Krupp, L B; Hyman, L G; Grimson, R; Coyle, P K; Melville, P; Ahnn, S; Dattwyler, R; Chandler, B
To determine whether post Lyme syndrome (PLS) is antibiotic responsive. The authors conducted a single-center randomized double-masked placebo-controlled trial on 55 patients with Lyme disease with persistent severe fatigue at least 6 or more months after antibiotic therapy. Patients were randomly assigned to receive 28 days of IV ceftriaxone or placebo. The primary clinical outcomes were improvement in fatigue, defined by a change of 0.7 points or more on an 11-item fatigue questionnaire, and improvement in cognitive function (mental speed), defined by a change of 25% or more on a test of reaction time. The primary laboratory outcome was an experimental measure of CSF infection, outer surface protein A (OspA). Outcome data were collected at the 6-month visit. Patients assigned to ceftriaxone showed improvement in disabling fatigue compared to the placebo group (rate ratio, 3.5; 95% CI, 1.50 to 8.03; p = 0.001). No beneficial treatment effect was observed for cognitive function or the laboratory measure of persistent infection. Four patients, three of whom were on placebo, had adverse events associated with treatment, which required hospitalization. Ceftriaxone therapy in patients with PLS with severe fatigue was associated with an improvement in fatigue but not with cognitive function or an experimental laboratory measure of infection in this study. Because fatigue (a nonspecific symptom) was the only outcome that improved and because treatment was associated with adverse events, this study does not support the use of additional antibiotic therapy with parenteral ceftriaxone in post-treatment, persistently fatigued patients with PLS.
Liu, Hongchun; Yin, Wei
Cortex Ilicis Rotundae has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Few studies have evaluated the effects of toothpastes containing Cortex Ilicis Rotundae. This study evaluates the antiplaque and antigingivitis effects of a test toothpaste containing 0.6% Cortex Ilicis Rotundae extract in a calcium carbonate base compared with a control toothpaste without any active ingredient. One hundred adults with a mean plaque index (PI) ≥ 1.5 and a mean gingival index (GI) ≥ 1.0 were enrolled in this randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled clinical trial. They were assigned randomly to use a test toothpaste or a control toothpaste. At baseline, 6 weeks, and 12 weeks, they received examinations of oral hard and soft tissues, using Löe-Silness GI for gingivitis and the Turesky modification of the Quigley-Hein PI for PI. Adverse events were monitored. When the study was completed, the test group reported lower mean GI than the control group (1.13 ± 0.22 versus 1.30 ± 0.23; P = 0.001) and lower mean PI than the control group (2.53 ± 0.5 versus 2.93 ± 0.44; P gingivitis after 12 weeks of use compared with a negative control toothpaste.
Full Text Available David Wirta1, Amanda M VanDenburgh2, Emily Weng3, Scott M Whitcup4, Sef Kurstjens5, Frederick C Beddingfield III4,61Private Practice, Newport Beach, CA, USA; 2Clinical Development, 3Biostatistics, 4Research and Development, 5Global Drug Development, Allergan, Inc, Irvine, CA, USA; 6Department of Medicine, Division of Dermatology, David Geffen School of Medicine, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, USABackground: Bimatoprost ophthalmic solution 0.03% was approved in the US for reducing intraoccular pressure (IOP based on two double-masked, active-controlled clinical trials. Four additional long-term studies (≥ 12months were conducted; however, the aggregate safety profile of the six studies has not been reported.Methods: Adverse events (AEs were pooled from six double-masked, active-controlled, long-term clinical trials in which subjects received bimatoprost 0.03% once daily (QD or twice daily (BID as an eyedrop. AE terms were converted to MedDRA (V.11.0 Preferred Terms and analyzed.Results: In total, 1409 patients received more than one dose of bimatoprost 0.03% QD or BID. Most AEs were mild in severity and reported by 86.7% (QD and 94.8% (BID of subjects (≤ 12 months of treatment. AEs reported through month 12 (aggregate incidence of ≥ 5% were conjunctival hyperemia, increased eyelash growth, eye pruritus, periocular skin hyperpigmentation, eye irritation, dry eye, and hypertrichosis. AE onset was generally reported within four months of treatment. The cumulative incidence of common AEs in the QD treatment group at 24–48 months was similar to that measured at 12 months of treatment.Conclusion: Bimatoprost 0.03% has a favorable safety and tolerability profile as characterized by six long-term studies. Common AEs were due to the known pharmacological activity of bimatoprost and reversible with treatment cessation.Keywords: intraocular pressure, eyelids, pharmacology, clinical trial, medical treatment
Shimabukuro, Yoshio; Nakayama, Yohei; Ogata, Yorimasa; Tamazawa, Kaoru; Shimauchi, Hidetoshi; Nishida, Tetsuya; Ito, Koichi; Chikazawa, Takashi; Kataoka, Shinsuke; Murakami, Shinya
Reactive oxygen species might be associated with the onset and progression of gingival inflammation. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of a dentifrice containing L-ascorbic acid 2-phosphate magnesium salt (APM), a long-acting ascorbic acid derivative with antioxidant properties, on gingival inflammation. The clinical effects of APM were investigated in a multicenter, randomized, parallel-group, controlled clinical trial comprising 300 individuals with gingivitis. Half of the participants were given an APM-containing dentifrice and half were given a control dentifrice. The primary outcome was the gingival index (GI) at 3 months. Secondary outcomes included gingival redness as an indicator of the degree of local gingival inflammation, gingival bleeding as a measure of the gingivitis severity index, and total antioxidant activity of the saliva. Under the intent-to-treat analysis, GI did not significantly differ between the groups (P = 0.12). However, under the per-protocol analysis, GI was significantly lower in the APM group (P = 0.01) than in the control group. In the APM group, gingival redness was significantly lower, and the difference from the baseline gingivitis severity index was significantly greater (P = 0.04 and P = 0.02, respectively). The total antioxidant activity of the saliva was significantly higher in the APM group (P = 0.03). The incidence of adverse events did not significantly differ between the groups (P > 0.15). These findings indicate that the regular application of an APM-containing dentifrice could reduce gingival inflammation.
Brissette, Ashley R; Mednick, Zale D; Schweitzer, Kelly D; Bona, Mark D; Baxter, Stephanie A
To compare retention rates of Super Flex (Eagle Vision, Memphis, Tennessee, USA; Softplug-Oasis Medical Inc, Glendora, California, USA) vs Parasol (Odyssey Medical, Memphis, Tennessee, USA; Beaver Visitec International, Waltham, Massachusetts, USA) punctal plugs. Randomized, double-masked, interventional controlled clinical trial. Institutional study at Hotel Dieu Hospital (Queen's University) of 50 eyes, from patients with moderate to severe dry eye. Each eye from eligible patients was separately randomized to receive Super Flex or Parasol punctal plugs. The main outcome measure was plug retention at 6 months. Secondary outcome measures included objective tests of Schirmer I (mm), tear meniscus height (mm), tear break-up time (s), inferior fluorescein corneal staining (National Eye Institute [NEI] scale), and average lissamine green conjunctival staining (NEI scale). Punctal plug retention was significantly different at 6 months (P = .011). Sixty-eight percent of Parasol plugs were retained compared to 32% of Super Flex plugs. Parasol plugs required less frequent artificial tear use at 6 months (P = .024). There was a statistically significant improvement in all secondary outcome measures (Schirmer, tear meniscus height, tear break-up time, fluorescein corneal staining) at 6 months within plug groups except conjunctival staining. There were no additional significant differences between groups and no plug complications reported. Punctal plugs improve symptoms of moderate to severe dry eye; however, retention rates differ significantly. These data will allow us to guide patient decision making for the safe and effective treatment of punctal plugs for moderate to severe dry eye. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mombelli, Andrea; Cionca, Norbert; Almaghlouth, Adnan; Décaillet, Fabien; Courvoisier, Delphine S; Giannopoulou, Catherine
It has been suggested that prescription of amoxicillin plus metronidazole in the context of periodontal therapy should be limited to patients with specific microbiologic profiles, especially those testing positive for Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans. The main purpose of this analysis is to determine if patients positive for A. actinomycetemcomitans with moderate to advanced periodontitis benefit specifically from amoxicillin plus metronidazole given as an adjunct to full-mouth scaling and root planing. This is a double-masked, placebo-controlled, randomized longitudinal study including 41 participants who were positive for A. actinomycetemcomitans and 41 participants who were negative for A. actinomycetemcomitans. All 82 patients received full-mouth periodontal debridement performed within 48 hours. Patients then received either systemic antibiotics (375 mg amoxicillin and 500 mg metronidazole, three times daily) or placebo for 7 days. The primary outcome variable was persistence of sites with a probing depth (PD) >4 mm and bleeding on probing (BOP) at the 3-month reevaluation. Using multilevel logistic regression, the effect of the antibiotics was analyzed according to the following factors (interaction effect): A. actinomycetemcomitans-positive or -negative at baseline, sex, age, smoking, tooth being a molar, and interdental location. At reevaluation, participants in the test group had significantly fewer sites with a persisting PD >4 mm and BOP than control patients (P antibiotics. Patients benefited from the antibiotics irrespective of sex, age, or smoking status. Molars benefited significantly more from the antibiotics than non-molars (P for interaction effect = 0.03). Patients who were positive for A. actinomycetemcomitans had no specific benefit from amoxicillin plus metronidazole. Sites on molars benefited significantly more from the antibiotics than non-molar sites.
Effects of Topical Bimatoprost 0.01% and Timolol 0.5% on Circadian IOP, Blood Pressure and Perfusion Pressure in Patients with Glaucoma or Ocular Hypertension: A Randomized, Double Masked, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial.
Full Text Available To compare the 24-hour (24h effects on intraocular pressure (IOP and cardiovascular parameters of timolol 0.5% and bimatoprost 0.01% in open angle glaucoma and ocular hypertensive subjects.In this prospective, randomized, double masked, crossover, clinical trial, after washout from previous medications enrolled subjects underwent 24h IOP, blood pressure (BP and heart rate (HR measurements and were randomized to either topical bimatoprost 0.01% at night plus placebo in the morning or to timolol 0.5% bid. After 8 weeks of treatment a second 24h assessment of IOP, BP and HR was performed and then subjects switched to the opposite treatment for additional 8 weeks when a third 24h assessment was performed. The primary endpoint was the comparison of the mean 24h IOP after each treatment. Secondary endpoints included the comparisons of IOP at each timepoint of the 24h curve and the comparison of BP, HR, ocular perfusion pressure and tolerability.Mean untreated 24h IOP was 20.3 mmHg (95%CI 19.0 to 21.6. Mean 24h IOP was significantly lower after 8 weeks of treatment with bimatoprost 0.01% than after 8 weeks of treatment with timolol 0.5% bid (15.7 vs 16.8 mmHg, p = 0.0003. Mean IOP during the day hours was significantly reduced from baseline by both drugs while mean IOP during the night hours was reduced by -2.3 mmHg (p = 0.0002 by bimatoprost 0.01% plus placebo and by -1.1 mmHg by timolol 0.5% bid (p = 0.06. Timolol 0.5% significantly reduced the mean 24h systolic BP from baseline, the diastolic BP during the day hours, the HR during the night hours, and the mean 24h systolic ocular perfusion pressure.Both Bimatoprost 0.01% and Timolol 0.5% are effective in reducing the mean 24h IOP from an untreated baseline but Bimatoprost 0.01% is more effective than timolol 0.5% throughout the 24h. Timolol 0.5% effect on IOP is reduced during the night hours and is associated with reduced BP, HR and ocular perfusion pressure.EU Clinical Trial Register and Eudra
A randomised, double-masked phase III/IV study of the efficacy and safety of Avastin® (Bevacizumab intravitreal injections compared to standard therapy in subjects with choroidal neovascularisation secondary to age-related macular degeneration: clinical trial design
Full Text Available Abstract Background The management of neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD has been transformed by the introduction of agents delivered by intravitreal injection which block the action of vascular endothelial growth factor-A (anti-VEGF agents. One such agent in widespread use is bevacizumab which was initially developed for use in oncology. Most of the evidence supporting the use of bevacizumab for nAMD has come from interventional case series and this clinical trial was initiated because of the increasing and widespread use of this agent in the treatment of nAMD (an off-label indication despite a lack of definitive unbiased safety and efficacy data. Methods and design The Avastin® (bevacizumab for choroidal neovascularisation (ABC trial is a double-masked randomised controlled trial comparing intravitreal bevacizumab injections to standard therapy in the treatment of nAMD. Patients are randomised to intravitreal bevacizumab or standard therapy available at the time of trial initiation (verteporfin photodynamic therapy, intravitreal pegaptanib or sham treatment. Ranibizumab treatment was not included in the control arm as it had not been licensed for use at the start of recruitment for this trial. The primary outcome is the proportion of patients gaining ≥ 15 letters of visual acuity at 1 year and secondary outcomes include the proportion of patients with stable vision and mean visual acuity change. Discussion The ABC Trial is the first double-masked randomised control trial to investigate the efficacy and safety of intravitreal bevacizumab in the treatment of nAMD. This trial fully recruited in November 2007 and results should be available in early 2009. Important design issues for this clinical trial include (a defining the control group (b use of gain in vision as primary efficacy end-point and (c use of pro re nata treatment using intravitreal bevacizumab rather than continuous therapy. Trial registration Current controlled
Ehrhardt, Stephan; Guo, Nan; Hinz, Rebecca; Schoppen, Stefanie; May, Jürgen; Reiser, Markus; Schroeder, Maximilian Philipp; Schmiedel, Stefan; Keuchel, Martin; Reisinger, Emil C; Langeheinecke, Andreas; de Weerth, Andreas; Schuchmann, Marcus; Schaberg, Tom; Ligges, Sandra; Eveslage, Maria; Hagen, Ralf M; Burchard, Gerd D; Lohse, Ansgar W
Background. Antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD) and Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD) are common complications of antibiotic use. Data on the efficacy of probiotics to prevent AAD and CDAD are unclear. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of Saccharomyces boulardii to prevent AAD and CDAD in hospitalized adult patients. Methods. We conducted a multicenter, phase III, double-masked, randomized, placebo-controlled trial in hospitalized patients who received systemic antibiotic treatment in 15 hospitals in Germany between July 2010 and October 2012. Participants received Perenterol forte 250 mg capsules or matching placebo twice per day within 24 hours of initiating antibiotic treatment, continued treatment for 7 days after antibiotic discontinuation, and were then observed for 6 weeks. Results. Two thousand four hundred forty-four patients were screened. The trial was stopped early for futility after inclusion of 477 participants. Two hundred forty-six patients aged 60.1 ± 16.5 years and 231 patients aged 56.5 ± 17.8 were randomized to the S boulardii group and the placebo group, respectively, with 21 and 19 AADs in the respective groups (P = .87). The hazard ratio of AAD in the S boulardii group compared with the placebo group was 1.02 (95% confidence interval, .55-1.90; P = .94). Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea occurred in 0.8% of participants (4 of 477). Nine serious adverse events were recorded in the S boulardii group, and 3 serious adverse events were recorded in the placebo group. None were related to study participation. Conclusions. We found no evidence for an effect of S boulardii in preventing AAD or CDAD in a population of hospitalized patients without particular risk factors apart from systemic antibiotic treatment. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier. NCT01143272.
Pham, Xiuzhi; Smith, Katherine R; Sheppard, Suzette J; Bradshaw, Carolyn; Lo, Eric; Davidson, Andrew J
Implicit memory cannot be consciously recalled but may be revealed by changes in behavior. There is evidence for implicit memory formation during anesthesia in adults, but several studies in children have found no evidence for implicit memory. This may be due to insensitive testing. Also many of these tests were undertaken under controlled conditions. It remains unknown whether implicit memory is formed during routine pediatric anesthesia. The aim of this study was to determine whether there is evidence of implicit memory formation during routine anesthesia in children, using a degraded auditory stimulus recognition task. Three hundred and twelve children, aged 5-12 yr, were randomly assigned to be played either a sheep sound or white noise continuously through headphones during general anesthesia. No attempt was made to standardize the anesthetic. On recovery, children were played a sheep sound degraded by a white noise mask that progressively decreased over 60 s, with the outcome being the time taken to correctly recognize the sheep sound. Three hundred children completed the task. A comparison of the distribution of recognition times between the two groups found little evidence that exposure to a sheep sound during anesthesia was associated with postoperative time to recognition of a degraded sheep sound (hazard ratio 1.14, 95% CI of 0.90-1.43, P = 0.28). No implicit memory formation during routine anesthesia was demonstrated in children. It is increasingly likely that the potential clinical implications of implicit memory formation are less of a concern for pediatric anesthetists.
Danilla, Stefan; Fontbona, Montserrat; de Valdés, Victoria Diaz; Dagnino, Bruno; Sorolla, Juan Pablo; Israel, Guillermo; Searle, Susana; Norambuena, Hernán; Cabello, Rodrigo
Suction-assisted lipectomy is one of the most common procedures performed in plastic surgery. To minimize blood loss and to obtain adequate analgesia, a liquid solution is infiltrated into the subcutaneous plane before suction. The objective of this study was to determine whether the use of lidocaine in the infiltration solution reduces postoperative pain. A prospective, randomized, double-masked, clinical trial was designed. Each side of patients' body zones to be treated with suction-assisted lipectomy was randomized to receive infiltration solution with or without lidocaine. Treatment allocation was performed using computer-generated random numbers in permuted blocks of eight. Pain was assessed using the visual analogue scale and registered 1, 6, 12, 18, and 24 hours after the procedure. The trial was stopped after a first interim analysis. The use of lidocaine in the dilute solution reduced pain by 0.5 point on the visual analogue scale (95 percent CI, 0.3 to 0.8; p<0.001). The effect was independent of the suctioned body zone (p=0.756), and lasted until 18 hours after surgery. Its analgesic effect was lost at the 24-hour postoperative control. Pain increased an average of 0.018 point on the visual analogue scale per hour (95 percent CI, 0.001 to 0.036; p=0.043). The use of lidocaine in the infiltration solution is effective in postoperative pain control until 18 hours after surgery. Nevertheless, its clinical effect is limited and clinically irrelevant, and therefore it is no longer used by the authors. Therapeutic, I.
Renzi-Hammond, Lisa M; Bovier, Emily R; Fletcher, Laura M; Miller, L Stephen; Mewborn, Catherine M; Lindbergh, Cutter A; Baxter, Jeffrey H; Hammond, Billy R
Background: Past studies have suggested that higher lutein (L) and zeaxanthin (Z) levels in serum and in the central nervous system (as quantified by measuring macular pigment optical density, MPOD) are related to improved cognitive function in older adults. Very few studies have addressed the issue of xanthophylls and cognitive function in younger adults, and no controlled trials have been conducted to date to determine whether or not supplementation with L + Z can change cognitive function in this population. Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine whether or not supplementation with L + Z could improve cognitive function in young (age 18-30), healthy adults. Design: A randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled trial design was used. Fifty-one young, healthy subjects were recruited as part of a larger study on xanthophylls and cognitive function. Subjects were randomized into active supplement ( n = 37) and placebo groups ( n = 14). MPOD was measured psychophysically using customized heterochromatic flicker photometry. Cognitive function was measured using the CNS Vital Signs testing platform. MPOD and cognitive function were measured every four months for a full year of supplementation. Results: Supplementation increased MPOD significantly over the course of the year, vs. placebo ( p cognitive function in young, healthy adults. Magnitudes of effects are similar to previous work reporting correlations between MPOD and cognition in other populations.
Lockley, Steven W; Dressman, Marlene A; Licamele, Louis; Xiao, Changfu; Fisher, Dennis M; Flynn-Evans, Erin E; Hull, Joseph T; Torres, Rosarelis; Lavedan, Christian; Polymeropoulos, Mihael H
Most totally blind people have non-24-hour sleep-wake disorder (non-24), a rare circadian rhythm disorder caused by an inability of light to reset their circadian pacemaker. In two consecutive placebo-controlled trials (SET and RESET), we assessed safety and efficacy (in terms of circadian entrainment and maintenance) of once-daily tasimelteon, a novel dual-melatonin receptor agonist. We undertook the placebo-controlled, randomised, double-masked trials in 27 US and six German clinical research centres and sleep centres. We screened totally blind adults (18-75 years of age), who were eligible for the randomisation phase of SET if they had a non-24-hour circadian period (τ) of 24·25 h or longer (95% CI greater than 24·0 and up to 24·9 h), as calculated from measurements of urinary 6-sulphatoxymelatonin rhythms. For SET, we used block randomisation to assign patients (1:1) to receive tasimelteon (20 mg) or placebo every 24 h at a fixed clock time 1 h before target bedtime for 26 weeks. Patients who entered the open-label group receiving tasimelteon in SET or who did not meet the SET inclusion criteria but did meet the RESET inclusion criteria were screened for RESET. A subset of the patients who entered the open-label group before the RESET study and who had eligible τ values were screened for RESET after completing the open-label treatment. In RESET, we withdrew tasimelteon in a randomised manner (1:1) in patients who responded (ie, entrained) after a tasimelteon run-in period. Entrainment was defined as having τ of 24·1 h or less and a 95% CI that included 24·0 h. In SET, the primary endpoint was the proportion of entrained patients, assessed in the intention-to-treat population. The planned step-down primary endpoint assessed the proportion of patients who had a clinical response (entrainment at month 1 or month 7 plus clinical improvement, measured by the Non-24 Clinical Response Scale). In RESET, the primary endpoint was the proportion of non
Billy R. Hammond
Full Text Available Background: High levels of xanthophyll carotenoids lutein (L and zeaxanthin (Z in the central nervous system have been previously correlated with improved cognitive function in community-dwelling older adults. In this study, we tested the effects of supplementing L and Z on older men and women with a range of baseline cognitive abilities.Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine whether or not supplementation with L+Z could improve cognitive function in community-dwelling, older adults.Design: Double-masked, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. A total of 62 older adults were randomized into groups receiving either 12 mg L+Z or a visually identical placebo. Data from 51 participants (M = 73.7 years were available for analysis. Retinal L+Z levels (macular pigment optical density, MPOD were measured psychophysically using heterochromatic flicker photometry as a biomarker of cortical L+Z levels. Cognitive function was measured using the CNS Vital Signs computerized test platform.Results: Participants receiving the active L+Z supplement had statistically significant increases in MPOD (p < 0.03 and improvements in complex attention (p < 0.02 and cognitive flexibility domains (p < 0.04, relative to participants taking the placebo. A trend was also seen for the executive function domain (p = 0.073. In male participants only, supplementation yielded improved composite memory (p = 0.04.Conclusions: Supplementation with L+Z improved cognitive function in community-dwelling, older men and women.
Lisa M. Renzi-Hammond
Full Text Available Background: Past studies have suggested that higher lutein (L and zeaxanthin (Z levels in serum and in the central nervous system (as quantified by measuring macular pigment optical density, MPOD are related to improved cognitive function in older adults. Very few studies have addressed the issue of xanthophylls and cognitive function in younger adults, and no controlled trials have been conducted to date to determine whether or not supplementation with L + Z can change cognitive function in this population. Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine whether or not supplementation with L + Z could improve cognitive function in young (age 18–30, healthy adults. Design: A randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled trial design was used. Fifty-one young, healthy subjects were recruited as part of a larger study on xanthophylls and cognitive function. Subjects were randomized into active supplement (n = 37 and placebo groups (n = 14. MPOD was measured psychophysically using customized heterochromatic flicker photometry. Cognitive function was measured using the CNS Vital Signs testing platform. MPOD and cognitive function were measured every four months for a full year of supplementation. Results: Supplementation increased MPOD significantly over the course of the year, vs. placebo (p < 0.001. Daily supplementation with L + Z and increases in MPOD resulted in significant improvements in spatial memory (p < 0.04, reasoning ability (p < 0.05 and complex attention (p < 0.04, above and beyond improvements due to practice effects. Conclusions: Supplementation with L + Z improves CNS xanthophyll levels and cognitive function in young, healthy adults. Magnitudes of effects are similar to previous work reporting correlations between MPOD and cognition in other populations.
Brzheskiy, Vladimir V; Efimova, Elena L; Vorontsova, Tatiana N; Alekseev, Vladimir N; Gusarevich, Olga G; Shaidurova, Ksenia N; Ryabtseva, Alla A; Andryukhina, Olga M; Kamenskikh, Tatiana G; Sumarokova, Elena S; Miljudin, Eugeny S; Egorov, Eugeny A; Lebedev, Oleg I; Surov, Alexander V; Korol, Andrii R; Nasinnyk, Illia O; Bezditko, Pavel A; Muzhychuk, Olena P; Vygodin, Vladimir A; Yani, Elena V; Savchenko, Alla Y; Karger, Elena M; Fedorkin, Oleg N; Mironov, Alexander N; Ostapenko, Victoria; Popeko, Natalia A; Skulachev, Vladimir P; Skulachev, Maxim V
This article presents the results of an international, multicenter, randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled clinical study of Visomitin (Mitotech LLC, Moscow, Russian Federation) eye drops in patients with dry eye syndrome (DES). Visomitin is the first registered (in Russia) drug with a mitochondria-targeted antioxidant (SkQ1) as the active ingredient. In this multicenter (10 sites) study of 240 subjects with DES, study drug (Visomitin or placebo) was self-administered three times daily (TID) for 6 weeks, followed by a 6-week follow-up period. Seven in-office study visits occurred every 2 weeks during both the treatment and follow-up periods. Efficacy measures included Schirmer's test, tear break-up time, fluorescein staining, meniscus height, and visual acuity. Safety measures included adverse events, slit lamp biomicroscopy, tonometry, blood pressure, and heart rate. Tolerability was also evaluated. This clinical study showed the effectiveness of Visomitin eye drops in the treatment of signs and symptoms of DES compared with placebo. The study showed that a 6-week course of TID topical instillation of Visomitin significantly improved the functional state of the cornea; Visomitin increased tear film stability and reduced corneal damage. Significant reduction of dry eye symptoms (such as dryness, burning, grittiness, and blurred vision) was also observed. Based on the results of this study, Visomitin is effective and safe for use in eye patients with DES for protection from corneal damage. Mitotech LLC.
Use of adjunctive mitomycin C in external dacryocystorhinostomy surgery compared with surgery alone in patients with nasolacrimal duct obstruction: A prospective, double-masked, randomized, controlled trial.
Ari, Seyhmus; Gun, Ramazan; Surmeli, Serdar; Atay, Ahmet Engin; Caca, Ihsan
The most common cause for the failure of external dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR) surgery is the formation of granulation tissue at the osteotomy site or common canaliculus. The aims of this study were to assess the efficacy of intraoperative adjunctive mitomycin C (MMC) treatment in external DCR surgery and to compare this procedure with the standard DCR procedure alone in the long term (1 year). In this prospective, double-masked, randomized, controlled trial, patients with primary acquired nasolacrimal duct obstruction were randomized (using a random number table) into 2 groups based on surgical procedure. In the MMC group, intraoperative adjunctive MMC 0.2 mg/mL was applied to the osteotomy site for 30 minutes. The control group underwent standard DCR procedure only. The results of the DCR surgeries were assessed using objective findings (eg, cessation of excessive tearing via nasolacrimal duct irrigation and the improvement in height of tear meniscus) and subjective symptoms (asking patients to describe the degree of tearing improvement). Both the patients and the researchers who were assessing the study outcomes were masked to treatment group. One hundred eyes of 100 Turkish patients were assessed and equally randomized to the MMC (27 women, 23 men; mean [SD] age, 47.0 [7.6] years) and control (26 women, 24 men; mean age, 46.6 [8.8] years) groups. The follow-up period was not significantly different between the MMC and the control groups (13.1 [1.1] vs 13.2 [1.4] months). Significantly more eyes in the MMC group than the control group remained symptom-free throughout the 1-year follow-up period (45/50 [90%] vs 33/50 [66%]; P=0.005). Significantly more patients in the control group than the MMC group had an improvement in symptoms at the 1-year follow-up (8/50 [16%] vs 2/50 [4%] eyes; P=0.005). Based on the patency of the drainage system, the success rate was significantly greater in the MMC group than the control group (48/50 [96%] vs 42/50 [84%]; P=0.005). Based
Full Text Available Abstract Background Medical management of thyroid eye disease remains controversial due to a paucity of high quality evidence on long-term treatment outcomes. Glucocorticoids are known to be effective initially but have significant side-effects with long-term use and recrudescence can occur on cessation. Current evidence is conflicting on the efficacy of radiotherapy and non-steroid systemic immunosuppression, and the majority of previous studies have been retrospective, uncontrolled, small or poorly designed. The Combined Immunosuppression and Radiotherapy in Thyroid Eye Disease (CIRTED trial was designed to investigate the efficacy of radiotherapy and azathioprine in combination with a standard course of oral prednisolone in patients with active thyroid eye disease. Methods/design Patients with active thyroid eye disease will be randomised to receive (i azathioprine or oral placebo and (ii radiotherapy or sham-radiotherapy in this multi-centre, factorial randomised control trial. The primary outcome is improvement in disease severity (assessed using a composite binary measure at 12 months and secondary end-points include quality of life scores and health economic measures. Discussion The CIRTED trial is the first study to evaluate the role of radiotherapy and azathioprine as part of a long-term, combination immunosuppressive treatment regime for Thyroid Eye Disease. It will provide evidence for the role of radiotherapy and prolonged immunosuppression in the management of this condition, as well as pilot data on their use in combination. We have paid particular attention in the trial design to establishing (a robust placebo controls and masking protocols which are effective and safe for both radiotherapy and the systemic administration of an antiproliferative drug; (b constructing effective inclusion and exclusion criteria to select for active disease; and (c selecting pragmatic outcome measures. Trial registration Current controlled trials
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Brignole-Baudouin, Françoise; Baudouin, Christophe; Aragona, Pasquale; Rolando, Maurizio; Labetoulle, Marc; Pisella, Pierre Jean; Barabino, Stefano; Siou-Mermet, Raphaele; Creuzot-Garcher, Catherine
To determine whether oral supplementation with omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids can reduce conjunctival epithelium expression of the inflammatory marker human leucocyte antigen-DR (HLA-DR) in patients with dry eye syndrome (DES). This 3-month, double-masked, parallel-group, controlled study was conducted in nine centres, in France and Italy. Eligible adult patients with mild to moderate DES were randomized to receive a placebo containing medium-chain triglycerides or treatment supplement containing omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, vitamins and zinc. Treatment regimen was three capsules daily. Impression cytology (IC) was performed at baseline and at month 3 to assess the percentage of cells expressing HLA-DR and to evaluate fluorescence intensity, an alternate measure of HLA-DR. Dry eye symptoms and objective signs were also evaluated. Analyses were performed on the full analysis set (FAS) and per-protocol set (PPS). In total, 138 patients were randomized; 121 patients with available IC were included in the FAS, and of these, 106 patients had no major protocol deviations (PPS). In the PPS, there was a significant reduction in the percentage of HLA-DR-positive cells in the fatty acids group (p = 0.021). Expression of HLA-DR as measured by fluorescence intensity quantification was also significantly reduced in the fatty acids group [FAS (p = 0.041); PPS (p = 0.017)]. No significant difference was found for the signs and symptoms, but there was a tendency for improvement in patients receiving the fatty acids treatment. This study demonstrates that supplementation with omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids can reduce expression of HLA-DR conjunctival inflammatory marker and may help improve DES symptoms. © 2011 The Authors. Acta Ophthalmologica © 2011 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Residual alcohol effects on physiological and psychological symptoms are commonly experienced the morning after alcohol consumption. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of L-ornithine on subjective feelings and salivary stress markers the morning after alcohol consumption and to investigate whether L-ornithine acutely accelerates ethanol metabolism. Methods This study had a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-masked crossover design. Subjects were all healthy Japanese adults with the ‘flusher’ phenotype for alcohol tolerance. In experiment 1, 11 subjects drank 0.4 g/kg body weight alcohol 1.5 h before their usual bedtime. Half an hour after drinking, they ingested either a placebo or 400 mg ornithine. The next morning on awakening, subjects completed a questionnaire containing a visual analog scale (VAS, the Oguri-Shirakawa-Azumi sleep inventory MA version (OSA-MA, and a profile of mood states (POMS and collected a saliva sample for measurement of salivary stress markers (cortisol, secretory immunoglobulin A, and α-amylase. In experiment 2, placebo or 400 mg ornithine were administrated to 16 subjects both before and after drinking, and the feeling of drunkenness, breath ethanol concentration and one-leg standing time were repeatedly investigated until 180 min after alcohol consumption. Results There were significant decreases in “awareness”, “feeling of fatigue” and “lassitude” VAS scores and in “anger-hostility” and “confusion” POMS scores and a significant increase in “sleep length” in the OSA-MA test. Salivary cortisol concentrations on awakening were reduced after ornithine supplementation. There were no differences between ornithine and placebo in any of the subjective or physiological parameters of acute alcohol metabolism. Conclusions Taking 400 mg ornithine after alcohol consumption improved various negative feelings and decreased the salivary stress marker cortisol the
Day, Douglas G; Walters, Thomas R; Schwartz, Gail F; Mundorf, Thomas K; Liu, Charlie; Schiffman, Rhett M; Bejanian, Marina
Background/Aim To evaluate efficacy and safety of bimatoprost 0.03% preservative-free (PF) ophthalmic solution versus bimatoprost 0.03% (Lumigan) ophthalmic solution for glaucoma or ocular hypertension. Methods In this double-masked, parallel-group study, patients were randomised to bimatoprost PF or bimatoprost for 12 weeks. The primary analysis for non-inferiority was change from baseline in worse eye intraocular pressure (IOP) in the per-protocol population at week 12. For equivalence, it was average eye IOP in the intent-to-treat population at each time point at weeks 2, 6 and 12. Results 597 patients were randomised (bimatoprost PF, n=302 and bimatoprost, n=295). The 95% CI upper limit for worse eye IOP change from baseline was <1.5 mm Hg at each week 12 time point, meeting prespecified non-inferiority criteria. The 95% CI upper limit for the treatment difference for average IOP was 0.69 mm Hg and the lower limit was −0.50 mm Hg at all follow-up time points (hours 0, 2 and 8 at weeks 2, 6 and 12), meeting equivalence criteria. Both treatments showed decreases in mean average eye IOP at all follow-up time points (p<0.001), were safe and well tolerated. Conclusions Bimatoprost PF is non-inferior and equivalent to bimatoprost in its ability to reduce IOP-lowering with a safety profile similar to bimatoprost. PMID:23743437
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Full Text Available ... groups, companies, and organizations also sponsor clinical trials. Examples include Government Agencies, such as the U.S. Departments ... sponsor trials that test principles or strategies. For example, one NHLBI study explored whether the benefits of ...
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Full Text Available ... healthy people to test new approaches to prevention, diagnosis, or screening. In the past, clinical trial participants ... DSMBs for large trials comparing alternative strategies for diagnosis or treatment. In addition, the NIH requires DSMBs ...
Full Text Available ... well they work. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) oversees these clinical trials. The NIH may partner with these companies or groups to help sponsor some trials. All ...
Full Text Available ... trials produce the best data available for health care decisionmaking. The purpose of clinical trials is research, ... they advance medical knowledge and help improve patient care. Sponsorship and Funding The National Heart, Lung, and ...
Full Text Available ... including the NHLBI) usually sponsor trials that test principles or strategies. For example, one NHLBI study explored ... risks. Other examples of clinical trials that test principles or strategies include studies that explore whether surgery ...
Full Text Available ... benefits of lowering high blood pressure in the elderly outweighed the risks. Other examples of clinical trials ... child to enroll. Also, children aged 7 and older often must agree (assent) to ... as clinical trials for adults. For more information, go to "How Do Clinical ...
Full Text Available ... part. Randomization Most clinical trials that have comparison groups use randomization. This involves assigning patients to different comparison groups by chance, rather than choice. This ...
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Fallon, Brian A; Petkova, Eva; Skritskaya, Natalia; Sanchez-Lacay, Arturo; Schneier, Franklin; Vermes, Donna; Cheng, Jianfeng; Liebowitz, Michael R
This study assessed the efficacy, durability, and tolerability of fluoxetine for hypochondriasis, a disorder for which controlled pharmacological trials are scarce. Fifty-seven patients with hypochondriasis were enrolled: 12 discontinued during the placebo run-in, and 45 were randomized to either fluoxetine or placebo for 12 weeks (acute treatment). Responder status was defined as a Clinical Global Impression rating for hypochondriasis of much or very much improved. Secondary outcome measures included severity of hypochondriasis, somatization, anxiety, and depression. Responders to acute treatment entered a 12-week maintenance phase to week 24. Sustained responders at week 24 entered a 12-week double-masked discontinuation phase. Primary analysis used the intent-to-treat sample. More patients responded with improvement in hypochondriasis when given fluoxetine compared with placebo, starting at week 8 (50.0% vs 19.0%, P = 0.03) and continuing to week 12 (62.5% vs 33.3%, P = 0.05). Mean dose at week 12 dose was 51.4 mg (SD, +/-23 mg). The acute treatment response was maintained to week 24 with more responders in the fluoxetine compared with the placebo group (54.2% vs 23.8%, P = 0.04). Significant improvement was not noted on the continuous secondary outcomes measures of hypochondriasis, with the exception of the Clinical Global Impression hypochondriasis severity scale at week 24. Likelihood of response was not associated with severity of psychiatric comorbidity. Durability of response after controlled drug discontinuation could not be reasonably assessed, given the small sample size of patients who entered the discontinuation phase (n = 10). Fluoxetine was well tolerated, with no significant differences in discontinuation due to side effects between treatment groups. Fluoxetine is a moderately effective and well-tolerated treatment for hypochondriasis.
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Full Text Available ... Usually, a computer program makes the group assignments. Masking The term "masking" refers to not telling the clinical trial participants which treatment they're getting. Masking, or "blinding," helps avoid bias. For this reason, ...
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Full Text Available ... results. Clinical trials are one of the final stages of a long and careful research process. The ... a patient's age and gender, the type and stage of disease, and whether the patient has had ...
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Full Text Available ... patients. Usually, a computer program makes the group assignments. Masking The term "masking" refers to not telling ... questions to ask your doctor and the research staff, go to "How Do Clinical Trials Protect Participants?" ...
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Full Text Available ... Science Science Home Blood Disorders and Blood Safety Sleep Science and Sleep Disorders Lung Diseases Heart and Vascular Diseases Precision ... women and that are ethnically diverse. Children also need clinical trials that focus on them, as medical ...
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Full Text Available Skip to main content U.S. Department of Health & Human Services Health Topics Health Topics A-Z Clinical Trials Publications and Resources Health Education and Awareness The Science Science Home Blood Disorders and Blood Safety Sleep ...
Full Text Available ... treatments produce better results for certain illnesses or groups of people; look at the best age and frequency for doing screening tests, such as mammography; and compare two or more screening tests to see which test ... Some companies and groups sponsor clinical trials that test the safety of ...
Full Text Available ... patient has had certain treatments or has other health problems. Eligibility criteria ensure that new approaches are tested ... public. What to Expect During a clinical trial, doctors, nurses, social workers, and other health care providers might be part of your treatment ...
Full Text Available ... This shows how the approach affects a living body and whether it's harmful. However, an approach that works well in the lab or animals doesn't always work well in people. Thus, research in humans is needed. For safety purposes, clinical trials start ...
Full Text Available ... to main content U.S. Department of Health & Human Services Health Topics Health Topics A-Z Clinical Trials Publications and Resources Health Education and Awareness The Science Science Home Blood Disorders and Blood Safety Sleep Science and ...
Full Text Available ... protect patients and help produce reliable study results. Clinical trials are one of the final stages of a long and careful research process. The process often begins in a laboratory (lab), where scientists first develop and test new ...
Full Text Available ... benefits of lowering high blood pressure in the elderly outweighed the risks. Other examples of clinical trials ... child to enroll. Also, children aged 7 and older often must agree (assent) to take part ... about how you feel. Some people will need to travel or stay in hospitals ...
Full Text Available ... safe a treatment is or how well it works. Children (aged 18 and younger) get special protection as research subjects. Almost always, parents must give legal consent for their child to take part in a clinical trial. When ...
Full Text Available ... As a result, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration now recommends never using HT to prevent heart disease. When HT is used for menopausal symptoms, it should be taken only at the smallest dose and for the shortest time possible. Clinical trials, like the two described above, ...
Full Text Available ... approach that works well in the lab or animals doesn't always work well in people. Thus, research in humans is needed. For safety purposes, clinical trials start with small groups of patients to find out whether a ...
Takamura, Etsuko; Tsubota, Kazuo; Watanabe, Hitoshi; Ohashi, Yuichi
To compare the efficacy and safety of 3% diquafosol ophthalmic solution with those of 0.1% sodium hyaluronate ophthalmic solution in dry eye patients, using mean changes in fluorescein and rose bengal staining scores as endpoints. TRIAL DESIGN AND METHODS: In this multicenter, randomised, double-masked, parallel study of 286 dry eye patients with fluorescein and rose bengal staining scores of ≥3 were randomised to the treatment groups in a 1 : 1 ratio. Efficacy and safety were evaluated after drop-wise instillation of the study drug, six times daily for 4 weeks. After 4 weeks, the intergroup difference in the mean change from baseline in fluorescein staining score was -0.03; this verified the non-inferiority of diquafosol. The mean change from baseline in rose bengal staining score was significantly lower in the diquafosol group (p=0.010), thus verifying its superiority. The incidence of adverse events was 26.4% and 18.9% in the diquafosol and sodium hyaluronate groups, respectively, with no significant difference. Diquafosol (3%) and sodium hyaluronate (0.1%) exhibit similar efficacy in improving fluorescein staining scores of dry eye patients, whereas, diquafosol exhibits superior efficacy in improving rose bengal staining scores. Diquafosol has high clinical efficacy and is well tolerated with a good safety profile.
Day, Simon; Machin, David; Green, Sylvan B
... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xix INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1 The Development of Clinical Trials Simon...
Full Text Available ... criteria differ from trial to trial. They include factors such as a patient's age and gender, the ... bias. "Bias" means that human choices or other factors not related to the protocol affect the trial's ...
Full Text Available ... under way. For example, some trials are stopped early if benefits from a strategy or treatment are ... stop a trial, or part of a trial, early if the strategy or treatment is having harmful ...
Full Text Available ... people who fit the patient traits for that study (the eligibility criteria). Eligibility criteria differ from trial to trial. They include factors such as a patient's age and gender, the type and stage of disease, and whether ...
Full Text Available ... trials are research studies that explore whether a medical strategy, treatment, or device is safe and effective ... trials are research studies that explore whether a medical strategy, treatment, or device is safe and effective ...
Full Text Available ... trials show what doesn't work or may cause harm. For example, the NHLBI Women's Health Initiative tested whether hormone therapy (HT) reduced the risk of heart disease in postmenopausal women. (When the trial began, HT ...
Full Text Available ... for trials with cutting-edge approaches, such as gene therapy or new biological treatments. Health insurance and ... trials that involve high-risk procedures (such as gene therapy) or vulnerable patients (such as children). A ...
Full Text Available ... sponsored a trial of two different combinations of asthma treatments. The trial found that one of the ... much better than the other for moderate persistent asthma. The results provided important treatment information for doctors ...
Full Text Available ... Sponsors also may stop a trial, or part of a trial, early if the strategy or treatment is having harmful effects. Food and Drug Administration In the United States, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) provides oversight ...
A randomized, double-masked, parallel-group, comparative study to evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of 1% azithromycin–0.1% dexamethasone combination compared to 1% azithromycin alone, dexamethasone 0.1% alone, and vehicle in the treatment of subjects with blepharitis
Full Text Available Kamran Hosseini,1 Richard L Lindstrom,2,3 Gary Foulks,4 Kelly K Nichols5 1InSite Vision, Alameda, CA, 2Minnesota Eye Consultants, 3Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Neurosciences, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, MN, 4Department of Ophthalmology and Vision Science, School of Medicine, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY, 5School of Optometry, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA Purpose: To evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of a 1% azithromycin–0.1% dexamethasone combination in DuraSite (“combination” compared to 0.1% dexamethasone in DuraSite, 1% azithromycin in DuraSite, and vehicle in the treatment of subjects with blepharitis.Materials and methods: This was a Phase III, double-masked, vehicle-controlled, four-arm study in which 907 subjects with blepharitis were randomized to combination (n=305, 0.1% dexamethasone (n=298, 1% azithromycin (n=155, or vehicle (n=149. Ten study visits were scheduled: screening visit, days 1 and 4 (dosing phase and 15, and months 1–6 (follow-up phase. On day 1, subjects applied one drop of the study drug to the eyelid of the inflamed eye(s twice daily, and continued with twice-daily dosing for 14 days. After completing 14 days of dosing, subjects were followed for 6 months for efficacy and safety.Results: A total of 57 subjects (6.3% had complete clinical resolution at day 15: 25 (8.2%, 17 (5.7%, 8 (5.2%, and 7 (4.7% subjects in the combination-, 0.1% dexamethasone-, 1% azithromycin-, and vehicle-treatment groups, respectively. The combination was superior to 1% azithromycin and vehicle alone, but not to 0.1% dexamethasone alone. Mean composite (total clinical sign and symptom scores improved in all four treatment groups during the posttreatment evaluation phase for the intent-to-treat population, but outcomes were superior when a drop containing 0.1% dexamethasone was utilized. Clinical response was noted as early as day 4, and persisted as long
Full Text Available ... the NHLBI's Children and Clinical Studies Web page. Children and Clinical Studies Learn more about Children and Clinical Studies Importance of Children in Clinical Studies Children have often had to ...
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Full Text Available ... for trials with cutting-edge approaches, such as gene therapy or new biological treatments. Health insurance and health ... trials that involve high-risk procedures (such as gene therapy) or vulnerable patients (such as children). A DSMB's ...
Full Text Available ... include factors such as a patient's age and gender, the type and stage of disease, and whether ... How long will the trial last? Who will pay for the tests and treatments I receive? Will ...
Full Text Available ... medicines, and how well they work. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) oversees these ... trials are a key research tool for advancing medical knowledge and patient care. ...
Full Text Available ... Masking, or "blinding," helps avoid bias. For this reason, researchers also may not be told which treatments ... from a study at any time, for any reason. Also, during the trial, you have the right ...
Full Text Available ... get special protection as research subjects. Almost always, parents must give legal consent for their child to ... trial's potential risks are greater than minimal, both parents must give permission for their child to enroll. ...
Full Text Available ... risk of heart disease in the first few years, and HT also increased the risk of stroke ... a safety measure. They ensure a trial excludes any people for whom the protocol has known risks ...
Full Text Available ... Initiative tested whether hormone therapy (HT) reduced the risk of heart disease in postmenopausal women. (When the trial began, HT was already in common use for the treatment of menopausal symptoms. It also ...
Full Text Available ... risk of heart disease in the first few years, and HT also increased the risk of stroke ... master plan called a protocol (PRO-to-kol). This plan explains how the trial will work. The ...
Full Text Available ... treatment is having harmful effects. Food and Drug Administration In the United States, the Food and Drug ... life? Will I have to be in the hospital? How long will the trial last? Who will ...
Full Text Available ... procedures painful? What are the possible risks, side effects, and benefits of taking part in the study? How might this trial affect my daily life? Will I have to be in the hospital? ...
Full Text Available ... Blood Safety Sleep Science and Sleep Disorders Lung Diseases Heart and Vascular Diseases Precision Medicine Activities Obesity, Nutrition, ... whether hormone therapy (HT) reduced the risk of heart disease in postmenopausal women. (When the trial began, HT ...
Full Text Available ... are ethical and that the participants' rights are protected. The IRB reviews the trial's protocol before the ... may know about studies going on in your area. You can visit the following website to learn ...
Full Text Available ... a laboratory (lab), where scientists first develop and test new ideas. If an approach seems promising, the ... Centers (including the NHLBI) usually sponsor trials that test principles or strategies. For example, one NHLBI study ...
Full Text Available ... whether hormone therapy (HT) reduced the risk of heart disease in postmenopausal women. (When the trial began, HT ... also was increasingly being used for prevention of heart disease.) The study found that HT increased the risk ...
Full Text Available ... trials optimization . Building 31 31 Center Drive Bethesda, MD 20892 Learn more about getting to NIH Get ... and Funding Building 31 31 Center Drive Bethesda, MD 20892 Learn more about getting to NIH Connect ...
Full Text Available ... that the participants' rights are protected. The IRB reviews the trial's protocol before the study begins. An IRB will only approve research that deals with medically important questions ...
Full Text Available ... to preexisting differences between the patients. Usually, a computer program makes the group assignments. Masking The term " ... under way. For example, some trials are stopped early if benefits from a strategy or treatment are ...
Full Text Available ... treatment of menopausal symptoms. It also was increasingly being used for prevention of heart disease.) The study ... a trial are due to the different strategies being used, not to preexisting differences between the patients. ...
Full Text Available ... Precision Medicine Activities Obesity, Nutrition, and Physical Activity Population and Epidemiology Studies Women’s Health All Science A- ... assumed that trial results were valid for other populations as well. Researchers now realize that women and ...
Watch these videos to learn about some basic aspects of cancer clinical trials such as the different phases of clinical trials, methods used to protect patient safety, and how the costs of clinical trials are covered.
Full Text Available ... Diseases Heart and Vascular Diseases Precision Medicine Activities Obesity, Nutrition, and Physical Activity Population and Epidemiology Studies ... the NHLBI's Children and Clinical Studies Web page. Children and Clinical Studies Learn more about Children and ...
Full Text Available ... go to the NHLBI's Children and Clinical Studies Web page. Children and Clinical Studies Learn more about ... Protections The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services’ (HHS’) Office for Human Research Protections (OHRP) oversees ...
Full Text Available ... Studies Learn more about Children and Clinical Studies Importance of Children in Clinical Studies Children have often ... rights that help protect them. Scientific Oversight Institutional Review Board Institutional review boards (IRBs) help provide scientific ...
Full Text Available ... taking the same treatment the same way. These patients are closely watched by Data and Safety Monitoring Boards. Even if you don't directly ... risk procedures (such as gene therapy) or vulnerable patients (such as ... trial for safety problems or differences in results among different groups. ...
Full Text Available ... edge approaches, such as gene therapy or new biological treatments. Health insurance and health care providers don't ... of a trial, early if the strategy or treatment is having harmful effects. Food and Drug Administration In the United States, the Food and ...
Full Text Available ... U.S. Departments of Defense and Veterans Affairs; private companies; universities; and nonprofit organizations. NIH Institutes and Centers (including the NHLBI) usually sponsor trials that test principles or strategies. For example, one NHLBI study explored whether the ...
Full Text Available ... Trials Publications and Resources Health Education and Awareness The Science Science Home Blood Disorders and Blood Safety Sleep ... Activity Population and Epidemiology Studies Women’s Health All Science A-Z Grants ... in the Press Research Features All Events Past Events Upcoming ...
Full Text Available ... Diseases Heart and Vascular Diseases Precision Medicine Activities Obesity, Nutrition, and Physical Activity Population and Epidemiology Studies ... include factors such as a patient's age and gender, the type and stage of disease, ... helps ensure that any differences observed during a trial are due to the ...
Full Text Available ... an important gap in information and education for parents, clinicians, researchers, children, and the general public. What to Expect During ... trial's potential risks are greater than minimal, both parents must give permission for their child to enroll. Also, children aged 7 and older ...
Full Text Available ... and devices specific to children. Resources for a Wide Range of Audiences The Children and Clinical Studies ... have not only shaped medical practice around the world, but have improved the health of millions of ...
Full Text Available ... the strategy or treatment is having harmful effects. Food and Drug Administration In the United States, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) provides oversight for clinical ...
Full Text Available ... harmful effects. Food and Drug Administration In the United States, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) provides oversight ... of research studies at the NIH Clinical Center, America's research hospital, located on the NIH campus in ...
Full Text Available ... seems promising, the next step may involve animal testing. This shows how the approach affects a living body and whether it's harmful. However, an approach that works well in the lab or animals doesn't always work well in people. Thus, research in humans is needed. For safety purposes, clinical ...
Full Text Available ... the final stages of a long and careful research process. The process often begins in a laboratory (lab), where scientists first develop and test new ideas. If an approach seems ... Thus, research in humans is needed. For safety purposes, clinical ...
Peace, Karl E; Chen, Ding-Geng
... in the pharmaceutical industry, Clinical trial methodology emphasizes the importance of statistical thinking in clinical research and presents the methodology as a key component of clinical research...
Information about NCI programs and initiatives that sponsor, conduct, develop, or support clinical trials, including NCI’s Clinical Trial Network (NCTN) and NCI Community Oncology Research Program (NCORP) initiatives.
Peace, Karl E; Chen, Ding-Geng
"Now viewed as its own scientific discipline, clinical trial methodology encompasses the methods required for the protection of participants in a clinical trial and the methods necessary to provide...
... and Public Home » Hepatitis C » Treatment Decisions Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For ... can I find out about participating in a hepatitis C clinical trial? Many trials are being conducted ...
Full Text Available Abstract Managing clinical trials, of whatever size and complexity, requires efficient trial management. Trials fail because tried and tested systems handed down through apprenticeships have not been documented, evaluated or published to guide new trialists starting out in this important field. For the past three decades, trialists have invented and reinvented the trial management wheel. We suggest that to improve the successful, timely delivery of important clinical trials for patient benefit, it is time to produce standard trial management guidelines and develop robust methods of evaluation.
Information about the several types of cancer clinical trials, including treatment trials, prevention trials, screening trials, supportive and palliative care trials. Each type of trial is designed to answer different research questions.
Biswas, S.; Schmidt, D.J.; Abuhoza, A.; Frankenfeld, U.; Garabatos, C.; Hehner, J.; Kleipa, V.; Morhardt, T.; Schmidt, C.J.; Schmidt, H.R.; Wiechula, J.
Systematic studies on the gain and the energy resolution have been carried out by varying the voltage across the GEM foils for both single mask and double mask triple GEM detector prototypes. Variation of the gain and the energy resolution has also been measured by varying either the drift voltage, transfer voltage and induction voltage keeping other voltages constant. The results of the systematic measurements have been presented.
Kleijnen, J; Knipschild, P; ter Riet, G
OBJECTIVE--To establish whether there is evidence of the efficacy of homoeopathy from controlled trials in humans. DESIGN--Criteria based meta-analysis. Assessment of the methodological quality of 107 controlled trials in 96 published reports found after an extensive search. Trials were scored using a list of predefined criteria of good methodology, and the outcome of the trials was interpreted in relation to their quality. SETTING--Controlled trials published world wide. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Results of the trials with the best methodological quality. Trials of classical homoeopathy and several modern varieties were considered separately. RESULTS--In 14 trials some form of classical homoeopathy was tested and in 58 trials the same single homoeopathic treatment was given to patients with comparable conventional diagnosis. Combinations of several homoeopathic treatments were tested in 26 trials; isopathy was tested in nine trials. Most trials seemed to be of very low quality, but there were many exceptions. The results showed a positive trend regardless of the quality of the trial or the variety of homeopathy used. Overall, of the 105 trials with interpretable results, 81 trials indicated positive results whereas in 24 trials no positive effects of homoeopathy were found. The results of the review may be complicated by publication bias, especially in such a controversial subject as homoeopathy. CONCLUSIONS--At the moment the evidence of clinical trials is positive but not sufficient to draw definitive conclusions because most trials are of low methodological quality and because of the unknown role of publication bias. This indicates that there is a legitimate case for further evaluation of homoeopathy, but only by means of well performed trials. PMID:1825800
Friedman, Lawrence M; DeMets, David L; Reboussin, David M; Granger, Christopher B
This is the fifth edition of a very successful textbook on clinical trials methodology, written by recognized leaders who have long and extensive experience in all areas of clinical trials. The three authors of the first four editions have been joined by two others who add great expertise. Most chapters have been revised considerably from the fourth edition. A chapter on regulatory issues has been included and the chapter on data monitoring has been split into two and expanded. Many contemporary clinical trial examples have been added. There is much new material on adverse events, adherence, issues in analysis, electronic data, data sharing, and international trials. This book is intended for the clinical researcher who is interested in designing a clinical trial and developing a protocol. It is also of value to researchers and practitioners who must critically evaluate the literature of published clinical trials and assess the merits of each trial and the implications for the care and treatment of ...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Provides patients, family members, health care professionals, and members of the public easy access to information on clinical trials for a wide range of diseases...
Scheurlen, A.; Kay, R.; Baum, M.
This book contains the proceedings on Cancer clinical trials: A critical appraisal. Topics covered include: Scientific fundamentals; Heterogeneous treatment effects; On combining information: Historical controls, overviews, and comprehensive cohort studies; and assessment of quality of life
Senn, S J
The relevance of the philosophy of Sir Karl Popper to the planning, conduct and analysis of clinical trials is examined. It is shown that blinding and randomization can only be regarded as valuable for the purpose of refuting universal hypotheses. The purpose of inclusion criteria is also examined. It is concluded that a misplaced belief in induction is responsible for many false notions regarding clinical trials.
Amparo, Francisco; Dastjerdi, Mohammad H; Okanobo, Andre; Ferrari, Giulio; Smaga, Leila; Hamrah, Pedram; Jurkunas, Ula; Schaumberg, Debra A; Dana, Reza
The immunopathogenic mechanisms of dry eye disease (DED), one of the most common ophthalmic conditions, is incompletely understood. Data from this prospective, double-masked, randomized trial demonstrate that targeting interleukin 1 (IL-1) by topical application of an IL-1 antagonist is efficacious in significantly reducing DED-related patient symptoms and corneal epitheliopathy. To evaluate the safety and efficacy of treatment with the topical IL-1 receptor antagonist anakinra (Kineret; Amgen Inc) in patients having DED associated with meibomian gland dysfunction. Prospective phase 1/2, randomized, double-masked, vehicle-controlled clinical trial. Seventy-five patients with refractory DED. Participants were randomized to receive treatment with topical anakinra, 2.5% (n = 30), anakinra, 5% (n = 15), or vehicle (1% carboxymethylcellulose) (n = 30) 3 times daily for 12 weeks. Primary outcomes were corneal fluorescein staining (CFS), complete bilateral CFS clearance, dry eye-related symptoms as measured by the Ocular Surface Disease Index, tear film breakup time, and meibomian gland secretion quality. Topical anakinra was well tolerated compared with vehicle, with no reports of serious adverse reactions attributable to the therapy. After 12 weeks of therapy, participants treated with anakinra, 2.5%, achieved a 46% reduction in their mean CFS score (P = .12 compared with vehicle and P treatment with anakinra, 2.5%, and treatment with anakinra, 5%, led to significant reductions in symptoms of 30% and 35%, respectively (P = .02 and P = .01, respectively, compared with vehicle); treatment with vehicle led to a 5% reduction in symptoms. Treatment with topical anakinra, 2.5%, for 12 weeks was safe and significantly reduced symptoms and corneal epitheliopathy in patients with DED. These data suggest that the use of an IL-1 antagonist may have a role as a novel therapeutic option for patients with DED. TRIAL REGISTRATION clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00681109.
We sought to determine whether lutein supplementation will slow visual function decline in patients with retinitis pigmentosa receiving vitamin A. DESIGN: Randomized, controlled, double-masked trial of 225 nonsmoking patients, aged 18 to 60 years, evaluated over a 4-year interval. Patients received ...
Woo, K T
All clinical trials in Singapore will now have to conform to the Medicines (Clinical Trials) Amended Regulations 1998 and the Singapore Good Clinical Practice (GCP) Guidelines 1998. The Medical Clinical Research Committee (MCRC) has been established to oversee the conduct of clinical drug trials in Singapore and together with the legislations in place, these will ensure that clinical trials conducted in Singapore are properly controlled and the well-being of trial subjects are safe guarded. All clinical drug trials require a Clinical Trial Certificate from the MCRC before the trial can proceed. The hospital ethics committee (EC) vets the application for a trial certificate before it is sent to MCRC. The drug company sponsoring the trial has to indemnify the trial investigators and the hospital for negligence arising from the trial. The MCRC, apart from ensuring the safety of trial subjects, has to provide continuing review of the clinical trial and monitors adverse events in the course of the trial. The EC will conduct continuing review of clinical trials. When a non-drug clinical trial is carried out, the EC will ensure that the proposed protocol addresses ethical concerns and meets regulatory requirements for such trials. There is great potential for pharmaceutical Research & Development (R&D) in Singapore. We must develop our skills and infrastructure in clinical trials to enable Singapore to be a regional hub for R&D of drugs in Asia.
Karpecki, Paul; Depaolis, Michael; Hunter, Judy A; White, Eric M; Rigel, Lee; Brunner, Lynne S; Usner, Dale W; Paterno, Michael R; Comstock, Timothy L
Besifloxacin ophthalmic suspension 0.6% is a new topical fluoroquinolone for the treatment of bacterial conjunctivitis. Besifloxacin has potent in vitro activity against a broad spectrum of ocular pathogens, including drug-resistant strains. The primary objective of this study was to compare the clinical and microbiologic efficacy of besifloxacin ophthalmic suspension 0.6% with that of vehicle (the formulation without besifloxacin) in the treatment of bacterial conjunctivitis. This was a multicenter, prospective, randomized, double-masked, vehicle-controlled, parallel-group study in patients with acute bacterial conjunctivitis. Patients received either topical besifloxacin ophthalmic suspension or vehicle administered 3 times daily for 5 days. At study entry and on days 4 and 8 (visits 2 and 3), a clinical assessment of ocular signs and symptoms was performed in both eyes, as well as pinhole visual acuity testing, biomicroscopy, and culture of the infected eye(s). An ophthalmoscopic examination was performed at study entry and on day 8. The primary efficacy outcome measures were clinical resolution and eradication of the baseline bacterial infection on day 8 in culture-confirmed patients. The safety evaluation included adverse events, changes in visual acuity, and biomicroscopy and ophthalmoscopy findings in all patients who received at least 1 dose of active treatment or vehicle. The safety population consisted of 269 patients (mean [SD] age, 34.2 [22.3] years; 60.2% female; 82.5% white) with acute bacterial conjunctivitis. The culture-confirmed intent-to-treat population consisted of 118 patients (60 besifloxacin ophthalmic suspension, 58 vehicle). Significantly more patients receiving besifloxacin ophthalmic suspension than vehicle had clinical resolution of the baseline infection at visit 3 (44/60 [73.3%] vs 25/58 [43.1%], respectively; P suspension compared with vehicle at visit 3 (53/60 [88.3%] vs35/58 [60.3%]; P suspension 0.6% given 3 times daily for 5 days
Kraus, V B; Blanco, F J; Englund, M
The objective of this work was to describe requirements for inclusion of soluble biomarkers in osteoarthritis (OA) clinical trials and progress toward OA-related biomarker qualification. The Guidelines for Biomarkers Working Group, representing experts in the field of OA biomarker research from...
McAlindon, T. E.; Driban, J. B.; Henrotin, Y.
The goal of this document is to update the original OARSI recommendations specifically for the design, conduct, and reporting of clinical trials that target symptom or structure modification among individuals with knee osteoarthritis (OA). To develop recommendations for the design, conduct...
Palter, S F
The modern clinical trial is a form of human experimentation. There is a long history of disregard for individual rights of the patient in this context, and special attention must be paid to ethical guidelines for these studies. Clinical trials differ in basic ways from clinical practice. Foremost is the introduction of outside interests, beyond those of the patient's health, into the doctor-patient therapeutic alliance. Steps must be taken to protect the interests of the patient when such outside influence exists. Kantian moral theory and the Hippocratic oath dictate that the physician must respect the individual patient's rights and hold such interests paramount. These principles are the basis for informed consent. Randomization of patients is justified when a condition of equipoise exists. The changing nature of health care delivery in the United States introduces new outside interests into the doctor-patient relationship.
Full Text Available Kamran Hosseini,1 Thomas Walters,2 Robert DaVanzo,3 Richard L Lindstrom4 1InSite Vision Inc., Alameda, CA, 2Texan Eye, Austin, TX, 3Cornerstone Health Care, High Point, NC, 4Minnesota Eye Consultants, Bloomington, MN, USA Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety, tolerability, and efficacy of a low-dose version of bromfenac 0.075% in DuraSite® (bromfenac 0.075% compared with DuraSite® vehicle (vehicle alone for the treatment of postoperative inflammation and ocular pain after cataract surgery.Methods: A multicenter, double-masked, vehicle-controlled, parallel-group clinical trial of 240 subjects randomized in a 2:1 ratio to bromfenac 0.075% or vehicle was conducted. Subjects were dosed BID beginning 1 day before the cataract surgery, the day of surgery, and 14 days after surgery. A slit lamp biomicroscopy examination was performed to evaluate the signs of inflammation, including anterior chamber cells (ACC and anterior chamber flare (ACF. The primary efficacy variable was the proportion of subjects with an ACC grade of 0 at Day 15. Secondary efficacy endpoints included the proportion of subjects who achieved a pain score of 0 at each postsurgical visual analog scale (VAS assessment and the proportion of subjects with an ACF grade of 0 at Day 15.Results: At Day 15, proportionally more subjects in the bromfenac 0.075% group than in the vehicle group had an ACC grade of 0 (57.1% vs 18.8%, respectively; P<0.001. At each of the postsurgical time points (Days 1, 8, 15, and 29, proportionally more bromfenac 0.075%-treated subjects (76.8%, 90.5%, 92.9%, and 85.1%, respectively had no pain (a VAS score of 0 compared with the vehicle-treated subjects (48.2%, 38.8%, 42.4%, and 47.1%, respectively, and at each time point, these differences in proportions were statistically significant (P<0.001. More subjects in the bromfenac 0.075% group had complete ACF resolution (151/167; 90.4% compared to those in the vehicle group (54/85; 63
Hosseini, Kamran; Walters, Thomas; DaVanzo, Robert; Lindstrom, Richard L
Purpose The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety, tolerability, and efficacy of a low-dose version of bromfenac 0.075% in DuraSite® (bromfenac 0.075%) compared with DuraSite® vehicle (vehicle) alone for the treatment of postoperative inflammation and ocular pain after cataract surgery. Methods A multicenter, double-masked, vehicle-controlled, parallel-group clinical trial of 240 subjects randomized in a 2:1 ratio to bromfenac 0.075% or vehicle was conducted. Subjects were dosed BID beginning 1 day before the cataract surgery, the day of surgery, and 14 days after surgery. A slit lamp biomicroscopy examination was performed to evaluate the signs of inflammation, including anterior chamber cells (ACC) and anterior chamber flare (ACF). The primary efficacy variable was the proportion of subjects with an ACC grade of 0 at Day 15. Secondary efficacy endpoints included the proportion of subjects who achieved a pain score of 0 at each postsurgical visual analog scale (VAS) assessment and the proportion of subjects with an ACF grade of 0 at Day 15. Results At Day 15, proportionally more subjects in the bromfenac 0.075% group than in the vehicle group had an ACC grade of 0 (57.1% vs 18.8%, respectively; P<0.001). At each of the postsurgical time points (Days 1, 8, 15, and 29), proportionally more bromfenac 0.075%-treated subjects (76.8%, 90.5%, 92.9%, and 85.1%, respectively) had no pain (a VAS score of 0) compared with the vehicle-treated subjects (48.2%, 38.8%, 42.4%, and 47.1%, respectively), and at each time point, these differences in proportions were statistically significant (P<0.001). More subjects in the bromfenac 0.075% group had complete ACF resolution (151/167; 90.4%) compared to those in the vehicle group (54/85; 63.5%). There were no new safety signals reported. Conclusion Bromfenac 0.075% in DuraSite is safe, well tolerated, and effective at reducing inflammation and preventing pain associated with cataract surgery. PMID:27920490
Bayés, M; Rabasseda, X; Prous, J R
Gateways to Clinical Trials are a guide to the most recent clinical trials in current literature and congresses. The data in the following tables has been retrieved from the Clinical Trials Knowledge Area of Prous Science Intergrity, the drug discovery and development portal, http://integrity.prous.com. This issue focuses on the following selection of drugs: 249553, 2-Methoxyestradiol; Abatacept, Adalimumab, Adefovir dipivoxil, Agalsidase beta, Albinterferon alfa-2b, Aliskiren fumarate, Alovudine, Amdoxovir, Amlodipine besylate/atorvastatin calcium, Amrubicin hydrochloride, Anakinra, AQ-13, Aripiprazole, AS-1404, Asoprisnil, Atacicept, Atrasentan; Belimumab, Bevacizumab, Bortezomib, Bosentan, Botulinum toxin type B, Brivaracetam; Catumaxomab, Cediranib, Cetuximab, cG250, Ciclesonide, Cinacalcet hydrochloride, Curcumin, Cypher; Darbepoetin alfa, Denosumab, Dihydrexidine; Eicosapentaenoic acid/docosahexaenoic acid, Entecavir, Erlotinib hydrochloride, Escitalopram oxalate, Etoricoxib, Everolimus, Ezetimibe; Febuxostat, Fenspiride hydrochloride, Fondaparinux sodium; Gefitinib, Ghrelin (human), GSK-1562902A; HSV-tk/GCV; Iclaprim, Imatinib mesylate, Imexon, Indacaterol, Insulinotropin, ISIS-112989; L-Alanosine, Lapatinib ditosylate, Laropiprant; Methoxy polyethylene glycol-epoetin-beta, Mipomersen sodium, Motexafin gadolinium; Natalizumab, Nimotuzumab; OSC, Ozarelix; PACAP-38, Paclitaxel nanoparticles, Parathyroid Hormone-Related Protein-(1-36), Pasireotide, Pegfilgrastim, Peginterferon alfa-2a, Peginterferon alfa-2b, Pemetrexed disodium, Pertuzumab, Picoplatin, Pimecrolimus, Pitavastatin calcium, Plitidepsin; Ranelic acid distrontium salt, Ranolazine, Recombinant human relaxin H2, Regadenoson, RFB4(dsFv)-PE38, RO-3300074, Rosuvastatin calcium; SIR-Spheres, Solifenacin succinate, Sorafenib, Sunitinib malate; Tadalafil, Talabostat, Taribavirin hydrochloride, Taxus, Temsirolimus, Teriparatide, Tiotropium bromide, Tipifarnib, Tirapazamine, Tocilizumab; UCN-01, Ularitide
Bayés, M; Rabasseda, X; Prous, J R
Gateways to Clinical Trials is a guide to the most recent clinical trials in current literature and congresses. The data in the following tables has been retrieved from the Clinical Trials Knowledge Area of Prous Science Integrity, the drug discovery and development portal, http://integrity. prous.com. This issue focuses on the following selection of drugs: ABX-IL-8, Acclaim, adalimumab, AGI-1067, alagebrium chloride, alemtuzumab, Alequel, Androgel, anti-IL-12 MAb, AOD-9604, aripiprazole, atomoxetine hydrochloride; Biphasic insulin aspart, bosentan, botulinum toxin type B, bovine lactoferrin, brivudine; Cantuzumab mertansine, CB-1954, CDB-4124, CEA-TRICOM, choriogonadotropin alfa, cilansetron, CpG-10101, CpG-7909, CTL-102, CTL-102/CB-1954; DAC:GRF, darbepoetin alfa, davanat-1, decitabine, del-1 Genemedicine, dexanabinol, dextofisopam, dnaJP1, dronedarone hydrochloride, dutasteride; Ecogramostim, eletriptan, emtricitabine, EPI-hNE-4, eplerenone, eplivanserin fumarate, erlotinib hydrochloride, ertapenem sodium, escitalopram oxalate, esomeprazole magnesium, etoricoxib, ezetimibe; Falecalcitriol, fingolimod hydrochloride; Gepirone hydrochloride; HBV-ISS, HSV-2 theracine, human insulin; Imatinib mesylate, Indiplon, insulin glargine, ISAtx-247; L612 HuMAb, levodopa/carbidopa/entacapone, lidocaine/prilocaine, LL-2113AD, lucinactant, LY-156735; Meclinertant, metelimumab, morphine hydrochloride, morphine-6-glucuronide; Natalizumab, nimotuzumab, NX-1207, NYVAC-HIV C; Omalizumab, onercept, osanetant; PABA, palosuran sulfate, parathyroid hormone (human recombinant), parecoxib sodium, PBI-1402, PCK-3145, peginterferon alfa-2a, peginterferon alfa-2b, peginterferon alfa-2b/ribavirin, pemetrexed disodium, pimecrolimus, PINC, pregabalin; Ramelteon, rasagiline mesilate, rasburicase, rimonabant hydrochloride, RO-0098557, rofecoxib, rosiglitazone maleate/metformin hydrochloride; Safinamide mesilate, SHL-749, sitaxsentan sodium, sparfosic acid, SprayGel, squalamine, St. John's Wort
Biswas, N R; Nainiwal, S K; Das, G K; Langan, U; Dadeya, S C; Mongre, P K; Ravi, A K; Baidya, P
A comparative randomised double masked multicentric clinical trial has been conducted to find out the efficacy and safety of a herbal eye drop preparation, itone eye drops with artificial tear and placebo in 120 patients with computer vision syndrome. Patients using computer for at least 2 hours continuosly per day having symptoms of irritation, foreign body sensation, watering, redness, headache, eyeache and signs of conjunctival congestion, mucous/debris, corneal filaments, corneal staining or lacrimal lake were included in this study. Every patient was instructed to put two drops of either herbal drugs or placebo or artificial tear in the eyes regularly four times for 6 weeks. Objective and subjective findings were recorded at bi-weekly intervals up to six weeks. Side-effects, if any, were also noted. In computer vision syndrome the herbal eye drop preparation was found significantly better than artificial tear (p computer vision syndrome.
Maiti, Rituparna; M, Raghavendra
The concept of outsourcing for the development and global studies on new drugs has become widely accepted in the pharmaceutical industry due to its cost and uncertainty. India is going to be the most preferred location for contract pharma research and development due to its huge treatment naïve population, human resources, technical skills, adoption/amendment/implementation of rules/laws by regulatory authorities, and changing economic environment. But still 'miles to go' to fulfill the pre-requisites to ensure India's success. In spite of all the pitfalls, the country is ambitious and optimist to attract multinational pharmaceutical companies to conduct their clinical trials in India.
Chidiac, C; Katlama, C; Yeni, P
Just over a decade after identification of chemokine receptors CCR5 and CXCR4 as coreceptors for HIV, maraviroc (Celsentri), the first CCR5 antagonist, has recently obtained its Marketing Authorization in the United States and Europe, for treatment of treatment-experienced adult patients infected with only CCR5-tropic HIV-1 detectable. CCR5 antagonists, after fusion inhibitor enfuvirtide available since 2003, also belong to entry inhibitors. These molecules, unlike previous antiretrovirals, do not target the virus but its target cell by blocking viral penetration. Maraviroc has shown its clinical efficacy in patients failing other antiretroviral classes. Its safety profile was similar to placebo in two large phase III trials. However, careful assessment of both hepatic and immunologic safety of this new therapeutic class is needed. Viral tropism testing has to be investigated before using maraviroc in the clinic, because CCR5 antagonists are not active against CXCR4 viruses. For the moment indicated for the treatment-experienced patient population, maraviroc could in the future benefit to other types of patients, depending on ongoing trials results.
Di Giulio, Paola; Campagna, Sara; Dimonte, Valerio
Clinical trials are pivotal for the development of nursing knowledge. To describe the clinical trials published in nursing journals in the last two years and propose some general reflections on nursing research. A search with the key-word trial was done on PubMed (2009-2013) on Cancer Nursing, European Journal of Oncology Nursing, International Journal of Nursing Studies, Journal of Advanced Nursing, Journal of Clinical Nursing and Nursing Research. Of 228 trials identified, 104 (45.8%) were published in the last 2 years. Nurses from Asian countries published the larger number of trials. Educational and supportive interventions were the most studied (61/104 trials), followed by clinical interventions (33/104). Samples were limited and most trials are monocentric. A growing number of trials is published, on issues relevant for the nursing profession, however larger samples and multicentric studies would be necessary.
Bayés, M; Rabasseda, X; Prous, J R
Gateways to Clinical Trials are a guide to the most recent clinical trials in current literature and congresses. The data the following tables have been retrieved from the Clinical Trials Knowledge Area of Prous Science Integrity, the drug discovery and development portal, http://integrity.prous.com. This issues focuses on the following selection of drugs: (-)-Epigallocatechin gallate, (-)-gossypol, 2-deoxyglucose, 3,4-DAP, 7-monohydroxyethylrutoside; Ad5CMV-p53, adalimumab, adefovir dipivoxil, ADH-1, alemtuzumab, aliskiren fumarate, alvocidib hydrochloride, aminolevulinic acid hydrochloride, aminolevulinic acid methyl ester, amrubicin hydrochloride, AN-152, anakinra, anecortave acetate, antiasthma herbal medicine intervention, AP-12009, AP-23573, apaziquone, aprinocarsen sodium, AR-C126532, AR-H065522, aripiprazole, armodafinil, arzoxifene hydrochloride, atazanavir sulfate, atilmotin, atomoxetine hydrochloride, atorvastatin, avanafil, azimilide hydrochloride; Bevacizumab, biphasic insulin aspart, BMS-214662, BN-83495, bortezomib, bosentan, botulinum toxin type B; Caspofungin acetate, cetuximab, chrysin, ciclesonide, clevudine, clofarabine, clopidogrel, CNF-1010, CNTO-328, CP-751871, CX-717, Cypher; Dapoxetine hydrochloride, darifenacin hydrobromide, dasatinib, deferasirox, dextofisopam, dextromethorphan/quinidine sulfate, diclofenac, dronedarone hydrochloride, drotrecogin alfa (activated), duloxetine hydrochloride, dutasteride; Edaravone, efaproxiral sodium, emtricitabine, entecavir, eplerenone, epratuzumab, erlotinib hydrochloride, escitalopram oxalate, etoricoxib, ezetimibe, ezetimibe/simvastatin; Finrozole, fipamezole hydrochloride, fondaparinux sodium, fulvestrant; Gabapentin enacarbil, gaboxadol, gefitinib, gestodene, ghrelin (human); Human insulin, human papillomavirus vaccine; Imatinib mesylate, immunoglobulin intravenous (human), indiplon, insulin detemir, insulin glargine, insulin glulisine, intranasal insulin, istradefylline, i.v. gamma
Full Text Available Andrea Oleñik,1 Ignacio Jiménez-Alfaro,1 Nicolás Alejandre-Alba,1 Ignacio Mahillo-Fernández2 1Department of Ophthalmology, Jiménez Díaz Foundation, Madrid, Spain; 2Department of Statistics, Jiménez Díaz Foundation, Madrid, Spain Background: Dysfunction of the meibomian gland (MG is among the most frequent causes of ophthalmological symptoms. The inflammation seen in meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD is part of its pathogenesis, and evidence of the antioxidant-inflammatory properties of omega-3 fatty acids suggests this to be an appropriate treatment for MGD. Objective: We aimed to assess the effectiveness of omega-3 fatty acids versus placebo, in improving the symptoms and signs of MGD. Methods: We conducted a randomized and double-mask trial of 3 months duration. We enrolled 61 patients who presented with symptomatic MGD and no tear instability (defined as tear breakup time [TBUT] <10 seconds. Participants were randomly assigned to two homogeneous subgroups. For patients in group A, the study treatment included cleaning the lid margins with neutral baby shampoo and use of artificial tears without preservatives, plus a placebo oral agent. For patients in group B, the study treatment included cleaning the lid margins with neutral baby shampoo and use of artificial tears without preservatives, plus oral supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids. We performed the following tests: (1 TBUT; (2 Schirmer I test; (3 Ocular Surface Disease Index© (OSDI©; Allergan, Inc., Irvine, CA, USA; (4 MG expression; (5 evaluation of lid margin inflammation; and (6 interpalpebral and corneal dye staining. Results: After 3 months of evaluation, the mean OSDI, TBUT, lid margin inflammation, and MG expression presented improvement from the baseline values, in group B (P < 0.01, P < 0.001, P < 0.0001, P < 0.0001, respectively. The Schirmer test results were also improved and statistically significant (P < 0.01. Conclusion: Oral omega-3 fatty acids, 1.5 grams per
Full Text Available Abstract Cross-Over Clinical Trials in comparison with Parallel groups clinical trials have some advantages such as control of confounding variables, small sample size, and short time to implement the research project. But this type of research has few essential limitations that discusses in this monogram.
Srinivasan, Muthiah; Mascarenhas, Jeena; Rajaraman, Revathi; Ravindran, Meenakshi; Lalitha, Prajna; O'Brien, Kieran S; Glidden, David V; Ray, Kathryn J; Oldenburg, Catherine E; Zegans, Michael E; Whitcher, John P; McLeod, Stephen D; Porco, Travis C; Lietman, Thomas M; Acharya, Nisha R
To determine whether topical corticosteroids as adjunctive therapy for bacterial keratitis improves long-term clinical outcomes. Randomized, placebo-controlled, double-masked clinical trial. This multicenter trial compared 1.0% prednisolone sodium phosphate to placebo in the treatment of bacterial keratitis among 500 patients with culture-positive ulcers receiving 48 hours of moxifloxacin before randomization. The primary endpoint was 3 months from enrollment, and 399 patients were evaluated at 12 months. The outcomes examined were best spectacle-corrected visual acuity (BSCVA) and scar size at 12 months. Based on previous results, regression models with adjustments for baseline status and/or causative organism were used for analysis. No significant differences in clinical outcomes by treatment group were seen with the prespecified regression models (BSCVA: -0.04 logMAR, 95% CI, -0.12 to 0.05, P = .39; scar size: 0.03 mm, 95% CI, -0.12 to 0.18, P = .69). A regression model including a Nocardia-treatment arm interaction found corticosteroid use associated with a mean 1-line improvement in BSCVA at 12 months among patients with non-Nocardia ulcers (-0.10 logMAR, 95% CI, -0.19 to -0.02, P = .02). No significant difference was observed in 12-month BSCVA for Nocardia ulcers (0.18 logMAR, 95% CI, -0.04 to 0.41, P = .16). Corticosteroids were associated with larger mean scar size at 12 months among Nocardia ulcers (0.47 mm, 95% CI, 0.06-0.88, P = .02) and no significant difference was identified by treatment for scar size for non-Nocardia ulcers (-0.06 mm, 95% CI, -0.21 to 0.10, P = .46). Adjunctive topical corticosteroid therapy may be associated with improved long-term clinical outcomes in bacterial corneal ulcers not caused by Nocardia species. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Thompson, Michael A
Social media has potential in clinical trials for pointing out trial issues, addressing barriers, educating, and engaging multiple groups involved in cancer clinical research. Social media is being used in clinical trials to highlight issues such as poor accrual and barriers; educate potential participants and physicians about clinical trial options; and is a potential indirect or direct method to improve accrual. We are moving from a passive "push" of information to patients to a "pull" of patients requesting information. Patients and advocates are often driving an otherwise reluctant health care system into communication. Online patient communities are creating new information repositories. Potential clinical trial participants are using the Twittersphere and other sources to learn about potential clinical trial options. We are seeing more organized patient-centric and patient-engaged forums with the potential to crowd source to improve clinical trial accrual and design. This is an evolving process that will meet many individual, institutional, and regulatory obstacles as we move forward in a changed research landscape.
Katz, J N; Losina, E; Lohmander, L S
To highlight methodological challenges in the design and conduct of randomized trials of surgical interventions and to propose strategies for addressing these challenges. This paper focuses on three broad areas: enrollment; intervention; and assessment including implications for analysis. For eac...
Ibbott, Geoffrey S.; Haworth, Annette; Followill, David S.
Cooperative groups, of which the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group is one example, conduct national clinical trials that often involve the use of radiation therapy. In preparation for such a trial, the cooperative group prepares a protocol to define the goals of the trial, the rationale for its design, and the details of the treatment procedure to be followed. The Radiological Physics Center (RPC) is one of several quality assurance (QA) offices that is charged with assuring that participating institutions deliver doses that are clinically consistent and comparable. The RPC does this by conducting a variety of independent audits and credentialing processes. The RPC has compiled data showing that credentialing can help institutions comply with the requirements of a cooperative group clinical protocol. Phantom irradiations have been demonstrated to exercise an institution’s procedures for planning and delivering advanced external beam techniques (1–3). Similarly, RPC data indicate that a rapid review of patient treatment records or planning procedures can improve compliance with clinical trials (4). The experiences of the RPC are presented as examples of the contributions that a national clinical trials QA center can make to cooperative group trials. These experiences illustrate the critical need for comprehensive QA to assure that clinical trials are successful and cost-effective. The RPC is supported by grants CA 10953 and CA 81647 from the National Cancer Institute, NIH, DHHS. PMID:24392352
Reimer, C; Lødrup, A; Smith, G
of an alginate (Gaviscon Advance, Reckitt Benckiser, Slough, UK) on reflux symptoms in patients with persistent symptoms despite once daily PPI. MethodsThis was a multicentre, randomised, placebo-controlled, 7-day double-blind trial preceded by a 7-day run-in period. Reflux symptoms were assessed using...
Gil-Extremera, B; Jiménez-López, P; Mediavilla-García, J D
Clinical trials are essential tools for the progress of clinical medicine in its diagnostic and therapeutic aspects. Since the first trial in 1948, which related tobacco use with lung cancer, there have been more than 150,000 clinical trials to date in various areas (paediatrics, cardiology, oncology, endocrinology, etc.). This article highlights the importance for all physicians to participate, over the course of their professional career, in a clinical trial, due to the inherent benefits for patients, the progress of medicine and for curricular prestige. The authors have created a synthesis of their experience with clinical trials on hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidaemia and ischaemic heart disease over the course of almost 3 decades. Furthermore, a brief reference has been made to the characteristics of a phase I unit, as well as to a number of research studies currently underway. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Medicina Interna (SEMI). All rights reserved.
Emery, C. A.; Roos, Ewa M.; Verhagen, E.
The risk of post-traumatic osteoarthritis (PTOA) substantially increases following joint injury. Research efforts should focus on investigating the efficacy of preventative strategies in high quality randomized controlled trials (RCT). The objective of these OARSI RCT recommendations is to inform...... the design, conduct and analytical approaches to RCTs evaluating the preventative effect of joint injury prevention strategies. Recommendations regarding the design, conduct, and reporting of RCTs evaluating injury prevention interventions were established based on the consensus of nine researchers...... internationally with expertise in epidemiology, injury prevention and/or osteoarthritis (OA). Input and resultant consensus was established through teleconference, face to face and email correspondence over a 1 year period. Recommendations for injury prevention RCTs include context specific considerations...
Full Text Available In addition to the expensive and lengthy process of developing a new medicine, the attrition rate in clinical research was on the rise, resulting in stagnation in the development of new compounds. As a consequence to this, the US Food and Drug Administration released a critical path initiative document in 2004, highlighting the need for developing innovative trial designs. One of the innovations suggested the use of adaptive designs for clinical trials. Thus, post critical path initiative, there is a growing interest in using adaptive designs for the development of pharmaceutical products. Adaptive designs are expected to have great potential to reduce the number of patients and duration of trial and to have relatively less exposure to new drug. Adaptive designs are not new in the sense that the task of interim analysis (IA/review of the accumulated data used in adaptive designs existed in the past too. However, such reviews/analyses of accumulated data were not necessarily planned at the stage of planning clinical trial and the methods used were not necessarily compliant with clinical trial process. The Bayesian approach commonly used in adaptive designs was developed by Thomas Bayes in the 18th century, about hundred years prior to the development of modern statistical methods by the father of modern statistics, Sir Ronald A. Fisher, but the complexity involved in Bayesian approach prevented its use in real life practice. The advances in the field of computer and information technology over the last three to four decades has changed the scenario and the Bayesian techniques are being used in adaptive designs in addition to other sequential methods used in IA. This paper attempts to describe the various adaptive designs in clinical trial and views of stakeholders about feasibility of using them, without going into mathematical complexities.
In addition to the expensive and lengthy process of developing a new medicine, the attrition rate in clinical research was on the rise, resulting in stagnation in the development of new compounds. As a consequence to this, the US Food and Drug Administration released a critical path initiative document in 2004, highlighting the need for developing innovative trial designs. One of the innovations suggested the use of adaptive designs for clinical trials. Thus, post critical path initiative, there is a growing interest in using adaptive designs for the development of pharmaceutical products. Adaptive designs are expected to have great potential to reduce the number of patients and duration of trial and to have relatively less exposure to new drug. Adaptive designs are not new in the sense that the task of interim analysis (IA)/review of the accumulated data used in adaptive designs existed in the past too. However, such reviews/analyses of accumulated data were not necessarily planned at the stage of planning clinical trial and the methods used were not necessarily compliant with clinical trial process. The Bayesian approach commonly used in adaptive designs was developed by Thomas Bayes in the 18th century, about hundred years prior to the development of modern statistical methods by the father of modern statistics, Sir Ronald A. Fisher, but the complexity involved in Bayesian approach prevented its use in real life practice. The advances in the field of computer and information technology over the last three to four decades has changed the scenario and the Bayesian techniques are being used in adaptive designs in addition to other sequential methods used in IA. This paper attempts to describe the various adaptive designs in clinical trial and views of stakeholders about feasibility of using them, without going into mathematical complexities.
Chan, C. M. C.; Scheinman, J. I.; Roth, K. S.
As the powerful tools of molecular biology continue to delineate new concepts of pathogenesis of diseases, new molecular-level therapeutic modalities are certain to emerge. In order to design and execute clinical trials to evaluate outcomes of these new treatment modalities, we will soon need a new supply of investigators with training and experience in clinical research. The slowly-progressive nature of chronic pediatric kidney disease often results in diagnosis being made at a time remote from initial result, and the inherently slow rate of progression makes changes difficult to measure. Thus, development of molecular markers for both diagnosis and rate of progression will be critical to studies of new therapeutic modalities. We will review general aspects of clinical trials and will use current and past studies as examples to illustrate specific points, especially as these apply to chronic kidney disease associated with obstructive uropathy in children. (author)
Kim, Jane S.; Knickelbein, Jared E.; Nussenblatt, Robert B.; Sen, H. Nida
The treatment of noninfectious uveitis continues to remain a challenge for many ophthalmologists. Historically, clinical trials in uveitis have been sparse, and thus, most treatment decisions have largely been based on clinical experience and consensus guidelines. The current treatment paradigm favors initiation then tapering of corticosteroids with addition of steroid-sparing immunosuppressive agents for persistence or recurrence of disease. Unfortunately, in spite of a multitude of highly unfavorable systemic effects, corticosteroids are still regarded as the mainstay of treatment for many patients with chronic and refractory noninfectious uveitis. However, with the success of other conventional and biologic immunomodulatory agents in treating systemic inflammatory and autoimmune conditions, interest in targeted treatment strategies for uveitis has been renewed. Multiple clinical trials on steroid-sparing immunosuppressive agents, biologic agents, intraocular corticosteroid implants, and topical ophthalmic solutions have already been completed, and many more are ongoing. This review discusses the results and implications of these clinical trials investigating both alternative and novel treatment options for noninfectious uveitis. PMID:26035763
Morales, Alicia; Carvajal, Paola; Silva, Nora; Hernandez, Marcela; Godoy, Claudia; Rodriguez, Gonzalo; Cabello, Rodrigo; Garcia-Sesnich, Jocelyn; Hoare, Anilei; Diaz, Patricia I; Gamonal, Jorge
Probiotics are living microorganisms that provide beneficial effects for the host when administered in proper quantities. The aim of this double-masked placebo-controlled parallel-arm randomized clinical trial is to evaluate the clinical effects of a Lactobacillus rhamnosus SP1-containing probiotic sachet as an adjunct to non-surgical therapy. Twenty-eight systemically healthy volunteers with chronic periodontitis were recruited and monitored clinically at baseline and 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after therapy. Clinical parameters measured included plaque accumulation, bleeding on probing, probing depths (PDs), and clinical attachment loss. Patients received non-surgical therapy, including scaling and root planing (SRP), and were assigned randomly to a test (SRP + probiotic, n = 14) or control (SRP + placebo, n = 14) group. The intake, once a day for 3 months, of an L. rhamnosus SP1 probiotic sachet commenced after the last session of SRP. Both test and control groups showed improvements in clinical parameters at all time points evaluated. However, the test group showed greater reductions in PD than the control. Also, at initial visits and after 1-year follow-up, the test group showed a statistically significant reduction in the number of participants with PD ≥6 mm, indicating a reduced need for surgery, in contrast to the placebo group. The results of this trial indicate that oral administration of L. rhamnosus SP1 resulted in similar clinical improvements compared with SRP alone.
Rose-Nussbaumer, Jennifer; Prajna, N Venkatesh; Krishnan, K Tiruvengada; Mascarenhas, Jeena; Rajaraman, Revathi; Srinivasan, Muthiah; Raghavan, Anita; Oldenburg, Catherine E; O'Brien, Kieran S; Ray, Kathryn J; McLeod, Stephen D; Porco, Travis C; Lietman, Thomas M; Acharya, Nisha R; Keenan, Jeremy D
Given the limitations in health care resources, quality-of-life measures for interventions have gained importance. To determine whether vision-related quality-of-life outcomes were different between the natamycin and voriconazole treatment arms in the Mycotic Ulcer Treatment Trial I, as measured by an Indian Vision Function Questionnaire. Secondary analysis (performed October 11-25, 2014) of a double-masked, multicenter, randomized, active comparator-controlled, clinical trial at multiple locations of the Aravind Eye Care System in South India that enrolled patients with culture- or smear-positive filamentous fungal corneal ulcers who had a baseline visual acuity of 20/40 to 20/400 (logMAR of 0.3-1.3). Study participants were randomly assigned to topical voriconazole, 1%, or topical natamycin, 5%. Subscale score on the Indian Vision Function Questionnaire from each of the 4 subscales (mobility, activity limitation, psychosocial impact, and visual function) at 3 months. A total of 323 patients were enrolled in the trial, and 292 (90.4%) completed the Indian Vision Function Questionnaire at 3 months. The majority of study participants had subscale scores consistent with excellent function. After adjusting for baseline visual acuity and organism, we found that study participants in the natamycin-treated group scored, on average, 4.3 points (95% CI, 0.1-8.5) higher than study participants in the voriconazole-treated group (P = .046). In subgroup analyses looking at ulcers caused by Fusarium species and adjusting for baseline best spectacle-corrected visual acuity, the natamycin-treated group scored 8.4 points (95% CI, 1.9-14.9) higher than the voriconazole-treated group (P = .01). Differences in quality of life were not detected for patients with Aspergillus or other non-Fusarium species as the causative organism (1.5 points [95% CI, -3.9 to 6.9]; P = .52). We found evidence of improvement in vision-related quality of life among patients with fungal ulcers
Whicher, Danielle M; Miller, Jennifer E; Dunham, Kelly M; Joffe, Steven
To successfully implement a pragmatic clinical trial, investigators need access to numerous resources, including financial support, institutional infrastructure (e.g. clinics, facilities, staff), eligible patients, and patient data. Gatekeepers are people or entities who have the ability to allow or deny access to the resources required to support the conduct of clinical research. Based on this definition, gatekeepers relevant to the US clinical research enterprise include research sponsors, regulatory agencies, payers, health system and other organizational leadership, research team leadership, human research protections programs, advocacy and community groups, and clinicians. This article provides a framework to help guide gatekeepers' decision-making related to the use of resources for pragmatic clinical trials. Relevant ethical considerations for gatekeepers include (1) concern for the interests of individuals, groups, and communities affected by the gatekeepers' decisions, including protection from harm and maximization of benefits; (2) advancement of organizational mission and values; and (3) stewardship of financial, human, and other organizational resources. Separate from these ethical considerations, gatekeepers' actions will be guided by relevant federal, state, and local regulations. This framework also suggests that to further enhance the legitimacy of their decision-making, gatekeepers should adopt transparent processes that engage relevant stakeholders when feasible and appropriate. We apply this framework to the set of gatekeepers responsible for making decisions about resources necessary for pragmatic clinical trials in the United States, describing the relevance of the criteria in different situations and pointing out where conflicts among the criteria and relevant regulations may affect decision-making. Recognition of the complex set of considerations that should inform decision-making will guide gatekeepers in making justifiable choices regarding
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Learn about how the National Clinical Trials Network (NCTN) is structured. The NCTN is a program of the National Cancer Institute that gives funds and other support to cancer research organizations to conduct cancer clinical trials.
.... Clinical Trials in Neurology aims to improve the efficiency of clinical trials and the development of interventions in order to enhance the development of new treatments for neurologic diseases...
Summers, C Gail; Connett, John E; Holleschau, Ann M; Anderson, Jennifer L; De Becker, Inge; McKay, Brian S; Brilliant, Murray H
Dopamine is an intermediate product in the biosynthesis of melanin pigment, which is absent or reduced in albinism. Animal research has shown that supplying a precursor to dopamine, levodopa, may improve visual acuity in albinism by enhancing neural networks. This study examines the safety and effectiveness of levodopa on best-corrected visual acuity in human subjects with albinism. Prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-masked clinical trial conducted at the University of Minnesota. Forty-five subjects with albinism. Subjects with albinism were randomly assigned to one of three treatment arms: levodopa 0.76 mg/kg with 25% carbidopa, levodopa 0.51 mg/kg with 25% carbidopa, or placebo and followed for 20 weeks, with best-corrected visual acuity measured at enrollment, and at weeks 5, 10, 15, and 20 after enrollment. Side-effects were recorded with a symptom survey. Blood was drawn for genotyping. Side-effects and best-corrected visual acuity 20 weeks after enrolment. All subjects had at least one mutation found in a gene known to cause albinism. Mean age was 14.5 years (range: 3.5 to 57.8 years). Follow up was 100% and compliance was good. Minor side-effects were reported; there were no serious adverse events. There was no statistically significant improvement in best-corrected visual acuity after 20 weeks with either dose of levodopa. Levodopa, in the doses used in this trial and for the time course of administration, did not improve visual acuity in subjects with albinism. © 2014 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.
The recovery of the patient should be facilitated as the result of therapeutic research. The basic rule for every therapeutic-clinical trial mist involve a comparison of therapeutic approaches. In acute conditions, such as acute infectious diseases, infarcts, etc., comparisons should be made between two or more groups: the collective therapeutic comparison = the between patients trial. The formation of groups, to be compared one with the other can be justified only if one is reasonably sure that a pathogenic condition indeed exists. In chronic diseases, which extend essentially unchanged over a lengthy period but are nevertheless reversible, therapeutic comparisons may be made between two or more time intervals within the course of the disease in the same individual. This type of therapeutic trial rests primarily upon a (refined!) type of specious reasoning and secondarily, upon modified statistics: the individual therapeutic comparison = the within patient trial. The collective therapeutic comparison, on the one hand, and the individual therapeutic comparison on the other, overlap somewhat in scope. The immediate therapeutic effect is not always an indication of its true value, which may become evident only upon long-term treatment. The short-term trials of therapeutic regimens in an individual must, therefore, be frequently supplemented by long-term trials which can only be carried out by comparing two groups. For many clinical investigations, therefore, the joint efforts of numerous hospitals are absolutely necessary. The second basic rule of therapeutic research is the elimination of secondary causes. The difficulties introduced by these secondary considerations are far greater in therapeutic trials carried out on ambulatory patients than has been hitherto realized. In order to remove subjective secondary causes, the author demanded, in 1931, the use of hidden or illusory media (placebos, dummies) that is, unconscious causative agents. The double blind
Accrual to cancer clinical trials (CCT) is imperative to safeguard continued improvement in cancer outcomes. A retrospective chart review was performed of patients (n=140) starting a new anti-cancer agent in a north Dublin cancer centre. This review was performed over a four-month period, beginning in November 2015. Only 29% (n=41) had a CCT option. The overall accrual rate to CCT was 5% (n=7), which is comparable to internationally reported figures. The main reasons for failure to recruit to CCT included the lack of a CCT option for cancer type (n=30, 23%), stage (n=25, 19%), and line of treatment (n=23, 17%). Over the last decade, the rate of accrual to CCTs has in fact doubled and the number of trials open to recruitment has tripled. Ongoing governmental and philanthropic support is necessary to continue this trend to further expand CCT patient options with a target accrual rate of 10%.
Clinical trials now increasingly impinge on society at large. First there is growing emphasis from health organizations on the need for unbiased evidence about the effectiveness of promoted remedies. Second, as most novel treatments accrue increased costs to society, these need to be evaluated in terms of value for money. Third, there has been confusion and concern about the resolution of conflicting evidence, especially the role of advertising and commercial pressures from a powerful pharmaceutical industry motivated by profit. Fourth, there is concern about research fraud and the ethics of clinical trials. Fifth, there is increasing suspicion of political advice, which sometimes has sought to reassure an anxious public on the basis of complex and possibly inadequate scientific information. Some of these issues are addressed by truly independent and properly constituted data and safety monitoring committees, which are of particular importance when academic investigators or universities have a large financial conflict of interest. This is now more problematic with the current encouragement of investigator-led spin-off companies. These issues are best resolved by independent financial support (from government or other institutions) rather than relying on the commercial sponsor.
Full Text Available Abstract Background High frequency chest wall oscillation (HFCWO is used for airway mucus clearance. The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of HFCWO early in the treatment of adults hospitalized for acute asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Methods Randomized, multi-center, double-masked phase II clinical trial of active or sham treatment initiated within 24 hours of hospital admission for acute asthma or COPD at four academic medical centers. Patients received active or sham treatment for 15 minutes three times a day for four treatments. Medical management was standardized across groups. The primary outcomes were patient adherence to therapy after four treatments (minutes used/60 minutes prescribed and satisfaction. Secondary outcomes included change in Borg dyspnea score (≥ 1 unit indicates a clinically significant change, spontaneously expectorated sputum volume, and forced expired volume in 1 second. Results Fifty-two participants were randomized to active (n = 25 or sham (n = 27 treatment. Patient adherence was similarly high in both groups (91% vs. 93%; p = 0.70. Patient satisfaction was also similarly high in both groups. After four treatments, a higher proportion of patients in the active treatment group had a clinically significant improvement in dyspnea (70.8% vs. 42.3%, p = 0.04. There were no significant differences in other secondary outcomes. Conclusions HFCWO is well tolerated in adults hospitalized for acute asthma or COPD and significantly improves dyspnea. The high levels of patient satisfaction in both treatment groups justify the need for sham controls when evaluating the use of HFCWO on patient-reported outcomes. Additional studies are needed to more fully evaluate the role of HFCWO in improving in-hospital and post-discharge outcomes in this population. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00181285
Followill, David S.; Urie, Marcia; Galvin, James M.; Ulin, Kenneth; Xiao, Ying; FitzGerald, Thomas J.
The National Cancer Institute (NCI) clinical cooperative groups have been instrumental over the past 50 years in developing clinical trials and evidence-based clinical trial processes for improvements in patient care. The cooperative groups are undergoing a transformation process to launch, conduct, and publish clinical trials more rapidly. Institutional participation in clinical trials can be made more efficient and include the expansion of relationships with international partners. This paper reviews the current processes that are in use in radiation therapy trials and the importance of maintaining effective credentialing strategies to assure the quality of the outcomes of clinical trials. The paper offers strategies to streamline and harmonize credentialing tools and processes moving forward as the NCI undergoes transformative change in the conduct of clinical trials.
Followill, David S. [Radiological Physics Center, Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Urie, Marcia [Quality Assurance Review Center, Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Lincoln, RI (United States); Galvin, James M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Jefferson Medical College, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Radiation Therapy Oncology Group, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Ulin, Kenneth [Quality Assurance Review Center, Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Lincoln, RI (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA (United States); Xiao, Ying [Department of Radiation Oncology, Jefferson Medical College, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Radiation Therapy Oncology Group, Philadelphia, PA (United States); FitzGerald, Thomas J., E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Quality Assurance Review Center, Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Lincoln, RI (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA (United States)
The National Cancer Institute (NCI) clinical cooperative groups have been instrumental over the past 50 years in developing clinical trials and evidence-based clinical trial processes for improvements in patient care. The cooperative groups are undergoing a transformation process to launch, conduct, and publish clinical trials more rapidly. Institutional participation in clinical trials can be made more efficient and include the expansion of relationships with international partners. This paper reviews the current processes that are in use in radiation therapy trials and the importance of maintaining effective credentialing strategies to assure the quality of the outcomes of clinical trials. The paper offers strategies to streamline and harmonize credentialing tools and processes moving forward as the NCI undergoes transformative change in the conduct of clinical trials.
Cassese, Mariarita; Zuber, Veronica
Women use more medicines than men because they fall ill more often and suffer more from chronic diseases, but also because women pay more attention to their health and have more consciousness and care about themselves. Although medicines can have different effects on women and men, women still represent a small percentage in the first phases of trials (22%) which are essential to verify drugs dosage, side effects, and safety. Even though women are more present in trials, studies results are not presented with a gender approach. This situation is due to educational, social, ethical and economical factors. The scientific research must increase feminine presence in clinical trials in order to be equal and correct, and all the key stakeholder should be involved in this process. We still have a long way to cover and it doesn't concern only women but also children and old people. The aim is to have a medicine not only illness-focused but patient-focused: a medicine able to take into consideration all the patient characteristics and so to produce a really personalized therapy. What above described is part of the reasons why in 2005 was founded the National Observatory for Women's Health (Osservatorio Nazionale sulla Salute della Donna, ONDa) which promotes a gender health awareness and culture in Italy, at all the levels of the civil and scientific society.
Full Text Available Women use more medicines than men because they fall ill more often and suffer more from chronic diseases, but also because women pay more attention to their health and have more consciousness and care about themselves. Although medicines can have different effects on women and men, women still represent a small percentage in the first phases of trials (22% which are essential to verify drugs dosage, side effects, and safety. Even though women are more present in trials, studies results are not presented with a gender approach. This situation is due to educational, social, ethical and economical factors. The scientific research must increase feminine presence in clinical trials in order to be equal and correct, and all the key stakeholder should be involved in this process. We still have a long way to cover and it doesn't concern only women but also children and old people. The aim is to have a medicine not only illness-focused but patient-focused: a medicine able to take into consideration all the patient characteristics and so to produce a really personalized therapy. What above described is part of the reasons why in 2005 was founded the National Observatory for Women's Health (Osservatorio Nazionale sulla Salute della Donna, ONDa which promotes a gender health awareness and culture in Italy, at all the levels of the civil and scientific society.
Gustafsson, Finn; Atar, Dan; Pitt, Bertram
Trialists have an ethical and financial responsibility to plan and conduct clinical trials in a manner that will maximize the scientific knowledge gained from the trial. However, the amount of scientific information generated by randomized clinical trials in cardiovascular medicine is highly vari...
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Ray, Kathryn J; Lalitha, Prajna; Prajna, N Venkatesh; Rajaraman, Revathi; Krishnan, Tiruvengada; Srinivasan, Muthiah; Ryg, Peter; McLeod, Stephen; Acharya, Nisha R; Lietman, Thomas M; Rose-Nussbaumer, Jennifer
To determine whether patients who had a positive repeated culture was predictive of worse clinical outcome than those who achieved microbiological cure at 6 days in the Mycotic Ulcer Treatment Trial I (MUTT-I). Secondary analysis from a multicenter, double-masked, randomized clinical trial. setting: Multiple hospital sites of the Aravind Eye Care System, India. Patients with culture-positive filamentous fungal ulcers and visual acuity of 20/40 to 20/400 reexamined 6 days after initiation of treatment. Corneal scraping and cultures were obtained from study participants at day 6 after enrollment. We assessed 3-month best spectacle-corrected visual acuity (BSCVA), 3-month infiltrate/scar size, corneal perforation, and re-epithelialization rates stratified by culture positivity at day 6. Of the 323 patients with smear-positive ulcers enrolled in MUTT-I, 299 (92.6%) were scraped and cultured 6 days after enrollment. Repeat culture positivity was 31% (92/299). Among patients who tested positive at enrollment, those with positive 6-day cultures had significantly worse 3-month BSCVA (0.39 logMAR; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.24-0.44; P cure on culture is a predictor of clinical response to treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Gowri, S; Kannan, Sridharan
Evidence-based practice requires clinical trials to be performed. In India, if any clinical trial has to be performed, it has to be registered with clinical trial registry of India. Studies have shown that the report of clinical trials is poor in dentistry. Hence, the present study has been conducted to assess the type and trends of clinical trials being undertaken in dentistry in India over a span of 6 years. All the clinical trials which were registered with the Central Trial Registry of India (CTRI) (www.ctri.nic.in) from January 1, 2007 to March 3, 2014 were evaluated using the keyword "dental." Following information were collected for each of the clinical trials obtained from the search; number of centres (single center/multicentric), type of the institution undertaking the research (government/private/combined), study (observational/interventional), study design (randomized/single blinded/double-blinded), type of health condition, type of participants (healthy/patients), sponsors (academia/commercial), phase of clinical trial (Phase 1/2/3/4), publication details (published/not published), whether it was a postgraduate thesis or not and prospective or retrospective registration of clinical trials, methodological quality (method of randomization, allocation concealment). Descriptive statistics was used for analysis of various categories. Trend analysis was done to assess the changes over a period of time. The search yielded a total of 84 trials of which majority of them were single centered. Considering the study design more than half of the registered clinical trials were double-blinded (47/84 [56%]). With regard to the place of conducting a trial, most of the trials were planned to be performed in private hospitals (56/84 [66.7%]). Most (79/84, 94.1%) of the clinical trials were interventional while only 5/84 (5.9%) were observational. Majority (65/84, 77.4%) of the registered clinical trials were recruiting patients while the rest were being done in healthy
Dijkstra, Boukje A G; De Jong, Cor A J; Wensing, Michel; Krabbe, Paul F M; van der Staak, Cees P F
Controlled clinical trials have high internal validity but suffer from difficulties in external validity. This study evaluates the generalizability of the results of a controlled clinical trial on rapid detoxification in the everyday clinical practice of two addiction treatment centers. The results
Cher, Daniel J; Capobianco, Robyn A
Multicenter prospective randomized clinical trials represent the best evidence to support the safety and effectiveness of medical devices. Industry sponsorship of multicenter clinical trials is purported to lead to bias. To determine what proportion of spine device-related trials are industry-sponsored and the effect of industry sponsorship on trial design. Analysis of data from a publicly available clinical trials database. Clinical trials of spine devices registered on ClinicalTrials.gov, a publicly accessible trial database, were evaluated in terms of design, number and location of study centers, and sample size. The relationship between trial design characteristics and study sponsorship was evaluated using logistic regression and general linear models. One thousand six hundred thrity-eight studies were retrieved from ClinicalTrials.gov using the search term "spine." Of the 367 trials that focused on spine surgery, 200 (54.5%) specifically studied devices for spine surgery and 167 (45.5%) focused on other issues related to spine surgery. Compared with nondevice trials, device trials were far more likely to be sponsored by the industry (74% vs. 22.2%, odds ratio (OR) 9.9 [95% confidence interval 6.1-16.3]). Industry-sponsored device trials were more likely multicenter (80% vs. 29%, OR 9.8 [4.8-21.1]) and had approximately four times as many participating study centers (pdevices not sponsored by the industry. Most device-related spine research is industry-sponsored. Multicenter trials are more likely to be industry-sponsored. These findings suggest that previously published studies showing larger effect sizes in industry-sponsored vs. nonindustry-sponsored studies may be biased as a result of failure to take into account the marked differences in design and purpose. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Okonta, Patrick I
The conduct of clinical trials for the development and licensing of drugs is a very important aspect of healthcare. Drug research, development and promotion have grown to a multi-billion dollar global business. Like all areas of human endeavour involving generation and control of huge financial resources, it could be subject to deviant behaviour, sharp business practices and unethical practices. The main objective of this review is to highlight potential ethical challenges in the conduct of clinical trials in Nigeria and outline ways in which these can be avoided. Current international and national regulatory and ethical guidelines are reviewed to illustrate the requirements for ethical conduct of clinical trials. Past experiences of unethical conduct of clinical trials especially in developing countries along with the increasing globalisation of research makes it imperative that all players should be aware of the ethical challenges in clinical trials and the benchmarks for ethical conduct of clinical research in Nigeria.
clinical efforts that will impact the NEER network going forward and laid the ground work for the CTECs to participate in ongoing clinical trials for...Clinical Implications: • How will the proposed clinical trial have a significant impact on disease outcome? 34 • How will the clinical trial offer...was 0 041U>< for pat<t!nts NPtS and <H08, 0 4 1ux !01 Ct 110, 1nd 10.0 lux f01 < H13 OJ)Ilo •her on~tion are indiuttd AhtrNtor19 stimuli Wl’f1! pres
C. A. Caramori
Full Text Available Scientific development that has been achieved through decades finds in clinical research a great possibility of translating findings to human health application. Evidence given by clinical trials allows everyone to have access to the best health services. However, the millionaire world of pharmaceutical industries has stained clinical research with doubt and improbability. Study results (fruits of controlled clinical trials and scientific publications (selective, manipulated and with wrong conclusions led to an inappropriate clinical practice, favoring the involved economic aspect. In 2005, the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE, supported by the World Association of Medical Editors, started demanding as a requisite for publication that all clinical trials be registered at the database ClinicalTrials.gov. In 2006, the World Health Organization (WHO created the International Clinical Trial Registry Platform (ICTRP, which gathers several registry centers from all over the world, and required that all researchers and pharmaceutical industries register clinical trials. Such obligatory registration has progressed and will extend to all scientific journals indexed in all worldwide databases. Registration of clinical trials means another step of clinical research towards transparency, ethics and impartiality, resulting in real evidence to the forthcoming changes in clinical practice as well as in the health situation.
Information for researchers about developing, reporting, and managing NCI-funded cancer prevention clinical trials. Protocol Information Office The central clearinghouse for clinical trials management within the Division of Cancer Prevention.Read more about the Protocol Information Office. | Information for researchers about developing, reporting, and managing NCI-funded
inherited orphan retinal degenerative diseases and dry age-related macular degeneration (AMD) through the conduct of clinical trials and other...design and conduct of effective and efficient clinical trials for inherited orphan retinal degenerative diseases and dry AMD; • Limited number and...linica l trial in the NEER network for autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa, and the ProgSTAR studies for Stargardt disease ) . As new interventions b
C. A. Caramori
Scientific development that has been achieved through decades finds in clinical research a great possibility of translating findings to human health application. Evidence given by clinical trials allows everyone to have access to the best health services. However, the millionaire world of pharmaceutical industries has stained clinical research with doubt and improbability. Study results (fruits of controlled clinical trials) and scientific publications (selective, manipulated and with wrong c...
Maninder Singh Setia
Full Text Available In a clinical trial, study participants are (usually divided into two groups. One group is then given the intervention and the other group is not given the intervention (or may be given some existing standard of care. We compare the outcomes in these groups and assess the role of intervention. Some of the trial designs are (1 parallel study design, (2 cross-over design, (3 factorial design, and (4 withdrawal group design. The trials can also be classified according to the stage of the trial (Phase I, II, III, and IV or the nature of the trial (efficacy vs. effectiveness trials, superiority vs. equivalence trials. Randomization is one of the procedures by which we allocate different interventions to the groups. It ensures that all the included participants have a specified probability of being allocated to either of the groups in the intervention study. If participants and the investigator know about the allocation of the intervention, then it is called an "open trial." However, many of the trials are not open - they are blinded. Blinding is useful to minimize bias in clinical trials. The researcher should familiarize themselves with the CONSORT statement and the appropriate Clinical Trials Registry of India.
Setia, Maninder Singh
In a clinical trial, study participants are (usually) divided into two groups. One group is then given the intervention and the other group is not given the intervention (or may be given some existing standard of care). We compare the outcomes in these groups and assess the role of intervention. Some of the trial designs are (1) parallel study design, (2) cross-over design, (3) factorial design, and (4) withdrawal group design. The trials can also be classified according to the stage of the trial (Phase I, II, III, and IV) or the nature of the trial (efficacy vs. effectiveness trials, superiority vs. equivalence trials). Randomization is one of the procedures by which we allocate different interventions to the groups. It ensures that all the included participants have a specified probability of being allocated to either of the groups in the intervention study. If participants and the investigator know about the allocation of the intervention, then it is called an "open trial." However, many of the trials are not open - they are blinded. Blinding is useful to minimize bias in clinical trials. The researcher should familiarize themselves with the CONSORT statement and the appropriate Clinical Trials Registry of India.
Garner, John B; Grayburn, Paul A; Yancy, Clyde W
Each year, a number of clinical trials emerge with data sufficient to change clinical practice. Determining which findings will result in practice change and which will provide only incremental benefit can be a dilemma for clinicians. The authors review selected clinical trials reported in 2010 in journals, at society meetings, and at conferences, focusing on those studies that have the potential to change clinical practice. This review offers 3 separate means of analysis: an abbreviated text summary, organized by subject area; a comprehensive table of relevant clinical trials that provides a schematic review of the hypotheses, interventions, methods, primary end points, results, and implications; and a complete bibliography for further reading as warranted. It is hoped that this compilation of relevant clinical trials and their important findings released in 2010 will be of benefit in the everyday practice of cardiovascular medicine. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Woodsong, Cynthia; MacQueen, Kathleen; Amico, K Rivet; Friedland, Barbara; Gafos, Mitzy; Mansoor, Leila; Tolley, Elizabether; McCormack, Sheena
After two decades of microbicide clinical trials it remains uncertain if vaginally- delivered products will be clearly shown to reduce the risk of HIV infection in women and girls. Furthermore, a microbicide product with demonstrated clinical efficacy must be used correctly and consistently if it is to prevent infection. Information on adherence that can be gleaned from microbicide trials is relevant for future microbicide safety and efficacy trials, pre-licensure implementation trials, Phase IV post-marketing research, and microbicide introduction and delivery. Drawing primarily from data and experience that has emerged from the large-scale microbicide efficacy trials completed to-date, the paper identifies six broad areas of adherence lessons learned: (1) Adherence measurement in clinical trials, (2) Comprehension of use instructions/Instructions for use, (3) Unknown efficacy and its effect on adherence/Messages regarding effectiveness, (4) Partner influence on use, (5) Retention and continuation and (6) Generalizability of trial participants' adherence behavior. Each is discussed, with examples provided from microbicide trials. For each of these adherence topics, recommendations are provided for using trial findings to prepare for future microbicide safety and efficacy trials, Phase IV post-marketing research, and microbicide introduction and delivery programs.
Arvay, C A
Over the years, clinical trials with their structured treatment plans and multicenter involvement have been instrumental in developing new treatments and establishing standard of care therapy. While clinical trials strive to advance medical knowledge, they provide scientifically sound, state of the art care and their use should be increased. The Brain Tumor Cooperative Group, one such NCI-sponsored cooperative group, has been the primary group for the treatment of malignant gliomas. As the field of neuro-oncology expands, the neuroscience nurse needs to develop an understanding of clinical trials and their operation. The nurse is in an optimal position to support medical research and the research participant.
economic and political imperatives surrounding randomised controlled trials and the ambiguous, or even ..... the medicinal properties of the plant, as reported both in the book, and also in the .... London, UK: Harvard University Press. Latour, B.
Entwistle Vikki A
Full Text Available Abstract Background Publicly funded clinical trials require a substantial commitment of time and money. To ensure that sufficient numbers of patients are recruited it is essential that they address important questions in a rigorous manner and are managed well, adopting effective marketing strategies. Methods Using methods of analysis drawn from management studies, this paper presents a structured assessment framework or reference model, derived from a case analysis of the MRC's CRASH trial, of 12 factors that may affect the success of the marketing and sales activities associated with clinical trials. Results The case study demonstrates that trials need various categories of people to buy in – hence, to be successful, trialists must embrace marketing strategies to some extent. Conclusion The performance of future clinical trials could be enhanced if trialists routinely considered these factors.
Francis, David; Roberts, Ian; Elbourne, Diana R; Shakur, Haleema; Knight, Rosemary C; Garcia, Jo; Snowdon, Claire; Entwistle, Vikki A; McDonald, Alison M; Grant, Adrian M; Campbell, Marion K
Publicly funded clinical trials require a substantial commitment of time and money. To ensure that sufficient numbers of patients are recruited it is essential that they address important questions in a rigorous manner and are managed well, adopting effective marketing strategies. Using methods of analysis drawn from management studies, this paper presents a structured assessment framework or reference model, derived from a case analysis of the MRC's CRASH trial, of 12 factors that may affect the success of the marketing and sales activities associated with clinical trials. The case study demonstrates that trials need various categories of people to buy in - hence, to be successful, trialists must embrace marketing strategies to some extent. The performance of future clinical trials could be enhanced if trialists routinely considered these factors.
Fitzgerald, G K; Hinman, R S; Zeni, J; Risberg, M A; Snyder-Mackler, L; Bennell, K L
A Task Force of the Osteoarthritis Research Society International (OARSI) has previously published a set of guidelines for the conduct of clinical trials in osteoarthritis (OA) of the hip and knee. Limited material available on clinical trials of rehabilitation in people with OA has prompted OARSI to establish a separate Task Force to elaborate guidelines encompassing special issues relating to rehabilitation of OA. The Task Force identified three main categories of rehabilitation clinical trials. The categories included non-operative rehabilitation trials, post-operative rehabilitation trials, and trials examining the effectiveness of devices (e.g., assistive devices, bracing, physical agents, electrical stimulation, etc.) that are used in rehabilitation of people with OA. In addition, the Task Force identified two main categories of outcomes in rehabilitation clinical trials, which include outcomes related to symptoms and function, and outcomes related to disease modification. The guidelines for rehabilitation clinical trials provided in this report encompass these main categories. The report provides guidelines for conducting and reporting on randomized clinical trials. The topics include considerations for entering patients into trials, issues related to conducting trials, considerations for selecting outcome measures, and recommendations for statistical analyses and reporting of results. The focus of the report is on rehabilitation trials for hip, knee and hand OA, however, we believe the content is broad enough that it could be applied to rehabilitation trials for other regions as well. Copyright © 2015 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hartgerink, C.H.J.; George, Stephen
Clinical trials are crucial in determining the effectiveness of treatments and directly affect clinical and policy decisions. These decisions are undermined if the data are problematic due to data fabrication or other errors. Researchers have worked on developing statistical methods to detect
Gustafsson, Finn; Atar, Dan; Pitt, Bertram
, in particular with respect to collaboration with the trial sponsor and to analytic pitfalls. The advantages of creating screening databases in conjunction with a given clinical trial are described; and finally, the potential for posttrial database studies to become a platform for training young scientists...
Full Text Available Jay JH Park,1 Kristian Thorlund,2,3 Edward J Mills2,3 1Department of Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada; 2Department of Health Research Methods, Evidence, and Impact (HEI, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada; 3The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, Seattle, WA, USA Abstract: Adaptive clinical trials are an innovative trial design aimed at reducing resources, decreasing time to completion and number of patients exposed to inferior interventions, and improving the likelihood of detecting treatment effects. The last decade has seen an increasing use of adaptive designs, particularly in drug development. They frequently differ importantly from conventional clinical trials as they allow modifications to key trial design components during the trial, as data is being collected, using preplanned decision rules. Adaptive designs have increased likelihood of complexity and also potential bias, so it is important to understand the common types of adaptive designs. Many clinicians and investigators may be unfamiliar with the design considerations for adaptive designs. Given their complexities, adaptive trials require an understanding of design features and sources of bias. Herein, we introduce some common adaptive design elements and biases and specifically address response adaptive randomization, sample size reassessment, Bayesian methods for adaptive trials, seamless trials, and adaptive enrichment using real examples. Keywords: adaptive designs, response adaptive randomization, sample size reassessment, Bayesian adaptive trials, seamless trials, adaptive enrichment
Chen, Ding-Geng; Peace, Karl E
.... Case studies demonstrate how to select the appropriate clinical trial data. The authors introduce the corresponding biostatistical analysis methods, followed by the step-by-step data analysis using R...
Adolescents, young adults, and the elderly lag far behind other age groups when it comes to enrolling in clinical trials. Their participation is critical to advancing effective therapies for these age groups.
Hróbjartsson, A; Boutron, I
Blinding, or "masking," is a crucial method for reducing bias in randomized clinical trials. In this paper, we review important methodological aspects of blinding, emphasizing terminology, reporting, bias mechanisms, empirical evidence, and the risk of unblinding. Theoretical considerations...
Jan 22, 2008 ... The US database, on the other hand, clearly identifies 172 ... operating within extended clinical trials R&D value chains. Companies often ... Source: CeSTII Survey Management and Results System internal database. Table III.
Reekie, J; Mocroft, A; J, Neaton
Since the introduction of combination antiretroviral therapy, there has been a decrease in both AIDS-defining illnesses and deaths. This decrease meant that performing clinical trials with clinical outcomes in HIV infection became more time consuming and hence costly. Improved understanding...... the infection, so when treatment is started it is currently a lifelong commitment. Is it reasonable then that guidelines are based almost completely on short-term randomized trials and observational studies of surrogate markers, or is there still a need for trials with clinical outcomes?...
Prajna, N Venkatesh; Krishnan, Tiruvengada; Rajaraman, Revathi; Patel, Sushila; Srinivasan, Muthiah; Das, Manoranjan; Ray, Kathryn J; O'Brien, Kieran S; Oldenburg, Catherine E; McLeod, Stephen D; Zegans, Michael E; Porco, Travis C; Acharya, Nisha R; Lietman, Thomas M; Rose-Nussbaumer, Jennifer
To compare oral voriconazole with placebo in addition to topical antifungals in the treatment of filamentous fungal keratitis. The Mycotic Ulcer Treatment Trial II (MUTT II), a multicenter, double-masked, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial, was conducted in India and Nepal, with 2133 individuals screened for inclusion. Patients with smear-positive filamentous fungal ulcers and visual acuity of 20/400 (logMAR 1.3) or worse were randomized to receive oral voriconazole vs oral placebo; all participants received topical antifungal eyedrops. The study was conducted from May 24, 2010, to November 23, 2015. All trial end points were analyzed on an intent-to-treat basis. Study participants were randomized to receive oral voriconazole vs oral placebo; a voriconazole loading dose of 400 mg was administered twice daily for 24 hours, followed by a maintenance dose of 200 mg twice daily for 20 days, with dosing altered to weight based during the trial. All participants received topical voriconazole, 1%, and natamycin, 5%. The primary outcome of the trial was rate of corneal perforation or the need for therapeutic penetrating keratoplasty (TPK) within 3 months. Secondary outcomes included microbiologic cure at 6 days, rate of re-epithelialization, best-corrected visual acuity and infiltrate and/or scar size at 3 weeks and 3 months, and complication rates associated with voriconazole use. A total of 2133 patients in India and Nepal with smear-positive ulcers were screened; of the 787 who were eligible, 240 (30.5%) were enrolled. Of the 119 patients (49.6%) in the oral voriconazole treatment group, 65 were male (54.6%), and the median age was 54 years (interquartile range, 42-62 years). Overall, no difference in the rate of corneal perforation or the need for TPK was determined for oral voriconazole vs placebo (hazard ratio, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.57-1.18; P = .29). In prespecified subgroup analyses comparing treatment effects among organism subgroups, there was some
Reekie, J; Mocroft, A; J, Neaton
Since the introduction of combination antiretroviral therapy, there has been a decrease in both AIDS-defining illnesses and deaths. This decrease meant that performing clinical trials with clinical outcomes in HIV infection became more time consuming and hence costly. Improved understanding...... and knowledge of HIV led to short-term trials using surrogate outcomes such as viral load and CD4 count. This established a faster drug approval process that complimented the rapid need to evaluate and provide access to drugs based on short-term trials. However, no treatment has yet been found that eradicates...... the infection, so when treatment is started it is currently a lifelong commitment. Is it reasonable then that guidelines are based almost completely on short-term randomized trials and observational studies of surrogate markers, or is there still a need for trials with clinical outcomes?...
Oud, Johan; Ghidey, Wendimagegn
This book describes various ways of approaching and interpreting the data produced by clinical trial studies, with a special emphasis on the essential role that biostatistics plays in clinical trials. Over the past few decades the role of statistics in the evaluation and interpretation of clinical data has become of paramount importance. As a result the standards of clinical study design, conduct and interpretation have undergone substantial improvement. The book includes 18 carefully reviewed chapters on recent developments in clinical trials and their statistical evaluation, with each chapter providing one or more examples involving typical data sets, enabling readers to apply the proposed procedures. The chapters employ a uniform style to enhance comparability between the approaches.
Kaplan, Celia P
.... While inroads to increasing minority inclusion in breast cancer clinical trials have been made, recent reports continue to demonstrate lower enrollment among African Americans, Asian Americans...
Greenberg, Rachel G; Gamel, Breck; Bloom, Diane; Bradley, John; Jafri, Hasan S; Hinton, Denise; Nambiar, Sumathi; Wheeler, Chris; Tiernan, Rosemary; Smith, P Brian; Roberts, Jamie; Benjamin, Daniel K
Enrollment of children into pediatric clinical trials remains challenging. More effective strategies to improve recruitment of children into trials are needed. This study used in-depth qualitative interviews with parents who were approached to enroll their children in a clinical trial in order to gain an understanding of the barriers to pediatric clinical trial participation. Twenty-four parents whose children had been offered the opportunity to participate in a clinical trial were interviewed: 19 whose children had participated in at least 1 clinical trial and 5 who had declined participation in any trial. Each study aspect, from the initial explanation of the study to the end of the study, can affect the willingness of parents to consent to the proposed study and future studies. Establishing trust, appropriate timing, a transparent discussion of risks and benefits oriented to the layperson, and providing motivation for children to participate were key factors that impacted parents' decisions. In order for clinical trial accrual to be successful, parents' priorities and considerations must be a central focus, beginning with initial trial design. The recommendations from the parents who participated in this study can be used to support budget allocations that ensure adequate training of study staff and improved staffing on nights and weekends. Studies of parent responses in outpatient settings and additional inpatient settings will provide valuable information on the consent process from the child's and parent's perspectives. Further studies are needed to explore whether implementation of such strategies will result in improved recruitment for pediatric clinical trials.
Patient engagement is an increasingly important aspect of successful clinical trials. Over the past decade, as patient group involvement in clinical trials has continued to increase and diversify, the Clinical Trials Transformation Initiative has not only recognized the crucial role patients play in improving the clinical trial enterprise but also made a deep commitment to help grow and shape the emerging field of patient engagement. This article describes the evolution of patient engagement including the origins of the patient engagement movement; barriers to successful engagement and remaining challenges to full and valuable collaboration between patient groups and trial sponsors; and Clinical Trials Transformation Initiative's role in influencing the field through organizational practices, formal project work and resulting recommendations, and external advocacy efforts.
Witsell, David L; Schulz, Kristine A; Lee, Walter T; Chiswell, Karen
To describe the conditions studied, interventions used, study characteristics, and funding sources of otolaryngology clinical trials from the ClinicalTrials.gov database; compare this otolaryngology cohort of interventional studies to clinical visits in a health care system; and assess agreement between clinical trials and clinical activity. Database analysis. Trial registration data downloaded from ClinicalTrials.gov and administrative data from the Duke University Medical Center from October 1, 2007 to September 27, 2010. Data extraction from ClinicalTrials.gov was done using MeSH and non-MeSH disease condition terms. Studies were subcategorized to create the following groupings for descriptive analysis: ear, nose, allergy, voice, sleep, head and neck cancer, thyroid, and throat. Duke Health System visits were queried by using selected ICD-9 codes for otolaryngology and non-otolaryngology providers. Visits were grouped similarly to ClinicalTrials.gov for further analysis. Chi-square tests were used to explore differences between groups. A total of 1115 of 40,970 registered interventional trials were assigned to otolaryngology. Head and neck cancer trials predominated. Study models most frequently incorporated parallel design (54.6%), 2 study groups (46.6%), and randomization (69.1%). Phase 2 or 3 studies constituted 46.4% of the cohort. Comparison of the ClinicalTrials.gov database with administrative health system visit data by disease condition showed discordance between national research activity and clinical visit volume for patients with otolaryngology complaints. Analysis of otolaryngology-related clinical research as listed in ClinicalTrials.gov can inform patients, physicians, and policy makers about research focus areas. The relative burden of otolaryngology-associated conditions in our tertiary health system exceeds research activity within the field.
Plétan, Yannick; Zannad, Faïez; Jaillon, Patrice
Be it to restore the confused image of clinical research in relation to the lay public, or to develop new ways of accruing healthy volunteers or patients for clinical trials, there is a need to draft some guidance on how best to provide information on research. Although the French legal and regulatory armamentarium in this area is essentially liberal, there is currently little-justified reluctance among study sponsors to advertise publicly. A group of academic and pharmaceutical industry researchers, assembled for a workshop, together with regulators, journalists, representatives from ethics committees, social security, patient and health consumer groups and other French institutional bodies, has suggested the following series of recommendations: there is no need for additional legal or regulatory constraints; sponsors should be aware of and make use of direct public information on trials; a 'good practice charter' on public communication about clinical trials should be developed; all professionals should be involved in this communication platform; communication in the patient's immediate vicinity should be preferred (primary-care physician, local press); clinical databases and websites accessible to professionals, but also to patients and non-professionals, should be developed; genuine instruction on clinical trials for physicians and health professionals unfamiliar with such trials should be developed and disseminated; media groups should receive at least some training in the fundamentals of clinical research.
Hussain-Gambles, M; Leese, B; Atkin, K; Brown, J; Mason, S; Tovey, P
To investigate how South Asian patients conceptualise the notion of clinical trials and to identify key processes that impact on trial participation and the extent to which communication difficulties, perceptions of risk and attitudes to authority influence these decisions. Also to identify whether 'South Asian' patients are homogeneous in these issues, and which factors differ between different South Asian subgroups and finally how professionals regard the involvement of South Asian patients and their views on strategies to increase participation. A review of the literature on minority ethnic participation in clinical trials was followed by three qualitative interview studies. Interviews were taped and transcribed (and translated if required) and subjected to framework analysis. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with 25 health professionals; 60 South Asian lay people who had not taken part in a trial and 15 South Asian trial participants. Motivations for trial participation were identified as follows: to help society, to improve own health or that of family and friends, out of obligation to the doctor and to increase scientific knowledge. Deterrents were concerns about drug side-effects, busy lifestyles, language, previous bad experiences, mistrust and feelings of not belonging to British society. There was no evidence of antipathy amongst South Asians to the concept of clinical trials and, overall, the younger respondents were more knowledgeable than the older ones. Problems are more likely to be associated with service delivery. Lack of being approached was a common response. Lay-reported factors that might affect South Asian participation in clinical trials include age, language, social class, feeling of not belonging/mistrust, culture and religion. Awareness of clinical trials varied between each group. There are more similarities than differences in attitudes towards clinical trial participation between the South Asian and the general population
Quality of clinical trials depends on data integrity and subject protection. Globalization, outsourcing and increasing complexicity of clinical trials have made the target of achieving global quality challenging. The quality, as judged by regulatory inspections of the investigator sites, sponsors/contract research organizations and Institutional Review Board, has been of concern to the US Food and Drug Administration, as there has been hardly any change in frequency and nature of common deficiencies. To meet the regulatory expectations, the sponsors need to improve quality by developing systems with specific standards for each clinical trial process. The quality systems include: personnel roles and responsibilities, training, policies and procedures, quality assurance and auditing, document management, record retention, and reporting and corrective and preventive action. With an objective to improve quality, the FDA has planned new inspection approaches such as risk-based inspections, surveillance inspections, real-time oversight, and audit of sponsor quality systems. The FDA has partnered with Duke University for Clinical Trials Transformation Initiative, which will conduct research projects on design principles, data quality and quantity including monitoring, study start-up, and adverse event reporting. These recent initiatives will go a long way in improving quality of clinical trials. PMID:22145122
Full Text Available Quality of clinical trials depends on data integrity and subject protection. Globalization, outsourcing and increasing complexicity of clinical trials have made the target of achieving global quality challenging. The quality, as judged by regulatory inspections of the investigator sites, sponsors/contract research organizations and Institutional Review Board, has been of concern to the US Food and Drug Administration, as there has been hardly any change in frequency and nature of common deficiencies. To meet the regulatory expectations, the sponsors need to improve quality by developing systems with specific standards for each clinical trial process. The quality systems include: personnel roles and responsibilities, training, policies and procedures, quality assurance and auditing, document management, record retention, and reporting and corrective and preventive action. With an objective to improve quality, the FDA has planned new inspection approaches such as risk-based inspections, surveillance inspections, real-time oversight, and audit of sponsor quality systems. The FDA has partnered with Duke University for Clinical Trials Transformation Initiative, which will conduct research projects on design principles, data quality and quantity including monitoring, study start-up, and adverse event reporting. These recent initiatives will go a long way in improving quality of clinical trials.
Matsumoto, Yukihiro; Ohashi, Yuichi; Watanabe, Hitoshi; Tsubota, Kazuo
To investigate the dose-dependent efficacy and safety of diquafosol ophthalmic solution for the treatment of dry eye syndrome. Randomized, double-masked, multicenter, parallel-group, placebo-controlled trial. A total of 286 Japanese patients with dry eye who were prescribed topical diquafosol (1%, n = 96; 3%, n = 96) or placebo ophthalmic solution (n = 94). After a washout period of 2 weeks, qualified subjects were randomized to receive a single drop of 1% or 3% diquafosol or placebo ophthalmic solutions 6 times per day for 6 weeks. The primary outcome measure was fluorescein corneal staining score assessment. The secondary outcome measures were Rose Bengal corneal and conjunctival staining scores, tear break-up time (BUT), and subjective symptom assessment. Safety measures were clinical blood and urine examination and recording of adverse events. Fluorescein corneal staining scores significantly improved with both 1% and 3% topical diquafosol compared with placebo at 4 weeks, respectively (P = 0.037, P = 0.002). There was a dose-dependent effect among the groups. Rose Bengal corneal and conjunctival staining scores also improved significantly with both 1% and 3% diquafosol compared with placebo (P = 0.007 and P = 0.004, respectively). Subjective dry eye symptom scores significantly improved with both diquafosol ophthalmic solutions (P ≤ 0.033), although there were no significant differences in BUT compared with placebo. No significant differences between the treatment groups were observed in relation to the occurrence of adverse events. Both 1% and 3% diquafosol ophthalmic solutions are considered effective and safe for the treatment of dry eye syndrome. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Indrio, Flavia; Di Mauro, Antonio; Riezzo, Giuseppe; Civardi, Elisa; Intini, Cristina; Corvaglia, Luigi; Ballardini, Elisa; Bisceglia, Massimo; Cinquetti, Mauro; Brazzoduro, Emanuela; Del Vecchio, Antonio; Tafuri, Silvio; Francavilla, Ruggiero
Infantile colic, gastroesophageal reflux, and constipation are the most common functional gastrointestinal disorders that lead to referral to a pediatrician during the first 6 months of life and are often responsible for hospitalization, feeding changes, use of drugs, parental anxiety, and loss of parental working days with relevant social consequences. To investigate whether oral supplementation with Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 during the first 3 months of life can reduce the onset of colic, gastroesophageal reflux, and constipation in term newborns and thereby reduce the socioeconomic impact of these conditions. A prospective, multicenter, double-masked, placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial was performed on term newborns (age hospitalizations, visits to a pediatric emergency department for a perceived health emergency, pharmacologic interventions, and loss of parental working days. In total, 589 infants were randomly allocated to receive L reuteri DSM 17938 or placebo daily for 90 days. Prophylactic use of probiotic. Reduction of daily crying time, regurgitation, and constipation during the first 3 months of life. Cost-benefit analysis of the probiotic supplementation. At 3 months of age, the mean duration of crying time (38 vs 71 minutes; P < .01), the mean number of regurgitations per day (2.9 vs 4.6; P < .01), and the mean number of evacuations per day (4.2 vs 3.6; P < .01) for the L reuteri DSM 17938 and placebo groups, respectively, were significantly different. The use of L reuteri DSM 17938 resulted in an estimated mean savings per patient of €88 (US $118.71) for the family and an additional €104 (US $140.30) for the community. Prophylactic use of L reuteri DSM 17938 during the first 3 months of life reduced the onset of functional gastrointestinal disorders and reduced private and public costs for the management of this condition. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01235884.
Entwistle Vikki A; Snowdon Claire; Garcia Jo; Knight Rosemary C; Shakur Haleema; Elbourne Diana R; Roberts Ian; Francis David; McDonald Alison M; Grant Adrian M; Campbell Marion K
Abstract Background Publicly funded clinical trials require a substantial commitment of time and money. To ensure that sufficient numbers of patients are recruited it is essential that they address important questions in a rigorous manner and are managed well, adopting effective marketing strategies. Methods Using methods of analysis drawn from management studies, this paper presents a structured assessment framework or reference model, derived from a case analysis of the MRC's CRASH trial, o...
Logemann, Jeri A
Randomized clinical trials (RCTs) are often known as the gold standard in treatment efficacy studies. This article defines the characteristics of RCTs and the factors that investigators must consider in designing clinical trials in dysphagia. Design issues unique to behavioral treatments often used in dysphagia are discussed. Ongoing RCTs in dysphagia are described including studies of (1) the effectiveness of the Shaker exercise versus standardized treatment in patients with severe dysphagia resulting from stroke or treatment for head and neck cancer who have been nonoral for at least three months; (2) the comparative effects of nectar- and honey-thickened liquids versus chin tuck posture and in patients with dementia or Parkinson's disease with or without dementia who aspirate on thin liquids; and (3) the comparative effects of muscle exercise versus sensory postural therapy for dysphagia resulting from treatment for head and neck cancer. Issues in generalizing from the results of clinical trials are also described.
Del Parigi, Angelo
The quality of the clinical data supporting the development and ultimately the approval for medical use of new drugs is often challenged. Many share the perception that the business goals of the pharmaceutical industry overrule the best scientific efforts to accrue critical knowledge on a new molecule, in order to inform investment of resources, regulatory approvals and appropriate use by patients. Despite this common belief, few scientists have attempted to assess objectively the quality of industry funded (IF) clinical trials by measuring it and comparing it with non-industry funded (NIF) clinical trials in a data-driven fashion. Overall, the average quality of IF clinical research has been reported to be higher than the quality of NIF clinical research.
Mestan, Karen K; Ilkhanoff, Leonard; Mouli, Samdeep; Lin, Simon
Abstract Human genome sequencing is the process by which the exact order of nucleic acid base pairs in the 24 human chromosomes is determined. Since the completion of the Human Genome Project in 2003, genomic sequencing is rapidly becoming a major part of our translational research efforts to understand and improve human health and disease. This article reviews the current and future directions of clinical research with respect to genomic sequencing, a technology that is just beginning to fin...
Research has established the principle of hormonal male contraception based on suppression of gonadotropins and spermatogenesis. All hormonal male contraceptives use testosterone, but only in East Asian men can testosterone alone suppress spermatogenesis to a level compatible with contraceptive protection. In Caucasians, additional agents are required of which progestins are favored. Clinical trials concentrate on testosterone combined with norethisterone, desogestrel, etonogestrel or depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate. The first randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial performed by the pharmaceutical industry demonstrated the effectiveness of a combination of testosterone undecanoate and etonogestrel in suppressing spermatogenesis in volunteers. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Abbas, Ismail; Rovira, Joan; Casanovas, Josep
The patient recruitment process of clinical trials is an essential element which needs to be designed properly. In this paper we describe different simulation models under continuous and discrete time assumptions for the design of recruitment in clinical trials. The results of hypothetical examples of clinical trial recruitments are presented. The recruitment time is calculated and the number of recruited patients is quantified for a given time and probability of recruitment. The expected delay and the effective recruitment durations are estimated using both continuous and discrete time modeling. The proposed type of Monte Carlo simulation Markov models will enable optimization of the recruitment process and the estimation and the calibration of its parameters to aid the proposed clinical trials. A continuous time simulation may minimize the duration of the recruitment and, consequently, the total duration of the trial.
Full Text Available Abstract T cell therapy represents an emerging and promising modality for the treatment of both infectious disease and cancer. Data from recent clinical trials have highlighted the potential for this therapeutic modality to effect potent anti-tumor activity. Biomarkers, operationally defined as biological parameters measured from patients that provide information about treatment impact, play a central role in the development of novel therapeutic agents. In the absence of information about primary clinical endpoints, biomarkers can provide critical insights that allow investigators to guide the clinical development of the candidate product. In the context of cell therapy trials, the definition of biomarkers can be extended to include a description of parameters of the cell product that are important for product bioactivity. This review will focus on biomarker studies as they relate to T cell therapy trials, and more specifically: i. An overview and description of categories and classes of biomarkers that are specifically relevant to T cell therapy trials, and ii. Insights into future directions and challenges for the appropriate development of biomarkers to evaluate both product bioactivity and treatment efficacy of T cell therapy trials.
A Zimmerman, T Duong, J Florence and the CINRG Investigators. Pulmonary Function Characteristics of Boys with Duchenne and Becker Muscular Dystrophy ...designated CINRG site staff 1. Has the participant been clinically diagnosed with Limb-Girdle or Becker muscular dystrophy ? LGMD BMD 2. Was...Number: W81XWH-09-1-0592 TITLE: CINRG: Infrastructure for Clinical Trials in Duchenne Dystrophy PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Avital Cnaan, PhD
Geller, Nancy L; Kim, Dong-Yun; Tian, Xin
This article describes the use of smart technology by investigators and patients to facilitate lung disease clinical trials and make them less costly and more efficient. By "smart technology" we include various electronic media, such as computer databases, the Internet, and mobile devices. We first describe the use of electronic health records for identifying potential subjects and then discuss electronic informed consent. We give several examples of using the Internet and mobile technology in clinical trials. Interventions have been delivered via the World Wide Web or via mobile devices, and both have been used to collect outcome data. We discuss examples of new electronic devices that recently have been introduced to collect health data. While use of smart technology in clinical trials is an exciting development, comparison with similar interventions applied in a conventional manner is still in its infancy. We discuss advantages and disadvantages of using this omnipresent, powerful tool in clinical trials, as well as directions for future research. Published by Elsevier Inc.
New treatments for lung cancer and aspects of joining a clinical trial are discussed in this 30-minute Facebook Live event, hosted by NCI’s Dr. Shakun Malik, head of thoracic oncology therapeutics, and Janet Freeman-Daily, lung cancer patient activist and founding member of #LCSM.
Malmstrom, Kerstin; Peszek, Iza; Al Botto; Lu, Susan; Enright, Paul L; Reiss, Theodore F
Accuracy and repeatability of spirometry measurements are essential to obtain reliable efficacy data in randomized asthma clinical trials. We report our experience with a centralized spirometry quality assurance program that we implemented in our phase III asthma trials. Six asthma trials of 4 to 21 weeks in duration were conducted at 232 clinical centers in 31 countries. Approximately 23,100 prebronchodilator and 13,700 postbronchodilator spirometry tests were collected from 2523 adult and 336 pediatric asthmatic patients. The program used a standard spirometer (the Renaissance spirometry system) with maneuver quality messages and automated quality grading of the spirometry tests. Each clinical center transmitted spirometry data weekly to a central database, where uniform monitoring of data quality was performed and feedback was provided in weekly quality reports. Seventy-nine percent of all patients performed spirometry sessions with quality that either met or exceeded American Thoracic Society standards and improved over time. Good-quality spirometry was associated with (1) less severe asthma; (2) active treatment; (3) infrequent nocturnal awakenings; (4) age above 15 years; and (5) low body weight. Maneuver-induced bronchospasm was rare. Good-quality spirometry was observed in multicenter asthma clinical trials that employed a standard spirometer and continuous monitoring. Both within- and between-patient variability decreased. Spirometry quality improved with time as study participants and technicians gained experience.
Jan 22, 2008 ... companies to manufacture pharmaceuticals, 24 to carry out quality control and ... represents a 3% real growth from 2004/2005, it represents a slight decline from ... manufacturer for the pharmas, or can it leverage strengths in medical ... increased clinical trials activity, R&D investment is too low to make it a ...
Multinational pharmaceutical companies ('pharmas') import and produce pharmaceuticals and also conduct clinical trials which are an important aspect of research and development (R&D). This may raise the question: Is South Africa a guinea pig for the pharmas? The Department of Trade and Industry National Industrial ...
Viergever Roderik F
Full Text Available Abstract Information on blinding is part of the data that should be provided upon registration of a trial at a clinical trials registry. Reporting of blinding is often absent or of low quality in published articles of clinical trials. This study researched the presence and quality of information on blinding in registered records of clinical trials and highlights the important role of data-recording formats at clinical trial registries in ensuring high-quality registration.
Meeker-O'Connell, Ann; Glessner, Coleen
Over the past decade, clinical trial quality has evolved from an after-the-fact, reactive activity to one focused on the important work of evidence generation from well-designed trials. This article explores the role the Clinical Trials Transformation Initiative has played in advancing quality as a core element of clinical trial design, through project work that initially focused on monitoring but evolved into a holistic, prospective, and comprehensive quality by design approach to clinical trial design and conduct.
Cihoric, Nikola; Tsikkinis, Alexandros; Miguelez, Cristina Gutierrez; Strnad, Vratislav; Soldatovic, Ivan; Ghadjar, Pirus; Jeremic, Branislav; Dal Pra, Alan; Aebersold, Daniel M; Lössl, Kristina
To evaluate the current status of prospective interventional clinical trials that includes brachytherapy (BT) procedures. The records of 175,538 (100 %) clinical trials registered at ClinicalTrials.gov were downloaded on September 2014 and a database was established. Trials using BT as an intervention were identified for further analyses. The selected trials were manually categorized according to indication(s), BT source, applied dose rate, primary sponsor type, location, protocol initiator and funding source. We analyzed trials across 8 available trial protocol elements registered within the database. In total 245 clinical trials were identified, 147 with BT as primary investigated treatment modality and 98 that included BT as an optional treatment component or as part of the standard treatment. Academic centers were the most frequent protocol initiators in trials where BT was the primary investigational treatment modality (p < 0.01). High dose rate (HDR) BT was the most frequently investigated type of BT dose rate (46.3 %) followed by low dose rate (LDR) (42.0 %). Prostate was the most frequently investigated tumor entity in trials with BT as the primary treatment modality (40.1 %) followed by breast cancer (17.0 %). BT was rarely the primary investigated treatment modality for cervical cancer (6.8 %). Most clinical trials using BT are predominantly in early phases, investigator-initiated and with low accrual numbers. Current investigational activities that include BT mainly focus on prostate and breast cancers. Important questions concerning the optimal usage of BT will not be answered in the near future.
Cihoric, Nikola; Tsikkinis, Alexandros; Miguelez, Cristina Gutierrez; Strnad, Vratislav; Soldatovic, Ivan; Ghadjar, Pirus; Jeremic, Branislav; Dal Pra, Alan; Aebersold, Daniel M.; Lössl, Kristina
To evaluate the current status of prospective interventional clinical trials that includes brachytherapy (BT) procedures. The records of 175,538 (100 %) clinical trials registered at ClinicalTrials.gov were downloaded on September 2014 and a database was established. Trials using BT as an intervention were identified for further analyses. The selected trials were manually categorized according to indication(s), BT source, applied dose rate, primary sponsor type, location, protocol initiator and funding source. We analyzed trials across 8 available trial protocol elements registered within the database. In total 245 clinical trials were identified, 147 with BT as primary investigated treatment modality and 98 that included BT as an optional treatment component or as part of the standard treatment. Academic centers were the most frequent protocol initiators in trials where BT was the primary investigational treatment modality (p < 0.01). High dose rate (HDR) BT was the most frequently investigated type of BT dose rate (46.3 %) followed by low dose rate (LDR) (42.0 %). Prostate was the most frequently investigated tumor entity in trials with BT as the primary treatment modality (40.1 %) followed by breast cancer (17.0 %). BT was rarely the primary investigated treatment modality for cervical cancer (6.8 %). Most clinical trials using BT are predominantly in early phases, investigator-initiated and with low accrual numbers. Current investigational activities that include BT mainly focus on prostate and breast cancers. Important questions concerning the optimal usage of BT will not be answered in the near future. The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s13014-016-0624-8) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users
Koch, H J; Raschka, C
Clinical trials in volunteers and patients are essential to ensure rational treatment of patients. As a rule, drugs are routinely developed for adults, but children are excluded. A major reason for this restriction are ethical justifications, in particular the lack of autonomy on the part of children. The principle of fairness, however, requires that everyone should benefit from progress. Industry, science and society are therefore called upon to find ways of making available safe and adequate treatment for children as quickly as possible, by defining the required conditions for pediatric clinical trials. Important principles are minimal risk, minimal invasivity, rapid decision-making, and careful documentation of trial results. Dynamic ethical principles, such as autonomy and competence in adolescents must be considered on equal footing with existing international GCP guidelines. Aspects of child psychology indicate that the autonomy of adolescents should be respected. Where economic incentives for such trials are absent, for example, in the case of non-pharmacological problems, pediatric trials must be considered a task for society as a whole.
Hideghety, K.; Moss, R.; Vries, M. de
Due to ethical reasons, a separated optimization of the two components of BNCT in the frame of clinical investigations can only be performed applying the whole binary system. The ongoing trial at HFR (High Flux Reactor Petten) has proven the feasibility of BNCT under defined conditions. On that basis the European Commission supported a comprehensive research project on boron imaging including three further clinical studies. In the first trial the boron uptake related to the blood boron concentration and surrounding normal tissue in various solid tumours will be examined using BSH (Sodiumborocaptate), BPA (Boronophenylalanine) or both in order to explore tumour entities, which may gain benefit from BNCT. The major objectives of the second trial are to define the maximum tolerated single and cumulative dose, and the dose limiting toxicity of BSH. The third clinical trial, a phase II study is designed to evaluate the anti-tumour effect of fractionated BNCT at the Petten treatment facility against cerebral metastasis of malignant melanoma using BPA. (author)
Rosa, Carmen; Campbell, Aimee N C; Miele, Gloria M; Brunner, Meg; Winstanley, Erin L
Clinical trials have been slow to incorporate e-technology (digital and electronic technology that utilizes mobile devices or the Internet) into the design and execution of studies. In the meantime, individuals and corporations are relying more on electronic platforms and most have incorporated such technology into their daily lives. This paper provides a general overview of the use of e-technologies in clinical trials research, specifically within the last decade, marked by rapid growth of mobile and Internet-based tools. Benefits of and challenges to the use of e-technologies in data collection, recruitment and retention, delivery of interventions, and dissemination are provided, as well as a description of the current status of regulatory oversight of e-technologies in clinical trials research. As an example of ways in which e-technologies can be used for intervention delivery, a summary of e-technologies for treatment of substance use disorders is presented. Using e-technologies to design and implement clinical trials has the potential to reach a wide audience, making trials more efficient while also reducing costs; however, researchers should be cautious when adopting these tools given the many challenges in using new technologies, as well as threats to participant privacy/confidentiality. Challenges of using e-technologies can be overcome with careful planning, useful partnerships, and forethought. The role of web- and smartphone-based applications is expanding, and the increasing use of those platforms by scientists and the public alike make them tools that cannot be ignored. Published by Elsevier Inc.
McGraw, Deven; Greene, Sarah M; Miner, Caroline S; Staman, Karen L; Welch, Mary Jane; Rubel, Alan
With pragmatic clinical trials, an opportunity exists to answer important questions about the relative risks, burdens, and benefits of therapeutic interventions. However, concerns about protecting the privacy of this information are significant and must be balanced with the imperative to learn from the data gathered in routine clinical practice. Traditional privacy protections for research uses of identifiable information rely disproportionately on informed consent or authorizations, based on a presumption that this is necessary to fulfill ethical principles of respect for persons. But frequently, the ideal of informed consent is not realized in its implementation. Moreover, the principle of respect for persons—which encompasses their interests in health information privacy—can be honored through other mechanisms. Data anonymization also plays a role in protecting privacy but is not suitable for all research, particularly pragmatic clinical trials. In this article, we explore both the ethical foundation and regulatory framework intended to protect privacy in pragmatic clinical trials. We then review examples of novel approaches to respecting persons in research that may have the added benefit of honoring patient privacy considerations. © The Author(s) 2015.
Martinez, Diego A; Tsalatsanis, Athanasios; Yalcin, Ali; Zayas-Castro, José L; Djulbegovic, Benjamin
The administrative process associated with clinical trial activation has been criticized as costly, complex, and time-consuming. Prior research has concentrated on identifying administrative barriers and proposing various solutions to reduce activation time, and consequently associated costs. Here, we expand on previous research by incorporating social network analysis and discrete-event simulation to support process improvement decision-making. We searched for all operational data associated with the administrative process of activating industry-sponsored clinical trials at the Office of Clinical Research of the University of South Florida in Tampa, Florida. We limited the search to those trials initiated and activated between July 2011 and June 2012. We described the process using value stream mapping, studied the interactions of the various process participants using social network analysis, and modeled potential process modifications using discrete-event simulation. The administrative process comprised 5 sub-processes, 30 activities, 11 decision points, 5 loops, and 8 participants. The mean activation time was 76.6 days. Rate-limiting sub-processes were those of contract and budget development. Key participants during contract and budget development were the Office of Clinical Research, sponsors, and the principal investigator. Simulation results indicate that slight increments on the number of trials, arriving to the Office of Clinical Research, would increase activation time by 11 %. Also, incrementing the efficiency of contract and budget development would reduce the activation time by 28 %. Finally, better synchronization between contract and budget development would reduce time spent on batching documentation; however, no improvements would be attained in total activation time. The presented process improvement analytic framework not only identifies administrative barriers, but also helps to devise and evaluate potential improvement scenarios. The strength
Beach, J E
When contract research organizations (CROs) were first formed, pharmaceutical companies outsourced to them only certain aspects of the conduct of their clinical trials. At first CROs were highly specialized entities, providing, for example, either biostatistical advice, clinical research associates who monitored investigational sites for regulatory compliance, or regulatory support. Gradually, full service CROs emerged, offering a full range of services for clinical trials, including the selection of investigators and investigational sites, assistance with patient recruitment, safety surveillance and reporting, site audits, and data management and biostatistics. This evolving relationship between CROs and the pharmaceutical and medical device industries has resulted in CROs assuming more and more of the regulatory and ethical risks and responsibilities inherent in the conduct of clinical trials. In this full service role, CROs, unlike sponsors, are not interested in the outcome of study, but like sponsors, are subject to heavy regulation by the federal government, must follow applicable state laws, must respect international guidelines, and are obliged to follow their own operating procedures. Moreover, they are judged by the industry on the basis of the scope and quality of services provided, including the degree of adherence to the research protocol, regulatory requirements, and timelines; the quality of the professional working relationships with investigators and institutions, both academic and community-based; and the validity of the data. Further, CROs are subject to comprehensive audits by sponsoring companies, FDA, and other regulatory authorities. For all these reasons, CROs are being tasked with strict vigilance of all stages of the clinical trial process to ensure that the laws, regulations, and industry standards designed for the protection of human subjects and data integrity are maintained.
Dal-Ré, Rafael; Moher, David; Gluud, Christian
Rafael Dal-Ré and colleagues argue that the recruitment targets and performance of all site investigators in multi-centre clinical trials should be disclosed in trial registration sites before a trial starts, and when it ends.......Rafael Dal-Ré and colleagues argue that the recruitment targets and performance of all site investigators in multi-centre clinical trials should be disclosed in trial registration sites before a trial starts, and when it ends....
Huang, Grant D; Bull, Jonca; Johnston McKee, Kelly; Mahon, Elizabeth; Harper, Beth; Roberts, Jamie N
Patient recruitment is widely recognized as a key determinant of success for clinical trials. Yet a substantial number of trials fail to reach recruitment goals-a situation that has important scientific, financial, ethical, and policy implications. Further, there are important effects on stakeholders who directly contribute to the trial including investigators, sponsors, and study participants. Despite efforts over multiple decades to identify and address barriers, recruitment challenges persist. To advance a more comprehensive approach to trial recruitment, the Clinical Trials Transformation Initiative (CTTI) convened a project team to examine the challenges and to issue actionable, evidence-based recommendations for improving recruitment planning that extend beyond common study-specific strategies. We describe our multi-stakeholder effort to develop a framework that delineates three areas essential to strategic recruitment planning efforts: (1) trial design and protocol development, (2) trial feasibility and site selection, and (3) communication. Our recommendations propose an upstream approach to recruitment planning that has the potential to produce greater impact and reduce downstream barriers. Additionally, we offer tools to help facilitate adoption of the recommendations. We hope that our framework and recommendations will serve as a guide for initial efforts in clinical trial recruitment planning irrespective of disease or intervention focus, provide a common basis for discussions in this area and generate targets for further analysis and continual improvement. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Rachel G. Greenberg
In order for clinical trial accrual to be successful, parents' priorities and considerations must be a central focus, beginning with initial trial design. The recommendations from the parents who participated in this study can be used to support budget allocations that ensure adequate training of study staff and improved staffing on nights and weekends. Studies of parent responses in outpatient settings and additional inpatient settings will provide valuable information on the consent process from the child's and parent's perspectives. Further studies are needed to explore whether implementation of such strategies will result in improved recruitment for pediatric clinical trials.
Kiss, Daniel; Anwaruddin, Saif
With widespread adoption of transcatheter aortic valve replacement, there has been a change in the approach to management of valvular heart disease. New interest has taken hold in transcatheter therapies for valvular heart disease, as well as research into pathophysiology and progression of disease. Additionally, several key trials have further refined our understanding of surgical management of valvular heart disease. This review will elucidate recent clinical trial data leading to changes in practice. There have been several landmark trials expanding the indications for transcatheter aortic valve replacement. Additionally, although still early, trials are beginning to demonstrate the feasibility and safety of transcatheter mitral valves. Options for transcatheter management of right-sided valvular disease continue to evolve, and these are areas of active investigation. The emergence of novel therapies for valvular heart disease has expanded the management options available, allowing physicians to better individualize treatment of patients with valvular heart disease. This review will focus on the recent (within 2 years) trials in this field of interest.
Kloppenburg, M; Maheu, E; Kraus, V B; Cicuttini, F; Doherty, M; Dreiser, R-L; Henrotin, Y; Jiang, G-L; Mandl, L; Martel-Pelletier, J; Nelson, A E; Neogi, T; Pelletier, J-P; Punzi, L; Ramonda, R; Simon, L S; Wang, S
Hand osteoarthritis (OA) is a very frequent disease, but yet understudied. However, a lot of works have been published in the past 10 years, and much has been done to better understand its clinical course and structural progression. Despite this new knowledge, few therapeutic trials have been conducted in hand OA. The last OARSI recommendations for the conduct of clinical trials in hand OA dates back to 2006. The present recommendations aimed at updating previous recommendations, by incorporating new data. The purpose of this expert opinion, consensus driven exercise is to provide evidence-based guidance on the design, execution and analysis of clinical trials in hand OA, where published evidence is available, supplemented by expert opinion, where evidence is lacking, to perform clinical trials in hand OA, both for symptom and for structure-modification. They indicate core outcome measurement sets for studies in hand OA, and list the methods and instruments that should be used to measure symptoms or structure. For both symptom- and structure-modification, at least pain, physical function, patient global assessment, HR-QoL, joint activity and hand strength should be assessed. In addition, for structure-modification trials, structural progression should be measured by radiographic changes. We also provide a research agenda listing many unsolved issues that seem to most urgently need to be addressed from the perspective of performing "good" clinical trials in hand OA. These updated OARSI recommendations should allow for better standardizing the conduct of clinical trials in hand OA in the next future. Copyright © 2015 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kraus, V B; Blanco, F J; Englund, M; Henrotin, Y; Lohmander, L S; Losina, E; Önnerfjord, P; Persiani, S
The objective of this work was to describe requirements for inclusion of soluble biomarkers in osteoarthritis (OA) clinical trials and progress toward OA-related biomarker qualification. The Guidelines for Biomarkers Working Group, representing experts in the field of OA biomarker research from both academia and industry, convened to discuss issues related to soluble biomarkers and to make recommendations for their use in OA clinical trials based on current knowledge and anticipated benefits. This document summarizes current guidance on use of biomarkers in OA clinical trials and their utility at five stages, including preclinical development and phase I to phase IV trials. As demonstrated by this summary, biomarkers can provide value at all stages of therapeutics development. When resources permit, we recommend collection of biospecimens in all OA clinical trials for a wide variety of reasons but in particular, to determine whether biomarkers are useful in identifying those individuals most likely to receive clinically important benefits from an intervention; and to determine whether biomarkers are useful for identifying individuals at earlier stages of OA in order to institute treatment at a time more amenable to disease modification. Copyright © 2015 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kurbel, Sven; Mihaljević, Slobodan
Clinical trial results are often interpreted by inductive reasoning, in a trial design-limited manner, directed toward modifications of the current clinical practice. Deductive reasoning is an alternative in which results of relevant trials are combined in indisputable premises that lead to a conclusion easily testable in future trials. © 2017 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.
Ramirez, Amelie G; Wildes, Kimberly; Talavera, Greg; Nápoles-Springer, Anna; Gallion, Kipling; Pérez-Stable, Eliseo J
Ethnic differences in physicians' attitudes and behaviors related to clinical trials might partially account for disparities in clinical trial participation among Latino patients. Literature regarding Latino physicians' clinical trials attitudes and practices, in comparison to White physicians, was lacking. Cross-sectional data from randomly selected physicians (N=695), stratified by ethnicity, were analyzed to test associations of ethnicity with physicians' participation in and attitudes toward referral of patients to clinical trials. Chi-square analyses showed significant (pLatino physicians were significantly less involved in clinical trials than White physicians and found less scientific value in them, highlighting areas for future education and intervention.
DerSimonian, Rebecca; Laird, Nan
In this paper, we revisit a 1986 article we published in this Journal, Meta-Analysis in Clinical Trials, where we introduced a random-effects model to summarize the evidence about treatment efficacy from a number of related clinical trials. Because of its simplicity and ease of implementation, our approach has been widely used (with more than 12,000 citations to date) and the "DerSimonian and Laird method" is now often referred to as the 'standard approach' or a 'popular' method for meta-analysis in medical and clinical research. The method is especially useful for providing an overall effect estimate and for characterizing the heterogeneity of effects across a series of studies. Here, we review the background that led to the original 1986 article, briefly describe the random-effects approach for meta-analysis, explore its use in various settings and trends over time and recommend a refinement to the method using a robust variance estimator for testing overall effect. We conclude with a discussion of repurposing the method for Big Data meta-analysis and Genome Wide Association Studies for studying the importance of genetic variants in complex diseases. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Cummings, J; Aisen, P; Barton, R; Bork, J; Doody, R; Dwyer, J; Egan, J C; Feldman, H; Lappin, D; Truyen, L; Salloway, S; Sperling, R; Vradenburg, G
Alzheimer's disease (AD) drug development is costly, time-consuming, and inefficient. Trial site functions, trial design, and patient recruitment for trials all require improvement. The Global Alzheimer Platform (GAP) was initiated in response to these challenges. Four GAP work streams evolved in the US to address different trial challenges: 1) registry-to-cohort web-based recruitment; 2) clinical trial site activation and site network construction (GAP-NET); 3) adaptive proof-of-concept clinical trial design; and 4) finance and fund raising. GAP-NET proposes to establish a standardized network of continuously funded trial sites that are highly qualified to perform trials (with established clinical, biomarker, imaging capability; certified raters; sophisticated management system. GAP-NET will conduct trials for academic and biopharma industry partners using standardized instrument versions and administration. Collaboration with the Innovative Medicines Initiative (IMI) European Prevention of Alzheimer's Disease (EPAD) program, the Canadian Consortium on Neurodegeneration in Aging (CCNA) and other similar international initiatives will allow conduct of global trials. GAP-NET aims to increase trial efficiency and quality, decrease trial redundancy, accelerate cohort development and trial recruitment, and decrease trial costs. The value proposition for sites includes stable funding and uniform training and trial execution; the value to trial sponsors is decreased trial costs, reduced time to execute trials, and enhanced data quality. The value for patients and society is the more rapid availability of new treatments for AD.
Andres E. Morales La Madrid
Full Text Available In spite of major recent advances in DIPG molecular characterization, this body of knowledge has not yet translated into better treatments.To date,more than 250 clinical trials evaluating radiotherapy along with conventional cytotoxic chemotherapy as well as newer biologic agents,have failed to improve the dismal outcome when compared to palliative radiation alone.The biology of DIPG remained unknown until recently when the neurosurgical expertise along with the recognition by the scientific and clinical community of the importance of tissue sampling at diagnosis;ideally in the context of a clinical trial and by trained neurosurgical teams to maximize patient safety.These pre-treatment tumor samples,and others coming from tissue obtained post-mortem,have yielded new insights into DIPG molecular biology.We now know that DIPG comprises a heterogeneous disease with variable molecular phenotypes, different from adult high grade glioma,other non-pontine pediatric high grade gliomas and even between pontine gliomas.The discovery of histone H3.3 or H3.1 mutations has been an important step forward in understanding tumor formation,maintenance and progression.Pharmacologic reversal of DIPG histone demethylation therefore offers an important potential intervention strategy for the treatment of DIPG.To date,clinical trials of newly diagnosed or progressive DIPG with epigenetic modifiers have been unsuccessful.Whether this failure represents limited activity of the agents used,their CNS penetration,redundant pathways within the tumor,or the possibility that histone mutations are necessary only to initiate DIPGs but not maintain their growth,suggest that a great deal still needs to be elucidated in both the underlying biology of these pathways,and the drugs designed to target them.In this review, we discuss the role of both epigenetic and genetic mutations within DIPG and the development of treatment strategies directed against the unique abnormalities
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: In an effort to understand how results of human clinical trials are made public, we analyze a large set of clinical trials registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, the world's largest clinical trial registry. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We considered two trial result artifacts: (1 existence of a trial result journal article that is formally linked to a registered trial or (2 the deposition of a trial's basic summary results within the registry. RESULTS: The study sample consisted of 8907 completed, interventional, phase 2-or-higher clinical trials that were completed in 2006-2009. The majority of trials (72.2% had no structured trial-article link present. A total of 2367 trials (26.6% deposited basic summary results within the registry. Of those, 969 trials (10.9% were classified as trials with extended results and 1398 trials (15.7% were classified as trials with only required basic results. The majority of the trials (54.8% had no evidence of results, based on either linked result articles or basic summary results (silent trials, while a minimal number (9.2% report results through both registry deposition and publication. DISCUSSION: Our study analyzes the body of linked knowledge around clinical trials (which we refer to as the "trialome". Our results show that most trials do not report results and, for those that do, there is minimal overlap in the types of reporting. We identify several mechanisms by which the linkages between trials and their published results can be increased. CONCLUSION: Our study shows that even when combining publications and registry results, and despite availability of several information channels, trial sponsors do not sufficiently meet the mandate to inform the public either via a linked result publication or basic results submission.
Full Text Available Abstract In recent years, clinical trials with stem cells have taken the emerging field in many new directions. While numerous teams continue to refine and expand the role of bone marrow and cord blood stem cells for their vanguard uses in blood and immune disorders, many others are looking to expand the uses of the various types of stem cells found in bone marrow and cord blood, in particular mesenchymal stem cells, to uses beyond those that could be corrected by replacing cells in their own lineage. Early results from these trials have produced mixed results often showing minor or transitory improvements that may be attributed to extracellular factors. More research teams are accelerating the use of other types of adult stem cells, in particular neural stem cells for diseases where beneficial outcome could result from either in-lineage cell replacement or extracellular factors. At the same time, the first three trials using cells derived from pluripotent cells have begun.
Gelinas, Luke; Lynch, Holly Fernandez; Bierer, Barbara E; Cohen, I Glenn
It is not uncommon for multiple clinical trials at the same institution to recruit concurrently from the same patient population. When the relevant pool of patients is limited, as it often is, trials essentially compete for participants. There is evidence that such a competition is a predictor of low study accrual, with increased competition tied to increased recruitment shortfalls. But there is no consensus on what steps, if any, institutions should take to approach this issue. In this article, we argue that an institutional policy that prioritises some trials for recruitment ahead of others is ethically permissible and indeed prima facie preferable to alternative means of addressing recruitment competition. We motivate this view by appeal to the ethical importance of minimising the number of studies that begin but do not complete, thereby exposing their participants to unnecessary risks and burdens in the process. We then argue that a policy of prioritisation can be fair to relevant stakeholders, including participants, investigators and funders. Finally, by way of encouraging and helping to frame future debate, we propose some questions that would need to be addressed when identifying substantive ethical criteria for prioritising between studies. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Participation in clinical trials by adult patients is dismally low. No one knows how many patients are offered the opportunity to enroll in trials. NCI researchers are studying how patients hear about trials, whether they discuss enrollment with their providers, and the roles they play in deciding to participate in a trial.
Van Pham, Phuc
In recent years, both stem cell research and the clinical application of these promising cells have increased rapidly. About 1000 clinical trials using stem cells have to date been performed globally. More importantly, more than 10 stem cell-based products have been approved in some countries. With the rapid growth of stem cell applications, some countries have used clinical trials as a tool to diminish the rate of clinical stem cell applications. However, the point at which stem cell clinical trials are essential remains unclear. This commentary discusses when stem cell clinical trials are essential for stem cell transplantation therapies.
Gluud, C; Sørensen, T I
to cover investments, core staff, and running costs, but excluding housing costs and costs of randomised clinical trials that do not originate from trial coordination. In return, such a unit should be able to mount and launch 6-7 multicenter randomised clinical trials during a 5 year period, corresponding...
William A. Mattingly
Conclusion: We have designed and implemented a visualization dashboard for managing multi-site clinical trial enrollment in two community acquired pneumonia studies. Information dashboards are useful for clinical trial management. They can be used in a standalone trial or can be included into a larger management system.
Xu, Jun; Zhang, Yaoyun; Wu, Yonghui; Wang, Jingqi; Dong, Xiao; Xu, Hua
In scientific writing, positive credits and negative criticisms can often be seen in the text mentioning the cited papers, providing useful information about whether a study can be reproduced or not. In this study, we focus on citation sentiment analysis, which aims to determine the sentiment polarity that the citation context carries towards the cited paper. A citation sentiment corpus was annotated first on clinical trial papers. The effectiveness of n-gram and sentiment lexicon features, and problem-specified structure features for citation sentiment analysis were then examined using the annotated corpus. The combined features from the word n-grams, the sentiment lexicons and the structure information achieved the highest Micro F-score of 0.860 and Macro-F score of 0.719, indicating that it is feasible to use machine learning methods for citation sentiment analysis in biomedical publications. A comprehensive comparison between citation sentiment analysis of clinical trial papers and other general domains were conducted, which additionally highlights the unique challenges within this domain.
Research in human beings is an important chapter of medical ethics. In recent years, investigation has been taken over by profit driven corporations that must guarantee the medical and commercial application of results. This new model of investigation has generated conflicts of interest in doctor-patient, researcher-subject relationship. The inevitable debate and media reaction has led. These trials of controversial design to regions of the globe where the vulnerability of the populations continues to allow their undertaking. This article includes a historical perspective on experimentation in human beings and the conditions that led to its regulation: the Nuremberg CODE, followed by the Helsinky Declaration in its different versions, and the Belmont Report, that defend the subject according to the ethic of principles used in western medicine. There is then a review of the attempts to change international regulation to reintroduce clinical trials with placebo--which since 1996 is only permitted where there are no therapeutic or diagnostic methods--on populations that would otherwise have no access to treatment. This then leads on to the issue of double standards in medical investigation defended by many investigators and some official entities. The article concludes that it may be prudent to allow local ethical commissions to approve deviation from the established norm if such is necessary to resolve urgent questions of health in the country, but it is unacceptable that any such emergency is used as a reason to reduce the ethical prerequisites, in clinical trials. It also concludes that true urgency is in making available to all who need it the effective products already in existence. Furthermore, that the acceptance of ethical relativism can result in the exploitation of vulnerable third world populations for research programmes that cannot be undertaken in their sponsoring countries due to the ethical restrictions in place.
Full Text Available To explore factors related to the placebo effect in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG or ocular hypertension (OH.This was a retrospective cohort study of patients with POAG and patients with OH who were treated with placebo. The patients' data were extracted from two randomized, double-masked, parallel, multicenter clinical trials (trial 1 and trial 2 in Japan. We explored the baseline factors that were associated with the intraocular pressure (IOP-lowering effect of placebo ophthalmic solution after 4 weeks of instillation treatment at two time points by using multivariable models. The time points were Hour 0 (between 08:30 and 10:30 before instillation and Hour 2 (within 1.5 to 2.5 h after instillation and by 12:30 at the baseline date and after 4 weeks. The changes in IOP from baseline to 4 weeks at the two time points were evaluated for the IOP-lowering effect induced by placebo instillation.Of the 330 patients included in the two trials, 89 patients were eligible for the analysis. The results of the multivariable analysis for Hour 0 indicated a high IOP at the baseline date (coefficient: 0.24, 95% confidence interval (CI: 0.02 to 0.46, P = 0.03, and the magnitude of the IOP fluctuation at the baseline date (coefficient: 0.57, 95% CI: 0.24 to 0.90, P = 0.001 was associated with the IOP-lowering effect after 4 weeks. With respect to Hour 2, the trial type was associated with the IOP-lowering effect (coefficient: -1.15, 95% CI: -2.14 to -0.16, P = 0.02.A large fluctuation in IOP during the day is associated with the IOP-lowering effect induced by placebo in patients with POAG or OH. This finding would be helpful to researchers when designing studies related to glaucoma in the early stages of clinical development of drugs.
... Industry perspective on public clinical trial registries and results databases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...
Luís, H S; Morgado, I; Assunção, V; Bernardo, M F; Leroux, B; Martin, M D; DeRouen, T A; Leitão, J
Dental hygiene activities were developed as part of a randomized clinical trial designed to assess the safety of low-level mercury exposure from dental amalgam restorations. Along with dental-hygiene clinical work, a community programme was implemented after investigators noticed the poor oral hygiene habits of participants, and the need for urgent action to minimize oral health problems in the study population. Clinical and community activity goal was to promote oral health and prevent new disease. Community activities involved participants and their fellow students and were aimed at providing education on oral health in a school environment. Dental hygienists developed clinical work with prophylaxis, sealants application and topical fluoride and implemented the community programme with in-class sessions on oral health themes. Twice a month fluoride mouthrinses and bi-annual tooth brushing instructional activity took place. Participation at dental-hygiene activities, sealed teeth with no need of restoration and dental-plaque-index were measures used to evaluate success of the programme for the participants. Improvement in dental hygiene is shown by the decrease in dental plaque index scores (P dental hygiene activities. Teachers became aware of the problem and included oral-health in school curricula. Dental hygiene activities have shown to be helpful to promote dental hygiene, promote oral health and to provide school-age children with education on habits that will be important for their future good health.
Chan, An-Wen; Tetzlaff, Jennifer M; Altman, Douglas G; Laupacis, Andreas; Gøtzsche, Peter C; Krle A-Jerić, Karmela; Hrobjartsson, Asbjørn; Mann, Howard; Dickersin, Kay; Berlin, Jesse A; Dore, Caroline J; Parulekar, Wendy R; Summerskill, William S M; Groves, Trish; Schulz, Kenneth F; Sox, Harold C; Rockhold, Frank W; Rennie, Drummond; Moher, David
The protocol of a clinical trial serves as the foundation for study planning, conduct, reporting, and appraisal. However, trial protocols and existing protocol guidelines vary greatly in content and quality. This article describes the systematic development and scope of SPIRIT (Standard Protocol Items: Recommendations for Interventional Trials) 2013, a guideline for the minimum content of a clinical trial protocol. The 33-item SPIRIT checklist applies to protocols for all clinical trials and focuses on content rather than format. The checklist recommends a full description of what is planned; it does not prescribe how to design or conduct a trial. By providing guidance for key content, the SPIRIT recommendations aim to facilitate the drafting of high-quality protocols. Adherence to SPIRIT would also enhance the transparency and completeness of trial protocols for the benefit of investigators, trial participants, patients, sponsors, funders, research ethics committees or institutional review boards, peer reviewers, journals, trial registries, policymakers, regulators, and other key stakeholders.
Šolić, Ivana; Stipčić, Ana; Pavličević, Ivančica; Marušić, Ana
Despite increased visibility of clinical trials through international trial registries, patients often remain uninformed of their existence, especially if they do not have access to adequate information about clinical research, including the language of the information. The aim of this study was to describe the context for transparency of clinical trials in Croatia in relation to countries in Central and Eastern Europe, and to assess how informed Croatian patients are about clinical trials and their accessibility. We assessed the transparency of clinical trials from the data available in the public domain. We also conducted an anonymous survey on a convenience sample of 257 patients visiting two family medicine offices or an oncology department in south Croatia, and members of national patients' associations. Despite legal provisions for transparency of clinical trials in Croatia, they are still not sufficiently visible in the public domain. Among countries from Central and Eastern Europe, Croatia has the fewest number of registered trials in the EU Clinical Trials Registry. 66% of the patients in the survey were aware of the existence of clinical trials but only 15% were informed about possibilities of participating in a trial. Although 58% of the respondents were willing to try new treatments, only 6% actually participated in a clinical trial. Only 2% of the respondents were aware of publicly available trial registries. Our study demonstrates that there is low transparency of clinical trials in Croatia, and that Croatian patients are not fully aware of clinical trials and the possibilities of participating in them, despite reported availability of Internet resources and good communication with their physicians. There is a need for active policy measures to increase the awareness of and access to clinical trials to patients in Croatia, particularly in their own language.
Sivaramakrishnan, Gowri; Sridharan, Kannan
Clinical trials are the back bone for evidence-based practice (EBP) and recently EBP has been considered the best source of treatment strategies available. Clinical trial registries serve as databases of clinical trials. As regards to dentistry in specific data on the number of clinical trials and their quality is lacking. Hence, the present study was envisaged. Clinical trials registered in WHO-ICTRP (http://apps.who.int/trialsearch/AdvSearch.aspx) in dental specialties were considered. The details assessed from the collected trials include: Type of sponsors; Health condition; Recruitment status; Study design; randomization, method of randomization and allocation concealment; Single or multi-centric; Retrospective or prospective registration; and Publication status in case of completed studies. A total of 197 trials were identified. Maximum trials were from United States (n = 30) and United Kingdom (n = 38). Seventy six trials were registered in Clinical Trials.gov, 54 from International Standards of Reporting Clinical Trials, 13 each from Australia and New Zealand Trial Register and Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials, 10 from German Clinical Trial Registry, eight each from Brazilian Clinical Trial Registry and Nederland's Trial Register, seven from Japan Clinical Trial Registry, six from Clinical Trial Registry of India and two from Hong Kong Clinical Trial Registry. A total of 78.7% studies were investigator-initiated and 64% were completed while 3% were terminated. Nearly four-fifths of the registered trials (81.7%) were interventional studies of which randomized were the large majority (94.4%) with 63.2% being open label, 20.4% using single blinding technique and 16.4% were doubled blinded. The number, methodology and the characteristics of clinical trials in dentistry have been noted to be poor especially in terms of being conducted multi-centrically, employing blinding and the method for randomization and allocation concealment. More emphasis has to be
Kun, Larry E.
Medulloblastoma is the seminal pediatric brain tumor providing opportunities for clinical investigation to define improved treatment strategies for both disease control and ultimate functional integrity. Recent studies addressing neuraxis radiation dose provide a 'standard' for conventional therapy while establishing 5-year disease control rates for 'favorable' or 'low risk' presentations approximating 60% following surgery and irradiation. A highly visible recent report of combined post-operative irradiation and chemotherapy incorporating a platinum- and alkylator-based regimen indicates 5-year disease control approaching 90% in localized medulloblastoma. Despite unfavorable outcome with reduced-dose neuraxis irradiation in earlier trials, further data from recent studies suggest the addition of post-operative chemotherapy to similarly reduced-dose neuraxis irradiation (23.4 Gy) in 'favorable' presentations may result in progression-free survival rates at least equivalent to those achieved with full-dose neuraxis irradiation (36 Gy) absent chemotherapy. The panel will (1) provide updated information regarding the major clinical trials that form the basis for current and planned protocols and (2) debate the therapeutic modifications appropriate for contemporary clinical investigations. Critical in planning future studies in the analysis of risk factors that may identify 'favorable' patients versus 'high risk' patients. Risk-related studies appropriately address maintaining or improving current disease control rates in the context of diminishing late treatment sequelae for 'favorable' presentations. For those identified as 'high risk' (e.g., patients with disease beyond the primary site), studies are in development that increase the intensity of chemotherapy and explore modifications of radiation delivery. Study designs that permit assessment of innovations in surgical, radiotherapeutic, and chemotherapeutic approaches will be presented and debated by the panelists
This paper traces the development of the Clinical Trial Registry-India (CTRI) against the backdrop of the inequities in healthcare and the limitations in the design, conduct, regulation, oversight and reporting of clinical trials in India. It describes the scope and goals of the CTRI, the data elements it seeks and the process of registering clinical trials. It reports progress in trial registration in India and discusses the challenges in ensuring that healthcare decisions are informed by all the evidence. A descriptive survey of developments in clinical trial registration in India from publications in the Indian medical literature supplemented by first hand knowledge of these developments and an evaluation of how well clinical trials registered in the CTRI up to 10 January, 2009 comply with the requirements of the CTRI and the World Health Organization's International Clinical Trial Registry (WHO ICTRP). Considerable inequities exist within the Indian health system. Deficiencies in healthcare provision and uneven regulation of, and access to, affordable healthcare co-exists with a large private health system of uneven quality. India is now a preferred destination for outsourced clinical trials but is plagued by poor ethical oversight of the many trial sites and scant information of their existence. The CTRI's vision of conforming to international requirements for transparency and accountability but also using trial registration as a means of improving trial design, conduct and reporting led to the selection of registry-specific dataset items in addition to those endorsed by the WHO ICTRP. Compliance with these requirements is good for the trials currently registered but these trials represent only a fraction of the trials in progress in India. Prospective trial registration is a reality in India. The challenges facing the CTRI include better engagement with key stakeholders to ensure increased prospective registration of clinical trials and utilization of
Garcia-Verdugo, Rosa; Erbach, Michael; Schnell, Oliver
Since the FDA requirement for cardiovascular safety of all new antihyperglycemic drugs to enter the market, the number and extent of phase 3 clinical trials has markedly increased. Unexpected trial results imply an enormous economic, personal and time cost and has deleterious effects over R&D. To prevent unforeseen developments in clinical trials, we recommend performing a comprehensive prospective outcome scenario analysis before launching the trial. In this commentary, we discuss the most important factors to take in consideration for prediction of clinical trial outcome scenarios and propose a theoretical model for decision making.
Conclusion: The number of clinical trials done in allied fields of medicine other than the allopathic system has lowered down, and furthermore focus is required regarding the methodological quality of these trials and more support from various organizations.
Scott, Kathleen; White, Kathryn; Roydhouse, Jessica K
Clinical trials nurses play a pivotal role in the conduct of clinical research, but the educational and career pathway for these nurses remains unclear. This article reports findings from a survey of nurses working in cancer clinical trials research in Australia. Most participants held postgraduate qualifications (42 of 61); however, clinical trials education was primarily attained through short professional development courses. Interest in pursuing trial-specific postgraduate education was high, but barriers were identified, including cost, time, and unclear benefit for career advancement. Job titles varied substantially, which is indicative of an unclear employment pathway. These findings suggest that initiatives to improve the educational and career pathway for clinical trials nurses are needed and should include the following: formal educational preparation, greater consistency in employment status, and clearer career progression. These strategies should be underpinned by broad professional recognition of the clinical trials nurse as a specialized nursing role. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.
Bjørndal, Lars; Fransson, Helena; Bruun, Gitte
nonselective carious removal to hard dentin with or without pulp exposure. The aim of this article was to report the 5-y outcome on these previously treated patients having radiographically well-defined carious lesions extending into the pulpal quarter of the dentin but with a well-defined radiodense zone...... pulp exposures per se were included as failures. Pulp exposure rate was significantly lower in the stepwise carious removal group (21.2% vs. 35.5%; P = 0.014). Irrespective of pulp exposure status, the difference (13.3%) was still significant when sustained pulp vitality without apical radiolucency......) in deep carious lesions in adults. In conclusion, the stepwise carious removal group had a significantly higher proportion of pulps with sustained vitality without apical radiolucency versus nonselective carious removal of deep carious lesions in adult teeth at 5-y follow-up (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT...
Bardach, Shoshana H; Holmes, Sarah D; Jicha, Gregory A
Alzheimer's disease (AD) research progress is impeded due to participant recruitment challenges. This study seeks to better understand, from the perspective of individuals engaged in clinical trials (CTs), research motivations. Participants, or their caregivers, from AD treatment and prevention CTs were surveyed about research motivators. The 87 respondents had a mean age of 72.2, were predominantly Caucasian, 55.2% were male, and 56.3% had cognitive impairment. An overwhelming majority rated the potential to help themselves or a loved one and the potential to help others in the future as important motivators. Relatively few respondents were motivated by free healthcare, monetary rewards, or to make others happy. Recruitment efforts should focus on the potential benefit for the individual, their loved ones, and others in the future rather than free healthcare or monetary rewards.
Chatwal, Monica S; Tanvetyanon, Tawee
Immunotherapy by checkpoint inhibitor is effective for a number of solid tumors including malignant mesothelioma. Studies utilizing single-agent PD-1 or PD-L1 inhibitor for mesothelioma have reported tumor response rates in approximately 10-20% of patients treated. Given the success of combining these agents with CTLA-4 inhibitor in melanoma, there is a strong rationale to study it in mesothelioma. Recently results from clinical trials investigating this approach have been released. Though limited by small sample size, the studies conclusively demonstrated feasibility and suggested a modestly higher tumor response rate than one would expect from treatment with single-agent PD-1 or PD-L1 inhibitor. Nevertheless, toxicity was also increased. Immunotherapy-related deaths due to encephalitis, renal failure and hepatitis were observed. Further studies are warranted.
Zhou, Zheng; Chao, Sander S.; Lee, Jasper; Liu, Brent; Documet, Jorge; Huang, H. K.
Clinical trials play a crucial role in testing new drugs or devices in modern medicine. Medical imaging has also become an important tool in clinical trials because images provide a unique and fast diagnosis with visual observation and quantitative assessment. A typical imaging-based clinical trial consists of: 1) A well-defined rigorous clinical trial protocol, 2) a radiology core that has a quality control mechanism, a biostatistics component, and a server for storing and distributing data and analysis results; and 3) many field sites that generate and send image studies to the radiology core. As the number of clinical trials increases, it becomes a challenge for a radiology core servicing multiple trials to have a server robust enough to administrate and quickly distribute information to participating radiologists/clinicians worldwide. The Data Grid can satisfy the aforementioned requirements of imaging based clinical trials. In this paper, we present a Data Grid architecture for imaging-based clinical trials. A Data Grid prototype has been implemented in the Image Processing and Informatics (IPI) Laboratory at the University of Southern California to test and evaluate performance in storing trial images and analysis results for a clinical trial. The implementation methodology and evaluation protocol of the Data Grid are presented.
Hunter, D J; Arden, N; Cicuttini, F; Crema, M D; Dardzinski, B; Duryea, J; Guermazi, A; Haugen, I K; Kloppenburg, M; Maheu, E; Miller, C G; Martel-Pelletier, J; Ochoa-Albíztegui, R E; Pelletier, J-P; Peterfy, C; Roemer, F; Gold, G E
Tremendous advances have occurred in our understanding of the pathogenesis of hand osteoarthritis (OA) and these are beginning to be applied to trials targeted at modification of the disease course. The purpose of this expert opinion, consensus driven exercise is to provide detail on how one might use and apply hand imaging assessments in disease modifying clinical trials. It includes information on acquisition methods/techniques (including guidance on positioning for radiography, sequence/protocol recommendations/hardware for MRI); commonly encountered problems (including positioning, hardware and coil failures, sequences artifacts); quality assurance/control procedures; measurement methods; measurement performance (reliability, responsiveness, validity); recommendations for trials; and research recommendations. Copyright © 2015 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Alvarenga, Lenio Souza; Martins, Elisabeth Nogueira
To evaluate biopharmaceutical industry-sponsored clinical trials placed in countries previously described as emerging regions for clinical research, and potential differences for those placed in Brazil. Data regarding recruitment of subjects for clinical trials were retrieved from www.clinicaltrials.gov on February 2nd 2009. Proportions of sites in each country were compared among emerging countries. Multiple logistic regressions were performed to evaluate whether trial placement in Brazil could be predicted by trial location in other countries and/or by trial features. A total of 8,501 trials were then active and 1,170 (13.8%) included sites in emerging countries (i.e., Argentina, Brazil, China, Czech Republic, Hungary, India, Mexico, Poland, Russia, South Korea, and South Africa). South Korea and China presented a significantly higher proportion of sites when compared to other countries (pattractiveness for biopharmaceutical industry-sponsored clinical trials.
Kaló, Zoltán; Antal, János; Pénzes, Miklós; Pozsgay, Csilla; Szepezdi, Zsuzsanna; Nagyjánosi, László
To determine the contribution of clinical trials to the gross domestic product (GDP) in Hungary. An anonymous survey of pharmaceutical companies and clinical research organizations (CROs) was conducted to estimate their clinical trial-related employment and revenues. Clinical trial documents at the National Institute of Pharmacy (NIP) were analyzed to estimate trial-related revenues at health care institutions and the value of investigational medical products (IMPs) based on avoided drug costs. Financial benefits were calculated as 2010 US $ purchasing power parity (PPP) values. Clinical trials increased the revenue of Hungarian health care providers by 1 US $65.6 million. The value of IMPs was US $67.0 million. Clinical trial operation and management activities generated 900 jobs and US $166.9 million in revenue among CROs and pharmaceutical companies. The contribution of clinical trials to the Hungarian GDP in 2010 amounted to 0.2%. Participation in international clinical trials may result in health, financial, and intangible benefits that contribute to the sustainability of health care systems, especially in countries with severe resource constraints. Although a conservative approach was employed to estimate the economic benefits of clinical trials, further research is necessary to improve the generalizability of our findings.
Rauch, Geraldine; Kieser, Meinhard
This book addresses the most important aspects of how to plan and evaluate clinical trials with a composite primary endpoint to guarantee a clinically meaningful and valid interpretation of the results. Composite endpoints are often used as primary efficacy variables for clinical trials, particularly in the fields of oncology and cardiology. These endpoints combine several variables of interest within a single composite measure, and as a result, all variables that are of major clinical relevance can be considered in the primary analysis without the need to adjust for multiplicity. Moreover, composite endpoints are intended to increase the size of the expected effects thus making clinical trials more powerful. The book offers practical advice for statisticians and medical experts involved in the planning and analysis of clinical trials. For readers who are mainly interested in the application of the methods, all the approaches are illustrated with real-world clinical trial examples, and the software codes requ...
Scardino Peter T
Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Randomized controlled trials provide the best method of determining which of two comparable treatments is preferable. Unfortunately, contemporary randomized trials have become increasingly expensive, complex and burdened by regulation, so much so that many trials are of doubtful feasibility. Discussion Here we present a proposal for a novel, streamlined approach to randomized trials: the "clinically-integrated randomized trial". The key aspect of our methodology is that the clinical experience of the patient and doctor is virtually indistinguishable whether or not the patient is randomized, primarily because outcome data are obtained from routine clinical data, or from short, web-based questionnaires. Integration of a randomized trial into routine clinical practice also implies that there should be an attempt to randomize every patient, a corollary of which is that eligibility criteria are minimized. The similar clinical experience of patients on- and off-study also entails that the marginal cost of putting an additional patient on trial is negligible. We propose examples of how the clinically-integrated randomized trial might be applied in four distinct areas of medicine: comparisons of surgical techniques, "me too" drugs, rare diseases and lifestyle interventions. Barriers to implementing clinically-integrated randomized trials are discussed. Conclusion The proposed clinically-integrated randomized trial may allow us to enlarge dramatically the number of clinical questions that can be addressed by randomization.
Joseph S Ross
Full Text Available ClinicalTrials.gov is a publicly accessible, Internet-based registry of clinical trials managed by the US National Library of Medicine that has the potential to address selective trial publication. Our objectives were to examine completeness of registration within ClinicalTrials.gov and to determine the extent and correlates of selective publication.We examined reporting of registration information among a cross-section of trials that had been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov after December 31, 1999 and updated as having been completed by June 8, 2007, excluding phase I trials. We then determined publication status among a random 10% subsample by searching MEDLINE using a systematic protocol, after excluding trials completed after December 31, 2005 to allow at least 2 y for publication following completion. Among the full sample of completed trials (n = 7,515, nearly 100% reported all data elements mandated by ClinicalTrials.gov, such as intervention and sponsorship. Optional data element reporting varied, with 53% reporting trial end date, 66% reporting primary outcome, and 87% reporting trial start date. Among the 10% subsample, less than half (311 of 677, 46% of trials were published, among which 96 (31% provided a citation within ClinicalTrials.gov of a publication describing trial results. Trials primarily sponsored by industry (40%, 144 of 357 were less likely to be published when compared with nonindustry/nongovernment sponsored trials (56%, 110 of 198; p<0.001, but there was no significant difference when compared with government sponsored trials (47%, 57 of 122; p = 0.22. Among trials that reported an end date, 75 of 123 (61% completed prior to 2004, 50 of 96 (52% completed during 2004, and 62 of 149 (42% completed during 2005 were published (p = 0.006.Reporting of optional data elements varied and publication rates among completed trials registered within ClinicalTrials.gov were low. Without greater attention to reporting of all data
Asp, Michelle L; Collene, Angela L; Norris, Leigh E; Cole, Rachel M; Stout, Michael B; Tang, Szu-Yu; Hsu, Jason C; Belury, Martha A
Metabolic effects of dietary fat quality in people with type 2 diabetes are not well-understood. The study objective was to evaluate effects of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and safflower (SAF) oils on glycemia, blood lipids, and inflammation. The hypothesis we tested is that dietary oils improve glycemia, lipids, and inflammatory markers in a time-dependent way that follows accumulation of linoleic acid and CLA isomers in serum of subjects supplemented with dietary oils. Fifty-five post-menopausal, obese women with type 2 diabetes enrolled, and 35 completed this randomized, double-masked crossover study. Treatments were 8 g daily of CLA and SAF for 16 weeks each. We used a multiple testing procedure with pre-determined steps analysis to determine the earliest time that a significant effect was detected. CLA did not alter measured metabolic parameters. SAF decreased HbA1c (-0.64 ± 0.18%, p = 0.0007) and C-reactive protein (-13.6 ± 8.2 mg/L, p = 0.0472), increased QUICKI (0.0077 ± 0.0035, p = 0.0146) with a minimum time to effect observed 16 weeks after treatment. SAF increased HDL cholesterol (0.12 ± 0.05 mmol/L, p = 0.0228) with the minimum time to detect an effect of SAF at 12 weeks. The minimum time to detect an increase of c9t11-CLA, t10c12-CLA, and linoleic acid in serum of women supplemented CLA or SAF, respectively, was four weeks. We conclude that 8 g of SAF daily improved glycemia, inflammation, and blood lipids, indicating that small changes in dietary fat quality may augment diabetes treatments to improve risk factors for diabetes-related complications. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.
The design and analysis of cancer clinical trials with biomarker depend on various factors, such as the phase of trials, the type of biomarker, whether the used biomarker is validated or not, and the study objectives. In this article, we demonstrate the design and analysis of two Phase II cancer clinical trials, one with a predictive biomarker and the other with an imaging prognostic biomarker. Statistical testing methods and their sample size calculation methods are presented for each trial. We assume that the primary endpoint of these trials is a time to event variable, but this concept can be used for any type of endpoint.
Shepshelovich, D; Goldvaser, H; Wang, L; Abdul Razak, A R; Bedard, P L
Background Data on completeness of reporting of phase I cancer clinical trials in publications are lacking. Methods The ClinicalTrials.gov database was searched for completed adult phase I cancer trials with reported results. PubMed was searched for matching primary publications published prior to November 1, 2016. Reporting in primary publications was compared with the ClinicalTrials.gov database using a 28-point score (2=complete; 1=partial; 0=no reporting) for 14 items related to study design, outcome measures and safety profile. Inconsistencies between primary publications and ClinicalTrials.gov were recorded. Linear regression was used to identify factors associated with incomplete reporting. Results After a review of 583 trials in ClinicalTrials.gov , 163 matching primary publications were identified. Publications reported outcomes that did not appear in ClinicalTrials.gov in 25% of trials. Outcomes were upgraded, downgraded or omitted in publications in 47% of trials. The overall median reporting score was 23/28 (interquartile range 21-25). Incompletely reported items in >25% publications were: inclusion criteria (29%), primary outcome definition (26%), secondary outcome definitions (53%), adverse events (71%), serious adverse events (80%) and dates of study start and database lock (91%). Higher reporting scores were associated with phase I (vs phase I/II) trials (ppublication in journals with lower impact factor (p=0.004). Conclusions Reported results in primary publications for early phase cancer trials are frequently inconsistent or incomplete compared with ClinicalTrials.gov entries. ClinicalTrials.gov may provide more comprehensive data from new cancer drug trials.
The article analyses the importance of laboratory test methods, namely pathomorfological at conduct of clinical trials. The article focuses on complex laboratory diagnostics at determination of clinical condition of animals, safety and efficacy of tested medicinal product.
Hoos, William A; James, Porsha M; Rahib, Lola; Talley, Anitra W; Fleshman, Julie M; Matrisian, Lynn M
Pancreatic cancer clinical trials open in the United States and their accrual were examined to identify opportunities to accelerate progress in the treatment of pancreatic cancer. Pancreatic cancer-specific clinical trials open in the United States in the years 2011 and 2012 were obtained from the Pancreatic Cancer Action Network database. Accrual information was obtained from trial sponsors. The portfolio of pancreatic cancer clinical trials identified by type (adenocarcinoma or neuroendocrine), phase, disease stage, and treatment approach is reported. More than half of trials for patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma applied biologic insights to new therapeutic approaches, and 38% focused on optimization of radiation or chemotherapy delivery or regimens. In 2011, pancreatic cancer trials required total enrollment of 11,786 patients. Actual accrual to 93.2% of trials was 1,804 patients, an estimated 4.57% of the patients with pancreatic cancer alive in that year. The greatest need was for patients with resectable cancer. Trials open in 2011 enrolled an average of 15% of their total target accrual. Physician recommendations greatly influenced patients' decision to enroll or not enroll onto a clinical trial. Matching to a clinical trial within a 50-mile radius and identifying trials for recurrent/refractory disease were documented as challenges for patient accrual. Overall trial enrollment indicates that pancreatic cancer trials open in 2011 would require 6.7 years on average to complete accrual. These results suggest that harmonizing patient supply and demand for clinical trials is required to accelerate progress toward improving survival in pancreatic cancer.
Lin, Ja-An; He, Pei
Recently, new clinical trial designs involving biomarkers have been studied and proposed in cancer clinical research, in the hope of incorporating the rapid growing basic research into clinical practices. Journal articles related to various biomarkers and their role in cancer clinical trial, articles and books about statistical issues in trial design, and regulatory website, documents, and guidance for submission of targeted cancer therapies. The drug development process involves four phases. The confirmatory Phase III is essential in regulatory approval of a special treatment. Regulatory agency has restrictions on confirmatory trials 'using adaptive designs'. No rule of thumb to pick the most appropriate design for biomarker-related trials. Statistical issues to solve in new designs. Regulatory acceptance of the 'newly proposed trial designs'. Biomarker-related trial designs that can resolve the statistical issues and satisfy the regulatory requirement. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Lemieux, Julie; Forget, Geneviève; Brochu, Olyvia; Provencher, Louise; Cantin, Guy; Desbiens, Christine; Doyle, Catherine; Poirier, Brigitte; Camden, Stéphanie; Durocher, Martin
Objectives of the study were to measure recruitment rates in clinical trials and to identify patients, physicians or trials characteristics associated with higher recruitment rates. Among patients who had a clinical trial available for their cancer, 83.5% (345/413) met the eligibility criteria to at least one clinical trial. At least one trial was proposed to 33.1% (113/341) of the eligible patients and 19.7% (68/345) were recruited. Overall recruitment was 16.5% (68/413). In multivariate analyses, trial proposal and enrollment were lower for elderly patients and higher in high cancer stages. Trials from pharmaceutical industry had higher recruitment rates and trials testing hormonal therapy enrolled more patients. Breast cancer patients' accrual to a clinical trial could be improved by trying to systematically identify all eligible patients and propose a trial to those eligible and to whom the treatment is planned to be equivalent to the standard arm of the trial. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Marinakis, Yorgos; Harms, Rainer; Walsh, Steven Thomas
Under U.S. federal regulation 31 CFR §312, medical interventions must report on a series of clinical trials phases before being submitted for approval for release to the U.S. market. Clinical trials are now being performed on medical interventions that were constructed through additive
Thomas eFitzGerald, MD
Full Text Available The National Cancer Institute clinical cooperative groups have been instrumental over the past 50 years in developing clinical trials and evidence based process improvements for clinical oncology patient care. The cooperative groups are undergoing a transformation process as we further integrate molecular biology into personalized patient care and move to incorporate international partners in clinical trials. To support this vision, data acquisition and data management informatics tools must become both nimble and robust to support transformational research at an enterprise level. Information, including imaging, pathology, molecular biology, radiation oncology, surgery, systemic therapy and patient outcome data needs to be integrated into the clinical trial charter using adaptive clinical trial mechanisms for design of the trial. This information needs to be made available to investigators using digital processes for real time data analysis. Future clinical trials will need to be designed and completed in a timely manner facilitated by nimble informatics processes for data management. This paper discusses both past experience and future vision for clinical trials as we move to develop data management and quality assurance processes to meet the needs of the modern trial.
Grønbech, Bettina Ellen; Aagaard, Jørgen; Jensen, Svend Eggert
People with severe mental illness, such as schizophrenia have higher rates of mortality especially due to cardiovascular disease. We have established a clinical trial named “Coronary artery disease and schizophrenia”. However, patients with schizophrenia have cognitive disturbances, which make re...... recruitment of patients challenging. The purpose of this study is to understand which type of recruitment strategy is needed in clinical trials....
Buonansegna, Erika; Salomo, Søren; Maier, Anja
Clinical trials in the pharmaceutical industry are the most critical part of the drug development process with respect to obtaining the market approval from the authorities. Clinical trials are highly expensive, time-consuming and often unsuccessful. While new product development (NPD) literature...
Dellson, Pia; Nilbert, Mef; Carlsson, Christina
Background Patient enrolment into clinical trials is based on oral information and informed consent, which includes an information sheet and a consent certificate. The written information should be complete, but at the same time risks being so complex that it may be questioned if a fully informed consent is possible to provide. We explored patient representatives? views and perceptions on the written trial information used in clinical cancer trials. Methods Written patient information leaflet...
Pediatric Clinical Trials Conducted in South Korea from 2006 to 2015: An Analysis of the South Korean Clinical Research Information Service, US ClinicalTrials.gov and European Clinical Trials Registries.
Choi, Sheung-Nyoung; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Song, In-Kyung; Kim, Eun-Hee; Kim, Jin-Tae; Kim, Hee-Soo
The status of pediatric clinical trials performed in South Korea in the last decade, including clinical trials of drugs with unapproved indications for children, has not been previously examined. The aim was to provide information regarding the current state of pediatric clinical trials and create a basis for future trials performed in South Korea by reviewing three databases of clinical trials registrations. We searched for pediatric clinical studies (participants South Korea between 2006 and 2015 registered on the Clinical Research Information Service (CRIS), ClinicalTrials.gov, and the European Clinical Trials Registry (EuCTR). Additionally, we reviewed whether unapproved indications were involved in each trial by comparing the trials with a list of authorized trials provided by the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety (MFDS). The primary and secondary outcomes were to determine the change in number of pediatric clinical trials with unapproved indications over time and to assess the status of unauthorized pediatric clinical trials from the MFDS and the publication of articles after these clinical trials, respectively. We identified 342 clinical studies registered in the CRIS (n = 81), ClinicalTrials.gov (n = 225), and EuCTR (n = 36), of which 306 were reviewed after excluding duplicate registrations. Among them, 181 studies were interventional trials dealing with drugs and biological agents, of which 129 (71.3%) involved unapproved drugs. Of these 129 trials, 107 (82.9%) were authorized by the MFDS. Pediatric clinical trials in South Korea aiming to establish the safety and efficacy of drugs in children are increasing; however, non-MFDS-authorized studies remain an issue.
Scott, Kathleen; White, Kate; Johnson, Catherine; Roydhouse, Jessica K
This paper is a report of the development and testing of a questionnaire measuring knowledge and skills of cancer clinical trials nurse in Australia. The role of cancer clinical trials nurse, widely acknowledged as an integral member of the clinical research team, has evolved in recent years. Elements of the clinical trials nurse role in cancer have previously been described. To evaluate specific cancer clinical trials nurse educational and training needs, the development of a valid and reliable tool is required. In 2009, a study was conducted in three stages. Stage I: questionnaire development and pilot testing; stage II: focus group; stage III: national survey. Internal consistency reliability testing and multi-trait analysis of item convergent/divergent validity were employed. Regression analysis was used to identify predictors of clinical trials nurse knowledge and skills. The national survey was a 48-item questionnaire, measuring six clinical trial knowledge and seven skills sub-scales. Of 61 respondents, 90% were women, with mean age 43 years, 19 years as a Registered Nurse and 5 years as a cancer clinical trials nurse. Self-reported knowledge and skills were satisfactory to good. Internal consistency reliability was high (Cronbach's alpha: knowledge = 0·98; skills = 0·90). Criteria for item convergent/divergent validity were met. Number of years as cancer clinical trials nurse was positively related to self-reported knowledge and skills. Preliminary data suggest that the national survey is reliable and valid. Data have contributed to better understanding the knowledge and skills of cancer clinical trials nurse in Australia and development of a postgraduate course in clinical trials. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Weisskopf, Michael; Bucklar, Guido; Blaser, Jürg
Issues concerning inadequate source data of clinical trials rank second in the most common findings by regulatory authorities. The increasing use of electronic clinical information systems by healthcare providers offers an opportunity to facilitate and improve the conduct of clinical trials and the source documentation. We report on a number of tools implemented into the clinical information system of a university hospital to support clinical research. In 2011/2012, a set of tools was developed in the clinical information system of the University Hospital Zurich to support clinical research, including (1) a trial registry for documenting metadata on the clinical trials conducted at the hospital, (2) a patient-trial-assignment-tool to tag patients in the electronic medical charts as participants of specific trials, (3) medical record templates for the documentation of study visits and trial-related procedures, (4) online queries on trials and trial participants, (5) access to the electronic medical records for clinical monitors, (6) an alerting tool to notify of hospital admissions of trial participants, (7) queries to identify potentially eligible patients in the planning phase as trial feasibility checks and during the trial as recruitment support, and (8) order sets to facilitate the complete and accurate performance of study visit procedures. The number of approximately 100 new registrations per year in the voluntary trial registry in the clinical information system now matches the numbers of the existing mandatory trial registry of the hospital. Likewise, the yearly numbers of patients tagged as trial participants as well as the use of the standardized trial record templates increased to 2408 documented trial enrolments and 190 reports generated/month in the year 2013. Accounts for 32 clinical monitors have been established in the first 2 years monitoring a total of 49 trials in 16 clinical departments. A total of 15 months after adding the optional feature of
Ormarsson, Orri Thor; Geirsson, Thormodur; Bjornsson, Einar Stefan; Jonsson, Tomas; Moller, Pall; Loftsson, Thorsteinn; Stefansson, Einar
Cod-liver oil and other marine products containing polyunsaturated fatty acids have anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial and anti-viral effects and may be useful in the treatment of various inflammatory and infectious diseases. We developed suppositories and ointment with 30% free fatty acid (FFA) extract from omega-3 fish oil. Our purpose was to evaluate the safety of marine lipid suppositories and ointment in healthy volunteers and to explore the laxative effect of the suppositories. Thirty healthy volunteers were randomized either to a study group administrating 30% FFA suppositories and applying 30% FFA ointment to the perianal region twice per day for two weeks, or to a control group using placebo suppositories and ointment in a double blinded manner. No serious toxic effects or irritation were observed. In the study group 93% felt the urge to defecate after administration of the suppositories as compared to 37% in the control group (P = 0.001). Subsequently 90% in the study group defecated, compared to 33% in the control group (P = 0.001). The marine lipid suppositories and ointment were well tolerated with no significant toxic side effects observed during the study period. The suppositories have a distinct laxative effect and we aim to explore this effect in further clinical trials.
Ginn, Samantha L; Amaya, Anais K; Alexander, Ian E; Edelstein, Michael; Abedi, Mohammad R
To date, almost 2600 gene therapy clinical trials have been completed, are ongoing or have been approved worldwide. Our database brings together global information on gene therapy clinical activity from trial databases, official agency sources, published literature, conference presentations and posters kindly provided to us by individual investigators or trial sponsors. This review presents our analysis of clinical trials that, to the best of our knowledge, have been or are being performed worldwide. As of our November 2017 update, we have entries on 2597 trials undertaken in 38 countries. We have analysed the geographical distribution of trials, the disease indications (or other reasons) for trials, the proportions to which different vector types are used, and the genes that have been transferred. Details of the analyses presented, and our searchable database are available via The Journal of Gene Medicine Gene Therapy Clinical Trials Worldwide website at: http://www.wiley.co.uk/genmed/clinical. We also provide an overview of the progress being made in gene therapy clinical trials around the world, and discuss key trends since the previous review, namely the use of chimeric antigen receptor T cells for the treatment of cancer and advancements in genome editing technologies, which have the potential to transform the field moving forward. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Moustgaard, Helene; Bello, Segun; Miller, Franklin G
explicitly defined the terms. CONCLUSION: The terms "subjective" and "objective" are ambiguous when used to describe outcomes in randomized clinical trials. We suggest that the terms should be defined explicitly when used in connection with the assessment of risk of bias in a clinical trial......OBJECTIVES: The degree of bias in randomized clinical trials varies depending on whether the outcome is subjective or objective. Assessment of the risk of bias in a clinical trial will therefore often involve categorization of the type of outcome. Our primary aim was to examine how the concepts...... "subjective outcome" and "objective outcome" are defined in methodological publications and clinical trial reports. To put this examination into perspective, we also provide an overview of how outcomes are classified more broadly. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: A systematic review of methodological publications...
Dellson, Pia; Nilbert, Mef; Carlsson, Christina
of future simplified and more attractive informed consent forms. CONCLUSIONS: The emotional and cognitive responses to written patient information reported by patient representatives provides a basis for revised formats in future trials and add to the body of information that support use of plain language......BACKGROUND: Patient enrolment into clinical trials is based on oral information and informed consent, which includes an information sheet and a consent certificate. The written information should be complete, but at the same time risks being so complex that it may be questioned if a fully informed...... consent is possible to provide. We explored patient representatives' views and perceptions on the written trial information used in clinical cancer trials. METHODS: Written patient information leaflets used in four clinical trials for colorectal cancer were used for the study. The trials included phase I...
Blue, Nathan R; Murray-Krezan, Cristina; Drake-Lavelle, Shana; Weinberg, Daniel; Holbrook, Bradley D; Katukuri, Vivek R; Leeman, Lawrence; Mozurkewich, Ellen L
Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug use has been shown to increase blood pressure in nonpregnant adults. Because of this, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists suggests avoiding their use in women with postpartum hypertension; however, evidence to support this recommendation is lacking. Our goal was to test the hypothesis that nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, such as ibuprofen, adversely affect postpartum blood pressure control in women with preeclampsia with severe features. At delivery, we randomized women with preeclampsia with severe features to receive around-the-clock oral dosing with either 600 mg of ibuprofen or 650 mg of acetaminophen every 6 hours. Dosing began within 6 hours after delivery and continued until discharge, with opioid analgesics available as needed for breakthrough pain. Study drugs were encapsulated in identical capsules such that patients, nurses, and physicians were masked to study allocation. Exclusion criteria were serum aspartate aminotransferase or alanine aminotransferase >200 mg/dL, serum creatinine >1.0 mg/dL, infectious hepatitis, gastroesophageal reflux disease, age <18 years, or current incarceration. Our primary outcome was the duration of severe-range hypertension, defined as the time (in hours) from delivery to the last blood pressure ≥160/110 mm Hg. Secondary outcomes were time from delivery to last blood pressure ≥150/100 mm Hg, mean arterial pressure, need for antihypertensive medication at discharge, prolongation of hospital stay for blood pressure control, postpartum use of short-acting antihypertensives for acute blood pressure control, and opioid use for breakthrough pain. We analyzed all outcome data according to intention-to-treat principles. We assessed 154 women for eligibility, of whom 100 met entry criteria, agreed to participate, and were randomized to receive postpartum ibuprofen or acetaminophen for first-line pain control. Seven patients crossed over or did not receive their allocated study drug, and 93 completed the study protocol in their assigned groups. We found no differences in baseline characteristics between groups, including mode of delivery, body mass index, parity, race, chronic hypertension, and maximum blood pressure prior to delivery. We did not find a difference in the duration of severe-range hypertension in the ibuprofen vs acetaminophen groups (35.3 vs 38.0 hours, P = .30). There were no differences between groups in the secondary outcome measures of time from delivery to last blood pressure ≥150/100 mm Hg, postpartum mean arterial pressure, maximum postpartum systolic or diastolic blood pressures, any postpartum blood pressure ≥160/110 mm Hg, short-acting antihypertensive use for acute blood pressure control, length of postpartum stay, need to extend postpartum stay for blood pressure control, antihypertensive use at discharge, or opioid use for inadequate pain control. In a subgroup analysis of patients who experienced severe-range hypertension, the mean time to blood pressure control in the acetaminophen group was 68.4 hours and ibuprofen group was 56.7 hours (P = .26). At 6 weeks postpartum, there were no differences between groups in the rates of obstetric triage visits, hospital readmissions, continued opioid use, or continued antihypertensive use. The first-line use of ibuprofen rather than acetaminophen for postpartum pain did not lengthen the duration of severe-range hypertension in women with preeclampsia with severe features. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Sultan, Marla B; Zhou, Duo; Loftus, Jane
To confirm the safety and compare the efficacy of intravitreal pegaptanib sodium 0.3 mg versus sham injections in subjects with diabetic macular edema (DME) involving the center of the macula associated with vision loss not due to ischemia.......To confirm the safety and compare the efficacy of intravitreal pegaptanib sodium 0.3 mg versus sham injections in subjects with diabetic macular edema (DME) involving the center of the macula associated with vision loss not due to ischemia....
Shimizu, Reiko; Ogata, Katsuhisa; Tamaura, Akemi; Kimura, En; Ohata, Maki; Takeshita, Eri; Nakamura, Harumasa; Takeda, Shin'ichi; Komaki, Hirofumi
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is the most commonly inherited neuromuscular disease. Therapeutic agents for the treatment of rare disease, namely "orphan drugs", have recently drawn the attention of researchers and pharmaceutical companies. To ensure the successful conduction of clinical trials to evaluate novel treatments for patients with rare diseases, an appropriate infrastructure is needed. One of the effective solutions for the lack of infrastructure is to establish a network of rare diseases. To accomplish the conduction of clinical trials in Japan, the Muscular dystrophy clinical trial network (MDCTN) was established by the clinical research group for muscular dystrophy, including the National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, as well as national and university hospitals, all which have a long-standing history of research cooperation. Thirty-one medical institutions (17 national hospital organizations, 10 university hospitals, 1 national center, 2 public hospitals, and 1 private hospital) belong to this network and collaborate to facilitate clinical trials. The Care and Treatment Site Registry (CTSR) calculates and reports the proportion of patients with neuromuscular diseases in the cooperating sites. In total, there are 5,589 patients with neuromuscular diseases in Japan and the proportion of patients with each disease is as follows: DMD, 29 %; myotonic dystrophy type 1, 23 %; limb girdle muscular dystrophy, 11 %; Becker muscular dystrophy, 10 %. We work jointly to share updated health care information and standardized evaluations of clinical outcomes as well. The collaboration with the patient registry (CTSR), allows the MDCTN to recruit DMD participants with specific mutations and conditions, in a remarkably short period of time. Counting with a network that operates at a national level is important to address the corresponding national issues. Thus, our network will be able to contribute with international research activity, which can lead to
Wu, Danny T Y; Hanauer, David A; Mei, Qiaozhu; Clark, Patricia M; An, Lawrence C; Proulx, Joshua; Zeng, Qing T; Vydiswaran, V G Vinod; Collins-Thompson, Kevyn; Zheng, Kai
ClinicalTrials.gov serves critical functions of disseminating trial information to the public and helping the trials recruit participants. This study assessed the readability of trial descriptions at ClinicalTrials.gov using multiple quantitative measures. The analysis included all 165,988 trials registered at ClinicalTrials.gov as of April 30, 2014. To obtain benchmarks, the authors also analyzed 2 other medical corpora: (1) all 955 Health Topics articles from MedlinePlus and (2) a random sample of 100,000 clinician notes retrieved from an electronic health records system intended for conveying internal communication among medical professionals. The authors characterized each of the corpora using 4 surface metrics, and then applied 5 different scoring algorithms to assess their readability. The authors hypothesized that clinician notes would be most difficult to read, followed by trial descriptions and MedlinePlus Health Topics articles. Trial descriptions have the longest average sentence length (26.1 words) across all corpora; 65% of their words used are not covered by a basic medical English dictionary. In comparison, average sentence length of MedlinePlus Health Topics articles is 61% shorter, vocabulary size is 95% smaller, and dictionary coverage is 46% higher. All 5 scoring algorithms consistently rated CliniclTrials.gov trial descriptions the most difficult corpus to read, even harder than clinician notes. On average, it requires 18 years of education to properly understand these trial descriptions according to the results generated by the readability assessment algorithms. Trial descriptions at CliniclTrials.gov are extremely difficult to read. Significant work is warranted to improve their readability in order to achieve CliniclTrials.gov's goal of facilitating information dissemination and subject recruitment. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association 2015. This work is written by US Government
Baigent, Colin; Herrington, William G; Coresh, Josef
Despite the high costs of treatment of people with kidney disease and associated comorbid conditions, the amount of reliable information available to guide the care of such patients is very limited. Some treatments have been assessed in randomized trials, but most such trials have been too small ...
Greenberg, Rachel G; Corneli, Amy; Bradley, John; Farley, John; Jafri, Hasan S; Lin, Li; Nambiar, Sumathi; Noel, Gary J; Wheeler, Chris; Tiernan, Rosemary; Smith, P Brian; Roberts, Jamie; Benjamin, Daniel K
Despite legislation to stimulate pediatric drug development through clinical trials, enrolling children in trials continues to be challenging. Non-investigator (those who have never served as a clinical trial investigator) providers are essential to recruitment of pediatric patients, but little is known regarding the specific barriers that limit pediatric providers from participating in and referring their patients to clinical trials. We conducted an online survey of pediatric providers from a wide variety of practice types across the United States to evaluate their attitudes and awareness of pediatric clinical trials. Using a 4-point Likert scale, providers described their perception of potential barriers to their practice serving as a site for pediatric clinical trials. Of the 136 providers surveyed, 52/136 (38%) had previously referred a pediatric patient to a trial, and only 17/136 (12%) had ever been an investigator for a pediatric trial. Lack of awareness of existing pediatric trials was a major barrier to patient referral by providers, in addition to consideration of trial risks, distance to the site, and time needed to discuss trial participation with parents. Overall, providers perceived greater challenges related to parental concerns and parent or child logistical barriers than study implementation and ethics or regulatory barriers as barriers to their practice serving as a trial site. Providers who had previously been an investigator for a pediatric trial were less likely to be concerned with potential barriers than non-investigators. Understanding the barriers that limit pediatric providers from collaboration or inhibit their participation is key to designing effective interventions to optimize pediatric trial participation.
Sozu, Takashi; Hamasaki, Toshimitsu; Evans, Scott R
This book integrates recent methodological developments for calculating the sample size and power in trials with more than one endpoint considered as multiple primary or co-primary, offering an important reference work for statisticians working in this area. The determination of sample size and the evaluation of power are fundamental and critical elements in the design of clinical trials. If the sample size is too small, important effects may go unnoticed; if the sample size is too large, it represents a waste of resources and unethically puts more participants at risk than necessary. Recently many clinical trials have been designed with more than one endpoint considered as multiple primary or co-primary, creating a need for new approaches to the design and analysis of these clinical trials. The book focuses on the evaluation of power and sample size determination when comparing the effects of two interventions in superiority clinical trials with multiple endpoints. Methods for sample size calculation in clin...
Eaton, Margaret L; Kwon, Brian K; Scott, Christopher Thomas
Too often, biopharmaceutical companies stop their clinical trials solely for financial reasons. In this chapter, we discuss this phenomenon against the backdrop of a 2011 decision by Geron Corporation to abandon its stem cell clinical trial for spinal cord injury (SCI), the preliminary results of which were released in May 2014. We argue that the resultant harms are widespread and are different in nature from the consequences of stopping trials for scientific or medical reasons. We examine the ethical and social effects that arise from such decisions and discuss them in light of ethical frameworks, including duties of individual stakeholders and corporate sponsors. We offer ways that sponsors and clinical sites can ensure that trials are responsibly started, and once started adequately protect the interests of participants. We conclude with recommendations that industry sponsors of clinical trials should adopt in order to advance a collective and patient-centered research ethic.
Dunn, Adam G; Day, Richard O; Mandl, Kenneth D; Coiera, Enrico
Open sharing of clinical trial data has been proposed as a way to address the gap between the production of clinical evidence and the decision-making of physicians. A similar gap was addressed in the software industry by their open-source software movement. Here, we examine how the social and technical principles of the movement can guide the growth of an open-source clinical trial community.
da Silva, Ricardo E.; Amato, Angélica A.; Guilhem, Dirce B.; de Carvalho, Marta R.; Lima, Elisangela da C.; Novaes, Maria Rita C. G.
Background: Although policies and guidelines make use of the concept of vulnerability, few define it. The European Union's directive for clinical trials does not include explanations for or the reasoning behind the designation of certain groups as vulnerable. Emerging economies from lower middle-income countries have, in recent years, had the largest average annual growth rate, as well as increase, in number of clinical trials registered in the US government's database. Nevertheless, careful supervision of research activities has to be ensured. Objective: To describe and analyze the features of the clinical trials involving vulnerable populations in various countries classified by development status and geographic region. Methods: Retrospective study that involved analysis of data obtained from the International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) database between 01/2014 and 12/2014 from countries with (i) highest trial densities during 2005 to 2012, (ii) highest average growth rate in clinical trials, and (iii) greatest trial capabilities. Results: Statistical analysis of this study showed that patients incapable of giving consent personally are 11.4 times more likely to be vulnerable patients than patients who are capable, and that patients in upper-middle-income countries are 1.7 times more likely to be vulnerable patients than patients from high-income countries when participating in global clinical trials. Malaysia (21%), Egypt (20%), Turkey (19%), Israel (18%), and Brazil (17%) had the highest percentages of vulnerable populations involving children. Conclusions: Although the inability to provide consent personally was a factor associated with vulnerability, arbitrary criteria may have been considered when classifying the populations of clinical trials as vulnerable. The EU Clinical Trials Register should provide guidance regarding exactly what aspects or factors should be taken into account to frame given populations as vulnerable, because
Utami, Dina; Bickmore, Timothy W; Barry, Barbara; Paasche-Orlow, Michael K
Several web-based search engines have been developed to assist individuals to find clinical trials for which they may be interested in volunteering. However, these search engines may be difficult for individuals with low health and computer literacy to navigate. The authors present findings from a usability evaluation of clinical trial search tools with 41 participants across the health and computer literacy spectrum. The study consisted of 3 parts: (a) a usability study of an existing web-based clinical trial search tool; (b) a usability study of a keyword-based clinical trial search tool; and (c) an exploratory study investigating users' information needs when deciding among 2 or more candidate clinical trials. From the first 2 studies, the authors found that users with low health literacy have difficulty forming queries using keywords and have significantly more difficulty using a standard web-based clinical trial search tool compared with users with adequate health literacy. From the third study, the authors identified the search factors most important to individuals searching for clinical trials and how these varied by health literacy level.
Smaïl-Faugeron, V; Fron-Chabouis, H; Durieux, P
Prospective registration of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) represents the best solution to reporting bias. The extent to which oral health journals have endorsed and complied with RCT registration is unknown. We identified journals publishing RCTs in dentistry, oral surgery, and medicine in the Journal Citation Reports. We classified journals into 3 groups: journals requiring or recommending trial registration, journals referring indirectly to registration, and journals providing no reference to registration. For the 5 journals with the highest 2012 impact factors in each group, we assessed whether RCTs with results published in 2013 had been registered. Of 78 journals examined, 32 (41%) required or recommended trial registration, 19 (24%) referred indirectly to registration, and 27 (35%) provided no reference to registration. We identified 317 RCTs with results published in the 15 selected journals in 2013. Overall, 73 (23%) were registered in a trial registry. Among those, 91% were registered retrospectively and 32% did not report trial registration in the published article. The proportion of trials registered was not significantly associated with editorial policies: 29% with results in journals that required or recommended registration, 15% in those that referred indirectly to registration, and 21% in those providing no reference to registration (P = 0.05). Less than one-quarter of RCTs with results published in a sample of oral health journals were registered with a public registry. Improvements are needed with respect to how journals inform and require their authors to register their trials. © International & American Associations for Dental Research.
Dear, R F; Barratt, A L; Askie, L M; Butow, P N; McGeechan, K; Crossing, S; Currow, D C; Tattersall, M H N
Cancer patients want access to reliable information about currently recruiting clinical trials. Oncologists and their patients were randomly assigned to access a consumer-friendly cancer clinical trials web site [Australian Cancer Trials (ACT), www.australiancancertrials.gov.au] or to usual care in a cluster randomized controlled trial. The primary outcome, measured from audio recordings of oncologist-patient consultations, was the proportion of patients with whom participation in any clinical trial was discussed. Analysis was by intention-to-treat accounting for clustering and stratification. Thirty medical oncologists and 493 patients were recruited. Overall, 46% of consultations in the intervention group compared with 34% in the control group contained a discussion about clinical trials (P=0.08). The mean consultation length in both groups was 29 min (P=0.69). The proportion consenting to a trial was 10% in both groups (P=0.65). Patients' knowledge about randomized trials was lower in the intervention than the control group (mean score 3.0 versus 3.3, P=0.03) but decisional conflict scores were similar (mean score 42 versus 43, P=0.83). Good communication between patients and physicians is essential. Within this context, a web site such as Australian Cancer Trials may be an important tool to encourage discussion about clinical trial participation.
Flight, Laura; Julious, Steven A; Goodacre, Steve
Adaptive design clinical trials use preplanned interim analyses to determine whether studies should be stopped or modified before recruitment is complete. Emergency medicine trials are well suited to these designs as many have a short time to primary outcome relative to the length of recruitment. We hypothesised that the majority of published emergency medicine trials have the potential to use a simple adaptive trial design. We reviewed clinical trials published in three emergency medicine journals between January 2003 and December 2013. We determined the proportion that used an adaptive design as well as the proportion that could have used a simple adaptive design based on the time to primary outcome and length of recruitment. Only 19 of 188 trials included in the review were considered to have used an adaptive trial design. A total of 154/165 trials that were fixed in design had the potential to use an adaptive design. Currently, there seems to be limited uptake in the use of adaptive trial designs in emergency medicine despite their potential benefits to save time and resources. Failing to take advantage of adaptive designs could be costly to patients and research. It is recommended that where practical and logistical considerations allow, adaptive designs should be used for all emergency medicine clinical trials. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Kerr, Kathleen F; Roth, Jeremy; Zhu, Kehao; Thiessen-Philbrook, Heather; Meisner, Allison; Wilson, Francis Perry; Coca, Steven; Parikh, Chirag R
A potential use of biomarkers is to assist in prognostic enrichment of clinical trials, where only patients at relatively higher risk for an outcome of interest are eligible for the trial. We investigated methods for evaluating biomarkers for prognostic enrichment. We identified five key considerations when considering a biomarker and a screening threshold for prognostic enrichment: (1) clinical trial sample size, (2) calendar time to enroll the trial, (3) total patient screening costs and the total per-patient trial costs, (4) generalizability of trial results, and (5) ethical evaluation of trial eligibility criteria. Items (1)-(3) are amenable to quantitative analysis. We developed the Biomarker Prognostic Enrichment Tool for evaluating biomarkers for prognostic enrichment at varying levels of screening stringency. We demonstrate that both modestly prognostic and strongly prognostic biomarkers can improve trial metrics using Biomarker Prognostic Enrichment Tool. Biomarker Prognostic Enrichment Tool is available as a webtool at http://prognosticenrichment.com and as a package for the R statistical computing platform. In some clinical settings, even biomarkers with modest prognostic performance can be useful for prognostic enrichment. In addition to the quantitative analysis provided by Biomarker Prognostic Enrichment Tool, investigators must consider the generalizability of trial results and evaluate the ethics of trial eligibility criteria.
Dellson, Pia; Nilbert, Mef; Carlsson, Christina
Patient enrolment into clinical trials is based on oral information and informed consent, which includes an information sheet and a consent certificate. The written information should be complete, but at the same time risks being so complex that it may be questioned if a fully informed consent is possible to provide. We explored patient representatives' views and perceptions on the written trial information used in clinical cancer trials. Written patient information leaflets used in four clinical trials for colorectal cancer were used for the study. The trials included phase I-III trials, randomized and non-randomized trials that evaluated chemotherapy/targeted therapy in the neoadjuvant, adjuvant and palliative settings. Data were collected through focus groups and were analysed using inductive content analysis. Two major themes emerged: emotional responses and cognitive responses. Subthemes related to the former included individual preferences and perceptions of effect, while subthemes related to the latter were comprehensibility and layout. Based on these observations the patient representatives provided suggestions for improvement, which largely included development of future simplified and more attractive informed consent forms. The emotional and cognitive responses to written patient information reported by patient representatives provides a basis for revised formats in future trials and add to the body of information that support use of plain language, structured text and illustrations to improve the informed consent process and thereby patient enrolment into clinical trials.
Kao, Chi-Yin; Huang, Guey-Shiun; Dai, Yu-Tzu; Pai, Ya-Ying; Hu, Wen-Yu
Clinical research nurses (CRNs) play an important role in improving the quality of clinical trials. In Taiwan, the increasing number of clinical trials has increased the number of practicing CRNs. Understanding the role responsibilities of CRNs is necessary to promote professionalism in this nursing category. This study investigates the role responsibilities of CRNs in conducting clinical trials / research. A questionnaire survey was conducted in a medical center in Taipei City, Taiwan. Eighty CRNs that were registered to facilitate and conduct clinical trials at this research site completed the survey. "Subject protection" was the CRN role responsibility most recognized by participants, followed by "research coordination and management", "subject clinical care", and "advanced professional nursing". Higher recognition scores were associated with higher importance scores and lower difficulty scores. Participants with trial training had significantly higher difficulty scores for "subject clinical care" and "research coordination and management" than their peers without this training (p research coordination and management" (p clinical practice.
Leiter, Amanda; Sablinski, Tomasz; Diefenbach, Michael; Foster, Marc; Greenberg, Alex; Holland, John; Oh, William K; Galsky, Matthew D
Patient and physician awareness and acceptance of trials and patient ineligibility are major cancer clinical trial accrual barriers. Yet, trials are typically conceived and designed by small teams of researchers with limited patient input. We hypothesized that through crowdsourcing, the intellectual and creative capacity of a large number of researchers, clinicians, and patients could be harnessed to improve the clinical trial design process. In this study, we evaluated the feasibility and utility of using an internet-based crowdsourcing platform to inform the design of a clinical trial exploring an antidiabetic drug, metformin, in prostate cancer. Over a six-week period, crowd-sourced input was collected from 60 physicians/researchers and 42 patients/advocates leading to several major (eg, eligibility) and minor modifications to the clinical trial protocol as originally designed. Crowdsourcing clinical trial design is feasible, adds value to the protocol development process, and may ultimately improve the efficiency of trial conduct. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Full Text Available Abstract In recent years, the use of adaptive design methods in clinical research and development based on accrued data has become very popular due to its flexibility and efficiency. Based on adaptations applied, adaptive designs can be classified into three categories: prospective, concurrent (ad hoc, and retrospective adaptive designs. An adaptive design allows modifications made to trial and/or statistical procedures of ongoing clinical trials. However, it is a concern that the actual patient population after the adaptations could deviate from the originally target patient population and consequently the overall type I error (to erroneously claim efficacy for an infective drug rate may not be controlled. In addition, major adaptations of trial and/or statistical procedures of on-going trials may result in a totally different trial that is unable to address the scientific/medical questions the trial intends to answer. In this article, several commonly considered adaptive designs in clinical trials are reviewed. Impacts of ad hoc adaptations (protocol amendments, challenges in by design (prospective adaptations, and obstacles of retrospective adaptations are described. Strategies for the use of adaptive design in clinical development of rare diseases are discussed. Some examples concerning the development of Velcade intended for multiple myeloma and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma are given. Practical issues that are commonly encountered when implementing adaptive design methods in clinical trials are also discussed.
Full Text Available Abstract Novel immunotherapeutic agents targeting tumor-site microenvironment are revolutionizing cancer therapy. Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR-engineered T cells are widely studied for cancer immunotherapy. CD19-specific CAR-T cells, tisagenlecleucel, have been recently approved for clinical application. Ongoing clinical trials are testing CAR designs directed at novel targets involved in hematological and solid malignancies. In addition to trials of single-target CAR-T cells, simultaneous and sequential CAR-T cells are being studied for clinical applications. Multi-target CAR-engineered T cells are also entering clinical trials. T cell receptor-engineered CAR-T and universal CAR-T cells represent new frontiers in CAR-T cell development. In this study, we analyzed the characteristics of CAR constructs and registered clinical trials of CAR-T cells in China and provided a quick glimpse of the landscape of CAR-T studies in China.
Ohmann, Christian; Canham, Steve; Danielyan, Edgar; Robertshaw, Steve; Legré, Yannick; Clivio, Luca; Demotes, Jacques
Growing use of cloud computing in clinical trials prompted the European Clinical Research Infrastructures Network, a European non-profit organisation established to support multinational clinical research, to organise a one-day workshop on the topic to clarify potential benefits and risks. The issues that arose in that workshop are summarised and include the following: the nature of cloud computing and the cloud computing industry; the risks in using cloud computing services now; the lack of explicit guidance on this subject, both generally and with reference to clinical trials; and some possible ways of reducing risks. There was particular interest in developing and using a European 'community cloud' specifically for academic clinical trial data. It was recognised that the day-long workshop was only the start of an ongoing process. Future discussion needs to include clarification of trial-specific regulatory requirements for cloud computing and involve representatives from the relevant regulatory bodies.
Liu, Bingshan; Song, Yongping; Liu, Delong
Novel immunotherapeutic agents targeting tumor-site microenvironment are revolutionizing cancer therapy. Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-engineered T cells are widely studied for cancer immunotherapy. CD19-specific CAR-T cells, tisagenlecleucel, have been recently approved for clinical application. Ongoing clinical trials are testing CAR designs directed at novel targets involved in hematological and solid malignancies. In addition to trials of single-target CAR-T cells, simultaneous and sequential CAR-T cells are being studied for clinical applications. Multi-target CAR-engineered T cells are also entering clinical trials. T cell receptor-engineered CAR-T and universal CAR-T cells represent new frontiers in CAR-T cell development. In this study, we analyzed the characteristics of CAR constructs and registered clinical trials of CAR-T cells in China and provided a quick glimpse of the landscape of CAR-T studies in China.
Smith, Wade P; Phillips, Mark H
Clinical trial design most often focuses on a single or several related outcomes with corresponding calculations of statistical power. We consider a clinical trial to be a decision problem, often with competing outcomes. Using a current controversy in the treatment of HPV-positive head and neck cancer, we apply several different probabilistic methods to help define the range of outcomes given different possible trial designs. Our model incorporates the uncertainties in the disease process and treatment response and the inhomogeneities in the patient population. Instead of expected utility, we have used a Markov model to calculate quality adjusted life expectancy as a maximization objective. Monte Carlo simulations over realistic ranges of parameters are used to explore different trial scenarios given the possible ranges of parameters. This modeling approach can be used to better inform the initial trial design so that it will more likely achieve clinical relevance.
Tang, Chad; Hess, Kenneth R; Sanders, Dwana; Davis, Suzanne E; Buzdar, Aman U; Kurzrock, Razelle; Lee, J Jack; Meric-Bernstam, Funda; Hong, David S
Purpose: Information on processes for trials assessing investigational therapeutics is sparse. We assessed the trial development processes within the Department of Investigational Cancer Therapeutics (ICT) at MD Anderson Cancer Center (Houston, TX) and analyzed their effects on the trial activation timeline and enrolment. Experimental Design: Data were from a prospectively maintained registry that tracks all clinical studies at MD Anderson. From this database, we identified 2,261 activated phase I-III trials; 221 were done at the ICT. ICT trials were matched to trials from other MD Anderson departments by phase, sponsorship, and submission year. Trial performance metrics were compared with paired Wilcoxon signed rank tests. Results: We identified three facets of the ICT research infrastructure: parallel processing of trial approval steps; a physician-led research team; and regular weekly meetings to foster research accountability. Separate analyses were conducted stratified by sponsorship [industry (133 ICT and 133 non-ICT trials) or institutional (68 ICT and 68 non-ICT trials)]. ICT trial development was faster from IRB approval to activation (median difference of 1.1 months for industry-sponsored trials vs. 2.3 months for institutional) and from activation to first enrolment (median difference of 0.3 months for industry vs. 1.2 months for institutional; all matched P infrastructure within a large academic cancer center was associated with efficient trial development and participant accrual. Clin Cancer Res; 23(6); 1407-13. ©2016 AACR . ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.
Roberto, Anna; Radrezza, Silvia; Mosconi, Paola
In recent years the question of the lack of transparency in clinical research has been debated by clinicians, researchers, citizens and their representatives, authors and publishers. This is particularly important for infrequent cancers such as ovarian cancer, where treatment still gives disappointing results in the majority of cases. Our aim was to assess the availability to the public of results in ClinicalTrials.gov, and the frequency of non-publication of results in ClinicalTrials.gov and in PubMed, Embase and Google Scholar. We collected all trials on ovarian cancer identified as "completed status" in the ClinicalTrials.gov registry on 17 January 2017. We checked the availability of the results in ClinicalTrials.gov and systematically identified published manuscripts on results. Out of 2725 trials on ovarian cancer identified, 752 were classified as "completed status". In those closed between 2008 and 2015, excluding phase I, the frequency of results in ClinicalTrials.gov was 35%. Of the 752 completed studies the frequency of published results in PubMed, Embase or Google Scholar ranged from 57.9% to 69.7% in the last years. These findings show a lack of transparency and credibility of research. Citizens or patients' representatives, with the medical community, should continuously support initiatives to improve the publication and dissemination of clinical study results.
Lepping, P.; Whittington, R.; Sambhi, R.S.; Lane, S.; Poole, R.; Leucht, S.; Cuijpers, P.; McCabe, R.; Waheed, W.
Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) is beneficial in depression. Symptom scores can be translated into Clinical Global Impression (CGI) scale scores to indicate clinical relevance. We aimed to assess the clinical relevance of findings of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of CBT in depression. We
Claire Elizabeth Tacon
Full Text Available Clinical research bridges patients’ unmet medical need with innovative medicines, increases knowledge acquisition by clinicians, and creates solutions to improve the sustainability and quality of the Canadian health care system and economy. The Canadian Institutes of Health Research and the Canadian Lung Association have recently raised concerns over declining research activities within the Canadian respiratory community. While there are currently >3000 ongoing clinical trials in Canada, the number of trials investigating common respiratory diseases is unknown. The objective of the present study was to monitor the trends in industry- and non-industry-sponsored respiratory clinical trials in Canada from 2001 to 2011. Trialtrove 2012 (Citeline, an Informa UK business, a database containing summarized clinical trial information regarding pharmaceutical products, was searched using common chronic respiratory disease terms: “allergic rhinitis”, “asthma”, “chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD”, “cystic fibrosis”, “respiratory infections”, “pulmonary fibrosis” and “smoking cessation”. Over the past 10 years, the number of respiratory clinical trials conducted in Canada has increased (4.49 per year; P=0.004. From 2001 to 2011, the majority of trials were performed in asthma, followed closely by respiratory infections and COPD. Over the past decade, the number of trials investigating COPD and respiratory infections increased (P<0.05, while asthma trials showed a declining trend since 2007. Of the clinical trials performed during this 10-year period, the majority were in phase III, with a significant increase in the number of phase II trials (2.49 per year; P=0.008. However, certain trends observed are concerning and warrant further monitoring in the coming years.
Roberson, N L
Racial/ethnic groups' participation in clinical trials is a relatively new area of research that warrants attention. Although racial/ethnic groups have been included in experimental studies since the 1940s, they were not included in significant numbers in clinical trials for cancer. Clinical trials play a dominant role in clinical oncology. Despite this state-of-the-art cancer treatment, however, there is mounting concern that this scientific progress is not being shared equitably by all segments of the U.S. population. There is underrepresentation of members of racial/ethnic groups in cancer clinical trials, which suggests that participation may be a critical issue. Unfortunately, little is known or documented about these groups' participation in clinical trials. This paper discusses racial/ethnic groups' views and opinions about clinical trial participation. Diagnostic research was conducted as a beginning phase to investigate this new area of research. African Americans, Hispanics, and Native Americans in three Buffalo, New York, communities were selected as study subjects. Data were collected via telephone surveys. Qualitative methods were employed for data analysis and reporting. Findings showed that study subjects knew little about cancer clinical trials and basically had no opportunity to participate. They believed that participation in clinical trials could be beneficial. In each of the three groups, however, there were cultural factors believed to influence participation. A primary concern was "mistrust of white people" and the feeling of being treated like "guinea pigs." Based on study findings, it was evident that recruitment for improving participation requires strategic planning that involves participants representative of the study population. To yield results, the plan should be tailored to the target group, presented as a credible study, designed to reflect trust in the medical care team, and implemented through a continuous educational process.
Gillies, Katie; Cotton, Seonaidh C; Brehaut, Jamie C; Politi, Mary C; Skea, Zoe
Several interventions have been developed to promote informed consent for participants in clinical trials. However, many of these interventions focus on the content and structure of information (e.g. enhanced information or changes to the presentation format) rather than the process of decision making. Patient decision aids support a decision making process about medical options. Decision aids support the decision process by providing information about available options and their associated outcomes, alongside information that enables patients to consider what value they place on particular outcomes, and provide structured guidance on steps of decision making. They have been shown to be effective for treatment and screening decisions but evidence on their effectiveness in the context of informed consent for clinical trials has not been synthesised. To assess the effectiveness of decision aids for clinical trial informed consent compared to no intervention, standard information (i.e. usual practice) or an alternative intervention on the decision making process. We searched the following databases and to March 2015: Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), The Cochrane Library; MEDLINE (OvidSP) (from 1950); EMBASE (OvidSP) (from 1980); PsycINFO (OvidSP) (from 1806); ASSIA (ProQuest) (from 1987); WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (http://apps.who.int/trialsearch/); ClinicalTrials.gov; ISRCTN Register (http://www.controlled-trials.com/isrctn/). We also searched reference lists of included studies and relevant reviews. We contacted study authors and other experts. There were no language restrictions. We included randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials comparing decision aids in the informed consent process for clinical trials alone, or in conjunction with standard information (such as written or verbal) or alongside alternative interventions (e.g. paper-based versus web-based decision aids). Included trials involved
...] Guidance for Industry: Early Clinical Trials With Live Biotherapeutic Products: Chemistry, Manufacturing... ``Guidance for Industry: Early Clinical Trials With Live Biotherapeutic Products: Chemistry, Manufacturing... for Industry: Early Clinical Trials With Live Biotherapeutic Products: Chemistry, Manufacturing, and...
Rosenberg, Jacob; Burcharth, Jakob; Pommergaard, Hans-Christian
Discussions about authorship often arise in multi-centre clinical trials. Such trials may involve up to hundreds of contributors of whom some will eventually co-author the final publication. It is, however, often impossible to involve all contributors in the manuscript process sufficiently for th...
Ellenberg, Susan S; Keusch, Gerald T; Babiker, Abdel G
Randomized clinical trials are the most reliable approaches to evaluating the effects of new treatments and vaccines. During the 2014-15 West African Ebola epidemic, many argued that such trials were neither ethical nor feasible in an environment of limited health infrastructure and severe disease...
Hietanen, P; Aro, A R; Holli, K
The aim of this study was to determine the communicative needs of the patients in the context of being invited to participate in a clinical trial. A questionnaire was sent to 299 patients with breast cancer randomised in a trial of adjuvant therapy. It was returned by 261 (87%) of them. Ninety...
It is recommended that more recognition be given to the important role of trial counsellors in clinical trials, and that they be given more formal training, support and ... Daar word aanbeveel dat meer erkenning gegee word aan die rol van proefvoorligters in kliniese proewe, dat hulle meer formele opleiding ondergaan, dat ...
Knebl, Janice A; Patki, Deepti
Alzheimer disease is a devastating neurodegenerative disorder affecting millions of Americans. It reduces the ability of the individual to remain independent, places a burden on caregivers, and substantially increases healthcare costs. New treatments are being tested in numerous clinical trials with the goal of preventing or delaying the onset of Alzheimer disease, slowing or modifying the disease's course, or finding a cure for patients with the disease. Alzheimer disease research can successfully proceed only if individuals who have this illness are willing to participate in clinical trials. However, recruitment and retention of subjects in clinical trials for Alzheimer disease is a challenging task. Furthermore, because of reductions in decision-making capacities of individuals with Alzheimer disease, clinical trials also need to involve caregivers. The present article delineates unique hurdles encountered in the recruitment process for Alzheimer disease clinical trials. The article also identifies strategies for effective recruitment of subjects in Alzheimer disease clinical trials, including guidelines to help principal investigators and clinical research coordinators reach recruitment goals.
Buford, Thomas W.; Anton, Stephen D.; Bavry, Anthony; Carter, Christy S.; Daniels, Michael J.; Pahor, Marco
Persons aged over 65 years account for over 75% of healthcare expenditures and deaths attributable to cardiovascular disease (CVD). Accordingly, reducing CVD risk among older adults is an important public health priority. Functional status, determined by measures of physical performance, is an important predictor of cardiovascular outcomes in older adults and declines more rapidly in seniors with hypertension. To date, physical exercise is the primary strategy for attenuating declines in functional status. Yet despite the general benefits of training, exercise alone appears to be insufficient for preventing this decline. Thus, alternative or adjuvant strategies are needed to preserve functional status among seniors with hypertension. Prior data suggest that angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEi) may be efficacious in enhancing exercise-derived improvements in functional status yet this hypothesis has not been tested in a randomized controlled trial. The objective of this randomized, double-masked pilot trial is to gather preliminary efficacy and safety data necessary for conducting a full-scale trial to test this hypothesis. Sedentary men and women ≥ 65 years of age with functional limitations and hypertension are being recruited into this 24 week intervention study. Participants are randomly assigned to one of three conditions: (1) ACEi plus exercise training, (2) thiazide diuretic plus exercise training, or (3) AT1 receptor antagonist plus exercise training. The primary outcome is change in walking speed and secondary outcomes consist of other indices of CV risk including exercise capacity, body composition, as well as circulating indices of metabolism, inflammation and oxidative stress. PMID:26115878
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Database for Clinical Trials Related to Mental Illness (NDCT) is an extensible informatics platform for relevant data at all levels of biological and...
... of Personal Stories Peers Celebrating Art Peers Celebrating Music Be Vocal Support Locator DBSA In-Person Support ... contribution made by a clinical trial is to science first and to the patient second. back to ...
In addition, a manual search of the Open Access Journal of Clinical Trials databases and reference lists ... significant or negative findings or academics simply not completing the process of .... method on Microsoft Excel (USA). Determination of ...
FitzGerald, T.J.; Urie, Marcia; Ulin, Kenneth; Laurie, Fran; Yorty, Jeffrey C.; Hanusik, Richard; Kessel, Sandy; Jodoin, Maryann Bishop; Osagie, Gani; Cicchetti, M. Giulia; Pieters, Richard; McCarten, Kathleen; Rosen, Nancy
Quality assurance in radiotherapy (RT) has been an integral aspect of cooperative group clinical trials since 1970. In early clinical trials, data acquisition was nonuniform and inconsistent and computational models for radiation dose calculation varied significantly. Process improvements developed for data acquisition, credentialing, and data management have provided the necessary infrastructure for uniform data. With continued improvement in the technology and delivery of RT, evaluation processes for target definition, RT planning, and execution undergo constant review. As we move to multimodality image-based definitions of target volumes for protocols, future clinical trials will require near real-time image analysis and feedback to field investigators. The ability of quality assurance centers to meet these real-time challenges with robust electronic interaction platforms for imaging acquisition, review, archiving, and quantitative review of volumetric RT plans will be the primary challenge for future successful clinical trials
Mathura, Venkatarajan S; Rangareddy, Mahendiranath; Gupta, Pankaj; Mullan, Michael
Clinical trials involve multi-site heterogeneous data generation with complex data input-formats and forms. The data should be captured and queried in an integrated fashion to facilitate further analysis. Electronic case-report forms (eCRF) are gaining popularity since it allows capture of clinical information in a rapid manner. We have designed and developed an XML based flexible clinical trials data management framework in .NET environment that can be used for efficient design and deployment of eCRFs to efficiently collate data and analyze information from multi-site clinical trials. The main components of our system include an XML form designer, a Patient registration eForm, reusable eForms, multiple-visit data capture and consolidated reports. A unique id is used for tracking the trial, site of occurrence, the patient and the year of recruitment. Availability http://www.rfdn.org/bioinfo/CTMS/ctms.html. PMID:21670796
Pedersen, A G; Petersen, O B; Wara, P
BACKGROUND: Laparoscopy in patients with a clinical suspicion of acute appendicitis has not gained wide acceptance, and its use remains controversial. METHODS: In a randomized controlled trial of laparoscopic versus open appendicectomy, 583 of 828 consecutive patients consented to participate...
Richa Singhal; Rakesh Rana
The key components while planning a clinical study are the study design, study duration, and sample size. These features are an integral part of planning a clinical trial efficiently, ethically, and cost-effectively. This article describes some of the prerequisites for sample size calculation. It also explains that sample size calculation is different for different study designs. The article in detail describes the sample size calculation for a randomized controlled trial when the primary out...
Bingshan Liu; Yongping Song; Delong Liu
Abstract Novel immunotherapeutic agents targeting tumor-site microenvironment are revolutionizing cancer therapy. Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-engineered T cells are widely studied for cancer immunotherapy. CD19-specific CAR-T cells, tisagenlecleucel, have been recently approved for clinical application. Ongoing clinical trials are testing CAR designs directed at novel targets involved in hematological and solid malignancies. In addition to trials of single-target CAR-T cells, simultaneous...
Le Tourneau, Christophe; Lee, J. Jack; Siu, Lillian L.
Phase I clinical trials are an essential step in the development of anticancer drugs. The main goal of these studies is to establish the recommended dose and/or schedule of new drugs or drug combinations for phase II trials. The guiding principle for dose escalation in phase I trials is to avoid exposing too many patients to subtherapeutic doses while preserving safety and maintaining rapid accrual. Here we review dose escalation methods for phase I trials, including the rule-based and model-...
Chaumet-Riffaud, P.; Cachin, F.; Couturier, O.; Desruet, M.D.; Kraeber-Bodere, F.; Talbot, J.N.; Vuillez, J.P.
The particular status of radiopharmaceuticals, together with the positioning of nuclear medicine in multidisciplinary approach of oncology, lead to real difficulties for conception, validation and granting of clinical trials which are necessary for demonstrating clinical interest of new compounds, for diagnosis as well as for therapeutic use. This article is a presentation of some recent clinical trials conducted in nuclear medicine in France, showing its dynamism but also pointing out some encountered difficulties. These experiences could lead to reflexion in order to improve the clinical research performances, taking into account a scientific and regulatory context more and more constraining. (authors)
Andersen, Roger C.; Loebel, Nicolas G.; Andersen, Dane M.
Photodynamic therapy(PDT) has been demonstrated to effectively kill human periopathogens in vitro. To evaluate the efficacy of PDT in vivo a series of clinical trials was carried out in multiple centers and populations. Clinical parameters including clinical attachment level, pocket probing depth and bleeding on probing were all evaluated. All groups received the standard of care, scaling and root planing, and the treatment group additionally received a single treatment of PDT. Of the total 309 patients and over 40,000 pockets treated in these 5 trials it was determined that photodynamic therapy provided a statistically significant improvement in clinical parameters over scaling and root planing alone.
... include the following: (1) Are We There Yet?; (2) What FDA Expects in a Pharmaceutical Clinical Trial; (3) Medical Device Aspects of Clinical Research; (4) Adverse Event Reporting--Science, Regulation, Error, and...
Remington, R D
University faculty members who participate in clinical trials face a number of difficulties in connection with this association. Publication opportunities are often limited, and individual scholarship is difficult to express and evaluate within the context of a cooperative trial. Merit increases, promotion, and the award of tenure will usually require evidence of scholarly achievement outside the trial setting. For this reason, it seems inadvisable to recommend that a young investigator devote a major portion of his scholarly and research time to such an activity. A possible exception may be a full-time appointment for 1 to 2 years. Nonetheless, cooperative clinical trials are an important investigative tool and they should continue to be associated with academic centers. If appropriate administrative arrangements can be made, it should be possible to solve the academic problems of the young investigator associated with such trials.
Guise, Jeanne‐Marie; Dolor, Rowena J.; Meissner, Paul; Tunis, Sean; Krishnan, Jerry A.; Pace, Wilson D.; Saltz, Joel; Hersh, William R.; Michener, Lloyd; Carey, Timothy S.
Abstract An important challenge in comparative effectiveness research is the lack of infrastructure to support pragmatic clinical trials, which compare interventions in usual practice settings and subjects. These trials present challenges that differ from those of classical efficacy trials, which are conducted under ideal circumstances, in patients selected for their suitability, and with highly controlled protocols. In 2012, we launched a 1‐year learning network to identify high‐priority pragmatic clinical trials and to deploy research infrastructure through the NIH Clinical and Translational Science Awards Consortium that could be used to launch and sustain them. The network and infrastructure were initiated as a learning ground and shared resource for investigators and communities interested in developing pragmatic clinical trials. We followed a three‐stage process of developing the network, prioritizing proposed trials, and implementing learning exercises that culminated in a 1‐day network meeting at the end of the year. The year‐long project resulted in five recommendations related to developing the network, enhancing community engagement, addressing regulatory challenges, advancing information technology, and developing research methods. The recommendations can be implemented within 24 months and are designed to lead toward a sustained national infrastructure for pragmatic trials. PMID:24472114
Flocke, Susan A; Antognoli, Elizabeth; Daly, Barbara J; Jackson, Brigid; Fulton, Sarah E; Liu, Tasnuva M; Surdam, Jessica; Manne, Sharon; Meropol, Neal J
To describe oncology nurses' experiences discussing clinical trials with their patients, and to assess barriers to these discussions. . A qualitative study designed to elicit narratives from oncology nurses. . Community- and academic-based oncology clinics throughout the United States. . 33 oncology nurses involved in direct patient care in community-based and large hospital-based settings. The sample was drawn from members of the Oncology Nursing Society. . In-depth interviews were conducted and analyzed using a immersion/crystallization approach to identify themes and patterns. The analyses highlight specific issues, examples, and contexts that present challenges to clinical trial discussions with patients. . Oncology nurses view their roles as patient educators and advocates to be inclusive of discussion of clinical trials. Barriers to such discussions include lack of knowledge and strategies for addressing patients' common misconceptions and uncertainty about the timing of discussions. . These data indicate that enabling nurses to actively engage patients in discussions of clinical trials requires educational interventions to build self-efficacy and close knowledge gaps. . Oncology nurses can play a critical role in advancing cancer care by supporting patients in decision making about clinical trial participation. This will require training and education to build their knowledge, reduce barriers, and increase their self-efficacy to fulfill this responsibility in various clinical settings.
Little, Richard F
The era of modern HIV therapeutics is well underway. The cancer and infectious disease epidemiology of HIV disease has markedly altered as populations are availed to the benefits of antiretroviral therapy (ARV). The types of cancers occurring among those with HIV infection has broadened but the case burden in absolute numbers is very low relative to the background population. There are fewer incident cases of the AIDS-defining cancers (aggressive B-cell lymphomas, Kaposi's sarcoma, and cervical cancer). There is an increased risk for certain non-AIDS-defining cancers, but these occur somewhat sporadically relative to clinical trial enrollment. The changing epidemiology of cancer in HIV poses challenges as well as opportunities for participation of persons with HIV in cancer therapy clinical trials. There are excellent examples of cancer trials that inform cancer therapy for patients with HIV infection. Examples include those from HIV-specific trials and from trials mainly focused on the background population that included patients with HIV infection. Interpretation of clinical trials to guide therapy for those with HIV infection and cancer largely depends on data that does not include HIV-infected patients. The ability to extend clinical trial findings to populations not included in clinical trials remains problematic for a variety of populations, including those with HIV or AIDS. Careful prioritization of studies designed to bridge this gap is needed. However, there are published studies that serve as excellent examples bridging these gaps and the portfolio of cancer therapy trials underway will inform HIV and cancer better than at any time in the past.
Watkinson, Adam C
The number of drugs available as marketed transdermal products is limited to those that exhibit the correct physicochemical and pharmacokinetic properties that enable their effective delivery across the skin. In this respect, there are less than 20 drugs that are currently marketed in the US and EU as products that deliver systemic levels of their active ingredients. An analysis of clinical trials conducted in the transdermal sector shows a similar picture with only nine drugs accounting for approximately 80% of all transdermal clinical trials listed on ClinicalTrials.gov. Those drugs for which there are very few transdermal trials listed consist mostly of molecules that are inherently unsuitable for transdermal delivery and serve as a clear warning to drug developers that the science that governs transdermal drug delivery is well reflected by the successes and failures of drugs in development as well as those that make it to the market. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Nugent, Timothy; Upton, David; Cimpoesu, Mihai
The scientific credibility of findings from clinical trials can be undermined by a range of problems including missing data, endpoint switching, data dredging, and selective publication. Together, these issues have contributed to systematically distorted perceptions regarding the benefits and risks of treatments. While these issues have been well documented and widely discussed within the profession, legislative intervention has seen limited success. Recently, a method was described for using a blockchain to prove the existence of documents describing pre-specified endpoints in clinical trials. Here, we extend the idea by using smart contracts - code, and data, that resides at a specific address in a blockchain, and whose execution is cryptographically validated by the network - to demonstrate how trust in clinical trials can be enforced and data manipulation eliminated. We show that blockchain smart contracts provide a novel technological solution to the data manipulation problem, by acting as trusted administrators and providing an immutable record of trial history. PMID:28357041
Full Text Available Conducting clinical trials on children population is a challenge both for organizers and pediatricians involved in trials. Difficulties in recruiting patients, a significant heterogenecity of the population, specific side reactions, difficulties in identifying the objective final points warrant the specific nature of designing clinical trials in pediatrics. The article illustrates key issues and methodology aspects: planning, design, control groups, patient recruitment. It stresses the need to carefully consider specific characteristics of a child’s system and multi-disciplinary approach involving a pediatrician at the early stages of planning, preliminary consultations with parent organizations, children and regulators.Key words: clinical trials, methodology, planning, design, patient recruitment, children. (Pediatric Pharmacology. – 2010; 7(5:6-10
Smed, Marie; Getz, Kenneth A.
in the industry and site representatives are changing. The process of clinical trials has increased in complexity over the years, resulting in additional management layers. Besides an increase in internal management layers, sponsors often also outsource various tasks related to clinical trials to a CRO (Contract...... Research Organization) and thereby adding another link in the relationships between site and sponsor. These changes are intended to optimize the time-consuming and costly trial phases; however, there is a need to study whether valuable knowledge and experience is compromised in the process. Limited......' knowledge gained in clinical trials is utilized by the industry. Responses from 451 global investigative site representatives are included in the study. The analysis of the extensive dataset reveals that the current processes of collaboration between sites and the industry restrict the leverage of valuable...
Ohmann, Christian; Banzi, Rita; Canham, Steve
: The adoption of the recommendations in this document would help to promote and support data sharing and reuse among researchers, adequately inform trial participants and protect their rights, and provide effective and efficient systems for preparing, storing and accessing data. The recommendations now need......OBJECTIVES: We examined major issues associated with sharing of individual clinical trial data and developed a consensus document on providing access to individual participant data from clinical trials, using a broad interdisciplinary approach. DESIGN AND METHODS: This was a consensus...... Research Infrastructures Building Enduring Life-science Services) and coordinated by the European Clinical Research Infrastructure Network. Thus, the focus was on non-commercial trials and the perspective mainly European. OUTCOME: We developed principles and practical recommendations on how to share data...
Nugent, Timothy; Upton, David; Cimpoesu, Mihai
The scientific credibility of findings from clinical trials can be undermined by a range of problems including missing data, endpoint switching, data dredging, and selective publication. Together, these issues have contributed to systematically distorted perceptions regarding the benefits and risks of treatments. While these issues have been well documented and widely discussed within the profession, legislative intervention has seen limited success. Recently, a method was described for using a blockchain to prove the existence of documents describing pre-specified endpoints in clinical trials. Here, we extend the idea by using smart contracts - code, and data, that resides at a specific address in a blockchain, and whose execution is cryptographically validated by the network - to demonstrate how trust in clinical trials can be enforced and data manipulation eliminated. We show that blockchain smart contracts provide a novel technological solution to the data manipulation problem, by acting as trusted administrators and providing an immutable record of trial history.
Parikh, Kishan S; Rajagopal, Sudarshan; Arges, Kristine; Ahmad, Tariq; Sivak, Joseph; Kaul, Prashant; Shah, Svati H; Tapson, Victor; Velazquez, Eric J; Douglas, Pamela S; Samad, Zainab
To evaluate the use of surrogate measures in pulmonary hypertension (PH) clinical trials and how it relates to clinical practice. Studies of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) employ a variety of surrogate measures in addition to clinical events because of a small patient population, participant burden, and costs. The use of these measures in PH drug trials is poorly defined. We searched PubMed/MEDLINE/Embase for randomized or prospective cohort PAH clinical treatment trials from 1985 to 2013. Extracted data included intervention, trial duration, study design, patient characteristics, and primary and secondary outcome measures. To compare with clinical practice, we assessed the use of surrogate measures in a clinical sample of patients on PH medications at Duke University Medical Center between 2003 and 2014. Between 1985 and 2013, 126 PAH trials were identified and analyzed. Surrogate measures served as primary endpoints in 119 trials (94.0%). Inclusion of invasive hemodynamics decreased over time (78.6%, 75.0%, 52.2%; P for trend = .02), while functional testing (7.1%, 60.0%, 81.5%; P for trend clinical assessments regularly incorporated serial echocardiography and 6-minute walk distance tests (92% and 95% of patients, respectively) and repeat measurement of invasive hemodynamics (46% of patients). The majority of PAH trials have utilized surrogate measures as primary endpoints. The use of these surrogate endpoints has evolved significantly over time with increasing use of patient-centered endpoints and decreasing or stable use of imaging and invasive measures. In contrast, imaging and invasive measures are commonly used in contemporary clinical practice. Further research is needed to validate and standardize currently used measures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full text: Multi-disciplinary groups, such as medical physicists and radiation therapists, which work effectively together, can ensure continued improvements in radiation therapy quality. The same is also true for clinical trials, which have the added complication of requiring multi-institutional participation to collate sufficient data to effectively assess treatment benefits. It can be difficult to manage quality across all aspects of a multi-disciplinary and multi-institutional trial. A planned system of quality assurance is necessary to provide support for participating centres and facilitate a collaborative approach. To ensure protocol compliance a good relationship between the clinical trial group and treatment centre is idea with definition of mutual goals and objectives before and during the trial, and ongoing consultation and feedback throughout the trial process. To ensure good quality data and maximise the validity of results the study protocol must be strictly adhered to. Because of the need for meticulous attention to detail, both in treatment delivery and standards of documentation, clinical trials are often seen to further complicate the process of delivery of radiation therapy treatment. The Declaration of Helsinki and Good Clinical Practise Guidelines (adopted in May 1996, ICH) provide 'international ethical and scientific standards for designing, conducting, recording and reporting clinical research' and multi-disciplinary groups in each participating centre should also adhere to these guidelines. Copyright (2001) Australasian College of Physical Scientists and Engineers in Medicine
Background Qualitative research methods are increasingly used within clinical trials to address broader research questions than can be addressed by quantitative methods alone. These methods enable health professionals, service users, and other stakeholders to contribute their views and experiences to evaluation of healthcare treatments, interventions, or policies, and influence the design of trials. Qualitative data often contribute information that is better able to reform policy or influence design. Methods Health services researchers, including trialists, clinicians, and qualitative researchers, worked collaboratively to develop a comprehensive portfolio of standard operating procedures (SOPs) for the West Wales Organisation for Rigorous Trials in Health (WWORTH), a clinical trials unit (CTU) at Swansea University, which has recently achieved registration with the UK Clinical Research Collaboration (UKCRC). Although the UKCRC requires a total of 25 SOPs from registered CTUs, WWORTH chose to add an additional qualitative-methods SOP (QM-SOP). Results The qualitative methods SOP (QM-SOP) defines good practice in designing and implementing qualitative components of trials, while allowing flexibility of approach and method. Its basic principles are that: qualitative researchers should be contributors from the start of trials with qualitative potential; the qualitative component should have clear aims; and the main study publication should report on the qualitative component. Conclusions We recommend that CTUs consider developing a QM-SOP to enhance the conduct of quantitative trials by adding qualitative data and analysis. We judge that this improves the value of quantitative trials, and contributes to the future development of multi-method trials. PMID:23433341
Park, Yu Rang; Yoon, Young Jo; Koo, HaYeong; Yoo, Soyoung; Choi, Chang-Min; Beck, Sung-Ho; Kim, Tae Won
Clinical trials pose potential risks in both communications and management due to the various stakeholders involved when performing clinical trials. The academic medical center has a responsibility and obligation to conduct and manage clinical trials while maintaining a sufficiently high level of quality, therefore it is necessary to build an information technology system to support standardized clinical trial processes and comply with relevant regulations. The objective of the study was to address the challenges identified while performing clinical trials at an academic medical center, Asan Medical Center (AMC) in Korea, by developing and utilizing a clinical trial management system (CTMS) that complies with standardized processes from multiple departments or units, controlled vocabularies, security, and privacy regulations. This study describes the methods, considerations, and recommendations for the development and utilization of the CTMS as a consolidated research database in an academic medical center. A task force was formed to define and standardize the clinical trial performance process at the site level. On the basis of the agreed standardized process, the CTMS was designed and developed as an all-in-one system complying with privacy and security regulations. In this study, the processes and standard mapped vocabularies of a clinical trial were established at the academic medical center. On the basis of these processes and vocabularies, a CTMS was built which interfaces with the existing trial systems such as the electronic institutional review board health information system, enterprise resource planning, and the barcode system. To protect patient data, the CTMS implements data governance and access rules, and excludes 21 personal health identifiers according to the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) privacy rule and Korean privacy laws. Since December 2014, the CTMS has been successfully implemented and used by 881 internal and
Skyler, Jay S; Greenbaum, Carla J; Lachin, John M; Leschek, Ellen; Rafkin-Mervis, Lisa; Savage, Peter; Spain, Lisa
Type 1 Diabetes TrialNet is an international consortium of clinical research centers aimed at the prevention or delay of type 1 diabetes (T1D). The fundamental goal of TrialNet is to counter the T1D disease process by immune modulation and/or enhancement of beta cell proliferation and regeneration. To achieve this goal, TrialNet researchers are working to better understand the natural history of the disease, to identify persons at risk, and to clinically evaluate novel therapies that balance potential risks and benefits. The particular focus is on studies of preventive measures. In addition, TrialNet evaluates therapies in individuals with newly diagnosed T1D with preserved beta cell function to help determine the risk/benefit profile and gain an initial assessment of potential efficacy in preservation of beta cell function, so that promising agents can be studied in prevention trials. In addition, TrialNet evaluates methodologies that enhance the conduct of its clinical trials, which includes tests of outcome assessment methodology, the evaluation of surrogate markers, and mechanistic studies laying the foundation for future clinical trials.
A unique public-private collaboration today announced the initiation of the Lung Cancer Master Protocol (Lung-MAP) trial, a multi-drug, multi-arm, biomarker-driven clinical trial for patients with advanced squamous cell lung cancer. Squamous cell carcinom
Mopuru, Nandeeshwar Reddy; Jose, Sam Padamadan; Viswanath, Biju; Kumar, C Naveen; Math, Suresh Bada; Thirthalli, Jagadisha
Serious concerns have arisen in recent years regarding the unethical and illegal practices resorted to during clinical trials. Clinical trials in psychiatry are further complicated by issues such as 'validity of consent' and 'decision making capacity' of patients. This study was planned to explore the factors determining patient participation in clinical trials. A random sample of 123 consenting psychiatry inpatients were provided the information and consent-form of a hypothetical clinical drug trial. They were interviewed regarding their decision, the decision maker and factors that led to the decision. Family members tended to be the decision makers when patients were females, had low-income, were from rural background or had severe illnesses. Anticipated side effects and not wanting to interfere with existing treatment were the common reasons for refusal to participate while hope of betterment of the patient and benefit to humanity were cited for consent. The educated, urban, affluent class had more awareness regarding unethical trials and tended to be mistrustful of the medical community leading to higher rates of non-participation. Those who were adherent with ongoing treatment were also unwilling to participate. The lesser educated, low-income patients and rural domicile patients on the other hand had lesser awareness regarding clinical trials, trusted doctors and were more likely to participate. A good doctor-patient relationship, detailed explanations and clarification regarding the study and its conduct, and building awareness regarding clinical trials among vulnerable groups is necessary to ensure a valid consent involving no coercion, removal of prejudices, and ethical conduct of trials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Good, Marjorie J; Hurley, Patricia; Woo, Kaitlin M; Szczepanek, Connie; Stewart, Teresa; Robert, Nicholas; Lyss, Alan; Gönen, Mithat; Lilenbaum, Rogerio
Clinical research program managers are regularly faced with the quandary of determining how much of a workload research staff members can manage while they balance clinical practice and still achieve clinical trial accrual goals, maintain data quality and protocol compliance, and stay within budget. A tool was developed to measure clinical trial-associated workload, to apply objective metrics toward documentation of work, and to provide clearer insight to better meet clinical research program challenges and aid in balancing staff workloads. A project was conducted to assess the feasibility and utility of using this tool in diverse research settings. Community-based research programs were recruited to collect and enter clinical trial-associated monthly workload data into a web-based tool for 6 consecutive months. Descriptive statistics were computed for self-reported program characteristics and workload data, including staff acuity scores and number of patient encounters. Fifty-one research programs that represented 30 states participated. Median staff acuity scores were highest for staff with patients enrolled in studies and receiving treatment, relative to staff with patients in follow-up status. Treatment trials typically resulted in higher median staff acuity, relative to cancer control, observational/registry, and prevention trials. Industry trials exhibited higher median staff acuity scores than trials sponsored by the National Institutes of Health/National Cancer Institute, academic institutions, or others. The results from this project demonstrate that trial-specific acuity measurement is a better measure of workload than simply counting the number of patients. The tool was shown to be feasible and useable in diverse community-based research settings. Copyright © 2016 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.
Reilmann, Ralf; Schubert, Robin
Deficits in motor function are a hallmark of Huntington disease (HD). The Unified Huntington's Disease Rating Scale Total Motor Score (UHDRS-TMS) is a categoric clinical rating scale assessing multiple domains of motor disability in HD. The UHDRS-TMS or subsets of its items have served as primary or secondary endpoints in numerous clinical trials. In spite of a well-established video-based annual online certification system, intra- and interrater variability, subjective error, and rater-induced placebo effects remain a concern. In addition, the UHDRS-TMS was designed to primarily assess motor symptoms in manifest HD. Recently, advancement of technology resulted in the introduction of the objective Q-Motor (i.e., Quantitative-Motor) assessments in biomarker studies and clinical trials in HD. Q-Motor measures detected motor signs in blinded cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses of manifest, prodromal, and premanifest HD cohorts up to two decades before clinical diagnosis. In a multicenter clinical trial in HD, Q-Motor measures were more sensitive than the UHDRS-TMS and exhibited no placebo effects. Thus, Q-Motor measures are currently explored in several multicenter trials targeting both symptomatic and disease-modifying mechanisms. They may supplement the UHDRS-TMS, increase the sensitivity and reliability in proof-of-concept studies, and open the door for phenotype assessments in clinical trials in prodromal and premanifest HD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
FitzGerald, Thomas J., E-mail: Thomas.Fitzgerald@umassmed.edu [Imaging and Radiation Oncology Core Rhode Island, University of Massachusetts Memorial Medical Center, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts (United States); Bishop-Jodoin, Maryann [Imaging and Radiation Oncology Core Rhode Island, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts (United States); Followill, David S. [Imaging and Radiation Oncology Core Houston, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Galvin, James [Imaging and Radiation Oncology Core Philadelphia, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Knopp, Michael V. [Imaging and Radiation Oncology Core Ohio, Wexner Medical Center, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio (United States); Michalski, Jeff M. [Imaging and Radiation Oncology Core St. Louis, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Rosen, Mark A. [Imaging and Radiation Oncology Core Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania Health System, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Bradley, Jeffrey D. [Washington University School of Medicine–Radiation Oncology, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Shankar, Lalitha K. [National Cancer Institute, Clinical Radiation Oncology Branch, Rockville, Maryland (United States); Laurie, Fran [Imaging and Radiation Oncology Core Rhode Island, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts (United States); Cicchetti, M. Giulia; Moni, Janaki [Imaging and Radiation Oncology Core Rhode Island, University of Massachusetts Memorial Medical Center, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts (United States); Coleman, C. Norman; Deye, James A.; Capala, Jacek; Vikram, Bhadrasain [National Cancer Institute, Clinical Radiation Oncology Branch, Rockville, Maryland (United States)
Cancer treatment evolves through oncology clinical trials. Cancer trials are multimodal and complex. Assuring high-quality data are available to answer not only study objectives but also questions not anticipated at study initiation is the role of quality assurance. The National Cancer Institute reorganized its cancer clinical trials program in 2014. The National Clinical Trials Network (NCTN) was formed and within it was established a Diagnostic Imaging and Radiation Therapy Quality Assurance Organization. This organization is Imaging and Radiation Oncology Core, the Imaging and Radiation Oncology Core Group, consisting of 6 quality assurance centers that provide imaging and radiation therapy quality assurance for the NCTN. Sophisticated imaging is used for cancer diagnosis, treatment, and management as well as for image-driven technologies to plan and execute radiation treatment. Integration of imaging and radiation oncology data acquisition, review, management, and archive strategies are essential for trial compliance and future research. Lessons learned from previous trials are and provide evidence to support diagnostic imaging and radiation therapy data acquisition in NCTN trials.
FitzGerald, Thomas J.; Bishop-Jodoin, Maryann; Followill, David S.; Galvin, James; Knopp, Michael V.; Michalski, Jeff M.; Rosen, Mark A.; Bradley, Jeffrey D.; Shankar, Lalitha K.; Laurie, Fran; Cicchetti, M. Giulia; Moni, Janaki; Coleman, C. Norman; Deye, James A.; Capala, Jacek; Vikram, Bhadrasain
Cancer treatment evolves through oncology clinical trials. Cancer trials are multimodal and complex. Assuring high-quality data are available to answer not only study objectives but also questions not anticipated at study initiation is the role of quality assurance. The National Cancer Institute reorganized its cancer clinical trials program in 2014. The National Clinical Trials Network (NCTN) was formed and within it was established a Diagnostic Imaging and Radiation Therapy Quality Assurance Organization. This organization is Imaging and Radiation Oncology Core, the Imaging and Radiation Oncology Core Group, consisting of 6 quality assurance centers that provide imaging and radiation therapy quality assurance for the NCTN. Sophisticated imaging is used for cancer diagnosis, treatment, and management as well as for image-driven technologies to plan and execute radiation treatment. Integration of imaging and radiation oncology data acquisition, review, management, and archive strategies are essential for trial compliance and future research. Lessons learned from previous trials are and provide evidence to support diagnostic imaging and radiation therapy data acquisition in NCTN trials.
K. O. Zupanets
Full Text Available Protection of rights, health and well-being of persons who are taking the drug during the trial (trial subjects is one of the basic principles of clinical trials (CT management. Aim. In order to study key aspects of volunteer protection, determine factors that influence these indicators and estimate the importance of ensuring their proper implementation on the clinical site (CS three survey of 135 trial subjects were carried out to evaluate the importance of assessing the impact of factors such as the procedure of signing the informed consent (IC at the CS and testing procedures for HIV / AIDS, hepatitis and others. Assessment of the quality of life of trial subjects as indirect indicator of the quality of clinical trials that ensures the proper protection of their life was the subject of the third survey. Methods and results. The general model of the relationship between the key aspects of the trial subjects protection and the factors which are providing them during the clinical trials of drugs management was substantiated, which included the main aspects of the trial subjects’ protection, protective factors and basic CT management procedures, the impact of the above factors on the possibility of providing protection aspects depends on their implementation quality. It was found that trial subjects’ protection improvement can be achieved during the IC signing process. It is necessary to ensure a higher level of volunteers understanding of the terms that could be used in the IC form. Regarding the procedure of compulsory testing for HIV/AIDS in the course of screening, we can conclude that the majority of the trial subjects believe that this procedure is an additional factor in their health protection and do not consider it as an excessive psychological pressure on them. Conclusion. Assessing the quality of life during the bioequivalence study at the CS makes possible to reach a conclusion on general well-being and satisfaction with those
Conclusions: The use of operational data from Covance Central Laboratories provides a unique perspective into the performance of clinical sites with respect to many important metrics such as patient enrollment and retention. These metrics can, in turn, be used to guide operational planning and site selection for new clinical trials, thereby accelerating recruitment, improving quality, and reducing cost.
Mackiewicz, Jacek; Mackiewicz, Andrzej
Advances in molecular and cellular biology as well as biotechnology led to definition of a group of drugs referred to as medicinal products of advanced technologies. It includes gene therapy products, somatic cell therapeutics and tissue engineering. Therapeutic cancer vaccines including whole cell tumor cells vaccines or gene modified whole cells belong to somatic therapeutics and/or gene therapy products category. The drug development is a multistep complex process. It comprises of two phases: preclinical and clinical. Guidelines on preclinical testing of cell based immunotherapy medicinal products have been defined by regulatory agencies and are available. However, clinical testing of therapeutic cancer vaccines is still under debate. It presents a serious problem since recently clinical efficacy of the number of cancer vaccines has been demonstrated that focused a lot of public attention. In general clinical testing in the current form is very expensive, time consuming and poorly designed what may lead to overlooking of products clinically beneficial for patients. Accordingly regulatory authorities and researches including Cancer Vaccine Clinical Trial Working Group proposed three regulatory solutions to facilitate clinical development of cancer vaccines: cost-recovery program, conditional marketing authorization, and a new development paradigm. Paradigm includes a model in which cancer vaccines are investigated in two types of clinical trials: proof-of-principle and efficacy. The proof-of-principle trial objectives are: safety; dose selection and schedule of vaccination; and demonstration of proof-of-principle. Efficacy trials are randomized clinical trials with objectives of demonstrating clinical benefit either directly or through a surrogate. The clinical end points are still under debate.
Zannad, Faiez; Pfeffer, Marc A; Bhatt, Deepak L; Bonds, Denise E; Borer, Jeffrey S; Calvo-Rojas, Gonzalo; Fiore, Louis; Lund, Lars H; Madigan, David; Maggioni, Aldo Pietro; Meyers, Catherine M; Rosenberg, Yves; Simon, Tabassome; Stough, Wendy Gattis; Zalewski, Andrew; Zariffa, Nevine; Temple, Robert
Controlled trials provide the most valid determination of the efficacy and safety of an intervention, but large cardiovascular clinical trials have become extremely costly and complex, making it difficult to study many important clinical questions. A critical question, and the main objective of this review, is how trials might be simplified while maintaining randomisation to preserve scientific integrity and unbiased efficacy assessments. Experience with alternative approaches is accumulating, specifically with registry-based randomised controlled trials that make use of data already collected. This approach addresses bias concerns while still capitalising on the benefits and efficiencies of a registry. Several completed or ongoing trials illustrate the feasibility of using registry-based controlled trials to answer important questions relevant to daily clinical practice. Randomised trials within healthcare organisation databases may also represent streamlined solutions for some types of investigations, although data quality (endpoint assessment) is likely to be a greater concern in those settings. These approaches are not without challenges, and issues pertaining to informed consent, blinding, data quality and regulatory standards remain to be fully explored. Collaboration among stakeholders is necessary to achieve standards for data management and analysis, to validate large data sources for use in randomised trials, and to re-evaluate ethical standards to encourage research while also ensuring that patients are protected. The rapidly evolving efforts to streamline cardiovascular clinical trials have the potential to lead to major advances in promoting better care and outcomes for patients with cardiovascular disease. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Full Text Available Background: India continues to contribute disproportionately to the global burden of disease and public health research output from India is also known to be not commensurate with her healthcare needs. We carried out the present study to assess if clinical trials were in line with the health care needs of the country by auditing the clinical trials registry of India. Materials and Methods: All the clinical studies registered in CTRI between July 20, 2007 and December 31, 2015 were searched in the “Trial Search” section. The total number of studies, their phases of development, and therapeutic areas were assessed. Trials in each therapeutic area was compared with the disease burden (DALYs in that area taken from Global Health Estimates  Summary Tables of the WHO. The number of trials conducted per state in India was also compared with the population of that state [Census 2011]. Results: A total of 6474 studies were registered of which 3325 (51.4% were clinical trials. The state of Maharashtra had the highest number trials [16.4%] followed by Karnataka ( 11.6% and Tamil Nadu (10%. Populous states like Uttar Pradesh (5.3% and Bihar (1.4% had far fewer trials. The largest number of trials was in the area of cancer (16.4%, followed by diabetes (12.1% and cardiovascular diseases (10.1%. Infectious and parasitic diseases had the highest DALYs (82,681 and ranked first in disease burden but accounted for only 5% of the total trials and ranked 7th according to number of trials. Cancer ranked first in the number of trials (16.4%, but ranked 6th based on DALYs. Conclusion: Clinical trials conducted in India are not in consonance with her health care needs. Strengthening the capacity for conducting trials in the populous states and the north-eastern part of the country is necessary to allow a more equitable selection of participants. The government should introduce policies to encourage new drug development in areas where needed the most.
Eric Yang; Christopher O'Donovan; JodiLyn Phillips; Leone Atkinson; Krishnendu Ghosh; Dimitris K. Agrafiotis
Background: One of the keys to running a successful clinical trial is the selection of high quality clinical sites, i.e., sites that are able to enroll patients quickly, engage them on an ongoing basis to prevent drop-out, and execute the trial in strict accordance to the clinical protocol. Intuitively, the historical track record of a site is one of the strongest predictors of its future performance; however, issues such as data availability and wide differences in protocol complexity can co...
Gluud, C; Nikolova, D
Electronic searches on databases for randomised clinical trials and controlled clinical trials do not identify as many trials as handsearches, and trial reporting may be flawed. The aims were to identify all fully reported randomised clinical trials in the Journal of Hepatology and to make...... a qualitative assessment of the reporting....
Gluud, Christian; Nikolova, Dimitrinka
The number of publications on clinical trials is unknown as well as the countries publishing most trial reports. To try to examine these questions we performed an ecological study.......The number of publications on clinical trials is unknown as well as the countries publishing most trial reports. To try to examine these questions we performed an ecological study....
Keus, Frederik; van der Horst, Iwan C C; Nijsten, Maarten W
Today's clinical research faces challenges such as a lack of clinical equipoise between treatment arms, reluctance in randomizing for multiple treatments simultaneously, inability to address interactions and increasingly restricted resources. Furthermore, many trials are biased by extensive exclusion criteria, relatively small sample size and less appropriate outcome measures. We propose a 'Multiplex' trial design that preserves clinical equipoise with a continuous and factorial trial design that will also result in more efficient use of resources. This multiplex design accommodates subtrials with appropriate choice of treatment arms within each subtrial. Clinical equipoise should increase consent rates while the factorial design is the best way to identify interactions. The multiplex design may evolve naturally from today's research limitations and challenges, while principal objections seem absent. However this new design poses important infrastructural, organisational and psychological challenges that need in depth consideration.
A "microdose clinical trial" (microdosing) is one kind of early phase exploratory clinical trial, administering the compound at doses estimated to have no pharmacological or toxicological effects, aimed at screening candidates for further clinical development. This article's objective is to clarify the ethical, legal, and social implications (ELSI) of such an exploratory minimum-risk human trial. The definition and non-clinical study requirements for microdosing have been harmonized among the European Union (EU), United States (US), and Japan. Being conducted according to these regulations, microdosing seems to be ethically well justified in terms of respect for persons, beneficence, justice, human dignity, and animal welfare. Three big projects have been demonstrating the predictability of therapeutic dose pharmacokinetics from microdosing. The article offers suggestions as how microdosing can become a more useful and socially accepted strategy. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Randomised controlled clinical trials are performed to resolve uncertainty concerning comparator interventions. Appropriate acknowledgment of uncertainty enables the concurrent achievement of two goals : the acquisition of valuable scientific knowledge and an optimum treatment choice for the patient-participant. The ethical recruitment of patients requires the presence of clinical equipoise. This involves the appropriate choice of a control intervention, particularly when unapproved drugs or innovative interventions are being evaluated. Discussion We argue that the choice of a control intervention should be supported by a systematic review of the relevant literature and, where necessary, solicitation of the informed beliefs of clinical experts through formal surveys and publication of the proposed trial's protocol. Summary When clinical equipoise is present, physicians may confidently propose trial enrollment to their eligible patients as an act of therapeutic beneficence.
Marsot, A; Boucherie, Q; Kheloufi, F; Riff, C; Braunstein, D; Dupouey, J; Guilhaumou, R; Zendjidjian, X; Bonin-Guillaume, S; Fakra, E; Guye, M; Jirsa, V; Azorin, J-M; Belzeaux, R; Adida, M; Micallef, J; Blin, O
Clinical trials in psychiatry allow to build the regulatory dossiers for market authorization but also to document the mechanism of action of new drugs, to build pharmacodynamics models, evaluate the treatment effects, propose prognosis, efficacy or tolerability biomarkers and altogether to assess the impact of drugs for patient, caregiver and society. However, clinical trials have shown some limitations. Number of recent dossiers failed to convince the regulators. The clinical and biological heterogeneity of psychiatric disorders, the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamics properties of the compounds, the lack of translatable biomarkers possibly explain these difficulties. Several breakthrough options are now available: quantitative system pharmacology analysis of drug effects variability, pharmacometry and pharmacoepidemiology, Big Data analysis, brain modelling. In addition to more classical approaches, these opportunities lead to a paradigm change for clinical trials in psychiatry. © L’Encéphale, Paris, 2016.
Arjona, A; Nuskey, B; Rabasseda, X; Arias, E
As the pharmaceutical industry strives to meet the ever-increasing complexity of drug development, new technology in clinical trials has become a beacon of hope. With big data comes the promise of accelerated patient recruitment, real-time monitoring of clinical trials, bioinformatics empowerment of quicker phase progression, and the overwhelming benefits of precision medicine for select trials. Risk-based monitoring stands to benefit as well. With a strengthening focus on centralized data by the FDA and industry's transformative initiative, TransCelerate, a new era in trial risk mitigation has begun. The traditional method of intensive on-site monitoring is becoming a thing of the past as statistical, real-time analysis of site and trial-wide data provides the means to monitor with greater efficiency and effectiveness from afar. However, when it comes to big data, there are challenges that lie ahead. Patient privacy, commercial investment protection, technology woes and data variability are all limitations to be met with considerable thought. At the Annual Meeting of the American Academy of Dermatology this year, clinical trials on psoriasis, atopic dermatitis and other skin diseases were discussed in detail. This review of clinical research reports on novel therapies for psoriasis and atopic dermatitis reveals the impact of these diseases and the drug candidates that have been successful in phase II and III studies. Data-focused highlights of novel dermatological trials, as well as real-life big data approaches and an insight on the new methodology of risk-based monitoring, are all discussed in this edition of Developments in Clinical Trials. Copyright 2014 Prous Science, S.A.U. or its licensors. All rights reserved.
... subsequent comment concerning corruption in clinical trials conducted by large pharmaceutical companies. The... Collection: Title: Clinical Trials Reporting Program (CTRP) Database. Type of Information Collection Request... institutions. Type of Respondents: Clinical research administrators on behalf of clinical investigators. The...
... Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander communities. OMH project manager Christine Merenda, M.P.H., R.N. explains ... are disproportionately affected by diabetes. But historically, both women and minorities have been under-represented in clinical ...
Hanna, Eve; Rémuzat, Cecile; Auquier, Pascal; Toumi, Mondher
Advanced therapy medicinal products (ATMPs) constitute a class of innovative products that encompasses gene therapy, somatic cell therapy, and tissue-engineered products (TEP). There is an increased investment of commercial and non-commercial sponsors in this field and a growing number of ATMPs randomized clinical trials (RCT) and patients enrolled in such trials. RCT generate data to prove the efficacy of a new therapy, but the discontinuation of RCTs wastes scarce resources. Our objective is to identify the number and characteristics of discontinued ATMPs trials in order to evaluate the rate of discontinuation. We searched for ATMPs trials conducted between 1999 to June 2015 using three databases, which are Clinicaltrials.gov, the International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP), and the EU Drug Regulating Authorities Clinical Trials (EudraCT). We selected the ATMPs trials after elimination of the duplicates. We identified the disease areas and the sponsors as commercial or non-commercial organizations. We classified ATMPs by type and trial status, that is, ongoing, completed, terminated, discontinued, and prematurely ended. Then, we calculated the rate of discontinuation. Between 1999 and June 2015, 143 withdrawn, terminated, or prematurely ended ATMPs clinical trials were identified. Between 1999 and June 2013, 474 ongoing and completed clinical trials were identified. Therefore, the rate of discontinuation of ATMPs trials is 23.18%, similar to that for non-ATMPs drugs in development. The probability of discontinuation is, respectively, 27.35, 16.28, and 16.34% for cell therapies, gene therapies, and TEP. The highest discontinuation rate is for oncology (43%), followed by cardiology (19.2%). It is almost the same for commercial and non-commercial sponsors; therefore, the discontinuation reason may not be financially driven. No failure risk rate per development phase is available for ATMPs. The discontinuation rate may prove helpful when assessing the
Full Text Available Abstract Background Greater transparency, including sharing of patient-level data for further research, is an increasingly important topic for organisations who sponsor, fund and conduct clinical trials. This is a major paradigm shift with the aim of maximising the value of patient-level data from clinical trials for the benefit of future patients and society. We consider the analysis of shared clinical trial data in three broad categories: (1 reanalysis - further investigation of the efficacy and safety of the randomized intervention, (2 meta-analysis, and (3 supplemental analysis for a research question that is not directly assessing the randomized intervention. Discussion In order to support appropriate interpretation and limit the risk of misleading findings, analysis of shared clinical trial data should have a pre-specified analysis plan. However, it is not generally possible to limit bias and control multiplicity to the extent that is possible in the original trial design, conduct and analysis, and this should be acknowledged and taken into account when interpreting results. We highlight a number of areas where specific considerations arise in planning, conducting, interpreting and reporting analyses of shared clinical trial data. A key issue is that that these analyses essentially share many of the limitations of any post hoc analyses beyond the original specified analyses. The use of individual patient data in meta-analysis can provide increased precision and reduce bias. Supplemental analyses are subject to many of the same issues that arise in broader epidemiological analyses. Specific discussion topics are addressed within each of these areas. Summary Increased provision of patient-level data from industry and academic-led clinical trials for secondary research can benefit future patients and society. Responsible data sharing, including transparency of the research objectives, analysis plans and of the results will support appropriate
Weng, Chunhua; Bigger, J Thomas; Busacca, Linda; Wilcox, Adam; Getaneh, Asqual
This paper reports a case study comparing the relative efficiency of using a Diabetes Registry or a Clinical Data Warehouse to recruit participants for a diabetes clinical trial, TECOS. The Clinical Data Warehouse generated higher positive predictive accuracy (31% vs. 6.6%) and higher participant recruitment than the Registry (30 vs. 14 participants) in a shorter time period (59 vs. 74 working days). We identify important factors that increase clinical trial recruitment efficiency and lower cost. PMID:21347102
Mattingly, William A; Kelley, Robert R; Wiemken, Timothy L; Chariker, Julia H; Peyrani, Paula; Guinn, Brian E; Binford, Laura E; Buckner, Kimberley; Ramirez, Julio
Achieving patient recruitment goals are critical for the successful completion of a clinical trial. We designed and developed a web-based dashboard for assisting in the management of clinical trial screening and enrollment. We use the dashboard to assist in the management of two observational studies of community-acquired pneumonia. Clinical research associates and managers using the dashboard were surveyed to determine its effectiveness as compared with traditional direct communication. The dashboard has been in use since it was first introduced in May of 2014. Of the 23 staff responding to the survey, 77% felt that it was easier or much easier to use the dashboard for communication than to use direct communication. We have designed and implemented a visualization dashboard for managing multi-site clinical trial enrollment in two community acquired pneumonia studies. Information dashboards are a useful tool for clinical trial management. They can be used as a standalone trial information tool or included into a larger management system.
Singh, Vineeta; Rana, Rakesh Kumar; Singhal, Richa
Statistics is an integral part of Clinical Trials. Elements of statistics span Clinical Trial design, data monitoring, analyses and reporting. A solid understanding of statistical concepts by clinicians improves the comprehension and the resulting quality of Clinical Trials. In biomedical research it has been seen that researcher frequently use t-test and ANOVA to compare means between the groups of interest irrespective of the nature of the data. In Clinical Trials we record the data on the patients more than two times. In such a situation using the standard ANOVA procedures is not appropriate as it does not consider dependencies between observations within subjects in the analysis. To deal with such types of study data Repeated Measure ANOVA should be used. In this article the application of One-way Repeated Measure ANOVA has been demonstrated by using the software SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences) Version 15.0 on the data collected at four time points 0 day, 15th day, 30th day, and 45th day of multicentre clinical trial conducted on Pandu Roga (~Iron Deficiency Anemia) with an Ayurvedic formulation Dhatrilauha. PMID:23930038
The relationship between the ethical standards for the governance of clinical trials and market forces can be complex and problematic. This article uses India as a case study to explore this nexus. From the mid-2000s, India became a popular destination for foreign-sponsored clinical trials. The Indian government had sought to both attract clinical trials and ensure these would be run in line with internationally accepted ethical norms. Reports of controversial medical research, however, triggered debate about the robustness and suitability of India's regulatory system. In response to civil society pressure and interventions by the Supreme Court, the Indian government proposed additional measures aimed at strengthening protections for clinical trial participants. Whilst the reforms can be seen as a victory for human rights activists, they have also been criticised as being overly burdensome for sponsors. Indeed, their announcement prompted an exodus of clinical trials from India. Fearful of losing business to 'rival' countries, the Indian government is revisiting some of its proposals. The Indian example suggests that research ethics frameworks and national policies for economic development are increasingly intertwined. Host countries are in theory free to improve the lot of research participants, but doing so may make them appear less attractive to foreign sponsors, who can simply shift their activities to more industry-friendly jurisdictions. Although these economic pressures are unlikely to lead to a regulatory 'race to the bottom', they may limit host countries' ability to enact socially desirable reforms. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Mayo, Charles S; Matuszak, Martha M; Schipper, Matthew J; Jolly, Shruti; Hayman, James A; Ten Haken, Randall K
Emergence of big data analytics resource systems (BDARSs) as a part of routine practice in Radiation Oncology is on the horizon. Gradually, individual researchers, vendors, and professional societies are leading initiatives to create and demonstrate use of automated systems. What are the implications for design of clinical trials, as these systems emerge? Gold standard, randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have high internal validity for the patients and settings fitting constraints of the trial, but also have limitations including: reproducibility, generalizability to routine practice, infrequent external validation, selection bias, characterization of confounding factors, ethics, and use for rare events. BDARS present opportunities to augment and extend RCTs. Preliminary modeling using single- and muti-institutional BDARS may lead to better design and less cost. Standardizations in data elements, clinical processes, and nomenclatures used to decrease variability and increase veracity needed for automation and multi-institutional data pooling in BDARS also support ability to add clinical validation phases to clinical trial design and increase participation. However, volume and variety in BDARS present other technical, policy, and conceptual challenges including applicable statistical concepts, cloud-based technologies. In this summary, we will examine both the opportunities and the challenges for use of big data in design of clinical trials.
Charles S. Mayo
Full Text Available Emergence of big data analytics resource systems (BDARSs as a part of routine practice in Radiation Oncology is on the horizon. Gradually, individual researchers, vendors, and professional societies are leading initiatives to create and demonstrate use of automated systems. What are the implications for design of clinical trials, as these systems emerge? Gold standard, randomized controlled trials (RCTs have high internal validity for the patients and settings fitting constraints of the trial, but also have limitations including: reproducibility, generalizability to routine practice, infrequent external validation, selection bias, characterization of confounding factors, ethics, and use for rare events. BDARS present opportunities to augment and extend RCTs. Preliminary modeling using single- and muti-institutional BDARS may lead to better design and less cost. Standardizations in data elements, clinical processes, and nomenclatures used to decrease variability and increase veracity needed for automation and multi-institutional data pooling in BDARS also support ability to add clinical validation phases to clinical trial design and increase participation. However, volume and variety in BDARS present other technical, policy, and conceptual challenges including applicable statistical concepts, cloud-based technologies. In this summary, we will examine both the opportunities and the challenges for use of big data in design of clinical trials.
Montenegro Surís, Alexander; Monreal Agüero, Magda Elaine
The informed consent procedure has been one of the most important controversies of ethical debates about clinical trials in developing countries. In this essay we present our recommendations about important aspects to consider in the informed consent procedure for clinical trials in developing countries. We performed a full publications review identified by MEDLINE using these terms combinations: informed consent, developing countries, less developed countries and clinical trials. To protect volunteers in less developed countries should be valuated the importance of the community in the informed consent proceeding. The signing and dating of the informed consent form is not always the best procedure to document the informed consent. The informed consent form should be written by local translators. Alternative medias of communications could be needed for communicatios of the information to volunteers. Comparing with developed countries the informed consent proceeding in clinical trials in developing countries frequently require additional efforts. The developing of pragmatic researches is needed to implement informed consent proceedings assuring subjects voluntarily in each developing country. The main aspects to define in each clinical trial for each country are the influence of the community, the effective communication of the information, the documentation of the informed consent and local authority's control.
Schrier, L; Illy, K; Valiulis, A; Wyder, C; Stiris, T
European children and paediatricians rely heavily on the fair, complete and timely publication of data obtained from paediatric randomised controlled trials (RCTs). Selective publication and reporting of paediatric RCTs is common practice. Industry-sponsored trials are more likely to remain unpublished, and take longer to get published compared with trials sponsored by others. However, also academic sponsors contribute to inefficiencies in publishing clinical data. Publication bias violates the ethical obligation that investigators have towards study participants, leads to considerable inefficiencies in research and a waste of financial and human resources, and has the potential to distort evidence for treatment approaches. The European Academy of Paediatrics (EAP) therefore actively supports initiatives that increase the public dissemination of paediatric clinical trial data. The EAP will raise awareness about the guidelines for Good Publication Practice among European paediatricians and subspecialty societies.
Costa, Leonardo Oliveira Pena; Moseley, Anne M; Sherrington, Catherine; Maher, Christopher G; Herbert, Robert D; Elkins, Mark R
The objective of this study was to identify core journals in physical therapy by identifying those that publish the most randomized controlled trials of physical therapy interventions, provide the highest-quality reports of randomized controlled trials, and have the highest journal impact factors. This study was an audit of a bibliographic database. All trials indexed in the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) were analyzed. Journals that had published at least 80 trials were selected. The journals were ranked in 4 ways: number of trials published; mean total PEDro score of the trials published in the journal, regardless of publication year; mean total PEDro score of the trials published in the journal from 2000 to 2009; and 2008 journal impact factor. The top 5 core journals in physical therapy, ranked by the total number of trials published, were Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Clinical Rehabilitation, Spine, British Medical Journal (BMJ), and Chest. When the mean total PEDro score was used as the ranking criterion, the top 5 journals were Journal of Physiotherapy, Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA), Stroke, Spine, and Clinical Rehabilitation. When the mean total PEDro score of the trials published from 2000 to 2009 was used as the ranking criterion, the top 5 journals were Journal of Physiotherapy, JAMA, Lancet, BMJ, and Pain. The most highly ranked physical therapy-specific journals were Physical Therapy (ranked eighth on the basis of the number of trials published) and Journal of Physiotherapy (ranked first on the basis of the quality of trials). Finally, when the 2008 impact factor was used for ranking, the top 5 journals were JAMA, Lancet, BMJ, American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, and Thorax. There were no significant relationships among the rankings on the basis of trial quality, number of trials, or journal impact factor. Physical therapists who are trying to keep up-to-date by reading the best
Clinical trial research is the cornerstone for successful advancement of medicine that provides hope for millions of people in the future. Full transparency in clinical trials may allow independent investigators to evaluate study designs, perform additional analysis of data, and potentially eliminate duplicate studies. Current regulatory system and publishers rely on investigators and pharmaceutical industries for complete and accurate reporting of results from completed clinical trials. Legislation seems to be the only way to enforce mandatory disclosure of results. The Trial and Experimental Studies Transparency (TEST) Act of 2012 was introduced to the legislators in the United States to promote greater transparency in research industry. Public safety and advancement of science are the driving forces for the proposed policy change. The TEST Act may benefit the society and researchers; however, there are major concerns with participants' privacy and intellectual property protection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kang, Tian; Elhadad, Noémie; Weng, Chunhua
Various search engines are available to clinical trial seekers. However, it remains unknown how comprehensible clinical trial eligibility criteria used for recruitment are to a lay audience. This study initially investigated this problem. Readability of eligibility criteria was assessed according to (i) shallow and lexical characteristics through the use of an established, generic readability metric; (ii) syntactic characteristics through natural language processing techniques; and (iii) health terminological characteristics through an automated comparison to technical and lay health texts. We further stratified clinical trials according to various study characteristics (e.g., source country or study type) to understand potential factors influencing readability. Mainly caused by frequent use of technical jargons, a college reading level was found to be necessary to understand eligibility criteria text, a level much higher than the average literacy level of the general American population. The use of technical jargons should be minimized to simplify eligibility criteria text. PMID:26958204
Cough is a unique symptom because, unlike sneeze and other symptoms, it can be under voluntary control and this complicates clinical trials on cough medicines. All over-the-counter cough medicines (OTC) are very effective treatments because of their placebo effect. The placebo effect is enhanced by expectancy related to advertising, brand, packaging, and formulation. This placebo effect creates a problem for the conduct of clinical trials on OTC cough medicines that attempt to demonstrate the efficacy of a pharmacological agent above that of any placebo effect. Up to 85% of the efficacy of some cough medicines can be attributed to a placebo effect. The placebo effect apparent in clinical trials consists of several components: natural recovery, regression of cough response toward mean, demulcent effect, effect of sweetness, voluntary control, and effects related to expectancy and meaning of the treatment. The placebo effect has been studied most in the pain model, and placebo analgesia is reported to depend on the activation of endogenous opioid systems in the brain; this model may be applicable to cough. A balanced placebo design may help to control for the placebo effect, but this trial design may not be acceptable due to deception of patients. The placebo effect in clinical trials may be controlled by use of a crossover design, where feasible, and the changes in the magnitude of the placebo effect in this study design are discussed.
Purdom, Michelle A; Petersen, Sandra; Haas, Barbara K
To evaluate the relevance of a five-dimensional model of clinical trial nursing practice in an oncology clinical trial nurse population. . Web-based cross-sectional survey. . Online via Qualtrics. . 167 oncology nurses throughout the United States, including 41 study coordinators, 35 direct care providers, and 91 dual-role nurses who provide direct patient care and trial coordination. . Principal components analysis was used to determine the dimensions of oncology clinical trial nursing practice. . Self-reported frequency of 59 activities. . The results did not support the original five-dimensional model of nursing care but revealed a more multidimensional model. . An analysis of frequency data revealed an eight-dimensional model of oncology research nursing, including care, manage study, expert, lead, prepare, data, advance science, and ethics. . This evidence-based model expands understanding of the multidimensional roles of oncology nurses caring for patients with cancer enrolled in clinical trials.
Lejeune, Catherine; Lueza, Béranger; Bonastre, Julia
In oncology, as in other fields of medicine, international multicentre clinical trials came into being so as to include a sufficient number of subjects to investigate a clinical situation. The existence of tight budgetary constraints and the desire to make the best use of the resources available have resulted in the development of economic evaluations associated with these trials, which, thanks to their level of evidence and their size, provide particularly relevant material. Nonetheless, economic evaluations alongside international clinical trials raise specific questions of methodology with regard to both the design and the analysis of the results. Indeed, the costs of goods and services consumed, the types and quantities of resources, and medical practices vary from one country to another and within an individual country. Economic data from the different countries involved must be available so as to study and to take into account this variability, and appropriate techniques for cost estimations and analysis must be implemented to aggregate the results from several countries. From a review of the literature, the aim of this work was to provide an overview of the specific methodological features of economic evaluations alongside international clinical trials: analysis of efficacy data from several countries, collection of resources and real costs, methods to establish the monetary value of resources, methods to aggregate results accounting for the trial effect. Copyright © 2017 Société Française du Cancer. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Messier, S P; Callahan, L F; Golightly, Y M; Keefe, F J
The objective was to develop a set of "best practices" for use as a primer for those interested in entering the clinical trials field for lifestyle diet and/or exercise interventions in osteoarthritis (OA), and as a set of recommendations for experienced clinical trials investigators. A subcommittee of the non-pharmacologic therapies committee of the OARSI Clinical Trials Working Group was selected by the Steering Committee to develop a set of recommended principles for non-pharmacologic diet/exercise OA randomized clinical trials. Topics were identified for inclusion by co-authors and reviewed by the subcommittee. Resources included authors' expert opinions, traditional search methods including MEDLINE (via PubMed), and previously published guidelines. Suggested steps and considerations for study methods (e.g., recruitment and enrollment of participants, study design, intervention and assessment methods) were recommended. The recommendations set forth in this paper provide a guide from which a research group can design a lifestyle diet/exercise randomized clinical trial in patients with OA. Copyright © 2015 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gao, Tina Y; Guo, Cindy X; Babu, Raiju J; Black, Joanna M; Bobier, William R; Chakraborty, Arijit; Dai, Shuan; Hess, Robert F; Jenkins, Michelle; Jiang, Yannan; Kearns, Lisa S; Kowal, Lionel; Lam, Carly S Y; Pang, Peter C K; Parag, Varsha; Pieri, Roberto; Raveendren, Rajkumar Nallour; South, Jayshree; Staffieri, Sandra Elfride; Wadham, Angela; Walker, Natalie; Thompson, Benjamin
Binocular amblyopia treatment using contrast-rebalanced stimuli showed promise in laboratory studies and requires clinical trial investigation in a home-based setting. To compare the effectiveness of a binocular video game with a placebo video game for improving visual functions in older children and adults. The Binocular Treatment of Amblyopia Using Videogames clinical trial was a multicenter, double-masked, randomized clinical trial. Between March 2014 and June 2016, 115 participants 7 years and older with unilateral amblyopia (amblyopic eye visual acuity, 0.30-1.00 logMAR; Snellen equivalent, 20/40-20/200) due to anisometropia, strabismus, or both were recruited. Eligible participants were allocated with equal chance to receive either the active or the placebo video game, with minimization stratified by age group (child, age 7 to 12 years; teenager, age 13 to 17 years; and adult, 18 years and older). Falling-blocks video games played at home on an iPod Touch for 1 hour per day for 6 weeks. The active video game had game elements split between eyes with a dichoptic contrast offset (mean [SD] initial fellow eye contrast, 0.23 [0.14]). The placebo video game presented identical images to both eyes. Change in amblyopic eye visual acuity at 6 weeks. Secondary outcomes included compliance, stereoacuity, and interocular suppression. Participants and clinicians who measured outcomes were masked to treatment allocation. Of the 115 included participants, 65 (56.5%) were male and 83 (72.2%) were white, and the mean (SD) age at randomization was 21.5 (13.6) years. There were 89 participants (77.4%) who had prior occlusion. The mean (SD) amblyopic eye visual acuity improved 0.06 (0.12) logMAR from baseline in the active group (n = 56) and 0.07 (0.10) logMAR in the placebo group (n = 59). The mean treatment difference between groups, adjusted for baseline visual acuity and age group, was -0.02 logMAR (95% CI, -0.06 to 0.02; P = .25). Compliance with more than 25