WorldWideScience

Sample records for double skin facades

  1. Double-Skin Facade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalyanova, Olena

    , transparent insulation and preheating operation modes of DSF cavity. The data sets include measurements of naturally induced air flow, temperature gradients, velocity profiles, climate data, etc. Two data sets were used for further empirical validation of building simulation software for DSF modelling within...... favored by companies and their employees. To bring the reduction of energy use in these buildings application of suitable tools and methods is necessary to achieve successful design solutions. Earlier work on the topic of DSF modelling was examined from various publications. As a result, the main...... to perform the simulations. To fill in the gap of lacking experimental data a range of measurements was carried out in an outdoor, double-skin façade full-scale test facility ‘The Cube'. As a result, three complete sets of experimental data were composed. These are available for external air curtain...

  2. Effective Architectural Design Decisions in Double Skin Facades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuğba İnan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In architectural discourse, it is possible to notice a rising interest in building skin configurations which promise to help minimizing the loss of energy while maximizing its gain. In parallel, it is possible to see that the use of double-skin glass facades globally pervades. All over the world double-skin facade applications multiply day by day. This technology is still quite new in Turkey and it is not possible to find many applications or researches done on this subject. For this reason, architects and engineers should be focused on the designs solutions providing energy savings. The design of DSF depends on various architectural decisions. In this study, effective design decision parameters on energy performance of DSF systems will be discussed in a comprehensive way in architectural perspective by reviewing previous studies.

  3. Data Set for Emperical Validation of Double Skin Facade Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalyanova, Olena; Jensen, Rasmus Lund; Heiselberg, Per

    2008-01-01

    During the recent years the attention to the double skin facade (DSF) concept has greatly increased. Nevertheless, the application of the concept depends on whether a reliable model for simulation of the DSF performance will be developed or pointed out. This is, however, not possible to do, until...... the model is empirically validated and its' limitations for the DSF modeling are identified. Correspondingly, the existence and availability of the experimental data is very essential. Three sets of accurate empirical data for validation of DSF modeling with building simulation software were produced within...... of a double skin facade: 1. External air curtain mode, it is the naturally ventilated DSF cavity with the top and bottom openings open to the outdoor; 2. Thermal insulation mode, when all of the DSF openings closed; 3. Preheating mode, with the bottom DSF openings open to the outdoor and top openings open...

  4. Empirical validation data sets for double skin facade models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalyanova, Olena; Jensen, Rasmus Lund; Heiselberg, Per

    2008-01-01

    During recent years application of double skin facades (DSF) has greatly increased. However, successful application depends heavily on reliable and validated models for simulation of the DSF performance and this in turn requires access to high quality experimental data. Three sets of accurate...... empirical data for validation of DSF modeling with building simulation software were produced within the International Energy Agency (IEA) SHCTask 34 / ECBCS Annex 43. This paper describes the full-scale outdoor experimental test facility, the experimental set-up and the measurements procedure...

  5. Data Set for Emperical Validation of Double Skin Facade Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalyanova, Olena; Jensen, Rasmus Lund; Heiselberg, Per

    2008-01-01

    During the recent years the attention to the double skin facade (DSF) concept has greatly increased. Nevertheless, the application of the concept depends on whether a reliable model for simulation of the DSF performance will be developed or pointed out. This is, however, not possible to do, until...... the International Energy Agency (IEA) Task 34 Annex 43. This paper describes the full-scale outdoor experimental test facility ‘the Cube', where the experiments were conducted, the experimental set-up and the measurements procedure for the data sets. The empirical data is composed for the key-functioning modes...

  6. Thermal behaviour of a ventilated double skin facade in hot arid climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashemi, N. [Department of Energy and Architecture, Faculty of Fine Arts, Tehran University, Enghelab Str., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Fayaz, R. [Department of Architecture, Faculty of Architecture and Urban Planning, Art University, Nabovat Blvd., Motahari Str., Taleghani Blvd., 3149969411 Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sarshar, M. [Institute of Energy and Sustainable Development, Queen' s Building, De Montfort University, The Gateway, Leicester LE19BH (United Kingdom)

    2010-10-15

    Modern Movement in architecture has resulted in a large number of high-rise buildings with glazed facades which increase the energy load of the buildings. To combat this phenomenon in colder climates, architects have turned to using double skin facades. These facades comprise of: a completely transparent external facade; an internal skin; and an air layer between the two. Research on the performance of double skin facades mostly considers cold and moderate climates. In addition, data collection is normally based on simulations, rather than actual field measurements. In this paper a building with double skin facade was monitored for 2 weeks in summer and 2 weeks in winter in the hot arid climate of Iran, in order to observe the behaviour of the facade both in hot and cold conditions. Additionally, simulations were performed on the case study building with and without double skin facade, to assess the effectiveness of the facade. The results revealed that the temperature difference between the outer skin, the inner skin and the cavity can significantly save heating energy in winter. To reduce the cooling loads in summer it is essential to introduce additional techniques such as night ventilation and installation of shading devices for the cavity. (author)

  7. Assessment of the Use of Venetian Blinds as Solar Thermal Collectors in Double Skin Facades in Mediterranean Climates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abel Velasco

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The global trend on energy integration and building efficiency is making both researchers and building developers look for technical solutions to use facade surfaces for energy harvesting. In this work, the assessment of the thermal performance of a double-skin facade (DSF with a venetian blind-type of structure used as a solar thermal collector by means of computational fluid dynamics (CFD is presented. A Venetian blind collector would allow for heat rejection/energy harvesting and exterior views simultaneously and can be easily integrated into the DSF aesthetical design. For the purposes of this study, the modeled facades (south, west, and east-oriented were set to be located in Barcelona (Spain, where large solar gains are a constant condition throughout the year, and such large semi-transparent envelopes lead to interior over-heating in buildings, even during the winter. For the studied facades, both the reductions in radiative heat gains entering the building and the heat recovery in the Venetian blind collector were evaluated for a yearlong operation.

  8. Measurement and Modelling of Air Flow Rate in a Naturally Ventilated Double Skin Facade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per; Kalyanova, Olena; Jensen, Rasmus Lund

    2008-01-01

    Air flow rate in a naturally ventilated double skin façade (DSF) is extremely difficult to measure due to the stochastic nature of wind, and as a consequence non-uniform and dynamic flow conditions. This paper describes the results of two different methods to measure the air flow in a full-scale ...

  9. Experimental data and boundary conditions for a Double - Skin Facade building in preheating mode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Olena Kalyanova; Heiselberg, Per; Jensen, Rasmus Lund

    Frequent discussions of double skin façade energy performance have started a dialogue about the methods, models and tools for simulation of double façade systems and reliability of their results. Their reliability will increase with empirical validation of the software. Detailed experimental work...... with all information about the experimental data and measurements, necessary to complete an independent empirical validation of any simulation tool. The article includes detailed information about the experimental apparatus, experimental principles and experimental full-scale test facility ‘The Cube...

  10. Experimental data and boundary conditions for a Double - Skin Facade building in transparent insulation mode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Olena Kalyanova; Heiselberg, Per; Jensen, Rasmus Lund

    Frequent discussions of double skin façade energy performance have started a dialogue about the methods, models and tools for simulation of double façade systems and reliability of their results. Their reliability will increase with empirical validation of the software. Detailed experimental work...... with all information about the experimental data and measurements, necessary to complete an independent empirical validation of any simulation tool. The article includes detailed information about the experimental apparatus, experimental principles and experimental full-scale test facility ‘The Cube...

  11. Optimization of the energy performance of multiple-skin facades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saelens, D.; Roels, S.; Hens, H. [Laboratory for Building Physics, Leuven (Belgium). Dept. of Civil Engineering; Blocken, B. [Concordia Univ., Centre for Building Studies, Montreal, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Building, Civil and Environmental Engineering]|[Laboratory for Building Physics, Leuven (Belgium). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    2005-07-01

    The energy efficiency of a simulated office building equipped with Multi-Skin Facade (MSF) typologies was discussed and different optimization strategies were determined and implemented. The results were then compared against traditional energy performance optimization strategies. Three MSFs were analyzed: an air flow window with argon filled low emission glass and roller blind positioned in the cavity; a naturally ventilated double-skin facade; and a supply window with the cavity mechanically ventilated with exterior air. Two traditional cladding systems were analyzed, with argon filled low emission glass that had the same properties as the MSFs. All 5 facade systems were used in a narrow office building, and details of the building's orientation, configurations and systems were presented. In order to analyze the energy demand, models of the facades, office zones, heating and cooling system, and the building energy management system were created and combined into the TRYNSYS simulation program. The thermal behavior of the MSFs and traditional facades was calculated with a cell centred finite volume method. An algorithm based on the energy content of the return air, recuperation of the air returning from the air flow window and supply window was useful in lowering heating demands. It was observed that most MSF typologies are incapable of lowering heating and cooling demand simultaneously, implying that control mechanisms are needed to make MSFs work efficiently throughout the year. Optimization strategies therefore focus on air flow rate control and recuperation of the return air; a fixed change of the cavity air flow rate; a controlled changed of the cavity; recuperation of the return air; a combination of air flow rates and recuperation control. It was noted that controlled apertures are beneficial for naturally ventilated double skin facades, and that a simple open-close strategy was sufficient. It was also noted that controlling the air flow rate is a

  12. On the use of hot-sphere anemometers in a highly transient flow in a double-skin facade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rasmus Lund; Kalyanova, Olena; Hyldgård, Carl-Erik

    2007-01-01

    measured by the anemometer. Temperature compensation is the working principle of anemometers. The ability to compensate for different temperatures when exposed to solar radiation is investigated in a controlled environment using a powerful lamp as a radiant heat source. In the double-skin façade, both...... from the measurement of air velocity in the occupied zone. The velocity is higher and the flow is more transient, the anemometer is subjected to high loads of direct solar radiation and wide temperature ranges and, finally, the direction of the flow is important. The flow in the double-skin façade......Hot-sphere anemometers are widely used for measurement of air velocity in the occupied zone. In this paper, the ability of hot-sphere anemometers to measure transient flow in a double-skin façade is investigated. When hot-spheres are used in a double-skin façade, the conditions are very different...

  13. On the Use of Hot-Sphere Anemometers in a Highly Transient Flow in a Double-Skin Facade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rasmus Lund; Kalyanova, Olena; Hyldgård, Carl-Erik

    2007-01-01

    Hot-sphere anemometers are widely used for measurement of air velocity in the occupied zone. In this paper, the ability of hot-sphere anemometers to measure transient flow in a double-skin façade is investigated. When hot-spheres are used in a double-skin façade, the conditions are very different...... from the measurement of air velocity in the occupied zone. The velocity is higher and the flow is more transient, the anemometer is subjected to high loads of direct solar radiation and wide temperature ranges and, finally, the direction of the flow is important. The flow in the double-skin façade...... measured by the anemometer. Temperature compensation is the working principle of anemometers. The ability to compensate for different temperatures when exposed to solar radiation is investigated in a controlled environment using a powerful lamp as a radiant heat source. In the double-skin façade, both...

  14. Experimental data and boundary conditions for a Double-Skin Facade building in external air curtain mode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Olena Kalyanova; Heiselberg, Per; Jensen, Rasmus Lund

    Frequent discussions of double skin façade energy performance have started a dialogue about the methods, models and tools for simulation of double façade systems and reliability of their results. Their reliability will increase with empirical validation of the software. Detailed experimental work...... with all information about the experimental data and measurements, necessary to complete an independent empirical validation of any simulation tool. The article includes detailed information about the experimental apparatus, experimental principles and experimental full-scale test facility ‘The Cube...

  15. Energy efficiency with brick facades. Double-wall construction with polyurethane insulation; Energieeffizienz mit Ziegelfassaden. Zweischaliges Mauerwerk mit Polyurethan-Daemmung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-03-15

    Brick facades characterize the image of many towns as well as villages and are an integral part of cultural identity. The contribution under consideration reports on the energy efficiency of buildings with brick facades as a double-leaf masonry with polyurethane insulation. This contribution focusses on technical requirements and design requirements for brick facades as well as on the thermal insulation and moisture protection.

  16. Data Set for Emperical Validation of Double Skin Facade Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalyanova, Olena; Jensen, Rasmus Lund; Heiselberg, Per

    2008-01-01

    the model is empirically validated and its' limitations for the DSF modeling are identified. Correspondingly, the existence and availability of the experimental data is very essential. Three sets of accurate empirical data for validation of DSF modeling with building simulation software were produced within...

  17. Empirical Validation of Simple Calculation Method for Assessment of Energy Performance in Double-Skin Façade Building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marszal, Anna Joanna; Thomas, Sara Jessica; Larsen, Olena Kalyanova

    2009-01-01

    When designing new buildings a Double-Skin Facades (DSF) concept is recurrently discussed as an energy saving solution. There is a strong demand for a tool, which could estimate the energy performance of a DSF building in an early design stage, in order to assess whether it fulfills the Energy Pe...

  18. CFD model of air movement in ventilated facade: comparison between natural and forced air flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mora Perez, Miguel; Lopez Patino, Gonzalo; Lopez Jimenez, P. Amparo [Hydraulic and Environmental Engineering Department, Universitat Politècnica de Valencia (Spain)

    2013-07-01

    This study describes computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling of ventilated facade. Ventilated facades are normal facade but it has an extra channel between the concrete wall and the (double skin) facade. Several studies found in the literature are carried out with CFD simulations about the behavior of the thermodynamic phenomena of the double skin facades systems. These studies conclude that the presence of the air gap in the ventilated facade affects the temperature in the building skin, causing a cooling effect, at least in low-rise buildings. One of the most important factors affecting the thermal effects of ventilated facades is the wind velocity. In this contribution, a CFD analysis applied on two different velocity assumptions for air movement in the air gap of a ventilated facade is presented. A comparison is proposed considering natural wind induced velocity with forced fan induced velocity in the gap. Finally, comparing temperatures in the building skin, the differences between both solutions are described determining that, related to the considered boundary conditions, there is a maximum height in which the thermal effect of the induced flow is significantly observed.

  19. Optimisation of Design of Air Inlets in Air Distribution Channels of a Double-Skin Transparent Façade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielek, Boris; Szabó, Daniel; Palko, Milan; Rychtáriková, Monika

    2017-12-01

    This paper reports on an optimization of design of air inlets in naturally ventilated double-skin transparent facades; the design aims at the proper functioning of these facades from the point of view of their aerodynamic and hydrodynamic behaviour. A comparison was made of five different variants of ventilation louvers used in air openings with different shapes, positions and overall geometry. The aerodynamic response of the louvers was determined by 2D simulations using ANSYS software. The hydrodynamic properties were investigated by conducting driven-rain measurements in a large rain chamber at the Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava.

  20. Optimisation of Design of Air Inlets in Air Distribution Channels of a Double-Skin Transparent Façade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bielek Boris

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on an optimization of design of air inlets in naturally ventilated double-skin transparent facades; the design aims at the proper functioning of these facades from the point of view of their aerodynamic and hydrodynamic behaviour. A comparison was made of five different variants of ventilation louvers used in air openings with different shapes, positions and overall geometry. The aerodynamic response of the louvers was determined by 2D simulations using ANSYS software. The hydrodynamic properties were investigated by conducting driven-rain measurements in a large rain chamber at the Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava.

  1. Dynamiske facader

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, Kjeld; Winther, Frederik Vilbrad; Stegger, Bjørn

    facader i form af dobbeltfacader eller dynamiske facader, som bedre kan tilpasses bygningens og brugernes skiftende behov. Denne rapport beskriver hele udviklingsforløbet af Energy Frames, fra den helt tidlige idé-fase, over opstilling af kravspecifikationer, til fremstilling og laboratorietest af...

  2. Development and sensitivity study of a simplified and dynamic method for double glazing facade and verified by a full-scale façade element

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Mingzhe; Wittchen, Kim Bjarne; Heiselberg, Per

    2014-01-01

    The research aims to develop a simplified calculation method for double glazing facade to calculate its thermal and solar properties (U and g value) together with comfort performance (internal surface temperature of the glazing). Double glazing is defined as 1D model with nodes representing......, taking the thermal mass of the glazing into account. In addition, angle and spectral dependency of solar characteristic is also considered during the calculation. By using the method, it is possible to calculate whole year performance at different time steps, which makes it a time economical and accurate...

  3. An Empirical Validation of Building Simulation Software for Modelling of Double-Skin Facade (DSF)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Olena Kalyanova; Heiselberg, Per; Felsmann, Clemens

    2009-01-01

    , TRNSYS-TUD and BSim) was carried out in the framework of IEA SHC Task 34 /ECBCS Annex 43 "Testing and Validation of Building Energy Simulation Tools". The experimental data for the validation was gathered in a full-scale outdoor test facility. The empirical data sets comprise the key-functioning modes...... of DSF: 1. Thermal buffer mode (closed DSF cavity) and 2. External air curtain mode (naturally ventilated DSF cavity with the top and bottom openings open to outdoors). By carrying out the empirical tests, it was concluded that all models experience difficulties in predictions during the peak solar loads...

  4. Measurement of Air Flow Rate in a Naturally Ventilated Double Skin Facade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalyanova, Olena; Jensen, Rasmus Lund; Heiselberg, Per

    2007-01-01

    Air flow rate in a naturally ventilated space is extremely difficult to measure due to the stochastic nature of wind, and as a consequence non-uniform and dynamic flow conditions. This paper describes three different methods to measure the air flow in a full-scale outdoor test facility with a nat...

  5. Facade Layout Symmetrization

    KAUST Repository

    Jiang, Haiyong

    2016-04-11

    We present an automatic algorithm for symmetrizing facade layouts. Our method symmetrizes a given facade layout while minimally modifying the original layout. Based on the principles of symmetry in urban design, we formulate the problem of facade layout symmetrization as an optimization problem. Our system further enhances the regularity of the final layout by redistributing and aligning boxes in the layout. We demonstrate that the proposed solution can generate symmetric facade layouts efficiently. © 2015 IEEE.

  6. Installation system for ceramic self-ventilated roofs and facades called: SKIN-KER; Sistema para la instalacion de cubiertas y fachadas ceramicas autoventiladas denominado: SKIN-KER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puerta Lopez, A.; Casanova Ramon-Borja, A.

    2012-07-01

    The Company Tejas Borja S.A.U. has been awarded by the Spanish Ceramic and Glass Society with the 2012 Golden Alfa Pize for its research in the development of an installation system that creates a self-ventilated roof with modified red body porcelain tiles, and make it extended to a ventilated facade, allowing the entire house wrap with the same quality and aesthetics. The article describes the various stages of the project design both of individual components as well as verification by simulations and lab testing of the different elements of the system and auxiliary materials involved in the installation. (Author)

  7. Symmetrization of Facade Layouts

    KAUST Repository

    Jiang, Haiyong

    2016-02-26

    We present an automatic approach for symmetrizing urban facade layouts. Our method can generate a symmetric layout through minimally modifying the original input layout. Based on the principles of symmetry in urban design, we formulate facade layout symmetrization as an optimization problem. Our method further enhances the regularity of the final layout by redistributing and aligning elements in the layout. We demonstrate that the proposed solution can effectively generate symmetric facade layouts.

  8. Development of Simplified and Dynamic Model for Double Glazing Unit Validated with Full-Scale Facade Element

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Mingzhe; Wittchen, Kim Bjarne; Heiselberg, Per

    2012-01-01

    The project aims at developing simplified calculation methods for the different features that influence energy demand and indoor environment behind “intelligent” glazed façades. This paper describes how to set up simplified model to calculate the thermal and solar properties (U and g value......) together with comfort performance (internal surface temperature of the glazing) of a double glazing unit. Double glazing unit is defined as 1D model with nodes representing different layers of material. Several models with different number of nodes and position of these are compared and verified in order...... of the simplified method is that the models are based on the standards EN 410 and EN 673 taking the thermal mass of the glazing into account. In addition, angle and spectral dependency of solar characteristic will also be considered during the calculation. Using the method, it is possible to calculate the whole...

  9. Interactive facades analysis and synthesis of semi-regular facades

    KAUST Repository

    AlHalawani, Sawsan

    2013-05-01

    Urban facades regularly contain interesting variations due to allowed deformations of repeated elements (e.g., windows in different open or close positions) posing challenges to state-of-the-art facade analysis algorithms. We propose a semi-automatic framework to recover both repetition patterns of the elements and their individual deformation parameters to produce a factored facade representation. Such a representation enables a range of applications including interactive facade images, improved multi-view stereo reconstruction, facade-level change detection, and novel image editing possibilities. © 2013 The Author(s) Computer Graphics Forum © 2013 The Eurographics Association and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Træfacader

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Bjarne Lund

    Håndbogen er den første samlede anvisning om træfacader fra Træinformaiton. Bogen vejleder om træbeklædningers opbygning og beskyttelse mod vejrliget, samt om gældende materialekrav og udvalgte træarters egnethed. Bogen behandler de mest anvendte former for bræddebeklædninger både til træskelethu...

  11. Biocide runoff from building facades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bollmann, Ulla E.; Fernandez Calviño, David; Brandt, Kristian Koefoed

    2017-01-01

    Biocides are common additives in building materials. In-can and film preservatives in polymer-resin render and paint, as well as wood preservatives are used to protect facade materials from microbial spoilage. Biocides leach from the facade material with driving rain, leading to highly polluted r...

  12. Beyond information and utility: Transforming public spaces with media facades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Patrick Tobias; Zöllner, Christian; Hoffmann, Thilo; Piatza, Sebastian; Hornecker, Eva

    2013-01-01

    Media facades (often characterized as a building's digital skin) are public displays that substitute dynamic details and information for usually static structures. SMSlingshot is a media facade system at the confluence of art, architecture, and technology design in the context of urban human-computer interaction. It represents a participative approach to public displays that enlivens public spaces and fosters civic and social dialogue as an alternative to advertising and service-oriented information displays. Observations from SMSlingshot's implementation at festival exhibitions provide insight into the roles of scale, distance, and the spatial situation of media facade contexts. The lessons learned apply to most public-display situations and will be useful for designers and developers of this new medium in urban spaces.

  13. Oromandibular reconstruction with chimeric double-skin paddle flap based on peroneal vessel axis for synchronous opposite double oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shih-Tsai; Liu, Wen-Chung; Chen, Lee-Wei; Yang, Kuo-Chung

    2015-05-01

    Synchronous double oral cancer represents the minority of cases of head and neck cancer. After tumor ablation, 2 separate oromandibular defects, even combined with a through-and-through oral defect, pose a serious reconstructive challenge. The ideal method for reconstruction remains controversial. Based on the peroneal vessel axis, a chimeric double-skin paddle peroneal fasciocutaneous or fibular osteomyocutaneous flap could be designed to accomplish the difficult reconstruction. Six male patients, each with 2 separate oromandibular defects after tumor ablation of synchronous double oral cancer, received double-skin paddle flap reconstruction with 3 peroneal fasciocutaneous and 3 fibular osteomyocutaneous flaps. All 6 flaps survived; however, complications included 1 skin paddle lost due to insufficient perfusion of a visible perforator, and 1 superficial necrosis occurring over the tip of a longer skin paddle. One postoperative intraoral infection and 1 donor site infection were also reported. During follow-up, 3 months later, 1 patient succumbed to local recurrence and bony metastasis. One patient developed a new cancer in the maxillary gingiva, and another had osteoradionecrosis 8 months later. Four patients gained acceptable cosmesis with good oral competence. A chimeric flap based on the peroneal artery could provide a segment of fibular bone, 1 or 2 skin paddles, and a cuff of the flexor hallucis longus muscle simultaneously. For 1-stage reconstruction of separate oromandibular defects after tumor ablation of synchronous double oral cancer, this design could provide all components at 1 transfer.

  14. Total Maxillary Reconstruction Using a Double-Barreled and Double Skin Paddle Fibular Flap after Total Maxillectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel de la Parra

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Chondroblastomas are rare entities accounting for approximately 1% of all primary bone tumors. We describe a case of a 7-year-old girl with a giant chondroblastoma of the maxilla, treated with bilateral class III maxillectomy and reconstruction with a double-barreled and double skin paddle fibular free flap. We show evidence of an excellent aesthetic outcome at 6 months' follow up with no evidence of tumor recurrence.

  15. Assessing the performance of an advanced integrated facade by means of simulation: The ACTRESS facade case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Favoino

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The growing demand for both building energy efficiency and indoor environmental comfort is leading to a substantial evolution of the traditional concept of the building envelope. The future building skin is required to be responsive and dynamic, actively regulating the flows of heat, light, air and water from outdoor to indoor and vice versa, in order to effectively respond to ever-changing climatic conditions, occupant comfort and energy efficiency requirements. In the framework of a decade-long research activity on Advanced Integrated Facade, AIF, a new Multifunctional Facade Module called ACTRESS has been conceived: the ACTive, RESponsive and Solar envelope is designedto play different roles through its ability to change its thermo-physical behaviour in order to suit the different environmental conditions. This paper briefly illustrates the ACTRESS MFM concept and its functional strategies, focusing on the simulation and the assessment of the performance of such a dynamic envelope. The numerical study was conducted in order to evaluate the potential energy savings achievable with such a facade and to evaluate different functional strategies and options. The evaluation of the performance in terms of energy savings was done at both component and whole-building level. Moreover this work presents an example of the applicability of Building Performance Simulation tools to the design of an innovative and dynamic facade system, discussing the capability of BPS software in simulating and evaluating the performance of such systems. The results show that the ACTRESS MFM can effectively reduce the total primary energy consumption of an office building up to 55% compared with a reference facade complying with national regulations. On the other hand modelling assumptions and simplifications are needed in order to evaluate the performance of such a system with BPS software, representing a barrier to the design and the adoption of advanced facade systems in

  16. EnergyFacade - Operational energy optimisation for conceptual facade design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heidegger, V.; Coenders, J.L.; Rolvink, A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the investigation into the possibilities for the implementation of a Building Performance Simulation design toolbox during the early stages of façade design, based on the sustainability-open framework [2]. The background and development of the EnergyFacade toolbox

  17. Procedural facade variations from a single layout

    KAUST Repository

    Bao, Fan

    2013-02-19

    We introduce a framework to generate many variations of a facade design that look similar to a given facade layout. Starting from an input image, the facade is hierarchically segmented and labeled with a collection of manual and automatic tools. The user can then model constraints that should be maintained in any variation of the input facade design. Subsequently, facade variations are generated for different facade sizes, where multiple variations can be produced for a certain size. Computing such new facade variations has many unique challenges, and we propose a new algorithm based on interleaving heuristic search and quadratic programming. In contrast to most previous work, we focus on the generation of new design variations and not on the automatic analysis of the input\\'s structure. Adding a modeling step with the user in the loop ensures that our results routinely are of high quality. © 2013 ACM.

  18. Application of double-layered skin phantoms for optical flow imaging during laser tattoo treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byeong-il; Song, Woosub; Kim, Hyejin; Kang, Hyun Wook

    2016-05-01

    The feasible application of double-layered skin phantoms was evaluated to identify artificial blood flow with a Doppler optical coherence tomography (DOCT) system for laser tattoo treatments. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) was used to fabricate the artificial phantoms with flow channels embedded. A double-integrating sphere system with an inverse adding-doubling method quantified both the absorption and the reduced scattering coefficients for epidermis and dermis phantoms. Both OCT and caliper measurements confirmed the double-layered phantom structure (epidermis = 136 ± 17 µm vs. dermis = 3.0 ± 0.1 mm). The DOCT method demonstrated that high flow rates were associated with high image contrast, visualizing the position and the shape of the flow channel. Application of the channel-embedded skin phantoms in conjunction with DOCT can be a reliable technique to assess dynamic variations in the blood flow during and after laser tattoo treatments.

  19. FACADES OF RUSSIA: THE STATE OF THE MARKET AND TECHNOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aristov Denis Ivanovich

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The outlook of the facades market in its most important segments: translucent facades, hinged ventilated facades, plaster facades with insulation, fire safety of facades, has become the subject of the discussion on The Second Congress of the Facades Market Facades of Russia+ 2015, which took place in September 2015. The Congress was attended by the leading experts of the facades market from sectoral institutions, higher education institutions, oversight bodies, leaders of manufacturers of facade materials and installation companies from different regions of Russia, from the near and far abroad

  20. Fugtsikre træfacader

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten Hjorslev; Nicolajsen, Asta

    Denne rapport dokumenterer, at det stadig vil være muligt at udføre fugtsikre træfacader, hvis isoleringskravene øges svarende til ca. 300 mm mineraluld. Fugtophobningen i en række træfacadeelementer med forskellige konstruktionsopbygninger, isoleringsmaterialer og -tykkelser er bestemt. Målinger...

  1. Ferulic acid stabilizes a solution of vitamins C and E and doubles its photoprotection of skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Fu-Hsiung; Lin, Jing-Yi; Gupta, Ravindra D; Tournas, Joshua A; Burch, James A; Selim, M Angelica; Monteiro-Riviere, Nancy A; Grichnik, James M; Zielinski, Jan; Pinnell, Sheldon R

    2005-10-01

    Ferulic acid is a potent ubiquitous plant antioxidant. Its incorporation into a topical solution of 15%l-ascorbic acid and 1%alpha-tocopherol improved chemical stability of the vitamins (C+E) and doubled photoprotection to solar-simulated irradiation of skin from 4-fold to approximately 8-fold as measured by both erythema and sunburn cell formation. Inhibition of apoptosis was associated with reduced induction of caspase-3 and caspase-7. This antioxidant formulation efficiently reduced thymine dimer formation. This combination of pure natural low molecular weight antioxidants provides meaningful synergistic protection against oxidative stress in skin and should be useful for protection against photoaging and skin cancer.

  2. Double-Skinned Forward Osmosis Membranes for Reducing Internal Concentration Polarization within the Porous Sublayer

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Kai Yu

    2010-05-19

    A scheme to fabricate forward osmosis membranes comprising a highly porous sublayer sandwiched between two selective skin layers via phase inversion was proposed. One severe deficiency of existing composite and asymmetric membranes used in forward osmosis is the presence of unfavorable internal concentration polarization within the porous support layer that hinders both (i) separation (salt flux) and (ii) the performance (water flux). The double skin layers of the tailored membrane may mitigate the internal concentration polarization by preventing the salt and other solutes in the draw solution from penetrating into the membrane porous support. The prototype double-skinned cellulose acetate membrane displayed a water flux of 48.2 L·m-2·h -1 and lower reverse salt transport of 6.5 g·m -2·h-1 using 5.0 M MgCl2 as the draw solution in a forward osmosis process performed at 22 °C. This can be attributed to the effective salt rejection by the double skin layers and the low water transport resistance within the porous support layer. The prospects of utilizing the double-selective layer membranes may have potential application in forward osmosis for desalination. This study may help pave the way to improve the membrane design for the forward osmosis process. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  3. Functionality of Ventilated Facades: Protection of Insulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrichenko Mikhail

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses about methods of construction of the ventilated facades. The ventilated facade is not only the element of facing, it is the supporting structure. Their main objective - creation of air ventilating space between a facade and an external wall of the building. Moving of air in this gap protects a heater from destruction, interfering with a moisture congestion. In addition, the ventilated facade protect the building from aggressive influence of external environment, have a sound and thermal insulation properties. There are several problems of systems of the ventilated facades connected with an application of a heater. For more effective using it is necessary to minimize contact of a heater with environment.

  4. Wind tunnel study of natural ventilation of building integrated photovoltaics double skin façade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudişteanu, Sebastian Valeriu; Popovici, Cătălin George; Cherecheş, Nelu-Cristian

    2018-02-01

    The paper presents a wind tunnel experimental analysis of a small-scale building model (1:30). The objective of the study is to determine the wind influence on the ventilation of a double skin façade channel (DSF) and the cooling effect over integrated photovoltaic panels. The tests were achieved by conceiving and implementation of an experimental program using a wind tunnel with atmospheric boundary layer. The effect of the wind over the ventilation of the horizontal channels of double skin façades is evaluated for different incident velocities. The results are generalized for the average steady state values of the velocities analysed. The experimental results put in evidence the correlation between the reference wind velocity and the dynamics of the air movement inside the double skin façade. These values are used to determine the convective heat transfer and the cooling effect of the air streams inside the channel upon the integrated photovoltaic panels. The decrease of the photovoltaic panels temperature determines a raise of 11% in efficiency and power generated.

  5. Wind tunnel study of natural ventilation of building integrated photovoltaics double skin façade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hudişteanu Sebastian Valeriu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a wind tunnel experimental analysis of a small-scale building model (1:30. The objective of the study is to determine the wind influence on the ventilation of a double skin façade channel (DSF and the cooling effect over integrated photovoltaic panels. The tests were achieved by conceiving and implementation of an experimental program using a wind tunnel with atmospheric boundary layer. The effect of the wind over the ventilation of the horizontal channels of double skin façades is evaluated for different incident velocities. The results are generalized for the average steady state values of the velocities analysed. The experimental results put in evidence the correlation between the reference wind velocity and the dynamics of the air movement inside the double skin façade. These values are used to determine the convective heat transfer and the cooling effect of the air streams inside the channel upon the integrated photovoltaic panels. The decrease of the photovoltaic panels temperature determines a raise of 11% in efficiency and power generated.

  6. Skin wound healing in MMP2-deficient and MMP2 / plasminogen double-deficient mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frøssing, Signe; Rønø, Birgitte; Hald, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    -sensitive MMPs during wound healing. To address whether MMP2 is accountable for the galardin-induced healing deficiency in wildtype and Plg-deficient mice, incisional skin wounds were generated in MMP2 single-deficient mice and in MMP2/Plg double-deficient mice and followed until healed. Alternatively, tissue...... was isolated 7 days post wounding for histological and biochemical analyses. No difference was found in the time from wounding to overt gross restoration of the epidermal surface between MMP2-deficient and wildtype control littermate mice. MMP2/Plg double-deficient mice were viable and fertile, and displayed...... an unchallenged general phenotype resembling that of Plg-deficient mice, including development of rectal prolapses. MMP2/Plg double-deficient mice displayed a slight increase in the wound length throughout the healing period compared with Plg-deficient mice. However, the overall time to complete healing...

  7. Modeling of facade leaching in urban catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutu, S.; Del Giudice, D.; Rossi, L.; Barry, D. A.

    2012-12-01

    Building facades are protected from microbial attack by incorporation of biocides within them. Flow over facades leaches these biocides and transports them to the urban environment. A parsimonious water quantity/quality model applicable for engineered urban watersheds was developed to compute biocide release from facades and their transport at the urban basin scale. The model couples two lumped submodels applicable at the basin scale, and a local model of biocide leaching at the facade scale. For the facade leaching, an existing model applicable at the individual wall scale was utilized. The two lumped models describe urban hydrodynamics and leachate transport. The integrated model allows prediction of biocide concentrations in urban rivers. It was applied to a 15 km2urban hydrosystem in western Switzerland, the Vuachère river basin, to study three facade biocides (terbutryn, carbendazim, diuron). The water quality simulated by the model matched well most of the pollutographs at the outlet of the Vuachère watershed. The model was then used to estimate possible ecotoxicological impacts of facade leachates. To this end, exceedance probabilities and cumulative pollutant loads from the catchment were estimated. Results showed that the considered biocides rarely exceeded the relevant predicted no-effect concentrations for the riverine system. Despite the heterogeneities and complexity of (engineered) urban catchments, the model application demonstrated that a computationally "light" model can be employed to simulate the hydrograph and pollutograph response within them. It thus allows catchment-scale assessment of the potential ecotoxicological impact of biocides on receiving waters.

  8. Highly permeable double-skinned forward osmosis membranes for anti-fouling in the emulsified oil-water separation process

    KAUST Repository

    Duong, Hoang Hanh Phuoc

    2014-04-15

    Forward osmosis (FO) has attracted wide attention in recent years. However, the FO performance may be restricted due to internal concentration polarization (ICP) and fast fouling propensity that occurs in the membrane sublayer. Particularly, these problems significantly affect the membrane performance when treating highly contaminated oily wastewater. Recently, double-skinned flat sheet cellulose acetate (CA) membranes consisting of two selective skins via the phase inversion method have demonstrated less ICP and fouling propensity over typical single-skinned membranes. However, these membranes exhibit low water fluxes of <12 LMH under 2 M NaCl draw solution. Therefore, a novel double-skinned FO membrane with a high water flux has been aimed for in this study for emulsified oil-water treatment. The double-skinned FO membrane comprises a fully porous sublayer sandwiched between (i) a truly dense skin for salt rejection and (ii) a fairly loose dense skin for emulsified oil particle rejection. The former dense skin is a polyamide synthesized via interfacial polymerization, while the latter one is a self-assembled sulfonated pentablock copolymer (Nexar copolymer) layer. The resultant double-skinned membrane exhibits a high water flux of 17.2 LMH and a low reverse salt transport of 4.85 gMH using 0.5 M NaCl as the draw solution and DI water as the feed. The double-skinned membrane outperforms the single-skinned membrane with much lower fouling propensity for emulsified oil-water separation. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  9. Double-Porosity Models for a Fissured Groundwater Reservoir With Fracture Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moench, Allen F.

    1984-07-01

    Theories of flow to a well in a double-porosity groundwater reservoir are modified to incorporate effects of a thin layer of low-permeability material or fracture skin that may be present at fracture-block interfaces as a result of mineral deposition or alteration. The commonly used theory for flow in double- porosity formations that is based upon the assumption of pseudo-steady state block-to-fissure flow is shown to be a special case of the theory presented in this paper. The latter is based on the assumption of transient block-to-fissure flow with fracture skin. Under conditions where fracture skin has a hydraulic conductivity that is less than that of the matrix rock, it may be assumed to impede the interchange of fluid between the fissures and blocks. Resistance to flow at fracture-block interfaces tends to reduce spatial variation of hydraulic head gradients within the blocks. This provides theoretical justification for neglecting the divergence of flow in the blocks as required by the pseudo-steady state flow model. Coupled boundary value problems for flow to a well discharging at a constant rate were solved in the Laplace domain. Both slab-shaped and sphere-shaped blocks were considered, as were effects of well bore storage and well bore skin. Results obtained by numerical inversion were used to construct dimensionless-type curves that were applied to well test data, for a pumped well and for an observation well, from the fractured volcanic rock terrane of the Nevada Test Site.

  10. Structure completion for facade layouts

    KAUST Repository

    Fan, Lubin

    2014-11-18

    (Figure Presented) We present a method to complete missing structures in facade layouts. Starting from an abstraction of the partially observed layout as a set of shapes, we can propose one or multiple possible completed layouts. Structure completion with large missing parts is an ill-posed problem. Therefore, we combine two sources of information to derive our solution: the observed shapes and a database of complete layouts. The problem is also very difficult, because shape positions and attributes have to be estimated jointly. Our proposed solution is to break the problem into two components: a statistical model to evaluate layouts and a planning algorithm to generate candidate layouts. This ensures that the completed result is consistent with the observation and the layouts in the database.

  11. Facade Proposals for Urban Augmented Reality

    OpenAIRE

    Fond , Antoine; Berger , Marie-Odile; Simon , Gilles

    2017-01-01

    International audience; We introduce a novel object proposals method specific to building facades. We define new image cues that measure typical facadecharacteristics such as semantic, symmetry and repetitions. They are combined to generate a few facade candidates in urban environments fast. We show that our method outperforms state-of-the-art object proposals techniques for this task on the 1000 images of the Zurich Building Database. We demonstrate the interest of this procedure for augment...

  12. Intratarsal fixation at the same level as the skin incision to reduce asymmetric double eyelids: evaluation of symmetry using photogrammetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Kihwan; Yeo, Hyeonjung; Choi, Tae Hyun; Son, Daegu; Kim, Jun Hyung

    2010-03-01

    One of the most common complications of double eyelid operations is asymmetry. To reduce asymmetry, we fixed the dermis to the tarsal plate at the same level as the skin incision, and objectively evaluated the symmetry of the height using photogrammetry.Of 30 patients who had double eyelid operations by the intratarsal fixation technique, 15 patients completed a minimum follow-up of 6 months. After the skin incision and removal of the orbicularis oculi muscle and the orbital fat, the pretarsal fat pad was excised to expose the superior portion of the tarsal plate. The 3 fixation points were marked on the tarsal plate at the same level with the skin incision using a spreading caliper. The dermis was fixed to the marked points of the tarsal plate and the skin was closed.The height of the double eyelid was measured by clinical photography at 4 points when the eyes were opened and at 3 points when the eyes were closed. The height proportional index at each point was obtained by dividing the height of the left double eyelid by that of the right double eyelid. We compared each height proportional index with "1" to evaluate the symmetry of both double eyelids using a paired t test.The follow-up period was an average of 9.0 months. The mean height proportional indices were 0.97 (a), 0.96 (b), 0.98 (c), 1.08 (d), 0.97 (e), 1.02 (f), and 1.13 (g). According to a paired t test, the height of the left double eyelid was not different from that of the right double eyelid.Intratarsal fixation, along with other previously known methods, decreases asymmetric double eyelids.

  13. Chocolate flavanols and skin photoprotection: a parallel, double-blind, randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogollon, Jaime Andres; Boivin, Catherine; Lemieux, Simone; Blanchet, Claudine; Claveau, Joël; Dodin, Sylvie

    2014-06-27

    Solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation has deleterious effects on the skin, including sunburn, photoaging and cancer. Chocolate flavanols are naturally-occurring antioxidant and anti-inflammatory molecules that could play a role in preventing cutaneous UV damage. We investigated the influence of 12-week high-flavanol chocolate (HFC) consumption on skin sensitivity to UV radiation, measured by minimal erythema dose (MED). We also evaluated skin elasticity and hydration. In this 2-group, parallel, double-blind, randomized controlled trial, 74 women aged 20-65 years and Fitzpatrick skin phototypes I or II were recruited from the general community in Quebec City, for randomization to either HFC (n = 33) or low-flavanol chocolate (LFC) (n = 41). A blocked randomisation (4), considering date of entry, skin type and age as factors, generated a sequentially-numbered allocation list. Study participants and research assistants were blinded. Totally, 30 g of chocolate were consumed daily for 12 weeks, followed by a 3-week washout period. MED was assessed at baseline and at 6, 9, 12 and 15 weeks. Main outcome was changes in MED at week 12. 33 participants in the HFC group and 41 in the LFC group were analyzed with 15 weeks of follow-up. Both groups showed similarly-increased MED at 12 weeks (HFC: 0.0252 ± 0.1099 J/cm2 [mean ± standard deviation (SD)]; LFC: 0.0151 ± 0.1118; mean difference (MD): 0.0100 J/cm2; 95% confidence interval (CI): -0.0417 to 0.0618). However, after 3-week washout, the HFC group presented decreased MED (-0.0248 ± 0.1145) whereas no effect was seen in the LFC group (0.0168 ± 0.1698) (MD: -0.0417; 95% CI: -0.1106 to 0.0272). Net temple elasticity increased slightly but significantly by 0.09 ± 0.12 mm in the HFC group at 12 weeks compared to 0.02 ± 0.12 mm in the LFC group (MD: 0.06; 95% CI: 0.01 to 0.12 ). No significant adverse events were reported. Our study failed to demonstrate a statistically

  14. The Application of Biomimicry in Kinetic Facades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wijdan Deyaa Abdul Jalil

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Biomimicry, as a way of thinking to go back to nature for inspiration, has its impact on many contemporary technological achievements. Some of them are used to design and construct kinetic facades in architecture, because of the importance role of facades in reducing sun radiation, that enter the building through using shading systems and components. In light of this, research problem is determined: "Do technologies which are inspired by biomimicry effect shading in kinetic facades through its characteristics in materials and the mechanics. So the research identifies its goal as: "To identify the types of kinetic facades in buildings and their characteristics as materials and shading mechanism associated with the biomimicry. The research explains the basic types of kinetic facades depending on the technology and materials used to provide the possibility of reducing solar radiation that enters the building. It also compares the case studies which have been chosen in their inspiration concept from biological world, which reflect on the system used of protecting against sun and reducing energy consumption as the designer teams suggest. The research concluded that kinetic façade which is depending on smart materials is self-responding and don't need energy to operate, so it is better in reducing consumption of energy.

  15. Diclofenac Loaded Lipid Nanovesicles Prepared by Double Solvent Displacement for Skin Drug Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala, M; Locher, F; Bonvallet, M; Agusti, G; Elaissari, A; Fessi, H

    2017-09-01

    Herein, we detail a promising strategy of nanovesicle preparation based on control of phospholipid self-assembly: the Double Solvent Displacement. A systematic study was conducted and diclofenac as drug model encapsulated. In vitro skin studies were carried out to identify better formulation for dermal/transdermal delivery. This method consists in two solvent displacements. The first one, made in a free water environment, has allowed triggering a phospholipid pre-organization. The second one, based on the diffusion into an aqueous phase has led to liposome formation. Homogeneous liposomes were obtained with a size close to 100 nm and a negative zeta potential around -40 mV. After incorporation of acid diclofenac, we obtained nanoliposomes with a size between 101 ± 45 and 133 ± 66 nm, a zeta potential between 34 ± 2 and 49 ± 3 mV, and the encapsulation efficiency (EE%) was between 58 ± 3 and 87 ± 5%. In vitro permeation studies showed that formulation with higher EE% dispayed the higher transdermal passage (18,4% of the applied dose) especially targeting dermis and beyond. Our results suggest that our diclofenac loaded lipid vesicles have significant potential as transdermal skin drug delivery system. Here, we produced cost effective lipid nanovesicles in a merely manner according to a process easily transposable to industrial scale. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  16. Thermal Performance of Ventilated Double Skin Façades with Venetian Blinds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Parra

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Venetian blinds (VB are shading devices of widespread use in residential and corporate buildings. They can reflect or transmit light into buildings and at the same time allow daylighting and exterior views. They can also efficiently block radiative heat from entering the building, and if combined with a heat dissipation system such as forced ventilation, they can improve the thermal performance of double skin façades (DSF. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD has proven to be a useful tool for modeling flow and heat transfer in DSF, including conduction, convection and radiation heat transfer phenomena. The aim of this work is to evaluate, by means of CFD, the influence of several optical, construction and operation parameters of a DSF (such as optical properties of the materials, geometrical relations of the VB or flow stream conditions in terms of energy savings, measured as a reduction of the solar load entering the building. Results obtained show that parameters such as the proximity of the VB to the exterior skin of the façade or a differentiated surface treatment for the exterior and interior faces of the VB louvers can notably affect the thermal performance of the DSF and hence the heat gains experienced by the building.

  17. Environmental impact analysis for typical office facades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolokotroni, M.; Robinson-Gayle, S.; Tanno, S.; Cripps, A.

    2004-02-01

    The design of a building facade influences internal thermal and lighting conditions and use associated with the provision of these conditions. Key decisions about the building are usually taken during the concept design stage of a building, while decisions about method of providing the environmental conditions are often made later in the design. This dilemma is addressed by the development of a concept design tool that allows the team to investigate the effect of facade design on the resulting internal environmental conditions, energy use and environmental impact. The concept design tool was developed performing detailed thermal, lighting and environmental modelling for a number of office building facade designs and a range of parameters that affect directly the environmental performance of an office building. The results are presented in a user-friendly interface as a minimum number of inputs. Key parameter outputs (such as temperature, lighting, heating/cooling energy demand, embodied energy and eco-points) can then be viewed, more detailed analysis can also be created for specified facade designs. A parametric analysis of the summary result outputs for selected facade parameters indicates that natural ventilation and cooling can reduce the environmental impact of offices by up to 16%, although the energy demand could increase significantly. Improving the construction standard and reducing the internal heat loads can reduce the environmental impact by up to 2 this tool at early design stages will benefit the design team through an improved understanding of the dynamics between facade design and building services and assist with a more integrated approach. (author)

  18. Reduction of skin effect losses in double-level-T-gate structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikulics, M., E-mail: m.mikulics@fz-juelich.de; Hardtdegen, H.; Arango, Y. C.; Adam, R.; Fox, A.; Grützmacher, D. [Peter Grünberg Institute (PGI-9), Forschungszentrum Jülich, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Jülich-Aachen Research Alliance, JARA, Fundamentals of Future Information Technology, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Gregušová, D.; Novák, J. [Institute of Electrical Engineering, Slovak Academy of Sciences, SK-84104 Bratislava (Slovakia); Stanček, S. [Department of Nuclear Physic and Technique, Slovak University of Technology, SK-81219 Bratislava (Slovakia); Kordoš, P. [Institute of Electronics and Photonics, Slovak University of Technology, SK-81219 Bratislava (Slovakia); Sofer, Z. [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Institute of Chemical Technology, Technická 5, Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Juul, L.; Marso, M. [Faculté des Sciences, de la Technologie et de la Communication, Université du Luxembourg, L-1359 Luxembourg (Luxembourg)

    2014-12-08

    We developed a T-gate technology based on selective wet etching yielding 200 nm wide T-gate structures used for fabrication of High Electron Mobility Transistors (HEMT). Major advantages of our process are the use of only standard photolithographic process and the ability to generate T-gate stacks. A HEMT fabricated on AlGaN/GaN/sapphire with gate length L{sub g} = 200 nm and double-stacked T-gates exhibits 60 GHz cutoff frequency showing ten-fold improvement compared to 6 GHz for the same device with 2 μm gate length. HEMTs with a double-level-T-gate (DLTG) structure exhibit up to 35% improvement of f{sub max} value compared to a single T-gate device. This indicates a significant reduction of skin effect losses in DLTG structure compared to its standard T-gate counterpart. These results agree with the theoretical predictions.

  19. Overall skin tone and skin-lightening-improving effects with oral supplementation of lutein and zeaxanthin isomers: a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juturu V

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Vijaya Juturu,1 James P Bowman,2 Jayant Deshpande1 1Department of Scientific and Clinical Affairs, OmniActive Health Technologies Inc., Morristown, NJ, 2James P Bowman & Associates LLC, Loveland, OH, USA Purpose: Carotenoids, especially lutein and zeaxanthin isomers (L/Zi, filter blue light and protect skin from environmental factors including high-energy sources. These carotenoids may be able to block the formation of melanin pathways, decrease cytokines, and increase antioxidants.Subjects and methods: This is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial over a 12-week supplementation period. Fifty healthy people (50 healthy subjects were recruited and 46 subjects completed the study (males and females, age: 18–45 years with mild-to-moderate dry skin were included in this study. Skin type of the subjects was classified as Fitzpatrick skin type II–IV scale. Subjects were administered with either an oral dietary supplement containing 10 mg lutein (L and 2 mg zeaxanthin isomers (Zi (L/Zi: RR-zeaxanthin and RS (meso-zeaxanthin or a placebo daily for 12 weeks. The minimal erythemal dose and skin lightening (L* were measured via the Chromameter®. The individual typological angle was calculated. Subjective assessments were also recorded.Results: Overall skin tone was significantly improved in the L/Zi group compared to placebo (P<0.0237, and luminance (L* values were significantly increased in the L/Zi group. Mean minimal erythemal dose was increased with L/Zi supplementation after 12 weeks of supplementation. L/Zi supplementation significantly increased the individual typological angle.Conclusion: L/Zi supplementation lightens and improves skin conditions. Keywords: lutein, zeaxanthin isomers, skin lightening, minimal erythemal dose, individual typological angle, overall skin tone

  20. Skin-whitening and skin-condition-improving effects of topical oxidized glutathione: a double-blind and placebo-controlled clinical trial in healthy women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Fumiko; Hashizume, Erika; Chan, Gertrude P; Kamimura, Ayako

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Glutathione is a tripeptide consisting of cysteine, glycine, and glutamate and functions as a major antioxidant. It is synthesized endogenously in humans. Glutathione protects thiol protein groups from oxidation and is involved in cellular detoxification for maintenance of the cell environment. Reduced glutathione (GSH) has a skin-whitening effect in humans through its tyrosinase inhibitory activity, but in the case of oxidized glutathione (GSSG) this effect is unclear. We examined the skin-whitening and skin-condition effects of topical GSSG in healthy women. Subjects and methods The subjects were 30 healthy adult women aged 30 to 50 years. The study design was a randomized, double-blind, matched-pair, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Subjects applied GSSG 2% (weight/weight [w/w]) lotion to one side of the face and a placebo lotion to the other side twice daily for 10 weeks. We objectively measured changes in melanin index values, moisture content of the stratum corneum, smoothness, wrinkle formation, and elasticity of the skin. The principal investigator and each subject also used subjective scores to investigate skin whitening, wrinkle reduction, and smoothness. Analysis of variance was used to evaluate differences between groups. Results The skin melanin index was significantly lower with GSSG treatment than with placebo from the early weeks after the start of the trial through to the end of the study period (at 10 weeks, P<0.001). In addition, in the latter half of the study period GSSG-treated sites had significant increases in moisture content of the stratum corneum, suppression of wrinkle formation, and improvement in skin smoothness. There were no marked adverse effects from GSSG application. Conclusion Topical GSSG is safe and effectively whitens the skin and improves skin condition in healthy women. PMID:25378941

  1. Aloe sterol supplementation improves skin elasticity in Japanese men with sunlight-exposed skin: a 12-week double-blind, randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanaka M

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Miyuki Tanaka,1 Yuki Yamamoto,2 Eriko Misawa,1 Kazumi Nabeshima,1 Marie Saito,1 Koji Yamauchi,1 Fumiaki Abe,1 Fukumi Furukawa2 1Functional Food Ingredients Department, Food Ingredients & Technology Institute, Morinaga Milk Industry Co., Ltd., Zama, Kanagawa, 2Department of Dermatology, Wakayama Medical University, Kimiidera, Wakayama, Japan Background/objective: Recently, it was confirmed that the daily oral intake of plant sterols of Aloe vera gel (Aloe sterol significantly increases the skin barrier function, moisture, and elasticity in photoprotected skin. This study aimed to investigate whether Aloe sterol intake affected skin conditions following sunlight exposure in Japanese men. Methods: We performed a 12-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study to evaluate the effects of oral Aloe sterol supplementation on skin conditions in 48 apparently healthy men (age range: 30–59 years; average: 45 years. The subjects were instructed to expose the measurement position of the arms to the sunlight outdoors every day for 12 weeks. The skin parameters were measured at 0 (baseline, 4, 8, and 12 weeks. Results: Depending on the time for the revelation of the sunlight, the b* value and melanin index increased and the skin moisture decreased. After taking an Aloe sterol tablet daily for 12 weeks, the skin elasticity index (R2, R5, and R7 levels were significantly higher than the baseline value. There were no differences between the groups in these skin elasticity values. In the subgroup analysis of subjects aged <46 years, the change in the R5 and R7 was significantly higher in the Aloe group than in the placebo group at 8 weeks (P=0.0412 and P=0.0410, respectively. There was a difference in the quantity of sun exposure between each subject, and an additional clinical study that standardizes the amount of ultraviolet rays is warranted. No Aloe sterol intake-dependent harmful phenomenon was observed during the intake period

  2. The use of a dorsal double-wing flap without skin grafts for congenital syndactyly treatment: A STROBE compliant study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yanzhao; Wang, Yisheng

    2017-07-01

    Numerous techniques have been developed that use various flaps to treat syndactyly. Skin grafts have often been used to cover remaining surgical defects. The long-term aim of surgery is to find new methods of separating the digits without using skin grafts. This paper describes a new surgical technique for the correction of simple, incomplete, and complete syndactyly. The technique consists of a dorsal double-wing flap to cover the newly created web space and zigzag incisions in the fingers, thus avoiding the use of skin grafts in this space. Overall, 35 web spaces in 24 patients were treated using this technique. Patient follow-up ranged from 6 months to nearly 5 years. There were no complications such as hematoma, infection or flap necrosis, and no fingers needed skin grafts after separation. The average operative time for each web space was approximately 45 minutes. Ninety-seven percent of patients treated with the dorsal double-wing flap procedure achieved good function, and superior cosmetic results following a single surgery. The technique is simple, rapid, safe, and easily performed and does not require the use of skin grafts.

  3. Contribution of natural ventilation in a double skin envelope to heating load reduction in winter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yu-Min; Sohn, Jang-Yeul [Department of Architectural Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea); Kim, Soo-Young [Department of Housing and Interior Design, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea); Shin, Sung-Woo [Department of Architectural Engineering, Hanyang University, Ansan (Korea)

    2009-11-15

    This study examined the contribution of a double skin envelope (DSE) to the heating energy savings brought about by natural ventilation in office buildings. A DSE was applied to the east- and west-facing walls on an actual three-floor building. Field measurements and computer simulations were performed in winter. The results implied that the DSE on the west-facing wall contributed to energy savings when natural ventilation was supplied from the cavity to the indoor space. The DSE facing east was not recommended for energy savings by natural ventilation because of its smaller exposure to solar irradiance. Multiple linear regression models were developed based on field measurements to predict the temperature variation in the cavities, and effective control logics will be discussed in a future study. Of all variables, the outdoor air temperature was the most significant factor influencing the air temperature in the cavity. Computer simulation indicated that the air in the cavity was heated to the required temperature without consuming additional energy when the ratio of the diffused irradiance to global irradiance was smaller than 0.69. The cavity in the DSE worked as a thermal buffer zone and contributed to reducing heating energy consumption by 14.71% in January. (author)

  4. Solar Heat Gain Reduction of Ventilated Double Skin Windows without a Shading Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bokyoung Koo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available With global efforts to strengthen various energy-saving policies for buildings to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, in South Korea, new laws and regulations have been in force since May 2015 to install shading devices in public buildings and to include the solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC reduction performance of shading devices in the evaluation of building performance. By making a ventilated air layer outer glass and inner glass to lower the temperatures of the air layer and glass surface, it is possible to reduce the amount of heat flowing into the building while maintaining the same level of light transmission as plain window systems. This study proposes a double-skin façade window with a 20 mm ventilated air cavity, and assumes that insolation inflow indoors would be reduced through ventilation in the air cavity. The artificial solar lab test results show that the SHGC can be lowered through ventilation by 28% to 52.9%. Additionally, in an outdoor test cell experiment, the results show that the mean temperature was 0.6 K and the peak temperature was 0.9 K lower with ventilation in the air cavity than that without ventilation in the air cavity.

  5. Spread of smoke and heat along narrow air cavity in double-skin façade fires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chow Lun Cheuk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A scenario on double-skin façade fire was identified earlier for hazard assessment. A flashover room fire occurred next to the façade, broke the interior glass pane and spread to the façade cavity. As observed in experiments, hot gas moved up as a vertical channel flow for narrow façade cavity. Heat and smoke spread along the narrow air cavity of a double-skin façade will be studied in this paper. A simple mathematical model is developed from basic heat transfer theory for studying the vertical air temperature profiles of the hot gas flowing along the cavity. Assuming one-dimensional flow for hot gas moving up the façade cavity, conservation equations on mass and enthalpy were solved. Experimental results on two double-skin façade rigs of height 6 m and 15 m with narrow cavity depth were used to justify the results. A total of 11 tests were carried out. Correlation expressions between cavity air temperature and the height above ceiling of the fire room were derived.

  6. Intelligent Glazed Facades for Fulfilment of Future Energy Regulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Frederik Vildbrad; Heiselberg, Per; Jensen, Rasmus Lund

    2010-01-01

    This project aims at testing technologies for control of heat transfer, irradiation, mass transport and energy storage in order to investigate the potential of a intelligent dynamic glazed facade. Furthermore a development of algorithms for control of the technologies included in the facade......, for use in the design phase, is done. The methods used are initially based on thermal building calculations. This analysis shows that a dynamic adaptive facade is the only way in which future office buildings can fulfil the energy regulations. By designing the facade according to the usage...

  7. Facade repair works on building 376

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    ST Division will proceed, as from 30th October, an anti-carbonatation treatment of concrete facades of building 376 on the Meyrin site (see map). This work will last for six weeks depending on the weather conditions and will cause some traffic hold ups during this period in Route Fermi. Please follow the indications of the temporary road signs. Thanking you in advance for your comprehension. ST-CE and ST-FM Groups GSM 163976/163183

  8. Facade repair works on building 376

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    ST Division proceeds, since 30th October, an anti-carbonatation treatment of concrete facades of building 376 on the Meyrin site. This work will last for six weeks depending on the weather conditions and will cause some traffic hold ups during this period in Route Fermi. Please follow the indications of the temporary road signs. Thanking you in advance for your comprehension. ST-CE and ST-FM Groups GSM 163976/163183

  9. Facade repair works on building 376

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    ST Division will proceed, as from 30th October, an anti-carbonatation treatment of concrete facades of building 376 on the Meyrin site. This work will last for six weeks depending on the weather conditions and will cause some traffic hold ups during this period in Route Fermi. Please follow the indications of the temporary road signs. Thanking you in advance for your comprehension. ST-CE and ST-FM Groups GSM 163976/163183

  10. Inverse procedural modeling of facade layouts

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Feng

    2014-07-22

    In this paper, we address the following research problem: How can we generate a meaningful split grammar that explains a given facade layout? To evaluate if a grammar is meaningful, we propose a cost function based on the description length and minimize this cost using an approximate dynamic programming framework. Our evaluation indicates that our framework extracts meaningful split grammars that are competitive with those of expert users, while some users and all competing automatic solutions are less successful. Copyright © ACM.

  11. High-performance commercial building facades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eleanor; Selkowitz, Stephen; Bazjanac, Vladimir; Inkarojrit, Vorapat; Kohler, Christian

    2002-06-01

    This study focuses on advanced building facades that use daylighting, sun control, ventilation systems, and dynamic systems. A quick perusal of the leading architectural magazines, or a discussion in most architectural firms today will eventually lead to mention of some of the innovative new buildings that are being constructed with all-glass facades. Most of these buildings are appearing in Europe, although interestingly U.S. A/E firms often have a leading role in their design. This ''emerging technology'' of heavily glazed fagades is often associated with buildings whose design goals include energy efficiency, sustainability, and a ''green'' image. While there are a number of new books on the subject with impressive photos and drawings, there is little critical examination of the actual performance of such buildings, and a generally poor understanding as to whether they achieve their performance goals, or even what those goals might be. Even if the building ''works'' it is often dangerous to take a design solution from one climate and location and transport it to a new one without a good causal understanding of how the systems work. In addition, there is a wide range of existing and emerging glazing and fenestration technologies in use in these buildings, many of which break new ground with respect to innovative structural use of glass. It is unclear as to how well many of these designs would work as currently formulated in California locations dominated by intense sunlight and seismic events. Finally, the costs of these systems are higher than normal facades, but claims of energy and productivity savings are used to justify some of them. Once again these claims, while plausible, are largely unsupported. There have been major advances in glazing and facade technology over the past 30 years and we expect to see continued innovation and product development. It is critical in this process to be able to

  12. CD4+CD8β+ double-positive T cells in skin-draining lymph nodes respond to inflammatory signals from the skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Nana Haahr; Cruz, Jazmina L.; Bridge, Jennifer A.

    2017-01-01

    CD4+CD8+ double-positive (DP), mature, peripheral T cells are readily detectable in a variety of species and tissues. Despite a common association with autoimmune and malignant skin disorders, however, little is understood about their role or function. Herein, we show that DP T cells are readily...... detectable in the blood, spleen, and peripheral lymph nodes of naïve C57BL/6 mice. DP T cells were also present in Jα-/- and CD1d-/- mice, indicating that these cells are not NK-T cells. After skin administration of CASAC adjuvant, but not Quil A adjuvant, both total DP T cells and skin-infiltrating DP T...... cells increased in number. We explored the possibility that DP T cells could represent aggregates between CD4+ and CD8+ single-positive T cells and found strong evidence that a large proportion of apparent DP T cells were indeed aggregates. However, the existence of true CD4+CD8+ DP T cells...

  13. Behaviour of green facades in Mediterranean Continental climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, G.; Rincon, L.; Vila, A.; Gonzalez, J.M.; Cabeza, L.F.

    2011-01-01

    In order to obtain data on the behaviour of green facades in buildings as a passive system for energy savings in dry Mediterranean Continental climate a long-term work has been performed. This paper presents the first results of two actions developed during 2009. First, the growth of four different climbing plants as well as their ability to provide shadow was studied. Second, monitoring for a year of a real green facade was carried out. The results confirmed the great capacity of green facades to produce shade, reducing the heat on the facade wall of the building. It was also verified that a microclimate between the wall of the building and the green curtain are created, characterized by slightly lower temperatures and higher relative humidity. This means that the green screen acts as a wind barrier and confirms the evapotranspiration effect of the plants. On the other hand, these results did not allow withdrawing conclusions about the insulation effect of green facades.

  14. On the selection of significant variables in a model for the deteriorating process of facades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrat, C.; Gibert, V.; Casas, J. R.; Rapinski, J.

    2017-10-01

    In previous works the authors of this paper have introduced a predictive system that uses survival analysis techniques for the study of time-to-failure in the facades of a building stock. The approach is population based, in order to obtain information on the evolution of the stock across time, and to help the manager in the decision making process on global maintenance strategies. For the decision making it is crutial to determine those covariates -like materials, morphology and characteristics of the facade, orientation or environmental conditions- that play a significative role in the progression of different failures. The proposed platform also incorporates an open source GIS plugin that includes survival and test moduli that allow the investigator to model the time until a lesion taking into account the variables collected during the inspection process. The aim of this paper is double: a) to shortly introduce the predictive system, as well as the inspection and the analysis methodologies and b) to introduce and illustrate the modeling strategy for the deteriorating process of an urban front. The illustration will be focused on the city of L’Hospitalet de Llobregat (Barcelona, Spain) in which more than 14,000 facades have been inspected and analyzed.

  15. Modeling a Naturally Ventilated Double Skin Façade with a Building Thermal Simulation Program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rasmus Lund; Kalyanova, Olena; Heiselberg, Per

    2008-01-01

    to predict. This is manly due to the very transient and complex air flow in the naturally ventilated double skin façade cavity. In this paper the modelling of the DSF using a thermal simulation program, BSim, is discussed. The simulations are based on the measured weather boundary conditions......, and the simulation results are compared to the measurement results like energy consumption for cooling, air temperature, temperature gradient and mass flow rate in the DSF cavity, etc. Details about the measurements are reported in \\Kalyanova et al. 2008\\. The thermal simulation program does not at the moment...

  16. Facade integration of solar thermal collectors. A breakthrough

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roecker, Christian; Munari-Probst, MariaCristina; Chambrier, Estelle de; Schueler, Andreas; Scartezzini, Jean-Louis [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), Lausanne (Switzerland). Lab. d' Energie Solaire et de Physique du Batiment

    2008-07-01

    One main barrier to the acceptability of facade use of solar thermal collectors is their black appearance and the visibility of piping or absorber irregularities through the glazing. To facilitate facade integration, a project was set up to develop selective filters reflecting only a small part of the solar spectrum in the visible range while letting the rest of the radiation heat the absorber. These filters were successfully produced and, combined with a diffusing glass treatment, have achieved the desired masking effect with minor impact on the collector efficiency (less than 10%). Glasses of various colours combined with several diffusing finishing (acid etching, structured glass etc..) can be produced that are able to hide the absorber. Such glazings will allow the use of the same product both in front of facade areas equipped with solar absorbers (as collector external glass) and in front of the non exposed areas (as facade cladding), opening the way to a broad variety of active facade designs. The active elements can then be positioned at will on the exposed areas, and their quantity determined only by thermal needs. By freeing the dimension of the facade area that can be clad with this glazing from the thermally needed surface for collectors, a major step to help architects use solar thermal on facades has been taken. (orig.)

  17. Skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, R.D.

    1985-01-01

    Malignant disease involving the skin represents a significant work load to the general radiotherapist and can involve interesting diagnostic and therapeutic decisions. Primary skin cancer is also relatively common and there is a need to provide an efficient service in which the first treatment is successful in the majority of patients. The reward for careful attention to technique is very considerable both in terms of clinical cancer control and functional results. Squamous cell carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma, and intra-epidermal carcinoma constitute the majority of the lesions dealt with clinically, but metastatic disease, lymphomas, and malignant melanomas are also referred regularly for opinions and may require radiotherapy. The general principle of the techniques of assessment and radiotherapeutic management to be described are equally applicable to any malignant skin tumour once the decision has been made to accept it for radiotherapy. Dosage and fractionation may have to be adjusted to allow for the nature of the disease process and the intent of the treatment

  18. Influence of glazing types and ventilation principles in double skin façades on delivered heating and cooling energy during heating season in an office building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignjatović Marko G.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Double skin façade represents an additional skin on the outside wall of the building with the idea of reducing building’s energy demand. The zone formed by adding a skin can be sealed or ventilated either naturally or mechanically. This paper shows the results of delivered heating and cooling energy for an office building during heating season with 3 different ventilation strategies and 90 double skin façade configurations. The results were obtained by using EnergyPlus simulation program. In all observed cases, adding double skin façade leads to a decrease in delivered heating energy by as much as 55.80%, but delivered cooling energy might increase if proper glazing type is not selected. The best results were obtained by using triple glazing as inner skin of double façade. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 33051: The concept of sustainable energy supply of settlements with energy efficient buildings

  19. Feature Evaluation for Building Facade Images - AN Empirical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, M. Y.; Förstner, W.; Chai, D.

    2012-08-01

    The classification of building facade images is a challenging problem that receives a great deal of attention in the photogrammetry community. Image classification is critically dependent on the features. In this paper, we perform an empirical feature evaluation task for building facade images. Feature sets we choose are basic features, color features, histogram features, Peucker features, texture features, and SIFT features. We present an approach for region-wise labeling using an efficient randomized decision forest classifier and local features. We conduct our experiments with building facade image classification on the eTRIMS dataset, where our focus is the object classes building, car, door, pavement, road, sky, vegetation, and window.

  20. Сombined Thermal Insulating Module of Mounted Vented Facades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryabukhina Svetlana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to define an optimum type of mounted vented facades among the existing ones, comparative analysis of two façade modules has been conducted. The first module type is a widespread standard module of hinged vented facade and the second type is less applicable combined thermal insulating module. Those two technologies were compared thermal engineering and energy efficiency parameters. It was defined that the application of a thermal insulating module with combined insulation system improves thermal engineering parameters of the building as well as leads to a substantial savings. This article exposes innovative materials and structure of vented facades which can be applied in modern construction.

  1. Acetyl salicylic acid–ZnAl layered double hydroxide functional nanohybrid for skin care application

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mosangi, Damodar

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a pharmaceutically active ingredient, acetyl salicylic acid (ASA), was intercalated into ZnAl layered double hydroxide (LDH). The LDH–ASA nanohybrid material was characterized by XRD, FTIR, SEM, ICP-MS, TEM and TGA. Successful...

  2. Empirical Validation of Building Simulation Software : Modeling of Double Facades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalyanova, Olena; Heiselberg, Per

    The work described in this report is the result of a collaborative effort of members of the International Energy Agency (IEA), Task 34/43: Testing and validation of building energy simulation tools experts group.......The work described in this report is the result of a collaborative effort of members of the International Energy Agency (IEA), Task 34/43: Testing and validation of building energy simulation tools experts group....

  3. A framework for designing complex media facades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halskov, Kim; Ebsen, Tobias

    2013-01-01

    Spatial, low-resolution media facades integrated into buildings pose specific design challenges. We provide a conceptual framework for addressing how content for a media façade may be designed taking into account the specific qualities of the display of media façade interfaces: scale, shape, pixel...... configuration, pixel shape, and light quality. We address how these qualities of the interface may be investigated using a repertoire of design tools in different modalities ranging form physical models over mixed reality models to virtual representations. As the main case we present and discuss five design...... tools used in the design of the media façade of a 300 metres long low-resolution curvilinear media façade part of the Danish pavilion at the Expo 2010 in Shanghai....

  4. Release of silver nanoparticles from outdoor facades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaegi, Ralf; Sinnet, Brian; Zuleeg, Steffen; Hagendorfer, Harald; Mueller, Elisabeth; Vonbank, Roger; Boller, Markus; Burkhardt, Michael

    2010-01-01

    In this study we investigate the release of metallic silver nanoparticles (Ag-NP) from paints used for outdoor applications. A facade panel mounted on a model house was exposed to ambient weather conditions over a period of one year. The runoff volume of individual rain events was determined and the silver and titanium concentrations of 36 out of 65 runoff events were measured. Selected samples were prepared for electron microscopic analysis. A strong leaching of the Ag-NP was observed during the initial runoff events with a maximum concentration of 145 μ Ag/l. After a period of one year, more than 30% of the Ag-NP were released to the environment. Particles were mostly 2 S. - We provide direct evidence for the release of silver nanoparticles from exterior paints to the aquatic environment.

  5. EFFICACY OF CITALOPRAM IN TREATMENT OF PATHOLOGICAL SKIN PICKING, A RANDOMIZED DOUBLE BLIND PLACEBO CONTROLLED TRIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Arbabi

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available "nVarious studies suggest that selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs may be useful in treating pathological skin picking (PSP. This study sought to assess effectiveness of citalopram in comparison with placebo in treating PSP. Forty five individuals with PSP were recruited in a four-week, randomized clinical trial of citalopram (20 mg/day in comparison with placebo. Study measures assessing skin picking severity, mental health status, obsessive compulsive disorder and quality of life were given at baseline, weeks 2 and 4. PSP severity, general health status, obsession-compulsion severity and quality of life level were similar between two groups at baseline (P > 0.05. Treatment analyses revealed significant improvements in quality of life, general health status and obsession-compulsion severity in citalopram group compared to placebo group (P < 0.05. Mean PSP severity reduction in citalopram group was more than placebo group but this difference was not significant. Citalopram can improve general health status and quality of life in individuals with PSP but its effect on skin picking behavior doesn't differ significantly with placebo. Other trials with longer time are needed to determine the exact efficacy of citalopram on PSP

  6. Modeling a Naturally Ventilated Double Skin Façade with a Building Thermal Simulation Program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rasmus Lund; Kalyanova, Olena; Heiselberg, Per

    2008-01-01

    to predict. This is manly due to the very transient and complex air flow in the naturally ventilated double skin façade cavity. In this paper the modelling of the DSF using a thermal simulation program, BSim, is discussed. The simulations are based on the measured weather boundary conditions...... the possibility to calibrate the simulation model with measured data the risk of generating poor results is imminent. Therefore further work including both measurements and more detailed and robust simulation programs are necessary......, and the simulation results are compared to the measurement results like energy consumption for cooling, air temperature, temperature gradient and mass flow rate in the DSF cavity, etc. Details about the measurements are reported in \\Kalyanova et al. 2008\\. The thermal simulation program does not at the moment...

  7. Comparative performance analysis of the artificial-intelligence-based thermal control algorithms for the double-skin building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Jin Woo

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at developing artificial-intelligence-(AI)-theory-based optimal control algorithms for improving the indoor temperature conditions and heating energy efficiency of the double-skin buildings. For this, one conventional rule-based and four AI-based algorithms were developed, including artificial neural network (ANN), fuzzy logic (FL), and adaptive neuro fuzzy inference systems (ANFIS), for operating the surface openings of the double skin and the heating system. A numerical computer simulation method incorporating the matrix laboratory (MATLAB) and the transient systems simulation (TRNSYS) software was used for the comparative performance tests. The analysis results revealed that advanced thermal-environment comfort and stability can be provided by the AI-based algorithms. In particular, the FL and ANFIS algorithms were superior to the ANN algorithm in terms of providing better thermal conditions. The ANN-based algorithm, however, proved its potential to be the most energy-efficient and stable strategy among the four AI-based algorithms. It can be concluded that the optimal algorithm can be differently determined according to the major focus of the strategy. If comfortable thermal condition is the principal interest, then the FL or ANFIS algorithm could be the proper solution, and if energy saving for space heating and system operation stability is the main concerns, then the ANN-based algorithm may be applicable. - Highlights: • Integrated control algorithms were developed for the heating system and surface openings. • AI theories were applied to the control algorithms. • ANN, FL, and ANFIS were the applied AI theories. • Comparative performance tests were conducted using computer simulation. • AI algorithms presented superior temperature environment.

  8. Axial Compression Properties Nonlinear Analysis on Square Double Skin Steel Stub Short Columns Filled with Recycled Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Bing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Taking the mixing amount of diatomite calcined and vitrified micro bubbles(VMB as the main changing parameters, experiment studies the properties of the vitrified micro bubbles recycled concrete blocks; then this paper adopts the finite element software ANSYS to analyze the square double skin steel stub short columns filled with recycled concrete under axial compression. According to the vertical stress distribution, strain and bearing capacity of the steel tube and core concrete, we make a contrastive axial compression properties analysis on the different hollow ratio χ(0,0.35and the VMB content(0%,100%,130% of square double skin steel stub short columns filled with recycled concrete. The result shows that: Compressive strength of VMB recycled concrete increases with the increase of diatomite calcined content, when mixing amount of diatomite calcined is 3%,the compressive strength of 130% VMB content test specimen can reach 32.45 MPa;Because of the inner circular steel tube is setted which strengthening component buckling capacity and improving the ductility of the component, stress distribution of hollow components is more balance than solid components, and their axial displacements decrease by 5.6% compared with the solid components when they reach ultimate bearing capacity; When the hollow ratio is same, ultimate bearing capacity of 130% VMB content test specimen compared with the content is 0% only reduces by about 3.5%; When the VMB content is same, ultimate bearing capacity of hollow components compared with solid components increases by about 2.5%, which reducing weight as well as improving the anti-seismic performance.

  9. Curcuma aeruginosa Roxb. essential oil slows hair-growth and lightens skin in axillae; a randomised, double blinded trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivilai, Jukkarin; Phimnuan, Preeyawass; Jaisabai, Jiraporn; Luangtoomma, Nantakarn; Waranuch, Neti; Khorana, Nantaka; Wisuitiprot, Wudtichai; Scholfield, C Norman; Champachaisri, Katechan; Ingkaninan, Kornkanok

    2017-02-15

    Androgenic hair-growth contributes to secondary gender characteristics but can be troublesome in women. Inhibiting axillary hair-growth via 5-α-reductases using the Thai medicinal plant, Curcuma aeruginosa Roxb. is an attractive treatment strategy. C. aeruginosa essential oil (CA-oil) formulated as a lotion is an efficacious and safe inhibitor of axillary hair growth. This trial was a single center, randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled 10 weeks, intervention in 60 women (18-23 years) and 2 weeks washout with axillary hair length was the primary end-point. Bioactive-enriched essential oil of C. aeruginosa was formulated with a base lotion. All participants were pre-challenged with lotions by 4-h patch irritation tests to exclude skin reactions. Participants were randomly allocated to use either 1 or 5%w/w CA-oil lotion on one axilla and base-lotion (placebo) to the other for 10 weeks followed by placebo in both axillae for 2 weeks. Every week, the axillae were photographed to measure hair lengths, shaved, and roll-on applicators containing appropriate lotion replaced. Also, skin melanin by spectrophotometry and hair density were measured. From weeks 5-11 of trial, 1 and 5%w/w CA-oil retarded growth by 13 ± 1.5% and 16 ± 0.9% respectively, while placebo was ineffective. CA-oil had no influence on hair density. Both concentrations of CA-oil rapidly and equally effectively brightened skin within 3 weeks which persisted 2 weeks after treatment ceased while placebo darkened the skin. Adherence appeared good as judged by consistency of lotion consumption and between axillae. Participants were satisfied with the treatment and reported reduced hairiness, freedom from any discomforts, but product odour attracted some negative comment. No adverse reactions ascribed to CA-oil were detected or reported. This study points to a safe and efficacious dual action on retarding hair-growth and skin lightening by CA-oil. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights

  10. Double trisomy mosaic (47,XXX/48,XXX,+13) confirmed by FISH and skin fibroblast culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lieber, E.; Grady, V.; Dosik, H. [Interfaith Medical Center, Brooklyn, NY (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    A 4 lb 8 oz female was born to a 49-year-old woman (P1200G12) at 40 weeks. The baby had tetralogy of Fallot, polydactyly, microcephaly, low set simple ears, posterior cleft of the soft palate and overlapping flexion deformities of both hands. The eyes were deep set. The clinical impression was trisomy 13. The baby is not doing well and needs a gastrotomy tube for feeding. Sucking is allright but swallowing is impeded. An MRI showed an anomaly of the corpus callosum. The ophthalmological examination showed no abnormalities. A chromosome study on a 2-day peripheral blood sample resulted in poor growth and poor morphology; however, 20 Giemsa-banded cells revealed a 47,XXX karyotype. A second specimen was obtained to search for mosaicism and a blood smear revealed nuclear projections on the neutrophils. FISH analysis using whole chromosome painting probe (Life Technologies) first identified the extra chromosome number 13, the final results showing five of sixty metaphase cells (8.3%) with trisomy 13. Cytogenetic analysis using Giemsa-banding technique revealed four cells in fifty examined (8.0%) with a 48,XXX,+13 karyotype. In order to further evaluate the mosaicism, cytogenetic analysis of a skin fibroblast culture was performed. Twenty one of twenty three cells examined (91.3%) showed the 48,XXX,+13 karyotype. FISH analysis of the skin biopsy revealed eighteen of twenty cells (90.9%) with the trisomy 13. The FISH technique is an important enhancement to routine cytogenetic studies when they do not immediately correlate with clinical impressions.

  11. Shading Performance on Terraced House Facades in Putrajaya, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Ahmad Sanusi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates shading performance on house facades of selected three terraced houses in Putrajaya, Malaysia as the case studies. Terraced house type is selected for the case study because it is the most popular house type built in this country to house an increase of the urban population. Its total number built in urban area increases from 27% of the total dwellings in 1980 to 40% in 1990, and to slightly more than 60 per cent in 2000. The Case Study A, B, and C are atypical style of terraced house facade designs built in Putrajaya. These postmodern designs exhibit a range of complex geometric elements blending of colonial and traditional elements with colorful styles on the house facade. In this study, the time at which the sun path perpendicular to the house facade will be used to gain the results of shading performances when the house facades have their maximum exposure to the direct sunlight. The house facade was divided into two main parts which are opaque and glazing surface elements. The amount of shading area on the opaque and glazing surface was simulated using the SunTool program. In conclusion, the Case Study C had the highest average percentage of the shading area, which is 64.43%, followed by the Case Study A 60.41% and Case Study B 56.29%. These results showed that the facade designs had excellent horizontal shading elements with roof overhangs for high angle sunlight but they had weak vertical shading elements due to a lack of considerations of louvered elements to block low angle sunlight.

  12. Painful, slow developing abscesses. Furuncular miyasis due to double skin infestation by Dermatobia hominis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krönert, Claudia; Wollina, Uwe

    2009-08-24

    Myiasis is defined as invasion of tissues by Diptera flies. The condition is endemic in the forested areas of Mexico, Central and South America. A 61-year-old woman presented with two boil-like inflammatory and painful lesions on her back. She had been travelling in Central America. Biopsies revealed a myiasis with mature third instar larvae of Dermatobia hominis, a diptera fly endemic in this region. Complete surgical excision and systemic antibiosis led to a delayed but complete healing. We presented a patient with a double infestation by Dermatobia hominis. Dermatologists should be aware of this disease, which has become increasingly common in travellers and is seen now also in unusual regions, other than Central and South America.

  13. Release of silver nanoparticles from outdoor facades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaegi, Ralf; Sinnet, Brian; Zuleeg, Steffen; Hagendorfer, Harald; Mueller, Elisabeth; Vonbank, Roger; Boller, Markus; Burkhardt, Michael

    2010-09-01

    In this study we investigate the release of metallic silver nanoparticles (Ag-NP) from paints used for outdoor applications. A facade panel mounted on a model house was exposed to ambient weather conditions over a period of one year. The runoff volume of individual rain events was determined and the silver and titanium concentrations of 36 out of 65 runoff events were measured. Selected samples were prepared for electron microscopic analysis. A strong leaching of the Ag-NP was observed during the initial runoff events with a maximum concentration of 145 micro Ag/l. After a period of one year, more than 30% of the Ag-NP were released to the environment. Particles were mostly <15 nm and are released as composite colloids attached to the organic binders of the paint. Microscopic results indicate that the Ag-NP are likely transformed to considerably less toxic forms such as Ag2S. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Development and construction of a thermoelectric active facade module

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marıa Ibanez-Puy

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to fulfil the current challenges for the European building sector, building design has diverged into two alternative directions: active technologies and passive design strategies. In the last few years, advanced and responsive building envelope components have represented a promising answer to these challenges. This paper presents the design and construction process of a project that aims to design, build and control the energy performance of an industrial-scale modular active ventilated facade prototype with a new Themoelectric Peltier System (TPS. The TPS is a thermoelectric HVAC heat pump system designed to be located in the building envelope and providing a high comfort level. Trying to optimize the energy performance of the traditional ventilated opaque facade, and make more efficient the energy performance of the TPS, the concept of adaptability has been applied to ventilated opaque facades. The essential research theme is to control the natural phenomena that take place inside the ventilated air cavity of the facade: taking advantage when heat dissipation is needed, and avoiding it when heat losses are not welcome. In order to quantify the previous statements, some facade prototypes are being built in Pamplona (Spain and their energy performance is going to be analyzed during a year.  

  15. Analysis of multi-functional ventilated facades. An European joule project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, M; Perez Segarra, C.D; A Oliva; Aceves, O; Sen F [Barcelona (Spain)] (and others)

    2000-07-01

    The name Multi-Functional Ventilated Facade (MFVF) has been used in the project as a generic name to refer to a facade characterized by an inner ventilated air layer along with the incorporation of some additional technological elements. The elements here studied have been the following: the use of phase change materials (PCM) in the opaque walls to provide thermal inertia, the use of transparent insulation (TI) to reduce the connective losses in the semi-transparent areas and, finally the incorporation of photovoltaic cells (PV) at the skin of the building to provide electrical power. The flux air developed in the channel provides not only an additional thermal resistance but a heat flux which can be driven outdoors or indoors conveniently according to the buildings energetic load. Different MFVF prototypes adapted to the different European climates have been experimentally tested in cabin test cells under real outdoor conditions and for long time periods. Also, an specific computing code has been adapted to analyze the thermal behavior of this kind of facades. The code has been partially validated with the experimental information provided by the prototypes. Finally, the code is been used to optimize the main design variables of these facades. [Spanish] El nombre de fachadas ventiladas multi-funcionales (MFVF) ha sido usado en el proyecto como un nombre generico para referirse a una fachada caracterizada por una capa interior ventilada con aire juntamente con la incorporacion de algunos elementos tecnologicos adicionales. Los elementos aqui estudiados han sido los siguientes: el uso de materiales de cambio de fase (PCM) en las paredes opacas para proporcionar inercia termica, el uso de aislamiento transparente (TI) para reducir las perdidas conectivas en las areas semitransparentes, y finalmente la incorporacion de celdas fotovoltaica (PV) y el recubrimiento del edificio para proporcionar energia electrica. El flujo del aire desarrollado en el canal proporciona

  16. Energy-Efficient Measures to Avoid Downdraft from Large Glazed Facades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per; Overby, H.; Bjørn, Erik

    Glazed facades may cause thermal discomfort due to downdraft. Convectors placed close to the facade can prevent downdraft but can cause an increase in the energy consumption. The objective of this research was to investigate whether the structural system of a glazed facade can be used to reduce...

  17. APPLICATION OF AUGMENTED REALITY IN FACADE REDESIGN PRESENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PEJIĆ Petar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Augmented Reality (AR is a computer technology where the perception of the user is enhanced by the seamless blending between real environment and computer-generated virtual objects coexisting in the same space. When it comes to a redesign of the existing facades, it is necessary to create a visual presentation of the proposed changes. For this reason, contemporary architectural approach assumes creating a digital 3D model of the newly designed facade. Since the façade redesign is a real world change, the AR can be used for newly designed facade project presentation. In this paper a case study of the AR application for façade redesign presentation of a single family house located in Babušnica (Serbia is presented.

  18. Facade Reconstruction with Generalized 2.5d Grids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Demantke

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Reconstructing fine facade geometry from MMS lidar data remains a challenge: In addition to being inherently sparse, the point cloud provided by a single street point of view is necessarily incomplete. We propose a simple framework to estimate the facade surface with a deformable 2.5d grid. Computations are performed in a "sensor-oriented" coordinate system that maximizes consistency with the data. the algorithm allows to retrieve the facade geometry without priori knowledge. It can thus be automatically applied to a large amount of data in spite of the variability of encountered architectural forms. The 2.5d image structure of the output makes it compatible with storage and real-time constraints of immersive navigation.

  19. FEATURE EVALUATION FOR BUILDING FACADE IMAGES – AN EMPIRICAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Y. Yang

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The classification of building facade images is a challenging problem that receives a great deal of attention in the photogrammetry community. Image classification is critically dependent on the features. In this paper, we perform an empirical feature evaluation task for building facade images. Feature sets we choose are basic features, color features, histogram features, Peucker features, texture features, and SIFT features. We present an approach for region-wise labeling using an efficient randomized decision forest classifier and local features. We conduct our experiments with building facade image classification on the eTRIMS dataset, where our focus is the object classes building, car, door, pavement, road, sky, vegetation, and window.

  20. Effective photoprotection of human skin against infrared A radiation by topically applied antioxidants: results from a vehicle controlled, double-blind, randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grether-Beck, Susanne; Marini, Alessandra; Jaenicke, Thomas; Krutmann, Jean

    2015-01-01

    Infrared A radiation (IRA) from solar sunlight contributes to photoaging of human skin, e.g. by upregulating MMP-1 expression in dermal fibroblasts, indicating the need for photoprotection of human skin against IRA. Up to now, however, there has been no controlled study to show that effective protection of human skin against IRA radiation is possible. Here, we have conducted a randomized, controlled, double-blinded prospective study in 30 healthy volunteers to assess the capacity of an SPF 30 sunscreen versus the same sunscreen supplemented with an antioxidant cocktail containing grape seed extract, vitamin E, ubiquinone and vitamin C to protect human skin against IRA radiation-induced MMP-1 upregulation. As expected, exposure to IRA radiation significantly upregulated MMP-1 expression, as compared to unirradiated skin, and this response was significantly reduced, if the SPF30 sunscreen plus the antioxidant cocktail had been applied prior to IRA radiation. In contrast, treatment of human skin with the SPF30 sunscreen alone did not provide significant protection. These results indicate that topically applied antioxidants effectively protect human skin against IRA radiation and that regular sunscreens need to be supplemented with specific antioxidants in order to achieve IRA photoprotection. © 2014 The American Society of Photobiology.

  1. Effects of Aloe Sterol Supplementation on Skin Elasticity, Hydration, and Collagen Score: A 12-Week Double-Blind, Randomized, Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Miyuki; Yamamoto, Yuki; Misawa, Eriko; Nabeshima, Kazumi; Saito, Marie; Yamauchi, Koji; Abe, Fumiaki; Furukawa, Fukumi

    2016-01-01

    Our previous study confirmed that Aloe sterol stimulates collagen and hyaluronic acid production in human dermal fibroblasts. This study aims to investigate whether Aloe sterol intake affects skin conditions. We performed a 12-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study to evaluate the effects of oral Aloe sterol supplementation on skin elasticity, hydration, and the collagen score in 64 healthy women (age range 30-59 years; average 44.3 years) who were randomly assigned to receive either a placebo or an Aloe sterol-supplemented yogurt. Skin parameters were measured and ultrasound analysis of the forearm was performed. ANCOVA revealed statistical differences in skin moisture, transepidermal water loss, skin elasticity, and collagen score between the Aloe sterol and placebo groups. The gross elasticity (R2), net elasticity (R5), and biological elasticity (R7) scores of the Aloe sterol group significantly increased with time. In addition, skin fatigue area F3, which is known to decrease with age and fatigue, also increased with Aloe sterol intake. Ultrasound echogenicity revealed that the collagen content in the dermis increased with Aloe sterol intake. The results suggest that continued Aloe sterol ingestion contributes to maintaining healthy skin. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Intelligent Facades for High Performance Green Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyson, Anna [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Progress Towards Net-Zero and Net-Positive-Energy Commercial Buildings and Urban Districts Through Intelligent Building Envelope Strategies Previous research and development of intelligent facades systems has been limited in their contribution towards national goals for achieving on-site net zero buildings, because this R&D has failed to couple the many qualitative requirements of building envelopes such as the provision of daylighting, access to exterior views, satisfying aesthetic and cultural characteristics, with the quantitative metrics of energy harvesting, storage and redistribution. To achieve energy self-sufficiency from on-site solar resources, building envelopes can and must address this gamut of concerns simultaneously. With this project, we have undertaken a high-performance building integrated combined-heat and power concentrating photovoltaic system with high temperature thermal capture, storage and transport towards multiple applications (BICPV/T). The critical contribution we are offering with the Integrated Concentrating Solar Façade (ICSF) is conceived to improve daylighting quality for improved health of occupants and mitigate solar heat gain while maximally capturing and transferring onsite solar energy. The ICSF accomplishes this multi-functionality by intercepting only the direct-normal component of solar energy (which is responsible for elevated cooling loads) thereby transforming a previously problematic source of energy into a high quality resource that can be applied to building demands such as heating, cooling, dehumidification, domestic hot water, and possible further augmentation of electrical generation through organic Rankine cycles. With the ICSF technology, our team is addressing the global challenge in transitioning commercial and residential building stock towards on-site clean energy self-sufficiency, by fully integrating innovative environmental control systems strategies within an intelligent and responsively dynamic building

  3. Assessment of Seasonal Energy Efficiency Strategies of a Double Skin Façade in a Monsoon Climate Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choongwan Koo

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available As climate change and global warming have become two of the most significant environmental issues today, the double-skin façade (DSF is getting considerable attention as an energy-efficient passive design. This study is aimed at assessing the seasonal energy efficiency strategies of a DSF targeting library facilities in the climate region with hot summers and cold winters. Toward this end, this study was conducted in four steps: (i establishment of seasonal energy-efficient strategies; (ii application of seasonal energy-efficient strategies; (iii analysis of energy saving effect by season; and (iv life cycle cost and life cycle CO2 analyses for selecting an optimal DSF. Results show that a shaft box DSF energy model (EMS #2, which applied winter strategies, was optimal with an energy saving rate of 4.13%, while a multi-story DSF energy model (EMM #5, which applied summer strategies, was optimal with an energy saving rate of 12.67%. In terms of savings to investment ratio (SIR40 and breakeven point (BEP40, the multi-story DSF (3.20; 9 years was superior. The results of this study can be used for (i seasonal energy efficiency strategies of a DSF in East Asian monsoon climates, and (ii as a guideline for the application of a DSF both in existing and new buildings.

  4. Impact, absorption and evaporation of raindrops on building facades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abuku, Masaru; Janssen, Hans; Poesen, Jean

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the impact, absorption and evaporation of raindrops oil building facades is investigated by experimental and numerical means. Laboratory experiments were carried Out to study the impact of water drops with different diameters, impact speeds and impact angles oil a porous building....... Finally, the experimental and numerical data were used in a more precise three-dimensional simulation of impact, absorption and evaporation of random and discrete wind-driven raindrops. This was compared With the common one-dimensional simulation of absorption and evaporation at the facade considering...

  5. Light and energy - solar cells in transparent facades. Final report; Lys og energi - solceller i transparente facader. Slutrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-07-01

    The overall purpose with the project 'LIGHT AND ENERGY - solar cells in transparent facades' is to demonstrate and disseminate the potentials for the application of light-filtering solar cells as multi-functional components, which meets the architectural objectives while contributing to a good indoor climate, a suitable quality of lighting indoor and at the same time produces electricity. The project was divided into six activities. The first activity 'zooms in' on the light-filtering solar cells on the market today. The following activities gradually 'zoom out' from the solar cell itself to the building component and ends up in the facade and the room behind. This order - which largely reflects the chronological development of the project - is repeated in the final project report to ensure the best possible overview. The characterisation in the different activities has been a combination of technical measurements, simulations, calculations and a thorough architectural evaluation of solar cell component, facade and room for attain an overall, interprofessional evaluation of the solar cell panels. It is important to stress that the basis of the project is the solar cell products available on the market today and In the near future. The possibilities and ideas have been evaluated and documented using mock-ups in 1:1 scale since the individual components have completely other qualities when they are integrated in a facade - the platform of this project. These models in full scale are a possibility to register and experience the character of the light inside out and under different light settings. It has been important to think of the solar cell filter as a part of the architecture instead of a replacement for windows and actively use the light-filtering features as a possibility in new facade designs - a filter which in combination with the completely transparent glass and completely light-blocking materials opens up for new possibilities

  6. Automated mapping of building facades by machine learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Höhle, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    Facades of buildings contain various types of objects which have to be recorded for information systems. The article describes a solution for this task focussing on automated classification by means of machine learning techniques. Stereo pairs of oblique images are used to derive 3D point clouds...

  7. Optimum Application of Thermal Factors to Artificial Neural Network Models for Improvement of Control Performance in Double Skin-Enveloped Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung-Il Chin

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes an artificial neural network (ANN-based thermal control method for buildings with double skin envelopes that has rational relationships between the ANN model input and output. The relationship between the indoor air temperature and surrounding environmental factors was investigated based on field measurement data from an actual building. The results imply that the indoor temperature was not significantly influenced by vertical solar irradiance, but by the outdoor and cavity temperature. Accordingly, a new ANN model developed in this study excluded solar irradiance as an input variable for predicting the future indoor temperature. The structure and learning method of this new ANN model was optimized, followed by the performance tests of a variety of internal and external envelope opening strategies for the heating and cooling seasons. The performance tests revealed that the optimized ANN-based logic yielded better temperature conditions than the non-ANN based logic. This ANN-based logic increased overall comfortable periods and decreased the frequency of overshoots and undershoots out of the thermal comfort range. The ANN model proved that it has the potential to be successfully applied in the temperature control logic for double skin-enveloped buildings. The ANN model, which was proposed in this study, effectively predicted future indoor temperatures for the diverse opening strategies. The ANN-based logic optimally determined the operation of heating and cooling systems as well as opening conditions for the double skin envelopes.

  8. Influence of Double-Strand Break Repair on Radiation Therapy-Induced Acute Skin Reactions in Breast Cancer Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mumbrekar, Kamalesh Dattaram [Division of Radiobiology and Toxicology, School of Life Sciences, Manipal University, Manipal, Karnataka (India); Fernandes, Donald Jerard [Department of Radiotherapy and Oncology, Shirdi Sai Baba Cancer Hospital and Research Centre, Kasturba Hospital, Manipal, Karnataka (India); Goutham, Hassan Venkatesh [Division of Radiobiology and Toxicology, School of Life Sciences, Manipal University, Manipal, Karnataka (India); Sharan, Krishna [Department of Radiotherapy and Oncology, Shirdi Sai Baba Cancer Hospital and Research Centre, Kasturba Hospital, Manipal, Karnataka (India); Vadhiraja, Bejadi Manjunath [Manipal Hospital, Bangalore, Karnataka (India); Satyamoorthy, Kapaettu [Division of Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Manipal University, Manipal, Karnataka (India); Bola Sadashiva, Satish Rao, E-mail: satishraomlsc@gmail.com [Division of Radiobiology and Toxicology, School of Life Sciences, Manipal University, Manipal, Karnataka (India)

    2014-03-01

    Purpose: Curative radiation therapy (RT)-induced toxicity poses strong limitations for efficient RT and worsens the quality of life. The parameter that explains when and to what extent normal tissue toxicity in RT evolves would be of clinical relevance because of its predictive value and may provide an opportunity for personalized treatment approach. Methods and Materials: DNA double-strand breaks and repair were analyzed by microscopic γ-H2AX foci analysis in peripheral lymphocytes from 38 healthy donors and 80 breast cancer patients before RT, a 2 Gy challenge dose of x-ray exposed in vitro. Results: The actual damage (AD) at 0.25, 3, and 6 hours and percentage residual damage (PRD) at 3 and 6 hours were used as parameters to measure cellular radiosensitivity and correlated with RT-induced acute skin reactions in patients stratified as non-overresponders (NOR) (Radiation Therapy Oncology Group [RTOG] grade <2) and overresponders (OR) (RTOG grade ≥2). The results indicated that the basal and induced (at 0.25 and 3 hours) γ-H2AX foci numbers were nonsignificant (P>.05) between healthy control donors and the NOR and OR groups, whereas it was significant between ORs and healthy donors at 6 hours (P<.001). There was a significantly higher PRD in OR versus NOR (P<.05), OR versus healthy donors (P<.001) and NOR versus healthy donors (P<.01), supported further by the trend analysis (r=.2392; P=.0326 at 6 hours). Conclusions: Our findings strongly suggest that the measurement of PRD by performing γ-H2AX foci analysis has the potential to be developed into a clinically useful predictive assay.

  9. Effects of ingesting milk fermented by Lactococcus lactis H61 on skin health in young women: a randomized double-blind study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimoto-Nira, H; Nagakura, Y; Kodama, C; Shimizu, T; Okuta, M; Sasaki, K; Koikawa, N; Sakuraba, K; Suzuki, C; Suzuki, Y

    2014-09-01

    We conducted a randomized double-blind trial to evaluate the effects of fermented milk produced using only Lactococcus lactis strain H61 as a starter bacterium (H61-fermented milk) on the general health and various skin properties of young women. Healthy female volunteers (n=23; age=19-21r) received H61-fermented milk (10(10) cfu of strain H61/d) or conventional yogurt (10(10) cfu of both Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus per day), as a reference food, daily for 4 wk. Before and at the end of 4 wk, blood samples were taken, and skin hydration (inner forearms and cheek) and melanin content, elasticity, and sebum content (cheek only) were measured. Skin hydration at the inner forearm was higher at wk 4 than at wk 0 in both groups. Sebum content in cheek rose significantly after intervention in the H61-fermented milk group, but not the conventional yogurt group. Other skin parameters did not differ in either group. Serum analysis showed that total protein concentration and platelet count were elevated and reactive oxygen species decreased in both groups after the intervention. Although H61-fermented milk and conventional yogurt had similar effects on skin status and some blood characteristics of participants, an increase of sebum content in cheek is preferable to H61-fermented milk. As skin lipids contribute to maintaining the skin barrier, H61-fermented milk would provide beneficial effects on skin for young women. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The new topical ascomycin derivative SDZ ASM 981 does not induce skin atrophy when applied to normal skin for 4 weeks: a randomized, double-blind controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queille-Roussel, C; Paul, C; Duteil, L; Lefebvre, M C; Rapatz, G; Zagula, M; Ortonne, J P

    2001-03-01

    SDZ ASM 981 is a selective inhibitor of inflammatory cytokines released from T lymphocytes and mast cells, which has been developed for the treatment of inflammatory skin diseases. In the present study, the atrophogenic potential of SDZ ASM 981 1% cream in humans was compared with that of medium and highly potent topical steroids, and vehicle. Four different preparations, SDZ ASM 981 1% cream, the corresponding vehicle of SDZ ASM 981 1% cream, betamethasone-17-valerate 0.1% cream and triamcinolone acetonide 0.1% cream, were applied to the volar aspect of the forearms of 16 healthy volunteers, twice daily, 6 days a week, for 4 weeks. Skin thickness was evaluated by ultrasound examination, clinical signs of atrophy by stereomicroscopy, and epidermal thickness was assessed by histology. Both topical corticosteroids induced a significant reduction in skin thickness, as compared with SDZ ASM 981 1% cream and vehicle, which were shown to be equivalent. The difference in skin thickness (measured by ultrasound examination) between patients treated with SDZ ASM 981 1% cream and those receiving either of the two topical steroids was significant from day 8 onwards. Histological analysis performed at day 29 showed significant epidermal thinning with topical steroids compared with SDZ ASM 981 1% cream or the vehicle. Conclusion The lack of atrophogenic properties of SDZ ASM 981 1% cream in this short-term study demonstrates its potential as long-term treatment for inflammatory skin diseases, thus overcoming a major drawback of topical steroids. This may also be important for the treatment of children, and sensitive areas of skin, such as the face and skin-folds.

  11. Tedizolid for 6 days versus linezolid for 10 days for acute bacterial skin and skin-structure infections (ESTABLISH-2): a randomised, double-blind, phase 3, non-inferiority trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Gregory J; Fang, Edward; Corey, G Ralph; Das, Anita F; De Anda, Carisa; Prokocimer, Philippe

    2014-08-01

    New antibiotics are needed to treat infections caused by drug-resistant bacteria. Tedizolid is a novel oxazolidinone antibacterial drug designed to provide enhanced activity against Gram-positive pathogens. We aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of intravenous to oral tedizolid for treatment of patients with acute bacterial skin and skin-structure infections. ESTABLISH-2 was a randomised, double-blind, phase 3, non-inferiority trial done between Sept 28, 2011, and Jan 10, 2013, at 58 centres in nine countries. Patients (aged ≥12 years) with acute bacterial skin and skin-structure infections (cellulitis or erysipelas, major cutaneous abscess, or wound infection) that had a minimum lesion area of 75 cm(2) and were suspected or documented to be associated with a Gram-positive pathogen, were randomly assigned (1:1), via an interactive voice-response system with block randomisation, to receive intravenous once-daily tedizolid (200 mg for 6 days) or twice-daily linezolid (600 mg for 10 days), with optional oral step-down. Randomisation was stratified by geographic region and type of acute bacterial skin and skin-structure infection. The primary endpoint was early clinical response (≥20% reduction in lesion area at 48-72 h compared with baseline), with a non-inferiority margin of -10%. Analysis was by intention to treat. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01421511. 666 patients were randomly assigned to receive tedizolid (n=332) or linezolid (n=334). 283 (85%) patients in the tedizolid group and 276 (83%) in the linezolid group achieved early clinical response (difference 2·6%, 95% CI -3·0 to 8·2), meeting the prespecified non-inferiority margin. Gastrointestinal adverse events were less frequent with tedizolid than linezolid, taking place in 52 (16%) of 331 patients and 67 (20%) of 327 patients in the safety population. Treatment-emergent adverse events leading to discontinuation of study drug were reported by one (tedizolid group and

  12. A comparison of the effect of certain inorganic salts on suppression acute skin irritation by human biometric assay: A randomized, double-blind clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayedali Fatemi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Strontium, zinc, and potassium salts have been demonstrated to inhibit irritation and inflammation when applied topically. Particularly, strontium chloride (SC and potassium nitrate (KN are reported to reduce skin and tooth sensitivity. The aim of the present study was to compare the anti-irritant effects of four inorganic salts and assign the ingredient which can suppress skin irritation due to chemical or environmental exposure, more effectively. We compared the anti-inflammatory effects of SC, strontium nitrate (SN, KN, and zinc chloride (ZC. Materials and Methods: This double-blind trial was conducted on 32 healthy volunteers with sensitive skin. Irritation was induced by 24 h exposure with 1.0% sodium lauryl sulfate on arms.. Treatments were applied by an ointment of SN, SC hexahydrate, KN, and ZC and their 1%, 3%, and 5% (w/v concentrations were prepared. The dosage was twice daily for 6 days to the irritated areas. Skin reactions were evaluated instrumentally. Results: SC had a beneficial effect that was significant overall. All other treatments exert a protective effect in skin barrier function but not significantly. With the exception of ZC, all test substances improved skin hydration but the effect of SC was significant. In respect of colorimetric assessment, all treatments, excluding ZC, reduced erythema significantly compared with an untreated control 7 days after treatment start. There was no support for a dose-response effect. Conclusion: Analysis of the biometric measurements revealed that the strontium salts are best, not treating is worst, and there is little difference between the other treatments. Hence, the skin care products containing SC and SN may reduce the signs and symptoms of irritant contact dermatitis.

  13. Increased vitamin D intake differentiated according to skin color is needed to meet requirements in young Swedish children during winter: a double-blind randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öhlund, Inger; Lind, Torbjörn; Hernell, Olle; Silfverdal, Sven-Arne; Karlsland Åkeson, Pia

    2017-07-01

    Background: Dark skin and low exposure to sunlight increase the risk of vitamin D insufficiency in children. Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate the amount of vitamin D needed to ascertain that most children >4 y of age attain sufficient serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [S-25(OH)D; i.e., ≥50 nmol/L] during winter regardless of latitude and skin color. Design: In a longitudinal, double-blind, randomized, food-based intervention study, 5- to 7-y-old children from northern (63°N) and southern (55°N) Sweden with fair ( n = 108) and dark ( n = 98) skin were included. Children, stratified by skin color by using Fitzpatrick's definition, were randomly assigned to receive milk-based vitamin D 3 supplements that provided 2 (placebo), 10, or 25 μg/d during 3 winter months. Results: Mean daily vitamin D intake increased from 6 to 17 μg and 26 μg in the intervention groups supplemented with 10 and 25 μg, respectively. In the intention-to-treat analysis, 90.2% (95% CI: 81.1%, 99.3%) of fair-skinned children randomly assigned to supplementation of 10 μg/d attained sufficient concentrations, whereas 25 μg/d was needed in dark-skinned children to reach sufficiency in 95.1% (95% CI: 88.5%, 100%). In children adherent to the study product, 97% (95% CI: 91.3%, 100%) and 87.9% (95% CI: 76.8%, 99%) of fair- and dark-skinned children, respectively, achieved sufficient concentrations if supplemented with 10 μg/d. By using 95% prediction intervals for 30 and 50 nmol S-25(OH)D/L, intakes of 6 and 20 μg/d are required in fair-skinned children, whereas 14 and 28 μg/d are required in children with dark skin. Conclusion: Children with fair and dark skin require vitamin D intakes of 20 and 28 μg/d, respectively, to maintain S-25(OH)D ≥50 nmol/L, whereas intakes of 6 and 14 μg/d, respectively, are required to maintain concentrations ≥30 nmol/L during winter. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01741324. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  14. Analysis of the thermal performance of a life-size prototype of vegetal facade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olivieri, F.; Guerra Aragones, R.; Neila, F.J.; Bedoya, C. [Technical University of Madrid, Madrid (Spain)], email: francesca.olivieri@upm.es

    2010-07-01

    With the increasing concerns about climate change, new ways to reduce energy consumption and thus emissions are being studied. The implementation of green roof systems has been studied for decades but little research has been performed on vegetal facades. The aim of this paper is to assess the energy saving and environmental benefits of installing a vegetal facade instead of a traditional facade. Two facades, one with vegetation, one without, were installed in an experimental building in Colmenar Viejo, Madrid, Spain, and their thermal performance state was monitored by probes and analyzed. Results showed that vegetation provides good solar protection during summer conditions and provides better thermal comfort; however vegetation also reduces the indoor temperature more than a facade without vegetation during sunny winter days. This study highlighted that vegetal facades are better used for areas with hot summer and mild winters.

  15. High Performance Building Facade Solutions - PIER Final Project Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eleanor; Selkowitz, Stephen

    2009-12-31

    Building facades directly influence heating and cooling loads and indirectly influence lighting loads when daylighting is considered, and are therefore a major determinant of annual energy use and peak electric demand. Facades also significantly influence occupant comfort and satisfaction, making the design optimization challenge more complex than many other building systems.This work focused on addressing significant near-term opportunities to reduce energy use in California commercial building stock by a) targeting voluntary, design-based opportunities derived from the use of better design guidelines and tools, and b) developing and deploying more efficient glazings, shading systems, daylighting systems, facade systems and integrated controls. This two-year project, supported by the California Energy Commission PIER program and the US Department of Energy, initiated a collaborative effort between The Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) and major stakeholders in the facades industry to develop, evaluate, and accelerate market deployment of emerging, high-performance, integrated facade solutions. The LBNL Windows Testbed Facility acted as the primary catalyst and mediator on both sides of the building industry supply-user business transaction by a) aiding component suppliers to create and optimize cost effective, integrated systems that work, and b) demonstrating and verifying to the owner, designer, and specifier community that these integrated systems reliably deliver required energy performance. An industry consortium was initiated amongst approximately seventy disparate stakeholders, who unlike the HVAC or lighting industry, has no single representative, multi-disciplinary body or organized means of communicating and collaborating. The consortium provided guidance on the project and more importantly, began to mutually work out and agree on the goals, criteria, and pathways needed to attain the ambitious net zero energy goals defined by California and

  16. The efficacy and safety of a proposed herbal moisturising cream for dry skin and itch relief: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial--study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong-Hyo; Seo, Eun-Sung; Hong, Jin-Tae; Lee, Gang-Tai; You, Young-Kyoung; Lee, Kun-Kook; Jo, Ga-Won; Kim, Nam-Kwen

    2013-11-25

    Moisturisers prevent and treat dry skin. They can also protect sensitive skin, improve skin tone and texture, and mask imperfections. Herbal medicines or their extracts have been available as topical formulations and cosmetics. Arctium lappa L. (Asteraceae) has been used to treat inflammatory disorders and various skin problems. It could be a candidate herbal medicine for treating dry skin condition.This study aims to establish the efficacy and safety of a proposed herbal moisturising cream containing Arctium lappa L. seed extract, which has been approved by the Korean Ministry of Food and Drug Safety for use in cosmetics. This study is a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study with two parallel groups (proposed herbal moisturising cream vs. placebo cream). We will recruit 66 healthy male and female participants, aged 20 to 65 years, who have been diagnosed with dry skin conditions. Participants will be randomly allocated to receive either the proposed herbal moisturising cream or a placebo cream for four weeks. Each participant will be examined for signs and symptoms before and after using the cream. Skin hydration, sebum (oily secretion) levels and transepidermal water loss (TEWL; constitutive loss of water from the skin surface) will be assessed. Participants will also be asked to fill out a health-related quality of life questionnaire. Safety will be assessed using blood tests, urine analysis, a pregnancy test, and the assessment of vital signs. This trial will utilise high-quality methodologies in accordance with both consolidated standards for reporting trials guidelines and the guidelines for clinical trials of cosmetics products that are aimed at expressions and advertisement approval in Korea. It will evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of a proposed herbal moisturising cream containing Arctium lappa L. seed extract to treat dry skin conditions and provide itch relief. Moreover, we will also employ health-related quality of life

  17. The efficacy and safety of a proposed herbal moisturising cream for dry skin and itch relief: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial- study protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Moisturisers prevent and treat dry skin. They can also protect sensitive skin, improve skin tone and texture, and mask imperfections. Herbal medicines or their extracts have been available as topical formulations and cosmetics. Arctium lappa L. (Asteraceae) has been used to treat inflammatory disorders and various skin problems. It could be a candidate herbal medicine for treating dry skin condition. This study aims to establish the efficacy and safety of a proposed herbal moisturising cream containing Arctium lappa L. seed extract, which has been approved by the Korean Ministry of Food and Drug Safety for use in cosmetics. Methods/Designs This study is a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study with two parallel groups (proposed herbal moisturising cream vs. placebo cream). We will recruit 66 healthy male and female participants, aged 20 to 65 years, who have been diagnosed with dry skin conditions. Participants will be randomly allocated to receive either the proposed herbal moisturising cream or a placebo cream for four weeks. Each participant will be examined for signs and symptoms before and after using the cream. Skin hydration, sebum (oily secretion) levels and transepidermal water loss (TEWL; constitutive loss of water from the skin surface) will be assessed. Participants will also be asked to fill out a health-related quality of life questionnaire. Safety will be assessed using blood tests, urine analysis, a pregnancy test, and the assessment of vital signs. Discussion This trial will utilise high-quality methodologies in accordance with both consolidated standards for reporting trials guidelines and the guidelines for clinical trials of cosmetics products that are aimed at expressions and advertisement approval in Korea. It will evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of a proposed herbal moisturising cream containing Arctium lappa L. seed extract to treat dry skin conditions and provide itch relief. Moreover, we will also employ

  18. Simulations of Innovative Solutions for Energy Efficient Building Facades

    OpenAIRE

    Ahuja, Aashish

    2015-01-01

    The last decade has witnessed a heightened interest in making buildings more sustainable, which has been fueled largely by the relative increase in energy costs and advancements in manufacturing technology. Lighting consumes a substantial amount of the building energy consumption, making it necessary to look for alternative technology that depends more on natural lighting. A structural element for facades called the Translucent Concrete (TC) panel has been developed for capturing and deliveri...

  19. Phase III double-blind evaluation of an aloe vera gel as a prophylactic agent for radiation-induced skin toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, Maureen S.; Burk, Mary; Loprinzi, Charles L.; Hill, Mary; Schomberg, Paula J.; Nearhood, Kim; O'Fallon, Judith R.; Laurie, John A.; Shanahan, Thomas G.; Moore, Randy L.; Urias, Rodolfo E.; Kuske, Robert R.; Engel, Roland E.; Eggleston, William D.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: Considerable pilot data and clinical experience suggested that an aloe vera gel might help to prevent radiation therapy-induced dermatitis. Methods and Materials: Two Phase III randomized trials were conducted. The first one was double blinded, utilized a placebo gel, and involved 194 women receiving breast or chest wall irradiation. The second trial randomized 108 such patients to aloe vera gel vs. no treatment. Skin dermatitis was scored weekly during both trials both by patients and by health care providers. Results: Skin dermatitis scores were virtually identical on both treatment arms during both of the trials. The only toxicity from the gel was rare contact dermatitis. Conclusions: This dose and schedule of an aloe vera gel does not protect against radiation therapy-induced dermatitis

  20. Fire safety engineering applied to high-rise building facades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sassi Samuele

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fire safety of high-rise building facades is a complex problem, therefore the use of prescriptive fire codes could not be sufficient to ensure a proper building fire safety level. In new high rise buildings the fire safety of facades can be taken into account by means of performance based fire design that can help in the selection of the best technological solutions and material choices. This article deals with a case study done on the Piedmont Region Headquarters (TORRE REGIONE PIEMONTE which is one of the highest office buildings in Italy. The “Torre Regione Piemonte” is located in Turin and has 45 storey and a total height of 183,61 m. The building is characterized by the closed enclosure called “Grand Space” which is continuous for almost the entire height of the building and contains volumes such as offices/meeting rooms named as “Satellites”. In order to fulfil Italian fire safety requirements, the “Torre Regione Piemonte” building has been assessed using the performance base design and fire safety engineering approach. This paper deals with the design process selection of the most representative fire scenarios focusing on the fire resistance performance requirements of structural and glazed elements of the facades. Furthermore, all the simulation, calculations and performance fire resistant requirements of the high rise building have been supported by specific laboratory tests and experimental results, that are reported and discussed within paper.

  1. Effect of Chongkukjang on histamine-induced skin wheal response: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyang-Im Baek

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: Oral administration of CKJ for 12 weeks resulted in a reduction of the skin wheal response to histamine, with no apparent adverse effects. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01402141.

  2. Wooden facade decor in the aspect of energy saving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samol'kina Elena Grigor'evna

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the world of today, issues of the relationship between society and nature are becoming more relevant. A process of continuous development of industrial and social activities and the negative interference in the environment cause damage to the unique biosphere. The dynamics of destructive processes necessitates conducting activities in accordance with the fundamental laws of nature. One way of solving these problems is to create a harmonious architectural environment that has minimal impact on the environment of the surrounding countryside. An important factor in the process of "sustainable architecture" formation is the use of the building materials, which are safe for humans and the environment. Special role in this aspect is played by wood possessing unquestionable priority in "sustainable architecture". Wood is a renewable natural material with unique properties. Wastelessness, low thermal conductivity, strength, unique texture, ease of processing and other quality wood help to create cozy and comfortable environment. From the perspective of ecological and energy problems the use of wood in architecture has a special role as the most optimal solution to these issues. In Russia construction of energy efficient buildings is at an early stage of development. To date, the power consumption of the existing residential and public buildings in Russia is on average about three times higher than in technically advanced countries of Scandinavia with similar climatic conditions. At the same time the tendency to steady growth of non-renewable energy resources leads to the need to improve the thermal protection of buildings. The problem of thermal protection of buildings in architecture led to widespread use of ventilated facades. Constructive solution is to install the layer of insulation on the exterior walls and to fasten cladding materials to the frame to form an air gap for air circulation. Finishing materials perform architectural function. The

  3. Analysis of static concentrator photovoltaic modules on facades; Analise de modulos fotovoltaicos concentradores estaticos em fachadas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zanesco, Izete; Moehlecke, Adriano; Pereira, Marcia S.; Severo, Tiago C. [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Centro Brasileiro para Desenvolvimento da Energia Solar Fotovoltaica - CB-Solar]. E-mail: izete@pucrs.br

    2006-07-01

    This paper presents the optimization and the analysis of a static concentrator photovoltaic module PEC-44D designed for building facade. The linear optical system were designed for the facial solar cells. The acceptance angles {theta}{sub P} and {xi} were optimized, considering a vertical facade (90 degree) inclination angle faced to the north.

  4. Towards a reliable design of facade and roof elements against wind loading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geurts, C.P.W.; Staalduinen, P.C. van; Wit, M.S. de

    2004-01-01

    The most vulnerable parts of buildings with respect to wind loading are facades and roofs. Current standards on wind loading provide data to determine design loads for the elements in facades and roofs. These data are available for a limited number of simple building shapes. Up to now there is no

  5. Fugtforhold i træfacader med letbeton bagvægge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dela Stang, B.

    Denne rapport beskriver, hvilke faktorer der har indflydelse på ophobningen af fugt i lette træfacader med bagvægge af letbeton. Såvel laboratorieforsøg som inspektion af eksisterende bygninger viser, at bagvægge af letbeton kombineret med lette træfacader giver en konstruktion, som er yderst føl...

  6. Installation of ventilated facades without scaffolding in high-rise buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnedina, Lyubov; Muchkina, Arina; Labutin, Alexander

    2018-03-01

    This article consider the use of polystyrene concrete blocks during assembling enclosing structure of ventilated facades in high-rise monolithic housing construction. Comparing with traditional technology devices hinged ventilated facade the main advantage of the proposed design is an exception of using scaffold, that leads to a cheapening of the enclosing structure. Proposed solutions are confirmed by patents of the Russian Federation.

  7. Hyaluronic acid concentration in postmenopausal facial skin after topical estradiol and genistein treatment: a double-blind, randomized clinical trial of efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patriarca, Marisa Teresinha; Barbosa de Moraes, Andréa Regina; Nader, Helena B; Petri, Valeria; Martins, João Roberto Maciel; Gomes, Regina Célia Teixeira; Soares, José Maria

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this work was to compare the effects of estradiol and genistein treatment on hyaluronic acid (HA) concentration in postmenopausal facial skin. In this study, 30 postmenopausal women were evaluated in a prospective, randomized, double-blind trial. The volunteers were postmenopausal women treated in the Gynecology Department of the Federal University of São Paulo. The participants were divided into two groups: group E, treated with 0.01% 17β-estradiol gel (n = 15), and group G, treated with 4% genistein gel (isoflavones, n = 15). The treatment lasted for 24 consecutive weeks. Preauricular skin biopsies were performed for each participant at baseline (E1 and G1) and after treatment (E2 and G2) to evaluate HA concentration in tissue. The materials were processed using immunohistochemical and biochemical methods. After 24 weeks of treatment, HA concentration increased in both groups, but the effect was greater for estradiol treatment than for genistein treatment. Our data suggest that both treatments may enhance HA concentration in postmenopausal skin but that estrogen produces results that are greater than those produced by isoflavones.

  8. Quantification of ventilated facade efficiency by using computational fluid mechanics techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mora Perez, M.; Lopez Patino, G.; Bengochea Escribano, M. A.; Lopez Jimenez, P. A.

    2011-01-01

    In some countries, summer over-heating is a big problem in a buildings energy balance. Ventilated facades are a useful tool when applied to building design, especially in bio climatic building design. A ventilated facade is a complex, multi-layer structural solution that enables dry installation of the covering elements. The objective of this paper is to quantify the efficiency improvement in the building thermal when this sort of facade is installed. These improvements are due to convection produced in the air gap of the facade. This convection depends on the air movement inside the gap and the heat transmission in this motion. These quantities are mathematically modelled by Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) techniques using a commercial code: STAR CCM+. The proposed method allows an assessment of the energy potential of the ventilated facade and its capacity for cooling. (Author) 23 refs.

  9. CANVAS 1: the first Phase III, randomized, double-blind study evaluating ceftaroline fosamil for the treatment of patients with complicated skin and skin structure infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corey, G Ralph; Wilcox, Mark H; Talbot, George H; Thye, Dirk; Friedland, David; Baculik, Tanya

    2010-11-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has emerged as a common cause of complicated skin and skin structure infections (cSSSIs). Increasing antibiotic resistance and significant morbidity in cSSSIs have led to a need for new effective and safe therapies. Ceftaroline fosamil, a novel parenteral cephalosporin with excellent in vitro activity against Gram-positive pathogens, including MRSA, and many Gram-negative pathogens, was evaluated as therapy for cSSSIs in a large multicentre study. The primary study objective was to determine non-inferiority [lower limit of 95% confidence interval (CI), -10%] in the clinical cure rate achieved with ceftaroline fosamil monotherapy compared with that achieved with vancomycin plus aztreonam in the clinically evaluable (CE) and modified intent-to-treat (MITT) patient populations. Adult patients with cSSSIs requiring intravenous therapy received 600 mg of ceftaroline fosamil every 12 h or 1 g of vancomycin plus 1 g of aztreonam every 12 h for 5-14 days (randomized 1 : 1). Clinical and microbiological response, adverse events (AEs) and laboratory tests were assessed. Registration number NCT00424190 (http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00424190). Of 702 enrolled patients, 353 received ceftaroline fosamil and 349 received vancomycin plus aztreonam. Baseline characteristics of treatment groups were comparable. Clinical cure rates were similar for ceftaroline fosamil and vancomycin plus aztreonam in the CE (91.1%, 288/316 versus 93.3%, 280/300; 95% CI, -6.6, 2.1) and MITT (86.6%, 304/351 versus 85.6%, 297/347; 95% CI, -4.2, 6.2) populations, respectively. The clinical cure rate for MRSA cSSSIs was 95.1% (78/82) for ceftaroline fosamil and 95.2% (59/62) for vancomycin plus aztreonam. The microbiological success rate was also similar for ceftaroline fosamil and vancomycin overall, and for MRSA. The rates of AEs, serious AEs, deaths and discontinuations because of an AE were similar for ceftaroline fosamil and vancomycin

  10. CANVAS 2: the second Phase III, randomized, double-blind study evaluating ceftaroline fosamil for the treatment of patients with complicated skin and skin structure infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Mark H; Corey, G Ralph; Talbot, George H; Thye, Dirk; Friedland, David; Baculik, Tanya

    2010-11-01

    New therapies for complicated skin and skin structure infections (cSSSIs) are needed because of significant morbidity and increasing antimicrobial resistance. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a common cause of cSSSIs. Ceftaroline fosamil, a novel parenteral cephalosporin with excellent in vitro activity against Gram-positive pathogens, including MRSA, and many Gram-negative pathogens, was evaluated as therapy for cSSSIs in a multinational Phase III study. The primary study objective was to determine non-inferiority [lower limit of 95% confidence interval (CI), -10%] in the clinical cure rate of ceftaroline fosamil monotherapy to that achieved with vancomycin plus aztreonam combination therapy in the clinically evaluable (CE) and modified intent-to-treat (MITT) analysis populations. Adult patients with cSSSIs requiring intravenous therapy received 600 mg of ceftaroline fosamil every 12 h or 1 g of vancomycin plus 1 g of aztreonam every 12 h for 5-14 days (randomized 1 : 1). Clinical and microbiological response, adverse events (AEs) and laboratory tests were assessed. Registration number NCT00423657 (http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00423657). The study enrolled 694 patients, 348 of whom received ceftaroline fosamil and 346 of whom received vancomycin plus aztreonam. The treatment groups had comparable baseline characteristics. Clinical cure rates for the ceftaroline fosamil and vancomycin plus aztreonam groups were similar in the CE (92.2%, 271/294 versus 92.1%, 269/292; 95% CI, -4.4, 4.5) and MITT (85.1%, 291/342 versus 85.5%, 289/338; 95% CI, -5.8, 5.0) populations, respectively. MRSA cSSSIs were cured in 91.4% (64/70) of patients in the ceftaroline fosamil group and 93.3% (56/60) of patients in the vancomycin plus aztreonam group. The microbiological success rate in the microbiologically evaluable population was 92.9% and 95.0% for ceftaroline fosamil and vancomycin plus aztreonam, respectively. Ceftaroline fosamil and vancomycin

  11. The Italian National Guidelines for the fire safety of facades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamberto Mazziotti

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, the facades' design buildings where once only focused on architectural or aesthetic purposes (in addition, of course, of whether protective issues. Nowadays, thanks to the technological development of the construction works and the use of new types of materials, the facades' design should also address fire safety related aspects. In Europe and especially in Italy – where the types of building façades are built with windows of small surface and natural stone coverings – the green building/sustainability movement has resulted in the development of new concepts in facade or curtain wall design that intended to enhance the energy efficiency of building façades. These new building surfaces are covered by extensive panelling fitted with insulating materials or by wide glass surfaces, capable of carry out the most diverse purposes including, just to name a few: energy reduction, climate comfort, recovery of electricity through photovoltaic panels that convert sunlight into electricity, large space for advertising purpose. One of the main fire safety goal for a building design is to restrict the vertical fire spread so that the smoke and flames are limited to the fire origin floor. The new building façade and curtain wall topologies could overwhelms concerns for fire safety, therefore the Italian National fire service has released a Fire Code Guideline in order to address the fire safety design for an high rise building façade. This paper aims to show the guideline contents and the related fire safety façades concerns.

  12. Influence of the Chungkookjang on histamine-induced wheal and flare skin response: a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwon Dae-Young

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstracts Background Allergic disease is a consequence of exposure to normally innocuous substances that elicit the activation of mast cells. Mast-cell-mediated allergic response is involved in many diseases such as anaphylaxis, urticaria, allergic rhinitis, asthma and allergic dermatitis. The development of food products for the prevention of allergic disease is an important subject in human health. The chungkookjang (CKJ has been reported to exhibit antiallergic inflammatory activity. Therefore, the aim of the study is to examine the effects of the CKJ to reduce histamine-induced wheal and flare skin responses. Methods/Design A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in 60 healthy subjects will be carried out. Sixty volunteers (aged 20-80 who gave a written consent before entering the study will be randomized in two groups of thirty subjects each. The skin prick test with histamine solution of 10 mg/ml will be performed on the ventral forearm, 10 cm from the elbow. The subjects will be instructed to take 35 g per day of either the CKJ pills or a placebo pills for a period of 3 months. Diameters of wheal and flare will be assessing 15 minutes after performing the above-mentioned skin prick test. The primary outcome is change in wheal and flare responses. Secondary outcomes will be include change in serum histamine, immunoglobulin E, cytokines (interferon-gamma, interleukin-4, -10, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and eosinophil cationic protein. Discussion This study will show the potential anti-inflammatory properties of the CKJ in their skin activity when histamine is the challenging agent as occurs in the clinical situation. And the present protocol will confirm the efficacy and safety of the CKJ for allergy symptoms, suggesting more basic knowledge to conduct further randomized controlled trials (RCT. If this study will be successfully performed, the CKJ will be an alternative dietary supplemental remedy for allergy patients

  13. Impact Verification of Aerogel Insulation Paint on Historic Brick Facades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganobjak, Michal; Kralova, Eva

    2017-10-01

    Increasing the sustainability of existing buildings is being motivated by reduction of their energy demands. It is the above all the building envelope and its refurbishment by substitution or addition of new materials that makes the opportunity for reduction of energy consumption. A special type of refurbishment is conservation of historical buildings. Preservation of historic buildings permits also application of innovative methods and materials in addition to the original materials if their effects are known and the gained experience ensures their beneficial effect. On the market, there are new materials with addition of silica aerogel in various forms of products. They are also potentially useful in conservation of monuments. However, the effects of aerogel application in these cases are not known. For refurbishment is commercially available additional transparent insulation paint - Nansulate Clear Coat which is containing aerogel and can be used for structured surfaces such as bricks. A series of experiments examined the thermo-physical manifestation of an ultra-thin insulation coating of Nansulate Clear Coat containing silica aerogel on a brick facade. The experiments of active and passive thermography have observed effects of application on the small-scale samples of the brick façade of a protected historical building. Through a series of experiments were measured thermal insulation effect and influence on the aesthetic characteristics such as change in colour and gloss. The treated samples were compared to a reference. Results have shown no thermal-insulating manifestation of the recommended three layers of insulation paint. The three layers recommended by the manufacturer did not significantly affect the appearance of the brick facade. Color and gloss were not significantly changed. Experiments showed the absence of thermal insulation effect of Nansulate transparent triple coating. The thermal insulation effect could likely be reached by more layers of

  14. Moisture damage with magnesium oxide boards in Danish facade structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Carsten; Bunch-Nielsen, Tommy; Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard

    2017-01-01

    Magnesium oxide boards have been widely used on facades in Denmark during 2010-2015. However, the magnesium salts absorb humidity from the ambient, and they begin to leak salty water, which is highly corrosive, and leads to moisture and mould problems in wooden members of the structures. Mg......O-boards were not tested for their hygrothermal function before being used on exterior wall structures, which has had detrimental consequences, such as an expected cost of repair of around 2 billion DKK. Properties for moisture transport and retention properties have been determined and will be shown together...

  15. Colour study of facades in Zlato polje, Kranj, 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rok Žnidaršič

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A colour study of the facades of the Zlato Polje neighbourhood in Kranj.The buildings of the Zlato polje neighborhood in Kranj, built in the fifties and early sixties, are in need of additional insulation on their external walls, and as such, we face the need for new colours for the facades.For the free-standing buildings positioned in an orthogonal grid, we attempted to find a certain type of colour that would clearly express the different spaces and atmosphere created among the buildings themselves. Although the colours would differ subtly throughout the neighbourhood, the resulting effect should be a unified whole. The architectural elements of each building were also analysed and emphasised by the scale of intensity or by contrast with the chosen pigment.Two colour combinations for the buildings were made:1. a retained "grey-brown" version that evokes the general colour used when the buildings were constructed.2. a more vivacious "ochre" version in an attempt to include the nearby buildings that have already been renovated with aggressive tones, while unifying the whole as much as possible.

  16. A New Look at Building Facades as Infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doris Sung

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Like the hard surfaces of streets and sidewalks in an urban environment, the vertical and horizontal surface area on the outside of urban buildings contributes to the constant heating of large cities around the world. However, little is done to design this surface to benefit the public sphere. Instead, the facade of a building performs either as a component that focuses only on the quality of comfort for interior occupants, while ignoring effects on the exterior of the building, or as an identifiable aesthetic for the building's owners. This essay proposes the rethinking of the building facade as a steward of outdoor pedestrian welfare, and the conception of public health as an added function of the building envelope−a concept that may fall into the jurisdiction of public works. If the huge total surface area of a city's buildings is thought of as part of the city's infrastructure, then its public contribution may not only make outdoor areas comfortable, clean, and enjoyable, but also help to alleviate the bigger problem of rising temperatures in cities.

  17. Moisture Transfer through Facades Covered with Organic Binder Renders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen DICO

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Year after year we witness the negative effect of water over buildings, caused by direct or indirect actions. This situation is obvious in case of old, historical building, subjected to this aggression for a long period of time, but new buildings are also affected. Moisture in building materials causes not only structural damage, but also reduces the thermal insulation capacity of building components.Materials like plasters or paints have been used historically for a long period of time, fulfilling two basics functions: Decoration and Protection. The most acute demands are made on exterior plasters, as they, besides being an important decorative element for the facade, must perform two different functions simultaneously: protect the substrate against weathering and moisture without sealing, providing it a certain ability to “breathe” (Heilen, 2005. In order to accomplish this aim, the first step is to understand the hygrothermal behavior of coating and substrate and define the fundamental principles of moisture transfer; According to Künzel’s Facade Protection Theory, two material properties play the most important role: Water absorption and Vapor permeability.In the context of recently adoption (2009 of the “harmonized” European standard EN 15824 – „Specifications for external renders and internal plasters based on organic binders”, this paper deals extensively with the interaction of the two mentioned above properties for the coating materials, covered by EN 15824.

  18. Contemporary facades of multistorey residential buildings in Kiev: Videoecological aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozlova Nataliia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to one of the actual problems concerning the current state of the facades on apartment buildings in residential districts in Kiev - videoecology. The main purpose of the article is to determine the degree of visual aggressiveness of multistorey residential buildings in Kiev. It also investigates the problem of finding the optimal criteria for creating an ecologically healthy and friendly inhabited environment in the capital city of Ukraine. The modern visual environment in the capital is contaminated, not only because of the increasing numbers of promotional billboards, but also because of the contemporary architecture of high-rise buildings such as office buildings, apartment buildings. Their composition is usually based on a simple description of a rhythm. There are also repetitions of the end parts of buildings in “lowercase” buildings, which are high-rise buildings that alternate with nine or identical apartment groups. It creates a sense of oppressive monotony and leads to psychological and visual fatigue, especially when these repetitions are the only pattern the eye perceives. In the article a theoretical block of ecological-aesthetic criteria is defined, which must be met by the modern architecture facades of multistorey residential houses in Kiev.

  19. STREAMED VERTICAL RECTANGLE DETECTION IN TERRESTRIAL LASER SCANS FOR FACADE DATABASE PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Demantké

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available A reliable and accurate facade database would be a major asset in applications such as localization of autonomous vehicles, registration and fine building modeling. Mobile mapping devices now provide the data required to create such a database, but efficient methods should be designed in order to tackle the enormous amount of data collected by such means (a million point per second for hours of acquisition. Another important limitation is the presence of numerous objects in urban scenes of many different types. This paper proposes a method that overcomes these two issues: – The facade detection algorithm is streamed: the data is processed in the order it was acquired. More precisely, the input data is split into overlapping blocks which are analysed in turn to extract facade parts. Close overlapping parts are then merged in order to recover the full facade rectangle. – The geometry of the neighborhood of each point is analysed to define a probability that the point belongs to a vertical planar patch. This probability is then injected in a RANdom SAmple Consensus (RANSAC algorithm both in the sampling step and in the hypothesis validation, in order to favour the most reliable candidates. This ensures much more robustness against outliers during the facade detection. This way, the main vertical rectangles are detected without any prior knowledge about the data. The only assumptions are that the facades are roughly planar and vertical. The method has been successfully tested on a large dataset in Paris. The facades are detected despite the presence of trees occluding large areas of some facades. The robustness and accuracy of the detected facade rectangles makes them useful for localization applications and for registration of other scans of the same city or of entire city models.

  20. Integral Facade Construction. Towards a new product architecture for curtain walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tillmann Klein

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Curtain wall constructions are one of the most applied facade constructions today. Independently attached to the primary load bearing structure of the building they protect the building’s interior from external climate conditions and allow great design freedom. With continuously rising requirements in terms of energy savings the constructional principle has reached its limits and strategies for improvement are needed. Incrementally evolved over time it is closely related to the architectural design and building processes. Based on literature research and stakeholder interviews the dissertation maps out the traditional and craftsmanship related facade design and construction process currently employed. In a next step, future challenges for facade constructions to cope with a changing market environment are identified. A facade function tree is developed and the theory of product architecture is applied to create a comparative basis for analysing different historical and contemporary facade products and systems. The function tree as well as the analysis clearly show how the fragmented market structures has influenced contemporary facade construction and leads to extremely modular product architectures. Numerous case studies for a new approach are conducted and summarised in several matrices. The case studies show how different modular and integral constructional strategies can respond to the future challenges. The pros and cons of different facade solutions, their potential for innovation and robustness in terms of market conditions are investigated. The dissertation concludes that a greater diversity of fa.ade types with a more integral construction is needed to meet the sometimes conflicting future challenges. If this can be realised, a greater diversity of more integral design and construction processes will evolve simultaneously. The role of the different stakeholders will change and a new way of educating architects or facade specialists

  1. Design and monitoring of several cubicles with traditional construction equipment (insulating) and novel (green PCMs, covers and facades) in the University of Lleida; Diseno y monitorizacion de varios cubiculos con materiales de construccion tradicionales (aislantes) y novedosos (PCMs, cubiertas y fachadas verdes) en la Universidad de Lleida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medrano, M.; Castell, A.; Castellon, C.; Martorell, I.; Perez, G.; Cabeza, L. F.

    2008-07-01

    This paper presents a new experimental facility of house-like cubicles in the University of Lleida. This installation allows to evaluate in a more realistic way the energy enhancements given by a variety of construction materials, both traditional (insulation) and innovative (PCMs, green roofs and green facades, etc.). This study includes the cubicles characteristics, the selected constructive solutions (concrete, brick, alveolar brick, etc.), the implemented instrumentation, and some preliminary results comparing the thermal behaviour of a reference cubicle, made of a double facade of brick and no insulation, with the demand of the other cubicles, which contain insulation, PCMs or both. (Author)

  2. Effects of a Gentle, Self-Administered Stimulation of Perineal Skin for Nocturia in Elderly Women: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind Crossover Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaori Iimura

    Full Text Available Somatic afferent nerve stimuli are used for treating an overactive bladder (OAB, a major cause of nocturia in the elderly. Clinical evidence for this treatment is insufficient because of the lack of appropriate control stimuli. Recent studies on anesthetized animals show that gentle stimuli applied to perineal skin with a roller could inhibit micturition contractions depending on the roller's surface material. We examined the efficacy of gentle skin stimuli for treating nocturia.The study was a cross-over, placebo-controlled, double-blind randomized clinical study using two rollers with different effects on micturition contractions. Participants were elderly women (79-89 years with nocturia. Active (soft elastomer roller or placebo (hard polystyrene roller stimuli were applied to perineal skin by participants for 1 min at bedtime. A 3-day baseline assessment period was followed by 3-day stimulation and 4-day resting periods, after which the participants were subjected to other stimuli for another 3 days. The primary outcome was change in the frequency of nighttime urination, for which charts were maintained during each 3-day period.Twenty-four participants were randomized, of which 22 completed all study protocols. One participant discontinued treatment because of an adverse event (abdominal discomfort. In participants with OAB (n = 9, change from baseline in the mean frequency of urination per night during the active stimuli period (mean ± standard deviation, -0.74 ± 0.7 times was significantly greater than that during placebo stimuli periods (-0.15 ± 0.8 times [p < 0.05]. In contrast, this difference was not observed in participants without OAB (n = 13.These results suggest that gentle perineal stimulation with an elastomer roller is effective for treating OAB-associated nocturia in elderly women. Here the limitation was a study period too short to assess changes in the quality of sleep and life.UMIN Clinical Trial Registry (CTR UMIN

  3. A Paired, Double-Blind, Randomized Comparison of a Moisturizing Durable Barrier Cream to 10% Glycerine Cream in the Prophylactic Management of Postmastectomy Irradiation Skin Care: Trans Tasman Radiation Oncology Group (TROG) 04.01

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham, Peter H.; Plant, Natalie; Graham, Jennifer L.; Browne, Lois; Borg, Martin; Capp, Anne; Delaney, Geoff P.; Harvey, Jennifer; Kenny, Lisbeth; Francis, Michael; Zissiadis, Yvonne

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: A previous, unblinded study demonstrated that an alcohol-free barrier film containing an acrylate terpolymer (ATP) was effective in reducing skin reactions compared with a 10% glycerine cream (sorbolene). The different appearances of these products precluded a blinded comparison. To test the acrylate terpolymer principle in a double-blinded manner required the use of an alternative cream formulation, a moisturizing durable barrier cream (MDBC); the study was conducted by the Trans Tasman Radiation Oncology Group (TROG) as protocol 04.01. Methods and Materials: A total of 333 patients were randomized; 1 patient was ineligible and 14 patients withdrew or had less than 7 weeks' observations, leaving 318 for analysis. The chest wall was divided into medial and lateral compartments, and patients were randomized to have MDBC applied daily to the medial or lateral compartment and sorbolene to the other compartment. Weekly observations, photographs, and symptom scores (pain and pruritus) were collected to week 12 or resolution of skin reactions if earlier. Skin dose was confirmed by centrally calibrated thermoluminescent dosimeters. Results: Rates of medial and lateral compartment Common Toxicity Criteria (CTC), version 3, greater than or equal to grade 3 skin reactions were 23% and 41%, but rates by skin care product were identical at 32%. There was no significant difference between MDBC and sorbolene in the primary endpoint of peak skin reactions or secondary endpoints of area-under-the-curve skin reaction scores. Conclusions: The MDBC did not reduce the peak skin reaction compared to sorbolene. It is possible that this is related to the difference in the formulation of the cream compared with the film formulation. Skin dosimetry verification and double blinding are essential for radiation skin care comparative studies

  4. Fire performance of multi-storey wooden facades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Östman Birgit A.-L.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Two series of full scale fire tests of wooden facades according to the Swedish test SP Fire 105 are presented, one series for different shares of untreated wood (partial wood and structural fire protection with a fire shield above the window and another series for fire retardant treated, FRT, wood. The results are compared with data from the Single Burning Item test and the cone calorimeter. For FRT wood, the need for verification of the weather durability of the treatment is stressed and a new European technical specification CEN/TS 15912 presented. The need to use fire stops behind multi-storey façade claddings to avoid fire spread in the cavities is underlined and the possibilities of fire safety design with sprinklers is briefly presented.

  5. The battle of light - solar cells in glass facades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen, Hanne; Hansen, Ellen K.; Bjørn, Eirik

    2009-01-01

    Over the last years, a range of semi-transparent PV panels has appeared on the market. Although these panels inherently produce less energy than their light-blocking counterparts, they are considered an attrac-tive element in low-energy buildings as they can impact on the façade's ability to both...... of the PV panels' light-filtering abilities in a daylight laboratory, ar-chitectural sketches illustrating various façade-compositions with the actual PV panels integrated, a visuali-zation of the most promising sketches by means of mock-ups and finally computer simulations revealing the PV façade's impact...... on the building's net energy consumption. The results and experiences gained in the experimental work are carefully collected and analysed in an in-terdisciplinary context focussing on the full architectural potential of semi-transparent PV panels in glass facades....

  6. AM Envelope. The potential of Additive Manufacturing for facade constructions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holger Strauss

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This dissertation shows the potential of Additive Manufacturing (AM for the development of building envelopes: AM will change the way of designing facades, how we engineer and produce them. To achieve today’s demands from those future envelopes, we have to find new solutions. New technologies offer one possible way to do so. They open new approaches in designing, producing and processing building construction and facades. Finding the one capable of having big impact is difficult – Additive Manufacturing is one possible answer. The term ‘AM Envelope’ (Additive Manufacturing Envelope describes the transfer of this technology to the building envelope. Additive Fabrication is a building block that aids in developing the building envelope from a mere space enclosure to a dynamic building envelope. First beginnings of AM facade construction show up when dealing with relevant aspects like material consumption, mounting or part’s performance. From those starting points several parts of an existing post-and-beam façade system were optimized, aiming toward the implementation of AM into the production chain. Enhancements on all different levels of production were achieved: storing, producing, mounting and performance. AM offers the opportunity to manufacture facades ‘just in time’. It is no longer necessary to store or produce large numbers of parts in advance. Initial investment for tooling can be avoided, as design improvements can be realized within the dataset of the AM part. AM is based on ‘tool-less’ production, all parts can be further developed with every new generation. Producing tool-less also allows for new shapes and functional parts in small batch sizes – down to batch size one. The parts performance can be re-interpreted based on the demands within the system, not based on the limitations of conventional manufacturing. AM offers new ways of materializing the physical part around its function. It leads toward customized

  7. Intelligent Facades for High Performance Green Buildings. Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyson, Anna [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Intelligent Facades for High Performance Green Buildings: Previous research and development of intelligent facades systems has been limited in their contribution towards national goals for achieving on-site net zero buildings, because this R&D has failed to couple the many qualitative requirements of building envelopes such as the provision of daylighting, access to exterior views, satisfying aesthetic and cultural characteristics, with the quantitative metrics of energy harvesting, storage and redistribution. To achieve energy self-sufficiency from on-site solar resources, building envelopes can and must address this gamut of concerns simultaneously. With this project, we have undertaken a high-performance building- integrated combined-heat and power concentrating photovoltaic system with high temperature thermal capture, storage and transport towards multiple applications (BICPV/T). The critical contribution we are offering with the Integrated Concentrating Solar Façade (ICSF) is conceived to improve daylighting quality for improved health of occupants and mitigate solar heat gain while maximally capturing and transferring on- site solar energy. The ICSF accomplishes this multi-functionality by intercepting only the direct-normal component of solar energy (which is responsible for elevated cooling loads) thereby transforming a previously problematic source of energy into a high- quality resource that can be applied to building demands such as heating, cooling, dehumidification, domestic hot water, and possible further augmentation of electrical generation through organic Rankine cycles. With the ICSF technology, our team is addressing the global challenge in transitioning commercial and residential building stock towards on-site clean energy self-sufficiency, by fully integrating innovative environmental control systems strategies within an intelligent and responsively dynamic building envelope. The advantage of being able to use the entire solar spectrum for

  8. Installation of ventilated facades without scaffolding in high-rise buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gnedina Lyubov

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This article consider the use of polystyrene concrete blocks during assembling enclosing structure of ventilated facades in high-rise monolithic housing construction. Comparing with traditional technology devices hinged ventilated facade the main advantage of the proposed design is an exception of using scaffold, that leads to a cheapening of the enclosing structure. Proposed solutions are confirmed by patents of the Russian Federation.

  9. Innovative design tool for the optimization of blast-enhanced facade systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Lori

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In current blast enhancement design strategies, to resist the effects of an accidental explosion, a facade system is commonly designed to behave in-elastically and undergo large deformations. The large deformation of the facade system leads to high blast energy dissipation, subsequently reducing the blast energy transferred to the main structure. In addition to the blast resistance of the facade system, human injuries due to glass fragmentation within the vicinity of the facade system should also be minimized in order to meet the required safety levels. Overall building safety can be optimized by balancing blast energy dissipation and glass fragmentation. Recently, Permasteelisa Group has developed an innovative design tool to optimize blast-enhanced facades using an equivalent MDOF approach. A novel fragmentation tool has been proposed to assist this design procedure. This paper presents various critical parameters considered in blast-enhanced facade analysis, the experimental validation of these parameters and their influence in the design optimization process.  

  10. Interpretation of 2d and 3d Building Details on Facades and Roofs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meixner, P.; Leberl, F.; Brédif, M.

    2011-04-01

    Current Internet-inspired mapping data are in the form of street maps, orthophotos, 3D models or street-side images and serve to support mostly search and navigation. Yet the only mapping data that currently can really be searched are the street maps via their addresses and coordinates. The orthophotos, 3D models and street-side images represent predominantly "eye candy" with little added value to the Internet-user. We are interested in characterizing the elements of the urban space from imagery. In this paper we discuss the use of street side imagery and aerial imagery to develop descriptions of urban spaces, initially of building facades and roofs. We present methods (a) to segment facades using high-overlap street side facade images, (b) to map facades and facade details from vertical aerial images, and (c) to characterize roofs by their type and details, also from aerial photography. This paper describes a method of roof segmentation with the goal of assigning each roof to a specific architectural style. Questions of the use of the attic space, or the placement of solar panels, are of interest. It is of interest that roofs have recently been mapped using LiDAR point clouds. We demonstrate that aerial images are a useful and economical alternative to LiDAR for the characterization of building roofs, and that they also contain very valuable information about facades.

  11. Nanoparticles in facade coatings: a survey of industrial experts on functional and environmental benefits and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hincapié, Ingrid; Künniger, Tina; Hischier, Roland; Cervellati, Dario; Nowack, Bernd; Som, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Integrating engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) into facade coatings is expected to offer considerable potential for improved or novel functionality, or even several functionalities at the same time (multifunctional materials). Little information is available about the tangible use of ENPs in facade coatings and the real improvements that their functionalities provide. In order to increase this information, we carried out a survey among selected coating manufacturers and ENP producers in Europe. We asked them about the improved functionalities enabled by ENPs, the quality of nano-enhanced facade coatings in comparison to conventional ones, and the handling of waste. The survey results indicated that the ENPs most frequently used in facade coatings in Europe were silver, titanium dioxide, and silicon dioxide. The most frequently mentioned potential benefits were ultraviolet-protection, water and dirt repellency (easy to clean), and antimicrobial properties. Improving environmental performance through the use of nano-enhanced facade coatings did not appear to be a focus for innovation. The survey also revealed mixed results in the comparison between nano-enhanced and conventional facade coatings: 36 % of respondents saw a notable improvement, 27 % noted a gradual improvement of functionalities, and 37 % detected no improvement over traditional materials. Some respondents mentioned a variety of tests that can be applied to investigate the quality of coating functionalities. These tests could be valuable in helping us to better understand the tangible improvements of nano-enhanced facade coating functionalities. Respondents were uncertain about how to properly handle the wastes resulting from nano-enhanced products

  12. Innovative facades with photovoltaics; Innovative Fassaden mit Photovoltaik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eicker, U. [Hochschule fuer Technik, Stuttgart (Germany)

    1999-10-01

    Having grown at a rate of 15% since the middle of the 1980s the photovoltaic market today commands an annual module production of more than 100 MW{sub p}. In Germany altogether 10,000 PV systems with a total power output of 10 MW{sub p} were newly installed in 1997 alone. In 1990 the market was boosted by the heavily subsidised 1000 roofs programme, under which in the end more than 2,000 systems were installed on the roofs of mostly one-family houses. With power ratings ranging from 1 to 5 kW these decentral plants require roof surface areas between 10 and 50 m-2. On average they generate 800 kWh of electricity per kW of installed power. According to a number of studies carried out in the early 1990s the total surface area on buildings available for photovoltaics amounts to an enormous potential of 1,000 km-2, which is equivalent to an electricity generating potential of 130 TWh (100 TWh on roofs and 30 TWh on facades), or 25% of Germany`s total electricity demand. The degree to which this potential will be realised in the long term will notably depend on whether convincing architectural solutions are found for integrating photovoltaic plants in roofs and facades. [Deutsch] Der Photovoltaikmarkt waechst weltweit seit Mitte der 80er Jahre um durchschnittlich 15% und liegt heute bei einer Jahresmodulproduktion ueber 100 MW{sub p}. In Deutschland wurden alleine 1997 etwa 10.000 PV-Systeme mit einer Gesamtleistung von 10 MW{sub p} installiert. Die Marktentwicklung wurde 1990 mit dem stark subventionierten 1000-Daecher Programm angestossen, in welchem schliesslich mehr als 2000 Systeme meist auf Daechern von Einfamilienhaeusern installiert wurden. Diese dezentralen Anlagen mit Leistungen zwischen 1 und 5 kW erfordern Dachflaechen zwischen 10 und 50 m{sup 2} und erzeugen im Schnitt 800 kWh Strom pro kW installierter Leistung. Das verfuegbare Flaechenpotential von Gebaeuden wurde Anfang der 90er Jahre in einer Reihe von Studien ermittelt und stellt mit etwa 1000 km{sup 2

  13. Thermal performance of a vegetated cladding system on facade walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, C.Y.; Chu, L.M. [Department of Biology, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Science Center, Shatin, NT, Hong Kong (China); Cheung, Ken K.S. [Housing Department, Hong Kong SAR Government, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)

    2010-08-15

    An experimental approach is used to assess the effect of vegetation on the thermal performance of a vertical greening system, which comprised of turf-based vertical planting modules, on an elevated facade wall of a public housing apartment. Despite temperature fluctuations in the various compartments external and internal to a concrete wall, the vegetated cladding reduced interior temperatures and delayed the transfer of solar heat, which consequently reduced power consumption in air-conditioning compared with a building envelope with bare concrete. Vegetation cover led to a different pattern of temperature fluctuations on wall surfaces, which may affect the comfort of occupants even after sunset. The cooling effect which was closely associated with the area covered by living plants and moisture in the growth medium, demonstrated the value of maintaining a healthy vegetation cover beyond visual amenity. Marked variation in moisture distribution along the vertical profile of the growth medium highlighted a concern rarely addressed in planting on ground. Substrate moisture measured at randomly selected locations would underestimate the water stress in some plants and impair their survival. (author)

  14. A RANGE BASED METHOD FOR COMPLEX FACADE MODELING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Adami

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available 3d modelling of Architectural Heritage does not follow a very well-defined way, but it goes through different algorithms and digital form according to the shape complexity of the object, to the main goal of the representation and to the starting data. Even if the process starts from the same data, such as a pointcloud acquired by laser scanner, there are different possibilities to realize a digital model. In particular we can choose between two different attitudes: the mesh and the solid model. In the first case the complexity of architecture is represented by a dense net of triangular surfaces which approximates the real surface of the object. In the other -opposite- case the 3d digital model can be realized by the use of simple geometrical shapes, by the use of sweeping algorithm and the Boolean operations. Obviously these two models are not the same and each one is characterized by some peculiarities concerning the way of modelling (the choice of a particular triangulation algorithm or the quasi-automatic modelling by known shapes and the final results (a more detailed and complex mesh versus an approximate and more simple solid model. Usually the expected final representation and the possibility of publishing lead to one way or the other. In this paper we want to suggest a semiautomatic process to build 3d digital models of the facades of complex architecture to be used for example in city models or in other large scale representations. This way of modelling guarantees also to obtain small files to be published on the web or to be transmitted. The modelling procedure starts from laser scanner data which can be processed in the well known way. Usually more than one scan is necessary to describe a complex architecture and to avoid some shadows on the facades. These have to be registered in a single reference system by the use of targets which are surveyed by topography and then to be filtered in order to obtain a well controlled and

  15. Costless Platform for High Resolution Stereoscopic Images of a High Gothic Facade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Héno, R.; Chandelier, L.; Schelstraete, D.

    2012-07-01

    In October 2011, the PPMD specialized master's degree students (Photogrammetry, Positionning and Deformation Measurement) of the French ENSG (IGN's School of Geomatics, the Ecole Nationale des Sciences Géographiques) were asked to come and survey the main facade of the cathedral of Amiens, which is very complex as far as size and decoration are concerned. Although it was first planned to use a lift truck for the image survey, budget considerations and taste for experimentation led the project to other perspectives: images shot from the ground level with a long focal camera will be combined to complementary images shot from what higher galleries are available on the main facade with a wide angle camera fixed on a horizontal 2.5 meter long pole. This heteroclite image survey is being processed by the PPMD master's degree students during this academic year. Among other type of products, 3D point clouds will be calculated on specific parts of the facade with both sources of images. If the proposed device and methodology to get full image coverage of the main facade happen to be fruitful, the image acquisition phase will be completed later by another team. This article focuses on the production of 3D point clouds with wide angle images on the rose of the main facade.

  16. Persistent Scatterer Aided Facade Lattice Extraction in Single Airborne Optical Oblique Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schack, L.; Soergel, U.; Heipke, C.

    2015-03-01

    We present a new method to extract patterns of regular facade structures from single optical oblique images. To overcome the missing three-dimensional information we incorporate structural information derived from Persistent Scatter (PS) point cloud data into our method. Single oblique images and PS point clouds have never been combined before and offer promising insights into the compatibility of remotely sensed data of different kinds. Even though the appearance of facades is significantly different, many characteristics of the prominent patterns can be seen in both types of data and can be transferred across the sensor domains. To justify the extraction based on regular facade patterns we show that regular facades appear rather often in typical airborne oblique imagery of urban scenes. The extraction of regular patterns is based on well established tools like cross correlation and is extended by incorporating a module for estimating a window lattice model using a genetic algorithm. Among others the results of our approach can be used to derive a deeper understanding of the emergence of Persistent Scatterers and their fusion with optical imagery. To demonstrate the applicability of the approach we present a concept for data fusion aiming at facade lattices extraction in PS and optical data.

  17. The perception of green integrated into architecture: installation of a green facade in Genoa, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Magliocco

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In October and November 2014, a green facade was built on an office building owned by the National Institute of Social Insurance (Istituto Nazionale di Previdenza Sociale in Genoa's Sestri Ponente district, an area characterized by relatively high population density (13,000 inhabitants/km2. As in many Italian cities, Sestri Ponente has high rates of air pollution, and the Department of Sciences for Architecture at the University of Genoa (Italy is conducting monitoring activities in collaboration with RSE SpA (Research on Energy System to evaluate the effectiveness of the facade in summer cooling, winter heating, air quality improvement, and economic and environmental sustainability. A sociological survey of local residents and employees who work in the building on their perceptions of the green facade is also under development. This monitoring includes surveys before and after the installation of the facade to evaluate if the introduction of foreign elements has destabilizing effects in the context of the domestic environment. This article discusses the results of the survey done before the implementation of the green facade. Other surveys will be carried out in subsequent months in order to understand if the experience of prolonged contact with this new “presence” has changed citizens' perception.

  18. Fire exposed facades: Numerical modelling of the LEPIR2 testing facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dréan Virginie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available LEPIR2 testing facility is aimed to evaluate the fire behaviour of construction solutions implemented on facade according with the experimental evaluation required by the French Technical Specification 249 (IT249 of the safety regulation. It aims to limit the risks of fire spreading by facades to upper levels. This facility involves a wood crib fire in the lower compartment of a full scale two levels high structure. Flames are coming outside from the compartment through windows openings and develop in front of the facade. Computational fluids dynamics simulations are carried out with the FDS code (Fire Dynamics Simulator for two full-scale experiments performed by Efectis France laboratory. The first objective of this study is to evaluate the ability of numerical model to reproduce quantitative results in terms of gas temperatures and heat flux on the tested facade for further evaluation of fire performances of an insulation solution. When experimental results are compared with numerical calculations, good agreement is found out for every quantities and each test. The proposed models for wood cribs and geometry give correct thermal loads and flames shape near the tested facade.

  19. COSTLESS PLATFORM FOR HIGH RESOLUTION STEREOSCOPIC IMAGES OF A HIGH GOTHIC FACADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Héno

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In October 2011, the PPMD specialized master's degree students (Photogrammetry, Positionning and Deformation Measurement of the French ENSG (IGN’s School of Geomatics, the Ecole Nationale des Sciences Géographiques were asked to come and survey the main facade of the cathedral of Amiens, which is very complex as far as size and decoration are concerned. Although it was first planned to use a lift truck for the image survey, budget considerations and taste for experimentation led the project to other perspectives: images shot from the ground level with a long focal camera will be combined to complementary images shot from what higher galleries are available on the main facade with a wide angle camera fixed on a horizontal 2.5 meter long pole. This heteroclite image survey is being processed by the PPMD master's degree students during this academic year. Among other type of products, 3D point clouds will be calculated on specific parts of the facade with both sources of images. If the proposed device and methodology to get full image coverage of the main facade happen to be fruitful, the image acquisition phase will be completed later by another team. This article focuses on the production of 3D point clouds with wide angle images on the rose of the main facade.

  20. Randomized, double-blinded, vehicle-controlled, split-face study to evaluate the effects of topical application of a Gold Silk Sericin/Niacinamide/Signaline complex on biophysical parameters related to skin ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berardesca, E; Ardigo, M; Cameli, N; Mariano, M; Agozzino, M; Matts, P J

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the effects of topical application of a Gold Silk Sericin (GSS) complex on biophysical parameters related to skin ageing. A range of non-invasive bioengineering methods were deployed in an 8-week randomized, double-blinded, vehicle-controlled, split-face study among 40 female subjects aged 40-70. Endpoints measured included expert grades of skin condition, stratum corneum (SC) hydration, SC barrier function, elasticity and surface topography. The GSS complex produced significant single-variable (P < 0.05) improvements in SC hydration, barrier function, elasticity and surface topography compared with the Vehicle control. The GSS complex examined in this study represents an interesting new cosmetic topical technology with which to address multiple aspects of aged/photoaged female facial skin. © 2015 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  1. Interferential current sensory stimulation, through the neck skin, improves airway defense and oral nutrition intake in patients with dysphagia: a double-blind randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Keisuke; Koga, Takayuki; Akagi, Junji

    2017-01-01

    Neuromuscular electrical stimulation with muscle contraction, administered through the skin of the neck, improves a patient's swallowing ability. However, the beneficial effects of transcutaneous electrical sensory stimulation (TESS), without muscle contraction, are controversial. We investigated the effect of TESS, using interferential current, in patients undergoing dysphagia rehabilitation. This double-blind, randomized controlled trial involved 43 patients who were prescribed in-hospital dysphagia rehabilitation for ≥3 weeks. Patients were randomly assigned to the sensory stimulation (SS) or sham groups; all received usual rehabilitative care plus 2 weeks of SS or sham intervention. Outcome measures included cough latency times against a 1% citric acid mist, functional oral intake scale (FOIS) scores, and oral nutritional intake - each determined after the second and third week following treatment initiation. Mean patient age was 84.3±7.5 years; 58% were women. The SS and sham groups had similar baseline characteristics. Changes in cough latency time at 2 weeks (-14.1±14.0 vs -5.2±14.2 s, p =0.047) and oral nutrition intake at 3 weeks (437±575 vs 138±315 kcal/day, p =0.042) improved more in the SS group than in the sham group. Changes in cough frequency and FOIS scores indicated better outcomes in the SS group, based on substantial effect sizes. TESS, using interferential current through the neck, improved airway defense and nutrition in patients suffering from dysphagia. Further large-scale studies are needed to confirm the technique's effect on swallowing ability.

  2. Interferential current sensory stimulation, through the neck skin, improves airway defense and oral nutrition intake in patients with dysphagia: a double-blind randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Keisuke; Koga, Takayuki; Akagi, Junji

    2017-01-01

    Background Neuromuscular electrical stimulation with muscle contraction, administered through the skin of the neck, improves a patient’s swallowing ability. However, the beneficial effects of transcutaneous electrical sensory stimulation (TESS), without muscle contraction, are controversial. We investigated the effect of TESS, using interferential current, in patients undergoing dysphagia rehabilitation. Methods This double-blind, randomized controlled trial involved 43 patients who were prescribed in-hospital dysphagia rehabilitation for ≥3 weeks. Patients were randomly assigned to the sensory stimulation (SS) or sham groups; all received usual rehabilitative care plus 2 weeks of SS or sham intervention. Outcome measures included cough latency times against a 1% citric acid mist, functional oral intake scale (FOIS) scores, and oral nutritional intake – each determined after the second and third week following treatment initiation. Results Mean patient age was 84.3±7.5 years; 58% were women. The SS and sham groups had similar baseline characteristics. Changes in cough latency time at 2 weeks (−14.1±14.0 vs −5.2±14.2 s, p=0.047) and oral nutrition intake at 3 weeks (437±575 vs 138±315 kcal/day, p=0.042) improved more in the SS group than in the sham group. Changes in cough frequency and FOIS scores indicated better outcomes in the SS group, based on substantial effect sizes. Conclusion TESS, using interferential current through the neck, improved airway defense and nutrition in patients suffering from dysphagia. Further large-scale studies are needed to confirm the technique’s effect on swallowing ability. PMID:29158670

  3. Renovation of the facades of buildings 11, 12, 13 and 14

    CERN Multimedia

    TS/FM group

    2005-01-01

    Restoration work on the facades of Buildings 11, 12, 13 and 14 will begin on 6 June 2005 and is scheduled to be completed by the end of September. This work consists in replacing the windows of Building 14 and of the eastern facade of Building 13, and in repairing the windows of Buildings 11 and 12 and of the northern facade of Building 13. The concrete parts which have suffered carbonation damage will also be repaired. During this period, parking around these buildings will be restricted for safety reasons and for the requirements of the work site. All people working in these buildings or in their direct vicinity are kindly requested to comply with the signs in place. Thank you in advance for your understanding. Group TS/FM

  4. Renovation of the facades of buildings 11, 12, 13 and 14

    CERN Multimedia

    TS/FM Group

    2005-01-01

    Restoration work on the facades of Buildings 11, 12, 13 and 14 will begin on 6 June 2005 and is scheduled to be completed by the end of September. This work consists in replacing the windows of Building 14 and of the eastern facade of Building 13, and in repairing the windows of Buildings 11 and 12 and of the northern facade of Building 13. The concrete parts which have suffered carbonation damage will also be repaired. During this period, parking around these buildings will be restricted for safety reasons and for the requirements of the work site. All people working in these buildings or in their direct vicinity are kindly requested to comply with the signs in place. Thank you in advance for your understanding. TS/FM Group

  5. PRACTICING FACADE RENOVATION OF DANISH BUILDINGS BUILT BETWEEN 1960 AND 1980

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hannoudi, Loay Akram; Lauring, Gert Michael; Christensen, Jørgen Erik

    is analysed and the interviews reveal whether an integrated design process was carried out in an ideal way among the different actors, or if problems occurred among them. The aesthetic approach was discussed in the interviews to determine the way decisions were taken regarding cladding materials and facade......Practising building facade renovation in Denmark, both from the technical and aesthetic points of view, raises many questions that are presented in this paper. These questions are answered and discussed through interviews conducted with seven architectural firms that are involved with façade...... component dimensions, including the possibility of making some enlargements and possibly including some planting on the facades. The interviews discussed strategies for the renovation as defined by the engineers, such as using external re-insulation to improve the energy efficiency of the building or using...

  6. The Treatment of the Architectural Unit above Openings of the Mamluk and Ottoman Facades in Cairo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heba Mahmoud Saad Abdel Naby

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The facades of the Mamluk buildings have a common characteristic feature which is the use of lintels, nafis and relieving arches above doors and windows. The three elements together formed a unit with an important architectural function on the façades. This unit was also treated as a focal point of the façade. Therefore, it was richly decorated with floral and geometric decorations and was usually made of colored marble, joggles voussoirs or carved stones. As a result, that unit attracted the attention of pedestrians and added to the beauty of the façade. During the Ottoman period the same unit was used on facades, however, due to financial and political reasons, the materials used differed and the decorations became modest. Nonetheless, the decoration of the lintel, nafis and relieving arch managed to mark the Ottoman facades with a different identity.

  7. Synthetic TiO2 nanoparticle emission from exterior facades into the aquatic environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaegi, R; Ulrich, A; Sinnet, B; Vonbank, R; Wichser, A; Zuleeg, S; Simmler, H; Brunner, S; Vonmont, H; Burkhardt, M; Boller, M

    2008-11-01

    We present direct evidence of the release of synthetic nanoparticles from urban applications into the aquatic environment. We investigated TiO(2) particles as these particles are used in large quantities in exterior paints as whitening pigments and are to some extent also present in the nano-size range. TiO(2) particles were traced from exterior facade paints to the discharge into surface waters. We used a centrifugation based sample preparation which recovers TiO(2) particles between roughly 20 and 300nm. Analytical electron microscopy revealed that TiO(2) particles are detached from new and aged facade paints by natural weather conditions and are then transported by facade runoff and are discharged into natural, receiving waters. Microscopic investigations are confirmed by bulk chemical analysis. By combining results from microscopic investigations with bulk chemical analysis we calculated the number densities of synthetic TiO(2) particles in the runoff.

  8. EVITA - A double-blind, vehicle controlled, randomized phase II trial of vitamin K1 cream as prophylaxis for cetuximab-induced skin toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofheinz, R-D; Lorenzen, S; Trojan, J; Ocvirk, J; Ettrich, T J; Al-Batran, S-E; Schulz, H; Homann, N; Feustel, H-P; Schatz, M; Kripp, M; Schulte, N; Tetyusheva, M; Heeger, S; Vlassak, S; Merx, K

    2018-01-18

    Acne-like skin rash is a frequently occurring adverse event associated with drugs against the epidermal growth factor receptor. This randomized vehicle-controlled study investigated the addition of vitamin K1 cream to doxycycline in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer treated with cetuximab. Patients receiving 1st line cetuximab + FOLFIRI were randomly assigned to prophylactic treatment with doxycylin and vitamin K1 cream or doxycycline and the vehicle. The primary end point of the study was the incidence of grade ≥ 2 skin rash (NCI CTCAE version 4.02) during 8 weeks of skin treatment. Secondary endpoints comprised skin rash according to a more thorough tripartite skin toxicity score (WoMo), quality of life, efficacy and compliance. The study had 80% power to show a 20% reduction of the incidence of grade ≥ 2 skin rash. A total of 126 patients were analyzed. The incidence of skin rash grade ≥ 2 was comparable between the arms. Likewise, no difference was seen in the WoMo score with respect to the percentage of skin affected. However, starting in week 5 and increasing over time patients treated with vitamin K1 cream had less severe rash and fewer fissures. Quality of life as well as efficacy and compliance with study medication and anti-cancer treatment was comparable in both arms. The primary endpoint of decreasing grade ≥ 2 skin rash was not met. However, using vitamin K1 cream as part of prophylactic treatment decreased the severity of acne-like skin rash according to WoMo, an alternative and more thorough skin toxicity scoring tool. © The Author 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Interferential current sensory stimulation, through the neck skin, improves airway defense and oral nutrition intake in patients with dysphagia: a double-blind randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maeda K

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Keisuke Maeda,1,2 Takayuki Koga,3 Junji Akagi4 1Department of Nutrition and Dysphagia Rehabilitation, Tamana Regional Health Medical Center, Kumamoto, 2Palliative Care Center, Aichi Medical University, Nagakute, 3Department of Swallowing and Nutritional Therapy, 4Department of Surgery, Tamana Regional Health Medical Center, Tamana, Tamana City, Kumamoto, Japan Background: Neuromuscular electrical stimulation with muscle contraction, administered through the skin of the neck, improves a patient’s swallowing ability. However, the beneficial effects of transcutaneous electrical sensory stimulation (TESS, without muscle contraction, are controversial. We investigated the effect of TESS, using interferential current, in patients undergoing dysphagia rehabilitation. Methods: This double-blind, randomized controlled trial involved 43 patients who were prescribed in-hospital dysphagia rehabilitation for ≥3 weeks. Patients were randomly assigned to the sensory stimulation (SS or sham groups; all received usual rehabilitative care plus 2 weeks of SS or sham intervention. Outcome measures included cough latency times against a 1% citric acid mist, functional oral intake scale (FOIS scores, and oral nutritional intake – each determined after the second and third week following treatment initiation. Results: Mean patient age was 84.3±7.5 years; 58% were women. The SS and sham groups had similar baseline characteristics. Changes in cough latency time at 2 weeks (-14.1±14.0 vs -5.2±14.2 s, p=0.047 and oral nutrition intake at 3 weeks (437±575 vs 138±315 kcal/day, p=0.042 improved more in the SS group than in the sham group. Changes in cough frequency and FOIS scores indicated better outcomes in the SS group, based on substantial effect sizes. Conclusion: TESS, using interferential current through the neck, improved airway defense and nutrition in patients suffering from dysphagia. Further large-scale studies are needed to confirm the technique

  10. Perioperative effects of oral midazolam premedication in children undergoing skin laser treatment. A double-blinded randomized placebo-controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shoroghi, Mehrdad; Arbabi, Shahriyar; Farahbakhsh, Farshid; Sheikhvatan, Mehrdad; Abbasi, Ali

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate and compare the efficacy of oral midazolam with two different dosages in orange juice on perioperative hemodynamics and behavioral changes in children who underwent skin laser treatment in an academic educational Hospital. Methods: Ninety children, candidates for skin laser

  11. Evaluating sustainable architectural solutions such as multi-angled facades in specific urban contexts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hannoudi, Loay Akram; Lauring, Gert Michael; Christensen, Jørgen Erik

    what are the impacts of this case or phenomenon in an urban context. The research also uses a simulation research method to visualise an office building having been renovated with a multi-angled facade system, using the software packages AutoCad, 3D Max and Photoshop.The simulation is made in 3...

  12. Integral Facade Construction : Towards a new product architecture for curtain walls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein, T.

    2013-01-01

    Curtain wall constructions are one of the most applied facade constructions today. Independently attached to the primary load bearing structure of the building they protect the building’s interior from external climate conditions and allow great design freedom. With continuously rising requirements

  13. Does Interdisciplinarity Exist behind the Facade of Traditional Disciplines? A Study of Natural Resource Management Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pharo, Emma; Bridle, Kerry

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the hypothesis that interdisciplinarity is being explicitly taught behind the facade of traditional disciplines. We interviewed 14 academics (seven geographers and seven agricultural scientists) about their teaching in the inherently interdisciplinary field of natural resource management. Our teachers were generally well informed…

  14. Use of 3D laser scanning for flatness and volumetric analysis of mortar in facades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. ISRAEL

    Full Text Available The ongoing process of industrialization of construction sites encourages the use of new building systems that conflict with traditional techniques associated with the risks of incompatibilities and continuance of control fixed ideas with a significant variability. A practical example is the cement mortar for plastering, commonly used as a corrective factor for facade flatness failures caused by the inaccuracy of the plumb line, rudimentary method used in geometric control of concrete structures and facade of mapping during the execution of the work, favoring the accumulation of errors that reflect the mortar thickness, increasing consumption, losses and defects. Alternatively for improvement, this study analyzed through a case study, the innovative application of 3D laser scanning technology consolidated on the facade of a building to map the surface flatness of the façade and, in an unprecedented manner, to quantify the volume of mortar. The results showed the feasibility of the technique as a solution to accurately identify the critical areas of the facade on the peripheral concrete structure and masonry and calculate, based on the volumes, the financial impact associated with mortar overthicknesses in critical areas compared with the reductions thickness after treatment of these areas.

  15. Framework for automatic generation of facades on free-form surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Andrade

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available New design tools have created a growing interest for presenting complex geometries and patterns. The need to form curved geometries of facades, without incurring high construction costs and time increases, presents one of the most complex design challenges for any project. In this paper, we present and demonstrate a new computational framework for the creation of patterns on top of facades, via cladding of panels and honeycomb structures. The tool describes a given region on a base model; dealing particularly with location, size and orientation of general geometric features on the surface of such model. The user inputs curves that manifest the desired user׳s intention for the panels and a set of seed features that correspond to the initial boundary conditions of a Riemannian metric tensor field. The system interpolates the tensors defined by input features and input curves by solving a Laplace-Beltrami partial differential equation over the entire domain. We show a fast clustering and search operations for correct panel utilization based on size quantization as design variable and implemented via Voronoi segmentation. We present honeycomb structures that can be retrieved from the fundamental mesh producing another option for facade creation and ideation. The system connects to a geometric modeling kernel of a commercial CAD package; the system places features on top of the base model facade using boolean operations from the core geometric engine via its programming interface calls. With this computational tool, thousands of clad panels can be visualized and developed within minutes.

  16. Design of blast-loaded glazing windows and facades: A review of essential requirements towards standardization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larcher, M.; Arrigoni, M.; Bedon, C.; Doormaal, J.C.A.M. van; Haberacker, C.; Hüsken, G.; Millon, O.; Saarenheimo, A.; Solomos, G.; Thamie, L.; Valsamos, G.; Williams, A.; Stolz, A.

    2016-01-01

    The determination of the blast protection level of laminated glass windows and facades is of crucial importance, and it is normally done by using experimental investigations. In recent years numerical methods have become much more powerful also with respect to this kind of application. This paper

  17. A prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded, and split-face clinical study on LED phototherapy for skin rejuvenation: clinical, profilometric, histologic, ultrastructural, and biochemical evaluations and comparison of three different treatment settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Yoon; Park, Ki-Ho; Choi, Jung-Woo; Kwon, Jung-Kyun; Lee, Doo Rak; Shin, Mi Sun; Lee, Jee Sung; You, Chung Eui; Park, Mi Youn

    2007-07-27

    Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are considered to be effective in skin rejuvenation. We investigated the clinical efficacy of LED phototherapy for skin rejuvenation through the comparison with three different treatment parameters and a control, and also examined the LED-induced histological, ultrastructural, and biochemical changes. Seventy-six patients with facial wrinkles were treated with quasimonochromatic LED devices on the right half of their faces. All subjects were randomly divided into four groups treated with either 830nm alone, 633nm alone, a combination of 830 and 633nm, or a sham treatment light, twice a week for four weeks. Serial photography, profilometry, and objective measurements of the skin elasticity and melanin were performed during the treatment period with a three-month follow-up period. The subject's and investigator's assessments were double-blinded. Skin specimens were evaluated for the histologic and ultrastructural changes, alteration in the status of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their tissue inhibitors (TIMPs), and the changes in the mRNA levels of IL-1ss, TNF-alpha, ICAM-1, IL-6 and connexin 43 (Cx43), by utilizing specific stains, TEM, immunohistochemistry, and real-time RT-PCR, respectively. In the results, objectively measured data showed significant reductions of wrinkles (maximum: 36%) and increases of skin elasticity (maximum: 19%) compared to baseline on the treated face in the three treatment groups. Histologically, a marked increase in the amount of collagen and elastic fibers in all treatment groups was observed. Ultrastructural examination demonstrated highly activated fibroblasts, surrounded by abundant elastic and collagen fibers. Immunohistochemistry showed an increase of TIMP-1 and 2. RT-PCR results showed the mRNA levels of IL-1ss, TNF-alpha, ICAM-1, and Cx43 increased after LED phototherapy whereas that of IL-6 decreased. This therapy was well-tolerated by all patients with no adverse effects. We concluded that

  18. Façade system for existing office buildings in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hannoudi, Loay Akram; Christensen, Jørgen Erik; Lauring, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates solutions for facade renovation of general office buildings built between 1960 and 1980 in the Copenhagen Municipality. 44 buildings are used for the study. They share common structural and construction principles like the use of beams and columns and prefabricated elements....... The problems that face these buildings are a high number of overheating hours and high heating consumption. Four strategies are tested for the renovation: external re-insulation, double-skin facade (existing inner facade), double-skin facade (new inner facade) and curtain wall. External re...

  19. Evaluating economic and environmental aspects of using solar panels on multi-angled facades of office buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hannoudi, Loay Akram; Lauring, Michael; Christensen, Jørgen Erik

    2017-01-01

    This paper is concerned with using solar panels as high-tech cladding materials on multi-angled facades for office buildings. The energy produced by the solar panels will be consumed inside the office rooms by cooling compressors, ventilation, lighting and office equipment. Each multi-angled facade...... unit is directed into two different orientations on a vertical axis (right and left), but not tilted up and down. The different facade orientations will optimize the use of solar radiation to produce the needed energy from the solar panels when placing them on the parapets of these facades......, PVBAT to calculate the cost of the electricity produced by the solar panels and evaluate the total amount of energy produced from these panels along with the ratio to the energy bought directly from the electricity grid. There is also an environmental evaluation for the system by calculating the CO2...

  20. Clinical Response of Tedizolid versus Linezolid in Acute Bacterial Skin and Skin Structure Infections by Severity Measure Using a Pooled Analysis from Two Phase 3 Double-Blind Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandison, Taylor; De Anda, Carisa; Fang, Edward; Das, Anita F; Prokocimer, Philippe

    2017-05-01

    Tedizolid phosphate is approved for the treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSI). In a pooled analysis of 1,333 ABSSSI patients from the ESTABLISH clinical trials, treatment with tedizolid or linezolid demonstrated similar early and posttherapy clinical responses in nonsevere and severe disease, irrespective of the parameters used to measure ABSSSI severity. Shorter 6-day treatment of ABSSSI, including those that were severe, with tedizolid phosphate demonstrated efficacy comparable to that of 10-day treatment with linezolid. (The ESTABLISH studies discussed in this paper have been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under identifiers NCT01170221 and NCT01421511.). Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  1. Global warming implications of facade parameters: A life cycle assessment of residential buildings in Bahrain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radhi, Hassan, E-mail: h_alradhi@yahoo.com [Global Engineering Bureau, P.O Box 33130, Manama, Kingdom of Bahrain (Bahrain); Sharples, Stephen, E-mail: steve.sharples@liverpool.ac.uk [School of Architecture, University of Liverpool (United Kingdom)

    2013-01-15

    On a global scale, the Gulf Corporation Council Countries (GCCC), including Bahrain, are amongst the top countries in terms of carbon dioxide emissions per capita. Building authority in Bahrain has set a target of 40% reduction of electricity consumption and associated CO{sub 2} emissions to be achieved by using facade parameters. This work evaluates how the life cycle CO{sub 2} emissions of buildings are affected by facade parameters. The main focus is placed on direct and indirect CO{sub 2} emissions from three contributors, namely, chemical reactions during production processes (Pco{sub 2}), embodied energy (Eco{sub 2}) and operational energy (OPco{sub 2}). By means of the life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology, it has been possible to show that the greatest environmental impact occurs during the operational phase (80-90%). However, embodied CO{sub 2} emissions are an important factor that needs to be brought into the systems used for appraisal of projects, and hence into the design decisions made in developing projects. The assessment shows that masonry blocks are responsible for 70-90% of the total CO{sub 2} emissions of facade construction, mainly due to their physical characteristics. The highest Pco{sub 2} emissions factors are those of window elements, particularly aluminium frames. However, their contribution of CO{sub 2} emissions depends largely on the number and size of windows. Each square metre of glazing is able to increase the total CO{sub 2} emissions by almost 30% when compared with the same areas of opaque walls. The use of autoclaved aerated concrete (AAC) walls reduces the total life cycle CO{sub 2} emissions by almost 5.2% when compared with ordinary walls, while the use of thermal insulation with concrete wall reduces CO{sub 2} emissions by 1.2%. The outcome of this work offers to the building industry a reliable indicator of the environmental impact of residential facade parameters. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Life cycle

  2. A double-blind randomised controlled trial of a natural oil-based emulsion (Moogoo Udder Cream®) containing allantoin versus aqueous cream for managing radiation-induced skin reactions in patients with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Raymond Javan; Keller, Jacqui; Cheuk, Robyn; Blades, Rae; Tripcony, Lee; Keogh, Samantha

    2012-07-31

    Radiation-induced skin reaction (RISR) is one of the most common and distressing side effects of radiotherapy in patients with cancer. It is featured with swelling, redness, itching, pain, breaks in skin, discomfort, and a burning sensation. There is a lack of convincing evidence supporting any single practice in the prevention or management of RISR. This double-blinded randomised controlled trial aims to investigate the effects of a natural oil-based emulsion containing allantoin (as known as Moogoo Udder Cream®) versus aqueous cream in reducing RISR, improving pain, itching and quality of life in this patient group. One group will receive Moogoo Udder Cream®. Another group will receive aqueous cream. Outcome measures will be collected using patient self-administered questionnaire, interviewer administered questionnaire and clinician assessment at commencement of radiotherapy, weekly during radiotherapy, and four weeks after the completion of radiotherapy. Despite advances of radiologic advances and supportive care, RISR are still not well managed. There is a lack of efficacious interventions in managing RISR. While anecdotal evidence suggests that Moogoo Udder Cream® may be effective in managing RISR, research is needed to substantiate this claim. This paper presents the design of a double blind randomised controlled trial that will evaluate the effects of Moogoo Udder Cream® versus aqueous cream for managing in RISR in patients with cancer. ACTRN 12612000568819.

  3. A double-blind randomised controlled trial of a natural oil-based emulsion (Moogoo Udder Cream®) containing allantoin versus aqueous cream for managing radiation-induced skin reactions in patients with cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, Raymond Javan; Keller, Jacqui; Cheuk, Robyn; Blades, Rae; Tripcony, Lee; Keogh, Samantha

    2012-01-01

    Radiation-induced skin reaction (RISR) is one of the most common and distressing side effects of radiotherapy in patients with cancer. It is featured with swelling, redness, itching, pain, breaks in skin, discomfort, and a burning sensation. There is a lack of convincing evidence supporting any single practice in the prevention or management of RISR. This double-blinded randomised controlled trial aims to investigate the effects of a natural oil-based emulsion containing allantoin (as known as Moogoo Udder Cream®) versus aqueous cream in reducing RISR, improving pain, itching and quality of life in this patient group. One group will receive Moogoo Udder Cream®. Another group will receive aqueous cream. Outcome measures will be collected using patient self-administered questionnaire, interviewer administered questionnaire and clinician assessment at commencement of radiotherapy, weekly during radiotherapy, and four weeks after the completion of radiotherapy. Despite advances of radiologic advances and supportive care, RISR are still not well managed. There is a lack of efficacious interventions in managing RISR. While anecdotal evidence suggests that Moogoo Udder Cream® may be effective in managing RISR, research is needed to substantiate this claim. This paper presents the design of a double blind randomised controlled trial that will evaluate the effects of Moogoo Udder Cream® versus aqueous cream for managing in RISR in patients with cancer. ACTRN 12612000568819

  4. A double-blind randomised controlled trial of a natural oil-based emulsion (Moogoo Udder Cream® containing allantoin versus aqueous cream for managing radiation-induced skin reactions in patients with cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Raymond

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Radiation-induced skin reaction (RISR is one of the most common and distressing side effects of radiotherapy in patients with cancer. It is featured with swelling, redness, itching, pain, breaks in skin, discomfort, and a burning sensation. There is a lack of convincing evidence supporting any single practice in the prevention or management of RISR. Methods/Designs This double-blinded randomised controlled trial aims to investigate the effects of a natural oil-based emulsion containing allantoin (as known as Moogoo Udder Cream® versus aqueous cream in reducing RISR, improving pain, itching and quality of life in this patient group. One group will receive Moogoo Udder Cream®. Another group will receive aqueous cream. Outcome measures will be collected using patient self-administered questionnaire, interviewer administered questionnaire and clinician assessment at commencement of radiotherapy, weekly during radiotherapy, and four weeks after the completion of radiotherapy. Discussion Despite advances of radiologic advances and supportive care, RISR are still not well managed. There is a lack of efficacious interventions in managing RISR. While anecdotal evidence suggests that Moogoo Udder Cream® may be effective in managing RISR, research is needed to substantiate this claim. This paper presents the design of a double blind randomised controlled trial that will evaluate the effects of Moogoo Udder Cream® versus aqueous cream for managing in RISR in patients with cancer. Trial registration ACTRN 12612000568819

  5. Accurate facade feature extraction method for buildings from three-dimensional point cloud data considering structural information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongzhi; Ma, Yuqing; Zhu, A.-xing; Zhao, Hui; Liao, Lixia

    2018-05-01

    Facade features represent segmentations of building surfaces and can serve as a building framework. Extracting facade features from three-dimensional (3D) point cloud data (3D PCD) is an efficient method for 3D building modeling. By combining the advantages of 3D PCD and two-dimensional optical images, this study describes the creation of a highly accurate building facade feature extraction method from 3D PCD with a focus on structural information. The new extraction method involves three major steps: image feature extraction, exploration of the mapping method between the image features and 3D PCD, and optimization of the initial 3D PCD facade features considering structural information. Results show that the new method can extract the 3D PCD facade features of buildings more accurately and continuously. The new method is validated using a case study. In addition, the effectiveness of the new method is demonstrated by comparing it with the range image-extraction method and the optical image-extraction method in the absence of structural information. The 3D PCD facade features extracted by the new method can be applied in many fields, such as 3D building modeling and building information modeling.

  6. Leaching of biocides from building facades: Upscaling of a local two-region leaching model to the city scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutu, S.; Rota, C.; Rossi, L.; Barry, D. A.

    2011-12-01

    Facades are protected by paints that contain biocides as protection against degradation. These biocides are leached by rainfall (albeit at low concentrations). At the city scale, however, the surface area of building facades is significant, and leached biocides are a potential environmental risk to receiving waters. A city-scale biocide-leaching model was developed based on two main steps. In the first step, laboratory experiments on a single facade were used to calibrate and validate a 1D, two-region phenomenological model of biocide leaching. The same data set was analyzed independently by another research group who found empirically that biocide leachate breakthrough curves were well represented by a sum of two exponentials. Interestingly, the two-region model was found analytically to reproduce this functional form as a special case. The second step in the method is site-specific, and involves upscaling the validated single facade model to a particular city. In this step, (i) GIS-based estimates of facade heights and areas are deduced using the city's cadastral data, (ii) facade flow is estimated using local meteorological data (rainfall, wind direction) and (iii) paint application rates are modeled as a stochastic process based on manufacturers' recommendations. The methodology was applied to Lausanne, Switzerland, a city of about 200,000 inhabitants. Approximately 30% of the annually applied mass of biocides was estimated to be released to the environment.

  7. Randomized double-blind trial of prophylactic topical Evozac® Calming Skin Spray for gefitinib-associated acne-like eruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Y

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Yalan Wang,* Yunpeng Yang,* Jinxia Xu, Juan Yu, Xia Liu, Ruizhen Gao, Li Zhang State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Guangzhou, Guangdong, People's Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: "Gefitinib" is a first-generation epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine-kinase inhibitor. More than half of patients receiving gefitinib develop acne-like eruption. Evozac® Calming Skin Spray (Evaux Laboratoires, Évaux-les-Bains, France is made of Évaux thermal spring water and commonly used for the treatment of dermatological toxicities caused by anti- epidermal growth factor receptor therapy. The aim of the study reported here was to test the effect of Evozac Calming Skin Spray on the prevention of rash in patients receiving gefitinib. Methods: Non-small-cell lung cancer patients preparing to initiate gefitinib therapy were randomly assigned to apply Evozac Calming Skin Spray or physiological saline to the face three times a day. The treatment was started on the same day as initiation of gefitinib therapy and continued for 4 weeks. Results: A total of 51 patients in the Evozac Calming Skin Spray group and 50 patients in the physiological saline group completed the study per the protocol. The number of facial lesions peaked at the end of 3 weeks in both groups. There were significantly fewer lesions in the Evozac Calming Skin Spray group than in the physiological saline group at the end of 1 week (0.25 versus [vs] 1.10, P=0.031 and 3 weeks (6.67 vs 12.26, P=0.022. Patients from the Evozac Calming Skin Spray group also developed fewer facial lesions at the end of 2 weeks and 4 weeks, however, the difference was not statistically significant. At the end of 4 weeks, fewer patients from the Evozac Calming Skin Spray group developed rash of grade 2 or greater severity (17.6% vs 36.0%, P=0.037, or experienced rash

  8. A Single-Center, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial of the Effectiveness of ANT1 Soybean Extract Cream on Skin Recovery After Nd: YAG Laser Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Meng-Chien; Wu, Yi-Chia; Huang, Shu-Hung; Kuo, Yur-Ren; Lee, Su-Shin

    2018-02-01

    Nd:YAG laser has been used extensively for its versatility in treating many common aesthetic problems, but numerous adverse effects are often complained by recipients of Nd:YAG laser. This study introduces the ANT1 soybean extract cream, which was formulated to alleviate adverse effects after laser therapy. This study explores whether ANT1 enhances the repair mechanism of the postlaser skin, decreases laser-induced complication, and shortens recovery time. The study also aims to pinpoint the ANT1 concentration that is most effective in improving the skin condition after Nd-YAG laser therapy. This study was a single-center, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Patients eligible for the study were Asian women, aged 25 to 40 years, who were free of dermatological diseases and allergic reaction. There were a total of 45 subjects. Each subject received a session of Nd-YAG laser therapy every 2 weeks, totaling 3 sessions. Facial skin assessment was achieved via VISIA complexion analysis. VISIA complexion analysis quantitatively assessed the skin condition and tracked the recovery progress of each subject at baseline, immediately after all 3 laser sessions, and a week after the final laser treatment. Skin condition was evaluated by VISIA complexion analysis. Skin condition was recorded in aspects of pigmented spots, wrinkles, texture, pores, and red area. After Nd-YAG laser therapy, postlaser inflammation was observed in all subjects. Throughout the laser sessions and the outpatient follow-up clinic, the adverse effects of laser therapy, such as redness, spots, wrinkles, pores, and textures, decreased with the use of ANT1 cream. There has been a marked effect in wrinkle reduction in the patients who received a higher concentration of ANT1 cream (P ≤ 0.05). Statistically significant improvement in spots and pores is also seen (P ≤ 0.05). Through this study, the results suggest that the application of ANT1 soybean extract cream ameliorates the

  9. Curative effects of microneedle fractional radiofrequency system on skin laxity in Asian patients: A prospective, double-blind, randomized, controlled face-split study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wenli; Wu, Pinru; Zhang, Zhen; Chen, Jinan; Chen, Xiangdong; Ewelina, Biskup

    2017-04-01

    To date, no studies compared curative effects of thermal lesions in deep and superficial dermal layers in the same patient (face-split study). To evaluate skin laxity effects of microneedle fractional radiofrequency induced thermal lesions in different dermal layers. 13 patients underwent three sessions of a randomized face-split microneedle fractional radiofrequency system (MFRS) treatment of deep dermal and superficial dermal layer. Skin laxity changes were evaluated objectively (digital images, 2 independent experts) and subjectively (patients' satisfaction numerical rating). 12 of 13 subjects completed a course of 3 treatments and a 1-year follow-up. Improvement of nasolabial folds in deep dermal approach was significantly better than that in superficial approach at three months (P=.0002) and 12 months (P=.0057) follow-up. Effects on infraorbital rhytides were only slightly better (P=.3531). MFRS is an effective method to improve skin laxity. Thermal lesion approach seems to provide better outcomes when applied to deep dermal layers. It is necessary to consider the skin thickness of different facial regions when choosing the treatment depth.

  10. Architectural Identity in Changing Historical Areas: The Street Facades in Talimhane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selin YILDIZ

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Tourism is an important way of presenting a city’s cultural assets to the outside world and assisting in transferring such cultural wealth to new generations. However, a negative enviromental effect of tourism is the changing of a street’s historical building facades due to new functions required of it by the industry Talimhane district is selected as a key study to exemplify the adverse effects of building alterations in the historical areas. Talimhane is an area in which Early Republican buildings can be found and it has a special pattern that differs from surrounding areas. Changes over time and the conversion in exchange for the benefits of tourism in Talimhane’s streets are the barriers to maintaning the historical value of the area. The purpose of this study is to analyse data on building facades for the approaches of maintaining the integrity of architectural heritage spaces which are being transformed by tourism.

  11. Glass in building facades and indoor climate control in buildings: a case study in Sheffield, UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altan, H [The Univeristy of Sheffield, Sheffield, (United Kingdom); Mohelnikova, J. [Brno University of Technology, Brno, (Czech Republic)

    2010-07-01

    Designing buildings for energy savings requires taking into consideration the demands of the indoor environment from the start of the design process. The design and construction of low energy buildings has shown that an excessive tendency towards energy savings could led to problematic effects on the indoor climate in buildings, such as overheating or glare. In this paper, the Jessop West building of the University of Sheffield, recognized as one of the highest rated building in terms of environmental conditions, was studied for an initial daylight analysis in accordance with building daylighting requirements. The investigations took into consideration the building geometry with the position of the transparent area on the facades, the optical properties of the building facade glazing, and the interior surface finishing and colours. It was found that the natural ventilation and daylighting were delivering optimum indoor climate comfort and energy efficiency. The use of natural lighting, as opposed to additional artificial lights, accounted for a high level of energy savings.

  12. Numerical study on the thermal performance of a ventilated facade with PCM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gracia, Alvaro de; Navarro, Lidia; Castell, Albert; Cabeza, Luisa F.

    2013-01-01

    A new type of ventilated facade (VF) with macro-encapsulated phase change material (PCM) in its air cavity is presented in this paper. Two identical house-like cubicles located in Puigverd de Lleida (Spain) were monitored during 2012, and in one of them, the VF with PCM was implemented in the south wall. The versatility of the facade allows the system to reduce both heating and cooling loads. During winter, the PCM increases the heat storage capacity of the system exposed to solar radiation and during summer the system can be used as a cold storage unit or as a night free cooling device. From the experimental winter campaign, important net electrical energy savings were registered due to the use of the VF. On the other hand, no net energy savings were achieved during summer due to excessive use of mechanical ventilation. In this paper, an own developed numerical model, based on finite control volume approach, was validated against experimental data and it is used to select the operational schedule of both solidification and melting processes in order to achieve net electrical energy savings. During the mild summer period the system presents a net energy supply of 2.49 MJ/day. This value would be increased by 61.6% if a wooden structure would have been used instead of the current metallic structure. Moreover, the high hysteresis of the PCM limits strongly the potential of the system in supplying cooling during the severe summer period. -- Highlights: • Numerical study of the thermal performance of a ventilated facade with PCM. • The study considers cooling purposes. • Operational schedule and use of fans during solidification of PCM optimization. • Net energy supply of 2.49 MJ/day during mild summer from the ventilated facade. • Storage efficiency would maximize with more mechanical ventilation during less time

  13. Acoustic characteristics of urban streets in relation to scattering caused by building facades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Onaga, Hiroshi; Rindel, Jens Holger

    2007-01-01

    The relationship between scattering and the acoustic characteristics of urban streets is examined by computer simulation. The simulation method is a combination of the image method for specular reflection and the radiosity method for scattering reflection. The findings are as follows: (1) the eff...... streets. (4) The estimated values for the sum of absorption coefficient and scattering coefficient of facades of actual urban streets range from 0.1 to 0.25....

  14. Performance of PV-Trombe wall in winter correlated with south facade design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Wei; Ji, Jie; Luo, Chenglong; He, Wei

    2011-01-01

    PV-Trombe wall (PVTW) is a novel version of Trombe-wall. Photovoltaic cells on the cover glazing of the PVTW can convert solar radiation into electricity and heat simultaneously. A window on the south facade can also introduce solar heat into the room in the winter season. Experiment has been conducted to study the temperature field of a building with both southern facing window and the PVTW. A dynamic numerical model is developed for the simulation of the whole building system. The temperature of the indoor air is found to be vertically stratified from the measurement. The nodal model is adopted to calculate the temperature profile in the room. The simulation results are in good agreement with the experimental data. The different south facade designs affect the thermal efficiency of the PVTW significantly from the numerical simulation. With a southern facing window, the thermal efficiency of the PVTW is reduced by 27% relatively. The increase of PV coverage on the glazing can reduce the thermal efficiency of the TW by up to 17%. By taking account of electric conversion, the total efficiency of solar utilization is reduced by 5% at most while the glazing is fully covered with PV cells. The electric conversion efficiency of the PVTW achieves 11.6%, and is slightly affected by south facade designs.

  15. The effect of building facade reflectivity on urban dwellers in tropics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishak, N. M.; Hien, W. N.; Jenatabadi, H. S.; Ignatius, M.; Yaman, R.

    2018-02-01

    With the rapid growth and use of modern architecture practices for high-rise buildings, highly reflective materials have been adopted extensively for aesthetical reasons. However, outdoor glare from highly reflective facades might cause thermal and visual problems towards the occupants of neighbouring buildings and outdoor dwellers, particularly pedestrians. In tropical countries, this negative impact can be greater due to the higher solar radiation received throughout the year. At the present, there are few building guidelines limiting outdoor glare, or daylight reflectance from a building facade. This study aims to introduce a framework for outdoor glare studies that focus on perceived glare from highly reflective facades by pedestrians in Singapore. The introduced framework includes age, glare time, glare duration, avoidance and sensitiveness. For this study, the survey is carried out with the application of Structural Equation Modelling (SEM). This paper is helpful for planners, designers, and engineers to estimate the sensitivity of pedestrians’ discomfort glare and towards the creation of sustainable architecture in Singapore.

  16. Global warming implications of facade parameters: A life cycle assessment of residential buildings in Bahrain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radhi, Hassan; Sharples, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    On a global scale, the Gulf Corporation Council Countries (GCCC), including Bahrain, are amongst the top countries in terms of carbon dioxide emissions per capita. Building authority in Bahrain has set a target of 40% reduction of electricity consumption and associated CO 2 emissions to be achieved by using facade parameters. This work evaluates how the life cycle CO 2 emissions of buildings are affected by facade parameters. The main focus is placed on direct and indirect CO 2 emissions from three contributors, namely, chemical reactions during production processes (Pco 2 ), embodied energy (Eco 2 ) and operational energy (OPco 2 ). By means of the life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology, it has been possible to show that the greatest environmental impact occurs during the operational phase (80–90%). However, embodied CO 2 emissions are an important factor that needs to be brought into the systems used for appraisal of projects, and hence into the design decisions made in developing projects. The assessment shows that masonry blocks are responsible for 70–90% of the total CO 2 emissions of facade construction, mainly due to their physical characteristics. The highest Pco 2 emissions factors are those of window elements, particularly aluminium frames. However, their contribution of CO 2 emissions depends largely on the number and size of windows. Each square metre of glazing is able to increase the total CO 2 emissions by almost 30% when compared with the same areas of opaque walls. The use of autoclaved aerated concrete (AAC) walls reduces the total life cycle CO 2 emissions by almost 5.2% when compared with ordinary walls, while the use of thermal insulation with concrete wall reduces CO 2 emissions by 1.2%. The outcome of this work offers to the building industry a reliable indicator of the environmental impact of residential facade parameters. - Highlights: ► Life cycle carbon assessment of façade parameters. ► Greatest environmental impact occurs

  17. Integrated safety summary of CANVAS 1 and 2 trials: Phase III, randomized, double-blind studies evaluating ceftaroline fosamil for the treatment of patients with complicated skin and skin structure infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrado, Michael L

    2010-11-01

    Treatment of complicated skin and skin structure infections (cSSSIs) requires therapy that is effective against a range of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, including resistant pathogens such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Equally important is the need to provide therapy that is safe and well tolerated. Ceftaroline fosamil is a new-generation, parenteral cephalosporin that was developed for the treatment of moderate to severe bacterial infections, including cSSSIs. This report provides an integrated safety summary of the CeftAroliNe Versus VAncomycin in Skin and Skin Structure Infections (CANVAS) 1 and 2 studies (registration numbers NCT00424190 and NCT00423657). Adult patients with cSSSIs requiring intravenous therapy received 600 mg of ceftaroline fosamil every 12 h or 1 g of vancomycin plus 1 g of aztreonam every 12 h for 5-14 days (randomized 1 : 1). All patients were followed for treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) occurring from the start of the initial study drug infusion up to the test-of-cure visit, ∼1 week following the last dose of study medication; serious adverse events (SAEs) that occurred within 30 days after the last dose were recorded. A total of 1378 patients received any amount of study drug and were included in the safety analysis. The percentage of patients with an SAE was similar between the ceftaroline fosamil and the vancomycin plus aztreonam groups (4.3% versus 4.1%). The majority of patients (>75%) had either no or mild TEAEs and the distribution of TEAEs based on severity was comparable between the groups. The most commonly reported TEAEs in patients treated with ceftaroline fosamil included nausea (5.9%), headache (5.2%), diarrhoea (4.9%) and pruritus (3.5%). Ceftaroline fosamil was well tolerated and did not result in any unexpected safety concerns. The data from the CANVAS trials suggest that ceftaroline fosamil has the expected safety and tolerability profile common to the cephalosporin class.

  18. A silica-supported double-decker silsesquioxane provides a second skin for the selective generation of bipodal surface organometallic complexes

    KAUST Repository

    Espinas, Jeff

    2012-11-12

    A well-defined silica-based material with a homogeneous nanolayer presenting identical pairs of vicinal silanols has been prepared by reaction of the surface organometallic species [≡SiOZr(CH 2CMe 3) 3], obtained on a silica dehydroxylated at 900 °C, with the double-decker-shaped silsesquioxane (OH) 2DD(OH) 2. The surface structure has been established using extensive NMR characterization ( 1H, 13C, 29Si, HETCOR, double-quantum, triple-quantum). Treatment with Zr(CH 2CMe 3) 4 leads to the first well-defined single-site bipodal grafted bis-neopentyl zirconium complex. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  19. Evaluating economic and environmental aspects of using solar panels on multi-angled facades of office buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannoudi, Loay Akram; Lauring, Michael; Christensen, Jørgen Erik

    2017-09-01

    This paper is concerned with using solar panels as high-tech cladding materials on multi-angled facades for office buildings. The energy produced by the solar panels will be consumed inside the office rooms by cooling compressors, ventilation, lighting and office equipment. Each multi-angled facade unit is directed into two different orientations on a vertical axis (right and left), but not tilted up and down. The different facade orientations will optimize the use of solar radiation to produce the needed energy from the solar panels when placing them on the parapets of these facades. In this regard, four scenarios with different facade configurations and orientations are evaluated and discussed. The method for the simulations and calculations depends on two main programs: first, IDA ICE program to calculate the energy consumption and evaluate the indoor climate of the building; and second, PVBAT to calculate the cost of the electricity produced by the solar panels and evaluate the total amount of energy produced from these panels along with the ratio to the energy bought directly from the electricity grid. There is also an environmental evaluation for the system by calculating the CO2 emissions in the different scenarios.

  20. Bridging the gap between selection decisions of facade systems at the early design phase: Issues, challenges and solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Kassema

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Building facade has a significant impact on the environmental and economic performance of buildings and projects. The specification of their elements at the early design phase depends on numerous technical, environmental and economic factors and involves several stakeholders. The procurement and delivery of the facade work package from the early design phase, through detailed design and manufacture, to installation is a process with several inherent risk factors due to the involved cost, technical and engineering complexities and its position on the critical path in all projects. This research investigates the process of selection and specification of building facade elements at the early design phases with the overarching aim of identifying the issues affecting specification decisions, their root causes and impact on projects. The research utilizes a mixed research approach which combines a retrospective case study and an industry survey as two research methods that build on each other. The findings suggest that the complexity of specification at the early design phases is exacerbated by factors such as the inadequate technical knowledge of stakeholders involved in the decision making process, the non-involvement of building facade consultants, the late involvement of specialist facade subcontractors, and in a few cases by some commercial exclusivity agreements that restricts specification decisions. 

  1. Sagging Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Every Season How to Choose the Best Skin Care Products In This Section Dermatologic Surgery What is dermatologic ... for Every Season How to Choose the Best Skin Care Products Sagging Skin Treatment Options Learn more about the ...

  2. Integrated analysis of CANVAS 1 and 2: phase 3, multicenter, randomized, double-blind studies to evaluate the safety and efficacy of ceftaroline versus vancomycin plus aztreonam in complicated skin and skin-structure infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corey, G Ralph; Wilcox, Mark; Talbot, George H; Friedland, H David; Baculik, Tanya; Witherell, Gary W; Critchley, Ian; Das, Anita F; Thye, Dirk

    2010-09-15

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a common cause of complicated skin and skin-structure infection (cSSSI). Increasing antimicrobial resistance in cSSSI has led to a need for new safe and effective therapies. Ceftaroline was evaluated as treatment for cSSSI in 2 identical phase 3 clinical trials, the pooled analysis of which is presented here. The primary objective of each trial was to determine the noninferiority of the clinical cure rate achieved with ceftaroline monotherapy, compared with that achieved with vancomycin plus aztreonam combination therapy, in the clinically evaluable (CE) and modified intent-to-treat (MITT) patient populations. Adult patients with cSSSI requiring intravenous therapy received ceftaroline (600 mg every 12 h) or vancomycin plus aztreonam (1 g each every 12 h) for 5-14 days. Of 1378 patients enrolled in both trials, 693 received ceftaroline and 685 received vancomycin plus aztreonam. Baseline characteristics of the treatment groups were comparable. Clinical cure rates were similar for ceftaroline and vancomycin plus aztreonam in the CE (91.6% vs 92.7%) and MITT (85.9% vs 85.5%) populations, respectively, as well as in patients infected with MRSA (93.4% vs 94.3%). The rates of adverse events, discontinuations because of an adverse event, serious adverse events, and death also were similar between treatment groups. Ceftaroline achieved high clinical cure rates, was efficacious against cSSSI caused by MRSA and other common cSSSI pathogens, and was well tolerated, with a safety profile consistent with the cephalosporin class. Ceftaroline has the potential to provide a monotherapy alternative for the treatment of cSSSI. ClinicalTrials.gov identifiers: NCT00424190 for CANVAS 1 and NCT00423657 for CANVAS 2.

  3. Quantification of ventilated facade efficiency by using computational fluid mechanics techniques; Cuantificacion de la eficiencia de la fachada ceramica ventilada mediante tecnicas de la mecanica de fluidos computacional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mora Perez, M.; Lopez Patino, G.; Bengochea Escribano, M. A.; Lopez Jimenez, P. A.

    2011-07-01

    In some countries, summer over-heating is a big problem in a buildings energy balance. Ventilated facades are a useful tool when applied to building design, especially in bio climatic building design. A ventilated facade is a complex, multi-layer structural solution that enables dry installation of the covering elements. The objective of this paper is to quantify the efficiency improvement in the building thermal when this sort of facade is installed. These improvements are due to convection produced in the air gap of the facade. This convection depends on the air movement inside the gap and the heat transmission in this motion. These quantities are mathematically modelled by Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) techniques using a commercial code: STAR CCM+. The proposed method allows an assessment of the energy potential of the ventilated facade and its capacity for cooling. (Author) 23 refs.

  4. Projecting of PV facades in consideration of PV-specific operating conditions; Besonderheiten bei der Projektierung von Photovoltaik-Fassadenanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decker, B.; Grimmig, B.; Mencke, D. [Institut fuer Solarenergieforschung GmbH Hameln/Emmerthal (ISFH), Emmerthal (Germany). Gruppe Photovoltaik-Systeme; Stellbogen, D. [Zentrum fuer Sonnenenergie- und Wasserstoff-Forschung Baden-Wuerttemberg (ZSW), Stuttgart (Germany). Fachgebiet Photovoltaische Anlagentechnik

    1998-02-01

    PV facades can provide several additional functions such as weather protection, thermal insulation, daylighting or sun protection. On the other hand, specific operating conditions for PV facades must be taken into account when selecting components and designing the system. Depending on ventilation conditions, there is a large range of maximum module temperatures. South-oriented PV facades receive about 30% less yearly irradiation than an optimally inclined PV generator, hence reflection losses are approximately 4% higher. The maximum of yearly irradiation lies only in the 400-600 W/m{sup 2} range. Surrounding buildings and/or vegetation can impair performance of the PV-facades. For a south-oriented PV facade an annual yield in the range of 470-560 kwh/kW{sub p}.a has been prodicted which was verified by operating results of eight PV facades. (orig.) [Deutsch] Photovoltaik (PV) Fassaden ermoeglichen neben der Stromerzeugung zusaetzliche Funktionen wie Wetterschutz bzw. Waermedaemmung des Gebaeudes oder Tageslichtnutzung bzw. Sonnenschutz der Innenraeume. Allerdings muessen fassadenspezifische Betriebsbedingungen, bei der Komponentenauswahl und Systemauslegung beruecksichtigt werden. Unterschiedliche Hinterlueftungsbedingungen fuehren zu einer grossen Bandbreite der maximalen Modultemperatur. PV-Suedfassaden empfangen etwa 30% weniger Jahreseinstrahlung als ein optimal geneigter PV-Generator. Die Haelfte der jaehrlichen Einstrahlung trifft mit Einfallswinkeln groesser 50 auf die vertikal angeordneten Module wodurch die Reflexionsverluste um ca. 4% hoeher sind. Das Maximum der Jahreseinstrahlung liegt nur um 400-600 W/m{sup 2} und erreicht selten Werte ueber 800 W/m{sup 2}. Umliegende Gebaeude oder Vegetation koennen zu Teilabschattungen des Generators fuehren. Fuer eine vertikale PV-Suedfassade wird ein Jahresenergieertrag in Hoehe von 470-560 kWh/kW{sub p}.a prognostiziert, der anhand der Betriebsergebnisse von acht PV-Fassadenanlagen verifiziert werden konnte

  5. Fire risk related to the use of PV systems in building facades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazziotti Lamberto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the use of photovoltaic (PV systems in buildings is not only related to the solar energy conversion into electrical one, but these PV modules or panels could also be used with aesthetic features or, even more, as thermal protection systems in building facades. Thanks to the technical development of the photovoltaic industry, PV system can easily be architectonically integrated into building construction elements such as roofs, vertical façade components, both with opaque or transparent surfaces. Furthermore, PV construction facades elements could also be provided by openings like doors or windows. Accident analysis show that the use of PV systems as construction elements could increase the risk of fire in buildings. In fact, international and National data report a growing number of fire caused by PV system applied or integrated in buildings. The Italian National Fire Service, that is the Authority having jurisdiction for fire safety in buildings (in Italy, in 2012 has released a Guideline in order to asses and mitigate the risk of fire when a PV system is put in place on a building as a façade or as a roof. The Guideline addresses not only the reduction of the PV fire ignitions causes and the aspects related to the fire spread due to the combustible parts that constitute PV modules or panels, but also take into account the safety of both the maintenance personnel and the rescue teams. This paper focuses on the fire safety aspects related to the use of fire PV panels and systems in building facades, showing some interesting experimental data related to the fire behaviour of these components and underlining the factors that promote the spread of fire, like the high operating temperature of the PV system itself.

  6. CRITERIA EFFECTS THE DECISIONS IN THE SELECTION OF FACADES FOR THE TALL BUILDINGS IN UAE

    OpenAIRE

    C. M. Jacob; Prof. J. K. Tandon

    2017-01-01

    This is a research study as a part of detailed research on “a critical study of decision making process in the project management of facades for the tall buildings in UAE”. This study explore into the criteria effects the decisions in the selection of façades for the tall buildings in UAE. Façades of Tall buildings demands specific requirements to withstand the natural forces and to function the performance requirements as a wall without sacrificing the aesthetic requirements. Design, Enginee...

  7. The Analysis of Needs for Heating and Cooling Energy in the Administrative Building with Big Glazing Facades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilūnė Pikelytė

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the influence of big glazing facades on the needs for heating and cooling energy.Three ways of modelling the needs for energy were chosen. The influence of the orientation of the glazing facade and different heat – optical features of glazing on energy needs was established. The paper analyzed the influence of the measures of passive energy saving on the needs for heating and cooling.A comparison of calculation results applying two methods suggesting the needs for cooling energy was made and energy costs of actual and normal heating were examined.Article in Lithuanian

  8. Skin Biomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fyhrquist, N; Salava, A; Auvinen, P; Lauerma, A

    2016-05-01

    The cutaneous microbiome has been investigated broadly in recent years and some traditional perspectives are beginning to change. A diverse microbiome exists on human skin and has a potential to influence pathogenic microbes and modulate the course of skin disorders, e.g. atopic dermatitis. In addition to the known dysfunctions in barrier function of the skin and immunologic disturbances, evidence is rising that frequent skin disorders, e.g. atopic dermatitis, might be connected to a dysbiosis of the microbial community and changes in the skin microbiome. As a future perspective, examining the skin microbiome could be seen as a potential new diagnostic and therapeutic target in inflammatory skin disorders.

  9. Skin Picking Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinar Cetinay Aydin

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Skin picking disorder is not a dermatological disorder and it is a table characterized with picking skin excessively and repetitively, leading to damage in skin tissue. Unlike normal picking behaviour, psychogenic skin picking is repetitive and it can lead to severe damage in the skin and even complications which constitute vital danger. While some patients define frequent but short lasting picking attacks, others define rarer attacks which last a few hours. Skin picking disorder, which is not included in the classification systems up to DSM-5 as a separate diagnosis category, is included as an independent diagnosis in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder and Associated Disorders category in DSM-5. In case reports, open label studies and double blind studies selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are shown to be effective in the treatment of skin picking disorder. Mostly, cognitive-behaviourial techniques are used and have been proven to be useful in psychotherapy. Habit reversal is one of the behaviourial techniques which are frequently applied, give positive results in which well-being state can be maintained. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2014; 6(4.000: 401-428

  10. Ceramic photovoltaic panel for ventilated facade; Placa ceramica fotovoltaica para fachadas ventiladas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pastrana, A.

    2012-07-01

    Gres de la Mancha, in response to the increasing demand for friendly with the environment products, and realizing towards the use of renewable energies and the energy efficiency in the construction, has developed his new ceramic ecological photovoltaic panel ECOCERAVOLT developed for its use in systems of Ventilated Facade. ECOCERAVOLT joins the benefits of the ventilated facade (energy saving, thermal - acoustic isolation, increase of the comfort in the buildings, reduction of the emission of CO{sub 2}, etc.) and the generation of electrical energy without compromising neither the aesthetics of the frontage, not of the building. This way, it puts itself in value on the direct and indirect exhibition to the sun of the frontages, which happen of being passive elements of closing and decoration, to be generators of a clean energy for proper or commercial use. ECOCERAVOLT, due to its design, does not need to be hidden, as it happens with other photovoltaic generators. These technical and innovative merits imply the entire optimization of the installed revetment in addition to creating a criterion of sustain ability and energy efficiency. (Author)

  11. RELEVANT OBJECTIVES OF ASSURANCE OF RELIABILITY OF FACADE SYSTEMS SERVING THERMAL INSULATION AND FINISHING PURPOSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yavorskiy Andrey Andreevich

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors consider up-to-date methods of implementation of requirements stipulated by Federal Law no. 261-FZ that encompasses reduction of heat losses through installation of progressive heat-insulation systems, cement plaster system (CPS, and ventilated facades (VF. Unresolved problems of their efficient application caused by the absence of the all-Russian regulatory documents capable of controlling the processes of their installation and maintenance, as well as the projection of their behaviour, are also considered in the article. The authors argue that professional skills of designers and construction workers responsible for the design and installation of façade systems influence the quality and reliability of design and construction works. Unavailability of unified solutions or regulations serves as the objective reason for the unavailability of the respective database; therefore, there is an urgent need to perform a set of researches to have the unified database compiled. The authors use the example of thermal insulation cement plaster systems designated for facades as results of researches into the quantitative analysis of safety systems. Collected and systematized data that cover defects that have proven to be reasons for failures, as well as potential methods of their prevention are also studied. Data on pilot studies of major factors of influence onto reliability of glutinous adhesion of CPS to the base of a wall are provided.

  12. Coupled structure-from-motion and 3D symmetry detection for urban facades

    KAUST Repository

    Ceylan, Duygu

    2014-01-01

    Repeated structures are ubiquitous in urban facades. Such repetitions lead to ambiguity in establishing correspondences across sets of unordered images. A decoupled structure-from-motion reconstruction followed by symmetry detection often produces errors: outputs are either noisy and incomplete, or even worse, appear to be valid but actually have a wrong number of repeated elements.We present an optimization framework for extracting repeated elements in images of urban facades, while simultaneously calibrating the input images and recovering the 3D scene geometry using a graph-based global analysis. We evaluate the robustness of the proposed scheme on a range of challenging examples containing widespread repetitions and nondistinctive features. These image sets are common but cannot be handled well with state-of-the-art methods. We show that the recovered symmetry information along with the 3D geometry enables a range of novel image editing operations that maintain consistency across the images. © 2014 ACM 0730-0301/2014/01-ART3 15.00.

  13. Production cell implementation in the facade execution: a construction case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Nunes Mariz

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The construction industry is an environment with much waste. An alternative that could minimize this problem is Lean Thinking, as it focuses on eliminating waste. A widely used tool in lean manufacturing is the production cell, whose main goal is to keep production in continuo flow. In the construction context, the applications of this tool are still incipient, arousing the interest to be further investigated. The aim of this study is to analyze how a production cell was applied in a facade service execution and evaluate this result. We used the case study method in a contractor with experience in facades execution. We collected qualitative data (in situ observations and interviews with employees and quantitative (time and cost data supplied by the contractor. After the data were analyzed (before and after cell implementation Through analysis and literature review we decided to follow those steps: a methods b materials c people d equipments and machines. The results point out improvement in the employee relationship with the administration, increased employee commitment, cost savings with direct labor and increase the pay received by employees. This paper contributes to expanding the use of this tool (production cell in the construction and shows that through this application, many benefits can be achieved.

  14. Assessing facade value - how clients make business cases in changing real estate markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra den Heijer

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Relevance: The value of any intervention in the built environment is most relevant for the stakeholders that are investing in it. For them all costs need to be balanced with benefits - not necessarily directly financial, but adding value to the performance of the accommodated organization. Business cases contain performance criteria like competitive advantage (branding the organization, productivity (optimally supporting users of the building, profitability (on organizational level and sustainable development (monitoring the ecological footprint. In the changing real estate markets – from supply-driven to demand-driven and with increasingly higher vacancy rates – priorities in decisions about buildings have been shifting.Purpose: This paper elaborates on how (a the trends in real estate markets and (b changing priorities in decision making affect the quality demand for buildings and their facades.Design/methodology/approach: This paper is based on research of the Real Estate Management chair in general (market analysis, transformation trends, conceptual frameworks and more specifically on decisions about university campuses in the past 10 years (14 campuses and 57 buildings assessed.Findings: This paper provides both conceptual frameworks to assess the (added value of interventions in the built environment for the client and their (changing priorities in the brief for buildings and their facades.

  15. Evaluation of Preemptive Use of Analgesia of The Skin, Before and After Lower Abdominal Surgery: A Prospective, Double-Blind, Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Kashefi

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Perioperative pain is prevalent and poorly treated. Apart from that it makes the recovery from surgery unpleasent, pain often remains as a residual side effect of surgery, even though the tissue healing is complete. An essential observation is that tissue injury and the resulting nociceptor barrage initiates a cascade of events that can indelibly alter pain perception. Preemptive analgesia is the concept of initiating analgesic therapy before the onset of the noxious stimulus so as to prevent the nociceptor barrage and its consequences. However, anticipated clinical potency of preemptive analgesia, though has firmly grounded in the neurobiology of pain, has not been yet realized. As data accumulates, it has become clear that clinical studies emulating those from the laboratory and designed around a relatively narrow definition of preemptive analgesia have been largely unsupportive of its use. Nevertheless, preemptive analgesic interventions that recognize the intensity, duration, and somatotopic extent of major surgery can help reduce perioperative pain and its longer-term sequelae. surgeons spend a lot of time treating the pain of lower abdominal surgery. Methods: A total number of 48 consecutive patients who were going to undergo elective lower abdominal surgery. Were randomly assigned in two groups of 24 each. In one group the patients received an injection of 0.5 % bupivacaine in the planned skin for incision just before lower abdominal surgery, and in the other group, they received an equal amount of 0.5% bupivacaine after the surgery had been done. Pain was objectified by a numerical visual pain score, in the 24 hours following the lower abdominal surgery. Results: There were no differences in postoperative pain scores on the visual analog scale (VAS: In groups 1and 2, VAS at hour 4 were 6.37±1.13 versus 6.29±1.19; At hour 8 were 5.54 ± 1.17 versus 5.37±1.09; and at hour 12 were 4.5 ± 1.31 versus 4.45 ± 1

  16. Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Trial to Evaluate the Effectiveness of Polypodium Leucotomos Extract in the Treatment of Melasma in Asian Skin: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Chee-Leok; Chuah, Sai Yee; Tien, Steven; Thng, Guan; Vitale, María Alejandra; Delgado-Rubin, Arancha

    2018-03-01

    Introduction: Melasma is a common pigmentary disorder with a multifactorial etiology that can hinder its management. The aqueous extract of the fern Polypodium leucotomos (PLE), Fernblock ® (IFC, Madrid, Spain), has demonstrated antioxidant and photoprotective activities and has been used for the treatment of several pigmentary disorders. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of oral PLE in the treatment of melasma in Asian patients. Methods: Forty healthy adult patients with clinical diagnoses of melasma who were receiving treatment with topical 4% hydroquinone cream and sunscreen with a sun protection factor (SPF) of 50+ were recruited for inclusion in this study from the National Skin Centre in Singapore. They were randomized to receive either oral PLE supplementation or placebo for 12 weeks. Patients were assessed at baseline, Day 28, Day 56, and Day 84 using the modified Melasma Area and Severity Index (mMASI); melanin and erythema indexes; VISIA ® photography (Canfield Scientific, Parsippany, New Jersey, USA); and the Melasma Quality of Life (MelasQoL) questionnaire. Adverse events were recorded. Results: Following four, eight, and 12 weeks of treatment, there were statistically significant differences between the mMASI scores of both groups as compared with the baseline scores ( p ≤0.01). mMASI scores of the PLE group at eight and 12 weeks were also significantly lower than those of the placebo group ( p ≤0.05). At the end of the study, a significant improvement was reached in both groups (both p ≤0.01), with no significant differences between them. The scores of the melanin and erythema indices displayed a slight improvement in both groups, without significant differences among them. MelasQoL score showed an improvement in the PLE group versus the placebo group. Our results demonstrate that the PLE aqueous extract product significantly improves and accelerates the outcome reached with hydroquinone and sunscreen almost from

  17. Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Trial to Evaluate the Effectiveness of Polypodium Leucotomos Extract in the Treatment of Melasma in Asian Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuah, Sai Yee; Tien, Steven; Thng, Guan; Vitale, María Alejandra; Delgado-Rubin, Arancha

    2018-01-01

    Introduction: Melasma is a common pigmentary disorder with a multifactorial etiology that can hinder its management. The aqueous extract of the fern Polypodium leucotomos (PLE), Fernblock® (IFC, Madrid, Spain), has demonstrated antioxidant and photoprotective activities and has been used for the treatment of several pigmentary disorders. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of oral PLE in the treatment of melasma in Asian patients. Methods: Forty healthy adult patients with clinical diagnoses of melasma who were receiving treatment with topical 4% hydroquinone cream and sunscreen with a sun protection factor (SPF) of 50+ were recruited for inclusion in this study from the National Skin Centre in Singapore. They were randomized to receive either oral PLE supplementation or placebo for 12 weeks. Patients were assessed at baseline, Day 28, Day 56, and Day 84 using the modified Melasma Area and Severity Index (mMASI); melanin and erythema indexes; VISIA® photography (Canfield Scientific, Parsippany, New Jersey, USA); and the Melasma Quality of Life (MelasQoL) questionnaire. Adverse events were recorded. Results: Following four, eight, and 12 weeks of treatment, there were statistically significant differences between the mMASI scores of both groups as compared with the baseline scores (p≤0.01). mMASI scores of the PLE group at eight and 12 weeks were also significantly lower than those of the placebo group (p≤0.05). At the end of the study, a significant improvement was reached in both groups (both p≤0.01), with no significant differences between them. The scores of the melanin and erythema indices displayed a slight improvement in both groups, without significant differences among them. MelasQoL score showed an improvement in the PLE group versus the placebo group. Our results demonstrate that the PLE aqueous extract product significantly improves and accelerates the outcome reached with hydroquinone and sunscreen almost from the first

  18. Wind interference between two high-rise building models: Interference factors for minimum peak pressures on facades and roof

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bronkhorst, A.J.; Geurts, C.P.W.; Bentum, C.A. van; Blocken, B.

    2014-01-01

    A wind tunnel study was performed to assess the influence of interference between two high-rise building models on the minimum peak pressure coefficients on facades and roof. A total of 33 configurations were investigated for 24 angles of incidence. The influence of a square and circular interfering

  19. A set of essential requirements towards standardising the numerical simulation of blast-loaded windows and facades

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larcher, M.; Stolz, A.; Millon, O.; Bedon, C.; C, K.; Doormaal, J.C.A.M. van; Haberacker, C.; Hüsken, G.; Larcher, M.; Millon, O.; Saarenheimo, A.; Solomos, G.; Stolz, A.; Thamie, L.; Valsamos, G.; Williams, A.

    2015-01-01

    The determination of the blast protection level of laminated glass windows and facades is of crucial importance, and it is normally done by using experimental investigations. In recent years numerical methods have become much more powerful also with respect to this kind of application. This report

  20. Skin Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Abscess Cellulitis Taking Care of Your Skin Abscess Impetigo Ringworm Cellulitis Should I Pop My Pimple? Tips for Taking Care of Your Skin Impetigo Paronychia Pityriasis Rosea Abscess View more Partner Message ...

  1. Skin Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... too. Sunlight is a major cause of skin aging. You can protect yourself by staying out of ... person has smoked. Many products claim to revitalize aging skin or reduce wrinkles, but the Food and ...

  2. Skin graft

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... caused a large amount of skin loss Burns Cosmetic reasons or reconstructive surgeries where there has been skin damage or skin ... anesthesia are: Reactions to medicines Problems with breathing Risks for this surgery are: Bleeding Chronic pain (rarely) Infection Loss of ...

  3. Skin optics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gemert, M. J.; Jacques, S. L.; Sterenborg, H. J.; Star, W. M.

    1989-01-01

    Quantitative dosimetry in the treatment of skin disorders with (laser) light requires information on propagation of light in the skin related to the optical properties of the individual skin layers. This involves the solution of the integro-differential equation of radiative transfer in a model

  4. Evaluating solar irradiance over facades in high building cities, based on LiDAR technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martínez-Rubio, A.; Sanz-Adan, F.; Santamaría-Peña, J.; Martínez, Araceli

    2016-01-01

    results show clear evidence of the influence of the shade effect produced by both, the building itself and other nearby buildings. Even if the shading effect is a factor that determines the irradiation gradient, the orientation of the facades has been proven to be the most important parameter in seeking a higher value of irradiation. As a result, south facing walls present wider regions with greater irradiance values, which are of interest for photovoltaic implementation. In addition, monthly analyses have shown that the best-oriented facades have produce their maximum solar power during equinox months, March and September. This method is considered as a useful tool for sustainable urban planning and for building integrated photovoltaics development. Although the entire envelope of a building can be studied, this paper is limited to the analysis of the facades.

  5. Quantifying environmental performance of Jali screen facades for contemporary buildings in Lahore, Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batool, Ayesha

    Jali screens are traditional window treatments in vernacular buildings throughout South Asia and the Middle East. Contemporary builders are starting to incorporate Jali screens as decorative facade elements; however, architects and scholars have largely ignored the impact of Jali screens on overall building energy and day-lighting performance. This research evaluates the effect of Jali screens, across a range of perforation ratios, on energy utilization and day-lighting quality in contemporary office buildings. The data collection and analysis is through fieldwork in Lahore, Pakistan, as well as through computational energy modeling. Results demonstrate that Jali screens have a promising positive impact on cooling loads and may improve visual comfort. The findings suggest a holistic perspective combining traditional architecture and performance enhancement by architects and designers.

  6. DETERMINING THE THERMAL RESISTANCE OF A VENTILATED HINGED FACADE SYSTEM LAYER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gagarin Vladimir Gennad'evich

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Enveloping structures with hinged façade systems are nowadays widely used for moisture control of enveloping structures, prevention of overheating of the structures by insolation, saving the constructions from atmospheric moisture and also for correspondence with the raised requirements to thermal protection of the enveloping structures, aimed also at reducing energy consumption. In the winter conditions the influence of air layer on the thermal insulation parameters is usually neglected. In the article the thermal resistance of an air gap and is considered and its effect in the calculation of the heat resistance of a building envelope with hinged facade system is analyzed in the conditions of cold weather. The thermal resistance of the air layer determines how the heat losses decrease.

  7. Application of Prefabricated Panels for the Energy Retrofit of Portuguese Residential Buildings Facades: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sousa J.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to evaluate the potential application of prefabricated panels in energy retrofit of facades in the Portuguese building stock. The fundamentals of this study were part of Annex 50, which was an international ECBCS IEA project, with the purpose of developing an innovative concept of building renovation for the most representative buildings based on prefabricated systems. To analyze the potential application of energy retrofit using prefabricated panels, was important to know the reality of the existing building stock and its morphology. To know the reality of the building stock, an analysis was done based on the existing statistical data and to find the most representative residential buildings, target of the study, three criteria were defined: buildings built before 1990, with 2 to 6 floors and with renovation needs in the exterior envelope.

  8. BUILDING FACADE DOCUMENTATION USING LASER SCANNING AND PHOTOGRAMMETRY AND DATA IMPLEMENTATION INTO BIM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Faltýnová

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A project started last year called MORE-CONNECT, which focuses on the renovation of buildings (especially building facades using prefabricated elements. The aim of this project is to create a competitive solution consisting of a technology and processes which enable fast, cost-effective renovation with minimal difficulties to inhabitants. Significant cost savings in renovation costs lies in the usage of prefabricated elements and the reduction of construction works on site. The precision of the prefabricated element depends on the precision of the construction, project and building documentation. This article offers an overview of the possible methods for building documentation and spatial data transfer into BIM (Building Information Modelling software. The description of methods focuses on laser scanning and photogrammetry (including RPAS based, its advantages, disadvantages and limitations according to the documented building, level of renovation, situation on site etc. The next part involves spatial data transfer into BIM software. A proposed solution is tested in a case study.

  9. Design of Blast-Loaded Glazing Windows and Facades: A Review of Essential Requirements towards Standardization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Larcher

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The determination of the blast protection level of laminated glass windows and facades is of crucial importance, and it is normally done by using experimental investigations. In recent years numerical methods have become much more powerful also with respect to this kind of application. This paper attempts to give a first idea of a possible standardization concerning such numerical simulations. Attention is drawn to the representation of the blast loading and to the proper description of the behaviour of the material of the mentioned products, to the geometrical meshing, and to the modelling of the connections of the glass components to the main structure. The need to validate the numerical models against reliable experimental data, some of which are indicated, is underlined.

  10. Building Facade Documentation Using Laser Scanning and Photogrammetry and Data Implementation Into Bim

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faltýnová, M.; Matoušková, E.; Šedina, J.; Pavelka, K.

    2016-06-01

    A project started last year called MORE-CONNECT, which focuses on the renovation of buildings (especially building facades) using prefabricated elements. The aim of this project is to create a competitive solution consisting of a technology and processes which enable fast, cost-effective renovation with minimal difficulties to inhabitants. Significant cost savings in renovation costs lies in the usage of prefabricated elements and the reduction of construction works on site. The precision of the prefabricated element depends on the precision of the construction, project and building documentation. This article offers an overview of the possible methods for building documentation and spatial data transfer into BIM (Building Information Modelling) software. The description of methods focuses on laser scanning and photogrammetry (including RPAS based), its advantages, disadvantages and limitations according to the documented building, level of renovation, situation on site etc. The next part involves spatial data transfer into BIM software. A proposed solution is tested in a case study.

  11. Assessing facade value - how clients make business cases in changing real estate markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Den Heijer

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Corresponding author: Dr. ir. Alexandra den Heijer, Delft University of Technology (TU Delft, Faculty of Architecture and the Built Environment, Department of Real Estate & Housing, Julianalaan 134, 2628 BL Delft, The Netherlands. Tel.: +31 15 278 4159; E-mail: a.c.denheijer@tudelft.nl RELEVANCE: The value of any intervention in the built environment is most relevant for the stakeholders that are investing in it. For them all costs need to be balanced with benefits - not necessarily directly financial, but adding value to the performance of the accommodated organization. Business cases contain performance criteria like competitive advantage (branding the organization, productivity (optimally supporting users of the building, profitability (on organizational level and sustainable development (monitoring the ecological footprint. In the changing real estate markets – from supply-driven to demand-driven and with increasingly higher vacancy rates – priorities in decisions about buildings have been shifting. PURPOSE: This paper elaborates on how (a the trends in real estate markets and (b changing priorities in decision making affect the quality demand for buildings and their facades. DESIGN/METHODOLOGY/APPROACH: This paper is based on research of the Real Estate Management chair in general (market analysis, transformation trends, conceptual frameworks and more specifically on decisions about university campuses in the past 10 years (14 campuses and 57 buildings assessed. FINDINGS: This paper provides both conceptual frameworks to assess the (added value of interventions in the built environment for the client and their (changing priorities in the brief for buildings and their facades

  12. Efficacy and acceptability of a new topical skin lotion of sodium cromoglicate (Altoderm) in atopic dermatitis in children aged 2-12 years: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stainer, R; Matthews, S; Arshad, S H; McDonald, S; Robinson, J; Schapira, C; Foote, K D; Baird-Snell, M; Gregory, T; Pollock, I; Stevens, M T; Edwards, A M

    2005-02-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common inflammatory allergic disease of children. The primary anti-inflammatory therapy is topical steroids. An effective treatment without the topical and systemic adverse effects of corticosteroids would be useful. Topical formulations of sodium cromoglicate have been researched in the past, but without consistent results. We report a trial of a new aqueous skin lotion of sodium cromoglicate (Altoderm) in children with AD. To compare the efficacy, safety and acceptability of Altoderm lotion with a placebo control in the treatment of AD in children. A double-blind, controlled study in which children aged 2-12 years with AD were randomized to 12 weeks of treatment with a lotion containing 4% sodium cromoglicate (Altoderm) or the lotion base. To be included subjects had to have a SCORAD score of > or = 25 and Altoderm and 56 to placebo and all were included in the intention-to-treat analysis. The mean +/- SD SCORAD scores at baseline were 41.0 +/- 9.0 (Altoderm) and 40.4 +/- 8.73 (placebo). These scores were reduced after 12 weeks by 13.2 (36%) with Altoderm and by 7.6 (20%) with placebo. The difference of 5.6 (95% confidence interval 1.0-10.3) is statistically significant (P = 0.018). Diary card symptoms improved with both treatments but the improvement was greater in the Altoderm-treated patients. Topical steroid usage was reduced in both groups and was larger in the Altoderm-treated patients. The differences were statistically significant for the mean of all symptoms, the overall skin condition and use of topical steroids. Those for itching and sleep loss were not. Treatment-related adverse events were reported in 11 subjects (Altoderm seven, placebo four). Most of these referred to irritation, redness and burning at the site of application. There were four reports of erythema and pruritus (Altoderm three, placebo one), and three reports of application site burning (Altoderm two, placebo one). None was reported as severe or very severe

  13. Skin Diseases: Skin Health and Skin Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a serious case, you might need medical help. Impetigo —A skin infection caused by bacteria. Usually the ... and form a thick crust. You can treat impetigo with antibiotics. Melanoma © 2008 Logical Images, Inc. Melanoma — ...

  14. INFLUENCE OF ORGANIZATIONAL AND TECHNOLOGICAL SOLUTIONS TO TECHNICAL AND ECONOMICAL INDICATORS IN PROJECT OF HEAT INSULATION FACADES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BABIJ I. N. Cand. Sc. (Tech., Associate Professor,

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Raising of problem. The article dedicated to the solution important problems of choosing rational technical and economic indicators of the duration and cost the process heat insulation facades of buildings by means of experimental and statistical modeling organizational and technological solutions. For this we used the results of numerical experiment, theory a shorthand experiment planning and contemporary computer programs. Purpose. We used experimentally-statistical modeling to establish the impact of organizational and technological solutions for heat insulation of facades by hinged ventilated systems on technical and economic parameters of the project, such as duration and cost. Conclusion. We investigated depending duration assembly jobs and manufacturing cost on the value and combination of variable factors experimental and statistical modeling of construction processes and results patterns of change in studied parameters.

  15. Thermal improved subconstructions for cladding with attached rear-ventilated facades; Thermisch optimierte Unterkonstruktionen fuer hinterlueftete Fassaden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fregnan, F.; Binz, A. [Fachhochschule beider Basel (FHBB), Institut fuer Energie, Basel (Switzerland); Hofer, P. [Geo Partner AG, Zuerich (Switzerland); Nuetzi, H.-P. [Swiss Federal Office of Energy, Berne (Switzerland); Schneiter, P. [Ernst Schweizer AG, Hedingen (Switzerland); Zimmermann, M. [Eidgenoessische Materialpruefungs- und Forschungsanstalt (EMPA), Duebendorf (Switzerland)

    2001-07-01

    On behalf of the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE), a competition was organised with the objective to improve in a thermal way subconstructions for cladding with rear-ventilation facades. For that purpose one had to take into account that thermal insulation was at least 20 centimetres and that new approaches or improved systems already existing could be used in the construction and offered good prospects on the market. Among the ten contributions that were submitted three were considered to be particularly reasoned, perfected and relevant to be proposed to the SFOE in support of as pilot- and demonstration-projects. By publishing the results, the organisers hope that existing constructions of facades with an insulation of less than 20 centimetres as well will profit from these interesting ideas and get improvement. (author)

  16. Effect of implementation quadruple glazing panel into the walls on the airborne sound insulation of building facades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drabek Pavel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Noise is one of the major national problems for decades. In the case of buildings, this concernment has become an issue when building structures are becoming lighter and lighter in weight. This approach does not only caused difficulties with poor sound insulation but also meant heat accumulation problems. This is due to the fact that commonly used lightweight construction materials are not able to absorb too much heat energy like massive constructions did. Production and implementation companies are trying to avoid these ailments by implementing accumulation materials into the buildings most frequently in the form of panels. A subject of this paper is to study the effect of implementation one type of facade system into the perimeter walls on the airborne sound insulation of building facades. The research is dedicated to the quadruple glazing panel which is a translucent wall element without any mechanical components or electronic devices.

  17. Skin Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Patient Skin Cancer Patient Skin Cancer Treatment Melanoma Treatment Merkel Cell Carcinoma Treatment Skin Cancer Prevention Skin Cancer Screening Health Professional Skin Cancer Treatment Melanoma Treatment Merkel Cell Carcinoma Treatment Skin Cancer Prevention Genetics ...

  18. Skin abscess

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can help identify the cause of the infection. Treatment You can apply moist heat (such as warm compresses) to help the abscess ... if you develop new symptoms during or after treatment of a skin abscess. Prevention ... the skin around minor wounds clean and dry to prevent infection. Call your provider if you ...

  19. Skin cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Michiko

    1992-01-01

    This chapter reviews the development of skin cancer associated with radiation, focusing on the knowledge of A-bomb radiation-induced skin cancer. Since the discovery of X radiation in 1895, acute and chronic radiation dermatitis has been the first matter of concern. Then, in 1902, skin cancer found among radiological personnel has posed a social problem. In earlier study determining the relationship between skin cancer and A-bomb radiation, there is no increase in the incidence of either skin cancer or precancerous condition during the first 20 years after A-bombing. More recent studies have showed that there is a significant correlation between the incidence of skin cancer and distance from the hypocenter; and the incidence of skin cancer is found to be remarkably increased since 1975 in the group exposed at ≤2,000 m. Excess relative risk is 2.2 at one Gy dose. The incidence of skin cancer is also found to be extremely increased with aging. Relative risk is high in younger A-bomb survivors at the time of exposure. Histologically, basal cell carcinoma is more senstitive to ionizing radiation than squamous cell carcinoma. (N.K.)

  20. Use of Daylight and Aesthetic Image of Glass Facades in Contemporary Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roginska-Niesluchowska, Malgorzata

    2017-10-01

    The paper deals with the architecture of contemporary buildings in respect to their aesthetic image created by the use of natural light. Sustainability is regarded as a governing principle of contemporary architecture, where daylighting is an important factor as it affects energy consumption and environmental quality of the space inside a building. Environmental awareness of architecture, however, involves a much wider and more holistic view of design. The quality of sustainable architecture can be considered in its aesthetic and cultural context with regard to landscape, local tradition, and connection to the surrounding world. This approach is associated with the social mission of architecture, i.e. providing appropriate space for living, facilitating social relations and having positive impact on people. The purpose of the research is to study the use of daylight in creating an aesthetic image of contemporary buildings. The author focuses mainly on public buildings largely dedicated to art and culture which satisfy high functional and aesthetic requirements. The paper examines the genesis and current trends in the aesthetic image of modern buildings which use daylight as the main design strategy, focusing on the issues of glass facades. The main attention is given to the shaping of representative public areas which feature the glass facades. The research has been based on a case study, critical review of literature review, observation and synthesis. The study identifies and classifies different approaches to using daylight in these areas and highlights changes in the aesthetics of architecture made of glass, which uses daylight as the main design strategy. These changes are primarily caused by the development and spreading of new glazing materials and the use of digital method of design. The influence of light and its mode depends on glass materials but also on the local conditions of the site, and has a significant impact on the relationship between

  1. The effects of a daily facial lotion containing vitamins B3 and E and provitamin B5 on the facial skin of Indian women: a randomized, double-blind trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerajani, Hemangi R; Mizoguchi, Haruko; Li, James; Whittenbarger, Debora J; Marmor, Michael J

    2010-01-01

    The B vitamins niacinamide and panthenol have been shown to reduce many signs of skin aging, including hyperpigmentation and redness. To measure the facial skin effects in Indian women of the daily use of a lotion containing niacinamide, panthenol, and tocopherol acetate using quantitative image analysis. Adult women 30-60 years of age with epidermal hyperpigmentation were recruited in Mumbai and randomly assigned to apply a test or control lotion to the face daily for 10 weeks. Effects on skin tone were measured using an image capturing system and associated software. Skin texture was assessed by expert graders. Barrier function was evaluated by transepithelial water loss measurements. Subjects and evaluators were blinded to the product assignment. Of 246 women randomized to treatment, 207 (84%) completed the study. Women who used the test lotion experienced significantly reduced appearance of hyperpigmentation, improved skin tone evenness, appearance of lightening of skin, and positive effects on skin texture. Improvements versus control were seen as early as 6 weeks. The test lotion was well tolerated. The most common adverse event was a transient, mild burning sensation. Daily use of a facial lotion containing niacinamide, panthenol, and tocopheryl acetate improved skin tone and texture and was well tolerated in Indian women with facial signs of aging.

  2. The effects of a daily facial lotion containing vitamins B3 and E and provitamin B5 on the facial skin of Indian women: A randomized, double-blind trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerajani Hemangi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : The B vitamins niacinamide and panthenol have been shown to reduce many signs of skin aging, including hyperpigmentation and redness. Aims : To measure the facial skin effects in Indian women of the daily use of a lotion containing niacinamide, panthenol, and tocopherol acetate using quantitative image analysis. Methods : Adult women 30-60 years of age with epidermal hyperpigmentation were recruited in Mumbai and randomly assigned to apply a test or control lotion to the face daily for 10 weeks. Effects on skin tone were measured using an image capturing system and associated software. Skin texture was assessed by expert graders. Barrier function was evaluated by transepithelial water loss measurements. Subjects and evaluators were blinded to the product assignment. Results : Of 246 women randomized to treatment, 207 (84% completed the study. Women who used the test lotion experienced significantly reduced appearance of hyperpigmentation, improved skin tone evenness, appearance of lightening of skin, and positive effects on skin texture. Improvements versus control were seen as early as 6 weeks. The test lotion was well tolerated. The most common adverse event was a transient, mild burning sensation. Conclusions : Daily use of a facial lotion containing niacinamide, panthenol, and tocopheryl acetate improved skin tone and texture and was well tolerated in Indian women with facial signs of aging.

  3. Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... R, Taylor SC, Lim HW. Skin cancer and photoprotection in people of color: a review and recommendations ... 4): 663 - 672.e3 19 World Health Organization, Solar ultraviolet radiation: Global burden of disease from solar ...

  4. Skin Dictionary

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Registration General information Housing & travel Education Exhibit hall Mobile app 2019 Annual Meeting Derm Exam Prep Course ... SkinPAC State societies Scope of practice Truth in advertising NP/PA laws Action center Public and patients ...

  5. Cryotherapy - skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cryosurgery - skin; Warts - freezing; Warts - cryotherapy; Actinic keratosis - cryotherapy; Solar keratosis - cryotherapy ... Cryotherapy is done using a cotton swab that has been dipped into liquid nitrogen or a probe ...

  6. Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skin cancer is the most common form of cancer in the United States. The two most common types are basal cell cancer and squamous cell cancer. They usually form on the head, face, neck, hands, and arms. ...

  7. Skin Pigment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... This Article Medical Dictionary Also of Interest (Quiz) Impetigo and Ecthyma (News) Don't Get Caught Without ... Professional version Also of Interest Test your knowledge Impetigo is a bacterial skin infection. The infection leads ...

  8. Skin - clammy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Causes of clammy skin include: Anxiety attack Heart attack Heat exhaustion Internal bleeding Low blood oxygen levels Medicine reaction Sepsis (body-wide infection) Severe allergic reaction (anaphylaxis) Severe pain Shock (low blood pressure)

  9. Skin Biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tape it closed with small strips of clear, sticky tape. If you get stitches, your doctor will ... of Your Skin Melanoma Eczema Aspiration and Biopsy: Bone Marrow Impetigo Pityriasis Rosea View more Partner Message ...

  10. Industrial waste utilization in the panels production for high buildings facade and socle facing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitkalova, Irina; Torlova, Anastasiya; Pikalov, Evgeniy; Selivanov, Oleg

    2018-03-01

    The research presents comprehensive utilization of such industrial waste as galvanic sludge, broken window glass as functional additives for producing ceramics for facade and socle paneling in high-rise construction. The basic charge component is low-plasticity clay, which does not allow producing high-quality products if used without any functional additives. The application of the mentioned above components broadens the resource base, reduces production cost and the mass of the products in comparison with the currently used facing ceramics. The decrease of product mass helps to reduce the load on the basement and to use ceramic material in high-rise construction more effectively. Additional advantage of the developed composition is the reducing of production energy intensity due to comparatively low pressing pressure and firing temperature thus reducing the overall production cost. The research demonstrates the experimental results of determining density, compressive strength, water absorption, porosity and frost resistance of the produced ceramic material. These characteristics prove that the material can be applied for high buildings outdoor paneling. Additional research results prove ecologic safety of the produced ceramic material.

  11. Multifunctional facades - design optimisation with CAD; Multifunktionale Fassaden - Effektive Auslegung durch CAD-Einsatz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viotto, M. [Institut fuer Solare Energieversorgungstechnik (ISET), Kassel (Germany). Abt. fuer Anlagen- und Messtechnik

    1998-02-01

    The energetically optimal design of PV facades requires the consideration of many technical conditions (different elevations/orientations of modules; shading possibility; high and different module temperatures). It also requires the interface with architecture, civil and electrical engineering. To support this planning process, the software program PV-CAD was developed which rapidly calculates energy yield under conditions of inhomogeneous irradiance, shading, thermal behaviour of modules and electrical layout. PV-CAD is compatible with other civil and electrical engineering CAD programs and incorporates extensive databases (weather data; modules and inverter types). (orig.) [Deutsch] Fuer optimalen Energieertrag sind zahlreiche technische Randbedingungen bei der Auslegung einer Photovoltaik (PV)-Fassade zu beruecksichtigen (unterschiedliche Ausrichtungen/Neigungen der Module; moegliche Teilabschattung; hoehere und unterschiedliche Betriebstemperaturen). Installation und Betrieb einer PV-Fassade erfordern die Abstimmung zwischen Architektur, Bauwesen und Elektrotechnik. Zur Unterstuetzung der Planer wurde das Programm PV-CAD entwickelt, das den Energieertrag unter Beruecksichtigung von inhomogener Einstrahlung und Abschattung, Temperaturverhalten der Fassadenmodule sowie unterschiedlichen elektrischen Anlagenkonzepten schnell ermittelt; es fuegt sich nahtlos in CAD-Arbeitsumgebungen ein. (orig.)

  12. Experimental investigations of the fire behaviour of facades with EPS exposed to different fire loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Northe Christian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In context of recent fire damages to façades and the related discussion about the safety of façade systems in case of fire, there is a need for discussion about the boundary conditions and the phenomena of façade fires based on fundamental investigation. On behalf of the European Institute for Fire Protection (EIFP four major fire tests were carried out on a flat facade with external thermal insulation composite systems (ETICS based on polystyrene with fire loads at the ground in front of the façade [1]. The tests were conducted at the Materialprüfanstalt Dresden based in Freiberg. The tests differ to the fire tests of the German building ministers in case of different fire loads and the corner-situation of the studied façade. The four fire tests are a step in systematic investigations to study examination criteria of the fire phenomena at façades. Further experimental and numerical investigations will follow.

  13. Facade renovation - replacement and restoration of the panels in a monument protected object

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novotný, Michal

    2017-12-01

    The article deals with problems of reconstruction of the facade and the associated problem of replacement or repair of the panels. In conventional buildings it is a smooth operation, but it is problematic in monument-protected objects. In the case of a common building, it is possible to choose any modern panels and simply replace them, but for historical objects we have to follow the claims and the rules of monument protection. In practice, it usually means the impossibility of use of modern panels, but at least a combination of old and modern technologies. Another possible solution to the problem is renovation, or repairs to the original state of the existing panels, of course with respect to the functionality of such panels. The implementation of such repairs must always be based on the technical and historical survey of the condition of the object and the repairs must be professionally designed. Subsequently, corrections are made, during which it is necessary to pay particular attention to observance of the technological procedures, rules and instructions particularly in terms of monument protection. However, the functionality of the works or elements made with regard to the quality of the environment within the building is not negligible. A common problem is the lack of control of technical requirements and functional requirements. Underestimation of the problems then leads to difficult repairs. The article points to the mistakes and problems of one such construction project on a historically protected chateau building.

  14. Magnesium-oxide boards cause moisture damage inside facades in new Danish buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard; Bunch-Nielsen, Tommy; Grelk, Bent

    2016-01-01

    Magnesium oxide board, “MgO-board”, is a factory-made sheathing board product, which has been widely used in the last 5 years in ventilated facades on new or renovated buildings in Denmark. In winter 2014/15, a number of problems began to appear with these boards since the boards and adjoining...... in periods with high outdoor humidity (90-100% RH) and form water drops on the surfaces. The drops contain a high amount of soluble chloride ions and appear on the surfaces of the boards and may often run down the boards and to adjacent structures. Metal fixtures for the MgO-and siding boards may corrode...... heavily within a few years. The binder in MgO-boards is formed by chemical reaction between MgO and MgCl2, known as magnesium oxychloride cement or Sorel cement. Also organic matter can be found in the material. The paper presents results of investigations of properties for moisture ab- and desorption...

  15. Energy analysis of facade-integrated photovoltaic systems applied to UAE commercial buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radhi, Hassan [Architectural Engineering Department, UAE University, Al-ain (United Arab Emirates)

    2010-12-15

    Developments in the design and manufacture of photovoltaic cells have recently been a growing concern in the UAE. At present, the embodied energy pay-back time (EPBT) is the criterion used for comparing the viability of such technology against other forms. However, the impact of PV technology on the thermal performance of buildings is not considered at the time of EPBT estimation. If additional energy savings gained over the PV system life are also included, the total EPBT could be shorter. This paper explores the variation of the total energy of building integrated photovoltaic systems (BiPV) as a wall cladding system applied to the UAE commercial sector and shows that the ratio between PV output and saving in energy due to PV panels is within the range of 1:3-1:4. The result indicates that for the southern and western facades in the UAE, the embodied energy pay-back time for photovoltaic system is within the range of 12-13 years. When reductions in operational energy are considered, the pay-back time is reduced to 3.0-3.2 years. This study comes to the conclusion that the reduction in operational energy due to PV panels represents an important factor in the estimation of EPBT. (author)

  16. Measurement of thermal transmittance of opaque facade wall relationship with meteorological conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antunović Biljana S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of measurements of thermal transmittance or as otherwise called U-value [W/m2⋅K] of opaque facade wall of preschool institution built in 1977. The building has an incomplete technical documentation according to which considered wall was built of brick and masonry mortar. Thermal characteristics of the incorporated materials have not been specified. Considering that in the period of building construction JUS standards was used, a possible range of calculated U-vales was obtained (1,241-1,404 W/m2·K. Measurements were performed in accordance with ISO 9869 during three time periods with the resulting U-values (1,269±0,276 W/m2·K; 1,025±0,175 W/m2·K; 1,200±0,212 W/m2·K that do not differ from each other within experimental uncertainty. Furthermore, the correlation of the measured U-values and meteorological conditions that prevailed during the measurements was analyzed. In the second measurement period, the average values of the total cloud cover and low cloud cover were less, and the average duration of sunshine was longer than in the other two measurement periods.

  17. Skin decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moehrle, G.

    1975-01-01

    A general survey of skin decontamination is given. The success of every decontamination treatments depends mainly on the speed, but also on the care, with which the action is taken. The best way to remove the skin contaminants is thorough washing under lukewarm running water with mild soap and a soft brush. This washing is to be repeated several times for a period of several minutes. If results are not satisfactory, light duty detergents and wetting agents available commercially may also be used. Some solutions which have proved useful are mentioned. The decontamination solutions are best used in the order given. When one has no satisfactory decontamination effect, the next one is to be used. If necessary, these agents must be used several times in the stated order as long as this does not involve too much strain for the skin. All the decontamination measures mentioned refer, of course, to intact healthy skin. After decontamination has been completed, the skin should be treated with a protective cream

  18. Natural Oil-Based Emulsion Containing Allantoin Versus Aqueous Cream for Managing Radiation-Induced Skin Reactions in Patients With Cancer: A Phase 3, Double-Blind, Randomized, Controlled Trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, Raymond Javan, E-mail: email.rchan@gmail.com [Cancer Care Services, Royal Brisbane and Women' s Hospital, Herston, Queensland (Australia); School of Nursing, Queensland University of Technology, Kelvin Grove (Australia); Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, Queensland University of Technology, Kelvin Grove (Australia); Mann, Jennifer; Tripcony, Lee; Keller, Jacqui; Cheuk, Robyn; Blades, Rae [Cancer Care Services, Royal Brisbane and Women' s Hospital, Herston, Queensland (Australia); Keogh, Samantha [National Health and Medical Research Council Centre for Research Excellence in Nursing, Centre for Health Practice Innovation–Griffith Health Institute, Griffith University, Nathan (Australia); Poole, Christopher [Cancer Care Services, Royal Brisbane and Women' s Hospital, Herston, Queensland (Australia); Science and Engineering Faculty, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane (Australia); Walsh, Christopher [Cancer Care Services, Royal Brisbane and Women' s Hospital, Herston, Queensland (Australia)

    2014-11-15

    Purpose: To investigate the effects of a natural oil-based emulsion containing allantoin versus aqueous cream for preventing and managing radiation-induced skin reactions. Methods and Materials: A total of 174 patients were randomized and participated in the study. Patients received either cream 1 (the natural oil-based emulsion containing allantoin) or cream 2 (aqueous cream). Skin toxicity, pain, itching, and skin-related quality of life scores were collected for up to 4 weeks after radiation treatment. Results: Patients who received cream 1 had a significantly lower average level of Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events at week 3 (P<.05) but had statistically higher average levels of skin toxicity at weeks 7, 8, and 9 (all P<.001). Similar results were observed when skin toxicity was analyzed by grades. With regards to pain, patients in the cream 2 group had a significantly higher average level of worst pain (P<.05) and itching (P=.046) compared with the cream 1 group at week 3; however, these differences were not observed at other weeks. In addition, there was a strong trend for cream 2 to reduce the incidence of grade 2 or more skin toxicity in comparison with cream 1 (P=.056). Overall, more participants in the cream 1 group were required to use another topical treatment at weeks 8 (P=.049) and 9 (P=.01). Conclusion: The natural oil-based emulsion containing allantoin seems to have similar effects for managing skin toxicity compared with aqueous cream up to week 5; however, it becomes significantly less effective at later weeks into the radiation treatment and beyond treatment completion (week 6 and beyond). There were no major differences in pain, itching, and skin-related quality of life. In light of these results, clinicians and patients can base their decision on costs and preferences. Overall, aqueous cream seems to be a more preferred option.

  19. Natural Oil-Based Emulsion Containing Allantoin Versus Aqueous Cream for Managing Radiation-Induced Skin Reactions in Patients With Cancer: A Phase 3, Double-Blind, Randomized, Controlled Trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, Raymond Javan; Mann, Jennifer; Tripcony, Lee; Keller, Jacqui; Cheuk, Robyn; Blades, Rae; Keogh, Samantha; Poole, Christopher; Walsh, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the effects of a natural oil-based emulsion containing allantoin versus aqueous cream for preventing and managing radiation-induced skin reactions. Methods and Materials: A total of 174 patients were randomized and participated in the study. Patients received either cream 1 (the natural oil-based emulsion containing allantoin) or cream 2 (aqueous cream). Skin toxicity, pain, itching, and skin-related quality of life scores were collected for up to 4 weeks after radiation treatment. Results: Patients who received cream 1 had a significantly lower average level of Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events at week 3 (P<.05) but had statistically higher average levels of skin toxicity at weeks 7, 8, and 9 (all P<.001). Similar results were observed when skin toxicity was analyzed by grades. With regards to pain, patients in the cream 2 group had a significantly higher average level of worst pain (P<.05) and itching (P=.046) compared with the cream 1 group at week 3; however, these differences were not observed at other weeks. In addition, there was a strong trend for cream 2 to reduce the incidence of grade 2 or more skin toxicity in comparison with cream 1 (P=.056). Overall, more participants in the cream 1 group were required to use another topical treatment at weeks 8 (P=.049) and 9 (P=.01). Conclusion: The natural oil-based emulsion containing allantoin seems to have similar effects for managing skin toxicity compared with aqueous cream up to week 5; however, it becomes significantly less effective at later weeks into the radiation treatment and beyond treatment completion (week 6 and beyond). There were no major differences in pain, itching, and skin-related quality of life. In light of these results, clinicians and patients can base their decision on costs and preferences. Overall, aqueous cream seems to be a more preferred option

  20. The effects of a daily facial lotion containing vitamins B3 and E and provitamin B5 on the facial skin of Indian women: A randomized, double-blind trial

    OpenAIRE

    Jerajani Hemangi; Mizoguchi Haruko; Li James; Whittenbarger Debora; Marmor Michael

    2010-01-01

    Background : The B vitamins niacinamide and panthenol have been shown to reduce many signs of skin aging, including hyperpigmentation and redness. Aims : To measure the facial skin effects in Indian women of the daily use of a lotion containing niacinamide, panthenol, and tocopherol acetate using quantitative image analysis. Methods : Adult women 30-60 years of age with epidermal hyperpigmentation were recruited in Mumbai and randomly assigned to apply a test or control lotion to the face d...

  1. Impacts of traditional architecture on the use of wood as an element of facade covering in Serbian contemporary architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanović-Šekularac Jelena

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The world trend of re-use of wood and wood products as materials for construction and covering of architectural structures is present not only because of the need to meet the aesthetic, artistic and formal requirements or to seek inspiration in the return to the tradition and nature, but also because of its ecological, economic and energetic feasibility. Furthermore, the use of wood fits into contemporary trends of sustainable development and application of modern technical and technological solutions in the production of materials, in order to maintain a connection to nature, environment and tradition. In this study the author focuses on wood and wood products as an element of facade covering on buildings in our country, in order to extend knowledge about possibilities and limitations of their use and create a base for their greater and correct application. The subject of this research is to examine the application of wood and wood products as an element covering the exterior in combination with other materials applied in our traditional and contemporary homes with the emphasis on functional, representational art and the various possibilities of wood. In this study all the factors that affect the application of wood and wood products have been analyzed and the conclusions have been drawn about the manner of their implementation and the types of wood and wood products protection. The development of modern technological solutions in wood processing led to the production of composite materials based on wood that are highly resistant, stable and much longer lasting than wood. Those materials have maintained in an aesthetic sense all the characteristics of wood that make it unique and inimitable. This is why modern facade coating based on wood should be applied as a facade covering in the exterior of modern architectural buildings in Serbia, and the use wood reduced to a minimum.

  2. Internal insulation applied in heritage multi-storey buildings with wooden beams embedded in solid masonry brick facades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrestrup, Maria; Svendsen, Svend

    2016-01-01

    The use of internal insulation is investigated in a heritage building block with wooden beam construction and masonry brick walls as part of an energy renovation. Measurements were carried out and compared to results from a hygrothermal simulation model. The risk of mould growth in the wooden beams...... and in the interface between the insulation and the brick wall was evaluated. Three different insulation strategies for applying internal insulation were investigated: 1) insulation applied on the entire interior facade; 2) 200 mm gap in the insulation above the floor; and 3) 200 mm gap in the insulation both above...

  3. Fire propagation over combustible exterior facades exposed to intensified flame in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishio Yuhei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With regard to fire safety for exterior walls of a building, fire-resistance performance is considered, according to the current Building Standard Law of Japan. And it was revealed that the fire safety is not specifically regulated from the viewpoint of reaction-to-fire performance, such as fire propagation caused by combustible materials or products installed on the exterior side of fire-resistant load-bearing walls. Actual fire incidents in the world have shown that massive façade fire could occur at the exterior side of building wall even when the wall itself is fire resistant. In previous studies of the authors, a test method of façade fire was proposed for evaluating the vertical fire propagation over an external wall within the same building [1,2]. Based on these studies, new domestic standard test method was established in Japan as JIS A 1310: 2015, “Test method for fire propagation over building façades” at the end of January 2015 [3]. But there was the argument that heat output of burner inside the combustion chamber was not sufficiently high in the previous study. In this paper, results of fire tests on combustible façades are discussed from the viewpoints of different strength of flame exposing facade. In this research, it was clearly found that JIS A 1310 with heat output of 900kW could be applicable for evaluating fire propagation behaviour over various types of combustible exterior façades.

  4. The Effect of Landscaping and Building Facades on Perceptual-Behavioral Features of Citizens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Azma

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Perception could provide the first or the most fundamental layer for recognition and hence, studying it should be prior to any other layer like layers of cultural world and especially, the real world. One of the categories, in which cognition becomes important, is the urban landscape and its designation to improve perceptual perceptions of audiences to enhance items such as sense of belonging and recognition of space and orientation. Therefore, the main purpose of this study is to investigate physical factors affecting urban bodies and its impact on perception and behavior of citizens and considering the gap in this field. Method: The method used in this study is interpretive and in form of qualitative analysis of available references on urban landscape and perception of citizens. The data collected through library research. The procedure is based on classification and content analysis in this study. Results: Landscaping and city walls could lead to emergence of perceptions such as perception of attractiveness and emotions of space, perception of identity and sense of belonging, perception of useful information, perception of hidden order and reagent of life stream, living at the streets, explicit transfer of performance message and perception of urban diversity in citizens. Conclusion: The results obtained from this study could lead to recognizing the relationship between designation and environmental psychology in designing urban landscape and desirable perception of citizens about the environment and the interaction between designation strategies in designing the facade that could finally lead to promotion of quality of the environment and mental comfort and satisfaction of citizens.

  5. [Skin defect coverage with micro skin graft].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gümüş, Nazim; Kaya, Yalçin; Karakaya, Sadik; Camci, Cemalettin

    2002-04-01

    The aim of this study is to coverage of the large skin defect with microskin graft. The wound coverage of the large skin defect may be difficult with auto skin graft. In these patients, split thickness skin graft may be used in a bloc shape or expanded skin graft shape and a stamp skin graft shape or expanded stamp skin graft shape. On the other hand, split thickness skin graft may be used as a micrograft shape after the mincing process, which reduces of the graft size in a few millimeters. In this study, 6 patients with skin defect was admitted in our clinic, and their skin defect was treated with micro skin graft. Expansion ratio was 1:15. Epithelialization on the wound surface was completed in 4 to 6 weeks and cobblestone appearance was observed after the wound coverage. Skin defect coverage with micrograft is an effective technique like the other skin graft coverage methods.

  6. Double Trouble

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsaesser, Thomas; Kievit, Robert; Simons, Jan

    1994-01-01

    Double Trouble highlights the career of Dutch scriptwriter and television producer Chiem van Houweninge, well-known for his long-running TV comedy series and as author of episodes for TV detective series. Double Trouble gives Van Houweninge's own views on writing and filming in television prime

  7. Multi-Center, Double-Blind, Vehicle-Controlled Clinical Trial of an Alpha and Beta Defensin-Containing Anti-Aging Skin Care Regimen With Clinical, Histopathologic, Immunohistochemical, Photographic, and Ultrasound Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taub, Amy; Bucay, Vivian; Keller, Gregory; Williams, Jay; Mehregan, Darius

    2018-04-01

    Anti-aging strategies utilizing stem cells are in the forefront. Alpha and beta defensins are natural immune peptides that have been shown to activate an LGR6-positive stem cell locus in the hair follicle, identified as the source of most new epidermal cells during acute wound healing. We investigated the ability of biomimetic alpha and beta defensin molecules, supplemented with supportive cosmetic ingredients, formulated into three skin care products, at improving the structure and function of aging skin. A participant- and investigator -blinded, placebo-controlled, multi-center trial was performed in outpatient settings. Forty-four healthy female subjects, aged 41-71 years, skin types I-V, completed the study with 2/3 receiving full formula and 1/3 receiving the placebo formula. A skin care regimen of 3 products (serum, cream, and mask) containing alpha-defensin 5 and beta-defensin 3, and other cosmetic ingredients, was applied to the face, post-auricular, and neck skin two times per day for 12 weeks in those receiving full formula, whereas the placebo group received the identically packaged regimen without the active ingredients. Methods of evaluation included histopathology and immunohistochemistry (7 subjects), clinical evaluation of pores, superficial and deep wrinkles based on Griffiths scale, and high-resolution photography (all subjects). In addition, a subset of 15 patients were evaluated with the QuantifiCare system (3-dimensional imaging and skin care scores for evenness, pores, oiliness) and Cortex measurements (high-resolution skin ultrasound, TEWL, elasticity, color, and hydration). Data points for evaluation included baseline, 6 weeks, and 12 weeks. All patients used the same sunscreen and cleanser, which was provided to them. The full formula regimen caused a significantly (P equals 0.027) increased thickness of the epidermis as seen in histology, not seen in the placebo group, with no signs of inflammation. No excessive cell proliferation was

  8. Squamous cell skin cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that reflect light more, such as water, sand, concrete, and areas that are painted white. The higher ... - skin - squamous cell; Skin cancer - squamous cell; Nonmelanoma skin cancer - squamous ...

  9. CONCEPT FOR CLASSIFYING FACADE ELEMENTS BASED ON MATERIAL, GEOMETRY AND THERMAL RADIATION USING MULTIMODAL UAV REMOTE SENSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ilehag

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a concept for classification of facade elements, based on the material and the geometry of the elements in addition to the thermal radiation of the facade with the usage of a multimodal Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV system. Once the concept is finalized and functional, the workflow can be used for energy demand estimations for buildings by exploiting existing methods for estimation of heat transfer coefficient and the transmitted heat loss. The multimodal system consists of a thermal, a hyperspectral and an optical sensor, which can be operational with a UAV. While dealing with sensors that operate in different spectra and have different technical specifications, such as the radiometric and the geometric resolution, the challenges that are faced are presented. Addressed are the different approaches of data fusion, such as image registration, generation of 3D models by performing image matching and the means for classification based on either the geometry of the object or the pixel values. As a first step towards realizing the concept, the result from a geometric calibration with a designed multimodal calibration pattern is presented.

  10. Skin Cancer Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... UVB Skin of Color Tanning Teacher Resources Related: What Is Skin Cancer? | Window Film | Healthy Lifestyle | True Stories Skin Cancer Information Actinic Keratosis Atypical Moles Basal Cell Carcinoma Melanoma Merkel Cell Carcinoma Squamous Cell Carcinoma Skin Cancer ...

  11. Facade decoration systems СИСТЕМЫ ФАСАДНОЙ ОТДЕЛКИ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhukova Yekaterina Alexeyevna

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Facade decoration Systems, including fastened insulation, ventilated facades systems, facades with decorative coating, including lacquer coating, translucent systems and architectural facades are considered.Рассмотрены системы фасадной отделки: скрепленной изоляции, системы вентилируемых фасадов, декоративными, в т.ч. лакокрасочными покрытиями; системы светопрозрачных и архитектурных фасадов.

  12. The oncogenic action of ionizing radiation on rat skin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, F.J.

    1991-01-01

    Progress has occurred in several areas corresponding to the specific aims of the proposal: (1) Progression and multiple events in radiation carcinogenesis of rat skin as a function of LET; (2) cell cycle kinetics of irradiated rat epidermis as determined by double labeling and double emulsion autoradiography; (3) oncogene activation detected by in situ hybridization in radiation-induced rat skin tumors; (4) amplification of the c-myc oncogene in radiation-induced rat skin tumors as a function of LET; and (5) transformation of rat skin keratinocytes by ionizing radiation in combination with c-Ki-ras and c-myc oncogenes. 111 refs., 13 figs., 12 tabs.

  13. Development of a simplified and dynamic method for double glazing façade with night insulation and validated by full-scale façade element

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Mingzhe; Wittchen, Kim Bjarne; Heiselberg, Per

    2013-01-01

    The study aims to develop a simplified calculation method to simulate the performance of double glazing fac¸ ade with night insulation. This paper describes the method to calculate the thermal properties (Uvalue) and comfort performance (internal surface temperature of glazing) of the double...... with night insulation is calculated and compared with that of the facade without the night insulation. Based on standards EN 410 and EN 673, the method takes the thermal mass of glazing and the infiltration between the insulation layer and glazing into account. Furthermore it is capable of implementing whole...

  14. The effects of topical sodium cromoglicate on itch and flare in human skin induced by intradermal histamine: a randomised double-blind vehicle controlled intra-subject design trial

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards, Alan M; Stevens, Michael T; Church, Martin K

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Itch is a prominent feature of many skin diseases, particularly atopic dermatitis and cutaneous mastocytosis. Sodium cromoglicate (SCG), a chromone developed for the treatment of allergic disease has been shown to reduce the severity of itch when applied topically to subjects with atopic dermatitis. The aim of this study was to investigate whether topical sodium cromoglicate can reduce the severity of itch induced by intradermal histamine. Methods SCG was introduced into t...

  15. AluTec (trade-mark) / AluStand. Sloping-roof and facade mounting system; AluTec (mod.dep) / AluStand. Sloping-roof and facade mounting system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buehler, U.

    2002-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) describes the use of a modular mounting system for photovoltaic (PV) modules on sloping roofs and facades, whereby the panels can be mounted simply and without the use of tools. The report reviews the results of a project that investigated the use of this mounting system for the installation of a 296-module, 32 kW PV plant. The questions addressed included ease of mounting, safety and security of the modules, time taken for their mounting, snow and wind stability, soiling of the panels and the effect of this demonstration object on visitors. The findings are discussed including the very short time taken to mount the solar generator (3 persons, 1 working day) and the monitoring of the system's performance. The author mentions that, in the meantime, installations in several European countries with a total power of over 3 MW have been realised using this system.

  16. The effects of topical sodium cromoglicate on itch and flare in human skin induced by intradermal histamine: a randomised double-blind vehicle controlled intra-subject design trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevens Michael T

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Itch is a prominent feature of many skin diseases, particularly atopic dermatitis and cutaneous mastocytosis. Sodium cromoglicate (SCG, a chromone developed for the treatment of allergic disease has been shown to reduce the severity of itch when applied topically to subjects with atopic dermatitis. The aim of this study was to investigate whether topical sodium cromoglicate can reduce the severity of itch induced by intradermal histamine. Methods SCG was introduced into the skin of healthy volunteers both by iontophoresis and by topical application using a new 4% cutaneous emulsion (Altoderm™. The skin was then challenged with intradermal histamine. Measurements were made of severity of itch, size of wheal and flare and change in blood flux Results SCG significantly reduced the severity of itch (P = 0.0045 and flare (P = 0.0143 when delivered by iontophoresis. SCG 4% cutaneous emulsion significantly reduced severity of itch (P = 0.024 and flare (P = 0.015 in atopic subjects. Trend analysis showed increasing effect on itch with increased concentrations of SCG, which was significant (P = 0.046. There were no effects on wheal or blood flux. Conclusions Topically applied SCG, administered in a new cutaneous emulsion base, significantly reduced the itch and flare caused by intradermal histamine. The effect was greatest in atopic subjects and increased with the concentration of SCG in the emulsion. Trial registration ISRCTN35671014

  17. The effects of topical sodium cromoglicate on itch and flare in human skin induced by intradermal histamine: a randomised double-blind vehicle controlled intra-subject design trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Itch is a prominent feature of many skin diseases, particularly atopic dermatitis and cutaneous mastocytosis. Sodium cromoglicate (SCG), a chromone developed for the treatment of allergic disease has been shown to reduce the severity of itch when applied topically to subjects with atopic dermatitis. The aim of this study was to investigate whether topical sodium cromoglicate can reduce the severity of itch induced by intradermal histamine. Methods SCG was introduced into the skin of healthy volunteers both by iontophoresis and by topical application using a new 4% cutaneous emulsion (Altoderm™). The skin was then challenged with intradermal histamine. Measurements were made of severity of itch, size of wheal and flare and change in blood flux Results SCG significantly reduced the severity of itch (P = 0.0045) and flare (P = 0.0143) when delivered by iontophoresis. SCG 4% cutaneous emulsion significantly reduced severity of itch (P = 0.024) and flare (P = 0.015) in atopic subjects. Trend analysis showed increasing effect on itch with increased concentrations of SCG, which was significant (P = 0.046). There were no effects on wheal or blood flux. Conclusions Topically applied SCG, administered in a new cutaneous emulsion base, significantly reduced the itch and flare caused by intradermal histamine. The effect was greatest in atopic subjects and increased with the concentration of SCG in the emulsion. Trial registration ISRCTN35671014 PMID:21385340

  18. Temperature and velocity conditions of air flow in vertical channel of hinged ventilated facade of a multistory building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Statsenko, Elena; Ostrovaia, Anastasia; Pigurin, Andrey

    2018-03-01

    This article considers the influence of the building's tallness and the presence of mounting grooved lines on the parameters of heat transfer in the gap of a hinged ventilated facade. A numerical description of the processes occurring in a heat-gravitational flow is given. The average velocity and temperature of the heat-gravitational flow of a structure with open and sealed rusts are determined with unchanged geometric parameters of the gap. The dependence of the parameters influencing the thermomechanical characteristics of the enclosing structure is derived depending on the internal parameters of the system. Physical modeling of real multistory structures is performed by projecting actual parameters onto a reduced laboratory model (scaling).

  19. Digitization of Blocks and Virtual Anastylosis of AN Antique Facade in Pont-Sainte (france)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alby, E.; Grussenmeyer, P.; Bitard, L.; Guillemin, S.; Brunet-Gaston, V.; Gaston, C.; Rougier, R.

    2017-08-01

    This paper is dedicated to the digitization of blocks and virtual anastylosis of an antique façade in Pont-Sainte-Maxence (France). In 2014 during the construction of a shopping center, the National Institute for Preventive Archaeological Research (INRAP) discovered a Gallo-Roman site from the 2nd century AD. The most interesting part of the site for the study is a façade of 70 meters long by nearly 10 meters high. The state of the conservation of the blocks of the façade makes them exceptional due to the question raised by the collapse. Representative and symbolic blocks of this building have been selected for a virtual anastylosis study. The blocks discovered belong to different types: decorated architectural blocks, monumental statuary elements and details of very fine decorations. The digital reproduction of the façade will facilitate the formulation of hypothesis for the collapse of the structure. The Photogrammetry and Geomatics Group from INSA Strasbourg is in charge of the digitization, the anastylosis and the development of exploratory methods for understanding the ruin of the façade. To develop the three-dimensional model of the facade, approximately 70 blocks of various dimensions were chosen by the archaeologists. The choice of the digitization technique is made according to the following pragmatic criterion: the movable objects are acquired with a scan-arm or a hand-held scanner in the laboratory and the largest blocks are recorded by photogrammetry at the repository near Paris. The expected types of deliverables are multiple: very accurate 3D models with the most faithful representation to document the objects in the best way and with optimized size model allowing easy handling during anastylosis tests. The visual aspect of the models is also a very important issue. Indeed, textures from photos are an excellent way to bring about the realism of the virtual model, but fine details of the object are sometimes blurred by the uniformity of the color

  20. DIGITIZATION OF BLOCKS AND VIRTUAL ANASTYLOSIS OF AN ANTIQUE FACADE IN PONT-SAINTE-MAXENCE (FRANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Alby

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper is dedicated to the digitization of blocks and virtual anastylosis of an antique façade in Pont-Sainte-Maxence (France. In 2014 during the construction of a shopping center, the National Institute for Preventive Archaeological Research (INRAP discovered a Gallo-Roman site from the 2nd century AD. The most interesting part of the site for the study is a façade of 70 meters long by nearly 10 meters high. The state of the conservation of the blocks of the façade makes them exceptional due to the question raised by the collapse. Representative and symbolic blocks of this building have been selected for a virtual anastylosis study. The blocks discovered belong to different types: decorated architectural blocks, monumental statuary elements and details of very fine decorations. The digital reproduction of the façade will facilitate the formulation of hypothesis for the collapse of the structure. The Photogrammetry and Geomatics Group from INSA Strasbourg is in charge of the digitization, the anastylosis and the development of exploratory methods for understanding the ruin of the façade. To develop the three-dimensional model of the facade, approximately 70 blocks of various dimensions were chosen by the archaeologists. The choice of the digitization technique is made according to the following pragmatic criterion: the movable objects are acquired with a scan-arm or a hand-held scanner in the laboratory and the largest blocks are recorded by photogrammetry at the repository near Paris. The expected types of deliverables are multiple: very accurate 3D models with the most faithful representation to document the objects in the best way and with optimized size model allowing easy handling during anastylosis tests. The visual aspect of the models is also a very important issue. Indeed, textures from photos are an excellent way to bring about the realism of the virtual model, but fine details of the object are sometimes blurred by the

  1. Clinical results of an autologous engineered skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llames, Sara; García, Eva; García, Verónica; del Río, Marcela; Larcher, Fernando; Jorcano, Jose Luis; López, Eva; Holguín, Purificación; Miralles, Francisca; Otero, Jesús; Meana, Alvaro

    2006-01-01

    An artificial complete skin (dermis and epidermis) model has been developed in the Tissue engineering unit of the Centro Comunitario de Sangre y Tejidos del Principado de Asturias (CCST) and CIEMAT. This engineered skin has been employed for the treatment of severe epithelial injuries. In this paper, the clinical results obtained with this engineered skin during the last 18 months were evaluated. (a) Culture: Cells (fibroblasts and keratinocytes) were obtained from biopsies by a double enzymatic digestion. After an expansion period, fibroblasts were seeded in an artificial dermis based on human plasma. Keratinocytes were seeded over this dermal surface. (b) 20 skin biopsies were processed (13 burned patients, 5 giant nevus, 1 GVHD, 1 neurofibromatosis), which came from different hospitals across the country. About 97,525 cm(2) of engineered skin were cultured. The engineered skin took in all patients. The take percentage depended on previous pathology (burned patients 10-90%; non-critical patients 70-90%). The epithelization obtained was permanent in all cases. During the follow-up period, epithelial loss, blistering injuries or skin retractions were not observed. The aesthetic and functional results were acceptable. This artificial skin has demonstrated to be useful for the definitive treatment of patients with severe skin injuries. This work shows that it is possible to produce this prototype in an hospitalarian laboratory and distribute it to different hospitals across the country.

  2. Passive solar energy recovery in non-transparent facades; Passive solare Energiegewinnung im nicht-transparenten Fassadenbereich

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liersch, K.W. [Brandenburgische Technische Univ. Cottbus (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Baukonstruktion und Bauphysik

    1999-10-01

    Evaluation of theoretical and practical studies has shown that non-bearing glass facades of reduced transparency hold a considerable potential for energy recovery. The most important factors governing this process are solar irradiation and inhibition of reflection in the long-wave range. Net energy recovery can be expressed in terms of the decrease of the mean effective heat transmission coefficient. The achievable gains are the smaller the more effective the heat insulating properties of the wall are, i.e. the lower the U-value of the non-transparent wall is. In the case of outer walls with additional heat insulation and a heat transmission coefficient of less than k{sub w} = approx. 0.25 W/ (m-2K) energy recovery is practically negligible, with little scope for improvement through facade orientation. [Deutsch] Die Auswertung der theoretischen und messtechnischen Untersuchungen zeigt, dass mittels einer vorgehaengten, reduziert transparenten Glasfassade betraechtliche Waermegewinne zu erzielen sind. Diese ergeben sich aus der Sonnenzustrahlung sowie der Behinderung langwelliger Waermeabstrahlung. Die Gewinne lassen sich durch eine Abminderung des mittleren effektiven Waermedurchgangskoeffizienten darstellen. Die zu erzielenden Gewinne sind allerdings um so geringer, je besser die sonstige waermeschutztechnische Ausruestung der betreffenden Wand, d.h. je niedriger der k-Wert der nicht-transparenten Wandflaeche ist. Das bedeutet, dass bei Aussenwaenden mit Zusatzdaemmung und einem Waermedurchgangskoeffizienten unterhalb k{sub W}{approx}0,25 W/(m{sup 2}K) der Gewinn nicht mehr nennenswert ist, wobei dann auch die Ausrichtung der Fassade zur Himmelsrichtung das Ergebnis nur noch in geringem Umfang beeinflusst. (orig.)

  3. Materials and technologies in Art Nouveau architecture: Facade decoration cases in Italy, Portugal and Poland for a consistent restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandrolini, F.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The results of a diagnostic survey on the materials of representative Art Nouveau buildings in Italy, Portugal and Poland are here presented and compared, as a contribution to their understanding and, hence, to support compatible restoration. In particular, the facade decorations were investigated for the appraisal of their materials and technologies, often neglected in current maintenance/restoration works and so cancelled, leading to a severe loss in architectural image. The ongoing diagnostic campaign, in collaboration among different universities, is aimed to set up a database on materials and technologies of Art Nouveau facade decorations at a European scale, as a technical-scientific background for the highlighting of preservation guidelines.

    En este trabajo se presentan los resultados de un estudio de diagnóstico sobre materiales representativos de edificios del periodo del Modernismo en Italia, Portugal y Polonia. Con la comparación de estos resultados se pretende contribuir a incrementar el conocimiento de los materiales usados en este patrimonio, que permita realizar más eficazmente las futuras intervenciones de restauración. En particular, se analizan las decoraciones de las fachadas, pasando por el reconocimiento de sus materiales constituyentes y de las tecnologías usadas, que muchas veces no son adecuadamente estudiados en intervenciones de mantenimiento y/o restauración, provocando graves pérdidas en su imagen y lenguaje arquitectónico original. Con la campaña de trabajos de diagnóstico, en colaboración con varias universidades, se pretende crear una base de datos sobre materiales y tecnologías usados en las decoraciones de fachada en el periodo del Modernismo a una escala europea. El material podrá constituirse en una herramienta técnico-científica de soporte al desarrollo de directrices y recomendaciones para la preservación de este patrimonio.

  4. Risks of Skin Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Patient Skin Cancer Patient Skin Cancer Treatment Melanoma Treatment Merkel Cell Carcinoma Treatment Skin Cancer Prevention Skin Cancer Screening Health Professional Skin Cancer Treatment Melanoma Treatment Merkel Cell Carcinoma Treatment Skin Cancer Prevention Genetics ...

  5. The use of skin grafts in the management of dehorning ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... associated with double surgery in autogenous-skin grafting and the anaesthetic risks of the patients. Disbudding at early stage of life in bucks prone to in-growing horns is recommended to animal owners as a management practice to avoid horn overgrowth at older stage. Keywords: Skin Grafts; Dehorning; Complications; ...

  6. Save Your Skin (A Minute of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-06-11

    Too much exposure to the sun raises the risk for melanoma. Rates of this deadly form of skin cancer have doubled in recent years. This podcast discusses ways to prevent skin cancer.  Created: 6/11/2015 by MMWR.   Date Released: 6/11/2015.

  7. Neuromodulators for Aging Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Every Season How to Choose the Best Skin Care Products In This Section Dermatologic Surgery What is dermatologic ... for Every Season How to Choose the Best Skin Care Products Neuromodulators for Aging Skin Treatment Options Learn more ...

  8. Skin color - patchy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003224.htm Skin color - patchy To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Patchy skin color is areas where the skin color is irregular. ...

  9. Double ambidexterity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaulio, Matti; Thorén, Kent; Rohrbeck, René

    2017-01-01

    We leverage the business model innovation and ambidexterity literature to investigate a contradictory case, the Swedish-Finnish Telecom operator TeliaSonera. Despite being challenged by three major disruptions, the company not only still exists but also enjoys remarkably good financial performance...... this behaviour as double ambidexterity. We use an in-depth case study to conceptualize double ambidexterity and discuss its impact on the business's survival and enduring success........ Building on extant archival data and interviews, we carefully identify and map 26 organizational responses during 1992–2016. We find that the firm has overcome three critical phases by experimenting and pioneering with portfolios of business models and/or technological innovations. We describe...

  10. Double Chooz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buck, Christian [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2006-05-15

    The goal of the Double Chooz reactor neutrino experiment is to search for the neutrino mixing parameter {theta}{sub 13}. Double Chooz will use two identical detectors at 150 m and 1.05 km distance from the reactor cores. The near detector is used to monitor the reactor {nu}-bar {sub e} flux while the second is dedicated to the search for a deviation from the expected (1/distance){sup 2} behavior. This two detector concept will allow a relative normalization systematic error of ca. 0.6 %. The expected sensitivity for sin{sup 2}2{theta}{sub 13} is then in the range 0.02 - 0.03 after three years of data taking. The antineutrinos will be detected in a liquid scintillator through the capture on protons followed by a gamma cascade, produced by the neutron capture on Gd.

  11. Systems of ventilated facades Системы вентилируемых фасадов

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhukov Alexei Dmitriuevich

    2012-04-01

    over the heat insulation material whenever it is mounted onto the wall. To assure the fire safety of the structure, nonflammable and fireproof materials and products are incorporated into systems of suspended facades to prevent flame spreading. The leading manufacturers of thermal insulation materials propose several solutions that prevent the use of any combustible wind protection membranes, namely, double density mineral cotton mats. A denser layer faces the external side of the façade, while the other layer faces the bearing wall.Использование вентилируемых фасадов позволяет облицевать фасад современными отделочными материала-ми, улучшить теплозащитные показатели ограждающей конструкции, защитить ее от вредных атмосферных воздействий. Рассмотрены конструкции и отдельные элементы фасадных систем, приведен анализ достоинств и недостатков вентилируемых фасадов. Наличие вентилируемой воздушной прослойки способно существенно улучшить влажностное состояние слоя теплоизоляции. Зона конденсации сдвигается в наружный теплоизоляционный слой, который граничит с вентилируемой воздушной прослойкой. Расположение теплоизоляции снаружи способствует увеличению теплоаккумулирующей способности массива стены. В качестве утеплителя в ВФ применяются жесткие плиты, изготовленные из влагостойкой и водоотт

  12. Skin self-exam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skin cancer - self-exam; Melanoma - self-exam; Basal cell cancer - self-exam; Squamous cell - self-exam; Skin mole - self-exam ... Cancer Institute. What You Need To Know About Melanoma and Other Skin Cancers: How To Check Your Skin. (NIH Publication No. ...

  13. Estrogens and aging skin

    OpenAIRE

    Thornton, M. Julie

    2013-01-01

    Estrogen deficiency following menopause results in atrophic skin changes and acceleration of skin aging. Estrogens significantly modulate skin physiology, targeting keratinocytes, fibroblasts, melanocytes, hair follicles and sebaceous glands, and improve angiogenesis, wound healing and immune responses. Estrogen insufficiency decreases defense against oxidative stress; skin becomes thinner with less collagen, decreased elasticity, increased wrinkling, increased dryness and reduced vascularity...

  14. Urostomy - stoma and skin care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it well before you attach the pouch. Avoid skin care products that contain alcohol. These can make your skin ... the pouch to your skin. Use fewer special skin care products. This will make problems with your skin less ...

  15. Measuring Air Temperature in Glazed Ventilated Facades in the Presence of Direct Solar Radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalyanova, Olena; Zanghirella, Fabio; Heiselberg, Per

    2007-01-01

    part of the complete ventilation system. Assessment of necessary cooling/heating loads and of the whole building energy performance will then depend on the accuracy of measured air temperature. The presence of direct solar radiation is an essential element for the façade operation, but it can heavily...... irradiance, in order to achieve an accurate and reliable way to measure the air temperature reducing the error caused by radiation. Experiments include bare thermocouple, naturally and mechanically ventilated shielded thermocouples, mechanically ventilated thermocouple with double shielding, silver coated...

  16. Solar Energy Potential Assessment on Rooftops and Facades in Large Built Environments Based on LiDAR Data, Image Processing, and Cloud Computing. Methodological Background, Application, and Validation in Geneva (Solar Cadaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilles Desthieux

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the core methodology for assessing solar radiation and energy production on building rooftops and vertical facades (still rarely considered of the inner-city. This integrated tool is based on the use of LiDAR, 2D and 3D cadastral data. Together with solar radiation and astronomical models, it calculates the global irradiance for a set of points located on roofs, ground, and facades. Although the tool takes simultaneously roofs, ground, and facades, different methods of shadow casting are applied. Shadow casting on rooftops is based on image processing techniques. On the other hand, the assessment on facade involves first to create and interpolate points along the facades and then to implement a point-by-point shadow casting routine. The paper is structured in five parts: (i state of the art on the use of 3D GIS and automated processes in assessing solar radiation in the built environment, (ii overview on the methodological framework used in the paper, (iii detailed presentation of the method proposed for solar modeling and shadow casting, in particular by introducing an innovative approach for modeling the sky view factor (SVF, (iv demonstration of the solar model introduced in this paper through applications in Geneva’s building roofs (solar cadaster and facades, (v validation of the solar model in some Geneva’s spots, focusing especially on two distinct comparisons: solar model versus fisheye catchments on partially inclined surfaces (roof component; solar model versus photovoltaic simulation tool PVSyst on vertical surfaces (facades. Concerning the roof component, validation results emphasize global sensitivity related to the density of light sources on the sky vault to model the SVF. The low dense sky model with 145 light sources gives satisfying results, especially when processing solar cadasters in large urban areas, thus allowing to save computation time. In the case of building facades, introducing weighting factor

  17. Epilithic and endolithic microorganisms and deterioration on stone church facades subject to urban pollution in a sub-tropical climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaylarde, Christine; Baptista-Neto, Jose Antônio; Ogawa, Akiko; Kowalski, Matthew; Celikkol-Aydin, Sukriye; Beech, Iwona

    2017-02-01

    Weathering of two church facades in Rio de Janeiro was caused substantially by salts, mainly halite and gypsum, detected by SEM and chemical analyses, which cause physical stresses by deposition within the rock. Biofilm populations, determined by SEM and as operational taxonomic units (OTUs), degraded stone by penetration, solubilization and redeposition of minerals on their surfaces. Endolithic cyanobacteria were associated with gypsum deposits. Microbiomes were typical for high-stress environments, high salt, intense insolation, low water and low nutrients (eg halophilic Rubrobacter, Salinicola, Sterigmatomyces). The main colonizers on the church most affected by traffic (Nossa Senhora da Candelária - CA) were Actinobacteria; Gammaproteobacteria (chiefly Pseudomonas) were predominant on the site situated in a leafy square (São Francisco de Paula - SF). Major Gammaproteobacteria on CA were halophilic Halomonas and Rhodobacteriaceae. Fungal OTUs on both churches were principally dimorphic, yeast-like basidiomycetes. Many OTUs of thermophilic microorganisms (eg the Thermomicrobia class, Chloroflexi) were present. This is the first use of next generation sequencing (NGS) to study microbial biofilm interactions with metamorphic and granite buildings in an intensely urban, sub-tropical climate.

  18. Numerical simulation of heat transfer through the building facades of buildings located in the city of Bechar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Missoum

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with the transient heat transfer in a multi-layered building wall through the facades of the buildings located in the city of Bechar (south-west Algeria. The physical model is presented to find the variation of the transient temperature in these structures and the heat flux through these elements, which depends on the air temperature of the inner surface and the instantaneous climatic conditions of the air outside. Comsol Multiphysics based on the finite element method is designed to perform numerical simulations. The measured hourly ambient air temperatures and the solar radiation flux on the horizontal surface for the city of Bechar Algeria are using during the hottest period (July 2015, and also using the properties Thermodynamics of each component of the structure. The validation of the analytical model with this simulation is verified in this document. The calculations carried out for different multilayer building walls which are commonly used in the south of Algeria to determine the thermal behavior of these structures and the influence of radiation heat flux on these elements.

  19. Evaluation of simplified ventilation system with direct air supply through the facade in a school in a cold climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mysen, M. [Norwegian Building Research Institute, Blindern, Oslo (Norway); Department of Energy and Process Technology, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Trondheim (Norway); Schild, P. G.; Hellstrand, V.; Thunshelle, K. [Norwegian Building Research Institute, Blindern, Oslo (Norway)

    2004-07-01

    Many educational buildings in industrialised countries have poor indoor climate, according to today's knowledge about the impact of indoor climate on well-being and productivity. Budget restrictions and practical limitations such as lack of space for central air handling units and ventilation ducts, have motivated the application of simplified ventilation systems in some schools, such as taking unconditioned supply air directly from the facade. One such school was recently evaluated in Norway. On cold days, thermal comfort in the classroom deteriorated due to cold down draught from the supply outlet. In addition, moist and fertile conditions for microbiological growth were observed in the air supply ductwork. On the other hand the same pupils are more satisfied with the school and have less sick building syndrome (SBS) symptoms during winter than summer. An improved control strategy with a temperature-compensated CO{sub 2} set-point for controlling the air flow is suggested. This could improve thermal comfort and reduce energy use without compromising perceived air quality (PAQ) during cold weather. Furthermore it could improve indoor air quality (IAQ) during warm weather with only a slight increase of energy use. Further evaluation of an improved solution is needed before such a ventilation concept can be recommended in cold climates. (author)

  20. Design and Performance of Test Cells as an Energy Evaluation Model of Facades in a Mediterranean Building Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel Luis León-Rodríguez

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The current European energy policies have an influence on the need to rehabilitate the housing stock in order to meet the objectives of the European Union. Most of this housing stock was built without any type of energy regulation in adverse technical and economic conditions and thus is now energetically obsolete. The major rehabilitation effort required must be approached through actions based on previous quantitative energy knowledge of the existing buildings in order to guarantee the efficiency of energy-retrofitted solutions. This assessment can be carried out through monitoring dwellings conditioned by use patterns; through simulation programs, which do not usually offer faithful representations of energy conditions; or by using test cells, which allow us to evaluate a controlled indoor environment without the influence of users. The objective of this paper is to present the design and performance of test cells as an experimental method for vertical facade analysis in order to tackle the problem of retrofitting residential buildings in a Mediterranean climate, taking into account energy and environment. With this equipment, efficiency and energy savings, as well as illumination and interior air quality, can be simultaneously and comprehensively evaluated.

  1. A NEW APPROACH FOR THE SEMI-AUTOMATIC TEXTURE GENERATION OF THE BUILDINGS FACADES, FROM TERRESTRIAL LASER SCANNER DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Oniga

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The result of the terrestrial laser scanning is an impressive number of spatial points, each of them being characterized as position by the X, Y and Z co-ordinates, by the value of the laser reflectance and their real color, expressed as RGB (Red, Green, Blue values. The color code for each LIDAR point is taken from the georeferenced digital images, taken with a high resolution panoramic camera incorporated in the scanner system. In this article I propose a new algorithm for the semiautomatic texture generation, using the color information, the RGB values of every point that has been taken by terrestrial laser scanning technology and the 3D surfaces defining the buildings facades, generated with the Leica Cyclone software. The first step is when the operator defines the limiting value, i.e. the minimum distance between a point and the closest surface. The second step consists in calculating the distances, or the perpendiculars drawn from each point to the closest surface. In the third step we associate the points whose 3D coordinates are known, to every surface, depending on the limiting value. The fourth step consists in computing the Voronoi diagram for the points that belong to a surface. The final step brings automatic association between the RGB value of the color code and the corresponding polygon of the Voronoi diagram. The advantage of using this algorithm is that we can obtain, in a semi-automatic manner, a photorealistic 3D model of the building.

  2. Evaluation of the antihistamine effects of olopatadine and levocetirizine during a 24-h period: a double-blind, randomized, cross-over, placebo-controlled comparison in skin responses induced by histamine iontophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeo, Tomohiro; Kasugai, Chikatoshi; Tanaka, Rui; Ando, Takashi; Ogawa, Akina; Akita, Yoichi; Watanabe, Daisuke

    2013-12-01

    The antihistamine effects of olopatadine and levocetirizine, in standard-dose application described in their information (5 mg twice a day for olopatadine; 5 mg once daily for levocetirizine), were examined from 11.5 to 24 h after application. The test was designed in a double-blind, randomized, cross-over, placebo-controlled study of 12 healthy volunteers on histamine-induced flare and wheal response using an iontophoresis technique. The suppressive effect of olopatadine on the wheals induced by a 0.1-mA histamine iontophoresis lasted for 24 h after dosing. Both drugs inhibited flare induced by histamine iontophoresis almost completely until 24 h after the first administration. Suppression of the 0.2-mA-induced wheal response by levocetirizine, taken once daily, decreased with time, although 0.1-mA-induced flare was almost completely suppressed by the drug. Olopatadine completely suppressed even the wheal response induced by a 0.2-mA histamine iontophoresis. Compared with the placebo, the two drugs significantly suppressed the subjective itching assessed by visual analog scale at all intervals. There were no significant differences in subjective drowsiness and objective cognitive function between drug- and placebo-treated subjects. These results demonstrate that olopatadine seems to be more potent than levocetirizine when administrated in a standard dose. In conclusion, mild to moderate urticaria could be controlled by standard application as described in their information. On the other hand, severe urticaria could be managed by a standard application of olopatadine, but levocetirizine may need an additional dose to control severe urticaria. © 2013 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  3. Oily skin: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakuma, Thais H; Maibach, Howard I

    2012-01-01

    Oily skin (seborrhea) is a common cosmetic problem that occurs when oversized sebaceous glands produce excessive amounts of sebum giving the appearance of shiny and greasy skin. This paper overviews the main concepts of sebaceous gland anatomy and physiology, including the biosynthesis, storage and release of sebum, as well as its relationship to skin hydration and water barrier function. We also address how skin oiliness may vary according to diet, age, gender, ethnicity and hot humid climates. The deeper understanding of this skin type provides the opportunity to better guide patients regarding skin care and also assist in the development of sebosuppressive agents. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Asporin-deficient mice have tougher skin and altered skin glycosaminoglycan content and structure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Maccarana

    Full Text Available The main structural component of connective tissues is fibrillar, cross-linked collagen whose fibrillogenesis can be modulated by Small Leucine-Rich Proteins/Proteoglycans (SLRPs. Not all SLRPs' effects on collagen and extracellular matrix in vivo have been elucidated; one of the less investigated SLRPs is asporin. Here we describe the successful generation of an Aspn-/- mouse model and the investigation of the Aspn-/- skin phenotype. Functionally, Aspn-/- mice had an increased skin mechanical toughness, although there were no structural changes present on histology or immunohistochemistry. Electron microscopy analyses showed 7% thinner collagen fibrils in Aspn-/- mice (not statistically significant. Several matrix genes were upregulated, including collagens (Col1a1, Col1a2, Col3a1, matrix metalloproteinases (Mmp2, Mmp3 and lysyl oxidases (Lox, Loxl2, while lysyl hydroxylase (Plod2 was downregulated. Intriguingly no differences were observed in collagen protein content or in collagen cross-linking-related lysine oxidation or hydroxylation. The glycosaminoglycan content and structure in Aspn-/- skin was profoundly altered: chondroitin/dermatan sulfate was more than doubled and had an altered composition, while heparan sulfate was halved and had a decreased sulfation. Also, decorin and biglycan were doubled in Aspn-/- skin. Overall, asporin deficiency changes skin glycosaminoglycan composition, and decorin and biglycan content, which may explain the changes in skin mechanical properties.

  5. Skin Stem Cells in Skin Cell Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mollapour Sisakht

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Context Preclinical and clinical research has shown that stem cell therapy is a promising therapeutic option for many diseases. This article describes skin stem cells sources and their therapeutic applications. Evidence Acquisition Compared with conventional methods, cell therapy reduces the surgical burden for patients because it is simple and less time-consuming. Skin cell therapy has been developed for variety of diseases. By isolation of the skin stem cell from the niche, in vitro expansion and transplantation of cells offers a surprising healing capacity profile. Results Stem cells located in skin cells have shown interesting properties such as plasticity, transdifferentiation, and specificity. Mesenchymal cells of the dermis, hypodermis, and other sources are currently being investigated to promote regeneration. Conclusions Because skin stem cells are highly accessible from autologous sources and their immunological profile is unique, they are ideal for therapeutic approaches. Optimization of administrative routes requires more investigation own to the lack of a standard protocol.

  6. Doubling Syndemics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Abstract This study investigates health concerns and access to health services for Roma from Romania who live in homelessness in Copenhagen, Denmark. They collect refundable bottles and call themselves “badocari,” which in Romanian refers to “people who work with bottles.” Homeless Roma in Denmark have not previously been studied through ethnographic research. The study stresses the importance of a syndemic approach towards understanding badocari health concerns. Syndemics is understood as co-occurring diseases, which unfold within contexts of social injustice. The case of the badocari is argued to be a case of “doubling syndemics” since the co-occurring diseases are further multiplied and enhanced by an ongoing mobility between dual contexts of precarious livelihoods in Romania and Denmark, respectively. The study complements the approach to syndemics with a perspective on human rights. It sheds light on the limited possibilities that exist for addressing health concerns of the badocari, both in Romania and in Denmark, and argues that the universal human right to health is not realized in the everyday lives of destitute EU migrants such as the badocari. Rather, they experience lack of access to adequate medical treatment and follow-up care, both as citizens of a member state and as co-citizens of the European Union. PMID:29302164

  7. Experimental skin carcinoma by UVB application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrada Iftode

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES AND BACKGROUND The aim of this research study was to evaluate the harmful effects at skin level induced by concomitant and repeated exposure to three toxic agents: UVB radiation, DMBA and TPA. MATERIALS AND METHODS Experimental mice were divided in thw following groups (n=5 mice/group: group 1 – healthy mice, group 2 – mice exposed to UVB – radiation and topical administration of acetone and group 3 – mice exposed to UVB – radiation and topical application of DMBA and TPA solutions (phase I - double tumor initiation and phase II - tumor promotion. RESULTS Application of these compounds led to the development of skin papilloma and to significant changes in skin parameters. CONCLUSIONS The barrier function of the skin was degraded in UVB exposed mice. DMBA and TPA depended on carcinogens schedule and corelated with skin carcinoma. Graphical abstract: Schematic protocol of experimental skin carcinoma REFERENCES 1. Lee Ja, Ko Jh, Jung Bg, Kim Th, Hong Ji, Park Ys, Lee Bj. Fermented Prunus mume with Probiotics Inhibits 7,12- Dimethylbenz[a]anthracene and 12-OTetradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate Induced Skin Carcinogenesis through Alleviation of Oxidative Stress. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2013;14:2973-2978. 2. Firooz A, Sadr B, Babakoohi S, Sarraf-Yazdy M, Fanian F, Kazerouni-Timsar A, NassiriKashani M, Naghizadeh MM, Dowlati Y. Variation of Biophysical Parameters of the Skin with Age, Gender, and Body Region. Scientific World Journal. 2012; doi.org/10.1100/2012/386936 3. Gheorgheosu (Coricovac D, Borcan F, Balasz NI, Soica C, Simu G, Kemeny L, Dehelean CA. Evaluation of skin parameters in C57BL/6J mice exposed to chemical and environmental factors using non-invasive methods. J Agroalim Proc Technol. 2014;20:14-20.

  8. Trombe wall and glazings facades: Energy efficiency for different Portuguese Climates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sacht, H. M.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available High performance glass and Trombe walls in the façade was studied in this research. The paper reports results of an ongoing investigation on a new façade system concept, designed as: “Façade Modules for Eco-Efficient Refurbishment of Buildings”, especially on energy efficiency of Trombe wall and glazing modules arrangement. Computational simulation was carried out by using the software DesignBuilder. Two double glazing types and Trombe walls were considered for three different climates in Portugal and four solar orientations. Results obtained for heating energy needs were compared to all façade configurations. The use of Trombe wall and the double self-cleaning glass in the façade point towards a significant decrease of heating energy needs. The great majority of the façades combinations presented energy needs lower than the maximum allowed by the Portuguese regulation (RCCTE.Esta investigación aborda el estudio de fachadas con cristales de altas prestaciones y muros Trombe. El artículo presenta los resultados de la investigación en curso sobre un nuevo concepto en sistemas de fachada, denominado "Módulos de fachada para el acondicionamiento ecoeficiente de edificios", especialmente enfocado a la eficiencia energética de muros Trombe y módulos con doble acristalamiento. Haciendo uso del software DesignBuilder se realizaron simulaciones de una estancia, analizando distintos conjuntos de fachadas modulares. Para la realización de las simulaciones se consideraron dos tipos de módulos de doble acristalamiento, dos configuraciones de muros Trombe, tres climas diferentes en Portugal y cuatro orientaciones solares. Se compararon los requerimientos de calefacción de cada una de las configuraciones, observándose que tanto los muros Trombe como los módulos de doble acristalamiento presentaron disminuciones significativas en cuanto a requerimientos de calefacción. De las configuraciones analizadas, la mayoría presentó demandas energ

  9. Examine Your Skin

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Store In Memory Melanoma Info Melanoma Facts Melanoma Prevention Sunscreen Suggestions Examine Your Skin Newly Diagnosed? Understanding ... video. UPDATED: February 7, 2018 Melanoma Facts Melanoma Prevention Sunscreen Suggestions Examine Your Skin Newly Diagnosed? Understanding ...

  10. Skin Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... beds) over long periods of time. Having a fair complexion, which includes the following: Fair skin that freckles and burns easily, does not ... beds) over long periods of time. Having a fair complexion, which includes the following: Fair skin that ...

  11. Stages of Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... beds) over long periods of time. Having a fair complexion, which includes the following: Fair skin that freckles and burns easily, does not ... beds) over long periods of time. Having a fair complexion, which includes the following: Fair skin that ...

  12. Healthy Skin Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... keep your skin in good health. Eating a balanced diet will help you maintain a healthy weight and ... for your skin and your overall health. A balanced diet: Emphasizes fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and fat-free ...

  13. Examine Your Skin

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Suggestions Examine Your Skin Newly Diagnosed? Understanding Your Pathology Biopsy: The First Step Sentinel Node Biopsy Melanoma ... Suggestions Examine Your Skin Newly Diagnosed? Understanding Your Pathology Biopsy: The First Step Sentinel Node Biopsy Melanoma ...

  14. Radiation therapy -- skin care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000735.htm Radiation therapy - skin care To use the sharing features on ... should treat your skin with care while receiving radiation therapy. Causes External radiation therapy uses high-powered x- ...

  15. Allergic Skin Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 28 days to go away, even with treatment. Nickel, perfumes, dyes, rubber (latex) products and cosmetics also ... or swollen skin, you may have a skin allergy. • Urticaria (hives) are red, itchy, raised areas of ...

  16. Allergy testing - skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... not well controlled with medicine Hives and angioedema Food allergies Skin rashes ( dermatitis ), in which the skin becomes ... prick test may also be used to diagnose food allergies. Intradermal tests are not used to test for ...

  17. Allergy Skin Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hay fever (allergic rhinitis) Allergic asthma Dermatitis (eczema) Food allergies Penicillin allergy Bee venom allergy Latex allergy Skin ... and dust mites. Skin testing may help diagnose food allergies. But because food allergies can be complex, you ...

  18. Examination of Deteriogenic Biofilms on Building Facades with Scanning Electron Microscopy / Badanie Deteriogennych Nalotów Biologicznych Na Elewacjach Budynków Metodą Elektronowej Mikroskopii Skaningowej

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piontek Marlena

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Destruction of facades is a complex process in which technical material changes its properties, and which is caused by depositing biological agents. The examination of biofilms from building facades is difficult because sampling for tests may result in the damage to the structure of the facade’s material. Also biological analysis of the material obtained from a biofilm is arduous. Some species of microorganisms are impossible to be isolated and their pure cultures cannot be cultivated in laboratory conditions. It is multispecies cultures that most frequently develop on the surfaces of the facade’s technical material. Clustered in a group, they cooperate with each other and reveal different features than single cells. It is essential to identify organisms present in the biofilms, since they may initiate deterioration processes. The aim of the research was the observation of the biofilm, collected from two facades, in a micrometer scale with the use of a scanning electron microscope.

  19. Experimental investigation of flame impingement on vertical and inclined glazing facades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quinn Michael

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Breakage and fallout of glazing systems create openings in an enclosure that affect the fire growth and the development of post flashover flames emerging outside of the openings. The behaviour of glazing is the result of its thermally induced stress response to the heat fluxes from the fire in an enclosure. In recent times building façade designs have evolved and now incorporate many different shapes, orientations and materials. The conventional single and double glazing panels have been surpassed by composite type glazing systems which include glazing and transparent resins. This paper presents experimental testing of these composite glazing panels subjected to localized fires, which have the same fire load. The effect of localized fire on the materials tested as seen in the final char patterns on both glazing systems is note-worthy. The paper also includes details of comparative calculations with EN 1991-1-2. Furthermore, results of detailed material analysis testing of the intermediate transparent resin within the glazing sandwich panels are included.

  20. Double inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silk, J.; Turner, M.S.

    1986-04-01

    The Zel'dovich spectrum of adiabatic density perturbations is a generic prediction of inflation. There is increasing evidence that when the spectrum is normalized by observational data on small scales, there is not enough power on large scales to account for the observed large-scale structure in the Universe. Decoupling the spectrum on large and small scales could solve this problem. As a means of decoupling the large and small scales we propose double inflation (i.e., two episodes of inflation). In this scenario the spectrum on large scales is determined by the first episode of inflation and those on small scales by a second episode of inflation. We present three models for such a scenario. By nearly saturating the large angular-scale cosmic microwave anisotropy bound, we can easily account for the observed large-scale structure. We take the perturbations on small scales to be very large, deltarho/rho approx. = 0.1 to 0.01, which results in the production of primordial black holes (PBHs), early formation of structure, reionization of the Universe, and a rich array of astrophysical events. The Ω-problem is also addressed by our scenario. Allowing the density perturbations produced by the second episode of inflation to be large also lessens the fine-tuning required in the scalar potential and makes reheating much easier. We briefly speculate on the possibility that the second episode of inflation proceeds through the nucleation of bubbles, which today manifest themselves as empty bubbles whose surfaces are covered with galaxies. 37 refs., 1 fig

  1. Skin Conditions during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... during pregnancy. For most skin changes, however, health care providers are not sure of the exact cause. Why do dark spots and patches appear on the skin during pregnancy? Dark spots and patches are caused by an increase in the body’s melanin—a natural substance that gives color to the skin and ...

  2. Microbiome and skin diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeeuwen, P.L.; Kleerebezem, M.; Timmerman, H.M.; Schalkwijk, J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of review: This article reviews recent findings on the skin microbiome. It provides an update on the current understanding of the role of microbiota in healthy skin and in inflammatory and allergic skin diseases. Recent findings: Advances in computing and high-throughput sequencing

  3. PV-CAD: an integrated tool for designing PV facades; PV-CAD - Ein integriertes Werkzeug zur Auslegung von PV-Fassaden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giese, H.; Viotto, M. [Inst. fuer Solare Energieversorgungstechnik (ISET) e.V., Kassel (Germany); Esser, M.; Pukrop, D. [Univ. Oldenburg (Germany). Abt. Energie- und Halbleiterforschung; Stellbogen, D. [Zentrum fuer Sonnenergie- und Wasserstoff-Forschung, Stuttgart (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    PV-CAD provides PV system planners with a practice-oriented tool for an efficient design of PV facades. Being compatible with the standard programmes of the architects` and electrical engineering sectors it can be used on already existing systems and allows the user to draw on previously acquired knowedge. Its open interfaces permit the integration of further design tools. PV CAD works under Microsoft Windows for which it has the necessary graphic user interface. Its compliance to PC standards opens up a wide range of applications and permits its use also on inexpensive computers. Thanks to its promotion by the Federal Ministry for Education, Science, Research, and Technology under the research project ``Computer programmes for the design of photovoltaic facades`` PV-CAD is available at a moderate price. PV-CAD permits an efficient planning of solar facades and therefore has the potential to stimulate the use of PV on buildings. (orig.) [Deutsch] Mit PV-CAD steht dem Anlagenplaner ein anwendungsorientiertes Werkzeug zur Verfuegung, das eine rationelle Auslegung von PV-Fassaden ermoeglicht. Die Kompatibilitaet zu Standardprogrammen aus dem Architektur- und Elektrosektor erlaubt die Nutzung bereits vorhandener Systeme und damit erworbener Kenntnisse. Offene Schnittstellen gestatten die Einbindung weiterer Entwurfswerkzeuge. PV-CAD arbeitet unter Microsoft-Windows und verfuegt ueber die entsprechende grafische Benutzerschnittstelle. Die Kompatibilitaet zum PC-Standard eroeffnet eine sehr breite Anwenderbasis und ermoeglicht den Einsatz des Programms auch auf preiswerten Rechnern. Aufgrund der Foerderung durch das Bundesministerium fuer Bildung, Wissenschaft, Forschung und Technologie im Rahmen des Forschungsprojekts `Rechnerprogramm zur Auslegung von Photovoltaik-Fassaden` steht PV-CAD preiswert zur Verfuegung. PV-CAD ermoeglicht eine effiziente Planung von Solarfassaden und kann daher dem PV-Einsatz in Gebaeuden weitere Impulse geben. (orig.)

  4. Successfull example for a sustainable architectural culture. Facade consisting of recycled wood wraps the administration building; Gelungenes Beispiel fuer nachhaltige Baukultur. Fassade aus Recycling-Holz umhuellt Verwaltungsbau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blauel, Christian [BDA Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Schwerin (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    It has a role-model status for sustainable and ecologic construction - the new headquarters for the Agency for Renewable Ressources (Guelzow, Federal Republic of Germany). The building mainly consists of renewable resources. The Agency for Renewable Ressources as a project bearer of the Federal Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Consumer Protection (Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany) and the state of Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania as a client in the public works have implemented all that of innovation and efficient use of energy and resources, for which private developers now stand more likely. The highlight is a facade fully realized by recycled oak wood.

  5. Skin barrier function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    barrier integrity, factors influencing the penetration of the skin, influence of wet work, and guidance for prevention and saving the barrier. Distinguished researchers have contributed to this book, providing a comprehensive and thorough overview of the skin barrier function. Researchers in the field...... on the subject. It covers new basic research on skin markers, including results on filaggrin and on methods for the assessment of the barrier function. Biological variation and aspects of skin barrier function restoration are discussed as well. Further sections are dedicated to clinical implications of skin...

  6. Pursuing prosthetic electronic skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chortos, Alex; Liu, Jia; Bao, Zhenan

    2016-09-01

    Skin plays an important role in mediating our interactions with the world. Recreating the properties of skin using electronic devices could have profound implications for prosthetics and medicine. The pursuit of artificial skin has inspired innovations in materials to imitate skin's unique characteristics, including mechanical durability and stretchability, biodegradability, and the ability to measure a diversity of complex sensations over large areas. New materials and fabrication strategies are being developed to make mechanically compliant and multifunctional skin-like electronics, and improve brain/machine interfaces that enable transmission of the skin's signals into the body. This Review will cover materials and devices designed for mimicking the skin's ability to sense and generate biomimetic signals.

  7. Skin absorption through atopic dermatitis skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halling-Overgaard, A-S; Kezic, S; Jakasa, I

    2017-01-01

    Patients with atopic dermatitis have skin barrier impairment in both lesional and non-lesional skin. They are typically exposed to emollients daily and topical anti-inflammatory medicaments intermittently, hereby increasing the risk of developing contact allergy and systemic exposed to chemicals...... ingredients found in these topical preparations. We systematically searched for studies that investigated skin absorption of various penetrants, including medicaments, in atopic dermatitis patients, but also animals with experimentally induced dermatitis. We identified 40 articles, i.e. 11 human studies...... examining model penetrants, 26 human studies examining atopic dermatitis drugs and 3 animal studies. We conclude that atopic dermatitis patients have nearly two-fold increased skin absorption when compared to healthy controls. There is a need for well-designed epidemiological and dermato...

  8. Double hard scattering without double counting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, Markus; Gaunt, Jonathan R.; Schönwald, Kay

    2017-06-01

    Double parton scattering in proton-proton collisions includes kinematic regions in which two partons inside a proton originate from the perturbative splitting of a single parton. This leads to a double counting problem between single and double hard scattering. We present a solution to this problem, which allows for the definition of double parton distributions as operator matrix elements in a proton, and which can be used at higher orders in perturbation theory. We show how the evaluation of double hard scattering in this framework can provide a rough estimate for the size of the higher-order contributions to single hard scattering that are affected by double counting. In a numeric study, we identify situations in which these higher-order contributions must be explicitly calculated and included if one wants to attain an accuracy at which double hard scattering becomes relevant, and other situations where such contributions may be neglected.

  9. Double hard scattering without double counting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diehl, Markus [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Gaunt, Jonathan R. [VU Univ. Amsterdam (Netherlands). NIKHEF Theory Group; Schoenwald, Kay [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany)

    2017-02-15

    Double parton scattering in proton-proton collisions includes kinematic regions in which two partons inside a proton originate from the perturbative splitting of a single parton. This leads to a double counting problem between single and double hard scattering. We present a solution to this problem, which allows for the definition of double parton distributions as operator matrix elements in a proton, and which can be used at higher orders in perturbation theory. We show how the evaluation of double hard scattering in this framework can provide a rough estimate for the size of the higher-order contributions to single hard scattering that are affected by double counting. In a numeric study, we identify situations in which these higher-order contributions must be explicitly calculated and included if one wants to attain an accuracy at which double hard scattering becomes relevant, and other situations where such contributions may be neglected.

  10. Anyone Can Get Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Anyone Can Get Skin Cancer brochure Is it true that only people with light skin get skin cancer? No. Anyone can get skin cancer. It's more common among people with a light (fair) skin tone, but skin cancer can affect anyone. ...

  11. Skin-to-skin contact reduces near-infrared spectroscopy pain responses in premature infants during blood sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, Emma; Ahlsén, Gunilla; Eriksson, Mats

    2016-04-01

    This study investigated if skin-to-skin contact could provide pain relief, measured with near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), during venepuncture in premature infants. Ten infants born at 26-35 weeks of gestation were examined during a blood-sampling procedure with venepuncture under two different conditions: in skin-to-skin contact with their mother or lying in their incubator or crib. A double-channel NIRS device was used, and oxygen saturation and heart rate were measured using pulse oximetry. The infant's face and the pulse oximetry values were videotaped throughout the procedures, so that we could carry out a pain assessment using the Premature Infant Pain Profile-Revised (PIPP-R). We found a significantly smaller increase in oxygenated haemoglobin on the contralateral side during venepuncture when the infants were in skin-to-skin contact with their mothers, compared to when they were laying in their incubator or crib. When venepuncture was compared with a sham procedure, oxygenated haemoglobin increased significantly more with the infant in the incubator or crib than held skin-to-skin, but no significant differences could be seen in the PIPP-R results between the two groups. This study showed that skin-to-skin contact between premature infants and their mothers during venepuncture had a pain-relieving effect. ©2015 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Skin tribology: Science friction?

    OpenAIRE

    Heide, E. van der; Zeng, X.; Masen, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    The application of tribological knowledge is not just restricted to optimizing mechanical and chemical engineering problems. In fact, effective solutions to friction and wear related questions can be found in our everyday life. An important part is related to skin tribology, as the human skin is frequently one of the interacting surfaces in relative motion. People seem to solve these problems related to skin friction based upon a trial-and-error strategy and based upon on our sense for touch....

  13. Solar housing construction. Thousands of solar cells form the facade of a living project for homeless people in Paris; Solarer Wohnungsbau. Tausende von Solarzellen bilden die Fassade eines Wohnprojekts fuer Obdachlose in Paris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korn, Stefan

    2013-02-15

    A house on the banks of the historic channel Saint Martin in Paris in the elegant tenth arrondissement attracts attention: An emerald-colored solar facade extends from the roof to the ground floor between town palaces. But the spectacular front of the building does not cover luxury condominiums for the Parisian upper class, but a social housing project for families in need.

  14. Towards a fourth skin? sustainability and double-envelope buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diprose, P.R.; Robertson, G. [Auckland Univ. (New Zealand)

    1996-05-01

    In several well publicised designs for `green` office buildings, the zone of meditation between inside and outside has been increased by the addition of a second building envelope. When interpreted as exemplars of sustainable architecture, the addition of a second wall in these buildings is questionable both biophysically and psycho-culturally. More constructive design strategies acknowledge the wider biophysical contexts of the human ecosystem, the prudent use of material and energy resources throughout a building`s life, make realistic use of climate, and promote psycho-cultural needs arising out of ecologism. (author)

  15. Skin tribology: Science friction?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heide, E. van der; Zeng, X.; Masen, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    The application of tribological knowledge is not just restricted to optimizing mechanical and chemical engineering problems. In fact, effective solutions to friction and wear related questions can be found in our everyday life. An important part is related to skin tribology, as the human skin is

  16. Skin, Hair, and Nails

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cells in skin, people couldn't feel warmth, cold, or other sensations. For instance, goosebumps form when the erector pili muscles contract to make hairs on the skin stand up straight when someone is cold, excited, or frightened — the blood vessels keep the ...

  17. Deformable skinning on bones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Bent Dalgaard; Petersen, Kim Steen; Jakobsen, Bjarke

    2001-01-01

    Applying skin to a model is a relatively simple task to implement. Nonetheless it seems that no good resource exists that describes both the concepts and math necessary to understand and implement skinning. The intention of this article is an attempt to give a thoroughly description of the theore...

  18. Bionanomaterials for skin regeneration

    CERN Document Server

    Leonida, Mihaela D

    2016-01-01

    This book gives a concise overview of bionanomaterials with applications for skin regeneration. The advantages and challenges of nanoscale materials are covered in detail, giving a basic view of the skin structure and conditions that require transdermal or topical applications. Medical applications, such as wound healing, care for burns, skin disease, and cosmetic care, such as aging of the skin and photodamage, and how they benefit from bionanomaterials, are described in detail. A final chapter is devoted to the ethical and social issues related to the use of bionanomaterials for skin regeneration. This is an ideal book for researchers in materials science, medical scientists specialized in dermatology, and cosmetic chemists working in formulations. It can also serve as a reference for nanotechnologists, dermatologists, microbiologists, engineers, and polymer chemists, as well as students studying in these fields.

  19. Photoprotection in ethnic skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed S. Al-Jamal

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Although cutaneous photodamage is partially mitigated by darker skin pigmentation, sun-induced aging, dyspigmentation, sunburns, and skin cancers are reported worldwide in all skin types and races. The severity of photodamage varies from individual to individual, and is predominantly based upon genetic differences altering the body's response or susceptibility to sun damage. In addition, non-Caucasian patients are less likely to perform skin self-examinations, attend dermatologic follow-ups, and seven times less likely to apply sunscreen than Caucasian patients. Therefore, the remainder of this article will discuss the categories of photoprotective agent [environmental, biologic, physical, and UV filters, i.e., sunscreens] as well as the topics of photoaging, dyspigmentation, photocarcinogenesis, and the controversy surrounding vitamin D deficiency from photoprotection in the context of ethnic skin.

  20. Dry skin - self-care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pat skin dry then apply your moisturizer. Avoid skin care products and soaps that contain alcohol, fragrances, dyes, or other chemicals. Take short, warm baths or showers. Limit your ... gentle skin cleansers or soap with added moisturizers. Only use ...

  1. International double taxation

    OpenAIRE

    Odarčenko, Michal

    2015-01-01

    1 Summary This thesis deals with the issue of international double taxation of income and capital and methods for its solution. International double taxation is an issue which states began to deal with in the late 19th century. This interest intensified after the First World War when also the League of Nations (predecessor of the United Nations) began to deal with international double taxation. Most attention the phenomenon of double taxation of income and capital with an international elemen...

  2. Double Outlet Right Ventricle

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Right Ventricle Menu Topics Topics FAQs Double Outlet Right Ventricle Double outlet right ventricle (DORV) is a rare form of congenital heart disease. Article Info En español Double outlet right ventricle (DORV) is a rare form of congenital ...

  3. The skin aging exposome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krutmann, Jean; Bouloc, Anne; Sore, Gabrielle; Bernard, Bruno A; Passeron, Thierry

    2017-03-01

    The term "exposome" describes the totality of exposures to which an individual is subjected from conception to death. It includes both external and internal factors as well as the human body's response to these factors. Current exposome research aims to understand the effects all factors have on specific organs, yet today, the exposome of human skin has not received major attention and a corresponding definition is lacking. This review was compiled with the collaboration of European scientists, specialized in either environmental medicine or skin biology. A comprehensive review of the existing literature was performed using PubMed. The search was restricted to exposome factors and skin aging. Key review papers and all relevant, epidemiological, in vitro, ex vivo and clinical studies were analyzed to determine the key elements of the exposome influencing skin aging. Here we propose a definition of the skin aging exposome. It is based on a summary of the existing scientific evidence for the role of exposome factors in skin aging. We also identify future research needs which concern knowledge about the interaction of distinct exposomal factors with each other and the resulting net effects on skin aging and suggest some protective measures. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Media Facades beyond Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fritsch, Jonas

    2008-01-01

    As part of a the research project Digital Urban Living [www.digitalurbanliving.dk], we have taken part in the design of two large-scale installations that employ interactive technologies to facilitate participation and foster social interactions in public, urban settings. We present the two cases......, Aarhus by Light and Projected Poetry, and discuss the future trajectory of our work in this field, as well as some of our findings regarding the challenges of designing large-scale public interactive installations. In doing so, we specifically highlight the possibilities in relation to designing...... for affective experience and engaging interaction that advocate for a long-term interactive experience....

  5. Media Facades beyond Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fritsch, Jonas

    2008-01-01

    As part of a the research project Digital Urban Living [www.digitalurbanliving.dk], we have taken part in the design of two large-scale installations that employ interactive technologies to facilitate participation and foster social interactions in public, urban settings. We present the two cases......, Aarhus by Light and Projected Poetry, and discuss the future trajectory of our work in this field, as well as some of our findings regarding the challenges of designing large-scale public interactive installations. In doing so, we specifically highlight the possibilities in relation to designing...

  6. Intelligent Glazed Facades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Frederik Vildbrad

    the use of energy calculation software and thermal building simulation software the initial analysis in this thesis strives towards defining the potential of controlling the energy transport across the façade. The simple analysis defines the key technologies to focus on as a result. The focus on each...... as well as in practical façade control systems The results from the initial analysis show the performance of a dynamic façade which enables the variation of the heat transfer, transmitted irradiance, transmitted natural light, mass transport and thermal energy storage. The potential from this analysis...... across the façade by between 50 % and 88 %. The obtained results from the initial analysis through the developed numerical models to the final analysis show that there are significant energy savings in the design of the dynamic façade. The energy savings need to be further investigated under laboratory...

  7. An elastic second skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Betty; Kang, Soo-Young; Akthakul, Ariya; Ramadurai, Nithin; Pilkenton, Morgan; Patel, Alpesh; Nashat, Amir; Anderson, Daniel G.; Sakamoto, Fernanda H.; Gilchrest, Barbara A.; Anderson, R. Rox; Langer, Robert

    2016-08-01

    We report the synthesis and application of an elastic, wearable crosslinked polymer layer (XPL) that mimics the properties of normal, youthful skin. XPL is made of a tunable polysiloxane-based material that can be engineered with specific elasticity, contractility, adhesion, tensile strength and occlusivity. XPL can be topically applied, rapidly curing at the skin interface without the need for heat- or light-mediated activation. In a pilot human study, we examined the performance of a prototype XPL that has a tensile modulus matching normal skin responses at low strain (pharmaceutical delivery and wound dressings.

  8. High prevalence of skin symptoms among bakery workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, M F C; Dick, F D; Scaife, A R; Semple, S; Paudyal, P; Ayres, J G

    2011-06-01

    Occupational skin disease is common and bakery workers are at increased risk of hand dermatitis. To explore the frequency of, and to identify risk factors for, skin symptoms in a small bakery. A cross-sectional survey of workers in a small bakery in Scotland, using a self-completed questionnaire regarding skin symptoms over the last 12 months. Additionally, data on self-reported atopy status, glove use and daily hand washing frequencies were obtained. Workers were classed as being at low, medium or high risk of occupational skin disease based on their job titles. The overall response rate was 85% (52 women, 41 men) with a mean age of 41 (range 17-72). Eleven per cent of bakers, confectioners and packers and 31% of cleaners, cooks and food production workers reported at least one skin symptom. Thirty-three per cent of symptomatic low-risk workers, 50% of symptomatic medium-risk workers and 75% of symptomatic high-risk workers stated their symptoms usually improved away from work. While washing hands more frequently than 20 times a day had an increased risk of skin symptoms, this was not significant [OR 3.5 (95% CI 0.9-13.2)]. There was a high prevalence of skin symptoms among these bakery workers which was more than double that previously reported in UK bakeries. Frequent washing of hands as a risk factor for skin symptoms may warrant further investigation in bakery workers.

  9. Double layers in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlqvist, P.

    1982-01-01

    For more than a decade it has been realised that electrostatic double layers are likely to occur in space. The author briefly discusses the theoretical background of such double layers. Most of the paper is devoted to an account of the observational evidence for double layers in the ionosphere and magnetosphere of the Earth. Several different experiments are reviewed including rocket and satellite measurements and ground based observations. It is concluded that the observational evidence for double layers in space is very strong. The experimental results indicate that double layers with widely different properties may exist in space. (Auth.)

  10. Inorganic layered double hydroxides as a 4-hexyl resorcinol delivery system for topical applications

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mosangi, Damodar

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the hydrophobic even skin tone active, 4-hexylresorcinol (HR), was intercalated into a zinc aluminium layered double hydroxide (ZnAl-LDH) by a co-precipitation method and used as a controlled release ingredient in skin care...

  11. Examine Your Skin

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Stage III Melanoma Treatment: Stage IV Finding the Right Doctor Glossary of Terms Resources Resources Global Resources Cancer Centers Online Resources The Melanoma Book Clinical Trials Download a Skin Self-Exam Card ...

  12. Aging changes in skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer Support Health Topics Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools Español You Are Here: Home → Medical Encyclopedia → Aging changes in skin URL of this page: //medlineplus. ...

  13. Allergy Skin Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medications: Know your options Allergy skin tests About Advertisement Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. ... a Job Site Map About This Site Twitter Facebook Google YouTube Pinterest Mayo Clinic is a not- ...

  14. Bacterial Skin Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... other immune disorders, or hepatitis People who are undergoing chemotherapy or treatment with other drugs that suppress the immune system Skin that is inflamed or damaged by sunburn, scratching, or other trauma is more likely to become infected. In fact, ...

  15. Occupational skin diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahler, V; Aalto-Korte, K; Alfonso, J H

    2017-01-01

    in Science and Technology (COST) Action TD 1206 (StanDerm) (www.standerm.eu). RESULTS: Besides a national health service or a statutory health insurance, most European member states implemented a second insurance scheme specifically geared at occupational diseases [insurance against occupational risks......BACKGROUND: Work-related skin diseases (WSD) are caused or worsened by a professional activity. Occupational skin diseases (OSD) need to fulfil additional legal criteria which differ from country to country. OSD range amongst the five most frequently notified occupational diseases (musculoskeletal...... diseases, neurologic diseases, lung diseases, diseases of the sensory organs, skin diseases) in Europe. OBJECTIVE: To retrieve information and compare the current state of national frameworks and pathways to manage patients with occupational skin disease with regard to prevention, diagnosis, treatment...

  16. [Currently available skin substitutes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oravcová, Darina; Koller, Ján

    2014-01-01

    The current trend of burn wound care has shifted to more holistic approach of improvement in the long-term form and function of the healed burn wounds and quality of life. Autologous split or full-thickness skin graft are the best definitive burn wound coverage, but it is constrained by the limited available sources, especially in major burns. Donor site morbidities in term of additional wounds and scarring are also of concern of the autograft application. This has demanded the emergence of various skin substitutes in the management of acute burn injury as well as post burn reconstructions. This paper reviews currently available skin substitutes, produced in not for-profit skin banks as well as commercially available. They are divided according to type of material included, as biological, biosynthetic and synthetic and named respectively.

  17. Dry Skin (Xerosis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Registration General information Housing & travel Education Exhibit hall Mobile app 2019 Annual Meeting Derm Exam Prep Course ... SkinPAC State societies Scope of practice Truth in advertising NP/PA laws Action center Public and patients ...

  18. Caring for Tattooed Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Registration General information Housing & travel Education Exhibit hall Mobile app 2019 Annual Meeting Derm Exam Prep Course ... SkinPAC State societies Scope of practice Truth in advertising NP/PA laws Action center Public and patients ...

  19. Fungal Skin Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Abbreviations Weights & Measures ENGLISH View Professional English Deutsch Japanese Espaniol Find information on medical topics, symptoms, drugs, ... touching the infected area. Diagnosis Skin scrapings or cultures Doctors may suspect a fungal infection when they ...

  20. An elastic second skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Betty; Kang, Soo-Young; Akthakul, Ariya; Ramadurai, Nithin; Pilkenton, Morgan; Patel, Alpesh; Nashat, Amir; Anderson, Daniel G; Sakamoto, Fernanda H; Gilchrest, Barbara A; Anderson, R Rox; Langer, Robert

    2016-08-01

    We report the synthesis and application of an elastic, wearable crosslinked polymer layer (XPL) that mimics the properties of normal, youthful skin. XPL is made of a tunable polysiloxane-based material that can be engineered with specific elasticity, contractility, adhesion, tensile strength and occlusivity. XPL can be topically applied, rapidly curing at the skin interface without the need for heat- or light-mediated activation. In a pilot human study, we examined the performance of a prototype XPL that has a tensile modulus matching normal skin responses at low strain (appearance in a 5-point severity scale. The XPL platform may offer advanced solutions to compromised skin barrier function, pharmaceutical delivery and wound dressings.

  1. Examine Your Skin

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Doctor Glossary of Terms Resources Resources Global Resources Cancer Centers Online Resources The Melanoma Book Clinical Trials Download a Skin Self-Exam Card Download a Patient Navigation Card ...

  2. Examine Your Skin

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Who We Are Be On Our PAGE MIF Staff Programs & Services Scientific Advisory Board Advisory Board Patrons & ... Cancer Centers Online Resources The Melanoma Book Clinical Trials Download a Skin Self-Exam Card Download a ...

  3. Skin or nail culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mucosal culture; Culture - skin; Culture - mucosal; Nail culture; Culture - fingernail; Fingernail culture ... There, it is placed in a special dish (culture). It is then watched to see if bacteria, ...

  4. Renal-skin syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Has, Cristina; He, Yinghong

    2017-07-01

    Renal-skin syndroms are a group of genetic disorders with renal and cutaneous manifestations that target molecular components present in both organs. Inherited renal-skin syndromes are mainly associated with defects of cell-matrix adhesion. We provide a non-exhaustive overview of the main molecular players at cell-matrix adhesions in mouse models and in human genetic disorders affecting kidney and skin. Renal and urinary tract involvement is described in all four major epidermolysis bullosa types and, in particular, in junctional subtypes and in recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa. Here, we describe in detail those subtypes for which reno-urinary involvement is a constant and primary feature. Furthermore, complex multiorgan disorders with a predisposition to malignancies or attributable to metabolic defects that involve both kidney and skin are briefly summarized.

  5. Biocatalytic Polymer Skin Adhesives

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    LeJeune, Keith

    2001-01-01

    .... Preliminary results also suggest that the incorporation of enzymes within such polymers reduces immunogenic and allergenic responses that are often observed when applying protein-based materials on skin tissue...

  6. Skin lesion of blastomycosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... infection. It is most often found in: Africa Canada, around the Great Lakes South central and north ... is diagnosed by identifying the fungus in a culture taken from a skin lesion. This usually requires ...

  7. Spiritual and religious aspects of skin and skin disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shenefelt PD

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Philip D Shenefelt,1 Debrah A Shenefelt2 1Dermatology and Cutaneous Surgery, University of South Florida, Tampa, 2Congregation Or Ahavah, Lutz, FL, USA Abstract: Skin and skin disorders have had spiritual aspects since ancient times. Skin, hair, and nails are visible to self and others, and touchable by self and others. The skin is a major sensory organ. Skin also expresses emotions detectable by others through pallor, coldness, "goose bumps", redness, warmth, or sweating. Spiritual and religious significances of skin are revealed through how much of the skin has been and continues to be covered with what types of coverings, scalp and beard hair cutting, shaving and styling, skin, nail, and hair coloring and decorating, tattooing, and intentional scarring of skin. Persons with visible skin disorders have often been stigmatized or even treated as outcasts. Shamans and other spiritual and religious healers have brought about healing of skin disorders through spiritual means. Spiritual and religious interactions with various skin disorders such as psoriasis, leprosy, and vitiligo are discussed. Religious aspects of skin and skin diseases are evaluated for several major religions, with a special focus on Judaism, both conventional and kabbalistic. Keywords: skin, skin disorders, spiritual, religious

  8. ReciPlySkin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Popovic Larsen, Olga; Andersen, Mikkel; Munk-Andersen, Niklas

    2017-01-01

    The report presents process that enbabled the production of the ReciPlySkin structure exhibited at the Circular Economy Exhibition at KADK during the Autumn 2017. The concept, design, detailed design and production are presented in this report.......The report presents process that enbabled the production of the ReciPlySkin structure exhibited at the Circular Economy Exhibition at KADK during the Autumn 2017. The concept, design, detailed design and production are presented in this report....

  9. Adnexal Tumours Of Skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parate Sanjay N

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available A total 120 cases of epidermal appendage tumours of skin were analysed and classified according to the classification provided by WHO’. Epidermal appendage tumours accounted for 12.87% of all skin tumours, of which 29.17% were benign and 70.83% were malignant. Most of the tumours (75.83% were in the head and face region. The most common tumour was basal cell epithelioma (55%.

  10. Mantoux Tuberculin Skin Test

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2006-11-22

    Learn how to evaluate people for latent TB infection with the Mantoux tuberculin skin test. This podcast includes sections on administering and reading the Mantoux tuberculin skin test, the standard method for detecting latent TB infection since the 1930s.  Created: 11/22/2006 by National Center for HIV, STD and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 12/12/2006.

  11. Coffee polyphenols extracted from green coffee beans improve skin properties and microcirculatory function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukagawa, Satoko; Haramizu, Satoshi; Sasaoka, Shun; Yasuda, Yuka; Tsujimura, Hisashi; Murase, Takatoshi

    2017-09-01

    Coffee polyphenols (CPPs), including chlorogenic acid, exert various physiological activities. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of CPPs on skin properties and microcirculatory function in humans. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 49 female subjects with mildly xerotic skin received either a test beverage containing CPPs (270 mg/100 mL/day) or a placebo beverage for 8 weeks. The ingestion of CPPs significantly lowered the clinical scores for skin dryness, decreased transepidermal water loss, skin surface pH, and increased stratum corneum hydration and the responsiveness of skin blood flow during local warming. Moreover, the amounts of free fatty acids and lactic acid in the stratum corneum significantly increased after the ingestion of CPPs. These results suggest that an 8-week intake of CPPs improve skin permeability barrier function and hydration, with a concomitant improvement in microcirculatory function, leading to efficacy in the alleviation of mildly xerotic skin.

  12. [Environmental pollution and skin aging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vierkötter, A

    2011-08-01

    Extrinsic skin aging is the skin aging process induced by environmental factors. The most prominent environmental factor leading to extrinsic skin aging is the sun; therefore extrinsic skin aging is also known as photoaging. However, numerous studies in recent years have shown that smoking leads to extrinsic skin aging. Further, very recently it has been shown, that environmental pollution by traffic is also associated with the occurrence of signs of extrinsic skin aging. Thus, in preventive skin aging strategies the long-term exposure towards air pollution by traffic must also be considered.

  13. Spiritual and religious aspects of skin and skin disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenefelt, Philip D; Shenefelt, Debrah A

    2014-01-01

    Skin and skin disorders have had spiritual aspects since ancient times. Skin, hair, and nails are visible to self and others, and touchable by self and others. The skin is a major sensory organ. Skin also expresses emotions detectable by others through pallor, coldness, “goose bumps”, redness, warmth, or sweating. Spiritual and religious significances of skin are revealed through how much of the skin has been and continues to be covered with what types of coverings, scalp and beard hair cutting, shaving and styling, skin, nail, and hair coloring and decorating, tattooing, and intentional scarring of skin. Persons with visible skin disorders have often been stigmatized or even treated as outcasts. Shamans and other spiritual and religious healers have brought about healing of skin disorders through spiritual means. Spiritual and religious interactions with various skin disorders such as psoriasis, leprosy, and vitiligo are discussed. Religious aspects of skin and skin diseases are evaluated for several major religions, with a special focus on Judaism, both conventional and kabbalistic. PMID:25120377

  14. Skin conditions: common skin rashes in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuniga, Ramiro; Nguyen, Tam

    2013-04-01

    Infants exhibit many skin rashes. Erythema toxicum neonatorum presents as erythematous macules, papules, and pustules on the face, trunk, and extremities; it typically resolves spontaneously within 1 week. Neonatal acne presents as comedones or erythematous papules on the face, scalp, chest, and back. Infantile acne is similar but starts after the neonatal period. Both conditions typically resolve spontaneously; failure to resolve within 1 year warrants evaluation for androgen excess. Neonatal cephalic pustulosis is an acne variant caused by hypersensitivity to Malassezia furfur. It is typically self-limited, but severe cases are managed with topical ketoconazole. Miliaria and milia are caused by sweat retention and present as tiny vesicles or papules; they resolve spontaneously. Contact diaper dermatitis is managed by keeping the diaper area clean and with open air exposure. Diaper dermatitis due to Candida albicans is managed with topical antifungals. Seborrheic dermatitis causes scaling on the scalp. Management involves shampooing and removing scales with a soft brush after applying mineral oil or petrolatum; severe cases are managed with tar or ketoconazole shampoo. Atopic dermatitis is related to food allergy in approximately one-third of children. Food allergy can be confirmed with oral food challenges or skin prick tests. Management includes elimination of irritants and triggers and use of low-potency topical steroids. Written permission from the American Academy of Family Physicians is required for reproduction of this material in whole or in part in any form or medium.

  15. Skin needling as a treatment for acne scarring: An up-to-date review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam G. Harris, MBChB

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: There is moderate evidence to suggest that skin needling is beneficial and safe for the treatment of acne scarring. However, double-blinded, randomized controlled trials are required to make more definitive conclusions.

  16. IEA Solar Heating and Cooling Task 37: Solar facade for residential buildings - Refurbishment with extremely low energy consumption; IEA SHC Task 37: Solarfassade fuer Wohnbau - Erneuerungen mit tiefstem Energieverbrauch - die bauphysikalischen, energetischen und architektonischen Potentiale - Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, E.; Fent, G.

    2009-12-15

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at solar facades and discusses their structural-physical, energetic and architectural potentials. The insulation of a building's envelope is the key issue discussed in this paper. Traditional insulation methods (mineral wool or wood fibre) can produce walls 50 to 60 cm thick, making the renovation of old buildings to high standards a lot more difficult. The 'Lucido' solar facade is described. This is a highly efficient insulation system which absorbs the solar radiation and stores it as heat in the outer layer of the facade, thus reducing the amount of conventional insulation needed. The basic components - protective, transparent glazing with an air gap and a solid wood absorber followed by a layer of regular insulation - are described. During the summer the lamellae act as a shading device reducing the impact of the sun thus preventing overheating, while in the winter the lamellae enhance the absorption of solar radiation. The report discusses the simulation of the system's dynamic insulation properties and ecological factors and presents examples of the system's use in refurbishment projects.

  17. Smoking and skin disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, S F; Sørensen, L T

    2010-01-01

    suggest that tobacco smoking is a contributing factor in systemic lupus erythematosus, psoriasis, palmoplantar pustulosis, cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma, hidradenitis suppurativa, and genital warts. In contrast, smoking may confer some protective effects and mitigate other skin diseases, notably......Tobacco smoking is a serious and preventable health hazard that can cause or exacerbate a number of diseases and shorten life expectancy, but the role of smoking as an etiologic factor in the development of skin disease is largely unknown. Although epidemiological evidence is sparse, findings...... pemphigus vulgaris, pyoderma gangrenosum, aphthous ulcers, and Behçet's disease. Various degenerative dermatologic conditions are also impacted by smoking, such as skin wrinkling and dysregulated wound healing, which can result in post-surgical complications and delayed or even arrested healing of chronic...

  18. Smoking and skin disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, S F; Sørensen, L T

    2010-01-01

    Tobacco smoking is a serious and preventable health hazard that can cause or exacerbate a number of diseases and shorten life expectancy, but the role of smoking as an etiologic factor in the development of skin disease is largely unknown. Although epidemiological evidence is sparse, findings...... suggest that tobacco smoking is a contributing factor in systemic lupus erythematosus, psoriasis, palmoplantar pustulosis, cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma, hidradenitis suppurativa, and genital warts. In contrast, smoking may confer some protective effects and mitigate other skin diseases, notably...... pemphigus vulgaris, pyoderma gangrenosum, aphthous ulcers, and Behçet's disease. Various degenerative dermatologic conditions are also impacted by smoking, such as skin wrinkling and dysregulated wound healing, which can result in post-surgical complications and delayed or even arrested healing of chronic...

  19. Environment and the skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suskind, R.R.

    1990-01-01

    The skin is an important organ of defense adaptation and a portal of entry for xenobiotics. It is vulnerable to physical, chemical, and biologic agents and capable of expressing responses to these agents in a variety of pathologic patterns. These patterns are characterized by morphologic and functional features which are elicited by careful examination and test procedures. Cutaneous cancer may result from exposure to nonionizing as well as ionizing radiation, to specific identifiable chemical hazards, and may be enhanced by trauma. Cutaneous hazards of chemical sources are largely found in the workplace and among consumer products, including drugs and toilet goods. Environmental skin diseases and injuries are preventable. Prior to use assessment for safety and for possible risks from exposure to an agent, product, or process is of primary importance in the prevention and control of environmental skin disease and injury

  20. Skin in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raj Sujata

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Screening for cutaneous disorders was undertaken in 1,175 pregnant women attending ante-natal clinic. Skin disease or STD being encountered in 114 (9.7%. Pruritus was present in 7.1 percent and was mostly due to candidiadis. The physiological skin changes were frequently observed. Candidiasis was by far the commonest infection with a 2.9 percent incidence. Syphilis was the commonest STD followed by Donovanosis and condyloma acuminata. Specific pregnancy dermatoses were seen in 1.5 percent and included prurigo gestationis, pruritic urticarial papules and plaques (PUPPP and pruritus gravidarum.

  1. Skin in pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Raj Sujata; Khopkar Uday; Kapasi Akila; Wadhwa S

    1992-01-01

    Screening for cutaneous disorders was undertaken in 1,175 pregnant women attending ante-natal clinic. Skin disease or STD being encountered in 114 (9.7%). Pruritus was present in 7.1 percent and was mostly due to candidiadis. The physiological skin changes were frequently observed. Candidiasis was by far the commonest infection with a 2.9 percent incidence. Syphilis was the commonest STD followed by Donovanosis and condyloma acuminata. Specific pregnancy dermatoses were seen in 1.5 per...

  2. Skin disorders during menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Gleison V; Trigo, Ana Cm; Paim de Oliveira, Mária de Fátima

    2016-02-01

    Menopause is the cessation of menstrual periods due to the loss of ovarian function. Among the various phases of a woman's life, menopause has the greatest impact on health and has been one of the most neglected areas of research. Hormonal changes caused by menopause can lead to problems in the skin and its annexes, and despite the high frequency of dermatologic signs and symptoms, studies on this topic are limited. In this article, we review the skin disorders that result from the hormonal changes of menopause and other common dermatoses observed during this period and assess possible therapeutic approaches.

  3. Skin cancer and melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moylan, D.J.

    1991-01-01

    In this chapter, the author discusses various types of non-melanoma malignant skin cancer, as well as malignant melanoma. Non-melanoma skin cancer, such as basal cell and squamous cell carcinomas, occasionally metastasize, but only late in the course of the disease. On the other hand, even relatively small primary melanomas tend to disseminate to regional lymph nodes and to distant sites. The author presents various treatment plans, including radiation therapy. Cutaneous melanomas have been considered relatively radioresistant. This is the rationale for the use of large fraction radiation therapy in the treatment of melanomas with the fraction sizes varying from 4--8 Gy

  4. Double deflation and aggregation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dietzenbacher, Erik; Hoen, A.R.

    Published input-output tables in constant prices are relatively scarce. Therefore, input-output tables often have to be deflated by the practitioners themselves. The method of double deflation is used predominantly for this purpose. The present paper shows that the double-deflation method is subject

  5. Final Empirical Test Case Specification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalyanova, Olena; Heiselberg, Per

    This document includes the empirical specification on the IEA task of evaluation building energy simulation computer programs for the Double Skin Facades (DSF) constructions. There are two approaches involved into this procedure, one is the comparative approach and another is the empirical one....

  6. Double layer formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, N.

    1982-01-01

    Results from several numerical simulations of the formation of double layers in plasmas with a constant potential drop across them are presented. Here the emphasis is mainly on plasma processes during the formation of double layers. The recurring formation of double layers, their propagation and associated current interruptions are observed when the electron current injected into the simulation region from the low potential side exceeds the electron thermal current. This recurring process is stopped (or delayed) when the electron current recuperation is inhibited by a small magnetic force on the electrons. The motion of double layers is examined and it is found that the motion is caused by the interruption of the ion current from the high potential side. The subsequent recovery of this current renders the double layer stationary. (author)

  7. Skin Care of the Newborn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serap Utaş

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Development of the skin barrier continues up to one year after birth. The immaturity of the epidermal barrier in the neonatal period may cause dry skin, vulnerability to trauma, rapid onset of microbial colonization and percutaneous drug toxicity. Skin barrier is essential for infants. Skin care practices should, however, preserve skin integrity, prevent toxicity and address concerns such as potential sensitivity from chemical exposure. This article reviews the skin care of the newborns. (Turk­derm 2011; 45: 123-6

  8. About Skin-to-Skin Care (Kangaroo Care)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Size Email Print Share About Skin-to-Skin Care Page Content Article Body You may be able ... care, also called kangaroo care. What is Kangaroo Care? Kangaroo care was developed in South America as ...

  9. Skin Diseases: Skin and Sun—Not a good mix

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Americans spend billions of dollars each year on skin care products that promise to erase wrinkles, lighten age spots, and eliminate itching, flaking, or redness. As you age, your skin changes. It becomes thinner and loses fat, making ...

  10. Shark skin laceration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, Sean D; Rosen, Ted

    2006-10-31

    We present a case of multiple lacerations occurring from an encounter with a bull shark in which violent contact was made with the animal's rough skin. Conservative treatment of the injury resulted in good clinical outcome without any complications. Such events are only rarely reported in the medical literature.

  11. Noninvasive Skin Tightening Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Noninvasive skin tightening has become one of the most common cosmetic aesthetic procedures being performed today. The use of radiofrequency devices for these procedures has been at the forefront of this trend for the past several years. Newer and more sophisticated radiofrequency devices are being brought to the market and presented here are the Venus Freeze and Venus Legacy. PMID:26155322

  12. Noninvasive Skin Tightening Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Gold, Michael H.

    2015-01-01

    Noninvasive skin tightening has become one of the most common cosmetic aesthetic procedures being performed today. The use of radiofrequency devices for these procedures has been at the forefront of this trend for the past several years. Newer and more sophisticated radiofrequency devices are being brought to the market and presented here are the Venus Freeze and Venus Legacy.

  13. Preventing Skin Cancer

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-05-18

    A man and a woman talk about how they’ve learned to protect their skin from the sun over the years. .  Created: 5/18/2016 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 5/18/2016.

  14. Skin painting studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witschi, H.P.; Smith, L.H.; Goad, M.E.; Anthony, W.B.; Gipson, L.C.; Stephens, T.J.; Whitaker, M.S.

    1987-01-01

    In order to estimate eventual risks to human health as a consequence of incidental and prolonged skin contact, it is necessary to obtain some information on the potential of coal-derived liquids to elicit skin cancer. In addition, it also must be established whether prolonged dermal exposure will produce signs of toxicity not only on the skin but to internal organs. During the past 2 years, they completed a life-long skin painting study with mice designed to answer some of these questions. The following materials were tested: Raw H-coal blend, containing 5700 ppm N; H-coal blend after low hydrotreatment (2650 ppm N); H-coal blend after high hydrotreatment (0.2 ppm N); H-coal home heating oil, a devolatilized version of the high-hydrotreatment H-coal blend; and an H-coal reformed naphtha. Two petroleum-derived references samples were used: Petroleum No. 2 fuel oil and high catalytically cracked naphtha. Benzo(a)pyrene was used as reference substance. Experimental animals were male and female C3H mice

  15. Skin lesion removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... likely to be done when there is a concern about a skin cancer. Most often, an area the shape of an ellipse is removed, as this makes it easier to close with stitches. The entire lesion is removed, going as deep as the fat, if needed, to ...

  16. Skin color independent assessment of aging using skin autofluorescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koetsier, M.; Nur, E.; Chunmao, H.; Lutgers, H.L.; Links, T.P.; Smit, A.J.; Rakhorst, G.; de Graaff, R.

    2010-01-01

    Skin autofluorescence (AF) for the non-invasive assessment of the amount of accumulated tissue Advanced Glycation Endproducts (AGEs) increases with aging. In subjects with darker skin colors, measurements typically result in lower AF values than in subjects with fair skin colors, e. g. due to

  17. Skin color independent assessment of aging using skin autofluorescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koetsier, M.; Nur, Erfan; Chunmao, Han; Lutgers, Helen L.; Links, Thera P.; Smit, Andries J.; Rakhorst, Gerhard; Graaff, Reindert

    2010-01-01

    Skin autofluorescence (AF) for the non-invasive assessment of the amount of accumulated tissue Advanced Glycation Endproducts (AGEs) increases with aging. In subjects with darker skin colors, measurements typically result in lower AF values than in subjects with fair skin colors, e.g. due to

  18. Treatment of cloth with a fabric softener ameliorates skin dryness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isoda, Kenichi; Takagi, Yutaka; Kitahara, Takashi; Sano, Yutaka; Sugano, Ikuo; Umeda-Togami, Kumi; Umeda, Koji; Yamanaka, Keiichi; Yamada, Tomomi; Mizutani, Hitoshi

    2011-07-01

    Dry skin is a condition characterized by impaired skin barrier function including atopic dermatitis and senile eczemas. Fabric softening chemicals (FSC) smoothens the surface of fabrics and thus decreases friction with the skin. Scientific evaluation of fabric softener on skin dryness is very limited. We evaluated the effectiveness and safety of FSC-treated T-shirts in subjects with dry skin. This is a randomized double-blind control study that included 40 male volunteers with apparent dry skin. Subjects were randomly divided into two groups: 20 men received 28 pieces of FSC-treated T-shirts wearing them for 4 weeks, and another 20 men received non-treated T-shirts. The effect of trial was evaluated by visual grading, subjective symptom, stratum corneum water content (SCWC), transepidermal water loss (TEWL), and dermoscopic skin surface analysis on days 0, 7, 14 and 28. A significant improvement of SCWC was observed in the skin of the shoulder (days 7-28) and lateral abdomen (day 14) wearing the treated T-shirts, but not in the non-treated T-shirts. In a stratified analysis of the low and high SCWC group, significant improvement was identified in the low SCWC groups but not in high SCWC groups. The visual grading of the shoulder improved significantly in the treated T-shirts group. No significant improvement was found in TEWL, dermoscopic analysis and subjective symptom in both groups. No remarkable side-effect was identified throughout this investigation. Addition of a fabric softener during clothes laundering is a potent preventive tool for dry skin. © 2010 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  19. Facial Skin Lifting and Brightening Following Sleep on Copper Oxide Containing Pillowcases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gadi Borkow

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Copper plays a key role in many of the physiological processes that occur in the skin. Previously it was found that sleeping on pillowcases impregnated with microscopic copper oxide particles results in reduction of wrinkles and fine lines. In the current study, it was examined if sleeping on copper oxide impregnated pillowcases results also in skin lifting and skin brightness. A four week, double blind, randomized study was performed, during which 45 women, aged 37–54, slept on copper oxide containing pillowcases (test group, n = 23 or on control pillowcases without copper oxide (control group, n = 22. Facial and eye skin surface was measured using an F-ray 3D measurement system and surface analysis was conducted using Image-pro® plus. Skin brightness was measured using a tristimulus colorimeter. Sleeping on the test pillowcases resulted in statistically significant skin lifting on the cheek area (p = 0.039 and eye area (p = 0.001 after four weeks of use as compared to baseline. The mean skin brightness in those sleeping on the test pillowcases increased after two (p = 0.024 and four weeks (p = 0.008. No statistically significant changes occurred during the study in the study participants using the control pillowcases. Statistically significant differences between both groups were recorded at two and four weeks for skin brightness and skin lifting, respectively. In conclusion, sleeping on copper oxide containing pillowcases results in facial skin lifting and brightness of the skin.

  20. Skin Cancer Can Strike Anyone

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... left temple. He has spoken out about the importance of regular screening for skin cancer. Photo: Frontpage / ... melanin, which is responsible for skin and hair color. Melanoma can spread very rapidly, and the incidence ...

  1. Candida infection of the skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000880.htm Candida infection of the skin To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Candida infection of the skin is a yeast infection ...

  2. Superresolution and Fluorescence Dynamics Evidence Reveal That Intact Liposomes Do Not Cross the Human Skin Barrier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreier, Jes; Sørensen, Jens A; Brewer, Jonathan R

    2016-01-01

    In this study we use the combination of super resolution optical microscopy and raster image correlation spectroscopy (RICS) to study the mechanism of action of liposomes as transdermal drug delivery systems in human skin. Two different compositions of liposomes were applied to newly excised human...... skin, a POPC liposome and a more flexible liposome containing the surfactant sodium cholate. Stimulated emission depletion microscopy (STED) images of intact skin and cryo-sections of skin treated with labeled liposomes were recorded displaying an optical resolution low enough to resolve the 100 nm...... liposomes in the skin. The images revealed that virtually none of the liposomes remained intact beneath the skin surface. RICS two color cross correlation diffusion measurements of double labeled liposomes confirmed these observations. Our results suggest that the liposomes do not act as carriers...

  3. Skin Pedagogies and Abject Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenway, Jane; Bullen, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    How does the beauty industry "narrate the skin"? What does it teach women from different cultural groups about the female body? How does skin function as a site where female subjection and abjection are produced and reproduced? In this paper we examine the skin industry pointing to its extreme commodification of the female body and to the…

  4. Maintaining Healthy Skin -- Part 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... care of your skin NUTRITION: To keep your skin healthy, eat a well-balanced diet that includes plenty of protein foods, fruits and vegetables (fresh if possible) and liquids. If you are having a skin problem, such as a pressure sore or a ...

  5. Silver nanoparticles as a control agent against facades coated by aerial algae-A model study of Apatococcus lobatus (green algae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Nowicka-Krawczyk

    Full Text Available Aerial algae are an important biological factor causing the biodegradation of building materials and facades. Conservation procedures aimed at the protection of historic and utility materials must be properly designed to avoid an increase of the degradation rate. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of silver nanoparticles (AgNP synthetized with features contributing to the accessibility and toxicity (spherical shape, small size on the most frequently occurring species of green algae in aerial biofilms and thus, the most common biodegradation factor-Apatococcus lobatus. Changes in the chloroplasts structure and the photosynthetic activity of the cells under AgNP exposure were made using confocal laser microscopy and digital image analysis and the estimation of growth inhibition rate was made using a biomass assay. In the majority of cases, treatment with AgNP caused a time and dose dependant degradation of chloroplasts and decrease in the photosynthetic activity of cells leading to the inhibition of aerial algae growth. However, some cases revealed an adaptive response of the cells. The response was induced by either a too low, or-after a short time-too high concentration of AgNP. Taken together, the data suggest that AgNP may be used as a biocide against aerial algal coatings; however, with a proper caution related to the concentration of the nanoparticles.

  6. Niacinamide: A B vitamin that improves aging facial skin appearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissett, Donald L; Oblong, John E; Berge, Cynthia A

    2005-07-01

    In multiple chronic clinical studies, topical niacinamide (vitamin B3) has been observed to be well tolerated by skin and to provide a broad array of improvements in the appearance of aging facial skin (eg, reduction in the appearance of hyperpigmentated spots and red blotchiness). To clinically determine the effect of topical niacinamide on additional skin appearance and property end points (wrinkles, yellowing, and elasticity). Female white subjects (N = 50) with clinical signs of facial photoaging (fine lines and wrinkles, poor texture, and hyperpigmented spots) applied 5% niacinamide to half of the face and its vehicle control to the other half twice daily for 12 weeks (double blind, left-right randomized). Facial images and instrumental measures were obtained at baseline and at 4-week intervals. Analyses of the data revealed a variety of significant skin appearance improvement effects for topical niacinamide: reductions in fine lines and wrinkles, hyperpigmented spots, red blotchiness, and skin sallowness (yellowing). In addition, elasticity (as measured via cutometry) was improved. Corresponding mechanistic information is presented. In addition to previously observed benefits for topical niacinamide, additional effects were identified (improved appearance of skin wrinkles and yellowing and improved elasticity).

  7. Neutrinoless double beta decay

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The physics potential of neutrinoless double beta decay is discussed. Furthermore, experimental considerations as well as the current status of experiments are presented. Finally, an outlook towards the future, work on nuclear matrix elements and alternative processes is given.

  8. Reflection Positive Doubles

    OpenAIRE

    Jaffe, Arthur; Janssens, Bas

    2016-01-01

    Here we introduce reflection positive doubles, a general framework for reflection positivity, covering a wide variety of systems in statistical physics and quantum field theory. These systems may be bosonic, fermionic, or parafermionic in nature. Within the framework of reflection positive doubles, we give necessary and sufficient conditions for reflection positivity. We use a reflection-invariant cone to implement our construction. Our characterization allows for a direct interpretation in t...

  9. A double layer review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Block, L.P.

    1977-06-01

    A review of the main results on electrostatic double layers (sometimes called space charge layers or sheaths) obtained from theory, and laboratory and space experiments up to the spring of 1977 is given. By means of barium jets and satellite probes, double layers have now been found at the altitudes, earlier predicted theoretically. The general potential distribution above the auroral zone, suggested by inverted V-events and electric field reversals, is corroborated. (author)

  10. Skin contamination dosimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamby, David M [Corvallis, OR; Farsoni, Abdollah T [Corvallis, OR; Cazalas, Edward [Corvallis, OR

    2011-06-21

    A technique and device provides absolute skin dosimetry in real time at multiple tissue depths simultaneously. The device uses a phoswich detector which has multiple scintillators embedded at different depths within a non-scintillating material. A digital pulse processor connected to the phoswich detector measures a differential distribution (dN/dH) of count rate N as function of pulse height H for signals from each of the multiple scintillators. A digital processor computes in real time from the differential count-rate distribution for each of multiple scintillators an estimate of an ionizing radiation dose delivered to each of multiple depths of skin tissue corresponding to the multiple scintillators embedded at multiple corresponding depths within the non-scintillating material.

  11. Skin barrier in rosacea*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addor, Flavia Alvim Sant'Anna

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies about the cutaneous barrier demonstrated consistent evidence that the stratum corneum is a metabolically active structure and also has adaptive functions, may play a regulatory role in the inflammatory response with activation of keratinocytes, angiogenesis and fibroplasia, whose intensity depends primarily on the intensity the stimulus. There are few studies investigating the abnormalities of the skin barrier in rosacea, but the existing data already show that there are changes resulting from inflammation, which can generate a vicious circle caused a prolongation of flare-ups and worsening of symptoms. This article aims to gather the most relevant literature data about the characteristics and effects of the state of the skin barrier in rosacea. PMID:26982780

  12. Skin Cancer: Biology, Risk Factors & Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... turn Javascript on. Feature: Skin Cancer Skin Cancer: Biology, Risk Factors & Treatment Past Issues / Summer 2013 Table ... Articles Skin Cancer Can Strike Anyone / Skin Cancer: Biology, Risk Factors & Treatment / Timely Healthcare Checkup Catches Melanoma ...

  13. Green tea polyphenols provide photoprotection, increase microcirculation, and modulate skin properties of women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, Ulrike; Moore, Carolyn E; De Spirt, Silke; Tronnier, Hagen; Stahl, Wilhelm

    2011-06-01

    Dietary constituents including polyphenols and carotenoids contribute to endogenous photoprotection and modulate skin characteristics related to structure and function of the tissue. Animal and in-vitro studies indicate that green tea polyphenols affect skin properties. In a 12-wk, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 60 female volunteers were randomized to an intervention or control group. Participants consumed either a beverage with green tea polyphenols providing 1402 mg total catechins/d or a control beverage. Skin photoprotection, structure, and function were measured at baseline (wk 0), wk 6, and wk 12. Following exposure of the skin areas to 1.25 minimal erythemal dose of radiation from a solar simulator, UV-induced erythema decreased significantly in the intervention group by 16 and 25% after 6 and 12 wk, respectively. Skin structural characteristics that were positively affected included elasticity, roughness, scaling, density, and water homeostasis. Intake of the green tea polyphenol beverage for 12 wk increased blood flow and oxygen delivery to the skin. Likewise, in a separate, randomized, double-blind, single-dose (0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 g) study of green tea polyphenols, blood flow was maximized at 30 min after ingestion. In summary, green tea polyphenols delivered in a beverage were shown to protect skin against harmful UV radiation and helped to improve overall skin quality of women.

  14. Photothermal Radiometry for Skin Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perry Xiao

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Photothermal radiometry is an infrared remote sensing technique that has been used for skin and skin appendages research, in the areas of skin hydration, hydration gradient, skin hydration depth profiling, skin thickness measurements, skin pigmentation measurements, effect of topically applied substances, transdermal drug delivery, moisture content of bio-materials, membrane permeation, and nail and hair measurements. Compared with other technologies, photothermal radiometry has the advantages of non-contact, non-destructive, quick to make a measurement (a few seconds, and being spectroscopic in nature. It is also colour blind, and can work on any arbitrary sample surfaces. It has a unique depth profiling capability on a sample surface (typically the top 20 µm, which makes it particularly suitable for skin measurements. In this paper, we present a review of the photothermal radiometry work carried out in our research group. We will first introduce the theoretical background, then illustrate its applications with experimental results.

  15. The genetics of skin fragility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Has, Cristina; Bruckner-Tuderman, Leena

    2014-01-01

    Genetic skin fragility manifests with diminished resistance of the skin and mucous membranes to external mechanical forces and with skin blistering, erosions, and painful wounds as clinical features. Skin fragility disorders, collectively called epidermolysis bullosa, are caused by mutations in 18 distinct genes that encode proteins involved in epidermal integrity and dermal-epidermal adhesion. The genetic spectrum, along with environmental and genetic modifiers, creates a large number of clinical phenotypes, spanning from minor localized lesions to severe generalized blistering, secondary skin cancer, or early demise resulting from extensive loss of the epidermis. Laboratory investigations of skin fragility have greatly augmented our understanding of genotype-phenotype correlations in epidermolysis bullosa and have also advanced skin biology in general. Current translational research concentrates on the development of biologically valid treatments with therapeutic genes, cells, proteins, or small-molecule compounds in preclinical settings or human pilot trials.

  16. Proposed derivation of skin contamination and skin decontamination limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schieferdecker, H.; Koelzer, W.; Henrichs, K.

    1986-01-01

    From the primary dose limits for the skin, secondary dose limits were derived for skin contamination which can be used in practical radiation protection work. Analogous to the secondary dose limit for the maximum permissible body burden in the case of incorporation, dose limits for the 'maximum permissible skin burden' were calculated, with the help of dose factors, for application in the case of skin contamination. They can be derived from the skin dose limit values. For conditions in which the skin is exposed to temporary contamination, a limit of skin contamination was derived for immediately removable contamination and for one day of exposure. For non-removable contamination a dose limit of annual skin contamination was defined, taking into account the renewal of the skin. An investigation level for skin contamination was assumed, as a threshold, above which certain measures must be taken; these to include appropriate washing not more than three times, with the subsequent procedure determined by the level of residual contamination. The dose limits are indicated for selected radionuclides. (author)

  17. Effect of oral intake of choline-stabilized orthosilicic acid on skin, nails and hair in women with photodamaged skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barel, A; Calomme, M; Timchenko, A; De Paepe, K; Paepe, K De; Demeester, N; Rogiers, V; Clarys, P; Vanden Berghe, D

    2005-10-01

    Chronic exposure of the skin to sunlight causes damage to the underlying connective tissue with a loss of elasticity and firmness. Silicon (Si) was suggested to have an important function in the formation and maintenance of connective tissue. Choline-stabilized orthosilicic acid ("ch-OSA") is a bioavailable form of silicon which was found to increase the hydroxyproline concentration in the dermis of animals. The effect of ch-OSA on skin, nails and hair was investigated in a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled study. Fifty women with photodamaged facial skin were administered orally during 20 weeks, 10 mg Si/day in the form of ch-OSA pellets (n=25) or a placebo (n=25). Noninvasive methods were used to evaluate skin microrelief (forearm), hydration (forearm) and mechanical anisotropy (forehead). Volunteers evaluated on a virtual analog scale (VAS, "none=0, severe=3") brittleness of hair and nails. The serum Si concentration was significantly higher after a 20-week supplementation in subjects with ch-OSA compared to the placebo group. Skin roughness parameters increased in the placebo group (Rt:+8%; Rm: +11%; Rz: +6%) but decreased in the ch-OSA group (Rt: -16%; Rm: -19%; Rz: -8%). The change in roughness from baseline was significantly different between ch-OSA and placebo groups for Rt and Rm. The difference in longitudinal and lateral shear propagation time increased after 20 weeks in the placebo group but decreased in the ch-OSA group suggesting improvement in isotropy of the skin. VAS scores for nail and hair brittleness were significantly lower after 20 weeks in the ch-OSA group compared to baseline scores. Oral intake of ch-OSA during the 20 weeks results in a significant positive effect on skin surface and skin mechanical properties, and on brittleness of hair and nails.

  18. Openable facade system with low-energy glazing in multi-storey buildings. Evaluation of energy consumption and indoor climate; Rumhoeje, oplukkelige glaspartier i etagebolig. Evaluering af energiforbrug og indeklima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergsoee, N.C.; Engelund Thomsen, K.; Rose, J.

    2009-07-01

    Future highly insulating types of glazing introduce new perspectives for the use of glass in the architectural design of energy-efficient buildings. The project demonstrates how new types of glazing and glass facades can be incorporated in multi-storey buildings. It also demonstrates how to achieve new facade expressions as well as spatial and lighting effects by using highly insulating glass facades while at the same time meeting energy requirements as stated in the Danish Building Regulations (BR). The aim of the project was to demonstrate the expected energy consumption and good indoor climate of a multi-storey building situated in a Copenhagen suburb. The building has 5 storeys with a total of 24 dwellings and a south facade with a multi-openable facade system consisting of folding doors with low-energy glazing. As described in By og Byg Results 030 'Openable glass facades in new multi-storey building' (2003) the energy consumption is expected to be somewhat lower than stated in the current Building Regulations. This is close to the requirements in the BR 2008 and at the same time achieves good architecture, good daylight conditions and a good indoor climate during winter without undesired heat during summer. Measurements were carried out from January 2005 until July 2006 in 6 apartments of 24 and while the building was occupied. The measurements include 1) registrations of the consumption of electricity, heating and water; 2) registrations of indoor temperatures and relative humidity rates; 3) measurements of air change rates during autumn and winter; 4) registrations of luminance conditions; and 5) measurement of U-values. The measurements are supplemented with questionnaires and interviews with the occupants concerning their use of the building, their perception of its qualities and their experience of their first months of occupancy. The average indoor temperatures were around 23-24 deg. C, but high temperatures occurred. The air change rates were

  19. Skin moisturization mechanisms: new data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonté, F

    2011-05-01

    The main function of the skin is to protect the body against exogenous substances and excessive water loss. The skin barrier is located in the outermost layer of the skin, called the stratum corneum, which is composed of corneocytes, originating from the keratinocytes differentiation process, embedded in organized complex lipid domains. Moisturizing of the skin is recognized as the first anti-aging skin care. Skin moisturization is essential for its appearance, protection, complexion, softness and the reinforcement of its barrier properties against deleterious and exogenous environmental factors. The intrinsic water binding capacity of skin is not only due to the complex natural moisturizing factor present in corneocytes, but also to hyaluronic acid and a regulated water transport within the skin. Recent data shows that the water movements between the cells at the different levels of the epidermis are due to dedicated water and glycerol transport proteins named aquaporins. Their role in the skin moisturization is completed by corneodesmosomes and tight junctions. Water and pH are now shown to be of prime importance in the regulation of the epidermal enzymes linked to corneocytes desquamation and lipid synthesis. Furthermore, the level of moisturization of the skin is important in its protection against repeated exposure to various irritant agents or phenomena such as very frequent washing with strong tensioactive materials. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Epidemiology of skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiter, Ulrike; Eigentler, Thomas; Garbe, Claus

    2014-01-01

    Melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) are now the most common types of cancer in white populations. Both tumor entities show an increasing incidence rate worldwide but a stable or decreasing mortality rate. NMSC is the most common cancer in white-skinned individuals with a worldwide increasing incidence. NMSC is an increasing problem for health care services worldwide which causes significant morbidity. The rising incidence rates of NMSC are probably caused by a combination of increased exposure to ultraviolet (UV) or sun light, increased outdoor activities, changes in clothing style, increased longevity, ozone depletion, genetics and in some cases, immune suppression. An intensive UV exposure in childhood and adolescence was causative for the development of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) whereas for the etiology of SCC a chronic UV exposure in the earlier decades was accused. Cutaneous melanoma is the most rapidly increasing cancer in white populations, in the last 3 decades incidence rates have risen up to 5-fold. In 2008 melanoma was on place 5 in women and on place 8 in men of the most common solid tumor entities in Germany. The frequency of its occurrence is closely associated with the constitutive color of the skin, and the geographical zone. Changes in outdoor activities and exposure to sunlight during the past 50 years are an important factor for the increasing incidence of melanoma. Mortality rates of melanoma show a stabilization in the USA, Australia and also in European countries. In contrast to SCC, melanoma risk seems to be associated with an intermittent exposure to sunlight. Prevention campaigns aim on reducing incidence and achieving earlier diagnosis, which resulted in an ongoing trend toward thin melanoma since the last two decades. However, the impact of primary prevention measures on incidence rates of melanoma is unlikely to be seen in the near future, rather increasing incidence rates to 40-50/100,000 inhabitants/year should be expected in

  1. Climate change and skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balato, N; Ayala, F; Megna, M; Balato, A; Patruno, C

    2013-02-01

    Global climate appears to be changing at an unprecedented rate. Climate change can be caused by several factors that include variations in solar radiation received by earth, oceanic processes (such as oceanic circulation), plate tectonics, and volcanic eruptions, as well as human-induced alterations of the natural world. Many human activities, such as the use of fossil fuel and the consequent accumulation of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, land consumption, deforestation, industrial processes, as well as some agriculture practices are contributing to global climate change. Indeed, many authors have reported on the current trend towards global warming (average surface temperature has augmented by 0.6 °C over the past 100 years), decreased precipitation, atmospheric humidity changes, and global rise in extreme climatic events. The magnitude and cause of these changes and their impact on human activity have become important matters of debate worldwide, representing climate change as one of the greatest challenges of the modern age. Although many articles have been written based on observations and various predictive models of how climate change could affect social, economic and health systems, only few studies exist about the effects of this change on skin physiology and diseases. However, the skin is the most exposed organ to environment; therefore, cutaneous diseases are inclined to have a high sensitivity to climate. For example, global warming, deforestation and changes in precipitation have been linked to variations in the geographical distribution of vectors of some infectious diseases (leishmaniasis, lyme disease, etc) by changing their spread, whereas warm and humid environment can also encourage the colonization of the skin by bacteria and fungi. The present review focuses on the wide and complex relationship between climate change and dermatology, showing the numerous factors that are contributing to modify the incidence and the clinical pattern of many

  2. Project Half Double

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svejvig, Per; Ehlers, Michael; Adland, Karoline Thorp

    and as an opportunity rather than a threat and a risk. We are convinced that by doing so, we can strengthen Denmark’s competitiveness and play an important role in the battle for jobs and future welfare. The overall goal is to deliver “projects in half the time with double the impact”, where projects in half the time...... many of the key performance indicators associated with them can be evaluated (Grundfos and Siemens Wind Power). In addition to the current status of delivering impact faster for the seven pilot projects, it is important to highlight that Project Half Double phase 1 has planted many seeds in the pilot......Project Half Double has a clear mission to succeed in finding a project methodology that can increase the success rate of our projects while increasing the speed at which we generate new ideas and develop new products and services. Chaos and complexity should be seen as a basic condition...

  3. Double Chooz experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palomares, C.

    2009-01-01

    Double Chooz will use two identical detectors at different distances from the Chooz nuclear power station to search for a non-vanishing value of θ 13 , and, hopefully, to open the way to experiments aspiring to discover CP violation in the leptonic sector. The far detector is expected to be operative by the end of 2009. Installation of the near detector will occur in 2010. Double Chooz has the capacity to exclude sin 2 (2θ 13 ) 31 2 = 2.5 x 10 -3 eV 2 with three years of data running both near and far detectors. (author)

  4. John Deakin: Double Exposures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Rousseau

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this series of short films made by Jonathan Law, the art historian James Boaden, and the curator of The John Deakin Archive, Paul Rousseau, discuss the double-exposure images made by the photographer John Deakin (1912-1972 in the 1950s and 1960s. The films ask you, firstly, to look closely at the images being discussed. Each one begins with a sustained and intense shot of a single image before opening up to a wide-ranging discussion about Deakin, double exposures, and photography.

  5. Contamination and decontamination of skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severa, J.; Knajfl, J.

    1983-01-01

    In external contamination the beta radiation dose is the prevalent component of the total dose absorbed by the skin. There exist four types of radionUclide bonds to the skin: mechanical retention of solid particles or solution on the surface and in the pores, physical adsorption of nondissociated molecules or colloids, the ion exchange effect, and chemisorption. Radionuclides then penetrate the skin by transfollicular transfer. The total amount of radioactive substances absorbed into the skin depends on the condition of the skin. Skin is decontaminated by washing with lukewarm water and soap or with special decontamination solutions. The most widely used components of decontamination solutions are detergents, chelaton, sodium hexametaphosphate, oxalic acid, citric acid. The main principles of the decontamination of persons are given. (M.D.)

  6. The skin prick test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frati, F; Incorvaia, C; Cavaliere, C; Di Cara, G; Marcucci, F; Esposito, S; Masieri, S

    2018-01-01

    The skin prick test (SPT) is the most common test for the diagnosis of allergy. SPT is performed by pricking the skin, usually in the volar surface of the forearm, with a lancet through a drop of an allergen extract and is usually the first choice test in the diagnostic workup for allergic diseases because of its reliability, safety, convenience and low cost. SPT is minimally invasive and has the advantage of testing multiple allergens in 15 to 20 min. In children, SPT is far less disturbing than venipuncture and is used to obtain a sample of serum to measure specific IgE through in vitro tests. There is a good correlation (about 85-95%) between SPT and in vitro tests. Globally, SPT is an excellent diagnostic tool, with a positive predictive value ranging from 95-100%. SPTs can identify sensitivity to inhalants, foods, some drugs, occupational allergens, hymenoptera venom and latex. However, the relevance of such sensitivity to allergens should always be carefully interpreted in the light of the clinical history, because sensitization and clinical allergy may not coincide. In regards to safety, though the reports of systemic reactions, and particularly anaphylaxis, are very rare, in vitro IgE tests should be preferred if previous severe reactions emerge from the patient’s clinical history.

  7. Skin contamination - prevention and decontaminating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henning, K.

    2001-01-01

    A detailed examination is made of the structure of human skin. Measures were drawn up to prevent skin contamination in nuclear installations as well as contaminated skin was decontaminated from the personnel. By systematically applying these measures a significant level of success was achieved in preventing contamination in nuclear installations. Cases where more far-reaching chemical methods had to be used were kept to a minimum. (R.P.)

  8. Protecting the skin during thyroidectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renan Bezerra Lira

    Full Text Available In this note we describe the standard technical maneuver used in our department to protect the skin during thyroidectomy in order to get the best aesthetic result. We use surgical gloves to protect the skin during these operations to reduce the negative impact of thermal trauma and mechanical retractors and energy delivery devices at the edges of the skin incised. This practice is effective, inexpensive, rapid, reproducible and showed no complication in our experience of over 2,500 thyroidectomies.

  9. Aripiprazole-induced skin rash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santanu Nath

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Adverse skin reactions are an important type of adverse drug reactions which have been reported with a wide variety of psychotropics including both typical and atypical antipsychotics. Like typical antipsychotics, atypical antipsychotics such as olanzapine, risperidone, and paliperidone have been documented to cause skin reactions. Reports of aripiprazole-induced skin reactions are sparse. We report a case of skin rash that developed after starting aripiprazole in a male patient suffering from schizophrenia and which remitted after the drug was stopped.

  10. Layered double hydroxides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    López Rayo, Sandra; Imran, Ahmad; Hansen, Hans Chr. Bruun

    2017-01-01

    A novel zinc (Zn) fertilizer concept based on Zn doped layered double hydroxides (Zn-doped Mg-Fe-LDHs) has been investigated. Zn-doped Mg-Fe-LDHs were synthetized, their chemical composition was analyzed and their nutrient release was studied in buffered solutions with different pH values. Uptake...

  11. Beyond the double banana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenzweig, Ivana; Fogarasi, András; Johnsen, Birger

    2014-01-01

    performance was compared with the double banana (longitudinal bipolar montage, 10-20 array). RESULTS: Adding the inferior temporal electrode chain, computed montages (reference free, common average, and source derivation), and voltage maps significantly increased the sensitivity. Phase maps had the highest...

  12. Double aortic arch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surgery can be done to fix double aortic arch. The surgeon ties off the smaller branch and separates it from the larger branch. Then the surgeon closes the ends of the aorta with stitches. This relieves pressure on the esophagus and windpipe.

  13. Aristotle and Double Effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Nucci, Ezio

    2014-01-01

    cases from the literature on double effect such as, amongst others, strategic bombing, the trolley problem, and craniotomy. I find that, despite some common features such as the dilemmatic structure and the inevitability of a bad effect, Aristotle’s mixed actions do not count as cases justifiable...

  14. Nuclear double beta decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubert, P.; Mennrath, P.

    1985-01-01

    The processes of double beta decay with and without emission of neutrinos are briefly reviewed. After the definitions of the processes and implications for the neutrino properties, the present status of the experimental results is discussed. We conclude with a description of the Bordeaux-Zaragoza-Strasbourg experimental which will run in the Frejus tunnel

  15. Design for Double Rainbow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Lisa Carlucci

    2011-01-01

    Rare is the inspirational, spontaneous, transformative moment shared among 20 million people. In the summer of 2010, people around the world were moved by the sighting of a double rainbow--almost a triple rainbow--"all the way across the sky" in Yosemite National Park. Caught on video and posted to by YouTube by Paul Vasquez in January 2010, the…

  16. Aristotle and Double Effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Nucci, Ezio

    2014-01-01

    There are some interesting similarities between Aristotle’s ‘mixed actions’ in Book III of the Nicomachean Ethics and the actions often thought to be justifiable with the Doctrine of Double Effect. Here I analyse these similarities by comparing Aristotle’s examples of mixed actions with standard ...

  17. 'Getting under our skin': Introducing banked allograft skin to burn ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Deceased donor skin possesses many of the properties of the ideal biological dressing, and a well-stocked skin bank has become a critically important asset for the modern burn surgeon. Without it, managing patients with extensive burns and wounds becomes far more challenging, and outcomes are significantly worse.

  18. Genetic differentiation between the black skinned and white skinned ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigates the genetic differentiation between the black skinned and white skinned ectotypes of the giant African land snails (Archachatina marginata) from Cross River State in Niger Delta region of Nigeria. The random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique was employed in this study. Five (5) ...

  19. Optical coherence tomography for imaging of skin and skin diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Mette; Thrane, Lars; Jørgensen, Thomas Martini

    2009-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an emerging imaging technology based on light reflection. It provides real-time images with up to 2-mm penetration into the skin and a resolution of approximately 10 μm. It is routinely used in ophthalmology. The normal skin and its appendages have been studied......, as have many diseases. The method can provide accurate measures of epidermal and nail changes in normal tissue. Skin cancer and other tumors, as well as inflammatory diseases, have been studied and good agreement found between OCT images and histopathological architecture. OCT also allows noninvasive...... monitoring of morphologic changes in skin diseases and may have a particular role in the monitoring of medical treatment of nonmelanoma skin cancer. The technology is however still evolving and continued technological development will necessitate an ongoing evaluation of its diagnostic accuracy. Several...

  20. Skin tolerance of a new bath oil containing St. John's wort extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter, J; Huyke, C; Scheuvens, H; Ploch, M; Neumann, K; Jakob, T; Schempp, C M

    2008-01-01

    Dry and atopic skin requires skin care with lipid-rich emollients and moisturizing bath or shower oils. However, it has been shown recently that some bath oils may even impair the skin barrier. To investigate the skin-irritating potential of a new bath oil containing a lipophilic St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum) extract. In this single-center, randomized, double-blind, prospective study, 3 bath oils together with positive and negative controls were applied under occlusion on test areas on the volar forearms of 18 volunteers (visit 1). After 24 h, the tapes were removed, and the test areas were evaluated by a visual score and the instrumental measurement of skin erythema and transepidermal water loss (TEWL) using a Mexameter and a Tewameter (visit 2). The test substances were applied a second time, and the measurements were performed after another 24 h (visit 3). The positive control, 1% vol/vol sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), caused a significant increase in skin erythema and TEWL. In contrast, distilled water as a negative control did not influence these parameters. The new bath oil containing St. John's wort extract and 1 of the other 2 commercial products were not different from the water control. The third bath oil displayed a skin-irritating effect similar to SLS. The results of this study confirm the different skin-irritating potential of bath oils and demonstrate good skin tolerance of the new bath oil containing St. John's wort extract. Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Frog skin function revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hviid Larsen, Erik; Ramløv, Hans

    2013-01-01

    characterized by high [K] constitute the source of water evaporating from the body surface. Thus, on land CSF is maintained by a balance between fluid secretion by subepidermal glands, water evaporation into the atmosphere, and reabsorption of water and Na by principal cells and Cl by mitochondria-rich cells...... of the epidermis. These mechanisms have evolved pari passu with life alternating between aquatic and terrestrial habitats associated with permeabilities of the skin controlled by external ion- and osmotic concentrations (loc. cit.). This allows for fast switching of the cutaneous uptake of chloride between active...... and passive transport associated with dynamic electrical coupling of active sodium uptake by principal cells and passive chloride uptake by mitochondria-rich cells. Supported by the Carlsberg Foundation....

  2. For Some Skin Cancers, Targeted Drug Hits the Mark

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Research Skin Cancer Patient Skin Cancer Treatment Melanoma Treatment Merkel Cell Carcinoma Treatment Skin Cancer Prevention Skin Cancer Screening Health Professional Skin Cancer Treatment Melanoma Treatment Merkel Cell Carcinoma Treatment Skin Cancer Prevention Genetics ...

  3. On Rational Design of Double Hull Tanker Structures against Collision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paik, Jeom Kee; Chung, Jang Young; Choe, Ich Hung

    1999-01-01

    This paper is a summary of recent research and development in areas related to the design technology for double hull tanker structures against low energy collision, jointly undertaken by the Hyundai Heavy Industries, the American Bureau of Shipping, the Technical University of Denmark and the Pusan...... National University. The goal of the study has been to establish a rational practical design oriented approach to collision resistance that is more sophisticated than previous theoretically based procedures and less complicated than conventional nonlinear finite element methods. The main tasks undertaken...... in the present study were (i) developing a framework for the collision design procedure for double hull tanker structures, (ii) experimental investigation of the structural crashworthiness of the collided vessels in collision or stranding, using double skinned structural models, (iii) validation of the special...

  4. Skin quality in red potatoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attractive appearance is a highly desirable characteristic of fresh market red-skinned potatoes. The ideal red potato has a rich, uniform, deep red color. Color fading, netting, browning, and discoloration caused by skinning and disease decrease marketability and may reduce profits to growers and pa...

  5. Oxidation events and skin aging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kammeyer, A.; Luiten, R. M.

    2015-01-01

    The rate of skin aging, or that of tissue in general, is determined by a variable predominance of tissue degeneration over tissue regeneration. This review discusses the role of oxidative events of tissue degeneration and aging in general, and for the skin in particular. The mechanisms involved in

  6. Maintaining Healthy Skin -- Part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pressure. Place a pillow between the knees while sleeping on your side to prevent skin-to-skin contact and increase air circulation between the legs (see illustration above). Get into the habit of checking your body position for correct alignment ...

  7. Shelf-life evaluation of bilayered human skin equivalent, MyDerm™.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Tai Seet

    Full Text Available Skin plays an important role in defense against infection and other harmful biological agents. Due to its fragile structure, skin can be easily damaged by heat, chemicals, traumatic injuries and diseases. An autologous bilayered human skin equivalent, MyDerm™, was engineered to provide a living skin substitute to treat critical skin loss. However, one of the disadvantages of living skin substitute is its short shelf-life, hence limiting its distribution worldwide. The aim of this study was to evaluate the shelf-life of MyDerm™ through assessment of cell morphology, cell viability, population doubling time and functional gene expression levels before transplantation. Skin samples were digested with 0.6% Collagenase Type I followed by epithelial cells dissociation with TrypLE Select. Dermal fibroblasts and keratinocytes were culture-expanded to obtain sufficient cells for MyDerm™ construction. MyDerm™ was constructed with plasma-fibrin as temporary biomaterial and evaluated at 0, 24, 48 and 72 hours after storage at 4°C for its shelf-life determination. The morphology of skin cells derived from MyDerm™ remained unchanged across storage times. Cells harvested from MyDerm™ after storage appeared in good viability (90.5%±2.7% to 94.9%±1.6% and had short population doubling time (58.4±8.7 to 76.9±19 hours. The modest drop in cell viability and increased in population doubling time at longer storage duration did not demonstrate a significant difference. Gene expression for CK10, CK14 and COL III were also comparable between different storage times. In conclusion, MyDerm™ can be stored in basal medium at 4°C for at least 72 hours before transplantation without compromising its functionality.

  8. Project Half Double

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svejvig, Per; Gerstrøm, Anna; Frederiksen, Signe Hedeboe

    projects and to document their development. The purpose of this addendum is thus to document the development in the pilot projects from June 2016 to January 2017 with particular focus on the impact they have created. This Addendum is a supplement and should be read in conjunction with the Phase 1 report...... by the day. The formal part of Project Half Double was initiated in June 2015; it is divided into two phases where phase 1 took place from June 2015 to June 2016 with seven pilot projects, and phase 2 is in progress from July 2016 to July 2017 with 10 pilot projects. The Half Double consortium: Implement....... The Danish Industry Foundation, an independent philanthropic foundation, is contributing to the project financially with DKK 13.8 million. About the addendum: We published the report “Preliminary results for phase 1” in June 2016 (Svejvig, Ehlers et al. 2016). It is time to follow up on the Phase 1 pilot...

  9. The double Laplacian growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loutsenko, I.; Yermolayeva, O.

    2008-06-01

    The dynamics of the idealized Laplacian growth (or the Hele-Shaw problem) can be approximated by the Poiselle flow which in appropriate units takes the form of the Darcy law. In this paper we account for the liquid inertia in the Hele-Shaw problem at zero surface tension limit. The Laplace dynamics for the pressure is extended here with one more for the velocity potential for which we call this growth process the Double Laplacian. The application of the conformal mappings technique leads to doubled dynamics for both the conformal map and the complex potential, which is presented in the paper for the radial and the planar growth. We apply the stability analysis and discuss the integrability for the stated problem. (author)

  10. Subatmospheric double containment system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gans, D. Jr.; Noble, J.H.

    1978-01-01

    A reinforced concrete double wall nuclear containment structure with each wall including an essentially impervious membrane or liner and porous concrete filling the annulus between the two walls is described. The interior of the structure is maintained at subatmospheric pressure, and the annulus between the two walls is maintained at a subatmospheric pressure intermediate between that of the interior and the surrounding atmospheric pressure, during normal operation. In the event of an accident within the containment structure the interior pressure may exceed atmospheric pressure, but leakage from the interior to the annulus between the double walls will not result in the pressure of the annulus exceeding atmospheric pressure so that there is no net outleakage from the containment structure

  11. Periostin in Skin Tissue Skin-Related Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukie Yamaguchi

    2014-01-01

    Recently, periostin—a matricellular protein—has been highlighted for its pivotal functions in the skin. Analysis of periostin null mice has revealed that periostin contributes to collagen fibrillogenesis, collagen cross-linking, and the formation of ECM meshwork via interactions with other ECM components. Periostin expression is enhanced by mechanical stress or skin injury; this is indicative of the physiologically protective functions of periostin, which promotes wound repair by acting on keratinocytes and fibroblasts. Along with its physiological functions, periostin plays pathogenic roles in skin fibrosis and chronic allergic inflammation. In systemic sclerosis (SSc patients, periostin levels reflect the severity of skin fibrosis. Periostin null mice have shown reduced skin fibrosis in a bleomycin-induced SSc mouse model, indicating a key role of periostin in fibrosis. Moreover, in atopic dermatitis (AD, attenuated AD phenotype has been observed in periostin null mice in a house dust mite extract-induced AD mouse model. Th2 cytokine-induced periostin acts on keratinocytes to produce inflammatory cytokines that further enhance the Th2 response, thereby sustaining and amplifying chronic allergic inflammation. Thus, periostin is deeply involved in the pathogenesis of AD and other inflammation-related disorders affecting the skin. Understanding the dynamic actions of periostin would be key to dissecting pathogenesis of skin-related diseases and to developing novel therapeutic strategies.

  12. Is skin penetration a determining factor in skin sensitization ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summary:Background. It is widely accepted that substances that cannot penetrate through the skin will not be sensitisers. Thresholds based on relevant physicochemical parameters such as a LogKow > 1 and a MW 1 is a true requirement for sensitisation.Methods. A large dataset of substances that had been evaluated for their skin sensitisation potential, together with measured LogKow values was compiled from the REACH database. The incidence of skin sensitisers relative to non-skin sensitisers below and above the LogKow = 1 threshold was evaluated. Results. 1482 substances with associated skin sensitisation outcomes and measured LogKow values were identified. 305 substances had a measured LogKow self-evident truth borne out from the widespread misconception that the ability to efficiently penetrate the stratum corneum is a key determinant of skin sensitisation potential and potency. Using the REACH data extracted to test out the validity of common assumptions in the skin sensitization AOP. Builds on trying to develop a proof of concept IATA

  13. Neutrinoless double beta decay

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-10-06

    Oct 6, 2012 ... nuclear decay of neutrinoless double beta decay typically leading to sub-eV values as well. (Z, A) → (Z + 2, A) + 2e .... Here again energy resolution matters, because of the continuous spectrum of the 2νββ- decay mode, its high .... The benefit of using Te is its high natural abundance. This experiment is in ...

  14. Survey of skin pigmentation of yellow-skinned broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirri, F; Petracci, M; Bianchi, M; Meluzzi, A

    2010-07-01

    The appearance of whole carcass and skin-on cut-up products is an important attribute that deeply affects the consumer's choice. Skin pigmentation is affected mainly by genetics, concentration and dietary source of pigments, health status of the birds, and scalding-plucking conditions during slaughtering, although other factors might play an important role. Retailers request batches of broiler chicken carcasses characterized by uniform skin pigmentation to be sold as whole carcass or parts. The aim of this study was to evaluate the variability of skin color of yellow-skinned broilers reared under intensive conditions. For the study, a total of 2,300 medium size broiler chickens (2,300 to 2,500 g of live weight) from 23 flocks (100 birds/flock; n = 12 flocks of males and n = 11 flocks of females; n = 12 flocks of Ross 508 and n = 11 flocks of Ross 308) were randomly selected in a single slaughterhouse. The color measurements were carried out on both breast and thigh pterylae as well as on shank skin adopting the L* a* b* system and using a Minolta colorimeter CR 300. The overall range in measured yellowness (b*) was fairly large for all skin color measurement positions. For breast, a mean value of 22.77 (SD = 5.12) was observed, with values ranging from 7.45 to 39.12. Average values of thigh and shank were 20.23 (SD = 5.02; range 1.99 to 37.82) and 53.99 (SD = 8.13; range 24.22 to 78.65), respectively. A higher skin yellowness was observed in females in all body parts as well as in Ross 308. Yellowness values of breast and thigh were significantly correlated (r = 0.85; P < 0.01), suggesting that the color evaluation may be carried out only on one measurement position of the skin.

  15. Pain, wheal and flare in human forearm skin induced by bradykinin and 5-hydroxytryptamine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kai; Tuxen, C; Pedersen-Bjergaard, U

    1990-01-01

    Pain was induced in 19 healthy individuals by double-blind injections into the forearm skin of 0.05 ml of physiological saline with or without active substances added. Bradykinin (0.5 nmol), 5-hydroxytryptamine (0.5 nmol) and a mixture of the two substances in half dosage (0.25 nmol + 0.25 nmol) ...

  16. Integral skin electrode for electrocardiography is expendable

    Science.gov (United States)

    1966-01-01

    Inexpensive, expendable skin electrode for use in electrocardiography combines an electrical contact, conductive paste, and a skin-attachment adhesive. Application of the electrode requires only degreasing of the skin area.

  17. Sun’s effect on skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    The skin uses sunlight to help manufacture vitamin D, which is important for normal bone formation. But sometimes its ultraviolet light can be ... the pigment melanin. Melanin protects skin from the sun's ultraviolet rays, which can burn the skin, and ...

  18. Testing of an adaptable facade for using solar energy all year round. First measurement results; Erprobung einer anpassungsfaehigen Fassade fuer die ganzjaehrige Solarenergienutzung. Erste Messergebnisse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, H. [Fachhochschule Koeln (Germany). Institut fuer Licht- und Bautechnik]|[Lehrstuhl fuer Klimagerechte Architektur, Fakultaet fuer Bauwesen, Univ. Dortmund (Germany); Wueller, D. [Fachhochschule Koeln (Germany). Institut fuer Licht- und Bautechnik

    1996-02-01

    In the framework of the International Horticultural Exhibition 1993 in Stuttgart a number of buildings designed by renowned architects was erected under the title `Experimental Living 2000`, which demonstrate the use of innovative techniques. The buildings presented in the present Article, designed by the architects Hegger, Hegger-Luhnen and Schleiff (HHS, Kassel), are three single-family semidetached houses including a south-oriented winter garden extension. The Institut fuer Licht- und Bautechnik had the task to establish an energy concept optimizing the solar and light transmitting properties of the winter garden facade. The rooms are heated and illuminated by the sun. Surplus solar energy which would lead to an overheating and glare is collected by transparent shading elements with hologrammes and is transformed into electricity. In the framework of this project innovative techniques for the use of solar energy were tested and applied, which were developed by the Institut fuer Licht und Bautechnik (ILB) ath the Fachhochschule Koeln unter the direction of Prof. Dr. Gutjahr and Prof. Dr. Mueller. The research project is supported by the Federal Ministry for Research and Technology, by the builderowners (LEG, SWG, SWSG), and by the firms and designers involved. (orig.) [Deutsch] Im Rahmen der Internationalen Gartenbauausstellung 1993 in Stuttgart entstanden unter der Bezeichnung `Experimentelles Wohnen 2000` eine ganze Reihe von Gebaeuden namhafter Architekten, die sich mit innovativen Techniken auseinandersetzen. Bei den hier vorgestellten Gebaeuden der Architekten Hegger, Hegger-Luhnen und Schleiff (HHS, Kassel), handelt es sich um 3 Einfamilien-Reihenhaeuser, die einen nach Sueden orientierten, vorgelagerten Wintergartenbereich beinhalten. Aufgabe des Institutes fuer Licht- und Bautechnik war es, im Rahmen eines Energiekonzeptes die Wintergartenfassade solar- und lichttechnisch zu optimieren. Die Sonne beheizt und beleichtet die Raeume. Ueberschuessige

  19. Ultraviolet Light and Skin Cancer in Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Harrison, Shannon C.; Bergfeld, Wilma F.

    2009-01-01

    The incidence of melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancers is increasing worldwide. Ultraviolet light exposure is the most important risk factor for cutaneous melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancers. Nonmelanoma skin cancer includes basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. Constitutive skin color and genetic factors, as well as immunological factors, play a role in the development of skin cancer. Ultraviolet light also causes sunburn and photoaging damage to the skin.

  20. Occupational skin cancer and precancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fifinela Raissa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Occupational skin cancer and precancerous lesions are skin disorders caused by exposure to chemical carcinogens such as polycyclic hydrocarbons and arsenic, or radiation, such as ultraviolet light and ionizing light in the workplace. Annual increase in skin cancer incidence is believed to be related to various factors such as frequent intense sunlight exposure (i.e. at work, recreational activities, and sun-tanning habit, ozone depletion, an increase in number of geriatric population, and an increase of public awareness in skin cancer. The most common occupational skin cancers are basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and melanoma. Examples of occupational precancerous lesion of the skin are actinic keratosis and Bowen’s disease. Particular diagnostic criteria to diagnose occupational diseases has been developed. Early detection of occupational skin cancer and precancerous lesion is necessary. An effective prevention program consists of primary prevention such as prevention of hazardous material exposure, secondary prevention such as early detection of disease for early intervention, and tertiary prevention such as minimizing long-term impact of the disease.

  1. Lyme borreliosis and skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biju Vasudevan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Lyme disease is a multisystem illness which is caused by the strains of spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and transmitted by the tick, Ixodes. Though very commonly reported from the temperate regions of the world, the incidence has increased worldwide due to increasing travel and changing habitats of the vector. Few cases have been reported from the Indian subcontinent too. Skin manifestations are the earliest to occur, and diagnosing these lesions followed by appropriate treatment, can prevent complications of the disease, which are mainly neurological. The three main dermatological manifestations are erythema chronicum migrans, borrelial lymphocytoma and acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans. Many other dermatological conditions including morphea, lichen sclerosus and lately B cell lymphoma, have been attributed to the disease. Immunofluorescence and polymerase reaction tests have been developed to overcome the problems for diagnosis. Culture methods are also used for diagnosis. Treatment with Doxycycline is the mainstay of management, though prevention is of utmost importance. Vaccines against the condition are still not very successful. Hence, the importance of recognising the cutaneous manifestations early, to prevent systemic complications which can occur if left untreated, can be understood. This review highlights the cutaneous manifestations of Lyme borreliosis and its management.

  2. Double layers - theory and experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torven, S.

    1980-06-01

    A survey is given of recent investigations of electric double layers in low density plasmas. The existence of double layers is now well established in both magnetized and unmagnetized plasmas. Laboratory experiments and numerical simulations show that double layers coexist with waves and fluctuations as expected in view of the particle beams which are formed in the layer. Under certain conditions the level of the fluctuations is small and experimental results then compare favourably with stationary double layer models. Significant progress on layer formation processes has been made, but further investigations are required to predict under what conditions double layers will form in different types of plasmas. (author)

  3. Disposable diapers and infant skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, H; Takase, M

    1987-01-01

    In an experiment on skin rash caused by diapers, adult skin was used to compare the effects of disposable diapers (A; Pampers), conventional disposable diapers (B), and cotton diapers. Pieces of each type of diaper measuring 2 X 2 cm and containing 0.2 ml saline solution were pasted on forearm skin for 5 h. Water content of the corneum was measured with an impedance meter 1 h after the pieces were removed. Results were excellent for diapers A and B: there were no significant differences observed in water content of the corneum when A and B were compared with conventional cotton diapers. The advantages of disposable diapers were confirmed in infants.

  4. β-Adrenergic blockade does not impair the skin blood flow sensitivity to local heating in burned and nonburned skin under neutral and hot environments in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas, Eric; McEntire, Serina J; Herndon, David N; Mlcak, Ronald P; Suman, Oscar E

    2017-05-01

    We tested the hypothesis that propranolol, a drug given to burn patients to reduce hypermetabolism/cardiac stress, may inhibit heat dissipation by changing the sensitivity of skin blood flow (SkBF) to local heating under neutral and hot conditions. In a randomized double-blind study, a placebo was given to eight burned children, while propranolol was given to 13 burned children with similar characteristics (mean±SD: 11.9±3 years, 147±20 cm, 45±23 kg, 56±12% Total body surface area burned). Nonburned children (n=13, 11.4±3 years, 152±15 cm, 52±13 kg) served as healthy controls. A progressive local heating protocol characterized SkBF responses in burned and unburned skin and nonburned control skin under the two environmental conditions (23 and 34°C) via laser Doppler flowmetry. Resting SkBF was greater in burned and unburned skin compared to the nonburned control (main effect: skin, Pheating between groups. Additionally, dose-response curves for the sensitivity of SkBF to local heating were not different among burned or unburned skin, and nonburned control skin (EC 50 , P>.05) under either condition. Therapeutic propranolol does not negatively affect SkBF under neutral or hot environmental conditions and further compromise temperature regulation in burned children. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Ac-induced disruption of the doubleDs structure in tomato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rommens, Caius M.T.; Biezen, Erik A. van der; Ouwerkerk, Pieter B.F.; Nijkamp, H. John J.; Hille, Jacques

    1991-01-01

    The maize doubleDs element is stably maintained in the tomato genome. Upon the subsequent introduction of Ac into a plant containing doubleDs, disruption of the doubleDs structure and DNA rearrangements at the site of the doubleDs element were observed. No indications were obtained for excision of

  6. Human reconstructed skin xenografts on mice to model skin physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado, Giorgiana; Ng, Yi Zhen; Koh, Li Fang; Goh, Christabelle S M; Common, John E

    Xenograft models to study skin physiology have been popular for scientific use since the 1970s, with various developments and improvements to the techniques over the decades. Xenograft models are particularly useful and sought after due to the lack of clinically relevant animal models in predicting drug effectiveness in humans. Such predictions could in turn boost the process of drug discovery, since novel drug compounds have an estimated 8% chance of FDA approval despite years of rigorous preclinical testing and evaluation, albeit mostly in non-human models. In the case of skin research, the mouse persists as the most popular animal model of choice, despite its well-known anatomical differences with human skin. Differences in skin biology are especially evident when trying to dissect more complex skin conditions, such as psoriasis and eczema, where interactions between the immune system, epidermis and the environment likely occur. While the use of animal models are still considered the gold standard for systemic toxicity studies under controlled environments, there are now alternative models that have been approved for certain applications. To overcome the biological limitations of the mouse model, research efforts have also focused on "humanizing" the mice model to better recapitulate human skin physiology. In this review, we outline the different approaches undertaken thus far to study skin biology using human tissue xenografts in mice and the technical challenges involved. We also describe more recent developments to generate humanized multi-tissue compartment mice that carry both a functioning human immune system and skin xenografts. Such composite animal models provide promising opportunities to study drugs, disease and differentiation with greater clinical relevance. Copyright © 2017 International Society of Differentiation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Skin Treatments and Dermatological Procedures to Promote Youthful Skin

    OpenAIRE

    Sator, Paul G

    2006-01-01

    The skin, the largest organ of the body, is the organ in which changes associated with aging are most visible. With increasing frequency, patients are requesting information and treatments that improve the appearance of their skin. Corresponding to this trend, there is an increasing number of products and methods available that claim to aid this pursuit. First, a change of the patient's lifestyle (eg, sun behavior, nicotine abuse, and nutrition) must take place. Only then may other methods be...

  8. Documented tuberculin skin testing among infliximab users following a multi-modal risk communication interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shatin, Deborah; Rawson, Nigel S B; Curtis, Jeffrey R; Braun, M Miles; Martin, Carolyn K; Moreland, Larry W; Becker, Angela F; Patkar, Nivedita M; Allison, Jeroan J; Saag, Kenneth G

    2006-01-01

    Following its licensure, tuberculosis (TB) was reported as a potential adverse effect of infliximab. Subsequently, the product circular was changed to recommend tuberculin skin testing before patients received infliximab, which was reinforced by several risk communication efforts. The aim of this study was to evaluate patterns and predictors of documented tuberculin skin testing in patients before and after manufacturer, federal, and academic risk communications. Patients administered infliximab were identified from 11 health plans located throughout the United States, and claims data were examined to determine whether the patients had received a tuberculin skin test. Patients were divided into three cohorts depending on the timing of their first infliximab treatment in relation to the risk communication efforts. The overall tuberculin skin testing rate doubled from 15.4% in the first cohort to 30.9% in the last cohort, while the rate of pre-infliximab treatment testing increased from 0 to 27.7% (Chi-squared test for trend, p skin testing rates were significantly higher in women, those with a diagnosis of rheumatoid or psoriatic arthritis, and those with a rheumatologist as prescriber. After multivariable analysis, only rheumatologist remained significantly associated with tuberculin skin testing. Although the tuberculin skin testing rate was relatively low overall, tuberculin skin testing doubled over 30 months of ongoing risk communication efforts and under ascertainment likely occurred. We also found variation in the tuberculin skin testing rate associated with physician specialty. This study demonstrates a significant change in patient care following risk communication efforts. (c) 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Skin temperature during sunbathing--relevance for skin cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Bibi; Philipsen, Peter Alshede; Wulf, Hans Christian

    2014-01-01

    It has been found that exposure to heat and infrared radiation (IR) can be carcinogenic, and that a combination of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) and IR possibly amplifies carcinogenesis. To investigate how the skin temperature is affected by sunbathing, we measured the skin temperature on 20 healthy...... volunteers over 6 days' sun holiday in Egypt. Temperatures were measured with an infrared thermometer gun at 8 skin sites on the volunteers while they were indoors in the morning and when sunbathing during the day. Skin temperatures were higher during sunbathing (33.5 °C ± 2.1 °C) (mean ± SD) than when...... indoors in the morning (32.6 °C ± 1.4 °C) (mean ± SD) (P skin temperature for men was higher than for women by 0.40 °C in the morning (P = 0.02) and by 0.44 °C during sunbathing (P skin temperature, which possibly...

  10. Interaction of dermatologically relevant nanoparticles with skin cells and skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Annika; Rancan, Fiorenza; Ahlberg, Sebastian; Nazemi, Berouz; Choe, Chun Sik; Darvin, Maxim E; Hadam, Sabrina; Blume-Peytavi, Ulrike; Loza, Kateryna; Diendorf, Jörg; Epple, Matthias; Graf, Christina; Rühl, Eckart; Meinke, Martina C; Lademann, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    The investigation of nanoparticle interactions with tissues is complex. High levels of standardization, ideally testing of different material types in the same biological model, and combinations of sensitive imaging and detection methods are required. Here, we present our studies on nanoparticle interactions with skin, skin cells, and biological media. Silica, titanium dioxide and silver particles were chosen as representative examples for different types of skin exposure to nanomaterials, e.g., unintended environmental exposure (silica) versus intended exposure through application of sunscreen (titanium dioxide) or antiseptics (silver). Because each particle type exhibits specific physicochemical properties, we were able to apply different combinations of methods to examine skin penetration and cellular uptake, including optical microscopy, electron microscopy, X-ray microscopy on cells and tissue sections, flow cytometry of isolated skin cells as well as Raman microscopy on whole tissue blocks. In order to assess the biological relevance of such findings, cell viability and free radical production were monitored on cells and in whole tissue samples. The combination of technologies and the joint discussion of results enabled us to look at nanoparticle-skin interactions and the biological relevance of our findings from different angles.

  11. Interaction of dermatologically relevant nanoparticles with skin cells and skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annika Vogt

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The investigation of nanoparticle interactions with tissues is complex. High levels of standardization, ideally testing of different material types in the same biological model, and combinations of sensitive imaging and detection methods are required. Here, we present our studies on nanoparticle interactions with skin, skin cells, and biological media. Silica, titanium dioxide and silver particles were chosen as representative examples for different types of skin exposure to nanomaterials, e.g., unintended environmental exposure (silica versus intended exposure through application of sunscreen (titanium dioxide or antiseptics (silver. Because each particle type exhibits specific physicochemical properties, we were able to apply different combinations of methods to examine skin penetration and cellular uptake, including optical microscopy, electron microscopy, X-ray microscopy on cells and tissue sections, flow cytometry of isolated skin cells as well as Raman microscopy on whole tissue blocks. In order to assess the biological relevance of such findings, cell viability and free radical production were monitored on cells and in whole tissue samples. The combination of technologies and the joint discussion of results enabled us to look at nanoparticle–skin interactions and the biological relevance of our findings from different angles.

  12. Skin cancer, irradiation, and sunspots: the solar cycle effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valachovic, Edward; Zurbenko, Igor

    2014-01-01

    Skin cancer is diagnosed in more than 2 million individuals annually in the United States. It is strongly associated with ultraviolet exposure, with melanoma risk doubling after five or more sunburns. Solar activity, characterized by features such as irradiance and sunspots, undergoes an 11-year solar cycle. This fingerprint frequency accounts for relatively small variation on Earth when compared to other uncorrelated time scales such as daily and seasonal cycles. Kolmogorov-Zurbenko filters, applied to the solar cycle and skin cancer data, separate the components of different time scales to detect weaker long term signals and investigate the relationships between long term trends. Analyses of crosscorrelations reveal epidemiologically consistent latencies between variables which can then be used for regression analysis to calculate a coefficient of influence. This method reveals that strong numerical associations, with correlations >0.5, exist between these small but distinct long term trends in the solar cycle and skin cancer. This improves modeling skin cancer trends on long time scales despite the stronger variation in other time scales and the destructive presence of noise.

  13. The Double Star mission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The Double Star Programme (DSP was first proposed by China in March, 1997 at the Fragrant Hill Workshop on Space Science, Beijing, organized by the Chinese Academy of Science. It is the first mission in collaboration between China and ESA. The mission is made of two spacecraft to investigate the magnetospheric global processes and their response to the interplanetary disturbances in conjunction with the Cluster mission. The first spacecraft, TC-1 (Tan Ce means "Explorer", was launched on 29 December 2003, and the second one, TC-2, on 25 July 2004 on board two Chinese Long March 2C rockets. TC-1 was injected in an equatorial orbit of 570x79000 km altitude with a 28° inclination and TC-2 in a polar orbit of 560x38000 km altitude. The orbits have been designed to complement the Cluster mission by maximizing the time when both Cluster and Double Star are in the same scientific regions. The two missions allow simultaneous observations of the Earth magnetosphere from six points in space. To facilitate the comparison of data, half of the Double Star payload is made of spare or duplicates of the Cluster instruments; the other half is made of Chinese instruments. The science operations are coordinated by the Chinese DSP Scientific Operations Centre (DSOC in Beijing and the European Payload Operations Service (EPOS at RAL, UK. The spacecraft and ground segment operations are performed by the DSP Operations and Management Centre (DOMC and DSOC in China, using three ground station, in Beijing, Shanghai and Villafranca.

  14. Double your money

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moxon, Suzanne

    1998-01-01

    The government-owned Hydro-Quebec was instructed to take certain actions, one of which was to increase profits. The company has published a report describing its plans for 1998-2002. The company expects to increase sales and double its income over the five years. Hydro-Quebec (which produces or purchases 97% of the electricity consumed in the province) will freeze prices until April 2002. Environmental considerations and liaison with local communities are included in the 5-year plan. The company expects to invest c$1.2B in international markets over the five years and C$20M per year are earmarked for research. (UK)

  15. Skin Diseases and the Adolescent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Marjorie

    1970-01-01

    Discusses such concerns as acne, syphilis, drug abuse, and tatoos. Indicates need for physician not only to treat skin diseases but to help adolescents to accept themselves and find constructive directions. (CJ)

  16. Tips for Relieving Dry Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Registration General information Housing & travel Education Exhibit hall Mobile app 2019 Annual Meeting Derm Exam Prep Course ... SkinPAC State societies Scope of practice Truth in advertising NP/PA laws Action center Public and patients ...

  17. Drugs Approved for Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for skin cancer. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  18. Radiation Therapy for Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... make sure they are safe to use during radiation therapy. • Eat a balanced diet. If food tastes funny ... melanoma.org Skin Cancer Foundation www.skincancer.org Radiation Therapy Answers www.rtanswers.org LEARNING ABOUT CLINICAL TRIALS ...

  19. Nanodiamond applications in skin preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namdar, Roshanak; Nafisi, Shohreh

    2018-04-13

    The biocompatibility and nontoxicity of nanodiamonds (NDs) in combination with their excellent physical performance have rendered them attractive candidates for biomedical applications. NDs have great potential in drug nanoformulations because of their small size compared with other carbon nanomaterials. They are nontoxic with excellent adsorption properties and can be formulated into skin care products. Even though NDs have shown encouraging potential in skin preparations, only a few studies have reviewed their application in topical drug delivery systems. Therefore, here we focus on the application of NDs in skin care preparations, skin cancer medication, and wound healing. We also highlight the development of topical drug delivery by NDs and their cytotoxicity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Skin Manifestations of Endocrine Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirkesen, Cuyan

    2015-01-01

    Endocrine diseases may result in changes in cutaneous function and morphology, which cause various skin manifestations, including nonspecific or pathognomonic signs. Some of these manifestations are already known dermatologic diseases with only increased frequency in this patient group. As a result the skin may the play role of a screen displaying endocrine disorders, either due to hormone excess or deficiency. Awareness of the skin manifestations may permit prompt and adequate approach to the patients, and therefore facilitate the early diagnosis of the endocrine disease and even be life saving. Some of these manifestations may be recognized clinically, but sometimes they need to be confirmed histopathologically. In this article, many endocrine diseases and their associated skin lesions will be reviewed briefly.

  1. Prospective Evaluation of Severe Skin Toxicity and Pain During Postmastectomy Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pignol, Jean-Philippe, E-mail: j.p.pignol@erasmusmc.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus University, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Vu, Thi Trinh Thuc [Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Hospitalier de l' Université de Montréal, Montreal, Québec (Canada); Mitera, Gunita [Department of Health Policy, Management and Evaluation, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Bosnic, Sandy [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Verkooijen, Helena M. [Imaging Division, University Medical Centre Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands); Truong, Pauline [Department of Radiation Oncology, BC Cancer Agency, Vancouver Island Centre, Victoria, British Columbia (Canada)

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To prospectively capture acute toxicities and pain associated with postmastectomy radiation therapy (PMRT), to analyze patient and treatment risk factors for severe side effects. Methods and Materials: Women referred for PMRT were prospectively enrolled and assessed weekly during and after radiation therapy. The endpoint included severe National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Effects grade 3 moist desquamation, other skin symptoms, and pain. Results: Of 257 patients, 73 (28.4%) experienced extensive moist desquamation, 84 (32.7%) Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Effects skin toxicity grade 3, and 57 (22.2%) a pain impacting on daily life activities. Among symptoms only grade 3 moist desquamation was significantly associated with severe pain (P<.001). On multivariate analysis, smoking, high-energy photons, and skin bolus were significantly associated with severe moist desquamation. Skin toxicity doubled for smokers, with 40% severe pain, 48% grade 3 moist desquamation, and 64% grade 3 skin toxicity. Without skin bolus 4.2% had severe pain, none moist desquamation, and 2.1% grade 3 skin toxicity. When skin bolus was used on alternate days, the frequency increased to 15% for pain, 22% for moist desquamation, and 26% for grade 3 skin toxicity. When bolus was used daily, 32% had pain, 41% moist desquamation, and 47% grade 3 skin toxicity. Symptoms peaked 1 to 2 weeks after the end of PMRT. Conclusions: The present cohort study suggests excessive radiation toxicity after PMRT. Among factors associated with an increase of toxicity are smoking habits and the use of skin bolus.

  2. Prospective evaluation of severe skin toxicity and pain during postmastectomy radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pignol, Jean-Philippe; Vu, Thi Trinh Thuc; Mitera, Gunita; Bosnic, Sandy; Verkooijen, Helena M; Truong, Pauline

    2015-01-01

    To prospectively capture acute toxicities and pain associated with postmastectomy radiation therapy (PMRT), to analyze patient and treatment risk factors for severe side effects. Women referred for PMRT were prospectively enrolled and assessed weekly during and after radiation therapy. The endpoint included severe National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Effects grade 3 moist desquamation, other skin symptoms, and pain. Of 257 patients, 73 (28.4%) experienced extensive moist desquamation, 84 (32.7%) Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Effects skin toxicity grade 3, and 57 (22.2%) a pain impacting on daily life activities. Among symptoms only grade 3 moist desquamation was significantly associated with severe pain (Pmultivariate analysis, smoking, high-energy photons, and skin bolus were significantly associated with severe moist desquamation. Skin toxicity doubled for smokers, with 40% severe pain, 48% grade 3 moist desquamation, and 64% grade 3 skin toxicity. Without skin bolus 4.2% had severe pain, none moist desquamation, and 2.1% grade 3 skin toxicity. When skin bolus was used on alternate days, the frequency increased to 15% for pain, 22% for moist desquamation, and 26% for grade 3 skin toxicity. When bolus was used daily, 32% had pain, 41% moist desquamation, and 47% grade 3 skin toxicity. Symptoms peaked 1 to 2 weeks after the end of PMRT. The present cohort study suggests excessive radiation toxicity after PMRT. Among factors associated with an increase of toxicity are smoking habits and the use of skin bolus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Prospective Evaluation of Severe Skin Toxicity and Pain During Postmastectomy Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pignol, Jean-Philippe; Vu, Thi Trinh Thuc; Mitera, Gunita; Bosnic, Sandy; Verkooijen, Helena M.; Truong, Pauline

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To prospectively capture acute toxicities and pain associated with postmastectomy radiation therapy (PMRT), to analyze patient and treatment risk factors for severe side effects. Methods and Materials: Women referred for PMRT were prospectively enrolled and assessed weekly during and after radiation therapy. The endpoint included severe National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Effects grade 3 moist desquamation, other skin symptoms, and pain. Results: Of 257 patients, 73 (28.4%) experienced extensive moist desquamation, 84 (32.7%) Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Effects skin toxicity grade 3, and 57 (22.2%) a pain impacting on daily life activities. Among symptoms only grade 3 moist desquamation was significantly associated with severe pain (P<.001). On multivariate analysis, smoking, high-energy photons, and skin bolus were significantly associated with severe moist desquamation. Skin toxicity doubled for smokers, with 40% severe pain, 48% grade 3 moist desquamation, and 64% grade 3 skin toxicity. Without skin bolus 4.2% had severe pain, none moist desquamation, and 2.1% grade 3 skin toxicity. When skin bolus was used on alternate days, the frequency increased to 15% for pain, 22% for moist desquamation, and 26% for grade 3 skin toxicity. When bolus was used daily, 32% had pain, 41% moist desquamation, and 47% grade 3 skin toxicity. Symptoms peaked 1 to 2 weeks after the end of PMRT. Conclusions: The present cohort study suggests excessive radiation toxicity after PMRT. Among factors associated with an increase of toxicity are smoking habits and the use of skin bolus

  4. Topical corticosteroids in the treatment of acute sunburn - A randomized, double-blind clinical trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faurschou, A.; Wulf, Hans Chr.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To examine the effect of topical corticosteroid treatment on acute sunburn. Design: Randomized, double-blind clinical trial. Setting: University dermatology department. Patients: Twenty healthy volunteers with Fitzpatrick skin types I (highly sensitive, always burns easily, tans...... in the acute sunburn reaction when applied 6 or 23 hours after UV exposure. Clinical Trial Registry: clinicaltrials. gov Identifier: NCT00206882 Udgivelsesdato: 2008/5...

  5. [Study on objectively evaluating skin aging according to areas of skin texture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Gaixin; Gan, Ping; He, Ling; Sun, Lu; Li, Qiannan; Jiang, Zheng; He, Xiangqian

    2015-02-01

    Skin aging principles play important roles in skin disease diagnosis, the evaluation of skin cosmetic effect, forensic identification and age identification in sports competition, etc. This paper proposes a new method to evaluate the skin aging objectively and quantitatively by skin texture area. Firstly, the enlarged skin image was acquired. Then, the skin texture image was segmented by using the iterative threshold method, and the skin ridge image was extracted according to the watershed algorithm. Finally, the skin ridge areas of the skin texture were extracted. The experiment data showed that the average areas of skin ridges, of both men and women, had a good correlation with age (the correlation coefficient r of male was 0.938, and the correlation coefficient r of female was 0.922), and skin texture area and age regression curve showed that the skin texture area increased with age. Therefore, it is effective to evaluate skin aging objectively by the new method presented in this paper.

  6. Case studies of skin melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Kozlova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Skin melanoma is a malignant tumor originating in the cells of the melanocytic system, which is characterized by an aggressive clinical course, significant metastatic potential and unfavorable prognosis. These features of the tumor stipulate the need to improve measures to optimize early diagnosis of tumors. The article presents cases of pigmented skin melanoma to demonstrate the variability of clinical manifestations of this tumor requiring dermatologist skills in the differential diagnostics of neoplasms.

  7. Sulfate transport in toad skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erik Hviid; Simonsen, K

    1988-01-01

    1. In short-circuited toad skin preparations exposed bilaterally to NaCl-Ringer's containing 1 mM SO2(-4), influx of sulfate was larger than efflux showing that the skin is capable of transporting sulfate actively in an inward direction. 2. This active transport was not abolished by substituting ...... (sulfate:bicarbonate exchange) and self-exchange diffusion take place. Irrespective of the mechanism of transport, sulfate is probably transported as a monovalent anion species....

  8. Radiation sterilization of skin allograft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kairiyama, E.; Horak, C.; Spinosa, M.; Pachado, J.; Schwint, O.

    2009-07-01

    In the treatment of burns or accidental loss of skin, cadaveric skin allografts provide an alternative to temporarily cover a wounded area. The skin bank facility is indispensable for burn care. The first human skin bank was established in Argentina in 1989; later, 3 more banks were established. A careful donor selection is carried out according to the national regulation in order to prevent transmissible diseases. As cadaveric human skin is naturally highly contaminated, a final sterilization is necessary to reach a sterility assurance level (SAL) of 10 -6. The sterilization dose for 106 batches of processed human skin was determined on the basis of the Code of Practice for the Radiation Sterilization of Tissue Allografts: Requirements for Validation and Routine Control (2004) and ISO 11137-2 (2006). They ranged from 17.6 to 33.4 kGy for bioburdens of >10-162.700 CFU/100 cm 2. The presence of Gram negative bacteria was checked for each produced batch. From the analysis of the experimental results, it was observed that the bioburden range was very wide and consequently the estimated sterilization doses too. If this is the case, the determination of a tissue-specific dose per production batch is necessary to achieve a specified requirement of SAL. Otherwise if the dose of 25 kGy is preselected, a standardized method for substantiation of this dose should be done to confirm the radiation sterilization process.

  9. Radiation sterilization of skin allograft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kairiyama, E.; Horak, C.; Spinosa, M.; Pachado, J.; Schwint, O.

    2009-01-01

    In the treatment of burns or accidental loss of skin, cadaveric skin allografts provide an alternative to temporarily cover a wounded area. The skin bank facility is indispensable for burn care. The first human skin bank was established in Argentina in 1989; later, 3 more banks were established. A careful donor selection is carried out according to the national regulation in order to prevent transmissible diseases. As cadaveric human skin is naturally highly contaminated, a final sterilization is necessary to reach a sterility assurance level (SAL) of 10 -6 . The sterilization dose for 106 batches of processed human skin was determined on the basis of the Code of Practice for the Radiation Sterilization of Tissue Allografts: Requirements for Validation and Routine Control (2004) and ISO 11137-2 (2006). They ranged from 17.6 to 33.4 kGy for bioburdens of >10-162.700 CFU/100 cm 2 . The presence of Gram negative bacteria was checked for each produced batch. From the analysis of the experimental results, it was observed that the bioburden range was very wide and consequently the estimated sterilization doses too. If this is the case, the determination of a tissue-specific dose per production batch is necessary to achieve a specified requirement of SAL. Otherwise if the dose of 25 kGy is preselected, a standardized method for substantiation of this dose should be done to confirm the radiation sterilization process.

  10. [Compression treatment for burned skin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaafar, Fadhel; Lassoued, Mohamed A; Sahnoun, Mahdi; Sfar, Souad; Cheikhrouhou, Morched

    2012-02-01

    The regularity of a compressive knit is defined as its ability to perform its function in a burnt skin. This property is essential to avoid the phenomenon of rejection of the material or toxicity problems But: Make knits biocompatible with high burnet of human skin. We fabric knits of elastic material. To ensure good adhesion to the skin, we made elastic material, typically a tight loop knitted. The Length of yarn absorbed by stitch and the raw matter are changed with each sample. The physical properties of each sample are measured and compared. Surface modifications are made to these samples by impregnation of microcapsules based on jojoba oil. Knits are compressif, elastic in all directions, light, thin, comfortable, and washable for hygiene issues. In addition, the washing can find their compressive properties. The Jojoba Oil microcapsules hydrated the human burnet skin. This moisturizer is used to the firmness of the wound and it gives flexibility to the skin. Compressive Knits are biocompatible with burnet skin. The mixture of natural and synthetic fibers is irreplaceable in terms comfort and regularity.

  11. [Skin cancer incidence in Zacatecas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinedo-Vega, José Luis; Castañeda-López, Rosalba; Dávila-Rangel, J Ignacio; Mireles-García, Fernando; Ríos-Martínez, Carlos; López-Saucedo, Adrián

    2014-01-01

    Skin cancer is the most frequent cancer related to ultraviolet radiation. The aim was to estimate the incidence of skin cancer type, melanoma and non-melanoma in Zacatecas, Mexico. An epidemiological study was carried out during the period from 2008 to 2012. The data were obtained from the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS), Instituto de Seguridad y Servicios Sociales de los Trabajadores del Estado (ISSSTE), Secretaría de Salud de Zacatecas (SSZ) and a private source, the Centro Médico Alameda. The incidence and the global prevalence were estimated. We studied 958 skin cancer cases, histopathologically confirmed. The cases were distributed as: 63.6 % basal cell carcinomas, 25.8 % squamous cell carcinomas, and 10.6 % melanoma. Significantly higher proportions were observed in women in the basal cell carcinomas (60.4 %) and squamous cell carcinomas (53.4 %). However, in the case of melanoma, the major proportion was observed in men (55.9 %). The more frequent skin cancer location was the face and for basal cell carcinoma was the nose (53 %); for squamous cell carcinomas were the lips (36 %), and for melanoma it was also the nose (40 %). The skin cancer incidence was estimated in 20 cases for each 100 000 inhabitants. Linear regression analysis showed that the skin cancer is increasing at an annual rate of 10.5 %. The anatomical location indicates that solar UV radiation is a risk factor, since the face is the zone with major exposure to solar radiation.

  12. UV Radiation and the Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    D’Orazio, John; Jarrett, Stuart; Amaro-Ortiz, Alexandra; Scott, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    UV radiation (UV) is classified as a “complete carcinogen” because it is both a mutagen and a non-specific damaging agent and has properties of both a tumor initiator and a tumor promoter. In environmental abundance, UV is the most important modifiable risk factor for skin cancer and many other environmentally-influenced skin disorders. However, UV also benefits human health by mediating natural synthesis of vitamin D and endorphins in the skin, therefore UV has complex and mixed effects on human health. Nonetheless, excessive exposure to UV carries profound health risks, including atrophy, pigmentary changes, wrinkling and malignancy. UV is epidemiologically and molecularly linked to the three most common types of skin cancer, basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and malignant melanoma, which together affect more than a million Americans annually. Genetic factors also influence risk of UV-mediated skin disease. Polymorphisms of the melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) gene, in particular, correlate with fairness of skin, UV sensitivity, and enhanced cancer risk. We are interested in developing UV-protective approaches based on a detailed understanding of molecular events that occur after UV exposure, focusing particularly on epidermal melanization and the role of the MC1R in genome maintenance. PMID:23749111

  13. Pickering emulsions for skin decontamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerno, Alicia; Bolzinger, Marie-Alexandrine; Rolland, Pauline; Chevalier, Yves; Josse, Denis; Briançon, Stéphanie

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed at developing innovative systems for skin decontamination. Pickering emulsions, i.e. solid-stabilized emulsions, containing silica (S-PE) or Fuller's earth (FE-PE) were formulated. Their efficiency for skin decontamination was evaluated, in vitro, 45min after an exposure to VX, one of the most highly toxic chemical warfare agents. Pickering emulsions were compared to FE (FE-W) and silica (S-W) aqueous suspensions. PE containing an oil with a similar hydrophobicity to VX should promote its extraction. All the formulations reduced significantly the amount of VX quantified on and into the skin compared to the control. Wiping the skin surface with a pad already allowed removing more than half of VX. FE-W was the less efficient (85% of VX removed). The other formulations (FE-PE, S-PE and S-W) resulted in more than 90% of the quantity of VX removed. The charge of particles was the most influential factor. The low pH of formulations containing silica favored electrostatic interactions of VX with particles explaining the better elimination from the skin surface. Formulations containing FE had basic pH, and weak interactions with VX did not improve the skin decontamination. However, these low interactions between VX and FE promote the transfer of VX into the oil droplets in the FE-PE. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. UV Radiation and the Skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Scott

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available UV radiation (UV is classified as a “complete carcinogen” because it is both a mutagen and a non-specific damaging agent and has properties of both a tumor initiator and a tumor promoter. In environmental abundance, UV is the most important modifiable risk factor for skin cancer and many other environmentally-influenced skin disorders. However, UV also benefits human health by mediating natural synthesis of vitamin D and endorphins in the skin, therefore UV has complex and mixed effects on human health. Nonetheless, excessive exposure to UV carries profound health risks, including atrophy, pigmentary changes, wrinkling and malignancy. UV is epidemiologically and molecularly linked to the three most common types of skin cancer, basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and malignant melanoma, which together affect more than a million Americans annually. Genetic factors also influence risk of UV-mediated skin disease. Polymorphisms of the melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R gene, in particular, correlate with fairness of skin, UV sensitivity, and enhanced cancer risk. We are interested in developing UV-protective approaches based on a detailed understanding of molecular events that occur after UV exposure, focusing particularly on epidermal melanization and the role of the MC1R in genome maintenance.

  15. Raman spectroscopy of skin neoplasms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moryatov, A. A.; Kozlov, S. V.; Kaganov, O. I.; Orlov, A. E.; Zaharov, V. P.; Batrachenko, I. A.; Artemiev, D. N.; Blinov, N. V.

    2017-09-01

    Skin melanoma is spread inhomogeneously worldwide, particularly in Samara region there are high figures of skin neoplasms sick rate as well—18.6%. Research goal: to develop a new method of early non-invasive differential diagnostics of skin neoplasms. Registration of Raman spectrum was implemented in the distance of 3-4 mm, the spectrum registration from pathologically changed zone was subsequently conducted, then from healthy skin zone. The test time for 1 patient was no longer than 3-5 min. In a range of experiments ex vivo there were the following results: melanoma—24, basal cell cancer—25, squamosus cell sarcinoma—7, nevus pigmentosis—9, other malignant neoplasms—6; in vivo: melanoma—9, basal cell cancer—8, nevus pigmentosis—2, other benign neoplasms—2. The first results of the research dedicated to studying permissive opportunities of Raman spectroscopy, with successive two-phase analysis of received parameters display high efficiency of method of differential diagnostic for skin melanoma and other malignant neoplasms, pigment and benign skin neoplasms. Safety and rapidity of the research reveal a high potential of the technique.

  16. Systemic antioxidants and skin health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Gloria; Torres, Abel

    2012-09-01

    Most dermatologists agree that antioxidants help fight free radical damage and can help maintain healthy skin. They do so by affecting intracellular signaling pathways involved in skin damage and protecting against photodamage, as well as preventing wrinkles and inflammation. In today's modern world of the rising nutraceutical industry, many people, in addition to applying topical skin care products, turn to supplementation of the nutrients missing in their diets by taking multivitamins or isolated, man-made nutraceuticals, in what is known as the Inside-Out approach to skin care. However, ingestion of large quantities of isolated, fragmented nutrients can be harmful and is a poor representation of the kind of nutrition that can be obtained from whole food sources. In this comprehensive review, it was found that few studies on oral antioxidants benefiting the skin have been done using whole foods, and that the vast majority of current research is focused on the study of compounds in isolation. However, the public stands to benefit greatly if more research were to be devoted toward the impact that physiologic doses of antioxidants (obtained from fruits, vegetables, and whole grains) can have on skin health, and on health in general.

  17. Mechanical forces in skin disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chao-Kai; Lin, Hsi-Hui; Harn, Hans I-Chen; Hughes, Michael W; Tang, Ming-Jer; Yang, Chao-Chun

    2018-03-08

    Mechanical forces are known to regulate homeostasis of the skin and play a role in the pathogenesis of skin diseases. The epidermis consists of keratinocytes that are tightly adhered to each other by cell junctions. Defects in keratins or desmosomal/hemidesmosomal proteins lead to the attenuation of mechanical strength and formation of intraepidermal blisters in the case of epidermolysis bullosa simplex. The dermis is rich in extracellular matrix, especially collagen, and provides the majority of tensile force in the skin. Keloid and hypertrophic scar, which is the result of over-production of collagen by fibroblasts during the wound healing, are associated with extrinsic tensile forces and changes of intrinsic mechanical properties of the cell. Increasing evidences shows that stiffness of the skin environment determines the regenerative ability during wound healing process. Mechanotransduction pathways are also involved in the morphogenesis and cyclic growth of hair follicles. The development of androgenetic alopecia is correlated to tensile forces generated by the fibrous tissue underlying the scalp. Acral melanoma predominantly occurs in the weight-bearing area of the foot suggesting the role of mechanical stress. Increased dermal stiffness from fibrosis might be the cause of recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa associated squamous cell carcinoma. Strategies to change the mechanical forces or modify the mechanotransduction signals may lead to a new way to treat skin diseases and promote skin regeneration. Copyright © 2018 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Skin-to-skin care for procedural pain in neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Celeste; Campbell-Yeo, Marsha; Disher, Timothy; Benoit, Britney; Fernandes, Ananda; Streiner, David; Inglis, Darlene; Zee, Rebekah

    2017-02-16

    Skin-to-skin care (SSC), often referred to as 'kangaroo care' (KC) due to its similarity with marsupial behaviour of ventral maternal-infant contact, is one non-pharmacological intervention for pain control in infants. The primary objectives were to determine the effect of SSC alone on pain from medical or nursing procedures in neonates compared to no intervention, sucrose or other analgesics, or additions to simple SSC such as rocking; and to determine the effects of the amount of SSC (duration in minutes), method of administration (e.g. who provided the SSC) of SSC in reducing pain from medical or nursing procedures in neonatesThe secondary objectives were to determine the safety of SSC care for relieving procedural pain in infants; and to compare the SSC effect in different postmenstrual age subgroups of infants. For this update, we used the standard search strategy of the Cochrane Neonatal Review group to search the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2016, Issue 1); MEDLINE via PubMed (1966 to 25 February 2016); Embase (1980 to 25 February 2016); and CINAHL (1982 to 25 February 2016). We also searched clinical trials' databases, conference proceedings, and the reference lists of retrieved articles for randomized controlled trials and quasi-randomized trials. Studies with randomisation or quasi-randomisation, double- or single-blinded, involving term infants (≥ 37 completed weeks' postmenstrual age (PMA) to a maximum of 44 weeks' PMA and preterm infants (care, and duration of SSC. Twenty-five studies (n = 2001 infants) were included. Nineteen studies (n = 1065) used heel lance as the painful procedure, one study combined venepuncture and heel stick (n = 50), three used intramuscular injection (n = 776), one used 'vaccination' (n = 60), and one used tape removal (n = 50). The studies were generally strong and had low or uncertain risk of bias. Blinding of the intervention was not possible, making them subject to high risk, depending on the

  19. Oxygen consumption and temperature control of premature infants in a double-wall incubator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, K H; Lee, C A; Bolan, C D; Maisels, M J

    1981-07-01

    The effects of a double wall in a forced convection-heated incubator were studied on ten naked, nondistressed, premature infants by measuring their mean skin temperature, esophageal temperature, and oxygen consumption when they were in thermal steady state, with, and without, the double wall in place. The incubator air temperature was maintained within the recommended thermoneutral zone during the consecutive paired experiments. Ambient room temperature and relative humidity were constant and the infant's activity (quiet sleep) and postprandial state were the same in both conditions. Together with a significant rise in operative temperature (P less than .05) induced by the double wall (accounted for by a 0.9 C mean increased in incubator wall temperature nearest the baby), their mean skin temperature and esophageal temperatures increased (P less than .025), while a decrease in oxygen consumption occurred in nine of the ten infants (P less than .05). These findings suggest that the double wall reduced radiant and total heat loss from the baby by diminishing the temperature gradient between the skin and incubator surfaces and that metabolic heat production (oxygen consumption) was reduced when the double wall was in place.

  20. Quiz: Test Your Skin Cancer IQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... please turn Javascript on. Feature: Skin Cancer Quiz: Test Your Skin Cancer IQ Past Issues / Summer 2013 Table of Contents 1. ... to Results / Skin and Sun – Safety First / Quiz: Test Your Skin Cancer IQ Summer 2013 Issue: Volume 8 Number 2 Page ...