WorldWideScience

Sample records for double umbrella device

  1. Umbrella-shaped, memory alloy femoral head support device for treatment of avascular osteonecrosis of the femoral head.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiaowei; Jiang, Wenxiong; Pan, Qi; Wu, Tianyi; Zhang, Yan; Zhou, Zubin; Du, Dongpeng

    2013-07-01

    Avascular necrosis (AVN) of the femoral head is a common orthopaedic disease that is difficult to treat. The purpose of this study was to explore the preliminary efficacy of a self-designed umbrella-shaped memory alloy femoral head support device in the treatment of adult patients with avascular osteonecrosis of the femoral head. The minimally-invasive approach involved curettage of the necrotic tissue of the femoral head, and a self-designed umbrella-shaped, memory alloy femoral head support device was implanted into the collapsed necrotic area to support the collapsed femoral head. Autologous iliac bone and artificial bone were implanted into the support device for the treatment of adult patients with avascular osteonecrosis of the femoral head. The clinical device was used in ten patients and 18 hip joints. The support device failed in one hip joint, which subsequently underwent joint replacement surgery, and the remaining 17 implanted devices were followed up for four to 19 months. The 17 postoperative hip joints were evaluated using the percent-efficacy evaluation method for avascular osteonecrosis of the femoral head in adult patients, and the efficacy rate was 82.35 %. The umbrella-shaped femoral head support device can be used in Ficat stage I, stage II, and stage III adult patients with avascular osteonecrosis of the femoral head.

  2. Mechanical behaviour of umbrella-shaped, Ni-Ti memory alloy femoral head support device during implant operation: a finite element analysis study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Yi

    Full Text Available A new instrument used for treating femoral head osteonecrosis was recently proposed: the umbrella-shaped, Ni-Ti memory femoral head support device. The device has an efficacy rate of 82.35%. Traditional radiographic study provides limited information about the mechanical behaviour of the support device during an implant operation. Thus, this study proposes a finite element analysis method, which includes a 3-step formal head model construction scheme and a unique material assignment strategy for evaluating mechanical behaviour during an implant operation. Four different scenarios with different constraints, initial positions and bone qualities are analyzed using the simulation method. The max radium of the implanted device was consistent with observation data, which confirms the accuracy of the proposed method. To ensure that the device does not unexpectedly open and puncture the femoral head, the constraint on the impact device should be strong. The initial position of sleeve should be in the middle to reduce the damage to the decompression channel. The operation may fail because of poor bone quality caused by severe osteoporosis. The proposed finite element analysis method has proven to be an accurate tool for studying the mechanical behaviour of umbrella-shaped, Ni-Ti memory alloy femoral head support device during an implant operation. The 3-step construct scheme can be implemented with any kind of bone structure meshed with multiple element types.

  3. The TEC Web-Umbrella

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krom, J.G.; Korten, M.; Koslowski, H.R.; Kraemer-Flecken, A.; Manduchi, G.; Nideroest, B.U.; Oosterbeek, J.W.; Schorn, R.P.; Wijnoltz, F.; Becks, B.; Biel, W.; Evrard, M.P.; Gorkom, J.C. van; Hellermann, M.G. von

    2002-01-01

    The TEC community operates the TEXTOR device and in doing so collects and stores data from a number of different front-end acquisition systems, processing codes and analysis systems. Due to the evolution of these systems in the past, different, distributed data storage technologies were used to record this data. In an attempt to reduce the number of interfaces client codes have to use when accessing data from these data stores, an 'umbrella' concept was developed: a software-layer that covers (as an 'umbrella') as many as possible of these stores and provides a unified access mechanism to them. We explored the possibility of using the widely supported HTTP protocol for this purpose; this is the core protocol of the World-Wide-Web and it is capable of transporting almost any type of data. The concepts behind using this protocol were based on earlier work at JET. Access via this umbrella has been provided to the most important data stores around TEXTOR and access to others is being added regularly. Clients codes, libraries and programs have been developed for several user environments. The HTTP based concepts and the data-access via this system have been found to be highly portable. This paper gives an overview of the TEC Web-Umbrella system, it describes the basic concepts of this system and it presents some of the client-side codes and programs. The paper also reports on some first (tentative) user experiences with it

  4. The Umbrella Bird

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crandall, Lee S.

    1949-01-01

    When CHARLES CORDIER arrived from Costa Rica on October 9, 1942, bringing with him, among other great rarities, three Bare-necked Umbrella Birds (Cephalopterus ornatus glabricollis), it seemed to us that the mere possession of such fabulous creatures was satisfaction enough. True, they were not

  5. Umbrella Branding in Pharmaceutical Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suppliet, Moritz

    2017-01-01

    Umbrella branding is a marketing practice whereby multi-product firms leverage their reputation across different product categories. This paper investigates how advertising in the market of over-the-counter (OTC) drugs affects the decision to buy prescription drugs from a promoted brand name. I

  6. Double relaxation oscillation superconducting quantum interference devices with gradiometric layout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    van Duuren, M.J.; Brons, G.C.; Adelerhof, D.J.; Flokstra, J.; Rogalla, H.

    1997-01-01

    Double relaxation oscillation superconducting quantum interference devices (DROSs) with a gradiometric signal SQUID and either a reference SQUID or a reference junction will be presented in this article. The devices are user friendly, particularly those with a reference junction. Because of the large flux-to-voltage transfer of ∂V/∂Φ=0.7 endash 1mV/Φ 0 , the devices can be operated in a flux locked loop based on direct voltage readout without loss of sensitivity. The typical white flux noise of the DROSs amounts to √S Φ =5 endash 6μΦ 0 /√Hz, which corresponds to an energy resolution ε=S Φ /2L sq ≅200h. Coupled to an external planar first-order gradiometer, a white magnetic field sensitivity of √S B <2fT/√Hz was measured inside a magnetically shielded room. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  7. Double graphene-layer structures for adaptive devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitin, V.; Ryzhii, V.; Otsuji, T.; Ryzhii, M.; Shur, M. S.

    2014-06-01

    Among different carbon materials (diamond, graphite, fullerene, carbon nanotubes), graphene and more complex graphene-based structures attracted a considerable attention. The gapless energy spectrum of graphene implies that graphene can absorb and emit photons with rather low energies corresponding to terahertz (THz) and infrared (IR) ranges of the electromagnetic spectrum. In this presentation, the discussion is focused on the double-graphene-layer (double-GL) structures. In these structures, GLs are separated by a barrier layer (Boron Nitride, Silicon Carbide, and so on). Applying voltage between GLs, one can realize the situation when one GL is filled with electrons while the other is filled with holes. The variation of the applied voltage leads to the variations of the Fermi energies and, hence, to the change of the interband and intraband absorption of electromagnetic radiation and to the variation of the tunneling current. The plasma oscillations in double-GL structures exhibit interesting features. This is mainly because each GL serves as the gate for the other GL. The spectrum of the plasma oscillations in the double-GL structures falls into the terahertz range (THz) of frequencies and can be effectively controlled by the bias voltage. In this paper, we discuss the effects of the excitation of the plasma oscillations by incoming THz radiation and by optical radiation of two lasers with close frequencies as well as negative differential conductivity of the N-type and Z-type. These effects can be used in resonant THz detectors and THz photomixers. The models of devices based on double-GL structures as well as their characteristics are discussed.

  8. The TEC Web-Umbrella

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krom, J. G.; Korten, M.; Koslowski, H. R.; Kramer-Flecken, A.; Manduchi, G.; Niderost, B. U.; Oosterbeek, J. W.; Schorn, R. P.; Wijnoltz, F.; Becks, B.; Biel, W.; Evrard, M. P.; van Gorkom, J. C.; von Hellermann, M. G.

    2002-01-01

    The TEC community operates the TEXTOR device and in doing so collects and stores data from a number of different front-end acquisition systems, processing codes and analysis systems. Due to the evolution of these systems in the past, different, distributed data storage technologies were used to

  9. Device Performance Improvement of Recycling Double-Pass Cross-Corrugated Solar Air Collectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chii-Dong Ho

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The device performance of cross-corrugated double-pass solar air heaters under external recycle conditions was investigated experimentally and theoretically, and solved numerically using the Newton method. Comparisons were made and represented graphically among three different configurations of the single-pass, flat-plate double-pass and cross-corrugated double-pass devices. Air flowing simultaneously over the wavelike corrugated absorbing plate and in-between both wavelike cross-corrugated absorbing and transverse bottom plates was conducted under double-pass operations. A considerable heat-transfer efficiency enhancement is obtained employing such a recycling double pass device with welding cross-corrugated absorbing plates, instead of using the flat-plate device. An effective thermal performance was achieved because the heat transfer area is doubled and the turbulent intensity is enhanced as well. The power consumption increment owing to the reduction in the cross-sectional area was taken into account associated with the heat-transfer efficiency enhancement for comparisons in determining the optimal design on an economic consideration for the recycling cross-corrugated double-pass device.

  10. Awkward Appendages: Comic Umbrellas in Nineteenth-Century Print Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damkjær, Maria

    2017-01-01

    In nineteenth-century comic writing, the umbrella represents a troublesome material world: umbrellas were always threatening to break, flip inside out or to disappear and reappear in the most mysterious fashion. The umbrella was a trope for oddness, resistance and perversity of intent. With the h......In nineteenth-century comic writing, the umbrella represents a troublesome material world: umbrellas were always threatening to break, flip inside out or to disappear and reappear in the most mysterious fashion. The umbrella was a trope for oddness, resistance and perversity of intent...

  11. A low walk double threshold discriminator for gas tracking devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balla, A.; Benussi, L.; Bertani, M.; Bianco, S.; Corradi, G.; Fabbri, F. L.; Giannotti, P.; Giardoni, M.; Lucherini, V.; Pace, E.; Passamonti, L.; Pompili, F.; Russo, V.; Sarwar, S.; Tomassini, S.

    2001-01-01

    A 9U VME like double threshold discriminator has been designed and constructed at Frascati INFN (National Institute of Nuclear Physics) laboratories. Its aim is to process the signals arising from gas drift chambers, introducing a very small time walk (∼ 650 ps.). Each discriminator board houses 32 channels. Each channel is located on an independent printed circuit mounted on socket. This solution is very convenient for replacing faulty channels without loosing operation of the full board

  12. Double deflection system for an electron beam device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, N.W.; Crewe, A.V.

    1978-01-01

    A double deflection scanning system for electron beam instruments is provided embodying a means of correcting isotropic coma, and anisotropic coma aberrations induced by the magnetic lens of such an instrument. The scanning system deflects the beam prior to entry into the magnetic lens from the normal on-axis intersection of the beam with the lens according to predetermined formulas and thereby reduces the aberrations

  13. High throughput production of single core double emulsions in a parallelized microfluidic device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanowsky, Mark B; Abate, Adam R; Rotem, Assaf; Holtze, Christian; Weitz, David A

    2012-02-21

    Double emulsions are useful templates for microcapsules and complex particles, but no method yet exists for making double emulsions with both high uniformity and high throughput. We present a parallel numbering-up design for microfluidic double emulsion devices, which combines the excellent control of microfluidics with throughput suitable for mass production. We demonstrate the design with devices incorporating up to 15 dropmaker units in a two-dimensional or three-dimensional array, producing single-core double emulsion drops at rates over 1 kg day(-1) and with diameter variation less than 6%. This design provides a route to integrating hundreds of dropmakers or more in a single chip, facilitating industrial-scale production rates of many tons per year.

  14. Near-infrared electroluminescence from double-emission-layers devices based on Ytterbium (III) complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zhefeng; Zhang Hongjie; Yu Jiangbo

    2012-01-01

    We investigated near-infrared electroluminescence properties of two lanthanide complexes Yb(PMBP) 3 Bath [PMBP = tris(1-phenyl-3-methyl-4-(4-tert-butylbenzacyl)-5-pyrazolone); Bath = bathophenanthroline] and Yb(PMIP) 3 TP 2 [PMIP = tris(1-phenyl-3-methyl-4-isobutyryl-5-pyrazolone); TP = triphenyl phosphine oxide] by fabricated the double-emission-layers devices. From the device characteristics, it is known that holes are easier to transport in Yb(PMIP) 3 TP 2 layer and electrons are easier to transport in Yb(PMBP) 3 Bath layer, at the same time, both of the two complexes can be acted as emission layers in the device. The recombination region of carriers has been confined in the interface of Yb(PMIP) 3 TP 2 /Yb(PMBP) 3 Bath, and pure Yb 3+ ion characteristic emission centered at 980 nm has been obtained. The device shows the maximum near-infrared irradiance as 14.7 mW/m 2 at the applied voltage of 17.8 V. - Highlights: ► Near-infrared electroluminescent devices with Yb(III) complexes as emission layers. ► Double-emission layer device structure introduced to balance carriers. ► Improved performance of double-emission layer device.

  15. Keeping parasitology under the One Health umbrella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Lucy J; Utaaker, Kjersti Selstad; Goyal, Kapil; Sehgal, Rakesh

    2014-08-01

    The One Health concept is no longer new, but remains an accepted concept in modern disease control - where the interactions between animal health, human health, and the environment in which we live are recognised as being of importance. However, emerging infectious diseases often garner the greatest attention and resources. Parasitic infections, many of which are zoonotic but cannot truly be considered as emerging, must ensure that they retain their place under the One Health umbrella. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Awkward Appendages: Comic Umbrellas in Nineteenth-Century Print Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damkjær, Maria

    2017-01-01

    . With the help of Alenka Zupančič’s theory of comedy, this article argues that the umbrella in the cultural imagination marks an unreliable world of signs. Umbrellas, with their troublesome peripatetic nature, become arbiters of human destiny. Comic writers, including Robert Louis Stevenson in ‘The Philosophy...... of Umbrellas’ (1871), claim that umbrellas are repositories of democratic personhood. But since umbrellas are supremely alienable, their owners remain mere placeholders of identity. Umbrella comedy plays with the idea that modern personhood is contained in a near-arbitrary and perverse system of signs....

  17. EVALUATION OF THE PERFORMANCE OF TURKISH EQUITY UMBRELLA FUNDS USING THE MORNINGSTAR RATING SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Gul, Yavuz; Altinirmak, Serpil

    2018-01-01

    Purpose - Different types of funds exist depending on the assetsthe portfolio is composed of. The main types of funds include; bond umbrellafunds, equity umbrella funds, precious metal umbrella fund, fund basketumbrella funds, money market umbrella funds, participation umbrella fund,balanced umbrella funds, free umbrella funds, guaranteed umbrella fund,umbrella fund for protection purposes.The subject of our study is equityumbrella funds. These kinds of funds receive at least 80% of the share...

  18. First steps towards the realization of a double layer perceptron based on organic memristive devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Emelyanov

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Memristors are widely considered as promising elements for the efficient implementation of synaptic weights in artificial neural networks (ANNs since they are resistors that keep memory of their previous conductive state. Whereas demonstrations of simple neural networks (e.g., a single-layer perceptron based on memristors already exist, the implementation of more complicated networks is more challenging and has yet to be reported. In this study, we demonstrate linearly nonseparable combinational logic classification (XOR logic task using a network implemented with CMOS-based neurons and organic memrisitive devices that constitutes the first step toward the realization of a double layer perceptron. We also show numerically the ability of such network to solve a principally analogue task which cannot be realized by digital devices. The obtained results prove the possibility to create a multilayer ANN based on memristive devices that paves the way for designing a more complex network such as the double layer perceptron.

  19. First steps towards the realization of a double layer perceptron based on organic memristive devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emelyanov, A. V.; Lapkin, D. A.; Demin, V. A.; Erokhin, V. V.; Battistoni, S.; Baldi, G.; Dimonte, A.; Korovin, A. N.; Iannotta, S.; Kashkarov, P. K.; Kovalchuk, M. V.

    2016-11-01

    Memristors are widely considered as promising elements for the efficient implementation of synaptic weights in artificial neural networks (ANNs) since they are resistors that keep memory of their previous conductive state. Whereas demonstrations of simple neural networks (e.g., a single-layer perceptron) based on memristors already exist, the implementation of more complicated networks is more challenging and has yet to be reported. In this study, we demonstrate linearly nonseparable combinational logic classification (XOR logic task) using a network implemented with CMOS-based neurons and organic memrisitive devices that constitutes the first step toward the realization of a double layer perceptron. We also show numerically the ability of such network to solve a principally analogue task which cannot be realized by digital devices. The obtained results prove the possibility to create a multilayer ANN based on memristive devices that paves the way for designing a more complex network such as the double layer perceptron.

  20. Observation of a current-limited double layer in a linear turbulent-heating device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inuzuka, H.; Torii, Y.; Nagatsu, M.; Tsukishima, T.

    1985-01-01

    Time- and space-resolved measurements of strong double layers (DLs) have been carried out for the first time on a linear turbulent-heating device, together with those of fluctuation spectra and precise current measurements. A stable stong DL is formed even when the electric current through the DL is less than the so-called Bohm value. Discussion of the formation and decay processes is given, indicating a transition from an ion-acoustic DL to a monotonic DL

  1. Synthesis and Experiments of Inherently Balanced Umbrella Canopy Designs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wijk, V.; Kiper, G.; Yasir, A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper shows how umbrella canopies and umbrella canopy-like mechanisms can be designed inherently balanced. Inherently balanced means that the center of mass of the moving parts remains stationary at a single point for any position of the mechanism simply because of the specific design of the

  2. Fatal Chest Injury Caused by Windblown Beach Umbrella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Allyse B; Gunther, Wendy M; Fantaskey, Amy P; Weinstein, Lawrence B

    2018-03-01

    We present the case of a windblown beach umbrella inflicting fatal penetrating blunt force to the chest of a 55-year-old female beachgoer. A postmortem examination and detailed case history review were performed which revealed left ventricular trauma, determined to be the cause of death. Using recorded wind speeds from the date of the incident and the weight of the umbrella, we were able to calculate the pressure with which the umbrella struck the victim to be 16,000 PSI. Witness reports, medical records, scene details, and examination of a rental beach umbrella allowed the forensic pathologist to conclude that the object causing this woman's death was a windblown beach umbrella. © 2018 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  3. Efficient double-emitting layer inverted organic light-emitting devices with different spacer layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Qu-yang; Zhang, Fang-hui

    2017-09-01

    Double-emitting layer inverted organic light-emitting devices (IOLEDs) with different spacer layers were investigated, where 2,20,7,70-tetrakis(carbazol-9-yl)-9,9-spirobifluorene (CBP), 2,9-dimethyl-4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline (BCP), 4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline (Bphen) and 4,40,400-tris(N-carbazolyl)-triphenylamine (TCTA) were used as spacer layers, respectively, and GIr1 and R-4b were used as green and red guest phosphorescent materials, respectively. The results show that the device with BCP spacer layer has the best performance. The maximum current efficiency of the BCP spacer layer device reaches up to 24.15 cd·A-1 when the current density is 3.99 mA·cm-2, which is 1.23 times bigger than that of the CBP spacer layer device. The performance is better than that of corresponding conventional device observably. The color coordinate of the device with BCP spacer layer only changes from (0.625 1, 0.368 0) to (0.599 5, 0.392 8) when the driving voltage increases from 6 V to 10 V, so it shows good stability in color coordinate, which is due to the adoption of the co-doping evaporation method for cladding luminous layer and the effective restriction of spacer layer to carriers in emitting layer.

  4. Nonvolatile Electric Double-Layer Transistor Memory Devices Embedded with Au Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Jaemok; Yang, Jeehye; Cho, Boeun; Jo, Hyunwoo; Lee, Keun Hyung; Kang, Moon Sung

    2018-03-21

    We present nonvolatile transistor memory devices that rely on the formation of electric double layer (EDL) at the semiconductor-electrolyte interface. The two critical functional components of the devices are the ion gel electrolyte and gold nanoparticles (NPs). The ion gel electrolyte contains ionic species for EDL formation that allow inducing charges in the semiconductor-electrolyte interface. The gold NPs inserted between the ion gel and the channel layer serve as trapping sites to the induced charges to store the electrical input signals. Two different types of gold NPs were used: one prepared using direct thermal evaporation and the other prepared using a colloidal process. The organic ligands attached onto the colloidal gold NPs prevented the escape of the trapped charges from the particles and thus enhanced the retention characteristics of the programmed/erased signals. The low-voltage-driven EDL formation resulted in a programmed/erased memory signal ratio larger than 10 3 from the nonvolatile indium-gallium-zinc oxide transistor memory devices at voltages below 10 V, which could be held for >10 5 s. The utility of the electrolytes to operate memory devices demonstrated herein should provide an alternative strategy to realize cheap, portable electronic devices powered with thin-film batteries.

  5. Device and circuit performance analysis of double gate junctionless transistors at L(g = 18 nm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chitrakant Sahu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The design and characteristics of double-gate (DG junctionless (JL devices are compared with the DG inversion-mode (IM field effect transistors (FETs at 45 nm technology node with effective channel length of 18 nm. The comparison are performed at iso-V(th for both n- and p-type of devices. The JL device shows lower drain-induced barrier lowering, steep subthreshold slope and lower OFF state current. For the first time, the authors demonstrate a pass gate (PG logic, inverter circuit and static random access memory (SRAM stability analysis using JL devices, rather than a complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS configuration. They observed that transient response of JL PG configuration is similar to that of conventional CMOS PGs. JL inverter also shows similar transient characteristics with 25% reduction in delay and 12% improvement in 6 T SRAM cell stability compared with IMFETs, which shows large potential in digital circuit applications. The simulations were performed using coupled device-circuit methodology in ATLAS technology aided computer design (TCAD mixed-mode simulator.

  6. Experimental observations of strong double layers. [in triple plasma device for lower magnetospheric simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coakley, P.; Hershkowitz, N.; Hubbard, R.; Joyce, G.

    1978-01-01

    A computer simulation is applied to the production of strong electric potential double layers (DL) in a triple plasma device. The simulation is intended to represent DL in the low magnetosphere above the auroral zones. The DL are described as standing electrostatic shocks with different energy coefficients in their strong and weak forms. The strong DL was generally found to be unstable, but stability could be imparted if a population of trapped electrons was presented. Stability increased with the length of the system. A schematic for the system is presented, and a phase-space plot of electrons (indicating system stability) is graphed.

  7. Citizen Camera-Witnessing: A Case Study of the Umbrella Movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wai Han Lo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Citizen camera-witness is a new concept by which to describe using mobile camera phone to engage in civic expression. I argue that the meaning of this concept should not be limited to painful testimony; instead, it is a mode of civic camera-mediated mass self-testimony to brutality. The use of mobile phone recordings in Hong Kong’s Umbrella Movement is examined to understand how mobile cameras are employed as personal witnessing devices to provide recordings to indict unjust events and engage others in the civic movement. This study has examined the Facebook posts and You Tube videos of the Umbrella Movement between September 22, 2014 and December 22, 2014. The results suggest that the camera phone not only contributes to witnessing the brutal repression of the state, but also witnesses the beauty of the movement, and provides a testimony that allows for rituals to develop and semi-codes to be transformed.

  8. The role of ion transport phenomena in memristive double barrier devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirkmann, Sven; Hansen, Mirko; Ziegler, Martin; Kohlstedt, Hermann; Mussenbrock, Thomas

    2016-10-01

    In this work we report on the role of ion transport for the dynamic behavior of a double barrier quantum mechanical Al/Al2O3/NbxOy/Au memristive device based on numerical simulations in conjunction with experimental measurements. The device consists of an ultra-thin NbxOy solid state electrolyte between an Al2O3 tunnel barrier and a semiconductor metal interface at an Au electrode. It is shown that the device provides a number of interesting features such as an intrinsic current compliance, a relatively long retention time, and no need for an initialization step. Therefore, it is particularly attractive for applications in highly dense random access memories or neuromorphic mixed signal circuits. However, the underlying physical mechanisms of the resistive switching are still not completely understood yet. To investigate the interplay between the current transport mechanisms and the inner atomistic device structure a lumped element circuit model is consistently coupled with 3D kinetic Monte Carlo model for the ion transport. The simulation results indicate that the drift of charged point defects within the NbxOy is the key factor for the resistive switching behavior. It is shown in detail that the diffusion of oxygen modifies the local electronic interface states resulting in a change of the interface properties.

  9. Photovoltaic and photothermoelectric effect in a double-gated WSe2 device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groenendijk, Dirk J; Buscema, Michele; Steele, Gary A; Michaelis de Vasconcellos, Steffen; Bratschitsch, Rudolf; van der Zant, Herre S J; Castellanos-Gomez, Andres

    2014-10-08

    Tungsten diselenide (WSe2), a semiconducting transition metal dichalcogenide (TMDC), shows great potential as active material in optoelectronic devices due to its ambipolarity and direct bandgap in its single-layer form. Recently, different groups have exploited the ambipolarity of WSe2 to realize electrically tunable PN junctions, demonstrating its potential for digital electronics and solar cell applications. In this Letter, we focus on the different photocurrent generation mechanisms in a double-gated WSe2 device by measuring the photocurrent (and photovoltage) as the local gate voltages are varied independently in combination with above- and below-bandgap illumination. This enables us to distinguish between two main photocurrent generation mechanisms, the photovoltaic and photothermoelectric effect. We find that the dominant mechanism depends on the defined gate configuration. In the PN and NP configurations, photocurrent is mainly generated by the photovoltaic effect and the device displays a maximum responsivity of 0.70 mA/W at 532 nm illumination and rise and fall times close to 10 ms. Photocurrent generated by the photothermoelectric effect emerges in the PP configuration and is a factor of 2 larger than the current generated by the photovoltaic effect (in PN and NP configurations). This demonstrates that the photothermoelectric effect can play a significant role in devices based on WSe2 where a region of strong optical absorption, caused by, for example, an asymmetry in flake thickness or optical absorption of the electrodes, generates a sizable thermal gradient upon illumination.

  10. Arthroscopic Treatment of Comminuted Distal Clavicle Fractures (Latarjet Fractures) Using 2 Double-Button Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujol, Nicolas; Desmoineaux, Pierre; Boisrenoult, Philippe; Beaufils, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Complex distal clavicle fractures associated with a rupture of the coracoclavicular ligaments (Latarjet fractures) can result in delayed union or nonunion. There is no standard treatment for a clavicle fracture. This report introduces an arthroscopic technique for treating distal clavicle fractures associated with ruptured coracoclavicular ligament using 2 double-button devices. By use of posterior and anterior standard arthroscopic portals, the base of the coracoid process is exposed through the rotator interval. A 4-mm hole is drilled through the clavicle and the coracoid process with a specific ancillary drill guide. The first button is pushed through both holes down the coracoid process. The device is tightened, and the second button is fixed on top of the clavicle, allowing reduction and fixation of the proximal part of the fracture. Then, the undersurface of the lateral clavicle is dissected through standard posterior and lateral subacromial approaches. The inferior clavicle fragment is reduced and fixed to the clavicle body by a double button fixed down and at the top of the clavicle. With this technique, the arthroscopic treatment of distal clavicle fracture has been extended to comminuted fractures. PMID:23767010

  11. Extracorporeal Life Support Bridge to Ventricular Assist Device: The Double Bridge Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marasco, Silvana F; Lo, Casey; Murphy, Deirdre; Summerhayes, Robyn; Quayle, Margaret; Zimmet, Adam; Bailey, Michael

    2016-01-01

    In patients requiring left ventricular assist device (LVAD) support, it can be difficult to ascertain suitability for long-term mechanical support with LVAD and eventual transplantation. LVAD implantation in a shocked patient is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Interest is growing in the utilization of extracorporeal life support (ECLS) as a bridge-to-bridge support for these critically unwell patients. Here, we reviewed our experience with ECLS double bridging. We hypothesized that ECLS double bridging would stabilize end-organ dysfunction and reduce ventricular assist device (VAD) implant perioperative mortality. We conducted a retrospective review of prospectively collected data for 58 consecutive patients implanted with a continuous-flow LVAD between January 2010 and December 2013 at The Alfred Hospital, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. Twenty-three patients required ECLS support pre-LVAD while 35 patients underwent LVAD implantation without an ECLS bridge. Preoperative morbidity in the ECLS bridge group was reflected by increased postoperative intensive care duration, blood loss, blood product use, and postoperative renal failure, but without negative impact upon survival when compared with the no ECLS group. ECLS stabilization improved end-organ function pre-VAD implant with significant improvements in hepatic and renal dysfunction. This series demonstrates that the use of ECLS bridge to VAD stabilizes end-organ dysfunction and reduces VAD implant perioperative mortality from that traditionally reported in these "crash and burn" patients. Copyright © 2015 International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Analysis of the Umbrella Roof for lifting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaaban, A.

    1983-01-01

    In addition to supporting the dead loads and the operational loads, the Umbrella Roof (UR) has two major functions to which it was designed. First is to allow access for repair and removal of any of the TF coils, the upper PF coils and the Vacuum Vessel sections; and second, is to reproduce the exact positioning of the upper PF coils every time the UR is placed over the Tokamac. To provide these functions, the UR is designed to be lifted as one integrated structure to which the upper PF coils are attached. In order to ensure precise positioning of the UR, a redundant system of 13 guide pins were provided on the bottom of the radial beams, and four shear lugs were provided atop the central column. Mating reciprocals with very close tolerance for the guide pins were provided in the tops of the 13 peripheral columns. To meet close tolerances and to accommodate such high redundancy in match points, accurate analysis was necessary by which the center of gravity of the UR can be located and the deflection of all match points can be computed. Also stress analysis of the members of the UR was necessary because when the UR is lifted it is denied the midpoint support over the center column; and also the beams of the UR are not interconnected by moment-capable joints, thus if provisions are not made to support every radial beam, those which are not supported would yield and collapse. In this paper, the lifting schemes proposed for the UR are discussed and the results of the analysis performed for the elected scheme are presented. Also presented is a unique application of the NASTRAN code by which the center of gravity of the UR was located by allowing a refined model of the UR to swing until it came to rest under an arbitrary lift point

  13. Lacan’s Construction and Deconstruction of the Double-Mirror Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanheule, Stijn

    2011-01-01

    In the 1950s Jacques Lacan developed a set-up with a concave mirror and a plane mirror, based on which he described the nature of human identification. He also formulated ideas on how psychoanalysis, qua clinical practice, responds to identification. In this paper Lacan’s schema of the two mirrors is described in detail and the theoretical line of reasoning he aimed to articulate with aid of this spatial model is discussed. It is argued that Lacan developed his double-mirror device to clarify the relationship between the drive, the ego, the ideal ego, the ego-ideal, the other, and the Other. This model helped Lacan describe the dynamics of identification and explain how psychoanalytic treatment works. He argued that by working with free association, psychoanalysis aims to articulate unconscious desire, and bypass the tendency of the ego for misrecognition. The reasons why Lacan stressed the limits of his double-mirror model and no longer considered it useful from the early 1960s onward are examined. It is argued that his concept of the gaze, which he qualifies as a so-called “object a,” prompted Lacan move away from his double-mirror set-up. In those years Lacan gradually began to study the tension between drive and signifier. The schema of the two mirrors, by contrast, focused on the tension between image and signifier, and missed the point Lacan aimed to address in this new era of his work. PMID:21949511

  14. Finite Element Simulation of NiTi Umbrella-Shaped Implant Used on Femoral Head under Different Loadings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Mehrabi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an umbrella-shaped device that is used for osteonecrosis treatment is simulated. The femoral head is subjected to various complex loadings as a result of a person’s daily movements. Implant devices used in the body are made of shape memory alloy materials because of their remarkable resistance to wear and corrosion, good biocompatibility, and variable mechanical properties. Since this NiTi umbrella-shaped implant is simultaneously under several loadings, a 3-D model of shape memory alloy is utilized to investigate the behavior of the implant under different conditions. Shape memory and pseudo-elasticity behavior of NiTi is analyzed using a numerical model. The simulation is performed within different temperatures and in an isothermal condition with varied and complex loadings. The objective of this study is to evaluate the performance of the device under thermal and multi-axial forces via numerically study. Under tensile loading, the most critical points are on the top part of the implant. It is also shown that changes in temperature have a minor effect on the Von Mises stress. Applied forces and torques have significant influence on the femoral head. Simulations results indicate that the top portion of the umbrella is under the most stress when embedded in the body. Consequently, the middle, curved portion of the umbrella is under the least amount of stress.

  15. Better together? A Hospitality Case for Umbrella Branding

    OpenAIRE

    Kooli, Kaouther; Cai, Huifen; Beer, Cornelia; Wright, Len Tiu

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: While the topic of ‘umbrella branding’ (UB) strategies for manufacturers' products in the business-to business literature has received attention, much less has been written about UB strategies in the hospitality industry. With the aid of a theoretical framework this paper explores three types of behavioural characteristics: alliance attribute; communication behaviour; and alliance management to examine cost and service benefits for alliance success within one umbrella organisation in...

  16. The effect of double versus single oscillating exercise devices on trunk and limb muscle activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Shruti; Button, Duane C; Basset, Fabien A; Behm, David G

    2013-08-01

    Proper strengthening of the core and upper extremities is important for muscular health, performance, and rehabilitation. Exercise devices have been developed that attempt to disrupt the center of gravity in order to activate the trunk stabilizing muscles. The objective of this study was to analyze the trunk and shoulder girdle muscle activation with double and single oscillating exercise devices (DOD and SOD respectively) in various planes. TWELVE MALE SUBJECTS PERFORMED THREE INTERVENTIONS USING BOTH DEVICES UNDER RANDOMIZED CONDITIONS: single-handed vertical orientation of DOD and SOD to produce 1) medio-lateral oscillation in the frontal plane 2) dorso-ventral oscillation in the sagittal plane and 3) single-handed horizontal orientation for superior and inferior oscillation in the transverse plane. Electromyographic (EMG) activity during the interventions of the anterior deltoid, triceps brachii, biceps brachii, forearm flexors as well as lower abdominal and back stabilizer muscles was collected, and were normalized to maximal voluntary contractions. A two way repeated measures ANOVA (2x3) was conducted to assess the influence of the devices and movement planes on muscle activation. The DOD provided 35.9%, 40.8%, and 52.3% greater anterior deltoid, transverse abdominus (TA)/internal oblique (IO) and lumbo-sacral erector spinae (LSES) activation than did the SOD respectively. Effect size calculations revealed that these differences were of moderate to large magnitude (0.86, 0.48, and 0.61 respectively). There were no significant differences in muscular activation achieved between devices for the triceps brachii, biceps brachii and forearm flexor muscles. Exercise in the transverse plane resulted in 30.5%, 29.5%, and 19.5% greater activation than the sagittal and 21.8%, 17.2%, and 26.3% greater activation than the frontal plane for the anterior deltoid, TA/IO and LSES respectively. A DOD demonstrated greater muscular activity for trunk and shoulder muscle

  17. Impact of wind turbine based on double feed induction generator and FACTS devices on power systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Labiba ADJOUDJ

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Integration of wind turbines may have significant impacts on power system operation and generation of electricity from wind power has received considerable attention. This paper analyses the impact of integrating wind generation based on double feed induction generators (DFIG and Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS on the voltage collapse and active losses of network IEEE 30 bus test. Therefore, we must choose among FACTS devices, those with specific applications such as maintaining the voltage at the desired value and the control of power flow, SVC is the most effective in the compensation of reactive as well as maintaining the voltage, and TCSC is the best choice for a proper control of power flow and consequently the reduction of active losses. The simulation results show clearly the effect of wind power plants and FACTS on the grid, voltage stability and power quality of electric power system.

  18. Graft fixation with predetermined tension using a new device, the double spike plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shino, Konsei; Mae, Tatsuo; Maeda, Akira; Miyama, Takahide; Shinjo, Hirotaka; Kawakami, Hideo

    2002-10-01

    To biomechanically evaluate a new fixation device, DSP (Double Spike Plate; Meira Corp, Nagoya, Aichi, Japan), for pullout graft fixation. Biomechanical study. A porcine tibia in which 8-mm diameter drill holes had been made from the medial tibial metaphysis to the anterior cruciate ligament attachment was rigidly fixed to a tension analyzer. A quadrupled graft consisting of 2 double-looped bovine tendons was prepared with No. 3 polyester sutures placed distally. The graft was passed through the drill hole, and its proximal loop ends were rigidly fixed to a load cell for monitoring graft tension. The graft's distal ends were connected to the DSP by tying the sutures to the top hole in the DSP. The graft tension was predetermined at 49 N (n = 5) or 98 N (n = 5). This tension was maintained for 5 minutes with a suture passed through the bottom hole of the DSP. The plate was fixed to the tibia by hammering its spikes into the bone under the index tension. Finally, the fixation was completed by inserting a screw. Although the graft tension immediately increased to 69 +/- 11 N or 133 +/- 14 N during hammering, it gradually reduced to 49 +/- 10 N or 100 +/- 7 N 5 minutes later. This study shows that graft fixation under a predetermined tension can be achieved with the DSP.

  19. Role of Electrical Double Layer Structure in Ionic Liquid Gated Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Jennifer M; Come, Jeremy; Bi, Sheng; Zhu, Mengyang; Zhao, Wei; Wong, Anthony T; Noh, Joo Hyon; Pudasaini, Pushpa R; Zhang, Pengfei; Okatan, Mahmut Baris; Dai, Sheng; Kalinin, Sergei V; Rack, Philip D; Ward, Thomas Zac; Feng, Guang; Balke, Nina

    2017-11-22

    Ionic liquid gating of transition metal oxides has enabled new states (magnetic, electronic, metal-insulator), providing fundamental insights into the physics of strongly correlated oxides. However, despite much research activity, little is known about the correlation of the structure of the liquids in contact with the transition metal oxide surface, its evolution with the applied electric potential, and its correlation with the measured electronic properties of the oxide. Here, we investigate the structure of an ionic liquid at a semiconducting oxide interface during the operation of a thin film transistor where the electrical double layer gates the device using experiment and theory. We show that the transition between the ON and OFF states of the amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide transistor is accompanied by a densification and preferential spatial orientation of counterions at the oxide channel surface. This process occurs in three distinct steps, corresponding to ion orientations, and consequently, regimes of different electrical conductivity. The reason for this can be found in the surface charge densities on the oxide surface when different ion arrangements are present. Overall, the field-effect gating process is elucidated in terms of the interfacial ionic liquid structure, and this provides unprecedented insight into the working of a liquid gated transistor linking the nanoscopic structure to the functional properties. This knowledge will enable both new ionic liquid design as well as advanced device concepts.

  20. Solar Heat Gain Reduction of Ventilated Double Skin Windows without a Shading Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bokyoung Koo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available With global efforts to strengthen various energy-saving policies for buildings to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, in South Korea, new laws and regulations have been in force since May 2015 to install shading devices in public buildings and to include the solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC reduction performance of shading devices in the evaluation of building performance. By making a ventilated air layer outer glass and inner glass to lower the temperatures of the air layer and glass surface, it is possible to reduce the amount of heat flowing into the building while maintaining the same level of light transmission as plain window systems. This study proposes a double-skin façade window with a 20 mm ventilated air cavity, and assumes that insolation inflow indoors would be reduced through ventilation in the air cavity. The artificial solar lab test results show that the SHGC can be lowered through ventilation by 28% to 52.9%. Additionally, in an outdoor test cell experiment, the results show that the mean temperature was 0.6 K and the peak temperature was 0.9 K lower with ventilation in the air cavity than that without ventilation in the air cavity.

  1. Development and design of double-layer co-injection moulded soy protein based drug delivery devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaz, C.M.; Doeveren, van P.F.N.M.; Reis, R.L.; Cunha, A.M.

    2003-01-01

    Novel double-layer delivery devices based on soy protein derived materials were designed and produced using an innovative two material co-injection moulding technique. It was demonstrated that the viscosity ratio between core and skin layer materials played an important role in the formation of the

  2. Layered double hydroxide materials coated carbon electrode: New challenge to future electrochemical power devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djebbi, Mohamed Amine; Braiek, Mohamed; Namour, Philippe; Ben Haj Amara, Abdesslem; Jaffrezic-Renault, Nicole

    2016-11-01

    Layered double hydroxides (LDHs) have been widely used in the past years due to their unique physicochemical properties and promising applications in electroanalytical chemistry. The present paper is going to focus exclusively on magnesium-aluminum and zinc-aluminum layered double hydroxides (MgAl & ZnAl LDHs) in order to investigate the property and structure of active cation sites located within the layer structure. The MgAl and ZnAl LDH nanosheets were prepared by the constant pH co-precipitation method and uniformly supported on carbon-based electrode materials to fabricate an LDH electrode. Characterization by powder x-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy revealed the LDH form and well-crystallized materials. Wetting surface properties (hydrophilicity and hydrophobicity) of both prepared LDHs were recorded by contact angle measurement show hydrophilic character and basic property. The electrochemical performance of these hybrid materials was investigated by mainly cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and chronoamperometry techniques to identify the oxidation/reduction processes at the electrode/electrolyte interface and the effect of the divalent metal cations in total reactivity. The hierarchy of the modified electrode proves that the electronic conductivity of the bulk material is considerably dependent on the divalent cation and affects the limiting parameter of the overall redox process. However, MgAl LDH shows better performance than ZnAl LDH, due to the presence of magnesium cations in the layers. Following the structural, morphological and electrochemical behavior studies of both synthesized LDHs, the prepared LDH modified electrodes were tested through microbial fuel cell configuration, revealing a remarkable, potential new pathway for high-performance and cost-effective electrode use in electrochemical power devices.

  3. Experimental investigation of vapor shielding effects induced by ELM-like pulsed plasma loads using the double plasma gun device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakuma, I.; Kikuchi, Y.; Kitagawa, Y.; Asai, Y.; Onishi, K.; Fukumoto, N.; Nagata, M.

    2015-08-01

    We have developed a unique experimental device of so-called double plasma gun, which consists of two magnetized coaxial plasma gun (MCPG) devices, in order to clarify effects of vapor shielding on material erosion due to transient events in magnetically confined fusion devices. Two ELM-like pulsed plasmas produced by the two MCPG devices were injected into a target chamber with a variable time difference. For generating ablated plasmas in front of a target material, an aluminum foil sample in the target chamber was exposed to a pulsed plasma produced by the 1st MCPG device. The 2nd pulsed plasma was produced with a time delay of 70 μs. It was found that a surface absorbed energy measured by a calorimeter was reduced to ∼66% of that without the Al foil sample. Thus, the reduction of the incoming plasma energy by the vapor shielding effect was successfully demonstrated in the present experiment.

  4. Experimental investigation of vapor shielding effects induced by ELM-like pulsed plasma loads using the double plasma gun device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakuma, I., E-mail: eu13z002@steng.u-hyogo.ac.jp; Kikuchi, Y.; Kitagawa, Y.; Asai, Y.; Onishi, K.; Fukumoto, N.; Nagata, M.

    2015-08-15

    We have developed a unique experimental device of so-called double plasma gun, which consists of two magnetized coaxial plasma gun (MCPG) devices, in order to clarify effects of vapor shielding on material erosion due to transient events in magnetically confined fusion devices. Two ELM-like pulsed plasmas produced by the two MCPG devices were injected into a target chamber with a variable time difference. For generating ablated plasmas in front of a target material, an aluminum foil sample in the target chamber was exposed to a pulsed plasma produced by the 1st MCPG device. The 2nd pulsed plasma was produced with a time delay of 70 μs. It was found that a surface absorbed energy measured by a calorimeter was reduced to ∼66% of that without the Al foil sample. Thus, the reduction of the incoming plasma energy by the vapor shielding effect was successfully demonstrated in the present experiment.

  5. The social acceptability of handheld umbrellas for sun protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMichael, Josette R; Ezirike, Jennifer; Veledar, Emir; Rice, Jessica E; Chen, Suephy C

    2014-08-01

    Little is known about handheld umbrella (HU) use for sun protection in the United States. We sought to determine whether women consider the HU a socially acceptable form of sun protection and whether viewing pictures of famous women carrying umbrellas is influential. This is a cross-sectional survey study of 382 women. Participants viewed a collage of famous women carrying umbrellas to assess effect on social acceptability. Twelve percent had used a HU for sun protection. Participants were more likely to use an umbrella after viewing the collage (Psocial acceptability were age, had not lived in another country, sun protective clothing use and no sunscreen use, while skin color, ethnicity and education were not. Mean rating of social acceptability was an intermediate score of 5.41 (1=not acceptable, 10=totally acceptable) and increased to 5.88 postcollage (PSocial acceptability of HUs was moderate. Popular media may play a role in whether women view HUs as a socially acceptable form of sun protection. Dermatologists may consider recommending HUs as an adjunct but not replacement for other methods of sun protection. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. The current-voltage characteristic and potential oscillations of a double layer in a triple plasma device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, R.T.; Torven, S.

    1986-07-01

    The properties of a strong double layer in a current circuit with a capacitance and an inductance are investigated in a triple plasma device. The double layer gives rise to a region of negative differential resistance in the current-voltage characteristic of the device, and this gives non-linear oscillations in the current and the potential drop over the double layer (PhiDL). For a sufficiently large circuit inductance PhiDL reaches an amplitude given by the induced voltage (-LdI/dt) which is much larger than the circuit EMF due to the rapid current decrease when PhiDL increases. A variable potential minimum exists in the plasma on the low potential side of the double layer, and the depth of the minimum increases when PhiDL increases. An increasing fraction of the electrons incident at the double layer are then reflected, and this is found to be the main process giving rise to the negative differential resistance. A qualitative model for the variation of the minimum potential with PhiDL is also proposed. It is based on the condition that the minimum potential must adjust itself self-consistentely so that quasi-neutrality is maintained in the plasma region where the minimum is assumed. (authors)

  7. Layered double hydroxide materials coated carbon electrode: New challenge to future electrochemical power devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djebbi, Mohamed Amine; Braiek, Mohamed; Namour, Philippe; Ben Haj Amara, Abdesslem; Jaffrezic-Renault, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • MgAl and ZnAl LDH nanosheets were chemically synthesized and deposited over carbon electrode materials. • Catalytic performance of both LDHs was investigated for Fe(II) reduction reaction. • Satisfactory results have been achieved with the MgAl LDH material. • MgAl and ZnAl LDH modified carbon felt were applied in MFC as an efficient anode catalyst. • The LDH-modified anode significantly increased power performance of MFC. - Abstract: Layered double hydroxides (LDHs) have been widely used in the past years due to their unique physicochemical properties and promising applications in electroanalytical chemistry. The present paper is going to focus exclusively on magnesium-aluminum and zinc-aluminum layered double hydroxides (MgAl & ZnAl LDHs) in order to investigate the property and structure of active cation sites located within the layer structure. The MgAl and ZnAl LDH nanosheets were prepared by the constant pH co-precipitation method and uniformly supported on carbon-based electrode materials to fabricate an LDH electrode. Characterization by powder x-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy revealed the LDH form and well-crystallized materials. Wetting surface properties (hydrophilicity and hydrophobicity) of both prepared LDHs were recorded by contact angle measurement show hydrophilic character and basic property. The electrochemical performance of these hybrid materials was investigated by mainly cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and chronoamperometry techniques to identify the oxidation/reduction processes at the electrode/electrolyte interface and the effect of the divalent metal cations in total reactivity. The hierarchy of the modified electrode proves that the electronic conductivity of the bulk material is considerably dependent on the divalent cation and affects the limiting parameter of the overall redox process. However

  8. Layered double hydroxide materials coated carbon electrode: New challenge to future electrochemical power devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djebbi, Mohamed Amine, E-mail: mohamed.djebbi@etu.univ-lyon1.fr [Institut des Sciences Analytiques UMR CNRS 5280, Université Claude Bernard-Lyon 1, 5 rue de la Doua, 69100 Villeurbanne (France); Laboratoire de Physique des Matériaux Lamellaires et Nano-Matériaux Hybrides, Faculté des Sciences de Bizerte, Université de Carthage, 7021 Bizerte (Tunisia); Braiek, Mohamed [Institut des Sciences Analytiques UMR CNRS 5280, Université Claude Bernard-Lyon 1, 5 rue de la Doua, 69100 Villeurbanne (France); Namour, Philippe [Institut des Sciences Analytiques UMR CNRS 5280, Université Claude Bernard-Lyon 1, 5 rue de la Doua, 69100 Villeurbanne (France); Irstea, 5 rue de la Doua, 69100 Villeurbanne (France); Ben Haj Amara, Abdesslem [Laboratoire de Physique des Matériaux Lamellaires et Nano-Matériaux Hybrides, Faculté des Sciences de Bizerte, Université de Carthage, 7021 Bizerte (Tunisia); Jaffrezic-Renault, Nicole [Institut des Sciences Analytiques UMR CNRS 5280, Université Claude Bernard-Lyon 1, 5 rue de la Doua, 69100 Villeurbanne (France)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • MgAl and ZnAl LDH nanosheets were chemically synthesized and deposited over carbon electrode materials. • Catalytic performance of both LDHs was investigated for Fe(II) reduction reaction. • Satisfactory results have been achieved with the MgAl LDH material. • MgAl and ZnAl LDH modified carbon felt were applied in MFC as an efficient anode catalyst. • The LDH-modified anode significantly increased power performance of MFC. - Abstract: Layered double hydroxides (LDHs) have been widely used in the past years due to their unique physicochemical properties and promising applications in electroanalytical chemistry. The present paper is going to focus exclusively on magnesium-aluminum and zinc-aluminum layered double hydroxides (MgAl & ZnAl LDHs) in order to investigate the property and structure of active cation sites located within the layer structure. The MgAl and ZnAl LDH nanosheets were prepared by the constant pH co-precipitation method and uniformly supported on carbon-based electrode materials to fabricate an LDH electrode. Characterization by powder x-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy revealed the LDH form and well-crystallized materials. Wetting surface properties (hydrophilicity and hydrophobicity) of both prepared LDHs were recorded by contact angle measurement show hydrophilic character and basic property. The electrochemical performance of these hybrid materials was investigated by mainly cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and chronoamperometry techniques to identify the oxidation/reduction processes at the electrode/electrolyte interface and the effect of the divalent metal cations in total reactivity. The hierarchy of the modified electrode proves that the electronic conductivity of the bulk material is considerably dependent on the divalent cation and affects the limiting parameter of the overall redox process. However

  9. Determination of free energy profiles by repository based adaptive umbrella sampling: Bridging nonequilibrium and quasiequilibrium simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Han; Zhang Yingkai

    2008-01-01

    We propose a new adaptive sampling approach to determine free energy profiles with molecular dynamics simulations, which is called as 'repository based adaptive umbrella sampling' (RBAUS). Its main idea is that a sampling repository is continuously updated based on the latest simulation data, and the accumulated knowledge and sampling history are then employed to determine whether and how to update the biasing umbrella potential for subsequent simulations. In comparison with other adaptive methods, a unique and attractive feature of the RBAUS approach is that the frequency for updating the biasing potential depends on the sampling history and is adaptively determined on the fly, which makes it possible to smoothly bridge nonequilibrium and quasiequilibrium simulations. The RBAUS method is first tested by simulations on two simple systems: a double well model system with a variety of barriers and the dissociation of a NaCl molecule in water. Its efficiency and applicability are further illustrated in ab initio quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics molecular dynamics simulations of a methyl-transfer reaction in aqueous solution

  10. Information Behavior and Information Practice: Reviewing the "Umbrella Concepts" of Information-Seeking Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savolainen, Reijo

    2007-01-01

    Information behavior and information practice, two major concepts denoting the general ways in which people deal with information, are analyzed. Because of their general nature, they may be conceived of as umbrella concepts drawing on "umbrella discourses" with similar names. Information behavior is currently the dominating umbrella concept, while…

  11. Device Performance Improvement of Double-Pass Wire Mesh Packed Solar Air Heaters under Recycling Operation Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chii-Dong Ho

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The improvement of device performance of a recycling solar air heater featuring a wire mesh packing was investigated experimentally and theoretically. The application of the wire mesh packing and recycle-effect concept to the present study were proposed aiming to strengthen the convective heat-transfer coefficient due to increased turbulence. Comparisons were made among different designs, including the single-pass, flat-plate double-pass and recycling double-pass wire mesh packed operations. The collector efficiency of the recycling double-pass wire mesh packed solar air heater was much higher than that of the other configurations for various recycle ratios and mass flow rates scenarios. The power consumption increment due to implementing wire mesh in solar air heaters was also discussed considering the economic feasibility. A fairly good agreement between theoretical predictions and experimental measurements was achieved with an analyzed error of 1.07%–9.32%.

  12. The role of the umbrella inversion mode in proton diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanali, Ali A.; Giberti, Federico; Sosso, Gabriele C.; Parrinello, Michele

    2014-04-01

    Here, using ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) simulations, we elucidate the role of the umbrella inversion mode of the hydronium in proton transfer (PT) in liquid water. The hydrophobic face of the hydronium oxygen experiences asymmetries in the solvent potential along the inversion coordinate and this has a rather drastic effect on the barrier for proton transfer. This behavior is coupled to the fluctuations of voids or cavities in the vicinity of the hydronium in the water network. The peculiar inversion mode can either trap or release the proton from different parts of the water network.

  13. Spin and tunneling dynamics in an asymmetrical double quantum dot with spin-orbit coupling: Selective spin transport device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Madhav K.; Jha, Pradeep K.; Bhattacherjee, Aranya B.

    2017-09-01

    In this article, we study the spin and tunneling dynamics as a function of magnetic field in a one-dimensional GaAs double quantum dot with both the Dresselhaus and Rashba spin-orbit coupling. In particular, we consider different spatial widths for the spin-up and spin-down electronic states. We find that the spin dynamics is a superposition of slow as well as fast Rabi oscillations. It is found that the Rashba interaction strength as well as the external magnetic field strongly modifies the slow Rabi oscillations which is particularly useful for implementing solid state selective spin transport device.

  14. Artificial Synaptic Devices Based on Natural Chicken Albumen Coupled Electric-Double-Layer Transistors

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Guodong; Feng, Ping; Wan, Xiang; Zhu, Liqiang; Shi, Yi; Wan, Qing

    2016-01-01

    Recent progress in using biomaterials to fabricate functional electronics has got growing attention for the new generation of environmentally friendly and biocompatible electronic devices. As a kind of biological material with rich source, proteins are essential natural component of all organisms. At the same time, artificial synaptic devices are of great significance for neuromorphic systems because they can emulate the signal process and memory behaviors of biological synapses. In this repo...

  15. Highly efficient solution-processed phosphorescent organic light-emitting devices with double-stacked hole injection layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuehua; Hao, Lin; Zhang, Xinwen; Zhang, Xiaolin; Liu, Mengjiao; Zhang, Mengke; Wang, Jiong; Lai, Wen-Yong; Huang, Wei

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, solution-processed nickel oxide (NiOx) is used as hole-injection layers (HILs) in solution-processed phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes (PhOLEDs). Serious exciton quenching is verified at the NiOx/emitting layer (EML) interface, resulting in worse device performance. The device performance is significantly improved by inserting a layer of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonic acid) (PEDOT:PSS) between the EML and NiOx. The solution-processed blue PhOLED with the double-stacked NiOx/PEDOT:PSS HILs shows a maximum current efficiency of 30.5 cd/A, which is 75% and 30% higher than those of the devices with a single NiOx HIL and a PEDOT:PSS HIL, respectively. Improvement of device efficiency can be attributed to reducing exciton quenching of the PEDOT:PSS layer as well as the electron blocking effect of the NiOx layer.

  16. Testing single and double limb standing balance performance: comparison of COP path length evaluation between two devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donath, Lars; Roth, Ralf; Zahner, Lukas; Faude, Oliver

    2012-07-01

    Center of pressure (COP) path length evaluation was commonly applied to measure postural sway and usually obtained from gold standard force plates. Thus, we comparatively investigated the feasible and less-expensive GKS® balance system (GKS) with the Kistler® force platform (KIS). 34 non-specifically trained but active adults (14 males, 20 females, age: 25.4±4.8 years; weight: 69.3±12.3 kg; height: 1.75±0.09 m, sports activity: 5.8±3.6 hours per week) were randomly tested on both devices during double and single limb stance with opened and closed eyes. Irrespective of the analysed time frame, repeated measures analyses of variances revealed higher path length readings for GKS compared to KIS for 30 s (F=6.8, p=0.01) and 10 s (F=21.2, p=0.001). Large effect sizes of the COP path length differences between GKS and KIS decreased from easy tasks (double limb, eyes open; d(30-s)=2.55, d(10-s)=2.04) to the most severe task (single limb, eyes closed; d(30-s)=0.02, d(10-s)=0.23). According to Bland and Altman, the limits of agreements indicated a high random variability component (between 29%, double limb, eyes open and 67%, single limb, eyes closed). The overall intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) across all four standing balance tasks were moderate for the 30 s- (0.57) as well as the 10 s-analysis (0.65). In conclusion, the COP path length displacements obtained from the GKS balance system seem to differ with a considerable random variability from Kistler force platform data. Thus, measurements of the evaluated devices should not be used interchangeably. Further methodological investigations regarding balance measures seem warranted. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Artificial Synaptic Devices Based on Natural Chicken Albumen Coupled Electric-Double-Layer Transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Guodong; Feng, Ping; Wan, Xiang; Zhu, Liqiang; Shi, Yi; Wan, Qing

    2016-03-24

    Recent progress in using biomaterials to fabricate functional electronics has got growing attention for the new generation of environmentally friendly and biocompatible electronic devices. As a kind of biological material with rich source, proteins are essential natural component of all organisms. At the same time, artificial synaptic devices are of great significance for neuromorphic systems because they can emulate the signal process and memory behaviors of biological synapses. In this report, natural chicken albumen with high proton conductivity was used as the coupling electrolyte film for organic/inorganic hybrid synaptic devices fabrication. Some important synaptic functions including paired-pulse facilitation, dynamic filtering, short-term to long-term memory transition and spatial summation and shunting inhibition were successfully mimicked. Our results are very interesting for biological friendly artificial neuron networks and neuromorphic systems.

  18. Rare behavior of growth processes via umbrella sampling of trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klymko, Katherine; Geissler, Phillip L.; Garrahan, Juan P.; Whitelam, Stephen

    2018-03-01

    We compute probability distributions of trajectory observables for reversible and irreversible growth processes. These results reveal a correspondence between reversible and irreversible processes, at particular points in parameter space, in terms of their typical and atypical trajectories. Thus key features of growth processes can be insensitive to the precise form of the rate constants used to generate them, recalling the insensitivity to microscopic details of certain equilibrium behavior. We obtained these results using a sampling method, inspired by the "s -ensemble" large-deviation formalism, that amounts to umbrella sampling in trajectory space. The method is a simple variant of existing approaches, and applies to ensembles of trajectories controlled by the total number of events. It can be used to determine large-deviation rate functions for trajectory observables in or out of equilibrium.

  19. Reflective Practice in Healthcare Education: An Umbrella Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos C. Fragkos

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Reflection in healthcare education is an emerging topic with many recently published studies and reviews. This current systematic review of reviews (umbrella review of this field explores the following aspects: which definitions and models are currently in use; how reflection impacts design, evaluation, and assessment; and what future challenges must be addressed. Nineteen reviews satisfying the inclusion criteria were identified. Emerging themes include the following: reflection is currently regarded as self-reflection and critical reflection, and the epistemology-of-practice notion is less in tandem with the evidence-based medicine paradigm of modern science than expected. Reflective techniques that are recognised in multiple settings (e.g., summative, formative, group vs. individual have been associated with learning, but assessment as a research topic, is associated with issues of validity, reliability, and reproducibility. Future challenges include the epistemology of reflection in healthcare education and the development of approaches for practising and assessing reflection without loss of theoretical background.

  20. Comparison of LDD and double-gate MOSFET for nanoscale devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Suk-woong; Kim, Jae-hong; Jung, Hak-kee

    2002-11-01

    In short channel MOSFETs (metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors), the effective channel length can be substantially shortened, leading to a slope in the saturated I-V characteristic that is analogous to the Early effect for BJT. These SCE(short channel effect) problems have been solved using the LDD(lightly doped drain) structure, but can't be completely solved at nano scale gate. To complete weakness of LDD, we have designed the MOSFET which has the DG(double gate) structure. For comparing LDD with DG MOSFETs, we have used the TCAD simulator. The structures of LDD and DG MOSFETs have been designed and simulated by the DIOS tool and the electrical characteristics simulated by the DESSIS tool in TCAD. The I-V characteristic is not good in LDD but it is very excellent in DG MOSFET of sub-50nm gate.

  1. Photorefractive splicing device with double phase conjugate mirror using Sn2P2S6:Sb crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakayama, Yuta; Okamoto, Atsushi; Shimayabu, Kohei; Kojima, Yasunori; Grabar, Alexander A.

    2009-02-01

    We develop a splicing device for photonic crystal fibers (PCFs) based on a double phase conjugate mirror (DPCM) using a novel photorefractive (PR) Sn2P2S6:Sb 1.5% crystal. This PR splicer has many attractive characteristics including modal field compensation and the automatic reconfiguration of the optical path. Utilizing a DPCM as the splicer, our device can adapt to misalignments automatically since the incident beams continuously rewrite an index grating which formed in the crystal. By the implementation of the Sn2P2S6:Sb crystal, the response time for the characteristic of dynamic reconfiguration is improved several-hundred-fold compared with conventional materials, e.g. BaTiO3. We demonstrate that the high angular tolerance is provided using the DPCM with the Sn2P2S6:Sb crystal. When the misalignment of the incident angle is from -7° to 8°, the increment of coupling loss is less than 0.6dB. This is several-ten-fold compared with the fusion splicing. We reveal the dependence of the coupling loss on the position of the incident beams and also the dependence of the energy flow on the propagation distance for the first time with the two-dimensional finite-difference beampropagation method. Using our numerical simulation tool, we can visually investigate the beam propagation property considering the influence of the fanning effect in the Sn2P2S6 crystals.

  2. Coffee, Caffeine, and Health Outcomes: An Umbrella Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosso, Giuseppe; Godos, Justyna; Galvano, Fabio; Giovannucci, Edward L

    2017-08-21

    To evaluate the associations between coffee and caffeine consumption and various health outcomes, we performed an umbrella review of the evidence from meta-analyses of observational studies and randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Of the 59 unique outcomes examined in the selected 112 meta-analyses of observational studies, coffee was associated with a probable decreased risk of breast, colorectal, colon, endometrial, and prostate cancers; cardiovascular disease and mortality; Parkinson's disease; and type-2 diabetes. Of the 14 unique outcomes examined in the 20 selected meta-analyses of observational studies, caffeine was associated with a probable decreased risk of Parkinson's disease and type-2 diabetes and an increased risk of pregnancy loss. Of the 12 unique acute outcomes examined in the selected 9 meta-analyses of RCTs, coffee was associated with a rise in serum lipids, but this result was affected by significant heterogeneity, and caffeine was associated with a rise in blood pressure. Given the spectrum of conditions studied and the robustness of many of the results, these findings indicate that coffee can be part of a healthful diet.

  3. Macroscopic fibres of CNTs as electrodes for multifunctional electric double layer capacitors: from quantum capacitance to device performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senokos, E; Reguero, V; Palma, J; Vilatela, J J; Marcilla, Rebeca

    2016-02-14

    In this work we present a combined electrochemical and mechanical study of mesoporous electrodes based on CNT fibres in the context of electric double layer capacitors. We show that through control of the synthetic and assembly processes of the fibres, it is possible to obtain an active material that combines a surface area of 250 m(2) g(-1), high electrical conductivity (3.5 × 10(5) S m(-1)) and mechanical properties in the high-performance range including toughness (35 J g(-1)) comparable to that of aramid fibre (e.g. Kevlar). These properties are a consequence of the predominant orientation of the CNTs, observed by wide- and small-angle X-ray diffraction, and to the exceptionally long CNT length on the millimetre scale. Cyclic voltammetry measurements in a three-electrode configuration and using 1-butyl-3-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (PYR14TFSI) ionic liquid electrolyte, show that the CNT fibres have a large quantum capacitance, evidenced by the near linear dependence of geometric capacitance (and conductivity) on potential bias. This reflects the low dimensionality of the CNT building blocks, which were purposely synthesised to have 1-5 layers and a high degree of graphitization. From the charge-discharge measurements of supercapacitor devices with symmetric CNT fibre electrodes we obtain power and energy densities as high as 58 kW kg(-1) and 14 Wh kg(-1), respectively. These record-high values for CNT fibre-based supercapacitors, are a consequence of the low equivalent series resistance due to the high conductivity of the fibres, the large contribution from quantum capacitance, and the wide stability window of the ionic liquid (3.5 V). Cycle life experiments demonstrate stable capacitance and energy retention over 10,000 cycles of charge-discharge at 3.5 V.

  4. Single-crystal C60 needle/CuPc nanoparticle double floating-gate for low-voltage organic transistors based non-volatile memory devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hsuan-Chun; Lu, Chien; Liu, Cheng-Liang; Chen, Wen-Chang

    2015-01-07

    Low-voltage organic field-effect transistor memory devices exhibiting a wide memory window, low power consumption, acceptable retention, endurance properties, and tunable memory performance are fabricated. The performance is achieved by employing single-crystal C60 needles and copper phthalocyanine nanoparticles to produce an ambipolar (hole/electron) trapping effect in a double floating-gate architecture. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Umbrella species in marine systems: using the endangered humphead wrasse to conserve coral reefs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weng, Kevin C.; Pedersen, Martin Wæver; Del Raye, Gen A.

    2015-01-01

    Extinction risk is closely tied to body size, home range, and species distribution. Quantifying home range is critical for conservation, and can enable the use of concepts such as ‘umbrella species’, whose conservation protects other species due to shared habitat. To determine the value...... of the humphead wrasse as an umbrella species for coral reef conservation, we conducted a multi-year study of humphead wrasse home range at Palmyra Atoll, Central Tropical Pacific, tagging juvenile, female, and male individuals with acoustic transmitters. We quantified home range using 2 metrics, length and area.......4 to 14 km and changed with ontogeny. Females had larger home ranges than other reef fishes studied to date (n = 68), indicating value as an umbrella species for coral reefs. We compared the home range of the species to the size distribution of tropical marine protected areas (MPAs), and used a model...

  6. A Fault-Tolerant Modulation Method to Counteract the Double Open-Switch Fault in Matrix Converter Drive Systems without Redundant Power Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Der-Fa; Nguyen-Duy, Khiem; Liu, Tian-Hua

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies the double open-switch fault issue occurring within the conventional matrix converter driving a three-phase permanent-magnet synchronous motor system and proposes a fault-tolerant solution by introducing a revised modulation strategy. In this switching strategy, the rectifier......-stage modulation is adjusted based on the knowledge of the switching logics of the inverter-stage and the operating input voltage sectors. However, the proposed fault-tolerant method does not rely on the assist of any redundant power devices or any reconfiguration of the matrix converter circuit by means of using...

  7. Greater sage-grouse as an umbrella species for sagebrush-associated vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mary M. Rowland; Michael J. Wisdom; Lowell Suring; Cara W. Meinke

    2006-01-01

    Widespread degradation of the sagebrush ecosystem in the western United States, including the invasion of cheatgrass, has prompted resource managers to consider a variety of approaches to restore and conserve habitats for sagebrush-associated species. One such approach involves the use of greater sage-grouse, a species of prominent conservation interest, as an umbrella...

  8. Quality Assurance and Evaluation through Brazilian Lenses: An Exploration into the Validity of Umbrella Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centeno, Vera G.; Kauko, Jaakko; Candido, Helena H. D.

    2018-01-01

    In our present research we address the question of whether it is valid to apply the Quality Assurance and Evaluation (QAE) umbrella concept, which was formulated to explain new phenomena in European educational governance, to similar developments in Brazilian basic education. This led us to reflect on the possible pitfalls and potential strengths…

  9. The relationship between childhood body weight and dental caries experience: an umbrella systematic review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Susan J; Abuhaloob, Lamis; Richards, Derek; Hector, Mark P; Freeman, Ruth

    2017-10-25

    Obesity and dental caries are global public health problems which can impact in childhood and throughout the life course. In simple terms, childhood dental caries and body weight are linked via the common risk factor of diet. An association between dental caries and obesity has been described in a number of studies and reviews. However, similarly, a relationship has also been noted between low body weight and caries experience in children. This protocol will provide the framework for an umbrella review to address the following question: Does the available evidence support a relationship between dental caries experience and body weight in the child population? This review protocol outlines the process to carry out an umbrella systematic review which will synthesise previous reviews of childhood dental caries experience and body weight. An umbrella review methodology will be used to examine the methodological and reporting quality of existing reviews. The final umbrella review aims to aggregate the available evidence in order to provide a summary for policymakers and to inform healthcare interventions. PROSPERO CRD42016047304.

  10. Defining and evaluating the umbrella species concept for conserving and restoring landscape connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breckheimer, Ian; Haddad, Nick M; Morris, William F; Trainor, Anne M; Fields, William R; Jobe, R Todd; Hudgens, Brian R; Moody, Aaron; Walters, Jeffrey R

    2014-12-01

    Conserving or restoring landscape connectivity between patches of breeding habitat is a common strategy to protect threatened species from habitat fragmentation. By managing connectivity for some species, usually charismatic vertebrates, it is often assumed that these species will serve as conservation umbrellas for other species. We tested this assumption by developing a quantitative method to measure overlap in dispersal habitat of 3 threatened species-a bird (the umbrella), a butterfly, and a frog-inhabiting the same fragmented landscape. Dispersal habitat was determined with Circuitscape, which was parameterized with movement data collected for each species. Despite differences in natural history and breeding habitat, we found substantial overlap in the spatial distributions of areas important for dispersal of this suite of taxa. However, the intuitive umbrella species (the bird) did not have the highest overlap with other species in terms of the areas that supported connectivity. Nevertheless, we contend that when there are no irreconcilable differences between the dispersal habitats of species that cohabitate on the landscape, managing for umbrella species can help conserve or restore connectivity simultaneously for multiple threatened species with different habitat requirements. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  11. Creative Experience and Revisit Intention of Handmade Oriental Parasol Umbrella in Kaohsiung

    OpenAIRE

    Yi-Ju Lee

    2015-01-01

    This study identified the hypothesised relationship between creative experience, and revisit intention of handmade oriental parasol umbrella in Kaohsiung, Taiwan. A face-to-face questionnaire survey was administered in Meinong town, Kaohsiung. The components of creative experience were found as "sense of achievement", "unique learning" and "interaction with instructors" in creative tourism. The result also revealed significant positive relationships between creative exper...

  12. Prevention of Cardiac Implantable Electronic Device Infections: Single Operator Technique with Use of Povidone-Iodine, Double Gloving, Meticulous Aseptic/Antiseptic Measures and Antibiotic Prophylaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manolis, Antonis S; Melita, Helen

    2017-01-01

    Cardiac implantable electronic device (CIED) implantation is complicated by infection still at a worrisome rate of 2-5%. Since early on during device implantation procedures, we have adopted an infection-preventive technique which has hitherto resulted in effective prevention of infections. Herein we present our results of applying this technique by a single operator in a prospective series of 762 consecutive patients undergoing device implantation. A meticulous search for and treatment of active, occult, or smoldering infection was undertaken preoperatively. An aseptic/antiseptic technique was used for implantation of each device. Skin preparation is thorough with initial cleansing performed with alcohol followed by povidone-iodine 10% solution, which is also used in the wound and inside the pocket. In addition, we routinely use double gloving, and IV antibiotic prophylaxis 1 hour before and for 48 hours afterwards followed by oral antibiotic for 2-3 days after discharge. The skin is closed with absorbable sutures. The study includes 382 patients having a new pacemaker (n = 333) or battery change, system upgrade or lead revision (n = 49), and 380 patients having a new implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) (n = 296) or device replacement/upgrade/lead revision (n = 84). The pacemaker group, aged 70.2 ± 16.5 years, includes 18% VVI, 49% DDD, 29% VDD, and 4% cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) devices. The ICD group, aged 61.3 ± 13.0 years, with a mean ejection fraction of 36 ± 13%, includes 325 ICD and 55 CRT implants. Over 26.6 ± 33.4 months for the pacemaker group and 36.6 ± 38.3 months for the ICD group, infection occurred in one patient in each group (0.26%) having a device replacement. A consistent and strict approach of aseptic/antiseptic technique with the use of double gloving and povidone-iodine solution within the pocket plus a 4-day regimen of antibiotic prophylaxis minimizes infections in CIED implants. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Optimization of Vertical Double-Diffused Metal-Oxide Semiconductor (VDMOS) Power Transistor Structure for Use in High Frequencies and Medical Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhadi, Rozita; Farhadi, Bita

    2014-01-01

    Power transistors, such as the vertical, double-diffused, metal-oxide semiconductor (VDMOS), are used extensively in the amplifier circuits of medical devices. The aim of this research was to construct a VDMOS power transistor with an optimized structure to enhance the operation of medical devices. First, boron was implanted in silicon by implanting unclamped inductive switching (UIS) and a Faraday shield. The Faraday shield was implanted in order to replace the gate-field parasitic capacitor on the entry part of the device. Also, implanting the UIS was used in order to decrease the effect of parasitic bipolar junction transistor (BJT) of the VDMOS power transistor. The research tool used in this study was Silvaco software. By decreasing the transistor entry resistance in the optimized VDMOS structure, power losses and noise at the entry of the transistor were decreased, and, by increasing the breakdown voltage, the lifetime of the VDMOS transistor lifetime was increased, which resulted in increasing drain flow and decreasing Ron. This consequently resulted in enhancing the operation of high-frequency medical devices that use transistors, such as Radio Frequency (RF) and electrocardiograph machines.

  14. Switching Device Dead Time Optimization of Resonant Double-Sided LCC Wireless Charging System for Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Zhang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at the reduction of the influence of the dead time setting on power level and efficiency of the inverter of double-sided LCC resonant wireless power transfer (WPT system, a dead time soft switching optimization method for metal–oxide–semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET is proposed. At first, the mathematic description of double-sided LCC resonant wireless charging system is established, and the operating mode is analyzed as well, deducing the quantitative characteristic that the secondary side compensation capacitor C2 can be adjusted to ensure that the circuit is inductive. A dead time optimization design method is proposed, contributing to achieving zero-voltage switching (ZVS of the inverter, which is closely related to the performance of the WPT system. In the end, a prototype is built. The experimental results verify that dead time calculated by this optimized method can ensure the soft switching of the inverter MOSFET and promote the power and efficiency of the WPT.

  15. Post-Umbrella Movement: Localism and Radicalness of the Hong Kong Student Movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Che-po Chan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Hong Kong student movements before the Umbrella Movement showed a political outlook of voicing within norm of the establishment, using “peaceful, rational and non-violent” approaches, acknowledging the authorities of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (HKSAR and mainland Chinese governments and recognizing attachment to the motherland China. Today’s new emerging political outlook of the Hong Kong student movement has a profile of anti-establishment, using more assertive means and not excluding radical behaviour, distrust of the HKSAR and mainland authorities and assertion of radical localism. In the last two years, Hong Kong students have undergone a rapid change in their orientation, resulting in today’s outlook. This paper argues that the Umbrella Movement is the key for the turnaround and it testifies to the birth of a new social and political consciousness amongst Hong Kong students.

  16. EXTENDING THE UNITED STATES NUCLEAR DETERRENCE UMBRELLA TO THE MIDDLE EAST

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    nuclear arms race between Tokyo and Beijing akin to the Cold War competition between Washington and Moscow.”20 An Australian defense white paper...noted that no nation on the continents of Africa or South America were invited under the US nuclear umbrella. Primary reasons for these situations...for this claim follows that the overall US military presence on these two continents is historically low – compared to the military presence in

  17. Double-barrel Y-configuration stenting for flow diversion of a giant recurrent basilar apex aneurysm with the pipeline flex embolization device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dale Ding

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Giant basilar apex aneurysms are extremely challenging to successfully manage. The Pipeline Flex embolization device (PFED is a new generation flow-diverting stent with a modified delivery system which allows resheathing of the stent after partial deployment. We describe a case of double-barrel Y-configuration stenting of a giant, recurrent basilar apex aneurysm using the PFED. A 73-year-old male was previously treated for an unruptured 11-mm basilar apex aneurysm with stent-assisted coiling using a Neuroform stent. The aneurysm was retreated twice with repeat coiling. After the third recurrence and persistent aneurysm growth into a giant, symptomatic lesion, we decided to proceed with flow diversion. We performed Y-stenting of the basilar bifurcation using three PFEDs, and was recoiled the aneurysm sac. Due to the low porosity of the flow diverters, a side-by-side double-barrel configuration was necessary in the basilar artery. Without the PFED's resheathable capability, it would not have been possible to perform Y-stenting with flow diverters.

  18. Computer assisted design of poly-silicon gated enhancement-mode, lateral double quantum dot devices for quantum computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Nathaniel; Young, Ralph; Borras Pinilla, Carlos; Stalford, Harold; Nielsen, Erik; Muller, Richard; Rahman, Rajib; Tracy, Lisa; Wendt, Joel; Lilly, Michael; Carroll, Malcolm

    2012-02-01

    We discuss trade-offs of different double quantum dot and charge sensor lay-outs using computer assisted design (CAD). We use primarily a semi-classical model, augmented with a self-consistent configuration interaction method. Although CAD for quantum dots is difficult due to uncontrolled factors (e.g., disorder), different ideal designs can still be compared. Comparisons of simulation and measured dot characteristics, such as capacitance, show that CAD can agree well with experiment for relevant cases. CAD results comparing several different designs will be discussed including a comparison to measurement results from the same designs. Trade-offs between poly-silicon and metal gate lay-outs will also be discussed. This work was performed, in part, at the Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies, a U.S. DOE, Office of Basic Energy Sciences user facility. The work was supported by the Sandia National Laboratories Directed Research and Development Program. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  19. Double-Twisted Conductive Smart Threads Comprising a Homogeneously and a Gradient-Coated Thread for Multidimensional Flexible Pressure-Sensing Devices

    KAUST Repository

    Tai, Yanlong

    2016-03-17

    Fiber-based, flexible pressure-sensing systems have attracted attention recently due to their promising application as electronic skins. Here, a new kind of flexible pressure-sensing device based on a polydimethylsiloxane membrane instrumented with double-twisted smart threads (DTSTs) is reported. DTSTs are made of two conductive threads obtained by coating cotton threads with carbon nanotubes. One thread is coated with a homogeneous thickness of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) to detect the intensity of an applied load and the other is coated with a graded thickness of SWCNTs to identify the position of the load along the thread. The mechanism and capacity of DTSTs to accurately sense an applied load are systematically analyzed. Results demonstrate that the fabricated 1D, 2D, and 3D sensing devices can be used to predict both the intensity and the position of an applied load. The sensors feature high sensitivity (between ≈0.1% and 1.56% kPa) and tunable resolution, good cycling resilience (>104 cycles), and a short response time (minimum 2.5 Hz). The presented strategy is a viable alternative for the design of simple, low-cost pressure sensors.

  20. Lidocaine 10% spray to the cervix reduces pain during intrauterine device insertion: a double-blind randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksoy, Hüseyin; Aksoy, Ülkü; Ozyurt, Sezin; Açmaz, Gökhan; Babayigit, Mustafa

    2016-04-01

    Fear of pain during intrauterine device (IUD) insertion can be a barrier to widespread use of this safe and highly effective contraceptive method. Our objective was to determine the effectiveness of topical 10% lidocaine spray for pain control during IUD insertion. A total of 200 subjects with the request for IUD insertion were included in the study. The patients were randomly divided into two groups: lidocaine spray (n=100) and placebo (n=100). The pain experienced during the procedure was measured immediately after insertion by a standard Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) administered by a separate researcher with maintenance of allocation concealment. The mean pain score during the procedure was 1.01±1.20 in the lidocaine spray group and 3.23±1.60 in the placebo spray group (pLidocaine spray treatment significantly lowered the overall procedural pain score compared with placebo. Significant pain reduction during IUD insertion can be achieved by using 10% lidocaine spray alone. Lidocaine spray can be accepted as a non-invasive, easy to apply and more comfortable local anaesthetic method for IUD insertion. NCT02020551. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  1. The macro-economic determinants of health and health inequalities—umbrella review protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yannish Naik

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The economic determinants of health have been widely recognised as crucial factors affecting health; however, to date, no comprehensive review has been undertaken to summarise these factors and the ways in which they can influence health. We conceptualise the economy as a complex system made up of underlying approaches, regulation from institutions, markets, finance, labour, the public-private balance as well as production and distributional effects, which collectively impact on health through the effect of moderators. This protocol details the methods for an umbrella review to explore the macro-economic factors, strategies, policies and interventions that affect health outcomes and health inequalities. Methods We will identify relevant systematic reviews using search terms derived from the Journal of Economic Literature classification. Reviews will be included if they meet the Database of Abstracts and Reviews of Effects criteria for systematic reviews. Reviews of studies with and without controls will be included; both association and intervention studies will be included. Primary outcomes will include but are not limited to morbidity, mortality, prevalence and incidence of conditions and life expectancy. Secondary outcomes will include health inequalities by gender, ethnicity or socio-economic status. Six databases will be searched using tailored versions of our piloted search strategy to locate relevant reviews. Data will be extracted using a standardized pro forma, and the findings will be synthesized into a conceptual framework to address our review aim. Discussion Our umbrella review protocol provides a robust method to systematically appraise the evidence in this field, using new conceptual models derived specifically to address the study question. This will yield important information for policymakers, practitioners and researchers at the local, national and international level. It will also help set the future

  2. Evidence for curricular and instructional design approaches in undergraduate medical education: An umbrella review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onyura, Betty; Baker, Lindsay; Cameron, Blair; Friesen, Farah; Leslie, Karen

    2016-01-01

    An umbrella review compiles evidence from multiple reviews into a single accessible document. This umbrella review synthesizes evidence from systematic reviews on curricular and instructional design approaches in undergraduate medical education, focusing on learning outcomes. We conducted bibliographic database searches in Medline, EMBASE and ERIC from database inception to May 2013 inclusive, and digital keyword searches of leading medical education journals. We identified 18,470 abstracts; 467 underwent duplicate full-text scrutiny. Thirty-six articles met all eligibility criteria. Articles were abstracted independently by three authors, using a modified Kirkpatrick model for evaluating learning outcomes. Evidence for the effectiveness of diverse educational approaches is reported. This review maps out empirical knowledge on the efficacy of a broad range of educational approaches in medical education. Critical knowledge gaps, and lapses in methodological rigour, are discussed, providing valuable insight for future research. The findings call attention to the need for adopting evaluative strategies that explore how contextual variabilities and individual (teacher/learner) differences influence efficacy of educational interventions. Additionally, the results underscore that extant empirical evidence does not always provide unequivocal answers about what approaches are most effective. Educators should incorporate best available empirical knowledge with experiential and contextual knowledge.

  3. Observation of Fermi Arc Surface States Induced by Organic Memristive/Memcapacitive Devices with a Double-Helical Polarized Single-Wall Nanotube Membrane for Direct Chelating with Matrix Matelloproteinase-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. T. CHEN

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Matrix Matelloproteinase-2 (MMP-2 plays a key role in many diseases. A new type of dual-functioning device was developed for fast, direct ultrasensitive detection of MMP-2. We report a memristive/memcapacitive device with vertex double-helical polarized biomimetic protein nanotubules forming double membranes with potential gradient mimicking mitochondria’s inner double membrane has developed. We also report Fermi arcs with nodes on the surface of the nanostructured membrane was observed at the first time by using a 3D real-time - energy-current dynamic mapping method based on data obtained from the Cyclic Voltammetry (CV method. The memristive/memcapacitive device comprises a cross- linked organic polymer having single-wall cross-bar polarized nanotube self-assembling membrane (SAM on a gold chip, under an applied potential, a pair of vertex double- helical circular current flow induced the Fermi arcs states occurrence and these Fermi arcs promoted a direct chelating with zinc ions of the MMP-2 to become possible without any antibody, tracer, or reagent used at room temperature was accomplished. We observed the pair of Dirac Cones became alignment and strengthened with each other in the presence of MMP-2 compared without MMP-2. The MMP-2 can be detected with ag/mL level sensitivity and the value of Detection of Limits (DOL reached orders of magnitude lower than published reports with simplified procedures by a Chronoamperometry (CA method and a Double Step Chronopotentiometry (DSCPO method using NIST SRM 965A standard human serum, respectively. The results show a feasible application for developing the commercial fast and real-time MMP monitoring devices for various diseases.

  4. What causes psychosis? An umbrella review of risk and protective factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radua, Joaquim; Ramella-Cravaro, Valentina; Ioannidis, John P A; Reichenberg, Abraham; Phiphopthatsanee, Nacharin; Amir, Taha; Yenn Thoo, Hyi; Oliver, Dominic; Davies, Cathy; Morgan, Craig; McGuire, Philip; Murray, Robin M; Fusar-Poli, Paolo

    2018-02-01

    Psychosis is a heterogeneous psychiatric condition for which a multitude of risk and protective factors have been suggested. This umbrella review aimed to classify the strength of evidence for the associations between each factor and psychotic disorders whilst controlling for several biases. The Web of Knowledge database was searched to identify systematic reviews and meta-analyses of observational studies which examined associations between socio-demographic, parental, perinatal, later factors or antecedents and psychotic disorders, and which included a comparison group of healthy controls, published from 1965 to January 31, 2017. The literature search and data extraction followed PRISMA and MOOSE guidelines. The association between each factor and ICD or DSM diagnoses of non-organic psychotic disorders was graded into convincing, highly suggestive, suggestive, weak, or non-significant according to a standardized classification based on: number of psychotic cases, random-effects p value, largest study 95% confidence interval, heterogeneity between studies, 95% prediction interval, small study effect, and excess significance bias. In order to assess evidence for temporality of association, we also conducted sensitivity analyses restricted to data from prospective studies. Fifty-five meta-analyses or systematic reviews were included in the umbrella review, corresponding to 683 individual studies and 170 putative risk or protective factors for psychotic disorders. Only the ultra-high-risk state for psychosis (odds ratio, OR=9.32, 95% CI: 4.91-17.72) and Black-Caribbean ethnicity in England (OR=4.87, 95% CI: 3.96-6.00) showed convincing evidence of association. Six factors were highly suggestive (ethnic minority in low ethnic density area, second generation immigrants, trait anhedonia, premorbid IQ, minor physical anomalies, and olfactory identification ability), and nine were suggestive (urbanicity, ethnic minority in high ethnic density area, first generation

  5. What causes psychosis? An umbrella review of risk and protective factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radua, Joaquim; Ramella‐Cravaro, Valentina; Ioannidis, John P.A.; Reichenberg, Abraham; Phiphopthatsanee, Nacharin; Amir, Taha; Yenn Thoo, Hyi; Oliver, Dominic; Davies, Cathy; Morgan, Craig; McGuire, Philip; Murray, Robin M.; Fusar‐Poli, Paolo

    2018-01-01

    Psychosis is a heterogeneous psychiatric condition for which a multitude of risk and protective factors have been suggested. This umbrella review aimed to classify the strength of evidence for the associations between each factor and psychotic disorders whilst controlling for several biases. The Web of Knowledge database was searched to identify systematic reviews and meta‐analyses of observational studies which examined associations between socio‐demographic, parental, perinatal, later factors or antecedents and psychotic disorders, and which included a comparison group of healthy controls, published from 1965 to January 31, 2017. The literature search and data extraction followed PRISMA and MOOSE guidelines. The association between each factor and ICD or DSM diagnoses of non‐organic psychotic disorders was graded into convincing, highly suggestive, suggestive, weak, or non‐significant according to a standardized classification based on: number of psychotic cases, random‐effects p value, largest study 95% confidence interval, heterogeneity between studies, 95% prediction interval, small study effect, and excess significance bias. In order to assess evidence for temporality of association, we also conducted sensitivity analyses restricted to data from prospective studies. Fifty‐five meta‐analyses or systematic reviews were included in the umbrella review, corresponding to 683 individual studies and 170 putative risk or protective factors for psychotic disorders. Only the ultra‐high‐risk state for psychosis (odds ratio, OR=9.32, 95% CI: 4.91‐17.72) and Black‐Caribbean ethnicity in England (OR=4.87, 95% CI: 3.96‐6.00) showed convincing evidence of association. Six factors were highly suggestive (ethnic minority in low ethnic density area, second generation immigrants, trait anhedonia, premorbid IQ, minor physical anomalies, and olfactory identification ability), and nine were suggestive (urbanicity, ethnic minority in high ethnic density area

  6. Scholarism and Hong Kong Federation of Students: Comparative Analysis of Their Developments after the Umbrella Movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benson Wai-Kwok Wong

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to examine the features of, and difficulties in, the development of Scholarism and Hong Kong Federation of Students after the Umbrella Movement (2014. This article first introduces the emergence of both organizations, aiming to provide the necessary background to their features, notably student activism, politicization, and issue-based reasons in launching campaigns. This is followed by an analysis of the difficulties faced by both organizations with reference to leadership, orientation, organizational capacity and networking, as reflected in the disappointment and disillusionment of a significant number of participants during the movement. The article then moves on to investigate the possible methods adopted by both organizations to consolidate their strengths in light of the above weaknesses, focusing on the buttressing of accountability and reform. In conclusion, the reorganization of student power is of key concern during the process in face of the increasing political intervention of the Beijing authorities and political decay of the Hong Kong government.

  7. Effects of Rolling and Cooling Conditions on Microstructure of Umbrella-Bone Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yan-Xin; Fu, Jian-Xun; Zhang, Hua; Xu, Jie; Zhai, Qi-Jie

    2017-10-01

    The effects of deformation temperature and cooling rate on the micro-structure evolution of umbrella-bone steel was investigated using a Gleeble thermal-mechanical testing machine and dynamic continuous cooling transformation (CCT) curves. The results show that fast cooling which lowers the starting temperature of ferrite transformation leads to finer ferrite grains and more pearlite. Low temperature deformation enhances the hardening effect of austenite and reduces hardenability, allowing a wider range of cooling rates and thus avoiding martensite transformation after deformation. According to the phase transformation rules, the ultimate tensile strength and reduction in area of the wire rod formed in the optimized industrial trial are 636 MPa and 73.6 %, respectively, showing excellent strength and plasticity.

  8. Intravenous sufentanil and morphine for post-cardiac surgery pain relief using patient-controlled analgesia (pca) device: a randomized double-blind clinical trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alavi, S.M.; Kish, R.F.; Farsad, F.; Imani, F.; Sheikhvatan, M.

    2010-01-01

    Selection of the best analgesic technique in patients undergoing major surgeries can result in lower morbidity and satisfactory postoperative pain relief. In the present study, we tried to compare the effect of morphine and sufentanil on postoperative pain severity and hemodynamic changes by using patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) device in patients who were candidate for coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG). It was a randomized double-blinded clinical trial in which 120 patients aged 30-65 years, ASA physical status I-III, candidate for CABG in Shahid Rajaee hospital in Tehran were included. Before anesthesia, patients were randomly assigned to one of three groups to receive sufentanil (n=40), morphine (n=40) or normal saline (n=40). After tracheal extubation at intensive care unit, PCA was started by, sufentanil 4mg for the first group, morphine 2mg for the second group and normal saline, at same volume for the third group, intravenously with 10 minute lockout interval. Postoperative pain was evaluated by VAS scale, 1, 6, 12, 18 and 24 hours after extubation and systolic blood pressure, arterial oxygen saturation, PCO2 and PO2 were recorded 24 hours after extubation. VAS scores at rest revealed significantly less pain for patients in sufentanil and morphine groups than normal saline group, throughout the twenty-four hours after operation (P<0.001). However, there were no significant differences in the means of VAS scores between sufentanil and morphine groups. Among studied hemodynamic parameters, only systolic blood pressure was reduced more in morphine than sufentanil group (P<0.001). After CABG surgery, administration of intravenous sufentanil and morphine using PCA can lead to similar reduction of postoperative pain severity. (author)

  9. Vaginal misoprostol prior to intrauterine device insertion in women delivered only by elective cesarean section: a randomized double-blind clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdellah, Mohamed S; Abbas, Ahmed M; Hegazy, Aml M; El-Nashar, Ihab M

    2017-06-01

    The current study aims to evaluate if vaginal misoprostol (400 mcg) administered prior to intrauterine device (IUD) insertion increases the ease and success of insertion among women who had delivered only by elective cesarean delivery (CD). The current study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial conducted in Assiut Women's Health Hospital, Egypt, between the 1st of April 2015 and the 31st of March 2016 and included women who delivered only by elective CD. One hundred forty women were randomized into two groups; misoprostol group received two misoprostol 400-mcg tablets vaginally, and placebo group received two placebo tablets 3 h before a copper T380A IUD insertion. The primary outcome measure was the difference in the ease of insertion score using a 10-cm visual analog scale between both groups with 0=very easy insertion, and 10=terribly difficult insertion. The ease of insertion score was lower in the misoprostol group (2.2±0.5 vs. 4.2±0.5, p=.0001) with higher number of successful IUD insertions than the placebo group (69 [98.6%] vs. 61 [87.1%], p=.009). The mean pain score reported by the women was lower in misoprostol group (2.7±0.6 vs. 4.3±0.8) with higher level of satisfaction from the whole procedure (8.9±0.4 vs. 7.9±0.2) with p=.001 for both. Misoprostol 400 mcg vaginally prior to IUD insertion eases and increase the success of insertion with reduction of pain among women who had delivered only by elective CD. The use of vaginal misoprostol before IUD insertion in women who had never delivered vaginally before may increase the ease and success of insertion. Moreover, it may reduce the pain felt by women during the procedure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Cross-sector Service Provision in Health and Social Care: An Umbrella Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon Winters

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Meeting the complex health needs of people often requires interaction among numerous different sectors. No one service can adequately respond to the diverse care needs of consumers. Providers working more effectively together is frequently touted as the solution. Cross-sector service provision is defined as independent, yet interconnected sectors working together to better meet the needs of consumers and improve the quality and effectiveness of service provision. Cross-sector service provision is expected, yet much remains unknown about how it is conceptualised or its impact on health status. This umbrella review aims to clarify the critical attributes that shape cross-sector service provision by presenting the current state of the literature and building on the findings of the 2004 review by Sloper. Methods: Literature related to cross-sector service provision is immense, which poses a challenge for decision makers wishing to make evidence-informed decisions. An umbrella review was conducted to articulate the overall state of cross-sector service provision literature and examine the evidence to allow for the discovery of consistencies and discrepancies across the published knowledge base. Findings: Sixteen reviews met the inclusion criteria. Seven themes emerged: Focusing on the consumer, developing a shared vision of care, leadership involvement, service provision across the boundaries, adequately resourcing the arrangement, developing novel arrangements or aligning with existing relationships, and strengthening connections between sectors. Future research from a cross-organisational, rather than individual provider, perspective is needed to better understand what shapes cross-sector service provision at the boundaries. Conclusion: Findings aligned closely with the work done by Sloper and raise red flags related to reinventing what is already known. Future researchers should look to explore novel areas rather than looking into

  11. Sampling free energy surfaces as slices by combining umbrella sampling and metadynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awasthi, Shalini; Kapil, Venkat; Nair, Nisanth N

    2016-06-15

    Metadynamics (MTD) is a very powerful technique to sample high-dimensional free energy landscapes, and due to its self-guiding property, the method has been successful in studying complex reactions and conformational changes. MTD sampling is based on filling the free energy basins by biasing potentials and thus for cases with flat, broad, and unbound free energy wells, the computational time to sample them becomes very large. To alleviate this problem, we combine the standard Umbrella Sampling (US) technique with MTD to sample orthogonal collective variables (CVs) in a simultaneous way. Within this scheme, we construct the equilibrium distribution of CVs from biased distributions obtained from independent MTD simulations with umbrella potentials. Reweighting is carried out by a procedure that combines US reweighting and Tiwary-Parrinello MTD reweighting within the Weighted Histogram Analysis Method (WHAM). The approach is ideal for a controlled sampling of a CV in a MTD simulation, making it computationally efficient in sampling flat, broad, and unbound free energy surfaces. This technique also allows for a distributed sampling of a high-dimensional free energy surface, further increasing the computational efficiency in sampling. We demonstrate the application of this technique in sampling high-dimensional surface for various chemical reactions using ab initio and QM/MM hybrid molecular dynamics simulations. Further, to carry out MTD bias reweighting for computing forward reaction barriers in ab initio or QM/MM simulations, we propose a computationally affordable approach that does not require recrossing trajectories. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. A quantitative evaluation of the conservation umbrella of spotted owl management areas in the Sierra Nevada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan D Burnett

    Full Text Available Whether by design or default, single species management often serves as an umbrella for species with similar habitat requirements. In recent decades the focus of National Forest management in the Sierra Nevada of California has shifted towards increasing closed canopy mature forest conditions through the protection of areas occupied by the California Spotted Owl (Strix occidentalis occidentalis. To evaluate the implications of these habitat changes and the potential umbrella resulting from a system of owl reserves on the broader avian community, we estimated occupancy of birds inside and outside of Spotted Owl Home Range Core Areas in northeastern California. We used point count data in a multi-species hierarchical Bayesian model incorporating the detection history of 81 species over a two-year time period (2005-2006. A small set of vegetation cover and topography covariates were included in the model to account for broad differences in habitat conditions, as well as a term identifying whether or not a site was within a Core Area. Seventeen species had a negative Core Area effect, seven had a positive effect, and the rest were not significant. Estimated species richness was significantly different with 23.1 species per 100 m radius circle outside Core Areas and 21.7 inside Core Areas. The majority of the species negatively associated with Core Areas are tied to early successional and other disturbance-dependent habitats. Conservation and climate vulnerability rankings were mixed. On average we found higher scores (greater risk for the species positively associated with Core Areas, but a larger number of species with the highest scores were negatively associated with Core Areas. We discuss the implications for managing the Sierra Nevada ecosystem and illustrate the role of monitoring broader suites of species in guiding management of large complex ecosystems.

  13. Effect of cervical lidocaine-prilocaine cream on pain perception during copper T380A intrauterine device insertion among parous women: A randomized double-blind controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Ahmed M; Abdellah, Mohamed S; Khalaf, Mohamed; Bahloul, Mustafa; Abdellah, Noura H; Ali, Mohamed K; Abdelmagied, Ahmed M

    2017-03-01

    The objective was to investigate the analgesic effect of cervical lidocaine-prilocaine (LP) cream in alleviating pain during copper T380A intrauterine device (IUD) insertion among parous women. We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial at Assiut Women's Health Hospital, Egypt, from October 2015 to April 2016 of parous women desiring copper IUD insertion. We randomized the subjects in a 1:1 ratio to LP cream or placebo. Seven minutes prior to IUD insertion, women received 2 ml of LP cream or placebo to the anterior cervical lip, followed by 2 ml placed in the cervical canal using a Q-tip applicator. The study end point was the subjects' self-reported pain using a 10-cm visual analog scale (VAS) during cervical tenaculum placement, sound insertion, IUD insertion and 5 min postprocedure. We considered a 2-cm difference in VAS scores between study groups as clinically significant. Also, the difference in the ease of insertion score using a 10-cm VAS with 0=very easy insertion and 10=terribly difficult insertion was assessed. The study included 120 women (n=60 in each group). LP cream reduces the median VAS pain scores during tenaculum placement (2 vs. 4), sound insertion (3 vs. 6) and IUD insertion (3 vs. 6.5) with p=.0001 at all steps. A lower ease of insertion score was also determined among LP women (2.5±0.98 vs. 4.5±2.7, p=.001). Participants reported no side effects. Use of cervical LP cream prior to copper T380A IUD insertion may alleviate the IUD insertion pain among parous women. Cervical LP cream could be effective as an analgesic prior to copper T380A IUD insertion with no side effects. Further studies are needed to assess the women's satisfaction from lying with a speculum in place for 7 min while waiting for the cream to be effective. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Common mental disorders in asylum seekers and refugees: umbrella review of prevalence and intervention studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turrini, Giulia; Purgato, Marianna; Ballette, Francesca; Nosè, Michela; Ostuzzi, Giovanni; Barbui, Corrado

    2017-01-01

    In recent years there has been a progressive rise in the number of asylum seekers and refugees displaced from their country of origin, with significant social, economic, humanitarian and public health implications. In this population, up-to-date information on the rate and characteristics of mental health conditions, and on interventions that can be implemented once mental disorders have been identified, are needed. This umbrella review aims at systematically reviewing existing evidence on the prevalence of common mental disorders and on the efficacy of psychosocial and pharmacological interventions in adult and children asylum seekers and refugees resettled in low, middle and high income countries. We conducted an umbrella review of systematic reviews summarizing data on the prevalence of common mental disorders and on the efficacy of psychosocial and pharmacological interventions in asylum seekers and/or refugees. Methodological quality of the included studies was assessed with the AMSTAR checklist. Thirteen reviews reported data on the prevalence of common mental disorders while fourteen reviews reported data on the efficacy of psychological or pharmacological interventions. Although there was substantial variability in prevalence rates, we found that depression and anxiety were at least as frequent as post-traumatic stress disorder, accounting for up to 40% of asylum seekers and refugees. In terms of psychosocial interventions, cognitive behavioral interventions, in particular narrative exposure therapy, were the most studied interventions with positive outcomes against inactive but not active comparators. Current epidemiological data needs to be expanded with more rigorous studies focusing not only on post-traumatic stress disorder but also on depression, anxiety and other mental health conditions. In addition, new studies are urgently needed to assess the efficacy of psychosocial interventions when compared not only with no treatment but also each other

  15. Conserving migratory mule deer through the umbrella of sage-grouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, H. E.; Sawyer, H.; Monteith, K. L.; Naugle, D.E.; Pocewicz, Amy; Graf, N.; Kauffman, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    Conserving migratory ungulates in increasingly human-dominated landscapes presents a difficult challenge to land managers and conservation practitioners. Nevertheless, ungulates may receive ancillary benefits from conservation actions designed to protect species of greater conservation priority where their ranges are sympatric. Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocerus urophasianus), for example, have been proposed as an umbrella species for other sagebrush (Artemesia spp.)-dependent fauna. We examined a landscape where conservation efforts for sage-grouse overlap spatially with mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) to determine whether sage-grouse conservation measures also might protect important mule deer migration routes and seasonal ranges. We conducted a spatial analysis to determine what proportion of migration routes, stopover areas, and winter ranges used by mule deer were located in areas managed for sage-grouse conservation. Conservation measures overlapped with 66–70% of migration corridors, 74–75% of stopovers, and 52–91% of wintering areas for two mule deer populations in the upper Green River Basin of Wyoming. Of those proportions, conservation actions targeted towards sage-grouse accounted for approximately half of the overlap in corridors and stopover areas, and nearly all overlap on winter ranges, indicating that sage-grouse conservation efforts represent an important step in conserving migratory mule deer. Conservation of migratory species presents unique challenges because although overlap with conserved lands may be high, connectivity of the entire route must be maintained as barriers to movement anywhere within the migration corridor could render it unviable. Where mule deer habitats overlap with sage-grouse core areas, our results indicate that increased protection is afforded to winter ranges and migration routes within the umbrella of sage-grouse conservation, but this protection is contingent on concentrated developments within core areas not

  16. Umbrella Wheel - a stair-climbing and obstacle-handling wheel design concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Simon; Jouffroy, Jerome

    This paper proposes a new design for stair-climbing using a wheel that can split into segments and walk up stairs or surmount other obstacles often found where humans traverse, while still being able to retain a perfectly round shape for traveling on smooth ground. Using this change of configurat......This paper proposes a new design for stair-climbing using a wheel that can split into segments and walk up stairs or surmount other obstacles often found where humans traverse, while still being able to retain a perfectly round shape for traveling on smooth ground. Using this change...... of configuration, staircases with a wide range of dimensions can be covered efficiently and safely. The design, named Umbrella Wheel, can consist of as many wheel segments as desired, and as few as two. A smaller or higher number of wheel segments has advantages and disadvantages depending on the specific...... situation. Modeling the trajectory of the wheel when as it ascends or descends stairs is given and the results are analyzed....

  17. Umbrella Wheel - a stair-climbing and obstacle-handling wheel design concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Simon; Jouffroy, Jerome

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a new design for stair-climbing using a wheel that can split into segments and walk up stairs or surmount other obstacles often found where humans traverse, while still being able to retain a perfectly round shape for traveling on smooth ground. Using this change of configurat......This paper proposes a new design for stair-climbing using a wheel that can split into segments and walk up stairs or surmount other obstacles often found where humans traverse, while still being able to retain a perfectly round shape for traveling on smooth ground. Using this change...... of configuration, staircases with a wide range of dimensions can be covered efficiently and safely. The design, named Umbrella Wheel, can consist of as many wheel segments as desired, and as few as two. A smaller or higher number of wheel segments has advantages and disadvantages depending on the specific...... situation. Modeling the trajectory of the wheel when as it ascends or descends stairs is given and the results are analyzed....

  18. An umbrella review of meta-analyses of interventions to improve maternal outcomes for teen mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SmithBattle, Lee; Loman, Deborah G; Chantamit-O-Pas, Chutima; Schneider, Joanne Kraenzle

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to perform an umbrella review of meta-analyses of intervention studies designed to improve outcomes of pregnant or parenting teenagers. An extensive search retrieved nine reports which provided 21 meta-analyses analyses. Data were extracted by two reviewers. Methodological quality was assessed using the AMSTAR Instrument. Most effect sizes were small but high quality studies showed significant outcomes for reduced low birth weight (RR = 0.60), repeat pregnancies/births (OR = 0.47-0.62), maternal education (OR = 1.21-1.83), and maternal employment (OR = 1.26). Several parenting outcomes (parent-child teaching interaction post-intervention [SMD = -0.91] and at follow-up [SMD = -1.07], and parent-child relationship post-intervention [SMD = -0.71] and at follow-up [SMD = -0.90]) were significant, but sample sizes were very small. Many reports did not include moderator analyses. Behavioral interventions offer limited resources and occur too late to mitigate the educational and social disparities that precede teen pregnancy. Future intervention research and policies that redress the social determinants of early childbearing are recommended. Copyright © 2017 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Efficient Determination of Free Energy Landscapes in Multiple Dimensions from Biased Umbrella Sampling Simulations Using Linear Regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Yilin; Roux, Benoît

    2015-08-11

    The weighted histogram analysis method (WHAM) is a standard protocol for postprocessing the information from biased umbrella sampling simulations to construct the potential of mean force with respect to a set of order parameters. By virtue of the WHAM equations, the unbiased density of state is determined by satisfying a self-consistent condition through an iterative procedure. While the method works very effectively when the number of order parameters is small, its computational cost grows rapidly in higher dimension. Here, we present a simple and efficient alternative strategy, which avoids solving the self-consistent WHAM equations iteratively. An efficient multivariate linear regression framework is utilized to link the biased probability densities of individual umbrella windows and yield an unbiased global free energy landscape in the space of order parameters. It is demonstrated with practical examples that free energy landscapes that are comparable in accuracy to WHAM can be generated at a small fraction of the cost.

  20. Nanomolar Cellular Antisense Activity of Peptide Nucleic Acid (PNA) Cholic Acid ("Umbrella") and Cholesterol Conjugates Delivered by Cationic Lipids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shiraishi, Takehiko; Nielsen, Peter E

    2012-01-01

    of cholesterol and cholic acid ("umbrella") derivatives of splice correction antisense PNA oligomers. While the conjugates alone were practically inactive up to 1 µM, their activity was dramatically improved when delivered by a cationic lipid transfection agent (LipofectAMINE2000). In particular, PNAs...... volume improved transfection efficiency, suggesting that accumulation (condensation) of the PNA/lipid complex on the cellular surface is part of the uptake mechanism. These results provide a novel, simple method for very efficient cellular delivery of PNA oligomers, especially using PNA-cholic acid...... conjugates which, in contrast to PNA-cholesterol conjugates, exhibit sufficient water solubility. The results also question the generality of using cholic acid "umbrella" derivatives as a delivery modality for antisense oligomers....

  1. Umbrellas can work under water: Using threatened species as indicator and management surrogates can improve coastal conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilby, Ben L.; Olds, Andrew D.; Connolly, Rod M.; Yabsley, Nicholas A.; Maxwell, Paul S.; Tibbetts, Ian R.; Schoeman, David S.; Schlacher, Thomas A.

    2017-12-01

    Species surrogates, the use of particular species to index habitat condition or to represent ecological assemblages are commonly identified in many ecosystems, but are less tested, and therefore less employed in estuaries. Estuaries provide important ecosystem goods (e.g. harvestable species) and services (e.g. carbon processing, coastal armouring), but require protection from multiple human activities, meaning that finding surrogates for estuarine condition or faunal assemblages is a significant knowledge gap. In this study, we test the efficacy of the threatened estuary ray Hemitrygon fluviorum, as a suitable indicator of ecosystem condition and management umbrella surrogate species for conservation prioritisation and monitoring purposes within estuaries. We surveyed fish assemblages and ray presence at ten sites within each of 22 estuaries in southeast Queensland, Australia, using one hour deployments of baited video arrays. We then tested for correlations between ray presence, a series of environmental variables considered important to ecosystem management within estuaries (i.e. testing rays as indicator species), and the co-occurring fish species (i.e. testing rays as umbrella species). Estuary rays function as both umbrella species and ecological indicators of habitat status in subtropical Australian estuaries. As umbrellas, ray occurrence concords with elevated species richness. As ecological indicators, ray distribution concords with habitats of good water quality (especially low turbidity) and more natural vegetation remaining in the catchment. These results highlight the potential for other threatened aquatic vertebrates that are both readily detectable and that are reliable proxies for ecosystems status to be become useful management tools in estuaries. The protection of such large, threatened species in coastal seascapes allows managers to address multiple targets for conservation, especially; (1) protecting species of conservation concern; (2

  2. Device and circuit analysis of a sub 20 nm double gate MOSFET with gate stack using a look-up-table-based approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, S.; Dasgupta, A.; Das, R.; Kar, M.; Kundu, A.; Sarkar, C. K.

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, we explore the possibility of mapping devices designed in TCAD environment to its modeled version developed in cadence virtuoso environment using a look-up table (LUT) approach. Circuit simulation of newly designed devices in TCAD environment is a very slow and tedious process involving complex scripting. Hence, the LUT based modeling approach has been proposed as a faster and easier alternative in cadence environment. The LUTs are prepared by extracting data from the device characteristics obtained from device simulation in TCAD. A comparative study is shown between the TCAD simulation and the LUT-based alternative to showcase the accuracy of modeled devices. Finally the look-up table approach is used to evaluate the performance of circuits implemented using 14 nm nMOSFET.

  3. Lattice-matched double dip-shaped BAlGaN/AlN quantum well structures for ultraviolet light emission devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seoung-Hwan; Ahn, Doyeol

    2018-05-01

    Ultraviolet light emission characteristics of lattice-matched BxAlyGa1-x-y N/AlN quantum well (QW) structures with double AlGaN delta layers were investigated theoretically. In contrast to conventional single dip-shaped QW structure where the reduction effect of the spatial separation between electron and hole wave functions is negligible, proposed double dip-shaped QW shows significant enhancement of the ultraviolet light emission intensity from a BAlGaN/AlN QW structure due to the reduced spatial separation between electron and hole wave functions. The emission peak of the double dip-shaped QW structure is expected to be about three times larger than that of the conventional rectangular AlGaN/AlN QW structure.

  4. The Mobilization of Memory and Tradition: Hong Kong’s Umbrella Movement and Beijing’s 1989 Tiananmen Movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Lagerkvist

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The 2014 Umbrella Movement in Hong Kong has been the most important pro-democracy protest on Chinese soil since the rise and fall of the Tiananmen Movement of 1989. Moreover, the 1989 Beijing Massacre has politicized a generation of pro-democracy activists in Hong Kong that has shaped Hong Kong’s vibrant civil society. However, while this “Tiananmen generation” has been crucial for the preparation and initial stage of the Umbrella Movement, the actual occupation was dominated by a new generation that is almost exclusively concerned with local Hong Kong politics. In light of this background, this paper compares the two democracy movements. The external environment and the goals of the two movements are markedly different. However, our comparison demonstrates striking similarities between the two movements, e.g. their internal structure and framing. Moreover, what we see as the “mobilization of memory” reflects both the continued importance of civil society structures that have been shaped by the “Tiananmen veterans” as well as the on-going renegotiation of the SAR’s relationship with the Mainland. Finally, these findings entail that the Chinese party-state will need to utilize different means to pacify the Umbrella Movement than what was done to placate democracy activists after the 1989 crackdown.

  5. Looking beyond rare species as umbrella species: Northern Bobwhites (Colinus virginianus) and conservation of grassland and shrubland birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, Andrew D.; Elmore, R.D.; Leslie,, David M.; Will, Rodney E.

    2015-01-01

    Changes in land use and land cover throughout the eastern half of North America have caused substantial declines in populations of birds that rely on grassland and shrubland vegetation types, including socially and economically important game birds such as the Northern Bobwhite (Colinus virginianus; hereafter bobwhites). As much attention is focused on habitat management and restoration for bobwhites, they may act as an umbrella species for other bird species with similar habitat requirements. We quantified the relationship of bobwhites to the overall bird community and evaluated the potential for bobwhites to act as an umbrella species for grassland and shrubland birds. We monitored bobwhite presence and bird community composition within 31 sample units on selected private lands in the south-central United States from 2009 to 2011. Bobwhites were strongly associated with other grassland and shrubland birds and were a significant positive predictor for 9 species. Seven of these, including Bell's Vireo (Vireo bell), Dicksissel (Spiza americana), and Grasshopper Sparrow (Ammodramus savannarum), are listed as species of conservation concern. Species richness and occupancy probability of grassland and shrubland birds were higher relative to the overall bird community in sample units occupied by bobwhites. Our results show that bobwhites can act as an umbrella species for grassland and shrubland birds, although the specific species in any given situation will depend on region and management objectives. These results suggest that efficiency in conservation funding can be increased by using public interest in popular game species to leverage resources to meet multiple conservation objectives.

  6. Coffee consumption and health: umbrella review of meta-analyses of multiple health outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Robin; Kennedy, Oliver J; Roderick, Paul; Fallowfield, Jonathan A; Hayes, Peter C; Parkes, Julie

    2017-11-22

    Objectives  To evaluate the existing evidence for associations between coffee consumption and multiple health outcomes. Design  Umbrella review of the evidence across meta-analyses of observational and interventional studies of coffee consumption and any health outcome. Data sources  PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and screening of references. Eligibility criteria for selecting studies  Meta-analyses of both observational and interventional studies that examined the associations between coffee consumption and any health outcome in any adult population in all countries and all settings. Studies of genetic polymorphisms for coffee metabolism were excluded. Results  The umbrella review identified 201 meta-analyses of observational research with 67 unique health outcomes and 17 meta-analyses of interventional research with nine unique outcomes. Coffee consumption was more often associated with benefit than harm for a range of health outcomes across exposures including high versus low, any versus none, and one extra cup a day. There was evidence of a non-linear association between consumption and some outcomes, with summary estimates indicating largest relative risk reduction at intakes of three to four cups a day versus none, including all cause mortality (relative risk 0.83 (95% confidence interval 0.79 to 0.88), cardiovascular mortality (0.81, 0.72 to 0.90), and cardiovascular disease (0.85, 0.80 to 0.90). High versus low consumption was associated with an 18% lower risk of incident cancer (0.82, 0.74 to 0.89). Consumption was also associated with a lower risk of several specific cancers and neurological, metabolic, and liver conditions. Harmful associations were largely nullified by adequate adjustment for smoking, except in pregnancy, where high versus low/no consumption was associated with low birth weight (odds ratio 1.31, 95% confidence interval 1.03 to 1.67), preterm birth in the first (1.22, 1.00 to 1.49) and second (1

  7. Global Health as "umbrella term" - a qualitative study among Global Health teachers in German medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havemann, Matthias; Bösner, Stefan

    2018-03-27

    The increasing impact of globalisation on healthcare demands new knowledge, skills and attitudes from healthcare professionals. One consequence of this is the rise of Global Health (GH) programs in health education all over the world. In Germany no consensus exists on what GH is and how it should be taught. This study used a grounded theory approach. We conducted eleven in-depth interviews with GH teachers in German medical education to ask them about their views on Global Health and the approaches they took in teaching these topics. Data collection and Analysis informed each other and followed an inductive approach. Our research identified three major questions: (1) What is GH? (2) What belongs to GH? (3) How can GH be taught? A central finding of our study is the understanding of GH as an umbrella term. We show how this understanding helps clarify the relation between GH and Public Health, International Health and Tropical medicine. At the core of GH we see the supraterritorial determinants of health. Surrounding the core, we describe a wide variety of topics that are a facultative, but not necessarily a compulsory part GH. One of the key characteristics of GH within all its aspects is its multidisciplinary nature. Based on this understanding we present models about the content of GH, how it can be taught and how GH teaching improves and strengthens overall medical education. This is to our knowledge the first study that conducts in-depth interviews with GH teachers to explore the practical understanding of GH in medical education. While the generalisability of our results needs to be subject of further research, the models presented can help shape the future discourse around GH and its integration into medical education.

  8. Interventions for supporting nurse retention in rural and remote areas: an umbrella review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbemba, Gisèle; Gagnon, Marie-Pierre; Paré, Guy; Côté, José

    2013-09-11

    Retention of nursing staff is a growing concern in many countries, especially in rural, remote or isolated regions, where it has major consequences on the accessibility of health services. This umbrella review aims to synthesize the current evidence on the effectiveness of interventions to promote nurse retention in rural or remote areas, and to present a taxonomy of potential strategies to improve nurse retention in those regions. We conducted an overview of systematic reviews, including the following steps: exploring scientific literature through predetermined criteria and extracting relevant information by two independents reviewers. We used the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses) criteria in order to assess the quality of the reports. Of 517 screened publications, we included five reviews. Two reviews showed that financial-incentive programs have substantial evidence to improve the distribution of human resources for health. The other three reviews highlighted supportive relationships in nursing, information and communication technologies support and rural health career pathways as factors influencing nurse retention in rural and remote areas. Overall, the quality of the reviews was acceptable. This overview provides a guide to orient future rural and remote nurse retention interventions. We distinguish four broad types of interventions: education and continuous professional development interventions, regulatory interventions, financial incentives, and personal and professional support. More knowledge is needed regarding the effectiveness of specific strategies to address the factors known to contribute to nurse retention in rural and remote areas. In order to ensure knowledge translation, retention strategies should be rigorously evaluated using appropriate designs.

  9. Sea Ice, Clouds, Sunlight, and Albedo: The Umbrella Versus the Blanket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perovich, D. K.

    2017-12-01

    The Arctic sea ice cover has undergone a major decline in recent years, with reductions in ice extent, ice thickness, and ice age. Understanding the feedbacks and forcing driving these changes is critical in improving predictions. The surface radiation budget plays a central role in summer ice melt and is governed by clouds and surface albedo. Clouds act as an umbrella reducing the downwelling shortwave, but also serve as a blanket increasing the downwelling longwave, with the surface albedo also determining the net balance. Using field observations from the SHEBA program, pairs of clear and cloudy days were selected for each month from May through September and the net radiation flux was calculated for different surface conditions and albedos. To explore the impact of albedo we calculated a break even albedo, where the net radiation for cloudy skies is the same as clear skies. For albedos larger than the break-even value the net radiation flux is smaller under clear skies compared to cloudy skies. Break-even albedos ranged from 0.30 in September to 0.58 in July. For snow covered or bare ice, clear skies always resulted in less radiative heat input. In contrast, leads always had, and ponds usually had, more radiative heat input under clear skies than cloudy skies. Snow covered ice had a net radiation flux that was negative or near zero under clear skies resulting in radiative cooling. We combined the albedo of individual ice types with the area of those ice types to calculate albedos averaged over a 50 km x 50 km area. The July case had the smallest areally averaged albedo of 0.50. This was less than the breakeven albedo, so cloudy skies had a smaller net radiation flux than clear skies. For the cases from the other four months, the areally averaged albedo was greater than the break-even albedo. The areally averaged net radiation flux was negative under clear skies for the May and September cases.

  10. Simulation Modelling in Healthcare: An Umbrella Review of Systematic Literature Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salleh, Syed; Thokala, Praveen; Brennan, Alan; Hughes, Ruby; Booth, Andrew

    2017-09-01

    Numerous studies examine simulation modelling in healthcare. These studies present a bewildering array of simulation techniques and applications, making it challenging to characterise the literature. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the level of activity of simulation modelling in healthcare and the key themes. We performed an umbrella review of systematic literature reviews of simulation modelling in healthcare. Searches were conducted of academic databases (JSTOR, Scopus, PubMed, IEEE, SAGE, ACM, Wiley Online Library, ScienceDirect) and grey literature sources, enhanced by citation searches. The articles were included if they performed a systematic review of simulation modelling techniques in healthcare. After quality assessment of all included articles, data were extracted on numbers of studies included in each review, types of applications, techniques used for simulation modelling, data sources and simulation software. The search strategy yielded a total of 117 potential articles. Following sifting, 37 heterogeneous reviews were included. Most reviews achieved moderate quality rating on a modified AMSTAR (A Measurement Tool used to Assess systematic Reviews) checklist. All the review articles described the types of applications used for simulation modelling; 15 reviews described techniques used for simulation modelling; three reviews described data sources used for simulation modelling; and six reviews described software used for simulation modelling. The remaining reviews either did not report or did not provide enough detail for the data to be extracted. Simulation modelling techniques have been used for a wide range of applications in healthcare, with a variety of software tools and data sources. The number of reviews published in recent years suggest an increased interest in simulation modelling in healthcare.

  11. Concordance of sleep and pain outcomes of diverse interventions: an umbrella review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony G Doufas

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Pain influences sleep and vice versa. We performed an umbrella review of meta-analyses on treatments for diverse conditions in order to examine whether diverse medical treatments for different conditions have similar or divergent effects on pain and sleep. METHODS: We searched published systematic reviews with meta-analyses in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews until October 20, 2011. We identified randomized trials (or meta-analyses thereof, when >1 trial was available where both pain and sleep outcomes were examined. Pain outcomes were categorized as headache, musculoskeletal, abdominal, pelvic, generic or other pain. Sleep outcomes included insomnia, sleep disruption, and sleep disturbance. We estimated odds ratios for all outcomes and evaluated the concordance in the direction of effects between sleep and various types of pain and the correlation of treatment effects between sleep and pain outcomes. RESULTS: 151 comparisons with 385 different trials met our eligibility criteria. 96 comparisons had concordant direction of effects between each pain outcome and sleep, while in 55 the effect estimates were in opposite directions (P<0.0001. In the 20 comparisons with largest amount of evidence, the experimental drug always had worse sleep outcomes and tended to have worse pain outcomes in 17/20 cases. For headache and musculoskeletal pain, 69 comparisons showed concordant direction of effects with sleep outcomes and 36 showed discordant direction (P<0.0001. For the other 4 pain types there were overall 27 vs. 19 pairs with concordant vs. discordant direction of effects (P = 0.095. There was a weak correlation of the treatment effect sizes for sleep vs. headache/musculoskeletal pain (r = 0.17, P = 0.092. CONCLUSIONS: Medical interventions tend to have effects in the same direction for pain and sleep outcomes, but exceptions occur. Concordance is primarily seen for sleep and headache or musculoskeletal

  12. “Expressing my attitude and doing something impossible to make it happen ...” – Listening to the Voices of Hong Kong’s Umbrella Movement Protesters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Nicholas Rühlig

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In autumn 2014 around 1.3 million mostly young citizens of Hong Kong occupied three districts of the city for 79 days. This movement became famous as the Umbrella Movement. Initially, the Umbrella Movement was almost exclusively perceived as a pro-democracy occupation because the democratization of the city’s polity was its core demand. However, over time the perception shifted and the movement was increasingly portrayed as part of a growing demand for more autonomy from mainland China. This rising “localism” is often associated with anti-Chinese sentiments including racism. This article aims to demonstrate that the Umbrella Movement’s call for democracy is indeed part of a broader agenda for more self-determination. This agenda, however, is not necessarily racist. Instead, the Umbrella Movement was a very plural one. The Umbrella Movement’s agenda does, however, comprise not only questions of democratization but also three additional dimensions, namely socio-economic, identity-political and institutional issues. The article aims to present the plurality of the Umbrella Movement by referring to and quoting a multitude of interviews with protesters which are intended to give the occupiers a “voice” in all their diversity. Finally, the article aims to conclude on the achievements of the movement in all four dimensions and outlines possible future directions.

  13. Illumination of Double Snapback Mechanism in High Voltage Operating Grounded Gate Extended Drain N-type Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field Effects Transistor Electro-Static Discharge Protection Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kil Ho; Jung, Yong Icc; Shim, Jin Seop; So, Hyung Tae; Lee, Ji Hyun; Hwang, Lee Yeun; Park, Jin Won

    2004-10-01

    High current behaviors of the ‘grounded gate extended drain N-type metal-oxide-semiconductor field effects transistor’ (GG_EDNMOS) electro-static discharge (ESD) protection devices are analyzed. Both the transmission line pulse (TLP) data and the thermal incorporated 2-dimensional simulation analyses demonstrate a characteristic double snapback phenomenon after triggering of biploar junction transistor (BJT) operation. This implies the co-existence of two different on-states in high current region. The 2nd on-state, characterized by extremely low snapback holding voltage and low on-resistance, seems to be responsible for the vulnerability of the device under ESD stress. Simulation based contour analyses reveal that combination of BJT operation and deep electron channeling induced by high electron injection gives rise to the 2nd on-state. Thus, the deep electron channel formation needs to be prevented in order to realize stable and robust ESD protection performance. Further studies reveal that the N-drift implant dose, among various process parameters, is a critical factor to determine the formation of deep electron channeling and consequential occurrence of the 2nd on-state. Based on our analyses, general methodology to avoid the double snapback and to realize stable ESD protection is to be discussed.

  14. Possible "umbrella"-like antimagnetic rotation mode in odd-A Pd,103101 and even-even Pd,104102

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, H.; Qi, B.; Liu, C.; Hu, Q.; Wang, S. Y.

    2018-02-01

    The tilted-axis cranking model based on covariant density functional theory is used to study the candidate antimagnetic rotation (AMR) bands in 101,102,103,104Pd. The experimental energy spectra and B (E 2) values are reproduced well in the self-consistent and microscopic calculations. By investigating microscopically the composition and orientation of angular momentum, an "umbrella"-like antimagnetic rotation (UAMR) mode resulting from the coupling of four g9 /2 proton holes to neutron particles is clearly illustrated for the first time.

  15. Nanomolar cellular antisense activity of peptide nucleic acid (PNA) cholic acid ("umbrella") and cholesterol conjugates delivered by cationic lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraishi, Takehiko; Nielsen, Peter E

    2012-02-15

    Limited cellular uptake and low bioavailability of peptide nucleic acids (PNAs) have restricted widespread use of PNAs as antisense/antigene agents for cells in culture and not least for in vivo applications. We now report the synthesis and cellular antisense activity in cultured HeLa pLuc705 cells of cholesterol and cholic acid ("umbrella") derivatives of splice correction antisense PNA oligomers. While the conjugates alone were practically inactive up to 1 μM, their activity was dramatically improved when delivered by a cationic lipid transfection agent (LipofectAMINE2000). In particular, PNAs, conjugated to cholesterol through an ester hemisuccinate linker or to cholic acid, exhibited low nanomolar activity (EC(50) ∼ 25 nM). Excellent sequence specificity was retained, as mismatch PNA conjugates did not show any significant antisense activity. Furthermore, we show that increasing the transfection volume improved transfection efficiency, suggesting that accumulation (condensation) of the PNA/lipid complex on the cellular surface is part of the uptake mechanism. These results provide a novel, simple method for very efficient cellular delivery of PNA oligomers, especially using PNA-cholic acid conjugates which, in contrast to PNA-cholesterol conjugates, exhibit sufficient water solubility. The results also question the generality of using cholic acid "umbrella" derivatives as a delivery modality for antisense oligomers.

  16. Application of deposited by ALD HfO2 and Al2O3 layers in double-gate dielectric stacks for non-volatile semiconductor memory (NVSM) devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mroczyński, Robert; Taube, Andrzej; Gierałtowska, Sylwia; Guziewicz, Elżbieta; Godlewski, Marek

    2012-01-01

    The feasibility of the application of double-gate dielectric stacks with fabricated by atomic layer deposited (ALD) HfO 2 and Al 2 O 3 layers in non-volatile semiconductor memory (NVSM) devices was investigated. Significant improvement in retention at elevated temperatures after the application of ALD high-k oxides was demonstrated. Superior memory window (extrapolated at 10 years) of flat-band voltage (U fb ) value of the order of 2.6 V and 4.55 V at 85 °C, for stack with HfO 2 and Al 2 O 3 , respectively, was obtained. Moreover, the analysis of conduction mechanisms in the investigated stacks under negative voltage revealed F-N tunneling in the range of high values of electric field intensity and lowering of barrier height with increasing temperature.

  17. Nickel-cobalt layered double hydroxide anchored zinc oxide nanowires grown on carbon fiber cloth for high-performance flexible pseudocapacitive energy storage devices

    KAUST Repository

    Shakir, Imran

    2014-05-01

    Nickel-cobalt layered double hydroxide (Ni-Co LDH) nanoflakes-ZnO nanowires hybrid array has been directly synthesized on a carbon cloth substrate by a facile cost-effective two-step hydrothermal route. As electrode materials for flexible pseudocapacitors, Ni-Co LDH nanoflakes-ZnO nanowires hybrid array exhibits a significantly enhanced specific capacitance of 1927 Fg-1, which is a ∼1.8 time greater than pristine Ni-Co LDH nanoflakes. The synthesized Ni-Co LDH nanoflakes-ZnO nanowires hybrid array shows a maximum energy density of 45.55 Whkg-1 at a power density of 46.15 kWkg -1, which is 35% higher than the pristine Ni-Co LDH nanoflakes electrode. Moreover, Ni-Co LDH nanoflakes-ZnO nanowires hybrid array exhibit excellent excellent rate capability (80.3% capacity retention at 30 Ag -1) and cycling stability (only 3.98% loss after 3000 cycles), due to the significantly improved faradaic redox reaction. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Design and Analysis of Double-Gate MOSFETs for Ultra-Low Power Radio Frequency Identification (RFID: Device and Circuit Co-Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony T. Kim

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Recently, double-gate MOSFETs (DGMOSFETs have been shown to be more optimal for ultra-low power circuit design due to the improved subthreshold slope and the reduced leakage current compared to bulk CMOS. However, DGMOSFETs for subthreshold circuit design have not been much explored in comparison to those for strong inversion-based design. In this paper, various configurations of DGMOSFETs, such as tied/independent gates and symmetric/asymmetric gate oxide thickness are explored for ultra-low power and high efficient radio frequency identification (RFID design. Comparison of bulk CMOS with DGMOSFETs has been conducted in ultra-low power subthreshold digital logic design and rectifier design, emphasizing the scope of the nano-scale DGMOSFET technology for future ultra-low power systems. The DGMOSFET-based subthreshold logic improves energy efficiency by more than 40% compared to the bulk CMOS-based logic at 32 nm. Among the various DGMOSFET configurations for RFID rectifiers, symmetric tied-gate DGMOSFET has the best power conversion efficiency and the lowest power consumption.

  19. A special device (double-hole belly board) and optimal radiation technique to reduce testicular radiation exposure in radiotherapy of rectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorwerk, Hilke; Hermann, Robert Michael; Christiansen, Hans; Liersch, Thorsten; Hess, Clemens Friedrich; Weiss, Elisabeth

    2007-09-01

    Patients with rectal cancer are treated in prone position on a belly board to reduce the volume of irradiated small bowel. With this technique the testes obtain radiation doses, which often result in partial or complete impairment of the spermatogenesis and a dose-dependent decrease of testosterone levels. We developed a double-hole belly board (DHBB) and evaluated its potential to reduce testicular dose. In nine consecutive male patients (3 very low tumor localisations [inguinal RT], 3 low [RT perineum], 3 high [lower border ischial tuberosities]) CT scans were performed on a conventional single-hole belly board (SHBB) and on a DHBB. Dose-volume histograms of the testes were analysed for both belly boards and for different treatment techniques (3-field and 4-field). To reduce testicular dose in high tumors, positioning on DHBB was most effective (V(1.5Gy) 20-30% vs. 60% for SHBB, V(4Gy) 7% vs. 35%). In low tumors, a 3-field technique reduced high testicular doses (V(14Gy) 0-6% vs. 28-34% for 4-fields). In very low tumors a combination of DHBB and 3-fields led to a decrease of high dose exposure (V(33Gy) 0% vs. 24-78%). In male patients with rectal cancer the use of a DHBB and a 3-field technique is recommended to reduce testicular radiation exposure.

  20. Conformal Coating of Cobalt-Nickel Layered Double Hydroxides Nanoflakes on Carbon Fibers for High-performance Electrochemical Energy Storage Supercapacitor Devices

    KAUST Repository

    Warsi, Muhammad Farooq

    2014-07-01

    High specific capacitance coupled with the ease of large scale production is two desirable characteristics of a potential pseudo-supercapacitor material. In the current study, the uniform and conformal coating of nickel-cobalt layered double hydroxides (CoNi0.5LDH,) nanoflakes on fibrous carbon (FC) cloth has been achieved through cost-effective and scalable chemical precipitation method, followed by a simple heat treatment step. The conformally coated CoNi0.5LDH/FC electrode showed 1.5 times greater specific capacitance compared to the electrodes prepared by conventional non-conformal (drop casting) method of depositing CoNi0.5LDH powder on the carbon microfibers (1938 Fg-1 vs 1292 Fg-1). Further comparison of conformally and non-conformally coated CoNi0.5LDH electrodes showed the rate capability of 79%: 43% capacity retention at 50 Ag-1 and cycling stability 4.6%: 27.9% loss after 3000 cycles respectively. The superior performance of the conformally coated CoNi0.5LDH is mainly due to the reduced internal resistance and fast ionic mobility between electrodes as compared to non-conformally coated electrodes which is evidenced by EIS and CV studies. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Development of a double plasma gun device for investigation of effects of vapor shielding on erosion of PFC materials under ELM-like pulsed plasma bombardment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakuma, I.; Iwamoto, D.; Kitagawa, Y.; Kikuchi, Y.; Fukumoto, N.; Nagata, M.

    2012-10-01

    It is considered that thermal transient events such as type I edge localized modes (ELMs) could limit the lifetime of plasma-facing components (PFCs) in ITER. We have investigated surface damage of tungsten (W) materials under transient heat and particle loads by using a magnetized coaxial plasma gun (MCPG) device at University of Hyogo. The capacitor bank energy for the plasma discharge is 144 kJ (2.88 mF, 10 kVmax). Surface melting of a W material was clearly observed at the energy density of ˜2 MJ/m2. It is known that surface melting and evaporation during a transient heat load could generate a vapor cloud layer in front of the target material [1]. Then, the subsequent erosion could be reduced by the vapor shielding effect. In this study, we introduce a new experiment using two MCPG devices (MCPG-1, 2) to understand vapor shielding effects of a W surface under ELM-like pulsed plasma bombardment. The capacitor bank energy of MCPG-2 is almost same as that of MCPG-1. The second plasmoid is applied with a variable delay time after the plasmoid produced by MCPG-1. Then, a vapor cloud layer could shield the second plasma load. To verify the vapor shielding effects, surface damage of a W material is investigated by changing the delay time. In the conference, the preliminary experimental results will be shown.[4pt] [1] A. Hassanein et al., J. Nucl. Mater. 390-391, pp. 777-780 (2009).

  2. Thermonuclear device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagi, Yasuomi; Takahashi, Ken; Hashimoto, Hiroshi.

    1984-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the plasma confining performances by bringing the irregular magnetic fields nearly to zero and decreasing the absolute value of the irregular magnetic fields at every positions. Constitution: The winding direction of a plurality of coil elements, for instance, double pan cake coils of toroidal coils in a torus type or mirror type thermonuclear device are reversed to each other in their laminating direction, whereby the irregular magnetic fields due to the coil-stepped portions in each toroidal coils are brought nearly to zero. This enables to bring the average irregular magnetic fields as a whole in the thermonuclear device nearly to zero, as well as, decrease the absolute value of the irregular magnetic fields in each positions. Thus, the plasma confining performances can be improved. (Moriyama, K.)

  3. A comparative study of supercapacitive performances of nickel cobalt layered double hydroxides coated on ZnO nanostructured arrays on textile fibre as electrodes for wearable energy storage devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trang, Nguyen Thi Hong; Ngoc, Huynh Van; Lingappan, Niranjanmurthi; Kang, Dae Joon

    2014-02-21

    We demonstrated an efficient method for the fabrication of novel, flexible electrodes based on ZnO nanoflakes and nickel-cobalt layered double hydroxides (denoted as ZnONF/NiCoLDH) as a core-shell nanostructure on textile substrates for wearable energy storage devices. NiCoLDH coated ZnO nanowire (denoted as ZnONW/NiCoLDH) flexible electrodes are also prepared for comparison. As an electrode for supercapacitors, ZnONF/NiCoLDH exhibits a high specific capacitance of 1624 F g(-1), which is nearly 1.6 times greater than ZnONW/NiCoLDH counterparts. It also shows a maximum energy density of 48.32 W h kg(-1) at a power density of 27.53 kW kg(-1), and an excellent cycling stability with capacitance retention of 94% and a Coulombic efficiency of 93% over 2000 cycles. We believe that the superior performance of the ZnONF/NiCoLDH hybrids is due primarily to the large surface area of the nanoflake structure and the open spaces between nanoflakes, both of which provide a large space for the deposition of NiCoLDH, resulting in reduced internal resistance and improved capacitance performance. Our results are significant for the development of electrode materials for high-performance wearable energy storage devices.

  4. Singular diffusionless limits of double-diffusive instabilities in magnetohydrodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirillov, Oleg N

    2017-09-01

    We study local instabilities of a differentially rotating viscous flow of electrically conducting incompressible fluid subject to an external azimuthal magnetic field. In the presence of the magnetic field, the hydrodynamically stable flow can demonstrate non-axisymmetric azimuthal magnetorotational instability (AMRI) both in the diffusionless case and in the double-diffusive case with viscous and ohmic dissipation. Performing stability analysis of amplitude transport equations of short-wavelength approximation, we find that the threshold of the diffusionless AMRI via the Hamilton-Hopf bifurcation is a singular limit of the thresholds of the viscous and resistive AMRI corresponding to the dissipative Hopf bifurcation and manifests itself as the Whitney umbrella singular point. A smooth transition between the two types of instabilities is possible only if the magnetic Prandtl number is equal to unity, Pm =1. At a fixed Pm ≠1, the threshold of the double-diffusive AMRI is displaced by finite distance in the parameter space with respect to the diffusionless case even in the zero dissipation limit. The complete neutral stability surface contains three Whitney umbrella singular points and two mutually orthogonal intervals of self-intersection. At these singularities, the double-diffusive system reduces to a marginally stable system which is either Hamiltonian or parity-time-symmetric.

  5. Umbrella project for Bangladesh: strengthening NGO capacity and linkages to improve reproductive health service and information. RAS/98/P55.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-06-01

    In Bangladesh, the UN Population Fund is working to strengthen nongovernmental organization (NGO) capacity and linkages to improve reproductive health services and information. Specifically, the aim is to strengthen the technical and human resource capacity of participating NGOs and the functional linkages between national NGOs and relevant government agencies to help harmonize and standardize the delivery of reproductive health information and services. This umbrella project collaborates with RHI-participating NGOs in a policy paper on adolescent reproductive health, and will maintain contact with the regional dimension project to collaborate its activities. Programs implemented by partner NGOs are being reviewed and monitored, and linkages among national NGOs and government agencies are being developed. The main activities of the project are enumerated.

  6. Effects of Collagen and Collagen Hydrolysate from Jellyfish Umbrella on Histological and Immunity Changes of Mice Photoaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongliang Zhuang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Jellyfish collagen (JC was extracted from jellyfish umbrella and hydrolyzed to prepare jellyfish collagen hydrolysate (JCH. The effects of JC and JCH on UV-induced skin damage of mice were evaluated by the skin moisture, microscopic analyses of skin and immunity indexes. The skin moisture analyses showed that moisture retention ability of UV-induced mice skin was increased by JC and JCH. Further histological analysis showed that JC and JCH could repair the endogenous collagen and elastin protein fibers, and could maintain the natural ratio of type I to type III collagen. The immunity indexes showed that JC and JCH play a role in enhancing immunity of photoaging mice in vivo. JCH showed much higher protective ability than JC. These results suggest that JCH as a potential novel antiphotoaging agent from natural resources.

  7. General Principles and Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods (CISG – Uniformity under an Interpretation Umbrella?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Lassila

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Globalization and digitalization of international sales creates needs to harmonize rules of international commercial contracts. The question is whether the harmonization should be done by binding rules or using soft law tools or through digitalization. In this article I argue on favor of harmonization through international contracts law rules’ international interpretation.The international interpretation principles used in this article are found from on Art. 7(1 of the Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods (CISG which sets three interpretation rules: international character; promoting uniformity; and observance of good faith in international trade. These principles are not only principles of the CISG, but also principles commonly recognized in international commercial practice and also in domestic contract rules. I argue that by adopting an international interpretation umbrella – the meta-principle of international interpretation, cross-border contracts could be interpreted under the same principle no matter applicable substantial law. The meta-principle functions as an interpretation umbrella covering general principles and Articles of the CISG, general principles of international commercial contracts, Lex Mercatoria, and cross-border contract provision under national law.The outcomes points out that arbitral tribunals have interpreted general principles of the CISG and Lex Mercatoria in various ways. General principles and their application in case law is analyzed in connection with the Civil Code of the Russian Federation. Tribunals found that general principles of the CISG are applicable even if the CISG is not. It follows Art.’s 7(2 logic to promote international standard to cross-border contracts where the closes connection is international commercial practice rather than any national jurisdiction.

  8. Biodegradation of the herbicide Diuron in a packed bed channel and a double biobarrier with distribution of oxygenated liquid by airlift devices: influence of oxygen limitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castañón-González, J Humberto; Galíndez-Mayer, Juvencio; Ruiz-Ordaz, Nora; Rocha-Martínez, Lizeth; Peña-Partida, José Carlos; Marrón-Montiel, Erick; Santoyo-Tepole, Fortunata

    2016-01-25

    From agricultural soils, where the herbicide Diuron has been frequently applied, a microbial community capable of degrading Diuron and 3,4-dichloroaniline was obtained. The volumetric rates and degradation efficiencies of Diuron and 3,4-DCA were evaluated in two distinct biofilm reactors, which differ in their operating conditions. One is a horizontal fixed bed reactor; plug-flow operated (PF-PBC) with severe limitation of oxygen. In this reactor, the air was supplied to an equalizer reservoir at the start of the PF-PBC reactor. The other is a compartmentalized aerobic biobarrier with internal recirculation of liquid aerated through airlift devices (ALB), continuously or intermittently operated. Both reactors were inoculated with a microbial community capable of degrading Diuron, isolated from a sugarcane field. In the oxygen-limited PF-PBC reactor, 3,4-DCA accumulation was detected, mainly in the middle zone of the packed channel. On the contrary, in the fully aerobic ALB reactor, minimal accumulation of catabolic byproducts was detected, and high Diuron removal efficiencies and removal rates were obtained when it was continuously operated in steady-state conditions. Additionally, the influence of oxygen limitation on the kinetic behavior of the PF-PBC reactor was determined, and a method to estimate the local removal rates of Diuron RV,CD along the plug-flow channel is described. It was observed that the local values of the instantaneous removal rate of Diuron dCD/dt are high in the aerobic region of the PF-PBC reactor; but, suddenly decay in the reactor zones limited by dissolved oxygen. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Double Trouble

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsaesser, Thomas; Kievit, Robert; Simons, Jan

    1994-01-01

    Double Trouble highlights the career of Dutch scriptwriter and television producer Chiem van Houweninge, well-known for his long-running TV comedy series and as author of episodes for TV detective series. Double Trouble gives Van Houweninge's own views on writing and filming in television prime

  10. An umbrella protocol for standardized data collection (SDC) in rectal cancer: a prospective uniform naming and procedure convention to support personalized medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meldolesi, Elisa; van Soest, Johan; Dinapoli, Nicola; Dekker, Andre; Damiani, Andrea; Gambacorta, Maria Antonietta; Valentini, Vincenzo

    2014-07-01

    Predictive models allow treating physicians to deliver tailored treatment moving from prescription by consensus to prescription by numbers. The main features of an umbrella protocol for standardizing data and procedures to create a consistent dataset useful to obtain a trustful analysis for a Decision Support System for rectal cancer are reported. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Is Liberal Studies a Political Instrument in the Secondary School Curriculum? Lessons from the Umbrella Movement in Post-Colonial Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Dennis Chun-Lok; Lui, Wai-Mei

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines whether Hong Kong teachers and students perceived Liberal Studies and its ongoing curriculum review as politically driven during and after the Umbrella Movement, a large-scale civil disobedience campaign that took place in September 2014. The findings presented herein show that both groups disagreed with the claim that Liberal…

  12. The Influence of Liberal Studies on Students' Participation in Socio-Political Activities: The Case of the Umbrella Movement in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Dennis; Su, Angie

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports an investigation into how secondary student participants in Hong Kong's Umbrella Movement related this particular political experience to their learning of Liberal Studies. Questionnaire-based surveys and interviews were conducted to probe their interpretations of Liberal Studies' impact on their political involvement and their…

  13. A comparative study of supercapacitive performances of nickel cobalt layered double hydroxides coated on ZnO nanostructured arrays on textile fibre as electrodes for wearable energy storage devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trang, Nguyen Thi Hong; Ngoc, Huynh Van; Lingappan, Niranjanmurthi; Kang, Dae Joon

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrated an efficient method for the fabrication of novel, flexible electrodes based on ZnO nanoflakes and nickel-cobalt layered double hydroxides (denoted as ZnONF/NiCoLDH) as a core-shell nanostructure on textile substrates for wearable energy storage devices. NiCoLDH coated ZnO nanowire (denoted as ZnONW/NiCoLDH) flexible electrodes are also prepared for comparison. As an electrode for supercapacitors, ZnONF/NiCoLDH exhibits a high specific capacitance of 1624 F g-1, which is nearly 1.6 times greater than ZnONW/NiCoLDH counterparts. It also shows a maximum energy density of 48.32 W h kg-1 at a power density of 27.53 kW kg-1, and an excellent cycling stability with capacitance retention of 94% and a Coulombic efficiency of 93% over 2000 cycles. We believe that the superior performance of the ZnONF/NiCoLDH hybrids is due primarily to the large surface area of the nanoflake structure and the open spaces between nanoflakes, both of which provide a large space for the deposition of NiCoLDH, resulting in reduced internal resistance and improved capacitance performance. Our results are significant for the development of electrode materials for high-performance wearable energy storage devices.We demonstrated an efficient method for the fabrication of novel, flexible electrodes based on ZnO nanoflakes and nickel-cobalt layered double hydroxides (denoted as ZnONF/NiCoLDH) as a core-shell nanostructure on textile substrates for wearable energy storage devices. NiCoLDH coated ZnO nanowire (denoted as ZnONW/NiCoLDH) flexible electrodes are also prepared for comparison. As an electrode for supercapacitors, ZnONF/NiCoLDH exhibits a high specific capacitance of 1624 F g-1, which is nearly 1.6 times greater than ZnONW/NiCoLDH counterparts. It also shows a maximum energy density of 48.32 W h kg-1 at a power density of 27.53 kW kg-1, and an excellent cycling stability with capacitance retention of 94% and a Coulombic efficiency of 93% over 2000 cycles. We believe that the

  14. Foreword – Upon the Second Anniversary of Occupy Campaign / Umbrella Movement in Hong Kong: Essays in Honour of a Pro-Democracy Sociopolitical Movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emile Kok-Kheng Yeoh

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available 28th September 2016 is the second anniversary of the Occupy Campaign / Umbrella Movement in Hong Kong. It is also the last anniversary of the said sociopolitical event, which arguably represented a most important milestone in Hong Kong’s post-1997 development, before 1st July 2017 that will mark the 20th anniversary of the “Handover”. It was on 28th September two years ago that pro-democracy protestors occupy the Admiralty, Causeway Bay, Mong Kok and Tsim Sha Tsui areas of Hong Kong in a momentous campaign initially planned out earlier by the “Occupy Central with Love and Peace” (OCLP movement, but launched earlier than scheduled when overtaken by the development of events, metamorphosed into unprecedented scale of demonstrations at multiple locations and was transformed into what was dubbed by the world media as the “Umbrella Movement” when umbrellas, which protestors were using to protect themselves when the police attacked them with tear gas and pepper spray, became a symbol of the occupation campaign. To commemorate this second anniversary of this Occupy Campaign a.k.a. Umbrella Movement, the present issue of Contemporary Chinese Political Economy and Strategic Relations: An International Journal entitled From Handover to Occupy Campaign: Democracy, Identity and the Umbrella Movement of Hong Kong represents a collection of specially selected articles focusing on this momentous event, its background of determining factors, theoretical and ideological underpinnings, as well as its implications for the future of the Hong Kong people’s valiant struggle for democracy against the backdrop of the formidable odds, since the 1997 “Handover”, as being under the sovereignty of a gigantic country with a entrenched ruling Chinese Communist Party (CCP6 regime that has no foreseeable intention of allowing for a transition from the present repressive one-party dictatorship to liberal democracy that would respect political freedom and

  15. Replacing a double-lumen tube with a single-lumen tube or a laryngeal mask airway device to reduce coughing at emergence after thoracic surgery: a randomized controlled single-blind trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanoubi, Issam; Sun, Joanna Ng Man; Drolet, Pierre; Fortier, Louis-Philippe; Donati, François

    2015-09-01

    Coughing episodes occur frequently at extubation after thoracic surgery, and this may be due in part to the double-lumen tube (DLT). In this study, the DLT was replaced with either a single-lumen endotracheal tube (ETT) or a laryngeal mask airway (LMA) device or left in place, and the incidence of coughing at emergence was compared between the three groups. Fifty-eight adults scheduled for thoracic surgery with a DLT were included. Exclusion criteria were an anticipated difficult airway, obesity, and contraindication to the use of an LMA ProSeal™ (LMA-P). After surgery but before emergence, patients were randomized to having the DLT (1) removed and replaced by an LMA-P (LMA-P Group), (2) removed and replaced by an ETT (ETT Group), or (3) left in place (DLT Group). The primary outcome was the number of coughing episodes at extubation. Among 184 patients screened, 124 did not meet inclusion criteria, and two patients, both in the ETT Group, were excluded after randomization, leaving 20, 18, and 20 patients in the LMA-P, ETT, and DLT Groups, respectively. There were fewer coughing episodes (median [quartiles]) in the LMA-P Group than in the DLT Group (0[0-1] vs 2[1-3], respectively; P = 0.01). In the DLT Group, 90% of patients coughed at least once. This incidence was not significantly different in the ETT Group (83%; P = 0.222) but was significantly reduced in the LMA-P Group (35%; P replaced by an LMA-P before emergence. The number of patients in this trial was too small to evaluate the risks associated with exchanging the airway device. This trial was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00925613.

  16. Successful 1:1 proportion ventilation with a unique device for independent lung ventilation using a double-lumen tube without complications in the supine and lateral decubitus positions. A pilot study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Kowalczyk

    Full Text Available Adequate blood oxygenation and ventilation/perfusion matching should be main goal of anaesthetic and intensive care management. At present, one of the methods of improving gas exchange restricted by ventilation/perfusion mismatching is independent ventilation with two ventilators. Recently, however, a unique device has been developed, enabling ventilation of independent lungs in 1:1, 2:1, 3:1, and 5:1 proportions. The main goal of the study was to evaluate the device's utility, precision and impact on pulmonary mechanics. Secondly- to measure the gas distribution in supine and lateral decubitus position.69 patients who underwent elective thoracic surgery were eligible for the study. During general anaesthesia, after double lumen tube intubation, the aforementioned control system was placed between the anaesthetic machine and the patient. In the supine and lateral decubitus (left/right positions, measurements of conventional and independent (1:1 proportion ventilation were performed separately for each lung, including the following: tidal volume, peak pressure and dynamic compliance.Our results show that conventional ventilation using Robertshaw tube in the supine position directs 47% of the tidal volume to the left lung and 53% to the right lung. Furthermore, in the left lateral position, 44% is directed to the dependent lung and 56% to the non-dependent lung. In the right lateral position, 49% is directed to the dependent lung and 51% to the non-dependent lung. The control system positively affected non-dependent and dependent lung ventilation by delivering equal tidal volumes into both lungs with no adverse effects, regardless of patient's position.We report that gas distribution is uneven during conventional ventilation using Robertshaw tube in the supine and lateral decubitus positions. However, this recently released control system enables precise and safe independent ventilation in the supine and the left and right lateral decubitus

  17. New silicate-germanate Cs2Pb2[(Si0.6Ge0.4)2O7] from the series A2Pb2[B2O7], A = K, Cs, B = Si, Ge with the umbrella-like [PbO3]4- group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belokoneva, Elena L.; Morozov, Ivan A.; Volkov, Anatoly S.; Dimitrova, Olga V.; Stefanovich, Sergey Yu.

    2018-04-01

    New silicate-germanate Cs2Pb2[(Si0.6Ge0.4)2O7] was synthesized in multi-components hydrothermal solution with 20 w.% concentration of Cs2CO3 mineralizer, pH = 10. Novel mixed compound belongs to the structure type A2Pb2[B2O7] previously indicated for powders with A = K, B=Si or Ge. Singe crystal structure determination of Cs2Pb2[(Si0.6Ge0.4)2O7] revealed the need for the correction of the space group of the earlier suggested structural model from P-3 to P-3m1, as well as for the splitting of the Pb-atom position. Umbrella-like groups [PbO3]4- are located between [(Si,Ge)O4]4- tetrahedra in mica-like honeycomb layers and play the role of tetrahedra with the Pb-lone-pair as the forth apex. Crystal chemical comparison revealed similarities and differences with the classical structure type of α-celsian Ba[Al2Si2O8] with the tetrahedral double layer. Recently investigated nonlinear optical acentric borates Pb2(BO3)(NO3) and Pb2(BO3)Cl are both related to this structural type, possessing umbrella-like groups [PbO3]4- and honeycomb layers [Pb2(BO3)]+ with the BO3-triangles on the tetrahedral positions.

  18. Scientists and Educators in Sync: Exploring the Strengths of Each through a Collaborative Educational "Umbrella" on Space Weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobabe-Ammann, E. A.; Singer, H. J.

    2003-12-01

    Scientists and educators have much to offer formal and informal science education forums (and each other) when brought together in balanced collaboration. New educational opportunities from NASA and NSF have made it easier to develop these collaborations, effectively allowing for the establishment of educational "umbrellas" whereby several separately funded programs focused on a single theme are overseen by a single working group. Here, we explore one such collaboration on space weather developed by CU's Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, in collaboration with NOAA's Space Environment Center, the Fiske Planetarium, the Space Science Institute and teachers from local school districts. The goal of the collaboration is to develop a new planetarium show, associated curricula and teacher workshops and guidebooks, as well as distance learning programming through the NASA Center for Distance Learning. One hallmark of this collaboration is the recognition that both scientists and educators bring important research-based perspectives to the table - Scientists are primarily responsible for the scientific integrity of the programming; Educators offer effective (tested) educational models for implementing student and teacher experiences. Both bring creativity, ingenuity and innovation to this dynamic environment. Sustainability is enhanced by integrating components and activities into a cogent whole, and efforts are perceived as even more worthwhile since most aspects of this program will be available for national distribution over the next several years.

  19. UV hazard on a summer's day under Mediterranean conditions, and the protective role of a beach umbrella

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grifoni, D.; Carreras, G.; Sabatini, F.; Zipoli, G.

    2005-11-01

    Mediterranean beaches are very crowded during summer and, because of the high values of solar UV radiation, the potential risk for human health is relevant. In this study, all-day measurements of biologically effective global and diffuse UV radiation for skin (UVBEeryt) and eye (UVBEpker, UVBEpconj, UVBEcat) disorders were carried out on differently tilted surfaces on a summer’s day on a Mediterranean beach. The role played by beach umbrellas in protection from excessive sun exposure was also investigated. Erythema, photokeratitis and cataract seem to require almost the same exposure time to reach the risk threshold dose. Under full sunlight, the highest global and diffuse UV values are reached on surfaces normally oriented towards sunlight and on horizontal surfaces, respectively. Over vertical surfaces, at this northern hemisphere site, global and diffuse UV radiation reaches maxima values in the south-facing direction around noon, while maxima values are reached early in the morning and late in the afternoon over surfaces facing east and west, respectively. The quality of the beach umbrella’s protection (efficiency in blocking solar UV radiation) varies with surface orientation; the highest efficiency for our specific site and geometrical conditions occurs over horizontal surfaces, with efficiency being least over vertical surfaces when incident radiation values are still relevant.

  20. Method Evaluations for Adsorption Free Energy Calculations at the Solid/Water Interface through Metadynamics, Umbrella Sampling, and Jarzynski's Equality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Qichao; Zhao, Weilong; Yang, Yang; Cui, Beiliang; Xu, Zhijun; Yang, Xiaoning

    2018-03-19

    Considerable interest in characterizing protein/peptide-surface interactions has prompted extensive computational studies on calculations of adsorption free energy. However, in many cases, each individual study has focused on the application of free energy calculations to a specific system; therefore, it is difficult to combine the results into a general picture for choosing an appropriate strategy for the system of interest. Herein, three well-established computational algorithms are systemically compared and evaluated to compute the adsorption free energy of small molecules on two representative surfaces. The results clearly demonstrate that the characteristics of studied interfacial systems have crucial effects on the accuracy and efficiency of the adsorption free energy calculations. For the hydrophobic surface, steered molecular dynamics exhibits the highest efficiency, which appears to be a favorable method of choice for enhanced sampling simulations. However, for the charged surface, only the umbrella sampling method has the ability to accurately explore the adsorption free energy surface. The affinity of the water layer to the surface significantly affects the performance of free energy calculation methods, especially at the region close to the surface. Therefore, a general principle of how to discriminate between methodological and sampling issues based on the interfacial characteristics of the system under investigation is proposed. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Characteristics of Effective Interventions Promoting Healthy Eating for Pre-Schoolers in Childcare Settings: An Umbrella Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louisa Matwiejczyk

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC settings have a pivotal role in shaping children’s dietary food habits by providing the contextual environment within which they develop these behaviours. This study examines systematic reviews for (1 the effectiveness of interventions to promote healthy eating in children aged 2–5 years attending centre-based childcare; (2 intervention characteristics which are associated with promoting healthy eating and; (3 recommendations for child-health policies and practices. An Umbrella review of systematic reviews was undertaken using a standardized search strategy in ten databases. Twelve systematic reviews were examined using validated critical appraisal and data extraction tools. Children’s dietary food intake and food choices were significantly influenced. Interventions to prevent obesity did not significantly change children’s anthropometric measures or had mixed results. Evidence was more convincing if interventions were multi-component, addressed physical activity and diet, targeted individual-level and environmental-level determinants and engaged parents. Positive outcomes were mostly facilitated by researchers/external experts and these results were not replicated when implemented in centres by ECEC providers without this support. The translation of expert-led interventions into practice warrants further exploration of implementation drivers and barriers. Based on the evidence reviewed, recommendations are made to inform child-health directed practices and policies.

  2. Characteristics of Effective Interventions Promoting Healthy Eating for Pre-Schoolers in Childcare Settings: An Umbrella Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matwiejczyk, Louisa; Mehta, Kaye; Scott, Jane; Tonkin, Emma; Coveney, John

    2018-03-01

    Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) settings have a pivotal role in shaping children's dietary food habits by providing the contextual environment within which they develop these behaviours. This study examines systematic reviews for (1) the effectiveness of interventions to promote healthy eating in children aged 2-5 years attending centre-based childcare; (2) intervention characteristics which are associated with promoting healthy eating and; (3) recommendations for child-health policies and practices. An Umbrella review of systematic reviews was undertaken using a standardized search strategy in ten databases. Twelve systematic reviews were examined using validated critical appraisal and data extraction tools. Children's dietary food intake and food choices were significantly influenced. Interventions to prevent obesity did not significantly change children's anthropometric measures or had mixed results. Evidence was more convincing if interventions were multi-component, addressed physical activity and diet, targeted individual-level and environmental-level determinants and engaged parents. Positive outcomes were mostly facilitated by researchers/external experts and these results were not replicated when implemented in centres by ECEC providers without this support. The translation of expert-led interventions into practice warrants further exploration of implementation drivers and barriers. Based on the evidence reviewed, recommendations are made to inform child-health directed practices and policies.

  3. SWOT ANALYSIS MICRO SMALL MEDIUM ENTREPRISE (MSME GEULIS CRAFT UMBRELLA TO SUCCESS IN LOCAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT RESOURCES DISTRICT TASIKMALAYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Dianta A. Sebayang

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Development of local economic resources, a new trend in the effort to increase the income of the community and the region. Local factors that determine both in terms of natural resources (raw materials and human resources (labor. This paper attempts to present how small and medium enterprises "Kerajinan Payung Geulis" try to improve economic development based on the development of local economic resources in Tasikmalaya. This study aims to illustrate the potential of entrepreneurs that include the competence and commitment of entrepreneurs in small business business, and to illustrate the strength of business / competitive position, business profile and entrepreneur influenced by environmental condition of external and internal environment, seen from the positive and negative side. The research was conducted on umbrella industry of handicraft business in Tasikmalaya. The method used in this research is descriptive analysis by using SWOT analysis. The results show many problems encountered and very complex, such as: low quality of human resources, limited business capital, low access to markets, access to financial institutions / banks are absent, administrative procedures ignorance, sustainability and limited capacity production; Coupled with the business climate is not conducive to the development of SMEs and entrepreneurship.

  4. RFQ1 diagnostic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chidley, B.G.; Arbique, G.M.; de Jong, M.S.; McMichael, G.E.; Michel, W.L.; Smith, B.H.

    1991-01-01

    The diagnostic devices in use on RFQ1 will be described. They consist of a double-slit emittance-measuring unit, a 45 degree deflection energy-analysis magnet, parametric current transformers, optical beam sensors, beam-stop current monitors, and an x-ray end-point analyzer. All of these devices are able to operate up to the full output current of RFQ1 (75 mA cw at 0.6 MeV)

  5. Nutritional interventions for optimizing healthy body composition in older adults in the community: an umbrella review of systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Timothy J; Roupas, Peter; Wiechula, Richard; Krause, Debra; Gravier, Susan; Tuckett, Anthony; Hines, Sonia; Kitson, Alison

    2016-08-01

    Optimizing body composition for healthy aging in the community is a significant challenge. There are a number of potential interventions available for older people to support both weight gain (for those who are underweight) and weight loss (for overweight or obese people). While the benefits of weight gain for underweight people are generally clearly defined, the value of weight loss in overweight or obese people is less clear, particularly for older people. This umbrella review aimed to measure the effectiveness of nutritional interventions for optimizing healthy body composition in older adults living in the community and to explore theirqualitative perceptions. The participants were older adults, 60 years of age or older, living in the community. The review examinedsix types of nutritional interventions: (i) dietary programs, (ii) nutritional supplements, (iii) meal replacements, (iv) food groups, (v) food delivery support and eating behavior, and (vi) nutritional counselling or education. This umbrella review considered any quantitative systematic reviews and meta-analyses of effectiveness, or qualitative systematic reviews, or a combination (i.e. comprehensive reviews). The quantitative outcome measures of body composition were: (i) nutritional status (e.g. proportion of overweight or underweight patients); (ii) fat mass (kg), (iii) lean mass or muscle mass (kg), (iv) weight (kg) or BMI (kg/m), (v) bone mass (kg) or bone measures such as bone mineral density, and (vi) hydration status. The phenomena of interestwere the qualitative perceptions and experiences of participants. We developed an iterative search strategy for nine bibliometric databases and gray literature. Critical appraisal of 13 studies was conducted independently in pairs using standard Joanna Briggs Institute tools. Six medium quality and seven high quality studies were identified. Data was extracted independently in pairs from all 13 included studies using the standard Joanna Briggs Institute

  6. Reaction mechanism of Ru(II) piano-stool complexes: umbrella sampling QM/MM MD study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Futera, Zdeněk; Burda, Jaroslav V

    2014-07-15

    Biologically relevant interactions of piano-stool ruthenium(II) complexes with ds-DNA are studied in this article by hybrid quantum mechanics-molecular mechanics (QM/MM) computational technique. The whole reaction mechanism is divided into three phases: (i) hydration of the [Ru(II) (η(6) -benzene)(en)Cl](+) complex, (ii) monoadduct formation between the resulting aqua-Ru(II) complex and N7 position of one of the guanines in the ds-DNA oligomer, and (iii) formation of the intrastrand Ru(II) bridge (cross-link) between two adjacent guanines. Free energy profiles of all the reactions are explored by QM/MM MD umbrella sampling approach where the Ru(II) complex and two guanines represent a quantum core, which is described by density functional theory methods. The combined QM/MM scheme is realized by our own software, which was developed to couple several quantum chemical programs (in this study Gaussian 09) and Amber 11 package. Calculated free energy barriers of the both ruthenium hydration and Ru(II)-N7(G) DNA binding process are in good agreement with experimentally measured rate constants. Then, this method was used to study the possibility of cross-link formation. One feasible pathway leading to Ru(II) guanine-guanine cross-link with synchronous releasing of the benzene ligand is predicted. The cross-linking is an exergonic process with the energy barrier lower than for the monoadduct reaction of Ru(II) complex with ds-DNA. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Pharmacologic interventions for painful diabetic neuropathy: an umbrella systematic review and comparative effectiveness network meta-analysis (Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Griebeler Marcio L

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neuropathic pain can reduce the quality of life and independence of 30% to 50% of patients with diabetes. The comparative effectiveness of analgesics for patients with diabetic neuropathy remains unclear. The aim of the current work, therefore, was to summarize the evidence about the analgesic effectiveness of the most common oral and topical agents used for the treatment of peripheral diabetic neuropathy. Methods We will use an umbrella approach (systematic review of systematic reviews to identify eligible randomized controlled trials (RCTs for the most common oral or topical analgesics for painful diabetic neuropathy. Two reviewers will independently determine RCT eligibility. Disagreement will be solved by consensus and arbitrated by a third reviewer. We will extract descriptive, methodological and efficacy data in duplicate. Results will be pooled and analyzed using classic random-effects meta-analyses and network meta-analyses to compute the absolute and relative efficacy of therapeutic options. We will use the I2 statistic and Cochran’s Q test to assess heterogeneity. Risk of bias and publication bias, if appropriate, will be evaluated, as well as overall strength of the evidence. Discussion This network meta-analysis aims to synthesize available direct and indirect evidence of effectiveness of analgesics in the treatment of painful diabetic neuropathy. The network approach will offer the opportunity to generate a ranking based on efficacy and along with known side effects, costs, and administration burdens will enable patients and clinicians to make choices that best reflect their preferences for treatment of painful diabetic neuropathy.

  8. Sociological Foundation of Islamic Banking Law Legislation as The Legal Umbrella of Economic and Islamic Finance Development in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Ghafur

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective - Sociologically, the existence of Law No.21/2008 on Islamic Banking in the splendor of economic development and Islamic finance is an interesting thing to observe. This paper wants to discuss the sociological foundation of Islamic banking law legislation as the legal umbrella of economic and Islamic finance development in Indonesia.Methods – qualitative Research, includes the study of law.Conclusions – At least, there are several spectrums that can be understood from the emergence of this law. First,the establishment of Islamic Banking Act is essentially a response to the provisions of Islamic law that has become the popular belief in the majority of Indonesian people who crave the realization of banking institutions which are free from usury, which is the Islamic law since his arrival in the archipelago until now classified as living law in the community. This reality is associated with the construction established by von Savigny. Second, the formation of Law No. 21/2008 concerning Islamic Banking is a response to social economic demand both nationally and globally. The presence of Islamic banks have become a necessity in managing the economy and coping with the economic crisis based on the underlying transaction. Third, the Establishment of Law No. 21/2008 concerning Islamic Banking in legal political perspective, has a basic principle, an aim and a response to the dynamic development of Indonesian society, particularly in relation to the development of Islamic economy. Fourth, formation of Islamic Banking Act affects the Islamic economic development in Indonesia, particularly in relation to the development of Islamic banking in Indonesia. Keywords:  Sociological Foundation, Islamic Banking Law, Economic Development.

  9. Efficacy, tolerability, and safety of non-pharmacological therapies for chronic pain: An umbrella review on various CAM approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houzé, Bérengère; El-Khatib, Héjar; Arbour, Caroline

    2017-10-03

    Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) therapies may be used as a non-pharmacological approach to chronic pain management. While hundreds of trials about individual CAM modality have been conducted, a comprehensive overview of their results is currently lacking for pain clinicians and researchers. This umbrella review synthesized the quality of meta-analytic evidence supporting the efficacy, tolerability and safety of CAM therapies for the management of chronic pain. MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and CENTRAL were searched from October 1991 to November 2016. Reviews of clinical trials (randomized and non-randomized) with meta-analysis investigating the utility of any CAM modality for chronic pain were eligible. Pain relief post-intervention was the main outcome and secondary outcomes included patients' adherence and incidence of adverse effects during CAM protocol. Twenty-six reviews (207 clinical trials, >12,000 participants) about 18 CAM modalities, falling under natural products, mind and body practices or other complementary health approaches were included. Inhaled cannabis, graded motor imagery, and Compound Kushen injection (a form of Chinese medicine) were found the most efficient (with moderate-to-high effect sizes and low heterogeneity) and tolerable (≥80% of adherence to study protocols) for chronic pain relief. When reported, adverse effects related to these CAM were minor. Although several CAM were found effective for chronic pain relief, it remains unclear when these modalities are a reasonable choice against or in conjunction with mainstream treatments. In that sense, future research with a clear emphasis on concurrent evaluation of CAM overall efficacy and patient adherence/tolerance is needed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Intrauterine Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    S HARE W ITH W OMEN INTRAUTERINE DEVICES INTRAUTERINE DEVICES What is An Intrauterine Device? An intrauterine device (IUD) is anything that is placed inside the uterus (womb) to prevent pregnancy. ...

  11. Double ambidexterity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaulio, Matti; Thorén, Kent; Rohrbeck, René

    2017-01-01

    We leverage the business model innovation and ambidexterity literature to investigate a contradictory case, the Swedish-Finnish Telecom operator TeliaSonera. Despite being challenged by three major disruptions, the company not only still exists but also enjoys remarkably good financial performance...... this behaviour as double ambidexterity. We use an in-depth case study to conceptualize double ambidexterity and discuss its impact on the business's survival and enduring success........ Building on extant archival data and interviews, we carefully identify and map 26 organizational responses during 1992–2016. We find that the firm has overcome three critical phases by experimenting and pioneering with portfolios of business models and/or technological innovations. We describe...

  12. Double Chooz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buck, Christian [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2006-05-15

    The goal of the Double Chooz reactor neutrino experiment is to search for the neutrino mixing parameter {theta}{sub 13}. Double Chooz will use two identical detectors at 150 m and 1.05 km distance from the reactor cores. The near detector is used to monitor the reactor {nu}-bar {sub e} flux while the second is dedicated to the search for a deviation from the expected (1/distance){sup 2} behavior. This two detector concept will allow a relative normalization systematic error of ca. 0.6 %. The expected sensitivity for sin{sup 2}2{theta}{sub 13} is then in the range 0.02 - 0.03 after three years of data taking. The antineutrinos will be detected in a liquid scintillator through the capture on protons followed by a gamma cascade, produced by the neutron capture on Gd.

  13. Caught without an Umbrella

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusk, Hanne; Svendsen, Sonja

    2013-01-01

    An aesthetic perspective on frameworking and attunement in a drama pedagogical practice. How do attunement moments arise? Can they be planned and frameworked? What characterizes good frames? What does it require from the teacher, and how can we use framework and attunement? Attunement means an open...

  14. The DELPHI expert process of the German umbrella project AUGE as basis for recommendations to CO2 storage in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilz, Peter; Schoebel, Birgit; Liebscher, Axel

    2016-04-01

    Within the GEOTECHNOLOGIEN funding scheme for geological CO2 storage by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) in Germany 33 projects (135 subprojects) have been funded with a total budget of 58 Mio € (excluding industry funds) from 2005 to 2014. In 2012, the German parliament passed the transposition of the EU CCS Directive 2009/31/EG into the national "Carbon Dioxide Storage Law" (KSpG). Annex 1 of the KSpG provides a description of criteria for the characterization and assessment of a potential CO2 storage site. Annex 2 describes the expected monitoring system of a CO2 storage site. The criteria given in the appendices are of general nature, which reflects (1) that the CO2 storage technology is still being developed and (2) that site specific aspects needs to be considered. In 2012 an umbrella project called AUGE has been launched in order to compile and summarize the results of the GEOTECHNOLOGIEN projects to underpin the two Annexes scientifically. By integration of the individual project results AUGE aims at derive recommendations for the review and implementation of the KSpG. The recommendations shall be drafted based on a common ground of science, public authorities and industry. Therefore, the AUGE project includes a Delphi expert process as an essential part. It is realized in cooperation with the company COMPARE Consulting, Göppingen. The implementation of the Delphi-Process is organized in three steps: • After the technical preparation of a standardized questionnaire (2014/2015) it was sent to 129 experts from science, industry and public authorities in Germany. After a few weeks of consideration time, 40 persons (30 %) had decided to participate actively in this inquiry. • Following the results of the first interrogation campaign, the second survey campaign started at the end of 2015. The same list of questions was used, complemented with the results of the first inquiry campaign. The intention is reduce the variance of the

  15. Developmental Coordination Disorder, an umbrella term for motor impairments in children: nature and co-morbid disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence eVaivre-Douret

    2016-04-01

    neuropsychomotor assessment, including neuromuscular tone examination, using appropriate standardized neurodevelopmental tools (common tasks across ages with age-related normative data in order to distinguish motor impairments gathered under the umbrella term of developmental coordination disorders (subcortical vs cortical. Mild spasticity in the gastrocnemius muscles, such as phasic stretch reflex (PSR, suggests disturbances of the motor pathway, increasing impairment of gross and fine motricity.These findings contribute to understanding the nature of motor disorders in DCD

  16. Developmental Coordination Disorder, An Umbrella Term for Motor Impairments in Children: Nature and Co-Morbid Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaivre-Douret, Laurence; Lalanne, Christophe; Golse, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    examination, using appropriate standardized neurodevelopmental tools (common tasks across ages with age-related normative data) in order to distinguish motor impairments gathered under the umbrella term of developmental coordination disorders (subcortical vs. cortical). Mild spasticity in the gastrocnemius muscles, such as phasic stretch reflex (PSR), suggests disturbances of the motor pathway, increasing impairment of gross and fine motricity. These findings contribute to understanding the nature of motor disorders in DCD by taking account of possible co-morbidities (corticospinal tract disturbances) to improve diagnosis and adapt treatment programmes in clinical practice.

  17. A device for measuring electron beam characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Andreev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a device intended for diagnostics of electron beams and the results obtained with this device. The device comprises a rotating double probe operating in conjunction with an automated probe signal collection and processing system. This provides for measuring and estimating the electron beam characteristics such as radius, current density, power density, convergence angle, and brightness.

  18. Mechanical and Chemical Integrated Management of Barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crus–galli (L. Beauv and Smallflower umbrella (Cyperus diformis L. in Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mahzari

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effects of integrated mechanical and chemical weed management on barnyardgrass, smallflower umbrella and some rice agronomic characteristics an experiment was conducted in Rice Research Institute of Iran, Deputy of Mazandaran (Amol during 2010 growing season. The experiment was performed in spilt-plot based Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications. Main plots consisted of three levels control (measures without weed control, one time and two times applications of cono-weeder and sub plots were seven herbicide applications (application of bentazon, bensulfuron-methyl, oxadiazone, butachlor, thiobencarb, hand weeding and control. The results indicated that the interaction of two mentioned factors did not have any significant effects on barnyardgrass and smallflower umbrella densities, but it had significant effect on weed total dry matter. The best method used to reduce weed total dry matter was hand weeding and two times application of cono-weeder without using herbicides. The highest grain yield was harvested in plots which treated by two times application of cono-weeder with or without herbicides applications, and hand weed control treatment.

  19. Analytical threshold voltage modeling of ion-implanted strained-Si double-material double-gate (DMDG) MOSFETs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Ekta; Singh, Balraj; Kumar, Sanjay; Singh, Kunal; Jit, Satyabrata

    2017-04-01

    Two dimensional threshold voltage model of ion-implanted strained-Si double-material double-gate MOSFETs has been done based on the solution of two dimensional Poisson's equation in the channel region using the parabolic approximation method. Novelty of the proposed device structure lies in the amalgamation of the advantages of both the strained-Si channel and double-material double-gate structure with a vertical Gaussian-like doping profile. The effects of different device parameters (such as device channel length, gate length ratios, germanium mole fraction) and doping parameters (such as projected range, straggle parameter) on threshold voltage of the proposed structure have been investigated. It is observed that the subthreshold performance of the device can be improved by simply controlling the doping parameters while maintaining other device parameters constant. The modeling results show a good agreement with the numerical simulation data obtained by using ATLAS™, a 2D device simulator from SILVACO.

  20. Doubling Syndemics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Abstract This study investigates health concerns and access to health services for Roma from Romania who live in homelessness in Copenhagen, Denmark. They collect refundable bottles and call themselves “badocari,” which in Romanian refers to “people who work with bottles.” Homeless Roma in Denmark have not previously been studied through ethnographic research. The study stresses the importance of a syndemic approach towards understanding badocari health concerns. Syndemics is understood as co-occurring diseases, which unfold within contexts of social injustice. The case of the badocari is argued to be a case of “doubling syndemics” since the co-occurring diseases are further multiplied and enhanced by an ongoing mobility between dual contexts of precarious livelihoods in Romania and Denmark, respectively. The study complements the approach to syndemics with a perspective on human rights. It sheds light on the limited possibilities that exist for addressing health concerns of the badocari, both in Romania and in Denmark, and argues that the universal human right to health is not realized in the everyday lives of destitute EU migrants such as the badocari. Rather, they experience lack of access to adequate medical treatment and follow-up care, both as citizens of a member state and as co-citizens of the European Union. PMID:29302164

  1. Double inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silk, J.; Turner, M.S.

    1986-04-01

    The Zel'dovich spectrum of adiabatic density perturbations is a generic prediction of inflation. There is increasing evidence that when the spectrum is normalized by observational data on small scales, there is not enough power on large scales to account for the observed large-scale structure in the Universe. Decoupling the spectrum on large and small scales could solve this problem. As a means of decoupling the large and small scales we propose double inflation (i.e., two episodes of inflation). In this scenario the spectrum on large scales is determined by the first episode of inflation and those on small scales by a second episode of inflation. We present three models for such a scenario. By nearly saturating the large angular-scale cosmic microwave anisotropy bound, we can easily account for the observed large-scale structure. We take the perturbations on small scales to be very large, deltarho/rho approx. = 0.1 to 0.01, which results in the production of primordial black holes (PBHs), early formation of structure, reionization of the Universe, and a rich array of astrophysical events. The Ω-problem is also addressed by our scenario. Allowing the density perturbations produced by the second episode of inflation to be large also lessens the fine-tuning required in the scalar potential and makes reheating much easier. We briefly speculate on the possibility that the second episode of inflation proceeds through the nucleation of bubbles, which today manifest themselves as empty bubbles whose surfaces are covered with galaxies. 37 refs., 1 fig

  2. Dose-response relationship between cigarette smoking and site-specific cancer risk: protocol for a systematic review with an original design combining umbrella and traditional reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugo, Alessandra; Bosetti, Cristina; Peveri, Giulia; Rota, Matteo; Bagnardi, Vincenzo; Gallus, Silvano

    2017-11-01

    Only a limited number of meta-analyses providing risk curve functions of dose-response relationships between various smoking-related variables and cancer-specific risk are available. To identify all relevant original publications on the issue, we will conduct a series of comprehensive systematic reviews based on three subsequent literature searches: (1) an umbrella review, to identify meta-analyses, pooled analyses and systematic reviews published before 28 April 2017 on the association between cigarette smoking and the risk of 28 (namely all) malignant neoplasms; (2) for each cancer site, an updated review of original publications on the association between cigarette smoking and cancer risk, starting from the last available comprehensive review identified through the umbrella review; and (3) a review of all original articles on the association between cigarette smoking and site-specific cancer risk included in the publications identified through the umbrella review and the updated reviews. The primary outcomes of interest will be (1) the excess incidence/mortality of various cancers for smokers compared with never smokers; and (2) the dose-response curves describing the association between smoking intensity, duration and time since stopping and incidence/mortality for various cancers. For each cancer site, we will perform a meta-analysis by pooling study-specific estimates for smoking status. We will also estimate the dose-response curves for other smoking-related variables through random-effects meta-regression models based on a non-linear dose-response relationship framework. Ethics approval is not required for this study. Main results will be published in peer-reviewed journals and will also be included in a publicly available website. We will provide therefore the most complete and updated estimates on the association between various measures of cigarette smoking and site-specific cancer risk. This will allow us to obtain precise estimates on the cancer burden

  3. Double hard scattering without double counting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, Markus; Gaunt, Jonathan R.; Schönwald, Kay

    2017-06-01

    Double parton scattering in proton-proton collisions includes kinematic regions in which two partons inside a proton originate from the perturbative splitting of a single parton. This leads to a double counting problem between single and double hard scattering. We present a solution to this problem, which allows for the definition of double parton distributions as operator matrix elements in a proton, and which can be used at higher orders in perturbation theory. We show how the evaluation of double hard scattering in this framework can provide a rough estimate for the size of the higher-order contributions to single hard scattering that are affected by double counting. In a numeric study, we identify situations in which these higher-order contributions must be explicitly calculated and included if one wants to attain an accuracy at which double hard scattering becomes relevant, and other situations where such contributions may be neglected.

  4. Double hard scattering without double counting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diehl, Markus [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Gaunt, Jonathan R. [VU Univ. Amsterdam (Netherlands). NIKHEF Theory Group; Schoenwald, Kay [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany)

    2017-02-15

    Double parton scattering in proton-proton collisions includes kinematic regions in which two partons inside a proton originate from the perturbative splitting of a single parton. This leads to a double counting problem between single and double hard scattering. We present a solution to this problem, which allows for the definition of double parton distributions as operator matrix elements in a proton, and which can be used at higher orders in perturbation theory. We show how the evaluation of double hard scattering in this framework can provide a rough estimate for the size of the higher-order contributions to single hard scattering that are affected by double counting. In a numeric study, we identify situations in which these higher-order contributions must be explicitly calculated and included if one wants to attain an accuracy at which double hard scattering becomes relevant, and other situations where such contributions may be neglected.

  5. Concentration device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    A concentration device (2) for filter filtration concentration of particles (4) from a volume of a fluid (6). The concentration device (2) comprises a filter (8) configured to filter particles (4) of a predefined size in the volume of the fluid (6). The concentration device (2) comprises...

  6. Photovoltaic device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reese, Jason A.; Keenihan, James R.; Gaston, Ryan S.; Kauffmann, Keith L.; Langmaid, Joseph A.; Lopez, Leonardo C.; Maak, Kevin D.; Mills, Michael E.; Ramesh, Narayan; Teli, Samar R.

    2015-09-01

    The present invention is premised upon an improved photovoltaic device ("PV device"), more particularly to an improved photovoltaic device (10) with a multilayered photovoltaic cell assembly (100) and a body portion (200) joined at an interface region (410) and including an intermediate layer (500), at least one interconnecting structural member (1500), relieving feature (2500), unique component geometry, or any combination thereof.

  7. Photovoltaic device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reese, Jason A; Keenihan, James R; Gaston, Ryan S; Kauffmann, Keith L; Langmaid, Joseph A; Lopez, Leonardo; Maak, Kevin D; Mills, Michael E; Ramesh, Narayan; Teli, Samar R

    2017-03-21

    The present invention is premised upon an improved photovoltaic device ("PV device"), more particularly to an improved photovoltaic device with a multilayered photovoltaic cell assembly and a body portion joined at an interface region and including an intermediate layer, at least one interconnecting structural member, relieving feature, unique component geometry, or any combination thereof.

  8. US/FRG umbrella agreement for cooperation in GCR Development. Fuel, fission products, and graphite subprogram. Quarterly status report, July 1, 1982-September 30, 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, R.F.

    1982-10-01

    This report describes the status of the cooperative work being performed in the Fuel, Fission Product, and Graphite Subprogram under the HTR-Implementing Agreement of the United States/Federal Republic of Germany Umbrella Agreement for Cooperation in GCR Development. The status is described relative to the commitments in the Subprogram Plan for Fuel, Fission Products, and Graphite, Revision 5, April 1982. The work described was performed during the period July 1, 1982 through September 30, 1982 in the HTGR Base Technology Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the HTGR Fuel and Plant Technology Programs at General Atomic Company (GA), and the Project HTR-Brennstoffkreislauf of the Entwicklungsgemeinschaft HTR at KFA Julich, HRB Mannheim, HOBEG Hanau, and SIGRI Meitingen. The requirement for and format of this quarterly status report are specified in the HTR Implementing Agreement procedures for cooperation. Responsibility for preparation of the quarterly report alternates between GA and KFA

  9. A cloud pattern recognition algorithm to automate the estimation of mass eruption rates from an umbrella cloud or downwind plume observed via satellite imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansons, E.; Pouget, S.; Bursik, M. I.; Patra, A. K.; Pitman, E. B.; Tupper, A.

    2013-12-01

    The eruption of Eyjafjallajökull, Iceland in April and May, 2010, brought to light the importance of Volcanic Ash Transport and Dispersion models (VATD) to the estimation of the position and concentration of ash with time, and how vital it is for Volcanic Ash Advisory Centers (VAACs) to be able to detect and track ash clouds with both observations and models. The VATD needs to get Eruption Source Parameters (ESP), including mass eruption rate through time, as input, which ultimately relies on the detection of the eruption regardless of the meteorological conditions. Volcanic cloud recognition is especially difficult when meteorological clouds are also present, which is typically the case in the tropics. Given the fact that meteorological clouds and volcanic clouds behave differently, we developed an agent-based pattern definition algorithm to detect and define volcanic clouds on satellite imagery. We have combined this with a plume growth rate methodology to automate the estimation of volumetric and mass growth with time using plume geometry provided by satellite imagery. This allows an estimation of the mass eruption rate (MER) with time. To test our approach, we used the examples of two eruptions of different source strength, in two different climatic regimes and for which therefore the weather during eruption was quite different: Grímsvötn (Iceland) May 21, 2011, which produced an umbrella cloud readily seen above the cloud deck, and Manam (Papua New Guinea) October 24, 2004, which produced a stratospheric umbrella cloud that rapidly turned into a downwind plume, and was difficult to distinguish from meteorological clouds. The new methods may in the future allow for fast, easy and automated detection of volcanic clouds as well as a remote assessment of the mass eruption rate with time, even for inaccessible volcanoes. The methods may thus provide an additional path to estimation of the ESP and the forecasting of ash cloud propagation.

  10. Vitamin D and multiple health outcomes: umbrella review of systematic reviews and meta-analyses of observational studies and randomised trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodoratou, Evropi; Tzoulaki, Ioanna; Zgaga, Lina; Ioannidis, John P A

    2014-04-01

    To evaluate the breadth, validity, and presence of biases of the associations of vitamin D with diverse outcomes. Umbrella review of the evidence across systematic reviews and meta-analyses of observational studies of plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D or 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D concentrations and randomised controlled trials of vitamin D supplementation. Medline, Embase, and screening of citations and references. Three types of studies were eligible for the umbrella review: systematic reviews and meta-analyses that examined observational associations between circulating vitamin D concentrations and any clinical outcome; and meta-analyses of randomised controlled trials assessing supplementation with vitamin D or active compounds (both established and newer compounds of vitamin D). 107 systematic literature reviews and 74 meta-analyses of observational studies of plasma vitamin D concentrations and 87 meta-analyses of randomised controlled trials of vitamin D supplementation were identified. The relation between vitamin D and 137 outcomes has been explored, covering a wide range of skeletal, malignant, cardiovascular, autoimmune, infectious, metabolic, and other diseases. Ten outcomes were examined by both meta-analyses of observational studies and meta-analyses of randomised controlled trials, but the direction of the effect and level of statistical significance was concordant only for birth weight (maternal vitamin D status or supplementation). On the basis of the available evidence, an association between vitamin D concentrations and birth weight, dental caries in children, maternal vitamin D concentrations at term, and parathyroid hormone concentrations in patients with chronic kidney disease requiring dialysis is probable, but further studies and better designed trials are needed to draw firmer conclusions. In contrast to previous reports, evidence does not support the argument that vitamin D only supplementation increases bone mineral density or reduces the risk of

  11. Effect of increasing pump speed during exercise on peak oxygen uptake in heart failure patients supported with a continuous-flow left ventricular assist device. A double-blind randomized study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jung, Mette Holme; Hansen, Peter Bo; Sander, Kaare

    2014-01-01

    AIMS: Continuous-flow left ventricular assist device (CF-LVAD) implantation is associated with improved quality of life, but the effect on exercise capacity is less well documented. It is uncertain whether a fixed CF-LVAD pump speed, which allows for sufficient circulatory support at rest, remains...

  12. Giant magneto-resistance devices

    CERN Document Server

    Hirota, Eiichi; Inomata, Koichiro

    2002-01-01

    This book deals with the application of giant magneto-resistance (GMR) effects to electronic devices. It will appeal to engineers and graduate students in the fields of electronic devices and materials. The main subjects are magnetic sensors with high resolution and magnetic read heads with high sensitivity, required for hard-disk drives with recording densities of several gigabytes. Another important subject is novel magnetic random-access memories (MRAM) with non-volatile non-destructive and radiation-resistant characteristics. Other topics include future GMR devices based on bipolar spin transistors, spin field-effect transistors (FETs) and double-tunnel junctions.

  13. The solar ultraviolet B radiation protection provided by shading devices with regard to its diffuse component.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudish, Avraham I; Harari, Marco; Evseev, Efim G

    2011-10-01

    The composition of the incident solar global ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation with regard to its beam and diffuse radiation fractions is highly relevant with regard to outdoor sun protection. This is especially true with respect to sun protection during leisure-time outdoor sun exposure at the shore and pools, where people tend to escape the sun under shade trees or different types of shading devices, e.g., umbrellas, overhangs, etc., believing they offer protection from the erythemal solar radiation. The degree of sun protection offered by such devices is directly related to the composition of the solar global UVB radiation, i.e., its beam and diffuse fractions. The composition of the incident solar global UVB radiation can be determined by measuring the global UVB (using Solar Light Co. Inc., Model 501A UV-Biometer) and either of its components. The beam component of the UVB radiation was determined by measuring the normal incidence beam radiation using a prototype, tracking instrument consisting of a Solar Light Co. Inc. Model 501A UV-Biometer mounted on an Eppley Solar Tracker Model St-1. The horizontal beam component of the global UVB radiation was calculated from the measured normal incidence using a simple geometric correlation and the diffuse component is determined as the difference between global and horizontal beam radiations. Horizontal and vertical surfaces positioned under a horizontal overhang/sunshade or an umbrella are not fully protected from exposure to solar global UVB radiation. They can receive a significant fraction of the UVB radiation, depending on their location beneath the shading device, the umbrella radius and the albedo (reflectance) of the surrounding ground surface in the case of a vertical surface. Shading devices such as an umbrella or horizontal overhang/shade provide relief from the solar global radiation and do block the solar global UVB radiation to some extent; nevertheless, a significant fraction of the solar global UVB

  14. Fusion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, T.K.

    1977-01-01

    Three types of thermonuclear fusion devices currently under development are reviewed for an electric utilities management audience. Overall design features of laser fusion, tokamak, and magnetic mirror type reactors are described and illustrated. Thrusts and trends in current research on these devices that promise to improve performance are briefly reviewed. Twenty photographs and drawings are included

  15. PLASMA DEVICE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gow, J.D.; Wilcox, J.M.

    1961-12-26

    A device is designed for producing and confining highenergy plasma from which neutrons are generated in copious quantities. A rotating sheath of electrons is established in a radial electric field and axial magnetic field produced within the device. The electron sheath serves as a strong ionizing medium to gas introdueed thereto and also functions as an extremely effective heating mechanism to the resulting plasma. In addition, improved confinement of the plasma is obtained by ring magnetic mirror fields produced at the ends of the device. Such ring mirror fields are defined by the magnetic field lines at the ends of the device diverging radially outward from the axis of the device and thereafter converging at spatial annular surfaces disposed concentrically thereabout. (AFC)

  16. Health education for patients with acute coronary syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus: an umbrella review of systematic reviews and meta-analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xian-liang; Shi, Yan; Willis, Karen; Wu, Chiung-Jung (Jo); Johnson, Maree

    2017-01-01

    Objectives This umbrella review aimed to identify the current evidence on health education-related interventions for patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) or type two diabetes mellitus (T2DM); identify the educational content, delivery methods, intensity, duration and setting required. The purpose was to provide recommendations for educational interventions for high-risk patients with both ACS and T2DM. Design Umbrella review of systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Setting Inpatient and postdischarge settings. Participants Patients with ACS and T2DM. Data sources CINAHL, Cochrane Library, Joanna Briggs Institute, Journals@Ovid, EMBase, Medline, PubMed and Web of Science databases from January 2000 through May 2016. Outcomes measures Clinical outcomes (such as glycated haemoglobin), behavioural outcomes (such as smoking), psychosocial outcomes (such as anxiety) and medical service use. Results Fifty-one eligible reviews (15 for ACS and 36 for T2DM) consisting of 1324 relevant studies involving 2 88 057 patients (15 papers did not provide the total sample); 30 (58.8%) reviews were rated as high quality. Nurses only and multidisciplinary teams were the most frequent professionals to provide education, and most educational interventions were delivered postdischarge. Face-to-face sessions were the most common delivery formats, and many education sessions were also delivered by telephone or via web contact. The frequency of educational sessions was weekly or monthly, and an average of 3.7 topics was covered per education session. Psychoeducational interventions were generally effective at reducing smoking and admissions for patients with ACS. Culturally appropriate health education, self-management educational interventions, group medical visits and psychoeducational interventions were generally effective for patients with T2DM. Conclusions Results indicate that there is a body of current evidence about the efficacy of health education, its content and

  17. Health education for patients with acute coronary syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus: an umbrella review of systematic reviews and meta-analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xian-Liang; Shi, Yan; Willis, Karen; Wu, Chiung-Jung Jo; Johnson, Maree

    2017-10-16

    This umbrella review aimed to identify the current evidence on health education-related interventions for patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) or type two diabetes mellitus (T2DM); identify the educational content, delivery methods, intensity, duration and setting required. The purpose was to provide recommendations for educational interventions for high-risk patients with both ACS and T2DM. Umbrella review of systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Inpatient and postdischarge settings. Patients with ACS and T2DM. CINAHL, Cochrane Library, Joanna Briggs Institute, Journals@Ovid, EMBase, Medline, PubMed and Web of Science databases from January 2000 through May 2016. Clinical outcomes (such as glycated haemoglobin), behavioural outcomes (such as smoking), psychosocial outcomes (such as anxiety) and medical service use. Fifty-one eligible reviews (15 for ACS and 36 for T2DM) consisting of 1324 relevant studies involving 2 88 057 patients (15 papers did not provide the total sample); 30 (58.8%) reviews were rated as high quality. Nurses only and multidisciplinary teams were the most frequent professionals to provide education, and most educational interventions were delivered postdischarge. Face-to-face sessions were the most common delivery formats, and many education sessions were also delivered by telephone or via web contact. The frequency of educational sessions was weekly or monthly, and an average of 3.7 topics was covered per education session. Psychoeducational interventions were generally effective at reducing smoking and admissions for patients with ACS. Culturally appropriate health education, self-management educational interventions, group medical visits and psychoeducational interventions were generally effective for patients with T2DM. Results indicate that there is a body of current evidence about the efficacy of health education, its content and delivery methods for patients with ACS or T2DM. These results provide recommendations about the

  18. International double taxation

    OpenAIRE

    Odarčenko, Michal

    2015-01-01

    1 Summary This thesis deals with the issue of international double taxation of income and capital and methods for its solution. International double taxation is an issue which states began to deal with in the late 19th century. This interest intensified after the First World War when also the League of Nations (predecessor of the United Nations) began to deal with international double taxation. Most attention the phenomenon of double taxation of income and capital with an international elemen...

  19. Double Outlet Right Ventricle

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Right Ventricle Menu Topics Topics FAQs Double Outlet Right Ventricle Double outlet right ventricle (DORV) is a rare form of congenital heart disease. Article Info En español Double outlet right ventricle (DORV) is a rare form of congenital ...

  20. Meniscal repair devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, F A; Herbert, M A

    2000-09-01

    Meniscal repair devices not requiring accessory incisions are attractive. Many factors contribute to their clinical effectiveness including their biomechanical characteristics. This study compared several new meniscal repair devices with standard meniscal suture techniques. Using a porcine model, axis-of-insertion loads were applied to various meniscal sutures and repair devices. A single device or stitch was placed in a created meniscal tear and a load applied. Both loads and modes of failure were recorded. The load-to-failure data show stratification into 4 distinct statistical groups. Group A, 113 N for a double vertical stitch; group B, 80 N for a single vertical stitch; group C, 57 N for the BioStinger, 56 N for a horizontal mattress stitch, and 50 N for the T-Fix stitch; and group D, 33 N for the Meniscus Arrow (inserted by hand or gun), 32 N for the Clearfix screw, 31 N for the SDsorb staple, 30 N for the Mitek meniscal repair system, and 27 N for the Biomet staple. The failure mechanism varied. Sutures broke away from the knot. The Meniscus Arrow and BioStinger pulled through the inner rim with the crossbar intact. The Clearfix screw failed by multiple mechanisms, whereas 1 leg of the SDsorb staple always pulled out of the outer rim. The Mitek device usually failed by pullout from the inner rim. The Biomet staple always broke at the crosshead or just below it. Although the surgeon should be aware of the material properties of the repair technique chosen for a meniscal repair, this information is only an indication of device performance and may not correlate with clinical healing results.

  1. Double layers in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlqvist, P.

    1982-01-01

    For more than a decade it has been realised that electrostatic double layers are likely to occur in space. The author briefly discusses the theoretical background of such double layers. Most of the paper is devoted to an account of the observational evidence for double layers in the ionosphere and magnetosphere of the Earth. Several different experiments are reviewed including rocket and satellite measurements and ground based observations. It is concluded that the observational evidence for double layers in space is very strong. The experimental results indicate that double layers with widely different properties may exist in space. (Auth.)

  2. Sealing devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coulson, R.A.

    1980-01-01

    A sealing device for minimising the leakage of toxic or radioactive contaminated environments through a biological shield along an opening through which a flexible component moves that penetrates the shield. The sealing device comprises an outer tubular member which extends over a length not less than the maximum longitudinal movement of the component along the opening. An inner sealing block is located intermediate the length of the component by connectors and is positioned in the bore of the outer tubular member to slide in the bore and effect a seal over the entire longitudinal movement of the component. The cross-section of the device may be circular and the block may be of polytetrafluoroethylene or of nylon impregnated with molybdenum or may be metallic. A number of the sealing devices may be combined into an assembly for a plurality of adjacent longitudinally movable components, each adapted to sustain a tensile load, providing the various drives of a master-slave manipulator. (author)

  3. Solvent-free preparation of polylactic acid fibers by melt electrospinning using umbrella-like spray head and alleviation of problematic thermal degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Yong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Melt electrospinning is an even simpler and safer method compared with the solution electrospinning in the production of ultra-fine fibers. Polylactic acid (PLA is a biodegradable and resorbable aliphatic ester that has received significant attention in recent years. PLA is easily degradable at high temperature in the process of melt electrospinning. High efficient fibers were made using our designed umbrella-like spray head spinning facility in this work. To find how to alleviate the problematic degradation and what factors could be relevant to degradation, temperature, relative molecular mass, Differential Scanning Calorimeter and X-ray Diffraction patterns before and after spinning were investigated and compared with each other. Results showed that fibers were facile shorten and fractured when spun at 245°C while the relative molecular mass of PLA fibers decreased markedly as compared with that spun at 210°C. To hinder the degradation, couple of experimental efforts were implemented with adding antioxidants, raising spinning voltage, lowering temperature, and reducing residence time. After such efforts, it was observed that the relative molecular mass of the PLA fibers was higher than those without inputting any efforts. The effect of antioxidant 1010 was found the most promising on the alleviation of PLA problematic thermal degradation.

  4. Umbrella Sampling and X-ray Crystallographic Analysis Unveil an Arg-Asp Gate Facilitating Inhibitor Binding Inside Phosphopantetheine Adenylyltransferase Allosteric Cleft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, A; Chatterjee, R; Datta, S

    2018-02-08

    Phosphopantetheine adenylyltransferase (PPAT) is a rate-limiting enzyme essential for biosynthesis of coenzyme A (CoA), which in turn is responsible to regulate the secretion of exotoxins via type III secretion system in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, causing severe health concerns ranging from nosocomial infections to respiratory failure. Acetyl coenzyme A (AcCoA) is a newly reported inhibitor of PPAT, believed to regulate the cellular levels of CoA and thereby the pathogenesis. Very little is known so far regarding the mechanistic details of AcCoA binding inside PPAT-binding cleft. Herein, we have used extensive umbrella sampling simulations to decipher mechanistic insight into the inhibitor accommodation inside the binding cavity. We found that R90 and D94 residues act like a gate near the binding cavity to accommodate and stabilize the incoming ligand. Mutational models concerning these residues also show considerable difference in AcCoA-binding thermodynamics. To substantiate our findings, we have solved the first crystal structure of apo-PPAT from P. aeruginosa, which also found to agree with the simulation results. Collectively, these results describe the mechanistic details of accommodation of inhibitor molecule inside PPAT-binding cavity and also offer valuable insight into regulating cellular levels of CoA/AcCoA and thus controlling the pathogenicity.

  5. Ferroelectric devices

    CERN Document Server

    Uchino, Kenji

    2009-01-01

    Updating its bestselling predecessor, Ferroelectric Devices, Second Edition assesses the last decade of developments-and setbacks-in the commercialization of ferroelectricity. Field pioneer and esteemed author Uchino provides insight into why this relatively nascent and interdisciplinary process has failed so far without a systematic accumulation of fundamental knowledge regarding materials and device development.Filling the informational void, this collection of information reviews state-of-the-art research and development trends reflecting nano and optical technologies, environmental regulat

  6. Catalytic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Ming; Zhang, Xiang

    2018-01-23

    This disclosure provides systems, methods, and apparatus related to catalytic devices. In one aspect, a device includes a substrate, an electrically insulating layer disposed on the substrate, a layer of material disposed on the electrically insulating layer, and a catalyst disposed on the layer of material. The substrate comprises an electrically conductive material. The substrate and the layer of material are electrically coupled to one another and configured to have a voltage applied across them.

  7. High-Voltage Switch Containing (DI)2 Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanes, Maurice H.; Fiedor, Richard J.

    1987-01-01

    Series switching diodes triggered on by passing above threshold voltage. High-voltage switch made by connecting multitude of deep-impurity, double-injection devices in series with each other and with another, triggerable high-voltage device such as thyristor. Device operates near ground potential to avoid insulation problems in triggering circuit.

  8. Simulation Results of Double Forward Converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Vijaya KUMAR

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to find a better forward converter for DC to DC conversion.Simulation of double forward converter in SMPS system is discussed in this paper. Aforward converter with RCD snubber to synchronous rectifier and/or to current doubleris also discussed. The evolution of the forward converter is first reviewed in a tutorialfashion. Performance parameters are discussed including operating principle, voltageconversion ratio, efficiency, device stress, small-signal dynamics, noise and EMI. Itscircuit operation and its performance characteristics of the forward converter with RCDsnubber and double forward converter are described and the simulation results arepresented.

  9. Single venom-based immunotherapy effectively protects patients with double positive tests to honey bee and Vespula venom

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Referring to individuals with reactivity to honey bee and Vespula venom in diagnostic tests, the umbrella terms “double sensitization” or “double positivity” cover patients with true clinical double allergy and those allergic to a single venom with asymptomatic sensitization to the other. There is no international consensus on whether immunotherapy regimens should generally include both venoms in double sensitized patients. Objective We investigated the long-term outcome of single venom-based immunotherapy with regard to potential risk factors for treatment failure and specifically compared the risk of relapse in mono sensitized and double sensitized patients. Methods Re-sting data were obtained from 635 patients who had completed at least 3 years of immunotherapy between 1988 and 2008. The adequate venom for immunotherapy was selected using an algorithm based on clinical details and the results of diagnostic tests. Results Of 635 patients, 351 (55.3%) were double sensitized to both venoms. The overall re-exposure rate to Hymenoptera stings during and after immunotherapy was 62.4%; the relapse rate was 7.1% (6.0% in mono sensitized, 7.8% in double sensitized patients). Recurring anaphylaxis was statistically less severe than the index sting reaction (P = 0.004). Double sensitization was not significantly related to relapsing anaphylaxis (P = 0.56), but there was a tendency towards an increased risk of relapse in a subgroup of patients with equal reactivity to both venoms in diagnostic tests (P = 0.15). Conclusions Single venom-based immunotherapy over 3 to 5 years effectively and long-lastingly protects the vast majority of both mono sensitized and double sensitized Hymenoptera venom allergic patients. Double venom immunotherapy is indicated in clinically double allergic patients reporting systemic reactions to stings of both Hymenoptera and in those with equal reactivity to both venoms in diagnostic tests who have not reliably identified the

  10. Guide device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brammer, C.M. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Disclosed is a fuel handling guide tube centering device for use in nuclear reactors during fuel assembly handling operations. The device comprises an outer ring secured to the flange of a nuclear reactor pressure vessel, a rotatable table rotatably coupled to the outer ring, and a plurality of openings through the table. Truncated locating cones are positioned in each of the openings in the table, and the locating cones center the guide tube during fuel handling operations. The openings in the table are located such that each fuel assembly in the nuclear core may be aligned with one of the openings by a suitable rotation of the table. The locating cones thereby provide alignment between the fuel handling mechanism located in the guide tube and the individual fuel assemblies of the cone. The need for a device to provide alignment is especially critical for floating nuclear power plants, where wave motion may exist during fuel handling operations. 5 claims, 4 figures

  11. Identification device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jian-Shian; Su, Chih-Chieh; Chou, Ta-Hsin; Wu, Mount-Learn; Lai, Chieh-Lung; Hsu, Che-Lung; Lan, Hsiao-Chin; Huang, Hung-I.; Liu, Yung-Chih; Tu, Zong-Ru; Lee, Chien-Chieh; Chang, Jenq-Yang

    2007-09-01

    In this Letter, the identification device disclosed in the present invention is comprised of: a carrier and a plurality of pseudo-pixels; wherein each of the plural pseudo-pixels is formed on the carrier and is further comprised of at least a light grating composed of a plurality of light grids. In a preferred aspect, each of the plural light grids is formed on the carrier while spacing from each other by an interval ranged between 50nm and 900nm. As the aforesaid identification device can present specific colors and patterns while it is being viewed by naked eye with respect to a specific viewing angle, the identification device is preferred for security and anti-counterfeit applications since the specific colors and patterns will become invisible when it is viewed while deviating from the specific viewing angle.

  12. Burnable gas concentration control device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, Hiroshi; Sanada, Takahiro; Kuboniwa, Takao.

    1980-01-01

    Purpose: To provide connecting ports by doubling nitrogen gas injection pipes thereby to secure lengthiness of the device only by providing one nitrogen gas generator. Constitution: Nitrogen gas injection pipes are provided in two lines separately, and attachable and detachable connecting ports for feeding nitrogen gas connectable to a movable type nitrogen gas supply installation for the purpose of backing up the nitrogen gas generator. (Yoshihara, H.)

  13. The effects of public health policies on population health and health inequalities in European welfare states: protocol for an umbrella review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Katie; Bambra, Clare; McNamara, Courtney; Huijts, Tim; Todd, Adam

    2016-04-08

    The welfare state is potentially an important macro-level determinant of health that also moderates the extent, and impact, of socio-economic inequalities in exposure to the social determinants of health. The welfare state has three main policy domains: health care, social policy (e.g. social transfers and education) and public health policy. This is the protocol for an umbrella review to examine the latter; its aim is to assess how European welfare states influence the social determinants of health inequalities institutionally through public health policies. A systematic review methodology will be used to identify systematic reviews from high-income countries (including additional EU-28 members) that describe the health and health equity effects of upstream public health interventions. Interventions will focus on primary and secondary prevention policies including fiscal measures, regulation, education, preventative treatment and screening across ten public health domains (tobacco; alcohol; food and nutrition; reproductive health services; the control of infectious diseases; screening; mental health; road traffic injuries; air, land and water pollution; and workplace regulations). Twenty databases will be searched using a pre-determined search strategy to evaluate population-level public health interventions. Understanding the impact of specific public health policy interventions will help to establish causality in terms of the effects of welfare states on population health and health inequalities. The review will document contextual information on how population-level public health interventions are organised, implemented and delivered. This information can be used to identify effective interventions that could be implemented to reduce health inequalities between and within European countries. PROSPERO CRD42016025283.

  14. Psychological determinants of physical activity across the life course: A "DEterminants of DIet and Physical ACtivity" (DEDIPAC umbrella systematic literature review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Cortis

    Full Text Available Low levels of physical activity (PA are reported to contribute to the occurrence of non-communicable diseases over the life course. Although psychological factors have been identified as an important category concerning PA behavior, knowledge on psychological determinants of PA is still inconclusive. Therefore, the aim of this umbrella systematic literature review (SLR was to summarize and synthesize the scientific evidence on psychological determinants of PA behavior across the life course. A systematic online search was conducted on MEDLINE, ISI Web of Science, Scopus, and SPORTDiscus databases. The search was limited to studies published in English from January 2004 to April 2016. SLRs and meta-analyses (MAs of observational studies investigating the association of psychological variables and PA were considered eligible. Extracted data were evaluated based on importance of determinants, strength of evidence, and methodological quality. The full protocol is available from PROSPERO (Record ID: CRD42015010616. Twenty reviews (14 SLRs and 6 MAs, mostly of moderate methodological quality, were found eligible. Convincing evidence was found for self-efficacy (positive association with PA in children and adolescents, and stress (negative association with PA regardless of age. Most of the evidence revealing an association between psychological determinants and PA is probable and limited, mainly due to differences in the definition of PA and of psychological determinants across reviews. Thus, scholars are urged to reach a consensus on clear definitions of relevant psychological determinants of PA, subsuming cultural biases and allowing the possibility to obtain clear interpretations and generalizability of findings. Finally, most psychological determinants should be considered within a larger framework of other multi-level determinants that may interact or mediate some of the effects.

  15. Printing Device

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den M.J.; Markies, P.R.; Zuilhof, H.

    2014-01-01

    An ink jetprinting device includes a pressure chamber formed by a plurality of wall segments, a first aperture extending through a wall segment and communicating with an ink jet orifice and a second aperture extending through a wall segment and communicating with an ink supply duct. The pressure

  16. Detection device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J.E.

    1981-02-27

    The present invention is directed to a detection device comprising: (1) an entrance chamber; (2) a central chamber; and (3) an exit chamber. The central chamber includes an ionizing gas, anode, and means for connecting the anode with an external power supply and pulse counter.

  17. Double deflation and aggregation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dietzenbacher, Erik; Hoen, A.R.

    Published input-output tables in constant prices are relatively scarce. Therefore, input-output tables often have to be deflated by the practitioners themselves. The method of double deflation is used predominantly for this purpose. The present paper shows that the double-deflation method is subject

  18. Global Warming and Financial Umbrellas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dosi, C.; Moretto, M.

    2001-10-01

    A new instrument for hedging weather risks has made its appearance in the financial arena. Trade in 'weather derivatives' has taken off in the US, and interest is growing elsewhere. Whilst such contracts may be simply interpreted as a new tool for solving a historical problem, the question addressed in this paper is if, besides other factors, the appearance of weather derivatives is somehow related to anthropogenic climate change. Our tentative answer is positive. Since 'global warming' does not simply mean an increase in averaged temperatures, but increased climate variability, and increased frequency and magnitude of weather extremes, derivative contracts may potentially become a useful tool for hedging some weather risks, insofar as they may provide coverage at a lower cost than standard insurance schemes. Keywords: Global warming, climate variability, insurance coverage, weather derivatives

  19. Double layer formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, N.

    1982-01-01

    Results from several numerical simulations of the formation of double layers in plasmas with a constant potential drop across them are presented. Here the emphasis is mainly on plasma processes during the formation of double layers. The recurring formation of double layers, their propagation and associated current interruptions are observed when the electron current injected into the simulation region from the low potential side exceeds the electron thermal current. This recurring process is stopped (or delayed) when the electron current recuperation is inhibited by a small magnetic force on the electrons. The motion of double layers is examined and it is found that the motion is caused by the interruption of the ion current from the high potential side. The subsequent recovery of this current renders the double layer stationary. (author)

  20. Thermonuclear device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tezuka, Masaru.

    1993-01-01

    Protrusions and recesses are formed to a vacuum vessel and toroidal magnetic coils, and they are engaged. Since the vacuum vessel is generally supported firmly by a rack or the like by support legs, the toroidal magnetic field coils can be certainly supported against tumbling force. Then, there can be attained strong supports for the toroidal magnetic field coils, in addition to support by wedges on the side of inboard and support by share panels on the side of outboard, capable of withstanding great electromagnetic forces which may occur in large-scaled next-generation devices. That is, toroidal magnetic field coils excellent from a view point of deformation and stress can be obtained, to provide a thermonuclear device of higher reliability. (N.H.)

  1. Thermonuclear device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oosaki, Osamu; Masuda, Kenju.

    1980-01-01

    Purpose: To provide excellent electric properties and high reliability in a thermonuclear device by improving a current collecting board connected to a coil device. Constitution: A current collecting board element perforated with an opening for enserting a connecting terminal is sized to be inserted into a plating tank, and is surface treated in the plating tank. Only the current collecting board element preferably surface treated is picked up. A plurality of such current collecting board elements are connected and welded to form a large current collecting board. In this manner, the current collecting board having several m 2 to several ten order m 2 in area can be obtained as preferably surface treated at the connecting terminal hole. The current collecting board element can be determined in shape with the existing facility without increasing the size of a surface treating tank. (Kamimura, M.)

  2. Clamping device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuengel, P.

    1976-01-01

    Device for prestressing a multiplicity of screw bolts sitting on a hole circle, where a carrying ring is provided which is supported on the flange of the pressure vessel of a nuclear reactor, and where on the carrying ring a hydraulic cylinder is arranged the force of which is to be guided into the screw bolt over an auxiliary bolt which may be coupled to the screw bolt. (orig./TK) [de

  3. "Distinvar" device

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1965-01-01

    The alignment of one of the accelerator magnets being checked by the AR Division survey group. A "distinvar" device, invented by the group, using calibrated invar wires stretched between the fixed survey pillar (on the left) and a fixed point on the magnet. In two days it is thus possible to measure the alignment of the 100 magnets with an accuracy better than 1/10.

  4. Latching device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich, G. W. (Inventor)

    1975-01-01

    A latching device is suited for use in establishing a substantially motionless connection between a stationary receiver and a movable latching mechanism. The latching mechanism includes a pivotally supported restraining hook continuously urged into a capturing relationship with the receiver, characterized by a spring-biased pawl having a plurality of aligned teeth. The teeth are seated in the surface of the throat of the hook and positionable into restraining engagement with a rigid restraining shoulder projected from the receiver.

  5. Photometric device using optical fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boisde, Gilbert; Perez, J.-J.

    1981-02-01

    Remote measurements in radioactive environment are now possible with optical fibers. Measurement instruments developed by CEA are constitued of: - an optical probe (5 mm to 1 meter optical path length), - a photometric measurement device, - optical fiber links. 'TELEPHOT' is a photometric device for industrial installations. It is uses interferentiel filters for 2 to 5 simultaneous wave lengths. 'CRUDMETER' measures the muddiness of water. It can be equipped with a high sensitivity cell of 50 cm optical path length tested up to 250 bars. Coupling a double beam spectrophotometer to a remote optical probe, up to 1 meter optical path length, is carried out by means of an optical device using optical fibers links, eventually several hundred meter long. For these equipments special step index large core fibers, 1 to 1.5 mm in diameter, have been developed as well connectors. For industrial control and research these instruments offer new prospect thanks to optical fibers use [fr

  6. Cancer and central nervous system disorders: protocol for an umbrella review of systematic reviews and updated meta-analyses of observational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalá-López, Ferrán; Hutton, Brian; Driver, Jane A; Page, Matthew J; Ridao, Manuel; Valderas, José M; Alonso-Arroyo, Adolfo; Forés-Martos, Jaume; Martínez, Salvador; Gènova-Maleras, Ricard; Macías-Saint-Gerons, Diego; Crespo-Facorro, Benedicto; Vieta, Eduard; Valencia, Alfonso; Tabarés-Seisdedos, Rafael

    2017-04-04

    The objective of this study will be to synthesize the epidemiological evidence and evaluate the validity of the associations between central nervous system disorders and the risk of developing or dying from cancer. We will perform an umbrella review of systematic reviews and conduct updated meta-analyses of observational studies (cohort and case-control) investigating the association between central nervous system disorders and the risk of developing or dying from any cancer or specific types of cancer. Searches involving PubMed/MEDLINE, EMBASE, SCOPUS and Web of Science will be used to identify systematic reviews and meta-analyses of observational studies. In addition, online databases will be checked for observational studies published outside the time frames of previous reviews. Eligible central nervous system disorders will be Alzheimer's disease, anorexia nervosa, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, autism spectrum disorders, bipolar disorder, depression, Down's syndrome, epilepsy, Huntington's disease, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease and schizophrenia. The primary outcomes will be cancer incidence and cancer mortality in association with a central nervous system disorder. Secondary outcome measures will be site-specific cancer incidence and mortality, respectively. Two reviewers will independently screen references identified by the literature search, as well as potentially relevant full-text articles. Data will be abstracted, and study quality/risk of bias will be appraised by two reviewers independently. Conflicts at all levels of screening and abstraction will be resolved through discussion. Random-effects meta-analyses of primary observational studies will be conducted where appropriate. Parameters for exploring statistical heterogeneity are pre-specified. The World Cancer Research Fund (WCRF)/American Institute for Cancer Research (AICR) criteria and the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach will be used

  7. Thermonuclear device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Toyokazu; Murata, Toru.

    1983-01-01

    Purpose: To shield superconducting coils for use in the generation of magnetic field against neutron irradiation thereby preventing tritium contamination. Constitution: The thermonuclear device comprises, in its inside, a vacuum container for containing plasmas, superconducting coils disposed to the outside of the vacuum container and neutron absorbers disposed between the super-conducting coils and the vacuum container. since neutrons issued from the plasma are absorbed by neutron absorbers and not irradiated to the superconducting coils, generation of tritium due to the reaction between 3 He in the liquid helium as the coolants for the super-conducting coils and the neutrons is prevented. (Aizawa, K.)

  8. Neutrinoless double beta decay

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The physics potential of neutrinoless double beta decay is discussed. Furthermore, experimental considerations as well as the current status of experiments are presented. Finally, an outlook towards the future, work on nuclear matrix elements and alternative processes is given.

  9. Thermonuclear device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, Takuro; Maki, Koichi.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention provides a thermonuclear device, in which integrity of a measuring device is kept, the reactor wall temperature and wear of armour materials are monitored accurately even under intense radiation rays, so that the flow rate of coolants and plasma power can be controlled by using the signals. Infrared rays generated from the surface of the armour materials disposed on a first wall are detected to measure the reactor wall temperature. Coolant flow rate and plasma power are controlled based on the obtained reactor wall temperature. In addition, infrared rays generated from the back of the armour materials are detected to obtain the surface temperature in order to avoid intense radiation rays from plasmas. The coolant flow rate and the plasma power are controlled based on the obtained temperature on the surface of the reactor thereby controlling the temperature of the first wall and the armour material to 300degC or lower in a case of the first wall made of stainless steel and 1000degC or lower in a case of the armour material made of graphite. (I.S.)

  10. Scalable devices

    KAUST Repository

    Krüger, Jens J.

    2014-01-01

    In computer science in general and in particular the field of high performance computing and supercomputing the term scalable plays an important role. It indicates that a piece of hardware, a concept, an algorithm, or an entire system scales with the size of the problem, i.e., it can not only be used in a very specific setting but it\\'s applicable for a wide range of problems. From small scenarios to possibly very large settings. In this spirit, there exist a number of fixed areas of research on scalability. There are works on scalable algorithms, scalable architectures but what are scalable devices? In the context of this chapter, we are interested in a whole range of display devices, ranging from small scale hardware such as tablet computers, pads, smart-phones etc. up to large tiled display walls. What interests us mostly is not so much the hardware setup but mostly the visualization algorithms behind these display systems that scale from your average smart phone up to the largest gigapixel display walls.

  11. Thermonuclear device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Noriyuki.

    1994-01-01

    In a thermonuclear device, a protrusion is protruded the direction to point X of a separatrix of magnetic fields and oscillated. Further, a protrusion continuous in the toroidal direction is formed from a first wall toward the point X and the position for the point X is oscillated in perpendicular to the divertor. If moving widths are compared for the shape of each of the divertors, it is longest in the case of the protruded shape, and a sweeping speed in a collision region is greatest in a case of the protruded shape and the moving width can be increased for the moving time and moving width of the identical point X. Accordingly, fluctuation of the magnetic fields of the divertor coils can relatively be reduced. A high heat receiving portion of the surface of the divertor can be made sufficiently great and moved rapidly with less oscillation width for the point X, thereby enabling to suppress AC loss of superconductors of toroidal coils and keep a stable superconductive state. Further, the divertor can be kept from melting, to attain a reliable thermonuclear device. (I.S.)

  12. A parameter set for a double-null DEMO reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooke, P.I.H.

    1987-01-01

    The present study is aimed at commenting on the reactor-relevance of the design principles and technology being proposed for NET. The authors propose that a double-null device serve as a basis for a NET-based demonstration reactor. Calculations are carried out to determine the parameter set for reactors based on the double-null NET design, and the results are presented in tabular form. (U.K.)

  13. Reflection Positive Doubles

    OpenAIRE

    Jaffe, Arthur; Janssens, Bas

    2016-01-01

    Here we introduce reflection positive doubles, a general framework for reflection positivity, covering a wide variety of systems in statistical physics and quantum field theory. These systems may be bosonic, fermionic, or parafermionic in nature. Within the framework of reflection positive doubles, we give necessary and sufficient conditions for reflection positivity. We use a reflection-invariant cone to implement our construction. Our characterization allows for a direct interpretation in t...

  14. A double layer review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Block, L.P.

    1977-06-01

    A review of the main results on electrostatic double layers (sometimes called space charge layers or sheaths) obtained from theory, and laboratory and space experiments up to the spring of 1977 is given. By means of barium jets and satellite probes, double layers have now been found at the altitudes, earlier predicted theoretically. The general potential distribution above the auroral zone, suggested by inverted V-events and electric field reversals, is corroborated. (author)

  15. Practical microwave electron devices

    CERN Document Server

    Meurant, Gerard

    2013-01-01

    Practical Microwave Electron Devices provides an understanding of microwave electron devices and their applications. All areas of microwave electron devices are covered. These include microwave solid-state devices, including popular microwave transistors and both passive and active diodes; quantum electron devices; thermionic devices (including relativistic thermionic devices); and ferrimagnetic electron devices. The design of each of these devices is discussed as well as their applications, including oscillation, amplification, switching, modulation, demodulation, and parametric interactions.

  16. Intrauterine devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilian, Xiao

    2002-04-01

    The aim of this chapter is to review the worldwide use of intrauterine devices (IUDs) for contraception and the long-term contraceptive efficacy and safety of copper-bearing IUDs. The TCu380A and Multiload Cu375 have a very low failure rate (0.2-0.5%) over 10 years. The main concerns of the use of IUDs are risk of pelvic inflammatory diseases and increased menstrual blood loss and irregular bleeding. Factors associated with an increase in risk of pelvic inflammatory diseases are discussed. Preventive measures can be taken with careful screening of eligible IUD users, technical training and adequate service facilities for provision of IUDs. Levonorgestrel-releasing IUDs have the benefit of reducing menstrual blood loss in addition to high contraceptive efficacy. The copper IUD is the most effective method for emergency contraception. It can prevent over 95% of unwanted pregnancies within 5 days of unprotected intercourse. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  17. NEPP DDR Device Reliability FY13 Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guertin, Steven M.; Armbar, Mehran

    2014-01-01

    This document reports the status of the NEPP Double Data Rate (DDR) Device Reliability effort for FY2013. The task targeted general reliability of > 100 DDR2 devices from Hynix, Samsung, and Micron. Detailed characterization of some devices when stressed by several data storage patterns was studied, targeting ability of the data cells to store the different data patterns without refresh, highlighting the weakest bits. DDR2, Reliability, Data Retention, Temperature Stress, Test System Evaluation, General Reliability, IDD measurements, electronic parts, parts testing, microcircuits

  18. Design and delivery of the diamond double double bend achromat project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kay, J.; Hammond, N. P.; Thomson, A.

    2016-01-01

    A major project is underway at Diamond Light Source to remove one of the 24 Double Bend Achromat (DBA) Storage Ring cells and replace it with a Double Double Bend Achromat (DDBA). In this way a new Insertion Device (ID) straight can be created and so ID light can be produced and delivered to a beamline previously only capable of receiving Bending Magnet (BM) radiation. This project is in support of the micro-focus Protein Crystallography (MX) beamline VMX-m which is scheduled to take users towards the end of 2017. This paper describes the Engineering Design of the DDBA project in more detail and gives the current status of the project.

  19. Design and delivery of the diamond double double bend achromat project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kay, J., E-mail: jim.kay@diamond.ac.uk; Hammond, N. P.; Thomson, A. [Diamond Light Source, Didcot, Oxfordshire, UK, OX11 0DE (United Kingdom)

    2016-07-27

    A major project is underway at Diamond Light Source to remove one of the 24 Double Bend Achromat (DBA) Storage Ring cells and replace it with a Double Double Bend Achromat (DDBA). In this way a new Insertion Device (ID) straight can be created and so ID light can be produced and delivered to a beamline previously only capable of receiving Bending Magnet (BM) radiation. This project is in support of the micro-focus Protein Crystallography (MX) beamline VMX-m which is scheduled to take users towards the end of 2017. This paper describes the Engineering Design of the DDBA project in more detail and gives the current status of the project.

  20. Flicker noise related to electrical double layer dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanduloviciu, M.; Lozneanu, E.; Avram, C.; Balan, P.; Pohoata, V.; Schrittwieser, R.

    2000-01-01

    Transport of particles and energy by the effect of double layers, self-assembled at the edge of a confined plasma, towards a space charge configuration able to perform natural oscillations, reveals a new mechanism of anomalous transport of particles and energy in plasma devices. Based on these experimental results we suggest a new phenomenological basis for the explanation of flicker noise in fusion devices. (author)

  1. Project Half Double

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svejvig, Per; Ehlers, Michael; Adland, Karoline Thorp

    and as an opportunity rather than a threat and a risk. We are convinced that by doing so, we can strengthen Denmark’s competitiveness and play an important role in the battle for jobs and future welfare. The overall goal is to deliver “projects in half the time with double the impact”, where projects in half the time...... many of the key performance indicators associated with them can be evaluated (Grundfos and Siemens Wind Power). In addition to the current status of delivering impact faster for the seven pilot projects, it is important to highlight that Project Half Double phase 1 has planted many seeds in the pilot......Project Half Double has a clear mission to succeed in finding a project methodology that can increase the success rate of our projects while increasing the speed at which we generate new ideas and develop new products and services. Chaos and complexity should be seen as a basic condition...

  2. Reluctance device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claridge, A.N.; Smith, A.J.

    1983-01-01

    A reluctance device comprises two or more phases, each of which has a rotor mounted for rotation within a tubular member and an annular stator positioned externally of the tubular member. The rotor and the internal surface of the tubular member are each provided with aligned, axially spaced apart annular arrays of teeth, the teeth on the rotor confronting those on the tubular member in radially spaced apart relationship. The stator encloses a coil which, when electrically energised, creates a plurality of magnetic flux paths each of which extends radially between the rotor and stator via the confronting teeth and the tubular member, and axially along both the rotor and the portion of the stator located radially outwardly of the coil. The portion of the tubular member intermediate the teeth thereon is provided with a non-magnetic insert in order to resist the axial passage of magnetic flux therethrough. In one of the claims, the tubular member comprises a portion of a nuclear reactor which is adapted to contain a reactor control rod, the rotor constituting a portion of the drive mechanism for the control rod contained in operation within the tubular member. (author)

  3. Spintronics from materials to devices

    CERN Document Server

    Felser, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    Spintronics is an emerging technology exploiting the spin degree of freedom and has proved to be very promising for new types of fast electronic devices. Amongst the anticipated advantages of spintronics technologies, researchers have identified the non-volatile storage of data with high density and low energy consumption as particularly relevant. This monograph examines the concept of half-metallic compounds perspectives to obtain novel solutions and discusses several oxides such as perovskites, double perovskites and CrO2 as well as Heusler compounds. Such materials can be designed and made

  4. Double Chooz experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palomares, C.

    2009-01-01

    Double Chooz will use two identical detectors at different distances from the Chooz nuclear power station to search for a non-vanishing value of θ 13 , and, hopefully, to open the way to experiments aspiring to discover CP violation in the leptonic sector. The far detector is expected to be operative by the end of 2009. Installation of the near detector will occur in 2010. Double Chooz has the capacity to exclude sin 2 (2θ 13 ) 31 2 = 2.5 x 10 -3 eV 2 with three years of data running both near and far detectors. (author)

  5. John Deakin: Double Exposures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Rousseau

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this series of short films made by Jonathan Law, the art historian James Boaden, and the curator of The John Deakin Archive, Paul Rousseau, discuss the double-exposure images made by the photographer John Deakin (1912-1972 in the 1950s and 1960s. The films ask you, firstly, to look closely at the images being discussed. Each one begins with a sustained and intense shot of a single image before opening up to a wide-ranging discussion about Deakin, double exposures, and photography.

  6. Double Tracks revegetation and monitoring plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-07-01

    This document is a reclamation plan for short-term and long-term stabilization of land disturbed by activities associated with interim clean-up of radionuclide-contaminated surface soil at the Double Tracks site. This document has been prepared to provide general reclamation practices and procedures that will be followed during restoration of the cleanup site. Reclamation demonstration plots were established near the site in the fall of 1994 to evaluate the performance of several native species and to evaluate different irrigation strategies. Results of the study at Double Tracks, as well as the results from numerous studies conducted at other sites (Area 11 and Area 19 of the Nevada Test Site), have been summarized and incorporated into this final reclamation plan for the interim cleanup of the Double Tracks site, located northwest of the Nevada Test Site on the Nellis Air Force Range. Surface soils at Double Tracks were contaminated as a result of the detonation of a device containing plutonium and depleted uranium using chemical explosives. The total amount of Pu deposited on the site was between 980 and 1,600 grams and was scattered downwind south of the detonation site. Short-term stabilization consists of the application of a chemical soil stabilizer that is applied immediately following excavation of the contaminated soils to minimize Pu resuspension. Long-term stabilization is accomplished by the establishment of a permanent vegetation

  7. Phonon tunneling through a double barrier system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villegas, Diosdado [Departamento de Física, Universidad Central “Marta Abreu” de Las Villas, CP 54830, Santa Clara, Villa Clara (Cuba); Instituto de Física, Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, 18 Sur y San Claudio, Edif. 110A, Ciudad Universitaria, 72570 Puebla (Mexico); León-Pérez, Fernando de [Centro Universitario de la Defensa de Zaragoza, Ctra. de Huesca s/n, E-50090 Zaragoza (Spain); Pérez-Álvarez, R. [Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Morelos, Av. Universidad 1001, CP 62209 Cuernavaca (Mexico); Arriaga, J., E-mail: arriaga@ifuap.buap.mx [Instituto de Física, Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, 18 Sur y San Claudio, Edif. 110A, Ciudad Universitaria, 72570 Puebla (Mexico)

    2015-04-15

    The tunneling of optical and acoustic phonons at normal incidence on a double-barrier is studied in this paper. Transmission coefficients and resonance conditions are derived theoretically under the assumption that the long-wavelength approximation is valid. It is shown that the behavior of the transmission coefficients for the symmetric double barrier has a Lorentzian form close to resonant frequencies and that Breit–Wigner's formula have a general validity in one-dimensional phonon tunneling. Authors also study the so-called generalized Hartman effect in the tunneling of long-wavelength phonons and show that this effect is a numerical artifact resulting from taking the opaque limit before exploring the variation with a finite barrier width. This study could be useful for the design of acoustic devices.

  8. Phonon tunneling through a double barrier system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villegas, Diosdado; León-Pérez, Fernando de; Pérez-Álvarez, R.; Arriaga, J.

    2015-01-01

    The tunneling of optical and acoustic phonons at normal incidence on a double-barrier is studied in this paper. Transmission coefficients and resonance conditions are derived theoretically under the assumption that the long-wavelength approximation is valid. It is shown that the behavior of the transmission coefficients for the symmetric double barrier has a Lorentzian form close to resonant frequencies and that Breit–Wigner's formula have a general validity in one-dimensional phonon tunneling. Authors also study the so-called generalized Hartman effect in the tunneling of long-wavelength phonons and show that this effect is a numerical artifact resulting from taking the opaque limit before exploring the variation with a finite barrier width. This study could be useful for the design of acoustic devices

  9. Layered double hydroxides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    López Rayo, Sandra; Imran, Ahmad; Hansen, Hans Chr. Bruun

    2017-01-01

    A novel zinc (Zn) fertilizer concept based on Zn doped layered double hydroxides (Zn-doped Mg-Fe-LDHs) has been investigated. Zn-doped Mg-Fe-LDHs were synthetized, their chemical composition was analyzed and their nutrient release was studied in buffered solutions with different pH values. Uptake...

  10. Beyond the double banana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenzweig, Ivana; Fogarasi, András; Johnsen, Birger

    2014-01-01

    performance was compared with the double banana (longitudinal bipolar montage, 10-20 array). RESULTS: Adding the inferior temporal electrode chain, computed montages (reference free, common average, and source derivation), and voltage maps significantly increased the sensitivity. Phase maps had the highest...

  11. Double aortic arch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surgery can be done to fix double aortic arch. The surgeon ties off the smaller branch and separates it from the larger branch. Then the surgeon closes the ends of the aorta with stitches. This relieves pressure on the esophagus and windpipe.

  12. Aristotle and Double Effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Nucci, Ezio

    2014-01-01

    cases from the literature on double effect such as, amongst others, strategic bombing, the trolley problem, and craniotomy. I find that, despite some common features such as the dilemmatic structure and the inevitability of a bad effect, Aristotle’s mixed actions do not count as cases justifiable...

  13. Nuclear double beta decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubert, P.; Mennrath, P.

    1985-01-01

    The processes of double beta decay with and without emission of neutrinos are briefly reviewed. After the definitions of the processes and implications for the neutrino properties, the present status of the experimental results is discussed. We conclude with a description of the Bordeaux-Zaragoza-Strasbourg experimental which will run in the Frejus tunnel

  14. Design for Double Rainbow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Lisa Carlucci

    2011-01-01

    Rare is the inspirational, spontaneous, transformative moment shared among 20 million people. In the summer of 2010, people around the world were moved by the sighting of a double rainbow--almost a triple rainbow--"all the way across the sky" in Yosemite National Park. Caught on video and posted to by YouTube by Paul Vasquez in January 2010, the…

  15. Aristotle and Double Effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Nucci, Ezio

    2014-01-01

    There are some interesting similarities between Aristotle’s ‘mixed actions’ in Book III of the Nicomachean Ethics and the actions often thought to be justifiable with the Doctrine of Double Effect. Here I analyse these similarities by comparing Aristotle’s examples of mixed actions with standard ...

  16. Double-Barrier Resonant Tunneling in Three and Two Dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaslavsky, Alexander

    Double-barrier resonant tunneling devices have attracted great scientific interest, both as novel physical systems based on strong size quantization that exhibit unusual transport behavior and also as a promising class of semiconductor structures for high-speed electronic devices. This thesis describes the physics of transport in double-barrier structures fabricated by conventional planar growth, where the fundamental process involves tunneling from three-dimensional (3D) into two-dimensional (2D) densities of electronic states, as well as in novel 2D double-barrier structures fabricated by regrowth, where 2D electrons tunnel into well-separated ID quantum wire subbands. A brief introduction to the basic theory of resonant tunneling and the results of low-temperature I(V) transport measurements on high -quality planar double-barrier devices is presented in Chapter 1. Chapter 2 examines the bistable I(V) characteristic observed in specially designed asymmetric devices, with the intrinsic nature of this effect confirmed by parallel field magnetotunneling measurements. In Chapter 3 transverse field magnetotunneling is employed to experimentally verify the energy and transverse momentum selection rules that govern transport in resonant tunneling devices. Chapter 4 focuses on the fabrication of 2D resonant tunneling devices by liquid phase epitaxial regrowth on patterned substrates. A brief overview of liquid phase epitaxy and two different in-situ patterning techniques--selective meltback and cleaving inside the chamber--are presented. The measurements of the 2D device fabricated by regrowth on cleaved substrates are presented and analyzed in Chapter 5. The new possibilities opened up by the cleaved substrate regrowth techniques are also discussed, including the realization of an edge -regrown superlattice with novel high-field transport characteristics.

  17. Radioactive ruthenium removing device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imoto, Yoshie.

    1992-01-01

    In a device for passing gaseous wastes generated from a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant through a high efficiency particulate air filter (HEPA) to remove ruthenium, a polyethylene filler is disposed at the pre-stage of the high efficiency particulate air filter. RuO 4 is considered as gaseous ruthenium present in the gaseous wastes. RuO 4 is reduced into RuO 2 easily in a reducing atmosphere. Polyethylene includes double bonds and has an effect of reducing RuO 4 to RuO 2 . RuO 2 reduced by the filler charged with polyethylene is deposited on the filler. Further, also RuO 2 transferred to the gaseous wastes can be removed by the high efficiency particulate air filter. Further, since RuO 4 is adsorbed effectively to RuO 2 deposited on the polyethylene, it is not necessary to exchange the filler, to increase the effect of ruthenium removal. (T.M.)

  18. Simulation of semiconductor devices

    CERN Document Server

    Oriato, D

    2001-01-01

    cathode, made using an AIGaAs heterostructure step. Simulations show the importance of the insertion of a thin highly-doped layer between the transit region and the electron launcher in order to improve device operation. Chapter 5 is an introduction to Ill-nitrides, in particular GaN and its alloy ln-GaN. We outline the discrepancy in the elastic and piezoelectric parameters found in the literature. Strain, dislocations and piezoelectricity are presented as the main features of a InGaN/GaN system. In chapter 6 an extensive simulation of the dependence of the optical band gap of a single InGaN quantum well on the piezoelectric and spontaneous polarization is reported. Quantum Confined Stark Effect and screening mechanisms are found to play a major role. The simulation of a novel InGaN/GaN double quantum well LED is presented. A wide well is used to capture electrons that tunnels in a narrow well where they recombine with holes. Resonant asymmetric tunneling of electron and holes is used to increase the efficie...

  19. Equilibrium double layers in extended Pierce diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciubotariu-Jassy, C.I.

    1992-01-01

    The extended Pierce diode is similar to the standard (or classical) Pierce diode, but has passive circuit elements in place of the short circuit between the electrodes. This device is important as an approximation to real bounded plasma systems. It consists of two parallel plane electrodes (an emitter located at x=0 and a collector located at x=l) and a collisionless cold electron beam travelling between them. The electrons are neutralized by a background of comoving massive ions. This situation is analysed in this paper and new equilibrium double layer (DL) plasma structures are obtained. (author) 6 refs., 3 figs

  20. Double acting stirling engine phase control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berchowitz, David M.

    1983-01-01

    A mechanical device for effecting a phase change between the expansion and compression volumes of a double-acting Stirling engine uses helical elements which produce opposite rotation of a pair of crankpins when a control rod is moved, so the phase between two pairs of pistons is changed by +.psi. and the phase between the other two pairs of pistons is changed by -.psi.. The phase can change beyond .psi.=90.degree. at which regenerative braking and then reversal of engine rotation occurs.

  1. Mushrooms as Efficient Solar Steam-Generation Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ning; Hu, Xiaozhen; Xu, Weichao; Li, Xiuqiang; Zhou, Lin; Zhu, Shining; Zhu, Jia

    2017-07-01

    Solar steam generation is emerging as a promising technology, for its potential in harvesting solar energy for various applications such as desalination and sterilization. Recent studies have reported a variety of artificial structures that are designed and fabricated to improve energy conversion efficiencies by enhancing solar absorption, heat localization, water supply, and vapor transportation. Mushrooms, as a kind of living organism, are surprisingly found to be efficient solar steam-generation devices for the first time. Natural and carbonized mushrooms can achieve ≈62% and ≈78% conversion efficiencies under 1 sun illumination, respectively. It is found that this capability of high solar steam generation is attributed to the unique natural structure of mushroom, umbrella-shaped black pileus, porous context, and fibrous stipe with a small cross section. These features not only provide efficient light absorption, water supply, and vapor escape, but also suppress three components of heat losses at the same time. These findings not only reveal the hidden talent of mushrooms as low-cost materials for solar steam generation, but also provide inspiration for the future development of high-performance solar thermal conversion devices. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Project Half Double

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svejvig, Per; Gerstrøm, Anna; Frederiksen, Signe Hedeboe

    projects and to document their development. The purpose of this addendum is thus to document the development in the pilot projects from June 2016 to January 2017 with particular focus on the impact they have created. This Addendum is a supplement and should be read in conjunction with the Phase 1 report...... by the day. The formal part of Project Half Double was initiated in June 2015; it is divided into two phases where phase 1 took place from June 2015 to June 2016 with seven pilot projects, and phase 2 is in progress from July 2016 to July 2017 with 10 pilot projects. The Half Double consortium: Implement....... The Danish Industry Foundation, an independent philanthropic foundation, is contributing to the project financially with DKK 13.8 million. About the addendum: We published the report “Preliminary results for phase 1” in June 2016 (Svejvig, Ehlers et al. 2016). It is time to follow up on the Phase 1 pilot...

  3. The double Laplacian growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loutsenko, I.; Yermolayeva, O.

    2008-06-01

    The dynamics of the idealized Laplacian growth (or the Hele-Shaw problem) can be approximated by the Poiselle flow which in appropriate units takes the form of the Darcy law. In this paper we account for the liquid inertia in the Hele-Shaw problem at zero surface tension limit. The Laplace dynamics for the pressure is extended here with one more for the velocity potential for which we call this growth process the Double Laplacian. The application of the conformal mappings technique leads to doubled dynamics for both the conformal map and the complex potential, which is presented in the paper for the radial and the planar growth. We apply the stability analysis and discuss the integrability for the stated problem. (author)

  4. Subatmospheric double containment system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gans, D. Jr.; Noble, J.H.

    1978-01-01

    A reinforced concrete double wall nuclear containment structure with each wall including an essentially impervious membrane or liner and porous concrete filling the annulus between the two walls is described. The interior of the structure is maintained at subatmospheric pressure, and the annulus between the two walls is maintained at a subatmospheric pressure intermediate between that of the interior and the surrounding atmospheric pressure, during normal operation. In the event of an accident within the containment structure the interior pressure may exceed atmospheric pressure, but leakage from the interior to the annulus between the double walls will not result in the pressure of the annulus exceeding atmospheric pressure so that there is no net outleakage from the containment structure

  5. Neutrinoless double beta decay

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-10-06

    Oct 6, 2012 ... nuclear decay of neutrinoless double beta decay typically leading to sub-eV values as well. (Z, A) → (Z + 2, A) + 2e .... Here again energy resolution matters, because of the continuous spectrum of the 2νββ- decay mode, its high .... The benefit of using Te is its high natural abundance. This experiment is in ...

  6. Medical Device Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    A medical device is any product used to diagnose, cure, or treat a condition, or to prevent disease. They ... may need one in a hospital. To use medical devices safely Know how your device works. Keep ...

  7. Intrauterine devices (IUD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007635.htm Intrauterine devices (IUD) To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. An intrauterine device (IUD) is a small plastic T-shaped device ...

  8. Infrared criminalistic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibin, Igor S.; Savkov, E. V.; Popov, Pavel G.

    1996-12-01

    We are presenting the devices of near-IR spectral range in this report. The devices may be used in criminalistics, in bank business, in restoration works, etc. the action principle of these devices is describing briefly.

  9. Implantable electronic medical devices

    CERN Document Server

    Fitzpatrick, Dennis

    2014-01-01

    Implantable Electronic Medical Devices provides a thorough review of the application of implantable devices, illustrating the techniques currently being used together with overviews of the latest commercially available medical devices. This book provides an overview of the design of medical devices and is a reference on existing medical devices. The book groups devices with similar functionality into distinct chapters, looking at the latest design ideas and techniques in each area, including retinal implants, glucose biosensors, cochlear implants, pacemakers, electrical stimulation t

  10. Ultraefficient Themoelectric Devices Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Thermoelectric (TE) devices already found a wide range of commercial, military and aerospace applications. However, at present commercially available TE devices...

  11. Performance analysis of double basin solar still with evacuated tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hitesh N Panchal; Shah, P. K.

    2013-01-01

    Solar still is a very simple device, which is used for solar distillation process. In this research work, double basin solar still is made from locally available materials. Double basin solar still is made in such a way that, outer basin is exposed to sun and lower side of inner basin is directly connected with evacuated tubes to increase distillate output and reducing heat losses of a solar still. The overall size of the lower basin is about 1006 mm x 325 mm x 380 mm, the outer basin is about 1006 mm x 536 mm x 100 mm Black granite gravel is used to increase distillate output by reducing quantity of brackish or saline water in the both basins. Several experiments have conducted to determine the performance of a solar still in climate conditions of Mehsana (latitude of 23 degree 59' and longitude of 72 degree 38'), Gujarat, like a double basin solar still alone, double basin solar still with different size black granite gravel, double basin solar still with evacuated tubes and double basin solar still with evacuated tubes and different size black granite gravel. Experimental results show that, connecting evacuated tubes with the lower side of the inner basin increases daily distillate output of 56% and is increased by 60%, 63% and 67% with average 10 mm, 20 mm and 30 mm size black granite gravel. Economic analysis of present double basin solar still is 195 days. (authors)

  12. Double layers - theory and experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torven, S.

    1980-06-01

    A survey is given of recent investigations of electric double layers in low density plasmas. The existence of double layers is now well established in both magnetized and unmagnetized plasmas. Laboratory experiments and numerical simulations show that double layers coexist with waves and fluctuations as expected in view of the particle beams which are formed in the layer. Under certain conditions the level of the fluctuations is small and experimental results then compare favourably with stationary double layer models. Significant progress on layer formation processes has been made, but further investigations are required to predict under what conditions double layers will form in different types of plasmas. (author)

  13. Ac-induced disruption of the doubleDs structure in tomato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rommens, Caius M.T.; Biezen, Erik A. van der; Ouwerkerk, Pieter B.F.; Nijkamp, H. John J.; Hille, Jacques

    1991-01-01

    The maize doubleDs element is stably maintained in the tomato genome. Upon the subsequent introduction of Ac into a plant containing doubleDs, disruption of the doubleDs structure and DNA rearrangements at the site of the doubleDs element were observed. No indications were obtained for excision of

  14. The Double Star mission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The Double Star Programme (DSP was first proposed by China in March, 1997 at the Fragrant Hill Workshop on Space Science, Beijing, organized by the Chinese Academy of Science. It is the first mission in collaboration between China and ESA. The mission is made of two spacecraft to investigate the magnetospheric global processes and their response to the interplanetary disturbances in conjunction with the Cluster mission. The first spacecraft, TC-1 (Tan Ce means "Explorer", was launched on 29 December 2003, and the second one, TC-2, on 25 July 2004 on board two Chinese Long March 2C rockets. TC-1 was injected in an equatorial orbit of 570x79000 km altitude with a 28° inclination and TC-2 in a polar orbit of 560x38000 km altitude. The orbits have been designed to complement the Cluster mission by maximizing the time when both Cluster and Double Star are in the same scientific regions. The two missions allow simultaneous observations of the Earth magnetosphere from six points in space. To facilitate the comparison of data, half of the Double Star payload is made of spare or duplicates of the Cluster instruments; the other half is made of Chinese instruments. The science operations are coordinated by the Chinese DSP Scientific Operations Centre (DSOC in Beijing and the European Payload Operations Service (EPOS at RAL, UK. The spacecraft and ground segment operations are performed by the DSP Operations and Management Centre (DOMC and DSOC in China, using three ground station, in Beijing, Shanghai and Villafranca.

  15. High performance spiro ammonium electrolyte for Electric Double Layer Capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeRosa, Donald; Higashiya, Seiichiro; Schulz, Adam; Rane-Fondacaro, Manisha; Haldar, Pradeep

    2017-08-01

    The smallest spiro ammonium salt reported to date, 1 M 4-Axoniaspiro[3,4]octane tetrafluoroborate (APBF4), was successfully synthesized and investigated as the electrolyte with acetonitrile (AN) in an Electric Double Layer Capacitor (EDLC) for the first time. The electrochemical characteristics of EDLC devices containing 1 M APBF4/AN paired with commercial activated carbon electrodes were compared to devices containing popular EDLC electrolytes, 1 M 5-Azoniaspiro[4.4]nonane tetrafluoroborate (SBPBF4/AN) and 1 M tetraethyl ammonium tetrafluoroborate (TEABF4/AN), using cyclic voltammetry (CV), galvanostatic charge discharge (GCD), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The average gravimetric capacitance of the 1 M APBF4 device (124.7 F g-1) was found to be greater than the values measured for both the 1 M SBPBF4 device (108.6 F g-1) and the 1 M TEABF4 device (99.2 F g-1). The direct current equivalent series resistance (ESR) of the 1 M APBF4 device (383.4 mΩ cm-2) was found to be substantially lower than the values measured for both the 1 M SBPBF4 device (501.0 mΩ cm-2) and the 1 M TEABF4 device (710.8 mΩ cm-2). These results demonstrate that APBF4, when compared to current commercial electrolytes, significantly enhances the energy storage properties of EDLC devices.

  16. Double your money

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moxon, Suzanne

    1998-01-01

    The government-owned Hydro-Quebec was instructed to take certain actions, one of which was to increase profits. The company has published a report describing its plans for 1998-2002. The company expects to increase sales and double its income over the five years. Hydro-Quebec (which produces or purchases 97% of the electricity consumed in the province) will freeze prices until April 2002. Environmental considerations and liaison with local communities are included in the 5-year plan. The company expects to invest c$1.2B in international markets over the five years and C$20M per year are earmarked for research. (UK)

  17. FLUIDICS DEVICE FOR ASSAY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2007-01-01

    The present invention relates to a device for use in performing assays on standard laboratory solid supports whereon chemical entities are attached. The invention furthermore relates to the use of such a device and a kit comprising such a device. The device according to the present invention is a...

  18. A double-gate double-feedback JFET charge-sensitive preamplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fazzi, A.

    1996-01-01

    A new charge-sensitive preamplifier (CSP) without a physical resistance in the feedback is presented. The input device has to be a double-gate JFET. In this new preamplifier configuration the feedback capacitor is continuously discharged by means of a second DC current feedback loop closed through the bottom gate of the input JFET. The top gate-channel junction works as usual in reverse bias, the bottom gate-channel is forward biased. A fraction of the current injected by the bottom gate reaches the top gate discharging the feedback capacitor. The n-channel double-gate JFET is considered from the viewpoint of the restoring action as a parasitic p-n-p ''transversal'' bipolar junction transistor. The new preamplifier is also suited for detectors operating at room temperature with leakage current which may vary with time. The DC behaviour and the dynamic behaviour of the circuit is analyzed and new measurements presented. (orig.)

  19. A double-gate double-feedback JFET charge-sensitive preamplifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fazzi, A. [Politecnico di Milano (Italy). Centro Studi Nucleari E. Fermi; Rehak, P. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1996-10-01

    A new charge-sensitive preamplifier (CSP) without a physical resistance in the feedback is presented. The input device has to be a double-gate JFET. In this new preamplifier configuration the feedback capacitor is continuously discharged by means of a second DC current feedback loop closed through the bottom gate of the input JFET. The top gate-channel junction works as usual in reverse bias, the bottom gate-channel is forward biased. A fraction of the current injected by the bottom gate reaches the top gate discharging the feedback capacitor. The n-channel double-gate JFET is considered from the viewpoint of the restoring action as a parasitic p-n-p ``transversal`` bipolar junction transistor. The new preamplifier is also suited for detectors operating at room temperature with leakage current which may vary with time. The DC behaviour and the dynamic behaviour of the circuit is analyzed and new measurements presented. (orig.).

  20. 100-nm gate lithography for double-gate transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasnoperova, Azalia A.; Zhang, Ying; Babich, Inna V.; Treichler, John; Yoon, Jung H.; Guarini, Kathryn; Solomon, Paul M.

    2001-09-01

    The double gate field effect transistor (FET) is an exploratory device that promises certain performance advantages compared to traditional CMOS FETs. It can be scaled down further than the traditional devices because of the greater electrostatic control by the gates on the channel (about twice as short a channel length for the same gate oxide thickness), has steeper sub-threshold slope and about double the current for the same width. This paper presents lithographic results for double gate FET's developed at IBM's T. J. Watson Research Center. The device is built on bonded wafers with top and bottom gates self-aligned to each other. The channel is sandwiched between the top and bottom polysilicon gates and the gate length is defined using DUV lithography. An alternating phase shift mask was used to pattern gates with critical dimensions of 75 nm, 100 nm and 125 nm in photoresist. 50 nm gates in photoresist have also been patterned by 20% over-exposure of nominal 100 nm lines. No trim mask was needed because of a specific way the device was laid out. UV110 photoresist from Shipley on AR-3 antireflective layer were used. Process windows, developed and etched patterns are presented.

  1. A 4 mm² Double Differential Torsional MEMS Accelerometer Based on a Double-Beam Configuration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Tongqiao; Xiao, Dingbang; Li, Qingsong; Hou, Zhanqiang; Wu, Xuezhong

    2017-10-02

    This paper reports the design and simulation of a 4 mm² double differential torsional MEMS accelerometer based on a double-beam configuration. Based on the structure of conventional torsional accelerometers, normally composed of one pair of proof masses and one torsional beam, this work explores the double differential configuration: a torsional accelerometer with two pairs of unbalanced proof masses rotating in reverse. Also, the torsional beam is designed as a double-beam structure, which is a symmetrical structure formed by two torsional beams separated by a certain distance. The device area of the novel accelerometer is more than 50 times smaller than that of a traditional double differential torsional MEMS accelerometer. The FEM simulation results demonstrate that the smaller device does not sacrifice other specifications, such as mechanical sensitivity, nonlinearity and temperature robustness. The mechanical sensitivity and nonlinearity of a ±15 g measuring range is 59.4 fF/g and 0.88%, respectively. Compared with traditional single-beam silicon structures, the novel structure can achieve lower maximum principle stress in critical regions and reduce the possibility of failure when high-g acceleration loading is applied along all three axes. The mechanical noise equivalent acceleration is about 0.13 mg / Hz in the theoretical calculations and the offset temperature coefficient is 0.25 mg/ ℃ in the full temperature range of - 40 ℃ to 60 ℃ .

  2. Spin-filtering junctions with double ferroelectric barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Ju; Ding-Yu, Xing

    2009-01-01

    An FS/FE/NS/FE/FS double tunnel junction is suggested to have the ability to inject, modulate and detect the spin-polarized current electrically in a single device, where FS is the ferromagnetic semiconductor electrode, NS is the nonmagnetic semiconductor, and FE the ferroelectric barrier. The spin polarization of the current injected into the NS region can be switched between a highly spin-polarized state and a spin unpolarized state. The high spin polarization may be detected by measuring the tunneling magnetoresistance ratio of the double tunnel junction

  3. Video Browsing on Handheld Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hürst, Wolfgang

    Recent improvements in processing power, storage space, and video codec development enable users now to playback video on their handheld devices in a reasonable quality. However, given the form factor restrictions of such a mobile device, screen size still remains a natural limit and - as the term "handheld" implies - always will be a critical resource. This is not only true for video but any data that is processed on such devices. For this reason, developers have come up with new and innovative ways to deal with large documents in such limited scenarios. For example, if you look at the iPhone, innovative techniques such as flicking have been introduced to skim large lists of text (e.g. hundreds of entries in your music collection). Automatically adapting the zoom level to, for example, the width of table cells when double tapping on the screen enables reasonable browsing of web pages that have originally been designed for large, desktop PC sized screens. A multi touch interface allows you to easily zoom in and out of large text documents and images using two fingers. In the next section, we will illustrate that advanced techniques to browse large video files have been developed in the past years, as well. However, if you look at state-of-the-art video players on mobile devices, normally just simple, VCR like controls are supported (at least at the time of this writing) that only allow users to just start, stop, and pause video playback. If supported at all, browsing and navigation functionality is often restricted to simple skipping of chapters via two single buttons for backward and forward navigation and a small and thus not very sensitive timeline slider.

  4. Double profunda brachii artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavishiddappa A Hadimani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Brachial artery (BA is a continuation of the axillary artery at the lower border of teres major. In the cubital fossa, BA divides into radial artery and ulnar artery as terminal branches. Large branch given from the BA in the upper part is profunda brachii artery. In the present case, we noticed double profunda brachii that arises from the BA. They are profunda brachii artery 1 and profunda brachii artery 2. Profunda brachii artery 1 arises in the proximal part of the BA and profunda brachii artery 2 arises distal to the profunda brachii artery 1. Both the arteries run inferolaterally in the spiral groove along with radial nerve. Variations of profunda brachii artery are important during harvesting of the lateral arm flaps and may lead to inadvertent injury during percutaneous arterial catheterization or injection of drugs.

  5. Double-Skin Facade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalyanova, Olena

    , transparent insulation and preheating operation modes of DSF cavity. The data sets include measurements of naturally induced air flow, temperature gradients, velocity profiles, climate data, etc. Two data sets were used for further empirical validation of building simulation software for DSF modelling within...... favored by companies and their employees. To bring the reduction of energy use in these buildings application of suitable tools and methods is necessary to achieve successful design solutions. Earlier work on the topic of DSF modelling was examined from various publications. As a result, the main...... to perform the simulations. To fill in the gap of lacking experimental data a range of measurements was carried out in an outdoor, double-skin façade full-scale test facility ‘The Cube'. As a result, three complete sets of experimental data were composed. These are available for external air curtain...

  6. GENERALIZED DOUBLE PARETO SHRINKAGE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armagan, Artin; Dunson, David B; Lee, Jaeyong

    2013-01-01

    We propose a generalized double Pareto prior for Bayesian shrinkage estimation and inferences in linear models. The prior can be obtained via a scale mixture of Laplace or normal distributions, forming a bridge between the Laplace and Normal-Jeffreys' priors. While it has a spike at zero like the Laplace density, it also has a Student's t -like tail behavior. Bayesian computation is straightforward via a simple Gibbs sampling algorithm. We investigate the properties of the maximum a posteriori estimator, as sparse estimation plays an important role in many problems, reveal connections with some well-established regularization procedures, and show some asymptotic results. The performance of the prior is tested through simulations and an application.

  7. Doubled Color Codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravyi, Sergey

    Combining protection from noise and computational universality is one of the biggest challenges in the fault-tolerant quantum computing. Topological stabilizer codes such as the 2D surface code can tolerate a high level of noise but implementing logical gates, especially non-Clifford ones, requires a prohibitively large overhead due to the need of state distillation. In this talk I will describe a new family of 2D quantum error correcting codes that enable a transversal implementation of all logical gates required for the universal quantum computing. Transversal logical gates (TLG) are encoded operations that can be realized by applying some single-qubit rotation to each physical qubit. TLG are highly desirable since they introduce no overhead and do not spread errors. It has been known before that a quantum code can have only a finite number of TLGs which rules out computational universality. Our scheme circumvents this no-go result by combining TLGs of two different quantum codes using the gauge-fixing method pioneered by Paetznick and Reichardt. The first code, closely related to the 2D color code, enables a transversal implementation of all single-qubit Clifford gates such as the Hadamard gate and the π / 2 phase shift. The second code that we call a doubled color code provides a transversal T-gate, where T is the π / 4 phase shift. The Clifford+T gate set is known to be computationally universal. The two codes can be laid out on the honeycomb lattice with two qubits per site such that the code conversion requires parity measurements for six-qubit Pauli operators supported on faces of the lattice. I will also describe numerical simulations of logical Clifford+T circuits encoded by the distance-3 doubled color code. Based on a joint work with Andrew Cross.

  8. Formation of Double Neutron Stars, Millisecond Pulsars and Double ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Edward P. J. Heuvel

    2017-09-12

    Sep 12, 2017 ... Abstract. The 1982 model for the formation of Hulse–Taylor binary radio pulsar PSR B1913+16 is described, which since has become the 'standard model' for the formation of the double neutron stars, confirmed by the. 2003 discovery of the double pulsar system PSR J0737-3039AB. A brief overview is ...

  9. Draping Double-Layer Woven Fabrics Onto Double-Curvature ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Draping woven fabrics to complex parts with double curvature leads to complex redistribution and reorientation of the yarns in composites reinforced with woven preforms. To reduce the risk of fabric tearing or wrinkling we propose to use double-layer woven fabrics. This paper presents a simulation model for draping

  10. Fabrication of quantum-dot devices in graphene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Moriyama, Yoshifumi Morita, Eiichiro Watanabe, Daiju Tsuya, Shinya Uji, Maki Shimizu and Koji Ishibashi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe our recent experimental results on the fabrication of quantum-dot devices in a graphene-based two-dimensional system. Graphene samples were prepared by micromechanical cleavage of graphite crystals on a SiO2/Si substrate. We performed micro-Raman spectroscopy measurements to determine the number of layers of graphene flakes during the device fabrication process. By applying a nanofabrication process to the identified graphene flakes, we prepared a double-quantum-dot device structure comprising two lateral quantum dots coupled in series. Measurements of low-temperature electrical transport show the device to be a series-coupled double-dot system with varied interdot tunnel coupling, the strength of which changes continuously and non-monotonically as a function of gate voltage.

  11. Double-Forked Artifice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elias, Camelia

    2012-01-01

    One of the chief characteristics of the aphoristic style is the reduction of a set of ideas to an essential minimum. When the practitioner of the aphorism, a fragment, or a maxim, is successful, it takes, however, not only skills to produce elegant bottom-lines, but also a sense of how far...... that burns the very abstract that is supposed to transcend even the very production of meaning? Thematically, I'm interested in looking at how Nietzsche formulates epistemologies of creative writing against the background of such stylistic devices which have the genre of the aphorism and the fragment...

  12. Electrostimulating device in the management of xerostomia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strietzel, F P; Martín-Granizo, R; Fedele, S; Lo Russo, L; Mignogna, M; Reichart, P A; Wolff, A

    2007-03-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of a recently developed electrostimulating device mounted on an individualized intra-oral removable appliance. The device, containing electrodes, a wetness sensor, an electronic circuit and a power source, was tested on patients with xerostomia in a crossover, randomized, sham-controlled, double-blinded, multicenter study. Electrical stimulation and also sham were delivered during 10 min to the oral mucosa, in the mandibular third molar region. Oral dryness was measured by the sensor. As the primary outcome, sensor dryness and xerostomia symptom changes as a result of device wearing were assessed, and compared between active and sham modes. In addition, side-effects were recorded. Electrostimulation resulted in a significant decrease in sensor dryness, leading to a beneficial effect on patients' subjective condition. No significant side-effects were observed.

  13. Devices for hearing loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the sounds you want to hear. Assistive listening devices bring certain sounds directly to your ears. This can ... a small room or on a stage. Other devices can bring the sound from your TV, radio, or music ...

  14. Memristive devices for computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, J Joshua; Strukov, Dmitri B; Stewart, Duncan R

    2013-01-01

    Memristive devices are electrical resistance switches that can retain a state of internal resistance based on the history of applied voltage and current. These devices can store and process information, and offer several key performance characteristics that exceed conventional integrated circuit technology. An important class of memristive devices are two-terminal resistance switches based on ionic motion, which are built from a simple conductor/insulator/conductor thin-film stack. These devices were originally conceived in the late 1960s and recent progress has led to fast, low-energy, high-endurance devices that can be scaled down to less than 10 nm and stacked in three dimensions. However, the underlying device mechanisms remain unclear, which is a significant barrier to their widespread application. Here, we review recent progress in the development and understanding of memristive devices. We also examine the performance requirements for computing with memristive devices and detail how the outstanding challenges could be met.

  15. Liquid Crystal Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Madeline J.

    1983-01-01

    The nature of liquid crystals and several important liquid crystal devices are described. Ideas for practical experiments to illustrate the properties of liquid crystals and their operation in devices are also described. (Author/JN)

  16. Novel Magnetic Devices

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schuller, Ivan

    2007-01-01

    ...: ballistic magnetoresistance, magnetic field proximity effect and spin drag. These three phenomena would then be exploited for the design of novel device architectures and to investigate the physical principles behind these devices...

  17. Double parton scattering theory overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diehl, Markus; Gaunt, Jonathan R.

    2017-01-01

    The dynamics of double hard scattering in proton-proton collisions is quite involved compared with the familiar case of single hard scattering. In this contribution, we review our theoretical understanding of double hard scattering and of its interplay with other reaction mechanisms.

  18. Generation of colloidal granules and capsules from double emulsion drops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Kathryn S.

    Assemblies of colloidal particles are extensively used in ceramic processing, pharmaceuticals, inks and coatings. In this project, the aim was to develop a new technique to fabricate monodispersed colloidal assemblies. The use of microfluidic devices and emulsion processing allows for the fabrication of complex materials that can be used in a variety of applications. A microfluidic device is used to create monodispersed water/oil/water (w/o/w) double emulsions with interior droplets of colloidal silica suspension ranging in size from tens to hundreds of microns. By tailoring the osmotic pressure using glycerol as a solute in the continuous and inner phases of the emulsion, we can control the final volume size of the monodispersed silica colloidal crystals that form in the inner droplets of the double emulsion. Modifying the ionic strength in the colloidal dispersion can be used to affect the particle-particle interactions and crystal formation of the final colloidal particle. This w/o/w technique has been used with other systems of metal oxide colloids and cellulose nanocrystals. Encapsulation of the colloidal suspension in a polymer shell for the generation of ceramic-polymer core-shell particles has also been developed. These core-shell particles have spawned new research in the field of locally resonant acoustic metamaterials. Systems and chemistries for creating cellulose hydrogels within the double emulsions have also been researched. Water in oil single emulsions and double emulsions have been used to create cellulose hydrogel spheres in the sub-100 micron diameter range. Oil/water/oil double emulsions allow us to create stable cellulose capsules. The addition of a second hydrogel polymer, such as acrylate or alginate, further strengthens the cellulose gel network and can also be processed into capsules and particles using the microfluidic device. This work could have promising applications in acoustic metamaterials, personal care products, pharmaceuticals

  19. Abstract Storage Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Koenig, Robert; Maurer, Ueli; Tessaro, Stefano

    2007-01-01

    A quantum storage device differs radically from a conventional physical storage device. Its state can be set to any value in a certain (infinite) state space, but in general every possible read operation yields only partial information about the stored state. The purpose of this paper is to initiate the study of a combinatorial abstraction, called abstract storage device (ASD), which models deterministic storage devices with the property that only partial information about the state can be re...

  20. Heterostructures and quantum devices

    CERN Document Server

    Einspruch, Norman G

    1994-01-01

    Heterostructure and quantum-mechanical devices promise significant improvement in the performance of electronic and optoelectronic integrated circuits (ICs). Though these devices are the subject of a vigorous research effort, the current literature is often either highly technical or narrowly focused. This book presents heterostructure and quantum devices to the nonspecialist, especially electrical engineers working with high-performance semiconductor devices. It focuses on a broad base of technical applications using semiconductor physics theory to develop the next generation of electrical en

  1. 2-D analytical modeling of subthreshold current and subthreshold swing for ion-implanted strained-Si double-material double-gate (DMDG) MOSFETs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Ekta; Singh, Kunal; Singh, Balraj; Kumar, Sanjay; Jit, Satyabrata

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, the subthreshold behavior of ion-implanted strained-Si double-material double-gate (DMDG) MOSFETs has been analyzed by means of subthreshold current and subthreshold swing. The surface potential based formulation of subthreshold current and subthreshold swing is done by solving the 2-D Poisson's equations in the channel region using parabolic approximation method. The dependence of subthreshold characteristics on various device parameters such as gate length ratio, Ge mole fraction, peak doping concentration, projected range, straggle parameter etc. has been studied. The modeling results are found to be well matched with the simulation data obtained by a 2-D device simulator, ATLAS™, from SILVACO.

  2. Device-less interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monaci, G.; Triki, M.; Sarroukh, B.E.

    2009-01-01

    This document describes the results of a technology survey for device-less interaction. The Device-less Interaction project (2007-307) aims at providing interaction options for future home appliances without resorting to a remote control or any other dedicated control device. The target home

  3. Inspection device in liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagaoka, Etsuo.

    1996-01-01

    The present invention provides an inspection device in PWR reactor core in which inspection operations are made efficient by stabilizing a posture of the device in front-to-back, vertical and left-to-right directions by a simple structure. When the device conducts inspection while running in liquid, the front and the back directions of the device main body are inspected using a visual device while changing the posture by operating a front-to-back direction propulsion device and a right-to-left direction propulsion device, and a vertical direction propulsion device against to rolling, pitching and yawing of the device main body. In this case, a spherical magnet moves freely in the gravitational direction in a vibration-damping fluid in a non-magnetic spherical shell following the change of the posture of the device main body, in which the vibrations due to the movement of the spherical magnet is settled by the vibration-damping fluid thereby stabilizing the posture of the device main body. At a typical inspection posture, the settling effect is enhanced by the attraction force between the spherical magnets in the spherical shell and each of magnetic force-attracted magnetic members disposed to the outer circumference of the shell, and the posture of the device main body can be confirmed in front-to-back, right-to-left and vertical directions by each of the posture confirming magnetic sensors. (N.H.)

  4. Radiation emitting devices act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1970-01-01

    This Act, entitled the Radiation Emitting Devices Act, is concerned with the sale and importation of radiation emitting devices. Laws relating to the sale, lease or import, labelling, advertising, packaging, safety standards and inspection of these devices are listed as well as penalties for any person who is convicted of breaking these laws

  5. Photovoltaic device and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleereman, Robert J; Lesniak, Michael J; Keenihan, James R; Langmaid, Joe A; Gaston, Ryan; Eurich, Gerald K; Boven, Michelle L

    2015-01-27

    The present invention is premised upon an improved photovoltaic device ("PVD") and method of use, more particularly to an improved photovoltaic device with an integral locator and electrical terminal mechanism for transferring current to or from the improved photovoltaic device and the use as a system.

  6. Containment and surveillance devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, J.W.; Johnson, C.S.; Stieff, L.R.

    The growing acceptance of containment and surveillance as a means to increase safeguards effectiveness has provided impetus to the development of improved surveillance and containment devices. Five recently developed devices are described. The devices include one photographic and two television surveillance systems and two high security seals that can be verified while installed

  7. Articulating feedstock delivery device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Kevin

    2013-11-05

    A fully articulable feedstock delivery device that is designed to operate at pressure and temperature extremes. The device incorporates an articulating ball assembly which allows for more accurate delivery of the feedstock to a target location. The device is suitable for a variety of applications including, but not limited to, delivery of feedstock to a high-pressure reaction chamber or process zone.

  8. Double-clad nuclear-fuel safety rod

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, W.H.; Atcheson, D.B.

    1981-12-30

    A device for shutting down a nuclear reactor during an undercooling or overpower event, whether or not the reactor's scram system operates properly. This is accomplished by double-clad fuel safety rods positioned at various locations throughout the reactor core, wherein melting of a secondary internal cladding of the rod allows the fuel column therein to shift from the reactor core to place the reactor in a subcritical condition.

  9. Behavior of faulty double BJT BiCMOS logic gates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Sankaran M.; Malaiya, Yashwant K.; Jayasumana, Anura P.

    1992-01-01

    Logic Behavior of a Double BJT BiCMOS device under transistor level shorts and opens is examined. In addition to delay faults, faults that cause the gate to exhibit sequential behavior were observed. Several faults can be detected only by monitoring the current. The faulty behavior of Bipolar (TTL) and CMOS logic families is compared with BiCMOS, to bring out the testability differences.

  10. Double Tracks closure report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-06-01

    This report describes the remediation activities performed and the results of postremediation radiation surveys conducted at the Double Tracks site, located on Range 71 North, of the Nellis Air Force Range (NAFR) in southern Nevada. This remediation was conducted from June to August 1996 in accordance with the Interim Corrective Action Plan (ICAP) to remediate the site to an acceptable risk to human health and the environment. Soil with a total transuranic activity greater than 200 picoCuries per gram (pCi/g) was excavated, shipped to the Nevada Test Site (NTS), and disposed at the Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS). A total of 52.3 grams of plutonium (Pu) with an activity of 5.12 Curies was disposed. The concrete pad at ground zero (GZ) was broken up, placed in a Sealand reg-sign container, and shipped to the NTS Area 6 decontamination pad. Additionally, approximately 10 m 3 (350 ft 3 ) of soil containing small chips of concrete was shipped to the NTS Area 6 decontamination pad. The concrete and soil/concrete mixture will be further characterized prior to disposal. At the time this report was written, characterization samples were being collected, with analytical results expected in January 1997. It is anticipated that the material will be disposed in mid-1997. This remediation is an interim action because final cleanup levels have not been established

  11. Double chambered right ventricle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Chul Koo; Yu, Yun Jeong; Yeon, Kyung Mo; Han, Man Chung [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1983-12-15

    Fourteen cases of double chambered right ventricle were diagnosed angiographically and of these nine cases were confirmed after operation and autopsy at Seoul National University Hospital in recent four years since 1979. The clinical and radiological findings with the emphasis on the cinecardiographic findings were analysed. The summaries of the analysis are as follows: 1. Among 14 cases, 6 cases were male and 8 cases were female. Age distribution was from 4 years to 36 years. 2. In chest x-ray findings, pulmonary vascularity was increased in 8 cases, decreased in 4 cases, and normal in 2 cases. Cardiomegaly was observed in 8 cases and other showed normal heart size. 3. In cinecardiography, 11 cases had interventricular septal defect. Among these 11 cases, VSD located in proximal high pressure chamber was in 2 cases and located in distal low pressure chamber was in 9 cases. 4. The location of aberrant muscle bundle in sinus portion of right ventricle was in 8 cases. In the rest 6 cases, the aberrant muscle bundle was located below the infundibulum of right ventricle. 5. For accurate diagnosis and differential diagnosis with other congenital cardiac anomalies such as Tetralogy of Fallot or isolated pulmonic stenosis, biplane cineangiography and catheterization is an essential procedure.

  12. Double chambered right ventricle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Chul Koo; Yu, Yun Jeong; Yeon, Kyung Mo; Han, Man Chung

    1983-01-01

    Fourteen cases of double chambered right ventricle were diagnosed angiographically and of these nine cases were confirmed after operation and autopsy at Seoul National University Hospital in recent four years since 1979. The clinical and radiological findings with the emphasis on the cinecardiographic findings were analysed. The summaries of the analysis are as follows: 1. Among 14 cases, 6 cases were male and 8 cases were female. Age distribution was from 4 years to 36 years. 2. In chest x-ray findings, pulmonary vascularity was increased in 8 cases, decreased in 4 cases, and normal in 2 cases. Cardiomegaly was observed in 8 cases and other showed normal heart size. 3. In cinecardiography, 11 cases had interventricular septal defect. Among these 11 cases, VSD located in proximal high pressure chamber was in 2 cases and located in distal low pressure chamber was in 9 cases. 4. The location of aberrant muscle bundle in sinus portion of right ventricle was in 8 cases. In the rest 6 cases, the aberrant muscle bundle was located below the infundibulum of right ventricle. 5. For accurate diagnosis and differential diagnosis with other congenital cardiac anomalies such as Tetralogy of Fallot or isolated pulmonic stenosis, biplane cineangiography and catheterization is an essential procedure

  13. Double mental foramina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taruska Ventorini Vasconcelos

    Full Text Available The knowledge of the location, trajectory, and characteristics of the neurovascular bundles in the jaws is fundamental to reduce risk of injuries to this structure during surgical procedures, especially when anatomical variations are present. The presence of anatomical variations associated with the mental foramen has been reported in some cases and is frequently undervalued in clinical procedures. Sensorial disturbances, such as paresthesia in the lower lip or cheeks, may occur as result of pressure on the mental foramen. These anatomical variations can be detected in clinical practice by imaging exams. Computed tomography has been established as a valuable imaging modality capable of providing in-depth information about maxillofacial structures, allowing detailed evaluation of their topography and anatomical variations, such as additional mental foramina. The objective of this article was to describe a case with double mental foramina that only could be observed in computed tomography images. The use of cone beam computed tomography has increased in dentistry, thus anatomical variations that may have an influence on the diagnosis and treatment planning must be recognized. Have a good knowledge of additional mental foramina may contribute to adequate anesthetic techniques and to avoid misdiagnosis of bone lesions and eventual damages to the nerves and vessel during surgical procedures in that region.

  14. Antarctic radiation exposure doubles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blue, Charles

    New data reveal that the Antarctic Peninsula received twice its normal maximum dose of hazardous solar ultraviolet radiation in December 1990. The prolonged persistence of the ozone hole over Antarctica caused an increased exposure of radiation, according to a paper published in the October issue of Geophysical Research Letters.John Frederick and Amy D. Alberts of the University of Chicago calculated the amount of ultraviolet solar spectral radiation from data collected at Palmer Station, Antarctica. During the spring of 1990 the largest observed values for ultraviolet radiation were approximately double the values expected, based on previous years. “The measurements from Palmer Station are consistent with similar data from McMurdo Sound, where a factor of three [ultraviolet radiation] enhancement was recorded, according to work by Knut Stamnes and colleagues at the University of Alaska,” Frederick said. “The radiation levels observed over Palmer Station in December 1990 may be the largest experienced in this region of the world since the development of the Earth's ozone layer,” he added.

  15. Tunnel magnetoresistance in double spin filter junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saffarzadeh, Alireza

    2003-01-01

    We consider a new type of magnetic tunnel junction, which consists of two ferromagnetic tunnel barriers acting as spin filters (SFs), separated by a nonmagnetic metal (NM) layer. Using the transfer matrix method and the free-electron approximation, the dependence of the tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) on the thickness of the central NM layer, bias voltage and temperature in the double SF junction are studied theoretically. It is shown that the TMR and electron-spin polarization in this structure can reach very large values under suitable conditions. The highest value of the TMR can reach 99%. By an appropriate choice of the thickness of the central NM layer, the degree of spin polarization in this structure will be higher than that of the single SF junctions. These results may be useful in designing future spin-polarized tunnelling devices

  16. Microfluidic preparation and self diffusion PFG-NMR analysis of monodisperse water-in-oil-in-water double emulsions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hughes, E.; Maan, A.A.; Acquistapace, S.; Burbidge, J.A.; Johns, M.L.; Gunes, D.Z.; Clausen, P.; Syrbe, A.; Hugo, J.; Schroën, C.G.P.H.

    2013-01-01

    Monodisperse water-in-oil-in-water (WOW) double emulsions have been prepared using microfluidic glass devices designed and built primarily from off the shelf components. The systems were easy to assemble and use. They were capable of producing double emulsions with an outer droplet size from 100 to

  17. Radiation emitting devices regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1970-01-01

    The Radiation Emitting Devices Regulations are the regulations referred to in the Radiation Emitting Devices Act and relate to the operation of devices. They include standards of design and construction, standards of functioning, warning symbol specifications in addition to information relating to the seizure and detention of machines failing to comply with the regulations. The radiation emitting devices consist of the following: television receivers, extra-oral dental x-ray equipment, microwave ovens, baggage inspection x-ray devices, demonstration--type gas discharge devices, photofluorographic x-ray equipment, laser scanners, demonstration lasers, low energy electron microscopes, high intensity mercury vapour discharge lamps, sunlamps, diagnostic x-ray equipment, ultrasound therapy devices, x-ray diffraction equipment, cabinet x-ray equipment and therapeutic x-ray equipment

  18. A new double contrast barium enema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jun Sang; Cho, Won Sik; Lee, Sung Woo; Lee, Mun Gyu; Jeon, Jeong Dong; Jaun, Woo Ki; Han, Chung Yul

    1987-01-01

    A new technic of the barium enema was proposed for the better colonic double contrast study with the average 204ml of 50w/v% barium, applied to 109 serial patients. The barium was introduced to sigmoid colon, and then pushed to a mid transverse colon by the air insufflation through an enema syringe, a new device. An advance to cecum is accomplished by the air insufflation and/or the position change of the patient. The barium transfer method was developed for the best spot film exposure, through colon, by the position change of the patient, the tilting of the x-ray table and the air insufflation with the enema syringe. The mean angle of the x-ray table tilted was -10 .deg. at the beginning the barium enema till the barium sent past the splenic flexure, -15 . deg. for the best lateral view of rectum and -18 .deg. for the bet prone PA view of rectosigmoid colon. This was a simple, better and economic double contrast barium enema for the cooperative patients

  19. Decontracted double BRST symmetry on the lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smekal, L. von; Ghiotti, M.; Williams, A. G.

    2008-01-01

    We present the Curci-Ferrari model on the lattice. In the massless case the topological interpretation of this model with its double Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin (BRST) symmetry relates to the Neuberger 0/0 problem which we extend to include the ghost/antighost symmetric formulation of the nonlinear-covariant Curci-Ferrari gauges on the lattice. The introduction of a Curci-Ferrari mass term, however, serves to regulate the 0/0 indeterminate form of physical observables observed by Neuberger. While such a mass m decontracts the double BRST/anti-BRST algebra, which is well known to result in a loss of unitarity, observables can be meaningfully defined in the limit m→0 via l'Hospital's rule. At finite m, the topological nature of the partition function used as the gauge-fixing device seems lost. We discuss the gauge parameter ξ and mass m dependence of the model and show how both cancel when m≡m(ξ) is appropriately adjusted with ξ.

  20. Aspects of the doubled worldsheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Driezen, Sibylle; Sevrin, Alexander; Thompson, Daniel C. [Theoretische Natuurkunde, Vrije Universiteit Brussel and The International Solvay Institutes,Pleinlaan 2, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium)

    2016-12-16

    We clarify the relation between various approaches to the manifestly T-duality symmetric string. We explain in detail how the PST covariant doubled string arises from an unusual gauge fixing. We pay careful attention to the role of “spectator” fields in this process and also show how the T-duality invariant doubled dilaton emerges naturally. We extend these ideas to non-Abelian T-duality and show they give rise to the duality invariant formalism based on the semi-Abelian Drinfeld Double. We then develop the N=(0,1) supersymmetric duality invariant formalism.

  1. Hitchcock’s queer doubles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Brandão

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-8026.2013n65p17   The “double” is a well-known Hitchcockian motif. Widelyreviewed under a psychoanalytical perspective, the issue ofthe double still presents other important challenges and thisarticle aims at discussing the queer doubles in Hitchcock’s films as “falsifiers” who are opposed to non-queer doubles thatemphasise narrative coherence and legibility. In films such asRebeca, Rope, Vertigo, The Birds, Psycho, and Frenzy, a doublecondenses impulses that are well described by Lee Edelman: “theviolent undoing of meaning, the loss of identity and coherence,the unnatural access to jouissance” (132. These doubles releasethe powers of the false as they complicate the return to an “order”.Therefore, we could argue that such characters are closer tobeing Deleuzian simulacra than psychoanalytical doppelgängers.

  2. Smart portable rehabilitation devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leahey Matt

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The majority of current portable orthotic devices and rehabilitative braces provide stability, apply precise pressure, or help maintain alignment of the joints with out the capability for real time monitoring of the patient's motions and forces and without the ability for real time adjustments of the applied forces and motions. Improved technology has allowed for advancements where these devices can be designed to apply a form of tension to resist motion of the joint. These devices induce quicker recovery and are more effective at restoring proper biomechanics and improving muscle function. However, their shortcoming is in their inability to be adjusted in real-time, which is the most ideal form of a device for rehabilitation. This introduces a second class of devices beyond passive orthotics. It is comprised of "active" or powered devices, and although more complicated in design, they are definitely the most versatile. An active or powered orthotic, usually employs some type of actuator(s. Methods In this paper we present several new advancements in the area of smart rehabilitation devices that have been developed by the Northeastern University Robotics and Mechatronics Laboratory. They are all compact, wearable and portable devices and boast re-programmable, real time computer controlled functions as the central theme behind their operation. The sensory information and computer control of the three described devices make for highly efficient and versatile systems that represent a whole new breed in wearable rehabilitation devices. Their applications range from active-assistive rehabilitation to resistance exercise and even have applications in gait training. The three devices described are: a transportable continuous passive motion elbow device, a wearable electro-rheological fluid based knee resistance device, and a wearable electrical stimulation and biofeedback knee device. Results Laboratory tests of the devices

  3. Ionic liquid based multifunctional double network gel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Kumkum; Higashihara, Tomoya; Arafune, Hiroyuki; Kamijo, Toshio; Morinaga, Takashi; Sato, Takaya; Furukawa, Hidemitsu

    2015-04-01

    Gels are a promising class of soft and wet materials with diverse application in tissue engineering and bio-medical purpose. In order to accelerate the development of gels, it is required to synthesize multi-functional gels of high mechanical strength, ultra low surface friction and suitable elastic modulus with a variety of methods and new materials. Among many types of gel ionic gel made from ionic liquids (ILs) could be used for diverse applications in electrochemical devices and in the field of tribology. IL, a promising materials for lubrication, is a salt with a melting point lower than 100 °C. As a lubricant, ILs are characterized by an extremely low vapor pressure, high thermal stability and high ion conductivity. In this work a novel approach of making double network DN ionic gel using IL has been made utilizing photo polymerization process. A hydrophobic monomer Methyl methacrylate (MMA) has been used as a first network and a hydrophobic IL monomer, N,N-diethyl-N-(2-mthacryloylethyl)-N-methylammonium bistrifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (DEMM-TFSI) has been used as a second network using photo initiator benzophenon and crosslinker triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA). The resulting DN ionic gel shows transparency, flexibility, high thermal stability, good mechanical toughness and low friction coefficient value which can be a potential candidate as a gel slider in different mechanical devices and can open a new area in the field of gel tribology.

  4. The Double Love Commandment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francois P. Viljoen

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Gospel of Matthew was written during a period of dispute between the Matthean community and their fellow Jews, with the Pharisees playing a leading role. The Matthean community was heir to the same scriptures as its opponents. They continued to have a firm commitment to the Torah, but they developed a distinctive understanding of it based on Jesus’ teaching. The formation of this community is investigated in this article, considering the Mediterranean perspectives of group-oriented societies prevalent in the first century. Such a group provided a sense of self and an interactive support system, where love functioned to bind the group together. The subordinates showed their undivided loyalty towards their superiors because of the favours they received from them, whilst they supported and cared for other members within the group as they care for themselves. Reading the double love commandment of Matthew 22:34−40 from this perspective reveals significant aspects of the community’s identity with regard to their commitment to God and their view of their neighbours. Die Dubbele Liefdesgebod. Die Matteusevangelie is gedurende ’n periode van konfliktussen die Matteusgemeenskap en mede-Jode geskryf met die Fariseërs in ’n leidende rol. Die Matteusgemeenskap het van dieselfde geskrifte as hulle opponente gebruik gemaak. Hulle was steeds aan die Torah lojaal, maar het ’n unieke interpretasie daarvan gehuldig, gebaseer op die onderrig van Jesus. In hierdie artikel word die vorming van die Matteusgemeenskap ondersoek met inagneming van die Mediterreense beskouing van die groepgeoriënteerde gemeenskappe wat tipies van die eerste eeu was. So ’n groep het aan individue ’n bewustheid van eie waarde verskaf te midde van ’n interaktiewe ondersteuningsisteem waarin liefde as samebindende faktor gefunksioneer het. Ondergeskiktes het onverdeelde lojaliteit teenoor hulle meerderes betoon vanweë die gunste wat hulle van die meerderes geniet het

  5. Alignment in double capture processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moretto-Capelle, P.; Benhenni, M.; Bordenave-Montesquieu, A.; Benoit-Cattin, P.; Gleizes, A. (IRSAMC, URA CNRS 770, Univ. Paul Sabatier, 118 rte de Narbonne, 31062 Toulouse Cedex (France))

    1993-06-05

    The electron spectra emitted when a double capture occurs in N[sup 7+]+He and Ne[sup 8+]+He systems at 10 qkeV collisional energy, allow us to determine the angular distributions of the 3[ell]3[ell] [prime] lines through a special spectra fitting procedure which includes interferences between neighbouring states. It is found that the doubly excited states populated in double capture processes are generally aligned.

  6. Global effects of double layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raad, M.A.

    1984-12-01

    Locally the formation of an electrostatic double layer in a current carrying plasma leads to a direct acceleration of particles which may penetrate far into the surrounding medium. The potential across the double layer, giving this acceleration, must be maintained by the external system and is a basic parameter for the local to global coupling. The double layer potential is associated with an electric field parallel to the magnetic field. In general this leads to a magnetohydrodynamic relaxation of the surrounding medium providing the influx of energy which is dissipated by the double layer. The double layer potential is limited as is the maximum possible rate of energy influx. If the global response of the external medium can be represented by an external circuit and if an equivalent circuit element can be found to represent the double layer, for example a negative resistance for intermediate time scales, it is possible to give a description of the dynamics and stability of the whole system. (Author)

  7. Double layers above the aurora

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Temerin, M.; Mozer, F.S.

    1987-01-01

    Two different kinds of double layers were found in association with auroral precipitation. One of these is the so-called electrostatic shock, which is oriented at an oblique angle to the magnetic field in such a way that the perpendicular electric field is much larger than the parallel electric field. This type of double layer is often found at the edges of regions of upflowing ion beams and the direction of the electric fields in the shock points toward the ion beam. The potential drop through the shock can be several kV and is comparable to the total potential needed to produce auroral acceleration. Instabilities associated with the shock may generate obliquely propagating Alfven waves, which may accelerate electrons to produce flickering auroras. The flickering aurora provides evidence that the electrostatic shock may have large temporal fluctuations. The other kind of double layer is the small-amplitude double layer found in regions of upward flowing in beams, often in association with electrostatic ion cyclotron waves. The parallel and perpendicular electric fields in these structures are comparable in magnitude. The associated potentials are a few eV. Since many such double layers are found in regions of upward flowing ion beams, the combined potential drop through a set of these double layers can be substantial

  8. Fluid circulation control device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benard, Henri; Henocque, Jean.

    1982-01-01

    Horizontal fluid circulation control device, of the type having a pivoting flap. This device is intended for being fitted in the pipes of hydraulic installation, particularly in a bleed and venting system of a nuclear power station shifting radioactive or contaminated liquids. The characteristic of this device is the cut-out at the top of the flap to allow the air contained in the pipes to flow freely [fr

  9. Understanding medical device regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galgon, Richard E

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide a structural and functional understanding of the systems used for the regulation of medical devices in the USA and European Union (EU). Safe and effective anesthesia care depends heavily on medical devices, including simple, low risk devices to complex life-supporting and life-sustaining devices. In the USA and EU, the Food and Drug Administration and European Commission, respectively, provide regulatory oversight to ensure medical devices are reasonably safe and effective when used for their intended purposes. Unfortunately, practicing anesthesiologists generally have little or no understanding of how medical devices are regulated, nor do they have sufficient knowledge of available adverse event reporting systems. The US and EU medical device regulatory systems are similar in many ways, but differ in important ways too, which impacts the afforded level of safety and effectiveness assurance. In both systems, medical devices are classified and regulated on a risk basis, which fundamentally differs from drug regulation, where uniform requirements are imposed. Anesthesia providers must gain knowledge of these systems and be active players in both premarket and postmarket activities, particularly with regard to vigilance and adverse event/device failure reporting.

  10. Recoil transporter devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madhavan, N.

    2005-01-01

    The study of sparsely produced nuclear reaction products in the direction of intense primary beam is a challenging task, the pursuit of which has given rise to the advent or several types of selective devices. These range from a simple parallel plate electrostatic deflector to state-of-the-art electromagnetic separators. There is no single device which can satisfy all the requirements of an ideal recoil transporter, simultaneously. An overview of such devices and their building blocks is presented, which may help in the proper choice of the device as per the experimental requirements. (author)

  11. Temperature indicating device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angus, J.P.; Salt, D.

    1988-01-01

    A temperature indicating device comprises a plurality of planar elements some undergoing a reversible change in appearance at a given temperature the remainder undergoing an irreversible change in appearance at a given temperature. The device is useful in indicating the temperature which an object has achieved as well as its actual temperature. The reversible change is produced by liquid crystal devices. The irreversible change is produced by an absorbent surface carrying substances e.g. waxes which melt at predetermined temperatures and are absorbed by the surface; alternatively paints may be used. The device is used for monitoring processes of encapsulation of radio active waste. (author)

  12. Virtual Training Devices Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Virtual Training Devices (VTD) Laboratory at the Life Cycle Software Engineering Center, Picatinny Arsenal, provides a software testing and support environment...

  13. Establishment Registration & Device Listing

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This searchable database contains establishments (engaged in the manufacture, preparation, propagation, compounding, assembly, or processing of medical devices...

  14. Repairing method and device for thermonuclear device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakurai, Akiko; Masumoto, Hiroshi; Tachikawa, Nobuo.

    1995-01-01

    The present invention provides a method of and a device for repairing a first wall and a divertor disposed in a vacuum vessel of a thermonuclear device. Namely, an armour tile of the divertor secured, by a brazing material, in a vacuum vessel of the thermonuclear device in which high temperature plasmas of deuterium and tritium are confined to cause fusion reaction is induction-heated or heated by microwaves to melt the brazing material. Only the armour tile is thus exchanged by its attachment/detachment. This device comprises, in the vacuum vessel, an armour tile attaching/detaching manipulator and a repairing manipulator comprising a heating manipulator having induction heating coils at the top end thereof. Induction heating coils are connected to an AC power source. According to the present invention, the armour tile is exchanged without taking the divertor out of the vacuum vessel. Therefore, cutting of a divertor cooling tube for taking the divertor out of the vacuum vessel and re-welding of the divertor for attaching it to the vacuum vessel again are no more necessary. (I.S.)

  15. High heat flux device of thermonuclear device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tachikawa, Nobuo.

    1994-01-01

    The present invention provides an equipments for high heat flux device (divertor) of a thermonuclear device, which absorbs thermal deformation during operation, has a high installation accuracy, and sufficiently withstands for thermal stresses. Namely, a heat sink member is joined to a structural base. Armour tiles are joined on the heat sink member. Cooling pipes are disposed between the heat sink member and the armour tiles. With such a constitution, the heat sink member using a highly heat conductive material having ductility, such as oxygen free copper, the cooling pipes using a material having excellent high temperature resistance and excellent elongation, such as aluminum-dispersed reinforced copper, and the armour tiles are completely joined on the structural base. Therefore, when thermal deformation tends to cause in the high heat flux device such as a divertor, cooling pipes cause no plastic deformation because of their high temperature resistance, but the heat sink member such as a oxygen free copper causes plastic deformation to absorb thermal deformation. As a result, the high heat flux device such as a divertor causes no deformation. (I.S.)

  16. Impact of the layout on the electrical characteristics of double-sided silicon 3D sensors fabricated at FBK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Povoli, M., E-mail: povoli@disi.unitn.it [Dipartimento di Ingegneria e Scienza dell' Informazione, Università di Trento, Via Sommarive, 14, I-38123 Povo di Trento (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Padova (Gruppo Collegato di Trento) (Italy); Bagolini, A.; Boscardin, M. [Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Centro per i Materiali e i Microsistemi (FBK-CMM), Via Sommarive, 18, I-38123 Povo di Trento, TN (Italy); Dalla Betta, G.-F. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria e Scienza dell' Informazione, Università di Trento, Via Sommarive, 14, I-38123 Povo di Trento (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Padova (Gruppo Collegato di Trento) (Italy); Giacomini, G.; Mattedi, F.; Vianello, E.; Zorzi, N. [Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Centro per i Materiali e i Microsistemi (FBK-CMM), Via Sommarive, 18, I-38123 Povo di Trento, TN (Italy)

    2013-01-21

    We report on experimental results and TCAD simulations addressing the impact of layout on the electrical characteristics of double-sided 3D diodes fabricated at Fondazione Bruno Kessler (FBK), Trento, Italy. Simulations are found to accurately reproduce the device characteristics, thus explaining the basic mechanisms governing the breakdown behavior and capacitance of different devices and providing useful hints for layout optimization.

  17. Impact of the layout on the electrical characteristics of double-sided silicon 3D sensors fabricated at FBK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Povoli, M.; Bagolini, A.; Boscardin, M.; Dalla Betta, G.-F.; Giacomini, G.; Mattedi, F.; Vianello, E.; Zorzi, N.

    2013-01-01

    We report on experimental results and TCAD simulations addressing the impact of layout on the electrical characteristics of double-sided 3D diodes fabricated at Fondazione Bruno Kessler (FBK), Trento, Italy. Simulations are found to accurately reproduce the device characteristics, thus explaining the basic mechanisms governing the breakdown behavior and capacitance of different devices and providing useful hints for layout optimization.

  18. Computer-automated tuning of semiconductor double quantum dots into the single-electron regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baart, T. A.; Vandersypen, L. M. K. [QuTech, Delft University of Technology, P.O. Box 5046, 2600 GA Delft (Netherlands); Kavli Institute of Nanoscience, Delft University of Technology, P.O. Box 5046, 2600 GA Delft (Netherlands); Eendebak, P. T. [QuTech, Delft University of Technology, P.O. Box 5046, 2600 GA Delft (Netherlands); Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research (TNO), P.O. Box 155, 2600 AD Delft (Netherlands); Reichl, C.; Wegscheider, W. [Solid State Physics Laboratory, ETH Zürich, 8093 Zürich (Switzerland)

    2016-05-23

    We report the computer-automated tuning of gate-defined semiconductor double quantum dots in GaAs heterostructures. We benchmark the algorithm by creating three double quantum dots inside a linear array of four quantum dots. The algorithm sets the correct gate voltages for all the gates to tune the double quantum dots into the single-electron regime. The algorithm only requires (1) prior knowledge of the gate design and (2) the pinch-off value of the single gate T that is shared by all the quantum dots. This work significantly alleviates the user effort required to tune multiple quantum dot devices.

  19. Double emulsion generation in the mass production of inertial confinement fusion targets using T-junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moynihan, Matthew J.

    This work demonstrates a new device for the continuous controlled production of double emulsions for the manufacturing of inertial confinement fusion targets. This device can be integrated into a microfluidic approach to produce targets which should increase the yield and quality of the targets and at a lower cost. The device is a double T-Junction, which has been scaled, optimized and built to produce oil-in-water-in-oil double emulsions from diameters of roughly 4 mm or less. A T-Junction is an intersection of two channels at a right angle where fluid emerges and is broken off to form droplets. A systematic study presented here has shown that a single T-Junction has four modes of operation: squeezing, dripping, transition and streaming. The droplet size may be controlled by controlling the fluid flow rate through the channels; the droplet increases with increasing dispersed flow and decreasing continuous flow. The device was utilized to produce hundreds of ˜ 2.5 mm diameter resorcinol formaldehyde double emulsions with better than 2 percent reproducibility in diameter. The device was used to produce 2.0 mm shells with an average wall thickness of 510 microns.

  20. Self-activated device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hecht, S.L.

    1982-01-01

    A self-actuated device is described which is of particular use as a valve or an orifice for nuclear reactor fuel and blanket assemblies. A gas, produced by a neutron irradiation-induced nuclear reaction, gradually accumulates as a function of neutron fluence. The gas pressure increase occasioned by such accumulation of gas is used to actuate the device. (author)

  1. Complex Materials and Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-07

    Disruptive Basic Research Areas” – Metamaterials and Plasmonics – Quantum Information Science – Cognitive Neuroscience – Nanoscience and...function Complex Electronics and Fundamental Quantum Processes Complex engineered materials and devices Devices based on quantum phenomena...fundamental quantum processes Quantum Electronic Solids (Weinstock) Photonics and Optoelectronics (Pomrenke) GHz-THz Electronics (Hwang) Natural

  2. EPICS GPIB device support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winans, J.

    1993-01-01

    A GPIB device support module is used to provide access to the operating parameters of a GPIB device. GPIB devices may be accessed via National Instruments 1014 cards or via Bitbus Universal Gateways. GPIB devices typically have many parameters, each of which may be thought of in terms of the standard types of database records available in EPICS. It is the job of the device support module designer to decide how the mapping of these parameters will be made to the available record types. Once this mapping is complete, the device support module may be written. The writing of the device support module consists primarily of the construction of a parameter table. This table is used to associate the database record types with the operating parameters of the GPIB instrument. Other aspects of module design include the handling of SRQ events and errors. SRQ events are made available to the device support module if so desired. The processing of an SRQ event is completely up to the designer of the module. They may be ignored, tied to event based record processing, or anything else the designer wishes. Error conditions may be handled in a similar fashion

  3. Process control device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Toshifumi; Kobayashi, Hiroshi.

    1994-01-01

    A process control device comprises a memory device for memorizing a plant operation target, a plant state or a state of equipments related with each other as control data, a read-only memory device for storing programs, a plant instrumentation control device or other process control devices, an input/output device for performing input/output with an operator, and a processing device which conducts processing in accordance with the program and sends a control demand or a display demand to the input/output device. The program reads out control data relative to a predetermined operation target, compares and verify them with actual values to read out control data to be a practice premise condition which is further to be a practice premise condition if necessary, thereby automatically controlling the plant or requiring or displaying input. Practice presuming conditions for the operation target can be examined succesively in accordance with the program without constituting complicated logical figures and AND/OR graphs. (N.H.)

  4. Partial Device Fingerprints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ciere, M.; Hernandez Ganan, C.; van Eeten, M.J.G.

    2017-01-01

    In computing, remote devices may be identified by means of device fingerprinting, which works by collecting a myriad of clientside attributes such as the device’s browser and operating system version, installed plugins, screen resolution, hardware artifacts, Wi-Fi settings, and anything else

  5. Positioning devices for patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heavens, M.

    1981-01-01

    It has been suggested that it is very important to position patients reproducibly at different stages of radiotherapy treatment planning and treatment, or similar procedures. Devices have been described for positioning a patient's upper and lower thorax. This invention provides reproducible positioning for a female patient's breasts, for example in planning treatment of and treating breast tumours. The patient is placed prone, using for example an upper thorax device. A support device is placed central to and beneath her breasts to partially displace them outwards. The device may be triangular in section with one apex contacting the chest wall at the sternum. Restraining straps may be provided to hold the breasts against the support device. Means may be provided to take a healthy breast from the path of radiation through the tumour. (author)

  6. Compound semiconductor device modelling

    CERN Document Server

    Miles, Robert

    1993-01-01

    Compound semiconductor devices form the foundation of solid-state microwave and optoelectronic technologies used in many modern communication systems. In common with their low frequency counterparts, these devices are often represented using equivalent circuit models, but it is often necessary to resort to physical models in order to gain insight into the detailed operation of compound semiconductor devices. Many of the earliest physical models were indeed developed to understand the 'unusual' phenomena which occur at high frequencies. Such was the case with the Gunn and IMPATI diodes, which led to an increased interest in using numerical simulation methods. Contemporary devices often have feature sizes so small that they no longer operate within the familiar traditional framework, and hot electron or even quantum­ mechanical models are required. The need for accurate and efficient models suitable for computer aided design has increased with the demand for a wider range of integrated devices for operation at...

  7. Device for cutting protrusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bzorgi, Fariborz M [Knoxville, TN

    2011-07-05

    An apparatus for clipping a protrusion of material is provided. The protrusion may, for example, be a bolt head, a nut, a rivet, a weld bead, or a temporary assembly alignment tab protruding from a substrate surface of assembled components. The apparatus typically includes a cleaver having a cleaving edge and a cutting blade having a cutting edge. Generally, a mounting structure configured to confine the cleaver and the cutting blade and permit a range of relative movement between the cleaving edge and the cutting edge is provided. Also typically included is a power device coupled to the cutting blade. The power device is configured to move the cutting edge toward the cleaving edge. In some embodiments the power device is activated by a momentary switch. A retraction device is also generally provided, where the retraction device is configured to move the cutting edge away from the cleaving edge.

  8. Metallic spintronic devices

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Xiaobin

    2014-01-01

    Metallic Spintronic Devices provides a balanced view of the present state of the art of metallic spintronic devices, addressing both mainstream and emerging applications from magnetic tunneling junction sensors and spin torque oscillators to spin torque memory and logic. Featuring contributions from well-known and respected industrial and academic experts, this cutting-edge work not only presents the latest research and developments but also: Describes spintronic applications in current and future magnetic recording devicesDiscusses spin-transfer torque magnetoresistive random-access memory (STT-MRAM) device architectures and modelingExplores prospects of STT-MRAM scaling, such as detailed multilevel cell structure analysisInvestigates spintronic device write and read optimization in light of spintronic memristive effectsConsiders spintronic research directions based on yttrium iron garnet thin films, including spin pumping, magnetic proximity, spin hall, and spin Seebeck effectsProposes unique solutions for ...

  9. Alternate Double Single Track Lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moraga Contreras, P.; Grande Andrade, Z.; Castillo Ron, E.

    2016-07-01

    The paper discusses the advantages and shortcomings of alternate double single track (ADST) lines with respect to double track lines for high speed lines. ADST lines consists of sequences of double and single track segments optimally selected in order to reduce the construction and maintenance costs of railway lines and to optimize the timetables used to satisfy a given demand. The single tracks are selected to coincide with expensive segments (tunnels and viaducts) and the double tracks are chosen to coincide with flat areas and only where they are necessary. At the same time, departure times are adjusted for trains to cross at the cheap double track segments. This alternative can be used for new lines and also for existing conventional lines where some new tracks are to be constructed to reduce travel time (increase speed). The ADST proposal is illustrated with some examples of both types (new lines and where conventional lines exist), including the Palencia-Santander, the Santiago-Valparaíso-Viña del Mar and the Dublin-Belfast lines, where very important reductions (90 %) are obtained, especially where a railway infrastructure already exist. (Author)

  10. Renormalized molecular levels in a Sc3N@C-80 molecular electronic device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larade, Brian; Taylor, Jeremy Philip; Zheng, Q. R.

    2001-01-01

    We address several general questions about quantum transport through molecular systems by an ab initio analysis of a scandium-nitrogen doped C-80 metallofullerene device. Charge transfer from the Sc3N is found to drastically change the current-voltage characteristics: the current through the Sc3N...... @ C-80 device is double that through a bare C-80 device. We provide strong evidence that transport in such molecular devices is mediated by molecular electronic states which have been renormalized by the device environment, such as the electrodes and external bias V-b. The renormalized molecular...

  11. On the physics of relativistic double layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlqvist, P.

    1982-06-01

    A model of a strong, time-independent, and relativistic double layer is studied. Besides double layers having the electric field parallel to the current the model also describes a certain type of oblique double layers. The 'Langmuir condition' (ratio of ion current density to electron current density) as well as an expression for the potential drop of the double layer are derived. Furthermore, the distribution of charged particles, electric field, and potential within the double layer are clarified and discussed. It is found that the properties of relativistic double layers differ substantially from the properties of corresponding non-relativistic double layers. (Author)

  12. Plasma facing device of thermonuclear device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumita, Hideo; Ioki, Kimihiro.

    1993-01-01

    The present invention improves integrity of thermal structures of a plasma facing device. That is, in the plasma facing device, an armour block portion from a metal cooling pipe to a carbon material comprises a mixed material of the metal as the constituent material of the cooling pipe and ceramics. Then, the mixing ratio of the composition is changed continuously or stepwise to suppress peakings of remaining stresses upon production and thermal stresses upon exertion of thermal loads. Accordingly, thermal integrity of the structural materials can further be improved. In this case, a satisfactory characteristic can be obtained also by using ceramics instead of carbon for the mixed material, and the characteristic such as heat expansion coefficient is similar to that of the armour tile. (I.S.)

  13. Optical thin film devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Shuzheng

    1991-11-01

    Thin film devices are applied to almost all modern scientific instruments, and these devices, especially optical thin film devices, play an essential role in the performances of the instruments, therefore, they are attracting more and more attention. Now there are numerous kinds of thin film devices and their applications are very diversified. The 300-page book, 'Thin Film Device and Applications,' by Prof. K. L. Chopra gives some general ideas, and my paper also outlines the designs, fabrication, and applications of some optical thin film devices made in my laboratory. Optical thin film devices have been greatly developed in the recent decades. Prof. A. Thelan has given a number of papers on the theory and techniques, Prof. H. A. Macleod's book, 'Thin Film Optical Filters,' has concisely concluded the important concepts of optical thin film devices, and Prof. J. A. Dobrowobski has proposed many successful designs for optical thin film devices. Recently, fully-automatic plants make it easier to produce thin film devices with various spectrum requirements, and some companies, such as Balzers, Leybold AG, Satis Vacuum AG, etc., have manufactured such kinds of coating plants for research or mass-production, and the successful example is the production of multilayer antireflection coatings with high stability and reproducibility. Therefore, it could be said that the design of optical thin film devices and coating plants is quite mature. However, we cannot expect that every problem has been solved, the R&D work still continues, the competition still continues, and new design concepts, new techniques, and new film materials are continually developed. Meanwhile, the high-price of fully-automatic coating plants makes unpopular, and automatic design of coating stacks is only the technique for optimizing the manual design according to the physical concepts and experience, in addition, not only the optical system, but also working environment should be taken into account when

  14. Measurement of S Parameters ofan Accelerating Structure with Double-Feed Couplers

    OpenAIRE

    Fandos, R; Grudiev, A; Wuensch, W

    2006-01-01

    A method for measuring the transmission and reflection coefficients of an accelerating structure with double-feed input and output couplers using a 2 port network analyzer is presented. This method avoids the use of magic Ts and hybrids, whose symmetry is not obvious. The procedure is extended to devices with n symmetrical input and m symmetrical output ports. The method to make bead pull measurements for such devices is described.

  15. Void Double Hull Space Type VLCC

    OpenAIRE

    Takehiko, Akiba; Kimio, Kitano; Yutaka, Yamauchi; Hisashi, Ito; Hiroyuki, Tsukuda; Hirohiko, Emi; Atsushi, Kumano; NKK Corporation; NKK Corporation; NKK Corporation; NKK Corporation; NKK Corporation; Research Institute; Research Institute

    1996-01-01

    Double hull structures for tankers became obligatory in 1993 in response to the ever present problem of oil spills. Use of the double hull space as ballast water tanks has resulted in new problems-an increased area of hull requiring maintenance, and the need for inspections and maintenance work in the cramped and unfavorable environment of the double hull spaces. As a solution to these problems, the authors have developed a new concept for double hulled tankers which involves the double hull ...

  16. Double photoionisation spectra of molecules

    CERN Document Server

    Eland, John

    2017-01-01

    This book contains spectra of the doubly charged positive ions (dications) of some 75 molecules, including the major constituents of terrestrial and planetary atmospheres and prototypes of major chemical groups. It is intended to be a new resource for research in all areas of molecular spectroscopy involving high energy environments, both terrestrial and extra-terrestrial. All the spectra have been produced by photoionisation using laboratory lamps or synchrotron radiation and have been measured using the magnetic bottle time-of-flight technique by coincidence detection of correlated electron pairs. Full references to published work on the same species are given, though for several molecules these are the first published spectra. Double ionisation energies are listed and discussed in relation to the molecular electronic structure of the molecules. A full introduction to the field of molecular double ionisation is included and the mechanisms by which double photoionisation can occur are examined in detail. A p...

  17. Precise GNSS Positioning Using Smart Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenio Realini

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The recent access to GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System phase observations on smart devices, enabled by Google through its Android operating system, opens the possibility to apply precise positioning techniques using off-the-shelf, mass-market devices. The target of this work is to evaluate whether this is feasible, and which positioning accuracy can be achieved by relative positioning of the smart device with respect to a base station. Positioning of a Google/HTC Nexus 9 tablet was performed by means of batch least-squares adjustment of L1 phase double-differenced observations, using the open source goGPS software, over baselines ranging from approximately 10 m to 8 km, with respect to both physical (geodetic or low-cost and virtual base stations. The same positioning procedure was applied also to a co-located u-blox low-cost receiver, to compare the performance between the receiver and antenna embedded in the Nexus 9 and a standard low-cost single-frequency receiver with external patch antenna. The results demonstrate that with a smart device providing raw GNSS phase observations, like the Nexus 9, it is possible to reach decimeter-level accuracy through rapid-static surveys, without phase ambiguity resolution. It is expected that sub-centimeter accuracy could be achieved, as demonstrated for the u-blox case, if integer phase ambiguities were correctly resolved.

  18. Precise GNSS Positioning Using Smart Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Realini, Eugenio; Caldera, Stefano; Pertusini, Lisa; Sampietro, Daniele

    2017-10-24

    The recent access to GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) phase observations on smart devices, enabled by Google through its Android operating system, opens the possibility to apply precise positioning techniques using off-the-shelf, mass-market devices. The target of this work is to evaluate whether this is feasible, and which positioning accuracy can be achieved by relative positioning of the smart device with respect to a base station. Positioning of a Google/HTC Nexus 9 tablet was performed by means of batch least-squares adjustment of L1 phase double-differenced observations, using the open source goGPS software, over baselines ranging from approximately 10 m to 8 km, with respect to both physical (geodetic or low-cost) and virtual base stations. The same positioning procedure was applied also to a co-located u-blox low-cost receiver, to compare the performance between the receiver and antenna embedded in the Nexus 9 and a standard low-cost single-frequency receiver with external patch antenna. The results demonstrate that with a smart device providing raw GNSS phase observations, like the Nexus 9, it is possible to reach decimeter-level accuracy through rapid-static surveys, without phase ambiguity resolution. It is expected that sub-centimeter accuracy could be achieved, as demonstrated for the u-blox case, if integer phase ambiguities were correctly resolved.

  19. Try This: Umbrella--Materials Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Christine

    2016-01-01

    This article is the second in "Teaching Science's" "Try This" series. These hands-on activities are designed especially for early childhood students to encourage their natural curiosity and promote development of scientific thinking. In this activity, the problem-based learning approach means that the children are engaged in a…

  20. UNDER WHOSE UMBRELLA? THE EUROPEAN SECURITY ARCHITECTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodor Lucian Moga

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The tragic events which occurred during the ‘90s in the Balkans have reiterated the need for the European Union (EU to assume a much more assertive role in managing security concerns in Europe, including the development of European defence capabilities. In 1998, at Saint Malo, Tony Blair and Jacques Chirac launched the European Security and Defence Policy (ESDP. This project has been generated due to the EU’s need to adopt a strategic framework within which to develop a global defence and security component, as well as due to a growing necessity for the EU to contribute effectively to North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO and United Nations (UN efforts of conducting defence, international crisis management and peacekeeping operations at an international level in conflict-prone areas. In recent years, ESDP has undergone a spectacular evolution, being now among the major issues discussed in Brussels. However, the creation of the ESDP has been greeted with caution by some NATO members being perceived primarily as a threat to the integrity of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. The purpose of this paper is to examine the difficulties the ESDP has encountered since its inception and also to what extent it has affected the EU-NATO and the EU-US nexus.

  1. Fuel pattern recognition device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Tomomi.

    1995-01-01

    The device of the present invention monitors normal fuel exchange upon fuel exchanging operation carried out in a reactor of a nuclear power plant. Namely, a fuel exchanger is movably disposed to the upper portion of the reactor and exchanges fuels. An exclusive computer receives operation signals of the fuel exchanger during operation as inputs, and outputs reactor core fuel pattern information signals to a fuel arrangement diagnosis device. An underwater television camera outputs image signals of a fuel pattern in the reactor core to an image processing device. If there is any change in the image signals for the fuel pattern as a result of the fuel exchange operation of the fuel exchanger, the image processing device outputs the change as image signals to the fuel pattern diagnosis device. The fuel pattern diagnosis device compares the pattern information signals from the exclusive computer with the image signals from the image processing device, to diagnose the result of the fuel exchange operation performed by the fuel exchanger and inform the diagnosis by means of an image display. (I.S.)

  2. Electrolysis iron injection device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kataoka, Ichiro; Aizawa, Motohiro; Usui, Naoshi; Osumi, Katsumi; Mizuniwa, Fumio.

    1992-01-01

    The device of the present invention comprises a chemical cleaning device and a pipeline for cleaning in addition to an existent device comprising a vessel for supplying gaseous carbon dioxide under pressure, an electrolytic vessel made of an iron plate and a CO 2 disperser. The chemical cleaning device comprises a heater for heating a cleaning liquid, a cleaning liquid vessel for controlling and storing the cleaning liquid and a filter for capturing dissolved and defoliated iron. As the cleaning liquid, oxalic acid, citric acid, sulfuric acid or hydrogen peroxide is used solely or in combination. A closed loop is constituted to a portion in the device, where iron is formed by deposition, by the chemical cleaning device and the cleaning pipeline, and a recycling operation is conducted while heating to 30 to 60degC for a predetermined period to dissolve and remove deposited iron cruds. With such procedures, the device can be operated stably for a long period of time and radioactivity concentration of reactor water in a nuclear power plant can be reduced. (T.M.)

  3. 10 CFR 32.101 - Schedule B-prototype tests for luminous safety devices for use in aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... perpendicular axes of the device with an applied double amplitude of 0.036 inch or an applied acceleration of... dropped upon a concrete or iron surface in a 3-foot free gravitational fall, or shall be subjected to...

  4. Optimal green tax reforms yielding double dividend

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, Esther; Perez, Rafaela; Ruiz, Jesus

    2011-01-01

    In an stylized endogenous growth economy with a negative externality created by CO2 emissions and in which abatement activities are made by private firms, we find a wide range of dynamically feasible green tax reforms yielding the double dividend without any need to assume a complex production structure or tax system, or a variety of externalities in production. As a remarkable finding, we obtain certain scenarios in which increasing the emissions tax up to the Pigouvian level and removing completely the income tax is dynamically feasible and, also, it is the second-best reform. Hence, as a difference to previous literature, in these scenarios the first-best tax mix is implementable, allowing for the elimination of both environmental and non-environmental inefficiencies. Our result arises because of the consideration of public debt issuing and the management of the government budget balance with an intertemporal perspective. The result is obtained for an intermediate range of environmental bearing in preferences, the valid range being contingent on the pre-existing income tax rate. The type of tax reform that we propose could also be implemented for different energy taxes. - Highlights: → We use an endogenous growth model with a negative externality from CO2 emissions. → Abatement activities are made by private firms to reduce payment of emissions taxes. → We find dynamically feasible green tax reforms yielding the double dividend result. → Our result arises thanks to the inclusion of public debt issuing as a financing device. → The type of tax reform proposed can be implemented for other energy taxes.

  5. Optimal green tax reforms yielding double dividend

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, Esther; Perez, Rafaela [Universidad Complutense de Madrid (Spain); ICAE (Spain); Ruiz, Jesus, E-mail: jruizand@ccee.ucm.es [Universidad Complutense de Madrid (Spain); ICAE (Spain)

    2011-07-15

    In an stylized endogenous growth economy with a negative externality created by CO2 emissions and in which abatement activities are made by private firms, we find a wide range of dynamically feasible green tax reforms yielding the double dividend without any need to assume a complex production structure or tax system, or a variety of externalities in production. As a remarkable finding, we obtain certain scenarios in which increasing the emissions tax up to the Pigouvian level and removing completely the income tax is dynamically feasible and, also, it is the second-best reform. Hence, as a difference to previous literature, in these scenarios the first-best tax mix is implementable, allowing for the elimination of both environmental and non-environmental inefficiencies. Our result arises because of the consideration of public debt issuing and the management of the government budget balance with an intertemporal perspective. The result is obtained for an intermediate range of environmental bearing in preferences, the valid range being contingent on the pre-existing income tax rate. The type of tax reform that we propose could also be implemented for different energy taxes. - Highlights: > We use an endogenous growth model with a negative externality from CO2 emissions. > Abatement activities are made by private firms to reduce payment of emissions taxes. > We find dynamically feasible green tax reforms yielding the double dividend result. > Our result arises thanks to the inclusion of public debt issuing as a financing device. > The type of tax reform proposed can be implemented for other energy taxes.

  6. Fundamentals of semiconductor devices

    CERN Document Server

    Lindmayer, Joseph

    1965-01-01

    Semiconductor properties ; semiconductor junctions or diodes ; transistor fundamentals ; inhomogeneous impurity distributions, drift or graded-base transistors ; high-frequency properties of transistors ; band structure of semiconductors ; high current densities and mechanisms of carrier transport ; transistor transient response and recombination processes ; surfaces, field-effect transistors, and composite junctions ; additional semiconductor characteristics ; additional semiconductor devices and microcircuits ; more metal, insulator, and semiconductor combinations for devices ; four-pole parameters and configuration rotation ; four-poles of combined networks and devices ; equivalent circuits ; the error function and its properties ; Fermi-Dirac statistics ; useful physical constants.

  7. Smart devices are different

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stisen, Allan; Blunck, Henrik; Bhattacharya, Sourav

    2015-01-01

    The widespread presence of motion sensors on users' personal mobile devices has spawned a growing research interest in human activity recognition (HAR). However, when deployed at a large-scale, e.g., on multiple devices, the performance of a HAR system is often significantly lower than in reported....... Moreover, the impairments vary significantly across devices and depends on the type of recognition technique used. We systematically evaluate the effect of mobile sensing heterogeneities on HAR and propose a novel clustering-based mitigation technique suitable for large-scale deployment of HAR, where...

  8. Proton therapy device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tronc, D.

    1994-01-01

    The invention concerns a proton therapy device using a proton linear accelerator which produces a proton beam with high energies and intensities. The invention lies in actual fact that the proton beam which is produced by the linear accelerator is deflected from 270 deg in its plan by a deflecting magnetic device towards a patient support including a bed the longitudinal axis of which is parallel to the proton beam leaving the linear accelerator. The patient support and the deflecting device turn together around the proton beam axis while the bed stays in an horizontal position. The invention applies to radiotherapy. 6 refs., 5 figs

  9. Physics of photonic devices

    CERN Document Server

    Chuang, Shun Lien

    2009-01-01

    The most up-to-date book available on the physics of photonic devices This new edition of Physics of Photonic Devices incorporates significant advancements in the field of photonics that have occurred since publication of the first edition (Physics of Optoelectronic Devices). New topics covered include a brief history of the invention of semiconductor lasers, the Lorentz dipole method and metal plasmas, matrix optics, surface plasma waveguides, optical ring resonators, integrated electroabsorption modulator-lasers, and solar cells. It also introduces exciting new fields of research such as:

  10. Thermonuclear power control device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukunishi, Koyu; Saito, Seiji.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To enhance the control accuracy of a thermonuclear power control device by feeding back electron temperature in addition to a thermonuclear power, thereby making the thermonuclear reactor power stably follow an objective value. Constitution: It is aimed at the fact that a high speed neutral particle incidence causes the increase in the electron temperature, and the neutral particle incidence responsive to the electron temperature is controlled by a high speed neutral particle incident device. Thus, the electron temperature is monitored, the thermonuclear power is monitored, and the control accuracy of the thermonuclear power control device is enhanced by employing a control system for feeding back these values. (Aizawa, K.)

  11. Output hardcopy devices

    CERN Document Server

    Durbeck, Robert

    1988-01-01

    Output Hardcopy Devices provides a technical summary of computer output hardcopy devices such as plotters, computer output printers, and CRT generated hardcopy. Important related technical areas such as papers, ribbons and inks, color techniques, controllers, and character fonts are also covered. Emphasis is on techniques primarily associated with printing, as well as the plotting capabilities of printing devices that can be effectively used for computer graphics in addition to their various printing functions. Comprised of 19 chapters, this volume begins with an introduction to vector and ras

  12. Electronic devices and circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Pridham, Gordon John

    1972-01-01

    Electronic Devices and Circuits, Volume 3 provides a comprehensive account on electronic devices and circuits and includes introductory network theory and physics. The physics of semiconductor devices is described, along with field effect transistors, small-signal equivalent circuits of bipolar transistors, and integrated circuits. Linear and non-linear circuits as well as logic circuits are also considered. This volume is comprised of 12 chapters and begins with an analysis of the use of Laplace transforms for analysis of filter networks, followed by a discussion on the physical properties of

  13. Compound semiconductor device physics

    CERN Document Server

    Tiwari, Sandip

    2013-01-01

    This book provides one of the most rigorous treatments of compound semiconductor device physics yet published. A complete understanding of modern devices requires a working knowledge of low-dimensional physics, the use of statistical methods, and the use of one-, two-, and three-dimensional analytical and numerical analysis techniques. With its systematic and detailed**discussion of these topics, this book is ideal for both the researcher and the student. Although the emphasis of this text is on compound semiconductor devices, many of the principles discussed will also be useful to those inter

  14. Nanoelectronic device applications handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Morris, James E

    2013-01-01

    Nanoelectronic Device Applications Handbook gives a comprehensive snapshot of the state of the art in nanodevices for nanoelectronics applications. Combining breadth and depth, the book includes 68 chapters on topics that range from nano-scaled complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) devices through recent developments in nano capacitors and AlGaAs/GaAs devices. The contributors are world-renowned experts from academia and industry from around the globe. The handbook explores current research into potentially disruptive technologies for a post-CMOS world.These include: Nanoscale advance

  15. Powering biomedical devices

    CERN Document Server

    Romero, Edwar

    2013-01-01

    From exoskeletons to neural implants, biomedical devices are no less than life-changing. Compact and constant power sources are necessary to keep these devices running efficiently. Edwar Romero's Powering Biomedical Devices reviews the background, current technologies, and possible future developments of these power sources, examining not only the types of biomedical power sources available (macro, mini, MEMS, and nano), but also what they power (such as prostheses, insulin pumps, and muscular and neural stimulators), and how they work (covering batteries, biofluids, kinetic and ther

  16. Random Telegraph Signal in a Metallic Double-Dot System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardi, Yuval; Guttman, Avraham; Bar-Joseph, Israel

    2015-03-01

    Double quantum dot systems offer a unique opportunity for studying the world of quantum transport. This stems from the ability to localize an electron in a limited region in space on the dot, and monitor its presence and properties. Another system, in which electrons can be stored and measured, is an electronic trap in solid. The electrons in such a trap are better isolated from the environment. However, their measurement and control are more difficult. Here we demonstrate how these two systems, metallic double-dots and electronic traps, are combined to yield a hybrid structure in which an electron can be stored for long durations and can be easily detected and measured. We investigate the dynamics of a single electron surface trap, embedded in a self-assembly metallic double-dot system. The charging and discharging of the trap by a single electron is manifested as a random telegraph signal of the current through the double-dot device. We find that we can control the duration that an electron resides in the trap through the current, varying it between fractions of a second to more than an hour, at the Coulomb blockade region. We suggest that the observed switching is the electrical manifestation of the optical blinking phenomenon, commonly observed in semiconductor quantum dots. Y. Vardi, A. Guttman, and I. Bar-Joseph, Nano Lett. 14, 2794 (2014). [DOI: 10.1021/nl500803p

  17. Poloidal coils for the Large Helical Device (LHD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahata, K.; Satow, T.; Iwamoto, A.

    1996-01-01

    Poloidal coil system of the Large Helical Device (LHD) consists of three pairs of circular solenoids; Inner Vertical (IV), Inner shaping (IS) and Outer Vertical (OV) coils. Forced flow cooling is adopted as a cooling method of the poloidal coils. The conductors of the poloidal coils are Nb-Ti cable-in-conduit types. Each coil consists of eight double-pancake coils, and coolant flows in parallel from the inner turns to the outer turns. A superconducting joint technique is adopted in the joints among the double-pancake coils. Miniaturized joints and severe quality control bring the reduction of error field. (author)

  18. Plasma shutdown device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosogane, Nobuyuki; Nakayama, Takahide.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent concentration of plasma currents to the plasma center upon plasma shutdown in a torus type thermonuclear device by the injection of fuels to the plasma center thereby prevent plasma disruption at the plasma center. Constitution: The plasma shutdown device comprises a plasma current measuring device that measures the current distribution of plasmas confined within a vacuum vessel and outputs a control signal for cooling the plasma center when the plasma currents concentrate to the plasma center and a fuel supply device that supplies fuels to the plasma center for cooling the center. The fuels are injected in the form of pellets into the plasmas. The direction and the velocity of the injection are set such that the pellets are ionized at the center of the plasmas. (Horiuchi, T.)

  19. Marine Sanitation Devices (MSDs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marine sanitation devices treat or retain sewage from vessels, and have performance standards set by the EPA. This page provides information on MSDs, including who must use an MSD, states' roles, types of MSDs and standards.

  20. Geometry and Cloaking Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochiai, T.; Nacher, J. C.

    2011-09-01

    Recently, the application of geometry and conformal mappings to artificial materials (metamaterials) has attracted the attention in various research communities. These materials, characterized by a unique man-made structure, have unusual optical properties, which materials found in nature do not exhibit. By applying the geometry and conformal mappings theory to metamaterial science, it may be possible to realize so-called "Harry Potter cloaking device". Although such a device is still in the science fiction realm, several works have shown that by using such metamaterials it may be possible to control the direction of the electromagnetic field at will. We could then make an object hidden inside of a cloaking device. Here, we will explain how to design invisibility device using differential geometry and conformal mappings.

  1. Visual Acoustic Device

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Belenger, Robert V

    2006-01-01

    ... corresponding to the sound waves. The device includes a rigid plate having a first repetitive pattern and a flexible plate spaced from the rigid plate and having a second repetitive pattern corresponding to the first repetitive pattern...

  2. High temperature measuring device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokarz, Richard D.

    1983-01-01

    A temperature measuring device for very high design temperatures (to 2,000.degree. C.). The device comprises a homogenous base structure preferably in the form of a sphere or cylinder. The base structure contains a large number of individual walled cells. The base structure has a decreasing coefficient of elasticity within the temperature range being monitored. A predetermined quantity of inert gas is confined within each cell. The cells are dimensionally stable at the normal working temperature of the device. Increases in gaseous pressure within the cells will permanently deform the cell walls at temperatures within the high temperature range to be measured. Such deformation can be correlated to temperature by calibrating similarly constructed devices under known time and temperature conditions.

  3. Tokapole II device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sprott, J.G.

    1978-05-01

    A discussion is given of the design and operation of the Tokapole II device. The following topics are considered: physics considerations, vacuum vessel, poloidal field, ring and support design, toroidal field, vacuum system, initial results, and future plans

  4. Functional Molecular Junctions Derived from Double Self-Assembled Monolayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Sohyeon; Hwang, Eunhee; Cho, Yunhee; Lee, Junghyun; Lee, Hyoyoung

    2017-09-25

    Information processing using molecular junctions is becoming more important as devices are miniaturized to the nanoscale. Herein, we report functional molecular junctions derived from double self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) intercalated between soft graphene electrodes. Newly assembled molecular junctions are fabricated by placing a molecular SAM/(top) electrode on another molecular SAM/(bottom) electrode by using a contact-assembly technique. Double SAMs can provide tunneling conjugation across the van der Waals gap between the terminals of each monolayer and exhibit new electrical functions. Robust contact-assembled molecular junctions can act as platforms for the development of equivalent contact molecular junctions between top and bottom electrodes, which can be applied independently to different kinds of molecules to enhance either the structural complexity or the assembly properties of molecules. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Optical vector network analyzer based on double-sideband modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Wen; Wang, Ling; Yang, Chengwu; Li, Ming; Zhu, Ning Hua; Guo, Jinjin; Xiong, Liangming; Li, Wei

    2017-11-01

    We report an optical vector network analyzer (OVNA) based on double-sideband (DSB) modulation using a dual-parallel Mach-Zehnder modulator. The device under test (DUT) is measured twice with different modulation schemes. By post-processing the measurement results, the response of the DUT can be obtained accurately. Since DSB modulation is used in our approach, the measurement range is doubled compared with conventional single-sideband (SSB) modulation-based OVNA. Moreover, the measurement accuracy is improved by eliminating the even-order sidebands. The key advantage of the proposed scheme is that the measurement of a DUT with bandpass response can also be simply realized, which is a big challenge for the SSB-based OVNA. The proposed method is theoretically and experimentally demonstrated.

  6. Wireless device monitoring systems and monitoring devices, and associated methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCown, Steven H; Derr, Kurt W; Rohde, Kenneth W

    2014-05-27

    Wireless device monitoring systems and monitoring devices include a communications module for receiving wireless communications of a wireless device. Processing circuitry is coupled with the communications module and configured to process the wireless communications to determine whether the wireless device is authorized or unauthorized to be present at the monitored area based on identification information of the wireless device. Methods of monitoring for the presence and identity of wireless devices are also provided.

  7. Ion funnel device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibrahim, Yehia M.; Chen, Tsung-Chi; Harrer, Marques B.; Tang, Keqi; Smith, Richard D.

    2017-11-21

    An ion funnel device is disclosed. A first pair of electrodes is positioned in a first direction. A second pair of electrodes is positioned in a second direction. The device includes an RF voltage source and a DC voltage source. A RF voltage with a superimposed DC voltage gradient is applied to the first pair of electrodes, and a DC voltage gradient is applied to the second pair of electrodes.

  8. Commercialization of microfluidic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpatti, Lisa R; Yetisen, Ali K

    2014-07-01

    Microfluidic devices offer automation and high-throughput screening, and operate at low volumes of consumables. Although microfluidics has the potential to reduce turnaround times and costs for analytical devices, particularly in medical, veterinary, and environmental sciences, this enabling technology has had limited diffusion into consumer products. This article analyzes the microfluidics market, identifies issues, and highlights successful commercialization strategies. Addressing niche markets and establishing compatibility with existing workflows will accelerate market penetration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Nanoplasmonics advanced device applications

    CERN Document Server

    Chon, James W M

    2013-01-01

    Focusing on control and manipulation of plasmons at nanometer dimensions, nanoplasmonics combines the strength of electronics and photonics, and is predicted to replace existing integrated circuits and photonic devices. It is one of the fastest growing fields of science, with applications in telecommunication, consumer electronics, data storage, medical diagnostics, and energy.Nanoplasmonics: Advanced Device Applications provides a scientific and technological background of a particular nanoplasmonic application and outlines the progress and challenges of the application. It reviews the latest

  10. Measurement device for reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakamoto, M.

    1982-02-01

    A measurement device for a reactor is described. It consists of closed end guide tubes positioned vertically beneath each of the fuel assemblies; the ends of these tubes are immersed in the core coolant fluid. A ''free space'' in-pile detector and a detection device are enclosed in each of the guide tubes. The state of the core is characterized by output signals delivered by the in-pile detectors. These detectors are of the acoustic type [fr

  11. Superconductor electronic device applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VanDuzer, T.

    1989-01-01

    Superconductors are becoming important in many applications where high sensitivity or speed is required. In this paper the authors give brief introduction to superconductive device physics and some comments on the role of high-temperature superconductors. They then present the basic principles of a number of applications in metrology, electromagnetic sensing, and analog and digital circuits. They conclude with the prospects for hybrid semiconductor-superconductor devices, circuits, and systems

  12. Eight Arguments against Double Effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Nucci, Ezio

    I offer eight arguments against the Doctrine of Double Effect, a normative principle according to which in pursuing the good it is sometimes morally permissible to bring about some evil as a side-effect or merely foreseen consequence: the same evil would not be morally justified as an intended...

  13. A Double-Minded Fractal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoson, Andrew J.

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a fun activity of generating a double-minded fractal image for a linear algebra class once the idea of rotation and scaling matrices are introduced. In particular the fractal flip-flops between two words, depending on the level at which the image is viewed. (Contains 5 figures.)

  14. Magnetoresistance stories of double perovskites

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    out. Keywords. Tunnelling magnetoresistance; tunnel boundary; disorder; double perovskite. PACS Nos 75.47.−m; 73.40.Gk; 72.80.Ga. 1. Introduction. Magnetoresistance (MR) is the property of a material to change the value of its electri- cal resistance when an external magnetic field is applied. This phenomenon was first.

  15. Double Coffee opens in China

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2009-01-01

    Läti suursaadik Ingrida Levrence avas esimese Double Coffee kohviku Hiina pealinnas Pekingi südames. Rahvusvaheline kohvikukett kavatseb laieneda mõne kohviku võrra igal aastal. Seni tegutsetakse Lätis, Eestis, Leedus, Ukrainas ja Valgevenes

  16. Constraining neutrinoless double beta decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorame, L.; Meloni, D.; Morisi, S.; Peinado, E.; Valle, J.W.F.

    2012-01-01

    A class of discrete flavor-symmetry-based models predicts constrained neutrino mass matrix schemes that lead to specific neutrino mass sum-rules (MSR). We show how these theories may constrain the absolute scale of neutrino mass, leading in most of the cases to a lower bound on the neutrinoless double beta decay effective amplitude.

  17. Double contrast gastrography in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, R; Peshin, P K; Nigam, J M

    1981-09-01

    For experimental evaluation of double contrast gastrography in 9 dogs, sodium iothalamate and air were used for positive and negative contrast, respectively, to delineate the gastric mucosa. The technic was simple and reasonably safe. Results were satisfactory when the stomach was empty, and appropriate volumes of contrast materials were evenly distributed.

  18. Magnetoresistance stories of double perovskites

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Tunnelling magnetoresistance (TMR) in polycrystalline double perovskites has been an important research topic for more than a decade now, where the nature of the insulating tunnel barrier is the core issue of debate. Other than the nonmagnetic grain boundaries as conventional tunnel barriers, intragrain ...

  19. Doubled-ended ceramic thyratron

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    The double-ended ceramic thyratron CX 1171 B, with its coaxial voltage divider for the SPS. Such a switch, paralleled by three ignitrons in series forms the "thyragnitron" arrangement, and can switch 10 kA, 25 ms pulses, with very fast rise times.

  20. Magnetoresistance stories of double perovskites

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-05-28

    May 28, 2015 ... Tunnelling magnetoresistance (TMR) in polycrystalline double perovskites has been an important research topic for more than a decade now, where the nature of the insulating tunnel barrier is the core issue of debate. Other than the nonmagnetic grain boundaries as conventional tunnel barriers, intragrain ...

  1. Electronic security device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eschbach, E.A.; LeBlanc, E.J.; Griffin, J.W.

    1992-01-01

    The present invention relates to a security device having a control box containing an electronic system and a communications loop over which the system transmits a signal. The device is constructed so that the communications loop can extend from the control box across the boundary of a portal such as a door into a sealed enclosure into which access is restricted whereby the loop must be damaged or moved in order for an entry to be made into the enclosure. The device is adapted for detecting unauthorized entries into such enclosures such as rooms or containers and for recording the time at which such entries occur for later reference. Additionally, the device detects attempts to tamper or interfere with the operation of the device itself and records the time at which such events take place. In the preferred embodiment, the security device includes a microprocessor-based electronic system and a detection module capable of registering changes in the voltage and phase of the signal transmitted over the loop. 11 figs

  2. Electronic security device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eschbach, Eugene A.; LeBlanc, Edward J.; Griffin, Jeffrey W.

    1992-01-01

    The present invention relates to a security device having a control box (12) containing an electronic system (50) and a communications loop (14) over which the system transmits a signal. The device is constructed so that the communications loop can extend from the control box across the boundary of a portal such as a door into a sealed enclosure into which access is restricted whereby the loop must be damaged or moved in order for an entry to be made into the enclosure. The device is adapted for detecting unauthorized entries into such enclosures such as rooms or containers and for recording the time at which such entries occur for later reference. Additionally, the device detects attempts to tamper or interfere with the operation of the device itself and records the time at which such events take place. In the preferred embodiment, the security device includes a microprocessor-based electronic system (50) and a detection module (72) capable of registering changes in the voltage and phase of the signal transmitted over the loop.

  3. Organic 'Plastic' Optoelectronic Devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sariciftci, N.S.

    2006-01-01

    Recent developments on conjugated polymer based photovoltaic diodes and photoactive organic field effect transistors (photOFETs) are discussed. The photophysics of such devices is based on the photoinduced charge transfer from donor type semiconducting conjugated polymers onto acceptor type conjugated polymers or acceptor molecules such as Buckminsterfullerene, C 6 0. Potentially interesting applications include sensitization of the photoconductivity and photovoltaic phenomena as well as photoresponsive organic field effect transistors (photOFETs). Furthermore, organic polymeric/inorganic nanoparticle based 'hybrid' solar cells will be discussed. This talk gives an overview of materials' aspect, charge-transport, and device physics of organic diodes and field-effect transistors. Furthermore, due to the compatibility of carbon/hydrogen based organic semiconductors with organic biomolecules and living cells there can be a great opportunity to integrate such organic semiconductor devices (biOFETs) with the living organisms. In general the largely independent bio/lifesciences and information technology of today, can be thus bridged in an advanced cybernetic approach using organic semiconductor devices embedded in bio-lifesciences. This field of bio-organic electronic devices is proposed to be an important mission of organic semiconductor devices

  4. Equipment abnormality monitoring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ando, Yasumasa

    1991-01-01

    When an operator hears sounds in a plantsite, the operator compares normal sounds of equipment which he previously heard and remembered with sounds he actually hears, to judge if they are normal or abnormal. According to the method, there is a worry that abnormal conditions can not be appropriately judged in a case where the number of objective equipments is increased and in a case that the sounds are changed gradually slightly. Then, the device of the present invention comprises a plurality of monitors for monitoring the operation sound of equipments, a recording/reproducing device for recording and reproducing the signals, a selection device for selecting the reproducing signals among the recorded signals, an acoustic device for converting the signals to sounds, a switching device for switching the signals to be transmitted to the acoustic device between to signals of the monitor and the recording/reproducing signals. The abnormality of the equipments can be determined easily by comparing the sounds representing the operation conditions of equipments for controlling the plant operation and the sounds recorded in their normal conditions. (N.H.)

  5. Jet-Cooled Infrared Laser Spectroscopy in the Umbrella νb{2} Vibration Region of NH_3: Improving the Potential Energy Surface Model of the NH_3-Ar Van Der Waals Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asselin, Pierre; Jabri, Atef; Potapov, Alexey; Loreau, Jérome; van der Avoird, Ad

    2017-06-01

    Taking advantage of our sensitive laser spectrometer coupled to a pulsed slit jet, we recorded near the νb{2} vibration a series of rovibrational transitions of the NH_3-Ar van der Waals (vdW) complex. These transitions involve in the ground vibrational state several internal rotor states corresponding to the ortho{NH_3} and para{NH_3} spin modifications of the complex. They are labeled by Σ_{a}(j,k), Σ_{s}(j,k), Π_{a}(j,k) and Π_{s}(j,k) where Σ(K=0) and Π(K=1) indicate the projection K of the total rotational angular momentum J on the vdW axis, the superscripts s and a designate a symmetric or antisymmetric NH_3 inversion wave function, and j, k quantum numbers indicate the correlation between the internal-rotor state of the complex and the j, k rotational state of the free NH_3 monomer. Five bands have been identified, only one of which was partly observed before. They include transitions starting from the Σ_{a}(j=0 or j=1) state without any internal angular momentum, consequently they can be assigned from the band contour of a linear-molecule-like K=0, ΔJ=1 transition. The energies and splittings of the rovibrational levels of the νb{2}=1←0 spectrum derived from the analysis of the Π_{s}, Σ_{s}(j=1)← Σ_{a}(j=0), k=0 bands and mostly of the Σ_{s}, Π_{s} and Σ_{a}(j=1)←Σ_{a}(j=1), k=1 bands bring relevant information about the νb{2} dependence of the NH_3-Ar interaction, the rovibrational dynamics of the NH_3-Ar complex and provide a sensitive test of a recently developed 4D potential energy surface that includes explicitly its dependence on the umbrella motion. P. Asselin, Y. Berger, T. R. Huet, R. Motiyenko, L. Margulès, R. J. Hendricks, M. R. Tarbutt, S. Tokunaga, B. Darquié, PCCP 19, 4576 (2017), G. T. Fraser, A.S. Pine and W. A. Kreiner, J. Chem. Phys. 94, 7061 (1991). J. Loreau, J. Liévin, Y. Scribano and A. van der Avoird, J. Chem. Phys. 141, 224303 (2014).

  6. Improving Breakdown Behavior by Substrate Bias in a Novel Double Epi-layer Lateral Double Diffused MOS Transistor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Qi; Wang Wei-Dong; Liu Yun; Wei Xue-Ming

    2012-01-01

    A new lateral double diffused MOS (LDMOS) transistor with a double epitaxial layer formed by an n-type substrate and a p-type epitaxial layer is reported (DEL LDMOS). The mechanism of the improved breakdown characteristic is that the high electric field around the drain is reduced by substrate reverse bias, which causes the redistribution of the bulk electric field in the drift region, and the vertical blocking voltage is shared by the drain side and the source side. The numerical results indicate that the trade-off between breakdown voltage and on-resistance of the proposed device is improved greatly in comparison to that of the conventional LDMOS. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  7. A double parameters measurement of steam-water two-phase flow with single orifice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong Shuoping; Tong Yunxian; Yu Meiying

    1992-08-01

    A double parameters measurement of steam-water two-phase flow with single orifice is described. An on-line measurement device based on micro-computer has been developed. The measured r.m.s error of steam quality is less than 6.5% and the measured relative r.m.s. error of mass flow rate is less than 9%

  8. Double thermal oxidation scheme for the fabrication of SiO2 nanochannels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Karl Fredrik; Thamdrup, Lasse Højlund; Mikkelsen, Morten Bo Lindholm

    2007-01-01

    -of-the-art fabrication techniques, our double thermal oxidation scheme (DTOS) displays improvements with respect to 4 inch waferscale height variation sigma(h) 2500. We test the devices by measuring capillary filling speed in different channel heights, ranging from 14 to 310 nm. These tests reproduce as well as extend...

  9. Some theoretical aspects of electrostatic double layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlqvist, P.

    1978-11-01

    A review is presented of the main results of the theoretical work on electrostatic double layers. The general properties of double layers are first considered. Then the time-independent double layer is discussed. The discussion deals with the potential drop, the thickness, and some necessary criteria for the existence and stability of the layer. As a complement to the study of the timeindependent double layer a few remarks are also made upon the timedependent double layer. Finally the question of how double layers are formed and maintained is treated. Several possible formation mechanisms are considered. (author)

  10. Pathways to doubled haploidy: chromosome doubling during androgenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seguí-Simarro, J M; Nuez, F

    2008-01-01

    Production of doubled haploid (DH) plants through androgenesis induction is a promising and convenient alternative to conventional selfing techniques for the generation of pure lines for breeding programs. This process comprises two main steps: induction of androgenesis and duplication of the haploid genome. Such duplication is sometimes indirectly induced by the treatments used to promote androgenic development. But usually, an additional step of direct chromosome doubling must be included in the protocol. Duplication of the haploid genome of androgenic individuals has been thought to occur through three mechanisms: endoreduplication, nuclear fusion and c-mitosis. In this review we will revise and analyze the evidences supporting each of the proposed mechanisms and their relevance during androgenesis induction, embryo/callus development and plant regeneration. Special attention will be devoted to nuclear fusion, whose evidences are accumulating in the last years. 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel

  11. Double phase-conjugate mirror: analysis, demonstration, and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, S; Sternklar, S; Fischer, B

    1987-02-01

    We report on the operation of the double phase-conjugate mirror (DPCM). Two inputs to opposite sides of a photorefractive barium titanate crystal, which may carry different spatial images, are shown to pump the same four-wave mixing process mutually and are self-refracted without any external or internal crystal surface. This results in the phase-conjugate reproduction of the two images simultaneously. This device is analyzed theoretically, and applications in image processing, interferometry, and rotation sensing are discussed. We also demonstrate the operation of a ring laser, using the DPCM, as well as a photorefractive resonator with two facing DPCM's that can support spatial information in its oscillations.

  12. Npn double heterostructure bipolar transistor with ingaasn base region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ping-Chih; Baca, Albert G.; Li, Nein-Yi; Hou, Hong Q.; Ashby, Carol I. H.

    2004-07-20

    An NPN double heterostructure bipolar transistor (DHBT) is disclosed with a base region comprising a layer of p-type-doped indium gallium arsenide nitride (InGaAsN) sandwiched between n-type-doped collector and emitter regions. The use of InGaAsN for the base region lowers the transistor turn-on voltage, V.sub.on, thereby reducing power dissipation within the device. The NPN transistor, which has applications for forming low-power electronic circuitry, is formed on a gallium arsenide (GaAs) substrate and can be fabricated at commercial GaAs foundries. Methods for fabricating the NPN transistor are also disclosed.

  13. Double-blind evaluation of the DKL LifeGuard Model 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, D.W.; Spencer, F.W.; Spencer, D.D.

    1998-05-01

    On March 20, 1998, Sandia National Laboratories performed a double-blind test of the DKL LifeGuard human presence detector and tracker. The test was designed to allow the device to search for individuals well within the product's published operational parameters. The Test Operator of the DKL LifeGuard was provided by the manufacturer and was a high-ranking member of DKL management. The test was developed and implemented to verify the performance of the device as specified by the manufacturer. The device failed to meet its published specifications and it performed no better than random chance

  14. Lightweight Double Neutron Star Found

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2018-02-01

    More than forty years after the first discovery of a double neutron star, we still havent found many others but a new survey is working to change that.The Hunt for PairsThe observed shift in the Hulse-Taylor binarys orbital period over time as it loses energy to gravitational-wave emission. [Weisberg Taylor, 2004]In 1974, Russell Hulse and Joseph Taylor discovered the first double neutron star: two compact objects locked in a close orbit about each other. Hulse and Taylors measurements of this binarys decaying orbit over subsequent years led to a Nobel prize and the first clear evidence of gravitational waves carrying energy and angular momentum away from massive binaries.Forty years later, we have since confirmed the existence of gravitational waves directly with the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO). Nonetheless, finding and studying pre-merger neutron-star binaries remains a top priority. Observing such systems before they merge reveals crucial information about late-stage stellar evolution, binary interactions, and the types of gravitational-wave signals we expect to find with current and future observatories.Since the Hulse-Taylor binary, weve found a total of 16 additional double neutron-star systems which represents only a tiny fraction of the more than 2,600 pulsars currently known. Recently, however, a large number of pulsar surveys are turning their eyes toward the sky, with a focus on finding more double neutron stars and at least one of them has had success.The pulse profile for PSR J1411+2551 at 327 MHz. [Martinez et al. 2017]A Low-Mass DoubleConducted with the 1,000-foot Arecibo radio telescope in Puerto Rico, the Arecibo 327 MHz Drift Pulsar Survey has enabled the recent discovery of dozens of pulsars and transients. Among them, as reported by Jose Martinez (Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy) and coauthors in a recent publication, is PSR J1411+2551: a new double neutron star with one of the lowest masses ever measured

  15. Semiconductor device physics and simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Yuan, J S

    1998-01-01

    This volume provides thorough coverage of modern semiconductor devices -including hetero- and homo-junction devices-using a two-dimensional simulator (MEDICI) to perform the analysis and generate simulation results Each device is examined in terms of dc, ac, and transient simulator results; relevant device physics; and implications for design and analysis Two hundred forty-four useful figures illustrate the physical mechanisms and characteristics of the devices simulated Comprehensive and carefully organized, Semiconductor Device Physics and Simulation is the ideal bridge from device physics to practical device design

  16. Ultraefficient Themoelectric Devices, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Thermoelectric (TE) devices already found a wide range of commercial, military and aerospace applications. However, at present commercially available TE devices...

  17. On the negative resistance of double layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raadu, M.A.; Silevitch, M.B.

    1982-08-01

    It is known that large amplitudes oscillations can occur in the current flowing through a plasma diode, typically when a constant potential is applied across the device. Burger (1965) suggested via a computer simulation that the oscillation characteristics was a function of the quantities T sub (e) and T sub (i), namely the respective time for an electron and an ion to cross the electric field region inside the diode. On the rapid time scale T sub (e) the self consistent equilibrium configuration, was unstable. Norris (1964) had previously arrived at the same conclusion using analytical arguments. In that work, it was concluded that the instability occurred since the diode acted as a negative resistance on the T sub (e) scale. A positive feedback effect forced the system away from equilibrium. Silevitch (1981) used the Burger mechanism to suggest an explanation for the flickering aurora phenomenon. He extended the Norris argument and showed by a variational method that a plausible analytic model for a double layer (DL) behaved as a negative resistance on the T sub (e) scale. In this present work we re-examine the negative resistance calculation by taking a more detailed account of the constraints which are imposed on the electron distributions that exist in the DL region. Specifically, we shall focus at the high potential side of the DL. (Authors)

  18. Double degree master program: Optical Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakholdin, Alexey; Kujawinska, Malgorzata; Livshits, Irina; Styk, Adam; Voznesenskaya, Anna; Ezhova, Kseniia; Ermolayeva, Elena; Ivanova, Tatiana; Romanova, Galina; Tolstoba, Nadezhda

    2015-10-01

    Modern tendencies of higher education require development of master programs providing achievement of learning outcomes corresponding to quickly variable job market needs. ITMO University represented by Applied and Computer Optics Department and Optical Design and Testing Laboratory jointly with Warsaw University of Technology represented by the Institute of Micromechanics and Photonics at The Faculty of Mechatronics have developed a novel international master double-degree program "Optical Design" accumulating the expertise of both universities including experienced teaching staff, educational technologies, and experimental resources. The program presents studies targeting research and professional activities in high-tech fields connected with optical and optoelectronics devices, optical engineering, numerical methods and computer technologies. This master program deals with the design of optical systems of various types, assemblies and layouts using computer modeling means; investigation of light distribution phenomena; image modeling and formation; development of optical methods for image analysis and optical metrology including optical testing, materials characterization, NDT and industrial control and monitoring. The goal of this program is training a graduate capable to solve a wide range of research and engineering tasks in optical design and metrology leading to modern manufacturing and innovation. Variability of the program structure provides its flexibility and adoption according to current job market demands and personal learning paths for each student. In addition considerable proportion of internship and research expands practical skills. Some special features of the "Optical Design" program which implements the best practices of both Universities, the challenges and lessons learnt during its realization are presented in the paper.

  19. Active Photonic Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Valle, Giuseppe; Osellame, Roberto

    The chapter is devoted to active photonic devices fabricated by fs-laser writing. After a brief introduction focused on the role played by fs-laser written active devices, Sect. 10.2 briefly reviews the spectroscopical properties of the most interesting active ions so far exploited, namely erbium, ytterbium, neodimium, and bismuth. In Sect. 10.3 the main figures of merit for an active waveguide, namely the internal gain, the insertion loss, the net gain, and the noise figure are introduced and the experimental procedure for accurate gain measurement is also detailed. A thorough review of the active photonic devices demonstrated with the femtosecond laser microfabrication technique is presented in Sects. 10.4, 10.5, and 10.6, where several active waveguides and amplifiers, prototypal lasers, as well as more functionalized laser devices (operating under single longitudinal mode or stable mode-locking regime) are illustrated, respectively. Finally, conclusions and future perspectives of femtosecond-laser micromachining of active photonic devices are provided.

  20. Reactor power measuring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichige, Masayuki; Ishige, Takanori.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention provides a device for measuring a power such as of a nuclear fission reactor or a thermonuclear reactor by utilizing a light emitting phenomenon by radiation rays of gases. Namely, a measuring vessel sealed with a gas scintillator is inserted to the inside of a reactor. The measuring vessel is optically connected to a photoelectric convertor. The photoelectric convertor is electrically connected with a signal processing device. With such a constitution, gases sealed in the measuring vessel are ionized by radiation rays released in proportion to the power of the reactor to cause scintillation emission. The light is converted into electric signals by the photoelectric convertor. Reactor power can be monitored by the signal processing device having the electric signals as an input. According to the present invention, since the gas scintillation detector is used, the device is simplified and time responsiveness can be improved. As a result, the function of the reactor power measuring device can be improved. (I.S.)

  1. Loose part monitoring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomura, Hiroshi.

    1992-01-01

    The device of the present invention estimates a place where loose parts occur and structural components as the loose parts in a fluid flow channel of a reactor device, to provide information thereof to a plant operator. That is, the device of the present invention comprises (1) a plurality of detectors disposed to each of equipments constituting fluid channels, (2) an abnormal sound sensing device for sensing signals from the detectors, (3) an estimation section for estimating the place where the loose parts occur and the structural components thereof based on the signals sensed by the abnormal sound sensing section, (4) a memory section for storing data of the plant structure necessary for the estimation, and (5) a display section for displaying the result of the estimation. In such a device, the position where the loose parts collide against the plant structural component and the energy thereof are estimated. The dropping path of the loose parts is estimated from the estimation position. Parts to be loose parts in the path are listed up. The parts on the list is selected based on the estimated energy thereby enabling to determine the loose parts. (I.S.)

  2. Reactor container cooling device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ando, Koji; Kinoshita, Shoichiro

    1995-11-10

    The device of the present invention efficiently lowers pressure and temperature in a reactor container upon occurrence of a severe accident in a BWR-type reactor and can cool the inside of the container for a long period of time. That is, (1) pipelines on the side of an exhaustion tower of a filter portion in a filter bent device of the reactor container are in communication with pipelines on the side of a steam inlet of a static container cooling device by way of horizontal pipelines, (2) a back flow check valve is disposed to horizontal pipelines, (3) a steam discharge valve for a pressure vessel is disposed closer to the reactor container than the joint portion between the pipelines on the side of the steam inlet and the horizontal pipelines. Upon occurrence of a severe accident, when the pressure vessel should be ruptured and steams containing aerosol in the reactor core should be filled in the reactor container, the inlet valve of the static container cooling device is closed. Steams are flown into the filter bent device of the reactor container, where the aerosols can be removed. (I.S.).

  3. Temperature and Dilatation Estimation for Modern Semiconductor Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric JOUBERT

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new approach for measuring physical variables on micro- electronic components. An optical system is used to simultaneously quantify the surface temperature of a component and its expansion. This double acquisition is realized by a Michelson interferometer coupled with a Charge Coupled Device (CCD line device. To validate this method, the temperature measurements were directly compared with the results obtained by an infrared camera and by a measurement of variation of I (V. The displacement measurements were compared with those obtained by a laser 3D vibrometer, whose physical principle is completely different. Consistent results were obtained regarding the different techniques.

  4. Monocular Elevation Deficiency - Double Elevator Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Monocular Elevation Deficiency/ Double Elevator Palsy En Español Read in Chinese What is monocular elevation deficiency (Double Elevator Palsy)? Monocular Elevation Deficiency, also known by the ...

  5. The Double R Theory of Language Comprehension

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ball, Jerry

    2004-01-01

    ... (also known as Cognitive Semantics). This technical report explicates the basic principles and assumptions of Double R Grammar and compares Double R Grammar to Chomsky's X-Bar Theory as well as Langacker's Cognitive Linguistic...

  6. Energy storage device including a redox-enhanced electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stucky, Galen; Evanko, Brian; Parker, Nicholas; Vonlanthen, David; Auston, David; Boettcher, Shannon; Chun, Sang-Eun; Ji, Xiulei; Wang, Bao; Wang, Xingfeng; Chandrabose, Raghu Subash

    2017-08-08

    An electrical double layer capacitor (EDLC) energy storage device is provided that includes at least two electrodes and a redox-enhanced electrolyte including two redox couples such that there is a different one of the redox couples for each of the electrodes. When charged, the charge is stored in Faradaic reactions with the at least two redox couples in the electrolyte and in a double-layer capacitance of a porous carbon material that comprises at least one of the electrodes, and a self-discharge of the energy storage device is mitigated by at least one of electrostatic attraction, adsorption, physisorption, and chemisorption of a redox couple onto the porous carbon material.

  7. Minimal Doubling and Point Splitting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creutz, M.

    2010-06-14

    Minimally-doubled chiral fermions have the unusual property of a single local field creating two fermionic species. Spreading the field over hypercubes allows construction of combinations that isolate specific modes. Combining these fields into bilinears produces meson fields of specific quantum numbers. Minimally-doubled fermion actions present the possibility of fast simulations while maintaining one exact chiral symmetry. They do, however, introduce some peculiar aspects. An explicit breaking of hyper-cubic symmetry allows additional counter-terms to appear in the renormalization. While a single field creates two different species, spreading this field over nearby sites allows isolation of specific states and the construction of physical meson operators. Finally, lattice artifacts break isospin and give two of the three pseudoscalar mesons an additional contribution to their mass. Depending on the sign of this mass splitting, one can either have a traditional Goldstone pseudoscalar meson or a parity breaking Aoki-like phase.

  8. Coating thickness measuring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joffe, B.B.; Sawyer, B.E.; Spongr, J.J.

    1984-01-01

    A device especially adapted for measuring the thickness of coatings on small, complexly-shaped parts, such as, for example, electronic connectors, electronic contacts, or the like. The device includes a source of beta radiation and a radiation detector whereby backscatter of the radiation from the coated part can be detected and the thickness of the coating ascertained. The radiation source and detector are positioned in overlying relationship to the coated part and a microscope is provided to accurately position the device with respect to the part. Means are provided to control the rate of descent of the radiation source and radiation detector from its suspended position to its operating position and the resulting impact it makes with the coated part to thereby promote uniformity of readings from operator to operator, and also to avoid excessive impact with the part, thereby improving accuracy of measurement and eliminating damage to the parts

  9. Steam cleaning device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karaki, Mikio; Muraoka, Shoichi.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To clean complicated and long objects to be cleaned having a structure like that of nuclear reactor fuel assembly. Constitution: Steams are blown from the bottom of a fuel assembly and soon condensated initially at the bottom of a vertical water tank due to water filled therein. Then, since water in the tank is warmed nearly to the saturation temperature, purified water is supplied from a injection device below to the injection device above the water tank on every device. In this way, since purified water is sprayed successively from below to above and steams are condensated in each of the places, the entire fuel assembly elongated in the vertical direction can be cleaned completely. Water in the reservoir goes upward like the steam flow and is drained together with the eliminated contaminations through an overflow pipe. After the cleaning has been completed, a main steam valve is closed and the drain valve is opened to drain water. (Kawakami, Y.)

  10. International and domestic aspects of double taxation

    OpenAIRE

    Murgáčová, Miroslava

    2010-01-01

    International and local aspects of double taxation Abstract The purpose of my thesis is to analyze international double taxation taking into account both local legislation and international aspects. Double taxation is the situation, where the same income (or capital) is subject to the same tax more than once. Mostly, the international double taxation appears when the state of the source of income implies taxes on the income of the non-residents and the state of residence of the income receive...

  11. Controlled Generation of Ultrathin-Shell Double Emulsions and Studies on Their Stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chun-Xia; Chen, Dong; Hui, Yue; Weitz, David A; Middelberg, Anton P J

    2017-05-19

    Double emulsions with a hierarchical core-shell structure have great potential in various applications, but their broad use is limited by their instability. To improve stability, water-in-oil-in-water (W/O/W) emulsions with an ultrathin oil layer of several hundred nanometres were produced by using a microcapillary device. The effects of various parameters on the generation of ultrathin-shell double emulsions and their droplet size were investigated, including the proper combinations of inner, middle and outer phases, flow rates and surfactants. The surfactant in the middle oil phase was found to be critical for the formation of the ultrathin-shell double emulsions. Furthermore, the stability of these double emulsions can be notably improved by increasing the concentration of the surfactant, and they can be stable for months. This opens up new opportunities for their future applications in cosmetics, foods and pharmaceuticals. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Study of double porous silicon surfaces for enhancement of silicon solar cell performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razali, N. S. M.; Rahim, A. F. A.; Radzali, R.; Mahmood, A.

    2017-09-01

    In this work, design and simulation of double porous silicon surfaces for enhancement of silicon solar cell is carried out. Both single and double porous structures are constructed by using TCAD ATHENA and TCAD DEVEDIT tools of the SILVACO software respectively. After the structures were created, I-V characteristics and spectral response of the solar cell were extracted using ATLAS device simulator. Finally, the performance of the simulated double porous solar cell is compared with the performance of both single porous and bulk-Si solar cell. The results showed that double porous silicon solar cell exhibited 1.8% efficiency compared to 1.3% and 1.2% for single porous silicon and bulk-Si solar cell.

  13. Electronic devices and circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Pridham, Gordon John

    1968-01-01

    Electronic Devices and Circuits, Volume 1 deals with the design and applications of electronic devices and circuits such as passive components, diodes, triodes and transistors, rectification and power supplies, amplifying circuits, electronic instruments, and oscillators. These topics are supported with introductory network theory and physics. This volume is comprised of nine chapters and begins by explaining the operation of resistive, inductive, and capacitive elements in direct and alternating current circuits. The theory for some of the expressions quoted in later chapters is presented. Th

  14. Preventing medical device recalls

    CERN Document Server

    Raheja, Dev

    2014-01-01

    Introduction to Medical Device RequirementsIntroductionThe ChallengesSources of ErrorsUnderstanding the Science of Safety     Overview of FDA Quality System Regulation     Overview of Risk Management Standard ISO 14971     Overview of FDA Device Approval Process     Overview of Regulatory Requirements for Clinical TrialsSummaryReferencesPreventing Recalls during Specification WritingIntroductionConduct Requirements Analysis to Identify Missing RequirementsSpecifications for Safety, Durability, and

  15. Nanoscale memory devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Andy; Deen, Jamal; Lee, Jeong-Soo; Meyyappan, M

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews the current status and future prospects for the use of nanomaterials and devices in memory technology. First, the status and continuing scaling trends of the flash memory are discussed. Then, a detailed discussion on technologies trying to replace flash in the near-term is provided. This includes phase change random access memory, Fe random access memory and magnetic random access memory. The long-term nanotechnology prospects for memory devices include carbon-nanotube-based memory, molecular electronics and memristors based on resistive materials such as TiO 2 . (topical review)

  16. INLET STRATIFICATION DEVICE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2006-01-01

    formed of a flexible porous material and having an inlet (19) and outlets formed of the pores of the porous material. The stratification device (5) further comprises at least one outer pipe (7) surrounding the inlet pipe (6) in spaced relationship thereto and being at least partially formed of a porous......An inlet stratification device (5) for a circuit circulating a fluid through a tank (1 ) and for providing and maintaining stratification of the fluid in the tank (1 ). The stratification de- vice (5) is arranged vertically in the tank (1) and comprises an inlet pipe (6) being at least partially...

  17. Microfluidic Cell Culture Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayama, Shuichi (Inventor); Cabrera, Lourdes Marcella (Inventor); Heo, Yun Seok (Inventor); Smith, Gary Daniel (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Microfluidic devices for cell culturing and methods for using the same are disclosed. One device includes a substrate and membrane. The substrate includes a reservoir in fluid communication with a passage. A bio-compatible fluid may be added to the reservoir and passage. The reservoir is configured to receive and retain at least a portion of a cell mass. The membrane acts as a barrier to evaporation of the bio-compatible fluid from the passage. A cover fluid may be added to cover the bio-compatible fluid to prevent evaporation of the bio-compatible fluid.

  18. Design of double gate vertical tunnel field effect transistor using HDB and its performance estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seema; Chauhan, Sudakar Singh

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate the double gate vertical tunnel field-effect transistor using homo/hetero dielectric buried oxide (HDB) to obtain the optimized device characteristics. In this concern, the existence of double gate, HDB and electrode work-function engineering enhances DC performance and Analog/RF performance. The use of electrostatic doping helps to achieve higher on-current owing to occurrence of higher tunneling generation rate of charge carriers at the source/epitaxial interface. Further, lightly doped drain region and high- k dielectric below channel and drain region are responsible to suppress the ambipolar current. Simulated results clarifies that proposed device have achieved the tremendous performance in terms of driving current capability, steeper subthreshold slope (SS), drain induced barrier lowering (DIBL), hot carrier effects (HCEs) and high frequency parameters for better device reliability.

  19. Somewhat Slightly Generalized Double Fuzzy Semicontinuous Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatimah M. Mohammed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to introduce the concepts of somewhat slightly generalized double fuzzy semicontinuous functions and somewhat slightly generalized double fuzzy semiopen functions in double fuzzy topological spaces. Some interesting properties and characterizations of these functions are introduced and discussed. Furthermore, the relationships among the new concepts are discussed with some necessary examples.

  20. High-pressure band-gap engineering in lead-free Cs_2AgBiBr_6 double perovskite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Qian; Wang, Yonggang; Yang, Wenge; Pan, Weicheng; Tang, Jiang; Zou, Bo; Quan, Zewei

    2017-01-01

    Novel inorganic lead-free double perovskites with improved stability are regarded as alternatives to state-of-art hybrid lead halide perovskites in photovoltaic devices. The recently discovered Cs_2AgBiBr_6 double perovskite exhibits attractive optical and electronic features, making it promising for various optoelectronic applications. However, its practical performance is hampered by the large band gap. In this work, remarkable band gap narrowing of Cs_2AgBiBr_6 is, for the first time, achieved on inorganic photovoltaic double perovskites through high pressure treatments. Moreover, the narrowed band gap is partially retainable after releasing pressure, promoting its optoelectronic applications. This work not only provides novel insights into the structure-property relationship in lead-free double perovskites, but also offers new strategies for further development of advanced perovskite devices. (copyright 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  1. Materials for electrochemical device safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vissers, Daniel R.; Amine, Khalil; Thackeray, Michael M.; Kahaian, Arthur J.; Johnson, Christopher S.

    2015-04-07

    An electrochemical device includes a thermally-triggered intumescent material or a gas-triggered intumescent material. Such devices prevent or minimize short circuits in a device that could lead to thermal run-away. Such devices may include batteries or supercapacitors.

  2. Double pot and double compartment: integrating two approaches to study nutrient uptake by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cardoso, I.M.; Boddington, C.L.; Janssen, B.H.; Oenema, O.; Kuyper, T.W.

    2004-01-01

    The double compartment technique has been commonly used in studies on nutrient uptake by mycorrhizas whereas the double pot technique has been used to assess the nutritional stress of plants grown in different soils. A combination of the double pot and the double compartment technique was used as a

  3. Non-binary Colour Modulation for Display Device Based on Phase Change Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Hong-Kai; Tong, Hao; Qian, Hang; Hui, Ya-Juan; Liu, Nian; Yan, Peng; Miao, Xiang-Shui

    2016-12-19

    A reflective-type display device based on phase change materials is attractive because of its ultrafast response time and high resolution compared with a conventional display device. This paper proposes and demonstrates a unique display device in which multicolour changing can be achieved on a single device by the selective crystallization of double layer phase change materials. The optical contrast is optimized by the availability of a variety of film thicknesses of two phase change layers. The device exhibits a low sensitivity to the angle of incidence, which is important for display and colour consistency. The non-binary colour rendering on a single device is demonstrated for the first time using optical excitation. The device shows the potential for ultrafast display applications.

  4. QCAD simulation and optimization of semiconductor double quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Erik; Gao, Xujiao; Kalashnikova, Irina; Muller, Richard Partain; Salinger, Andrew Gerhard; Young, Ralph Watson

    2013-12-01

    We present the Quantum Computer Aided Design (QCAD) simulator that targets modeling quantum devices, particularly silicon double quantum dots (DQDs) developed for quantum qubits. The simulator has three di erentiating features: (i) its core contains nonlinear Poisson, e ective mass Schrodinger, and Con guration Interaction solvers that have massively parallel capability for high simulation throughput, and can be run individually or combined self-consistently for 1D/2D/3D quantum devices; (ii) the core solvers show superior convergence even at near-zero-Kelvin temperatures, which is critical for modeling quantum computing devices; (iii) it couples with an optimization engine Dakota that enables optimization of gate voltages in DQDs for multiple desired targets. The Poisson solver includes Maxwell- Boltzmann and Fermi-Dirac statistics, supports Dirichlet, Neumann, interface charge, and Robin boundary conditions, and includes the e ect of dopant incomplete ionization. The solver has shown robust nonlinear convergence even in the milli-Kelvin temperature range, and has been extensively used to quickly obtain the semiclassical electrostatic potential in DQD devices. The self-consistent Schrodinger-Poisson solver has achieved robust and monotonic convergence behavior for 1D/2D/3D quantum devices at very low temperatures by using a predictor-correct iteration scheme. The QCAD simulator enables the calculation of dot-to-gate capacitances, and comparison with experiment and between solvers. It is observed that computed capacitances are in the right ballpark when compared to experiment, and quantum con nement increases capacitance when the number of electrons is xed in a quantum dot. In addition, the coupling of QCAD with Dakota allows to rapidly identify which device layouts are more likely leading to few-electron quantum dots. Very efficient QCAD simulations on a large number of fabricated and proposed Si DQDs have made it possible to provide fast feedback for design

  5. Diffusion-Driven Charge Transport in Light Emitting Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Iurii; Kivisaari, Pyry; Oksanen, Jani; Suihkonen, Sami

    2017-12-12

    Almost all modern inorganic light-emitting diode (LED) designs are based on double heterojunctions (DHJs) whose structure and current injection principle have remained essentially unchanged for decades. Although highly efficient devices based on the DHJ design have been developed and commercialized for energy-efficient general lighting, the conventional DHJ design requires burying the active region (AR) inside a pn-junction. This has hindered the development of emitters utilizing nanostructured ARs located close to device surfaces such as nanowires or surface quantum wells. Modern DHJ III-N LEDs also exhibit resistive losses that arise from the DHJ device geometry. The recently introduced diffusion-driven charge transport (DDCT) emitter design offers a novel way to transport charge carriers to unconventionally placed ARs. In a DDCT device, the AR is located apart from the pn-junction and the charge carriers are injected into the AR by bipolar diffusion. This device design allows the integration of surface ARs to semiconductor LEDs and offers a promising method to reduce resistive losses in high power devices. In this work, we present a review of the recent progress in gallium nitride (GaN) based DDCT devices, and an outlook of potential DDCT has for opto- and microelectronics.

  6. Nano devices and sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Liaw, Shien-Kuei; Chung, Yung-Hui

    2016-01-01

    This volume on semiconductor devices focuses on such topics as nano-imprinting, lithography, nanowire charge-trapping, thermo-stability in nanowires, nano-electrodes, and voltage and materials used for fabricating and improving electrical characteristics of nano-materials.

  7. Criticality alarm device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasai, Kenji.

    1994-01-01

    The device of the present invention is utilized, for example, to a reprocessing facility for storing and processing nuclear fuels and measures and controls the nuclear fuel assembly system so as not to exceed criticality. That is, a conventional criticality alarm device applies a predetermined processing to neutron fluxes generated from a nuclear fuel assembly system containing nuclear fuels and outputs an alarm. The device of the present invention comprises (1) a neutron flux supply source for increasing and decreasing neutron fluxes periodically and supplying them to nuclear fuel assemblies, (2) a detector for detecting neutron fluxes in the nuclear fuel assemblies, (3) a critical state judging section for judging the critical state of the nuclear fuel assemblies based on the periodically changing signals obtained from the detector (2) and (4) an alarm section for outputting criticality alarms depending on the result of the judgement. The device of the present invention can accurately recognize the critical state of the nuclear fuel assembly system and can forecast reaching of the nuclear fuel assembly to criticality or prompt neutron critical state. (I.S.)

  8. Single Value Devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mader, Angelika H.; Dertien, Edwin Christian; Reidsma, Dennis

    2011-01-01

    We live in a world of continuous information overflow, but the quality of information and communication is suffering. Single value devices contribute to the information and communication quality by fo- cussing on one explicit, relevant piece of information. The information is decoupled from a

  9. Single Value Devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mader, Angelika H.; Dertien, Edwin Christian; Reidsma, Dennis; Camurri, Antonio; Costa, Cristina

    We live in a world of continuous information overflow, but the quality of information and communication is suffering. Single value devices contribute to information and communication quality by focussing on one explicit, relevant piece of information. The information is decoupled from a computer and

  10. Single Value Devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mader, Angelika H.; Reidsma, Dennis; Dertien, Edwin Christian; Volpe, G; Kolkmeier, Jan; Camurri, A.; Kolkmeier, Jan; Nijholt, Antinus

    2015-01-01

    We live in a world of continuous information overflow, but the quality of information and communication is suffering. Single value devices contribute to the information and communication quality by focussing on one explicit, relevant piece of information. The information is decoupled from a computer

  11. Magnetic-bubble devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fairholme, R.J.

    1978-01-01

    Magnetic bubbles were first described only ten years ago when research workers were discussing orthoferrites containing μm diameter bubbles. However, problems of material fabrication limit crystals to a few mm across which severely curtailed device development. Since then materials have changed and rare-earth-iron garnet films can be grown up 3 inches in diameter with bubble diameters down to sizes below 1 μm. The first commercial products have device capacities in the range 64 000 to 100 000 bits with bubble diameters between 4 and 6 μm. Chip capacities of 1 Mbit are presently under development in the laboratory, as are new techniques to use submicrometre bubbles. The operation and fabrication of a bubble device is described using the serial loop devices currently being manufactured at Plessey as models. Chip organization is one important variable which directly affects the access time. A range of access times and capacities is available which offers a wide range of market opportunities, ranging from consumer products to fixed head disc replacements. some of the application areas are described. (author)

  12. Device for geophysical exploration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ergashev S.F.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In the article a device is offered for geophysical secret service, resulted block chart and temporal diagrams. It is experimentally set, the use of detonation generators allowed to use more high-frequency harmonic constituents of echo-signals for determination of object on a depth a to 100 m.

  13. Radiation flux measuring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corte, E.; Maitra, P.

    1977-01-01

    A radiation flux measuring device is described which employs a differential pair of transistors, the output of which is maintained constant, connected to a radiation detector. Means connected to the differential pair produce a signal representing the log of the a-c component of the radiation detector, thereby providing a signal representing the true root mean square logarithmic output. 3 claims, 2 figures

  14. Programmable ubiquitous telerobotic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, Michael; Greene, Matthew; Keaton, David; Och, Christian; Seidl, Matthew L.; Waite, William; Zorn, Benjamin G.

    1997-12-01

    We are investigating a field of research that we call ubiquitous telepresence, which involves the design and implementation of low-cost robotic devices that can be programmed and operated from anywhere on the Internet. These devices, which we call ubots, can be used for academic purposes (e.g., a biologist could remote conduct a population survey), commercial purposes (e.g., a house could be shown remotely by a real-estate agent), and for recreation and education (e.g., someone could tour a museum remotely). We anticipate that such devices will become increasingly common due to recent changes in hardware and software technology. In particular, current hardware technology enables such devices to be constructed very cheaply (less than $500), and current software and network technology allows highly portable code to be written and downloaded across the Internet. In this paper, we present our prototype system architecture, and the ubot implementation we have constructed based on it. The hardware technology we use is the handy board, a 6811-based controller board with digital and analog inputs and outputs. Our software includes a network layer based on TCP/IP and software layers written in Java. Our software enables users across the Internet to program the behavior of the vehicle and to receive image feedback from a camera mounted on it.

  15. Integrated Optical lightguide device

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heideman, Rene; Lambeck, Paul; Veldhuis, G.J.

    2000-01-01

    In an integrated optical lightguide device including a light-transmitting core layer, an inclusion or buffer layer, and an active or cladding layer. The cladding layer is divided into segments. Groups of different segments exhibit different refractive indices, light intensity profiles or different

  16. Integrated Optical lightguide device

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heideman, Rene; Lambeck, Paul; Veldhuis, G.J.

    2005-01-01

    In an integrated optical lightguide device including a light-transmitting core layer, an inclusion or buffer layer, and an active or cladding layer. The cladding layer is divided into segments. Groups of different segments exhibit different refractive indices, light intensity profiles or different

  17. The ''ATOS'' experimental device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belyaev, V.A.; Dorovskij, A.P.; Dubrovin, M.M.; Khlopkin, A.N.

    1980-08-01

    This paper contains a brief description of the ATOS experimental device at the I.V. Kurchatov Institute, Moscow, USSR, which has been designed in accordance with the merged beam principle to investigate collisions between heavy atomic particles and multiply-charged ions of impurity elements - following the programme of the Joint IFRC/INDC Subcommittee on Atomic and Molecular Data for Fusion

  18. Foundation for thermonuclear device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoji, Akio; Odajima, Kazuo; Ota, Hiroshi.

    1989-01-01

    The present invention concerns foundations for a thermonuclear device or relevant facilities and, more in particular, it relates to insulation structures upon installing the foundations. In a case of receiving great force such as of a thermonuclear device by way of insulation materials, since the strength of the insulation materials is smaller as compared with that of steel materials, the size of the foundation insulation structure tends to be increased. In view of the above in the present invention, insulative resin layers are applied to anchor sleeves fitted to the upper portion of foundation bolts. With such a constitution, insulation structure can be formed within foundation concretes. Accordingly, since legs of the device are covered with insulative resins in the foundation structure, it can provide an effect of eliminating the space required for the insulation structures above the ground. The structures can be applied not only to the thermonuclear device but also to electrical insulation structures for large current circuits, with similar effects. (I.S.)

  19. Wavelength conversion devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Benny; Durhuus, Terji; Jørgensen, Carsten

    1996-01-01

    Summary form only given. Wavelength converters will be essential devices to exploit the full potential of the wavelength dimension in wavelength-division multiplexed (WDM) networks. Based on experiments, we discuss different candidates for efficient wavelength converters with attention to expected...

  20. Coal sampling device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huck, W.R.

    1985-10-22

    This invention pertains to a device for taking samples of finely crushed particulate matter, such as coal from a flowing feed stream on a preset selection schedule, using a rotating drum which has one slot in its periphery and a receptable moveable into and out of the center area of the drum in alignment with said slot.

  1. Cascade orificial resistive device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitsakis, Nicholas; Cassidy, James

    1994-07-01

    A cascade orificial resistive device for throttling fluid flow which minimizes acoustic noise and internal vibrations is described herein. The device has a hollow body defining a fluid passageway, a plurality of perforated plates mounted within the passageway, a fixed end ring adjacent one end of the perforated plates, and a threadable end ring adjacent an opposite end of the perforated plates to place the plates in compression. Each of the perforated plates is a single piece molded plate having an integral outer ring and an integrally formed center keying mechanism as well as a plurality of orifices. The keying mechanism formed on each plate is designed so that adjacent ones of the plates have their orifices misaligned. In this manner, a pressure drop across each plate is created and the fluid flow through the device is throttled. The device of the present invention has utility in a number of onboard marine vessel systems wherein reduced acoustic noise and internal vibrations are particularly desirable.

  2. Air Stable Photovoltaic Device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    A method of forming a conducting polymer based photovoltaic device comprising the steps of : (a) providing a transparent first electrode; (b) providing the transparent first electrode with a layer of metal oxide nanoparticles, wherein the metal oxide is selected from the group consisting of : TiO...

  3. Fuel lock down device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bevilacqua, F.; Groves, M.D.

    1979-01-01

    Disclosed is a lock down device for restraining a nuclear fuel assembly against hydraulic flow forces having cantilever leaf springs on the fuel assembly lower end fitting which lock into recesses in the fuel alignment pins located on the core support plate

  4. A Medical Delivery Device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention relates to a medical delivery device comprising at least two membrane electrode assembly units each of which comprises three layers: an upper and a lower electrode and a selective ionic conductive membrane provided there-between. At least one of the three layers are shared...

  5. Device Oriented Project Controller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalesio, Leo; Kraimer, Martin

    2013-11-20

    This proposal is directed at the issue of developing control systems for very large HEP projects. A de-facto standard in accelerator control is the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS), which has been applied successfully to many physics projects. EPICS is a channel based system that requires that each channel of each device be configured and controlled. In Phase I, the feasibility of a device oriented extension to the distributed channel database was demonstrated by prototyping a device aware version of an EPICS I/O controller that functions with the current version of the channel access communication protocol. Extensions have been made to the grammar to define the database. Only a multi-stage position controller with limit switches was developed in the demonstration, but the grammar should support a full range of functional record types. In phase II, a full set of record types will be developed to support all existing record types, a set of process control functions for closed loop control, and support for experimental beam line control. A tool to configure these records will be developed. A communication protocol will be developed or extensions will be made to Channel Access to support introspection of components of a device. Performance bench marks will be made on both communication protocol and the database. After these records and performance tests are under way, a second of the grammar will be undertaken.

  6. Large-signal modeling of multi-finger InP DHBT devices at millimeter-wave frequencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Tom Keinicke; Midili, Virginio; Squartecchia, Michele

    2017-01-01

    A large-signal modeling approach has been developed for multi-finger devices fabricated in an Indium Phosphide (InP) Double Heterojunction Bipolar Transistor (DHBT) process. The approach utilizes unit-finger device models embedded in a multi-port parasitic network. The unit-finger model is based...

  7. Standardization of splash device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández Raga, María; Peters, Piet

    2017-04-01

    The erosion is a complex process that has been studied extensively by numerous researchers, requiring a prolongued time effort and a large economic investment. To be effective, the measurements of erosion should be precise, controlled and replicable, and to assure efectiveness, measurement devices of erosion should be properly designed, constructed, well calibrated and also they should be operated by a trained person (Stroosnijder, 2005). Because researchers try to improve old devices, the equipment is constantly being redesigned, making the measurements not comparable and furthermore, producing a lack of available standarized device. The lack of standardization of erosion equipment is more obvious in the case of the local splash erosion, where the nature of the process makes very difficult to isolate its effects. In this article we compare the results obtained from five of the most common splash erosion devices (selected from more than 16 different currently types), under the same rain conditions, with the objective of facilitate the standardization of the method that will be more easy to build, minimizing the error. A set of six splash devices were setted in well known positions under simulated rain, to measured the differences, among devices and the accuracy of the data recovered after 10 minutes of rainfall simulation under different intensities (from 60 to 130 mm/h). The rainfall simulator of Wageningen was used, using sand as splash erosion source. Differences in the infiltration were also measured, and a calibration of sizes and speeds of the raindrops was done using the photography method (Hamidreza-Sadeghi et al., 2013). The splash devices selected for this study were unbounded splash devices (like the funnel, the cup (Fernandez-Raga et al., 2010) and the splash flume (Jomaa et al., 2010)), and bounded devices that allow the calculation of splash rate, (like the new cup (Scholten et al., 2011) and the Morgan tray). The behaviour of different splash devices

  8. Double Layer Dynamics in a Collisionless Magnetoplasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iizuka, S.; Michelsen, Poul; Juul Rasmussen, Jens

    An experimental investigation of the dynamics of double layers is presented. The experiments are performed in a Q-machine plasma and the double layers are generated by applying a positive step potential to a cold collector plate terminating the plasma column. The double layer is created...... and propagation of a double layer. The period of the oscillations is determined by the propagation length of the double layer. The current is limited during the propagation of the double layer by a growing negative potential barrier formed on the low potential tail. Similar phenomena appear when a potential...... difference is applied between two plasmas in a Q-machine with two sources. In this case a stationary double layer forms in the plasma column, but the low potential tail is subject to "back and forth" oscillations leading to large amplitude current oscillations....

  9. Improved Reliability of Small Molecule Organic Solar Cells by Double Anode Buffer Layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pao-Hsun Huang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An optimized hybrid planar heterojunction (PHJ of small molecule organic solar cells (SM-OSCs based on copper phthalocyanine (CuPc as donor and fullerene (C60 as acceptor was fabricated, which obviously enhanced the performance of device by sequentially using both MoO3 and pentacene as double anode buffer layers (ABL, also known as hole extraction layer (HEL. A series of the vacuum-deposited ABL, acting as an electron and exciton blocking layer, were examined for their characteristics in SM-OSCs. The performance and reliability were compared between conventional ITO/ABL/CuPc/C60/BCP/Ag cells and the new ITO/double ABL/CuPc/C60/BCP/Ag cells. The effect on the electrical properties of these materials was also investigated to obtain the optimal thickness of ABL. The comparison shows that the modified cell has an enhanced reliability compared to traditional cells. The improvement of lifetime was attributed to the idea of double layers to prevent humidity and oxygen from diffusing into the active layer. We demonstrated that the interfacial extraction layers are necessary to avoid degradation of device. That is to say, in normal temperature and pressure, a new avenue for the device within double buffer layers has exhibited the highest values of open circuit voltage (Voc, fill factor (FF, and lifetime in this work compared to monolayer of ABL.

  10. Booster Double Harmonic Setup Notes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardner, C. J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.

    2015-02-17

    The motivation behind implementing a booster double harmonic include the reduced transverse space charge force from a reduced peak beam current and reduced momentum spread of the beam, both of which can be achieved from flattening the RF bucket. RF capture and acceleration of polarized protons (PP) is first set up in the single harmonic mode with RF harmonic h=1. Once capture and acceleration have been set up in the single harmonic mode, the second harmonic system is brought on and programmed to operate in concert with the single harmonic system.

  11. Experiments on double beta decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busto, J. [Neuchatel Univ. (Switzerland). Inst. de Physique

    1996-11-01

    The Double Beta Decay, and especially ({beta}{beta}){sub 0{nu}} mode, is an excellent test of Standard Model as well as of neutrino physics. From experimental point of view, a very large number of different techniques are or have been used increasing the sensitivity of this experiments quite a lot (the factor of 10{sup 4} in the last 20 years). In future, in spite of several difficulties, the sensitivity would be increased further, keeping the interest of this very important process. (author) 4 figs., 5 tabs., 21 refs.

  12. Magnetogasdynamics of double radio sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nepveu, M.

    1979-01-01

    The magnetogasdynamical behaviour of plasmoids moving through an ambient gas is investigated numerically with a two-dimensional code, based on the SHASTA scheme. The astrophysical importance of this study lies in the observed extended extragalactic radio sources. It is assumed that plasma clouds with cylinder symmetry are ejected from the nucleus of a galaxy. Their large-scale evolution in the intergalactic medium (IGM) is followed. The gas dynamics of an ejected cloud, the magnetogasdynamics of ejected clouds, the Christiansen-Pacholczyk-Scott picture for radio galaxies and the shear layers in double radio sources are studied. (Auth.)

  13. Obstacle recovery device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terai, Fujio; Furuya, Masaaki; Ugai, Masaru.

    1992-01-01

    The device of the present invention comprises a fiber scope for taking a recovery operation portion and an obstacle into a field of vision and photographing the state of the operation in the recovery operation portion and a display section for displaying the photographed image at a remote place. Concretely, the monitor of a remote operation section displays an image photographed by the fiber scope. A operation unit attached with a forceps and a fiber scope are brought closer, for example, to a fuel assembly in a reactor in the recovery operation portion. Then, the obstacle intruded into a minute space between fuels is recovered by the forceps while displaying state of the operation on the monitor of the remote operation section. Such a device certainly recover and remove a minute obstacle present in such a circumstance that a man's hand can not access, by the operation conducted under visual confirmation. (I.S.)

  14. Regenerative braking device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppie, Lyle O.

    1982-01-12

    Disclosed are several embodiments of a regenerative braking device for an automotive vehicle. The device includes a plurality of rubber rollers (24, 26) mounted for rotation between an input shaft (14) connectable to the vehicle drivetrain and an output shaft (16) which is drivingly connected to the input shaft by a variable ratio transmission (20). When the transmission ratio is such that the input shaft rotates faster than the output shaft, the rubber rollers are torsionally stressed to accumulate energy, thereby slowing the vehicle. When the transmission ratio is such that the output shaft rotates faster than the input shaft, the rubber rollers are torsionally relaxed to deliver accumulated energy, thereby accelerating or driving the vehicle.

  15. Organic photosensitive devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peumans, Peter; Forrest, Stephen R.

    2013-01-22

    A photoactive device is provided. The device includes a first electrode, a second electrode, and a photoactive region disposed between and electrically connected to the first and second electrodes. The photoactive region further includes an organic donor layer and an organic acceptor layer that form a donor-acceptor heterojunction. The mobility of holes in the organic donor region and the mobility of electrons in the organic acceptor region are different by a factor of at least 100, and more preferably a factor of at least 1000. At least one of the mobility of holes in the organic donor region and the mobility of electrons in the organic acceptor region is greater than 0.001 cm.sup.2/V-sec, and more preferably greater than 1 cm.sup.2/V-sec. The heterojunction may be of various types, including a planar heterojunction, a bulk heterojunction, a mixed heterojunction, and a hybrid planar-mixed heterojunction.

  16. Nuclear reactor safety device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutter, Ernest

    1986-01-01

    A safety device is disclosed for use in a nuclear reactor for axially repositioning a control rod with respect to the reactor core in the event of an upward thermal excursion. Such safety device comprises a laminated helical ribbon configured as a tube-like helical coil having contiguous helical turns with slidably abutting edges. The helical coil is disclosed as a portion of a drive member connected axially to the control rod. The laminated ribbon is formed of outer and inner laminae. The material of the outer lamina has a greater thermal coefficient of expansion than the material of the inner lamina. In the event of an upward thermal excursion, the laminated helical coil curls inwardly to a smaller diameter. Such inward curling causes the total length of the helical coil to increase by a substantial increment, so that the control rod is axially repositioned by a corresponding amount to reduce the power output of the reactor.

  17. A Society of Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kok, Koen; Widergren, Steve

    2016-01-01

    Secure, Clean, and Efficient Energy is one of the great societal challenges of our time. Electricity as a sustainable energy carrier plays a central role in the most effective transition scenarios toward sustainability. To harness this potential, the current electricity infrastructure needs...... to be rigorously re-engineered into an integrated and intelligent electricity system: the smart grid. Key elements of the smart grid vision are the coordination mechanisms. In such a system, vast numbers of devices, currently just passively connected to the grid, will become actively involved in system......-wide and local coordination tasks. In this light, transactive energy (TE ) is emerging as a strong contender for orchestrating the coordinated operation of so many devices....

  18. Microelectromechanical safe arm device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roesler, Alexander W [Tijeras, NM

    2012-06-05

    Microelectromechanical (MEM) apparatus and methods for operating, for preventing unintentional detonation of energetic components comprising pyrotechnic and explosive materials, such as air bag deployment systems, munitions and pyrotechnics. The MEM apparatus comprises an interrupting member that can be moved to block (interrupt) or complete (uninterrupt) an explosive train that is part of an energetic component. One or more latching members are provided that engage and prevent the movement of the interrupting member, until the one or more latching members are disengaged from the interrupting member. The MEM apparatus can be utilized as a safe and arm device (SAD) and electronic safe and arm device (ESAD) in preventing unintentional detonations. Methods for operating the MEM apparatus include independently applying drive signals to the actuators coupled to the latching members, and an actuator coupled to the interrupting member.

  19. Thin film device applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kaur, Inderjeet

    1983-01-01

    Two-dimensional materials created ab initio by the process of condensation of atoms, molecules, or ions, called thin films, have unique properties significantly different from the corresponding bulk materials as a result of their physical dimensions, geometry, nonequilibrium microstructure, and metallurgy. Further, these characteristic features of thin films can be drasti­ cally modified and tailored to obtain the desired and required physical characteristics. These features form the basis of development of a host of extraordinary active and passive thin film device applications in the last two decades. On the one extreme, these applications are in the submicron dimensions in such areas as very large scale integration (VLSI), Josephson junction quantum interference devices, magnetic bubbles, and integrated optics. On the other extreme, large-area thin films are being used as selective coatings for solar thermal conversion, solar cells for photovoltaic conver­ sion, and protection and passivating layers. Ind...

  20. Reactor power control device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Yoshihiko; Arita, Setsuo; Miyamoto, Yoshiyuki; Fukazawa, Yukihisa; Ishii, Kazuhiko

    1998-01-01

    The present invention provides a reactor power control device capable of enhancing an operation efficiency while keeping high reliability and safety in a BWR type nuclear power plant. Namely, the device of the present invention comprises (1) a means for inputting a set value of a generator power and a set value of a reactor power, (2) a means for controlling the reactor power to either smaller one of the reactor power corresponding to the set value of the generator power and the set value of the reactor power. With such procedures, even if the nuclear power plant is set so as to operate it to make the reactor power 100%, when the generator power reaches the upper limit, the reactor power is controlled with a preference given to the upper limit value of the generator power. Accordingly, safety and reliability are not deteriorated. The operation efficiency of the plant can be improved. (I.S.)

  1. GASEOUS DISCHARGE DEVICE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gow, J.D.

    1961-01-10

    An extremely compact two-terminal gaseous discharge device is described that is capable of producing neutrons in copious quantities, relatively high energy ions, intense x rays, and the like. Principal novelty resides in the provision of a crossed electric-magnetic field region in the discharge envelope that traps electrons and accelerates them to very high energies to provide an intense ionizing medium adjacent the anode of the device for ionizing gas therein with extremely high efficiency. In addition, the crossed-field trapping region holds the electrons close to the anode whereby the acceleration of ions to the cathode is not materially effected by the electron sheath and the ions assume substantially the full energy of the anodecathode potential drop. (auth)

  2. Reactor control device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukami, Haruo; Morimoto, Yoshinori.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To operate a reactor always with safety operation while eliminating the danger of tripping. Constitution: In a reactor control device adapted to detect the process variants of a reactor, control a control rod drive controlling system based on the detected signal to thereby control the driving the control rods, control the reactor power and control the electric power generated from an electric generator by the output from the reactor, detection means is provided for the detection of the electric power from said electric generator, and a compensation device is provided for outputting control rod driving compensation signals to the control rod driving controlling system in accordance with the amount of variation in the detected value. (Seki, T.)

  3. Bioelectronic Sensors and Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Mark

    Nanoscale electronic devices have recently enabled the ability to controllably probe biological systems, from the molecular to the cellular level, opening up new applications and understanding of biological function and response. This talk reviews some of the advances in the field, ranging from diagnostic and therapeutic applications, to cellular manipulation and response, to the emulation of biological response. In diagnostics, integrated nanodevice biosensors compatible with CMOS technology have achieved unprecedented sensitivity, enabling a wide range of label-free biochemical and macromolecule sensing applications down to femtomolar concentrations. These systems have demonstrated integrated assays of biomarkers at clinically important concentrations for both diagnostics and as a quantitative tool for drug design and discovery. Cellular level response can also be observed, including immune response function and dynamics. Finally, the field is beginning to create devices that emulate function, and the demonstration of a solid state artificial ion channel will be discussed.

  4. Inlet stratification device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    An inlet stratification (5) is adapted to be arranged vertically in a tank (1) during operation. The stratification device (5) comprises an inlet pipe (6) formed of a flexible porous material and having a lower and upper end. The lower end of the inlet pipe (6) is connected to a bottom cap (10......) with an inlet passage way (16). The upper end of the inlet pipe (6) is connected with a top cap (9). The top cap (9) and the bottom cap (10) are mutually connected by means of a wire (8) and the top cap (9) is configured as a floating device providing a buoyancy force larger than the downwardly directed force...... due to the wire (8), the inlet pipe (6) and any deposited on the above pass during operation....

  5. Microelectromechanical reprogrammable logic device

    KAUST Repository

    Hafiz, Md Abdullah Al

    2016-03-29

    In modern computing, the Boolean logic operations are set by interconnect schemes between the transistors. As the miniaturization in the component level to enhance the computational power is rapidly approaching physical limits, alternative computing methods are vigorously pursued. One of the desired aspects in the future computing approaches is the provision for hardware reconfigurability at run time to allow enhanced functionality. Here we demonstrate a reprogrammable logic device based on the electrothermal frequency modulation scheme of a single microelectromechanical resonator, capable of performing all the fundamental 2-bit logic functions as well as n-bit logic operations. Logic functions are performed by actively tuning the linear resonance frequency of the resonator operated at room temperature and under modest vacuum conditions, reprogrammable by the a.c.-driving frequency. The device is fabricated using complementary metal oxide semiconductor compatible mass fabrication process, suitable for on-chip integration, and promises an alternative electromechanical computing scheme.

  6. Electromagnetic wave matching device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirata, Yosuke; Mitsunaka, Yoshika; Hayashi, Ken-ichi; Ito, Yasuyuki.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention provides a matching device capable of increasing an efficiency of combining beams of electromagnetic waves outputted from an output window of a gyrotron which is expected for plasma heating of a thermonuclear reactor and an electromagnetic wave transmission system as high as possible. Namely, an electromagnetic wave matching device reflects beams of electromagnetic waves incident from an inlet by a plurality of phase correction mirrors and combines them to an external transmission system through an exit. In this case, the phase correction mirrors change the phase of the beams of electromagnetic waves incident to the phase correction mirrors by a predetermined amount corresponding to the position of the reflection mirrors. Then, the beams of electromagnetic waves outputted, for example, from a gyrotron can properly be shaped as desired for the intensity and the phase. As a result, combination efficiency with the transmission system can be increased. (I.S.)

  7. Reactor shutdown control device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itooka, Satoshi; Matsushima, Shusuke; Otsuki, Jun.

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To obtain a device capable of attaining stable temperature for sodium around a magnetic body and capable of adequately changing the temperature at which control rods are fallen even after the mounting to the device. Constitution: One of fuel assemblies situated around control rod assemblies is selected by selective introduction pipe of fuel assemblies, thereby introducing sodium always at stable temperature from the selected assembly to the periphery of the magnetic body under the normal state and prevent the misoperation under the normal operation by receiving only the sodium temperature. Further, by changing the current supply state to the solenoid magnet for setting the temperature at which the control rod falls upon abnormality, it is possible to adequately fall the control rods. (Yoshihara, H.)

  8. Fractional-order devices

    CERN Document Server

    Biswas, Karabi; Caponetto, Riccardo; Mendes Lopes, António; Tenreiro Machado, José António

    2017-01-01

    This book focuses on two specific areas related to fractional order systems – the realization of physical devices characterized by non-integer order impedance, usually called fractional-order elements (FOEs); and the characterization of vegetable tissues via electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) – and provides readers with new tools for designing new types of integrated circuits. The majority of the book addresses FOEs. The interest in these topics is related to the need to produce “analogue” electronic devices characterized by non-integer order impedance, and to the characterization of natural phenomena, which are systems with memory or aftereffects and for which the fractional-order calculus tool is the ideal choice for analysis. FOEs represent the building blocks for designing and realizing analogue integrated electronic circuits, which the authors believe hold the potential for a wealth of mass-market applications. The freedom to choose either an integer- or non-integer-order analogue integrator...

  9. Tire deflation device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Stacey G [Idaho Falls, ID

    2010-01-05

    A tire deflation device includes (1) a component having a plurality of bores, (2) a plurality of spikes removably insertable into the plurality of bores and (3) a keeper within each among the plurality of bores, the keeper being configured to contact a sidewall surface of a spike among the plurality of spikes and to exert force upon the sidewall surface. In an embodiment, the tire deflation device includes (a) a component including a bore in a material, the bore including a receiving region, a sidewall surface and a base surface, (b) a channel extending from the sidewall surface into the material, (c) a keeper having a first section housed within the channel and a second section which extends past the sidewall surface into the receiving region, and (d) a spike removably insertable into the bore.

  10. Support and maneuvering device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, R.L.

    1987-03-23

    A support and maneuvering device includes an elongated flexible inflatable enclosure having a fixed end and a movable end. The movable end is collapsible toward the fixed end to a contracted position when the enclosure is in a noninflated condition. Upon inflation, the movable end is movable away from the fixed end to an extended position. The movable end includes means for mounting an article such as a solar reflector thereon. The device also includes a plurality of position controlling means disposed about the movable end to effect adjusting movement of portions thereof by predetermined amounts and for controlling an angle at which the article disposed at the movable end is oriented. The plurality of position controlling means limits a suitable number degrees of freedom of the movable end for transmitting a steering motion thereto and for controlling the position thereof. 9 figs.

  11. Anti-gravity device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palsingh, S. (Inventor)

    1975-01-01

    An educational toy useful in demonstrating fundamental concepts regarding the laws of gravity is described. The device comprises a sphere 10 of radius r resting on top of sphere 12 of radius R. The center of gravity of sphere 10 is displaced from its geometrical center by distance D. The dimensions are so related that D((R+r)/r) is greater than r. With the center of gravity of sphere 10 lying on a vertical line, the device is in equilibrium. When sphere 10 is rolled on the surface of sphere 12 it will return to its equilibrium position upon release. This creates an illusion that sphere 10 is defying the laws of gravity. In reality, due to the above noted relationship of D, R, and r, the center of gravity of sphere 10 rises from its equilibrium position as it rolls a short distance up or down the surface of sphere 12.

  12. Control rod control device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seiji, Takehiko; Obara, Kohei; Yanagihashi, Kazumi

    1998-01-01

    The present invention provides a device suitable for switching of electric motors for driving each of control rods in a nuclear reactor. Namely, in a control rod controlling device, a plurality of previously allotted electric motors connected in parallel as groups, and electric motors of any selected group are driven. In this case, a voltage of not driving predetermined selected electric motors is at first applied. In this state an electric current supplied to the circuit of predetermined electric motors is detected. Whether integration or failure of a power source and the circuit of the predetermined electric motors are normal or not is judged by the detected electric current supplied. After they are judged normal, the electric motors are driven by a regular voltage. With such procedures, whether the selected circuit is normal or not can be accurately confirmed previously. Since the electric motors are not driven just at the selected time, the control rods are not operated erroneously. (I.S.)

  13. Dielectrokinetic chromatography devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirica, Gabriela S; Fiechtner, Gregory J; Singh, Anup K

    2014-12-16

    Disclosed herein are methods and devices for dielectrokinetic chromatography. As disclosed, the devices comprise microchannels having at least one perturber which produces a non-uniformity in a field spanning the width of the microchannel. The interaction of the field non-uniformity with a perturber produces a secondary flow which competes with a primary flow. By decreasing the size of the perturber the secondary flow becomes significant for particles/analytes in the nanometer-size range. Depending on the nature of a particle/analyte present in the fluid and its interaction with the primary flow and the secondary flow, the analyte may be retained or redirected. The composition of the primary flow can be varied to affect the magnitude of primary and/or secondary flows on the particles/analytes and thereby separate and concentrate it from other particles/analytes.

  14. Gas processing device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Yoshihiro; Seki, Eiji.

    1991-01-01

    State of electric discharge is detected based on a gas pressure in a sealed container and a discharging current flowing between both of electrodes. When electric arc discharges occur, introduction of gases to be processed is stopped and a voltage applied to both of the electrodes is interrupted. Then, when the gas pressure in the sealed container is lowered to a predetermined value, a power source voltage is applied again to both of the electrodes to recover glow discharges, and the introduction of the gas to be processed is started. With such steps, even if electric arc discharges occur, they are eliminated automatically and, accordingly, normal glow discharges can be recovered, to prevent failures of the device due to electric arc discharges. The glow discharges are recovered automatically without stopping the operation of the gas processing device, and gas injection and solidification processing can be conducted continuously and stably. (T.M.)

  15. Cold nuclear fusion device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogino, Shinji.

    1991-01-01

    Selection of cathode material is a key to the attainment of cold nuclear fusion. However, there are only few reports on the cathode material at present and an effective development has been demanded. The device comprises an anode and a cathode and an electrolytic bath having metal salts dissolved therein and containing heavy water in a glass container. The anode is made of gold or platinum and the cathode is made of metals of V, Sr, Y, Nb, Hf or Ta, and a voltage of 3-25V is applied by way of a DC power source between them. The metal comprising V, Sr, Y, Nb, Hf or Ta absorbs deuterium formed by electrolysis of heavy water effectively to cause nuclear fusion reaction at substantially the same frequency and energy efficiency as palladium and titanium. Accordingly, a cold nuclear fusion device having high nuclear fusion generation frequency can be obtained. (N.H.)

  16. Divertor coil device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanai, Satoru.

    1990-01-01

    The present invention concerns a divertor coil device used in a tokamak type thermonuclear device and the object thereof is to reduce thermal loads in the heat receiving portion. An auxiliary power source is disposed, in addition to a main power source, for supplying main electric current for changing electric current ratio between each of the divertor coils. Then, the null point for forming plasmas is made controllable. As a result, a power source for a part of coils connected to the auxiliary power source of the divertor coils can be changed by controlling the voltage of the auxiliary power source. Accordingly, the electric current distribution in the divertor coils is changed and the position for the null point high thermal load region can be moved laterally. The area of the heat receiving portion can be increased by moving the high thermal load region, thereby decreasing the thermal load density. (I.S.)

  17. Localized environment characterization device

    KAUST Repository

    Alzain, Hashim

    2016-07-21

    Various apparatuses and methods are provided for measuring the likely environmental impact of a particular geographic location on power generation properties of potential solar installations at the particular location. In an example embodiment of one such apparatus, a measurement device is provided. The measurement device includes a base portion comprising a base frame element disposed on a plurality of supporting legs, and a top panel comprising a series of connected members and one or more measurement modules whose planar dimensions are defined by the series of connected members. The top panel is connected to the base portion by a joint such that the top panel can rotate about the joint, and a panel support element is configured to fasten the top panel immovably at a desired degree of rotation in relation to the base portion.

  18. Memristor: the illusive device

    KAUST Repository

    Salama, Khaled N.

    2012-05-03

    The memristor (M) is considered to be the fourth two-terminal passive element in electronics, alongside the resistor (R), the capacitor (C), and the inductor (L). Its existence was postulated in 1971 but its first implementation was reported in 2008. Where was it hiding all that time and what can we do with it? Come and learn how the memristor completes the roster of electronic devices much like a missing particle that physicists seek to complete their tableaus.

  19. High speed heterostructure devices

    CERN Document Server

    Beer, Albert C; Willardson, R K; Kiehl, Richard A; Sollner, T C L Gerhard

    1994-01-01

    Volume 41 includes an in-depth review of the most important, high-speed switches made with heterojunction technology. This volume is aimed at the graduate student or working researcher who needs a broad overview andan introduction to current literature. Key Features * The first complete review of InP-based HFETs and complementary HFETs, which promise very low power and high speed * Offers a complete, three-chapter review of resonant tunneling * Provides an emphasis on circuits as well as devices.

  20. A power measuring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As, R. van.

    1985-01-01

    As a part of the klystron test facility of the Dutch NIKHEF-K accelerator, a sensitive power measuring device has been built. The high-frequency power of a klystron is stored in a water-cooled dummy load. Using a microcomputer, the increase of the water temperature and the water flow rate are transformed to a digital indication of the klystron power. (Auth.)

  1. Relativistic electron beam device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, J.R.; Poukey, J.W.; Shope, S.L.; Yonas, G.

    1975-07-01

    A design is given for an electron beam device for irradiating spherical hydrogen isotope bearing targets. The accelerator, which includes hollow cathodes facing each other, injects an anode plasma between the cathodes and produces an approximately 10 nanosecond, megajoule pulse between the anode plasma and the cathodes. Targets may be repetitively positioned within the plasma between the cathodes, and accelerator diode arrangement permits materials to survive operation in a fusion power source. (auth)

  2. Incore inspection device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogisu, Tatsuki; Taguchi, Kosei.

    1995-01-01

    The device of the present invention can inspect surfaces of equipments in reactor water in a nuclear reactor in a state of atmospheric air. Namely, an inspection device is movable forwardly and backwardly in a water-proof vessel. An annular sucker with pleats is disposed to the outer side of a lid of the water-proof vessel. A television camera for an under water monitoring is disposed to the inner side of the lid of the water-proof vessel by way of a partitioning wall with lid. Transferring screws are disposed at the back and on the side of the water-proof vessel. In the device having such a constitution, (1) the inside of the water-proof vessel is at first made water-tight by closing the partitioning wall with lid, (2) the back and the side screws are operated by the guide of the underwater monitoring television camera, to transfer the water-proof vessel to the surface of the reactor core to be inspected, (3) the annular sucker with pleats is urged on the surface to be inspected by the back screw, to fix the water-proof vessel, (4) reactor water in a space of the annular sucker with pleats is discharged and replaced with air, and (5) the lid of the partition wall with lid is opened and the inspection device is disposed at a position of the underwater monitoring television camera, to inspect the surface to be inspected in a state of atmospheric air. (I.S.)

  3. Fluctuations in quantum devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.Haken

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Logical gates can be formalized by Boolean algebra whose elementary operations can be realized by devices that employ the interactions of macroscopic numbers of elementary excitations such as electrons, holes, photons etc. With increasing miniaturization to the nano scale and below, quantum fluctuations become important and can no longer be ignored. Based on Heisenberg equations of motion for the creation and annihilation operators of elementary excitations, I determine the noise sources of composite quantum systems.

  4. Hybrid electroluminescent devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiang, Joseph John; Duggal, Anil Raj; Michael, Joseph Darryl

    2010-08-03

    A hybrid electroluminescent (EL) device comprises at least one inorganic diode element and at least one organic EL element that are electrically connected in series. The absolute value of the breakdown voltage of the inorganic diode element is greater than the absolute value of the maximum reverse bias voltage across the series. The inorganic diode element can be a power diode, a Schottky barrier diode, or a light-emitting diode.

  5. Gas dynamic laser device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Born, G.

    1975-01-01

    The gas dynamic laser device is provided with an expansion chamber arranged between a heating chamber for the CO-gas and the resonance chamber. The expansion chamber is initially evacuated for producing a rarefaction wave. Between the heating chamber and the expansion chamber there are arranged rapid release means such as a valve or a diaphragm. Pressure recovering means are connected to the other side of the resonance chamber

  6. Spintronics in nanoscale devices

    CERN Document Server

    Hedin, Eric R

    2013-01-01

    By exploiting the novel properties of quantum dots and nanoscale Aharonov-Bohm rings together with the electronic and magnetic properties of various semiconductor materials and graphene, researchers have conducted numerous theoretical and computational modeling studies and experimental tests that show promising behavior for spintronics applications. Spin polarization and spin-filtering capabilities and the ability to manipulate the electron spin state through external magnetic or electric fields have demonstrated the promise of workable nanoscale devices for computing and memory applications.

  7. Electronic portal imaging devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lief, Eugene

    2008-01-01

    The topics discussed include, among others, the following: Role of portal imaging; Port films vs. EPID; Image guidance: Elekta volume view; Delivery verification; Automation tasks of portal imaging; Types of portal imaging (Fluorescent screen, mirror, and CCD camera-based imaging; Liquid ion chamber imaging; Amorpho-silicon portal imagers; Fluoroscopic portal imaging; Kodak CR reader; and Other types of portal imaging devices); QA of EPID; and Portal dosimetry (P.A.)

  8. Thermal Remote Anemometer Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyman, Joseph S.; Heath, D. Michele; Winfree, William P.; Miller, William E.; Welch, Christopher S.

    1988-01-01

    Thermal Remote Anemometer Device developed for remote, noncontacting, passive measurement of thermal properties of sample. Model heated locally by scanning laser beam and cooled by wind in tunnel. Thermal image of model analyzed to deduce pattern of airflow around model. For materials applications, system used for evaluation of thin films and determination of thermal diffusivity and adhesive-layer contact. For medical applications, measures perfusion through skin to characterize blood flow and used to determine viabilities of grafts and to characterize tissues.

  9. Left Ventricular Assist Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khuansiri Narajeenron

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Audience: The audience for this classic team-based learning (cTBL session is emergency medicine residents, faculty, and students; although this topic is applicable to internal medicine and family medicine residents. Introduction: A left ventricular assist device (LVAD is a mechanical circulatory support device that can be placed in critically-ill patients who have poor left ventricular function. After LVAD implantation, patients have improved quality of life.1 The number of LVAD patients worldwide continues to rise. Left-ventricular assist device patients may present to the emergency department (ED with severe, life-threatening conditions. It is essential that emergency physicians have a good understanding of LVADs and their complications. Objectives: Upon completion of this cTBL module, the learner will be able to: 1 Properly assess LVAD patients’ circulatory status; 2 appropriately resuscitate LVAD patients; 3 identify common LVAD complications; 4 evaluate and appropriately manage patients with LVAD malfunctions. Method: The method for this didactic session is cTBL.

  10. Rubber glove wearing device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nozaki, Tatsuo; Takada, Kaoru.

    1994-01-01

    Rubber groves are attached each to an upper end of a glove putting vessel having an air-sucking hole on the bottom by enlarging an opening end of the rubber glove and turning back the inside to the outside. When the sucking device is operated, air in the glove putting device is sucked and the rubber glove is expanded by an atmospheric pressure. After expansion of the rubber glove to some extent, the sucking device is stopped, and presence or absence of failures of the rubber glove is confirmed by shrinkage of the rubber glove and by an indication value of a pressure gauge for detecting the pressure change in the vessel. Then, a hand is inserted to the expanded rubber glove, and a detaching switch in the vessel is pushed by a finger tip. A detaching piece at the upper end of the vessel is protruded outwardly to enlarge the turned-back portion of the rubber glove to easily release the rubber glove from the putting vessel, and the rubber glove is put on. This enables to wear the rubber glove and conduct failure test simultaneously. Further, a user can put on the rubber glove without touching the outside of the rubber glove. (I.N.)

  11. Reactor water sampling device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakamaki, Kazuo.

    1992-01-01

    The present invention concerns a reactor water sampling device for sampling reactor water in an in-core monitor (neutron measuring tube) housing in a BWR type reactor. The upper end portion of a drain pipe of the reactor water sampling device is attached detachably to an in-core monitor flange. A push-up rod is inserted in the drain pipe vertically movably. A sampling vessel and a vacuum pump are connected to the lower end of the drain pipe. A vacuum pump is operated to depressurize the inside of the device and move the push-up rod upwardly. Reactor water in the in-core monitor housing flows between the drain pipe and the push-up rod and flows into the sampling vessel. With such a constitution, reactor water in the in-core monitor housing can be sampled rapidly with neither opening the lid of the reactor pressure vessel nor being in contact with air. Accordingly, operator's exposure dose can be reduced. (I.N.)

  12. Submarine inspection device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanita, Yasunori; Shigemitsu, Toshinori.

    1992-01-01

    The device of the present invention can confirm the assembly number of a fuel assembly in a pool and detect the head of an inserted material by a screen an image. That is, a submarine object is caused to swim by remote control by using a control device. A float which is floating on the water is disposed above the submarine object. A winch is disposed to the float for winding a rope such as a wire. The rope of the winch is connected to the submarine object. A TV camera is disposed to the float for photographing the submarine object. With such a constitution, the length of the rope can be controlled by the winch to restrict the moving range of the submarine object. This can prevent the submarine object from colliding against a fuel assembly or dropping. In addition, the position of the submarine object, which has been confirmed so far by a compass, a depth-sounding device and an image of TV camera appended to the submarine object, can be detected by the television images of the float extremely simply. (I.S.)

  13. Rf superconducting devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartwig, W.H.; Passow, C.

    1975-01-01

    Topics discussed include (1) the theory of superconductors in high-frequency fields (London surface impedance, anomalous normal surface resistance, pippard nonlocal theory, quantum mechanical model, superconductor parameters, quantum mechanical calculation techniques for the surface, impedance, and experimental verification of surface impedance theories); (2) residual resistance (separation of losses, magnetic field effects, surface resistance of imperfect and impure conductors, residual loss due to acoustic coupling, losses from nonideal surfaces, high magnetic field losses, field emission, and nonlinear effects); (3) design and performance of superconducting devices (design considerations, materials and fabrication techniques, measurement of performance, and frequency stability); (4) devices for particle acceleration and deflection (advantages and problems of using superconductors, accelerators for fast particles, accelerators for particles with slow velocities, beam optical devices separators, and applications and projects under way); (5) applications of low-power superconducting resonators (superconducting filters and tuners, oscillators and detectors, mixers and amplifiers, antennas and output tanks, superconducting resonators for materials research, and radiation detection with loaded superconducting resonators); and (6) transmission and delay lines

  14. Incore instrument device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakima, Naoki

    1996-01-01

    An incore instrument device has an integrally disposed touch panel having a function of displaying an operation indication method such as for setting of conditions for incore measurement and information processing and results of the incore measurement and a function capable of conducting operation indication such as for setting conditions and information processing for incore measurement relative to a control section upon touching an information position on a displayed information. In addition, an information processing section comprising a man-machine function program formed so as to recognize the content of the operation indication for the incore measurement by touching and let the control section to conduct it is disposed to the outside by way of a communication interface. In addition, a programming device is disposed for forming and rewriting the program of the man-machine function relative to the information processing section. Then, when various indication operations are conducted upon performing incore measurement, a view point can be concentrated to one predetermined point thereby enabling to improve the operationability without danger. In addition, the programming of the man-machine function does not apply unnecessary load to the control section in the incore instrumentation device. (N.H.)

  15. Stud manipulating device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunyan, T.W.

    1980-01-01

    A device for inserting and removing studs from bores in a workpiece, for example a nuclear reactor vessel, comprises manipulating devices for operating on individual studs, each capable of tensioning a stud slackening a working nut on the stud, and subsequently removing the stud from the bore. A ring has dogs which can engage working nut recesses to interlock with the nut against relative rotation. Motors coupled to the ring rotate the working nut. A top nut is coupled to the motors to rotate the nut and screw it onto the stud. The top nut with other device parts can be raised and lowered on a tube by a hydraulic actuator. A hydraulic load cell between the top nut and a stool on the workpiece is pressurised to tension the stud by means of the top nut and thus facilitate rotation of the working nut when tightening or slackening. A dog clutch mechanism engages a stud end fitting against relative axial and rotational movement. The mechanism is raised and lowered on a guide member by an actuator. The mechanism has a tubular member and the drive coupling for the motors to the top nut includes a tubular member. Tubular members carry teeth which are engaged when the top nut is raised and the clutch mechanism is lowered, to provide a coupling between the motors and the mechanism for rotating the stud. (U.K.)

  16. Magnetic field measuring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hara, Shigemitsu; Takeuchi, Kazuhiro; Hirota, Jun-ichi.

    1996-01-01

    In order to directly measure the magnetic fields in the vicinity of plasmas in a thermonuclear device, electric current is supplied to a conductor intersecting magnetic fields, and the position of the conductor is changed by generated electromagnetic forces, and the positional change of the conductor is measured to determine the magnetic fields. Namely, if electric current is supplied to the conductor crossing the magnetic fields, electromagnetic forces directly in proportion to the magnetic fields exert on the object. If the forces are measured, magnetic fields can be determined directly without using an integrator. If springs are attached to the conductor undergoing electromagnetic forces, as a method of measuring electromagnetic forces, since the distortion is in proportion to the electromagnetic forces, magnetic fields can be determined, for example, by changing the position of a contact of a variable resistor interlocking with the positional change of the spring. Since a semiconductor device which is sensitive to radiation is not necessary and the magnetic fields can be measured directly in this method for the measurement of the magnetic fields, the measurement can be conducted at a constant accuracy even in a long period of time. The device of the present invention can measure magnetic fields with no drift components of the integrator, has excellent radiation-resistance and can improve the plant safety. (N.H.)

  17. Pruning devices in 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutikainen, A.

    1995-01-01

    This bulletin describes the market situation in April 1995 in Finland concerning devices suitable for silvicultural pruning in forestry. The review is based on the responses to a questionnaire sent to manufacturers and importers. Manually operated pruning devices, relying entirely on muscle power, were manufactured by six companies. There were four models each of branch saws and branch cutters and two models of branch blades. Motorised pruning devices, with the branch-severing power supplied by a combustion engine, battery or a power unit were manufactured by five companies. There were twelve models in all. The amount of pruning done in Finland has diminished year by year from the peak years of 1988-1989 when ca. 13000 hectares were pruned. In 1993 the corresponding figure was 5290 hectares of which 3930 hectares applied to private, non-industrial forestry. One contributing factor to this fall may be seen in the changes that have occurred in forest improvement regulations. The annual target set in the Forest 2000 program is for 20000 hectares to be pruned. (author)

  18. The theory of double layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schamel, H.

    1982-01-01

    Numerical and in some degree laboratory experiments suggest the existence of at least two different kinds of time-independent double layers: a strictly monotonic transition of the electrostatic potential and a transition accompanied by a negative spike at the low potential side (ion acoustic DL). An interpretation of both is presented in terms of analytic BGK modes. The first class of DLs commonly observed in voltage- or beam-driven plasmas needs for its existence beam-type distributions satisfying a Bohm criterion. The potential drop is at least of the order of Tsub(e), and stability arguments favour currents which satisfy the Langmuir condition. The second class found in current-driven plasma simulations is correlated with ion holes. This latter kind of nonlinear wave-solutions is linearly based on the slow ion-acoustic mode and exists due to a vortex-like distortion of the ion distribution in the thermal range. During the growth of an ion hole which is triggered by ion-acoustic fluctuations, the partial reflection of streaming electrons causes different plasma states on both sides of the potential dip and makes the ion hole asymmetric giving rise to an effective potential drop. This implies that the amplitude of this second type of double layers has an upper limit of 1-2 Tsub(e) and presumes a temperature ratio of Tsub(e)/Tsub(i) > or approximately 3 in coincidence with the numerical results. (Auth.)

  19. Challenges in Double Beta Decay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliviero Cremonesi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the past ten years, neutrino oscillation experiments have provided the incontrovertible evidence that neutrinos mix and have finite masses. These results represent the strongest demonstration that the electroweak Standard Model is incomplete and that new Physics beyond it must exist. In this scenario, a unique role is played by the Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay searches which can probe lepton number conservation and investigate the Dirac/Majorana nature of the neutrinos and their absolute mass scale (hierarchy problem with unprecedented sensitivity. Today Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay faces a new era where large-scale experiments with a sensitivity approaching the so-called degenerate-hierarchy region are nearly ready to start and where the challenge for the next future is the construction of detectors characterized by a tonne-scale size and an incredibly low background. A number of new proposed projects took up this challenge. These are based either on large expansions of the present experiments or on new ideas to improve the technical performance and/or reduce the background contributions. In this paper, a review of the most relevant ongoing experiments is given. The most relevant parameters contributing to the experimental sensitivity are discussed and a critical comparison of the future projects is proposed.

  20. Double Chooz: Results and Perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franke, A.J., E-mail: ajfranke@nevis.columbia.edu [Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States)

    2013-04-15

    The Double Chooz experiment has been observing ν{sup ¯}{sub e} from two reactor cores at the Chooz nuclear power station in Ardennes, France, with a single 10.3 m{sup 3} fiducial volume Gd-doped liquid scintillator detector at a flux-weighted average baseline of ∼1050 m. This article reviews results achieved with a detector live time of 227.93 days and exposure of 33.71 GW-ton-years. A total of 8,249 candidate ν{sup ¯}{sub e} events have been observed, compared to an expected 8,937 events in the null-oscillation case: this deficit is interpreted as evidence for ν{sup ¯}{sub e} disappearance. A fit to the observed neutrino rate and spectral shape gives a best-fit value of sin{sup 2}(2θ{sub 13})=0.109±0.030(stat.)±0.025(syst.) at a mass-squared splitting of Δm{sub 31}{sup 2}=2.32×10{sup −3} eV{sup 2}. The null-oscillation hypothesis is excluded by the data at 99.8% CL (2.9σ). The Double Chooz Near Detector is under construction, and analysis efforts to measure neutrino directionality, test Lorentz violation, and measure backgrounds in situ are underway.