF fractions on the mixing behaviour and viscoelastic properties of wheat dough were presented. The WGH and its UF fractions modified the mixing properties of dough. The addition of these fractions improved the viscoelastic characteristics of wheat dough. A significant (p<0.05 effect of 50-K fraction on these characteristics of wheat dough was observed. After adding these fractions, the bread was considered acceptable by the sensory panel. Also, 50-K fraction resulted in significant (p<0.05 increase in the crumb firmness, while the bread made with wheat flour with WGH and permeate (P fraction showed softer crumbs compared to that of wheat flour. Moreover, these fractions had anti-staling properties for bread during storage. Hence, the wheat gluten hydrolysate and its UF fractions are the products with promising potential in the baking products.

  3. Estimation of semolina dough rheological parameters by inversion of a finite elements model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Fabbri

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The description of the rheological properties of food material plays an important role in food engineering. Particularly for the optimisation of pasta manufacturing process (extrusion is needful to know the rheological properties of semolina dough. Unfortunately characterisation of non-Newtonian fluids, such as food doughs, requires a notable time effort, especially in terms of number of tests to be carried out. The present work proposes an alternative method, based on the combination of laboratory measurement, made with a simplified tool, with the inversion of a finite elements numerical model. To determine the rheological parameters, an objective function, defined as the distance between simulation and experimental data, was considered and the well-known Levenberg-Marqard optimisation algorithm was used. In order to verify the feasibility of the method, the rheological characterisation of the dough was carried also by a traditional procedure. Results shown that the difference between measurements of rheological parameters of the semolina dough made with traditional procedure and inverse methods are very small (maximum percentage error equal to 3.6%. This agreement supports the coherence of the inverse method that, in general, may be used to characterise many non-Newtonian materials.

  4. Wheat dough rheology at low water contents and the influence of xylanases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hardt, N.A.; Boom, R.M.; Goot, van der A.J.

    2014-01-01

    The effect of low water contents and xylanases on wheat dough rheology is reported. Farinograph, dynamic oscillation, and creep-recovery measurements were performed using water concentrations from 34 to 44.8% (total basis). A water reduction from 43.5–44.8% to 34% increased resistance upon mixing as

  5. Understanding the Effect of Sugar and Sugar Replacement in Short Dough Biscuits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laguna, L.; Vallons, K.J.R.; Jurgens, A.; Sanz, T.

    2013-01-01

    Sucrose is the main sugar used in short dough biscuit formula, and it plays an important role in the biscuit manufacturing as well as in the biscuits final quality. However, for health reasons, high levels of sucrose are undesirable, making sucrose replacement an important issue to study. The

  6. Interaction of water extractable pentosans with gluten protein : effect on dough properties and gluten quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, M.; Hamer, R.J.; Vliet, van T.; Oudgenoeg, G.

    2002-01-01

    The effects of modified water extractable pentosans (WEP) on gluten yield, dough properties, gluten quality and composition were studied. The results show that WEP interfere with gluten formation in both a direct and an indirect way. WEP interfere indirectly by competing for water and thus changing

  7. The Effects of Ovine Whey Powders on Durum Wheat-Based Doughs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Secchi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Two types of ovine whey powder, with different protein content, were added at increasing substitution rates to two types of semolina, one with strong and tenacious gluten and the other with weak and sticky gluten. For each dough the optimum mixing time and hydration level were calculated using the consistograph. The whey powder negatively affected the leavening volume of all doughs, at all percentages except the lowest one (5%, mainly because of its effects on the elastic component of gluten as measured with a stress relaxation test. Differences of the secondary structure of gluten proteins among samples were investigated by analyzing the amide I band in the Fourier transform infrared spectra of the dough. Weak and strong semolina showed a different relative percentage of α-helix, random coil, and β-sheet structures. The longer mixing times for dough formation when using semolina with strong gluten led to an increase in α-helices and random coils, which caused a worse leavening performance than the weak-gluten semolina.

  8. Characterizing the sponge grounds of Grays Canyon, Washington, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Abby N.; Clarke, M. Elizabeth; Fruh, Erica; Chaytor, Jason; Reiswig, Henry M.; Whitmire, Curt E.

    2018-01-01

    Deep-sea sponge grounds are relatively understudied ecosystems that may provide key habitats for a large number of fish and invertebrates including commercial species. Glass sponge grounds have been discovered from the tropics to polar regions but there are only a few places with high densities of dictyonine sponges. Dictyonine glass sponges have a fused skeleton, which stays intact when they die and in some areas the accumulation of successive generations of sponges leads to the formation of reefs. In 2010 and 2016, we surveyed an area near Grays Canyon in Washington, USA, where dense aggregations of glass sponges and potential sponge reefs were discovered in 2007. Our primary aims were to make a preliminary assessment of whether the glass sponges form reefs at this location, characterize the sponge assemblage present at this site and examine associations between the sponges and commercially important species. Multibeam mapping and sub-bottom profiling indicate that the glass sponges at this site do not form reefs and are mostly attached to hard substrates. Analysis of photographs collected by an autonomous underwater vehicle and samples collected by a remotely operated vehicle guided by telepresence revealed the presence of two abundant dictyonine sponge species at this site, Heterochone calyx and Aphrocallistes vastus (mean densities = 1.43 ± 0.057 per 10 m2, max = 24 per 10 m2). We also observed a large number of non-reef-building glass sponges and various demosponges including a potentially new species in the genus Acarnus. A diverse fish assemblage was recorded at this site including eight species of rockfish. Rockfish abundance was positively related to sponge abundance. Spot prawns (Pandalus platyceros) were also abundant and were strongly associated with sponges. Despite not finding sponge reefs, this is an ecologically significant area. Further research is necessary to determine the environmental factors that give rise to the abundance of large

  9. Effect of soy addition on microwavable pocket-type flat doughs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serventi, Luca; Sachleben, Joseph; Vodovotz, Yael

    2011-01-01

    Microwavable frozen baked goods are widely used by the food industry. However, the altered heat and mass transfer patterns associated with microwave radiation result in tough and rubbery baked products due to reduced plasticization of the polymers. Ingredients with high water-holding capacity and high content of polar lipids have been shown to enhance gluten plasticization and to improve water retention. Therefore, this study explored the physicochemical changes imparted by microwave baking of pocket-type flat doughs with and without soy added at 10%, 20%, and 26% and compared these to their conventionally baked counterparts. Microwave baking resulted in a soft, rubbery, and tough wheat product with increased "freezable" water. Soy was added to the formulation as a means to improve polymer plasticization. Conventional baking of soy doughs resulted in rubbery and tough products due to changes in water state and mobility (freezable water approximately 15 compared with 7.09 of the control). However, soy reduced the cohesiveness of the microwave baked products reaching the lowest value at 20% soy addition (cohesiveness 0.33 ± 1, comparable to that of the conventionally baked control). These data suggest that reduction of water mobility induced by soy proteins and polar lipids (confirmed by thermogravimetric analysis [TGA] and ¹H nuclear magnetic resonance [¹H NMR]) possibly plasticized the starch-gluten network of microwave baked soy doughs. Thus, soy was shown to improve the texture of microwave baked pocket-type flat doughs although further formula optimization is warranted. Microwavable pocket-type flat doughs are used frequently by the food industry to enrobe meat, vegetable, and sweet items for convenient meal delivery. Microwave heating of such doughs induces the development of crustless products compared to conventionally baked products, resulting in a tough and rubbery texture. Partial substitution of wheat flour with soy, in the form of soy flour and soy

  10. Chickpea (Cicer arietinum steep liquor as a leavening agent: Effect on dough rheology and sensory properties of bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saad Ahmed M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dough fermentation is one of the oldest process in food technologies. It has been recently intensively studied for its impact on the sensory, structural, nutritional and shelf life properties of leavened baked products. The goals of this work were to investigate chickpea steep liquor (CSL as a dough-leavening agent and to study the effect of CSL on the dough rheology and sensory properties of leavened bread. CSL was prepared by submerging chickpea seeds in boiled distilled water (1:2, w/v for 24 h at 37оC, and then obtained liquor was filtered and freeze-dried to obtain CSL. The addition of CSL to wheat flour (WF brought changes in the dough mixing behavior as measured by the farinograph. An increase in the farinograph water absorption of WF dough was observed when 4.5% CSL and 1.5% yeast was added, while arrival time was not affected. Addition of CSL to the dough at a content of 4.5, 9.0 and 13.5 g CSL/300 g WF caused an increase in dough stability. The CSL addition also increased mechanical tolerance index, dough weakening and mixing time. Dough development time for all blends was higher than the control (1.2-1.5 min, while between the CSL samples no significant difference was observed. The loaf weight slightly increased from 146.2 g for control to 152.2 g for CSL fermented bread, whereas the loaf volume and specific volume of CSL-fermented bread were lower than the control. The combination of yeast and CSL increased the acceptability of bread with the increasing level of both leavening agents’. The results show that CSL could be used as an alternative to yeast for syngas fermentation. On the other hand, CLS is rich in nutrients and lower in cost compared to yeast.

  11. Habitat preference of Zoantharia genera depends on host sponge morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Acosta

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Studies about sponge-zoanthid symbioses have been focused on understanding the specificity of the association, rather thantesting what are the characteristics that make the host suitable to be colonized. For the first time it is investigated whether the ZoanthariaParazoanthus and Epizoanthus preference is related to the host sponge morphology (shape and mechanical resistance. Materials andmethods. Sponges were categorized according to their shape and mechanical resistance. The presence/absence of zoanthids was recordedin 1,068 sponges at San Andres Island, and their habitat preference was evaluated using indices and confidence intervals. Results. 85Parazoanthus colonies (78% of the total associations and 24 Epizoanthus colonies (22% were associated to sponges (10.2% in total.Parazoanthus uses branched and compressible sponges although prefers encrusting and fragile sponges, while Epizoanthus showes theopposite pattern, it can inhabit encrusting and fragile sponges but prefers branched and compressible sponges. Conclusion. These resultsindicated that sponge morphology is an important trait in zoanthid habitat selection. On the other hand, the similarity in the habitat used byzoanthids suggests the possibility of inter-generic competition if common resources are limited in time and space, while the differentialhabitat preference allows the competitive coexistence of both genera.

  12. Epizoic zoanthids reduce pumping in two Caribbean vase sponges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, T. B.; Finelli, C. M.

    2015-03-01

    Sponges are common sessile benthic suspension feeders that play a critical role in carbon and nitrogen cycling within reef ecosystems via their filtration capabilities. Due to the contribution of sponges in benthic-pelagic coupling, it is critical to assess factors that may affect their role in the healthy function of coral reefs. Several factors can influence the rate at which an individual sponge pumps water, including body size, environmental conditions, mechanical blockage, and reduction of inhalant pores (ostia). Symbiotic zoanthid colonization is a common occurrence on Caribbean sponges, and the presence of zoanthids on the surface of a sponge may occlude or displace the inhalant ostia. We quantified pumping rates of the giant barrel sponge, Xestospongia muta ( N = 22 uncolonized, 37 colonized) and the common vase sponge, Niphates digitalis ( N = 21 uncolonized, 17 colonized), with and without zoanthid symbionts, Parazoanthus catenularis and Parazoanthus parasiticus, respectively. For X. muta, biovolume-normalized pumping rates of individuals colonized by zoanthids were approximately 75 % lower than those of uncolonized sponges. Moreover, colonization with zoanthids was related to a difference in morphology relative to uncolonized individuals: Colonized sponges exhibited an osculum area to biovolume ratio that was nearly 65 % less than uncolonized sponges. In contrast, the presence of zoanthids on N. digitalis resulted in only a marginal decrease in pumping rates and no detectable difference in morphology. The difference in zoanthid effects between X. muta and N. digitalis is likely due to the differences in wall thickness and architecture between the two species. The probable cause of reduced pumping in affected sponges is occupation of the sponge surface that leads to blockage or displacement of inhalant ostia. To partially test this hypothesis, zoanthid colonization on specimens of X. muta was simulated by wrapping sponges with plastic mesh of varying

  13. Features of the rheological properties of dough with sunflower and cedar flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Gaysina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Promising directions of development of assortment of flour confectionery products are currently creating new combinations, more extraordinary and interesting, the reduction in calories, increase the nutritional value, development of formulations of functional products. As enriching additives in the manufacture of pastry products can be used flour sunflower flour and cedar. Sunflower meal – one of the possible sources of increase of food value. The only raw material component of this product are sunflower seeds that have passed the purification from impurities and shell of the particles, with the subsequent removal of oil from them and grinding. In this torment, to the maximum extent maintained all the valuable biological active substances and vitamins. Sunflower flour is a complex product: it is good recommendation system of proteins, fats, carbohydrates, including fiber, vitamins, phospholipids and mineral substances. Cedar flour is characterized by high protein content (up to 48 % is well balanced in amino acids resultant composition contains b vitamins, food fibers, micro - and macroelements, necessary for life of the human body. Cedar flour has a good functional and technological properties In this paper we study the effect of cedar flour and sunflower meal on the rheological characteristics of dough. Effect of formulation components on the rheological properties of the test is evaluated in terms of water absorption of the flour, the duration of doughing, degree of its dilution and stability when mixing. It was found that the addition of 17% sunflower meal increases the viscosity of the dough and has a strengthening effect on the structure of the dough. Adding cedar flour in the amount of 20% caused the decrease in viscosity and getting more flexible dough.

  14. Dynamics of gas cell coalescence during baking expansion of leavened dough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miś, Antoni; Nawrocka, Agnieszka; Lamorski, Krzysztof; Dziki, Dariusz

    2018-01-01

    The investigation of the dynamics of gas cell coalescence, i.e. a phenomenon that deteriorates the homogeneity of the cellular structure of bread crumb, was carried out performing simultaneously measurements of the dough volume, pressure, and viscosity. It was demonstrated that, during the baking expansion of chemically leavened wheat flour dough, the maximum growth rate of the gas cell radius determined from the ratio of pressure exerted by the expanded dough to its viscosity was on average four-fold lower than that calculated from volume changes in the gas phase of the dough. Such a high discrepancy was interpreted as a result of the course of coalescence, and a formula for determination of its rate was developed. The coalescence rate in the initial baking expansion phase had negative values, indicating nucleation of newly formed gas cells, which increased the number of gas cells even by 8%. In the next baking expansion phase, the coalescence rate started to exhibit positive values, reflecting dominance of the coalescence phenomenon over nucleation. The maximum coalescence rates indicate that, during the period of the most intensive dough expansion, the number of gas cells decreased by 2-3% within one second. At the end of the formation of bread crumb, the number of the gas cells declined by 55-67% in comparison with the initial value. The correctness of the results was positively verified using X-ray micro-computed tomography. The developed method can be a useful tool for more profound exploration of the coalescence phenomenon at various stages of evolution of the cellular structure and its determinants, which may contribute to future development of more effective methods for improving the texture and sensory quality of bread crumb. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of inulin on dough and biscuit quality produced from different flours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria S. Blanco Canalis

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the methods of improving the nutritional profile of baked-goods is the incorporation of dietary fibre (DF to the formulation. However, DF retains more water than wheat flour, which affects dough rheological properties and thus the final product quality. Flour is the main ingredient in biscuits and contributes to the baked texture and shape of biscuits. There are large differences in quality among the flours from wheat cultivars and among non-wheat flours used for biscuit production. In previous works, different dietary fibres were tested and inulin was found to have a positive quality  effect on biscuits made from an all-purpose wheat flour without the need of introducing significant changes in dough properties. To know whether these results are extended to different types of flours that can be used for biscuit production, this paper aimed to analyse the effects of different levels of inulin incorporation on dough and biscuits quality made from three different wheat flours and one triticale flour. Chemical and physic-chemical characterization of the flour samples was performed and compared (moisture, ashes, gluten, solvent retention capacity (SRC and protein content. Inulin was incorporated to biscuits formulation in two levels: 6 and 12% (wheat replacement. Dough and biscuits quality was measured by spread rate during baking and biscuit factor, texture and surface colour. Inulin incorporation increased dough spreading and biscuit factor and decreased biscuit hardness. The enhancing effect of inulin was observed in all flour. The results confirmed the effect of inulin on biscuits obtained with all flour assayed, despite the differences in flour quality that was tested.

  16. Carbon Flux Through the Giant Barrel Sponge Xestospongia testudinaria in the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Wooster, Michael K.

    2017-01-01

    Sponges have important ecological functions on coral reefs because they are regionally abundant, competitively dominant, and process large volumes of seawater. The sponge loop hypothesis proposes that sponges consume dissolved organic carbon (DOC

  17. Ultraporous, Compressible, Wettable Polylactide/Polycaprolactone Sponges for Tissue Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mader, Michael; Jérôme, Valérie; Freitag, Ruth; Agarwal, Seema; Greiner, Andreas

    2018-05-14

    Ultraporous, degradable sponges made of either polylactide or of blends of polylactide/poly(ε-caprolactone) are prepared by freeze-drying of dispersions of short electrospun fibers and subsequent thermal annealing. The sponges feature ultrahigh porosity (99.6%), a hierarchical cellular structure, and high reversible compressibility with fast recovery from deformation in the dry as well as in the wet state. The sponge properties depend on the fiber dispersion concentration and the annealing temperature. Sponge characteristics like fiber density (2.5-20 mg/cm 3 ), size, shape, crystallinity, mechanical strength, wetability, and structural integrity are user adjustable. Cell culture experiments were successfully performed with Jurkat cells with Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy and MTT staining showing rapid cell proliferation. Live/Dead staining demonstrated high viability of the seeded cells. The sponge characteristics and modifications investigated and presented here reveal that these sponges are highly promising for tissue engineering applications.

  18. Bacteria From Marine Sponges: A Source of New Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibi, Fehmida; Faheem, Muhammad; Azhar, Esam I; Yasir, Muhammad; Alvi, Sana A; Kamal, Mohammad A; Ullah, Ikram; Naseer, Muhammad I

    2017-01-01

    Sponges are rich source of bioactive natural products synthesized by the symbiotic bacteria belonging to different phyla. Due to a competition for space and nutrients the marine bacteria associated with sponges could produce more antibiotic substances. To explore the proactive potential of marine microbes extensive research has been done. These bioactive metabolites have some unique properties that are pharmaceutically important. For this review, we have performed a non-systematic search of the available literature though various online search engines. This review provides an insight that how majority of active metabolites have been identified from marine invertebrates of which sponges predominate. Sponges harbor abundant and diverse microorganisms, which are the sources of a range of marine bioactive metabolites. From sponges and their associated microorganisms, approximately 5,300 different natural compounds are known. Current research on sponge-microbe interaction and their active metabolites has become a focal point for many researchers. Various active metabolites derived from sponges are now known to be produced by their symbiotic microflora. In this review, we attempt to report the latest studies regarding capability of bacteria from sponges as producers of bioactive metabolite. Moreover, these sponge associated bacteria are an important source of different enzymes of industrial significance. In present review, we will address some novel approaches for discovering marine metabolites from bacteria that have the greatest potential to be used in clinical treatments. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  19. Two Furanosesterterpenoids from the Sponge Luffariella variabilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peni Ahmadi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Two new sesterterpenoids, 1 and 2, were isolated from the sponge Luffariella variabilis. Their planar structures were characterized with spectroscopic analyses. The sole chiral center of compound 1 was elucidated as 12R by comparing observed and calculated optical rotation values. The configurations of compound 2 were determined by NMR and electronic circular dichroism (ECD studies. Furthermore, compound 2 showed cytotoxicity at IC50 1.0 µM against NBT-T2 cells.

  20. Iron sponge installation clicks at Retlaw plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1965-06-21

    Iron sponge desulfurization, often ignored by plant designers in favor of the monoethanolamine process, may offer economic advantages in sweetening of small gas volumes with low hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide content. The process removes hydrogen sulfide and mercaptans by passing sour gas through vessels loosely packed with wood shavings impregnated by a hydrated form of iron oxide, which reacts with the hydrogen sulfide to form ferric sulfide. The disadvantages are that carbon dioxide is not removed, hydrate formation is a danger in cold weather, and gas sales may be lost when towers are down for servicing. Periodic regeneration of beds takes about a day, and sponges must be replaced occasionally. Despite these shortcomings, the process may prove economical, since a typical plant costs $110,000 as compared to $270,000 for an amine unit. The expense of operating the plant is $23,000 compared with $28,000 for the amine unit. Thus, economics clearly favor the iron sponge process.

  1. Effects of yeast stress and pH on 3-monochloropropanediol (3-MCPD)-producing reactions in model dough systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlet, C G; Sadd, P A

    2005-07-01

    A major precursor of 3-monochloropropanediol (3-MCPD) in leavened cereal products is glycerol, which is formed as a natural by-product of yeast fermentation. However, yeast metabolism is affected by stresses such as low osmotic pressure from, for example, the incorporation of sugar or salt in the dough recipe. Tests with model doughs have shown that glycerol production was proportional to yeast mass and limited by available sugars, but that high levels of yeast inhibited 3-MCPD formation. The yeast fraction responsible for the inhibition of 3-MCPD in model dough was shown to be the soluble cytosol proteins, and the inhibition mechanism could be explained by the known reactions of 3-MCPD and/or its precursors with ammonia/amino acids (from yeast proteins). Added glucose did not increase the production of glycerol by yeast but it did promote the generation of 3-MCPD in cooked doughs. The latter effect was attributed to the removal of 3-MCPD inhibitors such as ammonia and amino acids by their reactions with added glucose (e.g. Maillard). The thermal generation of organic acids from added glucose also reduced the pH of cooked doughs, so the effect of pH and short-chain organic acids on 3-MCPD generation in dough was measured. There was a good correlation between initial dough pH and the level of 3-MCPD generated. The effect was weaker than that predicted by simple kinetic modelling, suggesting that the involvement of H+ and/or the organic acid was catalytic. The results showed that modifications to dough recipes involving the addition of reducing sugars and/or organic acids can have a significant impact on 3-MPCD generation in bakery products.

  2. Optimization of biodegradable sponges as controlled release drug matrices. I. Effect of moisture level on chitosan sponge mechanical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foda, Nagwa H; El-laithy, Hanan M; Tadros, Mina I

    2004-04-01

    Cross-linked chitosan sponges as controlled release drug carrier systems were developed. Tramadol hydrochloride, a centrally acting analgesic, was used as a model drug. The sponges were prepared by freeze-drying 1.25% and 2.5% (w/w) high and low M.wt. chitosan solutions, respectively, using glutaraldehyde as a cross-linking agent. The hardness of the prepared sponges was a function of glutaraldehyde concentration and volume where the optimum concentration that offered accepted sponge consistency was 5%. Below or above 5%, very soft or very hard and brittle sponges were obtained, respectively. The determined drug content in the prepared sponges was uniform and did not deviate markedly from the calculated amount. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to characterize the internal structures of the sponges. The SEM photos revealed that cross-linked high M.wt. chitosan sponges have larger size surface pores that form connections (channels) with the interior of the sponge than cross-linked low M.wt. ones. Moreover, crystals of the incorporated Tramadol hydrochloride were detected on the lamellae and within pores in both chitosan sponges. Differences in pore size and dissolution medium uptake capacity were crucial factors for the more delayed drug release from cross-linked low M.wt. chitosan sponges over high M.wt. ones at pH 7.4. Kinetic analysis of the release data using linear regression followed the Higuchi diffusion model over 12 hours. Setting storage conditions at room temperature under 80-92% relative humidity resulted in soft, elastic, and compressible sponges.

  3. The role of burrowing sponges in bioerosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rützler, Klaus

    1975-09-01

    Among the large number of limestone-eroding organisms, sponges, mainly of the family Clinonidae are of special interest because of their efficient means of substratum penetration by cellular etching and because they release characteristically shaped calcium carbonate chips which can be detected in the mud-size fraction of many sediments. Identifiable trace fossils and sediments are of great ecological and paleoecological significance.As new data on the excavating mechanism have become available, the questions of burrowing rates and sediment production have gained importance. Extrapolation from shortterm experiments (under 6 months) on substrate invasion are inconclusive because of high initial penetration rates resulting from mechanical stimulation and lack of competition. New experiments show that the rate curve flattens after 6 months and that optimum longterm erosion of CaCO 3 does not exceed 700 mg m -2 year -1 (Cliona lampa and C. aprica). Substrate limitations and competition will further reduce this rate.By monitoring the production of CaCO 3 chips by Cliona lampa, it was possible to link activity patterns to certain environmental factors. Mechanical stimuli, high light intensity, strong currents and, possibly, low temperature seem to accelerate the burrowing process. Sponge-generated chips can make up over 40% of coral mud when deposited in the current shadow of the reef framework.Using transect counts and sponge area-biomass conversion factors, the mean abundance of burrowing sponges on the Bermuda platform could be calculated. On suitable hard bottom substrates it averages 16 g dry weight per m 2 . From this value the burrowing potential of sponges can be estimated as 256 g CaCO 3 per m 2 substrate per year. Since 97-98% of the eroded limestone remains in particulate form, the contribution of fine sediments can amount to 250 g m -2 year -1 .Attention is called to the fact that erosion rates by burrowers can not directly be compared with those of borers or

  4. Two distinct microbial communities revealed in the sponge Cinachyrella

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuvelier, Marie L.; Blake, Emily; Mulheron, Rebecca; McCarthy, Peter J.; Blackwelder, Patricia; Thurber, Rebecca L. Vega; Lopez, Jose V.

    2014-01-01

    Marine sponges are vital components of benthic and coral reef ecosystems, providing shelter and nutrition for many organisms. In addition, sponges act as an essential carbon and nutrient link between the pelagic and benthic environment by filtering large quantities of seawater. Many sponge species harbor a diverse microbial community (including Archaea, Bacteria and Eukaryotes), which can constitute up to 50% of the sponge biomass. Sponges of the genus Cinachyrella are common in Caribbean and Floridian reefs and their archaeal and bacterial microbiomes were explored here using 16S rRNA gene tag pyrosequencing. Cinachyrella specimens and seawater samples were collected from the same South Florida reef at two different times of year. In total, 639 OTUs (12 archaeal and 627 bacterial) belonging to 2 archaeal and 21 bacterial phyla were detected in the sponges. Based on their microbiomes, the six sponge samples formed two distinct groups, namely sponge group 1 (SG1) with lower diversity (Shannon-Weiner index: 3.73 ± 0.22) and SG2 with higher diversity (Shannon-Weiner index: 5.95 ± 0.25). Hosts' 28S rRNA gene sequences further confirmed that the sponge specimens were composed of two taxa closely related to Cinachyrella kuekenthalli. Both sponge groups were dominated by Proteobacteria, but Alphaproteobacteria were significantly more abundant in SG1. SG2 harbored many bacterial phyla (>1% of sequences) present in low abundance or below detection limits (<0.07%) in SG1 including: Acidobacteria, Chloroflexi, Gemmatimonadetes, Nitrospirae, PAUC34f, Poribacteria, and Verrucomicrobia. Furthermore, SG1 and SG2 only had 95 OTUs in common, representing 30.5 and 22.4% of SG1 and SG2's total OTUs, respectively. These results suggest that the sponge host may exert a pivotal influence on the nature and structure of the microbial community and may only be marginally affected by external environment parameters. PMID:25408689

  5. Two distinct microbial communities revealed in the sponge Cinachyrella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Laure Cuvelier

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Marine sponges are vital components of benthic and coral reef ecosystems, providing shelter and nutrition for many organisms. In addition, sponges act as an essential carbon and nutrient link between the pelagic and benthic environment by filtering large quantities of seawater. Many sponge species harbor a diverse microbial community (including Archaea, Bacteria and Eukaryotes, which can constitute up to 50% of the sponge biomass. Sponges of the genus Cinachyrella are common in Caribbean and Floridian reefs and their archaeal and bacterial microbiomes were explored here using 16S rDNA tag pyrosequencing. Cinachyrella specimens and seawater samples were collected from the same South Florida reef at two different times of year. In total, 639 OTUs (12 archaeal and 627 bacterial belonging to 2 archaeal and 21 bacterial phyla were detected in the sponges. Based on their microbiomes, the six sponge samples formed two distinct groups, namely sponge group 1 (SG1 with low diversity (Shannon-Weiner index: 3.73 ± 0.22 and SG2 with higher diversity (Shannon-Weiner index: 5.95 ± 0.25. Hosts’ 28S rDNA sequences further confirmed that the sponge specimens were composed of two taxa closely related to Cinachyrella kuekenthalli. Both sponge groups were dominated by Proteobacteria, but Alphaproteobacteria were significantly more abundant in SG1. SG2 harbored many bacterial phyla (>1% of sequences present in low abundance or below detection limits (<0.07% in SG1 including: Acidobacteria, Chloroflexi, Gemmatimonadetes, Nitrospirae, PAUC34f, Poribacteria and Verrucomicrobia. Furthermore, SG1 and SG2 only had 95 OTUs in common, representing 30.5% and 22.4% of SG1 and SG2’s total OTUs, respectively. These results suggest that the sponge host may exert a pivotal influence on the nature and structure of the microbial community and may only be marginally affected by external environment parameters.

  6. Rheological properties of biscuit dough from different cultivars, and relationship to baking characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, L.; Kaack, K.; Bergsøe, M.N.

    2004-01-01

    differences in structural properties with genetic control. Multivariate regression of flour physiochemical, dough theological, and biscuit baking characteristics showed that a decrease in biscuit length was correlated under several theological parameters, including phase angle delta, Farinograph and creep......Rheological properties of semi-sweet biscuit doughs from eight wheat cultivars were studied, and related to the dimensional changes of biscuits after cutting and baking. The tested cultivars were selected in order to represent a wide diversity in biscuit baking performance, and were grown with low...... recovery parameters. Sedimentation value was the only physiochernical flour characteristic with considerable influence on the model. Validation of the partial least squares-model including all samples from the 3 years gave only a weak correlation (r = 0.58), whereas when each single year was evaluated...

  7. Quality evaluation of tortilla chips made with corn meal dough and cooked bean flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Araceli Ochoa-Martínez

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A mixture of cornmeal dough and cooked bean flour (BF was prepared at different ratios (50/50, 60/40, and 70/30 w/w, and processed to chips. Viscosity profile, temperature of gelatinization and enthalpy, texture, protein content, and in vitro digestibility were measured. Pasting temperature tended to be lower when the flour bean concentration was lower. Maximum viscosity increased significantly in both samples (dough mixture and chips when the BF concentration was lower. In general, gelatinization temperature remains constant, while the heating enthalpy was higher with lower BF concentration. The addition of BF was correlated with greater crispiness, suggesting improved chip texture at higher BF concentrations. The final protein content in the corn-bean chips was very similar, despite the concentration of BF used. Protein digestibility in the chips was affected by the proportion of BF added, being higher when the amount of the BF was lower.

  8. Effect of the addition of wheat bran stream on dough rheology and bread quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iuliana Banu

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The milling by-products have high nutritional value and can be incorporated into white flour. This study was aimed at comparatively examining the rheological behaviour of the doughs made from wheat white flour with different levels (3-30% of bran streams incorporated and from wholewheat. The results indicated significant correlations between the ash content of the wheat bran streams incorporated into flour and Alveograph, Rheofermentograph and Mixolab parameters. The white flour sample with 25% wheat bran streams had the ash content similar to wholewheat, but the dough rheology was improved. The quality of the white flour bread with 25% wheat bran streams was improved compared to the wholemeal bread.

  9. Rheological parameters of dough with inulin addition and its effect on bread quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojnanska, T.; Tokar, M.; Vollmannova, A.

    2015-04-01

    The rheological properties of enriched flour prepared with an addition of inulin were studied. The addition of inulin caused changes of the rheological parameters of the recorder curve. 10% and more addition significantly extended development time and on the farinogram were two peaks of consistency, what is a non-standard shape. With increasing addition of inulin resistance to deformation grows and dough is difficult to process, over 15% addition make dough short and unsuitable for making bread. Bread volume, the most important parameter, significantly decreased with inulin addition. Our results suggest a level of 5% inulin to produce a functional bread of high sensory acceptance and a level of 10% inulin produce a bread of satisfactory sensory acceptance. Bread with a level over 10% of inulin was unsatisfactory.

  10. Study of irradiation effect of wheat flour on microbiological properties and on rheology of obtained dough

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salem, Senda

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to study the effect of the irradiation by gamma rays in 1, 2, and 3 kGy on the microbiological and physico-chemical properties of the wheat flour, and on dough rheology. The rheological properties, studied by a compression-relaxation test in greased conditions are estimated by an analysis of variance approach and repeatability studies. Results show that irradiation has no effect on relaxation properties of dough. On the other hand we registered an increase of the falling number. Bread making essay shows that a dose lower than 2 kGy increased the bread volume. Reduction of the microbial load according to the dose of irradiation is also observed. (Author)

  11. Quality characteristics of wheat flour dough and bread containing grape pomace flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šporin, Monika; Avbelj, Martina; Kovač, Boris; Možina, Sonja Smole

    2018-04-01

    Wheat bread was enriched with 6%, 10% and 15% dried and milled grape pomace flour from two grape cultivars: 'Merlot' and 'Zelen'. Rheological, textural, sensory and antioxidant properties of the enriched dough and bread were evaluated, and compared to control samples. Grape cultivar had significant impact on the rheological characteristics of the dough, and on the sensory and antioxidant properties of the final bread. Development time and dough stability were longer when 'Merlot' grape pomace flour was added compared to 'Zelen' grape pomace flour and the control. Grape pomace flour addition affected bread volume, firmness, crumb and crust colour, and odour and taste intensity. Moreover, grape pomace flour addition resulted in a stickier and less springy crumb texture, and some negative sensorial properties, such as increased intensity of aftertaste and sand feeling in the mouth. The phenolic content and antioxidant activity of bread were positively correlated with grape pomace flour addition ( r = 0.987, p = 0.01 and r = 0.941, p = 0.01 between phenolic content and ferric reducing antioxidant power and phenolic content and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, respectively). The highest total phenolic contents were 5.92 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g dw for 'Merlot' and 3.65 mg gallic acid equivalents /g dw for 'Zelen', which were seen for the bread prepared with the highest grape pomace flour addition (15%). The highest antioxidant activity determined by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and ferric reducing antioxidant power assays were seen for the bread prepared with the highest 'Merlot' grape pomace flour addition (15%). Dough characteristic and sensory profile are strongly influenced by cultivar of grape pomace flour. Based on results of sensory profiling, the variety 'Zelen' is suggested for use.

  12. Mitigation of the processing contaminant acrylamide in bread by reducing asparagine in the bread dough

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katsaiti, Tatiana; Granby, Kit

    2016-01-01

    . Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was used for AAM and its main precursor, ASN, determination. The resulting ASN depletion in the dough (68–89%) is significantly affected by fermentation time and yeast type, while AAM mitigation levels in the baked buns are significantly...... influenced by yeast amount, fermentation time and yeast type. The mean concentrations for each combination range between 5 and 15 µg kg– 1....

  13. Synergistic effect of Aspergillus tubingensis CTM 507 glucose oxidase in presence of ascorbic acid and alpha amylase on dough properties, baking quality and shelf life of bread

    OpenAIRE

    Kriaa, Mouna; Ouhibi, Rabeb; Graba, Héla; Besbes, Souhail; Jardak, Mohamed; Kammoun, Radhouane

    2015-01-01

    The impact of Aspergillus tubingensis glucose oxidase (GOD) in combination with α-amylase and ascorbic acid on dough properties, qualities and shelf life of bread was investigated. Regression models of alveograph and texture parameters of dough and bread were adjusted. Indeed, the mixture of GOD (44 %) and ascorbic acid (56 %) on flour containing basal improver showed its potential as a corrective action to get better functional and rheological properties of dough and bread texture. Furthermo...

  14. Visualization and quantification of three-dimensional distribution of yeast in bread dough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Tatsuro; DO, Gab-Soo; Sugiyama, Junichi; Araki, Tetsuya; Tsuta, Mizuki; Shiraga, Seizaburo; Ueda, Mitsuyoshi; Yamada, Masaharu; Takeya, Koji; Sagara, Yasuyuki

    2009-07-01

    A three-dimensional (3-D) bio-imaging technique was developed for visualizing and quantifying the 3-D distribution of yeast in frozen bread dough samples in accordance with the progress of the mixing process of the samples, applying cell-surface engineering to the surfaces of the yeast cells. The fluorescent yeast was recognized as bright spots at the wavelength of 520 nm. Frozen dough samples were sliced at intervals of 1 microm by an micro-slicer image processing system (MSIPS) equipped with a fluorescence microscope for acquiring cross-sectional images of the samples. A set of successive two-dimensional images was reconstructed to analyze the 3-D distribution of the yeast. The average shortest distance between centroids of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) yeasts was 10.7 microm at the pick-up stage, 9.7 microm at the clean-up stage, 9.0 microm at the final stage, and 10.2 microm at the over-mixing stage. The results indicated that the distribution of the yeast cells was the most uniform in the dough of white bread at the final stage, while the heterogeneous distribution at the over-mixing stage was possibly due to the destruction of the gluten network structure within the samples.

  15. Addition of Phenols Compounds to Meat Dough Intended for Salami Manufacture and its Antioxidant Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novelli, Enrico; Fasolato, Luca; Cardazzo, Barbara; Carraro, Lisa; Taticchi, Agnese; Balzan, Stefania

    2014-08-28

    A purified extract of phenols compounds (65% of phenolic content of which decarboxymethyl oleuropein aglycone represented 45% of the wet mass) obtained from vegetation water (a by-product of oil mill) was added to a ground meat dough intended for salami manufacture in two concentration levels: 75 and 150 mg/100 g of dough (F1 and F2, respectively). The control batch was composed of lean and fat cuts of pork in 70:30 ratio, 2.7% salt and a mixed starter culture of staphylococci and pediococci. After stuffing into natural casings, salamis were aged until they reached a total weight loss of 30%. The product was then sliced and packaged in a protective atmosphere (nitrogen:carbon dioxide 80:20) and placed in a refrigerator thermostat (2-4°C) with alternating 12 h of artificial light and darkness. The samples were analysed for the measurement of pH, water activity, organic acidity, peroxide number and secondary products of lipid peroxidation at the time of slicing and after 10, 20 and 30 days of storage into the refrigerated thermostat. The pH and water activity were not substantially different between the control and the two enriched batches. The peroxide number and secondary products of lipid peroxidation values in the two batches with phenols were at least substantially lower than the control sample. In conclusion, the phenol compounds obtained from vegetation water have shown no interference with the ripening process while protecting the dough from oxidation.

  16. Substituting Normal and Waxy-Type Whole Wheat Flour on Dough and Baking Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Induck; Kang, Chun-Sik; Cheong, Young-Keun; Hyun, Jong-Nae; Kim, Kee-Jong

    2012-01-01

    Normal (cv. Keumkang, KK) and waxy-type (cv. Shinmichal, SMC) whole wheat flour was substituted at 20 and 40% for white wheat flour (WF) during bread dough formulation. The flour blends were subjected to dough and baking property measurement in terms of particle size distribution, dough mixing, bread loaf volume and crumb firmness. The particle size of white wheat flour was the finest, with increasing coarseness as the level of whole wheat flour increased. Substitution of whole wheat flour decreased pasting viscosity, showing all RVA parameters were the lowest in SMC40 composite flour. Water absorption was slightly higher with 40% whole wheat flour regardless of whether the wheat was normal or waxy. An increased mixing time was observed when higher levels of KK flour were substituted, but the opposite reaction occurred when SMC flour was substituted at the same levels. Bread loaf volume was lower in breads containing a whole wheat flour substitution compared to bread containing only white wheat flour. No significant difference in bread loaf volume was observed between normal and waxy whole flour, but the bread crumb firmness was significantly lower in breads containing waxy flour. The results of these studies indicate that up to 40% whole wheat flour substitution could be considered a practical option with respect to functional qualities. Also, replacing waxy whole flour has a positive effect on bread formulation over normal whole wheat flour in terms of improving softness and glutinous texture. PMID:24471084

  17. [Psychosocial Factors and Burnout Syndrome Found in Workers in the Dough Processing Industry, Tepic, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrán, Carolina Aranda; Gónzalez, José Luis López; Barraza Salas, José Horacio

    2013-06-01

    The workers in the dough processing industry are a population exposed to psychosocial risk factors due to the conditions in the workplace; therefore, they are likely to suffer from one of the consequences of chronic stress to which a worker is exposed daily: burnout syndrome. The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between psychosocial factors and the burnout syndrome in workers in the dough processing industry in the city of Tepic, Mexico. A cross-sectional and descriptive study was conducted in five companies from the dough processing industry. The total population consisted of 122 workers who were administered the scale of Psychosocial Factors Identification of the Mexican Social Security Institute and the Maslach Burnout Inventory scale, in order to gather information. The presence of adverse psychosocial factors was reported in 18.3%, and 79.8% with the syndrome. There were several variables that behaved as risk factors, specifically, the system of working with the emotional exhaustion. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  18. The Sponge Pump: The Role of Current Induced Flow in the Design of the Sponge Body Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leys, Sally P.; Yahel, Gitai; Reidenbach, Matthew A.; Tunnicliffe, Verena; Shavit, Uri; Reiswig, Henry M.

    2011-01-01

    Sponges are suspension feeders that use flagellated collar-cells (choanocytes) to actively filter a volume of water equivalent to many times their body volume each hour. Flow through sponges is thought to be enhanced by ambient current, which induces a pressure gradient across the sponge wall, but the underlying mechanism is still unknown. Studies of sponge filtration have estimated the energetic cost of pumping to be sponge Aphrocallistes vastus at a 150 m deep reef in situ and in a flow flume; we also modeled the glass sponge filtration system from measurements of the aquiferous system. Excurrent flow from the sponge osculum measured in situ and in the flume were positively correlated (r>0.75) with the ambient current velocity. During short bursts of high ambient current the sponges filtered two-thirds of the total volume of water they processed daily. Our model indicates that the head loss across the sponge collar filter is 10 times higher than previously estimated. The difference is due to the resistance created by a fine protein mesh that lines the collar, which demosponges also have, but was so far overlooked. Applying our model to the in situ measurements indicates that even modest pumping rates require an energetic expenditure of at least 28% of the total in situ respiration. We suggest that due to the high cost of pumping, current-induced flow is highly beneficial but may occur only in thin walled sponges living in high flow environments. Our results call for a new look at the mechanisms underlying current-induced flow and for reevaluation of the cost of biological pumping and its evolutionary role, especially in sponges. PMID:22180779

  19. DYNAPHORE, INC. FORAGER™ SPONGE TECHNOLOGY - INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Forager™ Sponge is an open-celled cellulose sponge incorporating an amine-containing chelating polymer that selectively absorbs dissolved heavy metals from aqueous waste streams. The Developer states that the technology can be utilized to remove and concentrate heavy metals f...

  20. The dimension of the pore space in sponges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, L H F; Yamashita, M T

    2009-01-01

    A simple experiment to reveal the dimension of the pore space in sponges is proposed. This experiment is suitable for the first year of a physics or engineering course. The calculated dimension of the void space in a sponge of density 16 mg cm -3 was 2.948± 0.008

  1. Keratin sponge/hydrogel part 1. fabrication and characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keratin sponge/hydrogel products formed by either the oxidation or reduction of U.S. domestic fine- or coarse-grade wool exhibited distinctively different topologies and molecular weights of 6- 8 kDa and 40-60 kDa, each with unique macro-porous structure and microstructural behaviors. The sponge/ ...

  2. Post-quantum security of the sponge construction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Czajkowski, J.; Groot Bruinderink, L.; Hülsing, A.T.; Schaffner, C.; Unruh, D.

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the post-quantum security of hash functions based on the sponge construction. A crucial property for hash functions in the post-quantum setting is the collapsing property (a strengthening of collision-resistance). We show that the sponge construction is collapsing (and in consequence

  3. Post-quantum security of the sponge construction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Czajkowski, Jan; Groot Bruinderink, Leon; Hülsing, Andreas; Schaffner, Christian; Unruh, Dominique

    2018-01-01

    We investigate the post-quantum security of hash functions based on the sponge construction. A crucial property for hash functions in the post-quantum setting is the collapsing property (a strengthening of collision-resistance). We show that the sponge construction is collapsing (and in consequence

  4. Deep-sea sponge grounds: Reservoirs of biodiversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogg, M.M.; Tendal, O.S.; Conway, K.W.; Pomponi, S.A.; van Soest, R.W.M.; Gutt, J.; Krautter, M.; Roberts, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    This report draws together scientific understanding of deep-water sponge grounds alongside the threats they face and ways in which they can be conserved. Beginning with a summary of research approaches, sponge biology and biodiversity, the report also gives up-to-date case studies of particular

  5. The Life of a Sponge in a Sandy Lagoon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilan, M; Abelson, A

    1995-12-01

    Infaunal soft-bottom invertebrates benefit from the presence of sediment, but sedimentation is potentially harmful for hard-bottom dwellers. Most sponges live on hard bottom, but on coral reefs in the Red Sea, the species Biemna ehrenbergi (Keller, 1889) is found exclusively in soft-bottom lagoons, usually in the shallowest part. This location is a sink environment, which increases the deposition of particulate organic matter. Most of the sponge body is covered by sediment, but the chimney-like siphons protrude from the sediment surface. The sponge is attached to the buried beach-rock, which reduces the risk of dislodgment during storms. Dye injected above and into the sediment revealed, for the first time, a sponge pumping interstitial water (rich with particles and nutrients) into its aquiferous system. Visual examination of plastic replicas of the aquiferous system and electron microscopical analysis of sponge tissue revealed that the transcellular ostia are mostly located on the buried surface of the sponge. The oscula, however, are located on top of the siphons; their elevated position and their ability to close combine to prevent the filtering system outflow from clogging. The transcellular ostia presumably remain open due to cellular mobility. The sponge maintains a large population of bacteriocytes, which contains bacteria of several different species. Some of these bacteria disintegrate, and may be consumed by the sponge.

  6. Stimulatory activity of four green freshwater sponges on aquatic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of green sponges on the abundance of aquatic mycotal species is caused by dissolved organic matter produced during photosynthesis by symbiotic zoochlorellae, a symbionts of green sponges and excreted into the water environment (S. fluviatilis excreted mean 12.8% of carbon fixation). Those excreted organic ...

  7. Mangrove-sponge associations: a possible role for tannins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hunting, E.R.; van der Geest, H.G.; Krieg, A.J.; van Mierlo, M.B.L.; van Soest, R.W.M.

    2010-01-01

    A positive correlation between sponge coverage and tannin concentrations in prop roots of Rhizophora mangle L. has previously been reported. However, the ecological role of tannins within the mangrove sponge association remains speculative. This study investigated whether tannins play a role in

  8. Cultivation of sponge larvae: settlement, survival, and growth of juveniles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caralt, de S.; Otjens, H.; Uriz, M.J.; Wijffels, R.H.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to culture sponge juveniles from larvae. Starting from larvae we expected to enhance the survival and growth, and to decrease the variation in these parameters during the sponge cultures. First, settlement success, morphological changes during metamorphosis, and survival of

  9. Tetractinellid and hadromerid sponges of the Sultanate of Oman

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soest, van R.W.M.; Beglinger, E.J.

    2008-01-01

    The Sultanate of Oman harbours rich populations of sponges, especially in the four coral reef areas (Musandam Peninsula, Muscat coast & Daymaniyat islands, coasts of Masirah Island, and the Khuriya Muriya Islands). Up till now, apart from a few incidental samples, the sponges of Oman were known only

  10. Bioprospecting sponge-associated microbes for antimicrobial compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Indraningrat, Anak Agung Gede; Smidt, Hauke; Sipkema, Detmer

    2016-01-01

    Sponges are the most prolific marine organisms with respect to their arsenal of bioactive compounds including antimicrobials. However, the majority of these substances are probably not produced by the sponge itself, but rather by bacteria or fungi that are associated with their host. This review

  11. Ecological interactions and the distribution, abundance, and diversity of sponges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulff, Janie

    2012-01-01

    Although abiotic factors may be important first-order filters dictating which sponge species can thrive at a particular site, ecological interactions can play substantial roles influencing distribution and abundance, and thus diversity. Ecological interactions can modify the influences of abiotic factors both by further constraining distribution and abundance due to competitive or predatory interactions and by expanding habitat distribution or abundance due to beneficial interactions that ameliorate otherwise limiting circumstances. It is likely that the importance of ecological interactions has been greatly underestimated because they tend to only be revealed by experiments and time-series observations in the field. Experiments have revealed opportunistic predation to be a primary enforcer of sponge distribution boundaries that coincide with habitat boundaries in several systems. Within habitats, by contrast, dramatic effects of predators on sponge populations seem to occur primarily in cases of unusually high recruitment rates or unusually low mortality rates for the predators, which are often specialists on the sponge species affected. Competitive interactions have been demonstrated to diminish populations or exclude sponge species from a habitat in only a few cases. Cases in which competitive interactions have appeared obvious have often turned out to be neutral or even beneficial interactions when observed over time. Especially striking in this regard are sponge-sponge interactions in dense sponge-dominated communities, which may promote the continued coexistence of all participating species. Mutualistic symbioses of sponges with other animals, plants, or macroalgae have been demonstrated to increase abundance, habitat distribution, and diversity of all participants. Symbiotic microbes can enhance sponge distribution and abundance but also render their hosts more vulnerable to environmental changes. And while photosynthetic symbionts can boost growth and

  12. Oxygen dynamics and transport in the Mediterranean sponge Aplysina aerophoba

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, F.; Røy, Hans; Bayer, K.

    2008-01-01

    The Mediterranean sponge Aplysina aerophoba kept in aquaria or cultivation tanks can stop pumping for several hours or even days. To investigate changes in the chemical microenvironments, we measured oxygen profiles over the surface and into the tissue of pumping and non-pumping A. aerophoba...... specimens with Clark-type oxygen microelectrodes (tip diameters 18-30 μm). Total oxygen consumption rates of whole sponges were measured in closed chambers. These rates were used to back-calculate the oxygen distribution in a finite-element model. Combining direct measurements with calculations of diffusive...... flux and modeling revealed that the tissue of non-pumping sponges turns anoxic within 15 min, with the exception of a 1 mm surface layer where oxygen intrudes due to molecular diffusion over the sponge surface. Molecular diffusion is the only transport mechanism for oxygen into non-pumping sponges...

  13. Recovery of the commercial sponges in the central and southeastern Aegean Sea (NE Mediterranean after an outbreak of sponge disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. CASTRITSI-CATHARIOS

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The distribution and biometry of commercial sponges (Porifera in coastal areas of the central and southeastern Aegean Sea was investigated to estimate the recovery progress of the populations eight years after the first appearance of sponge disease. Signs of the disease were detected only in 1.6% of the harvested sponges. Multivariate analysis on the percentage abundance of sponges showed two distinct groups among the sixteen fishing grounds studied: the eight deep (50-110 m and the eight shallow ones (<40 m. The group from the deep depths consisted of Spongia officinalis adriatica, S. agaricina and S. zimocca. The infralittoral zone was characterized by the presence of Hippospongia communis, S. officinalis adriatica and S. officinalis mollissima. These bath sponges showed an enhanced abundance in the eastern Cretan Sea (S. Aegean Sea. In addition, their dimensions, particularly height, increased with increasing depth. It is indicated that the hydrographic conditions prevailing in the eastern Cretan Sea affected the repopulating processes of sponge banks. In each species, the biometric characteristics of the experimental specimens were similar to those of the sponges found in the market and harvested at respective depths prior to the appearance of sponge disease.

  14. The sponge pump: the role of current induced flow in the design of the sponge body plan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sally P Leys

    Full Text Available Sponges are suspension feeders that use flagellated collar-cells (choanocytes to actively filter a volume of water equivalent to many times their body volume each hour. Flow through sponges is thought to be enhanced by ambient current, which induces a pressure gradient across the sponge wall, but the underlying mechanism is still unknown. Studies of sponge filtration have estimated the energetic cost of pumping to be 0.75 with the ambient current velocity. During short bursts of high ambient current the sponges filtered two-thirds of the total volume of water they processed daily. Our model indicates that the head loss across the sponge collar filter is 10 times higher than previously estimated. The difference is due to the resistance created by a fine protein mesh that lines the collar, which demosponges also have, but was so far overlooked. Applying our model to the in situ measurements indicates that even modest pumping rates require an energetic expenditure of at least 28% of the total in situ respiration. We suggest that due to the high cost of pumping, current-induced flow is highly beneficial but may occur only in thin walled sponges living in high flow environments. Our results call for a new look at the mechanisms underlying current-induced flow and for reevaluation of the cost of biological pumping and its evolutionary role, especially in sponges.

  15. Understanding the influence of buckwheat bran on wheat dough baking performance: Mechanistic insights from molecular and material science approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanoletti, Miriam; Marti, Alessandra; Marengo, Mauro; Iametti, Stefania; Pagani, M Ambrogina; Renzetti, Stefano

    2017-12-01

    A molecular and material science approach is used to describe the influence of coarse and fine buckwheat bran on wheat dough properties and bread textural quality. Focus is given on (i) gluten solvation and structural arrangements in presence of bran as studied by front-face fluorescence; (ii) thermo-mechanical behavior of dough during heating studied by dynamic mechanical thermal analysis and (iii) texture of bread crumb analyzed in terms of a cellular solid. The thermo-mechanical behavior of dough was found to be largely related to starch phase transitions during heating. The use of thermodynamic approaches to biopolymer melting revealed that key transitions such as the onset of starch gelatinization were function of the interplay of water and bran volume fractions in the dough. Front-face fluorescence studies in wheat dough revealed that gluten solvation and structural arrangements were delayed by increasing bran addition level and reduction in particle size, as indicated by the drastic decrease in the protein surface hydrophobicity index. Variations in gluten structure could be strongly related to dough baking performance, i.e. specific volume. With regards to texture, the approach revealed that crumb texture was controlled by variations in density, moisture and bran volume fractions. Overall, this study elucidates a number of physical mechanisms describing the influence of buckwheat bran addition to dough and bread quality. These mechanisms strongly pointed at the influence of bran on water partitioning among the main polymeric components. In the future, these mechanisms should be investigated with bran material of varying source, composition and structure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Rheology of Rice Flour Dough with Gum Arabic: Small and Large-Deformation Studies, Sensory Assessment and Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanthilal, J; Bhattacharya, Suvendu

    2015-08-01

    The absence of gluten protein makes the rice flour doughs difficult to handle when flattened/sheeted products are to be prepared. The rheological, sensory and microstructural changes in rice flour doughs having gum Arabic (0% to 5%, w/w) and moisture contents (44% to 50%) were studied for improving the dough handling characteristics. Rheological parameters like storage modulus (G') and complex viscosity (η*) decreased with an increase in moisture content while loss angle (δ) increased. A power-law type equation was suitable to relate angular frequency (ω) with G', G", and η* (0.814 ≤ r ≤ 0.999, P ≤ 0.01). An increase in gum and moisture contents increased δ from 6.9° to 15.5° but decreased the energy required for compression/flattening. The 6-element spring-dashpot model was suitable (r ≥ 0.991, P ≤ 0.01) for creep curves. The sensory panel had the opinion that dough with a low to moderate hardness between 3 and 4, and stickiness of ≤ 3.5 was suitable for the purpose of flattening in relation to the preparation of sheeted/flattened products; the appropriate condition for dough formulation was with the moisture and gum contents of 47.0% to 47.9% and 1.55% to 2.25%, respectively to offer the desirability index between 0.50 and 0.52. The microstructure of the rice flour dough in the absence of gum Arabic appeared to possess loosely bound flour particles. The presence of gum provided a coating on flour particles to yield dough having good cohesive microstructure. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  17. 21 CFR 529.1003 - Flurogestone acetate-impregnated vaginal sponge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Flurogestone acetate-impregnated vaginal sponge... § 529.1003 Flurogestone acetate-impregnated vaginal sponge. (a) Specifications. Each vaginal sponge... ewes during their normal breeding season. (2) Limitations. Using applicator provided, insert sponge...

  18. 21 CFR 878.4014 - Nonresorbable gauze/sponge for external use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nonresorbable gauze/sponge for external use. 878... Nonresorbable gauze/sponge for external use. (a) Identification. A nonresorbable gauze/sponge for external use... include a nonresorbable gauze/sponge for external use that contains added drugs such as antimicrobial...

  19. SPONGE ROBOTIC HAND DESIGN FOR PROSTHESES

    OpenAIRE

    Mine Seçkin

    2016-01-01

    In this study robotic hands and fingers’ materials are investigated from past to present and a sponge robotic hand is designed for biomedical applications. Emergence and necessity of soft robotic technology are explained and description of soft robot is made. Because of the importance of hand in a person’s body, researchers have dealt with robotic hand prostheses for many centuries and developed many hand types. To mimic the best for the human limbs, softness of the hand is one of the importa...

  20. Coexpression of the high molecular weight glutenin subunit 1Ax1 and puroindoline improves dough mixing properties in durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. ssp. durum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yin; Wang, Qiong; Li, Xiaoyan; Xiao, Xin; Sun, Fusheng; Wang, Cheng; Hu, Wei; Feng, Zhijuan; Chang, Junli; Chen, Mingjie; Wang, Yuesheng; Li, Kexiu; Yang, Guangxiao; He, Guangyuan

    2012-01-01

    Wheat end-use quality mainly derives from two interrelated characteristics: the compositions of gluten proteins and grain hardness. The composition of gluten proteins determines dough rheological properties and thus confers the unique viscoelastic property on dough. One group of gluten proteins, high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS), plays an important role in dough functional properties. On the other hand, grain hardness, which influences the milling process of flour, is controlled by Puroindoline a (Pina) and Puroindoline b (Pinb) genes. However, little is known about the combined effects of HMW-GS and PINs on dough functional properties. In this study, we crossed a Pina-expressing transgenic line with a 1Ax1-expressing line of durum wheat and screened out lines coexpressing 1Ax1 and Pina or lines expressing either 1Ax1 or Pina. Dough mixing analysis of these lines demonstrated that expression of 1Ax1 improved both dough strength and over-mixing tolerance, while expression of PINA detrimentally affected the dough resistance to extension. In lines coexpressing 1Ax1 and Pina, faster hydration of flour during mixing was observed possibly due to the lower water absorption and damaged starch caused by PINA expression. In addition, expression of 1Ax1 appeared to compensate the detrimental effect of PINA on dough resistance to extension. Consequently, coexpression of 1Ax1 and PINA in durum wheat had combined effects on dough mixing behaviors with a better dough strength and resistance to extension than those from lines expressing either 1Ax1 or Pina. The results in our study suggest that simultaneous modulation of dough strength and grain hardness in durum wheat could significantly improve its breadmaking quality and may not even impair its pastamaking potential. Therefore, coexpression of 1Ax1 and PINA in durum wheat has useful implications for breeding durum wheat with dual functionality (for pasta and bread) and may improve the economic values of durum

  1. Coexpression of the high molecular weight glutenin subunit 1Ax1 and puroindoline improves dough mixing properties in durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. ssp. durum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Li

    Full Text Available Wheat end-use quality mainly derives from two interrelated characteristics: the compositions of gluten proteins and grain hardness. The composition of gluten proteins determines dough rheological properties and thus confers the unique viscoelastic property on dough. One group of gluten proteins, high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS, plays an important role in dough functional properties. On the other hand, grain hardness, which influences the milling process of flour, is controlled by Puroindoline a (Pina and Puroindoline b (Pinb genes. However, little is known about the combined effects of HMW-GS and PINs on dough functional properties. In this study, we crossed a Pina-expressing transgenic line with a 1Ax1-expressing line of durum wheat and screened out lines coexpressing 1Ax1 and Pina or lines expressing either 1Ax1 or Pina. Dough mixing analysis of these lines demonstrated that expression of 1Ax1 improved both dough strength and over-mixing tolerance, while expression of PINA detrimentally affected the dough resistance to extension. In lines coexpressing 1Ax1 and Pina, faster hydration of flour during mixing was observed possibly due to the lower water absorption and damaged starch caused by PINA expression. In addition, expression of 1Ax1 appeared to compensate the detrimental effect of PINA on dough resistance to extension. Consequently, coexpression of 1Ax1 and PINA in durum wheat had combined effects on dough mixing behaviors with a better dough strength and resistance to extension than those from lines expressing either 1Ax1 or Pina. The results in our study suggest that simultaneous modulation of dough strength and grain hardness in durum wheat could significantly improve its breadmaking quality and may not even impair its pastamaking potential. Therefore, coexpression of 1Ax1 and PINA in durum wheat has useful implications for breeding durum wheat with dual functionality (for pasta and bread and may improve the economic

  2. Comparative study of deterioration procedure in chemical-leavened steamed bread dough under frozen storage and freeze/thaw condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pei; Yang, Runqiang; Gu, Zhenxin; Xu, Xueming; Jin, Zhengyu

    2017-08-15

    Successive freeze/thaw (FT) cycle was a widely used empirical approach to shorten the experimental period since it could accelerate frozen dough deterioration compared with frozen storage (FS). In order to compare the effect of FS and FT cycle on deterioration procedure of chemical-leavened steamed bread dough, kinetic studies of bread quality indices were performed and the relationships between bread quality and dough components were further established. Results showed that degradation of steamed bread loaf volume and firmness followed first-order kinetics during FS and zero-order kinetics during FT, respectively. Glutenin macropolymers (GMP) depolymerization and dough weight loss occurred steadily throughout FS and FT. Significant enhancement of damaged starch and crystallinity were observed at the later FS period and FT cycle. Multiple regression study led to the conclusion that dough weight loss contributed the most to the reduced bread loaf volume under FS whereas GMP depolymerization dominated under FT condition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of mechanically damaged starch from wheat flour on the quality of frozen dough and steamed bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Sen; Li, Li; Wang, Xiao-Xi; Zheng, Xue-Ling; Bian, Ke; Bao, Qing-Dan

    2016-07-01

    The influence of damaged starch (DS) on the quality of frozen dough and steamed bread were investigated. Characterization of the farinographical properties showed that DS levels affected water absorption, development, weakness, falling number and gluten index. Flour viscosity profiles indicated that pasting temperatures increased, but peak viscosity, low viscosity, breakdown, final viscosity and setback increased and then decreased with increasing amounts of DS. Compared to leavened dough, unleavened dough had significantly higher peak times, of T21 and T22, and was also affected by DS concentration. Steamed bread had a higher specific volume, relatively lower hardness, exhibited more whiteness, and a higher degree of gumminess and chewiness with higher DS levels. We compared two methods of making steamed bread and assessed the quality of the product. We found that an appropriate DS content improved the quality of frozen dough and steamed bread. This study provides the basis for future development and improvements to methods for making frozen dough products. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Assessment of nutritional quality, glycaemic index, antidiabetic and sensory properties of plantain (Musa paradisiaca)-based functional dough meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Famakin, Opeyemi; Fatoyinbo, Akindele; Ijarotimi, Oluwole Steve; Badejo, Adebanjo Ayobamidele; Fagbemi, Tayo Nathaniel

    2016-11-01

    Nutrition transition to high energy-dense foods has been implicated as the major causes of diet related diseases. Plantain-based dough meals supplemented with soybean cake and cassava fibre were developed by combining them in different proportions using response surface methodology. The flour blends were analyzed for the nutritional composition while the glycaemic index, antidiabetic potentials and protein digestibility of the dough meals were determined in wistar rats. The nutritional and essential amino acid contents of the flour blends were comparable to that of cerolina (a commercially available food product commonly recommended for diabetic patients). The rats fed with the formulated dough meals had lower glycaemic index and glycaemic load, and the blood glucose was significantly reduced compared to cerolina and metformin (a synthetic antidiabetic drug). All the plantain-based dough meals were comparable to cerolina and metformin in terms of nutritional quality and blood glycaemic control activities, respectively. Hence, the formulated plantain-based dough meals have potential to be used for the prevention and management of diabetes mellitus.

  5. Rheological and secondary structural characterization of rice flour-zein composites for noodles slit from gluten-free sheeted dough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Sungmin; Kim, Hee Won; Lee, Suyong

    2017-04-15

    Rice flour-zein composites in a hydrated viscoelastic state were utilized to compensate for the role of wheat gluten in gluten-free sheeted dough. The use of zein above its glass transition temperature was able to form a viscoelastic protein network of non-wheat dough with rice flour. The mixing stability and development time of the rice dough were positively increased with increasing levels of zein. The protein secondary structural analysis by FTIR spectroscopy demonstrated that the rice doughs with high levels of zein showed significant increases in β-sheet structures whose intensity was almost doubled by the use of 10% zein. The use of zein at more than 5% (w/w) successfully produced gluten-free dough sheets that could be slit into thin and long noodle strands. In addition, the composites were effective in improving the rheological characteristics of gluten-free noodle strands by increasing their maximum force to extension, compared to wheat-based noodles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of Melamine Sponge on Tooth Stain Removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, Takero; Kawata, Toshitsugu

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the stain removal ability of melamine sponge before aesthetic tooth whitening in extracted teeth. Melamine sponge of thickness 40 mm was compressed and the destruction of the partition wall structure during the compression process was examined under a stereoscopic microscope. An extracted human tooth was cleaned by normal polishing or with melamine sponge for 90 s. To evaluate the stain level, the tooth surfaces were photographed under a stereoscopic microscope at 0, 30, 60 and 90 s. The residual stained region was traced in a high-magnification photograph, and the stain intensity was presented as a change, relative to the intensity before the experiment (0 s). Mechanical cleaning by toothbrushing produced polishing scratches on the tooth surface, whereas use of the melamine sponge resulted in only minimal scratches. As the compression level increased, the stain-removing effect tended to become stronger. Melamine sponge can remove stains from the tooth surface more effectively and less invasively compared to a conventional toothbrush. As no new scratches are made on the tooth surface when using a melamine sponge brush, the risk of re-staining is reduced. Cleaning using a melamine sponge brush can be easily and effectively performed at home and in a dental office.

  7. Bioprospecting Sponge-Associated Microbes for Antimicrobial Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indraningrat, Anak Agung Gede; Smidt, Hauke; Sipkema, Detmer

    2016-05-02

    Sponges are the most prolific marine organisms with respect to their arsenal of bioactive compounds including antimicrobials. However, the majority of these substances are probably not produced by the sponge itself, but rather by bacteria or fungi that are associated with their host. This review for the first time provides a comprehensive overview of antimicrobial compounds that are known to be produced by sponge-associated microbes. We discuss the current state-of-the-art by grouping the bioactive compounds produced by sponge-associated microorganisms in four categories: antiviral, antibacterial, antifungal and antiprotozoal compounds. Based on in vitro activity tests, identified targets of potent antimicrobial substances derived from sponge-associated microbes include: human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) (2-undecyl-4-quinolone, sorbicillactone A and chartarutine B); influenza A (H1N1) virus (truncateol M); nosocomial Gram positive bacteria (thiopeptide YM-266183, YM-266184, mayamycin and kocurin); Escherichia coli (sydonic acid), Chlamydia trachomatis (naphthacene glycoside SF2446A2); Plasmodium spp. (manzamine A and quinolone 1); Leishmania donovani (manzamine A and valinomycin); Trypanosoma brucei (valinomycin and staurosporine); Candida albicans and dermatophytic fungi (saadamycin, 5,7-dimethoxy-4-p-methoxylphenylcoumarin and YM-202204). Thirty-five bacterial and 12 fungal genera associated with sponges that produce antimicrobials were identified, with Streptomyces, Pseudovibrio, Bacillus, Aspergillus and Penicillium as the prominent producers of antimicrobial compounds. Furthemore culture-independent approaches to more comprehensively exploit the genetic richness of antimicrobial compound-producing pathways from sponge-associated bacteria are addressed.

  8. Preliminary assessment of sponge biodiversity on Saba Bank, Netherlands Antilles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert W Thacker

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Saba Bank Atoll, Netherlands Antilles, is one of the three largest atolls on Earth and provides habitat for an extensive coral reef community. To improve our knowledge of this vast marine resource, a survey of biodiversity at Saba Bank included a multi-disciplinary team that sampled fishes, mollusks, crustaceans, macroalgae, and sponges. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A single member of the dive team conducted surveys of sponge biodiversity during eight dives at six locations, at depths ranging from 15 to 30 m. This preliminary assessment documented the presence of 45 species pooled across multiple locations. Rarefaction analysis estimated that only 48 to 84% of species diversity was sampled by this limited effort, clearly indicating a need for additional surveys. An analysis of historical collections from Saba and Saba Bank revealed an additional 36 species, yielding a total of 81 sponge species recorded from this area. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This observed species composition is similar to that found on widespread Caribbean reefs, indicating that the sponge fauna of Saba Bank is broadly representative of the Caribbean as a whole. A robust population of the giant barrel sponge, Xestospongia muta, appeared healthy with none of the signs of disease or bleaching reported from other Caribbean reefs; however, more recent reports of anchor chain damage to these sponges suggests that human activities can have dramatic impacts on these communities. Opportunities to protect this extremely large habitat should be pursued, as Saba Bank may serve as a significant reservoir of sponge species diversity.

  9. First report on chitinous holdfast in sponges (Porifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrlich, Hermann; Kaluzhnaya, Oksana V; Tsurkan, Mikhail V; Ereskovsky, Alexander; Tabachnick, Konstantin R; Ilan, Micha; Stelling, Allison; Galli, Roberta; Petrova, Olga V; Nekipelov, Serguei V; Sivkov, Victor N; Vyalikh, Denis; Born, René; Behm, Thomas; Ehrlich, Andre; Chernogor, Lubov I; Belikov, Sergei; Janussen, Dorte; Bazhenov, Vasilii V; Wörheide, Gert

    2013-07-07

    A holdfast is a root- or basal plate-like structure of principal importance that anchors aquatic sessile organisms, including sponges, to hard substrates. There is to date little information about the nature and origin of sponges' holdfasts in both marine and freshwater environments. This work, to our knowledge, demonstrates for the first time that chitin is an important structural component within holdfasts of the endemic freshwater demosponge Lubomirskia baicalensis. Using a variety of techniques (near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure, Raman, electrospray ionization mas spectrometry, Morgan-Elson assay and Calcofluor White staining), we show that chitin from the sponge holdfast is much closer to α-chitin than to β-chitin. Most of the three-dimensional fibrous skeleton of this sponge consists of spicule-containing proteinaceous spongin. Intriguingly, the chitinous holdfast is not spongin-based, and is ontogenetically the oldest part of the sponge body. Sequencing revealed the presence of four previously undescribed genes encoding chitin synthases in the L. baicalensis sponge. This discovery of chitin within freshwater sponge holdfasts highlights the novel and specific functions of this biopolymer within these ancient sessile invertebrates.

  10. Globally intertwined evolutionary history of giant barrel sponges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swierts, Thomas; Peijnenburg, Katja T. C. A.; de Leeuw, Christiaan A.; Breeuwer, Johannes A. J.; Cleary, Daniel F. R.; de Voogd, Nicole J.

    2017-09-01

    Three species of giant barrel sponge are currently recognized in two distinct geographic regions, the tropical Atlantic and the Indo-Pacific. In this study, we used molecular techniques to study populations of giant barrel sponges across the globe and assessed whether the genetic structure of these populations agreed with current taxonomic consensus or, in contrast, whether there was evidence of cryptic species. Using molecular data, we assessed whether giant barrel sponges in each oceanic realm represented separate monophyletic lineages. Giant barrel sponges from 17 coral reef systems across the globe were sequenced for mitochondrial (partial CO1 and ATP6 genes) and nuclear (ATPsβ intron) DNA markers. In total, we obtained 395 combined sequences of the mitochondrial CO1 and ATP6 markers, which resulted in 17 different haplotypes. We compared a phylogenetic tree constructed from 285 alleles of the nuclear intron ATPsβ to the 17 mitochondrial haplotypes. Congruent patterns between mitochondrial and nuclear gene trees of giant barrel sponges provided evidence for the existence of multiple reproductively isolated species, particularly where they occurred in sympatry. The species complexes in the tropical Atlantic and the Indo-Pacific, however, do not form separate monophyletic lineages. This rules out the scenario that one species of giant barrel sponge developed into separate species complexes following geographic separation and instead suggests that multiple species of giant barrel sponges already existed prior to the physical separation of the Indo-Pacific and tropical Atlantic.

  11. Sponge 'tree rings' : new indicators of ocean variability?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellwood, M.; Kelly, M.

    2003-01-01

    Certain marine sponges offer a unique approach to the problem of recording environmental change. These sponges and their spicules grow by putting on concentric layers of silica material on a seasonal basis, rather like tree rings. The concentrations of certain chemicals in the surrounding water, and the growth rate of the sponge itself, are archived in the silica deposited. The information in each layer of silica can be used to deduce environmental conditions on a range of scales; years, decades and centuries. (author). 7 figs

  12. Growth of Salmonella enterica and Staphylococcus aureus in no-knead bread dough during prolonged yeast fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pao, Steven; Kim, Chyer; Jordan, Larry; Long, Wilbert; Inserra, Paula; Sayre, Brian

    2011-02-01

    A convenient bread making method involving prolonged fermentation of no-knead (nonkneaded) dough has become popular in recent years. In the present study, the microbial safety of no-knead dough made with a 375:325:5:1 weight ratio of flour, water, salt, and bread yeast was investigated. Three brands of dehydrated yeast were used for this study. The growth of inoculated Salmonella enterica and Staphylococcus aureus in no-knead dough during fermentation was significant (Pyeast brand. The multiplication rates of S. enterica in the initial 12 h and S. aureus over the entire 24 h of fermentation were positively correlated with fermentation temperatures of 21 to 38°C (Pbread may compromise consumer kitchen sanitation and food safety. Copyright ©, International Association for Food Protection

  13. Effect of fat types on the structural and textural properties of dough and semi-sweet biscuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamat, Hasmadi; Hill, Sandra E

    2014-09-01

    Fat is an important ingredient in baking products and it plays many roles in providing desirable textural properties of baking products, particularly biscuit. In this study, the effect of fat types on dough rheological properties and quality of semi-sweet biscuit (rich tea type) were investigated using various techniques. Texture profile and extensibility analysis were used to study the dough rheology, while three-point bend test and scanning electron microscopy were used to analyse the textural characteristics of final product. TPA results showed that the type of fat significantly influenced dough textural properties. Biscuit produced with higher solid fat oil showed higher breaking force but this was not significantly different when evaluated by sensory panel. Scanning electron microscopy showed that biscuit produced with palm mid-fraction had an open internal microstructure and heterogeneous air cells as compared to other samples.

  14. Addition of phenols compounds to meat dough intended for salami manufacture and its antioxidant effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Novelli

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A purified extract of phenols compounds (65% of phenolic content of which decarboxymethyl oleuropein aglycone represented 45% of the wet mass obtained from vegetation water (a by-product of oil mill was added to a ground meat dough intended for salami manufacture in two concentration levels: 75 and 150 mg/100 g of dough (F1 and F2, respectively. The control batch was composed of lean and fat cuts of pork in 70:30 ratio, 2.7% salt and a mixed starter culture of staphylococci and pediococci. After stuffing into natural casings, salamis were aged until they reached a total weight loss of 30%. The product was then sliced and packaged in a protective atmosphere (nitrogen:carbon dioxide 80:20 and placed in a refrigerator thermostat (2-4°C with alternating 12 h of artificial light and darkness. The samples were analysed for the measurement of pH, water activity, organic acidity, peroxide number and secondary products of lipid peroxidation at the time of slicing and after 10, 20 and 30 days of storage into the refrigerated thermostat. The pH and water activity were not substantially different between the control and the two enriched batches. The peroxide number and secondary products of lipid peroxidation values in the two batches with phenols were at least substantially lower than the control sample. In conclusion, the phenol compounds obtained from vegetation water have shown no interference with the ripening process while protecting the dough from oxidation.

  15. Managing and sharing the escalating number of sponge "unknowns": the SpongeMaps project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, J N A; Hall, K A; Ekins, M; Erpenbeck, D; Wörheide, G; Jolley-Rogers, G

    2013-09-01

    Contemporary collections of sponges in the Indo-west Pacific have escalated substantially due to pharmaceutical discovery, national bioregional planning, and compliance with international conventions on the seabed and its marine genetic resources beyond national jurisdictions. These partially processed operational taxonomic unit (OTU) collections now vastly outweigh the expertise available to make them better "known" via complete taxonomy, yet for many bioregions they represent the most significant body of currently available knowledge. Increasing numbers of cryptic species, previously undetected morphologically, are now being discovered by molecular and chemical analyses. The uncoordinated and fragmented nature of many previous collections, however, means that knowledge and expertise gained from a particular project are often lost to future projects without a biodiversity informatics legacy. Integrating these diverse data (GIS; OTUs; images; molecular, chemical, and other datasets) required a two-way iterative process so far unavailable for sponges with existing biodiversity informatics tools. SpongeMaps arose from the initial need for online collaboration to integrate morphometric data with molecular barcodes, including the Porifera Tree of Life (PorTol) project. It provides interrogation of existing data to better process new collections; capacity to create new OTUs; publication of online pages for individual species, so as to interpret GIS and other data for online biodiversity databases and services; and automatic links to external datasets for taxonomic hierarchy, specimen GIS and mapping, DNA sequence data, chemical structures, and images.

  16. Environmental control measures in sponge iron industry with particular reference to Tata Sponge Iron Limited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarangi, B.M.; Kesav, B.; Sheshadri, M.K.

    2002-07-01

    Direct reduced iron or sponge iron technology was developed as an alternate route for steel making and is considered as a clean technology. The waste generation and gas emissions from this route of steel making are far less when compared to the conventional blast furnace route. The paper details the efforts of Tata Sponge Iron Limited to make the process a clean technology without affecting its surroundings and natural resources. The paper describes the system of bag filters made from filter glass fabric for collecting hot waste gases and for dedusting of product and raw material handling circuits. Design of the plant for waste gas cleaning by scrubbers and by electrostatic precipitators is described. Major pollution control equipment installed at Tata Sponge Iron Ltd., described in the article are: a wet gas cleaning plant (in 1986), a second gas cleaning plant with electrostatic precipitator (in 1998) and dust extraction and dust suppression systems. Water is sprayed around the plant to control fugitive dust and trees have been grown around it. 13 figs.

  17. Effect of cellulase, xylanase and α-amylase combinations on the rheological properties of Chinese steamed bread dough enriched in wheat bran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenjun; Brennan, Margaret Anne; Serventi, Luca; Brennan, Charles Stephen

    2017-11-01

    The present study investigates the effects of α-amylase (6 and 10ppm), xylanase (70 and 120ppm) and cellulase (35 and 60ppm) on the rheological properties of bread dough. The mixing property of dough was measured by using a DoughLAB. The extension and stickiness of dough were analysed using the Texture Analyzer. The results illustrate that the addition of single enzyme and enzyme combinations can increase the extensibility, softening, mixing tolerance index (MTI) and stickiness, whereas decrease the resistance to extension. For water absorption, the addition of single enzyme had no significant effect, while the combination enzyme significantly (pcellulase had a synergetic effect on the dough rheology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of hydrated apple powder on dough rheology and cookies quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Lauková

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Dietary fiber is a group of food components, which are resistant to human enzymatic digestion. The incorporation of dietary fiber obtained from various sources of fruit and vegetable by-products into the cereal based products such as bread, rolls, cookies, muffins, crackers, cakes and pasta is of growing interest for the food industry. The replacement of wheat flour by dietary fiber from various sources can change physicochemical, textural and organoleptic characteristic of bakery products. Apple pomace is the main by-product produced in the apple fruit processing industry. It is a rich source of carbohydrate, pectin, crude fiber, and minerals. The dietary fiber content in apple pomace ranges between 33 - 35%. The influence of hydrated commercial dietary fiber on wheat dough rheology (5, 10 and 15% flour replacement and physical and sensory properties of cookies was examined. It was found that addition of HAP significantly increased the rheological properties of dough such as water absorption (from 58.0% to 75.3%, dough stability (from 6.7 min to 11.6 min and prolonged dough development time (from 3.5 min to 11.0 min and reduced the mixing tolerance index (from 34.7 BU to 11.9 BU. It was also concluded that hydrated apple powder addition reduced physical properties of cookies such as volume (from 10.4 cm3 to 8.0 cm3, diameter (from 4.7 cm to 4.2 cm, volume index (from 1.35 cm to 1.10 cm and porosity (from 0.32 to 0.24. Sensory properties (taste, odour, stickiness, firmness and density of cookies were also analysed. Cookies with addition of hydrated apple powder had fruity taste and odour and showed high overall acceptance. From this study resulted that hydrated apple powder can be used as potentially source of dietary fiber in cookie formulation. Moreover, addition of apple pomace inhibits the use of any other flavouring ingredients because has a pleasant fruity flavour.

  19. Evaluation of Vitamin D3 and D2 Stability in Fortified Flat Bread Samples During Dough Fermentation, Baking and Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabibian, Mehrnaz; Torbati, Mohammadali; Afshar Mogaddam, Mohammad Reza; Mirlohi, Maryam; Sadeghi, Malihe; Mohtadinia, Javad

    2017-06-01

    Purpose: Vitamin D, a fat-soluble secosteroid, has a significant role in bone metabolism and helps calcium absorption in the body. Since vitamin D concentration is altered in fortified foods and dietary supplements, the actual amount of vitamin D may differ from the label value. Methods: In this study, the concentrations of vitamin D 2 and D 3 of fortified bread sample were analytically determined. For this purpose, dough or homogenized bread sample was saponified using potassium hydroxide solution (30%, w/v) at 80°C, and the saponified analytes were extracted into n -heptane followed by liquid-liquid extraction. Then n -heptane fraction was evaporated to dryness and the sample was reconstituted in methanol. The effect of different parameters was evaluated by one variable at one-time strategy. Results: The analytes concentrations were evaluated in dough fermentation, baking and storage steps. The effect of temperature in dough fermentation and baking was evaluated at the range of 5-30 and 200-250°C, respectively. Also, the fermentation time was studied in the range of 0-120 min. The analytes concentrations were followed for 1 to 5 days after baking. The results indicated that dough fermentation temperature has no significant effect on the concentration of the analytes. On the other hand, when the dough fermentation time and baking temperature are increased, the analytes concentrations are decreased. Also, the storage duration of the spiked bread samples decreased the analytes concentrations after one day. Conclusion: Based on the obtained results, baking the dough at high temperatures lead to decrease in vitamin levels.

  20. Fossil and modern sponge fauna of southern Australia and adjacent regions compared: interpretation, evolutionary and biogeographic significance of the late Eocene ‘soft’ sponges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Łukowiak, M.

    2016-01-01

    The late Eocene ‘soft’ sponge fauna of southern Australia is reconstructed based on disassociated spicules and is used to interpret the paleoecology and environmental context of shallow marine communities in this region. The reconstructed sponge association was compared with coeval sponge

  1. Significance of Wheat Flour Dough Rheology to Gas Cell Structure Development in Bread and Other Baked Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engmann, Jan

    2008-07-01

    We discuss which rheological material functions of wheat flour dough are most relevant for structure development in baked products under common processing conditions. We consider the growth of gas cells during dough proofing (driven by yeast) and during baking, where the growth is driven by a combination of CO2 desorption, water and ethanol evaporation, and thermal expansion of gas. Attention is given to upper limits on biaxial extension rate and stress and the consequences for the required rheological material functions. The applicability of the "Considère criterion" to predict the probability of coalescence between gas cells and its effect on loaf aeration is briefly discussed.

  2. DYNAPHORE, INC., FORAGER SPONGE TECHNOLOGY - INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Forager Sponge is a volume reduction technology in which heavy metal contaminants from an aqueous medium are selectively concentrated into a smaller volume for facilitated disposal. he technology treats contaminated groundwater, surface voters and porous waters by absorbing d...

  3. Sponge Microbiota are a Reservoir of Functional Antibiotic Resistance Genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Versluis, Dennis; de Evgrafov, Mari Cristina Rodriguez; Sommer, Morten Otto Alexander

    2016-01-01

    examined sponges as a reservoir of antibiotic resistance. Sponges could be important in this respect because they often contain diverse microbial communities that have the capacity to produce bioactive metabolites. Here, we applied functional metagenomics to study the presence and diversity of functional...... resistance genes in the sponges Aplysina aerophoba, Petrosia ficiformis, and Corticium candelabrum. We obtained 37 insert sequences facilitating resistance to D-cycloserine (n = 6), gentamicin (n = 1), amikacin (n = 7), trimethoprim (n = 17), chloramphenicol (n = 1), rifampicin (n = 2) and ampicillin (n = 3......-resistance-conferring β-lactamase was identified in the genus Pseudovibrio with 41% global amino acid identity to the closest β-lactamase with demonstrated functionality, and subsequently classified into a new family termed PSV. Taken together, our results show that sponge microbiota host diverse and novel resistance...

  4. SITE TECHNOLOGY CAPSULE: DYNAPHORE, INC., FORAGER SPONGE TECHNOLOGY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Forager Sponge is a volume reduction technology in which heavy metal contaminants from an aqueous medium are selectively concentrated into a smaller volume for facilitated disposal. he technology treats contaminated groundwater, surface waters and porous waters by absorbing d...

  5. Bioprospecting of Red Sea Sponges for Novel Antiviral Pharmacophores

    KAUST Repository

    O'Rourke, Aubrie

    2015-01-01

    the coast of Saudi Arabia serves as a newly accessible location, which provides the opportunity to bioprospect marine sponges with the purpose of identifying novel antiviral scaffolds. Antivirals are underrepresented in present day clinical trials, as well

  6. Diversity, structure and convergent evolution of the global sponge microbiome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Torsten; Moitinho-Silva, Lucas; Lurgi, Miguel; Björk, Johannes R.; Easson, Cole; Astudillo-García, Carmen; Olson, Julie B.; Erwin, Patrick M.; López-Legentil, Susanna; Luter, Heidi; Chaves-Fonnegra, Andia; Costa, Rodrigo; Schupp, Peter J.; Steindler, Laura; Erpenbeck, Dirk; Gilbert, Jack; Knight, Rob; Ackermann, Gail; Victor Lopez, Jose; Taylor, Michael W.; Thacker, Robert W.; Montoya, Jose M.; Hentschel, Ute; Webster, Nicole S.

    2016-01-01

    Sponges (phylum Porifera) are early-diverging metazoa renowned for establishing complex microbial symbioses. Here we present a global Porifera microbiome survey, set out to establish the ecological and evolutionary drivers of these host–microbe interactions. We show that sponges are a reservoir of exceptional microbial diversity and major contributors to the total microbial diversity of the world's oceans. Little commonality in species composition or structure is evident across the phylum, although symbiont communities are characterized by specialists and generalists rather than opportunists. Core sponge microbiomes are stable and characterized by generalist symbionts exhibiting amensal and/or commensal interactions. Symbionts that are phylogenetically unique to sponges do not disproportionally contribute to the core microbiome, and host phylogeny impacts complexity rather than composition of the symbiont community. Our findings support a model of independent assembly and evolution in symbiont communities across the entire host phylum, with convergent forces resulting in analogous community organization and interactions. PMID:27306690

  7. Quinolizidines alkaloids: Petrosin and xestospongins from the sponge Oceanapia sp.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Singh, K.S.; Das, B.; Naik, C.G.

    having di-hetro atom rings, from the ethyl acetate extract of the sponge. The compounds exhibited moderate to high activities against some microorganisms and clinical isolates. The structures of the alkaloids were elucidated by NMR and ESIMS spectroscopic...

  8. Two bromotyrosine alkaloids from the sponge Psammaplysilla purpurea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tilvi, S.; Parameswaran, P.S.; Naik, C.G.

    , antimicrobial properties etc. Herein is reported isolation and structure determination of two such alkaloids: 16-debromo aplysamine-4 1 and purpuramine 1 2 from the sponge @iP. purpurea@@ collected from Mandapam, Tamil Nadu, India. The structures...

  9. Antibacterial Properties of Marine Sponges from Mauritius Waters

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    assay. The extracts were screened for the presence of compounds that could be responsible for bioactivity. ... Keywords: Biemna tubulosa, Stylissa spp., Antibacterial activity, Marine sponges, MIC. Tropical ..... Bio-organic and Med. Chem 2003 ...

  10. Larvicidal and insecticidal properties of some marine sponges ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-01-18

    Jan 18, 2008 ... Considering both these activities, the following sponges. Psammaplysilla .... ticidal activities even at higher concentrations or doses. (400 ppm for .... cardiovascular, immune and nervous systems and other miscellaneous ...

  11. Distribution, abundance and ecology of the sponge Spheciospongia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science ... Journal Home > Vol 12, No 1 (2013) > ... Distribution, abundance and ecology of the sponge Spheciospongia vagabunda (Phylum: Porifera, Class: Demospongiae) in a shallow lagoon of ...

  12. New bromotyrosine alkaloids from the marine sponge Psammaplysilla purpurea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tilvi, S.; Rodrigues, C; Naik, C; Parameswaran, P.S.; Wahidullah, S.

    Seven new bromotyrosine alkaloids Purpurealidin A, B, C, D, F, G, H and the known compounds Purealidin Q, Purpurealidin E, 16-Debromoaplysamine-4 and Purpuramine I have been isolated from the marine sponge Psammaplysilla purpurea. Their structure...

  13. Cultivation of Marine Sponges: From Sea to Cell

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sipkema, D.

    2004-01-01

    Marine sponges are one of the richest natural sources of secondary metabolites with a potential pharmaceutical application. A plethora of chemical compounds, with widely varying carbon skeletons, possessing among other anticancer, antiviral, antibiotic, antiinflammatory and antimalaria activity has

  14. Call to protect deep-sea coral, sponge ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2004-03-01

    More than 1100 scientists are signatories to a 15 February consensus statement calling for the protection of deep sea coral and sponge ecosystems. The statement indicates that ``the greatest human threat'' to these ecosystems ``is commercial fishing, especially bottom trawling.''

  15. Functional Insights into Sponge Microbiology by Single Cell Genomics

    KAUST Repository

    Hentschel, Ute

    2011-04-09

    Marine Sponges (Porifera) are known to harbor enormous amounts of microorganisms with members belonging to at least 30 different bacterial phyla including several candidate phyla and both archaeal lineages. Here, we applied single cell genomics to the mic

  16. Transabdominal Migration of Retained Surgical Sponge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Guner

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Retained surgical sponge (RSS is a rare surgical complication. The RSSs are mostly located intra-abdominally but they can also be left in the thorax, spine, extremity, cranium, and breast. RSS is often difficult to diagnose because of the nonspecific clinical symptoms and radiologic findings. Clinically, RSS may present as an exudative reaction in the early postoperative period or may also cause an aseptic fibrous tissue response. A foreign body may remain asymptomatically silent for a long time, and it may later present with obstruction, fistulization, or mass formation. In this report, we present a case in which an RSS has migrated through the abdominal wall and caused an anterior abdominal wall abscess.

  17. Medullary sponge kidney and isolated hemihyperplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P S Priyamvada

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The term hemihyperplasia refers to an enlargement of body parts beyond the normal asymmetry. Hemihyperplasia can be isolated or associated with various well-described malformation syndromes. Medullary sponge kidney (MSK has been described with isolated and syndromic hemihyperplasia; the actual prevalence is not known The hemi hypertrophy can be so subtle that it may be easily overlooked. MSK need not be limited to the side of hemihyperplasia - most often it is bilateral. Around 33 cases has been reported from different parts of the world of which 15 cases are isolated hemi hyperplasia (IHH, the remaining occurring in the context of various malformation syndromes So far only one case has been reported from India. We report a case of IHH involving right side of the body, recurrent renal stones, incomplete distal renal tubular acidosis hypercalciuria and imaging showing bilateral MSKs.

  18. Identification Sponges-Associated Fungi From Karimunjawa National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trianto, Agus; Sabdono, Agus; Rochaddi, Baskoro; Wulan Triningsih, Desy; Seswita Zilda, Dewi

    2018-02-01

    Marine sponges are rich sources of bioactive substances with various pharmacological activities. Previous studies have shown that most bioactive compounds were originally produced by associated-microorganisms. Fungi associated with the marine sponges collected off Karimunjawa National Park were isolated and identified by morphological characteristics and molecular level analyses based on internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions. A total of 2 isolates which were characterized, the fungi Penicillium spinulosum and Trichoderma virens have been revealed.

  19. Arc melting in inert gas atmosphere of zirconium sponge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Julio Junior, O.; Andrade, A.H.P. de

    1991-01-01

    The obtainment of metallic zirconium in laboratory scale with commercial and nuclear quality is the objective of the Metallurgy Department of IEN/CNEN - Brazil, so a melting procedure of zirconium sponge in laboratory scale using an arc furnace in inert atmosphere is developed. The effects of atmosphere operation, and the use of gas absorber and the sponge characteristics over the quality of button in as-cast reporting with hardness measures are described. (C.G.C.)

  20. Preparation and characterization of sponge film made from feathers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhuang, Yuan; Wu, Xiaoqian [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Cao, Zhangjun [College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Zhao, Xiaoxiang; Zhou, Meihua [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Gao, Pin, E-mail: gaopin@mail.dhu.edu.cn [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China)

    2013-12-01

    Feather wastes generated from poultry farms will pose a problem for disposal, but they are sustainable resources of keratin. Reduction is one of the commonly used methods to obtain soluble keratin from feather. However, the residues generated during feather reduction reaction were rarely investigated. In this study, the residues were transformed into a porous and flexible sponge film by freeze-drying without pretreatment or addition of cross-linking agents. Glycerol was used to alter the physical and chemical characteristics of the sponge film. The film was characterized with a fiber strong stretch instrument, a Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer, scanning electron microscopy, an elemental analyzer, a differential scanning calorimeter and an automatic air permeability apparatus. Tensile strength and melting point of the sponge film with the optimum glycerol content were 6.2 MPa and 170 °C respectively. Due to air permeability of 368 mm/s, the film can potentially be used in medicine, biology, textile, environmental technology, and so on. It is ecologically friendly and will produce additional benefits from the renewable materials. The film was utilized as adsorbents to remove Cr(VI) from aqueous solutions and as a filtering material for air pollution. Its maximum Cr(VI) uptake capacity was about 148.8 mg/g and the removal rate of PM{sub 10} was 98.3%. - Graphical abstract: The reduction residues were made into a smooth, elastic, porous and flexible sponge film through freeze drying, no pretreatment and no cross-linking agent added. - Highlights: • The residue from feather waste reduction was turned into a sponge film. • A glycerol content of 5% produced a sponge with the optimum characteristics. • The sponge was uniform, stable up to 160 °C, and had an air permeability of 368 mm/s. • Feather-derived sponge film has potential applications in medicine and technology.

  1. Preparation and characterization of sponge film made from feathers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuang, Yuan; Wu, Xiaoqian; Cao, Zhangjun; Zhao, Xiaoxiang; Zhou, Meihua; Gao, Pin

    2013-01-01

    Feather wastes generated from poultry farms will pose a problem for disposal, but they are sustainable resources of keratin. Reduction is one of the commonly used methods to obtain soluble keratin from feather. However, the residues generated during feather reduction reaction were rarely investigated. In this study, the residues were transformed into a porous and flexible sponge film by freeze-drying without pretreatment or addition of cross-linking agents. Glycerol was used to alter the physical and chemical characteristics of the sponge film. The film was characterized with a fiber strong stretch instrument, a Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer, scanning electron microscopy, an elemental analyzer, a differential scanning calorimeter and an automatic air permeability apparatus. Tensile strength and melting point of the sponge film with the optimum glycerol content were 6.2 MPa and 170 °C respectively. Due to air permeability of 368 mm/s, the film can potentially be used in medicine, biology, textile, environmental technology, and so on. It is ecologically friendly and will produce additional benefits from the renewable materials. The film was utilized as adsorbents to remove Cr(VI) from aqueous solutions and as a filtering material for air pollution. Its maximum Cr(VI) uptake capacity was about 148.8 mg/g and the removal rate of PM 10 was 98.3%. - Graphical abstract: The reduction residues were made into a smooth, elastic, porous and flexible sponge film through freeze drying, no pretreatment and no cross-linking agent added. - Highlights: • The residue from feather waste reduction was turned into a sponge film. • A glycerol content of 5% produced a sponge with the optimum characteristics. • The sponge was uniform, stable up to 160 °C, and had an air permeability of 368 mm/s. • Feather-derived sponge film has potential applications in medicine and technology

  2. Pyrosequencing Reveals the Microbial Communities in the Red Sea Sponge Carteriospongia foliascens and Their Impressive Shifts in Abnormal Tissues

    KAUST Repository

    Gao, Zhaoming; Wang, Yong; Lee, Onon; Tian, Renmao; Wong, Yuehim; Bougouffa, Salim; Batang, Zenon B.; Al-Suwailem, Abdulaziz M.; Lafi, Feras Fawzi; Bajic, Vladimir B.; Qian, Peiyuan

    2014-01-01

    Abnormality and disease in sponges have been widely reported, yet how sponge-associated microbes respond correspondingly remains inconclusive. Here, individuals of the sponge Carteriospongia foliascens under abnormal status were collected from

  3. Natural RNA circles function as efficient microRNA sponges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Birkballe; Jensen, Trine I; Clausen, Bettina Hjelm

    2013-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression that act by direct base pairing to target sites within untranslated regions of messenger RNAs. Recently, miRNA activity has been shown to be affected by the presence of miRNA sponge transcripts, the so-called comp......MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression that act by direct base pairing to target sites within untranslated regions of messenger RNAs. Recently, miRNA activity has been shown to be affected by the presence of miRNA sponge transcripts, the so......-called competing endogenous RNA in humans and target mimicry in plants. We previously identified a highly expressed circular RNA (circRNA) in human and mouse brain. Here we show that this circRNA acts as a miR-7 sponge; we term this circular transcript ciRS-7 (circular RNA sponge for miR-7). ciRS-7 contains more...... sponge, suggesting that miRNA sponge effects achieved by circRNA formation are a general phenomenon. This study serves as the first, to our knowledge, functional analysis of a naturally expressed circRNA....

  4. Intact collagen and atelocollagen sponges: Characterization and ESEM observation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruozi, Barbara; Tosi, Giovanni; Leo, Eliana; Parma, Bruna; Vismara, Susanna; Forni, Flavio; Vandelli, Maria Angela

    2007-01-01

    In this study we have investigated the chemical-physical and morphological properties of intact and atelocollagen sponges used for tissue engineering. The porous sponges were prepared by lyophilization and their physico-chemical characteristics (water binding capacity, denaturing temperature, amino group content) were investigated. Considering the importance of the 'in vivo' interactions between these sponges and the tissue, our attention was addressed (a) to clarify the relationships between the morphology and the amount of water absorbed and (b) to evaluate the influence of pepsin-alkaline treatment on the reorganization of the atelocollagen fibres. Conventional scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) were employed to study the morphology and wetting behaviour of the intact and atelocollagen sponges. The observations by SEM indicated remarkable differences both in the structure and dimension of the pores between intact and atelocollagen sponges. At the data are related to a different water binding capacity. However, the ESEM observations, achieved by changing the relative humidity in the operative chamber, demonstrated that the water adsorbed can be removed with major difficulty from atelocollagen sponges than from intact ones

  5. Gene Expression Dynamics Accompanying the Sponge Thermal Stress Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman, Christine; Conaco, Cecilia

    2016-01-01

    Marine sponges are important members of coral reef ecosystems. Thus, their responses to changes in ocean chemistry and environmental conditions, particularly to higher seawater temperatures, will have potential impacts on the future of these reefs. To better understand the sponge thermal stress response, we investigated gene expression dynamics in the shallow water sponge, Haliclona tubifera (order Haplosclerida, class Demospongiae), subjected to elevated temperature. Using high-throughput transcriptome sequencing, we show that these conditions result in the activation of various processes that interact to maintain cellular homeostasis. Short-term thermal stress resulted in the induction of heat shock proteins, antioxidants, and genes involved in signal transduction and innate immunity pathways. Prolonged exposure to thermal stress affected the expression of genes involved in cellular damage repair, apoptosis, signaling and transcription. Interestingly, exposure to sublethal temperatures may improve the ability of the sponge to mitigate cellular damage under more extreme stress conditions. These insights into the potential mechanisms of adaptation and resilience of sponges contribute to a better understanding of sponge conservation status and the prediction of ecosystem trajectories under future climate conditions.

  6. High-performance nanostructured supercapacitors on a sponge

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Wei

    2011-12-14

    A simple and scalable method has been developed to fabricate nanostructured MnO 2-carbon nanotube (CNT)-sponge hybrid electrodes. A novel supercapacitor, henceforth referred to as "sponge supercapacitor", has been fabricated using these hybrid electrodes with remarkable performance. A specific capacitance of 1230 F/g (based on the mass of MnO 2) can be reached. Capacitors based on CNT-sponge substrates (without MnO 2) can be operated even under a high scan rate of 200 V/s, and they exhibit outstanding cycle performance with only 2% degradation after 100000 cycles under a scan rate of 10 V/s. The MnO 2-CNT-sponge supercapacitors show only 4% of degradation after 10000 cycles at a charge-discharge specific current of 5 A/g. The specific power and energy of the MnO 2-CNT-sponge supercapacitors are high with values of 63 kW/kg and 31 Wh/kg, respectively. The attractive performances exhibited by these sponge supercapacitors make them potentially promising candidates for future energy storage systems. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  7. Impact of reducing and oxidising agents on the wheat flour dough dynamic rheological properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlína Pečivová

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic measurements with an oscillatory rheometer were made to study the rheological properties of wheat flour doughs and to examine how they are related to the composition of dough (the addition of oxidising and reducing agents.It was found that L-cysteine hydrochloride monohydrate (0.6 × 10−2 − 4.0 × 10−2 wt.%, L-cysteine p. a. (0.6 × 10−2 − 1.4 × 10−2 wt.% and glutathione-inactivated dry yeast (1.8 × 10−2 − 14.0 × 10−2 wt.% show softening effects. An interesting phenomenon was observed from the concentration of 2.4 × 10−2 wt.% of L-cysteine p. a., where proces of weakening was decelerated. L-cysteine start making cystine by reaction of two cysteine molecules and proces of weakening was decelerated. L-threonine, L-tryptophan within the concentration range of 2.0 × 10−2 − 14.0 × 10−2 wt.% and L-tyrosine, especially at concentrations 10.0 × 10−2 − 14.0 × 10−2 wt.%, have strengthening effects. L-cysteine hydrochloride monohydrate exhibited the strongest softening effect while L-tryptophan had the strongest stiffening effect on the gluten network.

  8. Mitigation of the processing contaminant acrylamide in bread by reducing asparagine in the bread dough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsaiti, Tatiana; Granby, Kit

    2016-09-01

    Over the past few years there has been an increasing awareness regarding acrylamide (AAM) content of various foods. Although there are several relevant articles on AAM mitigation in industrially prepared products, the literature regarding homemade preparations is rather scarce. The objective of this study is to mitigate the AAM formation in baked buns made with 1:1 sifted wheat/wholegrain flour through the depletion of asparagine (ASN) in the bread dough. Using a full-factorial design, the effect of four factors (yeast amount, fermentation time, fermentation temperature and yeast types) was tested. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was used for AAM and its main precursor, ASN, determination. The resulting ASN depletion in the dough (68-89%) is significantly affected by fermentation time and yeast type, while AAM mitigation levels in the baked buns are significantly influenced by yeast amount, fermentation time and yeast type. The mean concentrations for each combination range between 5 and 15 µg kg(-)(1).

  9. Particle size distribution of wheat starch granules in relation to baking properties of frozen dough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Han; Wang, Pei; Wu, Fengfeng; Jin, Zhengyu; Xu, Xueming

    2016-02-10

    The impact of freezing on the wheat starches with different particle size was studied using a range of characterization methods including X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, the Rapid Visco Analyser and a reconstitution dough system. Wheat starches were fractionated into A- and B-type granules, and then subjected to freezing/thawing treatment for 3 cycles. The freezing treatment did not cause apparent damage on A-type granular surface but induced cracked structure on B-type granules. It facilitated materials such as amylose, proteins, and lipids leaching from starch granule and an increase in gelatinization temperatures, melting enthalpy, and pasting viscosities. A smaller bread specific volume was obtained from freezing-treated B-granules while the crumb firmness significantly increased (p>0.05). No marked differences were observed in the counterparts of A-granules after freezing treatment. It seemed that the B-type granules were more sensitive to the freezing/thawing treatment, thus facilitating structural transformations from dough to bread. Results indicated that the deterioration in frozen bread quality derived from starch could be minimized by increasing the A-granules content. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. FARINOGRAPHIC EVALUATION OF WHEAT DOUGH ENRICHED WITH INULIN, NAKED BARLEY, MALT AND POTEX ADDITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marián Tokár

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important biological substances consumed in insufficient quantity is fibre that is often deficient in the diet. In general, dietary fibre is edible part of plants, or similar carbohydrates, that are resistant to digestion and absorption in the small intestine. Nowadays, there are many sources of fibre available for bakery industry, whether through addition of non-traditional bread cereals or through isolated form as additives. Except to supposed increase the nutritional value of bakery products with added fiber and raw materials containing fiber is necessary to think about their technological quality and rheological properties of dough. The aim of this experimental work was to investigate the effect of the addition of selected polysaccharides (inulin, Potex - potato fiber and non-bakery crops (naked barley, malt containing significant polysaccharides used in the mixture with wheat flour type T-650 in different ratios on the basis of farinographic evaluations. Based on the results of rheological measurements we found out that quality of dough was deteriorating proportionally to the amount of used additives. On the other hand, positively could be considered the increase of water absorption with addition of Potex and naked barley.

  11. Protein-transitions in and out of the dough matrix in wheat flour mixing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaolong; Appels, Rudi; Zhang, Xiaoke; Bekes, Ferenc; Torok, Kitti; Tomoskozi, Sandor; Diepeveen, Dean; Ma, Wujun; Islam, Shahidul

    2017-02-15

    Sequential protein behavior in the wheat dough matrix under continuous mixing and heating treatment has been studied using Mixolab-dough samples from two Australian wheat cultivars, Westonia and Wyalkatchem. Size exclusion high performance liquid chromatography (SE-HPLC) and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DGE) analysis indicated that 32min (80°C) was a critical time point in forming large protein complexes and loosing extractability of several protein groups like y-type high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GSs), gamma-gliadins, beta-amylases, serpins, and metabolic proteins with higher mass. Up to 32min (80°C) Westonia showed higher protein extractability compared to Wyalkatchem although it was in the opposite direction thereafter. Twenty differentially expressed proteins could be assigned to chromosomes 1D, 3A, 4A, 4B, 4D, 6A, 6B, 7A and 7B. The results expanded the range of proteins associated with changes in the gluten-complex during processing and provided targets for selecting new genetic variants associated with altered quality attributes of the flour. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Influence of watermelon seed protein concentrates on dough handling, textural and sensory properties of cookies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wani, Ali Abas; Sogi, D S; Singh, Preeti; Khatkar, B S

    2015-04-01

    Fruit processing wastes contain numerous by products of potential use in food & allied industry. Watermelon seeds represent a major by-product of the processing waste and contain high amount of nutritional proteins. Protein rich cereal based products are in demand due to their health promoting benefits. With this aim, wheat flour was fortified with watermelon seed protein concentrates (2.5 %, 5 %, 7.5 % and 10 % levels) to prepare cookies with desirable physical, nutritional, and textural and sensory properties. Substitution levels of 5 % and 10 % significantly (p ≤ 0.05) increased the dough stability and mixing tolerance index, however pasting properties and dough extensibility decreased considerably above 5 % substitution levels. Cookie fracture force (kg) increased significantly (p ≤ 0.05) above 5 % fortification levels. Cookie spread factor (W/T) increased from 2.5 % to 7.5 % fortification levels, further increase showed negative impact. Sensory scores of the cookies showed that protein concentrate may be added up to 7.5 % fortification levels. This study revealed that watermelon protein concentrates can be fortified with protein concentrates upto 5-7.5 % levels in cookies to improve their protein quality.

  13. EVALUATION OF ELASTICITY AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF BREAD DOUGH MADE WITH REPLACED FLOUR POTATO (IPOMOEA BATATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ely Fernando Sacón Vera

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the incorporation of sweet potato flour, with 30% replacement in 1kg of wheat flour was evaluated to determine the behavior of elastic and mechanical properties during the kneading and baking stage of bread. For the evaluation the following varieties were studied: Morado Brazil, Morado Ecuador, Guayaco Morado, Ina and Toquecita, and the evaluated properties were: texture (hardness, elasticity, firmness, chewiness measured by a texture meter Bloomfield and volume was measured by INEN standard (NTE INEN 0530: 80. The design employed was completely at random, using analysis of variance at 5% significance level. The results obtained showed that elasticity attribute in texture variable presented significant differences (P <0.05. Analysis concluded that including Toquecita flour in the mixture to form the dough, had the highest elasticity of 13.32mm. However, Morado Ecuador variety flour presented a 6.24 mm elasticity value, ideal for both the malleability of the dough and the freshness of the bread, and concerning volume, the inclusion of Ecuador Morado flour and Ina in the formulation of bread, showed an increase in volume at 93.30 and 93.67cm3 respectively, close to the normed value for wheat flour bread.

  14. Rotating bouncing disks, tossing pizza dough, and the behavior of ultrasonic motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kuang-Chen; Friend, James; Yeo, Leslie

    2009-10-01

    Pizza tossing and certain forms of standing-wave ultrasonic motors (SWUMs) share a similar process for converting reciprocating input into continuous rotary motion. We show that the key features of this motion conversion process such as collision, separation and friction coupling are captured by the dynamics of a disk bouncing on a vibrating platform. The model shows that the linear or helical hand motions commonly used by pizza chefs and dough-toss performers for single tosses maximize energy efficiency and the dough’s airborne rotational speed; on the other hand, the semielliptical hand motions used for multiple tosses make it easier to maintain dough rotation at the maximum speed. The system’s bifurcation diagram and basins of attraction also provide a physical basis for understanding the peculiar behavior of SWUMs and provide a means to design them. The model is able to explain the apparently chaotic oscillations that occur in SWUMs and predict the observed trends in steady-state speed and stall torque as preload is increased.

  15. Pyrosequencing reveals highly diverse and species-specific microbial communities in sponges from the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Onon

    2010-11-18

    Marine sponges are associated with a remarkable array of microorganisms. Using a tag pyrosequencing technology, this study was the first to investigate in depth the microbial communities associated with three Red Sea sponges, Hyrtios erectus, Stylissa carteri and Xestospongia testudinaria. We revealed highly diverse sponge-associated bacterial communities with up to 1000 microbial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and richness estimates of up to 2000 species. Altogether, 26 bacterial phyla were detected from the Red Sea sponges, 11 of which were absent from the surrounding sea water and 4 were recorded in sponges for the first time. Up to 100 OTUs with richness estimates of up to 300 archaeal species were revealed from a single sponge species. This is by far the highest archaeal diversity ever recorded for sponges. A non-negligible proportion of unclassified reads was observed in sponges. Our results demonstrated that the sponge-associated microbial communities remained highly consistent in the same sponge species from different locations, although they varied at different degrees among different sponge species. A significant proportion of the tag sequences from the sponges could be assigned to one of the sponge-specific clusters previously defined. In addition, the sponge-associated microbial communities were consistently divergent from those present in the surrounding sea water. Our results suggest that the Red Sea sponges possess highly sponge-specific or even sponge-species-specific microbial communities that are resistant to environmental disturbance, and much of their microbial diversity remains to be explored. © 2011 International Society for Microbial Ecology All rights reserved.

  16. Experience of Sponge City Master Plan: A Case Study of Nanning City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Wei; Wang Jiazhuo; Che Han; Wang Chen; Zhang Chunyang; Shi Lian; Fan Jin; Li Caige

    2017-01-01

    As a new urban development pattern, the construction of sponge cities has been deeply integrated into the new urbanization and water safety strategy. Nanning City, as one of the first batch of experimental sponge cities in China, has undertaken exploration and practice on sponge city planning, construction, and management. The sponge city master plan of Nanning City establishes an urban ecological spatial pattern in order to protect the security of the sponge base. The sponge city construction strategy has also proposed an overall construction strategy of a sponge city in line with urban development features. Through the systematic analysis and planning, a “23+10+202” pattern of sponge city construction has been formed. “23” represents 23 drainage basins, in which major sponge facilities such as storage facilities, waterfront buffer zones, wetland parks, ecological rainwater corridor and sponge parks are allocated. “10” represents 10 sponge functional zones, which provide important reference for the establishment of sponge city construction index system. “202” represents 202 management units, which decomposes the general objective and provides technical support not only for sponge city construction and management, but also for the implementation of general objectives in the regulatory plan as well.

  17. A Comparative Study of Partial Replacement of Wheat Flour with Whey and Soy Protein on Rheological Properties of Dough and Cookie Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaozhi Tang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of wheat-based foods that are enriched with proteins is increasingly popular. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of partial replacement of wheat flour with whey and soy proteins (0–30% on the rheological properties of dough and cookie-making quality. The incorporation of whey protein (WP diluted the concentration of gluten, leading to an increase in dough development time (MDT and breakdown torque and a decrease in stability time (MST and minimum torque (MMT. The gelation of WP during the heat treatment increased dough peak torque (MPT, G′, and G′′. As a contrast, the addition of soy protein (SP increased dough MST, MDT, and MMT. The aggregation of SP helped increase G′ and decrease tan δ of the dough in oscillatory shear tests. The weak gelling effects and higher water absorption of SP decreased MPT, G′, and G′′ of the dough during heat treatment. With SP, the spread ratio of cookies first decreased from 6.39 to 5.66 and then increased to 6.86, and the overall acceptability scores ranged from 6.62 to 7.02, indicating that the formed soy protein network helped maintain the dough structure for obtaining an improvement in the quality of bakery products.

  18. Phytate negatively influences wheat dough and bread characteristics by interfering with cross-linking of glutenin molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    The influence of added phytate on dough properties and bread baking quality was studied to determine the role of phytate in the impaired functional properties of whole grain wheat flour for baking bread. Phytate addition to refined flour at a 1% level substantially increased mixograph mixing time, g...

  19. Quantitative assessment of gas cell development during the proofing of dough by magnetic resonance imaging and image analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duynhoven, van J.P.M.; Kempen, van G.M.P.; Sluis, van R.; Rieger, B.; Weegels, P.; Vliet, van L.J.; Nicolaij, K.

    2003-01-01

    The structure of bread crumb is an important factor in consumer acceptance of bakery products. The noninvasive monitoring of the gas cell formation during the proofing of dough can aid in understanding the mechanisms governing the crumb appearance in the baked product. The development of gas cells

  20. Yeast-Leavened Laminated Salty Baked Goods: Flour and Dough Properties and Their Relationship with Product Technological Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Horra, Ana E; Steffolani, María Eugenia; Barrera, Gabriela N; Ribotta, Pablo D; León, Alberto E

    2015-12-01

    The effect of protein composition and content on the characteristics and properties of laminated baked products has been studied for a long time. However, there are no flour quality parameters related to its suitability to produce yeast-leavened laminated salty baked products. The relationships among flour characteristics, laminated dough pieces and baked products were studied in order to establish flour quality parameters and help predict the quality of the products. Yeast-leavened salty laminated products made with hard wheat flour had better quality properties than the products made with soft wheat flour. Hydrophilic components and a high gluten network quality are responsible for the generation of a rigid structure and viscous dough. Consequently, during baking, the dough rises rather than extends laterally and does not experience any change in the expected shape. Among the analysed flour characteristics, glutenin macropolymer content, lactic acid and sodium carbonate solvent retention capacities together with dough viscosity and resistance to deformation were the variables which influenced the most the quality of yeast-leavened salty laminated products.

  1. Yeast-Leavened Laminated Salty Baked Goods: Flour and Dough Properties and Their Relationship with Product Technological Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto E. León

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of protein composition and content on the characteristics and properties of laminated baked products has been studied for a long time. However, there are no flour quality parameters related to its suitability to produce yeast-leavened laminated salty baked products. The relationships among flour characteristics, laminated dough pieces and baked products were studied in order to establish flour quality parameters and help predict the quality of the products. Yeast-leavened salty laminated products made with hard wheat flour had better quality properties than the products made with soft wheat flour. Hydrophilic components and a high gluten network quality are responsible for the generation of a rigid structure and viscous dough. Consequently, during baking, the dough rises rather than extends laterally and does not experience any change in the expected shape. Among the analysed flour characteristics, glutenin macropolymer content, lactic acid and sodium carbonate solvent retention capacities together with dough viscosity and resistance to deformation were the variables which influenced the most the quality of yeast-leavened salty laminated products.

  2. Fermented Dough Characteristics of Wheat-barley-hemp Composites. Comparison of Two Dosages of Barley and Hemp Wholemeal/Flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Hrušková

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Wheat flour substitution by barley one led to shortening of fermentation and leavening times (about 14–57% and 35–83%, respectively as well as to lessening of dough volumes (about 25–75%, based on lowered protein quality (Zeleny value. Addition of barley flour affected specific bread volume; diminishing for wheat-barley blends 70:30 and 50:50 reached 30% and 43%, respectively. Volume of bread prepared from wheat-barley blend 70:30 enhanced by dehulled hemp wholemeal was the highest within the tested tri-composites set, achieving 130% of wheat-barley control; other hemp products caused the parameter decrease (from 8 to 33%. Within a group of bakery products containing 50% of barley flour, hulled hemp wholemeal partially supressed negative effect of barley flour – specific bread volumes increased about ca 15%. Commercial fine hemp flour samples demonstrated a reversal influence – its addition resulted into lower buns size than wheat-barley control (about 3–34%. Between wheat flour and both groups of flour tri-composites, PCA confirmed differences in dough and bread technological quality. Specific bread volume could be predicted according to maturograph dough elasticity, dough or bread OTG volumes.

  3. Effects of cellulose fiber with different fiber length on rheological properties of wheat dough and quality of baked rolls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauková, Michaela; Kohajdová, Zlatica; Karovičová, Jolana; Kuchtová, Veronika; Minarovičová, Lucia; Tomášiková, Lenka

    2017-09-01

    Powdered cellulose is often used in cereal processing industry. The effects of partial replacement (0.5%, 1%, 2% and 5%) of wheat flour by cellulose fiber with different fiber length (80, 120 and 220 µm) on rheological properties of wheat dough and qualitative parameters of baked rolls were studied. Sensory evaluation of baked products was also performed. Mixing and pasting properties of dough were determined by Mixolab. Generally, cellulose-enriched dough was characterized with higher water absorption, dough stability and parameters C2 and C3. Moreover, it was found that parameters C4 and C5 increased with increasing cellulose fiber length. From the results, it was also concluded that the physical parameters of baked rolls containing cellulose were reduced. It was also observed that the incorporation of cellulose fiber with shorter fiber length concluded in lower rolls volume compared to cellulose fiber with long fiber length. Texture analyses showed that the firmness of rolls containing cellulose at the substitution level 5% was significantly higher than those of the control, whereas the springiness of wheat rolls was not significantly affected. It was also recorded that the firmness and cohesiveness of baked rolls were higher after the addition of cellulose fiber with shorter fiber length. Sensory evaluation indicated that baked rolls with cellulose addition up to 1% were comparable with control rolls. Results also showed that higher levels of cellulose significantly decreased crust, taste, color and porosity of rolls.

  4. The role of sponge-bacteria interactions: the sponge Aplysilla rosea challenged by its associated bacterium Streptomyces ACT-52A in a controlled aquarium system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehbub, Mohammad F; Tanner, Jason E; Barnett, Stephen J; Franco, Christopher M M; Zhang, Wei

    2016-12-01

    Sponge-associated bacteria play a critical role in sponge biology, metabolism and ecology, but how they interact with their host sponges and the role of these interactions are poorly understood. This study investigated the role of the interaction between the sponge Aplysilla rosea and its associated actinobacterium, Streptomyces ACT-52A, in modifying sponge microbial diversity, metabolite profile and bioactivity. A recently developed experimental approach that exposes sponges to bacteria of interest in a controlled aquarium system was improved by including the capture and analysis of secreted metabolites by the addition of an absorbent resin in the seawater. In a series of controlled aquaria, A. rosea was exposed to Streptomyces ACT-52A at 10 6  cfu/ml and monitored for up to 360 h. Shifts in microbial communities associated with the sponges occurred within 24 to 48 h after bacterial exposure and continued until 360 h, as revealed by TRFLP. The metabolite profiles of sponge tissues also changed substantially as the microbial community shifted. Control sponges (without added bacteria) and Streptomyces ACT-52A-exposed sponges released different metabolites into the seawater that was captured by the resin. The antibacterial activity of compounds collected from the seawater increased at 96 and 360 h of exposure for the treated sponges compared to the control group due to new compounds being produced and released. Increased antibacterial activity of metabolites from treated sponge tissue was observed only at 360 h, whereas that of control sponge tissue remained unchanged. The results demonstrate that the interaction between sponges and their associated bacteria plays an important role in regulating secondary metabolite production.

  5. Carbon nanotube-coated macroporous sponge for microbial fuel cell electrodes

    KAUST Repository

    Xie, Xing; Ye, Meng; Hu, Liangbing; Liu, Nian; McDonough, James R.; Chen, Wei; Alshareef, Husam N.; Criddle, Craig S.; Cui, Yi

    2012-01-01

    The materials that are used to make electrodes and their internal structures significantly affect microbial fuel cell (MFC) performance. In this study, we describe a carbon nanotube (CNT)-sponge composite prepared by coating a sponge with CNTs

  6. Response of the Mediterranean sponge Chondrosia reniformis Nardo to copper pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cebrian, E.; Agell, G.; Marti, R.; Uriz, M.J.

    2006-01-01

    We examined the effects of exposure to copper pollution on the Atlanto-Mediterranean sponge Chondrosia reniformis. We transplanted sponges from an unpolluted control area to a harbour with a moderately high concentration of copper and measured several biological sponge variables. No effect of this habitat was detected on sponge growth, shape, heat-shock protein expression or metal accumulation. However, a decrease in the clearance rate, an increase in the collagen/cell rate (due to a decrease in the cellular components) and a lower survival rate after 4 months of the sponges transplanted to the harbour was observed. We suggest that copper may alter the sponge physiology, by reducing pumping capacity, which may ultimately lead to sponge death. Consequently, copper pollution exerts strong negative effects on this organism. - Contrasting effects of copper pollution on the Atlanto-Mediterranean sponge Chondrosia reniformis

  7. Pyrosequencing reveals highly diverse and species-specific microbial communities in sponges from the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Onon; Wang, Yong; Yang, Jiangke; Lafi, Feras Fawzi; Al-Suwailem, Abdulaziz M.; Qian, Peiyuan

    2010-01-01

    Marine sponges are associated with a remarkable array of microorganisms. Using a tag pyrosequencing technology, this study was the first to investigate in depth the microbial communities associated with three Red Sea sponges, Hyrtios erectus

  8. Alkaloids from sponge, scaffolds for the inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus (hiv)

    KAUST Repository

    O'Rourke, Aubrie; Kremb, Stephan; Voolstra, Christian R.

    2016-01-01

    Anti-viral compounds with low cytotoxicity are identified from screening of products found in Red Sea sponges, including the sponge Stylissa carteri. The identified compounds can be brominated pyrrole-2- aminoimidazole alkaloids and derivatives

  9. Barrier Methods of Birth Control: Spermicide, Condom, Sponge, Diaphragm, and Cervical Cap

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ACOG Barrier Methods of Birth Control: Spermicide, Condom, Sponge, Diaphragm, and Cervical Cap Home For Patients Search ... Format Barrier Methods of Birth Control: Spermicide, Condom, Sponge, Diaphragm, and Cervical Cap Contraception What are barrier ...

  10. [Morphological, optical, and structural characteristics of glass sponge spicules and the photoreceptor hypothesis of their survival].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voznesenskiĭ, S S; Kul'chin, Iu N; Galkina, A N; Sergeev, A A

    2010-01-01

    The morphology, structure, and optical characteristics of spicules of some sea glass sponges have been studied. The results obtained are interpreted from the point of view of their possible role in the survival of the organism of sponges.

  11. Phylogenetic diversity and community structure of sponge-associated bacteria from mangroves of the Caribbean Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Jiangke; Sun, Jin; Lee, On On; Yim, Him Wong; Qian, Pei Yuan

    2011-01-01

    ribosomal RNA gene sequences, of the 4 sponge species Aplysina fulva, Haliclona hogarthi, Tedania ignis and Ircinia strobilina as well as of ambient seawater. The sponge-associated bacterial communities contained 13 phyla, including Poribacteria

  12. Effect of potato (Solanum tuberosum addition on dough properties, sensory qualities and resistant starch content of bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lidia IANCU

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to assess the effects of adding different varieties of boiled potatoes-pasta (PP, Impala (I and Orchestra (O, to wheat flour in bread making. These potato varieties were used to replace wholemeal 1250 type flour (F1 and hard wheat semolina flour (F2 in different concentrations: 5%, 10%, 20%, 30%. The rheological properties of dough with added potato were assessed by means of the flour-graphic technique. The study also determined the amount of resistant starch (RS, non-resistant starch (n-RS, total starch (TS and moisture content of the potato bread. The results showed that the water absorption (WA in the potato dough containing salt and yeast decreased by 28.8% (F2-I-PP, and by 41.2% (F1-I-PP respectively. The same happened with the dough development time, dough stability and quality number. We found out that the degree of dough softening was increased, as was the moisture content of the bread, which went from 47.7% (O-PP-F2 to 50.3% (I-PP-F1. The level of the ten analyzed sensory properties led to the conclusion that, by adding up to 20% PP, we enhance the bread quality. The RS content increased by 5.1 g/100 g d.m. for F1 bread for the 30% (O-PP-F2 potato content batch. In F2 bread, the RS content increased by up to 5.11g/100 g d.m. for the 30% (O-PP-F2 potato content batch. Given the method of analysis, RS may be a mixture of RS2 (natural granule starch and RS3 (retrograde or non crystalline retrograde. Therefore, potato bread is very healthy and recommended for its nutritional benefits.

  13. Effects of fatty acids composition and microstructure properties of fats and oils on textural properties of dough and cookie quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, Amita; Khatkar, B S

    2018-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the effect of fatty acid composition and microstructure properties of fats and oils on the textural properties of cookie dough and quality attributes of cookies. Fatty acid composition and microstructure properties of six fats and oils (butter, hydrogenated fat, palm oil, coconut oil, groundnut oil, and sunflower oil) were analyzed. Sunflower oil was found to be the most unsaturated oil with 88.39% unsaturated fatty acid content. Coconut oil and palm oil differed from other fats and oils by having an appreciable amount of lauric acid (59.36%) and palmitic acid (42.14%), respectively. Microstructure size of all fats and oils ranged from 1 to 20 μm being the largest for coconut oil and the smallest for palm oil. In palm oil, small rod-shaped and randomly arranged microstructures were observed, whereas sunflower oil and groundnut oil possessed large, scattered ovule shaped microstructures. It was reported that sunflower oil produced the softest dough, the largest cookie spread and the hardest cookie texture, whereas hydrogenated fat produced the stiffest dough, the lowest spread and most tender cookies. Statistical analysis depicted that palmitic acid and oleic acid demonstrated a positive correlation with dough hardness. Linoleic acid exhibited positive link with cookie spread ratio (r = 0.836**) and breaking strength (r = 0.792**). Microstructure size showed a significant positive relationship with dough density (r = 0.792**), cookie density (r = 0.386*), spread ratio (r = 0.312*), and breaking strength (r = 0.303*).

  14. The effects of certain enzymes on the rheology of dough and the quality characteristics of bread prepared from wheat meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altınel, Burak; Ünal, S Sezgin

    2017-05-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the effects of amyloglucosidase, glucose oxidase, hemicellulase (mainly consist of endo-1,4-β-xylanase), cellulase, lipase, and the combination of phospholipase and hemicellulase (phospholipase + hemicellulase) on the extensographic properties of dough and the quality characteristics of bread prepared from wheat meal. The enzymes were added separately in two different amounts. The addition of glucose oxidase (at 0.0003-0.001%) caused a significant decrease in the resistance to extension, ratio of resistance to extensibility and energy values of the wheat meal dough compared with the control dough. The addition of hemicellulase (at 0.001-0.005%) and phospholipase + hemicellulase (at 0.0006-0.0009%) also improved the wheat meal dough rheology by reducing the resistance to extension and the ratio of resistance to extensibility. Glucose oxidase (at 0.0003-0.001%), hemicellulase (at 0.001-0.005%) and phospholipase + hemicellulase (at 0.0006-0.0009%) addition improved the specific volume of wheat meal bread compared with the control bread. Increasing the dosage of glucose oxidase from 0.0003 to 0.001% caused a further increase in the specific volume of wheat meal bread. The addition of hemicellulase (at 0.001-0.005%) caused a significant decrease in the baking loss and an increase in the moisture content of wheat meal bread compared with the control bread. The addition of amyloglucosidase (at 0.000875-0.001%), lipase (at 0.0002-0.001%) and cellulase (at 0.0003-0.0005%) did not considerably affected the dough rheological and the quality characteristics of wheat meal bread.

  15. Contact sponge water absorption test implemented for in situ measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaggero, Laura; Scrivano, Simona

    2016-04-01

    The contact sponge method is a non-destructive in-situ methodology used to estimate a water uptake coefficient. The procedure, unlike other in-situ measurement was proven to be directly comparable to the water uptake laboratory measurements, and was registered as UNI 11432:2011. The UNI Normal procedure requires to use a sponge with known density, soaked in water, weighed, placed on the material for 1 minute (UNI 11432, 2011; Pardini & Tiano, 2004), then weighed again. Difficulties arise in operating on test samples or on materials with porosity varied for decay. While carrying on the test, fluctuations in the bearing of the environmental parameters were negligible, but not the pressure applied to the surface, that induced the release of different water amounts towards the material. For this reason we designed a metal piece of the same diameter of the plate carrying the sponge, to be screwed at the tip of a pocket penetrometer. With this instrument the sponge was kept in contact with the surface for 1 minute applying two different loads, at first pushed with 0.3 kg/cm2 in order to press the sponge, but not its holder, against the surface. Then, a load of 1.1 kg/ cm2 was applied, still avoiding deviating the load to the sponge holder. We applied both the current and our implemented method to determine the water absorption by contact sponge on 5 fresh rock types (4 limestones: Fine - and Coarse grained Pietra di Vicenza, Rosso Verona, Breccia Aurora, and the silicoclastic Macigno sandstone). The results show that 1) the current methodology imply manual skill and experience to produce a coherent set of data; the variable involved are in fact not only the imposed pressure but also the compression mechanics. 2) The control on the applied pressure allowed reproducible measurements. Moreover, 3) the use of a thicker sponge enabled to apply the method even on rougher surfaces, as the device holding the sponge is not in contact with the tested object. Finally, 4) the

  16. Production and characterization of cast aluminum sponges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivarola, M.E; Marmo Lupano, J.M; Malachevsky, M.T

    2004-01-01

    Cellular materials have unique physical features that make them particularly appropriate for applications that require high mechanical resistance and low weight. They can be produced in different ways: by powder metallurgy, by infiltration over plastic foams, adding a releasing agent of gas to a fused metal or simply injecting gas into it. Cellular structures can also be formed by casting onto a pore forming material. This work proposes a method that is basically similar to the last one mentioned but that allows the resulting material's porosity and topology to be controlled. Thus, the mechanical or thermal features of the material that is being manufactured can be predicted and/or designed. First the three dimensional print of a mold is made in a 3D printer, which is the negative of the piece that will be produced. Then a vacuum assisted aluminum cast is made. A preliminary study is presented for the applicability of this method and the mechanical properties of the resulting sponges (CW)

  17. Medullary sponge kidney on axial computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginalski, J.-M.; Schnyder, Pierre; Portmann, Luc; Jaeger, Philippe

    1991-01-01

    To evaluate features of medullary sponge kidney (MSK) on computed tomography (CT), 4-mm-thick axial slices without intravenous contrast material were 1st made in 13 patients through 24 kidneys which showed images of MSK on excretory urograms. On CT, papillary calcifications were found in 11 kidneys. In 5 of these, the calcifications were not detectable on plain films. Some hyperdense papillae (attenuation value 55-70 Hounsfield units) without calcification were found in 4 other kidneys. 9 kidneys appeared normal. 10 of the 14 kidneys were reexamined by a 2nd series of 4-mm-thick axial slices, 5 min after intravenous injection of 50 ml of Urografin. Images suggesting possible ectasia of precaliceal tubules were found in only 4 kidneys. These images appear much less obvious and characteristic on CT than on excretory urogram and do nothing more than suggest the possibility of MSK. In conclusion, the sensitivity of CT in the detection of MSK is markedly lower than that of excretory urography. In the most florid cases of the disease, CT can only show images suggesting the possibility of MSK. On the other hand, CT appears much more sensitive than plain films and tomograms of excretory in the detection of papillary calcifications, the most frequent complication of MSK. (author). 13 refs.; 3 figs

  18. Microbiological Safety of Kitchen Sponges Used in Food Establishments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tesfaye Wolde

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Kitchen sponges are among the possible sources of contaminants in food establishments. The main purpose of the current study was, therefore, to assess the microbiological safety of sponges as it has been used in selected food establishments of Jimma town. Accordingly, the microbiological safety of a total of 201 kitchen sponges randomly collected from food establishments was evaluated against the total counts of aerobic mesophilic bacteria (AMB, Enterobacteriaceae, coliforms, and yeast and molds. The mean counts of aerobic mesophilic bacteria ranged from 7.43 to 12.44 log CFU/mm3. The isolated genera were dominated by Pseudomonas (16.9%, Bacillus (11.1%, Micrococcus (10.6%, Streptococcus (7.8%, and Lactobacillus (6% excluding the unidentified Gram positive rods (4.9% and Gram negative rods (9.9%. The high microbial counts (aerobic mesophilic bacteria, coliforms, Enterobacteriaceae, and yeast and molds reveal the existence of poor kitchen sponge sanitization practice. Awareness creation training on basic hygienic practices to food handlers and periodic change of kitchen sponges are recommended.

  19. Advancement into the Arctic Region for Bioactive Sponge Secondary Metabolites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Samuel; Kelly, Michelle; Bowling, John; Sims, James; Waters, Amanda; Hamann, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Porifera have long been a reservoir for the discovery of bioactive compounds and drug discovery. Most research in the area has focused on sponges from tropical and temperate waters, but more recently the focus has shifted to the less accessible colder waters of the Antarctic and, to a lesser extent, the Arctic. The Antarctic region in particular has been a more popular location for natural products discovery and has provided promising candidates for drug development. This article reviews groups of bioactive compounds that have been isolated and reported from the southern reaches of the Arctic Circle, surveys the known sponge diversity present in the Arctic waters, and details a recent sponge collection by our group in the Aleutian Islands, Alaska. The collection has yielded previously undescribed sponge species along with primary activity against opportunistic infectious diseases, malaria, and HCV. The discovery of new sponge species and bioactive crude extracts gives optimism for the isolation of new bioactive compounds from a relatively unexplored source. PMID:22163194

  20. Green strength of zirconium sponge and uranium dioxide powder compacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balakrishna, Palanki; Murty, B. Narasimha; Sahoo, P.K.; Gopalakrishna, T.

    2008-01-01

    Zirconium metal sponge is compacted into rectangular or cylindrical shapes using hydraulic presses. These shapes are stacked and electron beam welded to form a long electrode suitable for vacuum arc melting and casting into solid ingots. The compact electrodes should be sufficiently strong to prevent breakage in handling as well as during vacuum arc melting. Usually, the welds are strong and the electrode strength is limited by the green strength of the compacts, which constitute the electrode. Green strength is also required in uranium dioxide (UO 2 ) powder compacts, to withstand stresses during de-tensioning after compaction as well as during ejection from the die and for subsequent handling by man and machine. The strengths of zirconium sponge and UO 2 powder compacts have been determined by bending and crushing respectively, and Weibul moduli evaluated. The green density of coarse sponge compact was found to be larger than that from finer sponge. The green density of compacts from lightly attrited UO 2 powder was higher than that from unattrited category, accompanied by an improvement in UO 2 green crushing strength. The factors governing green strength have been examined in the light of published literature and experimental evidence. The methodology and results provide a basis for quality control in metal sponge and ceramic powder compaction in the manufacture of nuclear fuel

  1. Bleaching and recovery of a phototrophic bioeroding sponge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlow, Joseph; Davy, Simon K.; Shaffer, Megan; Haris, Abdul; Bell, James J.

    2018-06-01

    In the Wakatobi region of Indonesia, a prolonged period of elevated water temperature in 2016 caused extensive coral bleaching and mortality. Unusually, bleaching was also observed in the bioeroding sponge Cliona aff. viridis, with affected sponges expelling 99% of their Symbiodinium. Bleaching surveys of C. aff. viridis were conducted 6 weeks apart, coinciding with a 0.8 °C drop in water temperature. Over this period, bleaching prevalence dropped from 73.9% (± 9.9 SE) to 25.7% (± 5.8 SE), and bleaching severity dropped from 25.95% (± 4.5 SE) to 11.54% (± 1.9 SE) of sponge tissue. Over the same period, monitored bleached sponges showed an 81% drop in bleaching severity, but also a 13% reduction in overall sponge size. Our results show that while the clionaid- Symbiodinium relationship is susceptible to break down under thermal stress, rapid recovery can occur, although incurring some partial host mortality.

  2. Magnetic graphene sponge for the removal of methylene blue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Baowei; Zhang, Xiaoliang; Xie, Jingru; Wu, Ruihan; Liu, Xiaoyang; Li, Hongliang; Chen, Fang; Yang, Hua; Ming, Zhu; Yang, Sheng-Tao

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Magnetic graphene sponge is prepared for dye removal in aqueous solution. • Magnetic graphene sponge has an adsorption capacity of 526 mg/g for methylene blue. • Adsorption behaviors of methylene blue on magnetic graphene sponge are investigated. • Magnetic graphene sponge could be partially regenerated by washing with acidic ethanol. - Abstract: Magnetic carbon nanomaterials have been widely adopted as adsorbents in water treatment, but the low adsorption capacities largely limit their practical applications. In this study, magnetic graphene sponge (Fe 3 O 4 -GS) was prepared by lyophilization for the adsorption of dye pollutant. The incorporation of Fe 3 O 4 enabled the magnetic separation of Fe 3 O 4 -GS after the adsorption of methylene blue (MB). The adsorption capacity of Fe 3 O 4 -GS for MB was 526 mg/g, much higher than those of the magnetic carbon nanoadsorbents in the literature. The adsorption kinetics of MB on Fe 3 O 4 -GS was moderately fast, which could be analyzed by the pseudo-second-order model and intraparticle diffusion model. The thermodynamics study revealed that the adsorption was driven by the increased randomness on the interface. The pH and ionic strength had meaningful influences on the adsorption capacity of Fe 3 O 4 -GS. The facile regeneration of Fe 3 O 4 -GS would definitely reduce its operating cost. The implications to the environmental applications of magnetic carbon nanoadsorbents are discussed

  3. MORPHOLOGY AND CELL BIOMASS OF SPONGE Aaptos aaptos AND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meutia Samira Ismet

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Aaptos aaptos and Petrosia sp. sponges are known for their ability to produce potential marine bioactive compound. As a metazoan animal with simple body structure, the morphology and it association with symbiont-bacteria could influence their bioactive compound both type and activity, as much as their habitat adaptation. In order to determine morphology and its cell biomass of Aaptos aaptos dan Petrosia sp., samples were taken from the West Pari Island, at 7 m depth. Preserved samples (in 4% formaldehyde were examined using a histological mounting and centrifugation method to separate the cells fraction of sponge’s tissues. A. aaptos sponge has a soft body structure with 55.9% skeleton-forming fraction, 14.2% sponge cell fraction and 29.9% bacteria fraction. Meanwhile, Petrosia sp. sponge has a rigid body with dominant skeleton-forming fraction (68.6%, and lesser sponge cell and bacteria associated (19.7% and 11.7%, respectively.Keywords: A. aaptos, Petrosia sp, morphology, cell biomass

  4. Sediment tolerance mechanisms identified in sponges using advanced imaging techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian W. Strehlow

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Terrestrial runoff, resuspension events and dredging can affect filter-feeding sponges by elevating the concentration of suspended sediments, reducing light intensity, and smothering sponges with sediments. To investigate how sponges respond to pressures associated with increased sediment loads, the abundant and widely distributed Indo-Pacific species Ianthella basta was exposed to elevated suspended sediment concentrations, sediment deposition, and light attenuation for 48 h (acute exposure and 4 weeks (chronic exposure. In order to visualise the response mechanisms, sponge tissue was examined by 3D X-ray microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Acute exposures resulted in sediment rapidly accumulating in the aquiferous system of I. basta, although this sediment was fully removed within three days. Sediment removal took longer (>2 weeks following chronic exposures, and I. basta also exhibited tissue regression and a smaller aquiferous system. The application of advanced imaging approaches revealed that I. basta employs a multilevel system for sediment rejection and elimination, containing both active and passive components. Sponges responded to sediment stress through (i mucus production, (ii exclusion of particles by incurrent pores, (iii closure of oscula and pumping cessation, (iv expulsion of particles from the aquiferous system, and (v tissue regression to reduce the volume of the aquiferous system, thereby entering a dormant state. These mechanisms would result in tolerance and resilience to exposure to variable and high sediment loads associated with both anthropogenic impacts like dredging programs and natural pressures like flood events.

  5. High energy density supercapacitors using macroporous kitchen sponges

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Wei

    2012-01-01

    Macroporous, low-cost and recyclable kitchen sponges are explored as effective electrode platforms for supercapacitor devices. A simple and scalable process has been developed to fabricate MnO 2-carbon nanotube (CNT)-sponge supercapacitor electrodes using ordinary kitchen sponges. Two organic electrolytes (1 M of tetraethylammonium tetrafluoroborate (Et 4NBF 4) in propylene carbonate (PC), 1 M of LiClO 4 in PC) are utilized with the sponge-based electrodes to improve the energy density of the symmetrical supercapacitors. Compared to aqueous electrolyte (1 M of Na 2SO 4 in H 2O), the energy density of supercapacitors tripled in Et 4NBF 4 electrolyte, and further increased by six times in LiClO 4 electrolyte. The long-term cycling performance in different electrolytes was examined and the morphology changes of the electrode materials were also studied. The good electrochemical performance in both aqueous and organic electrolytes indicates that the MnO 2-CNT-sponge is a promising low-cost electrode for energy storage systems. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  6. Degradation of mangrove-derived organic matter in mangrove associated sponges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hunting, E.R.; de Goeij, J.M.; Asselman, M.; van Soest, R.W.M.; van der Geest, H.G.

    2010-01-01

    Sponge communities found in Caribbean mangroves are typical to this habitat: partly endemic and very distinct from sponge communities on nearby reefs. A trade-off between resistance to competitors and predators appears to influence success of individual sponge species in mangrove habitats. We

  7. Sponge Aquaculture Trials in the East-Mediterranean Sea: New Approaches to Earlier Ideas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osinga, R.; Sidri, M.; Cerig, E.; Gokalp, S.Z.; Gokalp, M.

    2010-01-01

    Aquaculture trials were conducted in the East Aegean Sea with Dysidea avara and Chondrosia reniformis to test the possibility of growing these sponges in the vicinity of sea-based fish farms. Culturing sponges in the vicinity of fish farms may have two benefits: the sponges may grow faster due to an

  8. Ti-Zr sponge material structure, obtained in the course of magnesium-thermal reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandler, R A; Aleksandrovskii, S V; Likhterman, V A; Golubev, A A; Kuz' menko, A S

    1975-09-01

    The paper describes the structure of Ti-Zr sponge for which a magnesium-thermic reduction has been employed. The influence of zirconium upon the sponge porous structure has been studied. The general trend lies in the sponge porosity increase as the content of zirconium grows. However this role is manifested in smaller or larger degrees depending upon the effect of other factors.

  9. A novel filtering mutualism between a sponge host and its endosymbiotic bivalves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsubaki, Remi; Kato, Makoto

    2014-01-01

    Sponges, porous filter-feeding organisms consisting of vast canal systems, provide unique substrates for diverse symbiotic organisms. The Spongia (Spongia) sp. massive sponge is obligately inhabited by the host-specific endosymbiotic bivalve Vulsella vulsella, which benefits from this symbiosis by receiving protection from predators. However, whether the host sponge gains any benefit from this association is unclear. Considering that the bivalves exhale filtered water into the sponge body rather than the ambient environment, the sponge is hypothesized to utilize water exhaled by the bivalves to circulate water around its body more efficiently. We tested this hypothesis by observing the sponge aquiferous structure and comparing the pumping rates of sponges and bivalves. Observations of water currents and the sponge aquiferous structure revealed that the sponge had a unique canal system enabling it to inhale water exhaled from bivalves, indicating that the host sponge adapted morphologically to receive water from the bivalves. In addition, the volume of water circulating in the sponge body was dramatically increased by the water exhaled from bivalves. Therefore, this sponge-bivalve association can be regarded as a novel mutualism in which two filter-feeding symbionts promote mutual filtering rates. This symbiotic association should be called a "filtering mutualism".

  10. Long-term culture of sponge explants: conditions enhancing survival and growth, and assessment of bioactivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caralt, de S.; Agell, G.; Uriz, M.J.

    2003-01-01

    Sponges are an important source of secondary metabolites with pharmaceutical interest. This is the main reason for the increasing interest of sponge culture recent years. The optimal culture system depends on the species to be cultured: while some species easily produce sponge aggregates after

  11. Rapid Generation of MicroRNA Sponges for MicroRNA Inhibition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kluiver, Joost; Gibcus, Johan H.; Hettinga, Chris; Adema, Annelies; Richter, Mareike K. S.; Halsema, Nancy; Slezak-Prochazka, Izabella; Ding, Ye; Kroesen, Bart-Jan; van den Berg, Anke

    2012-01-01

    MicroRNA (miRNA) sponges are transcripts with repeated miRNA antisense sequences that can sequester miRNAs from endogenous targets. MiRNA sponges are valuable tools for miRNA loss-of-function studies both in vitro and in vivo. We developed a fast and flexible method to generate miRNA sponges and

  12. Characteristics of remixed fermentation dough and its influence on the quality of steamed bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhijian; Deng, Cui; Li, Haifeng; Liu, Changhong; Bian, Ke

    2015-07-15

    In this study, the effects of the amount of remixed flour on the properties of remixed fermentation dough and the quality of Chinese steamed breads were investigated. The hardness, chewiness and whiteness of steamed bread increased when the amount of remixed flour was higher than 10 g/100 g, whereas the specific volume of steamed bread significantly decreased. SEM analysis demonstrated that the gas cells of the steamed bread remained as a discrete spherical or oval-like entity only at 10 g/100 g level of remixed flour. Time-domain NMR showed that water migrated from T22 population to T21 population with increasing the amount of remixed flour. The XRD results indicated that starch in the steamed bread with remixed flour was gelatinized. A significant decrease of both the rate and extent of starch hydrolysis of the steamed bread was observed when flour was remixed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Use of monoglyceride hydrogel for the production of low fat short dough pastry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzocco, Lara; Anese, Monica; Calligaris, Sonia; Quarta, Barbara; Nicoli, Maria Cristina

    2012-05-01

    The influence of palm oil replacement with a monoglyceride-palm oil-water gel (hydrogel) on physical properties and acrylamide content of a low fat short dough pastry was studied. The effect of the incorporation of the hydrogel was monitored during storage by assessing moisture, firmness, proton density/mobility using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and acrylamide content. The use of hydrogel allowed the lipid content of pastries to be reduced with minor effects on their quality characteristics. However, the hydrogel-containing pastries showed a crunchier crust, higher acrylamide content and a higher tendency to staling. As assessed by MRI, these results were ascribable to the development of a peculiar system morphology promoted by hydrogel incorporation in the food matrix. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Compositional Changes and Baking Performance of Rye Dough As Affected by Microbial Transglutaminase and Xylanase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossmann, Isabel; Döring, Clemens; Jekle, Mario; Becker, Thomas; Koehler, Peter

    2016-07-20

    Doughs supplemented with endoxylanase (XYL) and varying amounts of microbial transglutaminase (TG) were analyzed by sequential protein extraction, quantitation of protein fractions and protein types, and determination of water-extractable arabinoxylans. With increasing TG activity, the concentration of prolamins and glutelins decreased and increased, respectively, and the prolamin-to-glutelin ratio strongly declined. The overall amount of extractable protein decreased with increasing TG level showing that cross-linking by TG provided high-molecular-weight protein aggregates. The decrease of the high-molecular-weight arabinoxylan fraction and the concurrent increase of the medium-molecular-weight fraction confirmed the degradation of arabinoxylans by XYL. However, XYL addition did not lead to significant improved cross-linking of rye proteins by TG. Volume and crumb hardness measurements of bread showed increased protein connectivity induced by XYL and TG. Significant positive effects on the final bread quality were especially obtained by XYL addition.

  15. The Influence of Xylanase Supplementation on Dough Rheology Concerning its Consistograph Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica Chereji

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study we determined the influence of xylanase supplementation on dough rheology concerning its consistograph parameters: maximum pressure (Pr max, (mb and water absorption (Wa, %. The consistograph analyses were conducted at constant hydration and consistency of 500UF. Determinations were made on 4 types of flour and optimal enzyme dosages were determined. Then we added the optimal enzyme dose for each type of flour as follows: F1, F2, F3, F4: P1-8100U.FXU/100kg flour, P2-16200U.FXU/100kg flour, P3-24300U.FXU/100kg flour. Fungal xylanase used in these concentrations led to the improvement of bread quality properties: finer texture of the crumb, extending freshness of bread, improving the colour and flavour, improving the slicing ability.

  16. Occurrence of mycotoxins in refrigerated pizza dough and risk assessment of exposure for the Spanish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiles, Juan Manuel; Saladino, Federica; Mañes, Jordi; Fernández-Franzón, Mónica; Meca, Giuseppe

    2016-08-01

    Mycotoxins are toxic metabolites produced by filamentous fungi, as Aspergillus, Penicillium and Fusarium. The first objective of this research was to study the presence of mycotoxins in 60 samples of refrigerated pizza dough, by extraction with methanol and determination by liquid chromatography associated with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Then, the estimated dietary intakes (EDIs) of these mycotoxins, among the Spanish population, was calculated and the health risk assessment was performed, comparing the EDIs data with the tolerable daily intake values (TDIs). The mycotoxins detected in the analyzed samples were aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), aflatoxin B2 (AFB2), aflatoxin G1 (AFG1), zearalenone (ZEA), enniatin A (ENA), enniatin A1 (ENA1), enniatin (ENB), enniatin B1 (ENB1) and BEA (beauvericin) with average concentration of the positive samples of 4.09 μg/kg, 0.50 μg/kg, 0.79 μg/kg, 77.78 μg/kg, 14.96 μg/kg, 4.54 μg/kg, 3.37 μg/kg, 1.69 μg/kg and 22.39 μg/kg, respectively. The presence of ZEA, ENA1, ENB and ENB1 was detected in 100% of the samples, AFB2 in 32%, AFB1 in 23%, ENA in 8% and BEA in 3%. Twelve percent of the samples contaminated with AFB1 and 12% of the doughs contaminated with ZEA exceeded the EU legislated maximum limits. The dietary intakes were estimated considering three different age groups of population, and the EDIs calculated for the mycotoxins detected in the samples were all below the established TDI. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Amaranth addition to enzymatically modified wheat flour improves dough functionality, bread immunoreactivity and quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heredia-Sandoval, N G; Calderón de la Barca, A M; Carvajal-Millán, E; Islas-Rubio, A R

    2018-01-24

    Consumers with gluten-related disorders require gluten-free (GF) foods to avoid an immune response. Alternative to the use of non-gluten containing grains to prepare GF bread, the gluten reactivity has been greatly reduced using a proline specific cleavage enzyme, however, the gluten functionality was lost. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of adding an amaranth flour blend (AFB) to enzymatically modified wheat-flour proteins on dough functionality and to evaluate the immunoreactivity and acceptability of the prepared bread. First, wheat flour (20% w/v, substrate) was hydrolyzed using 8.4 U mg -1 protein Aspergillus niger prolyl-endopeptidase (AnPEP) for 8 h at 40 °C under constant agitation. Four types of breads were prepared with the same formulation except for the type of flour (14% w.b.): wheat flour (WF), WF-AFB unmodified not incubated, WF-AFB unmodified incubated and WF-AFB modified. The protein composition and free thiols were analyzed before and after amaranth addition, and the flour and bread proteins were run using SDS-PAGE and immune-detected in blots with IgA from celiac disease patients. The immunoreactive gluten content, specific volume and bread acceptability were evaluated. The polymeric proteins and free thiol groups of WF decreased after AnPEP treatment. The electrophoretic patterns of the modified flour and bread proteins were different and the IgA-immunodetection in blots was highly reduced, particularly for the higher molecular weight subunits. The addition of AFB to the modified wheat flour prepared using AnPEP improved the dough functionality by increasing the thiol groups and allowed the preparation of a sensorially acceptable bread with only 60 mg kg -1 immunoreactive gluten.

  18. Sponge Farming Trials: Survival, Attachment, and Growth of Two Indo-Pacific Sponges, Neopetrosia sp. and Stylissa massa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Schiefenhövel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sponges, an important part of the reef ecosystem, are of commercial value for public aquaria, pharmacology and chemistry. With the growing demand for sponges, natural resources are at risk of being overexploited. Growing of sponges in artificial or semi natural farms is an alternative. In this study different farming methods were tested on two Indo-Pacific sponge species, Neopetrosia sp. and Stylissa massa. Survival, growth and attachment ability were observed with different substrates (suspended ropes, coral boulders and artificial substrate, two types of aquaria with different water volume and two different field sites in Indonesia. The two species responded differently to their individual locations and environmental stresses. Survival, growth and attachment rates of Neopetrosia sp. at the field site are depending on the cultivation method, we found highest volume increment (27–35% for a horizontal line in the field. Whereas the volume increase for S. massa did not show any differences for the different transplantation methods, Neopetrosia sp. generally showed higher rates than S. massa. Further aquaria experiments, for example, on nutrient supply, should be tested to receive more detailed data about sponges, particularly because almost all fragments of both species showed a decline or steady state in mean length.

  19. Ferroelectric nanoparticle-embedded sponge structure triboelectric generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Daehoon; Shin, Sung-Ho; Yoon, Ick-Jae; Nah, Junghyo

    2018-05-01

    We report high-performance triboelectric nanogenerators (TENGs) employing ferroelectric nanoparticles (NPs) embedded in a sponge structure. The ferroelectric BaTiO3 NPs inside the sponge structure play an important role in increasing surface charge density by polarized spontaneous dipoles, enabling the packaging of TENGs even with a minimal separation gap. Since the friction surfaces are encapsulated in the packaged device structure, it suffers negligible performance degradation even at a high relative humidity of 80%. The TENGs also demonstrated excellent mechanical durability due to the elasticity and flexibility of the sponge structure. Consequently, the TENGs can reliably harvest energy even under harsh conditions. The approach introduced here is a simple, effective, and reliable way to fabricate compact and packaged TENGs for potential applications in wearable energy-harvesting devices.

  20. Carbon Flux Through the Giant Barrel Sponge Xestospongia testudinaria in the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Wooster, Michael K.

    2017-11-01

    Sponges have important ecological functions on coral reefs because they are regionally abundant, competitively dominant, and process large volumes of seawater. The sponge loop hypothesis proposes that sponges consume dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and then releases the carbon as shed cellular detritus back to the reef benthos. Within this context, we examined the carbon flux mediated by the giant barrel sponge, Xestospongia testudinaria, on reefs in the Red Sea, where sponge abundance is comparatively low relative to coral reefs elsewhere, such as the Caribbean. Seawater samples were collected from the incurrent and excurrent (In-Ex) flow of 40 sponges from inshore, mid-shelf, and offshore reefs between 18° and 22°N latitude off the coast of Saudi Arabia. Concentrations of DOC and living particulate organic carbon (LPOC) were significantly higher in incurrent (ambient) seawater on inshore reefs than mid-shelf and offshore reefs. Consistent with studies of X. muta in the Caribbean, the diet of X. testudinaria is comprised primarily of DOC; mean values of the nutritional components across all sites were 60.5% DOC, 35.7% detritus, and 3.8% LPOC. Taking into account the specific filtration rates of nutritional components and oxygen consumption of sponges across the inshore-offshore gradient, there is evidence (1) of a threshold concentration of DOC below which sponges cease to be net consumers of DOC, and (2) that sponges on offshore reefs are food-limited. Contrary to the sponge loop hypothesis, there was no evidence that X. testudinaria, returned DOC to the benthos in the form of detritus, but was, instead, a net consumer of detritus from the water column. Unlike the cryptic, interstitial sponges that were studied to advance the sponge-loop hypothesis, emergent sponges may have an alternate pathway for returning DOC to the benthos by converting it to sponge biomass rather than sponge detritus.

  1. Diversity and distribution patterns in high southern latitude sponges.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel V Downey

    Full Text Available Sponges play a key role in Antarctic marine benthic community structure and dynamics and are often a dominant component of many Southern Ocean benthic communities. Understanding the drivers of sponge distribution in Antarctica enables us to understand many of general benthic biodiversity patterns in the region. The sponges of the Antarctic and neighbouring oceanographic regions were assessed for species richness and biogeographic patterns using over 8,800 distribution records. Species-rich regions include the Antarctic Peninsula, South Shetland Islands, South Georgia, Eastern Weddell Sea, Kerguelen Plateau, Falkland Islands and north New Zealand. Sampling intensity varied greatly within the study area, with sampling hotspots found at the Antarctic Peninsula, South Georgia, north New Zealand and Tierra del Fuego, with limited sampling in the Bellingshausen and Amundsen seas in the Southern Ocean. In contrast to previous studies we found that eurybathy and circumpolar distributions are important but not dominant characteristics in Antarctic sponges. Overall Antarctic sponge species endemism is ∼43%, with a higher level for the class Hexactinellida (68%. Endemism levels are lower than previous estimates, but still indicate the importance of the Polar Front in isolating the Southern Ocean fauna. Nineteen distinct sponge distribution patterns were found, ranging from regional endemics to cosmopolitan species. A single, distinct Antarctic demosponge fauna is found to encompass all areas within the Polar Front, and the sub-Antarctic regions of the Kerguelen Plateau and Macquarie Island. Biogeographical analyses indicate stronger faunal links between Antarctica and South America, with little evidence of links between Antarctica and South Africa, Southern Australia or New Zealand. We conclude that the biogeographic and species distribution patterns observed are largely driven by the Antarctic Circumpolar Current and the timing of past continent

  2. Contribution of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and the glyoxylate shunt in Saccharomyces cerevisiae to succinic acid production during dough fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei, Mohammad N; Aslankoohi, Elham; Verstrepen, Kevin J; Courtin, Christophe M

    2015-07-02

    Succinic acid produced by yeast during bread dough fermentation can significantly affect the rheological properties of the dough. By introducing mutations in the model S288C yeast strain, we show that the oxidative pathway of the TCA cycle and the glyoxylate shunt contribute significantly to succinic acid production during dough fermentation. More specifically, deletion of ACO1 and double deletion of ACO1 and ICL1 resulted in a 36 and 77% decrease in succinic acid levels in fermented dough, respectively. Similarly, double deletion of IDH1 and IDP1 decreased succinic acid production by 85%, while also affecting the fermentation rate. By contrast, double deletion of SDH1 and SDH2 resulted in a two-fold higher succinic acid accumulation compared to the wild-type. Deletion of fumarate reductase activity (FRD1 and OSM1) in the reductive pathway of the TCA cycle did not affect the fermentation rate and succinic acid production. The changes in the levels of succinic acid produced by mutants Δidh1Δidp1 (low level) and Δsdh1Δsdh2 (high level) in fermented dough only resulted in small pH differences, reflecting the buffering capacity of dough at a pH of around 5.1. Moreover, Rheofermentometer analysis using these mutants revealed no difference in maximum dough height and gas retention capacity with the dough prepared with S288C. The impact of the changed succinic acid profile on the organoleptic or antimicrobial properties of bread remains to be demonstrated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The Utilization of Premix Flour with Sorghum Mutant Lines Zh-30 Based as Material For Dough Making And Dry Noodle Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwi Djoko Slamet Santosa

    2009-01-01

    Sorghum mutant line Zh-30 is a breeding line developed at the Center for the Application of Isotope and Radiation Technology, BATAN by using mutation techniques. Gamma irradiation with the dose of 300 Gy was used to induced plant genetic variability. Through selection processes on several generations, the mutant line Zh-30 was identified to have better agronomic characteristics, better grain quality and higher yield than the original variety. Research on flour quality of this mutant line was done to identify its potential use in dry noodle. Subsequent experiments, i.e. the effect of kansui (alkaline salt Na 2 CO 3 and K 2 CO 3 ) on rheological properties of dough, the effect of egg addition on rheological properties of dough and cooked noodles. Observations were done on dough which were premix flour I, II and III with 10.2 %, 14.5 % and 17.4 % protein content respectively. The influence of each alkaline salt and their mixture on dough rheology i.e., dough consistency and resistant to extension and extensibility. The kansui Concentration applied were 0, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 %. Obviously premix flour I + 0.5 % kansui gave optimal consistency, resistance and extensibility of the dough. The addition of five ml egg to premix I dough + 0.5 % kansui gave optimal results. The increase of egg mellowed the dough, and increase noodle texture and reduce stickiness. Addition of five ml egg already gave significant increase of elasticity, with the highest elasticity was reached by addition of 35 ml egg, although no difference was found for 5 - 35 ml.. (author)

  4. Bioactive Natural Products of Marine Sponges from the Genus Hyrtios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nourhan Hisham Shady

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Marine sponges are known as a rich source for novel bioactive compounds with valuable pharmacological potential. One of the most predominant sponge genera is Hyrtios, reported to have various species such as Hyrtios erectus, Hyrtios reticulatus, Hyrtios gumminae, Hyrtios communis, and Hyrtios tubulatus and a number of undescribed species. Members of the genus Hyrtios are a rich source of natural products with diverse and valuable biological activities, represented by different chemical classes including alkaloids, sesterterpenes and sesquiterpenes. This review covers the literature until June 2016, providing a complete survey of all compounds isolated from the genus Hyrtios with their corresponding biological activities whenever applicable.

  5. Stretchable polyurethane sponge reinforced magnetorheological material with enhanced mechanical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ge, Lin; Xuan, Shouhu; Liao, Guojiang; Yin, Tiantian; Gong, Xinglong

    2015-01-01

    A stretchable magnetorheological material (SMRM) consisting of micro-meter carbonyl iron (CI) particles, low cross-linking polyurethane (PU) polymer and porous PU sponge has been developed. Due to the presence of the PU sponge, the high-performance MR material can be reversibly stretched or bent, just as MR elastomers. When the CI content increases to 80 wt%, the magnetic induced modulus of the MR material can reach as high as 7.34 MPa and the corresponding relative MR effect increases to 820%. A possible strengthening mechanism of the SMRM was proposed. The attractive mechanical properties make the SMRM a promising candidate for future high-performance devices. (technical note)

  6. Sponge-seaweed associations in species of Ptilophora (Gelidiaceae, Rhodophyta)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tronchin, E

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available , J. G. 1876. Species Genera et Ordines Algarum . . . Volume n Tertium: de Florideis Curae Posteriores. Part 1. Lipsiae, Leipzig, pp. 543–55. Davy, S. K., Trautman, D. A., Borowitzka, M. A. and Hinde, R. 2002. Ammonium excretion by a symbiotic... sponge supplies the nitrogen requirements of its rhodophyte part- ner. J. Exp. Biol. 205: 3505–11. Grant, A. J. and Hinde, R. T. 1999. Evidence of transfer of photosynthate from a red algal macrophyte to its symbiotic sponge. Mem. Queens. Mus. 44...

  7. Effect of salt reduction on wheat-dough properties and quality characteristics of puff pastry with full and reduced fat content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silow, Christoph; Zannini, Emanuele; Axel, Claudia; Lynch, Kieran M; Arendt, Elke K

    2016-11-01

    Puff pastry is a major contributor of fat and sodium intake in many countries. The objective of this research was to determine the impact of salt (0-8.4g/100g flour) on the structure and quality characteristics of puff pastry with full and reduced (-40%) fat content as well as the rheological properties of the resulting dough. Therefore, empirical rheological tests were carried out including dough extensibility, dough stickiness and GlutoPeak test. The quality of the puff pastry was characterized with the VolScan, Texture Analyzer and C-Cell. NaCl reduction significantly changed rheological properties of the basic dough as well as a number of major quality characteristics of the puff pastry. Significant differences due to NaCl addition were found in particular for dough resistance, dough stickiness, Peak Maximum Time and Maximum Torque (ppastry containing full fat. Likewise, maximal lift, specific volume, number of cells and slice brightness increased with increasing NaCl at both fat levels. Although a sensorial comparison of puff pastries revealed that salt reduction (30%) was perceptible, no significant differences were found for all other investigated attributes. Nevertheless, a reduction of 30% salt and 40% fat in puff pastry is achievable as neither the perception and visual impression nor attributes such as volume, firmness and flavour of the final products were significantly affected. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Fabrication and mechanical characterization of a polyvinyl alcohol sponge for tissue engineering applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, A; Navidbakhsh, M; Faghihi, S

    2014-05-01

    Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) sponges are widely used for clinical applications, including ophthalmic surgical treatments, wound healing and tissue engineering. There is, however, a lack of sufficient data on the mechanical properties of PVA sponges. In this study, a biomechanical method is used to characterize the elastic modulus, maximum stress and strain as well as the swelling ratio of a fabricated PVA sponge (P-sponge) and it is compared with two commercially available PVA sponges (CENEFOM and EYETEC). The results indicate that the elastic modulus of the P-sponge is 5.32% and 13.45% lower than that of the CENEFOM and EYETEC sponges, while it bears 4.11% more and 10.37% less stress compared to the CENEFOM and EYETEC sponges, respectively. The P-sponge shows a maximum strain of 32% more than the EYETEC sponge as well as a 26.78% higher swelling ratio, which is a significantly higher absorbency compared to the CENEFOM. It is believed that the results of this study would help for a better understanding of the extension, rupture and swelling mechanism of PVA sponges, which could lead to crucial improvement in the design and application of PVA-based materials in ophthalmic and plastic surgeries as well as wound healing and tissue engineering.

  9. Implementation of a protocol to reduce occurrence of retained sponges after vaginal delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutgendorf, Monica A; Schindler, Lynnett L; Hill, James B; Magann, Everett F; O'Boyle, John D

    2011-06-01

    Retained sponges (gossypiboma) following vaginal delivery are an uncommon occurrence. Although significant morbidity from such an event is unlikely, there are many reported adverse effects, including symptoms of malodorous discharge, loss of confidence in providers and the medical system, and legal claims. To report a protocol intended to reduce the occurrence of retained sponges following vaginal delivery. After identification of limitations with existing delivery room protocols, we developed a sponge count protocol to reduce occurrence of retained vaginal sponges. We report our experience at Naval Medical Center Portsmouth, a large tertiary care military treatment facility with our efforts to implement a sponge count protocol to reduce retained sponges following vaginal delivery. With appropriate pre-implementation training, protocols which incorporate post-delivery vaginal sweep and sponge counts are well accepted by the health care team and can be incorporated into the delivery room routine.

  10. Sponge non-metastatic Group I Nme gene/protein - structure and function is conserved from sponges to humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Nucleoside diphosphate kinases NDPK are evolutionarily conserved enzymes present in Bacteria, Archaea and Eukarya, with human Nme1 the most studied representative of the family and the first identified metastasis suppressor. Sponges (Porifera) are simple metazoans without tissues, closest to the common ancestor of all animals. They changed little during evolution and probably provide the best insight into the metazoan ancestor's genomic features. Recent studies show that sponges have a wide repertoire of genes many of which are involved in diseases in more complex metazoans. The original function of those genes and the way it has evolved in the animal lineage is largely unknown. Here we report new results on the metastasis suppressor gene/protein homolog from the marine sponge Suberites domuncula, NmeGp1Sd. The purpose of this study was to investigate the properties of the sponge Group I Nme gene and protein, and compare it to its human homolog in order to elucidate the evolution of the structure and function of Nme. Results We found that sponge genes coding for Group I Nme protein are intron-rich. Furthermore, we discovered that the sponge NmeGp1Sd protein has a similar level of kinase activity as its human homolog Nme1, does not cleave negatively supercoiled DNA and shows nonspecific DNA-binding activity. The sponge NmeGp1Sd forms a hexamer, like human Nme1, and all other eukaryotic Nme proteins. NmeGp1Sd interacts with human Nme1 in human cells and exhibits the same subcellular localization. Stable clones expressing sponge NmeGp1Sd inhibited the migratory potential of CAL 27 cells, as already reported for human Nme1, which suggests that Nme's function in migratory processes was engaged long before the composition of true tissues. Conclusions This study suggests that the ancestor of all animals possessed a NmeGp1 protein with properties and functions similar to evolutionarily recent versions of the protein, even before the appearance of true tissues

  11. Radio-frequency surgical sponge detection: a new way to lower the odds of leaving sponges (and similar items) in patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-01

    Radio-frequency (RF) tags are now being embedded in items such as surgical sponges, towels, and pads to reduce the chances that these objects will be left in patients after a procedure. Find out how--and how well--RF sponge-detection systems work, including our view of the two systems currently on the market: ClearCount Medical's SmartSponge System, which counts sponges in addition to detecting them. RF Surgical's RF Surgical Detection System, which is a detect-only system.

  12. Defatted wheat germ application: Influence on cookies' properties with regard to its particle size and dough moisture content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrović, Jovana; Rakić, Dušan; Fišteš, Aleksandar; Pajin, Biljana; Lončarević, Ivana; Tomović, Vladimir; Zarić, Danica

    2017-10-01

    The introduction of agro-food industry by-products rich in bioactive compounds represents major challenge in food industry sector. The influence of wheat germ particle size (Box-Behnken experimental design. The substitution of wheat flour with wheat germ increased the protein, fat, mineral, and fiber content of the cookies. The particle size of wheat germ affected the textural properties of cookies. As the particle size of wheat germ increased, the hardness of cookies decreased. The color of the cookie was most influenced by the interaction of dough moisture content and wheat germ particle size. Wheat germ level up to 15% had no significant effect on the sensory characteristics of cookies. A suitable combination of defatted wheat germ level, its particle size, and dough moisture content can improve the nutritional value of cookies, without causing a negative effect on the cookies' sensory characteristics.

  13. Carbohydrate self-recognition mediates marine sponge cellular adhesion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliegenthart, J.F.G.; Haseley, S.R.; Vermeer, H.J.; Kamerling, J.P.

    2001-01-01

    Sponges (Porifera), the simplest and earliest multicellular organisms, are thought to have evolved from their unicellular ancestors about 1 billion years ago by developing cell-recognition and adhesion mechanisms to discriminate against 'non-self.' Consequently, they are used as models for

  14. Keratin sponge/hydrogel II, active agent delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keratin sponge/hydrogels from oxidation and reduction hydrolysis of fine and coarse wool fibers were formed to behave as cationic hydrogels to swell and release active agents in the specific region of the gastro-intestinal (GI) tract. Their porous, interpenetrating networks (IPN) were effective for...

  15. Gourds: Bitter, Bottle, Wax, Snake, Sponge and Ridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minor cucurbits include bitter gourd, bottle gourd, wax gourd, snake gourd, and sponge and ridge gourd, which are significant dietary sources of nutrients such as vitamin A and C, iron and calcium. These cucurbits are cultivated and marketed by smallholder farmers and remain important components of ...

  16. SITE TECHNOLOGY CAPSULE: DYNAPHORE, INC., FORAGER™ SPONGE TECHNOLOGY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Forager™ Sponge is a volume reduction technology in which heavy metal contaminants from an aqueous medium are selectively concentrated into a smaller volume for facilitated disposal. The technology treats contaminated groundwater, surface waters, and process waters by absorbi...

  17. Significance of starch properties and quantity on sponge cake volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    We evaluated the qualitative and quantitative effects of wheat starch on sponge cake (SC) baking quality. Twenty wheat flours, including soft white and club wheat of normal, partial waxy and waxy endosperm, and hard wheat, were tested for amylose content, pasting properties, and SC baking quality. S...

  18. Potential of sponges and microalgae for marine biotechnology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijffels, R.H.

    2008-01-01

    Marine organisms can be used to produce several novel products that have applications in new medical technologies, in food and feed ingredients and as biofuels. In this paper two examples are described: the development of marine drugs from sponges and the use of microalgae to produce bulk chemicals

  19. Manoalide-related Sesterterpene from the Marine Sponge Luffariella variabilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, Toshiyuki; Harada, Daisuke; Hirata, Mitsunobu; Yamashita, Keisuke; Palaniveloo, Kishneth; Okamura, Hiroaki; Iwagawa, Tetsuo; Arima, Naomichi; Iriguchi, Toshiyuki; de Voogd, Nicole J; Vairappan, Charles S

    2015-06-01

    A new manoalide-related sesterterpene, (4E,6E)-dehydro-25-O-methylmanoalide (1), was isolated from the organic extracts of the Bornean marine sponge Luffariella variabilis, together with the known compound (4E,6E)-dehydromanoalide (2). The structure of compound 1 was elucidated by interpretation of its spectroscopic data.

  20. Symbiotic Fungus of Marine Sponge Axinella sp. Producing Antibacterial Agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trianto, A.; Widyaningsih, S.; Radjasa, OK; Pribadi, R.

    2017-02-01

    The emerging of multidrug resistance pathogenic bacteria cause the treatment of the diseaseshave become ineffective. There for, invention of a new drug with novel mode of action is an essential for curing the disease caused by an MDR pathogen. Marine fungi is prolific source of bioactive compound that has not been well explored. This study aim to obtain the marine sponges-associated fungus that producing anti-MDR bacteria substaces. We collected the sponge from Riung water, NTT, Indonesia. The fungus was isolated with affixed method, followed with purification with streak method. The overlay and disk diffusion agar methods were applied for bioactivity test for the isolate and the extract, respectively. Molecular analysis was employed for identification of the isolate. The sponge was identified based on morphological and spicular analysis. The ovelay test showed that the isolate KN15-3 active against the MDR Staphylococcus aureus and Eschericia coli. The extract of the cultured KN15-3 was also inhibited the S. aureus and E. coli with inhibition zone 2.95 mm and 4.13 mm, respectively. Based on the molecular analysis, the fungus was identified as Aspergillus sydowii. While the sponge was identified as Axinella sp.

  1. Dinoflagellates associated with freshwater sponges from the ancient lake baikal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annenkova, Natalia V; Lavrov, Dennis V; Belikov, Sergey I

    2011-04-01

    Dinoflagellates are a diverse group of protists that are common in both marine and freshwater environments. While the biology of marine dinoflagellates has been the focus of several recent studies, their freshwater relatives remain little-investigated. In the present study we explore the diversity of dinoflagellates in Lake Baikal by identifying and analyzing dinoflagellate sequences for 18S rDNA and ITS-2 from total DNA extracted from three species of endemic Baikalian sponges (Baikalospongia intermedia,Baikalospongia rectaand Lubomirskia incrustans). Phylogenetic analyses of these sequences revealed extensive dinoflagellate diversity in Lake Baikal. We found two groups of sequences clustering within the order Suessiales, known for its symbiotic relationships with various invertebrates. Thus they may be regarded as potential symbionts of Baikalian sponges. In addition,Gyrodinium helveticum, representatives from the genus Gymnodinium, dinoflagellates close to the family Pfiesteriaceae, and a few dinoflagellates without definite affiliation were detected. No pronounced difference in the distribution of dinoflagellates among the studied sponges was found, except for the absence of the Piscinoodinium-like dinoflagellates inL. incrustans. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study of the diversity of dinoflagellates in freshwater sponges, the first systematic investigation of dinoflagellate molecular diversity in Lake Baikal and the first finding of members of the order Suessiales as symbionts of freshwater invertebrates. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Animals of the Sea: Coelenterates, Protozoa, and Sponges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awkerman, Gary L.

    These three units are designed for use with standard science curricula. These publications, relating to animals of the sea, are: Protozoa, Sponges, and Coelenterates. Included are teacher guides, student activities, and demonstrations designed to impart ocean science understanding to high school students. Objectives to be attained from the unit on…

  3. Minor sterols from the sponge Ircinia ramosa (Killer)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Parameswaran, P.S.; Naik, C.G.; Das, B.; Kamat, S.Y.

    Three sterols, isolated from the lipid fraction of the sponge Ircinia ramosa were characterised as cholest-5-en-3 beta-ol-7-one (7-oxo cholesterol, 1), cholest 5-23-dien-b beta ol-7-one (7-oxo demosterol, 2) and 24E-ethyl cholest-5-en-3 beta -ol-7...

  4. Stimulatory activity of four green freshwater sponges on aquatic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SMG

    The effect of green sponges on the abundance of aquatic mycotal ... The distribution of plant and animal hydrobionts in water ecosystems of a lake ... inhabitants of the town as a beach. ... phytoplankton in accordance with the general principles of the techniques. ..... Influence on mycotal species diversity by different stem ...

  5. Effect of wheat flour characteristics on sponge cake quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moiraghi, Malena; de la Hera, Esther; Pérez, Gabriela T; Gómez, Manuel

    2013-02-01

    To select the flour parameters that relate strongly to cake-making performance, in this study the relationship between sponge cake quality, solvent retention capacity (SRC) profile and flour physicochemical characteristics was investigated using 38 soft wheat samples of different origins. Particle size average, protein, damaged starch, water-soluble pentosans, total pentosans, SRC and pasting properties were analysed. Sponge cake volume and crumb texture were measured to evaluate cake quality. Cluster analysis was applied to assess differences in flour quality parameters among wheat lines based on the SRC profile. Cluster 1 showed significantly higher sponge cake volume and crumb softness, finer particle size and lower SRC sucrose, SRC carbonate, SRC water, damaged starch and protein content. Particle size, damaged starch, protein, thickening capacity and SRC parameters correlated negatively with sponge cake volume, while total pentosans and pasting temperature showed the opposite effect. The negative correlations between cake volume and SRC parameters along with the cluster analysis results indicated that flours with smaller particle size, lower absorption capacity and higher pasting temperature had better cake-making performance. Some simple analyses, such as SRC, particle size distribution and pasting properties, may help to choose flours suitable for cake making. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Effect of delayed sponge withdrawal on the superovulatory response ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    progestagen sponges and superovulated with 1000 IV pregnant mare serum gonadotrophin ... recovered was 141 (recovery rate 51.5%) and the number of trans- ... Fixed-time artificial insemination (AI) was performed at 36 h ... and should not affect embryo .... releasing hormone treatment in the collection of sheep embryos.

  7. First record of chambered hexactinellid sponges from the Palaeozoic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nose, M.; Vodrážka, Radek; Fernández, L.-P.; Méndez-Bedia, I.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 4 (2014), s. 985-996 ISSN 0567-7920 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : Hexactinellida * Hexactinosida * chambered sponges * mud mounds * Devonian * Northern Spain Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 1.866, year: 2014

  8. Sponge microbiota are a reservoir of functional antibiotic resistance genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Versluis

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Wide application of antibiotics has contributed to the evolution of multi-drug resistant human pathogens, resulting in poorer treatment outcomes for infections. In the marine environment, seawater samples have been investigated as a resistance reservoir; however, no studies have methodically examined sponges as a reservoir of antibiotic resistance. Sponges could be important in this respect because they often contain diverse microbial communities that have the capacity to produce bioactive metabolites. Here, we applied functional metagenomics to study the presence and diversity of functional resistance genes in the sponges Aplysina aerophoba, Petrosia ficiformis and Corticium candelabrum. We obtained 37 insert sequences facilitating resistance to D-cycloserine (n=6, gentamicin (n=1, amikacin (n=7, trimethoprim (n=17, chloramphenicol (n=1, rifampicin (n=2 and ampicillin (n=3. Fifteen of 37 inserts harboured resistance genes that shared <90% amino acid identity with known gene products, whereas on 13 inserts no resistance gene could be identified with high confidence, in which case we predicted resistance to be mainly mediated by antibiotic efflux. One marine-specific ampicillin-resistance-conferring β-lactamase was identified in the genus Pseudovibrio with 41% global amino acid identity to the closest β-lactamase with demonstrated functionality, and subsequently classified into a new family termed PSV. Taken together, our results show that sponge microbiota host diverse and novel resistance genes that may be harnessed by phylogenetically distinct bacteria.

  9. Genetic variability, correlation and path analysis in sponge gourd ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Windows-7

    2013-02-06

    Feb 6, 2013 ... the Middle East and India, China, Japan and Malaysia. (Porterfield, 1955). Sponge gourd is native to Tropical. Asia, probably India and South East Asia. The tender fruit is used as vegetable which is easily digestible and increase appetite when consumed (Okusanya et al.,. 1981). Besides being a vegetable ...

  10. Characterization of textural, rheological, thermal, microstructural, and water mobility in wheat flour dough and bread affected by trehalose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Bo; Li, Youqian; Ding, Shiyong; Yang, Jun

    2017-10-15

    The study aims to elucidate the effects of trehalose on the mechanical, thermal, and rheological properties of wheat flour dough and water distribution in bread. Texture profile analysis, DSC, farinograph, extensograph, and frequency sweep were applied in dough. The results from SEM revealed that the gluten film became less notable with the presence of trehalose. The kinetics of staling process, low-field 1 H NMR, and water-binding capacity were employed to characterize physicochemical properties of bread. Trehalose decreased the staling rate constant k, indicating an inhibitory effect on firming process in bread. Trehalose had the ability to retain water by hindering the interaction among water molecules, gluten and starch, thus relatively increasing the immobility of the part of water represented by T 22 in low-field 1 H NMR tests. Trehalose restricted water mobilization during storage, resulting in a better water-holding capacity. Our findings reveal that trehalose could be an improver in dough and bread-making performance, as well as an antistaling agent in bread. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of Various Sodium Chloride Mass Fractions on Wheat and Rye Bread Using Different Dough Preparation Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Tańska

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the selected properties of bread with reduced amount of sodium chloride. The bread was made from white and wholemeal wheat flour and rye flour. The dough was prepared using three techniques: with yeast, natural sourdough or starter sourdough. Sodium chloride was added to the dough at 0, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 % of the flour mass. The following bread properties were examined in the study: yield and volume of the loaf, moisture content, crumb firmness and porosity, and organoleptic properties. Reducing the mass fraction of added sodium chloride was not found to have considerable effect on bread yield, whereas it had a significant and variable effect on the loaf volume, and crumb firmness and porosity. Organoleptic assessment showed diverse effects of sodium chloride addition on sensory properties of bread, depending on the type of bread and the dough preparation method. Reduced mass fractions of sodium chloride changed the organoleptic properties of bread made with yeast and with starter sourdough to a greater extent than of bread prepared with natural sourdough.

  12. Evaluation of Bacillus spp. as dough starters for Adhirasam - A traditional rice based fermented food of Southern India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anisha, Anvar Hussain Noorul; Anandham, Rangasamy; Kwon, Soon Woo; Gandhi, Pandiyan Indira; Gopal, Nellaiappan Olaganathan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Adhirasam is a cereal based, doughnut shaped, deep fried dessert consumed in the southern regions of India. The dough used to prepare adhirasam is fermented and contains rice flour and jaggery. The aim of the present study was to characterize the cultivable bacteria associated with this fermented dough and to identify a suitable starter culture for the production of quality adhirasam. In total, one hundred and seventy bacterial isolates were recovered from de Man Rogosa Sharp (MRS) agar, nutrient agar, lysogeny agar and tryptic soy agar media. Out of the 170 bacterial isolates, sixteen isolates were selected based on their ability to tolerate glucose and sucrose. All the bacterial isolates tolerated 15% glucose and 30% sucrose. Analyses of 16S rDNA gene sequences of the bacterial isolates showed that the dominant cultivable bacteria were members of the genus Bacillus. These strains were further used as starters and tested for their ability to ferment rice flour with jaggery to produce adhirasam dough. Organoleptic evaluation was carried out to choose the best starter strain. Adhirasam prepared from Bacillus subtilis isolates S4-P11, S2-G2-A1 and S1-G15, Bacillus tequilensis isolates S2-H16, S3-P9, S3-G10 and Bacillus siamensis isolate S2-G13 were highly acceptable to consumers. Adhirasam prepared using these starter cultures had superior product characteristics such as softness in texture, flavor and enhanced aroma and sweet taste. PMID:26691480

  13. Utilization of a maltotetraose-producing amylase as a whole wheat bread improver: dough rheology and baking performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Woosung; Lee, Sung Ho; Yoo, Sang-Ho; Lee, Suyong

    2014-08-01

    A maltotetraose-producing enzyme (G4-amylase) was utilized to improve the baking performance of whole-grain wheat flour. Whole-grain bread dough prepared with G4-amylase showed reduced water absorption and increased development time, while the dough stability was not affected. Also, the G4-amylase-treated samples exhibited lower Mixolab torque values than the control upon heating and cooling. Rheological measurements showed the decreased ratio of Rmax /E and increased tan δ, clearly demonstrating that the viscous characteristics of whole-grain bread dough became dominant with increasing levels of G4-amylase. The use of G4-amylase produced whole-grain wheat breads with a variety of maltooligosaccharides, primarily maltotetraose that positively contributed to the bread volume (1.2-fold higher than the control). Moreover, G4-amylase delayed the crumb firming of whole-grain wheat bread during a 7-d storage period, showing that it can function as an antiretrogradation agent to enhance the quality attributes of whole-grain wheat bread. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  14. Influence of doum (Hyphaene thebaica L.) flour addition on dough mixing properties, bread quality and antioxidant potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboshora, Waleed; Lianfu, Zhang; Dahir, Mohammed; Qingran, Meng; Musa, Abubakr; Gasmalla, Mohammed A A; Omar, Khamis Ali

    2016-01-01

    In this covenant of functional foods, the world seeks for new healthier food products with appropriate proportions of bioactive constituents such as fiber, mineral elements, phenols and flavonoids. The doum fruit has good nutritional and pharmaceutical properties; therefore, its incorporation in breads could be beneficial in improving human health. In the current study, partial substitution of wheat flour (WF) with doum fruit flour (DFF) at levels of 5 %, 10 %, 15 % and 20 % were carried out to investigate the dough viscoelastic properties, baking performance, proximate compositions and antioxidant properties of the breads. Partial substitution of WF with DFF increased the water absorption and developing time of dough (P ≤ 0.05), while, the dough extensibility, resistance to extension and the deformation energy were reduced. Bread supplemented with DFF resulted in a reduction in quality in terms of specific loaf volume, conferred softness, hardness, cohesiveness and gumminess to the bread crumbs. DFF up to 15 % could partially replace WF in bread; increase its nutritional value in terms of fiber content and minerals, with only a small depreciation in the bread quality. Sensory evaluation showed that breads supplemented up to 15 % DFF were acceptable to the panelists and there was no significant difference in terms of taste, texture and overall acceptability compared to the control. The incorporation of DFF increased the total phenolic contents, total flavonoids contents and antioxidant properties compared to the control (for both flour and bread).

  15. Effect of Various Sodium Chloride Mass Fractions on Wheat and Rye Bread Using Different Dough Preparation Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tańska, Małgorzata; Rotkiewicz, Daniela; Piętak, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    Summary This study assessed the selected properties of bread with reduced amount of sodium chloride. The bread was made from white and wholemeal wheat flour and rye flour. The dough was prepared using three techniques: with yeast, natural sourdough or starter sourdough. Sodium chloride was added to the dough at 0, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5% of the flour mass. The following bread properties were examined in the study: yield and volume of the loaf, moisture content, crumb firmness and porosity, and organoleptic properties. Reducing the mass fraction of added sodium chloride was not found to have considerable effect on bread yield, whereas it had a significant and variable effect on the loaf volume, and crumb firmness and porosity. Organoleptic assessment showed diverse effects of sodium chloride addition on sensory properties of bread, depending on the type of bread and the dough preparation method. Reduced mass fractions of sodium chloride changed the organoleptic properties of bread made with yeast and with starter sourdough to a greater extent than of bread prepared with natural sourdough. PMID:27904407

  16. Effects of baking conditions, dough fermentation, and bran particle size on antioxidant properties of whole-wheat pizza crusts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Jeffrey; Luther, Marla; Cheng, Zhihong; Yu, Liangli Lucy

    2009-02-11

    This study investigated the effects of processing conditions including bran particle size, dough fermentation time, and baking time and temperature on the extractable antioxidant properties of whole-wheat pizza crust. Experiments were carried out using two different varieties of hard white winter wheat, Trego and Lakin. Antioxidant properties examined included oxygen radical absorbing capacity (ORAC), hydroxyl radical scavenging capacity (HOSC), relative 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity (RDSC), cation 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) radical scavenging capacity, total phenolic contents (TPC), and ferulic acid contents. Results indicated that bran particle size had no effect on the antioxidant properties evaluated. Increasing dough fermentation time from 0 to 48 h had no significant influence on antioxidant properties except HOSC, which increased as much as 28%, possibly as a result of increase in soluble free ferulic acid, which increased as much as 130%. Increasing baking temperature from 204 to 288 degrees C with a 7 min bake time increased all evaluated antioxidant properties by as much as 82%. Increasing baking time from 7 to 14 min with 204 degrees C baking temperature might increase some antioxidant properties as much as 60%. The results from this study suggest that longer dough fermentation times and increased baking time or temperature may be potential approaches to increase the antioxidant availability in whole-wheat pizza crust.

  17. Study of the role of bran water binding and the steric hindrance by bran in straight dough bread making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemdane, S; Langenaeken, N A; Jacobs, P J; Verspreet, J; Delcour, J A; Courtin, C M

    2018-07-01

    This study investigates the effect of the physical presence and water binding of wheat bran during bread making, and the possible mechanisms behind this effect. Regular bran, pericarp-enriched bran and synthetic bran-like particles with different water binding capacities and particle sizes were used. Incorporation of regular and pericarp-enriched bran in dough (15% dm) led to a lower oven rise than the control dough. Bread volumes decreased with 11% and 30%, respectively. Dough with synthetic bran, having a low water binding capacity, displayed a near to normal leavening and oven rise and resulted in a bread volume decrease of only 5% compared to the control. Particle size reduction of regular bran and synthetic bran to an average size of 200 µm did not affect final bread quality. Results indicate that water binding by bran affects bread quality the most, whereas steric hindrance by physical presence of bran particles is less determinative. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The influence of plant protein on the properties of dough and the quality of wholemeal spelt bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojana Filipčev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the effect of a soy protein concentrate (protein content 65% as a substituent (substituting 20% wholegrain spelt flour and a pea protein isolate (protein concentration 90% as a substituent (substituting 5% and 10% wholegrain spelt flour on the rheological characteristics of spelt dough and on the physical and sensory characteristics of spelt bread enriched with proteins. The stability of dough supplemented with a soy protein concentrate has turned out to be higher than the stability of dough supplemented with pea protein isolates. It is probably the result of different protein behaviour in soybeans and peas. The applied ingredients have manifested different effects on the specific bread volume. In comparison to the control bread, the specific volume of bread samples have been reduced significantly with addition of a 20% soy protein concentrate and a 10% pea protein isolate (from 1.83 ml/g to 1.39 and 1.38 respectively. On the other hand, addition of a 5% pea protein isolate has not brought to a significant decline in the specific bread volume. Addition of a 10% pea protein isolate has increased the chewiness while this parameter has not changed significantly in relation to the control bread with addition of 5% pea protein and 20% soy protein. Spelt bread with 5% pea isolated protein is the most acceptable according to the overall sensory acceptance among all the analysed samples.

  19. The Role of Radio Frequency Detection System Embedded Surgical Sponges in Preventing Retained Surgical Sponges: A Prospective Evaluation in Patients Undergoing Emergency Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaba, Kenji; Okoye, Obi; Aksoy, Hande; Skiada, Dimitra; Ault, Glenn; Sener, Stephen; Lam, Lydia; Benjamin, Elizabeth; Demetriades, Demetrios

    2016-10-01

    To prospectively evaluate the ability of radio frequency detection (RFD) system-embedded sponges to mitigate the incidence of retained surgical sponges (RSS) after emergency surgery. Emergency surgery patients are at high risk for retained foreign bodies. All emergent trauma and nontrauma cavitary operations over a 5-year period (January 2010-December 2014) were prospectively enrolled. For damage-control procedures, only the definitive closure was included. RFD sponges were used exclusively throughout the study period. Before closure, the sponge and instrument count was followed by RFD scanning and x-ray evaluation for retained sponges. RSS and near-misses averted using the RFD system were analyzed. In all, 2051 patients [median (range)], aged 41 (1-101) years, 72.2% male, 46.8% trauma patients, underwent 2148 operations (1824 laparotomy, 100 thoracotomy, 30 sternotomy, and 97 combined). RFD detected retained sponges in 11 (0.5%) patients (81.8%laparotomy, 18.2% sternotomy) before cavitary closure. All postclosure x-rays were negative. No retained sponges were missed by the RFD system. Body mass index was 29 (23-43), estimated blood loss 1.0 L (0-23), and operating room time 160 minutes (71-869). Procedures started after 18:00 to 06:00 hours in 45.5% of the patients. The sponge count was incorrect in 36.4%, not performed due to time constraints in 45.5%, and correct in 18.2%. The additional cost of using RFD-embedded disposables was $0.17 for a 4X18 laparotomy sponge and $0.46 for a 10 pack of 12ply, 4X8. Emergent surgical procedures are high-risk for retained sponges, even when sponge counts are performed and found to be correct. Implementation of a RFD system was effective in preventing this complication and should be considered for emergent operations in an effort to improve patient safety.

  20. Analysis of sponge zones for computational fluid mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodony, Daniel J.

    2006-01-01

    The use of sponge regions, or sponge zones, which add the forcing term -σ(q - q ref ) to the right-hand-side of the governing equations in computational fluid mechanics as an ad hoc boundary treatment is widespread. They are used to absorb and minimize reflections from computational boundaries and as forcing sponges to introduce prescribed disturbances into a calculation. A less common usage is as a means of extending a calculation from a smaller domain into a larger one, such as in computing the far-field sound generated in a localized region. By analogy to the penalty method of finite elements, the method is placed on a solid foundation, complete with estimates of convergence. The analysis generalizes the work of Israeli and Orszag [M. Israeli, S.A. Orszag, Approximation of radiation boundary conditions, J. Comp. Phys. 41 (1981) 115-135] and confirms their findings when applied as a special case to one-dimensional wave propagation in an absorbing sponge. It is found that the rate of convergence of the actual solution to the target solution, with an appropriate norm, is inversely proportional to the sponge strength. A detailed analysis for acoustic wave propagation in one-dimension verifies the convergence rate given by the general theory. The exponential point-wise convergence derived by Israeli and Orszag in the high-frequency limit is recovered and found to hold over all frequencies. A weakly nonlinear analysis of the method when applied to Burgers' equation shows similar convergence properties. Three numerical examples are given to confirm the analysis: the acoustic extension of a two-dimensional time-harmonic point source, the acoustic extension of a three-dimensional initial-value problem of a sound pulse, and the introduction of unstable eigenmodes from linear stability theory into a two-dimensional shear layer

  1. Magnetic graphene sponge for the removal of methylene blue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Baowei; Zhang, Xiaoliang; Xie, Jingru; Wu, Ruihan; Liu, Xiaoyang; Li, Hongliang; Chen, Fang; Yang, Hua; Ming, Zhu; Yang, Sheng-Tao, E-mail: yangst@pku.edu.cn

    2015-10-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Magnetic graphene sponge is prepared for dye removal in aqueous solution. • Magnetic graphene sponge has an adsorption capacity of 526 mg/g for methylene blue. • Adsorption behaviors of methylene blue on magnetic graphene sponge are investigated. • Magnetic graphene sponge could be partially regenerated by washing with acidic ethanol. - Abstract: Magnetic carbon nanomaterials have been widely adopted as adsorbents in water treatment, but the low adsorption capacities largely limit their practical applications. In this study, magnetic graphene sponge (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-GS) was prepared by lyophilization for the adsorption of dye pollutant. The incorporation of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} enabled the magnetic separation of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-GS after the adsorption of methylene blue (MB). The adsorption capacity of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-GS for MB was 526 mg/g, much higher than those of the magnetic carbon nanoadsorbents in the literature. The adsorption kinetics of MB on Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-GS was moderately fast, which could be analyzed by the pseudo-second-order model and intraparticle diffusion model. The thermodynamics study revealed that the adsorption was driven by the increased randomness on the interface. The pH and ionic strength had meaningful influences on the adsorption capacity of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-GS. The facile regeneration of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-GS would definitely reduce its operating cost. The implications to the environmental applications of magnetic carbon nanoadsorbents are discussed.

  2. Sponge-microbe associations survive high nutrients and temperatures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Simister

    Full Text Available Coral reefs are under considerable pressure from global stressors such as elevated sea surface temperature and ocean acidification, as well as local factors including eutrophication and poor water quality. Marine sponges are diverse, abundant and ecologically important components of coral reefs in both coastal and offshore environments. Due to their exceptionally high filtration rates, sponges also form a crucial coupling point between benthic and pelagic habitats. Sponges harbor extensive microbial communities, with many microbial phylotypes found exclusively in sponges and thought to contribute to the health and survival of their hosts. Manipulative experiments were undertaken to ascertain the impact of elevated nutrients and seawater temperature on health and microbial community dynamics in the Great Barrier Reef sponge Rhopaloeides odorabile. R. odorabile exposed to elevated nutrient levels including 10 µmol/L total nitrogen at 31°C appeared visually similar to those maintained under ambient seawater conditions after 7 days. The symbiotic microbial community, analyzed by 16S rRNA gene pyrotag sequencing, was highly conserved for the duration of the experiment at both phylum and operational taxonomic unit (OTU (97% sequence similarity levels with 19 bacterial phyla and 1743 OTUs identified across all samples. Additionally, elevated nutrients and temperatures did not alter the archaeal associations in R. odorabile, with sequencing of 16S rRNA gene libraries revealing similar Thaumarchaeota diversity and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE revealing consistent amoA gene patterns, across all experimental treatments. A conserved eukaryotic community was also identified across all nutrient and temperature treatments by DGGE. The highly stable microbial associations indicate that R. odorabile symbionts are capable of withstanding short-term exposure to elevated nutrient concentrations and sub-lethal temperatures.

  3. Giving the early fossil record of sponges a squeeze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antcliffe, Jonathan B; Callow, Richard H T; Brasier, Martin D

    2014-11-01

    Twenty candidate fossils with claim to be the oldest representative of the Phylum Porifera have been re-analysed. Three criteria are used to assess each candidate: (i) the diagnostic criteria needed to categorize sponges in the fossil record; (ii) the presence, or absence, of such diagnostic features in the putative poriferan fossils; and (iii) the age constraints for the candidate fossils. All three criteria are critical to the correct interpretation of any fossil and its placement within an evolutionary context. Our analysis shows that no Precambrian fossil candidate yet satisfies all three of these criteria to be a reliable sponge fossil. The oldest widely accepted candidate, Mongolian silica hexacts from c. 545 million years ago (Ma), are here shown to be cruciform arsenopyrite crystals. The oldest reliable sponge remains are siliceous spicules from the basal Cambrian (Protohertzina anabarica Zone) Soltanieh Formation, Iran, which are described and analysed here in detail for the first time. Extensive archaeocyathan sponge reefs emerge and radiate as late as the middle of the Fortunian Stage of the Cambrian and demonstrate a gradual assembly of their skeletal structure through this time coincident with the evolution of other metazoan groups. Since the Porifera are basal in the Metazoa, their presence within the late Proterozoic has been widely anticipated. Molecular clock calibration for the earliest Porifera and Metazoa should now be based on the Iranian hexactinellid material dated to c. 535 Ma. The earliest convincing fossil sponge remains appeared at around the time of the Precambrian-Cambrian boundary, associated with the great radiation events of that interval. © 2014 The Authors. Biological Reviews © 2014 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  4. Evaluation of Water Distribution and Oxygen Mass Transfer in Sponge Support Media for a Down-flow Hanging Sponge Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uemura, S.; Okubo, T.; Maeno, K.; Takahashi, M.; Kubota, K.; Harada, H.

    2016-01-01

    A down-flow hanging sponge reactor has been developed for sewage treatment, mainly in developing countries. This novel reactor employs polyurethane sponge material as a support medium, which promises a proliferation of a large amount of biomass, offering excellent pollutant removal capability. Three types of sponge medium were evaluated with respect to water distribution and oxygen mass transfer. Water was supplied to the device, which consisted of 40 pieces of sponge media connected in series, and a tracer experiment was carried out. The ratios of actual hydraulic retention time to theoretical hydraulic retention time were in the range of 25-67% depending on the type of support medium. By supplying deoxygenated water from the top of the device, the overall volumetric oxygen transfer coefficient, K L a, was evaluated. Despite the non-aerated conditions, the K L a values of the support media were very high, in the range of 0.56-4.88 (1/min), surpassing those of other mechanically aerated processes. Furthermore, it was found that the suspended solids concentration in the influent played a role in increasing the actual hydraulic retention time/theoretical hydraulic retention time ratio, suggesting that managing the influent suspended solids concentration is prerequisite for preventing clogging problems in the down-flow hanging.

  5. Coral mucus fuels the sponge loop in warm- and cold-water coral reef ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rix, Laura; de Goeij, Jasper M; Mueller, Christina E; Struck, Ulrich; Middelburg, Jack J; van Duyl, Fleur C; Al-Horani, Fuad A; Wild, Christian; Naumann, Malik S; van Oevelen, Dick

    2016-01-07

    Shallow warm-water and deep-sea cold-water corals engineer the coral reef framework and fertilize reef communities by releasing coral mucus, a source of reef dissolved organic matter (DOM). By transforming DOM into particulate detritus, sponges play a key role in transferring the energy and nutrients in DOM to higher trophic levels on Caribbean reefs via the so-called sponge loop. Coral mucus may be a major DOM source for the sponge loop, but mucus uptake by sponges has not been demonstrated. Here we used laboratory stable isotope tracer experiments to show the transfer of coral mucus into the bulk tissue and phospholipid fatty acids of the warm-water sponge Mycale fistulifera and cold-water sponge Hymedesmia coriacea, demonstrating a direct trophic link between corals and reef sponges. Furthermore, 21-40% of the mucus carbon and 32-39% of the nitrogen assimilated by the sponges was subsequently released as detritus, confirming a sponge loop on Red Sea warm-water and north Atlantic cold-water coral reefs. The presence of a sponge loop in two vastly different reef environments suggests it is a ubiquitous feature of reef ecosystems contributing to the high biogeochemical cycling that may enable coral reefs to thrive in nutrient-limited (warm-water) and energy-limited (cold-water) environments.

  6. Preparation of composite hydroxybutyl chitosan sponge and its role in promoting wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shihao; Bi, Shichao; Yan, Dong; Zhou, Zhongzheng; Sun, Guohui; Cheng, Xiaojie; Chen, Xiguang

    2018-03-15

    In this work, a composite sponge was produced by physically mixing hydroxybutyl chitosan with chitosan to form a porous spongy material through vacuum freeze-drying. Hydrophilic and macroporous composite hydroxybutyl chitosan sponge was developed via the incorporation of chitosan into hydroxybutyl chitosan. The composite sponge showed higher porosity (about 85%), greater water absorption (about 25 times), better softness and lower blood-clotting index (BCI) than those of chitosan sponge and hydroxybutyl chitosan sponge. The composite sponge with good hydrophilic could absorb the moisture in the blood to increase blood concentration and viscosity, and become a semi-swelling viscous colloid to clog the capillaries. Cytocompatibility tests with L929 cells and HUVEC cells demonstrated that composite sponge were no cytotoxicity, and could promote the growth of fibroblasts. It made up for the shortcomings of hydroxybutyl chitosan with unfavorable antibacterial effect to achieve a higher level of antibacterial (>99.99% reduction). Eventually, the vivo evaluations in Sprague-Dawley rats revealed that epithelial cells attached to the composite sponge and penetrated into the interior, in addition to this, it was also proved that the composite sponge (HC-1) had a better ability to promote wound healing and helped for faster formation of skin glands and re-epithelialization. The obtained data encourage the use of this composite sponge for wound dressings. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Use of enzymes to minimize the rheological dough problems caused by high levels of damaged starch in starch-gluten systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrera, Gabriela N; León, Alberto E; Ribotta, Pablo D

    2016-05-01

    During wheat milling, starch granules can experience mechanical damage, producing damaged starch. High levels of damaged starch modify the physicochemical properties of wheat flour, negatively affecting the dough behavior as well as the flour quality and cookie and bread making quality. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of α-amylase, maltogenic amylase and amyloglucosidase on dough rheology in order to propose alternatives to reduce the issues related to high levels of damaged starch. The dough with a high level of damaged starch became more viscous and resistant to deformations as well as less elastic and extensible. The soluble fraction of the doughs influenced the rheological behavior of the systems. The α-amylase and amyloglucosidase reduced the negative effects of high damaged starch contents, improving the dough rheological properties modified by damaged starch. The rheological behavior of dough with the higher damaged-starch content was related to a more open gluten network arrangement as a result of the large size of the swollen damaged starch granules. We can conclude that the dough rheological properties of systems with high damaged starch content changed positively as a result of enzyme action, particularly α-amylase and amyloglucosidase additions, allowing the use of these amylases and mixtures of them as corrective additives. Little information was reported about amyloglucosidase activity alone or combined with α-amylase. The combinations of these two enzymes are promising to minimize the negative effects caused by high levels of damaged starch on product quality. More research needs to be done on bread quality combining these two enzymes. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Metabolic profiles of prokaryotic and eukaryotic communities in deep-sea sponge Neamphius huxleyi indicated by metagenomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi-Yong; Wang, Yue-Zhu; He, Li-Ming; Zheng, Hua-Jun

    2014-01-01

    The whole metabolism of a sponge holobiont and the respective contributions of prokaryotic and eukaryotic symbionts and their associations with the sponge host remain largely unclear. Meanwhile, compared with shallow water sponges, deep-sea sponges are rarely understood. Here we report the metagenomic exploration of deep-sea sponge Neamphius huxleyi at the whole community level. Metagenomic data showed phylogenetically diverse prokaryotes and eukaryotes in Neamphius huxleyi. MEGAN and gene enrichment analyses indicated different metabolic potentials of prokaryotic symbionts from eukaryotic symbionts, especially in nitrogen and carbon metabolisms, and their molecular interactions with the sponge host. These results supported the hypothesis that prokaryotic and eukaryotic symbionts have different ecological roles and relationships with sponge host. Moreover, vigorous denitrification, and CO2 fixation by chemoautotrophic prokaryotes were suggested for this deep-sea sponge. The study provided novel insights into the respective potentials of prokaryotic and eukaryotic symbionts and their associations with deep-sea sponge Neamphius huxleyi. PMID:24463735

  9. Metabolic profiles of prokaryotic and eukaryotic communities in deep-sea sponge Neamphius huxleyi [corrected]. indicated by metagenomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi-Yong; Wang, Yue-Zhu; He, Li-Ming; Zheng, Hua-Jun

    2014-01-27

    The whole metabolism of a sponge holobiont and the respective contributions of prokaryotic and eukaryotic symbionts and their associations with the sponge host remain largely unclear. Meanwhile, compared with shallow water sponges, deep-sea sponges are rarely understood. Here we report the metagenomic exploration of deep-sea sponge Neamphius huxleyi [corrected] . at the whole community level. Metagenomic data showed phylogenetically diverse prokaryotes and eukaryotes in Neamphius huxleyi [corrected]. MEGAN and gene enrichment analyses indicated different metabolic potentials of prokaryotic symbionts from eukaryotic symbionts, especially in nitrogen and carbon metabolisms, and their molecular interactions with the sponge host. These results supported the hypothesis that prokaryotic and eukaryotic symbionts have different ecological roles and relationships with sponge host. Moreover, vigorous denitrification, and CO2 fixation by chemoautotrophic prokaryotes were suggested for this deep-sea sponge. The study provided novel insights into the respective potentials of prokaryotic and eukaryotic symbionts and their associations with deep-sea sponge Neamphius huxleyi [corrected].

  10. Metabolic profiles of prokaryotic and eukaryotic communities in deep-sea sponge Lamellomorpha sp. indicated by metagenomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi-Yong; Wang, Yue-Zhu; He, Li-Ming; Zheng, Hua-Jun

    2014-01-01

    The whole metabolism of a sponge holobiont and the respective contributions of prokaryotic and eukaryotic symbionts and their associations with the sponge host remain largely unclear. Meanwhile, compared with shallow water sponges, deep-sea sponges are rarely understood. Here we report the metagenomic exploration of deep-sea sponge Lamellomorpha sp. at the whole community level. Metagenomic data showed phylogenetically diverse prokaryotes and eukaryotes in Lamellomorpha sp.. MEGAN and gene enrichment analyses indicated different metabolic potentials of prokaryotic symbionts from eukaryotic symbionts, especially in nitrogen and carbon metabolisms, and their molecular interactions with the sponge host. These results supported the hypothesis that prokaryotic and eukaryotic symbionts have different ecological roles and relationships with sponge host. Moreover, vigorous denitrification, and CO2 fixation by chemoautotrophic prokaryotes were suggested for this deep-sea sponge. The study provided novel insights into the respective potentials of prokaryotic and eukaryotic symbionts and their associations with deep-sea sponge Lamellomorpha sp..

  11. Comparative study on the freeze stability of yeast and chemical leavened steamed bread dough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pei; Yang, Runqiang; Gu, Zhenxin; Xu, Xueming; Jin, Zhengyu

    2017-04-15

    The present study comparatively evaluated the evolution of yeast and chemical leavened steamed bread dough (YLD/CLD) quality during freeze/thaw (FT) cycles. The steamed bread quality of CLD was more freeze-stable than that of the YLD after 3 FT cycles. Decreased yeast viability contributed to the loss of gassing power in YLD while no significant differences were observed for CLD during FT cycles. However, faster gas release rate in frozen CLD indicated gas retention loss due to the distortion of gluten network. Glutenin macropolymers (GMP) depolymerization via breakage of inter-chain disulfide (SS) bonds and conversions of α-helix and β-turn to β-sheet structures were the main indicators of gluten deterioration. Gluten network was more vulnerable in frozen YLD, resulting in detectable loss of viscoelasticity. The results suggested that supplement of chemical leavener contributed to a more freeze-tolerant gluten network besides its stable gassing power. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of inulin on the structure and emulsifying properties of protein components in dough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Juan; Luo, Denglin; Li, Xuan; Xu, Baocheng; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Liu, Jianxue

    2016-11-01

    High-purity gliadin, glutenin and gluten fractions were extracted from wheat gluten flour. To investigate the effects of three types of inulin with different degrees of polymerization (DP) on the emulsifying properties, disulfide contents, secondary structures and microstructures of these fractions, Turbidimetry, spectrophotometer, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used in this study. The results showed that the emulsifying activity of gliadin was higher than that of glutenin and gluten, but its emulsion stability was lower than that of glutenin. Adding inulin increased the emulsifying activity of the three protein fractions and emulsion stability of gliadin and gluten, but decreased the emulsion stability of glutenin and disulfide bond contents of glutenin and gluten. In the presence of inulin, the α-helical structure of the three proteins had no significant change, whereas the β-turn structure decreased and β-sheet structure increased. The SEM images showed that inulin had the most significant effect on the glutenin microstructure. In general, inulin with a higher DP had greater effects on the structure and emulsifying properties of protein components in dough. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Exploring the Bacterial Microbiota of Colombian Fermented Maize Dough "Masa Agria" (Maiz Añejo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves-Lopez, Clemencia; Serio, Annalisa; Delgado-Ospina, Johannes; Rossi, Chiara; Grande-Tovar, Carlos D; Paparella, Antonello

    2016-01-01

    Masa Agria is a naturally fermented maize dough produced in Colombia, very common in the traditional gastronomy. In this study we used culture-dependent and RNA-based pyrosequencing to investigate the bacterial community structure of Masa Agria samples produced in the south west of Colombia. The mean value of cell density was 7.6 log CFU/g of presumptive lactic acid bacteria, 5.4 log cfu/g for presumptive acetic bacteria and 5.6 og CFU/g for yeasts. The abundance of these microorganisms is also responsible for the low pH (3.1-3.7) registered. Although the 16S rRNA pyrosequencing revealed that the analyzed samples were different in bacteria richness and diversity, the genera Lactobacillus, Weissella, and Acetobacter were predominant. In particular, the most common species were Lactobacillus plantarum and Acetobacter fabarum, followed by L. fermentum, L. vaccinostercus, and Pediococcus argentinicus. Several microorganisms of environmental origin, such as Dechloromonas and most of all Sphingobium spp., revealed in each sample, were detected, and also bacteria related to maize, such as Phytoplasma. In conclusion, our results elucidated for the first time the structures of the bacterial communities of Masa Agria samples obtained from different producers, identifying the specific dominant species and revealing a complete picture of the bacterial consortium in this specific niche. The selective pressure of tropical environments may favor microbial biodiversity characterized by a useful technological potential.

  14. Influence of dough ingredients on 3-chloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) formation in toast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitling-Utzmann, C M; Hrenn, H; Haase, N U; Unbehend, G M

    2005-02-01

    The influence of different dough ingredients such as fat, salt, sourdough, emulsifiers, and sugar on the formation of 3-chloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) during toast preparation under domestic conditions was investigated. In comparison with a fat-free recipe, addition of 1% peanut fat considerably increased 3-MCPD formation, but varying the fat (2-5%) or salt (1.6-2.4%) contents within technological acceptable limits did not show any significant differences. A baking agent, which is usually commercially applied by many toast bakers or industrial toast manufacturers, increased 3-MCPD formation in toasted bread slices. Considerable evidence was found that the baking agent's main component sucrose had the major part in increasing 3-MCPD levels. Emulsifiers containing monoacylglycerols moderately increased 3-MCPD levels, but the addition of lecithin did not have any significant influence. 3-MCPD levels showed a good correlation with the lightness (L* value) of the bread slices; their 3-MCPD content increased exponentially towards dark coloured toasts. The relation between 3-MCPD and 2-MCPD was an average of 3:1 in all samples. Dichloropropanols such as, for example, 1,3-dichloropropanol could not be detected.

  15. Metagenomic Analysis of Genes Encoding Nutrient Cycling Pathways in the Microbiota of Deep-Sea and Shallow-Water Sponges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhiyong; Wang, Yuezhu; Li, Jinlong; Liu, Fang; He, Liming; He, Ying; Wang, Shenyue

    2016-12-01

    Sponges host complex symbiotic communities, but to date, the whole picture of the metabolic potential of sponge microbiota remains unclear, particularly the difference between the shallow-water and deep-sea sponge holobionts. In this study, two completely different sponges, shallow-water sponge Theonella swinhoei from the South China Sea and deep-sea sponge Neamphius huxleyi from the Indian Ocean, were selected to compare their whole symbiotic communities and metabolic potential, particularly in element transformation. Phylogenetically diverse bacteria, archaea, fungi, and algae were detected in both shallow-water sponge T. swinhoei and deep-sea sponge N. huxleyi, and different microbial community structures were indicated between these two sponges. Metagenome-based gene abundance analysis indicated that, though the two sponge microbiota have similar core functions, they showed different potential strategies in detailed metabolic processes, e.g., in the transformation and utilization of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur by corresponding microbial symbionts. This study provides insight into the putative metabolic potentials of the microbiota associated with the shallow-water and deep-sea sponges at the whole community level, extending our knowledge of the sponge microbiota's functions, the association of sponge- microbes, as well as the adaption of sponge microbiota to the marine environment.

  16. Flavoring Production in Kamut®, Quinoa and Wheat Doughs Fermented by Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Lactobacillus brevis: A SPME-GC/MS Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Renzo, Tiziana; Reale, Anna; Boscaino, Floriana; Messia, Maria C

    2018-01-01

    This study identified the odor-active compounds and the qualitative characteristics of doughs from "ancient" grains flours fermented by lactic acid bacteria. For this purpose doughs made with quinoa and Kamut® flours have been produced and inoculated with strains belonging to the species Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus brevis and compared with fermented doughs made from 100% wheat flour. The quality of the doughs was determined by assessment of pH, total titratable acidity, lactic acid bacteria growth and flavor compounds. The results showed that lactic acid bacteria used were able to grow in the different substrates reaching more than 9.0 log CFU/g after 24 h fermentation, although the best microbial growth was recorded in the doughs made with quinoa flour fermented with Lactobacillus paracasei I1. Good acidification and heterogeneous aromatic profile were recognized in all the doughs even if the volatile composition mainly derived from microbial specie. Among all the used strains, mostly Lactobacillus paracasei I1 positively contributed to the aromatic profile of the doughs, independently from flour type, producing the highest amount of different ketones such as, diacetyl, acetoin, 2,6-dimethyl-4-heptanone, 5-methyl-3-hexanone, 4-methyl-3-penten-2-one, volatile compounds highly appreciated in the bakery products for their buttery, fatty and fruity notes. So, the positive characteristic of Lactobacillus paracasei I1 to enhance the production of desired volatile compounds could make it suitable as adjunct culture starter in the bakery industry. Many differences in volatile organic compounds derived also by the type of flour used. Quinoa fermented doughs were characterized for specific nutty, roasted, acid and buttery tones derived from pyrazines, ketones and acid compounds whereas Kamut® fermented doughs were characterized for fruity, rose, green and sweet tones derived from aldehydes and ketones production. So, the use of

  17. Flavoring Production in Kamut®, Quinoa and Wheat Doughs Fermented by Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Lactobacillus brevis: A SPME-GC/MS Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziana Di Renzo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This study identified the odor-active compounds and the qualitative characteristics of doughs from “ancient” grains flours fermented by lactic acid bacteria. For this purpose doughs made with quinoa and Kamut® flours have been produced and inoculated with strains belonging to the species Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus brevis and compared with fermented doughs made from 100% wheat flour. The quality of the doughs was determined by assessment of pH, total titratable acidity, lactic acid bacteria growth and flavor compounds. The results showed that lactic acid bacteria used were able to grow in the different substrates reaching more than 9.0 log CFU/g after 24 h fermentation, although the best microbial growth was recorded in the doughs made with quinoa flour fermented with Lactobacillus paracasei I1. Good acidification and heterogeneous aromatic profile were recognized in all the doughs even if the volatile composition mainly derived from microbial specie. Among all the used strains, mostly Lactobacillus paracasei I1 positively contributed to the aromatic profile of the doughs, independently from flour type, producing the highest amount of different ketones such as, diacetyl, acetoin, 2,6-dimethyl-4-heptanone, 5-methyl-3-hexanone, 4-methyl-3-penten-2-one, volatile compounds highly appreciated in the bakery products for their buttery, fatty and fruity notes. So, the positive characteristic of Lactobacillus paracasei I1 to enhance the production of desired volatile compounds could make it suitable as adjunct culture starter in the bakery industry. Many differences in volatile organic compounds derived also by the type of flour used. Quinoa fermented doughs were characterized for specific nutty, roasted, acid and buttery tones derived from pyrazines, ketones and acid compounds whereas Kamut® fermented doughs were characterized for fruity, rose, green and sweet tones derived from aldehydes and ketones

  18. Flavoring Production in Kamut®, Quinoa and Wheat Doughs Fermented by Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Lactobacillus brevis: A SPME-GC/MS Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Renzo, Tiziana; Reale, Anna; Boscaino, Floriana; Messia, Maria C.

    2018-01-01

    This study identified the odor-active compounds and the qualitative characteristics of doughs from “ancient” grains flours fermented by lactic acid bacteria. For this purpose doughs made with quinoa and Kamut® flours have been produced and inoculated with strains belonging to the species Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus brevis and compared with fermented doughs made from 100% wheat flour. The quality of the doughs was determined by assessment of pH, total titratable acidity, lactic acid bacteria growth and flavor compounds. The results showed that lactic acid bacteria used were able to grow in the different substrates reaching more than 9.0 log CFU/g after 24 h fermentation, although the best microbial growth was recorded in the doughs made with quinoa flour fermented with Lactobacillus paracasei I1. Good acidification and heterogeneous aromatic profile were recognized in all the doughs even if the volatile composition mainly derived from microbial specie. Among all the used strains, mostly Lactobacillus paracasei I1 positively contributed to the aromatic profile of the doughs, independently from flour type, producing the highest amount of different ketones such as, diacetyl, acetoin, 2,6-dimethyl-4-heptanone, 5-methyl-3-hexanone, 4-methyl-3-penten-2-one, volatile compounds highly appreciated in the bakery products for their buttery, fatty and fruity notes. So, the positive characteristic of Lactobacillus paracasei I1 to enhance the production of desired volatile compounds could make it suitable as adjunct culture starter in the bakery industry. Many differences in volatile organic compounds derived also by the type of flour used. Quinoa fermented doughs were characterized for specific nutty, roasted, acid and buttery tones derived from pyrazines, ketones and acid compounds whereas Kamut® fermented doughs were characterized for fruity, rose, green and sweet tones derived from aldehydes and ketones production. So, the use of

  19. Thermal asymmetry model of single slope single basin solar still with sponge liner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanmugan Sengottain

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An attempt has been made to propose a thermal asymmetry model for single slope basin type solar still with sponge liner of different thickness (3cm, 5cm, and 10cm in the basin. Two different color sponge liners have been used i.e., yellow and black. In the proposed design, a suitable dripping arrangement has been designed and used to pour water drop by drop over the sponge liner instead of sponge liner in stagnant saline water in the basin. The special arrangement overcomes the dryness of the sponge during peak sunny hours. The performance of the system with black color sponge of 3cm thickness shows better result with an output of 5.3 kg/m2 day and the proposed model have used to find the thermal asymmetries during the working hours of the still.

  20. Graphene/polyaniline composite sponge of three-dimensional porous network structure as supercapacitor electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Jiu-Xing; Zhang Xu-Zhi; Wang Zhen-Hua; Xu Jian-Jun

    2016-01-01

    As a supercapacitor electrode, the graphene/polyaniline (PANI) composite sponge with a three-dimensional (3D) porous network structure is synthesized by a simple three-step method. The three steps include an in situ polymerization, freeze-drying and reduction by hydrazine vapor. The prepared sponge has a large specific surface area and porous network structure, so it is in favor of spreading the electrolyte ion and increasing the charge transfer efficiency of the system. The process of preparation is simple, easy to operate and low cost. The composite sponge shows better electrochemical performance than the pure individual graphene sponge while PANI cannot keep the shape of a sponge. Such a composite sponge exhibits specific capacitances of 487 F·g −1 at 2 mV/s compared to pristine PANI of 397 F·g −1 . (paper)

  1. Similar sponge-associated bacteria can be acquired via both vertical and horizontal transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sipkema, Detmer; de Caralt, Sònia; Morillo, Jose A

    2015-01-01

    Marine sponges host diverse communities of microorganisms that are often vertically transmitted from mother to oocyte or embryo. Horizontal transmission has often been proposed to co-occur in marine sponges, but the mechanism is poorly understood. To assess the impact of the mode of transmission...... on the microbial assemblages of sponges, we analysed the microbiota in sympatric sponges that have previously been reported to acquire bacteria via either vertical (Corticium candelabrum and Crambe crambe) or horizontal transmission (Petrosia ficiformis). The comparative study was performed by PCR......-DGGE and pyrosequencing of barcoded PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene fragments. We found that P. ficiformis and C. candelabrum each harbor their own species-specific bacteria, but they are similar to other high-microbial-abundance sponges, while the low-microbial-abundance sponge C. crambe hosts microbiota of a very different...

  2. The influence of Glu-1 and Glu-3 loci on dough rheology and bread-making properties in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) doubled haploid lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langner, Monika; Krystkowiak, Karolina; Salmanowicz, Bolesław P; Adamski, Tadeusz; Krajewski, Paweł; Kaczmarek, Zygmunt; Surma, Maria

    2017-12-01

    The major determinants of wheat quality are Glu-1 and Glu-3 glutenin loci and environmental factors. Additive effects of alleles at the Glu-1 and Glu-3 loci, as well as their interactions, were evaluated for dough rheology and baking properties in four groups of wheat doubled haploid lines differing in high- and low-molecular-weight glutenin composition. Flour quality, Reomixer (Reologica Instruments, Lund, Sweden), dough extension, Farinograph (Brabender GmbH, Duisburg, Germany) and baking parameters were determined. Groups of lines with the alleles Glu-A3b and Glu-B3d were characterized by higher values of dough and baking parameters compared to those with the Glu-A3e and Glu-B3a alleles. Effects of interactions between allelic variants at the Glu-1 and Glu-3 loci on Reomixer parameters, dough extension tests and baking parameters were significant, although additive effects of individual alleles were not always significant. The allelic variants at Glu-B3 had a much greater effect on dough rheological parameters than the variants at Glu-A3 or Glu-D3 loci. The effect of allelic variations at the Glu-D3 loci on rheological parameters and bread-making quality was non-significant, whereas their interactions with a majority of alleles at the other Glu-1 × Glu-3 loci were significant. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Study on the development trend and practice of sponge cities with Chinese Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Baihao; Zhang, Cunkuan; Lin, Hua

    2018-03-01

    The design of sponge city is the innovation and development of theory of rainwater utilization, which provides a new idea for the city to solve the problem of waterlogging and water shortage. The paper expounds the “sponge city” concept of the origins, development and application in engineering construction, and puts forward some suggestions for future research of “sponge city” for our city construction.

  4. Effects of light attenuation on the sponge holobiont-implications for dredging management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pineda, Mari Carmen; Strehlow, Brian; Duckworth, Alan

    2016-01-01

    Dredging and natural sediment resuspension events can cause high levels of turbidity, reducing the amount of light available for photosynthetic benthic biota. To determine how marine sponges respond to light attenuation, five species were experimentally exposed to a range of light treatments......, indicating that light attenuation poses a risk to photosynthetic marine sponges. Examining benthic light levels over temporal scales would enable dredging proponents to be aware of conditions that could impact on sponge physiology....

  5. On Ti-Zr sponge material structure, obtained in the course of magnesium-thermal reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandler, R.A.; Aleksandrovskij, S.V.; Likhterman, V.A.; Golubev, A.A.; Kuz'menko, A.S.

    1975-01-01

    The paper describes the structure of Ti-Zr sponge for which a magnesium-thermic reduction has been employed. The influence of zirconium upon the sponge porous structure has been studied. The general trend lies in the sponge porosity increase as the content of zirconium grows. However this role is manifested in a smaller or larger degrees depending upon the effect of other factors

  6. Diversity and spatial heterogeneity of mangrove associated sponges of Curaçao and Aruba

    OpenAIRE

    Hunting, E.R.; van Soest, R.W.M.; van der Geest, H.G.; Vos, A.; Debrot, A.O.

    2008-01-01

    Sponges are major epibionts of mangrove roots in the Caribbean. Mangrove sponge communities in the Caribbean mainly consist of species that are typical to this habitat and community compositions often differ from those found on coral reefs nearby. Heterogeneity in species distributions between locations and within locations between roots is often reported. This study quantifi es the diversity and abundance of mangrove associated sponges in the inner bays of Curaçao and Aruba and correlates va...

  7. Screening of Antibacterial MDR derived from Sponge Associated Fungus of Riung Water, Nusa Tenggara Timur

    OpenAIRE

    Khoeruddin Wittriansyah; Agus Trianto; Sekar Widyaningsih; Ocky Karna Radjasa; Rudhi Pribadi

    2016-01-01

    Marine sponge-associated fungi are the sources of bioactive compounds with various pharmacologicals potency. This study aimed to isolate the sponge-associated fungi as the producer of the MDR anti-bacterial compounds.  The associated fungi were isolated from the sponges collected from Riung water, Nusa Tenggara Timur. Five of the best isolates were cultured on MEA to obtain the methanolic extract for further studies.  The antagonistic test was conducted using overlay method towards the MDR St...

  8. Discordance between morphological and molecular species boundaries among Caribbean species of the reef sponge Callyspongia

    OpenAIRE

    DeBiasse, Melissa B; Hellberg, Michael E

    2015-01-01

    Sponges are among the most species-rich and ecologically important taxa on coral reefs, yet documenting their diversity is difficult due to the simplicity and plasticity of their morphological characters. Genetic attempts to identify species are hampered by the slow rate of mitochondrial sequence evolution characteristic of sponges and some other basal metazoans. Here we determine species boundaries of the Caribbean coral reef sponge genus Callyspongia using a multilocus, model-based approach...

  9. Antibacterial activity of the sponge Ircinia ramosa: Importance of its surface-associated bacteria

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Thakur, N.L.; Anil, A.C.

    , and concentrated under reduced pressure in a rotary evap- orator. A flow chart of extraction of sponge and its associated bacteria and anti- bacterial bioassays is given in Figure 1. Fractionation of Crude Extracts. The crude methanol extracts collected during... activity, and (3) whether there is a role for sponge surface-associated bacteria in antibacterial activity of the host? ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF SPONGE 59 METHODS AND MATERIALS Specimen Collection and Preparation of Crude Extracts. Specimens of Ircinia...

  10. CT and sonographic diagnosis of retained surgical sponge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Syunro; Aikawa, Hisayuki; Miyake, Hidetoshi; Mori, Hiromu; Maeda, Tohru; Nishimura, Hiro; Monzen, Yoshio; Ashizawa, Akira; Isomoto, Ichiro.

    1990-01-01

    Seven cases of pathologically proven retained surgical sponge were reviewed and classified into four types, depending on CT and US findings. CT showed a mass with tiny gas bubbles, and sonogram showed an echogenic area with strong posterior shadow (Type I). CT showed an irregular high density mass with no gas bubble, and sonogram showed an echogenic area with strong posterior shadow (Type II). CT showed a low density mass with irregular internal high density areas, and somogram showed a cystic mass with zigzag internal components (Type III). CT showed an eliptic high density mass with low density area internally. Judging from the experiment and operative findings, these patterns were decided by the number and status of the gauze, volume of the exudate and hematoma, and status of the granulation. The author concludes that these characteristic CT and US findings, together with a history of surgery, permit the correct diagnosis of retained surgical sponge. (author)

  11. Antiparasitic bromotyrosine derivatives from the Caribbean marine Sponge Aiolochroia crassa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galeano, Elkin; Martinez, Alejandro; Thomas, Olivier P.; Robledo, Sara; Munoz, Diana

    2012-01-01

    Six bromotyrosine-derived compounds were isolated from the Caribbean marine sponge Aiolochroia crassa: 3-bromo-5-hydroxy Ο-methyltyrosine (1), 3-bromo-N,N,N-trimethyltyrosinium (2), 3-bromo-N,N,N,ο-tetramethyltyrosinium (3), 3,5-dibromo-N,N,Ntrimethyltyrosinium (4), 3,5-dibromo-N,N,N,O-tetramethyltyrosinium (5), and aeroplysinin-1 (6). Structural determination was performed using NMR, MS and comparison with literature data. All isolated compounds were screened for their in vitro activity against Leishmania panamensis, Plasmodium falciparum and Trypanosoma cruzi. Compound 4 showed selective antiparasitic activity against Leishmania and Plasmodium parasites. This is the first report of compounds 1, 4 and 5 in the sponge A. crassa and the first biological activity reports for compounds 2-4. This work shows that bromotyrosines are potential antiparasitic agents. (author)

  12. Immunosuppressive compounds from a deep water marine sponge, Agelas flabelliformis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunasekera, S P; Cranick, S; Longley, R E

    1989-01-01

    Two immunosuppressive compounds, 4 alpha-methyl-5 alpha-cholest-8-en-3 beta-ol and 4,5-dibromo-2-pyrrolic acid were isolated from a deep water marine sponge, Agelas flabelliformis. Their structures were determined by comparison of their spectral data with those of samples isolated from other organisms. Both compounds were highly active in suppression of the response of murine splenocytes in the two-way mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) with little to no demonstrable cytotoxicity at lower doses. In addition, 4,5-dibromo-2-pyrrolic acid suppressed the proliferative response of splenocytes to suboptimal concentrations of the mitogen, concanavalin A (Con A). These results describe for the first time compounds isolated from the marine sponge A. flabelliformis that possess potent in vitro immunosuppressive activity.

  13. In vitro antibacterial and antifungal activities of twelve sponges collected from the Anambas Islands, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masteria Yunovilsa Putra

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate antimicrobial activities in methanolic extracts of twelve sponges collected from the Anambas Islands, Indonesia. Methods: The antibacterial activity of methanolic extracts was tested against two Grampositive bacteria, viz. Bacillus subtilis (ATCC 6633 and Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923, and two Gram-negative bacteria, viz. Eschericia coli (ATCC 25922 and Vibrio anguillarum (ATCC 19264 using the disk diffusion assay. The antifungal activity was similarly tested against Candida albicans (ATCC 10231 and Aspergillus niger (ATCC 16404. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of promising sponges extracts were determined by the microdilution technique. Results: All the sponge species in this study showed antimicrobial activities against at least one of the test strains. Antibacterial activities were observed in 66.7% of the sponges extracts, while 30.0% of the extracts exhibited antifungal activities. Among them, the extracts of the sponges Stylissa massa and Axinyssa sp. were the most active against four tested bacteria and the yeast Candida albicans. The sponge Theonella swinhoei and two species of Xestospongia also displayed significant activities against two fungal pathogens Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger. Conclusions: Antimicrobial activities were demonstrated in extracts from various marine sponges collected from the Anambas Islands, Indonesia. The most promising sponges among them were Stylissa massa and Axinyssa sp. This is the first report of antimicrobial activity in extracts of marine sponges from the Indonesian Anambas Islands.

  14. Comparisons of the fungal and protistan communities among different marine sponge holobionts by pyrosequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Liming; Liu, Fang; Karuppiah, Valliappan; Ren, Yi; Li, Zhiyong

    2014-05-01

    To date, the knowledge of eukaryotic communities associated with sponges remains limited compared with prokaryotic communities. In a manner similar to prokaryotes, it could be hypothesized that sponge holobionts have phylogenetically diverse eukaryotic symbionts, and the eukaryotic community structures in different sponge holobionts were probably different. In order to test this hypothesis, the communities of eukaryota associated with 11 species of South China Sea sponges were compared with the V4 region of 18S ribosomal ribonucleic acid gene using 454 pyrosequencing. Consequently, 135 and 721 unique operational taxonomic units (OTUs) of fungi and protists were obtained at 97 % sequence similarity, respectively. These sequences were assigned to 2 phyla of fungi (Ascomycota and Basidiomycota) and 9 phyla of protists including 5 algal phyla (Chlorophyta, Haptophyta, Streptophyta, Rhodophyta, and Stramenopiles) and 4 protozoal phyla (Alveolata, Cercozoa, Haplosporidia, and Radiolaria) including 47 orders (12 fungi, 35 protists). Entorrhizales of fungi and 18 orders of protists were detected in marine sponges for the first time. Particularly, Tilletiales of fungi and Chlorocystidales of protists were detected for the first time in marine habitats. Though Ascomycota, Alveolata, and Radiolaria were detected in all the 11 sponge species, sponge holobionts have different fungi and protistan communities according to OTU comparison and principal component analysis at the order level. This study provided the first insights into the fungal and protistan communities associated with different marine sponge holobionts using pyrosequencing, thus further extending the knowledge on sponge-associated eukaryotic diversity.

  15. Curcumin-Loaded Chitosan/Gelatin Composite Sponge for Wound Healing Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Cuong Nguyen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Three composite sponges were made with 10% of curcumin and by using polymers, namely, chitosan and gelatin with various ratios. The chemical structure and morphology were evaluated by FTIR and SEM. These sponges were evaluated for water absorption capacity, antibacterial activity, in vitro drug release, and in vivo wound healing studies by excision wound model using rabbits. The in vivo study presented a greater wound closure in wounds treated with curcumin-composite sponge than those with composite sponge without curcumin and untreated group. These obtained results showed that combination of curcumin, chitosan and gelatin could improve the wound healing activity in comparison to chitosan, and gelatin without curcumin.

  16. Sponges-Cyanobacteria associations: Global diversity overview and new data from the Eastern Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantinou, Despoina; Gerovasileiou, Vasilis; Voultsiadou, Eleni

    2018-01-01

    Sponge-cyanobacteria associations have attracted research interest from an ecological, evolutionary and biotechnological perspective. Current knowledge is, in its majority, “hidden” in metagenomics research studying the entire microbial communities of sponges, while knowledge on these associations is totally missing for certain geographic areas. In this study, we (a) investigated the occurrence of cyanobacteria in 18 sponge species, several of which are studied for the first time for their cyanobionts, from a previously unexplored eastern Mediterranean ecoregion, the Aegean Sea, (b) isolated sponge-associated cyanobacteria, and characterized them based on a polyphasic (morphological-morphometric and molecular phylogenetic analysis) approach, and (c) conducted a meta-analysis on the global diversity of sponge species hosting cyanobacteria, as well as the diversity of cyanobacterial symbionts. Our research provided new records for nine sponge species, previously unknown for this association, while the isolated cyanobacteria were found to form novel clades within Synechococcus, Leptolyngbyaceae, Pseudanabaenaceae, and Schizotrichaceae, whose taxonomic status requires further investigation; this is the first report of a Schizotrichaceae cyanobacterium associated with sponges. The extensive evaluation of the literature along with the new data from the Aegean Sea raised the number of sponge species known for hosting cyanobacteria to 320 and showed that the cyanobacterial diversity reported from sponges is yet underestimated. PMID:29596453

  17. Environmental impacts of air-gun surveys on glass sponges : final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tunnicliffe, V.; Yahel, G. [Victoria Univ., Victoria, BC (Canada). Dept. of Biology; Chapman, R.; Wilmut, M. [Victoria Univ., Victoria, BC (Canada). School of Earth and Ocean Sciences

    2008-09-15

    Air-gun surveys associated with the oil and gas exploration in the Queen Charlotte Basin will insonify the seafloor with broadband, high intensity noise, exposing the glass sponge reef systems of that area to acoustic impacts. Tissue integrity and behaviour of marine animals can be affected by the acoustic harassment of water propagated vibration. This paper examined the effects of acoustic noise on the behaviour of glass sponges. The purpose of the study was to test the hypothesis that the acoustic vibration produced by a small, surface operated air gun would not alter the normal pattern of sponge feeding activities. The paper described the methods, with particular reference to the study site; sponge pumping rate; and acoustic effects on sponge pumping. Results were presented for ambient conditions; air gun shots; sponge pumping responses to air gun shots; and correlation of sponge response and ambient current. The question of whether the sponge's excurrent flow responds to the pressure from a series of air-gun shots was addressed by a statistical analysis over all the excurrent data from the experiment. It was concluded that there is little or no evidence that the acoustic pressure from the shots influences the physiological functions of the sponge. 22 refs., 2 tabs., 11 figs.

  18. Spatial and temporal variation in sponge spicule patches at Station M, northeast Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laguionie-Marchais, C; Kuhnz, L A; Huffard, C L; Ruhl, H A; Smith, K L

    Changes in habitat-forming organisms can have complex consequences for associated species. Sessile epibenthic glass "plate" sponges (Porifera: Hexactinellida) are conspicuous inhabitants of soft-sediment abyssal areas and their siliceous spicules create persistent spicule patches on the seafloor. Sponge spicule patch density, spatial dispersion, and percent cover were examined over a seven-year period (2006-2013) using remotely operated vehicle videos from Station M in the abyssal northeast Pacific (50˚00N, 123˚00W, ~4,000 m depth). There was an apparent large increase in newly dead plate sponges in February 2007 compared with December 2006, with this trend continuing through June 2007 (mean 0.03 % cover increasing to 0.33 %). A second increase in mean percent cover of dead plate sponges occurred from May 2011 (0.24 %) through June 2012 (0.60 %). Among the 28 megafaunal taxa occurring in association with the patches, the distributions of three taxa [two sponge taxa (Porifera) and brittle stars (Ophiuroidea)] suggested selectivity for the sponge spicule patches. The community structure of visible megafauna within sponge spicule patches was different when compared with that outside the patches suggesting that the sponges, after death, provide preferred habitat patches for certain benthic megafauna. These findings indicate that sponge spicule patches contribute to habitat heterogeneity in space and time.

  19. Supra-aural gossypiboma: case report of a retained textile surgical sponge in an unusual location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawla, N; Gupta, N; Dhawan, N

    2016-11-01

    Gossypiboma or retained surgical sponge is an infrequently encountered surgical complication, more so in the head and neck region. A literature search did not reveal a previously reported case of retained or concealed surgical sponge after microscopic ear surgery. We present a unique and previously unreported case of a 25-year-old male who presented with a cystic swelling in the right supra-aural region 5 months post-modified radical mastoidectomy of the right ear. Surgical excision of the swelling revealed a retained surgical sponge. We emphasise the importance of counting surgical sponges after every surgical step to minimise the incidence of such retained surgical items.

  20. Environmental impacts of air-gun surveys on glass sponges : final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tunnicliffe, V; Yahel, G [Victoria Univ., Victoria, BC (Canada). Dept. of Biology; Chapman, R; Wilmut, M [Victoria Univ., Victoria, BC (Canada). School of Earth and Ocean Sciences

    2008-09-15

    Air-gun surveys associated with the oil and gas exploration in the Queen Charlotte Basin will insonify the seafloor with broadband, high intensity noise, exposing the glass sponge reef systems of that area to acoustic impacts. Tissue integrity and behaviour of marine animals can be affected by the acoustic harassment of water propagated vibration. This paper examined the effects of acoustic noise on the behaviour of glass sponges. The purpose of the study was to test the hypothesis that the acoustic vibration produced by a small, surface operated air gun would not alter the normal pattern of sponge feeding activities. The paper described the methods, with particular reference to the study site; sponge pumping rate; and acoustic effects on sponge pumping. Results were presented for ambient conditions; air gun shots; sponge pumping responses to air gun shots; and correlation of sponge response and ambient current. The question of whether the sponge's excurrent flow responds to the pressure from a series of air-gun shots was addressed by a statistical analysis over all the excurrent data from the experiment. It was concluded that there is little or no evidence that the acoustic pressure from the shots influences the physiological functions of the sponge. 22 refs., 2 tabs., 11 figs.

  1. Understanding Zika virus pathogenesis: an interview with Catherine Spong

    OpenAIRE

    Spong, Catherine Y.

    2016-01-01

    A recent outbreak of Zika virus has been linked to fetal abnormalities in pregnant women who have been infected. The scientific community is working toward understanding Zika virus pathogenesis to better manage affected women and children. In an interview with Dr. Catherine Spong, we discuss the aims and challenges of a forthcoming longitudinal study of a cohort of pregnant women in areas of current active Zika virus transmission.

  2. Characterization of sponge cake baking in an instrumented pilot oven

    OpenAIRE

    Alain Sommier; Elisabeth Dumoulin; Imen Douiri; Christophe Chipeau

    2012-01-01

    The quality of baked products is the complex, multidimensional result of a recipe, and a controlled heating process to produce the desired final properties such as taste, colour, shape, structure and density. The process of baking a sponge cake in a convective oven at different air temperatures (160-180-220 °C) leading to the same loss of mass was considered in this study. A special mould was used which allowed unidirectional heat transfer in the batter. Instrumentation was developed specific...

  3. Cytotoxic Natural Products from Marine Sponge-Derived Microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huawei Zhang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A growing body of evidence indicates that marine sponge-derived microbes possess the potential ability to make prolific natural products with therapeutic effects. This review for the first time provides a comprehensive overview of new cytotoxic agents from these marine microbes over the last 62 years from 1955 to 2016, which are assorted into seven types: terpenes, alkaloids, peptides, aromatics, lactones, steroids, and miscellaneous compounds.

  4. IMAGE PROCESSING FOR DETECTION OF ORAL WHITE SPONGE NEVUS LESIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajdeep Mitra

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available White Sponge Nevus is a rear hereditary disease in human causes incurable white lesions in oral mucosa. Appropriate history, clinical examination along with biopsy and cytological studies are helpful for diagnosis of this disorder. Identification can also be made in alternative way by applying image processing technique using Watershed segmentation with MATLAB software. The applied techniques are effective and reliable for early accurate detection of the disease as alternative of expertise clinical and time taking laboratory investigations.

  5. Periodontal tissue regeneration with PRP incorporated gelatin hydrogel sponges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Dai; Tabata, Yasuhiko; Sato, Soh

    2015-10-20

    Gelatin hydrogels have been designed and prepared for the controlled release of the transforming growth factor (TGF-b1) and the platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF-BB). PRP (Platelet rich plasma) contains many growth factors including the PDGF and TGF-b1. The objective of this study was to evaluate the regeneration of periodontal tissue following the controlled release of growth factors in PRP. For the periodontal ligament cells and osteoblast, PRP of different concentrations was added. The assessment of DNA, mitochondrial activity and ALP activity were measured. To evaluate the TGF-β1 release from PRP incorporated gelatin sponge, amounts of TGF-β1 in each supernatant sample were determined by the ELISA. Transplantation experiments to prepare a bone defect in a rat alveolar bone were an implanted gelatin sponge incorporated with different concentration PRP. In DNA assay and MTT assay, after the addition of PRP to the periodontal ligament cells and osteoblast, the cell count and mitochondrial activity had increased the most in the group with the addition of 5  ×  PRP. In the ALP assay, after the addition of PRP to the periodontal ligament cells, the cell activity had increased the most in the group with the addition of 3  ×  PRP. In the transplantation, the size of the bone regenerated in the defect with 3  ×  PRP incorporated gelatin sponge was larger than that of the other group.

  6. Comparative study about hydrogen sorption in sponge and powder titanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasut, Felicia; Preda, Anisoara; Zamfirache, Marius; Ducu, Catalin; Malinovschi, Viorel

    2005-01-01

    Currently, hydrogen may be stored as a compressed gas or a cryogenic liquid. Neither method appears to be practical for many applications in which hydrogen use would otherwise be attractive. For example, gaseous storage of stationary fuel is not feasible because of the large volume or weight of the storage vessels. Liquid hydrogen could be use extensively but the liquefaction process is relatively expensive. The hydrogen can be stored for a long term with a high separation factor, as a solid metal hydride. Using hydride-forming metals and intermetallic compounds, for example, recovery, purification and storage of heavy isotopes in tritium containing system, can solve many problems arising in the nuclear-fuel cycle. The paper presents a comparative study about hydrogen sorption on two titanium structures: powder and sponge. Also, it is presented the characterization, by X-Ray diffraction, of two structures, before and after sorption process. From our results, one can conclude that sorption method is efficient for both samples. Kinetic curves indicates that sorption rate for titanium powder is lower than for sponge titanium. This is the effect of reaction surface, which is larger for powder titanium. Sorption capacity for hydrogen is lower in powder titanium for identical experimental conditions. The difference between storage capacities could be explained by activation temperature, which was lower for titanium powder than for sponge. (authors)

  7. Periodontal tissue regeneration with PRP incorporated gelatin hydrogel sponges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Dai; Tabata, Yasuhiko; Sato, Soh

    2015-01-01

    Gelatin hydrogels have been designed and prepared for the controlled release of the transforming growth factor (TGF-b1) and the platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF-BB). PRP (Platelet rich plasma) contains many growth factors including the PDGF and TGF-b1. The objective of this study was to evaluate the regeneration of periodontal tissue following the controlled release of growth factors in PRP. For the periodontal ligament cells and osteoblast, PRP of different concentrations was added. The assessment of DNA, mitochondrial activity and ALP activity were measured. To evaluate the TGF-β1 release from PRP incorporated gelatin sponge, amounts of TGF-β1 in each supernatant sample were determined by the ELISA. Transplantation experiments to prepare a bone defect in a rat alveolar bone were an implanted gelatin sponge incorporated with different concentration PRP. In DNA assay and MTT assay, after the addition of PRP to the periodontal ligament cells and osteoblast, the cell count and mitochondrial activity had increased the most in the group with the addition of 5  ×  PRP. In the ALP assay, after the addition of PRP to the periodontal ligament cells, the cell activity had increased the most in the group with the addition of 3  ×  PRP. In the transplantation, the size of the bone regenerated in the defect with 3  ×  PRP incorporated gelatin sponge was larger than that of the other group. (paper)

  8. Morphological responses of dissociated sponge cells to different organic substrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaino, E; Magnino, G; Burlando, B; Sara', M

    1993-06-01

    To study interactions between sponge cells and components of the extracellular matrix (ECM), cells of the calcareous sponge Clathrina cerebrum were investigated in vitro by scanning electron microscopy. Cells were settled on glass coverslips, used as controls, and on coverslips coated with various ECM components (laminin, collagens and fibronectin), and with an adhesive substance (polylysine). Cells tended to conserve a rounded shape, producing thin, stiff processes (scleropodia) and lamellipodia, whose shape and extension varied according to the substrata. Spreading was observed only on polylysine, inducing cells to assume a fibroblast-like aspect. On laminin, cell adhesion was assured only by scleropodia. On fibronectin, scleropodia and lamellipodia were present, but reduced in size and length. On collagens, laminar processes occurred among prevailing scleropodia. Measurements of cell area and perimeter allowed statistical comparison of substrata, on the basis of their induction of cell flattening and protuberance formation. In summary, sponge cells were found to modulate their morphology in response to the external environment, expressing features for dynamic activities most fully in the presence of substances close to their natural ECM constituents. These results are discussed in the context of tissue rearrangement as a basic adaptation occurring throughout the life span of these organisms.

  9. Preparation and characterization of sponge film made from feathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Yuan; Wu, Xiaoqian; Cao, Zhangjun; Zhao, Xiaoxiang; Zhou, Meihua; Gao, Pin

    2013-12-01

    Feather wastes generated from poultry farms will pose a problem for disposal, but they are sustainable resources of keratin. Reduction is one of the commonly used methods to obtain soluble keratin from feather. However, the residues generated during feather reduction reaction were rarely investigated. In this study, the residues were transformed into a porous and flexible sponge film by freeze-drying without pretreatment or addition of cross-linking agents. Glycerol was used to alter the physical and chemical characteristics of the sponge film. The film was characterized with a fiber strong stretch instrument, a Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer, scanning electron microscopy, an elemental analyzer, a differential scanning calorimeter and an automatic air permeability apparatus. Tensile strength and melting point of the sponge film with the optimum glycerol content were 6.2 MPa and 170°C respectively. Due to air permeability of 368 mm/s, the film can potentially be used in medicine, biology, textile, environmental technology, and so on. It is ecologically friendly and will produce additional benefits from the renewable materials. The film was utilized as adsorbents to remove Cr(VI) from aqueous solutions and as a filtering material for air pollution. Its maximum Cr(VI) uptake capacity was about 148.8 mg/g and the removal rate of PM10 was 98.3%. © 2013.

  10. On the assessments of arabinoxylan localization and enzymatic modifications for enhanced protein networking and its structural impact on rye dough and bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Döring, Clemens; Hussein, Mohamed A; Jekle, Mario; Becker, Thomas

    2017-08-15

    For rye dough structure, it is hypothesised that the presence of arabinoxylan hinders the proteins from forming a coherent network. This hypothesis was investigated using fluorescent-stained antibodies that bind to the arabinoxylan chains. Image analysis proves that the arabinoxylan surrounds the proteins, negatively affecting protein networking. Further, it is hypothesised that the dosing of xylanase and transglutaminase has a positive impact on rye dough and bread characteristics; the findings in this study evidenced that this increases the protein network by up to 38% accompanied by a higher volume rise of 10.67%, compared to standard rye dough. These outcomes combine a product-oriented and physiochemical design of a recipe, targeting structural and functional relationships, and demonstrate a successful methodology for enhancing rye bread quality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. EVALUATION OF SURVIVABILITY AND BIOACTIVITY OF SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE IN BREAD DOUGH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Kasaie

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the most significant current discussions in dough fermentation is survivability and bioactivity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In this study, four samples of instant dry yeast (all the yeast strains are active dry type were evaluated by epifluorescence light microscopy using 0.2 % fluorescein diacetate. Microbial tests were carried out in order to count the number of viable cells yeast. Gasograph used to measuring CO2 produced during fermentation. Bread volume and height were assessed. Yeast (A had the highest number of green cells (178 ± 7 due to its more bioactivity as compared to types B, C and D (P<0.05 and yeast (D had the lowest number of green yeast cells (48 ± 8. In microbial tests, the number of viable yeast in yeast (A was highest (15×1010 cfu‧mg-1 and in yeast (D was the lowest (9×1010 cfu‧mg-1. In gasography yeast (A produced the highest amount of CO2 (163 ± 2 mL CO2/3h and in yeast (D produced the lowest amount of CO2 (140 ± 2 mL CO2/3h. Bread (A (that made by yeast A had the highest volume (132 ± 1.0 cm3 and height (4.8 ± 0.3 cm and bread (D (that made by yeast D had the lowest volume (102 ± 6cm3 and height (3.7 ± 0.2 cm. High survivability and bioactivity of baker’s yeast leads to more CO2 production that leads to high volume and height in bread.

  12. Determination of the concentration of alum additive in deep-fried dough sticks using dielectric spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenyu Kang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The concentration of alum additive in deep-fried dough sticks (DFDSs was investigated using a coaxial probe method based on dielectric properties in the 0.3–10-GHz frequency range. The dielectric spectra of aqueous solutions with different concentrations of alum, sodium bicarbonate, and mixtures thereof were used. The correspondence between dielectric loss and alum concentration was thereby revealed. A steady, uniform correspondence was successfully established by introducing ω·ε″(ω, the sum of dielectric loss and conductor loss (i.e., total loss, according to the electrical conductivity of the alum-containing aqueous solutions. Specific, resonant-type dielectric dispersion arising from alum due to atomic polarization was identified around 1 GHz. This was used to discriminate the alum additive in the DFDS from other ingredients. A quantitative relationship between alum and sodium bicarbonate concentrations in the aqueous solutions and the differential dielectric loss Δε″(ω at 0.425 GHz was also established with a regression coefficient over 0.99. With the intention of eliminating the effects of the chemical reactions with sodium bicarbonate and the physical processes involved in leavening and frying during preparation, the developed technique was successfully applied to detect the alum dosage in a commercial DFDS (0.9942 g/L. The detected value agreed well with that determined using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (0.9722 g/L. The relative error was 2.2%. The results show that the proposed dielectric differential dispersion and loss technique is a suitable and effective method for determining the alum content in DFDSs.

  13. THE INFLUENCE OF RECIPE COMPONENTS ON QUALITY PARAMETERS OF AERATED DOUGH AND WHOLEGRAIN BREAD FROM CHICKPEA SEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. O. Magomedov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of studying the effect of using table salt, apple juice and citric acid on quality parameters of aerated dough and bread prepared by mechanical leavening. The wholegrain flour from chickpea seeds has been used to prepare dough. The amount of salt is in the range from 1 to 3 %, apple juice from 5 to 25%, citric acid 0.05 to 0.2 % over the weight of the flour. The working mechanism of recipe components on the process of foaming while kneading of the semi-finished products of chickpea flour has been identified. The increase of their amount leads to increase of active acidity of the test and brings the protein pH to isoelectric point. Thus increasing the foaming capacity of the albuminous substances while kneading the semis. It has been founded that the maximum foaming capacity of the semis is achieved at pH 5.5. At the same time a decrease in the bulk density of the dough and the increase in specific volume of the baked product. In this case, the samples are characterized by lower bulk density (0.32 g / cm3 , and maximum specific volume of finished product (365 cm3 / 100 g. The reasonable amount of components in the bread recipe: table salt 1.5 %, apple juice 5.0 %, citric acid 0.1 % over weight of flour has been recommended. The data obtained form the basis for the development of technology of aerated bread "Atreus" with higher nutritional and biological value. The degree of satisfaction of adult daily need of 100 g of the product is, %: protein 17, dietary fiber 39, magnesium 21, phosphorus 28, iron 30, potassium, thiamine and riboflavin 18. The product is recommended for mass consumption in order to enrich dietary intake with protein, dietary fiber. minerals and vitamins.

  14. The influence of additional fluors on the retention ability of dough and the technological quality of bakery products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Bojňanská

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The work monitored rheofermentation properties of dough prepared from composite flours formed by 70% of wheat flour T650 and the addition of 30%. Three kinds of additions were used, namely spelt flour, amaranth flour and buckwheat flour. To determine rheofermentation properties Rheofermentometer Rhea F4 was used, by means of which the dough development, the production of fermentation gases, retention ability of dough and the activity of used baking yeast were analysed. The best ability to retain formed fermentation gas had wheat flour (control and composite flour with the addition of spelt flour. The composite flour with addition of amaranth flour showed a retention coefficient compared to the control lower by 13%, and the composite flour with addition of buckwheat flour showed a retention coefficient compared to the control reduced by 20%. Control flour and composite flours were then processed in the baking experiment. Based on its results it was possible to evaluate the effect of the addition and retention capacity of dough on the quality of the final products (experimental loaves. The biggest loaf volume (200 cm3 and the optimal vaulting (0.65 were found in the control and a loaf made of composite flour with addition of spelt. Loaf volume, produced from composite flours with the addition of amaranth, and buckwheat was compared to control lower by 18.7%, and 16.3% respectively. The value of vaulting of these products (0.40 can be evaluated as unsatisfactory. Based on the evaluation of results observed by measuring on the rheofermentometer and baking experiment results it can be concluded that a better ability to retain the formed fermentation gas, thus ensuring high volume, had loaves made from wheat flour T650 and composite flour with addition of spelt flour. Based on the findings, it is possible to state that the results of rheofermentometric measurements predict the volume and vaulting of bakery products. By means of Rheofermentometer

  15. Optimum composite flour, water and mixing time of dough for crispy snack containing fish-head protein hydrolysate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitbunjerdkul, S.

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The properties of dough are responsible to the final quality of crispy snack. The effect of flour, water and mixing time on dough quality were evaluated. The simplex-centroid design for mixture of three flours (A, B and C in a composite flour of 30-70, 25-65 and 5-45%, respectively was used in this study. Contour plot of hedonic scores and the predictive regression models were calculated, using Design-Expert version 7.0.3 (Stat-Ease, Inc. MN, USA. The result revealed that the predictive regression model and goodness-of-fit for the correlation between different composite flours and sensory properties showed adj. R2 0.87-0.96 and lack of fit, p>0.05 in the attribute of color, odor, taste and overall liking. The optimum amount of flour A, B and C that would yield the crispy snack with 9-point hedonic score of the all terms in the range of 6.0-9.0 was 45, 25 and 30% respectively. The optimum mixing conditions of dough using the optimum composite flour were studied. Factorial design of 56, 58, 60 and 62% water and mixing time 5, 10 and 15 min was used. When the physical properties were evaluated, this results showed elasticity, cohesion and adhesion of dough increased with increasing water at mixing time ranging from 5 to 10 min. The crispy snack containing 5% fish-head protein hydrolysate, using the composite flour with flours A, B and C in the ratio of 45 : 25 :30, 62% water and mixing time 10 min obtained bulk density 16.17 g/100 ml, water absorption index 5.15 g/g dried sample, maximum force (hardness 141.74 g and numbers of major peak (crispness 8.2 peaks. The acceptance scores of color, odor, taste, crispness and overall liking of the final product evaluated by 9-point hedonic scales, were 6.84, 6.50 , 6.38, 7.68 and 6.64, respectively.

  16. Inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium, and Listeria monocytogenes in ready-to-bake cookie dough by gamma and electron beam irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Seul-Gi; Kang, Dong-Hyun

    2017-06-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the efficacy of gamma and electron beam irradiation to inactivate foodborne pathogens in ready-to-bake cookie dough and to determine the effect on quality by measuring color and texture changes. Cookie dough inoculated with Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium, or Listeria monocytogenes was subjected to gamma and electron beam irradiation, with doses ranging from 0 to 3 kGy. As the radiation dose increased, the inactivation effect increased among all tested pathogens. After 3.0 kGy of gamma and electron beam irradiation, numbers of inoculated pathogens were reduced to below the detection limit (1 log CFU/g). The D 10 -values of E. coli O157:H7, S. Typhimurium, and L. monocytogenes in cookie dough treated with gamma rays were 0.53, 0.51, and 0.71 kGy, respectively, which were similar to those treated by electron beam with the same dose. Based on the D 10 -value of pathogens in cookie dough, L. monocytogenes showed more resistance to both treatments than did E. coli O157:H7 and S. Typhimurium. Color values and textural characteristics of irradiated cookie dough were not significantly (P > 0.05) different from the control. These results suggest that irradiation can be applied to control pathogens in ready-to-bake cookie dough products without affecting quality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The introgression of RNAi silencing of γ-gliadins into commercial lines of bread wheat changes the mixing and technological properties of the dough.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Gil-Humanes

    Full Text Available In the present work the effects on dough quality by the down-regulation of γ-gliadins in different genetic backgrounds of bread wheat were investigated. RNAi-mediated silencing of γ-gliadins was introgressed by conventional crossing into three commercial bread wheat lines (namely 'Gazul', 'Podenco' and 'Arpain', and along with the transgenic line A1152 (cv. Bobwhite compared with their respective wild types. The protein fractions were quantified by RP-HPLC, whereas the technological and mixing properties were assessed by SDSS test and by the Mixograph instrument. Principal component analysis (PCA was carried out for both the wild types and the transgenic lines, showing differences in the factors affecting the technological and mixing properties of the dough as a consequence of the reduction of the γ-gliadins. In transgenic lines, the α- and ω-gliadins, and total gliadins negatively affected the dough strength and tolerance to over-mixing, whereas the L/H ratio showed the opposite effect, positively influencing the dough quality. The increase of the SDSS volume in the transgenic lines of 'Gazul', 'Podenco' and 'Arpain' indicates increased gluten strength and quality respect to the wild types. SDSS volume was found to be positively influenced by the amount of glutenins, which were also increased in the transgenic lines. In addition, a positive effect was observed in the MT, PR1 and RBD in some of the transgenic lines of 'Podenco' and 'Arpain'. In conclusion, the down-regulation of γ-gliadins resulted in stronger doughs and a better tolerance to over-mixing in some transgenic lines. Although the reduction of γ-gliadins seems not to have a direct effect on the mixing and bread-making properties, the compensatory effect on the synthesis of the other prolamins may result in stronger doughs with improved over-mixing resistance.

  18. The introgression of RNAi silencing of γ-gliadins into commercial lines of bread wheat changes the mixing and technological properties of the dough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Humanes, Javier; Pistón, Fernando; Giménez, María J; Martín, Antonio; Barro, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    In the present work the effects on dough quality by the down-regulation of γ-gliadins in different genetic backgrounds of bread wheat were investigated. RNAi-mediated silencing of γ-gliadins was introgressed by conventional crossing into three commercial bread wheat lines (namely 'Gazul', 'Podenco' and 'Arpain'), and along with the transgenic line A1152 (cv. Bobwhite) compared with their respective wild types. The protein fractions were quantified by RP-HPLC, whereas the technological and mixing properties were assessed by SDSS test and by the Mixograph instrument. Principal component analysis (PCA) was carried out for both the wild types and the transgenic lines, showing differences in the factors affecting the technological and mixing properties of the dough as a consequence of the reduction of the γ-gliadins. In transgenic lines, the α- and ω-gliadins, and total gliadins negatively affected the dough strength and tolerance to over-mixing, whereas the L/H ratio showed the opposite effect, positively influencing the dough quality. The increase of the SDSS volume in the transgenic lines of 'Gazul', 'Podenco' and 'Arpain' indicates increased gluten strength and quality respect to the wild types. SDSS volume was found to be positively influenced by the amount of glutenins, which were also increased in the transgenic lines. In addition, a positive effect was observed in the MT, PR1 and RBD in some of the transgenic lines of 'Podenco' and 'Arpain'. In conclusion, the down-regulation of γ-gliadins resulted in stronger doughs and a better tolerance to over-mixing in some transgenic lines. Although the reduction of γ-gliadins seems not to have a direct effect on the mixing and bread-making properties, the compensatory effect on the synthesis of the other prolamins may result in stronger doughs with improved over-mixing resistance.

  19. Utilization of titanium sponge in H. T. G. R

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tone, H [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki. Oarai Research Establishment

    1977-10-01

    The high temperature, gas-cooled reactor (H.T.G.R.) uses helium as a coolant and graphite as both the moderator and the fuel tube material. At first sight, there should not be any problem concerning the compatibility of these materials in the H.T.G.R. core region where temperature exceeds 700/sup 0/C, however, it is possible that the graphite core and other structural materials are oxidized by traces of impurities in the coolant. In large-power H.T.G.R., water inleakage from both heat exchangers and coolant circulation pumps will probably be the major source of impurity which will react with the graphite-producing H/sub 2/, CO and CO/sub 2/. In the near future, the nuclear heat of H.T.G.R. will be used as a major heat source for steel production and the chemical industry. For these purposes, it will be necessary to construct a reactor using a helium coolant of greater than 1000/sup 0/C. Therefore, not only the development of refractory metals as structural materials but also an effective helium coolant purification system are the keys for H.T.G.R. construction. Recently, in the helium coolant purification system of H.T.G. Reactors, which have been developed in the several nations advanced in atomic reactors, titanium sponge is used very frequently to remove hydrogen gas as an impurity in helium coolant. Titanium sponge can absorb very large quantities of hydrogen and its absorption-capacity can be very easily controlled by controlling the temperature of the titanium sponge-since titanium hydride is formed by endothermic reaction. The titanium sponge trap is used also in OGL-1 (Oarai Gas Loop-1), helium coolant purification system for large scale irradiation apparatus which is used for nuclear fuels of H.T.G.R. This apparatus has been installed in the Japan Material Testing Reactor. In this report, the coolant purification system of H.T.G.R., OGL-1 and the experimental results of the titanium sponge trap are explained briefly.

  20. Pyrosequencing revealed shifts of prokaryotic communities between healthy and disease-like tissues of the Red Sea sponge Crella cyathophora

    KAUST Repository

    Gao, Zhao-Ming; Wang, Yong; Tian, Ren-Mao; Lee, On On; Wong, Yue Him; Batang, Zenon B.; Al-Suwailem, Abdulaziz M.; Lafi, Feras Fawzi; Bajic, Vladimir B.; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Sponge diseases have been widely reported, yet the causal factors and major pathogenic microbes remain elusive. In this study, two individuals of the sponge Crella cyathophora in total that showed similar disease-like characteristics were collected

  1. Inter- and Intraspecific Variations of Bacterial Communities Associated with Marine Sponges from San Juan Island, Washington

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, O. O.

    2009-04-10

    This study attempted to assess whether conspecific or congeneric sponges around San Juan Island, Washington, harbor specific bacterial communities. We used a combination of culture-independent DNA fingerprinting techniques (terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis [DGGE]) and culture-dependent approaches. The results indicated that the bacterial communities in the water column consisted of more diverse bacterial ribotypes than and were drastically different from those associated with the sponges. High levels of similarity in sponge-associated bacterial communities were found only in Myxilla incrustans and Haliclona rufescens, while the bacterial communities in Halichondria panicea varied substantially among sites. Certain terminal restriction fragments or DGGE bands were consistently obtained for different individuals of M. incrustans and H. rufescens collected from different sites, suggesting that there are stable or even specific associations of certain bacteria in these two sponges. However, no specific bacterial associations were found for H. panicea or for any one sponge genus. Sequencing of nine DGGE bands resulted in recovery of seven sequences that best matched the sequences of uncultured Proteobacteria. Three of these sequences fell into the sponge-specific sequence clusters previously suggested. An uncultured alphaproteobacterium and a culturable Bacillus sp. were found exclusively in all M. incrustans sponges, while an uncultured gammaproteobacterium was unique to H. rufescens. In contrast, the cultivation approach indicated that sponges contained a large proportion of Firmicutes, especially Bacillus, and revealed large variations in the culturable bacterial communities associated with congeneric and conspecific sponges. This study revealed sponge species-specific but not genus- or site-specific associations between sponges and bacterial communities and emphasized the importance of using a combination

  2. Host-specificity among abundant and rare taxa in the sponge microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reveillaud, Julie; Maignien, Loïs; Murat Eren, A; Huber, Julie A; Apprill, Amy; Sogin, Mitchell L; Vanreusel, Ann

    2014-06-01

    Microbial communities have a key role in the physiology of the sponge host, and it is therefore essential to understand the stability and specificity of sponge-symbiont associations. Host-specific bacterial associations spanning large geographic distance are widely acknowledged in sponges. However, the full spectrum of specificity remains unclear. In particular, it is not known whether closely related sponges host similar or very different microbiota over wide bathymetric and geographic gradients, and whether specific associations extend to the rare members of the sponge microbiome. Using the ultra-deep Illumina sequencing technology, we conducted a comparison of sponge bacterial communities in seven closely related Hexadella species with a well-resolved host phylogeny, as well as of a distantly related sponge Mycale. These samples spanned unprecedentedly large bathymetric (15-960 m) gradients and varying European locations. In addition, this study included a bacterial community analysis of the local background seawater for both Mycale and the widespread deep-sea taxa Hexadella cf. dedritifera. We observed a striking diversity of microbes associated with the sponges, spanning 47 bacterial phyla. The data did not reveal any Hexadella microbiota co-speciation pattern, but confirmed sponge-specific and species-specific host-bacteria associations, even within extremely low abundant taxa. Oligotyping analysis also revealed differential enrichment preferences of closely related Nitrospira members in closely related sponges species. Overall, these results demonstrate highly diverse, remarkably specific and stable sponge-bacteria associations that extend to members of the rare biosphere at a very fine phylogenetic scale, over significant geographic and bathymetric gradients.

  3. Chemical defenses and resource trade-offs structure sponge communities on Caribbean coral reefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Tse-Lynn; Pawlik, Joseph R

    2014-03-18

    Ecological studies have rarely been performed at the community level across a large biogeographic region. Sponges are now the primary habitat-forming organisms on Caribbean coral reefs. Recent species-level investigations have demonstrated that predatory fishes (angelfishes and some parrotfishes) differentially graze sponges that lack chemical defenses, while co-occurring, palatable species heal, grow, reproduce, or recruit at faster rates than defended species. Our prediction, based on resource allocation theory, was that predator removal would result in a greater proportion of palatable species in the sponge community on overfished reefs. We tested this prediction by performing surveys of sponge and fish community composition on reefs having different levels of fishing intensity across the Caribbean. A total of 109 sponge species was recorded from 69 sites, with the 10 most common species comprising 51.0% of sponge cover (3.6-7.7% per species). Nonmetric multidimensional scaling indicated that the species composition of sponge communities depended more on the abundance of sponge-eating fishes than geographic location. Across all sites, multiple-regression analyses revealed that spongivore abundance explained 32.8% of the variation in the proportion of palatable sponges, but when data were limited to geographically adjacent locations with strongly contrasting levels of fishing pressure (Cayman Islands and Jamaica; Curaçao, Bonaire, and Martinique), the adjusted R(2) values were much higher (76.5% and 94.6%, respectively). Overfishing of Caribbean coral reefs, particularly by fish trapping, removes sponge predators and is likely to result in greater competition for space between faster-growing palatable sponges and endangered reef-building corals.

  4. Indirect effects of overfishing on Caribbean reefs: sponges overgrow reef-building corals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Tse-Lynn; McMurray, Steven E; Henkel, Timothy P; Vicente, Jan; Pawlik, Joseph R

    2015-01-01

    Consumer-mediated indirect effects at the community level are difficult to demonstrate empirically. Here, we show an explicit indirect effect of overfishing on competition between sponges and reef-building corals from surveys of 69 sites across the Caribbean. Leveraging the large-scale, long-term removal of sponge predators, we selected overfished sites where intensive methods, primarily fish-trapping, have been employed for decades or more, and compared them to sites in remote or marine protected areas (MPAs) with variable levels of enforcement. Sponge-eating fishes (angelfishes and parrotfishes) were counted at each site, and the benthos surveyed, with coral colonies scored for interaction with sponges. Overfished sites had >3 fold more overgrowth of corals by sponges, and mean coral contact with sponges was 25.6%, compared with 12.0% at less-fished sites. Greater contact with corals by sponges at overfished sites was mostly by sponge species palatable to sponge predators. Palatable species have faster rates of growth or reproduction than defended sponge species, which instead make metabolically expensive chemical defenses. These results validate the top-down conceptual model of sponge community ecology for Caribbean reefs, as well as provide an unambiguous justification for MPAs to protect threatened reef-building corals. An unanticipated outcome of the benthic survey component of this study was that overfished sites had lower mean macroalgal cover (23.1% vs. 38.1% for less-fished sites), a result that is contrary to prevailing assumptions about seaweed control by herbivorous fishes. Because we did not quantify herbivores for this study, we interpret this result with caution, but suggest that additional large-scale studies comparing intensively overfished and MPA sites are warranted to examine the relative impacts of herbivorous fishes and urchins on Caribbean reefs.

  5. Biodiversity of Macrofauna Associated with Sponges across Ecological Gradients in the Central Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Kandler, Nora

    2015-12-01

    Between 33 and 91 percent of marine species are currently undescribed, with the majority occurring in tropical and offshore environments. Sponges act as important microhabitats and promote biodiversity by harboring a wide variety of macrofauna and microbiota, but little is known about the relationships between the sponges and their symbionts. This study uses DNA barcoding to examine the macrofaunal communities associated with sponges of the central Saudi Arabian Red Sea, a drastically understudied ecosystem with high biodiversity and endemism. In total, 185 epifaunal and infaunal operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were distinguished from the 1399 successfully-sequenced macrofauna individuals from 129 sponges representing seven sponge species, one of which (Stylissa carteri) was intensively studied. A significant difference was found in the macrofaunal community composition of Stylissa carteri along a cross-shelf gradient using relative OTU abundance (Bray-Curtis diversity index). The abundance of S. carteri also follows a cross-shelf gradient, increasing with proximity to shore. The difference in macrofaunal communities of several species of sponges at one location was found to be significant as well, using OTU presence (binary Jaccard diversity index). Four of the seven sponge species collected were dominated by a single annelid OTU, each unique to one sponge species. A fifth was dominated by four arthropod OTUs, all species-specific as well. Region-based diversity differences may be attributed to environmental factors such as reef morphology, water flow, and sedimentation, whereas species-based differences may be caused by sponge morphology, microbial abundances, and chemical defenses. As climate change and ocean acidification continue to modify coral reef ecosystems, understanding the ecology of sponges and their role as microhabitats may become more important. This thesis also includes a supplemental document in the form of a spreadsheet showing the number of

  6. Cell kinetics during regeneration in the sponge Halisarca caerulea: how local is the response to tissue damage?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alexander, B.E.; Achlatis, M.; Osinga, R.; van der Geest, H.G.; Cleutjens, J.P.M.; Schutte, B.; de Goeij, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Sponges have a remarkable capacity to rapidly regenerate in response to wound infliction. In addition, sponges rapidly renew their filter systems (choanocytes) to maintain a healthy population of cells. This study describes the cell kinetics of choanocytes in the encrusting reef sponge Halisarca

  7. Fungi found in Mediterranean and North Sea sponges: how specific are they?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Azrul Naim

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Fungi and other eukaryotes represent one of the last frontiers of microbial diversity in the sponge holobiont. In this study we employed pyrosequencing of 18S ribosomal RNA gene amplicons containing the V7 and V8 hypervariable regions to explore the fungal diversity of seven sponge species from the North Sea and the Mediterranean Sea. For most sponges, fungi were present at a low relative abundance averaging 0.75% of the 18S rRNA gene reads. In total, 44 fungal OTUs (operational taxonomic units were detected in sponges, and 28 of these OTUs were also found in seawater. Twenty-two of the sponge-associated OTUs were identified as yeasts (mainly Malasseziales, representing 84% of the fungal reads. Several OTUs were related to fungal sequences previously retrieved from other sponges, but all OTUs were also related to fungi from other biological sources, such as seawater, sediments, lakes and anaerobic digesters. Therefore our data, supported by currently available data, point in the direction of mostly accidental presence of fungi in sponges and do not support the existence of a sponge-specific fungal community.

  8. Root-derived organic matter confines sponge community composition in mangrove ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hunting, E.R.; Ubels, S.M.; Kraak, M.H.S.; van der Geest, H.G.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Caribbean mangrove-associated sponge communities are very distinct from sponge communities living on nearby reefs, but the mechanisms that underlie this distinction remain uncertain. It has been hypothesized that dissolved organic matter (DOM) leaching from mangrove roots and the

  9. Marine sponge-associated bacteria as a potential source for polyhydroxyalkanoates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathiyanarayanan, Ganesan; Saibaba, Ganesan; Kiran, George Seghal; Yang, Yung-Hun; Selvin, Joseph

    2017-05-01

    Marine sponges are filter feeding porous animals and usually harbor a remarkable array of microorganisms in their mesohyl tissues as transient and resident endosymbionts. The marine sponge-microbial interactions are highly complex and, in some cases, the relationships are thought to be truly symbiotic or mutualistic rather than temporary associations resulting from sponge filter-feeding activity. The marine sponge-associated bacteria are fascinating source for various biomolecules that are of potential interest to several biotechnological industries. In recent times, a particular attention has been devoted to bacterial biopolymer (polyesters) such as intracellular polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) produced by sponge-associated bacteria. Bacterial PHAs act as an internal reserve for carbon and energy and also are a tremendous alternative for fossil fuel-based polymers mainly due to their eco-friendliness. In addition, PHAs are produced when the microorganisms are under stressful conditions and this biopolymer synthesis might be exhibited as one of the survival mechanisms of sponge-associated or endosymbiotic bacteria which exist in a highly competitive and stressful sponge-mesohyl microenvironment. In this review, we have emphasized the industrial prospects of marine bacteria for the commercial production of PHAs and special importance has been given to marine sponge-associated bacteria as a potential resource for PHAs.

  10. Sublethal effects of contamination on the Mediterranean sponge Crambe crambe: metal accumulation and biological responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cebrian, E.; Marti, R.; Uriz, J.M.; Turon, X.

    2003-01-01

    The effect of low levels of pollution on the growth, reproduction output, morphology and survival of adult sponges and settlers of the sponge Crambe crambe were examined. We transplanted sponges from a control area to a contaminated site and measured the main environmental variables (chemical and physical) of both sites during the study period. Except some punctual differences in particulate organic matter, silicates, nitrates, and water motion, most environmental variables in the water were similar at both sites during the study months. Mainly copper, lead and OM concentrations in the sediment, and water motion were significantly higher at the polluted site and may be implicated in the biological effects observed: decrease in the percentage of specimens with embryos, increase in shape irregularity and decrease in growth rate. Individuals naturally occurring at the polluted site and those transplanted there for four months accumulated ten times more copper than either untouched or transplant controls. Although lead concentration in sediment did not differ between sites, native specimens from the contaminated site accumulated this metal more than untouched controls. Vanadium concentration also tended to increase in the sponges living at or transplanted to the contaminated site but this difference was not significant. C. crambe is a reliable indicator of metal contamination since it accumulates copper, lead and vanadium in high amounts. At the contaminated site, sponge growth, fecundity and survival were inhibited, whereas sponge irregularity ending in sponge fission was promoted. All these effects may compromise the structure and dynamics of the sponge populations in sheltered, metal-contaminated habitats

  11. Sponge and skin excision sampling for recovery of Salmonella and Campylobacter from defeathered broiler carcasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: Salmonella and Campylobacter contamination of broiler carcass skin increases during feather removal. There are several methods for sampling carcasses including sponging or swabbing of skin surface and skin excision. It is unclear whether sponge sampling is adequate to remove bacteria f...

  12. On the evolution of morphology of zirconium sponge during reduction and distillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapoor, K.; Padmaprabu, C.; Nandi, D.

    2008-01-01

    High purity zirconium metal is produced by magnesio-thermic reduction of zirconium tetrachloride followed by vacuum distillation. The reduction process is carried out in a batch giving metal sponge and magnesium chloride in the reduced mass. The sponge is purified to using by vacuum distillation. The morphology of the sponge formed during the reduction and its influence on further processing has significant importance. In the present study, a detailed investigation involving evolution of the morphology of sponge particles and its implication during the vacuum distillation was carried out. The study of the microstructure was done using scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. It is observed that the nascent sponge formed is highly unstable which transforms to a needle-like morphology almost immediately, which further transforms to rounded and finally to a bulk shape. Faceting of the surface and needle-shape formation were observed in these particles, this is probably due to anisotropy in the surface energy. The morphology of the sponge formed during the reduction influences the distillation process. The fine needle-like shape sponge morphology leads to particle ejection, which is explained to be due to curvature effect. This is responsible for the formation of unwanted mass during distillation. XRD line broadening analysis indicates that the individual sponge particles are free from structural defects (dislocation) and are nearly single crystalline in nature

  13. Urinary acidification and urinary excretion of calcium and citrate in women with bilateral medullary sponge kidney

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osther, P J; Mathiasen, Helle; Hansen, A B

    1994-01-01

    Urinary acidification ability, acid-base status and urinary excretion of calcium and citrate were evaluated in 10 women with bilateral medullary sponge kidney (MSK) and in 10 healthy women. Patients with MSK had higher fasting urine pH compared to normal controls (p ... in the mechanism of hypercalciuria and hypocitraturia in patients with medullary sponge kidney.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)...

  14. Bromine and iodine content in sponges and algae of the Andaman Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Solimabi; Das, B.; Mittal, P.K.; Kamat, S.Y.

    Br and I contents were determined spectrophotometrically in 12 species of sponges and 16 species of algae(red, brown and green). These elements on dry weight basis varied from 0.025 to 1.29% for Br and from 0.001 to 0.085% for I in sponges. I...

  15. Development of a multilocus-based approach for sponge (phylum Porifera) identification: refinement and limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qi; Franco, Christopher M M; Sorokin, Shirley J; Zhang, Wei

    2017-02-02

    For sponges (phylum Porifera), there is no reliable molecular protocol available for species identification. To address this gap, we developed a multilocus-based Sponge Identification Protocol (SIP) validated by a sample of 37 sponge species belonging to 10 orders from South Australia. The universal barcode COI mtDNA, 28S rRNA gene (D3-D5), and the nuclear ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region were evaluated for their suitability and capacity for sponge identification. The highest Bit Score was applied to infer the identity. The reliability of SIP was validated by phylogenetic analysis. The 28S rRNA gene and COI mtDNA performed better than the ITS region in classifying sponges at various taxonomic levels. A major limitation is that the databases are not well populated and possess low diversity, making it difficult to conduct the molecular identification protocol. The identification is also impacted by the accuracy of the morphological classification of the sponges whose sequences have been submitted to the database. Re-examination of the morphological identification further demonstrated and improved the reliability of sponge identification by SIP. Integrated with morphological identification, the multilocus-based SIP offers an improved protocol for more reliable and effective sponge identification, by coupling the accuracy of different DNA markers.

  16. Diversity of bacteria in the marine sponge Aplysina fulva in Brazilian coastal waters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hardoim, C.C.P.; Costa, R.; Araujo, F. V.; Hajdu, E.; Peixoto, R.; Lins, U.; Rosado, A. S.; van Elsas, J. D.

    2009-01-01

    Microorganisms can account for up to 60% of the fresh weight of marine sponges. Marine sponges have been hypothesized to serve as accumulation spots of particular microbial communities, but it is unknown to what extent these communities are directed by the organism or the site or occur randomly. To

  17. Draft Genome Sequence of Marine Sponge Symbiont Pseudoalteromonas luteoviolacea IPB1, Isolated from Hilo, Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai-Kawada, Francis E; Yakym, Christopher J; Helmkampf, Martin; Hagiwara, Kehau; Ip, Courtney G; Antonio, Brandi J; Armstrong, Ellie; Ulloa, Wesley J; Awaya, Jonathan D

    2016-09-22

    We report here the 6.0-Mb draft genome assembly of Pseudoalteromonas luteoviolacea strain IPB1 that was isolated from the Hawaiian marine sponge Iotrochota protea Genome mining complemented with bioassay studies will elucidate secondary metabolite biosynthetic pathways and will help explain the ecological interaction between host sponge and microorganism. Copyright © 2016 Sakai-Kawada et al.

  18. Phylogenetic diversity and community structure of sponge-associated bacteria from mangroves of the Caribbean Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Jiangke

    2011-02-08

    To gain insight into the species richness and phylogeny of the microbial communities associated with sponges in mangroves, we performed an extensive phylogenetic analysis, based on terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism profiling and 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequences, of the 4 sponge species Aplysina fulva, Haliclona hogarthi, Tedania ignis and Ircinia strobilina as well as of ambient seawater. The sponge-associated bacterial communities contained 13 phyla, including Poribacteria and an unclassified group not found in the ambient seawater community, 98% of which comprised Proteobacteria, Cyanobacteria and Bacteroidetes. Although the sponges themselves were phylogenetically distant and bacterial community variation within the host species was observed, microbial phyla such as Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Chloroflexi and the unclassified group were consistently observed as the dominant populations within the communities. The sponge-associated bacterial communities resident in the Caribbean Sea mangroves are phylogenetically similar but significantly distinct from communities found in other biogeographical sites such as the deep-water environments of the Caribbean Sea, the South China Sea and Australia. The interspecific variation within the host species and the distinct biogeographical characteristics that the sponge-associated bacteria exhibited indicate that the acquisition, establishment and formation of functional sponge-associated bacterial communities may initially be the product of both vertical and horizontal transmission, and is then shaped by the internal environment created by the sponge species and certain external environmental factors. © Inter-Research 2011.

  19. Chitosan-hyaluronan/nano chondroitin sulfate ternary composite sponges for medical use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anisha, B S; Sankar, Deepthi; Mohandas, Annapoorna; Chennazhi, K P; Nair, Shantikumar V; Jayakumar, R

    2013-02-15

    In this work chitosan-hyaluronan composite sponge incorporated with chondroitin sulfate nanoparticle (nCS) was developed. The fabrication of hydrogel was based on simple ionic cross-linking using EDC, followed by lyophilization to obtain the composite sponge. nCS suspension was characterized using DLS and SEM and showed a size range of 100-150 nm. The composite sponges were characterized using SEM, FT-IR and TG-DTA. Porosity, swelling, biodegradation, blood clotting and platelet activation of the prepared sponges were also evaluated. Nanocomposites showed a porosity of 67% and showed enhanced swelling and blood clotting ability. Cytocompatibility and cell adhesion studies of the sponges were done using human dermal fibroblast (HDF) cells and the nanocomposite sponges showed more than 90% viability. Nanocomposite sponges also showed enhanced proliferation of HDF cells within two days of study. These results indicated that this nanocomposite sponges would be a potential candidate for wound dressing. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Diversity and spatial heterogeneity of mangrove associated sponges of Curaçao and Aruba

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hunting, E.R.; van Soest, R.W.M.; van der Geest, H.G.; Vos, A.; Debrot, A.O.

    2008-01-01

    Sponges are major epibionts of mangrove roots in the Caribbean. Mangrove sponge communities in the Caribbean mainly consist of species that are typical to this habitat and community compositions often differ from those found on coral reefs nearby. Heterogeneity in species distributions between

  1. Exploring microbial diversity of marine sponges by culture-dependent and molecular approaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naim, M.A.

    2015-01-01

    Summary

    Discovery of sponge-grade metazoans dated 650 million years ago proved that sponges have been around since the Precambrian era. Their resilience to ever-changing environmental conditions and their global distribution is one of the features attributed to the symbionts in

  2. Alcalóides alquilpiridínicos de esponjas marinhas Alkylpyridine alkaloids from marine sponges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adaíla M. P. Almeida

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available The chemistry of alkylpyridine alkaloids originating from marine sponges is comprehensively reviewed, with emphasis on their natural occurrence, methods for their isolation, spectroscopic characterization, biological activities e chemical synthesis. A likely chemotaxonomic role is suggested, as markers for sponges of the Order Haplosclerida (Demospongiae.

  3. Cell kinetics of the marine sponge Halisarca caerulea reveal rapid cell turnover and shedding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goeij, de J.M.; Kluijver, de A.; Duyl, van F.C.; Vacelet, J.; Wijffels, R.H.; Goeij, de A.F.P.M.; Cleutjens, J.P.M.; Schutte, B.

    2009-01-01

    This study reveals the peculiar in vivo cell kinetics and cell turnover of the marine sponge Halisarca caerulea under steady-state conditions. The tropical coral reef sponge shows an extremely high proliferation activity, a short cell cycle duration and massive cell shedding. Cell turnover is

  4. A new carnivorous shallow-water sponge from McMurdo Sound, Antarctica (Porifera, Poecilosclerida)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Soest, R.W.M.; Baker, B.J.

    2011-01-01

    A new shallow-water representative of the carnviorous sponge genus Asbestopluma is described from the southernmost Antarctic region of McMurdo Sound. Asbestopluma (Asbestopluma) vaceleti n.sp. is a white, thin, sparingly branched sponge fringed by filaments along its entire length, with a slight

  5. Sponge species composition, abundance, and cover in marine lakes and coastal mangroves in Berau, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Becking, L.E.; Cleary, D.F.R.; Voogd, de N.J.

    2013-01-01

    We compared the species composition, abundance, and cover of sponges in 2 marine lakes (Kakaban Lake and Haji Buang Lake) and adjacent coastal mangroves on the islands of Kakaban and Maratua in the Berau region of Indonesia. We recorded a total of 115 sponge species, 33 of which were restricted to

  6. Evidence for selective bacterial community structuring in the freshwater sponge Ephydatia fluviatilis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Costa, Rodrigo; Keller-Costa, Tina; Gomes, Newton C. M.; Nunes da Rocha, Ulisses; van Overbeek, Leo; van Elsas, Jan Dirk

    To understand the functioning of sponges, knowledge of the structure of their associated microbial communities is necessary. However, our perception of sponge-associated microbiomes remains mainly restricted to marine ecosystems. Here, we report on the molecular diversity and composition of bacteria

  7. Evidence for selective bacterial community structuring in the freshwater sponge Ephydatia fluviatilis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Costa, R.; Keller-Costa, T.; Gomes, N.C.M.; Nunes da Rocha, U.; Overbeek, van L.S.; Elsas, J.D.

    2013-01-01

    To understand the functioning of sponges, knowledge of the structure of their associated microbial communities is necessary. However, our perception of sponge-associated microbiomes remains mainly restricted to marine ecosystems. Here, we report on the molecular diversity and composition of bacteria

  8. WATER BOND FORMS IN THE DOUGH AND SORBTION PROPERTIES OF GLUTEN-FREE MACARONI PRODUCTS MADE FROM CORN FLOUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olexandr ROZHNO

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Authors have developed macaroni products made from fine meal corn flour by structure forming additives of different nature and without them. The correlation between water of different bond forms in macaroni dough with different structural forming additives and without them has been investigated. Results show that water of macro and microcapillaries is prevalent in the corn dough – 39.40 - 54.69 % of overall amount of water. Osmotically bound water amounts 18.75 – 28.04 %, adsorbically bound water -18.49 – 23.13 % of overall amount of water. The absorbtion capability of the macaroni products and amount of adsorbed water has been determined. The micropore structure of these samples was characterized. The correlation between structures of macaroni products, both amount of adsorbed moisture and energy of sorption were proven. The amount of monomolecular layer’s moisture for gluten-free corn macaroni products is significantly higher – in 1.2 – 1.5 times – when compared to the wheat macaroni products. Due to this fact, corn samples obtained higher energy of moisture sorption. The correlation between structural characteristics of the macaroni samples and their quality was shown.

  9. Extraordinarily soft, medium-hard and hard Indian wheat varieties: Composition, protein profile, dough and baking properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katyal, Mehak; Singh, Narpinder; Virdi, Amardeep Singh; Kaur, Amritpal; Chopra, Nidhi; Ahlawat, Arvind Kumar; Singh, Anju Mahendru

    2017-10-01

    Hard wheat (HW), medium-hard wheat (MHW) and extraordinarily soft wheat (Ex-SW) varieties with grain hardness index (GHI) of 83 to 95, 72 to 80, 17 to 29 were evaluated for pasting, protein molecular weight (MW) distribution, dough rheology and baking properties. Flours from varieties with higher GHI had more protein content, ash content and paste viscosities. Ex-SW had more glutenins proportion as compared to HW and MHW. Flours from Ex-SW varieties showed lower NaSRC, WA and mixographic parameters as compared to HW and MHW. Dough from flours milled from Ex-SW had higher Intermolecular-β-sheets (IM-β-sheets) than those from MHW and HW. Muffins volume increased with decrease in GHI, Ex-SW varieties had more muffin volume and less air space. The accumulation of polypeptides (PPs) varied significantly in different varieties. Ex-SW variety (QBP12-10) showed accumulation of 98, 90, 81 and 79kDa PPs, which was unique and was different from other varieties. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Influence of Wheat-Milled Products and Their Additive Blends on Pasta Dough Rheological, Microstructure, and Product Quality Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Dhiraj

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed to assess the suitability of T. aestivum wheat milled products and its combinations with T. durum semolina with additives such as ascorbic acid, vital gluten and HPMC (Hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose for pasta processing quality characteristics such as pasta dough rheology, microstructure, cooking quality, and sensory evaluation. Rheological studies showed maximum dough stability in Comb1 (T. aestivum wheat flour and semolina. Colour and cooking quality of Comb2 (T. durum semolina and T. aestivum wheat flour and Comb3 (T. aestivum wheat semolina and T. durum semolina were comparable with control. Pasting results indicated that T. aestivum semolina gave the lowest onset gelatinization temperature (66.9°C but the highest peak viscosity (1.053 BU. Starch release was maximum in Comb1 (53.45% when compared with control (44.9% as also proved by microstructure studies. Firmness was seen to be slightly high in Comb3 (2.430 N when compared with control (2.304 N, and sensory evaluations were also in the acceptable range for the same. The present study concludes that Comb3 comprising 50% T. durum semolina and 50% T. aestivum refined wheat flour with additives would be optimal alternate for 100% T. durum semolina for production of financially viable pasta.

  11. Evaluation of antioxidant, rheological, physical and sensorial properties of wheat flour dough and cake containing turmeric powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, S H; Lim, H S; Hwang, S Y

    2012-10-01

    The effects of addition of turmeric powder (0%, 2%, 4%, 6% and 8%) were examined in order to obtain an antioxidant-enriched cake with good physico-chemical and sensorial properties. The rheological properties of doughs were evaluated using dynamic rheological measurements. Physical properties, curcumin content, radical scavenging activity (RSA-DPPH assay) and sensory analysis (hedonic test) of the supplemented cake were determined. Addition of turmeric powder up to 8% caused significant changes on dough characteristics and on cake rheological properties. The highest curcumin (203 mg/kg) and RSA-DPPH activity (45%) were achieved in the cake having the highest percentage of turmeric powder (8%); however, this sample showed the worst results regarding the rheological properties. Moreover, by sensory evaluation this cake sample was not acceptable. A 6% substitution of wheat flour with turmeric powder showed acceptable sensory scores which were comparable to those of 0-4% turmeric cakes. This indicated that up to 6% level of turmeric powder might be included in cake formulation.

  12. Investigations on abundance and activity of microbial sponge symbionts using quantitative real - time PCR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumala, Lars; Hentschel, Ute; Bayer, Kristina

    Marine sponges are hosts to dense and diverse microbial consortia that are likely to play a key role in the metabolic processes of the host sponge due to their enormous abundance. Common symbioses between nitrogen transforming microorganisms and sponges indicate complex nitrogen cycling within...... the host. Of particular interest is determining the community structure and function of microbial symbionts in order to gain deeper insight into host-symbiont interactions. We investigated the abundance and activity of microbial symbionts in two Mediterranean sponge species using quantitative real-time PCR....... An absolute quantification of functional genes and transcripts in archaeal and bacterial symbionts was conducted to determine their involvement in nitrification and denitrification, comparing the low microbial abundance (LMA) sponge Dysidea avara with the high microbial abundance (HMA) representative Aplysina...

  13. The effects of coastal development on sponge abundance, diversity, and community composition on Jamaican coral reefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubler, Amber D; Duckworth, Alan R; Peterson, Bradley J

    2015-07-15

    Over the past decade, development along the northern coast of Jamaica has accelerated, resulting in elevated levels of sedimentation on adjacent reefs. To understand the effects of this development on sponge community dynamics, we conducted surveys at three locations with varying degrees of adjacent coastal development to quantify species richness, abundance and diversity at two depths (8-10 m and 15-18 m). Sediment accumulation rate, total suspended solids and other water quality parameters were also quantified. The sponge community at the location with the least coastal development and anthropogenic influence was often significantly different from the other two locations, and exhibited higher sponge abundance, richness, and diversity. Sponge community composition and size distribution were statistically different among locations. This study provides correlative evidence that coastal development affects aspects of sponge community ecology, although the precise mechanisms are still unclear. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. 2'-phosphodiesterase and 2',5'-oligoadenylate synthetase activities in the lowest metazoans, sponge [porifera].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saby, Emilie; Poulsen, Jesper Buchhave; Justesen, Just; Kelve, Merike; Uriz, Maria Jesus

    2009-01-01

    Sponges [porifera], the most ancient metazoans, contain modules related to the vertebrate immune system, including the 2',5'-oligoadenylate synthetase (OAS). The components of the antiviral 2',5'-oligoadenylate (2-5A) system (OAS, 2'-Phosphodiesterase (2'-PDE) and RNAse L) of vertebrates have not all been identified in sponges. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that in addition to the OAS activity, sponges possess a 2'-PDE activity, which highlights the probable existence of a premature 2-5A system. Indeed, Suberites domuncula and Crella elegans exhibited this 2-5A degrading activity. Upon this finding, two out of three elements forming the 2-5A system have been found in sponges, only a endoribonuclease, RNAse L or similar, has to be found. We suspect the existence of a complex immune system in sponges, besides the self/non-self recognition system and the use of phagocytosis and secondary metabolites against pathogens.

  15. UPPER TRIASSIC (NORIAN-RHAETIAN HYPERCALCIFIED SPONGES FROM THE LUT BLOCK, EAST CENTRAL IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FATEMEH AMIRHASSANKHANI

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the hypercalcified sponges in reefal deposits of the Nayband Formation in Lut Block, the Garm Ab section near the village of Mehran Kushk, located about 20 km northeast of Ferdows city, was sampled. Eight horizons of reefal limestone beds are exposed in this section. The most important reef builders are hypercalcified sponges with some representatives of hexactinellids, scleractinian corals and other reef organisms. The field and lab-observations on rock units, sedimentary facies and faunal assemblages indicate the middle Norian-Rhaetian as the age of the reef horizons. Twenty-three sponge taxa, including 15 of the chambered sphinctozoans, 2 of hexactinellids sponges and 8 non-chambered inozoan were identified. The majority of recognized sponges are reported from the Nayband Formation from the other localities in central Iran. One new species identified as Cryptocoelia maxima n. sp. was recovered and is described here.

  16. Fabrication and evaluation of nanocellulose sponge for oil/water separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phanthong, Patchiya; Reubroycharoen, Prasert; Kongparakul, Suwadee; Samart, Chanatip; Wang, Zhongde; Hao, Xiaogang; Abudula, Abuliti; Guan, Guoqing

    2018-06-15

    Nanocellulose sponge was fabricated by a facile method: freeze-drying of nanocellulose aqueous suspension to sponge state, following by hydrophobic treatment with stearoyl chloride at 50 °C for 1 h. The obtained nanocellulose sponge showed superhydrophobicity (160° of water contact angle) and superoleophilicity with high protection from water but selective absorption of oil. Its absorption capacities for various kinds of oil and non-polar liquids were 25-55 times higher than its dry weight and exhibited excellent selectivity for absorbing of oil which spilled on the surface of water or underwater with high separation efficiency. This superhydrophobic nanocellulose sponge can be easily recovered by simple squeezing and reused at least 10 cycles with remained high separation efficiency. It is expected that such a biodegradable nanocellulose sponge can be applied to solve the oil spill accident and treat the oily wastewater from households and industries. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Efforts to develop a cultured sponge cell line: revisiting an intractable problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasela, James J; Pomponi, Shirley A; Rinkevich, Buki; Grima, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Residents of the marine environment, sponges (Porifera) have the ability to produce organic compounds known as secondary metabolites, which are not directly involved in the normal growth, development, or reproduction of an organism. Because of their sessile nature, the production of these bioactive compounds has been interpreted as a functional adaptation to serve in an important survival role as a means to counter various environmental stress factors such as predation, overgrowth by fouling organisms, or competition for limited space. Regardless of the reasons for this adaptation, a variety of isolated compounds have already proven to demonstrate remarkable anticancer, fungicidal, and antibiotic properties. A major obstacle to the isolation and production of novel compounds from sponges is the lack of a large, reliable source of sponge material. Sponge collection from the sea would be environmentally detrimental to the already stressed and sparse sponge populations. Sponge production in an aquaculture setting might appear to be an ideal alternative but would also be cost-ineffective and sponge growth is extremely slow. A third approach involves the development of a sponge cell culture system capable of producing the necessary cell numbers to harvest for research purposes as well as for the eventual commercial-scale production of promising bioactive compounds. Unfortunately, little progress has been made in this direction other than the establishment of temporary cultures containing aggregates and fragments of cells. One impediment toward successful sponge cell culture might be ascribed to a lack of published knowledge of failed methodologies, and thus, time and effort is wasted on continued reinvention of the same methods and procedures. Consequently, we have undertaken here to chart some of our unsuccessful research efforts, our methodology, and results to provide the sponge research community with knowledge to assist them to better avoid taking the same failed

  18. Metabolite variability in Caribbean sponges of the genus Aplysina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Puyana

    Full Text Available Abstract Sponges of the genus Aplysina are among the most common benthic animals on reefs of the Caribbean, and display a wide diversity of morphologies and colors. Tissues of these sponges lack mineralized skeletal elements, but contain a dense spongin skeleton and an elaborate series of tyrosine-derived brominated alkaloid metabolites that function as chemical defenses against predatory fishes, but do not deter some molluscs. Among the earliest marine natural products to be isolated and identified, these metabolites remain the subject of intense interest for commercial applications because of their activities in various bioassays. In this study, crude organic extracts from 253 sponges from ten morphotypes among the species Aplysina archeri,Aplysina bathyphila,Aplysina cauliformis,Aplysina fistularis,Aplysina fulva,A. insularis, and Aplysina lacunosa were analyzed by liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC–MS to characterize the pattern of intra- and interspecific variabilities of the twelve major secondary metabolites present therein. Patterns across Aplysina species ranged from the presence of mostly a single compound, fistularin-3, in A. cauliformis, to a mixture of metabolites present in the other species. These patterns did not support the biotransformation hypothesis for conversion of large molecular weight molecules to smaller ones for the purpose of enhanced defense. Discriminant analyses of the metabolite data revealed strong taxonomic patterns that support a close relationship between A. fistularis,A. fulva and A. insularis, while two morphotypes of A. cauliformis (lilac creeping vs. brown erect were very distinct. Two morphotypes of A. lacunosa, one with hard tissue consistency, the other soft and thought to belong to a separate genus (Suberea, had very similar chemical profiles. Of the twelve metabolites found among samples, variation in fistularin-3, dideoxyfistularin-3 and hydroxyaerothionin provided the most predictive

  19. Bromopyrrole alkaloids from the Caribbean sponge Agelas cerebrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regalado, Erik L.; Laguna, Abilio; Mendiola, Judith; Thomas, Olivier P.; Nogueiras, Clara

    2011-01-01

    Bioguided fractionation of Agelas cerebrum crude extract resulted in isolation of four bromopyrrole and four bromopyrrole aminoimidazole alkaloids, identified as 5-bromopyrrole-2-carboxylic acid (1), 4-bromopyrrole-2-carboxylic acid (2), 3,4-bromopyrrole-2-carboxylic acid (3), 4,5-bromopyrrole-2-carboxylic acid (4), oroidin (5), bromoageliferin (6), dibromoageliferin (7) and dibromosceptrin (8) on the basis of spectroscopic data analyses (UV, IR, HRMS, 1D and 2D NMR) and comparison with literature data. This is the first report of compounds 2 and 3 in a marine sponge belonging to the Agelas genus and the first evidence of the presence of 1 from a natural source. (author)

  20. Hologenome analysis of two marine sponges with different microbiomes

    KAUST Repository

    Ryu, Tae Woo

    2016-02-29

    Background Sponges (Porifera) harbor distinct microbial consortia within their mesohyl interior. We herein analysed the hologenomes of Stylissa carteri and Xestospongia testudinaria, which notably differ in their microbiome content. Results Our analysis revealed that S. carteri has an expanded repertoire of immunological domains, specifically Scavenger Receptor Cysteine-Rich (SRCR)-like domains, compared to X. testudinaria. On the microbial side, metatranscriptome analyses revealed an overrepresentation of potential symbiosis-related domains in X. testudinaria. Conclusions Our findings provide genomic insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying host-symbiont coevolution and may serve as a roadmap for future hologenome analyses.

  1. Aunty Sylvie’s Sponge: Foodmaking, Cookbooks and Nostalgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sian Supski

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Why does foodmaking matter? It does partly because it holds within it so much of everyday life, thought and activity across time, place and generation. This article explores women’s embodied foodmaking knowledge as ‘thoughtful practice’. It examines cookbooks as a form of nostalgia and explores aspects of gustatory nostalgia in the creation of ‘manuscript’ cookbooks and their variation in the twenty-first century. It also reconstructs, in part, the history of a family – of sisters, aunts, grandmothers, mothers, daughters – as told through cookbooks and, in particular, a recipe for sponge cake.

  2. Molecular cross-talk between sponge host and associated microbes

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wang, X.; Brandt, D.; Thakur, N.L.; Wiens, M.; Batel, R.; Schroder, H.C.; Muller, W.E.G.

    cited in modern textbooks, e.g. in Pechenik (2000), in which sponges are assumed to be composed of functionally independent cells. The introduction of molecular cloning of genes, coding for “informative” proteins increased in a rapid, self...). The first report in line with this new strategy was on the cloning of a galectin from the demosponge Geodia cydonium (Pfeifer et al., 1993; Hirabayashi and Kasai, 1993). This protein is known to be crucially important for cell-cell interactions (Müller et...

  3. Bromopyrrole alkaloids from the Caribbean sponge Agelas cerebrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Regalado, Erik L.; Laguna, Abilio, E-mail: erikluis18@gmail.co [Center of Marine Bioproducts, Havana (Cuba). Dept. of Chemistry; Mendiola, Judith [Institute of Tropical Medicine Pedro Kouri (IPK), Havana (Cuba). Dept. of Parasitology; Thomas, Olivier P. [Universite de Nice-Sophia Antipolis (France). Lab. de Chimie des Molecules Bioactives et des Aromes; Nogueiras, Clara [University of Havana, San Lazaro y L, Havana (Cuba). Faculty of Chemistry. Center of Natural Products

    2011-07-01

    Bioguided fractionation of Agelas cerebrum crude extract resulted in isolation of four bromopyrrole and four bromopyrrole aminoimidazole alkaloids, identified as 5-bromopyrrole-2-carboxylic acid (1), 4-bromopyrrole-2-carboxylic acid (2), 3,4-bromopyrrole-2-carboxylic acid (3), 4,5-bromopyrrole-2-carboxylic acid (4), oroidin (5), bromoageliferin (6), dibromoageliferin (7) and dibromosceptrin (8) on the basis of spectroscopic data analyses (UV, IR, HRMS, 1D and 2D NMR) and comparison with literature data. This is the first report of compounds 2 and 3 in a marine sponge belonging to the Agelas genus and the first evidence of the presence of 1 from a natural source. (author)

  4. Enrichment of Bread with Nutraceutical-Rich Mushrooms: Impact of Auricularia auricula (Mushroom) Flour Upon Quality Attributes of Wheat Dough and Bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Biao; Zhao, Liyan; Yang, Wenjian; McClements, David Julian; Hu, Qiuhui

    2017-09-01

    Edible mushrooms contain a variety of bioactive molecules that may enhance human health and wellbeing. Consequently, there is increasing interest in fortifying functional foods with these nutraceutical-rich substances. However, incorporation of mushroom-based ingredients into foods should not adversely affect the quality attributes of the final product. In this study, the impact of incorporating powdered Auricularia auricula, a widely consumed edible mushroom, into bread products was examined. The rheological and structural properties of wheat dough and bread supplemented with 0% to 10% (w/w) A. auricula flour were measured. Supplementation of wheat doughs with A. auricula flour increased the peak viscosity and enhanced their water holding capacity. Rapid viscosity analysis showed that peak and final viscosities of the blended flour (wheat flour with A. auricula flour) were higher than wheat flour alone. However, dough stability and elastic modulus were reduced by blending wheat flour with A. auricula flour. SEM observation showed that doughs with up to 5% (w/w) A. auricula flour had acceptable gluten network microstructure. Characterization of the quality attributes of bread indicated that incorporation of A. auricula flour at levels >5% negatively impacted bread volume, height, texture, and appearance. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  5. Osmotolerance and leavening ability in sweet and frozen sweet dough. Comparative analysis between Torulaspora delbrueckii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae baker's yeast strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Lopez, M J; Prieto, J A; Randez-Gil, F

    2003-01-01

    The response of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and freeze-tolerant Torulaspora delbrueckii strains to osmotic stress and their CO2 production capacity in sweet and frozen-sweet dough has been examined. T. delbrueckii strains, IGC5321 and IGC5323 showed higher leavening ability than Saccharomyces, specially after exposure to hyperosmotic stress of bread dough containing 20% sucrose and 2% salt added. In addition, Torulaspora and especially T. delbrueckii IGC5321 exhibited no loss of CO2 production capacity during freeze-thaw stress. Overall, these results appeared to indicate that Torulaspora cells are more tolerant than Saccharomyces to osmotic stress of bread dough. This trait correlated with a low invertase activity, a slow rate of trehalose mobilisation and the ability to respond rapidly to osmotic stress. Growth behaviour on high osmotic synthetic media was also examined. Cells of the IGC5321 strain showed intrinsic osmotolerance and ion toxicity resistance. However, T. delbrueckii IGC5323 exhibited a clear phenotype of osmosensitivity. Hence, this characteristic may not be essential or the only determinant for leavening ability in salted high-sugar dough.

  6. Establishing the relative importance of damaged starch and fructan as sources of fermentable sugars in wheat flour and whole meal bread dough fermentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struyf, Nore; Laurent, Jitka; Lefevere, Bianca; Verspreet, Joran; Verstrepen, Kevin J; Courtin, Christophe M

    2017-03-01

    It is generally believed that maltose drives yeast-mediated bread dough fermentation. The relative importance of fructose and glucose, released from wheat fructan and sucrose by invertase, compared to maltose is, however, not documented. This is surprising given the preference of yeast for glucose and fructose over maltose. This study revealed that, after 2h fermentation of wheat flour dough, about 44% of the sugars consumed were generated by invertase-mediated degradation of fructan, raffinose and sucrose. The other 56% were generated by amylases. In whole meal dough, 70% of the sugars consumed were released by invertase activity. Invertase-mediated sugar release seems to be crucial during the first hour of fermentation, while amylase-mediated sugar release was predominant in the later stages of fermentation, which explains why higher amylolytic activity prolonged the productive fermentation time only. These results illustrate the importance of wheat fructan and sucrose content and their degradation for dough fermentations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Synergistic effect of Aspergillus tubingensis CTM 507 glucose oxidase in presence of ascorbic acid and alpha amylase on dough properties, baking quality and shelf life of bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriaa, Mouna; Ouhibi, Rabeb; Graba, Héla; Besbes, Souhail; Jardak, Mohamed; Kammoun, Radhouane

    2016-02-01

    The impact of Aspergillus tubingensis glucose oxidase (GOD) in combination with α-amylase and ascorbic acid on dough properties, qualities and shelf life of bread was investigated. Regression models of alveograph and texture parameters of dough and bread were adjusted. Indeed, the mixture of GOD (44 %) and ascorbic acid (56 %) on flour containing basal improver showed its potential as a corrective action to get better functional and rheological properties of dough and bread texture. Furthermore, wheat flour containing basal additives and enriched with GOD (63.8 %), ascorbic acid (32 %) and α- amylase (4.2 %) led to high technological bread making parameters, to decrease the crumb firmness and chewiness and to improve elasticity, adhesion, cohesion and specific volume of bread. In addition to that, the optimized formulation addition significantly reduced water activity and therefore decreased bread susceptibility to microbial spoilage. These findings demonstrated that GOD could partially substitute not only ascorbic acid but also α-amylase. The generated models allowed to predict the behavior of wheat flour containing additives in the range of values tested and to define the additives formula that led to desired rheological and baking qualities of dough. This fact provides new perspectives to compensate flour quality deficiencies at the moment of selecting raw materials and technological parameters reducing the production costs and facilitating gluten free products development. Graphical abstractᅟ.

  8. Effects of transglutaminase on the rheological and noodle-making characteristics of oat dough containing vital wheat gluten or egg albumin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Incorporating exogenous proteins into food production is a common practice for improving processing characteristics. In the present study, oat dough containing 15% (w/w, blends of protein-oat flour basis [POB]) vital wheat gluten (VWG) or 15% (w/w, POB) egg albumin (EA) were used to produce noodles ...

  9. Warfarin affects acute inflammatory response induced by subcutaneous polyvinyl sponge implantation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirkov, Ivana; Popov Aleksandrov, Aleksandra; Demenesku, Jelena; Ninkov, Marina; Mileusnic, Dina; Kataranovski, Dragan; Kataranovski, Milena

    2017-09-01

    Warfarin (WF) is an anticoagulant which also affects physiological processes other than hemostasis. Our previous investigations showed the effect of WF which gained access to the organism via skin on resting peripheral blood granulocytes. Based on these data, the aim of the present study was to examine whether WF could modulate the inflammatory processes as well. To this aim the effect of WF on the inflammatory response induced by subcutaneous sponge implantation in rats was examined. Warfarin-soaked polyvinyl sponges (WF-sponges) were implanted subcutaneously and cell infiltration into sponges, the levels of nitric oxide (NO) and inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) production by sponge cells were measured as parameters of inflammation. T cell infiltration and cytokine interferon-γ (IFN-γ), interleukin-17 (IL-17) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) were measured at day 7 post implantation. Warfarin exerted both stimulatory and suppressive effects depending on the parameter examined. Flow cytometry of cells recovered from sponges showed higher numbers of granulocytes (HIS48 + cells) at days 1 and 3 post implantation and CD11b + cells at day 1 compared to control sponges. Cells from WF-sponges had an increased NO production (Griess reaction) at days 1 and 7. In contrast, lower levels of TNF (measured by ELISA) production by cells recovered from WF-soaked sponges were found in the early (day one) phase of reaction with unchanged levels at other time points. While IL-6 production by cells recovered from WF-soaked sponges was decreased at day 1, it was increased at day 7. Higher T cell numbers were noted in WF sponges at day 7 post implantation, and recovered cells produced more IFN-γ and IL-17, while IL-10 production remained unchanged. Warfarin affects some of the parameters of inflammatory reaction induced by subcutaneous polyvinyl sponge implantation. Differential (both stimulatory as well as inhibitory) effects of WF on

  10. An enrichment of CRISPR and other defense-related features in marine sponge-associated microbial metagenomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannes Horn

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Many marine sponges are populated by dense and taxonomically diverse microbial consortia. We employed a metagenomics approach to unravel the differences in the functional gene repertoire among three Mediterranean sponge species, Petrosia ficiformis, Sarcotragus foetidus, Aplysina aerophoba and seawater. Different signatures were observed between sponge and seawater metagenomes with regard to microbial community composition, GC content, and estimated bacterial genome size. Our analysis showed further a pronounced repertoire for defense systems in sponge metagenomes. Specifically, Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR, restriction modification, DNA phosphorothioation and phage growth limitation systems were enriched in sponge metagenomes. These data suggest that defense is an important functional trait for an existence within sponges that requires mechanisms to defend against foreign DNA from microorganisms and viruses. This study contributes to an understanding of the evolutionary arms race between viruses/phages and bacterial genomes and it sheds light on the bacterial defenses that have evolved in the context of the sponge holobiont.

  11. The Sponge Zygomycale parishii(Bowerbank) and its Endobiotic Fauna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Luiz; Nalesso, Rosebel

    1996-02-01

    The endobiotic fauna of the sponge Zygomycale parishii(Bowerbank) was studied for 2·5 years at two sites, Ubatuba and São Sebastião, on the northern coast of the State of São Paulo, Brazil. Ninety-two macrofaunal species (over 1 mm long) were identified among which Cnidaria, Turbellaria, Nemertinea, Sipuncula, Polychaeta, Mollusca, Crustacea, Pycnogonida, Echinodermata, Ascidiacea and Pisces were represented. The results obtained on the number of species (species richness), the abundances of different species and faunal composition were related to the physico-biotic characteristics of the study sites. The influence of sample volume and other methodological artifacts on sample characteristics were also examined. The ophiuroid Ophiactis savignyi(Müller & Troschell) was the dominant endobiotic species, comprising 64% of all individuals collected. The São Sebastião endobiotic fauna was more diversified than the Ubatuba endobiotic fauna, possibly due to higher larval recruitment, and to the closeness of Z. parishiito the sea-floor providing a greater possibility for inhabitants of this microhabitat to find and to live inside the sponge.

  12. Mathematical model of the reformer sponge iron cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraser, S.; Hacker, V.; Evers, B.; Hierzer, J.; Besenhard, J.O.

    2003-01-01

    A mathematical model of the Reformer Sponge Iron Cycle (RESC), an innovative hydrogen production process based on redox reactions of iron ore pellets is presented. In the oxidation stage of the RESC, hydrogen is produced by blowing steam over hot iron pellets, hence oxidizing the iron. In the reduction stage, synthesis gas coming from a reformer mixed with a fraction of recycled off-gas is used to reduce the iron oxide pellets (wuestite and/or magnetite) back into iron again. A mathematical model of the complete RESC was developed and verified with experimental data. The model is based on calculations of the equilibrium gas concentrations for reformer and Sponge Iron Reactor (SIR). The current model computes mass fluxes, molar fluxes, partial pressures and variations of the respective throughout the complete cycle. The recycle rate, determining the fraction of SIR off-gas recycled and added to the input gas stream was subsequently optimized in order to maximize the amount of iron oxide reduced for a certain input gas flow. (author)

  13. Patterns of Sponge Biodiversity in the Pilbara, Northwestern Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Fromont

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the biodiversity of sponges within the Integrated Marine and Coastal Regionalisation for Australia (IMCRA bioregions of the Pilbara using datasets amalgamated from the Western Australian Museum and the Atlas of Living Australia. The Pilbara accounts for a total of 1164 Linnean and morphospecies. A high level of “apparent endemism” was recorded with 78% of species found in only one of six bioregions, with less than 10% confirmed as widely distributed. The Ningaloo, Pilbara Nearshore and Pilbara Offshore bioregions are biodiversity hotspots (>250 species and are recognised as having the highest conservation value, followed by North West Shelf containing 232 species. Species compositions differed between bioregions, with those that are less spatially separated sharing more species. Notably, the North West Province bioregion (110 species exhibited the most distinct species composition, highlighting it as a unique habitat within the Pilbara. While sponge biodiversity is apparently high, incomplete sampling effort for the region was identified, with only two sampling events recorded for the Central West Transition bioregion. Furthermore, only 15% of records in the dataset are presently described (Linnean species, highlighting the continuing need for taxonomic expertise for the conservation and management of marine biodiversity resources.

  14. Designing a Clean Label Sponge Cake with Reduced Fat Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslava-Zomeño, Cristina; Quiles, Amparo; Hernando, Isabel

    2016-10-01

    The fat in a sponge cake formulation was partially replaced (0%, 30%, 50%, and 70%) with OptiSol™5300.This natural functional ingredient derived from flax seeds, rich in fiber and alpha-linoleic acid, provides a natural substitute for guar and xanthan gums, avoiding E-numbers on labels. The structure and some physicochemical properties of the formulations were examined, sensory analysis was conducted and changes in starch digestibility due to adding this ingredient were determined. Increasing quantities of OptiSol™5300 gave harder cakes, with less weight loss during baking, without affecting the final cake height. There were no significant differences (P > 0.05) in texture, flavor and overall acceptance between the control and the 30% substitution cake, nor in the rapidly digestible starch values. Consequently, replacing up to 30% of the fat with OptiSol™5300 gives a new product with health benefits and a clean label that resembles the full-fat sponge cake. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  15. Energy requirements during sponge cake baking: Experimental and simulated approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ureta, M. Micaela; Goñi, Sandro M.; Salvadori, Viviana O.; Olivera, Daniela F.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Sponge cake energy consumption during baking was studied. • High oven temperature and forced convection mode favours oven energy savings. • Forced convection produced higher weight loss thus a higher product energy demand. • Product energy demand was satisfactorily estimated by the baking model applied. • The greatest energy efficiency corresponded to the forced convection mode. - Abstract: Baking is a high energy demanding process, which requires special attention in order to know and improve its efficiency. In this work, energy consumption associated to sponge cake baking is investigated. A wide range of operative conditions (two ovens, three convection modes, three oven temperatures) were compared. Experimental oven energy consumption was estimated taking into account the heating resistances power and a usage factor. Product energy demand was estimated from both experimental and modeling approaches considering sensible and latent heat. Oven energy consumption results showed that high oven temperature and forced convection mode favours energy savings. Regarding product energy demand, forced convection produced faster and higher weight loss inducing a higher energy demand. Besides, this parameter was satisfactorily estimated by the baking model applied, with an average error between experimental and simulated values in a range of 8.0–10.1%. Finally, the energy efficiency results indicated that it increased linearly with the effective oven temperature and that the greatest efficiency corresponded to the forced convection mode.

  16. Bioprospecting of Red Sea Sponges for Novel Antiviral Pharmacophores

    KAUST Repository

    O'Rourke, Aubrie

    2015-05-01

    Natural products offer many possibilities for the treatment of disease. More than 70% of the Earth’s surface is ocean, and recent exploration and access has allowed for new additions to this catalog of natural treasures. The Central Red Sea off the coast of Saudi Arabia serves as a newly accessible location, which provides the opportunity to bioprospect marine sponges with the purpose of identifying novel antiviral scaffolds. Antivirals are underrepresented in present day clinical trials, as well as in the academic screens of marine natural product libraries. Here a high-throughput pipeline was initiated by prefacing the antiviral screen with an Image-based High-Content Screening (HCS) technique in order to identify candidates with antiviral potential. Prospective candidates were tested in a biochemical or cell-based assay for the ability to inhibit the NS3 protease of the West Nile Virus (WNV NS protease) as well as replication and reverse transcription of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1 (HIV-1). The analytical chemistry techniques of High-Performance Liquid Chromatograpy (HPLC), Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS), and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) where used in order to identify the compounds responsible for the characteristic antiviral activity of the selected sponge fractions. We have identified a 3-alkyl pyridinium from Amphimedon chloros as the causative agent of the observed WNV NS3 protease inhibition in vitro. Additionally, we identified debromohymenialdisine, hymenialdisine, and oroidin from Stylissa carteri as prospective scaffolds capable of HIV-1 inhibition.

  17. Bioactive Compounds from the Red Sea Marine Sponge Hyrtios Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hani Z. Asfour

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In continuation of our search for drug leads from Red Sea sponges we have investigated the ethyl acetate fraction of the organic extract of the Red Sea sponge Hyrtios species. Bioassay-directed fractionation of the active fraction resulted into the identification of three new alkaloids, hyrtioerectines D–F (1–3. Hyrtioerectines D–F belong to the rare marine alkaloids in which the indole and β-carboline fragments of the molecule are linked through C-3/C-3 of both moieties. The structures of the isolated compounds were established based on different spectroscopic data including UV, IR, 1D and 2D NMR (COSY, HSQC, and HMBC and high-resolution mass spectral studies. The antimicrobial activity against several pathogens and the free radical scavenging activity of the compounds using DPPH reagent were evaluated. In addition, the growth inhibitory activity of the compounds against three cancer cell lines was also evaluated. Hyrtioerectines D–F (1–3 displayed variable antimicrobial, free radical scavenging and cancer growth inhibition activities. Generally, compounds 1 and 3 were more active than compound 2.

  18. Anti-Biofilm Compounds Derived from Marine Sponges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Melander

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial biofilms are surface-attached communities of microorganisms that are protected by an extracellular matrix of biomolecules. In the biofilm state, bacteria are significantly more resistant to external assault, including attack by antibiotics. In their native environment, bacterial biofilms underpin costly biofouling that wreaks havoc on shipping, utilities, and offshore industry. Within a host environment, they are insensitive to antiseptics and basic host immune responses. It is estimated that up to 80% of all microbial infections are biofilm-based. Biofilm infections of indwelling medical devices are of particular concern, since once the device is colonized, infection is almost impossible to eliminate. Given the prominence of biofilms in infectious diseases, there is a notable effort towards developing small, synthetically available molecules that will modulate bacterial biofilm development and maintenance. Here, we highlight the development of small molecules that inhibit and/or disperse bacterial biofilms specifically through non-microbicidal mechanisms. Importantly, we discuss several sets of compounds derived from marine sponges that we are developing in our labs to address the persistent biofilm problem. We will discuss: discovery/synthesis of natural products and their analogues—including our marine sponge-derived compounds and initial adjuvant activity and toxicological screening of our novel anti-biofilm compounds.

  19. A New Diketopiperazine from the Marine Sponge Callyspongia Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical investigation of the sponge Callyspongia sp . from the South China Sea afforded one new diketopiperazine , cyclo-(R-Pro-6-hydroxyl-S -Ile (1, along with six known d iketopiperazines : staphyloamide A (2, cyclo- (S-Pro-S-Phe (3, cyclo-(R-Pro-R-Phe (4, cyclo- (S-Pro-R-Leu (5 , cyclo-(S-Pro-R-Ala (6, cyclo-(R-Tyr-R-Phe (7, and three known tryptophan-derived alkaloids: C 2-α-D-mannosylpyranosyl-tryptophan (8, (1 R , 3 S -1-methyl-2,3,4,9-tetrahydro-1H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole-3-carboxylic acid (9, and (1R,3R-1-methyl-2,3,4,9-tetrahydro-1H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole-3-carboxylic acid (10 . The structures were determined on the basis of NMR and MS analysis , and the absolute configuration was determined by comparison of the optical rotation with the known compounds. This is the first report of compounds 1, 2 , 8–10 from the sponge Callyspongia . Cyclo- (S-Pro-R-Leu (5 , and cyclo-(S-Pro-R-Ala (6 exhibited antifouling activity against cyprid larvae of the barnacle with the LC 50 values of 3.5 μg/cm 2 and 6.0 μg/cm 2, respectively .

  20. Cyclodipeptides from metagenomic library of a japanese marine sponge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Rui; Wang, Bochu; Zhub, Liancai, E-mail: wangbc2000@126.com [Bioengineering College, Chongqing University, Chongqing, (China); Wang, Manyuan [School of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Capital University of Medical Sciences, Beijing (China); Wakimoto, Toshiyuki; Abe, Ikuro, E-mail: abei@mol.f.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)

    2013-12-01

    Culture-independent metagenomics is an attractive and promising approach to explore unique bioactive small molecules from marine sponges harboring uncultured symbiotic microbes. Therefore, we conducted functional screening of the metagenomic library constructed from the Japanese marine sponge Discodermia calyx. Bioassay-guided fractionation of plate culture extract of antibacterial clone pDC113 afforded eleven cyclodipeptides: Cyclo(l-Thr-l-Leu) (1), Cyclo(l-Val-d-Pro) (2), Cyclo(l-Ile-d-Pro) (3), Cyclo(l-Leu-l-Pro) (4), Cyclo(l-Val-l-Leu) (5), Cyclo(l-Leu-l-Ile) (6), Cyclo(l-Leu-l-Leu) (7), Cyclo(l-Phe-l-Tyr) (8), Cyclo(l-Trp-l-Pro) (9), Cyclo(l-Val-l-Trp) (10) and Cyclo(l-Ile-l-Trp) (11). To the best of our knowledge, these are first cyclodepeptides isolated from metagenomic library. Sequence analysis suggested that isolated cyclodipeptides were not synthesized by nonribosomal peptide synthetases and there was no significant indication of cyclodipeptide synthetases. (author)

  1. Structure of a tetrameric galectin from Cinachyrella sp. (ball sponge)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freymann, Douglas M., E-mail: freymann@northwestern.edu [Northwestern University, 303 East Chicago Avenue, Chicago, IL 60611 (United States); Nakamura, Yuka [Hokkaido University, 3-1-1 Minato-cho, Hakodate 041-8611 (Japan); Focia, Pamela J. [Northwestern University, 303 East Chicago Avenue, Chicago, IL 60611 (United States); Sakai, Ryuichi [Hokkaido University, 3-1-1 Minato-cho, Hakodate 041-8611 (Japan); Swanson, Geoffrey T. [Northwestern University, 303 East Chicago Avenue, Chicago, IL 60611 (United States)

    2012-09-01

    The structure of a tetrameric sponge galectin suggests a basis for glutamate receptor potentiation. The galectins are a family of proteins that bind with highest affinity to N-acetyllactosamine disaccharides, which are common constituents of asparagine-linked complex glycans. They play important and diverse physiological roles, particularly in the immune system, and are thought to be critical metastatic agents for many types of cancer cells, including gliomas. A recent bioactivity-based screen of marine sponge (Cinachyrella sp.) extract identified an ancestral member of the galectin family based on its unexpected ability to positively modulate mammalian ionotropic glutamate receptor function. To gain insight into the mechanistic basis of this activity, the 2.1 Å resolution X-ray structure of one member of the family, galectin CchG-1, is reported. While the protomer exhibited structural similarity to mammalian prototype galectin, CchG-1 adopts a novel tetrameric arrangement in which a rigid toroidal-shaped ‘donut’ is stabilized in part by the packing of pairs of vicinal disulfide bonds. Twofold symmetry between binding-site pairs provides a basis for a model for interaction with ionotropic glutamate receptors.

  2. Mathematical model of the reformer sponge iron cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraser, S.; Hacker, V.; Evers, B.; Hierzer, J.; Besenhard, J.O. [Graz University of Technology, Graz (Austria). Inst. for Chemical Technology of Inorganic Materials Christian Doppler Pilot-Lab. for Fuel Cell Systems

    2003-07-01

    An innovative hydrogen production process called the Reformer Sponge Iron Cycle (RESC), based on redox reactions of iron ore pellets, was mathematically modeled. The hydrogen is produced by blowing steam over hot iron pellets in the oxidation stage, resulting in the oxidation of the iron. Synthesis gas coming from a reformer mixed with a fraction of recycled off-gas was used to reduce the iron oxide pellets (wuestite and-or magnetite) in the reduction stage, leading once more to iron . Once the mathematical model was developed, it was verified utilizing experimental data. Based on calculations of the equilibrium gas concentrations for reformer and sponge iron reactor (SIR), the model computes mass fluxes, molar fluxes, partial pressures, and variations of them throughout the complete cycle. The recycle rate, which determines the fraction of SIR off-gas recycled and added to the input gas stream, was optimized to maximize the amount of iron oxide reduced for a certain input gas flow. 5 refs., 4 figs.

  3. Cyclodipeptides from metagenomic library of a japanese marine sponge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Rui; Wang, Bochu; Zhub, Liancai; Wang, Manyuan; Wakimoto, Toshiyuki; Abe, Ikuro

    2013-01-01

    Culture-independent metagenomics is an attractive and promising approach to explore unique bioactive small molecules from marine sponges harboring uncultured symbiotic microbes. Therefore, we conducted functional screening of the metagenomic library constructed from the Japanese marine sponge Discodermia calyx. Bioassay-guided fractionation of plate culture extract of antibacterial clone pDC113 afforded eleven cyclodipeptides: Cyclo(l-Thr-l-Leu) (1), Cyclo(l-Val-d-Pro) (2), Cyclo(l-Ile-d-Pro) (3), Cyclo(l-Leu-l-Pro) (4), Cyclo(l-Val-l-Leu) (5), Cyclo(l-Leu-l-Ile) (6), Cyclo(l-Leu-l-Leu) (7), Cyclo(l-Phe-l-Tyr) (8), Cyclo(l-Trp-l-Pro) (9), Cyclo(l-Val-l-Trp) (10) and Cyclo(l-Ile-l-Trp) (11). To the best of our knowledge, these are first cyclodepeptides isolated from metagenomic library. Sequence analysis suggested that isolated cyclodipeptides were not synthesized by nonribosomal peptide synthetases and there was no significant indication of cyclodipeptide synthetases. (author)

  4. Structure of a tetrameric galectin from Cinachyrella sp. (ball sponge)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freymann, Douglas M.; Nakamura, Yuka; Focia, Pamela J.; Sakai, Ryuichi; Swanson, Geoffrey T.

    2012-01-01

    The structure of a tetrameric sponge galectin suggests a basis for glutamate receptor potentiation. The galectins are a family of proteins that bind with highest affinity to N-acetyllactosamine disaccharides, which are common constituents of asparagine-linked complex glycans. They play important and diverse physiological roles, particularly in the immune system, and are thought to be critical metastatic agents for many types of cancer cells, including gliomas. A recent bioactivity-based screen of marine sponge (Cinachyrella sp.) extract identified an ancestral member of the galectin family based on its unexpected ability to positively modulate mammalian ionotropic glutamate receptor function. To gain insight into the mechanistic basis of this activity, the 2.1 Å resolution X-ray structure of one member of the family, galectin CchG-1, is reported. While the protomer exhibited structural similarity to mammalian prototype galectin, CchG-1 adopts a novel tetrameric arrangement in which a rigid toroidal-shaped ‘donut’ is stabilized in part by the packing of pairs of vicinal disulfide bonds. Twofold symmetry between binding-site pairs provides a basis for a model for interaction with ionotropic glutamate receptors

  5. Preparation and oil absorption properties of magnetic melamine sponge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, LUO; Jia-qi, HU; Na, LV

    2017-12-01

    The magnetic melamine sponge (MS-Fe3O4) with magnetic response and high hydrophobicity was fabricated by two-step method. First, the magnetic nano-particles were fixed on the skeleton of melamine sponge (MS) using 3-hydroxytyramine hydrochloride and 1-dodecanethiol, then hydrophobicity modified with octadecyltrichlorosilane (OTS). The structures and chemical compositions of MS and MS-Fe3O4 were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The wettability of the sample was obtained by using contact angle analysis system. MS-Fe3O4 endowed with outstanding selectivity and excellent oil absorption capacities, which can be widely used in absorbing various sorts of oil. The oil absorption capacities for crude oil, diesel oil, lubricating oil, soybean oil and peanut oil were 71g/g, 51g/g, 62g/g, 54g/g, 57g/g. In addition, MS-Fe3O4 showed excellent recyclability which can be forecasted as an ideal candidate for oil-water separation.

  6. A Systematic Literature Mining of Sponge City: Trends, Foci and Challenges Standing Ahead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zongmin Li

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Sponge City research has been attracting extensive attention both in practical and theoretical research field, as the increased threat of flood risk and environmental safety due to urbanization. Varies names of Sponge City prevalent in different countries, which leads to disconnection of literature in the same field of Sponge City. In this paper, a systematic literature mining of Sponge City is presented. A literature analysis system is created, which includes literature export from Web of Sciences and systematic analysis via NoteExpress and CiteSpace. Based on the final document storage which contains 962 articles, general trends are identified. Literature is classified into 9 theme types. Research foci of Sponge City are detected by citation and keywords burst detection. Further, some future research directions of Sponge City are anticipated, including trans-disciplinary approaches, a comprehensive design framework, application of information technology, and case studies of Sponge City in more parts of the world. The significance of this paper lies in summarizing past research, identifying research types, foci and anticipating some future research directions.

  7. Polymer/reduced graphene oxide functionalized sponges as superabsorbents for oil removal and recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Periasamy, Arun Prakash; Wu, Wen-Ping; Ravindranath, Rini; Roy, Prathik; Lin, Guan-Lin; Chang, Huan-Tsung

    2017-01-30

    Polyurethane dish-washing (PU-DW) sponges are functionalized sequentially with polyethylenimine (PEI) and graphene oxide (GO) to form PEI/reduced graphene oxide (RGO) PU-DW sponges. The PEI/RGO PU-DW sponge consists of PEI/RGO sheets having numerous pores, with diameters ranging from 236 to 254nm. To further enhance hydrophobicity and absorption capacity of oil, PEI/RGO PU-DW sponge is further coated with 20% phenyltrimethoxysilane (PTMOS). The PTMOS/PEI/RGO PU-DW sponge absorbs various oils within 20s, with maximum absorption capacity values of 880% and 840% for bicycle chain oil and motorcycle engine oil, respectively. The absorbed oils were released completely by squeezing or immersed in hexane. The PTMOS/PEI/RGO PU-DW sponge efficiently separates oil/water mixtures through a flowing system. Having the advantages of faster absorption rate, reusability, and low cost, the PTMOS/PEI/RGO PU-DW sponge holds great potential as a superabsorbent for efficient removal and recovery of oil spills as well as for the separation of oil/water mixtures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Human Recombinant Peptide Sponge Enables Novel, Less Invasive Cell Therapy for Ischemic Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michiyuki Miyamoto

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Bone marrow stromal cell (BMSC transplantation has the therapeutic potential for ischemic stroke. However, it is unclear which delivery routes would yield both safety and maximal therapeutic benefits. We assessed whether a novel recombinant peptide (RCP sponge, that resembles human collagen, could act as a less invasive and beneficial scaffold in cell therapy for ischemic stroke. BMSCs from green fluorescent protein-transgenic rats were cultured and Sprague–Dawley rats were subjected to permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo. A BMSC-RCP sponge construct was transplanted onto the ipsilateral intact neocortex 7 days after MCAo. A BMSC suspension or vehicle was transplanted into the ipsilateral striatum. Rat motor function was serially evaluated and histological analysis was performed 5 weeks after transplantation. The results showed that BMSCs could proliferate well in the RCP sponge and the BMSC-RCP sponge significantly promoted functional recovery, compared with the vehicle group. Histological analysis revealed that the RCP sponge provoked few inflammatory reactions in the host brain. Moreover, some BMSCs migrated to the peri-infarct area and differentiated into neurons in the BMSC-RCP sponge group. These findings suggest that the RCP sponge may be a promising candidate for animal protein-free scaffolds in cell therapy for ischemic stroke in humans.

  9. Preparation of sponge-reinforced silica aerogels from tetraethoxysilane and methyltrimethoxysilane for oil/water separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming; Jiang, Hongyi; Xu, Dong

    2018-04-01

    Polyurethane sponge-reinforced silica aerogels based on tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) and methyltrimethoxysilane (MTMS) were fabricated by a facile method through sol-gel reaction followed by ambient pressure drying. In sponge-reinforced silica aerogels, nanoporous aerogel aggregates fill in the pores of polyurethane sponge. The sponge-reinforced aerogels are hydrophobic and oleophilic and show extremely high absorption for machine oil (10.6 g g‑1 for TEOS-based aerogel and 9.2 g g‑1 for MTMS-based aerogel). In addition, the sponge-reinforced aerogel composites exhibit notable improvements with regards to mechanical properties. The compressive strength was enhanced obviously up to about 349 KPa for TEOS-based aerogel and 60 KPa for MTMS-based aerogel. Specially, sponge-reinforced silica aerogels based on MTMS drastically shrank upon loading and then recovered to the original size when unloaded. The property differences of the sponge-reinforced silica aerogels caused by the two precursors were discussed in terms of morphologies, pore size distributions and chemical structure.

  10. Implementing sponge physiological and genomic information to enhance the diversity of its culturable associated bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavy, Adi; Keren, Ray; Haber, Markus; Schwartz, Inbar; Ilan, Micha

    2014-02-01

    In recent years new approaches have emerged for culturing marine environmental bacteria. They include the use of novel culture media, sometimes with very low-nutrient content, and a variety of growth conditions such as temperature, oxygen levels, and different atmospheric pressures. These approaches have largely been neglected when it came to the cultivation of sponge-associated bacteria. Here, we used physiological and environmental conditions to reflect the environment of sponge-associated bacteria along with genomic data of the prominent sponge symbiont Candidatus Poribacteria sp. WGA-4E, to cultivate bacteria from the Red Sea sponge Theonella swinhoei. Designing culturing conditions to fit the metabolic needs of major bacterial taxa present in the sponge, through a combined use of diverse culture media compositions with aerobic and microaerophilic states, and addition of antibiotics, yielded higher diversity of the cultured bacteria and led to the isolation of novel sponge-associated and sponge-specific bacteria. In this work, 59 OTUs of six phyla were isolated. Of these, 22 have no close type strains at the species level (< 97% similarity of 16S rRNA gene sequence), representing novel bacteria species, and some are probably new genera and even families. © 2013 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Spiculogenesis in the siliceous sponge Lubomirskia baicalensis studied with fluorescent staining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annenkov, Vadim V; Danilovtseva, Elena N

    2016-04-01

    Siliceous sponges are the most primitive multicellular animals whose skeleton consists of spicules - needle-like constructions from silicon dioxide surrounding organic axial filaments. Mechanisms of spicule formation have been intensively studied due to the high ecological importance of sponges and their interest to materials science. Light and electron microscopy are not appropriate enough to display the process from silicon-enriched cells to mature spicules because of composite structure of the sponge tissues. In this article, spiculogenesis in the siliceous sponge has been studied for the first time with the use of fluorescent microscopy. Fluorescent vital dye NBD-N2 was applied to stain growing siliceous structures in the sponge and primmorph cell system. The main stages of spicule growth in the fresh-water sponge Lubomirskia baicalensis (Pallas, 1773) were visualized: silicon accumulation in sclerocytes; formation of an organic filament protruding from the cell; further elongation of the filament and growth of the spicule in a spindle-like form with enlargement in the center; merger with new sclerocytes and formation of the mature spicule. Fluorescent microscopy combined with SEM allows us to overcome the virtual differentiation between intra- and extracellular mechanisms of spicule growth. The growing spicule can capture silicic acid from the extracellular space and merge with new silicon-enriched cells. Visualization of the growing spicules with the fluorescent dye allows us to monitor sponge viability in ecological or toxicological experiments and to apply genomic, proteomic and biochemical techniques. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Sponge divers of the Aegean and medical consequences of risky compressed-air dive profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toklu, Akin Savas; Cimsit, Maide

    2009-04-01

    Historically, Turkey once had a substantial number of professional sponge divers, a population known for a relatively high incidence of diving-related conditions such as decompression sickness (DCS) and dysbaric osteonecrosis (DON). Sponge diving ended in the mid-1980s when nearly all of the sponges in the Aegean and Mediterranean Seas contracted a bacterial disease and the occupation became unprofitable. We reviewed the records of Turkish sponge divers for information on their level of knowledge, diving equipment, dive profiles, and occupational health problems. Information was collected by: 1) interviewing former sponge divers near Bodrum, where most of them had settled; 2) reviewing the relevant literature; and 3) examining the medical records of sponge divers who underwent recompression treatment. These divers used three types of surface-supplied equipment, including hard helmets, Fernez apparatus, and hookahs; the latter were preferred because they allowed divers the greatest freedom of movement while harvesting sponges underwater. These divers used profiles that we now know involved a high risk for DCS and DON. We were able to access the records of 58 divers who had received recompression treatment. All of the cases involved severe DCS and delays from dive to recompression that averaged 72 h. Complete resolution of symptoms occurred in only 11 cases (19%). Thus, we were able to document the several factors that contributed to the risks in this occupational group, including unsafe dive profiles, resistance to seeking treatment, long delays before recompression, and the fact that recompression treatment used air rather than oxygen.

  13. Zooxanthellar symbionts shape host sponge trophic status through translocation of carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisz, Jeremy B; Massaro, Andrew J; Ramsby, Blake D; Hill, Malcolm S

    2010-12-01

    Sponges belonging to the genus Cliona are common inhabitants of many coral reefs, and as bioeroders, they play an important role in the carbonate cycle of the reef. Several Cliona species maintain intracellular populations of dinoflagellate zooxanthellae (i.e., Symbiodinium spp.), which also form symbioses with a variety of other invertebrates and protists (e.g., corals, molluscs, foraminifera). Unlike the case of coral symbioses, however, almost nothing is known of the metabolic interaction between sponges and their zooxanthella symbionts. To assess this interaction, we performed a tracer experiment to follow C and N in the system, performed a reciprocal transplant experiment, and measured the stable carbon isotope ratio of Cliona spp. with and without zooxanthellae to study the influence of environment on the interaction. We found strong evidence of a transfer of C from zooxanthellae to their sponge hosts but no evidence of a transfer of N from sponge to zooxanthellae. We also saw significant influences of the environment on the metabolism of the sponges. Finally, we observed significant differences in carbon metabolism of sponge species with and without symbionts. These data strongly support hypotheses of metabolic integration between zooxanthellae and their sponge host and extend our understanding of basic aspects of benthic-pelagic coupling in shallow-water marine environments.

  14. Genomic analysis reveals versatile heterotrophic capacity of a potentially symbiotic sulfur-oxidizing bacterium in sponge

    KAUST Repository

    Tian, Renmao

    2014-08-29

    Sulfur-reducing bacteria (SRB) and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB) play essential roles in marine sponges. However, the detailed characteristics and physiology of the bacteria are largely unknown. Here, we present and analyse the first genome of sponge-associated SOB using a recently developed metagenomic binning strategy. The loss of transposase and virulence-associated genes and the maintenance of the ancient polyphosphate glucokinase gene suggested a stabilized SOB genome that might have coevolved with the ancient host during establishment of their association. Exclusive distribution in sponge, bacterial detoxification for the host (sulfide oxidation) and the enrichment for symbiotic characteristics (genes-encoding ankyrin) in the SOB genome supported the bacterial role as an intercellular symbiont. Despite possessing complete autotrophic sulfur oxidation pathways, the bacterium developed a much more versatile capacity for carbohydrate uptake and metabolism, in comparison with its closest relatives (Thioalkalivibrio) and to other representative autotrophs from the same order (Chromatiales). The ability to perform both autotrophic and heterotrophic metabolism likely results from the unstable supply of reduced sulfur in the sponge and is considered critical for the sponge-SOB consortium. Our study provides insights into SOB of sponge-specific clade with thioautotrophic and versatile heterotrophic metabolism relevant to its roles in the micro-environment of the sponge body. © 2014 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Deep sequencing reveals exceptional diversity and modes of transmission for bacterial sponge symbionts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Nicole S; Taylor, Michael W; Behnam, Faris; Lücker, Sebastian; Rattei, Thomas; Whalan, Stephen; Horn, Matthias; Wagner, Michael

    2010-08-01

    Marine sponges contain complex bacterial communities of considerable ecological and biotechnological importance, with many of these organisms postulated to be specific to sponge hosts. Testing this hypothesis in light of the recent discovery of the rare microbial biosphere, we investigated three Australian sponges by massively parallel 16S rRNA gene tag pyrosequencing. Here we show bacterial diversity that is unparalleled in an invertebrate host, with more than 250,000 sponge-derived sequence tags being assigned to 23 bacterial phyla and revealing up to 2996 operational taxonomic units (95% sequence similarity) per sponge species. Of the 33 previously described 'sponge-specific' clusters that were detected in this study, 48% were found exclusively in adults and larvae - implying vertical transmission of these groups. The remaining taxa, including 'Poribacteria', were also found at very low abundance among the 135,000 tags retrieved from surrounding seawater. Thus, members of the rare seawater biosphere may serve as seed organisms for widely occurring symbiont populations in sponges and their host association might have evolved much more recently than previously thought. © 2009 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Detecting signatures of a sponge-associated lifestyle in bacterial genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díez-Vives, Cristina; Esteves, Ana I S; Costa, Rodrigo; Nielsen, Shaun; Thomas, Torsten

    2018-04-30

    Sponges interact with diverse and rich communities of bacteria that are phylogenetically often distinct from their free-living counterparts. Recent genomics and metagenomic studies have indicated that bacterial sponge symbionts also have distinct functional features from free-living bacteria, however it is unclear, if such genome-derived functional signatures are common and present in different symbiont taxa. We therefore compared here a large set of genomes from cultured (Pseudovibrio, Ruegeria, Aquimarina) and yet-uncultivated (Synechococcus) bacteria found either in sponge-associated or free-living sources. Our analysis revealed only very few genera-specific functions that could be correlated with a sponge-associated lifestyle. Using different sets of sponge-associated and free-living bacteria for each genus, we could however show that the functions identified as "sponge-associated" are dependent on the reference comparison being made. Using simulation approaches we show how this influences the robustness of identifying functional signatures and how evolutionary divergence and genomic adaptation can be distinguished. Our results highlight the future need for robust comparative analyses to define genomic signatures of symbiotic lifestyles, whether it is for symbionts of sponges or other host organisms. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2018 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Study of Enzymatically Treated Alginate/Chitosan Hydrosols in Sponges Formation Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Zimoch-Korzycka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to produce 3D sponges based on enzymatically modified lysozyme selected polysaccharides and assess their physicochemical properties. The alginate/chitosan sponges were formed from polymers hydrosols in different proportions at a final concentration of 1% polysaccharides. Hydrosols were modified by lysozyme addition of 1000 U. Hydrosols without or with enzyme were analyzed for their reducing sugar content, rheological properties and ability to scavenge free radicals. Sponges formed from hydrosols were tested for solubility and compressive properties. Only chitosan was hydrolyzed by lysozyme. The morphology of sponges was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. It was proven that the antioxidant properties of hydrosols are dependent on the concentration of chitosan. It was also shown that the addition of lysozyme negatively affected the free radical scavenging ability of single hydrosols of alginate and chitosan, and their mixtures. The Ostwald de Waele as well as Herschel–Bulkley models of rheological properties fitted the experimental data well (R2 is between 0.947 and 1.000. Increase in textural features values of sponges was observed. Sponges with pure alginate and pure chitosan were almost completely soluble. The enzyme addition significantly changed the characteristics of the cross-section structure of sponges, and made the surface smoother.

  18. Sponge erosion under acidification and warming scenarios: differential impacts on living and dead coral.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubler, Amber D; Furman, Bradley T; Peterson, Bradley J

    2015-11-01

    Ocean acidification will disproportionately impact the growth of calcifying organisms in coral reef ecosystems. Simultaneously, sponge bioerosion rates have been shown to increase as seawater pH decreases. We conducted a 20-week experiment that included a 4-week acclimation period with a high number of replicate tanks and a fully orthogonal design with two levels of temperature (ambient and +1 °C), three levels of pH (8.1, 7.8, and 7.6), and two levels of boring sponge (Cliona varians, present and absent) to account for differences in sponge attachment and carbonate change for both living and dead coral substrate (Porites furcata). Net coral calcification, net dissolution/bioerosion, coral and sponge survival, sponge attachment, and sponge symbiont health were evaluated. Additionally, we used the empirical data from the experiment to develop a stochastic simulation of carbonate change for small coral clusters (i.e., simulated reefs). Our findings suggest differential impacts of temperature, pH and sponge presence for living and dead corals. Net coral calcification (mg CaCO3  cm(-2)  day(-1) ) was significantly reduced in treatments with increased temperature (+1 °C) and when sponges were present; acidification had no significant effect on coral calcification. Net dissolution of dead coral was primarily driven by pH, regardless of sponge presence or seawater temperature. A reevaluation of the current paradigm of coral carbonate change under future acidification and warming scenarios should include ecologically relevant timescales, species interactions, and community organization to more accurately predict ecosystem-level response to future conditions. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Effects of gamma irradiation on chemical properties, thiamine and riboflavin contents,dough properties and baking quality of the flours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozkaya, B.; Koksel, H.; Ozkaya, H.; Tutluer, H.

    1994-01-01

    Effects of gamma irradiation at the doses of 0.25,0.50,0.75,1.00 and 1.25 kGy on two flour samples with distinct technological properties was investigated in this study.The sedimentation values of the irradiated samples showed a steady decrease but falling number and wet gluten content did not change to an important extend as the radiation level increased. Thiamine and riboflavin contents also decreased with irradiation. Dough development time and stability values decreased but no apparent changes were observed in other farinogram and extensogram parameters as radiation levels increased.The baking quality of the samples irradiated at higher doses(over 1.00 kGy) deteriorated in both flours as radiation levels increased

  20. Study of thermoelectron emission of oxidized tungsten sponge in cesium atom flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tursunmetov, K.A.; Sabirov, A.K.

    1993-01-01

    Thermoelectron emission of a tungsten sponge with 30-40% porosity is studied. The tungsten sponge is produced of fine-grain tungsten powder (diameter - 1-2 μm) according to standard technology. It is shown that tungsten sponge oxidation at T=1000 K with subsequent heating in vacuum at T=1100 K allows one to obtain the minimal stable and reproducible work function at the level of 1.03-1.05 eV in a flux of cesium atoms. Estimations show that effective emitting surface is 15-20 times as much as the polycrystal surface