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Sample records for double layer porous

  1. The Comparison of Engineering Properties Between Single and Double Layer Porous Asphalt made of Packing Gradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardiman M. Y

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available is paper presents the comparison of engineering properties between single and double layer porous asphalt (SLPA and DLPA made of packing gradation. Three nominal maximum aggregate sizes (NMAS were tested each made up of 10, 14, and 20 mm for SLPA. While for the DLPA with 30, 20, and 15 mm top layer are made of 10 and 14 mm NMAS, with a base layer of 20 mm NMAS. Total thickness of all mixes is 70 mm. Binders used are 60/70 penetration base bitumen and polymer binder styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS. The result shows that the properties of SLPA mix namely permeability and resistance to abrasion loss decreases when the NMAS in SLPA decreases. The abrasion loss of DLPA mixes increases when the porous asphalt top layer thickness decreases, while drainage time value decreases. However, SLPA with 20 mm NMAS exhibits higher abrasion loss compared to all DLPA mixes.

  2. Preparation of porous carbon sphere from waste sugar solution for electric double-layer capacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Zhi-Qiang; Cao, Jing-Pei; Wu, Yan; Zhao, Xiao-Yan; Zhuang, Qi-Qi; Wang, Xing-Yong; Wei, Xian-Yong

    2017-09-01

    Waste sugar solution (WSS), which contains abundant 2-keto-L-gulonic acid, is harmful to the environment if discharged directly. For value-added utilization of the waste resource, a novel process is developed for preparation of porous carbon spheres by hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) of WSS followed by KOH activation. Additionally, the possible preparation mechanism of carbon spheres is proposed. The effects of hydrothermal and activation parameters on the properties of the carbon sphere are also investigated. The carbon sphere is applied to electric double-layer capacitor and its electrochemical performance is studied. These results show that the carbon sphere obtained by HTC at 180 °C for 12 h with the WSS/deionized water volume ratio of 2/3 possess the highest specific capacitance under identical activation conditions. The specific capacitance of the carbon spheres can reach 296.1 F g-1 at a current density of 40 mA g-1. Besides, excellent cycle life and good capacitance retention (89.6%) are observed at 1.5 A g-1 after 5000 cycles. This study not only provides a facile and potential method for the WSS treatment, but also achieves the high value-added recycling of WSS for the preparation of porous carbon spheres with superior electrochemical properties.

  3. The onset of double diffusive convection in a viscoelastic fluid-saturated porous layer with non-equilibrium model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhixin Yang

    Full Text Available The onset of double diffusive convection in a viscoelastic fluid-saturated porous layer is studied when the fluid and solid phase are not in local thermal equilibrium. The modified Darcy model is used for the momentum equation and a two-field model is used for energy equation each representing the fluid and solid phases separately. The effect of thermal non-equilibrium on the onset of double diffusive convection is discussed. The critical Rayleigh number and the corresponding wave number for the exchange of stability and over-stability are obtained, and the onset criterion for stationary and oscillatory convection is derived analytically and discussed numerically.

  4. Charge Efficiency: A Functional Tool to Probe the Double-Layer Structure Inside of Porous Electrodes and Application in the Modeling of Capacitive Deionization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, R.; Biesheuvel, P.M.; Miedema, H.; Bruning, H.; Wal, van der A.

    2010-01-01

    Porous electrodes are important in many physical-chemical processes including capacitive deionization (CDI), a desalination technology where ions are adsorbed from solution into the electrostatic double layers formed at the electrode/solution interface inside of two juxtaposed porous electrodes. A

  5. Electric double layer capacitors employing nitrogen and sulfur co-doped, hierarchically porous graphene electrodes with synergistically enhanced performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, Aravindaraj G.; Samuthirapandian, Amaresh; Kim, Dong-Won

    2017-01-01

    Hierarchically porous graphene nanosheets co-doped with nitrogen and sulfur are synthesized via a simple hydrothermal method, followed by a pore activation step. Pore architectures are controlled by varying the ratio of chemical activation agents to graphene, and its influence on the capacitive performance is evaluated. The electric double layer capacitor (EDLC) assembled with optimized dual-doped graphene delivers a high specific capacitance of 146.6 F g-1 at a current density of 0.8 A g-1, which is higher than that of cells with un-doped and single-heteroatom doped graphene. The EDLC with dual-doped graphene electrodes exhibits stable cycling performance with a capacitance retention of 94.5% after 25,000 cycles at a current density of 3.2 A g-1. Such a good performance can be attributed to synergistic effects due to co-doping of the graphene nanosheets and the presence of hierarchical porous structures.

  6. Al-Si alloy point contact formation and rear surface passivation for silicon solar cells using double layer porous silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moumni, Besma; Ben Jaballah, Abdelkader; Bessais, Brahim

    2012-01-01

    Lowering the rear surface recombination velocities by a dielectric layer has fascinating advantages compared with the standard fully covered Al back-contact silicon solar cells. In this work the passivation effect by double layer porous silicon (PS) (wide band gap) and the formation of Al-Si alloy in narrow p-type Si point contact areas for rear passivated solar cells are analysed. As revealed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, we found that a thin passivating aluminum oxide (Al 2 O 3 ) layer is formed. Scanning electron microscopy analysis performed in cross sections shows that with bilayer PS, liquid Al penetrates into the openings, alloying with the Si substrate at depth and decreasing the contact resistivity. At the solar cell level, the reduction in the contact area and resistivity leads to a minimization of the fill factor losses.

  7. A Novel Method for Fabricating Double Layers Porous Anodic Alumina in Phosphoric/Oxalic Acid Solution and Oxalic Acid Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanfang Xu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel method for fabricating ordered double layers porous anodic alumina (DL-PAA with controllable nanopore size was presented. Highly ordered large pore layer with interpore distance of 480 nm was fabricated in phosphoric acid solution with oxalic acid addition at the potential of 195 V and the small pore layer was fabricated in oxalic acid solution at the potential from 60 to 100 V. Experimental results show that the thickness of large pore layer is linearly correlative with anodizing time, and pore diameter is linearly correlative with pore widening time. When the anodizing potential in oxalic acid solution was adjusted from 60 to 100 V, the small pore layers with continuously tunable interpore distance from 142 to 241 nm and pore density from 1.94×109 to 4.89×109 cm−2 were obtained. And the interpore distance and the pore density of small pore layers are closely correlative with the anodizing potential. The fabricated DL-PAA templates can be widely utilized for fabrication of ordered nanomaterials, such as superhydrophobic or gecko-inspired adhesive materials and metal or semiconductor nanowires.

  8. Formation and properties of the buried isolating silicon-dioxide layer in double-layerporous silicon-on-insulator” structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolotov, V. V.; Knyazev, E. V.; Ponomareva, I. V.; Kan, V. E., E-mail: kan@obisp.oscsbras.ru; Davletkildeev, N. A.; Ivlev, K. E.; Roslikov, V. E. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Omsk Scientific Center, Siberian Branch (Russian Federation)

    2017-01-15

    The oxidation of mesoporous silicon in a double-layer “macroporous silicon–mesoporous silicon” structure is studied. The morphology and dielectric properties of the buried insulating layer are investigated using electron microscopy, ellipsometry, and electrical measurements. Specific defects (so-called spikes) are revealed between the oxidized macropore walls in macroporous silicon and the oxidation crossing fronts in mesoporous silicon. It is found that, at an initial porosity of mesoporous silicon of 60%, three-stage thermal oxidation leads to the formation of buried silicon-dioxide layers with an electric-field breakdown strength of E{sub br} ~ 10{sup 4}–10{sup 5} V/cm. Multilayered “porous silicon-on-insulator” structures are shown to be promising for integrated chemical micro- and nanosensors.

  9. Toward the Physical Basis of Complex Systems: Dielectric Analysis of Porous Silicon Nanochannels in the Electrical Double Layer Length Range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu Mircea Ciuceanu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Dielectric analysis (DEA shows changes in the properties of
    a materials as a response to the application on it of a time dependent electric field. Dielectric measurements are extremely sensitive to small changes in materials properties, that molecular relaxation, dipole changes, local motions that involve the reorientation of dipoles, and so can be observed by DEA. Electrical double layer (EDL, consists in a shielding layer that is naturally created within the liquid near a charged surface. The thickness of the EDL is given by the characteristic Debye length what grows less with the ionic strength defined by half summ products of concentration with square of charge for all solvent
    ions (co-ions, counterions, charged molecules. The typical length scale for the Debye length is on the order of 1 nm, depending on the ionic contents in the solvent; thus, the EDL becomes significant for nano-capillaries that nanochannels. The electrokinetic e®ects in the nanochannels depend essentialy on the distribution of charged species in EDL, described by the Poisson-Boltzmann equation those solutions require the solvent dielectric permittivity. In this work we propose a model for solvent low-frequency permittivity and a DEA profile taking into account both the porous silicon electrode and aqueous solvent properties in the Debye length range.

  10. In-syringe extraction using dissolvable layered double hydroxide-polymer sponges templated from hierarchically porous coordination polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghani, Milad; Frizzarin, Rejane M; Maya, Fernando; Cerdà, Víctor

    2016-07-01

    Herein we report the use of cobalt porous coordination polymers (PCP) as intermediates to prepare advanced extraction media based on layered double hydroxides (LDH) supported on melamine polymer foam. The obtained dissolvable Ni-Co LDH composite sponges can be molded and used as sorbent for the in-syringe solid-phase extraction (SPE) of phenolic acids from fruit juices. The proposed sorbent is obtained due to the surfactant-assisted self-assembly of Co(II)/imidazolate PCPs on commercially available melamine foam, followed by the in situ conversion of the PCP into the final dissolvable LDH coating. Advantageous features for SPE are obtained by using PCPs with hierarchical porosity (HPCPs). The LDH-sponge prepared using intermediate HPCPs (HLDH-sponge) is placed in the headspace of a glass syringe, enabling flow-through extraction followed by analyte elution by the dissolution of the LDH coating in acidic conditions. Three phenolic acids (gallic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid and caffeic acid) were extracted and quantified using high performance liquid chromatography. Using a 5mL sample volume, the obtained detection limits were 0.15-0.35μgL(-1). The proposed method for the preparation of HLDH-sponges showed a good reproducibility as observed from the intra- and inter-day RSD's, which were <10% for all analytes. The batch-to-batch reproducibility for three different batches of HLDH-sponges was 10.6-11.2%. Enrichment factors of 15-21 were obtained. The HLDH-sponges were applied satisfactorily to the determination of phenolic acids in natural and commercial fruit juices, obtaining relative recoveries among 89.7-95.3%. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Topotactic Synthesis of Porous Cobalt Ferrite Platelets from a Layered Double Hydroxide Precursor and Their Application in Oxidation Catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Klaus Friedel; Anke, Sven; Salamon, Soma; Özcan, Fatih; Heese, Justus; Andronescu, Corina; Landers, Joachim; Wende, Heiko; Schuhmann, Wolfgang; Muhler, Martin; Lunkenbein, Thomas; Behrens, Malte

    2017-09-12

    Monocrystalline, yet porous mosaic platelets of cobalt ferrite, CoFe 2 O 4 , can be synthesized from a layered double hydroxide (LDH) precursor by thermal decomposition. Using an equimolar mixture of Fe 2+ , Co 2+ , and Fe 3+ during co-precipitation, a mixture of LDH, (Fe II Co II ) 2/3 Fe III 1/3 (OH) 2 (CO 3 ) 1/6 ⋅m H 2 O, and the target spinel CoFe 2 O 4 can be obtained in the precursor. During calcination, the remaining Fe II fraction of the LDH is oxidized to Fe III leading to an overall Co 2+ :Fe 3+ ratio of 1:2 as required for spinel crystallization. This pre-adjustment of the spinel composition in the LDH precursor suggests a topotactic crystallization of cobalt ferrite and yields phase pure spinel in unusual anisotropic platelet morphology. The preferred topotactic relationship in most particles is [111] Spinel ∥[001] LDH . Due to the anion decomposition, holes are formed throughout the quasi monocrystalline platelets. This synthesis approach can be used for different ferrites and the unique microstructure leads to unusual chemical properties as shown by the application of the ex-LDH cobalt ferrite as catalyst in the selective oxidation of 2-propanol. Compared to commercial cobalt ferrite, which mainly catalyzes the oxidative dehydrogenation to acetone, the main reaction over the novel ex-LDH cobalt is dehydration to propene. Moreover, the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) activity of the ex-LDH catalyst was markedly higher compared to the commercial material. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Double layers in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlqvist, P.

    1982-01-01

    For more than a decade it has been realised that electrostatic double layers are likely to occur in space. The author briefly discusses the theoretical background of such double layers. Most of the paper is devoted to an account of the observational evidence for double layers in the ionosphere and magnetosphere of the Earth. Several different experiments are reviewed including rocket and satellite measurements and ground based observations. It is concluded that the observational evidence for double layers in space is very strong. The experimental results indicate that double layers with widely different properties may exist in space. (Auth.)

  13. Double layer formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, N.

    1982-01-01

    Results from several numerical simulations of the formation of double layers in plasmas with a constant potential drop across them are presented. Here the emphasis is mainly on plasma processes during the formation of double layers. The recurring formation of double layers, their propagation and associated current interruptions are observed when the electron current injected into the simulation region from the low potential side exceeds the electron thermal current. This recurring process is stopped (or delayed) when the electron current recuperation is inhibited by a small magnetic force on the electrons. The motion of double layers is examined and it is found that the motion is caused by the interruption of the ion current from the high potential side. The subsequent recovery of this current renders the double layer stationary. (author)

  14. A double layer review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Block, L.P.

    1977-06-01

    A review of the main results on electrostatic double layers (sometimes called space charge layers or sheaths) obtained from theory, and laboratory and space experiments up to the spring of 1977 is given. By means of barium jets and satellite probes, double layers have now been found at the altitudes, earlier predicted theoretically. The general potential distribution above the auroral zone, suggested by inverted V-events and electric field reversals, is corroborated. (author)

  15. Centrifugal spinning: A novel approach to fabricate porous carbon fibers as binder-free electrodes for electric double-layer capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yao; Fu, Kun; Zhang, Shu; Li, Ying; Chen, Chen; Zhu, Jiadeng; Yanilmaz, Meltem; Dirican, Mahmut; Zhang, Xiangwu

    2015-01-01

    Carbon nanofibers (CNFs), among various carbonaceous candidates for electric double-layer capacitor (EDLC) electrodes, draw extensive attention because their one-dimensional architecture offers both shortened electron pathways and high ion-accessible sites. Creating porous structures on CNFs yields larger surface area and enhanced capacitive performance. Herein, porous carbon nanofibers (PCNFs) were synthesized via centrifugal spinning of polyacrylonitrile (PAN)/poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) solutions combined with thermal treatment and were used as binder-free EDLC electrodes. Three precursor fibers with PAN/PMMA weight ratios of 9/1, 7/3 and 5/5 were prepared and carbonized at 700, 800, and 900 °C, respectively. The highest specific capacitance obtained was 144 F g-1 at 0.1 A g-1 with a rate capability of 74% from 0.1 to 2 A g-1 by PCNFs prepared with PAN/PMMA weight ratio of 7/3 at 900 °C. These PCNFs also showed stable cycling performance. The present work demonstrates that PCNFs are promising EDLC electrode candidate and centrifugal spinning offers a simple, cost-effective strategy to produce PCNFs.

  16. Layered double hydroxides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    López Rayo, Sandra; Imran, Ahmad; Hansen, Hans Chr. Bruun

    2017-01-01

    A novel zinc (Zn) fertilizer concept based on Zn doped layered double hydroxides (Zn-doped Mg-Fe-LDHs) has been investigated. Zn-doped Mg-Fe-LDHs were synthetized, their chemical composition was analyzed and their nutrient release was studied in buffered solutions with different pH values. Uptake...

  17. Double layers - theory and experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torven, S.

    1980-06-01

    A survey is given of recent investigations of electric double layers in low density plasmas. The existence of double layers is now well established in both magnetized and unmagnetized plasmas. Laboratory experiments and numerical simulations show that double layers coexist with waves and fluctuations as expected in view of the particle beams which are formed in the layer. Under certain conditions the level of the fluctuations is small and experimental results then compare favourably with stationary double layer models. Significant progress on layer formation processes has been made, but further investigations are required to predict under what conditions double layers will form in different types of plasmas. (author)

  18. Effects of overlapping electric double layer on mass transport of a macro-solute across porous wall of a micro/nanochannel for power law fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, Saikat; Mondal, Mrinmoy; De, Sirshendu

    2017-05-01

    Effects of overlapping electric double layer and high wall potential on transport of a macrosolute for flow of a power law fluid through a microchannel with porous walls are studied in this work. The electric potential distribution is obtained by coupling the Poisson's equation without considering the Debye-Huckel approximation. The numerical solution shows that the center line potential can be 16% of wall potential at pH 8.5, at wall potential -73 mV and scaled Debye length 0.5. Transport phenomena involving mass transport of a neutral macrosolute is formulated by species advective equation. An analytical solution of Sherwood number is obtained for power law fluid. Effects of fluid rheology are studied in detail. Average Sherwood number is more for a pseudoplastic fluid compared to dilatant upto the ratio of Poiseuille to electroosmotic velocity of 5. Beyond that, the Sherwood number is independent of fluid rheology. Effects of fluid rheology and solute size on permeation flux and concentration of neutral solute are also quantified. More solute permeation occurs as the fluid changes from pseudoplastic to dilatant. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. On the Validity of the “Thin” and “Thick” Double-Layer Assumptions When Calculating Streaming Currents in Porous Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew D. Jackson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We find that the thin double layer assumption, in which the thickness of the electrical diffuse layer is assumed small compared to the radius of curvature of a pore or throat, is valid in a capillary tubes model so long as the capillary radius is >200 times the double layer thickness, while the thick double layer assumption, in which the diffuse layer is assumed to extend across the entire pore or throat, is valid so long as the capillary radius is >6 times smaller than the double layer thickness. At low surface charge density (0.5 M the validity criteria are less stringent. Our results suggest that the thin double layer assumption is valid in sandstones at low specific surface charge (<10 mC⋅m−2, but may not be valid in sandstones of moderate- to small pore-throat size at higher surface charge if the brine concentration is low (<0.001 M. The thick double layer assumption is likely to be valid in mudstones at low brine concentration (<0.1 M and surface charge (<10 mC⋅m−2, but at higher surface charge, it is likely to be valid only at low brine concentration (<0.003 M. Consequently, neither assumption may be valid in mudstones saturated with natural brines.

  20. Mixed convection in fluid superposed porous layers

    CERN Document Server

    Dixon, John M

    2017-01-01

    This Brief describes and analyzes flow and heat transport over a liquid-saturated porous bed. The porous bed is saturated by a liquid layer and heating takes place from a section of the bottom. The effect on flow patterns of heating from the bottom is shown by calculation, and when the heating is sufficiently strong, the flow is affected through the porous and upper liquid layers. Measurements of the heat transfer rate from the heated section confirm calculations. General heat transfer laws are developed for varying porous bed depths for applications to process industry needs, environmental sciences, and materials processing. Addressing a topic of considerable interest to the research community, the brief features an up-to-date literature review of mixed convection energy transport in fluid superposed porous layers.

  1. Layering and Ordering in Electrochemical Double Layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yihua [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439, United States; Kawaguchi, Tomoya [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439, United States; Pierce, Michael S. [Rochester Institute of Technology, School of Physics and Astronomy, Rochester, New York 14623, United States; Komanicky, Vladimir [Faculty of Science, Safarik University, 041 54 Kosice, Slovakia; You, Hoydoo [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439, United States

    2018-02-26

    Electrochemical double layers (EDL) form at electrified interfaces. While Gouy-Chapman model describes moderately charged EDL, formation of Stern layers was predicted for highly charged EDL. Our results provide structural evidence for a Stern layer of cations, at potentials close to hydrogen evolution in alkali fluoride and chloride electrolytes. Layering was observed by x-ray crystal truncation rods and atomic-scale recoil responses of Pt(111) surface layers. Ordering in the layer is confirmed by glancing-incidence in-plane diffraction measurements.

  2. Crack Growth along Interfaces in Porous Ceramic Layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bent F.; Horsewell, Andy

    2001-01-01

    Crack growth along porous ceramic layers was studied experimentally. Double cantilever beam sandwich specimens were loaded with pure bending moments to obtain stable crack growth. The experiments were conducted in an environmental scanning electron microscope enabling in situ observations...... of various mechanisms associated with crack growth. The macroscopic fracture energy of the interface between dense lanthanum strontium chromite and a porous lanthanum strontium manganite was measured to lie in the range of 1.4-3.8 J/m(2). Several micromechanisms were observed ahead of, or in the wake of...

  3. Deposited Micro Porous Layer as Lubricant Carrier in Metal Forming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arentoft, Mogens; Bay, Niels; Tang, Peter Torben

    2008-01-01

    A new porous coating for carrying lubricant in metal forming processes is developed. The coating is established by simultaneous electrochemical deposition of two pure metals. One of them is subsequently etched away leaving a porous surface layer. Lubricant can be trapped in the pores acting...... as lubricant reservoirs. Conventional friction tests for cold forming; ring compression and double cup extrusion tests are carried out with Molykote DX paste and mineral oil as lubricant. Both lubricants act as intended for the ring compressions test whereas only the low viscosity oil perform successfully...

  4. Global effects of double layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raad, M.A.

    1984-12-01

    Locally the formation of an electrostatic double layer in a current carrying plasma leads to a direct acceleration of particles which may penetrate far into the surrounding medium. The potential across the double layer, giving this acceleration, must be maintained by the external system and is a basic parameter for the local to global coupling. The double layer potential is associated with an electric field parallel to the magnetic field. In general this leads to a magnetohydrodynamic relaxation of the surrounding medium providing the influx of energy which is dissipated by the double layer. The double layer potential is limited as is the maximum possible rate of energy influx. If the global response of the external medium can be represented by an external circuit and if an equivalent circuit element can be found to represent the double layer, for example a negative resistance for intermediate time scales, it is possible to give a description of the dynamics and stability of the whole system. (Author)

  5. Double layers above the aurora

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Temerin, M.; Mozer, F.S.

    1987-01-01

    Two different kinds of double layers were found in association with auroral precipitation. One of these is the so-called electrostatic shock, which is oriented at an oblique angle to the magnetic field in such a way that the perpendicular electric field is much larger than the parallel electric field. This type of double layer is often found at the edges of regions of upflowing ion beams and the direction of the electric fields in the shock points toward the ion beam. The potential drop through the shock can be several kV and is comparable to the total potential needed to produce auroral acceleration. Instabilities associated with the shock may generate obliquely propagating Alfven waves, which may accelerate electrons to produce flickering auroras. The flickering aurora provides evidence that the electrostatic shock may have large temporal fluctuations. The other kind of double layer is the small-amplitude double layer found in regions of upward flowing in beams, often in association with electrostatic ion cyclotron waves. The parallel and perpendicular electric fields in these structures are comparable in magnitude. The associated potentials are a few eV. Since many such double layers are found in regions of upward flowing ion beams, the combined potential drop through a set of these double layers can be substantial

  6. On the physics of relativistic double layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlqvist, P.

    1982-06-01

    A model of a strong, time-independent, and relativistic double layer is studied. Besides double layers having the electric field parallel to the current the model also describes a certain type of oblique double layers. The 'Langmuir condition' (ratio of ion current density to electron current density) as well as an expression for the potential drop of the double layer are derived. Furthermore, the distribution of charged particles, electric field, and potential within the double layer are clarified and discussed. It is found that the properties of relativistic double layers differ substantially from the properties of corresponding non-relativistic double layers. (Author)

  7. Construction of hierarchically porous graphitized carbon-supported NiFe layered double hydroxides with a core-shell structure as an enhanced electrocatalyst for the oxygen evolution reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Yuanman; Yao, Lihua; Wang, Yin; Liu, Bing; Cao, Minhua; Hu, Changwen

    2017-08-17

    The oxygen evolution reaction (OER) is a vital half-reaction in water splitting and metal-air batteries. Developing earth-abundant, highly efficient and durable OER catalysts has faced huge challenges until now, because OER is a strict kinetic sluggish process. Herein, we report the construction of hierarchically porous graphitized carbon (HPGC) supported NiFe layered double hydroxides (LDHs) with a core-shell structure (denoted as HPGC@NiFe) by a facile strategy. The HPGC was first obtained by pyrolysing phenolic resin nanospheres with FeCl 3 and ZnCl 2 as the catalyst and the activator, respectively. Then the NiFe LDH arrays were directly grown on the HPGC by a one-step hydrothermal method. The as-synthesized HPGC@NiFe reveals excellent OER properties with a low onset potential, a lower overpotential of 265 mV (corresponding to the current density at 10 mA cm -2 ) and a small Tafel slope (56 mV per decade). And its catalytic activity is even superior to that of the start-of-the-art noble-metal catalyst IrO 2 /C. Notably, the HPGC@NiFe electrode shows admirable stability measured by performing 2000 cycle CVs and long-term electrolysis for 50 h. The prominent performance can be attributed to the synergistic effect between the NiFe-LDHs and the hierarchically porous graphitized carbon, in which the former can increase the exposure of the active sites, while the latter can increase the charge transfer efficiency. Our research implies the possibility for the development of low-cost layered double hydroxides as a promising candidate in electrochemical energy storage and conversion equipment.

  8. Some theoretical aspects of electrostatic double layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlqvist, P.

    1978-11-01

    A review is presented of the main results of the theoretical work on electrostatic double layers. The general properties of double layers are first considered. Then the time-independent double layer is discussed. The discussion deals with the potential drop, the thickness, and some necessary criteria for the existence and stability of the layer. As a complement to the study of the timeindependent double layer a few remarks are also made upon the timedependent double layer. Finally the question of how double layers are formed and maintained is treated. Several possible formation mechanisms are considered. (author)

  9. Photo and electroluminescence of porous silicon layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keshmini, S.H.; Samadpour, S.; Haji-Ali, E.; Rokn-Abadi, M.R.

    1995-01-01

    Porous silicon (PSi) layers were prepared by both chemical and electrochemical methods on n- and p-type Si substrates. In the former technique, light emission was obtained from p-type and n-type samples. It was found that intense light illumination during the preparation process was essential for PSi formation on n-type substrates. An efficient electrochemical cell with some useful features was designed for electrochemical etching of silicon. Various preparation parameters were studied and photoluminescence emissions ranging from dark red to light blue were obtained from PSi samples prepared on p-type substrates. N-type samples produced emission ranging from dark red to orange yellow. Electroluminescence of porous silicon samples showed that the color of the emission was the same as the photoluminescence color of the sample, and its intensity and duration depended on the current density passed through the sample. The effects of exposure of samples to air, storage in vacuum and heat treatment in air on luminescence intensity of the samples and preparation of patterned porous layers were also studied. (author)

  10. High performance solid-state electric double layer capacitor from redox mediated gel polymer electrolyte and renewable tamarind fruit shell derived porous carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthilkumar, S T; Selvan, R Kalai; Melo, J S; Sanjeeviraja, C

    2013-11-13

    The activated carbon was derived from tamarind fruit shell and utilized as electrodes in a solid state electrochemical double layer capacitor (SSEDLC). The fabricated SSEDLC with PVA (polyvinyl alcohol)/H2SO4 gel electrolyte delivered high specific capacitance and energy density of 412 F g(-1) and 9.166 W h kg(-1), respectively, at 1.56 A g(-1). Subsequently, Na2MoO4 (sodium molybdate) added PVA/H2SO4 gel electrolyte was also prepared and applied for SSEDLC, to improve the performance. Surprisingly, 57.2% of specific capacitance (648 F g(-1)) and of energy density (14.4 Wh kg(-1)) was increased while introducing Na2MoO4 as the redox mediator in PVA/H2SO4 gel electrolyte. This improved performance is owed to the redox reaction between Mo(VI)/Mo(V) and Mo(VI)/Mo(IV) redox couples in Na2MoO4/PVA/H2SO4 gel electrolyte. Similarly, the fabricated device shows the excellent capacitance retention of 93% for over 3000 cycles. The present work suggests that the Na2MoO4 added PVA/H2SO4 gel is a potential electrolyte to improve the performance instead of pristine PVA/H2SO4 gel electrolyte. Based on the overall performance, it is strongly believed that the combination of tamarind fruit shell derived activated carbon and Na2MoO4/PVA/H2SO4 gel electrolyte is more attractive in the near future for high performance SSEDLCs.

  11. Double-Skinned Forward Osmosis Membranes for Reducing Internal Concentration Polarization within the Porous Sublayer

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Kai Yu

    2010-05-19

    A scheme to fabricate forward osmosis membranes comprising a highly porous sublayer sandwiched between two selective skin layers via phase inversion was proposed. One severe deficiency of existing composite and asymmetric membranes used in forward osmosis is the presence of unfavorable internal concentration polarization within the porous support layer that hinders both (i) separation (salt flux) and (ii) the performance (water flux). The double skin layers of the tailored membrane may mitigate the internal concentration polarization by preventing the salt and other solutes in the draw solution from penetrating into the membrane porous support. The prototype double-skinned cellulose acetate membrane displayed a water flux of 48.2 L·m-2·h -1 and lower reverse salt transport of 6.5 g·m -2·h-1 using 5.0 M MgCl2 as the draw solution in a forward osmosis process performed at 22 °C. This can be attributed to the effective salt rejection by the double skin layers and the low water transport resistance within the porous support layer. The prospects of utilizing the double-selective layer membranes may have potential application in forward osmosis for desalination. This study may help pave the way to improve the membrane design for the forward osmosis process. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  12. Transient gas flow through layered porous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, F.A. Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Low Reynolds number isothermal flow of an ideal gas through layered porous material was investigated analytically. Relations governing the transient flow in one dimension are obtained. An implicit, iterative, unconditionally stable finite difference scheme is developed for calculation of such flows. A computer code, SIROCCO, employing this technique has been written and implemented on the LLL computer system. A listing of the code is included. This code may be effectively applied to the evaluation of stemming plans for underground nuclear experiments. (U.S.)

  13. Double Layer Dynamics in a Collisionless Magnetoplasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iizuka, S.; Michelsen, Poul; Juul Rasmussen, Jens

    An experimental investigation of the dynamics of double layers is presented. The experiments are performed in a Q-machine plasma and the double layers are generated by applying a positive step potential to a cold collector plate terminating the plasma column. The double layer is created...... and propagation of a double layer. The period of the oscillations is determined by the propagation length of the double layer. The current is limited during the propagation of the double layer by a growing negative potential barrier formed on the low potential tail. Similar phenomena appear when a potential...... difference is applied between two plasmas in a Q-machine with two sources. In this case a stationary double layer forms in the plasma column, but the low potential tail is subject to "back and forth" oscillations leading to large amplitude current oscillations....

  14. The theory of double layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schamel, H.

    1982-01-01

    Numerical and in some degree laboratory experiments suggest the existence of at least two different kinds of time-independent double layers: a strictly monotonic transition of the electrostatic potential and a transition accompanied by a negative spike at the low potential side (ion acoustic DL). An interpretation of both is presented in terms of analytic BGK modes. The first class of DLs commonly observed in voltage- or beam-driven plasmas needs for its existence beam-type distributions satisfying a Bohm criterion. The potential drop is at least of the order of Tsub(e), and stability arguments favour currents which satisfy the Langmuir condition. The second class found in current-driven plasma simulations is correlated with ion holes. This latter kind of nonlinear wave-solutions is linearly based on the slow ion-acoustic mode and exists due to a vortex-like distortion of the ion distribution in the thermal range. During the growth of an ion hole which is triggered by ion-acoustic fluctuations, the partial reflection of streaming electrons causes different plasma states on both sides of the potential dip and makes the ion hole asymmetric giving rise to an effective potential drop. This implies that the amplitude of this second type of double layers has an upper limit of 1-2 Tsub(e) and presumes a temperature ratio of Tsub(e)/Tsub(i) > or approximately 3 in coincidence with the numerical results. (Auth.)

  15. Hierarchically porous carbon nanosheets derived from Moringa oleifera stems as electrode material for high-performance electric double-layer capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yijin; Luo, Ying; Dong, Hanwu; Zhao, Xiao; Xiao, Yong; Liang, Yeru; Hu, Hang; Liu, Yingliang; Zheng, Mingtao

    2017-06-01

    A facile one-step pyrolysis route for the synthesis of hierarchically porous carbon nanosheets (PCNSs) derived from Moringa oleifera stems (MOSs) is reported, in which no post-activation-process in needed. The as-prepared PCNSs possesses unique porous nanosheet morphology with high specific surface area of ca. 2250 m2 g-1, large pore volume of ca. 2.3 cm3 g-1, appropriate porosity as well as heteroatom doping (N and O), endowing outstanding electrochemical properties as electrode material for high-performance supercapacitors. The PCNS-based electrodes are investigated in various aqueous electrolytes including 1.0 M Na2SO4, 1.0 M H2SO4, and 6.0 M KOH. The PCNSs exhibit a maximum specific capacitance of ca. 283 F g-1 (0.5 A g-1), excellent rate capability (ca. 72% of capacitance retention even at an ultrahigh current density of 50 A g-1), and a tremendous long-term cycling stability in the three-electrode system. Moreover, the as-assembled PCNS-based symmetric supercapacitor shows a high energy density of ca. 25.8 Wh kg-1 (in 1.0 M Na2SO4 electrolyte) and remarkable long-term cycling stability (almost no capacitance fade in aqueous electrolytes), indicating the promising of the as-prepared PCNSs for electrochemical energy storage and conversion.

  16. Dynamical Aspects of Electrostatic Double Layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raadu, M.A.; Juul Rasmussen, J.

    1988-01-01

    Electrostatic double layers have been proposed as an acceleration mechanism in solar flares and other astrophysical objects. They have been extensively studied in the laboratory and by means of computer simulations. The theory of steady-state double layers implies several existence criteria......, in particular the Bohm criteria, restricting the conditions under which double layers may form. In the present paper several already published theoretical models of different types of double layers are discussed. It is shown that the existence conditions often imply current-driven instabilities in the ambient...... plasma, at least for strong double layers, and it is argued that such conditions must be used with care when applied to real plasmas. Laboratory double layers, and by implication those arising in astrophysical plasmas often produce instabilities in the surrounding plasma and are generally time...

  17. Three Dimensional Double Layers in Magnetized Plasmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jovanovic, D.; Lynov, Jens-Peter; Michelsen, Poul

    1982-01-01

    Experimental results are presented which demonstrate the formation of fully three dimensional double layers in a magnetized plasma. The measurements are performed in a magnetized stationary plasma column with radius 1.5 cm. Double layers are produced by introducing an electron beam with radius 0.......4 cm along the magnetic field from one end of the column. The voltage drop across the double layer is found to be determined by the energy of the incoming electron beam. In general we find that the width of the double layer along the external magnetic field is determined by plasma density and beam...

  18. Double diffusion in arbitrary porous cavity: Part I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahamad, N. Ameer; Soudagar, Manzoor Elahi M.; Badruddin, Irfan Anjum

    2017-07-01

    Double diffusion refers to the heat and mass transfer that takes place simultaneously. The current work highlights the double diffusion when a solid block is placed at the bottom of a square porous cavity. The whole cavity is filed with saturated porous medium except the small block placed at the bottom left corner of the domain. The left vertical surface of porous cavity is maintained at concentration Ch and right vertical surface possesses lowest concentration Cc in the porous domain. The results are discussed in terms of isotherms, iso-concentration and streamlines inside the domain for various physical parameters. It is seen that the mass transfer is substantially different in present case as compared to the case of natural convection.

  19. Capacitance of carbon-based electrical double-layer capacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Hengxing; Zhao, Xin; Qiao, Zhenhua; Jung, Jeil; Zhu, Yanwu; Lu, Yalin; Zhang, Li Li; MacDonald, Allan H; Ruoff, Rodney S

    2014-01-01

    Experimental electrical double-layer capacitances of porous carbon electrodes fall below ideal values, thus limiting the practical energy densities of carbon-based electrical double-layer capacitors. Here we investigate the origin of this behaviour by measuring the electrical double-layer capacitance in one to five-layer graphene. We find that the capacitances are suppressed near neutrality, and are anomalously enhanced for thicknesses below a few layers. We attribute the first effect to quantum capacitance effects near the point of zero charge, and the second to correlations between electrons in the graphene sheet and ions in the electrolyte. The large capacitance values imply gravimetric energy storage densities in the single-layer graphene limit that are comparable to those of batteries. We anticipate that these results shed light on developing new theoretical models in understanding the electrical double-layer capacitance of carbon electrodes, and on opening up new strategies for improving the energy density of carbon-based capacitors.

  20. Stationary Double Layers in a Collisionless Magnetoplasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noriyoshi, Sato; Mieno, Tetsu; Hatakeyama, Rikizo

    1983-01-01

    Stationary double layers are generated in a magnetoplasma by applying potential differences between two heated plates on which the plasma is produced by surface ionization. By measuring the double-layer formation process, a localized potential drop is found to be formed initially in front of the ...

  1. molecules in a functionalized layered double hydroxide

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    included within the functionalized Mg–Al layered double hydroxide solid are similar to that of dilute so- lutions of the PAH in non-polar ... thermally stable over a wide temperature range with their emission properties practically unaltered. Keywords. Layered double ..... deformation, C–C skeletal stretch. 1020. 1024. 1024. –.

  2. Instability limits for spontaneous double layer formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, J. Jr.; Galante, M. E.; McCarren, D.; Scime, E. E.; Sears, S.; VanDervort, R. W.; Magee, R. M.; Reynolds, E.

    2013-01-01

    We present time-resolved measurements that demonstrate that large amplitude electrostatic instabilities appear in pulsed, expanding helicon plasmas at the same time as particularly strong double layers appear in the expansion region. A significant cross-correlation between the electrostatic fluctuations and fluctuations in the number of ions accelerated by the double layer electric field is observed. No correlation is observed between the electrostatic fluctuations and ions that have not passed through the double layer. These measurements confirm that the simultaneous appearance of the electrostatic fluctuations and the double layer is not simple coincidence. In fact, the accelerated ion population is responsible for the growth of the instability. The double layer strength, and therefore, the velocity of the accelerated ions, is limited by the appearance of the electrostatic instability

  3. Double layers and circuits in astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfven, H.

    1986-05-01

    As the rate of energy release in a double layer with voltage DeltaV is P corresponding to IDeltaV, a double layer must be treated part of a circuit which delivers the current I. As neither double layer nor circuit can be derived from magnetofluid models of a plasma, such models are useless for treating energy transfer by menas of double layers. They must be replaced by particle models and circuit theory. A simple circuit is suggested which is applied to the energizing of auroroal particles, to solar flares, and to intergalactic double radio sources. Application to the heliospheric current systems leads to the prediction of two double layers on the sun's axis which may give radiations detectable from earth. Double layers in space should be classified as a new type of celestial object (one example is the double radio sources). It is tentatively suggested in X-ray and gamma-ray bursts may be due to exploding double layers (although annihilation is an alternative energy source). A study of how a number of the most used textbooks in astrophysics treat important concepts like double layers, critical velocity, pinch effects and circuits is made. It is found that students using these textbooks remain essentially ignorant of even the existence of these, in spite of the fact that some of them have been well known for half a centry (e.g., double layers, Langmuir, 1929: pinch effect, Bennet, 1934). The conclusion is that astrophysics is too important to be left in the hands of the astrophysicist. Earth bound and space telescope data must be treated by scientists who are familiar with laboratory and magnetospheric physics and circuit theory, and of course with modern plasma theory. At least by volume the universe consists to more than 99 percent of plasma, and electromagnetic forces are 10/sup39/ time stronger than gravitation

  4. Simulation of plasma double-layer structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borovsky, J.E.; Joyce, G.

    1982-01-01

    Electrostatic plasma double layers are numerically simulated by means of a magnetized 2 1/2-dimensional particle-in-cell method. The investigation of planar double layers indicates that these one-dimensional potential structures are susceptible to periodic disruption by instabilities in the low-potential plasmas. Only a slight increase in the double-layer thickness with an increase in its obliqueness to the magnetic field is observed. Weak magnetization results in the double-layer electric-field alignment of accelerated particles and strong magnetization results in their magnetic-field alignment. The numerial simulations of spatially periodic two-dimensional double layers also exhibit cyclical instability. A morphological invariance in two-dimensional double layers with respect to the degree of magnetization implies that the potential structures scale with Debye lengths rather than with gyroradii. Electron-beam excited electrostatic electron-cyclotron waves and (ion-beam driven) solitary waves are present in the plasmas adjacent to the double layers

  5. Draping Double-Layer Woven Fabrics Onto Double-Curvature ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Draping woven fabrics to complex parts with double curvature leads to complex redistribution and reorientation of the yarns in composites reinforced with woven preforms. To reduce the risk of fabric tearing or wrinkling we propose to use double-layer woven fabrics. This paper presents a simulation model for draping

  6. Stationary Double Layers in a Collisionless Magnetoplasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noriyoshi, Sato; Mieno, Tetsu; Hatakeyama, Rikizo

    1983-01-01

    Stationary double layers are generated in a magnetoplasma by applying potential differences between two heated plates on which the plasma is produced by surface ionization. By measuring the double-layer formation process, a localized potential drop is found to be formed initially in front...... of the plate on the low-potential side, being accompanied with current limitation. This localized potential drop moves along the plasma column, but finally stops and results in the formation of the stationary double layer in the presence of sufficient plasma supply from the plate on the high-potential side....

  7. Natural convection in superposed fluid-porous layers

    CERN Document Server

    Bagchi, Aniruddha

    2013-01-01

    Natural Convection in Composite Fluid-Porous Domains provides a timely overview of the current state of understanding on the phenomenon of convection in composite fluid-porous layers. Natural convection in horizontal fluid-porous layers has received renewed attention because of engineering problems such as post-accident cooling of nuclear reactors, contaminant transport in groundwater, and convection in fibrous insulation systems. Because applications of the problem span many scientific domains, the book serves as a valuable resource for a wide audience.

  8. Double layer dynamics in a collisionless magnetoplasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iizuka, S.; Michelsen, Poul; Juul Rasmussen, Jens

    1985-01-01

    Investigations of double layer dynamics are performed in a Q-machine plasma by applying a positive step potential to a cold end-plate collector. The double layer created at the grounded plasma source just after the pulse is applied propagates towards the collector with the plasma flow speed. Large...... oscillations occur in the plasma current which is related to a recurring formation and propagation of the double layer. The current is limited during the propagation by a growing negative potential dip formed on the low-potential tail. Similar phenomena appear on the low-potential tail of the stationary double...... layer formed by applying a potential difference between two plasma sources...

  9. Numerical simulations on ion acoustic double layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, T.; Okuda, H.

    1980-07-01

    A comprehensive numerical study of ion acoustic double layers has been performed for both periodic as well as for nonperiodic systems by means of one-dimensional particle simulations. For a nonperiodic system, an external battery and a resistance are used to model the magnetospheric convection potential and the ionospheric Pedersen resistance. It is found that the number of double layers and the associated potential buildup across the system increases with the system length

  10. Vertical single- and double-walled carbon nanotubes grown from modified porous anodic alumina templates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maschmann, Matthew R; Franklin, Aaron D; Amama, Placidus B; Zakharov, Dmitri N; Stach, Eric A; Sands, Timothy D; Fisher, Timothy S

    2006-01-01

    Vertical single-walled and double-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT and DWNT) arrays have been grown using a catalyst embedded within the pore walls of a porous anodic alumina (PAA) template. The initial film structure consisted of a SiO x adhesion layer, a Ti layer, a bottom Al layer, a Fe layer, and a top Al layer deposited on a Si wafer. The Al and Fe layers were subsequently anodized to create a vertically oriented pore structure through the film stack. CNTs were synthesized from the catalyst layer by plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD). The resulting structure is expected to form the basis for development of vertically oriented CNT-based electronics and sensors

  11. Three step double layers in the laboratory. [plasma physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Andrew, III; Hershkowitz, Noah

    1988-01-01

    A new class of stationary double layer structure, with three or more distinct steps, is demonstrated in the laboratory. A large monotonic potential increase results from a series of smaller double layers. In many respects, these double layer structures resemble those inferred from satellite measurements of auroral double layers. This new class of double layer appears to depend on turbulence for its existence and to be a hybrid structure, intermediate between anomalous resistivity and BGK double layers.

  12. Modeling Kinetics of Distortion in Porous Bi-layered Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tadesse Molla, Tesfaye; Frandsen, Henrik Lund; Bjørk, Rasmus

    2013-01-01

    Shape distortions during constrained sintering experiment of bi-layer porous and dense cerium gadolinium oxide (CGO) structures have been modeled. Technologies like solid oxide fuel cells require co-firing thin layers with different green densities, which often exhibit differential shrinkage...

  13. Effect of the Wavy permeable Interface on Double Diffusive Natural Convection in a Partially Porous Cavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Mehdaoui

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Two-dimensional, double diffusion, natural convection in a partially porous cavity satured with a binary fluid is investigated numerically. Multiple motions are driven by the external temperature and concentration differences imposed across vertical walls. The wavy interface between fluid and porous layer is horizontal. The equations which describe the fluid flow and heat and mass transfer are described by the Navier-Stokes equations (fluid region, Darcy-Brinkman equation (porous region and energy and mass equations. The finite element method was applied to solve the governing equations. The fluid flow and heat and mass transfer has been investigated for different values of the amplitude and the wave number of the interface and the buoyancy ratio. The results obtained in the form of isotherms, stream lines, isoconcentrations and the Nusselt and Sherwood numbers; show that the wavy interface has a significant effect on the flow and heat and mass transfer.

  14. Elastic Equilibrium of Porous Cosserat Media with Double Porosity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Janjgava

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The static equilibrium of porous elastic materials with double porosity is considered in the case of an elastic Cosserat medium. The corresponding three-dimensional system of differential equations is derived. Detailed consideration is given to the case of plane deformation. A two-dimensional system of equations of plane deformation is written in the complex form and its general solution is represented by means of three analytic functions of a complex variable and two solutions of Helmholtz equations. The constructed general solution enables one to solve analytically a sufficiently wide class of plane boundary value problems of the elastic equilibrium of porous Cosserat media with double porosity. A concrete boundary value problem for a concentric ring is solved.

  15. Surface wave propagation in a double liquid layer over a liquid ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The frequency equation is derived for surface waves in a liquidsaturated porous half-space supporting a double layer, that of inhomogeneous and homogeneous liquids. Asymptotic approximations of Bessel functions are used for long and short wavelength cases. Certain other problems are discussed as special cases.

  16. Self-Assembly of Single-Layer CoAl-Layered Double Hydroxide Nanosheets on 3D Graphene Network Used as Highly Efficient Electrocatalyst for Oxygen Evolution Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ping, Jianfeng; Wang, Yixian; Lu, Qipeng; Chen, Bo; Chen, Junze; Huang, Ying; Ma, Qinglang; Tan, Chaoliang; Yang, Jian; Cao, Xiehong; Wang, Zhijuan; Wu, Jian; Ying, Yibin; Zhang, Hua

    2016-09-01

    A non-noble metal based 3D porous electrocatalyst is prepared by self-assembly of the liquid-exfoliated single-layer CoAl-layered double hydroxide nanosheets (CoAl-NSs) onto 3D graphene network, which exhibits higher catalytic activity and better stability for electrochemical oxygen evolution reaction compared to the commercial IrO2 nanoparticle-based 3D porous electrocatalyst. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Modeling Flow in Porous Media with Double Porosity/Permeability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyed Joodat, S. H.; Nakshatrala, K. B.; Ballarini, R.

    2016-12-01

    Although several continuum models are available to study the flow of fluids in porous media with two pore-networks [1], they lack a firm theoretical basis. In this poster presentation, we will present a mathematical model with firm thermodynamic basis and a robust computational framework for studying flow in porous media that exhibit double porosity/permeability. The mathematical model will be derived by appealing to the maximization of rate of dissipation hypothesis, which ensures that the model is in accord with the second law of thermodynamics. We will also present important properties that the solutions under the model satisfy, along with an analytical solution procedure based on the Green's function method. On the computational front, a stabilized mixed finite element formulation will be derived based on the variational multi-scale formalism. The equal-order interpolation, which is computationally the most convenient, is stable under this formulation. The performance of this formulation will be demonstrated using patch tests, numerical convergence study, and representative problems. It will be shown that the pressure and velocity profiles under the double porosity/permeability model are qualitatively and quantitatively different from the corresponding ones under the classical Darcy equations. Finally, it will be illustrated that the surface pore-structure is not sufficient in characterizing the flow through a complex porous medium, which pitches a case for using advanced characterization tools like micro-CT. References [1] G. I. Barenblatt, I. P. Zheltov, and I. N. Kochina, "Basic concepts in the theory of seepage of homogeneous liquids in fissured rocks [strata]," Journal of Applied Mathematics and Mechanics, vol. 24, pp. 1286-1303, 1960.

  18. Boundary Layer Flows in Porous Media with Lateral Mass Flux

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nemati, H; H, Bararnia; Noori, F

    2015-01-01

    Solutions for free convection boundary layers on a heated vertical plate with lateral mass flux embedded in a saturated porous medium are presented using the Homotopy Analysis Method and Shooting Numerical Method. Homotopy Analysis Method yields an analytic solution in the form of a rapidly...... modulus. Also, the Shooting Method is used as a numerical method for solution of the problem. The obtained solutions are compared together and admit a remarkable accuracy....

  19. Study of double porous silicon surfaces for enhancement of silicon solar cell performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razali, N. S. M.; Rahim, A. F. A.; Radzali, R.; Mahmood, A.

    2017-09-01

    In this work, design and simulation of double porous silicon surfaces for enhancement of silicon solar cell is carried out. Both single and double porous structures are constructed by using TCAD ATHENA and TCAD DEVEDIT tools of the SILVACO software respectively. After the structures were created, I-V characteristics and spectral response of the solar cell were extracted using ATLAS device simulator. Finally, the performance of the simulated double porous solar cell is compared with the performance of both single porous and bulk-Si solar cell. The results showed that double porous silicon solar cell exhibited 1.8% efficiency compared to 1.3% and 1.2% for single porous silicon and bulk-Si solar cell.

  20. A new benchmark reference solution for double-diffusive convection in a heterogeneous porous medium

    OpenAIRE

    Shao, Q.; Fahs, M.; Younes, Anis; Makradi, A.; Mara, T.

    2016-01-01

    A new benchmark with a high accurate solution is proposed for the verification of numerical codes dealing with double-diffusive convection in a heterogeneous porous medium. The new benchmark is inspired by the popular problem of square porous cavity by assuming a stratified porous medium. A high accurate steady state solution is developed using the Fourier-Galerkin method. To this aim, the unknowns are expanded in double infinite Fourier series. The accuracy of the developed solution is asses...

  1. Double Biocatalysis Signal Amplification Glucose Biosensor Based on Porous Graphene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaping He

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Controllable preparation of nanopores to promote the performance of electrochemical biosensing interfaces has become one of the researching frontiers in biosensing. A double biocatalysis signal amplification of glucose biosensor for the study of electrochemical behaviors of glucose oxidase (GOx was proposed by using horseradish peroxidase biosynthesized porous graphene (PGR as the platform for the biocatalytic deposition of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs. The biosensor showed a linear range from 0.25 to 27.5 μM with a detection limit of 0.05 μM (S/N = 3 towards glucose. Furthermore, the proposed AuNPs/GOx–PGR modified glassy carbon electrode (AuNPs/GOx–PGR/GCE achieved direct electron transfer of GOx.

  2. Double Biocatalysis Signal Amplification Glucose Biosensor Based on Porous Graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jianbin; Wang, Bini; Ren, Hongjiang

    2017-01-01

    Controllable preparation of nanopores to promote the performance of electrochemical biosensing interfaces has become one of the researching frontiers in biosensing. A double biocatalysis signal amplification of glucose biosensor for the study of electrochemical behaviors of glucose oxidase (GOx) was proposed by using horseradish peroxidase biosynthesized porous graphene (PGR) as the platform for the biocatalytic deposition of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). The biosensor showed a linear range from 0.25 to 27.5 μM with a detection limit of 0.05 μM (S/N = 3) towards glucose. Furthermore, the proposed AuNPs/GOx–PGR modified glassy carbon electrode (AuNPs/GOx–PGR/GCE) achieved direct electron transfer of GOx. PMID:28953240

  3. Equilibrium double layers in extended Pierce diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciubotariu-Jassy, C.I.

    1992-01-01

    The extended Pierce diode is similar to the standard (or classical) Pierce diode, but has passive circuit elements in place of the short circuit between the electrodes. This device is important as an approximation to real bounded plasma systems. It consists of two parallel plane electrodes (an emitter located at x=0 and a collector located at x=l) and a collisionless cold electron beam travelling between them. The electrons are neutralized by a background of comoving massive ions. This situation is analysed in this paper and new equilibrium double layer (DL) plasma structures are obtained. (author) 6 refs., 3 figs

  4. Time-dependent penetrative mixed convection in a porous layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jendoubi, S.; Kulacki, F.A.

    1997-01-01

    In the last few decades, heat and mass transfer in porous media have been studied extensively by many investigators. The main motivations behind these studies were the wide range of applications and the interaction of multiple processes. Examples include geothermal energy production, drying of porous media, high level nuclear waste disposal, and energy-related engineering technologies. Here, a general two-dimensional, time-dependent model has been developed to investigate the transfer of heat and mass in a liquid saturated porous layer locally heated from above. Both free and mixed convection are considered. For mixed convection an eternal flow is assumed to enter the two-dimensional domain in the horizontal direction. At a finite segment of the top wall, two types of heat sources are applied: a constant flux heat source and a time varying heat, constant flux source. The latter is a representation of heat released by spent nuclear fuel in a mined repository located above the layer. Both time-dependent and steady solutions of the flow and temperature fields are obtained. For natural convection, the effects of Rayleigh number on the Nusselt number are obtained. For mixed convection, the effects of both Rayleigh and Peclet numbers are studied. In addition, the effects of the aspect ratio, as well as the length of the heated zone are examined

  5. Mesoporous layer-by-layer ordered nanohybrids of layered double hydroxide and layered metal oxide: highly active visible light photocatalysts with improved chemical stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunjakar, Jayavant L; Kim, Tae Woo; Kim, Hyo Na; Kim, In Young; Hwang, Seong-Ju

    2011-09-28

    Mesoporous layer-by-layer ordered nanohybrids highly active for visible light-induced O(2) generation are synthesized by self-assembly between oppositely charged 2D nanosheets of Zn-Cr-layered double hydroxide (Zn-Cr-LDH) and layered titanium oxide. The layer-by-layer ordering of two kinds of 2D nanosheets is evidenced by powder X-ray diffraction and cross-sectional high resolution-transmission electron microscopy. Upon the interstratification process, the original in-plane atomic arrangements and electronic structures of the component nanosheets remain intact. The obtained heterolayered nanohybrids show a strong absorption of visible light and a remarkably depressed photoluminescence signal, indicating an effective electronic coupling between the two component nanosheets. The self-assembly between 2D inorganic nanosheets leads to the formation of highly porous stacking structure, whose porosity is controllable by changing the ratio of layered titanate/Zn-Cr-LDH. The resultant heterolayered nanohybrids are fairly active for visible light-induced O(2) generation with a rate of ∼1.18 mmol h(-1) g(-1), which is higher than the O(2) production rate (∼0.67 mmol h(-1) g(-1)) by the pristine Zn-Cr-LDH material, that is, one of the most effective visible light photocatalysts for O(2) production, under the same experimental condition. This result highlights an excellent functionality of the Zn-Cr-LDH-layered titanate nanohybrids as efficient visible light active photocatalysts. Of prime interest is that the chemical stability of the Zn-Cr-LDH is significantly improved upon the hybridization, a result of the protection of the LDH lattice by highly stable titanate layer. The present findings clearly demonstrate that the layer-by-layer-ordered assembly between inorganic 2D nanosheets is quite effective not only in improving the photocatalytic activity of the component semiconductors but also in synthesizing novel porous LDH-based hybrid materials with improved chemical

  6. Double layer of platinum electrodes: Non-monotonic surface charging phenomena and negative double layer capacitance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jun; Zhou, Tao; Zhang, Jianbo; Eikerling, Michael

    2018-01-01

    In this study, a refined double layer model of platinum electrodes accounting for chemisorbed oxygen species, oriented interfacial water molecules, and ion size effects in solution is presented. It results in a non-monotonic surface charging relation and a peculiar capacitance vs. potential curve with a maximum and possibly negative values in the potential regime of oxide-formation.

  7. Bovine serum albumin adsorption on passivated porous silicon layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, David; Boukherroub, Rabah

    2005-03-01

    Hydrogen-terminated porous silicon (pSi) films were fabricated through electrochemical anodization of crystalline Si in HF-based solutions. The pSi-H surface was chemically functionalized by thermal reaction with undecylenic acid to produce an organic monolayer covalently attached to the silicon surface through Si-C bonds and bearing an acid terminal group. Bovine serum albumin (BSA) was then adsorbed onto the modified surface. SEM showed that the porous films were damaged and partially lifted off the Si substrate after a prolonged BSA adsorption. Ellipsometry revealed that the BSA had penetrated ˜ 1.3 micrometers into the porous structure. The film damage results from BSA anchoring itself tightly through strong electrostatic interactions to the acid-covered Si sidewalls. A change in surface tension during BSA film formation then causes the pSi layer to buckle and lift-off the underlying Si substrate. FTIR results from the modified pSi surfaces showed the presence of strong characteristic Amide I, II and III vibrational bands after BSA adsorption.

  8. Voltage Balancer for Electric Double Layer Capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Kazuya; Takahashi, Shingo; Hasebe, Akio; Seki, Sumiko; Itoh, Takahiko

    Decrease in energy density of the storage system with several electric double layer capacitors (EDLCs) is caused by imbalance of voltage for each EDLC. In case of low power applications, conventional voltage balancer with constant voltage circuits is useful. However, it has some problems for high power applications such as electric vehicle. We have developed a new system to balance the voltage of EDLCs by removing a little energy. In any case, the system can store the energy in each EDLC equally. In the present research, a prototype of voltage balancer is produced for making use of a number of EDLCs and evaluated. The results confirm that the system is effective and suitable for high power applications.

  9. Ultrastrong Stationary Double Layers in a Nondischarge Magnetoplasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sato, N.; Hatakeyama, R.; Iizuka, S.

    1981-01-01

    Ultrastrong stationary double layers are generated in a magnetoplasma by simply applying potential differences between two plasma sources. The potential drop ϕD of the double layer is increased up to eϕD/Te≃2×103 (Te is the electron temperature in eV) with no difficulties caused by gas discharge....... There are always large spiky fluctuations on the low-potential tail of the double layers....

  10. Strong double layer in the downward current region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, L.; Ergun, R. E.; Newman, D.; McFadden, J. P.; Carlson, C. W.

    2001-12-01

    A direct observation of a strong double layer has been recorded in detail by the FAST satellite in the downward current region of the aurora. This presentation concentrates on a particular compelling example in which both the electric field and particle measurements clearly illustrate the detail characteristics of the double layer. Electrons with initial energies of about 50 eV are observed to be accelerated through the double layer into a beam of more than 750 eV. This beam is rapidly plateaued by intense wave turbulence into a extended power law distribution. This process forms accelerated `flat-top' electron distributions, which are represented of energized distributions in the downward current region. Ions are also observed to be accelerated by the double layer in the opposite direction of the electron beam. Ion conics on the low potential side of the double layer are trapped between the double layer and their mirror points. The double layer is observed to move up the magnetic field line, in the direction of the electron beam. In front of it, an ion population moves with the speed of the double layer suggesting an overshoot in the potential ramp. The intense wave turbulence on the high potential side is seen to transform into electron phase-space holes far away from the double layer.

  11. Simulating Porous Magnetite Layer Deposited on Alloy 690TT Steam Generator Tubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Soon-Hyeok; Son, Yeong-Ho; Choi, Won-Ik; Song, Geun Dong; Hur, Do Haeng

    2018-01-02

    In nuclear power plants, the main corrosion product that is deposited on the outside of steam generator tubes is porous magnetite. The objective of this study was to simulate porous magnetite that is deposited on thermally treated (TT) Alloy 690 steam generator tubes. A magnetite layer was electrodeposited on an Alloy 690TT substrate in an Fe(III)-triethanolamine solution. After electrodeposition, the dense magnetite layer was immersed to simulate porous magnetite deposits in alkaline solution for 50 days at room temperature. The dense morphology of the magnetite layer was changed to a porous structure by reductive dissolution reaction. The simulated porous magnetite layer was compared with flakes of steam generator tubes, which were collected from the secondary water system of a real nuclear power plant during sludge lancing. Possible nuclear research applications using simulated porous magnetite specimens are also proposed.

  12. On the negative resistance of double layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raadu, M.A.; Silevitch, M.B.

    1982-08-01

    It is known that large amplitudes oscillations can occur in the current flowing through a plasma diode, typically when a constant potential is applied across the device. Burger (1965) suggested via a computer simulation that the oscillation characteristics was a function of the quantities T sub (e) and T sub (i), namely the respective time for an electron and an ion to cross the electric field region inside the diode. On the rapid time scale T sub (e) the self consistent equilibrium configuration, was unstable. Norris (1964) had previously arrived at the same conclusion using analytical arguments. In that work, it was concluded that the instability occurred since the diode acted as a negative resistance on the T sub (e) scale. A positive feedback effect forced the system away from equilibrium. Silevitch (1981) used the Burger mechanism to suggest an explanation for the flickering aurora phenomenon. He extended the Norris argument and showed by a variational method that a plausible analytic model for a double layer (DL) behaved as a negative resistance on the T sub (e) scale. In this present work we re-examine the negative resistance calculation by taking a more detailed account of the constraints which are imposed on the electron distributions that exist in the DL region. Specifically, we shall focus at the high potential side of the DL. (Authors)

  13. Boundary Domain Integral Method for Double Diffusive Natural Convection in Porous Media Saturated with Compressible Fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, J.; Jecl, R.; Škerget, L.

    2008-09-01

    In the present work, a Boundary Domain Integral Method, which has been already established for the solution of viscous incompressible fluid flow through porous media, is extended to capture compressible fluid flow in porous media. The presented numerical scheme was used for solving the problem of double diffusive natural convection in a square porous cavity heated from a side, while the horizontal walls are maintained at different concentrations. The Brinkman extension of Darcy equation is used to model the flow through porous medium. The velocity-vorticity formulation is employed enabeling the computation scheme to be partitioned into kinematic and kinetic parts. The results of double diffusive natural convection in porous cavity are presented in terms of velocity, temperature and concentration redistributions.

  14. Synthesis and structure refinement of layered double hydroxides of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    )-oxygen bond in this compound as opposed to the Co–Ga hydroxide. These observations are supported by IR spectra. Keywords. Layered double hydroxide; Rietveld refinement; urea hydrolysis. 1. Introduction. The synthesis, structure and properties of layered double hydroxides (LDHs) have been widely studied in recent.

  15. Propagation characteristics of ion-acoustic double layer in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Harvinder Kaur

    2017-07-24

    Jul 24, 2017 ... Abstract. In the present investigation, ion-acoustic double layers in an inhomogeneous plasma consisting of. Maxwellian and non-thermal distributions of electrons are studied. We have derived a modified Korteweg–de Vries. (mKdV) equation for ion-acoustic double layers propagating in a collisionless ...

  16. Umbilical Cord Mesenchymal Stem Cells Combined With a Collagenfibrin Double-layered Membrane Accelerates Wound Healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan, Wenbin; Liu, Rui; Chen, Hongli; Xu, Zhihao; Chen, Jiannan; Wang, Manman; Yuan, Zhiqing

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUCMSCs) in combination with a collagen-fibrin double-layered membrane on wound healing in mice. A collagen-fibrin double-layered membrane was prepared, and the surface properties of the support material were investigated using a scanning electron microscope. Twenty-four mice were prepared for use as full-thickness skin wound models and randomly divided into 3 groups: group A, a control group in which the wounds were bound using a conventional method; group B, a group treated with hUCMSCs combined with a collagen membrane; and group C, a group treated with hUCMSCs combined with a collagen-fibrin double-layered membrane. The postoperative concrescence of the wounds was observed daily to evaluate the effects of the different treatments. Scanning electron microscope observation showed the collagen-fibrin scaffolds exhibited a highly porous and interconnected structure, and wound healing in the double-layered membrane group was better than in groups A or B. Treatment with hUCMSCs combined with a collagen-fibrin double-layered membrane accelerated wound healing.

  17. The simulation of plasma double-layer structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borovsky, J.E.; Joyce, G.

    1982-01-01

    Electrostatic plasma double layers are numerically simulated by means of a magnetized 2 1/2-dimensional particle-in-cell method. The investigation of planar double layers indicates that these one-dimensional potential structures are susceptible to periodic disruption by instabilities in the low-potential plasmas. Only a slight increase in the double-layer thickness with an increase in its obliqueness to the magnetic field is observed. Weak magnetization results in the double-layer electric field alignment of accelerated particles and strong magnetization results in their magnetic field alignment. The numerical simulations of spatially periodic two-dimensional double layers also exhibit cyclical instability. A morphological invariance in two-dimensional double layers with respect to the degree of magnetization implies that the potential structures scale with Debye lengths rather than with gyroradii. Electron-beam excited electrostatic electron-cyclotron waves and (ion-beam driven) solitary waves are present in the plasmas adjacent to the double layers. (Auth.)

  18. Analysis of fluid flow and heat transfer in a double pipe heat exchanger with porous structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Targui, N.; Kahalerras, H.

    2008-01-01

    A numerical study of flow and heat transfer characteristics is made in a double pipe heat exchanger with porous structures inserted in the annular gap in two configurations: on the inner cylinder (A) and on both the cylinders in a staggered fashion (B). The flow field in the porous regions is modelled by the Darcy-Brinkman-Forchheimer model and the finite volume method is used to solve the governing equations. The effects of several parameters such as Darcy number, porous structures thickness and spacing and thermal conductivity ratio are considered in order to look for the most appropriate properties of the porous structures that allow optimal heat transfer enhancement. It is found that the highest heat transfer rates are obtained when the porous structures are attached in configuration B especially at small spacing and high thicknesses

  19. Double diffusion in arbitrary porous cavity: Part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahamad, N. Ameer; Kamangar, Sarfaraz; Salman Ahmed N., J.; Soudagar, Manzoor Elahi M.; Khan, T. M. Yunus

    2017-07-01

    Heat and mass transfer in porous medium is one of the fundamental topics of interest. The present article is dedicated to study the effect of a small block placed at center of left vertical surface of the cavity. The block is maintained at isothermal temperature That three of its edges attached with porous medium. The left surface of cavity is maintained at highest concentration and right surface at lowest concentration. The right surface of cavity is at cold isothermal temperature Tc. Governing equations are converted into matrix form of equations with the help of finite element method and solved iteratively by using a computer code generated in MATLAB.

  20. Absorption of sound by porous layers with embedded periodic arrays of resonant inclusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagarrigue, C; Groby, J P; Tournat, V; Dazel, O; Umnova, O

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this work is to design a layer of porous material with a high value of the absorption coefficient in a wide range of frequencies. It is shown that low frequency performance can be significantly improved by embedding periodically arranged resonant inclusions (slotted cylinders) into the porous matrix. The dissipation of the acoustic energy in a porous material due to viscous and thermal losses inside the pores is enhanced by the low frequency resonances of the inclusions and energy trapping between the inclusion and the rigid backing. A parametric study is performed in order to determine the influence of the geometry and the arrangement of the inclusions embedded in a porous layer on the absorption coefficient. The experiments confirm that low frequency absorption coefficient of a composite material is significantly higher than that of the porous layer without the inclusions.

  1. The electric double layer has a life of its own

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merlet, Céline; Limmer, David T.; Salanne, Mathieu; Van Roij, René|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/152978984; Madden, Paul A.; Chandler, David; Rotenberg, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    Using molecular dynamics simulations with recently developed importance sampling methods, we show that the differential capacitance of a model ionic liquid based double-layer capacitor exhibits an anomalous dependence on the applied electrical potential. Such behavior is qualitatively incompatible

  2. Modelling the effects of porous and semi-permeable layers on corrosion processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, F.; Kolar, M.; Shoesmith, D.W.

    1996-09-01

    Porous and semi-permeable layers play a role in many corrosion processes. Porous layers may simply affect the rate of corrosion by affecting the rate of mass transport of reactants and products to and from the corroding surface. Semi-permeable layers can further affect the corrosion process by reacting with products and/or reactants. Reactions in semi-permeable layers include redox processes involving electron transfer, adsorption, ion-exchange and complexation reactions and precipitation/dissolution processes. Examples of porous and semi-permeable layers include non-reactive salt films, precipitate layers consisting of redox-active species in multiple oxidation states (e.g., Fe oxide films), clay and soil layers and biofilms. Examples of these various types of processes will be discussed and modelling techniques developed from studies for the disposal of high-level nuclear waste presented. (author). 48 refs., 1 tab., 12 figs

  3. Double-layer Tablets of Lornoxicam: Validation of Quantification ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To formulate double-layer tablets of lornoxicam (LRX) prepared by direct compression method and evaluate their physical and drug release characteristics. Methods: The outer layer of tablets, composed of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC), starch and lactose, incorporated tan initial or prompt dose of the drug (4 ...

  4. NO and SCN -intercalated layered double hydroxides: structure and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2018-02-05

    Feb 5, 2018 ... Nitrite ion; thiocyanate ion; layered double hydroxide; structure refinement. 1. Introduction. The layered .... the synthesis. The [Zn−Al−NO2] and [Zn–Al–SCN] LDHs were synthe- sized by coprecipitation at constant pH = 8 and temperature of 60 ... were obtained by the difference Fourier method embedded in.

  5. Molecular Simulations of Graphene-Based Electric Double-Layer Capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalluri, Raja K.; Konatham, Deepthi; Striolo, Alberto

    2011-03-01

    Towards deploying renewable energy sources it is crucial to develop efficient and cost-effective technologies to store electricity. Traditional batteries are plagued by a number of practical problems that at present limit their widespread applicability. One possible solution is represented by electric double-layer capacitors (EDLCs). To deploy EDLCs at the large scale it is necessary to better understand how electrolytes pack and diffuse within narrow charged pores. We present here simulation results for the concentrated aqueous solutions of NaCl, CsCl, and NaI confined within charged graphene-based porous materials. We discuss how the structure of confined water, the salt concentration, the ions size, and the surface charge density determine the accumulation of electrolytes within the porous network. Our results, compared to data available for bulk systems, are critical for relating macroscopic observations to molecular-level properties of the confined working fluids. Research supported by the Department of Energy.

  6. Electrochemical double-layer capacitors based on functionalized graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Michael Allan

    Graphene is a promising electrode material for electrochemical double-layer capacitors (EDLCs) used for energy storage due to its high electrical conductivity and theoretical specific surface area. However, the intrinsic capacitance of graphene is known to be low and governed by the electronic side of the interface. Furthermore, graphene tends to aggregate and stack together when processed into thick electrode films. This significantly lowers the ion-accessible specific surface area (SSA). Maximizing both the SSA and the intrinsic capacitance are the main problems addressed in this thesis in an effort to improve the specific capacitance and energy density of EDLCs. In contrast to pristine graphene, functionalized graphene produced by the thermal exfoliation of graphite oxide contains residual functional groups and lattice defects. To study how these properties affect the double-layer capacitance, a model electrode system capable of measuring the intrinsic electrochemical properties of functionalized graphene was developed. To prevent artifacts and uncertainties related to measurements on porous electrodes, the functionalized graphene sheets (FGSs) were assembled as densely tiled monolayers using a Langmuir-Blodgett technique. In this way, charging can be studied in a well-defined 2D geometry. The possibility of measuring and isolating the intrinsic electrochemical properties of FGS monolayers was first demonstrated by comparing capacitance and redox probe measurements carried out on coatings deposited on passivated gold and single crystal graphite substrates. This monolayer system was then used to follow the double-layer capacitance of the FGS/electrolyte interface as the structure and chemistry of graphene was varied by thermal treatments ranging from 300 °C to 2100 °C. Elemental analysis and Raman spectroscopy were used to determine the resulting chemical and structural transformation upon heat treatment. It was demonstrated that intrinsically defective

  7. Surface wave propagation in a swelling porous elastic material under a inviscid liquid layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuldeep Kumar

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation is to study the surface wave propagationin a swelling porous elastic half space under homogeneous inviscidliquid layer. The frequency equation is derive for both swellingporous (SP and without swelling porous (elastic medium (EL medium. The dispersion curves giving the phase velocity and attenuation coefficient with wave number are plotted graphically to depict the effect of swelling porous half space under a homogeneous inviscid liquid layer. The amplitudes of displacement in both SP and EL medium are obtained and are shown graphically. Some special cases are also deduced from the present investigation.

  8. Free double layers in mercury-arc discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maciel, H.S.; Allen, J.E.

    1989-01-01

    A study has been carried out of free double layers formed within the plasma volume of a low-pressure mercury-arc discharge at high current densities. The free double layer is observed to form as a visible boundary, which drifts slowly from the central section of the discharge. Current-driven instabilities are observed as the discharge current is gradually increased to a critical value, at which current limitation is observed to occur. This process, which is accompanied by high-current spikes, ceases when the free double layer becomes visible as a sharp boundary dividing the discharge column into two regions of different luminosities. The layer is observed to form in the later stages of current limitation, the onset of which occurs for a ratio of drift to thermal speed of electrons of about unity. Electrical energy is converted by the layer into kinetic energy of the changed particles. Accordingly high-energy ions were measured by means of an electrostatic energy analyser. The multiple-sheath character of the free 'double layer'', which is inferred from probe measurements of potential profiles, is discussed and comparisons with other space-charge structures with the same topology are made. (author)

  9. Some recent trends in computer simulations of aqueous double layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spohr, E.

    2003-01-01

    Recent molecular simulations of the electric double layer between an aqueous and a metallic phase are reviewed. Several trends in the field can be identified: (i) the increasing use of ab initio simulation methods, most notably the Car-Parrinello method, allows to combine a statistical mechanical description of the double layer with a description of elementary chemical processes on the electronic structure level; (ii) the application of free-energy methods in one and (recently) two dimensions to describe chemical reactivity within and beyond the framework of the Marcus theory of electron transfer; and (iii) at high concentrations, direct simulations of two-phase systems with an aqueous solution and a charged or uncharged solid phase or surface can model the entire double layer region

  10. Active chimney effect using heated porous layers: optimum heat transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehiris, Abdelhak; Ameziani, Djamel-Edine; Rahli, Omar; Bouhadef, Khadija; Bennacer, Rachid

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of the present work is to treat numerically the problem of the steady mixed convection that occurs in a vertical cylinder, opened at both ends and filled with a succession of three fluid saturated porous elements, namely a partially porous duct. The flow conditions fit with the classical Darcy-Brinkman model allowing analysing the flow structure on the overall domain. The induced heat transfer, in terms of local and average Nusselt numbers, is discussed for various controlling parameters as the porous medium permeability, Rayleigh and Reynolds numbers. The efficiency of the considered system is improved by the injection/suction on the porous matrices frontier. The undertaken numerical exploration particularly highlighted two possible types of flows, with and without fluid recirculation, which principally depend on the mixed convection regime. Thus, it is especially shown that recirculation zones appear in some domain areas under specific conditions, obvious by a negative central velocity and a prevalence of the natural convection effects, i.e., turnoff flow swirls. These latter are more accentuated in the areas close to the porous obstacles and for weak permeability. Furthermore, when fluid injection or suction is considered, the heat transfer increases under suction and reduces under injection. Contribution to the topical issue "Materials for Energy Harvesting, Conversion and Storage II (ICOME 2016)", edited by Jean-Michel Nunzi, Rachid Bennacer and Mohammed El Ganaoui

  11. An improved design of TRISO particle with porous SiC inner layer by fluidized bed-chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Rongzheng; Liu, Malin, E-mail: liumalin@tsinghua.edu.cn; Chang, Jiaxing; Shao, Youlin; Liu, Bing

    2015-12-15

    Tristructural-isotropic (TRISO) particle has been successful in high temperature gas cooled reactor (HTGR), but an improved design is required for future development. In this paper, the coating layers are reconsidered, and an improved design of TRISO particle with porous SiC inner layer is proposed. Three methods of preparing the porous SiC layer, called high methyltrichlorosilane (MTS) concentration method, high Ar concentration method and hexamethyldisilane (HMDS) method, are experimentally studied. It is indicated that porous SiC layer can be successfully prepared and the density of SiC layer can be adjusted by tuning the preparation parameters. Microstructure and characterization of the improved TRISO coated particle are given based on scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman scattering and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis. It can be found that the improved TRISO coated particle with porous SiC layer can be mass produced successfully. The formation mechanisms of porous SiC layer are also discussed based on the fluidized bed-chemical vapor deposition principle. - Graphical abstract: An improved design of TRISO particle with porous SiC inner layer to replace the inner porous pyrolytic carbon layer was proposed and prepared by FB-CVD method. This new design is aimed to reduce the total internal pressure of the particles by reducing the formation of CO and to reduce the risks of amoeba effect. - Highlights: • An improved design of TRISO particle with porous SiC inner layer was proposed. • Three methods of preparing porous SiC layer are proposed and experimentally studied. • The density of porous SiC layer can be controlled by adjusting experimental parameters. • Formation mechanisms of porous SiC layer were given based on the FB-CVD principle. • TRISO particles with porous SiC inner layer were mass produced successfully.

  12. Surface tension in plasmas related to double layer formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popescu, Sebastian; Lozneanu, Erzilia [Al. I. Cuza University, Dept. of Plasma Physics, Iasi (Romania)

    2001-07-01

    Self-organized space charge configurations bordered by electric double layers appear in plasma as the result of the transition into a state characterized by local minimum of the free energy. Considering the self-assemblage process of such a complex well-confined space-charge configuration in plasma, known by the name of ball of fire, as a nucleation process, it becomes possible to define an equivalent surface tension for the double layer that covers the core of the ball of fire and to make some predictions for its surface tension coefficient and capacitance. (author)

  13. Circuit effects on pierce instabilities, and double-layer formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raadu, M.A.; Silevitch, M.B.

    1982-11-01

    The role of the Pierce instability in the formation of double layers is considered and compared with that of the Buneman instability. Pierce instabilities have been identified in a double-layer experiment, where they lead to ion trapping. Here the effects of external circuit elements are considered. In the case of immobile ions the onset criteria are unaffected, but in the unstable range the growth rate is reduced by the external impedance. Required experimental values of the circuit elements are estimated. The possible relevance to computer simulations is noted. (Authors)

  14. Double layer -- a particle accelerator in the magnetosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Xiangrong [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2015-07-16

    Slides present the material under the following topics: Introduction (What is a double layer (DL)? Why is it important? Key unsolved problems); Theory -- time-independent solutions of 1D Vlasov--Poisson system; Particle-in-cell simulations (Current-driven DLs); and Electron acceleration by DL (Betatron acceleration). Key problems include the generation mechanism, stability, and electron acceleration. In summary, recent observations by Van Allen Probes show large number of DLs in the outer radiation belt, associated with enhanced flux of relativistic electrons. Simulations show that ion acoustic double layers can be generated by field-aligned currents. Thermal electrons can gain energy via betatron acceleration in a dipole magnetic field.

  15. Double layers do accelerate particles in the auroral zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borovsky, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    In response to a recent report [D. A. Bryant, R. Bingham, and U. de Angelis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 37 (1991)] that makes the claim that electrostatic fields are weak in the auroral zone and that electrostatic fields cannot accelerate particles, it is pointed out that the evidence for electrostatic fields in the auroral zone is overwhelming and that these electrostatic fields often are accelerating electrons to produce aurora. The literature cited in the article above as evidence against double layers (strong electric fields) is reexamined and is found not to be evidence against double layers

  16. Thermal performance of a double-pass solar collector with porous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elradi A Musa; Kamaruzzaman Sopian; Shahrir Abdullah

    2006-01-01

    Thermal performance of a double-pass solar collector has been developed for air following through the porous media. The porous media are arranged in different porosities to increase heat transfer, area density and the total heat transfer rate. A test collector was developed and tested indoors by varying the design features and operating conditions using a halogen-lamp simulator as a radiation source. An experimental setup as been designed and constructed. Comparisons of the theoretical and the experimental result have been conducted. This type of collector can be used for drying and heat applications such as solar industrial processes, space and solar drying of agricultural products

  17. Qualitative experiment of unsaturated water vadose through two-layer porous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhiming; Jiang Hong; Yao Laigen; Li Shushen

    2003-01-01

    The method and main results of qualitative experiment of unsaturated water vadose through two-layer porous media is introduced in this paper. Two types of compositions of porous media, i.e. coarse-fine quartz sand (Type I) and quartz sand-loess (Type II), were used for the experiment. The experiment box is made of glass. And tracers used for the experiment are Rhodamine B and Eosin Y. The vadose path and expansion of tracers through two-layer porous media were observed under artificial sprinkling from top surface for 'top release' of Type I and II as well as for 'middle release' of Type II, respectively. The detouring flow phenomenon of unsaturated water through two-layer porous media is observed, whether they are made up of coarse and fine quartz sand or quartz sand and loess, even though the coarse particle layer is very thin. An obvious space is formed at the lower part of the coarse particle layer at longer time of releasing tracer from the top. And a narrow tracer zone is formed at the lower part of coarse particle layer for releasing tracer from mixed tracer and quartz sand layer in the middle of loess. The complementary scenario is observed for both mentioned above. Moreover, the tracer, which is initially put in coarse particle layer within loess, expanded up and down into loess and the expansion extent increases with retention period under no water sprinkling

  18. Infiltration and redistribution of LNAPL into unsaturated layered porous media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wipfler, E.L.; Ness, M.; Breedveld, G.D.; Marsman, A.; Zee, van der S.E.A.T.M.

    2004-01-01

    Enhanced understanding of light non-aqueous phase liquid (LNAPL) infiltration into heterogeneous porous media is important for the effective design of remediation strategies. We used a 2-D experimental facility that allows for visual observation of LNAPL contours in order to study LNAPL

  19. Single Layered Versus Double Layered Intestinal Anastomosis: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohapatra, Vandana; Singh, Surendra; Rath, Pratap Kumar; Behera, Tapas Ranjan

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Gastrointestinal anastomosis is one of the most common procedures being performed in oesophagogastric, hepatobiliary, bariatric, small bowel and colorectal surgery; however, the safety and efficacy of single layer or double layer anastomotic technique is still unclear. Aim To assess and compare the efficacy, safety and cost effectiveness of single layered versus double layered intestinal anastomosis. Materials and Methods This prospective, double-blind, randomized controlled comparative study comprised of patients who underwent intestinal resection and anastomosis. They were randomly assigned to undergo either single layered extra-mucosal anastomosis (Group-A) or double layered intestinal anastomosis (Group-B). Primary outcome measures included average time taken for anastomosis, postoperative complications, mean duration of hospital stay and cost of suture material used; secondary outcome measures assessed the postoperative return of bowel function. Statistical analysis was done by Chi-square test and student t-test. Results A total of 97 participants were randomized. Fifty patients were allocated to single layered extramucosal continuous anastomosis (Group-A) and 47 patients to double layered anastomosis (Group-B). The patients in each group were well matched for age, sex and diagnosis. The mean time taken for anastomosis (15.12±2.27 minutes in Group-A versus 24.38±2.26 minutes in Group-B) and the length of hospital stay (5.90±1.43 days in Group-A versus 7.29±1.89 days in Group-B) was significantly shorter in Group-A {p-value anastomosis. However, there was no significant difference in the complication rates between the two groups. Conclusion It can be concluded that single layered extramucosal continuous intestinal anastomosis is equally safe and perhaps more cost effective than the conventional double layered method and may represent the optimal choice for routine surgical practice. PMID:28764239

  20. Capillary flows across layers and textural interfaces - Pathways and colloid transport considerations in unsaturated layered porous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogland, Frouke; Lehmann, Peter; Or, Dani

    2017-10-15

    Soils and other geologic porous media often display layering and associated textural contrasts that may alter unsaturated flow and transport pathways. Such natural interfaces are usually represented empirically in continuum flow models with limited mechanistic account of the effect of adjusted pathways across layers on colloid transport and on the nature of unsaturated flow. In this study we present the soil foam drainage equation (SFDE) as alternative framework to simulate unsaturated flow in layered porous media. In contrast to standard continuum flow models, the SFDE explicitly accounts for capillary flow pathways and their adjustment across textural interfaces that in turn define flow geometry for colloidal transport not predicted by continuum models. Pore scale water distribution in a layered sand sample was measured using X-ray tomography to quantify capillary flow pathways. Literature values of measured saturation and capillary pressure profiles in layered porous columns were used to evaluate solutions based on the SFDE framework and to deduce velocity profiles and their effects for colloid transport. The SFDE framework provides new insights into capillary architecture in unsaturated layered media and opens a new way for using pore scale information (from imaging) to provide the necessary SFDE parameters and potentially improve on the standard continuum representation of capillary flows in layered media. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Double layer effects in the electroreduction of transition metal ions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fawcett, W. R.; Hromadová, Magdaléna

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 4 (2008), s. 347-351 ISSN 1432-8488 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB400400603; GA MŠk LC510 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : sphere electrode reactions * crystal gold electrodes * diffuse double - layer Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 1.597, year: 2008

  2. Oxidative leaching of chromium from layered double hydroxides ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Abstract. The layered double hydroxide (LDH) of Zn with Cr on treatment with a hypochlorite solution releases chromate ions as a result of oxidative leaching by a dissolution–reprecipitation mechanism. The resi- due is found to be ε-Zn(OH)2. The LDH of Mg with Cr on the other hand is resistant to oxidative leaching. In.

  3. Oxidative leaching of chromium from layered double hydroxides ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The layered double hydroxide (LDH) of Zn with Cr on treatment with a hypochlorite solution releases chromate ions as a result of oxidative leaching by a dissolution–reprecipitation mechanism. The residue is found to be -Zn(OH)2. The LDH of Mg with Cr on the other hand is resistant to oxidative leaching. In contrast, a ...

  4. Electronic spectra of anions intercalated in layered double hydroxides

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Transition metal complexes intercalated in layered double hydroxides have a different electronic structure as compared to their free state owing to their confinement within the interlayer gallery. UV–Vis absorptions of the intercalated complex anions show a significant shift as compared to their free state. The ligand to metal ...

  5. Propagation characteristics of ion-acoustic double layer in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Harvinder Kaur

    2017-07-24

    Jul 24, 2017 ... (mKdV) equation with cubic nonlinearity has been used widely to describe the propagation characteristics of electrostatic double layers in different plasma sys- tems [21–33]. It may further be noted that two-electron species are very common in laboratory [34–38] as well as space plasmas [1]. Ion-acoustic ...

  6. Interaction of pristine hydrotalcite-like layered double hydroxides ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Metal oxides in general have surface acidic sites, but for exceptional circumstances, are not expected to mineralize CO2. Given their intrinsic basicity and an expandable interlayer gallery, the hydrotalcite-like layered double hydroxides (LDHs) are expected to be superior candidate materials for CO2 mineralization.

  7. Damping of double wall panels including a viscothermal air layer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Basten, T.G.H.; Stainhaouer, G.; Bakamidis, S.; Charalabopoulou, F.

    2001-01-01

    This paper deals with the dynamic behaviour of double wall panels, with emphasis on damping and sound radiation. It will be shown that a narrow air layer separating the two plates of a panel significantly alters the mentioned quantities by its viscothermal properties. Numerical and experimental

  8. Surfactant double layer stabilized magnetic nanofluids for biomedical application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tombacz, E; Hajdu, A; Illes, E; Majzik, A [Department of Colloid Chemistry, University of Szeged (Hungary); Bica, D; Vekas, L [Center of Fundamental and Advanced Technical Research, Romanian Academy-Timisoara Division (Romania)], E-mail: tombacz@chem.u-szeged.hu

    2008-05-21

    Magnetite nanoparticles were coated with surfactant double layers in order to prepare water based magnetic fluids (MFs). The effects of head group (sulfonate, carboxylate) and alkyl chain length (11-17 C atoms) and the combination of surfactants were studied. Adsorption, dynamic light scattering (DLS) and electrophoretic mobility measurements were performed. The quantity of surfactant varied between 0.3 and 0.5 g, i.e. their specific amount ranges over 1.5-2 mmol g{sup -1} magnetite in MFs. The adsorption isotherm of Na oleate on magnetite proved the double layer formation with 2 mmol g{sup -1} saturation value in good harmony with the empirical doses. The effect of diluting MFs, pH and salt concentration was studied. The pH-dependent stability and the salt tolerance of MFs were different owing to the dissociation of the outermost hydrophilic groups and the hydrophobic interactions scaling with the alkyl chain length of surfactant. The hydrophobic interactions are favored only for oleic and myristic acid double layers. In these MFs, aggregation cannot be observed even in fairly dilute systems up to the physiological salt concentration around neutral pH 6-8 favored in biomedical application. The stable oleic and myristic acid double layers can hinder effectively the aggregation of magnetite particles due to the combined steric and electrostatic stabilization.

  9. Double-layer Tablets of Lornoxicam: Validation of Quantification ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To formulate double-layer tablets of lornoxicam (LRX) prepared by direct compression method and ... including direct compression method which is ..... Mechanisms of potassium chloride release from compressed, hydrophilic, polymeric matrices: effect of entrapped air. J Pharm Sci 1983; 72(10): 1189-1191. 17.

  10. Modeling Electric Double-Layers Including Chemical Reaction Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paz-Garcia, Juan Manuel; Johannesson, Björn; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2014-01-01

    A physicochemical and numerical model for the transient formation of an electric double-layer between an electrolyte and a chemically-active flat surface is presented, based on a finite elements integration of the nonlinear Nernst-Planck-Poisson model including chemical reactions. The model works...

  11. Interaction of pristine hydrotalcite-like layered double hydroxides ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    -like layered double hydroxides (LDHs) are expected to be superior candidate materials for CO2 mineralization. However, the ... of the [Mg–Al–CO3] LDH is only marginally delayed in flowing CO2 in comparison with flowing N2, showing only.

  12. Electric-double-layer potential distribution in multiple-layer immiscible electrolytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Das, S.; Hardt, Steffen

    2011-01-01

    In this Brief Report, we calculate the electric-double-layer (EDL) electrostatic potential in a system of several layers of immiscible electrolytes. Verwey-Niessen theory predicts that at the interface between two immiscible electrolytes back-to-back EDLs are formed. The present analysis extends

  13. Unstacked double-layer templated graphene for high-rate lithium-sulphur batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Meng-Qiang; Zhang, Qiang; Huang, Jia-Qi; Tian, Gui-Li; Nie, Jing-Qi; Peng, Hong-Jie; Wei, Fei

    2014-03-01

    Preventing the stacking of graphene is essential to exploiting its full potential in energy-storage applications. The introduction of spacers into graphene layers always results in a change in the intrinsic properties of graphene and/or induces complexity at the interfaces. Here we show the synthesis of an intrinsically unstacked double-layer templated graphene via template-directed chemical vapour deposition. The as-obtained graphene is composed of two unstacked graphene layers separated by a large amount of mesosized protuberances and can be used for high-power lithium-sulphur batteries with excellent high-rate performance. Even after 1,000 cycles, high reversible capacities of ca. 530 mA h g-1 and 380 mA h g-1 are retained at 5 C and 10 C, respectively. This type of double-layer graphene is expected to be an important platform that will enable the investigation of stabilized three-dimensional topological porous systems and demonstrate the potential of unstacked graphene materials for advanced energy storage, environmental protection, nanocomposite and healthcare applications.

  14. Improved Mechanical Compatibility and Cytocompatibility of Ta/Ti Double-Layered Composite Coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Ding; Xie, Youtao; Li, Kai; Huang, Liping; Zheng, Xuebin

    2017-08-01

    In order to improve the mechanical compatibility and cytocompatibility of titanium implants, a composite coating with double layers composed of tantalum and titanium was designed and prepared using plasma spraying technology. In the composite coating, the upper tantalum layer provides a good biocompatibility, and the sublayer of titanium with a porous structure ensures the low elastic modulus. Results show that the fabricated composite coating exhibits a relatively low elastic modulus of 26.7 GPa, which is close to the elastic modulus of human cortical bone. In vitro cytocompatibility evaluation of the composite coating shows that the human bone marrow stromal cells exhibit enhanced adhesion and spreading performance on the double-layered composite coating in comparison with the single-layered titanium coating. In order to eliminate the misgivings of chemical stability of the composite coating in clinical application, electrochemical corrosion of the coating was examined. The results obtained revealed a very weak galvanic corrosion between the tantalum and titanium in the composite coating, which would ensure the safety of the coating in vivo.

  15. Models for seismic wave propagation in periodically layered porous media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kudarova, A.; Van Dalen, K.N.; Drijkoningen, G.G.

    2014-01-01

    Several models are discussed for seismic wave propagation in periodically layered poroelastic media where layers represent mesoscopic-scale heterogeneities that are larger than the pore and grain sizes but smaller than the wavelength. The layers behave according to Biot’s theory. Wave propagation

  16. Single layer porous gold films grown at different temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Renyun; Hummelgard, Magnus; Olin, Hakan

    2010-01-01

    Large area porous gold films can be used in several areas including electrochemical electrodes, as an essential component in sensors, or as a conducting material in electronics. Here, we report on evaporation induced crystal growth of large area porous gold films at 20, 40 and 60 deg. C. The gold films were grown on liquid surface at 20 deg. C, while the films were grown on the wall of beakers when temperature increased to 40 and 60 deg. C. The porous gold films consisted of a dense network of gold nanowires as characterized by TEM and SEM. TEM diffraction results indicated that higher temperature formed larger crystallites of gold wires. An in situ TEM imaging of the coalescence of gold nanoparticles mimicked the process of the growth of these porous films, and a plotting of the coalescence time and the neck radius showed a diffusion process. The densities of these gold films were also characterized by transmittance, and the results showed film grown at 20 deg. C had the highest density, while the film grown at 60 deg. C had the lowest consistent with SEM and TEM characterization. Electrical measurements of these gold films showed that the most conductive films were the ones grown at 40 deg. C. The conductivities of the gold films were related to the amount of contamination, density and the diameter of the gold nanowires in the films. In addition, a gold film/gold nanoparticle hybrid was made, which showed a 10% decrease in transmittance during hybridization, pointing to applications as chemical and biological sensors.

  17. Fabrication and study of double sintered TiNi-based porous alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergey, Anikeev; Valentina, Hodorenko; Timofey, Chekalkin; Victor, Gunther; Ji-hoon, Kang; Ji-soon, Kim

    2017-05-01

    Double-sintered porous TiNi-based alloys were fabricated and their structural characteristics and physico-mechanical properties were investigated. A fabrication technology of powder mixtures is elaborated in this article. Sintering conditions were chosen experimentally to ensure good structure and properties. The porous alloys were synthesized by solid-state double diffusion sintering (DDS) of Ti-Ni powder and prepare to obtain dense, crack-free, and homogeneous samples. The Ti-Ni compound sintered at various temperatures was investigated by scanning electron microscopy. Phase composition of the sintered alloys was determined by x-ray diffraction. Analysis of the data confirmed the morphology and structural parameters. Mechanical and physical properties of the sintered alloys were evaluated. DDS at 1250 °C was found to be optimal to produce porous samples with a porosity of 56% and mean pore size of 90 μm. Pore size distribution was unimodal within the narrow range of values. The alloys present enhanced strength and ductility, owing to both the homogeneity of the macrostructure and relative elasticity of the bulk, which is hardened by the Ni-rich precipitates. These results suggest the possibility to manufacture porous TiNi-based alloys for application as a new class of dental implants.

  18. Acoustic emission in a fluid saturated heterogeneous porous layer with application to hydraulic fracture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, J.T. (California Univ., Berkeley, CA (USA). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA))

    1988-11-01

    A theoretical model for acoustic emission in a vertically heterogeneous porous layer bounded by semi-infinite solid regions is developed using linearized equations of motion for a fluid/solid mixture and a reflectivity method. Green's functions are derived for both point loads and moments. Numerically integrated propagators represent solutions for intermediate heterogeneous layers in the porous region. These are substituted into a global matrix for solution by Gaussian elimination and back-substitution. Fluid partial stress and seismic responses to dislocations associated with fracturing of a layer of rock with a hydraulically conductive fracture network are computed with the model. A constitutive model is developed for representing the fractured rock layer as a porous material, using commonly accepted relationships for moduli. Derivations of density, tortuosity, and sinuosity are provided. The main results of the model application are the prediction of a substantial fluid partial stress response related to a second mode wave for the porous material. The response is observable for relatively large distances, on the order of several tens of meters. The visco-dynamic transition frequency associated with parabolic versus planar fluid velocity distributions across micro-crack apertures is in the low audio or seismic range, in contrast to materials with small pore size, such as porous rocks, for which the transition frequency is ultrasonic. Seismic responses are predicted for receiver locations both in the layer and in the outlying solid regions. In the porous region, the seismic response includes both shear and dilatational wave arrivals and a second-mode arrival. The second-mode arrival is not observable outside of the layer because of its low velocity relative to the dilatational and shear wave propagation velocities of the solid region.

  19. Single layer porous media with entrapped minerals for microscale studies of multiphase flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liefferink, R W; Naillon, A; Bonn, D; Prat, M; Shahidzadeh, N

    2018-03-27

    The behaviour of minerals (i.e. salts) such as sodium chloride and calcite in porous media is very important in various applications such as weathering of artworks, oil recovery and CO2 sequestration. We report a novel method for manufacturing single layer porous media in which minerals can be entrapped in a controlled way in order to study their dissolution and recrystallization. In addition, our manufacturing method is a versatile tool for creating monomodal, bimodal or multimodal pore size microporous media with controlled porosity ranging from 25% to 50%. These micromodels allow multiphase flows to be quantitatively studied with different microscopy techniques and can serve to validate numerical models that can subsequently be extended to the 3D situation where visualization is experimentally difficult. As an example of their use, deliquescence (dissolution by moisture absorption) of entrapped NaCl crystals is studied; our results show that the invasion of the resulting salt solution is controlled by the capillary pressure within the porous network. For hydrophilic porous media, the liquid preferentially invades the small pores whereas in a hydrophobic network the large pores are filled. Consequently, after several deliquescence/drying cycles in the hydrophilic system, the salt is transported towards the outside of the porous network via small pores; in hydrophobic micromodels, no salt migration is observed. Numerical simulations based on the characteristics of our single layer pore network agree very well with the experimental results and give more insight into the dynamics of salt transport through porous media.

  20. Research on liquid impact forming technology of double-layered tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Changying; Liu, Jianwei; Yao, Xinqi; Huang, Beixing; Li, Yuhan

    2018-03-01

    A double-layered tube is widely used and developed in various fields because of its perfect comprehensive performance and design. With the advent of the era of a double-layered tube, the requirements for double layered tube forming quality, manufacturing cost and forming efficiency are getting higher, so forming methods of a double-layered tube are emerged in an endless stream, the forming methods of a double-layered tube have a great potential in the future. The liquid impact forming technology is a combination of stamping technology and hydroforming technology. Forming a double-layered tube has huge advantages in production cost, quality and efficiency.

  1. Patch holography using a double layer microphone array

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gomes, Jesper Skovhus

    a closed local element mesh that surrounds the microphone array, and with a part of the mesh coinciding with a patch, the entire source is not needed in the model. Since the array has two layers, sources/reflections behind the array are also allowed. The Equivalent Source Method (ESM) is another technique...... in which the sound field is represented by a set of monopoles placed inside the source. In this paper these monopoles are distributed so that they surround the array, and the reconstruction is compared with the IBEM-based approach. The comparisons are based on computer simulations with a planar double...... layer array and sources with different shapes....

  2. Membrane interactions and antimicrobial effects of layered double hydroxide nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malekkhaiat Häffner, S; Nyström, L; Nordström, R

    2017-01-01

    ) on layered double hydroxide (LDH) interactions with both bacteria-mimicking and mammalian-mimicking lipid membranes. LDH binding to bacteria-mimicking membranes, extraction of anionic lipids, as well as resulting membrane destabilization, was found to increase with decreasing particle size, also translating...... into size-dependent synergistic effects with the antimicrobial peptide LL-37. Due to strong interactions with anionic lipopolysaccharide and peptidoglycan layers, direct membrane disruption of both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria is suppressed. However, LDH nanoparticles cause size-dependent charge...

  3. Double layers in a modestly collisional electronegative discharge

    CERN Document Server

    Sheridan, T E

    1999-01-01

    The effect of ion-neutral collisions on the structure and ion flux emanating from a steady-state, planar discharge with two negative components is investigated. The positive ion component is modelled as a cold fluid subject to constant-mobility collisions, while the electrons and negative ions obey Boltzmann relations. The model includes the collisionless limit. When the negative ions are sufficiently cold three types of discharge structures are found. For small negative ion concentrations or high collisionality, the discharge is 'stratified', with an electronegative core and an electropositive edge. For the opposite conditions, the discharge is 'uniform' with the negative ion density remaining significant at the edge of the plasma. Between these cases lies the special case of a double-layer-stratified discharge, where quasi-neutrality is violated at the edge of the electronegative core. Double-layer-stratified solutions are robust in that they persist for moderate collisionality. Numerical solutions for fini...

  4. Electrical power generation by mechanically modulating electrical double layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Jong Kyun; Jeong, Jaeki; Lee, Dongyun; Pak, Hyuk Kyu

    2013-01-01

    Since Michael Faraday and Joseph Henry made their great discovery of electromagnetic induction, there have been continuous developments in electrical power generation. Most people today get electricity from thermal, hydroelectric, or nuclear power generation systems, which use this electromagnetic induction phenomenon. Here we propose a new method for electrical power generation, without using electromagnetic induction, by mechanically modulating the electrical double layers at the interfacial areas of a water bridge between two conducting plates. We find that when the height of the water bridge is mechanically modulated, the electrical double layer capacitors formed on the two interfacial areas are continuously charged and discharged at different phases from each other, thus generating an AC electric current across the plates. We use a resistor-capacitor circuit model to explain the results of this experiment. This observation could be useful for constructing a micro-fluidic power generation system in the near future.

  5. Effect of UV-light illumination on oxide-based electric-double-layer thin-film transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jumei; Hu, Yunping

    2017-01-01

    Indium-tin-oxide (ITO)-based thin-film transistors (TFTs) were fabricated using porous SiO2 deposited by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition and Al2O3 deposited by atomic layer deposition as dielectrics. The results showed that the porous SiO2 film exhibited a high electric-double-layer (EDL) capacitance. Devices gated by the EDL dielectric exhibited a high drain current on/off ratio of >106 and a low operation voltage of <2.0 V in the dark. When illuminated by 254 nm UV light, ITO-based EDL TFTs gated by a single SiO2 dielectric displayed weak photo-responses. However, devices gated by a stacked Al2O3/EDL dielectric displayed a high photo responsivity of more than 104 with a gate bias of -0.5 V (depletion state).

  6. Flicker noise related to electrical double layer dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanduloviciu, M.; Lozneanu, E.; Avram, C.; Balan, P.; Pohoata, V.; Schrittwieser, R.

    2000-01-01

    Transport of particles and energy by the effect of double layers, self-assembled at the edge of a confined plasma, towards a space charge configuration able to perform natural oscillations, reveals a new mechanism of anomalous transport of particles and energy in plasma devices. Based on these experimental results we suggest a new phenomenological basis for the explanation of flicker noise in fusion devices. (author)

  7. Deposited Micro Porous Layer as Lubricant Carrier in Metal Forming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arentoft, Mogens; Bay, Niels; Tang, Peter Torben

    2008-01-01

    as lubricant reservoirs. Conventional friction tests for cold forming; ring compression and double cup extrusion tests are carried out with Molykote DX paste and mineral oil as lubricant. Both lubricants act as intended for the ring compressions test whereas only the low viscosity oil perform successfully...

  8. Quantitative experiment of unsaturated water vadose through two-layer porous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhiming; Yao Laigen; Jiang Hong; Li Shushen

    2003-01-01

    It is of very important significance to understand unsaturated water vadose through two-layer porous media in design of cover of near surface repository of radioactive waste. The device, method and results of the quantitative experiment of unsaturated water vadose through two-layer porous media, made up of loess (fine particle layer) and quartz sand (coarse particle layer), are introduced in this paper. It can be seen from the experiment that the detouring flow phenomenon of infiltration water occurred when the infiltrated unsaturated water from loess encounters quartz sand layer even though the quartz sand layer is very thin. The relative detouring flow amount decreases with increase of sprinkling rate and increases with thickness of quartz sand layer. Moreover, it is found from the experiment that some of detouring flow water moves close to lower surface of the quartz sand layer. From the deduced results by this experiment, it can be seen that the thickness of quartz sand layer, by which detouring flow do not happen, is less than or equal to 1 mm and the sprinkling rate, at which relative detouring flow amount is up to 100%, is less than 5 mm/d when thickness of the quartz sand layer is greater than or equal to 2 mm

  9. High-resolution synchrotron diffraction study of porous buffer InP(001) layers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lomov, A. A.; Punegov, V. I.; Nohavica, Dušan; Chuev, M.A.; Vasiliev, A.L.; Novikov, D. V.

    Roč. 47, č. 5 ( 2014 ), s. 1614-1625 ISSN 0021-8898 Institutional support: RVO:67985882 Keywords : porous layers * X-ray reciprocal space mapping * indium phosphide Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 3.720, year: 2014

  10. Stability analysis of natural convection in superposed fluid and porous layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirata, S.C.; Goyeau, B.; Gobin, D.; Cotta, R.M.

    2005-01-01

    A linear stability analysis of the onset of thermal natural convection in superposed fluid and porous layers is called out. The resulting eigenvalue problem is solved using a integral transformation technique. The effect of the variation of the Darcy number on the stability of the system is analyzed. (authors)

  11. Stability analysis of natural convection in superposed fluid and porous layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirata, S.C.; Goyeau, B.; Gobin, D. [Paris-11 Univ. - Paris-6, FAST - UMR CNRS 7608, 91 - Orsay (France); Cotta, R.M. [Rio de Janeiro Univ. (LTTC/PEM/EE/COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    A linear stability analysis of the onset of thermal natural convection in superposed fluid and porous layers is called out. The resulting eigenvalue problem is solved using a integral transformation technique. The effect of the variation of the Darcy number on the stability of the system is analyzed. (authors)

  12. Improved Modeling Approaches for Constrained Sintering of Bi-Layered Porous Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tadesse Molla, Tesfaye; Frandsen, Henrik Lund; Esposito, Vincenzo

    2012-01-01

    Shape instabilities during constrained sintering experiment of bi-layer porous and dense cerium gadolinium oxide (CGO) structures have been analyzed. An analytical and a numerical model based on the continuum theory of sintering has been implemented to describe the evolution of bow and densificat...

  13. Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) application in metal barrier layer integrity for porous low- k materials

    CERN Document Server

    Simon, Lin; Gidley, D W; Wetzel, J T; Monnig, K A; Ryan, E T; Simon, Jang; Douglas, Yu; Liang, M S; En, W G; Jones, E C; Sturm, J C; Chan, M J; Tiwari, S C; Hirose, M

    2002-01-01

    Positron Annihilation Lifetime Spectroscopy (PALS) is a useful tool to pre-screen metal barrier integrity for Si-based porous low-k dielectrics. Pore size of low-k, thickness of metal barrier Ta, positronium (Ps) leakage from PALS, trench sidewall morphology, electrical test from one level metal (1LM) pattern wafer and Cu diffusion analysis were all correlated. Macro-porous low-k (pore size >=200 AA) and large scale meso-porous low-k (>50~200 AA) encounter both Ps leakage and Cu diffusion into low-k dielectric in the 0.25 mu mL/0.3 mu mS structures when using SEMATECH in-house PVD Ta 250 AA as barrier layer. For small scale meso-porous (>20~50 AA) and micro- porous (<=20 AA) low-k, no Ps leakage and no Cu diffusion into low-k were observed even with PVD Ta 50 AA, which is proved also owing to sidewall densification to seal all sidewall pores due to plasma etch and ash. For future technology, smaller pore size of porous Si-based low-k (=<50 AA) will be preferential for dense low-k like trench sidewall to...

  14. Cadmium-Aluminum Layered Double Hydroxide Microspheres for Photocatalytic CO2Reduction

    KAUST Repository

    Saliba, Daniel

    2016-03-30

    We report the synthesis of cadmium-aluminum layered double hydroxide (CdAl LDH) using the reaction-diffusion framework. As the hydroxide anions diffuse into an agar gel matrix containing the mixture of aluminum and cadmium salts at a given ratio, they react to give the LDH. The LDH self-assembles inside the pores of the gel matrix into a unique spherical-porous shaped microstructure. The internal and external morphologies of the particles are studied by electron microscopy and tomography revealing interconnected channels and a high surface area. This material is shown to exhibit a promising performance in the photoreduction of carbon dioxide using solar light. Moreover, the palladium-decorated version shows a significant improvement in its reduction potential at room temperature. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Double graphene-layer structures for adaptive devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitin, V.; Ryzhii, V.; Otsuji, T.; Ryzhii, M.; Shur, M. S.

    2014-06-01

    Among different carbon materials (diamond, graphite, fullerene, carbon nanotubes), graphene and more complex graphene-based structures attracted a considerable attention. The gapless energy spectrum of graphene implies that graphene can absorb and emit photons with rather low energies corresponding to terahertz (THz) and infrared (IR) ranges of the electromagnetic spectrum. In this presentation, the discussion is focused on the double-graphene-layer (double-GL) structures. In these structures, GLs are separated by a barrier layer (Boron Nitride, Silicon Carbide, and so on). Applying voltage between GLs, one can realize the situation when one GL is filled with electrons while the other is filled with holes. The variation of the applied voltage leads to the variations of the Fermi energies and, hence, to the change of the interband and intraband absorption of electromagnetic radiation and to the variation of the tunneling current. The plasma oscillations in double-GL structures exhibit interesting features. This is mainly because each GL serves as the gate for the other GL. The spectrum of the plasma oscillations in the double-GL structures falls into the terahertz range (THz) of frequencies and can be effectively controlled by the bias voltage. In this paper, we discuss the effects of the excitation of the plasma oscillations by incoming THz radiation and by optical radiation of two lasers with close frequencies as well as negative differential conductivity of the N-type and Z-type. These effects can be used in resonant THz detectors and THz photomixers. The models of devices based on double-GL structures as well as their characteristics are discussed.

  16. Numerical studies of radionuclide migration in layered porous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckley, R.L.; Loyalka, S.K.; Williams, M.M.R.

    1994-01-01

    Numerical solutions to both the conventional advection-dispersion equation and a new transport equation (containing directional dependence) are utilized to study the migration of radionuclides in layered fractured formations. The new transport formulation, with its directional dependence, yields details in concentration profiles not shown by the advection-dispersion approach

  17. The effect of oxidation on physical properties of porous silicon layers for optical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pirasteh, Parasteh [Laboratoire d' Optronique, CNRS-UMR FOTON 6082, Universite de Rennes 1, ENSSAT Tecnhopole Anticipa, 6 rue de Kerampont, BP 447, 22305 Lannion Cedex (France); Charrier, Joel [Laboratoire d' Optronique, CNRS-UMR FOTON 6082, Universite de Rennes 1, ENSSAT Tecnhopole Anticipa, 6 rue de Kerampont, BP 447, 22305 Lannion Cedex (France)]. E-mail: joel.charrier@univ-rennes1.fr; Soltani, Ali [Institut d' Electronique, de Microemectronique et de Nanotechnologie, CNRS-UMR 8520, Cite Scientifique Avenue Poincare, BP 69, 59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France); Haesaert, Severine [Laboratoire d' Optronique, CNRS-UMR FOTON 6082, Universite de Rennes 1, ENSSAT Tecnhopole Anticipa, 6 rue de Kerampont, BP 447, 22305 Lannion Cedex (France); Haji, Lazhar [Laboratoire d' Optronique, CNRS-UMR FOTON 6082, Universite de Rennes 1, ENSSAT Tecnhopole Anticipa, 6 rue de Kerampont, BP 447, 22305 Lannion Cedex (France); Godon, Christine [Laboratoire de Physique Crystalline, Institut des Materiaux Jean Rouxel, 44322 Nantes Cedex 3 (France); Errien, Nicolas [Laboratoire de Physique Crystalline, Institut des Materiaux Jean Rouxel, 44322 Nantes Cedex 3 (France)

    2006-12-15

    In order to understand the optical loss mechanisms in porous silicon based waveguides, structural and optical studies have been performed. Scanning and transmission electron microscopic observations of porous silicon layers are obtained before and after an oxidation process at high temperature in wet O{sub 2}. Pore size and shape of heavily p-type doped Si wafers are estimated and correlated to the optical properties of the material before and after oxidation. The refractive index was measured and compared to that determined by the Bruggeman model.

  18. Study the formation of porous surface layer for a new biomedical titanium alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talib Mohammed, Mohsin; Diwan, Abass Ali; Ali, Osamah Ihsan

    2018-03-01

    In the present work, chemical treatment using hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) oxidation and subsequent thermal treatment was applied to create a uniform porous layer over the surface of a new metastable β-Ti alloy. The results revealed that this oxidation treatment can create a stable ultrafine porous film over the oxidized surface. This promoted the electrochemical characteristics of H2O2-treated Ti-Zr-Nb (TZN) alloy system, presenting nobler corrosion behavior in simulated body fluid (SBF) comparing with untreated sample.

  19. Single-particle thermal diffusion of charged colloids: Double-layer theory in a temperature gradient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dhont, J.K.G.; Briels, Willem J.

    2008-01-01

    The double-layer contribution to the single-particle thermal diffusion coefficient of charged, spherical colloids with arbitrary double-layer thickness is calculated and compared to experiments. The calculation is based on an extension of the Debye-Hückel theory for the double-layer structure that

  20. Efficient double-emitting layer inverted organic light-emitting devices with different spacer layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Qu-yang; Zhang, Fang-hui

    2017-09-01

    Double-emitting layer inverted organic light-emitting devices (IOLEDs) with different spacer layers were investigated, where 2,20,7,70-tetrakis(carbazol-9-yl)-9,9-spirobifluorene (CBP), 2,9-dimethyl-4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline (BCP), 4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline (Bphen) and 4,40,400-tris(N-carbazolyl)-triphenylamine (TCTA) were used as spacer layers, respectively, and GIr1 and R-4b were used as green and red guest phosphorescent materials, respectively. The results show that the device with BCP spacer layer has the best performance. The maximum current efficiency of the BCP spacer layer device reaches up to 24.15 cd·A-1 when the current density is 3.99 mA·cm-2, which is 1.23 times bigger than that of the CBP spacer layer device. The performance is better than that of corresponding conventional device observably. The color coordinate of the device with BCP spacer layer only changes from (0.625 1, 0.368 0) to (0.599 5, 0.392 8) when the driving voltage increases from 6 V to 10 V, so it shows good stability in color coordinate, which is due to the adoption of the co-doping evaporation method for cladding luminous layer and the effective restriction of spacer layer to carriers in emitting layer.

  1. Analytical solution of electrohydrodynamic flow and transport in rectangular channels: inclusion of double layer effects

    KAUST Repository

    Joekar-Niasar, V.

    2013-01-25

    Upscaling electroosmosis in porous media is a challenge due to the complexity and scale-dependent nonlinearities of this coupled phenomenon. "Pore-network modeling" for upscaling electroosmosis from pore scale to Darcy scale can be considered as a promising approach. However, this method requires analytical solutions for flow and transport at pore scale. This study concentrates on the development of analytical solutions of flow and transport in a single rectangular channel under combined effects of electrohydrodynamic forces. These relations will be used in future works for pore-network modeling. The analytical solutions are valid for all regimes of overlapping electrical double layers and have the potential to be extended to nonlinear Boltzmann distribution. The innovative aspects of this study are (a) contribution of overlapping of electrical double layers to the Stokes flow as well as Nernst-Planck transport has been carefully included in the analytical solutions. (b) All important transport mechanisms including advection, diffusion, and electromigration have been included in the analytical solutions. (c) Fully algebraic relations developed in this study can be easily employed to upscale electroosmosis to Darcy scale using pore-network modeling. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

  2. CoCr/NiFe double layers studied by FMR and VSM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stam, M.T.H.C.W.; Gerritsma, G.J.; Lodder, J.C.; Popma, T.J.A.

    1987-01-01

    CoCr/NiFe double layers were investigated by FMR and VSM. The FMR linewidth of NiFe of the double layer is about twice that of a single NiFe layer. The resonance field is the same in both cases. Using the VSM the coercive field of the CoCr layer of the double layer was obtained. It is approximately

  3. New basic theory from laser-plasma double layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hora, H.; Eliezer, S.; Pease, R.S.; Scharmann, A.; Schwabe, D.

    1991-01-01

    The study of laser-plasma interaction results in several extensions and new developments of plasma theory including the general formulation of the nonlinear force of laser-plasma interaction, the importance of collisions, quantum collisions and to the discovery of dynamic internal electric fields and double layers in inhomogeneous plasmas. The resulting surface tension in cavitons and at plasma boundaries (due to the faster emitted electrons) results in stabilization against Raleigh-Taylor instability. The same occurs with the degenerate electron gas within the ion lattice of a metal: the electrons try to leave the ion lattice with the Fermi energy until a double layer is being built up. The resulting surface tension immediately agrees with measured values from metals. This can be applied to explain the driving surface force of the Marangoni flow by the flow of the electrons in the electron layer swimming at the metal surface. Hofstadter's charge decay in nuclei from a Debye length is derived and the measured surface energy of nuclei is calculated

  4. Enhanced molecular dynamics for simulating porous interphase layers in batteries.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmerman, Jonathan A.; Wong, Bryan Matthew; Jones, Reese E.; Templeton, Jeremy Alan; Lee, Jonathan (Rice University, Houston, TX)

    2009-10-01

    Understanding charge transport processes at a molecular level using computational techniques is currently hindered by a lack of appropriate models for incorporating anistropic electric fields in molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. An important technological example is ion transport through solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) layers that form in many common types of batteries. These layers regulate the rate at which electro-chemical reactions occur, affecting power, safety, and reliability. In this work, we develop a model for incorporating electric fields in MD using an atomistic-to-continuum framework. This framework provides the mathematical and algorithmic infrastructure to couple finite element (FE) representations of continuous data with atomic data. In this application, the electric potential is represented on a FE mesh and is calculated from a Poisson equation with source terms determined by the distribution of the atomic charges. Boundary conditions can be imposed naturally using the FE description of the potential, which then propagates to each atom through modified forces. The method is verified using simulations where analytical or theoretical solutions are known. Calculations of salt water solutions in complex domains are performed to understand how ions are attracted to charged surfaces in the presence of electric fields and interfering media.

  5. LAYERED DOUBLE HYDROXIDES: NANOMATERIALS FOR APPLICATIONS IN AGRICULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luíz Paulo Figueredo Benício

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The current research aims to introduce Layered Double Hydroxides (LDH as nanomaterials to be used in agriculture, with particular reference to its use as storage and slow release matrix of nutrients and agrochemicals for plant growing. Structural characteristics, main properties, synthesis methods and characterization of LDH were covered in this study. Moreover, some literature data have been reported to demonstrate their potential for storage and slow release of nitrate, phosphate, agrochemicals, besides as being used as adsorbent for the wastewater treatment. This research aims to expand, in near future, the investigation field on these materials, with application in agriculture, increasing the interface between chemistry and agronomy.

  6. Simulating Electric Double Layer Capacitance by Using Lattice Boltzmann Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ning; Gersappe, Dilip

    2015-03-01

    By using the Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM) we studied diffuse-charge dynamics in electrochemical systems. We use the LBM to solve Poisson-Nernst-Planck equations (PNP) and Modified Poisson-Nernst-Planck equations (MPNP). The isotropic permittivity of electrolyte is modeled using the Booth model. The results show that both steric effect (MPNP) and isotropic permittivity (Booth model) can have large influence on diffuse-charge dynamics, especially when electrolyte concentration or applied potential is high. This model can be applied to simulate electric double layer capacitance of super capacitors with complex geometry and also incorporate other effects such as heat convection in a modular manner.

  7. Electrostatic double-layer interaction between stacked charged bilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hishida, Mafumi; Nomura, Yoko; Akiyama, Ryo; Yamamura, Yasuhisa; Saito, Kazuya

    2017-10-01

    The inapplicability of the DLVO theory to multilayered anionic bilayers is found in terms of the co-ion-valence dependence of the lamellar repeat distance. Most of the added salt is expelled from the interlamellar space to the bulk due to the Gibbs-Donnan effect on multiple bilayers with the bulk. The electrostatic double-layer interaction is well expressed by the formula recently proposed by Trefalt. The osmotic pressure due to the expelled ions, rather than the van der Waals interaction, is the main origin of the attractive force between the bilayers.

  8. Ion acoustic double layers in the presence of plasma source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuda, H.; Ashour-Abdalla, M.

    1982-01-01

    Steady-state plasma turbulence and the formation of negative potential spikes and double layers in the presence of ion acoustic instabilities have been studied by means of one-dimensional particle simulations in which the velocities of a small fraction of electrons are replaced by the initial drifting Maxwellian at a constant rate. A steady state is found where negative potential spikes appear randomly in space and time giving rise to an anomalous resistivity much greater than previously found. Comparisons of the simulation results with laboratory and space plasmas are discussed

  9. Chaotic dynamics of large-scale double-diffusive convection in a porous medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Shutaro; Gotoda, Hiroshi; Miyano, Takaya; Tokuda, Isao T.

    2018-02-01

    We have studied chaotic dynamics of large-scale double-diffusive convection of a viscoelastic fluid in a porous medium from the viewpoint of dynamical systems theory. A fifth-order nonlinear dynamical system modeling the double-diffusive convection is theoretically obtained by incorporating the Darcy-Brinkman equation into transport equations through a physical dimensionless parameter representing porosity. We clearly show that the chaotic convective motion becomes much more complicated with increasing porosity. The degree of dynamic instability during chaotic convective motion is quantified by two important measures: the network entropy of the degree distribution in the horizontal visibility graph and the Kaplan-Yorke dimension in terms of Lyapunov exponents. We also present an interesting on-off intermittent phenomenon in the probability distribution of time intervals exhibiting nearly complete synchronization.

  10. A novel vibrational energy harvester with electric double layer electrets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, S.; Miwa, K.; Iori, J.; Mitsuya, H.; Ishibashi, K.; Sano, C.; Toshiyoshi, H.; Fujita, H.

    2016-11-01

    We propose a new type of vibrational energy harvester with an electric double layer (EDL) electrets. Instead of using any external bias-voltage source or dielectric layer on top of the metal electrode to sustain EDL, we succeed to anchor the ions to polymer network to form the EDL electrets. By changing contact area between the EDL electrets and the electrode, large electric current is generated in the circuit. Owing to extremely large capacitance of the EDL electret, vibrational energy harvesters have the unique capability to leverage the high- density charge accumulation to the electrode and obtained current density becomes as high as 200 μA/cm2 with output voltage of 1V even with low frequency vibrations as low as 1 Hz.

  11. Buckling instability of circular double-layered graphene sheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natsuki, Toshiaki; Shi, Jin-Xing; Ni, Qing-Qing

    2012-04-04

    In this paper, we study the buckling properties of circular double-layered graphene sheets (DLGSs), using plate theory. The two graphene layers are modeled as two individual sheets whose interactions are determined by the Lennard-Jones potential of the carbon-carbon bond. An analytical solution of coupled governing equations is proposed for predicting the buckling properties of circular DLGSs. Using the present theoretical approach, the influences of boundary conditions, plate sizes, and buckling-mode shapes on the buckling behaviors are investigated in detail. The buckling stability is significantly affected by the buckling-mode shapes. As a result of van der Waals interactions, the buckling stress of circular DLGSs is much larger for the anti-phase mode than for the in-phase mode. © 2012 IOP Publishing Ltd

  12. Reduced workfunction intermetallic seed layers allow growth of porous n-GaN and low resistivity, ohmic electron transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilousov, Oleksandr V; Carvajal, Joan J; Drouin, Dominique; Mateos, Xavier; Díaz, Francesc; Aguiló, Magdalena; O'Dwyer, Colm

    2012-12-01

    Porous GaN crystals have been successfully grown and electrically contacted simultaneously on Pt- and Au-coated silicon substrates as porous crystals and as porous layers. By the direct reaction of metallic Ga and NH(3) gas through chemical vapor deposition, intermetallic metal-Ga alloys form at the GaN-metal interface, allowing vapor-solid-solid seeding and subsequent growth of porous GaN. Current-voltage and capacitance-voltage measurements confirm that the intermetallic seed layers prevent interface oxidation and give a high-quality reduced workfunction contact that allows exceptionally low contact resistivities. Additionally, the simultaneous formation of a lower workfunction intermetallic permits ohmic electron transport to n-type GaN grown using high workfunction metals that best catalyze the formation of porous GaN layers and may be employed to seed and ohmically contact a range of III-N compounds and alloys for broadband absorption and emission.

  13. Hydrated-ion ordering in electrical double layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa-Marzal, Rosa M; Drobek, Tanja; Balmer, Tobias; Heuberger, Manfred P

    2012-05-07

    In this work we revisit the surface forces measured between two atomically flat mica surfaces submerged in a reservoir of potassium nitrate (KNO(3)) solution. We consider a comprehensive range of concentrations from 0.08 mM to 2.6 M. The significantly improved resolution available from the extended surface force apparatus (eSFA) allows the distinction of hydration structures and hydrated-ion correlations. Above concentrations of 0.3 mM, hydrated-ion correlations give rise to multiple collective transitions (4 ± 1 Å) in the electrical double layers upon interpenetration. These features are interpreted as the result of hydrated-ion ordering (e.g. layering), in contrast to the traditional interpretation invoking water layering. The hydrated-ion layer adjacent to the surface (i.e. outer Helmholtz layer) is particularly well defined and plays a distinctive role. It can be either collectively expelled in a 5.8 ± 0.3 Å film-thickness transition or collectively forced to associate with the surface by external mechanical work. The latter is observed as a characteristic 2.9 ± 0.3 Å film-thickness transition along with an abrupt decrease of surface adhesion at concentrations above 1 mM. At concentrations as low as 20 mM, attractive surface forces are measured in deviation to the DLVO theory. The hydration number in the confined electrolyte seems to be significantly below that of the bulk. A 1-3 nm thick ionic layer solidifies at the surfaces at concentrations >100 mM, i.e. below bulk saturation.

  14. Sensitivity enhancement of a surface plasmon resonance sensor using porous metamaterial layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherifi, Abdellatif; Bouhafs, Benamar

    2017-12-01

    In this work, the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) device with two porous left handed metamaterial (LHM) layers separated by an insulator gap, is investigated. The effect of the insulator gap thickness and its refractive index (RI) on the angular response of the device is analyzed. The results show that the sensitivity of the SPR sensor is enhanced compared to the standard SPR sensors. Here, the multilayer structure is probed with 738 nm-wavelength, and electromagnetic properties of active porous LHM layers are described from the effective medium theory (EMT). Furthermore, in the increase of the porosity from 0 to 0.6, the designed nanocavity exhibits a fundamental SPR mode long-range (LR) type and it can be of interest in high-performance SPR sensing.

  15. Broadband quasi perfect absorption using chirped multi-layer porous materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Jiménez

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This work theoretically analyzes the sound absorption properties of a chirped multi-layer porous material including transmission, in particular showing the broadband unidirectional absorption properties of the system. Using the combination of the impedance matching condition and the balance between the leakage and the intrinsic losses, the system is designed to have broadband unidirectional and quasi perfect absorption. The transfer and scattering matrix formalism, together with numerical simulations based on the finite element method are used to demonstrate the results showing excellent agreement between them. The proposed system allows to construct broadband sound absorbers with improved absorption in the low frequency regime using less amount of material than the complete bulk porous layer.

  16. Broadband quasi perfect absorption using chirped multi-layer porous materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, N.; Romero-García, V.; Cebrecos, A.; Picó, R.; Sánchez-Morcillo, V. J.; Garcia-Raffi, L. M.

    2016-12-01

    This work theoretically analyzes the sound absorption properties of a chirped multi-layer porous material including transmission, in particular showing the broadband unidirectional absorption properties of the system. Using the combination of the impedance matching condition and the balance between the leakage and the intrinsic losses, the system is designed to have broadband unidirectional and quasi perfect absorption. The transfer and scattering matrix formalism, together with numerical simulations based on the finite element method are used to demonstrate the results showing excellent agreement between them. The proposed system allows to construct broadband sound absorbers with improved absorption in the low frequency regime using less amount of material than the complete bulk porous layer.

  17. Are there double layers in unmagnetized electronegative plasmas?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, Chi-Shung; Hershkowitz, Noah

    2009-10-01

    Bounded electronegative plasmas are predicted to have electropositive halos. A recent experiment [1] showed that for a negative ion to electron concentration ratio of α=0.43 for an Argon-Oxygen plasma a positive halo was a consequence of negative ion satisfying a Boltzmann relation. When Te/T- is greater than 5+24 [2] and that α is greater than Te/T- [3], the negative ions are predicted to be confined by a double layer. Experiments are reported in Ar-SF6 and Ar-Cl2 plasmas aimed at finding the double layer by varying the gas concentrations. Experiments are carried out in a filament discharge in a multi-dipole chamber, with no magnetic field on the end walls. An unmagnetized boundary of the plasma is set by a bias plate along the axial direction of the chamber. Negative ion concentrations are determined from the phrase velocity of C.W. Ion Acoustic Waves. Electron temperature and density are determined using Langmuir probes. Plasma potentials are determined by emissive probes. Argon drift velocities are determined by Laser Induced Florescence. [1] Ghim, YC and Hershkowitz, N, Applied Physics Letters. 94, 15, 151503 (2009) [2] N. Braithwaite and J. E. Allen, J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 21, 1733 (1988) [3] R. N. Franklin, Plasma Sources Sci. Technol. 11, A31, (2002)

  18. Measurements of electrostatic double layer potentials with atomic force microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giamberardino, Jason

    The aim of this thesis is to provide a thorough description of the development of theory and experiment pertaining to the electrostatic double layer (EDL) in aqueous electrolytic systems. The EDL is an important physical element of many systems and its behavior has been of interest to scientists for many decades. Because many areas of science and engineering move to test, build, and understand systems at smaller and smaller scales, this work focuses on nanoscopic experimental investigations of the EDL. In that vein, atomic force microscopy (AFM) will be introduced and discussed as a tool for making high spatial resolution measurements of the solid-liquid interface, culminating in a description of the development of a method for completely characterizing the EDL. This thesis first explores, in a semi-historical fashion, the development of the various models and theories that are used to describe the electrostatic double layer. Later, various experimental techniques and ideas are addressed as ways to make measurements of interesting characteristics of the EDL. Finally, a newly developed approach to measuring the EDL system with AFM is introduced. This approach relies on both implementation of existing theoretical models with slight modifications as well as a unique experimental measurement scheme. The model proposed clears up previous ambiguities in definitions of various parameters pertaining to measurements of the EDL and also can be used to fully characterize the system in a way not yet demonstrated.

  19. A Microfluidic Pore Network Approach to Investigate Water Transport in Fuel Cell Porous Transport Layers

    OpenAIRE

    Bazylak, A.; Berejnov, V.; Markicevic, B.; Sinton, D.; Djilali, N.

    2008-01-01

    Pore network modelling has traditionally been used to study displacement processes in idealized porous media related to geological flows, with applications ranging from groundwater hydrology to enhanced oil recovery. Very recently, pore network modelling has been applied to model the gas diffusion layer (GDL) of a polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell. Discrete pore network models have the potential to elucidate transport phenomena in the GDL with high computational efficiency, in cont...

  20. MHD boundary layer flow and heat transfer in an inclined porous square cavity filled with nanofluids

    OpenAIRE

    Chandra Shekar Balla; Naikoti Kishan; Rama S.R. Gorla; B.J. Gireesha

    2017-01-01

    The present paper deals with the magnetohydrodynamic boundary layer flow of a free convection heat transfer in an inclined square cavity filled with nanofluid-saturated porous medium. The effects of different nanoparticles Cu, Al2O3, TiO2 and SiO2 are considered. The top and bottom horizontal walls of cavity are considered adiabatic, while the vertical walls are kept at constant temperatures. The governing partial differential equations are solved by finite element method of Galerkin weighted...

  1. Pore-Network Modeling of Water and Vapor Transport in the Micro Porous Layer and Gas Diffusion Layer of a Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qin, C.; Hassanizadeh, S.M.; van Oosterhout, L.M.

    2016-01-01

    In the cathode side of a polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC), a micro porous layer (MPL) added between the catalyst layer (CL) and the gas diffusion layer (GDL) plays an important role in water management. In this work, by using both quasi-static and dynamic pore-network models, water and vapor

  2. Geometric corrections due to inhomogeneous field in the magnetospheric double current layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callebaut, D.K.; Van den Buys, A.M.

    1985-01-01

    The case of oblique incidence and of a slope in the magnetic field for plane parallel models of the magnetospheric double layer is considered. The two models are the Magnetospheric Double Layer (MDL) and the Magnetospheric Double Current Layer (MDCL). The latter is more appropriate but due to some approximations it gives sometimes incorrect results. An improved model uses a triple current layer. (R.P.)

  3. Electrical double layer interactions between dissimilar oxide surfaces with charge regulation and Stern-Grahame layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Derek Y C; Healy, Thomas W; Supasiti, Tharatorn; Usui, S

    2006-04-01

    Models of surfaces with intrinsic ionisable amphoteric surface sites governed by the dissociation of acid-base potential determining ion species together with the capacity for the adsorption of anion and cations of the supporting electrolyte are required to describe both the results of electrokinetic and titration measurements of inorganic oxides. The Gouy-Chapman-Stern-Grahame (CGSG) model is one such model that has been widely used in the literature. The electrical double layer interaction between two dissimilar CGSG surfaces has been studied by Usui recently [S. Usui, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 280 (2004) 113] where erroneous discontinuities in the slope of the pressure-separation relation were observed. We revisit this calculation and provide a simple general methodology to analyse the electrical double layer interaction between dissimilar ionisable surfaces with ion adsorption.

  4. Atomic layer deposition TiO2 coated porous silicon surface: Structural characterization and morphological features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iatsunskyi, Igor; Jancelewicz, Mariusz; Nowaczyk, Grzegorz; Kempiński, Mateusz; Peplińska, Barbara; Jarek, Marcin; Załęski, Karol; Jurga, Stefan; Smyntyna, Valentyn

    2015-01-01

    TiO 2 thin films were grown on highly-doped p-Si (100) macro- and mesoporous structures by atomic layer deposition (ALD) using TiCl 4 and deionized water as precursors at 300 °C. The crystalline structure, chemical composition, and morphology of the deposited films and initial silicon nanostructures were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, micro-Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The mean size of TiO 2 crystallites was determined by TEM, XRD and Raman spectroscopy. It was shown that the mean crystallite size and the crystallinity of the TiO 2 are influenced dramatically by the morphology of the porous silicon, with the mesoporous silicon resulting in a much finer grain size and amorphous structure than the macroporous silicon having a partially crystal anatase phase. A simple model of the ALD layer growth inside the pores was presented. - Highlights: • The morphology and chemical composition of TiO 2 and porous Si were established. • The approximate size of TiO 2 nanocrystals was estimated. • The model of the atomic layer deposition coating in the porous Si was presented

  5. Porous concrete basic property criteria as rigid pavement base layer in indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ridwan Aldila Melania Care Frisky

    2018-01-01

    moment of rainfall or after rainfall. In that condition, the present of traffic might also create movement below the foundation layer and reduce its bearing capacity. Nevertheless, the foundation material that contain large fine creates base layer with low permeability and slow water movement. This paper presented the procedure and result of laboratory experimental study to obtain basic property criteria for rigid pavement base layer.The porous concrete mixture was successfully designed and surpassed the minimum requirements required by Directorate General of Highways [11] [12]. It was found that there was very strong correlation between void content and permeability which created fine likelihood to use void content to represent porous concrete permeability behavior. High void content with good connection resulting weaker aggregate interlocking inside the mixture so that permeability rose whereas compressive strength fell. Solid fresh density and more filled by cement paste created a smaller void that would reduce permeability and improve compressive strength. Strong correlation between fresh density towards void content and permeability opened potency to use the fresh density as a reference to set the desired porous concrete void content on the field.

  6. Distribution and variation of water potential for unsaturated water vadose through two-layer porous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhiming; Yao Laigen; Jiang Hong

    2004-01-01

    Water potential reflects energy level of soil water and the gradient of water potential is an impotent factor describing direction and velocity of water flow. The main experimental methods and results of determining water potential distribution and variation for unsaturated water vadose passing through two-layer porous media made of loess (fine particle) and quartz sand (coarse particle) are introduced in this paper in order to analyze and explain further detouring flow phenomenon observed in former work. It can be seen from the results that: water potential in quartz sand layer decreases with increasing thickness of the quartz sand layer under fixed sprinkling rate and increases with increasing sprinkling rate under fixed thickness of quartz sand layer; some of water above quartz sand layer flows down through the quartz sand layer and some flows down along edges of the quartz sand layer; some of water detoured the quartz sand layer flows into the region below the quartz sand layer closely along lower surface of the quartz sand layer. These are some phenomena to be worthing further study. (authors)

  7. Thermal analysis of a double layer phase change material floor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Xing; Zhang Xiaosong

    2011-01-01

    Phase change materials (PCMs) can be used to shift the cooling or heating load from the peak period to the off-peak period. In this paper, a new double layer phase change material (PCM) floor is put forward. The two layers of PCM have different melting temperature. The system is used to store heat or cold energy in the off-peak period and release them in the peak period during heating or cooling. According to the numerical model built in this paper, the thermal performances of the floor are analyzed. The results show that the optimal melting temperatures of PCMs exist. The fluctuations of the floor surface temperatures and the heat fluxes will be reduced and the system still can provide a certain amount of heat or cold energy after the heat pump or chiller has been turned off for a long time. Compared to the floor without PCM, the energy released by the floor with PCM in peak period will be increased by 41.1% and 37.9% during heating and cooling when the heat of fusion of PCM is 150 kJ/kg. - Highlights: → A new double layer phase change material floor is put forward. → The system is used to store heat or cold energy in the off-peak period and release them in the peak period during heating or cooling. → The optimal melting temperatures of PCMs in the system exist. → The heat and cold energy released by the floor with PCM in peak period can be increased by 41.1% and 37.9%.

  8. Microstructural and Wear Behavior Characterization of Porous Layers Produced by Pulsed Laser Irradiation in Glass-Ceramics Substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sola, Daniel; Conde, Ana; García, Iñaki; Gracia-Escosa, Elena; de Damborenea, Juan J; Peña, Jose I

    2013-09-09

    In this work, wear behavior and microstructural characterization of porous layers produced in glass-ceramic substrates by pulsed laser irradiation in the nanosecond range are studied under unidirectional sliding conditions against AISI316 and corundum counterbodies. Depending on the optical configuration of the laser beam and on the working parameters, the local temperature and pressure applied over the interaction zone can generate a porous glass-ceramic layer. Material transference from the ball to the porous glass-ceramic layer was observed in the wear tests carried out against the AISI316 ball counterface whereas, in the case of the corundum ball, the wear volume loss was concentrated in the porous layer. Wear rate and friction coefficient presented higher values than expected for dense glass-ceramics.

  9. Microstructural and Wear Behavior Characterization of Porous Layers Produced by Pulsed Laser Irradiation in Glass-Ceramics Substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose I. Peña

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work, wear behavior and microstructural characterization of porous layers produced in glass-ceramic substrates by pulsed laser irradiation in the nanosecond range are studied under unidirectional sliding conditions against AISI316 and corundum counterbodies. Depending on the optical configuration of the laser beam and on the working parameters, the local temperature and pressure applied over the interaction zone can generate a porous glass-ceramic layer. Material transference from the ball to the porous glass-ceramic layer was observed in the wear tests carried out against the AISI316 ball counterface whereas, in the case of the corundum ball, the wear volume loss was concentrated in the porous layer. Wear rate and friction coefficient presented higher values than expected for dense glass-ceramics.

  10. A combined SEM, CV and EIS study of multi-layered porous ceramic reactors for flue gas purification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Zeming; Andersen, Kjeld Bøhm; Nygaard, Frederik Berg

    2013-01-01

    The effect of sintering temperature of 12-layered porous ceramic reactors (comprising 5 cells) was studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The difference in microstructures of the reactors was evaluated by SEM...

  11. Characterization of transport phenomena in porous transport layers using X-ray microtomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanpour, S.; Hoorfar, M.; Phillion, A. B.

    2017-06-01

    Among different methods available for estimating the transport properties of porous transport layers (PTLs) of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells, X-ray micro computed tomography (X-μCT) imaging in combination with image-based numerical simulation has been recognized as a viable tool. In this study, four commercially-available single-layer and dual-layer PTLs are analyzed using this method in order to compare and contrast transport properties between different PTLs, as well as the variability within a single sheet. Complete transport property datasets are created for each PTL. The simulation predictions indicate that PTLs with high porosity show considerable variability in permeability and effective diffusivity, while PTLs with low porosity do not. Furthermore, it is seen that the Tomadakis-Sotirchos (TS) analytical expressions for porous media match the image-based simulations when porosity is relatively low but predict higher permeability and effective diffusivity for porosity values greater than 80%. Finally, the simulations show that cracks within MPL of dual-layer PTLs have a significant effect on the overall permeability and effective diffusivity of the PTLs. This must be considered when estimating the transport properties of dual-layer PTLs. These findings can be used to improve macro-scale models of product and reactant transport within fuel cells, and ultimately, fuel cell efficiency.

  12. Small amplitude ion-acoustic double layers in multicomponent plasma with positrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, M. K.; Tiwari, R. S.; Jain, S. K.

    2007-01-01

    Ion-acoustic double layers has been studied in multicomponent plasma with positrons. Using the reductive perturbation method, the modified Korteweg-de Vries (mKdV) equation is derived for the system. The double-layer solution of the mKdV equation is discussed in detail. It is found that there exist two critical concentrations of positrons, α R and α Q , which decide the existence and nature of the ion-acoustic double layers. It is also found that the system supports ion-acoustic double layers only when the positron concentration (α) is less than the critical concentration α R (i.e., α R ). It is also investigated that for the given set of parameter values, if α R Q , the system supports only rarefactive double layers for the values of α lying in the range 0 R . However, for the given set of parameter values α R >α Q , the system supports rarefactive double layers for α Q , and for α>α Q , compressive double layers exist. The present theory also predicts that for a given set of parameter values on increasing the positron concentration, the amplitude of the rarefactive (compressive) double layer decreases (increases), whereas as positron concentration is increased, the width of the rarefactive (compressive) double layer increases (decreases). The effects of positron concentration and temperature ratio on the characteristics of the double layers (namely amplitude and width) are discussed in detail

  13. Inference of polymer adsorption from electrical double layer measurements : the silver iodide-polyvinyl alcohol system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopal, L.K.

    1978-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how the double layer properties of charged particles are modified by the presence of adsorbed polymer molecules and to obtain information on the conformation of the polymer layer from the observed alterations in the double layer

  14. "Thermal Charging" Phenomenon in Electrical Double Layer Capacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianjian; Feng, Shien-Ping; Yang, Yuan; Hau, Nga Yu; Munro, Mary; Ferreira-Yang, Emerald; Chen, Gang

    2015-09-09

    Electrical double layer capacitors (EDLCs) are usually charged by applying a potential difference across the positive and negative electrodes. In this paper, we demonstrated that EDLCs can be charged by heating. An open circuit voltage of 80-300 mV has been observed by heating the supercapacitor to 65 °C. The charge generated at high temperature can be stored in the device after its returning to the room temperature, thus allowing the lighting up of LEDs by connecting the "thermally charged" supercapacitors in a series. The underlying mechanism is related to a thermo-electrochemical process that enhances the kinetics of Faradaic process at the electrode surface (e.g., surface redox reaction of functional group, or chemical adsorption/desorption of electrolyte ions) at higher temperature. Effects of "thermal charging" times, activation voltage, rate, and times on "thermally charged" voltage are studied and possible mechanisms are discussed.

  15. Penetrative Brinkman convection in an anisotropic porous layer saturated by a nanofluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.S. Shivakumara

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The onset of penetrative Brinkman convection in a nanofluid saturated anisotropic porous layer is investigated via uniform internal heating for rigid-rigid, free-free, and lower-rigid and upper-free boundaries. The flux of volume fraction of nanoparticles is taken to be zero on the isothermal boundaries and the eigenvalue problem is solved using the Galerkin method. The numerical computations carried out indicated the validity of principle of exchange of stability for all types of velocity boundary conditions. The effect of heat source strength, mechanical anisotropy parameter, modified diffusivity ratio, nanoparticle concentration Darcy-Rayleigh number and Lewis number is to hasten, while the Darcy number and thermal anisotropy parameter are to delay the onset of convection. In contrast to the regular fluid saturating a Darcy porous medium, the onset of convection for nanofluids is found to be influenced even when the ratio of mechanical anisotropy parameter to thermal anisotropy parameter is unity.

  16. Layer-by-layer bioassembly of cellularized polylactic acid porous membranes for bone tissue engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guduric, Vera; Metz, Carole; Siadous, Robin; Bareille, Reine; Levato, Riccardo; Engel, Elisabeth; Fricain, Jean-Christophe; Devillard, Raphaël; Luzanin, Ognjan; Catros, Sylvain

    2017-01-01

    The conventional tissue engineering is based on seeding of macroporous scaffold on its surface ("top-down" approach). The main limitation is poor cell viability in the middle of the scaffold due to poor diffusion of oxygen and nutrients and insufficient vascularization. Layer-by-Layer (LBL)

  17. Eddy turbulence, the double mesopause, and the double layer of atomic oxygen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. N. Vlasov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we consider the impact of eddy turbulence on temperature and atomic oxygen distribution when the peak of the temperature occurs in the upper mesosphere. A previous paper (Vlasov and Kelley, 2010 considered the simultaneous impact of eddy turbulence on temperature and atomic oxygen density and showed that eddy turbulence provides an effective mechanism to explain the cold summer and warm winter mesopause observed at high latitudes. Also, the prevalent role of eddy turbulence in this case removes the strong contradiction between seasonal variations of the O density distribution and the impact of upward/downward motion corresponding to adiabatic cooling/heating of oxygen atoms. Classically, there is a single minimum in the temperature profile marking the location of the mesopause. But often, a local maximum in the temperature is observed in the height range of 85–100 km, creating the appearance of a double mesopause (Bills and Gardner, 1993; Yu and She, 1995; Gusev et al., 2006. Our results show that the relative temperature maximum in the upper mesosphere (and thus the double mesopause can result from heating by eddy turbulence. According to our model, there is a close connection between the extra temperature peak in the mesosphere and the oxygen atom density distribution. The main feature of the O density height profile produced by eddy turbulence in our model is a double peak instead of a single peak of O density. A rocket experiment called TOMEX confirms these results (Hecht et al., 2004. Applying our model to the results of the TOMEX rocket campaign gives good agreement with both the temperature and oxygen profiles observed. Climatology of the midlatitude mesopause and green line emission shows that the double mesopause and the double layers of the green line emission, corresponding to the double O density height profile, are mainly observed in spring and fall (Yu and She, 1995; Liu and Shepherd, 2006. Further observations of

  18. The electric double layer put to work : thermal physics at electrochemical interfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Janssen, M.A.

    2017-01-01

    Where charged electrode surfaces meet fluids that contain mobile ions, so-called electric double layers (EDLs) form to screen the electric surface charge by a diffuse cloud of counterionic charge in the fluid phase. This double layer has been studied for over a century and is of paramount importance to many processes in physical chemistry and soft matter physics, as well as in electric double layer capacitors (EDLCs) used for energy storage. With the ongoing development of nanomaterials, elec...

  19. New type ternary NiAlCe layered double hydroxide photocatalyst for efficient visible-light photoreduction of CO2 into CH4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ji; (Bill Yang, Y. J.

    2018-02-01

    New type of ternary NiAlCe layered double hydroxide photocatalyst was synthesized by a simple hydrothermal reaction. The obtained photocatalyst shows efficient visible-light activity for CO2 reduction to CH4. We have investigated the optimal Ce content in the catalyst and analyzed the mechanism by materials characterization. Additionally, a novel alkali etching method was used to construct the porous structure. The effect of the porosity and morphologies on the activity is investigated. It is found that the ternary NiAlCe layered double hydroxide photocatalyst with porosity showing the best photocatalytic activity among all the samples. Based on the characterization and first principle calculation, the detailed photocatalytic mechanism of the ternary NiAlCe layered double hydroxide photocatalyst is deduced.

  20. Mesoscopic objects, porous layers and nanocomposites-Possibilities of sol-gel chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piwonski, Ireneusz

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this study was to prepare mesoscopic objects, thin porous films and nanocomposite coatings with the use of sol-gel technique. Silica nanotubes, titania nanoparticles, porous titania and zirconia coatings as well as titania nanocomposites were successfully synthesized by changing the type of sol-gel precursor, sol composition and applying dip-coating deposition procedure in order to obtain thin films or coatings. All materials were visualized and characterized by the Atomic Force Microcscopy (AFM) technique. Moreover, characterization of titania nanocomposites was extended to the tribological tests performed by means of microtribometer operating in normal loads range of 30-100 mN. The AFM analysis of mesoscopic objects and nanoparticles showed that the diameter of synthesized silica nanotubes was 60-70 nm and the size of titania nanoparticles was 43 nm. In case of porous layers the pore size in titania and zirconia coatings oscillated between 100 and 240 nm, however their shape and distribution were irregular. Microtribological studies of nanocomposites revealed the moderate decrease of the coefficient of friction for samples containing 5, 15 and 5 wt.% of zirconia nanoparticles in titania coatings annealed at 100, 500 and 1000 deg. C respectively. An enhancement of antiwear properties was already observed for 1 wt.% of nanophase content, except the sample annealed at 500 deg. C. It was also found that the annealing at high temperatures is a primary factor which affects the reduction of friction and wear of titania coatings while the presence of nanoparticles has secondary effect. Investigations in this study carried out with the use of the AFM technique highlighted the potential and flexibility of sol-gel approach in designing of various types of advanced materials in a form of mesoscopic objects, porous coatings and composite layers. Results collected in this study clearly demonstrated that sol-gel technique can be applied effectively in preparation of

  1. Electrokinetics in porous media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luong, D.T.

    2014-01-01

    This thesis presents the PhD research on electrokinetics in porous media. Electrokinetic phenomena are induced by the relative motion between a fluid and a solid surface and are directly related to the existence of an electric double layer between the fluid and the solid grain surface.

  2. Stability of boundary layers with porous suction strips: Experiment and theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, G. A.; Saric, W. S.; Reed, H. L.; Nayfeh, A. H.

    1982-01-01

    Low turbulence tunnel experiments on the stability and transition of 2 D boundary layers on flat plates with and without suction are described. A number of general suction cases are discussed. Test results showed that the maximum stabilization occurred when the suction was moved toward the Branch I neutral point. An analytical study of the stability of two dimensional, incompressible boundary layer flows over plates with suction through porous strips was performed. The mean flow was calculated using linearized triple deck, closed form solutions. The stability results of the triple deck theory are shown to be in good agreement with those of the interacting boundary layers. An analytical optimization scheme for the suction configuration was developd. Numerical calculations were performed corresponding to the experimental configurations. In each case, the theory correctly predicts the experimental results.

  3. Observation of a stationary, current-free double layer in a plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hairapetian, G.; Stenzel, R. L.

    1990-01-01

    A stationary, current-free, potential double layer is formed in a two-electron-population plasma due to self-consistent separation of the two electron species. The position and amplitude of the double layer are controlled by the relative densities of the two electron populations. The steady-state double layer traps the colder electrons on the high potential side, and generates a neutralized, monoenergetic ion beam on the low potential side. The field-aligned double layer is annihilated when an electron current is drawn through the plasma.

  4. Computer experiments on the formation and dynamics of electric double layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, N.

    1980-01-01

    Electric double layers provide a mechanism for the acceleration of particles in plasmas. The results of computer simulations of double layers are presented. Simulations are carried out for the case of two interpenetrating plasmas with different plasma potentials. The dynamics of the double layer and its stability are studied. It is found that when the two plasmas satisfy the Langmuir condition for the existence of a double layer, stable double layers eventually form. During the formation phase of the layer, the initial constant electric field evolves in a solitary electric pulse of a constant shape. This pulse makes few oscillations before it becomes stationary. Scaling laws giving the dependence of the amplitude and width of the electric pulse on the potential difference between the two plasmas are given. When the Langmuir condition is not satisfied the double layer forms very swiftly and beam-plasma interactions on the high potential side of the layer cause strong instabilities giving rise to strong r.f. fields. These r.f. fields create an additional double layer through the action of a pondermotive force. The instabilities and the location of the double layer undergo a relaxation type of oscillation. An appreciable heating of the trapped electrons is also seen through mode-mode coupling. (author)

  5. Development and Characterization of Non-Conventional Micro-Porous Layers for PEM Fuel Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Balzarotti

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Gas diffusion medium (GDM is a crucial component in proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs. Being composed of a gas diffusion layer (GDL with a micro-porous layer (MPL coated onto it, it ensures a proper water management due to the highly hydrophobic materials employed in cell assembly. In current commercial applications, the desired water repellent behaviour is usually obtained by using polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE. In this work, Fluorolink® P56 (Solvay Specialty Polymers, Milan, Italy, a commercially available, anionic, segmented high molecular weight polyfluorourethane with perfluoropolyether groups was extensively evaluated as an alternative to PTFE for micro-porous layer hydrophobization. A change in polymer used is desirable in order to simplify the production process, both in terms of ink formulation and thermal treatment, as well as to get a higher hydrophobicity and, consequently, more efficient water management. Innovative prepared samples were compared to a PTFE-based GDM, in order to assess differences both from morphological and from an electrochemical point of view.

  6. Topotactic condensation of layer silicates with ferrierite-type layers forming porous tectosilicates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marler, B; Wang, Y; Song, J; Gies, H

    2014-07-21

    Five different hydrous layer silicates (HLSs) containing fer layers (ferrierite-type layers) were obtained by hydrothermal syntheses from mixtures of silicic acid, water and tetraalkylammonium/tetraalkylphosphonium hydroxides. The organic cations had been added as structure directing agents (SDA). A characteristic feature of the structures is the presence of strong to medium strong hydrogen bonds between the terminal silanol/siloxy groups of neighbouring layers. The five-layered silicates differ chemically only with respect to the organic cations. Structurally, they differ with respect to the arrangement of the fer layers relative to each other, which is distinct for every SDA-fer-layer system. RUB-20 (containing tetramethylammonium) and RUB-40 (tetramethylphosphonium) are monoclinic with stacking sequence AAA and shift vectors between successive layers 1a0 + 0b0 + 0.19c0 and 1a0 + 0b0 + 0.24c0, respectively. RUB-36 (diethyldimethylammonium), RUB-38 (methyltriethylammonium) and RUB-48 (trimethylisopropylammonium) are orthorhombic with stacking sequence ABAB and shift vectors 0.5a0 + 0b0± 0.36c0, 0.5a0 + 0b0 + 0.5c0 and 0.5a0 + 0b0± 0.39c0, respectively. Unprecedented among the HLSs, two monoclinic materials are made up of fer layers which possess a significant amount of ordered defects within the layer. The ordered defects involve one particular Si-O-Si bridge which is, to a fraction of ca. 50%, hydrolyzed to form nests of two ≡Si-OH groups. When heated to 500-600 °C in air, the HLSs condense to form framework silicates. Although all layered precursors were moderately to well ordered, the resulting framework structures were of quite different crystallinity. The orthorhombic materials RUB-36, -38 and -48, general formula SDA4Si36O72(OH)4, which possess very strong hydrogen bonds (d[O···O] ≈ 2.4 Å), transform into a fairly or well ordered CDO-type silica zeolite RUB-37. The monoclinic materials RUB-20 and -40, general formula SDA2Si18O36(OH)2OH, possessing

  7. Porous Media and Immersed Boundary Hybrid-Modelling for Simulating Flow in Stone Cover-Layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bjarne; Liu, Xiaofeng; Christensen, Erik Damgaard

    In this paper we present a new numerical modelling approach for coastal and marine applications where a porous media conceptual model was combined with a free surface volume-of-fluid (VOF) model and an immersed boundary method (IBM). The immersed boundary model covers the method of describing...... a solid object in a simple computational mesh without resolving the object with a conventional body-fitted mesh. This model enables a detailed resolution of some parts of a stone cover layer for erosion protection with the IBM model while other parts are handled with the conceptual porosity model...

  8. Carrier mobility and scattering lifetime in electric double-layer gated few-layer graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piatti, E.; Galasso, S.; Tortello, M.; Nair, J.R.; Gerbaldi, C. [Dipartimento di Scienza Applicata e Tecnologia, Politecnico di Torino, 10129 Torino (Italy); Bruna, M.; Borini, S. [Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca Metrologica (INRIM), 10135 Torino (Italy); Daghero, D. [Dipartimento di Scienza Applicata e Tecnologia, Politecnico di Torino, 10129 Torino (Italy); Gonnelli, R.S., E-mail: renato.gonnelli@polito.it [Dipartimento di Scienza Applicata e Tecnologia, Politecnico di Torino, 10129 Torino (Italy)

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • We fabricated few-layer graphene FETs by mechanical exfoliation and standard microfabrication techniques. • We employed a Li-TFSI based ion gel to induce carrier densities as high as ≈6e14 e{sup −}/cm{sup 2} in the devices' channel. • We found a strong asymmetry in the sheet conductance and mobility doping dependences between electron and hole doping. • We combined the experimental results with ab initio DFT calculations to obtain the average scattering lifetime of the charge carriers. • We found that the increase in the carrier density and an unexpected increase in the density of charged scattering centers compete in determining the scattering lifetime. - Abstract: We fabricate electric double-layer field-effect transistor (EDL-FET) devices on mechanically exfoliated few-layer graphene. We exploit the large capacitance of a polymeric electrolyte to study the transport properties of three, four and five-layer samples under a large induced surface charge density both above and below the glass transition temperature of the polymer. We find that the carrier mobility shows a strong asymmetry between the hole and electron doping regime. We then employ ab initio density functional theory (DFT) calculations to determine the average scattering lifetime from the experimental data. We explain its peculiar dependence on the carrier density in terms of the specific properties of the electrolyte we used in our experiments.

  9. Biodegradable polymer for sealing porous PEO layer on pure magnesium: An in vitro degradation study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alabbasi, Alyaa; Mehjabeen, Afrin [Biomaterials and Engineering Materials (BEM) Laboratory, James Cook University, Townsville 4811, Queensland (Australia); Kannan, M. Bobby, E-mail: bobby.mathan@jcu.edu.au [Biomaterials and Engineering Materials (BEM) Laboratory, James Cook University, Townsville 4811, Queensland (Australia); Ye, Qingsong [Discipline of Dentistry, James Cook University, Townsville 4811, Queensland (Australia); Blawert, Carsten [Magnesium Innovation Centre, Institute of Materials Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Geesthacht 21502 (Germany)

    2014-05-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Poly(L-lactide) was used to seal the porous PEO layer on Mg. • The dual-layer coating improved the in vitro degradation resistance of Mg. • Localized degradation was inhibited in the dual-layer coated Mg. - Abstract: An attempt was made to seal the porous silicate-based plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) layer on pure magnesium (Mg) with a biodegradable polymer, poly(L-lactide) (PLLA), to delay the localized degradation of magnesium-based implants in body fluid for better in-service mechanical integrity. Firstly, a silicate-based PEO coating on pure magnesium was performed using a pulsed constant current method. In order to seal the pores in the PEO layer, PLLA was coated using a two-step spin coating method. The performance of the PEO–PLLA Mg was evaluated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and potentiodynamic polarization. The EIS results showed that the polarization resistance (R{sub p}) of the PEO–PLLA Mg was close to two orders of magnitude higher than that of the PEO Mg. While the corrosion current density (i{sub corr}) of the pure Mg was reduced by 65% with the PEO coating, the PEO–PLLA coating reduced the i{sub corr} by almost 100%. As expected, the R{sub p} of the PEO–PLLA Mg decreased with increase in exposure time. However, it was noted that the R{sub p} of the PEO–PLLA Mg even after 100 h was six times higher than that of the PEO Mg after 48 h exposure, and did not show any visible localized attack.

  10. Spatial atomic layer deposition for coating flexible porous Li-ion battery electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yersak, Alexander S.; Sharma, Kashish; Wallas, Jasmine M.; Dameron, Arrelaine A.; Li, Xuemin; Yang, Yongan; Hurst, Katherine E.; Ban, Chunmei; Tenent, Robert C.; George, Steven M. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309 and Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309

    2018-01-01

    Ultrathin atomic layer deposition (ALD) coatings on the electrodes of Li-ion batteries can enhance the capacity stability of the Li-ion batteries. To commercialize ALD for Li-ion battery production, spatial ALD is needed to decrease coating times and provide a coating process compatible with continuous roll-to-roll (R2R) processing. The porous electrodes of Li-ion batteries provide a special challenge because higher reactant exposures are needed for spatial ALD in porous substrates. This work utilized a modular rotating cylinder spatial ALD reactor operating at rotation speeds up to 200 revolutions/min (RPM) and substrate speeds up to 200 m/min. The conditions for spatial ALD were adjusted to coat flexible porous substrates. The reactor was initially used to characterize spatial Al2O3 and ZnO ALD on flat, flexible metalized polyethylene terephthalate foils. These studies showed that slower rotation speeds and spacers between the precursor module and the two adjacent pumping modules could significantly increase the reactant exposure. The modular rotating cylinder reactor was then used to coat flexible, model porous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes. The uniformity of the ZnO ALD coatings on the porous AAO membranes was dependent on the aspect ratio of the pores and the reactant exposures. Larger reactant exposures led to better uniformity in the pores with higher aspect ratios. The reactant exposures were increased by adding spacers between the precursor module and the two adjacent pumping modules. The modular rotating cylinder reactor was also employed for Al2O3 ALD on porous LiCoO2 (LCO) battery electrodes. Uniform Al coverages were obtained using spacers between the precursor module and the two adjacent pumping modules at rotation speeds of 25 and 50 RPM. The LCO electrodes had a thickness of ~49 um and pores with aspect ratios of ~12-25. Coin cells were then constructed using the ALD-coated LCO electrodes and were tested to determine their battery

  11. Removal of boron species by layered double hydroxides: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theiss, Frederick L; Ayoko, Godwin A; Frost, Ray L

    2013-07-15

    Boron, which is an essential element for plants, is toxic to humans and animals at high concentrations. Layered double hydroxides (LDHs) and thermally activated LDHs have shown good uptake of a range of boron species in laboratory scale experiments when compared to current available methods, which are for the most part ineffective or prohibitively expensive. LDHs were able to remove anions from water by anion exchange, the reformation (or memory) effect and direct precipitation. The main mechanism of boron uptake appeared to be anion exchange, which was confirmed by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements. Solution pH appeared to have little effect on boron sorption while thermal activation did not always significantly improve boron uptake. In addition, perpetration of numerous LDHs with varying boron anions in the interlayer region by direct co-precipitation and anion exchange have been reported by a number of groups. The composition and orientation of the interlayer boron ions could be identified with reasonable certainty by applying a number of characterisation techniques including: powder XRD, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and infrared (IR) spectroscopy. There is still considerable scope for future research on the application of LDHs for the removal of boron contaminants. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. High performance spiro ammonium electrolyte for Electric Double Layer Capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeRosa, Donald; Higashiya, Seiichiro; Schulz, Adam; Rane-Fondacaro, Manisha; Haldar, Pradeep

    2017-08-01

    The smallest spiro ammonium salt reported to date, 1 M 4-Axoniaspiro[3,4]octane tetrafluoroborate (APBF4), was successfully synthesized and investigated as the electrolyte with acetonitrile (AN) in an Electric Double Layer Capacitor (EDLC) for the first time. The electrochemical characteristics of EDLC devices containing 1 M APBF4/AN paired with commercial activated carbon electrodes were compared to devices containing popular EDLC electrolytes, 1 M 5-Azoniaspiro[4.4]nonane tetrafluoroborate (SBPBF4/AN) and 1 M tetraethyl ammonium tetrafluoroborate (TEABF4/AN), using cyclic voltammetry (CV), galvanostatic charge discharge (GCD), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The average gravimetric capacitance of the 1 M APBF4 device (124.7 F g-1) was found to be greater than the values measured for both the 1 M SBPBF4 device (108.6 F g-1) and the 1 M TEABF4 device (99.2 F g-1). The direct current equivalent series resistance (ESR) of the 1 M APBF4 device (383.4 mΩ cm-2) was found to be substantially lower than the values measured for both the 1 M SBPBF4 device (501.0 mΩ cm-2) and the 1 M TEABF4 device (710.8 mΩ cm-2). These results demonstrate that APBF4, when compared to current commercial electrolytes, significantly enhances the energy storage properties of EDLC devices.

  13. Silica@layered double hydroxide core-shell hybrid materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Wing L J; Crivoi, Dana-Georgiana; Chen, Chunping; Buffet, Jean-Charles; O'Hare, Dermot

    2017-12-19

    A series of silica@layered double hydroxides (SiO 2 @Mg 2 Al-CO 3 -AMO-LDHs) have been synthesised by in situ precipitation of Mg 2 Al-CO 3 -LDH at room temperature in the presence of amorphous spherical silica particles (∼500 nm). We have systematically investigated a number of synthetic parameters in order to evaluate their effects on the composition, morphological and physical properties of the isolated materials. Syntheses carried out at moderate stirring speeds (e.g. 500 rpm) were found to promote the formation of vertically aligned LDH platelets with respect to the silica surface. Addition rates of the metal solutions slower than 0.43 mmol h -1 were found to create a thicker LDH shell consisting of vertically aligned LDH platelets. When the metal solutions were added rapidly (0.86 mmol h -1 ), we observed that for both slow and fast stirring speeds the synthesised core-shell materials had thin LDH shells and the majority of the LDH precipitated independent of the silica, forming unbound "free" LDH.

  14. Acid Green 1 removal from wastewater by layered double hydroxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkhattabi, El Hassan; Lakraimi, Mohamed; Berraho, Moha; Legrouri, Ahmed; Hammal, Radouan; El Gaini, Layla

    2018-03-01

    The paper presents the removal of Acid Green 1 (AG1) from aqueous solutions by [Zn-Al-Cl]-layered double hydroxides (LDHs). The LDH was prepared by coprecipitation at constant pH. The affinity of this material for AG1 was studied as a function of contact time, pH of the solution, LDH dose and AG1/LDH mass ratio. It was found that 32 h are enough to reach the equilibrium with a maximum retention at pH 8 for an LDH dose of 100 mg and with an AG1/LDH mass ratio higher than 2. The adsorption isotherm is of L-type, as described by the Langmuir model. The results demonstrate that AG1 retention on LDHs occurs by adsorption on external surface when AG1/LDH mass ratio is equal or lower than 2 and by both adsorption and interlayer ion exchange for ratios higher than 2. A mechanism for the AG1 removal has been confirmed by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric-differential thermal analyses and scanning electron microscopy.

  15. Layered double hydroxide nanoparticles in gene and drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladewig, Katharina; Xu, Zhi Ping; Lu, Gao Qing Max

    2009-09-01

    Layered double hydroxides (LDHs) have been known for many decades as catalyst and ceramic precursors, traps for anionic pollutants, catalysts and additives for polymers, but their successful synthesis on the nanometer scale a few years ago opened up a whole new field for their application in nanomedicine. The delivery of drugs and other therapeutic/bioactive molecules (e.g., peptides, proteins, nucleic acids) to mammalian cells is an area of research that is of tremendous importance to medicine and provides manifold applications for any new developments in the area of nanotechnology. Among the many different nanoparticles that have been shown to facilitate gene and/or drug delivery, LDH nanoparticles have attracted particular attention owing to their many desirable properties. This review aims to report recent progress in gene and drug delivery using LDH nanoparticles. It summarizes the advantages and disadvantages of using LDH nanoparticles as carriers for nucleic acids and drugs against the general background of bottlenecks that are encountered by cellular delivery systems. It describes further the models that have been proposed for the internalization of LDH nanoparticles into cells so far and discusses the intracellular fate of the particles and their cargo. The authors offer some remarks on how this field of research will progress in the near future and which challenges need to be overcome before LDH nanoparticles can be used in a clinical setting.

  16. Large-amplitude double layers in a dusty plasma with an arbitrary ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Formation of large-amplitude double layers in a dusty plasma whose con- stituents are electrons, ions, warm dust grains and positive ion beam are studied using. Sagdeev's pseudopotential technique. Existence of double layers is investigated. It is found that both the temperature of dust particles and ion beam ...

  17. Current limitation by an electric double layer in ion laser discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torven, S.

    1977-12-01

    A theory for current limitation in ion laser discharges is investigated. The basic mechanism considered is saturation of the positive ion flux at an electric double layer by the limited flux of neutral atoms. The result is compared with a recently published synthesis of a large number of experimental data which agree well with those predicted by the double layer model

  18. Double-layer structure in polar mesospheric clouds observed from SOFIE/AIM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Gao

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Double-layer structures in polar mesospheric clouds (PMCs are observed by using Solar Occultation for Ice Experiment (SOFIE data between 2007 and 2014. We find 816 and 301 events of double-layer structure with percentages of 10.32 and 7.25 % compared to total PMC events, and the mean distances between two peaks are 3.06 and 2.73 km for the Northern Hemisphere (NH and Southern Hemisphere (SH respectively. Double-layer PMCs almost always have less mean ice water content (IWC than daily IWC during the core of the season, but they are close to each other at the beginning and the end. The result by averaging over all events shows that the particle concentration has obvious double peaks, while the particle radius exhibits an unexpected monotonic increase with decreasing altitude. By further analysis of the background temperature and water vapour residual profiles, we conclude that the lower layer is a reproduced one formed at the bottom of the upper layer. 56.00 and 47.51 % of all double-layer events for the NH and SH respectively have temperature enhancements larger than 2 K locating between their double peaks. The longitudinal anti-correlation between the gravity waves' (GWs' potential energies and occurrence frequencies of double-layer PMCs suggests that the double-layer PMCs tend to form in an environment where the GWs have weaker intensities.

  19. Electroresistance Effect in Gold Thin Film Induced by Ionic-Liquid-Gated Electric Double Layer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nakayama, Hiroyasu; Ye, Jianting; Ohtani, Takashi; Fujikawa, Yasunori; Ando, Kazuya; Iwasa, Yoshihiro; Saitoh, Eiji

    Electroresistance effect was detected in a metallic thin film using ionic-liquid-gated electric-double-layer transistors (EDLTs). We observed reversible modulation of the electric resistance of a Au thin film. In this system, we found that an electric double layer works as a nanogap capacitor with

  20. Large-amplitude double layers in a dusty plasma with an arbitrary ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Formation of large-amplitude double layers in a dusty plasma whose constituents are electrons, ions, warm dust grains and positive ion beam are studied using Sagdeev's pseudopotential technique. Existence of double layers is investigated. It is found that both the temperature of dust particles and ion beam temperature ...

  1. Synthesis and characterization of laurate-intercalated Mg–Al layered double hydroxide prepared by coprecipitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerds, Nathalie Christiane; Katiyar, Vimal; Koch, Christian Bender

    2012-01-01

    Effective utilization of layered double hydroxides (LDH) for industrial applications requires the synthesis of pure and well-defined LDH phases. In the present study, dodecanoate (laurate) anions were intercalated into Mg–Al-layered double hydroxide (LDH-C12) by coprecipitation in the presence...

  2. Experimental validation of sound field control with a circular double-layer array of loudspeakers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chang, Jiho; Jacobsen, Finn

    2013-01-01

    This paper is concerned with experimental validation of a recently proposed method of controlling sound fields with a circular double-layer array of loudspeakers [Chang and Jacobsen, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 131(6), 4518-4525 (2012)]. The double-layer of loudspeakers is realized with 20 pairs of closed...

  3. Coulomb drag in anisotropic systems: a theoretical study on a double-layer phosphorene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saberi-Pouya, S.; Vazifehshenas, T.; Farmanbar Gelepordsari, M.; Salavati-Fard, T.

    2016-01-01

    We theoretically study the Coulomb drag resistivity in a double-layer electron system with highly anisotropic parabolic band structure using Boltzmann transport theory. As an example, we consider a double-layer phosphorene on which we apply our formalism. This approach, in principle, can be tuned

  4. Double Layer of a Gold Electrode Probed by AFM Force Measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barten, D.; Kleijn, J.M.; Duval, J.F.L.; Leeuwen, van H.P.; Lyklema, J.; Cohen Stuart, M.A.

    2003-01-01

    Colloidal probe atomic force microscopy was used to determine the electric double layer interactions between a gold electrode and a spherical silica probe. The double layer properties of the gold/solution interface were varied through the pH and salt concentration of the electrolyte, as well as by

  5. The electric double layer put to work : thermal physics at electrochemical interfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, M.A.

    2017-01-01

    Where charged electrode surfaces meet fluids that contain mobile ions, so-called electric double layers (EDLs) form to screen the electric surface charge by a diffuse cloud of counterionic charge in the fluid phase. This double layer has been studied for over a century and is of paramount importance

  6. Effect of non-local equilibrium on minimal thermal resistance porous layered systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leblond, Genevieve; Gosselin, Louis

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the cooling of a heat-generating surface by a stacking of porous media (e.g., metallic foam) through which fluid flows parallel to the surface is considered. A two-temperature model is proposed to account for non-local thermal equilibrium (non-LTE). A scale analysis is performed to determine temperatures profiles in the boundary layer regime. The hot spot temperature is minimized with respect to the three design variables of each layer: porosity, pore diameter, and material. Global cost and mass are constrained. The optimization is performed with a hybrid genetic algorithm (GA) including local search to enhance convergence and repeatability. Results demonstrate that the optimized stacks do not operate in LTE. Therefore, we show that assuming LTE might result in underestimation of the hot spot temperature, and into different final designs as well

  7. Mechanical characterization and durability of sintered porous transport layers for polymer electrolyte membrane electrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgardt, Elena; Panchenko, Olha; Hackemüller, Franz Josef; Giffin, Jürgen; Bram, Martin; Müller, Martin; Lehnert, Werner; Stolten, Detlef

    2018-01-01

    Differential pressure electrolysis offers the potential for more efficient hydrogen compression. Due to the differential pressures acting within the electrolytic cell, the porous transport layer (PTL) is subjected to high stress. For safety reasons, the PTL's mechanical stability must be ensured. However, the requirements for high porosity and low thickness stand in contrast to that for mechanical stability. Porous transport layers for polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) electrolysis are typically prepared by means of the thermal sintering of titanium powder. Thus far, the factors that influence the mechanical strength of the sintered bodies and how all requirements can be simultaneously fulfilled have not been investigated. Here, the static and dynamic mechanical properties of thin sintered titanium sheets are investigated ex-situ via tensile tests and periodic loading in a test cell, respectively. In order for a sintered PTL with a thickness of 500 μm and porosities above 25% to be able to withstand 50 bar differential pressure in the cell, the maximum flow field width should be limited to 3 mm. Thus, a method was developed to test the suitability of PTL materials for use in electrolysis for various differential pressures and flow field widths.

  8. Mechanical and corrosion performance of SiC multilayer containing porous layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vega Bolivar, C M; Biamino, S; Pavese, M; Fino, P; Badini, C [Department of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino (Italy); Haehner, P, E-mail: claudia.vegabolivar@polito.it [JRC-Institute for Energy European Commission NL-1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands)

    2011-10-29

    Presently, one of the most interesting approaches to the generation of H{sub 2} is based on sulphur-based cycles, that however require structural components able to work in a corrosive environment at high temperature. Silicon carbide (SiC) is one of the most promising materials for this application, and to increase its limited toughness multilayered structures can be envisaged, since crack deviation and delamination increase energy adsorption during fracture. In this work tape casting and pressureless sintering were used to produce SiC samples consisting in alternating dense and porous layers, the porosity being realised by the insertion of pore forming agents during the preparation of the green ceramic. The mechanical properties of these materials were studied both at room temperature and at 1550 deg. C. The effect of corrosion at 850 deg. C by a mixture of H{sub 2}O, O{sub 2} and SO{sub 2} was studied by comparing microstructure and mechanical behaviour before and after long-term (1000 h) corrosion treatments. Corrosion resistance was very good, and flexural strength was strongly increased due to a combined effect of crack tip blunting and compressive residual stress formation. Concerning the architecture instead, the insertion of porous layers brings to a reduction of flexural strength, while Young's modulus remains almost constant.

  9. Electrochemical properties of porous carbon black layer as an electron injector into iodide redox couple

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jung-Min; Rhee, Shi-Woo

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Carbon black (CB) porous layer for triiodide (I 3 − ) ion reduction is coated with spray coating method at 120 °C on the fluorine-doped tin oxide glass. ► The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy is analyzed for a symmetric cell and a new circuit model is applied to identify electrochemical parameters. ► Decreased particle size and increased thickness improve the catalytic activity because of the increase in the surface area and the conductivity of the CB layer. - Abstract: Electrochemical properties of carbon black (CB) porous layer as a counter electrode in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSC) are studied. CB electrode for triiodide (I 3 − ) ion reduction is coated with spray coating method on the fluorine-doped tin oxide glass at 120 °C. The CB particle size is varied from 20 nm to 90 nm and the CB electrode thickness is controlled from 1 μm to 9 μm by controlling the spraying time. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy is analyzed for a symmetric cell and a new circuit model is applied to identify electrochemical parameters. As the CB particle size is decreased, the catalytic activity is improved because of the increase in the surface area and the conductivity of the CB layer. Increased CB electrode thickness also improves the catalytic activity and leads to the low charge transfer resistance at the electrolyte/CB electrode interface. The CB counter electrode with the particle size of 20 nm and the thickness of 9 μm for DSC shows the energy conversion efficiency of 7.2% with the highest fill factor (FF) of 65.6%, which is similar to the Pt counter electrode with FF of 65.8% and the efficiency of 7.6%.

  10. An investigation of the double layers caused by space vehicles moving through the ionosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Sanqiu; Liao Jingjing

    2010-01-01

    On the basis of non-steady-state nonlinear coupling equations of high-frequency field, density disturbance and potential, the evolution of double layers in the wake region of space vehicles moving through the ionosphere is numerically simulated in the non-static limit case. The results show that the interactions among plasmas, the vehicle and high-frequency electromagnetic waves radiated from the antenna system of the vehicle can lead to the formation of double layers. It is shown that the double layer is a nonlinear entity-caviton. Potential disturbance far away from the vehicle and the peak value of potential near the vehicle in the double layer are obvious. This is very important for detecting space vehicles with a stealth characteristic and preventing space vehicles from being harmed by double layers.

  11. Double multiple-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann model for solid-liquid phase change with natural convection in porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qing; He, Ya-Ling

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, a double multiple-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann model is developed for simulating transient solid-liquid phase change problems in porous media at the representative elementary volume scale. The model uses two different multiple-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann equations, one for the flow field and the other for the temperature field with nonlinear latent heat source term. The model is based on the generalized non-Darcy formulation, and the solid-liquid interface is traced through the liquid fraction which is determined by the enthalpy-based method. The present model is validated by numerical simulations of conduction melting in a semi-infinite space, solidification in a semi-infinite corner, and convection melting in a square cavity filled with porous media. The numerical results demonstrate the efficiency and accuracy of the present model for simulating transient solid-liquid phase change problems in porous media.

  12. Improved perovskite morphology and crystallinity using porous PbI2 layers for efficient planar heterojunction solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xianyu; Hu, Ziyang; Xu, Jie; Huang, Like; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Jianjun; Zhu, Yuejin

    2017-12-01

    We demonstrate the flexible and facile use of porous PbI2 layers to fabricate high quality perovskite films with a dense surface and without residual PbI2. PbI2 precursor solutions by adding polystyrene pore-forming agents are first spin-coated to fabricate the wet film. A porous PbI2 layer is formed by washing off polystyrene using organic solvents. The porous PbI2 layer not only serves as a channel for transporting the CH3NH3I solution but also offers extremely enlarged contact areas, facilitating interfacial reaction with CH3NH3I. Shiny smooth perovskite films with excellent electronic quality and solar cells with an efficiency up to 17% are obtained.

  13. Development of membrane filters with nanostructured porous layer by coating of metal nanoparticles sintered onto a micro-filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Seok Joo; Park, Young Ok; Lee, Dong Geun; Ryu, Jeong In

    2008-01-01

    The membrane filter adhered with nanostructured porous layer was made by heat treatment after deposition of nanoparticle-agglomerates sintered in aerosol phase onto a conventional micron-fibrous metal filter as a substrate filter. The Sintered-Nanoparticle-Agglomerates-coated NanoStructured porous layer Membrane Filter (SNA-NSMF), whose the filtration performance was improved compared with the conventional metal membrane filters, was developed by adhesion of nanoparticle-agglomerates of dendrite structure sintered onto the micron-fibrous metal filter. The size of nanoparticle-agglomerates of dendrite structure decreased with increasing the sintering temperature because nanoparticle-agglomerates shrank. When shrinking nanoparticle-agglomerates were deposited and treated with heat onto the conventional micron-fibrous metal filter, pore size of nanostructured porous layer decreased. Therefore, pressure drops of SNA-NSMFs increased from 0.3 to 0.516 KPa and filtration efficiencies remarkably increased from 95.612 to 99.9993%

  14. Development of polymer nanocomposites based on layered double hydroxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sipusic, J.

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Polymeric nanocomposites are commonly considered as systems composed of a polymeric matrix and - usually inorganic - filler. The types of nanofillers are indicated in Fig. 1. Beside wellknown layered silicate fillers, recent attention is attracted to layered double hydroxide fillers (LDH, mainly of synthetic origin. The structure of LDH is based on brucite, or magnesium hydroxide, Mg(OH2 and is illustrated in Fig. 2. The modification of LDHs is commonly done by organic anions, to increase the original interlayer distance and to improve the organophilicity of the filler, keeping in mind their final application as fillers for, usually hydrophobic, polymer matrices. We have used the modified rehydration procedure for preparing organically modified LDH. The stoichiometric quantities of Ca33Al2O6, CaO and benzoic (B (or undecenoic (U acid were mixed with water and some acetone. After long and vigorous shaking, the precipitated fillers were washed, dried and characterized. X-ray diffraction method (XRD has shown the increase of the original interlayer distance for unmodified LDH (OH–-saturated of 0.76 nm to the 1.6 nm in LDH-B or LDH-U fillers (Fig. 3. Infrared spectroscopy method (FTIR has confirmed the incorporation of benzoic anion within the filler layers (Fig. 4. For the preparation of LDH-B and LDH-U composites with polystyrene (PS, poly(methyl methacrylate (PMMA and copolymer (SMMA matrices, a two-step in situ bulk radical polymerization was selected (Table 1 for recipes, azobisisobutyronitrile as initiator, using conventional stirred tank reactor in the first step, and heated mold with the movable wall (Fig. 6 in the second step of polymerization. All the prepared composites with LDH-U fillers were macroscopically phase-separated, as was the PMMA/LDH-B composite.PS/LDH-B and SMMA/LDH-B samples were found to be transparent and were further examined for deduction of their structure (Fig. 5 and thermal properties. FTIR measurements showed that

  15. Nanomechanical properties of thick porous silicon layers grown on p- and p+-type bulk crystalline Si

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charitidis, C.A.; Skarmoutsou, A.; Nassiopoulou, A.G.; Dragoneas, A.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The nanomechanical properties of bulk crystalline Si. → The nanomechanical properties of porous Si. → The elastic-plastic deformation of porous Si compared to bulk crystalline quantified by nanoindentation data analysis. - Abstract: The nanomechanical properties and the nanoscale deformation of thick porous Si (PSi) layers of two different morphologies, grown electrochemically on p-type and p+-type Si wafers were investigated by the depth-sensing nanoindentation technique over a small range of loads using a Berkovich indenter and were compared with those of bulk crystalline Si. The microstructure of the thick PSi layers was characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy. PSi layers on p+-type Si show an anisotropic mesoporous structure with straight vertical pores of diameter in the range of 30-50 nm, while those on p-type Si show a sponge like mesoporous structure. The effect of the microstructure on the mechanical properties of the layers is discussed. It is shown that the hardness and Young's modulus of the PSi layers exhibit a strong dependence on their microstructure. In particular, PSi layers with the anisotropic straight vertical pores show higher hardness and elastic modulus values than sponge-like layers. However, sponge-like PSi layers reveal less plastic deformation and higher wear resistance compared with layers with straight vertical pores.

  16. Roughness effects on the double-layer charge capacitance : the case of Helmholtz layer induced roughness attenuation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palasantzas, G.; Backx, G.M.E.A.

    2003-01-01

    For electrical double layers, the presence of a Helmholtz layer could lead to electrode roughness attenuation. The latter is assumed of self-affine type which is characterized by the roughness amplitude w, the correlation length xi, and the roughness exponent H. For sufficiently rough metal

  17. Flow transitions in three-dimensional double-diffusive fingering convection in a porous cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sezai, I.

    2002-08-01

    In the present study the existence of multiple three-dimensional double-diffusive flow patterns in a horizontal rectangular porous cavity of a square cross-section, having horizontal aspect ratios Ax = Ay = 2 is investigated numerically. Opposing vertical gradients of temperature and concentration are applied between the two horizontal walls of the cavity, where the solute gradient is destabilizing against a stabilizing temperature gradient. All vertical walls are considered to be impermeable and adiabatic. The Brinkman and Forchheimer terms are included in the momentum equations where the convective terms are retained. The effect of the buoyancy ratio, N, thermal Rayleigh number, RaT and Lewis number, Le, on the formation of multiple flow patterns is investigated over a wide range of parameters. Altogether 36 symmetric flow structures have been identified when each of the parameters N, RaT, and Le is varied independently, keeping the others as constants. The results of the calculations are presented in terms of the average Sherwood number curves consisting of different solution branches, where transitions between the branches are indicated. The flow patterns are classified according to their symmetry properties and the type of symmetries broken or preserved are identified during the bifurcation processes.

  18. Large amplitude ion-acoustic solitary waves and double layers in multicomponent plasma with positrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabry, R.

    2009-01-01

    A finite amplitude theory for ion-acoustic solitary waves and double layers in multicomponent plasma consisting of hot positrons, cold ions, and electrons with two-electron temperature distributions is presented. Conditions are obtained under which large amplitude stationary ion-acoustic solitary waves and double layers can exist. For the physical parameters of interest, the ion-acoustic solitary wave (double layers) profiles and the relationship between the maximum soliton (double layers) amplitude and the Mach number are found. Also, we have presented the region of existence of the large amplitude ion-acoustic waves by analyzing the structure of the pseudopotential. For the selected range of parameters, it is found that only positive solitary waves and double layers can exist. An analysis for the small amplitude limit through the Sagdeev pseudopotential analysis and the reductive perturbation theory shows the existence of positive and negative ion-acoustic solitary waves and double layers. The effects of positron concentration and temperature ratio on the characteristics of the solitary ion-acoustic waves and double layers (namely, the amplitude and width) are discussed in detail. The relevance of this investigation to space and laboratory plasmas is pointed out.

  19. Large amplitude ion-acoustic solitary waves and double layers in multicomponent plasma with positrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabry, R.

    2009-07-01

    A finite amplitude theory for ion-acoustic solitary waves and double layers in multicomponent plasma consisting of hot positrons, cold ions, and electrons with two-electron temperature distributions is presented. Conditions are obtained under which large amplitude stationary ion-acoustic solitary waves and double layers can exist. For the physical parameters of interest, the ion-acoustic solitary wave (double layers) profiles and the relationship between the maximum soliton (double layers) amplitude and the Mach number are found. Also, we have presented the region of existence of the large amplitude ion-acoustic waves by analyzing the structure of the pseudopotential. For the selected range of parameters, it is found that only positive solitary waves and double layers can exist. An analysis for the small amplitude limit through the Sagdeev pseudopotential analysis and the reductive perturbation theory shows the existence of positive and negative ion-acoustic solitary waves and double layers. The effects of positron concentration and temperature ratio on the characteristics of the solitary ion-acoustic waves and double layers (namely, the amplitude and width) are discussed in detail. The relevance of this investigation to space and laboratory plasmas is pointed out.

  20. Effective optimization of surface passivation on porous silicon carbide using atomic layer deposited Al2O3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Weifang; Iwasa, Yoshimi; Ou, Yiyu

    2017-01-01

    Porous silicon carbide (B–N co-doped SiC) produced by anodic oxidation showed strong photoluminescence (PL) at around 520 nm excited by a 375 nm laser. The porous SiC samples were passivated by atomic layer deposited (ALD) aluminum oxide (Al2O3) films, resulting in a significant enhancement...... of the PL intensity (up to 689%). The effect of thickness, annealing temperature, annealing duration and precursor purge time on the PL intensity of ALD Al2O3 films was investigated. In order to investigate the penetration depth and passivation effect in porous SiC, the samples were characterized by X...... effective method to enhance the luminescence efficiency of porous SiC....

  1. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF SINGLE VERSUS DOUBLE LAYER CLOSURE ON LOWER SEGMENT CAESAREAN SCAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirtirekha Mohapatra

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND There are few issues in modern obstetrics that have been as controversial as management of a woman with a prior caesarean delivery. Hence, it is required to have evidence based correct practice of this surgical procedure. Healing of the uterine incision and the strength of the scar should be the most important consideration. The aim of the study is to compare the effect of technique of uterine closure (Single Layer vs. Double Layer on subsequent pregnancies and to find out, which technique has a better maternal and neonatal outcome by strengthening the scar. MATERIALS AND METHODS 500 cases of previous caesarean section pregnancies were taken, 250 from single layer closure group and 250 from double layer closure group. The mode of delivery during present pregnancy was noted. Integrity of scar, thickness of scar, presence of adhesion were documented. The neonates were observed. Results were compared so as to draw an inference about the better method. RESULTS Mean age between the two groups were similar. Majority did not have history of premature rupture of membrane during previous pregnancy. Postoperative complications were more when double layer closure of uterine scar was done in index surgery. Interpregnancy gap of <3 years was more commonly present in double layer closure group (52.8% in double layer versus 34.8% in single layer. Single layer had more scar tenderness (21.2%, thinned out scars (34.6%, incomplete ruptures (7.1% and complete ruptures (2.8% than double layer closure group. Neonatal outcomes were not statistically different in both the groups. CONCLUSION Double layer uterine closure seems to have better impact on scar integrity as compared to single layer uterine closure.

  2. Electrochemical Double Layered Capacitor Development and Implementation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strunk, Gavin P.

    Electrochemical Double Layered Capacitors (EDLC's) are becoming a more popular topic of research for hybrid power systems, especially vehicles. They are known for their high power density, high cycle life, low internal resistance, and wider operating temperature compared to batteries. They are rarely used as a standalone power source; however, because of their lack of energy density compared to batteries and fuel cells. Researchers are now discovering the benefits of using them in hybrid systems. The increased complexity of a hybrid power source presents many challenges. A major drawback of this complexity is the lack of design tools to assist a designer in translating a simulation all the way to a full scale implementation. A full spectrum of tools was designed to assist designers at all stages of implementation including: single cell testing, a multi-cell management system, and a full scale vehicle data acquisition system to monitor performance. First, the full scale vehicle data acquisition is described. The system is isolated from the electric shuttle bus it was tested on to allow the system to be ported to other vehicles and applications. This was done to modularize the system to characterize a wide variety of full scale applications. Next, a single cell test system was designed that allows the designer to characterize cell specifications, as well as, test control and safety systems in a controlled environment. The goal is to ensure safety systems can be thoroughly tested to ensure robustness as the bank is scaled up. This system also includes simulation models that provide examples of using the simulation to predict the behavior of a cell and the test system to validate the results of the simulation. This information is then used by the designer to more effectively design sensor ranges for the bank. Finally, a multi-cell EDLC management system was designed to implement a bank. It incorporates 12 series EDLC cells per control module, and the modular design

  3. Necessary Conditions For Establishing Quasi-Stable Double Layers in Earth's Auroral Upward Current Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Main, D. S.; Newman, D.; Ergun, R. E.

    2010-12-01

    Observations from the Fast Auroral SnapshoT (FAST) spacecraft indicate that a strong localized electric field often exists at the boundary between the ionosphere and auroral cavity in the upward current region. The observed electric field structures are found to have widths that are on the order of tens of electron Debye lengths and have components both parallel and perpendicular to Earth’s magnetic field and are therefore said to be an “oblique” electric field. These oblique electric fields have previously been modeled by static BGK double layer solutions. Dynamic Vlasov simulations have shown that a non-oblique double layer models the parallel component of the observed electric field structures well, is quasi-stable and persists long enough to account for the often observed ion phase space holes in the auroral cavity. However, to date, it has not been clear how an oblique double layer can form and remain quasi-stable. Using an open boundary 1D3V particle-in-cell simulation, we present a parameter study of over 20 simulations in which we vary cold electron density and temperature and show the necessary conditions for maintaining both oblique and non-oblique double layers at the lower boundary of the upward current region. The simulation includes an assumed density cavity, hot auroral cavity electrons, cold ionospheric electrons, a hot H+ component and anti-earthward traveling H+ and O+ ion beams. We do not assume that any localized potential drop initially exists. Rather, if a DL forms, it does so self-consistently at the interface of the dense ionosphere and tenuous auroral cavity. Based on the PIC results, we find that the oblique double layer requires a cold (< 5 eV) ionospheric electron population to remain quasi-stable. We also compare the shape of the simulated double layer with observed double layers and show that the observed asymmetric shape can also be explained by the temperature and density of the cold ionospheric electrons. We will also present

  4. MHD boundary layer flow and heat transfer in an inclined porous square cavity filled with nanofluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandra Shekar Balla

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The present paper deals with the magnetohydrodynamic boundary layer flow of a free convection heat transfer in an inclined square cavity filled with nanofluid-saturated porous medium. The effects of different nanoparticles Cu, Al2O3, TiO2 and SiO2 are considered. The top and bottom horizontal walls of cavity are considered adiabatic, while the vertical walls are kept at constant temperatures. The governing partial differential equations are solved by finite element method of Galerkin weighted residual scheme. Numerical results are obtained for different values of the Rayleigh number, angle of inclination, magnetic field and nanofluid volume fraction. The overall investigation of variation of streamlines, isotherms and Nusselt numbers is presented graphically. To examine the accuracy, the present results are compared with the available results.

  5. Radon transport model into a porous ground layer of finite capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parovik, Roman

    2017-10-01

    The model of radon transfer is considered in a porous ground layer of finite power. With the help of the Laplace integral transformation, a numerical solution of this model is obtained which is based on the construction of a generalized quadrature formula of the highest degree of accuracy for the transition to the original - the function of solving this problem. The calculated curves are constructed and investigated depending on the diffusion and advection coefficients.The work was a mathematical model that describes the effect of the sliding attachment (stick-slip), taking into account hereditarity. This model can be regarded as a mechanical model of earthquake preparation. For such a model was proposed explicit finite- difference scheme, on which were built the waveform and phase trajectories hereditarity effect of stick-slip.

  6. Formation of Porous Apatite Layer during In Vitro Study of Hydroxyapatite-AW Based Glass Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pat Sooksaen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This research discussed the fabrication, characterization, and in vitro study of composites based on the mixture of hydroxyapatite powder and apatite-wollastonite (AW based glass. AW based glass was prepared from the SiO2-CaO-MgO-P2O5-CaF2 glass system. This study focuses on the effect of composition and sintering temperature that influences the properties of these composites. Microstructural study revealed the formation of apatite layer on the composite surfaces when immersed in simulated body fluid (SBF solution at 37°C. Composites containing ≥50 wt% AW based glass showed good bioactivity after 7 days of immersion in the SBF. A porous calcium phosphate (potentially hydroxycarbonate apatite, HCA layer formed at the SBF-composite interface and the layer became denser at longer soaking period, for periods ranging from 7 to 28 days. Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES analysis showed that early stage of soaking occurred with the release of Ca and Si ions from the composites and the decrease of P ions with slow exchange rate.

  7. Absorbing properties of α-manganese dioxide/carbon black double-layer composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan Yuping; Yang Yang; He Ma; Liu Shunhua; Cui Xiaodong; Chen Huifeng

    2008-01-01

    In order to improve the absorbing properties of the electromagnetic wave absorbing plate, double-layer wave absorbing materials, which are composed of a matching layer and an absorbing layer, were devised. The matching layer is a surface layer of the wave absorbing sample, from which most of the incident waves easily enter the sample, and the absorbing layer is a second layer under the matching layer, which plays an important role in incident wave attenuation. The total thickness of the double-layer composites is the sum of the thicknesses of the matching layer and the absorbing layer. In this paper, α-manganese dioxide and carbon black (CB) were used as absorbents in the matching layer and the absorbing layer respectively. Meanwhile, the structure of the α-manganese dioxide and the CB particles were analysed by x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy, and the dielectric property and absorbing mechanics were also studied. The results showed that, in the case of the mass fraction of CB in the absorbing layer being 30% and the thickness of the absorbing layer being 3 mm, the effectual absorption band (below -10 dB) of the double-layer wave absorbing materials reaches 8.6 GHz and 7.6 GHz in the testing frequency range between 8 GHz and 18 GHz, respectively, when the mass fraction of α-MnO 2 in the matching layer was 10% and the thicknesses of the matching layer were 2 mm and 1 mm, respectively, and the effectual absorption band (below -10 dB) reaches 8.7 GHz in 8-18 GHz when the mass fraction of α-MnO 2 in the matching layer was 20% and the thickness of the matching layer was 2 mm

  8. Plasmon resonance in single- and double-layer CVD graphene nanoribbons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Di; Emani, Naresh K.; Chung, Ting Fung

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic tunability of the plasmonic resonance in graphene nanoribbons is desirable in the near-infrared. We demonstrated a constant blue shift of plasmonic resonances in double-layer graphene nanoribbons with respect to single-layer graphene nanoribbons. © OSA 2015.......Dynamic tunability of the plasmonic resonance in graphene nanoribbons is desirable in the near-infrared. We demonstrated a constant blue shift of plasmonic resonances in double-layer graphene nanoribbons with respect to single-layer graphene nanoribbons. © OSA 2015....

  9. Conditions for double layers in the Earth's magnetosphere and perhaps in other astrophysical objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyons, L.R.

    1987-01-01

    Double layers (i.e., electric fields parallel to B) form along auroral field lines in the Earth's magnetosphere. They form in order to maintain current continuity in the ionosphere in the presence of a magnetospheric electric field E with DEL.E not= O. Features which govern the formation of the double layers are: 1) the divergence of E; 2) the conductivity of the ionosphere; and 3) the current-voltage characteristics of auroral magnetic field lines. Astrophysical situations where DEL.E not= O is applied to a conducting plasma similar to the Earth's ionosphere are potential candidates for the formation of double layers. The region with DEL.E not= O can be generated within, or along field lines connected to, the conducting plasma. In addition to DEL.E, shear neutral flow in the conducting plasma can also form double layers. (author)

  10. Conditions for double layers in the Earth's magnetosphere and perhaps in other astrophysical objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyons, L.R.

    1987-01-01

    Double layers form along auroral field lines in the Earth's magnetosphere. They form in order to maintain current continuity in the ionosphere in the presence of a magnetospheric electric field E with nabla x E is not equal to 0. Features which govern the formation of the double layers are: (1) the divergence of E, (2) the conductivity of the ionosphere, and (3) the current-voltage characteristics of auroral magnetic field lines. Astrophysical situations where nabla x E is not equal to 0 is applied to a conducting plasma similar to the Earth's ionosphere are potential candidates for the formation of double layers. The region with nabla x E is not equal to 0 can be generated within, or along field lines connected to, the conducting plasma. In addition to nabla x E, shear neutral flow in the conducting plasma can also form double layers

  11. Space-charge solitary waves and double layers in n-type compensated semiconductor quantum plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, S.; Ghosh, B.

    2018-03-01

    Using quantum hydrodynamic (QHD) model and standard reductive perturbation method, we have investigated the formation and characteristics of space-charge solitary waves and double layers in n-type compensated drifting semiconductor plasma with varying doping profiles. Through numerical analysis, it is shown that the structures of space-charge solitary waves and double layers depend significantly on electron drift and compensation parameter which measures a comparative proportion of the donor, acceptor and intrinsic ion concentrations.

  12. DL-mandelic acid intercalated Zn-Al layered double hydroxide: A novel antimicrobial layered material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Li-Ping; Cheng, Hui-Min; Cui, Shu-Mei; Wang, Xin-Rui; Song, Li-Ya; Zhou, Wei; Li, Shu-Jing

    2018-02-12

    DL-mandelic acid (MA) has been intercalated into Zn-Al layered double hydroxide (LDH) by an anion-exchange reaction. After intercalation of MA anions, the basal spacing of the LDH increased from 0.75 to 1.46 nm, suggesting that the MA anions were successfully intercalated into the interlayer galleries of the LDH. The structure and the thermal stability of the samples were characterized by XRD, FT-IR, TG-DTA. Studies of MA release from ZnAl-MA-LDH in hydrochloric solution (pH = 4) imply that ZnAl-MA-LDH is a better controlled release system than pure MA. Meanwhile, the mechanisms of slow release were assessed by using four commonly kinetic models. Finally, the antimicrobial activity of ZnAl-MA-LDH was tested against two kinds of bacteria and a fungus. The study confirms that the mandelic ions intercalated LDHs have the potential application as a slow release preservative in the future. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Thermal analysis of double-layer metal films during femtosecond laser heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, A M; Jiang, Y F; Sui, L Z; Liu, H; Jin, M X; Ding, D J

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the primary interest is the heat effect of the bottom-layer metal on the temperature distribution of the top-layer metal in a double-layer metal structure during femtosecond laser irradiation. The evolution of the surface electron and lattice temperature depends a lot on the thermal parameters of the substrate. The damage threshold can be increased by using a substrate material with high electron–lattice coupling factor. Next, we choose chrome as the bottom-layer material. The results of modeling show that the surface lattice temperature of top-layer gold can be reduced remarkably. For a fixed entire thickness of the double-layer film, there is an optimal proportion of top and bottom layers for which the damage threshold is the highest possible. Also, for increasing the damage threshold, a substrate with higher melting temperature should be chosen

  14. Double-layer appearance after evacuation of a chronic subdural hematoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sucu, Hasan Kamil; Akar, Ömer

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the reason for and the course of the double-layer appearance in the postoperative computed tomographies (CTs) of chronic subdural hematoma (CSDHs). We reviewed CSDH cases that were operated on during the last 3 years, between January 2008 and December 2010. We checked the preoperative, early postoperative, and late postoperative CTs of these patients. We investigated the relationship between the formation of a double-layer appearance and the prognoses and demographic characteristics of the patients. Our database included 119 cases. A double-layer appearance was found in the postoperative CTs of 34 cases. The mean age of double-layer cases was older (72.5 ± 12.1) than that of the remaining 85 cases (63.1 ± 17.8). We did not find any relationship between the double-layer appearance and the reoperation/recurrence/death rates. The double-layer appearance after evacuation of a CSDH might be caused by enlargement of the subarachnoid space and is not related to the presence of any residual hematoma. This appearance is not considered as a reason for reoperation.

  15. Quantum electron-acoustic double layers in two electron species quantum plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sah, Om Prakash

    2009-01-01

    The existence and the characteristic properties of electron-acoustic double layers are investigated in three component unmagnetized dense quantum plasmas consisting of stationary background ions and two electron populations: one "cold" and the other "hot." Using the one-dimensional quantum hydrodynamic model and the reductive perturbation technique, a generalized form of nonlinear quantum Korteweg-de Vries equation governing the dynamics of weak electron acoustic double layers is derived. A stationary solution of this equation is obtained to discuss the existence criteria of different types of double layers and their characteristic properties. It is shown that two types of compressive double layers: one in the lower δ-parameter region and the other at the higher δ-parameter region, along with rarefactive double layers in the intermediate region, may exist, where δ =nec0/neh0 is the ratio of unperturbed cold to hot electron densities. The width, the amplitude, and the velocity of these double layers are significantly affected by the δ-parameter. The relevance of the present investigation is also discussed.

  16. Distinguishing oil and water layers in a cracked porous medium using pulsed neutron logging data based on Hudson's crack theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xueang; Yang, Zhichao; Tang, Bin; Wang, Renbo; Wei, Xiong

    2018-02-01

    During geophysical surveys, water layers may interfere with the detection of oil layers. In order to distinguish between oil and water layers in porous cracked media, research on the properties of the cracks, the oil and water layers, and their relation to pulsed neutron logging characteristics is essential. Using Hudson's crack theory, we simulated oil and water layers in a cracked porous medium with different crack parameters corresponding to the well log responses. We found that, in a cracked medium with medium-angle (40°-50°) cracks, the thermal neutron count peak value is higher and more sensitive than those in low-angle and high-angle crack environments; in addition, the thermal neutron density distribution shows more minimum values than in other cases. Further, the thermal neutron count and the rate of change for the oil layer are greater than those of the water layer, and the time spectrum count peak value for the water layer in middle-high-angle (40°-70°) cracked environments is higher than that of the oil layer. The thermal neutron density distribution sensitivity is higher in the water layer with a range of small crack angles (0°-30°) than in the oil layer with the same range of angles. In comparing the thermal neutron density distribution, thermal neutron count peak, thermal neutron density distribution sensitivity, and time spectrum maximum in the oil and water layers, we find that neutrons in medium-angle (40°-50°) cracked reservoirs are more sensitive to deceleration and absorption than those in water layers; neutrons in approximately horizontal (0°-30°) cracked water layers are more sensitive to deceleration than those in reservoirs. These results can guide future work in the cracked media neutron logging field.

  17. Distinguishing oil and water layers in a cracked porous medium using pulsed neutron logging data based on Hudson's crack theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xueang; Yang, Zhichao; Tang, Bin; Wang, Renbo; Wei, Xiong

    2018-05-01

    During geophysical surveys, water layers may interfere with the detection of oil layers. In order to distinguish between oil and water layers in porous cracked media, research on the properties of the cracks, the oil and water layers, and their relation to pulsed neutron logging characteristics is essential. Using Hudson's crack theory, we simulated oil and water layers in a cracked porous medium with different crack parameters corresponding to the well log responses. We found that, in a cracked medium with medium-angle (40°-50°) cracks, the thermal neutron count peak value is higher and more sensitive than those in low-angle and high-angle crack environments; in addition, the thermal neutron density distribution shows more minimum values than in other cases. Further, the thermal neutron count and the rate of change for the oil layer are greater than those of the water layer, and the time spectrum count peak value for the water layer in middle-high-angle (40°-70°) cracked environments is higher than that of the oil layer. The thermal neutron density distribution sensitivity is higher in the water layer with a range of small crack angles (0°-30°) than in the oil layer with the same range of angles. In comparing the thermal neutron density distribution, thermal neutron count peak, thermal neutron density distribution sensitivity, and time spectrum maximum in the oil and water layers, we find that neutrons in medium-angle (40°-50°) cracked reservoirs are more sensitive to deceleration and absorption than those in water layers; neutrons in approximately horizontal (0°-30°) cracked water layers are more sensitive to deceleration than those in reservoirs. These results can guide future work in the cracked media neutron logging field.

  18. Cyclotron resonance study of the two-dimensional electron layers and double layers in tilted magnetic fields

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Goncharuk, Natalya; Smrčka, Ludvík; Kučera, Jan

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 22, - (2004), s. 590-593 ISSN 1386-9477. [International Conference on Electronic Properties of Two-Dimensional Systems /15./. Nara, 14.07.2003-18.07.2003] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/01/0754 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : single layer * double layer * two-dimensional electron system * cyclotron resonance Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.898, year: 2004

  19. Effect of aging treatment on the in vitro nickel release from porous oxide layers on NiTi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huan, Z.; Fratila-Apachitei, L. E.; Apachitei, I.; Duszczyk, J.

    2013-06-01

    Despite the ability of creating porous oxide layers on nickel-titanium alloy (NiTi) surface for biofunctionalization, the use of plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) has raised concerns over the possible increased levels of Ni release. Therefore, the primary aim of this study was to investigate the effect of aging in boiling water on Ni release from porous NiTi surfaces that have been formed by the PEO process. Based on different oxidation conditions, e.g. electrolyte composition and electrical parameters, three kinds of oxide layers with various characteristics were prepared on NiTi substrate. The process was followed by aging in boiling water for different durations. The Ni release was assessed by immersion tests in phosphate buffer saline and the Ni concentration was measured using the flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The results showed that aging in boiling water can significantly reduce the Ni release from oxidized porous samples, given that the duration of the treatment is finely adjusted according to the parameters of the as-formed oxide layer. Surface examination of the samples before and after aging in boiling water suggested that such a treatment is non-destructive while improving the corrosion resistance of oxidized samples, as evidenced by potentiodynamic polarization tests. The results of this study indicate that water boiling may be a suitable post-treatment required to minimize Ni release from porous oxides produced on NiTi by PEO for biomedical applications.

  20. Porous anodic alumina on galvanically grown PtSi layer for application in template-assisted Si nanowire growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stavrinidou Eleni

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We report on the fabrication and morphology/structural characterization of a porous anodic alumina (PAA/PtSi nano-template for use as matrix in template-assisted Si nanowire growth on a Si substrate. The PtSi layer was formed by electroless deposition from an aqueous solution containing the metal salt and HF, while the PAA membrane by anodizing an Al film deposited on the PtSi layer. The morphology and structure of the PtSi layer and of the alumina membrane on top were studied by Scanning and High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopies (SEM, HRTEM. Cross sectional HRTEM images combined with electron diffraction (ED were used to characterize the different interfaces between Si, PtSi and porous anodic alumina.

  1. Study on dynamic deformation synchronized measurement technology of double-layer liquid surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Huiying; Dong, Huimin; Liu, Zhanwei

    2017-11-01

    Accurate measurement of the dynamic deformation of double-layer liquid surfaces plays an important role in many fields, such as fluid mechanics, biomechanics, petrochemical industry and aerospace engineering. It is difficult to measure dynamic deformation of double-layer liquid surfaces synchronously for traditional methods. In this paper, a novel and effective method for full-field static and dynamic deformation measurement of double-layer liquid surfaces has been developed, that is wavefront distortion of double-wavelength transmission light with geometric phase analysis (GPA) method. Double wavelength lattice patterns used here are produced by two techniques, one is by double wavelength laser, and the other is by liquid crystal display (LCD). The techniques combine the characteristics such as high transparency, low reflectivity and fluidity of liquid. Two color lattice patterns produced by laser and LCD were adjusted at a certain angle through the tested double-layer liquid surfaces simultaneously. On the basis of the refractive indexes difference of two transmitted lights, the double-layer liquid surfaces were decoupled with GPA method. Combined with the derived relationship between phase variation of transmission-lattice patterns and out-of plane heights of two surfaces, as well as considering the height curves of the liquid level, the double-layer liquid surfaces can be reconstructed successfully. Compared with the traditional measurement method, the developed method not only has the common advantages of the optical measurement methods, such as high-precision, full-field and non-contact, but also simple, low cost and easy to set up.

  2. On the interpretation of double-packer tests in heterogeneous porous media: Numerical simulations using the stochastic continuum analogue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Follin, S.

    1992-12-01

    Flow in fractured crystalline (hard) rocks is of interest in Sweden for assessing the postclosure radiological safety of a deep repository for high-level nuclear waste. For simulation of flow and mass transport in the far field different porous media concepts are often used, whereas discrete fracture/channel network concepts are often used for near-field simulations. Due to lack of data, it is generally necessary to have resort to single-hole double-packer test data for the far-field simulations, i.e., test data on a small scale are regularized in order to fit a comparatively coarser numerical discretization, which is governed by various computational constraints. In the present study the Monte Carlo method is used to investigate the relationship between the transmissivity value interpreted and the corresponding radius of influence in conjunction with single-hole double-packer tests in heterogeneous formations. The numerical flow domain is treated as a two-dimensional heterogeneous porous medium with a spatially varying diffusivity on 3 m scale. The Monte Carlo simulations demonstrate the sensitivity to the correlation range of a spatially varying diffusivity field. In contradiction to what is tacitly assumed in stochastic subsurface hydrology, the results show that the lateral support scale (e.g., the radius of influence) of transmissivity measurements in heterogeneous porous media is a random variable, which is affected by both the hydraulic and statistical characteristics. If these results are general, the traditional methods for scaling-up, assuming a constant lateral scale of support and a multi normal distribution, may lead to an underestimation of the persistence and connectivity of transmissive zones, particularly in highly heterogeneous porous media

  3. Proton Acceleration with Double-Layer Targets in the Radiation Pressure Dominant Regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Chang-Quan; Deng Ai-Hua; Liu Li; Wang Wen-Tao; Lu Hai-Yang; Wang Cheng; Liu Jian-Sheng

    2011-01-01

    Acceleration of protons by a circularly polarized laser pulse irradiating on a double-layer target is investigated by a theoretical model and particle-in-cell simulations. The target is made up of a heavy ion layer coated with a proton layer on the rear surface. The results show that when the first layer is transparent induced by the hole-boring effect, the whole proton layer is accelerated by the transmitted laser pulse to high energy with low energy spread. The quality of the proton beam generated from a double-layer target is better than that from a single-layer target. The improvement is attributed to the flat top structure of the electrostatic field caused by the electrons injected into the second layer. It is easier to control the spectrum quality by using a double-layer target rather than using a single-layer one when the radiation pressure acceleration is dominant. (fundamental areas of phenomenology(including applications))

  4. Ultrathin Porous NiFeV Ternary Layer Hydroxide Nanosheets as a Highly Efficient Bifunctional Electrocatalyst for Overall Water Splitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinh, Khang Ngoc; Zheng, Penglun; Dai, Zhengfei; Zhang, Yu; Dangol, Raksha; Zheng, Yun; Li, Bing; Zong, Yun; Yan, Qingyu

    2018-02-01

    Herein, the hydrothermal synthesis of porous ultrathin ternary NiFeV layer double hydroxides (LDHs) nanosheets grown on Nickel foam (NF) substrate as a highly efficient electrode toward overall water splitting in alkaline media is reported. The lateral size of the nanosheets is about a few hundreds of nanometers with the thickness of ≈10 nm. Among all molar ratios investigated, the Ni 0.75 Fe 0.125 V 0.125 -LDHs/NF electrode depicts the optimized performance. It displays an excellent catalytic activity with a modest overpotential of 231 mV for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) and 125 mV for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) in 1.0 m KOH electrolyte. Its exceptional activity is further shown in its small Tafel slope of 39.4 and 62.0 mV dec -1 for OER and HER, respectively. More importantly, remarkable durability and stability are also observed. When used for overall water splitting, the Ni 0.75 Fe 0.125 V 0.125 -LDHs/NF electrodes require a voltage of only 1.591 V to reach 10 mA cm -2 in alkaline solution. These outstanding performances are mainly attributed to the synergistic effect of the ternary metal system that boosts the intrinsic catalytic activity and active surface area. This work explores a promising way to achieve the optimal inexpensive Ni-based hydroxide electrocatalyst for overall water splitting. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Arrangements of a pair of loudspeakers for sound field control with double-layer arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chang, Jiho; Agerkvist, Finn T.; Olsen, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have attempted to control sound fields, and also to reduce room reflections with a circular or spherical array of loudspeakers. One of the attempts was to suppress sound waves propagating to the walls outside the array with a circular double-layer array of loudspeakers. The double-layer...... array represents a set of a monopole and a dipole in the Kirchhoff-Helmholtz integral equation, and thus the distance between these layers should be short compared with the wavelength. In practice, however, this condition is occasionally hard to satisfy because of the sizes of loudspeaker cabinets...

  6. XPS and TEM study of W-DLC/DLC double-layered film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeno, Takanori; Komiyama, Takao; Miki, Hiroyuki; Takagi, Toshiyuki; Aoyama, Takashi

    2009-01-01

    A double-layered film of tungsten-containing diamond-like carbon (W-DLC) and DLC, (W-DLC)/DLC, was investigated. A film of 1.6 μm in thickness was deposited onto silicon substrate. The investigate double-layered coating was deposited by using the combination of PECVD and co-sputtering of tungsten metal target. Structure, interface and chemical bonding state of the investigated film were analyzed by Transmission electron microscope (TEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). From the results of the analyses, the structure of double-layered film is that amorphous phase of carbon is continued from DLC to W-DLC and tungsten metal clusters are dispersed in W-DLC layer.

  7. Thermal decomposition of Co–Al layered double hydroxide ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    All other reflections are extinguished on account of. turbostratic disorder which destroys all ℎ reflections and; layer aperiodicity, which destroys all two dimensional ℎ reflections. Given its topochemical relationship with the spinel structure, such an intermediate is a necessary precursor to spinel formation.

  8. NUMERICAL MODELING OF THE PROBLEM OF DOUBLE-LAYER REINFORCEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nizomov Dzhakhongir Nizomovich

    2012-10-01

    The proposed solution is applicable in the lining of tunnels and subterranean structures in rock massifs, as well as galleries arranged in the body of earth dams. It represents two layers of concrete with different values of the modulus of elasticity and Poisson ratio. Tangential stress and reinforcement ring graphs are presented in the article.

  9. One-dimensional magnetophotonic crystals with magnetooptical double layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berzhansky, V. N.; Shaposhnikov, A. N.; Prokopov, A. R.; Karavainikov, A. V.; Mikhailova, T. V.; Lukienko, I. N.; Kharchenko, Yu. N.; Golub, V. O.; Salyuk, O. Yu.; Belotelov, V. I.

    2016-01-01

    One-dimensional magnetophotonic microcavity crystals with nongarnet dielectric mirrors are created and investigated. The defect layers in the magnetophotonic crystals are represented by two bismuth-substituted yttrium iron garnet Bi:YIG layers with various bismuth contents in order to achieve a high magnetooptical response of the crystals. The parameters of the magnetophotonic crystal layers are optimized by numerical solution of the Maxwell equations by the transfer matrix method to achieve high values of Faraday rotation angle Θ F and magnetooptical Q factor. The calculated and experimental data agree well with each other. The maximum values of Θ F =–20.6°, Q = 8.1° at a gain t = 16 are obtained for magnetophotonic crystals with m = 7 pairs of layers in Bragg mirrors, and the parameters obtained for crystals with m = 4 and t = 8.5 are Θ F =–12.5° and Q = 14.3°. It is shown that, together with all-garnet and multimicrocavities magnetophotonic crystals, such structures have high magnetooptical characteristics.

  10. One-dimensional magnetophotonic crystals with magnetooptical double layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berzhansky, V. N., E-mail: v.n.berzhansky@gmail.com; Shaposhnikov, A. N.; Prokopov, A. R.; Karavainikov, A. V.; Mikhailova, T. V. [V.I. Vernadsky Crimean Federal University (Russian Federation); Lukienko, I. N.; Kharchenko, Yu. N., E-mail: kharcenko@ilt.kharkov.ua [National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Verkin Institute for Low Temperature Physics and Engineering (Ukraine); Golub, V. O., E-mail: v-o-golub@yahoo.com; Salyuk, O. Yu. [National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Institute of Magnetism (Ukraine); Belotelov, V. I., E-mail: belotelov@physics.msu.ru [Russian Quantum Center (Russian Federation)

    2016-11-15

    One-dimensional magnetophotonic microcavity crystals with nongarnet dielectric mirrors are created and investigated. The defect layers in the magnetophotonic crystals are represented by two bismuth-substituted yttrium iron garnet Bi:YIG layers with various bismuth contents in order to achieve a high magnetooptical response of the crystals. The parameters of the magnetophotonic crystal layers are optimized by numerical solution of the Maxwell equations by the transfer matrix method to achieve high values of Faraday rotation angle Θ{sub F} and magnetooptical Q factor. The calculated and experimental data agree well with each other. The maximum values of Θ{sub F} =–20.6°, Q = 8.1° at a gain t = 16 are obtained for magnetophotonic crystals with m = 7 pairs of layers in Bragg mirrors, and the parameters obtained for crystals with m = 4 and t = 8.5 are Θ{sub F} =–12.5° and Q = 14.3°. It is shown that, together with all-garnet and multimicrocavities magnetophotonic crystals, such structures have high magnetooptical characteristics.

  11. Improved Reliability of Small Molecule Organic Solar Cells by Double Anode Buffer Layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pao-Hsun Huang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An optimized hybrid planar heterojunction (PHJ of small molecule organic solar cells (SM-OSCs based on copper phthalocyanine (CuPc as donor and fullerene (C60 as acceptor was fabricated, which obviously enhanced the performance of device by sequentially using both MoO3 and pentacene as double anode buffer layers (ABL, also known as hole extraction layer (HEL. A series of the vacuum-deposited ABL, acting as an electron and exciton blocking layer, were examined for their characteristics in SM-OSCs. The performance and reliability were compared between conventional ITO/ABL/CuPc/C60/BCP/Ag cells and the new ITO/double ABL/CuPc/C60/BCP/Ag cells. The effect on the electrical properties of these materials was also investigated to obtain the optimal thickness of ABL. The comparison shows that the modified cell has an enhanced reliability compared to traditional cells. The improvement of lifetime was attributed to the idea of double layers to prevent humidity and oxygen from diffusing into the active layer. We demonstrated that the interfacial extraction layers are necessary to avoid degradation of device. That is to say, in normal temperature and pressure, a new avenue for the device within double buffer layers has exhibited the highest values of open circuit voltage (Voc, fill factor (FF, and lifetime in this work compared to monolayer of ABL.

  12. Dynamic characterization of partially saturated engineered porous media and gas diffusion layers using hydraulic admittance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Perry; Fairweather, Joseph D.; Schwartz, Daniel T.

    2012-09-01

    Simple laboratory methods for determining liquid water distribution in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell gas diffusion layers (GDLs) are needed to engineer better GDL materials. Capillary pressure vs. liquid saturation measurements are attractive, but lack the ability to probe the hydraulic interconnectivity and distribution within the pore structure. Hydraulic admittance measurements of simple capillary bundles have recently been shown to nicely measure characteristics of the free-interfaces and hydraulic path. Here we examine the use of hydraulic admittance with a succession of increasingly complex porous media, starting with a laser-drilled sample with 154 asymmetric pores and progress to the behavior of Toray TGP-H090 carbon papers. The asymmetric laser-drilled sample clearly shows hydraulic admittance measurements are sensitive to sample orientation, especially when examined as a function of saturation state. Finite element modeling of the hydraulic admittance is consistent with experimental measurements. The hydraulic admittance spectra from GDL samples are complex, so we examine trends in the spectra as a function of wet proofing (0% and 40% Teflon loadings) as well as saturation state of the GDL. The presence of clear peaks in the admittance spectra for both GDL samples suggests a few pore types are largely responsible for transporting liquid water.

  13. High power laser interaction with single and double layer targets

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Borodziuk, S.; Demchenko, N. N.; Gus'kov, S. Yu.; Jungwirth, Karel; Kálal, M.; Kasperczuk, A.; Kondrashov, V. N.; Králiková, Božena; Krouský, Eduard; Limpouch, Jiří; Mašek, Karel; Pisarczyk, P.; Pisarczyk, T.; Pfeifer, Miroslav; Rohlena, Karel; Rozanov, V. B.; Skála, Jiří; Ullschmied, Jiří

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 35, č. 2 (2005), s. 241-262 ISSN 0078-5466 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LN00A100; GA AV ČR(CZ) KSK2043105 Grant - others:EU(XE) HPRI-CT-1999-00053; RFBR(RU) 02-02-16966; IAEA(XE) 11655/RBF; INTAS(XX) 01-0572 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100523; CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : laser produced plasma * three-frame interferometry * macroparticle * single and double targets * crater * shock wave * laser energy absorption Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 0.459, year: 2005

  14. Double Charged Surface Layers in Lead Halide Perovskite Crystals

    KAUST Repository

    Sarmah, Smritakshi P.

    2017-02-01

    Understanding defect chemistry, particularly ion migration, and its significant effect on the surface’s optical and electronic properties is one of the major challenges impeding the development of hybrid perovskite-based devices. Here, using both experimental and theoretical approaches, we demonstrated that the surface layers of the perovskite crystals may acquire a high concentration of positively charged vacancies with the complementary negatively charged halide ions pushed to the surface. This charge separation near the surface generates an electric field that can induce an increase of optical band gap in the surface layers relative to the bulk. We found that the charge separation, electric field, and the amplitude of shift in the bandgap strongly depend on the halides and organic moieties of perovskite crystals. Our findings reveal the peculiarity of surface effects that are currently limiting the applications of perovskite crystals and more importantly explain their origins, thus enabling viable surface passivation strategies to remediate them.

  15. Improving Breakdown Behavior by Substrate Bias in a Novel Double Epi-layer Lateral Double Diffused MOS Transistor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Qi; Wang Wei-Dong; Liu Yun; Wei Xue-Ming

    2012-01-01

    A new lateral double diffused MOS (LDMOS) transistor with a double epitaxial layer formed by an n-type substrate and a p-type epitaxial layer is reported (DEL LDMOS). The mechanism of the improved breakdown characteristic is that the high electric field around the drain is reduced by substrate reverse bias, which causes the redistribution of the bulk electric field in the drift region, and the vertical blocking voltage is shared by the drain side and the source side. The numerical results indicate that the trade-off between breakdown voltage and on-resistance of the proposed device is improved greatly in comparison to that of the conventional LDMOS. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  16. Numerical simulation of white double-layer coating with different submicron particles on the spectral reflectance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chai, Jiale; Cheng, Qiang; Si, Mengting; Su, Yang; Zhou, Yifan; Song, Jinlin

    2017-01-01

    The spectral selective coating is becoming more and more popular against solar irradiation not only in keeping the coated objects stay cool but also retain the appearance of the objects by reducing the glare of reflected sunlight. In this work a numerical study is investigated to design the double-layer coating with different submicron particles to achieve better performance both in thermal and aesthetic aspects. By comparison, the performance of double-layer coating with TiO 2 and ZnO particles is better than that with single particles. What's more, the particle diameter, volume fraction of particle as well as substrate condition is also investigated. The results show that an optimized double-layer coating with particles should be the one with an appropriate particle diameter, volume fraction and the black substrate. - Highlights: • The double-layer coating has a great influence on both thermal and aesthetic aspects. • The double-layer coating performs better than the uniform one with single particles. • The volume fraction, particle diameter and substrate conditions are optimized.

  17. Double-layer anti-reflection coating containing a nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide layer for GaAs solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tianshu; Wang, Xiaodong; Liu, Wen; Shi, Yanpeng; Yang, Fuhua

    2013-07-29

    Multilayer anti-reflection (AR) coatings can be used to improve the efficiency of Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) solar cells. We propose an alternate method to obtain optical thin films with specified refractive indices, which is using a self-assembled nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) template as an optical thin film whose effective refractive index can be tuned by pore-widening. Different kinds of double-layer AR coatings each containing an AAO layer were designed and investigated by finite difference time domain (FDTD) method. We demonstrate that a λ /4n - λ /4n AR coating consisting of a TiO(2) layer and an AAO layer whose effective refractive index is 1.32 realizes a 96.8% light absorption efficiency of the GaAs solar cell under AM1.5 solar spectrum (400 nm-860 nm). We also have concluded some design principles of the double-layer AR coating containing an AAO layer for GaAs solar cells.

  18. Controlled ultraviolet (UV) photoinitiated fabrication of monolithic porous layer open tubular (monoPLOT) capillary columns for chromatographic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, David A; Nesterenko, Ekaterina P; Brabazon, Dermot; Paull, Brett

    2012-04-03

    An automated column fabrication technique that is based on a ultraviolet (UV) light-emitting diode (LED) array oven, and provides precisely controlled "in-capillary" ultraviolet (UV) initiated polymerization at 365 nm, is presented for the production of open tubular monolithic porous polymer layer capillary (monoPLOT) columns of varying length, inner diameter (ID), and porous layer thickness. The developed approach allows the preparation of columns of varying length, because of an automated capillary delivery approach, with precisely controlled and uniform layer thickness and monolith morphology, from controlled UV power and exposure time. The relationships between direct exposure times, intensity, and layer thickness were determined, as were the effects of capillary delivery rate (indirect exposure rate), and multiple exposures on the layer thickness and axial distribution. Layer thickness measurements were taken by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), with the longitudinal homogeneity of the stationary phase confirmed using scanning capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection (sC(4)D). The new automated UV polymerization technique presented in this work allows the fabrication of monoPLOT columns with a very high column-to-column production reproducibility, displaying a longitudinal phase thickness variation within ±0.8% RSD (relative standard deviation).

  19. Double-layered ZnO nanostructures for efficient perovskite solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Mahmood, Khalid

    2014-01-01

    To date, a single layer of TiO2 or ZnO has been the most successful implementations of any electron transport layer (ETL) in solution-processed perovskite solar cells. In a quest to improve the ETL, we explore a new nanostructured double-layer ZnO film for mesoscopic perovskite-based thin film photovoltaics. This approach yields a maximum power conversion efficiency of 10.35%, which we attribute to the morphology of oxide layer and to faster electron transport. The successful implementation of the low-temperature hydrothermally processed double-layer ZnO film as ETL in perovskite solar cells highlights the opportunities to further improve the efficiencies by focusing on the ETL in this rapidly developing field. This journal is

  20. Double-layered ZnO nanostructures for efficient perovskite solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Khalid; S. Swain, Bhabani; Amassian, Aram

    2014-11-01

    To date, a single layer of TiO2 or ZnO has been the most successful implementations of any electron transport layer (ETL) in solution-processed perovskite solar cells. In a quest to improve the ETL, we explore a new nanostructured double-layer ZnO film for mesoscopic perovskite-based thin film photovoltaics. This approach yields a maximum power conversion efficiency of 10.35%, which we attribute to the morphology of oxide layer and to faster electron transport. The successful implementation of the low-temperature hydrothermally processed double-layer ZnO film as ETL in perovskite solar cells highlights the opportunities to further improve the efficiencies by focusing on the ETL in this rapidly developing field.

  1. Convective transport in a porous medium layer saturated with a Maxwell nanofluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.C. Umavathi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A linear and weakly non-linear stability analys is has been carried out to study the onset of convection in a horizontal layer of a porous medium saturated with a Maxwell nanofluid. To simulate the momentum equation in porous media, a modified Darcy–Maxwell nanofluid model incorporating the effects of Brownian motion and thermophoresis has been used. A Galerkin method has been employed to investigate the stationary and oscillatory convections; the stability boundaries for these cases are approximated by simple and useful analytical expressions. The stability of the system is investigated by varying various parameters viz., nanoparticle concentration Rayleigh number, Lewis number, modified diffusivity ratio, porosity, thermal capacity ratio, viscosity ratio, conductivity ratio, Vadász number and relaxation parameter. A representation of Fourier series method has been used to study the heat and mass transport on the non-linear stability analysis. The effect of transient heat and mass transport on various parameters is also studied. It is found that for stationary convection Lewis number, viscosity ratio and conductivity ratio have a stabilizing effect while nanoparticle concentration Rayleigh number Rn destabilizes the system. For oscillatory convection we observe that the conductivity ratio stabilizes the system whereas nanoparticle concentration Rayleigh number, Lewis number, Vadász number and relaxation parameter destabilize the system. The viscosity ratio increases the thermal Rayleigh number for oscillatory convection initially thus delaying the onset of convection and later decreases thus advancing the onset of convection hence showing a dual effect. For steady finite amplitude motions, the heat and mass transport decreases with an increase in the values of nanoparticle concentration Rayleigh number, Lewis number, viscosity ratio and conductivity ratio. The mass transport increases with an increase in Vadász number and relaxation

  2. Double-layer versus single-layer bone-patellar tendon-bone anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: a prospective randomized study with 3-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Xiaoliang; Zhang, Zhenxiang; Yang, Jingwen

    2016-12-01

    To evaluate the clinical results of a randomized controlled trial of single-layer versus double-layer bone-patellar tendon-bone (BPTB) anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. Fifty-eight subjects who underwent primary ACL reconstruction with a BPTB allograft were prospectively randomized into two groups: single-layer reconstruction (n = 31) and double-layer reconstruction (n = 27). The following evaluation methods were used: clinical examination, KT-1000 arthrometer measurement, muscle strength, Tegner activity score, Lysholm score, subjective rating scale regarding patient satisfaction and sports performance level, graft retear, contralateral ACL tear, and additional meniscus surgery. Forty-eight subjects (24 in single-layer group and 24 in double-layer group) who were followed up for 3 years were evaluated. Preoperatively, there were no differences between the groups. At 3-year follow-up, the Lachman and pivot-shift test results were better in the double-layer group (P = 0.019 and P reconstruction, double-layer BPTB reconstruction was significantly better than single-layer reconstruction regarding anterior and rotational stability at 3-year follow-up. The results of KT measurements and the Lachman and pivot-shift tests were significantly better in the double-layer group, whereas there was no difference in the anterior drawer test results. The Tegner score was also better in the double-layer group; however, there were no differences in the other subjective findings.

  3. Atomic layer deposition TiO{sub 2} coated porous silicon surface: Structural characterization and morphological features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iatsunskyi, Igor, E-mail: igoyat@amu.edu.pl [NanoBioMedical Centre, Adam Mickiewicz University, 85 Umultowska str., 61-614, Poznan (Poland); Department of Experimental Physics, Odessa National I.I. Mechnikov University, 42, Pastera str., 65023 Odessa (Ukraine); Jancelewicz, Mariusz; Nowaczyk, Grzegorz [NanoBioMedical Centre, Adam Mickiewicz University, 85 Umultowska str., 61-614, Poznan (Poland); Kempiński, Mateusz [NanoBioMedical Centre, Adam Mickiewicz University, 85 Umultowska str., 61-614, Poznan (Poland); Faculty of Physics, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 85, 61-614 Poland (Poland); Peplińska, Barbara [NanoBioMedical Centre, Adam Mickiewicz University, 85 Umultowska str., 61-614, Poznan (Poland); Department of Macromolecular Physics, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 85, 61-614 Poznan (Poland); Jarek, Marcin; Załęski, Karol [NanoBioMedical Centre, Adam Mickiewicz University, 85 Umultowska str., 61-614, Poznan (Poland); Jurga, Stefan [NanoBioMedical Centre, Adam Mickiewicz University, 85 Umultowska str., 61-614, Poznan (Poland); Department of Macromolecular Physics, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 85, 61-614 Poznan (Poland); Smyntyna, Valentyn [Department of Experimental Physics, Odessa National I.I. Mechnikov University, 42, Pastera str., 65023 Odessa (Ukraine)

    2015-08-31

    TiO{sub 2} thin films were grown on highly-doped p-Si (100) macro- and mesoporous structures by atomic layer deposition (ALD) using TiCl{sub 4} and deionized water as precursors at 300 °C. The crystalline structure, chemical composition, and morphology of the deposited films and initial silicon nanostructures were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, micro-Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The mean size of TiO{sub 2} crystallites was determined by TEM, XRD and Raman spectroscopy. It was shown that the mean crystallite size and the crystallinity of the TiO{sub 2} are influenced dramatically by the morphology of the porous silicon, with the mesoporous silicon resulting in a much finer grain size and amorphous structure than the macroporous silicon having a partially crystal anatase phase. A simple model of the ALD layer growth inside the pores was presented. - Highlights: • The morphology and chemical composition of TiO{sub 2} and porous Si were established. • The approximate size of TiO{sub 2} nanocrystals was estimated. • The model of the atomic layer deposition coating in the porous Si was presented.

  4. Application of double-layered skin phantoms for optical flow imaging during laser tattoo treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byeong-il; Song, Woosub; Kim, Hyejin; Kang, Hyun Wook

    2016-05-01

    The feasible application of double-layered skin phantoms was evaluated to identify artificial blood flow with a Doppler optical coherence tomography (DOCT) system for laser tattoo treatments. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) was used to fabricate the artificial phantoms with flow channels embedded. A double-integrating sphere system with an inverse adding-doubling method quantified both the absorption and the reduced scattering coefficients for epidermis and dermis phantoms. Both OCT and caliper measurements confirmed the double-layered phantom structure (epidermis = 136 ± 17 µm vs. dermis = 3.0 ± 0.1 mm). The DOCT method demonstrated that high flow rates were associated with high image contrast, visualizing the position and the shape of the flow channel. Application of the channel-embedded skin phantoms in conjunction with DOCT can be a reliable technique to assess dynamic variations in the blood flow during and after laser tattoo treatments.

  5. Conditions for double layers in the earth's magnetosphere and perhaps in other astrophysical objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, L. R.

    1987-01-01

    It is suggested that the features which govern the formation of the double layers are: (1) the divergence of the magnetospheric electric field, (2) the ionospheric conductivity, and (3) the current-voltage characteristics of auroral magnetic field lines. Also considered are conditions in other astrophysical objects that could lead to the formation of DLs in a manner analogous to what occurs in the earth's auroral zones. It is noted that two processes can drive divergent Pedersen currents within a collisional conducting layer: (1) sheared plasma flow applied anywhere along the magnetic field lines connected to the conducting layer and (2) a neutral flow with shear within the conducting layer.

  6. Double-layer neutron shield design as neutron shielding application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sariyer, Demet; Küçer, Rahmi

    2018-02-01

    The shield design in particle accelerators and other high energy facilities are mainly connected to the high-energy neutrons. The deep penetration of neutrons through massive shield has become a very serious problem. For shielding to be efficient, most of these neutrons should be confined to the shielding volume. If the interior space will become limited, the sufficient thickness of multilayer shield must be used. Concrete and iron are widely used as a multilayer shield material. Two layers shield material was selected to guarantee radiation safety outside of the shield against neutrons generated in the interaction of the different proton energies. One of them was one meter of concrete, the other was iron-contained material (FeB, Fe2B and stainless-steel) to be determined shield thicknesses. FLUKA Monte Carlo code was used for shield design geometry and required neutron dose distributions. The resulting two layered shields are shown better performance than single used concrete, thus the shield design could leave more space in the interior shielded areas.

  7. Pellet fusion gain calculations modified by electrostatic double layers and by spin polarized nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hora, H.; Cicchitelli, L.; Elijah, J.S.; Ghatak, A.K.; Goldsworthy, M.T.; Lalousis, P.; Eliezer, S.

    1984-01-01

    All preceding hydrodynamic computations of plasmas are wrong if the thermal conductivity is essential because electronic thermal conductivity is decreased in plasma inhomogeneities due to electrostatic double layers. In the worst case, ionic conductivity remains. We compare this with a possible electronic conductivity by the fast tail of the energy distribution. Using the volume ignition for fusion gain computations, we study the increase of gain by spin-polarization of nuclei for the DT reaction especially in non-linear ranges. Gain can increase by a factor 3.1. Contents are the following: electrostatic fields and double layers in inhomogeneous plasma, change of thermal conduction by double layers, consequences for pellet fusion, gain calculation with spin polarized nuclei. (Mori, K.)

  8. Density functional theory of the electrical double layer: the RFD functional

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillespie, Dirk; Valisko, Monika; Boda, Dezso

    2005-01-01

    Density functional theory (DFT) of electrolytes is applied to the electrical double layer under a wide range of conditions. The ions are charged, hard spheres of different size and valence, and the wall creating the double layer is uncharged, weakly charged, and strongly charged. Under all conditions, the density and electrostatic potential profiles calculated using the recently proposed RFD electrostatic functional (Gillespie et al 2002 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 14 12129; 2003 Phys. Rev. E 68 031503) compare well to Monte Carlo simulations. When the wall is strongly charged, the RFD functional results agree with the results of a simpler perturbative electrostatic DFT, but the two functionals' results qualitatively disagree when the wall is uncharged or weakly charged. The RFD functional reproduces these phenomena of weakly charged double layers. It also reproduces bulk thermodynamic quantities calculated from pair correlation functions

  9. Atomic Layer Deposition Alumina-Passivated Silicon Nanowires: Probing the Transition from Electrochemical Double-Layer Capacitor to Electrolytic Capacitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaboriau, Dorian; Boniface, Maxime; Valero, Anthony; Aldakov, Dmitry; Brousse, Thierry; Gentile, Pascal; Sadki, Said

    2017-04-19

    Silicon nanowires were coated by a 1-5 nm thin alumina layer by atomic layer deposition (ALD) in order to replace poorly reproducible and unstable native silicon oxide by a highly conformal passivating alumina layer. The surface coating enabled probing the behavior of symmetric devices using such electrodes in the EMI-TFSI electrolyte, allowing us to attain a large cell voltage up to 6 V in ionic liquid, together with very high cyclability with less than 4% capacitance fade after 10 6 charge/discharge cycles. These results yielded fruitful insights into the transition between an electrochemical double-layer capacitor behavior and an electrolytic capacitor behavior. Ultimately, thin ALD dielectric coatings can be used to obtain hybrid devices exhibiting large cell voltage and excellent cycle life of dielectric capacitors, while retaining energy and power densities close to the ones displayed by supercapacitors.

  10. Porous nitrogen-enriched carbonaceous material from marine waste: chitosan-derived layered CNX catalyst for aerial oxidation of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) to 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Chitosan-derived, porous and layered nitrogen-enriched carbonaceous CNx catalyst (PLCNx) has been synthesized from marine waste and its use demonstrated in a...

  11. Accessing the biocompatibility of layered double hydroxide by intramuscular implantation: histological and microcirculation evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Cunha, Vanessa Roberta Rodrigues; de Souza, Rodrigo Barbosa; da Fonseca Martins, Ana Maria Cristina Rebello Pinto; Koh, Ivan Hong Jun; Constantino, Vera Regina Leopoldo

    2016-01-01

    Biocompatibility of layered double hydroxides (LDHs), also known as hydrotalcite-like materials or double metal hydroxides, was investigated by in vivo assays via intramuscular tablets implantation in rat abdominal wall. The tablets were composed by chloride ions intercalated into LDH of magnesium/aluminum (Mg2Al-Cl) and zinc/aluminum (Zn2Al-Cl). The antigenicity and tissue integration capacity of LDHs were assessed histologically after 7 and 28 days post-implantation. No fibrous capsule near...

  12. Megavolt parallel potentials arising from double-layer streams in the Earth's outer radiation belt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozer, F S; Bale, S D; Bonnell, J W; Chaston, C C; Roth, I; Wygant, J

    2013-12-06

    Huge numbers of double layers carrying electric fields parallel to the local magnetic field line have been observed on the Van Allen probes in connection with in situ relativistic electron acceleration in the Earth's outer radiation belt. For one case with adequate high time resolution data, 7000 double layers were observed in an interval of 1 min to produce a 230,000 V net parallel potential drop crossing the spacecraft. Lower resolution data show that this event lasted for 6 min and that more than 1,000,000 volts of net parallel potential crossed the spacecraft during this time. A double layer traverses the length of a magnetic field line in about 15 s and the orbital motion of the spacecraft perpendicular to the magnetic field was about 700 km during this 6 min interval. Thus, the instantaneous parallel potential along a single magnetic field line was the order of tens of kilovolts. Electrons on the field line might experience many such potential steps in their lifetimes to accelerate them to energies where they serve as the seed population for relativistic acceleration by coherent, large amplitude whistler mode waves. Because the double-layer speed of 3100  km/s is the order of the electron acoustic speed (and not the ion acoustic speed) of a 25 eV plasma, the double layers may result from a new electron acoustic mode. Acceleration mechanisms involving double layers may also be important in planetary radiation belts such as Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune, in the solar corona during flares, and in astrophysical objects.

  13. Near-infrared electroluminescence from double-emission-layers devices based on Ytterbium (III) complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zhefeng; Zhang Hongjie; Yu Jiangbo

    2012-01-01

    We investigated near-infrared electroluminescence properties of two lanthanide complexes Yb(PMBP) 3 Bath [PMBP = tris(1-phenyl-3-methyl-4-(4-tert-butylbenzacyl)-5-pyrazolone); Bath = bathophenanthroline] and Yb(PMIP) 3 TP 2 [PMIP = tris(1-phenyl-3-methyl-4-isobutyryl-5-pyrazolone); TP = triphenyl phosphine oxide] by fabricated the double-emission-layers devices. From the device characteristics, it is known that holes are easier to transport in Yb(PMIP) 3 TP 2 layer and electrons are easier to transport in Yb(PMBP) 3 Bath layer, at the same time, both of the two complexes can be acted as emission layers in the device. The recombination region of carriers has been confined in the interface of Yb(PMIP) 3 TP 2 /Yb(PMBP) 3 Bath, and pure Yb 3+ ion characteristic emission centered at 980 nm has been obtained. The device shows the maximum near-infrared irradiance as 14.7 mW/m 2 at the applied voltage of 17.8 V. - Highlights: ► Near-infrared electroluminescent devices with Yb(III) complexes as emission layers. ► Double-emission layer device structure introduced to balance carriers. ► Improved performance of double-emission layer device.

  14. Mg/Al Ordering in Layered Double Hydroxides Revealed by Multinuclear NMR Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ulla Gro; Grey, Clare P.; Sideris, Paul J.

    2008-01-01

    The anion- exchange ability of layered double hydroxides ( LDHs) has been exploited to create materials for use in catalysis, drug delivery, and environmental remediation. The specific cation arrangements in the hydroxide layers of hydrotalcite- like LDHs, of general formula Mg1-x2+Alx3+OH2(Anion...... and aluminum distribution. These data, in combination with H-1-Al-27 double- resonance and Mg-25 triple- quantum MAS NMR data, show that the cations are fully ordered for magnesium: aluminum ratios of 2:1 and that at lower aluminum content, a nonrandom distribution of cations persists, with no Al3+-Al3+ close...

  15. Double-Layered Lateral Meniscus in an 8-Year-Old Child: Report of a Rare Case

    OpenAIRE

    Araki, Susumu; Kubo, Mitsuhiko; Kumagai, Kosuke; Imai, Shinji

    2016-01-01

    Reports of congenital abnormalities of the lateral meniscus include discoid meniscus, accessory meniscus, double-layered meniscus, and ring-shaped meniscus. Particularly, only a few cases of double-layered meniscus have been reported. We report a case of double-layered lateral meniscus, in which an additional semicircular meniscus was observed under the normal lateral meniscus. The accessory hemimeniscus was resected by means of arthroscopic surgery. This case demonstrates an interesting and ...

  16. Expanded graphite—Phenolic resin composites based double layer microwave absorber for X-band applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogoi, Jyoti Prasad; Bhattacharyya, Nidhi Saxena

    2014-11-01

    In this investigation, double layer microwave absorbers are designed and developed with paired combination of 5 wt. %, 7 wt. %, 8 wt. %, and 10 wt. % expanded graphite-novolac phenolic resin (EG-NPR) composites, in the frequency range of 8.2-12.4 GHz. The thickness and compositional combination of the two layers constituting the absorber are optimized to achieve minimum value of reflection loss (dB) and a broad microwave absorption bandwidth. Double layer combinations showing -25 dB absorption bandwidth >2 GHz and -30 dB absorption bandwidth >1 GHz are chosen for fabrication. The total thickness of the fabricated double layer microwave absorber is varied from 3 mm to 3.4 mm. Absorption bandwidths at -10 dB, -20 dB, -25 dB and -30 dB are determined for the fabricated structure. The maximum -25 dB and -30 dB absorption bandwidth of 2.47 GHz and 1.77 GHz, respectively, are observed for the double layer structure with (5 wt. %-8 wt. %) EG-NPR composites with total thickness of 3.2 mm, while -10 dB bandwidth covers the entire X-band range.

  17. Modified Shrinking Core Model for Atomic Layer Deposition of TiO2 on Porous Alumina with Ultrahigh Aspect Ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Inhye; Leem, Jina; Lee, Hooyong; Min, Yosep

    2013-01-01

    When atomic layer deposition (ALD) is performed on a porous material by using an organometallic precursor, minimum exposure time of the precursor for complete coverage becomes much longer since the ALD is limited by Knudsen diffusion in the pores. In the previous report by Min et al. (Ref. 23), shrinking core model (SCM) was proposed to predict the minimum exposure time of diethylzinc for ZnO ALD on a porous cylindrical alumina monolith. According to the SCM, the minimum exposure time of the precursor is influenced by volumetric density of adsorption sites, effective diffusion coefficient, precursor concentration in gas phase and size of the porous monolith. Here we modify the SCM in order to consider undesirable adsorption of byproduct molecules. TiO 2 ALD was performed on the cylindrical alumina monolith by using titanium tetrachloride (TiCl 4 ) and water. We observed that the byproduct (i. e., HCl) of TiO 2 ALD can chemically adsorb on adsorption sites, unlike the behavior of the byproduct (i. e., ethane) of ZnO ALD. Consequently, the minimum exposure time of TiCl 4 (∼16 min) was significantly much shorter than that (∼71 min) of DEZ. The predicted minimum exposure time by the modified SCM well agrees with the observed time. In addition, the modified SCM gives an effective diffusion coefficient of TiCl 4 of ∼1.78 Χ 10 -2 cm 2 /s in the porous alumina monolith

  18. Synthesis of Mesoporous Silica@Co–Al Layered Double Hydroxide Spheres: Layer-by-Layer Method and Their Effects on the Flame Retardancy of Epoxy Resins

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Shu-Dong; Bai, Zhi-Man; Tang, Gang; Song, Lei; Stec, Anna A; Hull, T Richard; Hu, Yuan; Hu, Wei-Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Hierarchical mesoporous silica@Co–Al layered double hydroxide (m-SiO2@Co–Al LDH) spheres were prepared through a layer-by-layer assembly process, in order to integrate their excellent physical and chemical functionalities. TEM results depicted that, due to the electrostatic potential difference between m-SiO2 and Co–Al LDH, the synthetic m-SiO2@Co–Al LDH hybrids exhibited that m-SiO2 spheres were packaged by the Co–Al LDH nanosheets. Subsequently, the m-SiO2@Co–Al LDH spheres were incorporate...

  19. Two-Dimensional Layered Double Hydroxide Derived from Vermiculite Waste Water Supported Highly Dispersed Ni Nanoparticles for CO Methanation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panpan Li

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Expanded multilayered vermiculite (VMT was successfully used as catalyst support and Ni/VMT synthesized by microwave irradiation assisted synthesis (MIAS exhibited excellent performance in our previous work. We also developed a two-dimensional porous SiO2 nanomesh (2D VMT-SiO2 by mixed-acid etching of VMT. Compared with three-dimensional (3D MCM-41, 2D VMT-SiO2 as a catalyst support provided a superior position for implantation of NiO species and the as-obtained catalyst exhibited excellent performance. In this paper, we successfully synthesized a layered double hydroxide (LDH using the spent liquor after mixed-acid etching of VMT, which mainly contained Mg2+ and Al3+. The as-calcined layered double oxide (LDO was used as a catalyst support for CO methanation. Compared with Ni/MgAl-LDO, Ni/VMT-LDO had smaller active component particles; therefore, in this study, it exhibited excellent catalytic performance over the whole temperature range of 250–500 °C. Ni/VMT-LDO achieved the best activity with 87.88% CO conversion, 89.97% CH4 selectivity, and 12.47 × 10−2·s−1 turn over frequency (TOF at 400 °C under a gas hourly space velocity of 20,000 mL/g/h. This study demonstrated that VMT-LDO as a catalyst support provided an efficient way to develop high-performance catalysts for synthetic natural gas (SNG from syngas.

  20. Functionalized layered double hydroxide-based epoxy nanocomposites with improved flame retardancy and mechanical properties

    OpenAIRE

    Ehsan Naderi Kalali; Xin Wanga; De-Yi Wang

    2015-01-01

    Functionalized layered double hydroxides (LDHs) based on a multi-modifier system composed of hydroxypropyl-sulfobutyl-beta-cyclodextrin sodium (sCD), dodecylbenzenesulfonate (DBS) and taurine (T) have been designed and fabricated in this paper, aiming at developing high performance fire retardant epoxy nanocomposites. In this multi-modifier system, sCD was utilized to improve the char yield, DBS was used to enlarge the inter-layer distance of LDH and T was used to enhance the interaction betw...

  1. Observation of negative potential depression on double layer during a phase of current disruption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, H.; Matsuo, K.; Yagura, S.

    1984-01-01

    The negative potential depression with a depth of approximately electron temperature is observed on the low potential tail of the double layer just at the moment when the electron current passing through the layer is disrupted. The depression is confirmed to serve as an electron thermal barrier and form an ion hole from phase-space measurements of electrons and ions, respectively. The depth of the depression becomes maximum when the density around the depression becomes most inhomogeneous. (author)

  2. Theoretical Study of Monolayer and Double-Layer Waveguide Love Wave Sensors for Achieving High Sensitivity

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Shuangming; Wan, Ying; Fan, Chunhai; Su, Yan

    2017-01-01

    Love wave sensors have been widely used for sensing applications. In this work, we introduce the theoretical analysis of the monolayer and double-layer waveguide Love wave sensors. The velocity, particle displacement and energy distribution of Love waves were analyzed. Using the variations of the energy repartition, the sensitivity coefficients of Love wave sensors were calculated. To achieve a higher sensitivity coefficient, a thin gold layer was added as the second waveguide on top of the s...

  3. Fabricating solid carbon porous electrodes from powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaschmitter, James L.; Tran, Tri D.; Feikert, John H.; Mayer, Steven T.

    1997-01-01

    Fabrication of conductive solid porous carbon electrodes for use in batteries, double layer capacitors, fuel cells, capacitive dionization, and waste treatment. Electrodes fabricated from low surface area (Electrodes having a higher surface area, fabricated from powdered carbon blacks, such as carbon aerogel powder, carbon aerogel microspheres, activated carbons, etc. yield high conductivity carbon compositives with excellent double layer capacity, and can be used in double layer capacitors, or for capacitive deionization and/or waste treatment of liquid streams. By adding metallic catalysts to be high surface area carbons, fuel cell electrodes can be produced.

  4. Single-layer versus double-layer laparoscopic intracorporeally sutured gastrointestinal anastomoses in the canine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakoli, Azine; Bakhtiari, Jalal; Khalaj, Ali Reza; Gharagozlou, Mohammad Javad; Veshkini, Abbas

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the gross and histopathologic changes following 1- versus 2-layer hand-sewn suture techniques in laparoscopic gastrointestinal anastomosis in dogs. This was an experimental prospective study of 16 healthy mixed breed male and female dogs. Animals were randomly divided into 2 groups. Two-layer side-to-side hand-sewn laparoscopic gastrojejunostomies were performed in group A, so that simple interrupted sutures were placed in the outer layer and simple continuous suture was used in the inner layer. The 1-layer simple continuous anastomosis between the stomach and jejunum was done in group B precisely. Specimen were collected from the sites of anastomosis, and H&E statining was performed for light microscopic studies. All animals survived the surgery. There was no gross inflammation, ischemia, apparent granulation tissue, abscess or fistula formation, leakage or stricture formation, and all sites of anastomosis were patent. Several adhesion formations were found in the abdomen with the higher incidence in the control group. Mean scores of leukocyte infiltration and granulation tissue formation at the sites of anastomosis were statistically insignificant between groups (P>0.05). Gross and histopathologic findings revealed that hand-sewn laparoscopic gastrointestinal anastomosis with the 1-layer suture technique is comparable to the 2-layer suture technique.

  5. Asymptotic theory of double layer and shielding of electric field at the edge of illuminated plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benilov, M. S. [Departamento de Física, CCCEE, Universidade da Madeira, Largo do Município, 9000 Funchal (Portugal); Thomas, D. M. [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2BW (United Kingdom)

    2014-04-15

    The method of matched asymptotic expansions is applied to the problem of a collisionless plasma generated by UV illumination localized in a central part of the plasma in the limiting case of small Debye length λ{sub D}. A second-approximation asymptotic solution is found for the double layer positioned at the boundary of the illuminated region and for the un-illuminated plasma for the plane geometry. Numerical calculations for different values of λ{sub D} are reported and found to confirm the asymptotic results. The net integral space charge of the double layer is asymptotically small, although in the plane geometry it is just sufficient to shield the ambipolar electric field existing in the illuminated region and thus to prevent it from penetrating into the un-illuminated region. The double layer has the same mathematical nature as the intermediate transition layer separating an active plasma and a collisionless sheath, and the underlying physics is also the same. In essence, the two layers represent the same physical object: a transonic layer.

  6. Hierarchical Supervisor and Agent Routing Algorithm in LEO/MEO Double-layered Optical Satellite Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongjun; Zhao, Shanghong

    2016-09-01

    A novel routing algorithm (Hierarchical Supervisor and Agent Routing Algorithm, HSARA) for LEO/MEO (low earth orbit/medium earth orbit) double-layered optical satellite network is brought forward. The so-called supervisor (MEO satellite) is designed for failure recovery and network management. LEO satellites are grouped according to the virtual managed field of MEO which is different from coverage area of MEO satellite in RF satellite network. In each LEO group, one LEO satellite which has maximal persistent link with its supervisor is called the agent. A LEO group is updated when this optical inter-orbit links between agent LEO satellite and the corresponding MEO satellite supervisor cuts off. In this way, computations of topology changes and LEO group updating can be decreased. Expense of routing is integration of delay and wavelength utilization. HSARA algorithm simulations are implemented and the results are as follows: average network delay of HSARA can reduce 21 ms and 31.2 ms compared with traditional multilayered satellite routing and single-layer LEO satellite respectively; LEO/MEO double-layered optical satellite network can cover polar region which cannot be covered by single-layered LEO satellite and throughput is 1% more than that of single-layered LEO satellite averagely. Therefore, exact global coverage can be achieved with this double-layered optical satellite network.

  7. Novel approach for III-N on Si (111) templates fabrication by low-temperature PA MBE using porous Si layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolotukhin, D.; Seredin, P.; Lenshin, A.; Goloshchapov, D.; Mizerov, A.

    2017-11-01

    We report on successful growth of GaN nanorods by low-temperature plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy on a Si(111) substrate with and without preformed thin porous Si layer (por-Si). The deposited GaN initially forms islands which act as a seed for the wires. Porous structure of the por-Si layer helps to control nucleation islands sizes and achieve homogeneous distribution of the nanorods diameters. In addition 850 nm-thick crack-free GaN layer was formed on Si(111) substrate with preformed por-Si layer.

  8. Probing the electric field in organic double layer-system by optical second harmonic generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Eunju; Shibata, Yoshinori; Manaka, Takaaki [Department of Physical Electronics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 O-okayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8552 (Japan); Iwamoto, Mitsumasa, E-mail: iwamoto@ome.pe.titech.ac.j [Department of Physical Electronics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 O-okayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8552 (Japan)

    2009-11-30

    Optical electric field induced second harmonic generation (EFISHG) measurements were employed to probe the electric field in the active layer of organic field effect transistors (OFETs) and organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs). The OFETs used were double-layered with an active layer of pentacene/poly (3-hexyl thiophene) P3HT on SiO{sub 2} gate insulator with Au source and drain electrodes. It was shown that SHG from the P3HT bottom layer could be selectively probed at a wavelength of 450 nm. Similarly, by using OLEDs comprised of a double layer of Tris(8-hydroxyquinolinato) aluminium (Alq{sub 3}) and N'-di(1-naphthyl)-N,N'-diphenylbenzidine ({alpha}-NPD) with a device structure of indium-zinc oxide (IZO)/{alpha}-NPD/Alq{sub 3}/Al, it was shown that EFISHG from the Alq{sub 3} layer could be selectively probed at a wavelength of 1000 nm by reflective laser beam irradiation from IZO-side. The results show that the spectroscopic nature of materials allows us to selectively probe the electric field distribution in each layer of multi-layer in organic devices.

  9. Improved Efficiency of Polymer Solar Cells by means of Coating Hole Transporting Layer as Double Layer Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chonsut, T.; Kayunkid, N.; Rahong, S.; Rangkasikorn, A.; Wirunchit, S.; Kaewprajak, A.; Kumnorkaew, P.; Nukeaw, J.

    2017-09-01

    Polymer solar cells is one of the promising technologies that gain tremendous attentions in the field of renewable energy. Optimization of thickness for each layer is an important factor determining the efficiency of the solar cells. In this work, the optimum thickness of Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythione): poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS), a famous polymer widely used as hole transporting layer in polymer solar cells, is determined through the analyzing of device’s photovoltaic parameters, e.g. short circuit current density (Jsc), open circuit voltage (Voc), fill factor (FF) as well as power conversion efficiency (PCE). The solar cells were prepared with multilayer of ITO/PEDOT:PSS/PCDTBT:PC70BM/TiOx/Al by rapid convective deposition. In such preparation technique, the thickness of the thin film is controlled by the deposition speed. The faster deposition speed is used, the thicker film is obtained. Furthermore, double layer deposition of PEDOT:PSS was introduced as an approach to improve solar cell efficiency. The results obviously reveal that, with the increase of PEDOT:PSS thickness, the increments of Jsc and FF play the important role to improve PCE from 3.21% to 4.03%. Interestingly, using double layer deposition of PEDOT:PSS shows the ability to enhance the performance of the solar cells to 6.12% under simulated AM 1.5G illumination of 100 mW/cm2.

  10. Enhancement of double-layer capacitance behavior and its electrical conductivity in layered poly (3, 4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-based nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murugan, A. Vadivel; Viswanath, Annamraju Kasi; Campet, Guy; Gopinath, Chinnakonda S.; Vijayamohanan, K.

    2005-01-01

    In this letter, we report on the enhanced double-layer capacitance of a layered poly (3, 4-ethylene dioxythiophene) PEDOT-MoO 3 nanocomposite, which has been synthesized by a novel microwave irradiation method. The x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis shows the changes in electron density and the shift in binding energy suggesting charge transfer from sulfur atoms upon PEDOT intercalation between MoO 3 layers. The room-temperature conductivity for the PEDOT-MoO 3 composite is found to be 1.82x10 -1 S cm -1 , which is four orders of magnitude higher than that of the pristine oxide (3.78x10 -5 S cm -1 ). The enhanced double-layer capacitance of the PEDOT-MoO 3 nanocomposite (∼300 F g -1 ) compared to that (∼40 mF g -1 ) of pristine MoO 3 is attributed to higher electronic conductivity, enhanced bidimensionality, and increase in surface area of the nanocomposite

  11. Investigation of the porous structure of glassy carbon by SAXS - an application of synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braun, A.; Baertsch, M.; Schnyder, B.; Koetz, R.; Haas, O. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1999-08-01

    The porous structure of Electrochemical Double Layer Capacitor (EDC) Electrodes was investigated using Small Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS), assuming logarithmically normal distributed micropores. (author) 2 figs., 1 ref.

  12. Synthesis and Properties of Layered Organic-inorganic Hybrid Material: Zn-Al Layered Double Hydroxide-dioctyl Sulfosuccinate Nanocomposite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Zobir bin Hussein; Tan Kim Hwa

    2000-01-01

    A layered organic-inorganic hybrid nanocomposite was prepared by using a surfactant, dioctyl sulphosuccinate (DSS) as a guest in Zn-Al layered double hydroxide (LDH) inorganic host by a self-assembly technique. The Zn-Al ratio of the mother liquor was kept constant at 4 at the beginning of the synthesis. Powder X-ray diffractogram shows that the basal spacing of the Zn-Al LDH with sulphate as the intergallery anion (ZASUL) expanded from 11.0 to 26.3 A to accommodate the DSS surfactant anion for the formation of the Zn-Al LDH-DSS layered organic-inorganic hybrid nanocomposite (ZADON). It was also found that the BET surface area reduced by about 90%, from 22.5 to 2.2 m 2 /g, for ZASUL and ZADON, respectively if 0.1 M DSS was used for the synthesis of the latter

  13. Interstratified nanohybrid assembled by alternating cationic layered double hydroxide nanosheets and anionic layered titanate nanosheets with superior photocatalytic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Bizhou; Sun, Ping; Zhou, Yi; Jiang, Shaofeng; Gao, Bifen; Chen, Yilin

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Two kinds of nanosheets are well arranged in a layer-by-layer alternating fashion. • Effective interfacial heterojunction and high specific surface were observed. • Interstratified nanohybrid exhibits a superior photocatalytic activity. - Abstract: Oppositely charged 2D inorganic nanosheets of ZnAl-layered double hydroxide and layered titanate were successfully assembled into an interstratified nanohybrid through simply mixing the corresponding nanosheet suspensions. Powder X-ray diffraction and high-resolution transmission electron microscope clearly revealed that the component nanosheets in the as-obtained nanohybrid ZnAl–Ti 3 O 7 retain the 2D sheet skeletons of the pristine materials and that the two kinds of nanosheets are well arranged in a layer-by-layer alternating fashion with a basal spacing of about 1.3 nm, coincident with the thickness summation of the two component nanosheets. The effective interfacial heterojunction between them and the high specific surface area resulted in that the nanohybrid exhibits a superior photocatalytic activity in the degradation of methylene blue with a reaction constant k of 2.81 × 10 −2 min −1 , which is about 9 and 4 times higher than its precursors H 2 Ti 3 O 7 and ZnAl-LDH, respectively. Based on UV–vis, XPS and photoelectrochemical measurements, a proposed photoexcitation model was provided to understand its photocatalytic behavior

  14. Formation of Layered Double Hydroxides on Alumina Surface in Aqueous Solutions Containing Divalent Metal Cations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kovanda, F.; Mašátová, P.; Novotná, P.; Jirátová, Květa

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 4 (2009), s. 425-432 ISSN 0009-8604 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA104/07/1400 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : deposition * layered double hydroxides * supported mixed oxides Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 1.431, year: 2009

  15. Facile preparation of layered double hydroxide/MoS{sub 2}/poly(vinyl alcohol) composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Keqing, E-mail: zhoukq@cug.edu.cn [Faculty of Engineering, China University of Geosciences (Wuhan), 388 Lumo Road, Wuhan, Hubei, 430074 (China); Hu, Yixin [Department of Chemistry, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Liu, Jiajia [State Key Laboratory of Fire Science, University of Science and Technology of China, 96 Jinzhai Road, Hefei, Anhui, 230026 (China); Gui, Zhou, E-mail: zgui@ustc.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Fire Science, University of Science and Technology of China, 96 Jinzhai Road, Hefei, Anhui, 230026 (China); Jiang, Saihua [School of Mechanical and Automotive Engineering, South China University of Technology, Wushan Road 381, Guangzhou, 510641 (China); Tang, Gang [School of Architecture and Civil Engineering, Anhui University of Technology, 59 Hudong Road, Ma' anshan, Anhui, 243002 (China)

    2016-08-01

    In present study, the layered double hydroxide/MoS{sub 2} hybrids are facilely synthesized by self-assembly of exfoliated MoS{sub 2} nanosheets and layered double hydroxide nanoplates via electrostatic interaction, with the aim of combining their physical and chemical functionalities to form a promising nanofiller for flame retardancy in polymer composites. The structure and morphology of the layered double hydroxide/MoS{sub 2} hybrids are probed by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. Subsequently, the hybrids are incorporated into poly (vinyl alcohol) to serve as reinforcements. The flame retardant efficiency of MoS{sub 2} nanosheets in poly (vinyl alcohol) is significantly enhanced after the incorporation of layered double hydroxide nanoplates, which can be explained by the forming of a compact and uniform char during combustion. - Highlights: • The LDH/MoS{sub 2} hybrids were facilely synthesized by self-assembly method. • The flame retardant efficiency of LDH/MoS{sub 2} hybrids in PVA was significantly enhanced. • It is a promising strategy for improving the flame retardant efficiency of MoS{sub 2}.

  16. Studies on electrical double layer capacitor with a low-viscosity ionic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The performance of an electrical double layer capacitor (EDLC) composed of high surface area acti- vated carbon electrodes and a new ... of activated carbon has been achieved with stable cyclic performance. Keywords. Ionic liquid; activated carbon; ..... Academic/Plenum Publishers). Duong T Q 2003 Annual progress ...

  17. Electrical double layer at various electrode potentials: A modification by vibration

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zhan, H.; Červenka, Jiří; Prawer, S.; Garrett, D.J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 121, č. 8 (2017), s. 4760-4764 ISSN 1932-7447 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : electrical double layer * vibration * high concentration * model Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry OBOR OECD: Physical chemistry Impact factor: 4.536, year: 2016

  18. Sound field control with a circular double-layer array of loudspeakers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chang, Jiho; Jacobsen, Finn

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a method of generating a controlled sound field for listeners inside a circular array of loudspeakers without disturbing people outside the array appreciably. To achieve this objective, a double-layer array of loudspeakers is used. Several solution methods are suggested...

  19. Electric double layer transistors with ferroelectric BaTiO3 channels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ito, M.; Matsubara, Y.; Kozuka, Y.; Takahashi, K. S.; Kagawa, F.; Ye, J. T.; Iwasa, Y.; Ueno, K.; Tokura, Y.; Kawasaki, M.

    2014-01-01

    We report the surface conduction of a BaTiO3 thin film using electric double layer transistor (EDLT) structure. A transistor operation was observed at 220 K with an on/off ratio exceeding 10(5), demonstrating that ionic liquid gating is effective to induce carriers at the surface of ferroelectric

  20. Control of sound fields with a circular double-layer array of loudspeakers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chang, Jiho; Jacobsen, Finn

    2012-01-01

    by the Kirchhoff-Helmholtz integral theorem a double-layer array of loudspeakers is used. Several solution methods are suggested and examined with computer simulations: pure contrast control, pure pressure matching, and a weighted combination. In order to compare the performance of the methods two performance...

  1. Anomalous impact strength for layered double hydroxide-palmitate/poly(e-caprolactone) nanocomposites

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Moyo, Lumbidzani

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available is needed in order to transfer this potential into reality, particularly for short-term packaging applications. In this context, layered double hydroxide modified with palmitic acid (LDH-palmitate), was used as a nanoadditive to enhance the mechanical...

  2. Migration of nanosized layered double hydroxide platelets from polylactide nanocomposite films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Bjørn; Katiyar, Vimal; Plackett, David

    2011-01-01

    Melt-extruded L-polylactide (PLA) nanocomposite films were prepared from commercially available PLA and laurate-modified Mg–Al layered double hydroxide (LDH-C12). Three films were tested for total migration as well as specific migration of LDH, tin, laurate and low molecular weight PLA oligomers...

  3. The electric double layer at high surface potentials: The influence of excess ion polarizability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hatlo, M. M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/412640678; van Roij, R.H.H.G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/152978984; Lue, L.

    2012-01-01

    By including the excess ion polarizability into the Poisson-Boltzmann theory, we show that the decrease in differential capacitance with voltage, observed for metal electrodes above a threshold potential, can be understood in terms of thickening of the double layer due to ion-induced polarizability

  4. Sound field separation with a double layer velocity transducer array (L)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez Grande, Efren; Jacobsen, Finn

    2011-01-01

    of the array. The technique has been examined and compared with direct velocity based reconstruction, as well as with a technique based on the measurement of the sound pressure and particle velocity. The double layer velocity method circumvents some of the drawbacks of the pressure-velocity based...

  5. Synthesis and in situ mechanism of nuclei growth of layered double ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A host–guest material such as layered double hydroxide (LDH) has generated immense interest in current research due to its technological importance, whereby its dimension significantly affect its mechanical and other physical properties. The purpose of this study was to prepare Mg/Al-LDHs by systematically varying the ...

  6. Acetyl salicylic acid–ZnAl layered double hydroxide functional nanohybrid for skin care application

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mosangi, Damodar

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a pharmaceutically active ingredient, acetyl salicylic acid (ASA), was intercalated into ZnAl layered double hydroxide (LDH). The LDH–ASA nanohybrid material was characterized by XRD, FTIR, SEM, ICP-MS, TEM and TGA. Successful...

  7. Dust-ion-acoustic Gardner double layers in a dusty plasma with two ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The properties of dust-ion-acoustic Gardner double layers (DIA GDLs) in an unmag- netized dusty plasma, whose constituents are negatively-charged stationary dust, inertial ions, and. Boltzmann electrons of two distinct temperatures, are rigorously investigated by employing the reductive perturbation method: ...

  8. Hydrothermal Synthesis and Characterization of 3R Polytypes of Mg-Al Layered Double Hydroxides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Budhysutanto, W.N.

    2010-01-01

    Layered Double Hydroxides (LDH) is a unique group of clays that have an anionic exchange capability. This research explored the hydrothermal method as an alternative method to synthesize Mg-Al LDH. It is a simple and more environmentally friendly compared to the conventional method of

  9. Space-charge solitary waves and double layers in n-type ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S BANERJEE

    2018-02-20

    Feb 20, 2018 ... Abstract. Using quantum hydrodynamic (QHD) model and standard reductive perturbation method, we have investigated the formation and characteristics of space-charge solitary waves and double layers in n-type compen- sated drifting semiconductor plasma with varying doping profiles. Through ...

  10. Influence of self-affine roughness on Parsons-Zobel plots for electrical double layers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palasantzas, G; Backx, GMEA

    In this paper we investigate the dependence of Parsons-Zobel plots on characteristic self-affine roughness parameters of the metal electrode in electrical double layers. Among the roughness amplitude w, the correlation length xi, and roughness exponent H, the latter appears to have the most

  11. Mg-Al layered double hydroxide intercalated with porphyrin anions: molecular simulations and experiments

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kovář, P.; Pospíšil, M.; Káfuňková, Eva; Lang, Kamil; Kovanda, F.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 2 (2010), s. 223-233 ISSN 1610-2940 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA203/06/1244; GA AV ČR KAN100500651 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40320502 Keywords : layered double hydroxide * porphyrin * molecular simulations Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.871, year: 2010

  12. Small amplitude variable charge dust Bernstein-Greene-Kruskal double layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amour, Rabia [Plasma Physics Group, Theoretical Physics Laboratory, Faculty of Sciences - Physics, U.S.T.H.B, Bab-Ezzouar, B.P. 32, El Alia, Algiers 16111 (Algeria); Tribeche, Mouloud [Plasma Physics Group, Theoretical Physics Laboratory, Faculty of Sciences - Physics, U.S.T.H.B, Bab-Ezzouar, B.P. 32, El Alia, Algiers 16111 (Algeria)], E-mail: mouloud-tribeche@lycos.com

    2009-05-11

    A first theoretical attempt is made to investigate small amplitude, variable charge dust Bernstein-Greene-Kruskal (BGK) double layers (DLs). The nature of the dust BGK-DLs (compressive or rarefactive), their strength and thickness depend sensitively on the net negative charge residing on the grain surface, the dust grain dynamics and, more interestingly, on the ion-to-electron temperatures ratio.

  13. Small amplitude variable charge dust Bernstein-Greene-Kruskal double layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amour, Rabia; Tribeche, Mouloud

    2009-01-01

    A first theoretical attempt is made to investigate small amplitude, variable charge dust Bernstein-Greene-Kruskal (BGK) double layers (DLs). The nature of the dust BGK-DLs (compressive or rarefactive), their strength and thickness depend sensitively on the net negative charge residing on the grain surface, the dust grain dynamics and, more interestingly, on the ion-to-electron temperatures ratio.

  14. Inorganic layered double hydroxides as a 4-hexyl resorcinol delivery system for topical applications

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mosangi, Damodar

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the hydrophobic even skin tone active, 4-hexylresorcinol (HR), was intercalated into a zinc aluminium layered double hydroxide (ZnAl-LDH) by a co-precipitation method and used as a controlled release ingredient in skin care...

  15. Electric-Field-Induced Superconductivity Detected by Magnetization Measurements of an Electric-Double-Layer Capacitor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kasahara, Yuichi; Nishijima, Takahiro; Sato, Tatsuya; Takeuchi, Yuki; Ye, Jianting; Yuan, Hongtao; Shimotani, Hidekazu; Iwasa, Yoshihiro

    We report evidence for superconductivity induced by the application of strong electric fields onto the surface of a band insulator, ZrNCl, provided by the observation of a shielding diamagnetic signal. We introduced an electric-double-layer capacitor configuration and in situ magnetization

  16. Does electrical double layer formation lead to salt exclusion or to uptake?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lyklema, J.

    2005-01-01

    When electric double layers are formed, cases have been reported where this formation nvolves expulsion of electrolyte into the solution and cases in which electrolyte is absorbed from the solution. Both situations are experimentally and theoretically documented, but they cannot be simultaneously

  17. Theoretical Study of Monolayer and Double-Layer Waveguide Love Wave Sensors for Achieving High Sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuangming; Wan, Ying; Fan, Chunhai; Su, Yan

    2017-03-22

    Love wave sensors have been widely used for sensing applications. In this work, we introduce the theoretical analysis of the monolayer and double-layer waveguide Love wave sensors. The velocity, particle displacement and energy distribution of Love waves were analyzed. Using the variations of the energy repartition, the sensitivity coefficients of Love wave sensors were calculated. To achieve a higher sensitivity coefficient, a thin gold layer was added as the second waveguide on top of the silicon dioxide (SiO₂) waveguide-based, 36 degree-rotated, Y-cut, X-propagating lithium tantalate (36° YX LiTaO₃) Love wave sensor. The Love wave velocity was significantly reduced by the added gold layer, and the flow of wave energy into the waveguide layer from the substrate was enhanced. By using the double-layer structure, almost a 72-fold enhancement in the sensitivity coefficient was achieved compared to the monolayer structure. Additionally, the thickness of the SiO₂ layer was also reduced with the application of the gold layer, resulting in easier device fabrication. This study allows for the possibility of designing and realizing robust Love wave sensors with high sensitivity and a low limit of detection.

  18. Theoretical Study of Monolayer and Double-Layer Waveguide Love Wave Sensors for Achieving High Sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuangming Li

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Love wave sensors have been widely used for sensing applications. In this work, we introduce the theoretical analysis of the monolayer and double-layer waveguide Love wave sensors. The velocity, particle displacement and energy distribution of Love waves were analyzed. Using the variations of the energy repartition, the sensitivity coefficients of Love wave sensors were calculated. To achieve a higher sensitivity coefficient, a thin gold layer was added as the second waveguide on top of the silicon dioxide (SiO2 waveguide–based, 36 degree–rotated, Y-cut, X-propagating lithium tantalate (36° YX LiTaO3 Love wave sensor. The Love wave velocity was significantly reduced by the added gold layer, and the flow of wave energy into the waveguide layer from the substrate was enhanced. By using the double-layer structure, almost a 72-fold enhancement in the sensitivity coefficient was achieved compared to the monolayer structure. Additionally, the thickness of the SiO2 layer was also reduced with the application of the gold layer, resulting in easier device fabrication. This study allows for the possibility of designing and realizing robust Love wave sensors with high sensitivity and a low limit of detection.

  19. Design of multi-layered porous fibrous metals for optimal sound absorption in the low frequency range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjiong Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a design method for calculating and optimizing sound absorption coefficient of multi-layered porous fibrous metals (PFM in the low frequency range. PFM is simplified as an equivalent idealized sheet with all metallic fibers aligned in one direction and distributed in periodic hexagonal patterns. We use a phenomenological model in the literature to investigate the effects of pore geometrical parameters (fiber diameter and gap on sound absorption performance. The sound absorption coefficient of multi-layered PFMs is calculated using impedance translation theorem. To demonstrate the validity of the present model, we compare the predicted results with the experimental data. With the average sound absorption (low frequency range as the objective function and the fiber gaps as the design variables, an optimization method for multi-layered fibrous metals is proposed. A new fibrous layout with given porosity of multi-layered fibrous metals is suggested to achieve optimal low frequency sound absorption. The sound absorption coefficient of the optimal multi-layered fibrous metal is higher than the single-layered fibrous metal, and a significant effect of the fibrous material on sound absorption is found due to the surface porosity of the multi-layered fibrous.

  20. First steps towards the realization of a double layer perceptron based on organic memristive devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Emelyanov

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Memristors are widely considered as promising elements for the efficient implementation of synaptic weights in artificial neural networks (ANNs since they are resistors that keep memory of their previous conductive state. Whereas demonstrations of simple neural networks (e.g., a single-layer perceptron based on memristors already exist, the implementation of more complicated networks is more challenging and has yet to be reported. In this study, we demonstrate linearly nonseparable combinational logic classification (XOR logic task using a network implemented with CMOS-based neurons and organic memrisitive devices that constitutes the first step toward the realization of a double layer perceptron. We also show numerically the ability of such network to solve a principally analogue task which cannot be realized by digital devices. The obtained results prove the possibility to create a multilayer ANN based on memristive devices that paves the way for designing a more complex network such as the double layer perceptron.

  1. First steps towards the realization of a double layer perceptron based on organic memristive devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emelyanov, A. V.; Lapkin, D. A.; Demin, V. A.; Erokhin, V. V.; Battistoni, S.; Baldi, G.; Dimonte, A.; Korovin, A. N.; Iannotta, S.; Kashkarov, P. K.; Kovalchuk, M. V.

    2016-11-01

    Memristors are widely considered as promising elements for the efficient implementation of synaptic weights in artificial neural networks (ANNs) since they are resistors that keep memory of their previous conductive state. Whereas demonstrations of simple neural networks (e.g., a single-layer perceptron) based on memristors already exist, the implementation of more complicated networks is more challenging and has yet to be reported. In this study, we demonstrate linearly nonseparable combinational logic classification (XOR logic task) using a network implemented with CMOS-based neurons and organic memrisitive devices that constitutes the first step toward the realization of a double layer perceptron. We also show numerically the ability of such network to solve a principally analogue task which cannot be realized by digital devices. The obtained results prove the possibility to create a multilayer ANN based on memristive devices that paves the way for designing a more complex network such as the double layer perceptron.

  2. Nonlinear Localization due to a Double Negative Defect Layer in a One-Dimensional Photonic Crystal Containing Single Negative Material Layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, Munazza Zulfiqar; Abdullah, Tariq

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the effects of introducing a defect layer in a one-dimensional photonic crystal containing single negative material layers on the transmission properties. The width of the defect layer is taken to be the same or smaller than the period of the structure. Different cases of the defect layer being linear or nonlinear and double positive or double negative are discussed. It is found that only a nonlinear double negative layer gives rises to a localized mode within the zero-φ eff gap in this kind of structure. It is also shown that the important characteristics of the nonlinear defect mode such as its frequency, its FWHM and the threshold of the associated bistability can be controlled by changing the widths of the defect layer and the host layers

  3. Analytical and numerical stability analysis of Soret-driven convection in a horizontal porous layer: the effect of conducting bounding plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouattara, B; Khouzam, A; Mojtabi, A [Universite de Toulouse (France); INPT, UPS (France); IMFT (Institut de Mecanique des Fluides de Toulouse), Allee Camille Soula, F-31400 Toulouse (France); Charrier-Mojtabi, M C, E-mail: bouattar@imft.fr, E-mail: akhouzam@imft.fr, E-mail: mojtabi@imft.fr, E-mail: cmojtabi@cict.fr [PHASE, EA 810, UFR PCA, Universite Paul Sabatier, 118 route de Narbonne, 31062 Toulouse cedex (France)

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of conducting boundaries on the onset of convection in a binary fluid-saturated porous layer. The isotropic saturated porous layer is bounded by two impermeable but thermally conducting plates, subjected to a constant heat flux. These plates have identical conductivity. Moreover, the conductivity of the plates is generally different from the porous layer conductivity. The overall layer is of large extent in both horizontal directions. The problem is governed by seven dimensionless parameters, namely the normalized porosity of the medium {epsilon}, the ratio of plates over the porous layer thickness {delta} and their relative thermal conductivities ratio d, the separation ratio {delta}, the Lewis number Le and thermal Rayleigh number Ra. In this work, an analytical and numerical stability analysis is performed. The equilibrium solution is found to lose its stability via a stationary bifurcation or a Hopf bifurcation depending on the values of the dimensionless parameters. For the long-wavelength mode, the critical Rayleigh number is obtained as Ra{sub cs}=12(1+2d{delta} )/[1+{psi} (2d{delta}Le+Le+1)] and k{sub cs}=0 for {psi}> {psi} {sub uni}> 0. This work extends an earlier paper by Mojtabi and Rees (2011 Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 54 293-301) who considered a configuration where the porous layer is saturated by a pure fluid.

  4. Structure, composition and morphology of bioactive titanate layer on porous titanium surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinshan; Wang, Xiaohua; Hu, Rui; Kou, Hongchao

    2014-07-01

    A bioactive coating was produced on pore surfaces of porous titanium samples by an amendatory alkali-heat treatment method. Porous titanium was prepared by powder metallurgy and its porosity and average size were 45% and 135 μm, respectively. Coating morphology, coating structure and phase constituents were examined by SEM, XPS and XRD. It was found that a micro-network structure with sizes of bone-like carbonate-hydroxylapatite showing a good biocompatibility was detected on the coating surface. And the redundant Ca advanced the bioactivity of the coating. Thus, the present modification is expected to allow the use of the bioactive porous titanium as artificial bones even under load-bearing conditions.

  5. Thermal shock behavior of toughened gadolinium zirconate/YSZ double-ceramic-layered thermal barrier coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong, Xinghua; Zhao, Huayu; Zhou, Xiaming; Liu, Chenguang; Wang, Liang; Shao, Fang; Yang, Kai; Tao, Shunyan; Ding, Chuanxian

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Gd 2 Zr 2 O 7 /YSZ DCL thermal barrier coating was designed and fabricated. • The Gd 2 Zr 2 O 7 top ceramic layer was toughened by addition of nanostructured 3YSZ. • Remarkable improvement in thermal shock resistance of the DCL coating was achieved. - Abstract: Double-ceramic-layered (DCL) thermal barrier coating system comprising of toughened Gadolinium zirconate (Gd 2 Zr 2 O 7 , GZ) as the top ceramic layer and 4.5 mol% Y 2 O 3 partially-stabilized ZrO 2 (4.5YSZ) as the bottom ceramic layer was fabricated by plasma spraying and thermal shock behavior of the DCL coating was investigated. The GZ top ceramic layer was toughened by addition of nanostructured 3 mol% Y 2 O 3 partially-stabilized ZrO 2 (3YSZ) to improve fracture toughness of the matrix. The thermal shock resistance of the DCL coating was enhanced significantly compared to that of single-ceramic-layered (SCL) GZ-3YSZ composite coating, which is believed to be primarily attributed to the two factors: (i) the increase in fracture toughness of the top ceramic layer by incorporating nanostructured YSZ particles and (ii) the improvement in strain tolerance through the utilization of 4.5YSZ as the bottom ceramic layer. In addition, the failure mechanisms are mainly attributed to the still low fracture toughness of the top ceramic layer and oxidation of the bond-coat

  6. The influence of double nested layer waviness on compression strength of carbon fiber composite materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Z.M.

    1997-01-01

    As advanced composite materials having superior physical and mechanical properties are being developed, optimization of their production processes in eagerly being sought. One of the most common defect in production of structural composites is layer waviness. Layer waviness is more pronounced in thick section flat and cylindrical laminates that are extensively used in missile casings, submersibles and space platforms. Layer waviness undulates the entire layers of a multidirectional laminate in through-the-thickness direction leading to gross deterioration of its compression strength. This research investigates the influence of multiple layer waviness in a double nest formation on the compression strength of a composite laminate. Different wave fractions of wave 0 degree centigrade layer fabricated in IM/85510-7 carbon - epoxy composite laminate on a steel mold using single step fabrication procedure. The laminate was cured on a heated press according to specific curing cycle. Static compression testing was performed using NASA short block compression fixture on an MTS servo Hydraulic machine. The purpose of these tests was to determine the effects of multiple layer wave regions on the compression strength of composite laminate. The experimental and analytical results revealed that up to about 35% fraction of wave 0 degree layer exceeded 35%. This analysis indicated that the percentage of 0 degree wavy layer may be used to estimate the reduction in compression strength of a composite laminate under restricted conditions. (author)

  7. Fabrication of super slippery sheet-layered and porous anodic aluminium oxide surfaces and its anticorrosion property

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Tingting; Liu, Qi; Liu, Jingyuan; Yang, Wanlu; Chen, Rongrong; Jing, Xiaoyan; Takahashi, Kazunobu; Wang, Jun

    2015-11-01

    Inspired by natural plants such as Nepenthes pitcher plants, super slippery surfaces have been developed to improve the attributes of repellent surfaces. In this report, super slippery porous anodic aluminium oxide (AAO) surfaces have fabricated by a simple and reproducible method. Firstly, the aluminium substrates were treated by an anodic process producing micro-nano structured sheet-layered pores, and then immersed in Methyl Silicone Oil, Fluororalkylsilane (FAS) and DuPont Krytox, respectively, generating super slippery surfaces. Such a good material with excellent anti-corrosion property through a simple and repeatable method may be potential candidates for metallic application in anti-corrosion and extreme environment.

  8. Dynamic porous coordination polymer based on 2D stacked layers exhibiting high sorption selectivity for CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bo; Hou, Lei; Wang, Yao-Yu; Miao, Hui; Bao, Li; Shi, Qi-Zhen

    2012-03-21

    A new dynamic porous coordination polymer (PCP) [Ni(dcpy)(bipy)(0.5)(H(2)O)]·1.5H(2)O (1) was synthesized by assembly of 3-(2',5'-dicarboxylphenyl)pyridine (dcpy), 4,4'-bipyridine (bipy) and NiSO(4)via solvothermal, hydrothermal and microwave methods, displaying a wavelike 2D stacked layer framework. Gas adsorption studies for 1 shows a high selective adsorption of CO(2) over other gases (N(2), CH(4) and CO). The adsorption capacity for N(2) can be moderately altered by different activation temperatures demonstrating the framework flexibility of 1.

  9. Novel layered double hydroxides-hydroxyapatite/gelatin bone tissue engineering scaffolds: Fabrication, characterization, and in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayyazbakhsh, Fateme; Solati-Hashjin, Mehran; Keshtkar, Abbas; Shokrgozar, Mohammad Ali; Dehghan, Mohammad Mehdi; Larijani, Bagher

    2017-07-01

    Developing porous biodegradable scaffolds through simple methods is one of the main approaches of bone tissue engineering (BTE). In this work, a novel BTE composite containing layered double hydroxides (LDH), hydroxyapatite (HA) and gelatin (GEL) was fabricated using co-precipitation and solvent-casting methods. Physiochemical characterizations showed that the chemical composition and microstructure of the scaffolds were similar to the natural spongy bone. Interconnected macropores ranging over 100 to 600μm were observed for both scaffolds while the porosity of 90±0.12% and 92.11±0.15%, as well as, Young's modulus of 19.8±0.41 and 12.5±0.35GPa were reported for LDH/GEL and LDH-HA/GEL scaffolds, respectively. The scaffolds were degraded in deionized water after a month. The SEM images revealed that between two scaffolds, the LDH-HA/GEL with needle-like secondary HA crystals showed better bioactivity. According to the alkaline phosphatase activity and Alizarin red staining results, LDH-HA/GEL scaffolds demonstrated better bone-specific activities comparing to LDH/Gel scaffold as well as control sample (Pbone formation (Pbone regeneration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Multi-electrode double layer capacitor having single electrolyte seal and aluminum-impregnated carbon cloth electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahmandi, C. Joseph; Dispennette, John M.; Blank, Edward; Kolb, Alan C.

    1999-01-19

    A single cell, multi-electrode high performance double layer capacitor includes first and second flat stacks of electrodes adapted to be housed in a closeable two-part capacitor case which includes only a single electrolyte seal. Each electrode stack has a plurality of electrodes connected in parallel, with the electrodes of one stack being interleaved with the electrodes of the other stack to form an interleaved stack, and with the electrodes of each stack being electrically connected to respective capacitor terminals. A porous separator sleeve is inserted over the electrodes of one stack before interleaving to prevent electrical shorts between the electrodes. The electrodes are made by folding a compressible, low resistance, aluminum-impregnated carbon cloth, made from activated carbon fibers, around a current collector foil, with a tab of the foils of each electrode of each stack being connected in parallel and connected to the respective capacitor terminal. The height of the interleaved stack is somewhat greater than the inside height of the closed capacitor case, thereby requiring compression of the interleaved electrode stack when placed inside of the case, and thereby maintaining the interleaved electrode stack under modest constant pressure. The closed capacitor case is filled with an electrolytic solution and sealed. A preferred electrolytic solution is made by dissolving an appropriate salt into acetonitrile (CH.sub.3 CN). In one embodiment, the two parts of the capacitor case are conductive and function as the capacitor terminals.

  11. Synthesis of Zn–Fe layered double hydroxides via an oxidation process and structural analysis of products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morimoto, Kazuya, E-mail: kazuya.morimoto@aist.go.jp [Institute for Geo-Resources and Environment, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-1-1 Higashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8567 (Japan); Tamura, Kenji [Environmental Remediation Materials Unit, National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan); Anraku, Sohtaro [Graduate School of Engineering, Hokkaido University, Kita 13 Nishi 8, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan); Sato, Tsutomu [Faculty of Engineering, Hokkaido University, Kita 13 Nishi 8, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan); Suzuki, Masaya [Institute for Geo-Resources and Environment, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-1-1 Higashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8567 (Japan); Yamada, Hirohisa [Environmental Remediation Materials Unit, National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan)

    2015-08-15

    The synthesis of Zn–Fe(III) layered double hydroxides was attempted, employing different pathways using either Fe(II) or Fe(III) species together with Zn as the initial reagents. The product derived from the synthesis employing Fe(II) was found to transition to a Zn–Fe(III) layered double hydroxides phase following oxidation process. In contrast, the product obtained with Fe(III) did not contain a layered double hydroxides phase, but rather consisted of simonkolleite and hydrous ferric oxide. It was determined that the valency of the Fe reagent used in the initial synthesis affected the generation of the layered double hydroxides phase. Fe(II) species have ionic radii and electronegativities similar to those of Zn, and therefore are more likely to form trioctahedral hydroxide layers with Zn species. - Graphical abstract: The synthesis of Zn–Fe(III) layered double hydroxides was attempted, employing different pathways using either Fe(II) or Fe(III) species together with Zn as the initial reagents. - Highlights: • Iron valency affected the generation of Zn–Fe layered double hydroxides. • Zn–Fe layered double hydroxides were successfully synthesized using Fe(II). • Fe(II) species were likely to form trioctahedral hydroxide layers with Zn species.

  12. A new approach based on transfer matrix formalism to characterize porous silicon layers by reflectometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pirasteh, P. [RESO Laboratory (EA 3380), ENIB, CS 73862, 29238 Brest Cedex 3 (France); Optronics Laboratory, ENSSAT, UMR 6082, BP 80518, 6 rue de Kerampont, 22305 Lannion Cedex (France); Boucher, Y.G. [RESO Laboratory (EA 3380), ENIB, CS 73862, 29238 Brest Cedex 3 (France); Charrier, J.; Dumeige, Y. [Optronics Laboratory, ENSSAT, UMR 6082, BP 80518, 6 rue de Kerampont, 22305 Lannion Cedex (France)

    2007-07-01

    We use reflectometry coupled to transfer matrix formalism in order to investigate the comparative effect of surface (localized) and volume (distributed) losses inside a porous silicon monolayer. Both are modeled as fictive absorption. Surface losses are described as a Dirac-like singularity of permittivity localized at an interface whereas volume losses are described trough the imaginary part of the porous silicon complex permittivity. A good agreement with experimental data is determined by this formalism. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  13. Effectiveness evaluation of double-layered satellite network with laser and microwave hybrid links based on fuzzy analytic hierarchy process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Rao, Qiaomeng

    2018-01-01

    In order to solve the problem of high speed, large capacity and limited spectrum resources of satellite communication network, a double-layered satellite network with global seamless coverage based on laser and microwave hybrid links is proposed in this paper. By analyzing the characteristics of the double-layered satellite network with laser and microwave hybrid links, an effectiveness evaluation index system for the network is established. And then, the fuzzy analytic hierarchy process, which combines the analytic hierarchy process and the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation theory, is used to evaluate the effectiveness of the double-layered satellite network with laser and microwave hybrid links. Furthermore, the evaluation result of the proposed hybrid link network is obtained by simulation. The effectiveness evaluation process of the proposed double-layered satellite network with laser and microwave hybrid links can help to optimize the design of hybrid link double-layered satellite network and improve the operating efficiency of the satellite system.

  14. Sintered porous silicon. Physical properties and applications for layer-transfer silicon thin-film solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolf, A.K.

    2007-07-16

    This work focusses on the characterisation of sintered porous silicon and on the development of monocrystalline silicon thin-film solar cells from the Porous Silicon Process (PSI process). For the fabrication of these solar cells, a thin silicon film is epitaxially grown on a monocrystalline silicon growth substrate, that features a layer of porous silicon (PS) at the surface. Due to the thermal activation during the epitaxial growth process, the PS layer reconfigurates and mechanically weakens, which later permits the transfer of the thin-film device to a second carrier substrate. When separating the epitaxial film from the growth substrate, a residual layer of sintered porous silicon (SPS) remains attached to the rear side of the device. So far, the physical properties of this layer and its impact on the performance of PSI solar cells have been poorly investigated. This thesis aims at a comprehensive determination of the physical properties of sintered porous silicon, in particular, its thermal, optical and electrical properties. For the thermal characterisation of the fragile free standing SPS films, a contactless measurement technique based on lock-in thermography is developed and experimentally verified. This analysis identifies a third order power law dependence of the thermal conductivity of SPS on the porosity, in agreement with the predictions of the Looyenga model. Phonon scattering at the pore walls, which is known to drastically reduce the thermal conductivity of as-prepared PS, is also present in the sintered state. The obtained results reveal that, in the case of SPS, this effect is less pronounced, due to the increased structure size of the sintered material compared to the as-prepared state. The effective refractive index of SPS complies with the predictions of effective medium models, whereas Mie's theory successfully describes light scattering by the spherical pores in SPS. An analysis of the measured scattering coefficient shows that the

  15. The formation of layers of porous crystalline tin dioxide from a composite on the basis of multiwalled carbon-nanotube arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesov, S. N.; Korusenko, P. M.; Bolotov, V. V.; Povoroznyuk, S. N.; Ivlev, K. E.; Smirnov, D. A.

    2017-11-01

    A new method for the synthesis of porous crystalline tin-dioxide (SnO2) layers from composites on the basis of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and nonstoichiometric amorphous tin oxide (MWCNT/SnO x ) is proposed. An MWCN/SnO x composite layer produced by magnetron sputtering is annealed in air atmosphere at 500°C for 30 min. A homogeneous porous layer comprised of crystalline SnO2 spherical particles with a size of about 0.1 μm is obtained as a result. In the process of annealing, nearly all the amount of carbon is removed in the form of gaseous oxides (only a small amount remains in the upper part of the porous SnO2 layer). The structural defectiveness of nanotube walls, which increases because of the magnetron deposition of tin, plays a crucial role in the carbon oxidation and destruction of MWCNTs.

  16. Atomic Layer Deposition on Porous Materials: Problems with Conventional Approaches to Catalyst and Fuel Cell Electrode Preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzia Ming Onn

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Atomic layer deposition (ALD offers exciting possibilities for controlling the structure and composition of surfaces on the atomic scale in heterogeneous catalysts and solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC electrodes. However, while ALD procedures and equipment are well developed for applications involving flat surfaces, the conditions required for ALD in porous materials with a large surface area need to be very different. The materials (e.g., rare earths and other functional oxides that are of interest for catalytic applications will also be different. For flat surfaces, rapid cycling, enabled by high carrier-gas flow rates, is necessary in order to rapidly grow thicker films. By contrast, ALD films in porous materials rarely need to be more than 1 nm thick. The elimination of diffusion gradients, efficient use of precursors, and ligand removal with less reactive precursors are the major factors that need to be controlled. In this review, criteria will be outlined for the successful use of ALD in porous materials. Examples of opportunities for using ALD to modify heterogeneous catalysts and SOFC electrodes will be given.

  17. Double-atomic layer of Tl on Si(111): Atomic arrangement and electronic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihalyuk, Alexey N.; Bondarenko, Leonid V.; Tupchaya, Alexandra Y.; Gruznev, Dimitry V.; Chou, Jyh-Pin; Hsing, Cheng-Rong; Wei, Ching-Ming; Zotov, Andrey V.; Saranin, Alexander A.

    2018-02-01

    Metastable double-atomic layer of Tl on Si(111) has recently been found to display interesting electric properties, namely superconductivity below 0.96 K and magnetic-field-induced transition into an insulating phase intermediated by a quantum metal state. In the present work, using a set of experimental techniques, including low-energy electron diffraction, scanning tunneling microscopy, angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy, in a combination with density-functional-theory calculations, we have characterized atomic and electronic properties of the Tl double layer on Si(111). The double Tl layer has been concluded to contain ∼ 2.4 monolayer of Tl. A top Tl layer has a '1 × 1' basic structure and displays 6 × 6 moiré pattern which originates from various residence sites of Tl atoms. Upon cooling below ∼ 140 K, the 6 × 6 moiré pattern changes to that having a 6√{ 3} × 6√{ 3} periodicity. However, the experimentally determined electron band dispersions show a 1 × 1 periodicity. The calculated band structure unfolded into the 1 × 1 surface Brillouin zone reproduces well the main features of the photoelectron spectra.

  18. Double diffusive unsteady convective micropolar flow past a vertical porous plate moving through binary mixture using modified Boussinesq approximation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac Lare Animasaun

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The problem of unsteady convective with thermophoresis, chemical reaction and radiative heat transfer in a micropolar fluid flow past a vertical porous surface moving through binary mixture considering temperature dependent dynamic viscosity and constant vortex viscosity has been investigated theoretically. For proper and correct analysis of fluid flow along vertical surface with a temperature lesser than that of the free stream, Boussinesq approximation and temperature dependent viscosity model were modified and incorporated into the governing equations. The governing equations are converted to systems of ordinary differential equations by applying suitable similarity transformations and solved numerically using fourth-order Runge–Kutta method along with shooting technique. The results of the numerical solution are presented graphically and in tabular forms for different values of parameters. Velocity profile increases with temperature dependent variable fluid viscosity parameter. Increase of suction parameter corresponds to an increase in both temperature and concentration within the thin boundary layer.

  19. Quasi-Monoenergetic Dense and Uniform Electron Bunch Generation from Laser Driven Double-Layer Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C.; Roycroft, R.; McCary, E.; Meadows, A.; Blakeney, J.; Serratto, K.; Kuk, D.; Chester, C.; Gao, L.; Fu, H.; Yan, X. Q.; Schreiber, J.; Pomerantz, I.; Bernstein, A.; Quevedo, H.; Dyer, G.; Gaul, E.; Ditmire, T.; Gautier, D. C.; Fernandez, J.; Hegelich, B. M.

    2014-10-01

    We demonstrate that dense, uniform quasi-monoenergetic relativistic electron bunches can be generated from the interaction of a high-intensity laser pulse with a double-layer thin film target. The first layer of the target is a freestanding, nanometer-scale, diamond-like carbon production layer. The second layer is a thin plastic reflection layer which reflects the drive-laser pulse, but allows electrons to pass through. Although no electron bunch is generated from the second layer alone, by adding it behind the first layer we obtained a quasi-monoenergetic bunch along the laser axis, 35 times denser than a bunch from the single layer target. Comparing the angular distribution of the electron spectra from a double-layer target with that of a single-layer target, we observed an increase of the electron cutoff energy at larger angles, which improves the uniformity of created electron bunches.

  20. Evaluation of Double Process Lithography (DPL) with bi-layer photo-resist process for contact layer-patterning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gong; Wu, Kevin

    2008-10-01

    Double Process Lithography (DPL) has been widely accepted as a viable printing technique for critical layers at 45nm nodes and below. In addition, DPL technique also allows us to use available process tool-sets with less capability to develop the next node CMOS devices in early research and development stages with additional photo-masks. One practical issue of applying DPL technique is the process crosstalk, which is the impact of the existing etched patterns after the 1st process to the overall lithography performance during the 2nd printing process. In this paper, we evaluated the DPL process for contact holetype patterning with a 193nm silicon-containing bi-layer photo-resist. We explained the bi-layer photoresist process flow and its low process cross-talk characteristics when applied in our DPL process. We also discussed the challenges of printing small contacts in the DPL process. The preliminary experiment results indicated that silicon-containing photo-resist process is a good candidate for DPL process in the contact hole-type of patterns, and it has good characteristics of low process cross-talk. The flexibility of the drydevelop process in bi-layer resist also offered us another way to form small contacts in the substrate film. At the end, we provided some suggestions in contact pattern decomposition algorithm and related exposure-tool alignment strategies for future implementation of DPL technology.

  1. Room-temperature synthesis of three-dimensional porous ZnO@CuNi hybrid magnetic layers with photoluminescent and photocatalytic properties

    OpenAIRE

    Guerrero, Miguel; Zhang, Jin; Altube, Ainhoa; Garc?a-Lecina, Eva; Roldan, M?nica; Bar?, Maria Dolors; Pellicer, Eva; Sort, Jordi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A facile synthetic approach to prepare porous ZnO@CuNi hybrid films is presented. Initially, magnetic CuNi porous layers (consisting of phase separated CuNi alloys) are successfully grown by electrodeposition at different current densities using H2 bubbles as a dynamic template to generate the porosity. The porous CuNi alloys serve as parent scaffolds to be subsequently filled with a solution containing ZnO nanoparticles previously synthesized by sol-gel. The dispersed nanoparticles ...

  2. Three-Dimensional Porous Particles Composed of Curved, Two-Dimensional, Nano-Sized Layers for Li-Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yushin, Gleb; Evanoff, Kara; Magasinski, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Thin Si films coated on porous 3D particles composed of curved 2D graphene sheets have been synthesized utilizing techniques that allow for tunable properties. Since graphene exhibits specific surface area up to 100 times higher than carbon black or graphite, the deposition of the same mass of Si on graphene is much faster in comparison -- a factor which is important for practical applications. In addition, the distance between graphene layers is tunable and variation in the thickness of the deposited Si film is feasible. Both of these characteristics allow for optimization of the energy and power characteristics. Thicker films will allow higher capacity, but slower rate capabilities. Thinner films will allow more rapid charging, or higher power performance. In this innovation, uniform deposition of Si and C layers on high-surface area graphene produced granules with specific surface area (SSA) of 5 sq. m/g.

  3. A polygonal double-layer coil design for high-efficiency wireless power transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Shitong; Wang, Hao; Mao, Zhi-Hong; Sun, Mingui

    2018-05-01

    In this work, we present a novel coil structure for the design of Wireless Power Transfer (WPT) systems via magnetic resonant coupling. The new coil consists of two layers of flat polygonal windings in square, pentagonal and hexagonal shapes. The double-layer coil can be conveniently fabricated using the print circuit broad (PCB) technology. In our design, we include an angle between the two layers which can be adjusted to change the area of inter-layer overlap. This unique structure is thoroughly investigated with respect to the quality factor Q and the power transfer efficiency (PTE) using the finite element method (FEM). An equivalent circuit is derived and used to explain the properties of the angularly shifted double-layer coil theoretically. Comparative experiments are conducted from which the performance of the new coil is evaluated quantitatively. Our results have shown that an increased shift angle improves the Q-factor, and the optimal PTE is achieved when the angle reaches the maximum. When compared to the pentagonal and hexagonal coils, the square coil achieves the highest PTE due to its lowest parasitic capacitive effects. In summary, our new coil design improves the performance of WPT systems and allows a formal design procedure for optimization in a given application.

  4. Numerical Well Testing Interpretation Model and Applications in Crossflow Double-Layer Reservoirs by Polymer Flooding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiyang Yu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents numerical well testing interpretation model and analysis techniques to evaluate formation by using pressure transient data acquired with logging tools in crossflow double-layer reservoirs by polymer flooding. A well testing model is established based on rheology experiments and by considering shear, diffusion, convection, inaccessible pore volume (IPV, permeability reduction, wellbore storage effect, and skin factors. The type curves were then developed based on this model, and parameter sensitivity is analyzed. Our research shows that the type curves have five segments with different flow status: (I wellbore storage section, (II intermediate flow section (transient section, (III mid-radial flow section, (IV crossflow section (from low permeability layer to high permeability layer, and (V systematic radial flow section. The polymer flooding field tests prove that our model can accurately determine formation parameters in crossflow double-layer reservoirs by polymer flooding. Moreover, formation damage caused by polymer flooding can also be evaluated by comparison of the interpreted permeability with initial layered permeability before polymer flooding. Comparison of the analysis of numerical solution based on flow mechanism with observed polymer flooding field test data highlights the potential for the application of this interpretation method in formation evaluation and enhanced oil recovery (EOR.

  5. Degradation of l-polylactide during melt processing with layered double hydroxides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerds, Nathalie; Katiyar, Vimal; Koch, Christian Bender

    2012-01-01

    PLA was melt compounded in small-scale batches with two forms of laurate-modified magnesium–aluminum layered double hydroxide (Mg-Al-LDH-C12), the corresponding carbonate form (Mg-Al-LDH-CO3) and a series of other additives. Various methods were then adopted to characterize the resulting compounds...... in an effort to gain greater insights into PLA degradation during melt processing. PLA molecular weight reduction was found to vary according to the type of LDH additive. It is considered that the degree of particle dispersion and LDH exfoliation, and hence the accessibility of the hydroxide layer surfaces...

  6. Hydrological performance of dual-substrate-layer green roofs using porous inert substrates with high sorption capacities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoou; Tian, Yimei; Zhao, Xinhua; Peng, Chenrui

    2017-06-01

    Given that the common medium in existing green roofs is a single layer composed of organic and inorganic substrates, seven pilot-scale dual-substrate-layer extensive green roofs (G1-G7), which include nutrition and adsorption substrate layers, were constructed in this study. The effectiveness of porous inert substrates (activated charcoal, zeolite, pumice, lava, vermiculite and expanded perlite) used as the adsorption substrate for stormwater retention was investigated. A single-substrate-layer green roof (G8) was built for comparison with G1-G7. Despite the larger total rainfall depth (mm) of six types of simulated rains (43.2, 54.6, 76.2, 87.0, 85.2 and 86.4, respectively), the total percent retention of G1-G7 varied between 14% and 82% with an average of 43%, exhibiting better runoff-retaining capacity than G8 based on the maximum potential rainfall storage depth per unit height of adsorption substrate. Regression analysis showed that there was a logarithmic relationship between cumulative rainfall depth with non-zero runoff and stormwater retention for G1-G4 and a linear relationship for G5-G8. To enhance the water retention capacity and extend the service life of dual-substrate-layer extensive green roofs, the mixture of activated charcoal and/or pumice with expanded perlite and/or vermiculite is more suitable as the adsorption substrate than the mixture containing lava and/or zeolite.

  7. Asymptotic modeling of transport phenomena at the interface between a fluid and a porous layer: Jump conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angot, Philippe; Goyeau, Benoît; Ochoa-Tapia, J. Alberto

    2017-06-01

    We develop asymptotic modeling for two- or three-dimensional viscous fluid flow and convective transfer at the interface between a fluid and a porous layer. The asymptotic model is based on the fact that the thickness d of the interfacial transition region Ωfp of the one-domain representation is very small compared to the macroscopic length scale L . The analysis leads to an equivalent two-domain representation where transport phenomena in the transition layer of the one-domain approach are represented by algebraic jump boundary conditions at a fictive dividing interface Σ between the homogeneous fluid and porous regions. These jump conditions are thus stated up to first-order in O (d /L ) with d /L ≪1 . The originality and relevance of this asymptotic model lies in its general and multidimensional character. Indeed, it is shown that all the jump interface conditions derived for the commonly used 1D-shear flow are recovered by taking the tangential component of the asymptotic model. In that case, the comparison between the present model and the different models available in the literature gives explicit expressions of the effective jump coefficients and their associated scaling. In addition for multi-dimensional flows, the general asymptotic model yields the different components of the jump conditions including a new specific equation for the cross-flow pressure jump on Σ .

  8. Anion-exchange membranes derived from quaternized polysulfone and exfoliated layered double hydroxide for fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Wan; Liang, Na; Peng, Pai; Qu, Rong; Chen, Dongzhi; Zhang, Hongwei, E-mail: hanqiujiang@163.com

    2017-02-15

    Layered double hydroxides (LDH) are prepared by controlling urea assisted homogeneous precipitation conditions. Morphology and crystallinity of LDHs are confirmed by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscope. After LDHs are incorporated into quaternized polysulfone membranes, transmission electron microscope is used to observe the exfoliated morphology of LDH sheets in the membranes. The properties of the nanocomposite membranes, including water uptake, swelling ratio, mechanical property and ionic conductivity are investigated. The nanocomposite membrane containing 5% LDH sheets shows more balanced performances, exhibiting an ionic conductivity of 2.36×10{sup −2} S cm{sup −1} at 60 °C. - Graphical abstract: Anion-exchange membrane based on quaternized polysulfone and exfoliated layered double hydroxide is optically transparent and has good ionic properties.

  9. Synthesis and carbon dioxide sorption of layered double hydroxide/silica foam nanocomposites with hierarchical mesostructure

    KAUST Repository

    Fu, Liling

    2014-03-05

    Layered double hydroxides (LDHs) with a hierarchical mesostructure are successfully synthesized on mesoporous silica foams by simple impregnation and hydrothermal treatment. The as-synthesized LDH/silica foam nanocomposites show well-defined mesostructures with high surface areas, large pore volumes, and mesopores of 6-7 nm. The nanocomposites act as carbon dioxide (CO2) sorbents under simulated flue gas conditions. They also exhibit significantly enhanced CO2 capacities under high-pressure conditions and high CO2/N2 and CO2/CH4 selectivities. Respect the hierarchy: Hierarchical mesoporous layered double hydroxide (LDH) nanocomposites with high surface areas and large pore volumes are synthesized by controlled hydrothermal growth of LDH precursors on a mesoporous silica foam. The as-synthesized nanocomposites exhibit a significantly enhanced capacity and selectivity towards carbon dioxide, making them very promising candidates for carbon dioxide (CO2) separation applications. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Synthesis and properties of Mg2Al layered double hydroxides containing 5-fluorouracil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhongliang; Wang Enbo; Gao Lei; Xu Lin

    2005-01-01

    A pharmaceutically active compound, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) has been firstly intercalated into layered double hydroxide with the restructure method. Powder X-ray diffraction and spectroscopic analysis indicate that 5-FU molecule is stabilized in the host interlayer by electrostatic interaction and intermolecular interaction, and that the orientation of 5-FU is different when changing the pattern of aging treatment or the swelling agent. The release studies show that a rapid release of the drug during the first 40min is followed by a more sustained one, and that the total amount of drug released from hybrid material into the aqueous solution is almost 87% and 74% at pH 4 and 7, respectively. The studies mentioned above suggest that layered double hydroxide might be used as the basis of a tunable drug delivery carrier

  11. Real-time monitoring of enzyme activity in a mesoporous silicon double layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orosco, Manuel M.; Pacholski, Claudia; Sailor, Michael J.

    2009-04-01

    The activity of certain proteolytic enzymes is often an indicator of disease states such as cancer, stroke and neurodegeneracy, so there is a need for rapid assays that can characterize the kinetics and substrate specificity of enzymatic reactions. Nanostructured membranes can efficiently separate biomolecules, but coupling a sensitive detection method to such a membrane remains difficult. Here, we demonstrate a single mesoporous nanoreactor that can isolate and quantify in real time the reaction products of proteases. The reactor consists of two layers of porous films electrochemically prepared from crystalline silicon. The upper layer, with large pore sizes (~100 nm in diameter), traps the protease and acts as the reactor. The lower layer, with smaller pore sizes (~6 nm), excludes the proteases and other large proteins and captures the reaction products. Infiltration of the digested fragments into the lower layer produces a measurable change in optical reflectivity, and this allows label-free quantification of enzyme kinetics in real time within a volume of ~5 nl.

  12. Current-generating ‘double layer shoe’ with a porous sole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolomeisky, Anatoly B.; Kornyshev, Alexei A.

    2016-11-01

    We present a principle and a simple theory of a novel reverse electroactuator, in which the electrical current is generated by pumping an electrolytic liquid into nonwetting pores of a polarized electrode. The theory establishes the relationship between the variation of external pressure and the electrical current. The effective current density is amplified by the high porosity of the electrode. The suggested principle can be implemented into the design of a shoe which will generate an AC current simply by walking. Estimates of typical parameters and operation regimes of such a device suggest that one can easily generate a peak current density of ~17 mA cm-2. This would produce some 1.7 A from each shoe at 0.65 W average power density, without hampering walking.

  13. Coulometry and Calorimetry of Electric Double Layer Formation in Porous Electrodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, Mathijs; Griffioen, Elian; Biesheuvel, P. M.; Van Roij, René; Erné, Ben

    2017-01-01

    Coulometric measurements on salt-water-immersed nanoporous carbon electrodes reveal, at a fixed voltage, a charge decrease with increasing temperature. During far-out-of-equilibrium charging of these electrodes, calorimetry indicates the production of both irreversible Joule heat and reversible

  14. A New Voltage Balance Circuit using Chopper and Inverter for Electric Double Layer Capacitors

    OpenAIRE

    峯村, 明憲; 後藤, 純一; 金子, 裕良; 阿部, 茂

    2006-01-01

    Electric double layer capacitors(EDLCs) are used in series connection and the voltage balance among EDLCs is important. The voltage balance circuit with inverter has the merits of simple and low cost. However the voltage drop at diodes and transistors impedes the voltage balance operation. We have developed a new voltage balance circuit using chopper and inverter. The chopper steps up the input voltage of inverter to compensate the voltage drop. This paper describes the new voltage balance ci...

  15. Mixed oxides obtained from Co and Mn containing layered double hydroxides: Preparation, characterization, and catalytic properties

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kovanda, F.; Rojka, T.; Dobešová, J.; Machovič, V.; Bezdička, Petr; Obalová, L.; Jirátová, Květa; Grygar, Tomáš

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 179, č. 3 (2006), s. 812-823 ISSN 0022-4596 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA104/04/2116; GA ČR(CZ) GA106/05/0366 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40320502; CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : layered double hydroxides * hydrotalcite-like compounds * thermal decomposition Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.107, year: 2006

  16. Novel electric double-layer capacitor with a coaxial fiber structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xuli; Qiu, Longbin; Ren, Jing; Guan, Guozhen; Lin, Huijuan; Zhang, Zhitao; Chen, Peining; Wang, Yonggang; Peng, Huisheng

    2013-11-26

    A coaxial electric double-layer capacitor fiber is developed from the aligned carbon nanotube fiber and sheet, which functions as two electrodes with a polymer gel sandwiched between them. The unique coaxial structure enables a rapid transportation of ions between the two electrodes with a high electrochemical performance. These energy storage fibers are also flexible and stretchable, and can be woven into and widely used for electronic textiles. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Magnetic behavior of Mg-Al-Zn-Fe mixed oxides from precursors layered double hydroxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliva, M.I., E-mail: marcosivanoliva@gmail.com [Facultad de Matematica, Astronomia y Fisica, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, M. Allende y H. de la Torre Ciudad Universitaria, 5000 Cordoba (Argentina); IFFAM AF (CONICET - FaMAF UNC), M. Allende y H. de la Torre Ciudad Universitaria, 5000 Cordoba (Argentina); Heredia, A. [CITeQ - Facultad R. Cordoba, Universidad Tecnologica Nacional Maestro Lopez esq. Cruz Roja Argentina, CP 5016 Cordoba (Argentina); Zandalazini, C.I. [Centro Laser de Ciencias Moleculares. INFIQC-FCQ-Grupo de Ciencia de Materiales-FaMAF-Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, Ciudad Universitaria, CP5000 Cordoba, Argentina CONICET (Argentina); Crivello, M. [CITeQ - Facultad R. Cordoba, Universidad Tecnologica Nacional Maestro Lopez esq. Cruz Roja Argentina, CP 5016 Cordoba (Argentina); Corchero, E. [Facultad de Matematica, Astronomia y Fisica, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, M. Allende y H. de la Torre Ciudad Universitaria, 5000 Cordoba (Argentina)

    2012-08-15

    Mixed oxides of Mg-Al-Zn-Fe were obtained by calcination of layered double hydroxides (LDH) prepared by coprecipitation reaction with hydrothermal treatment. The structural characterization of precursors and oxides was carried out by X rays diffraction, showing increases of ZnO phase with the increase of the zinc content. Magnetic behavior was studied by vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) and by a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) showing both paramagnetic and super paramagnetic behavior depending on both particles size and composition.

  18. Observation of a current-limited double layer in a linear turbulent-heating device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inuzuka, H.; Torii, Y.; Nagatsu, M.; Tsukishima, T.

    1985-01-01

    Time- and space-resolved measurements of strong double layers (DLs) have been carried out for the first time on a linear turbulent-heating device, together with those of fluctuation spectra and precise current measurements. A stable stong DL is formed even when the electric current through the DL is less than the so-called Bohm value. Discussion of the formation and decay processes is given, indicating a transition from an ion-acoustic DL to a monotonic DL

  19. Characteristics and development report for the MC4169 double-layer capacitor assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, N.H.; Baca, W.E.

    1993-09-01

    The MC4169 Double-Layer Capacitor Assembly was developed in response to a request from the B61 Systems organization to provide interim power for the B61 Common JTA Development. The project has been successfully completed, and Lot 1 has been built by MMSC/GEND. Development testing showed that this assembly met all design requirements. This report describes the design configuration, environmental testing, and aging, reliability, and safety studies done to ensure that the design requirements were met.

  20. Substituted Quaternary Ammonium Salts Improve Low-Temperature Performance of Double-Layer Capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandon, Erik J.; Smart, Marshall C.; West, William C.

    2011-01-01

    Double-layer capacitors are unique energy storage devices, capable of supporting large current pulses as well as a very high number of charging and discharging cycles. The performance of doublelayer capacitors is highly dependent on the nature of the electrolyte system used. Many applications, including for electric and fuel cell vehicles, back-up diesel generators, wind generator pitch control back-up power systems, environmental and structural distributed sensors, and spacecraft avionics, can potentially benefit from the use of double-layer capacitors with lower equivalent series resistances (ESRs) over wider temperature limits. Higher ESRs result in decreased power output, which is a particular problem at lower temperatures. Commercially available cells are typically rated for operation down to only 40 C. Previous briefs [for example, Low Temperature Supercapacitors (NPO-44386), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 32, No. 7 (July 2008), p. 32, and Supercapacitor Electrolyte Solvents With Liquid Range Below 80 C (NPO-44855), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 34, No. 1 (January 2010), p. 44] discussed the use of electrolytes that employed low-melting-point co-solvents to depress the freezing point of traditional acetonitrile-based electrolytes. Using these modified electrolyte formulations can extend the low-temperature operational limit of double-layer capacitors beyond that of commercially available cells. This previous work has shown that although the measured capacitance is relatively insensitive to temperature, the ESR can rise rapidly at low temperatures, due to decreased electrolyte conductance within the pores of the high surface- area carbon electrodes. Most of these advanced electrolyte systems featured tetraethylammonium tetrafluoroborate (TEATFB) as the salt. More recent work at JPL indicates the use of the asymmetric quaternary ammonium salt triethylmethylammonium tetrafluoroborate (TEMATFB) or spiro-(l,l')-bipyrrolidium tetrafluoroborate (SBPBF4) in a 1:1 by volume solvent

  1. Directed Vertical Diffusion of Photovoltaic Active Layer Components into Porous ZnO-Based Cathode Buffer Layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jia-Jhen; Yang, Tsung-Yu; Lan, Yi-Kang; Wu, Wei-Ru; Su, Chun-Jen; Weng, Shih-Chang; Yamada, Norifumi L; Su, An-Chung; Jeng, U-Ser

    2018-03-02

    Cathode buffer layers (CBLs) can effectively further the efficiency of polymer solar cells (PSCs), after optimization of the active layer. Hidden between the active layer and cathode of the inverted PSC device configuration is the critical yet often unattended vertical diffusion of the active layer components across CBL. Here, a novel methodology of contrast variation with neutron and anomalous X-ray reflectivity to map the multicomponent depth compositions of inverted PSCs, covering from the active layer surface down to the bottom of the ZnO-based CBL, is developed. Uniquely revealed for a high-performance model PSC are the often overlooked porosity distributions of the ZnO-based CBL and the differential diffusions of the polymer PTB7-Th and fullerene derivative PC 71 BM of the active layer into the CBL. Interface modification of the ZnO-based CBL with fullerene derivative PCBEOH for size-selective nanochannels can selectively improve the diffusion of PC 71 BM more than that of the polymer. The deeper penetration of PC 71 BM establishes a gradient distribution of fullerene derivatives over the ZnO/PCBE-OH CBL, resulting in markedly improved electron mobility and device efficiency of the inverted PSC. The result suggests a new CBL design concept of progressive matching of the conduction bands. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Evaluation of double-layer density modulated Si thin films as Li-ion battery anodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha Demirkan, Muhammed; Yurukcu, Mesut; Dursun, Burcu; Demir-Cakan, Rezan; Karabacak, Tansel

    2017-10-01

    Double-layer density modulated silicon thin films which contain alternating low and high density Si film layers were fabricated by magnetron sputtering. Two different samples consisting of alternating layers of high-density/low-density and low-density/high-density Si thin film layers were investigated as anode electrodes in Li-ion batteries. Si thin film in which the terminating layer at the top is low density Si layer-quoted as low-density/high-density film (LD/HD)- exhibits better performance than Si thin film that has high density layer at the top, -quoted as high-density/low-density (HD/LD). A highly stabilized cycling performance with the specific charge capacities of 2000 mAh g‑1 at the 150th cycle at C/2 current density, and 1200 mAh g‑1 at the 240th cycle at 10 C current density were observed for the LD/HD Si anode in the presence of fluoroethylene carbonate (FEC) electrolyte additive.

  3. Thermal stability of double-ceramic-layer thermal barrier coatings with various coating thickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai Hui; Zhong Xinghua; Li Jiayan; Zhang Yanfei; Meng Jian; Cao Xueqiang

    2006-01-01

    Double-ceramic-layer (DCL) coatings with various thickness ratios composed of YSZ (6-8 wt.% Y 2 O 3 + ZrO 2 ) and lanthanum zirconate (LZ, La 2 Zr 2 O 7 ) were produced by the atmospheric plasma spraying. Chemical stability of LZ in contact with YSZ in DCL coatings was investigated by calcining powder blends at different temperatures. No obvious reaction was observed when the calcination temperature was lower than 1250 deg. C, implying that LZ and YSZ had good chemical applicability for producing DCL coating. The thermal cycling test indicate that the cycling lives of the DCL coatings are strongly dependent on the thickness ratio of LZ and YSZ, and the coatings with YSZ thickness between 150 and 200 μm have even longer lives than the single-layer YSZ coating. When the YSZ layer is thinner than 100 μm, the DCL coatings failed in the LZ layer close to the interface of YSZ layer and LZ layer. For the coatings with the YSZ thickness above 150 μm, the failure mainly occurs at the interface of the YSZ layer and the bond coat

  4. Double-Layer Compressive Sensing Based Efficient DOA Estimation in WSAN with Block Data Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Peng; Wu, Liantao; Yu, Kai; Shao, Huajie; Wang, Zhi

    2017-07-22

    Accurate information acquisition is of vital importance for wireless sensor array network (WSAN) direction of arrival (DOA) estimation. However, due to the lossy nature of low-power wireless links, data loss, especially block data loss induced by adopting a large packet size, has a catastrophic effect on DOA estimation performance in WSAN. In this paper, we propose a double-layer compressive sensing (CS) framework to eliminate the hazards of block data loss, to achieve high accuracy and efficient DOA estimation. In addition to modeling the random packet loss during transmission as a passive CS process, an active CS procedure is introduced at each array sensor to further enhance the robustness of transmission. Furthermore, to avoid the error propagation from signal recovery to DOA estimation in conventional methods, we propose a direct DOA estimation technique under the double-layer CS framework. Leveraging a joint frequency and spatial domain sparse representation of the sensor array data, the fusion center (FC) can directly obtain the DOA estimation results according to the received data packets, skipping the phase of signal recovery. Extensive simulations demonstrate that the double-layer CS framework can eliminate the adverse effects induced by block data loss and yield a superior DOA estimation performance in WSAN.

  5. Low Temperature Double-layer Capacitors with Improved Energy Density: An Overview of Recent Development Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandon, Erik J.; West, William C.; Smart, Marshall C.; Yushin, Gleb; Korenblit, Yair; Kajdos, Adam; Kvit, Alexander; Jagiello, Jacek

    2012-01-01

    Electrochemical double-layer capacitors are finding increased use in a wide range of energy storage applications, particularly where high pulse power capabilities are required. Double-layer capacitors store charge at a liquid/solid interface, making them ideal for low temperature power applications, due to the facile kinetic processes associated with the rearrangement of the electrochemical double-layer at these temperatures. Potential low temperature applications include hybrid and electric vehicles, operations in polar regions, high altitude aircraft and aerospace avionics, and distributed environmental and structural health monitoring. State-of-the-art capacitors can typically operate to -40 C, with a subsequent degradation in power performance below room temperature. However, recent efforts focused on advanced electrolyte and electrode systems can enable operation to temperatures as low as -70 C, with capacities similar to room temperature values accompanied by reasonably low equivalent series resistances. This presentation will provide an overview of recent development efforts to extend and improve the wide temperature performance of these devices.

  6. Facile synthesis of deoxycholate intercalated layered double hydroxide nanohybrids via a coassembly process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Xiaowen; Wang, Shuang; Du, Na; Zhang, Renjie; Hou, Wanguo

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a synthesis strategy of deoxycholate (DC) intercalated layered double hydroxide (LDH) nanohybrids via a coassembly method at room temperature. For this strategy, LDH particles were delaminated to well-dispersed 2D nanosheets in formamide, and the resulting LDH nanosheets were then coassembled with DC anions into the DC intercalated LDH (DC-LDH) nanohybrids. The so-synthesized nanohybrids were characterized by XRD, TEM, FT-IR, elemental analyses and TG-DSC. It was found that the loading amount of DC in the nanohybrids could be easily controlled by changing the ratio of DC to LDH. In addition, the nanohybrids have similar characteristics with the DC-LDH nanohybrids synthesized by the hydrothermal method, including their DC loading, crystal structure, morphology and thermal gravimetric behavior. However, this strategy exhibited the advantages of short reaction time and mild experimental conditions compared with the hydrothermal method. - Graphical abstract: Deoxycholate intercalated layered double hydroxide nanohybrids were successfully synthesized via a coassembly strategy. In this strategy, the interlayer spaces of LDHs can be efficiently used for the intercalation of guest species. - Highlights: • Deoxycholate intercalated layered double hydroxide nanohybrids were synthesized via a coassembly strategy. • This strategy exhibited the advantages of short time and mild conditions. • This strategy can enable organic species to be readily intercalated into the LDH galleries

  7. Intercalation and controlled release properties of vitamin C intercalated layered double hydroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Xiaorui; Lei, Lixu; O'Hare, Dermot; Xie, Juan; Gao, Pengran; Chang, Tao

    2013-01-01

    Two drug-inorganic composites involving vitamin C (VC) intercalated in Mg–Al and Mg–Fe layered double hydroxides (LDHs) have been synthesized by the calcination–rehydration (reconstruction) method. Powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), and UV–vis absorption spectroscopy indicate a successful intercalation of VC into the interlayer galleries of the LDH host. Studies of VC release from the LDHs in deionised water and in aqueous CO 3 2− solutions imply that Mg 3 Al–VC LDH is a better controlled release system than Mg 3 Fe–VC LDH. Analysis of the release profiles using a number of kinetic models suggests a solution-dependent release mechanism, and a diffusion-controlled deintercalation mechanism in deionised water, but an ion exchange process in CO 3 2− solution. - Graphical abstract: Vitamin C anions have been intercalated in the interlayer space of layered double hydroxide and released in CO 3 2− solution and deionised water. - Highlights: • Vitamin C intercalated Mg–Al and Mg–Fe layered double hydroxides were prepared. • Release property of vitamin C in aqueous CO 3 2− solution is better. • Avrami-Erofe’ev and first-order models provide better fit for release results. • Diffusion-controlled and ion exchange processes occur in deionised water. • An ion exchange process occurs in CO 3 2− solution

  8. Ionic double layer of atomically flat gold formed on mica templates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chilcott, Terry C.; Wong, Elicia L.S.; Coster, Hans G.L.; Coster, Adelle C.F.; James, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Electrical impedance spectroscopy characterisations of gold surfaces formed on mica templates in contact with potassium chloride electrolytes were performed at the electric potential of zero charge over a frequency range of 6 x 10 -3 to 100 x 10 3 Hz. They revealed constant-phase-angle (CPA) behaviour with a frequency exponent value of 0.96 for surfaces that were also characterised as atomically flat using atomic force microscopy (AFM). As the frequency exponent value was only marginally less than unity, the CPA behaviour yielded a realistic estimate for the capacitance of the ionic double layer. The retention of the CPA behaviour was attributed to specific adsorption of chloride ions which was detected as an adsorption conductance element in parallel with the CPA impedance element. Significant variations in the ionic double layer capacitance as well as the adsorption conductance were observed for electrolyte concentrations ranging from 33 μM to 100 mM, but neither of these variations correlated with concentration. This is consistent with the electrical properties of the interface deriving principally from the inner or Stern region of the double layer.

  9. The performance of double layer structure membrane prepared from flowing coagulant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mieow Kee, Chan; Xeng, Anthony Leong Chan; Regal, Sasiskala; Singh, Balvinder; Raoo, Preeshaath; Koon Eu, Yap; Sok Choo, Ng

    2017-12-01

    Membrane with double layer structure is favourable as it exhibits smooth surface and macrovoids free structure. However, its’ performance in terms of permeability, porosity and strength has not been studied thoroughly. Additionally, the effect of flowing coagulant on the formation of double layer membrane has not been reported. Thus, the objective of this study is to investigate the performance of double layer membranes, which were prepared using flowing coagulant. Results showed that when the coagulant flow changed from laminar to turbulent, the pure water permeation of the membrane increased. It was due to the higher porosity in the membrane, which prepared by turbulent flow (CA-Turbulent) compared to the membrane which fabricated under laminar condition (CA-Laminar). This can be explained by the rapid solvent-coagulant exchange rate between the polymer solution and the turbulent coagulant. In term of strength, the tensile strength of the CA-Turbulent was ~32 MPa, which was 100% higher compared to CA-Laminar. This may due to the presence of large amount of nodules on its surface, which reduced the surface integrity. In conclusion, flowing coagulant altered the membrane properties and adopting turbulent coagulant flow in membrane fabrication would improve the porosity, surface roughness and the strength of the membrane.

  10. Fabrication and surface passivation of porous 6H-SiC by atomic layer deposited films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Weifang; Ou, Yiyu; Petersen, Paul Michael

    2016-01-01

    Porous 6H-SiC samples with different thicknesses were fabricated through anodic etching in diluted hydrofluoric acid. Scanning electron microscope images show that the dendritic pore formation in 6HSiC is anisotropic, which has different lateral and vertical formation rates. Strong photoluminesce......Porous 6H-SiC samples with different thicknesses were fabricated through anodic etching in diluted hydrofluoric acid. Scanning electron microscope images show that the dendritic pore formation in 6HSiC is anisotropic, which has different lateral and vertical formation rates. Strong...... above the 6H-SiC crystal band gap, which suggests that the strong photoluminescence is ascribed to surface state produced during the anodic etching....

  11. Simulation of the Flow Through Porous Layers Composed of Converging-Diverging Capillary Fissures or Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walicka, A.

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, a porous medium is modelled by a network of converging-diverging capillaries which may be considered as fissures or tubes. This model makes it necessary to consider flows through capillary fissures or tubes. Therefore an analytical method for deriving the relationships between pressure drops, volumetric flow rates and velocities for the following fluids: Newtonian, polar, power-law, pseudoplastic (DeHaven and Sisko types) and Shulmanian, was developed. Next, considerations on the models of pore network for Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids were presented. The models, similar to the schemes of central finite differences may provide a good basis for transforming the governing equations of a flow through the porous medium into a set of linear or quasi-linear algebraic equations. It was shown that the some coefficients in these algebraic equations depend on the kind of the capillary convergence.

  12. Effect of spherical porosity on co-fired dense/porous zirconia bi-layers cambering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teocoli, Francesca; Marani, Debora; Kiebach, Wolff-Ragnar

    2018-01-01

    analyze the model case of dense taped of 8 mol% Y2O3-stabilized ZrO2 laminated on ca. 400 μ thick 3 mol% Y2O3 doped zirconia porous tapes, with homogenous spherical porosity of 13 vol%, 46 vol%, and 54 vol%. Sintering stress during densification is evaluated from the shrinkage rates and viscoelastic...

  13. Hierarchical Ni-Co layered double hydroxide nanosheets entrapped on conductive textile fibers: a cost-effective and flexible electrode for high-performance pseudocapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaraju, Goli; Raju, G. Seeta Rama; Ko, Yeong Hwan; Yu, Jae Su

    2015-12-01

    Hierarchical three-dimensional (3D) porous nanonetworks of nickel-cobalt layered double hydroxide (Ni-Co LDH) nanosheets (NSs) are grown and decorated on flexible conductive textile substrate (CTs) via a simple two-electrode system based electrochemical deposition (ED) method. By applying a proper external cathodic voltage of -1.2 V for 15 min, the Ni-Co LDH NSs are densely deposited over the entire surface of the CTs with good adhesion. The flexible Ni-Co LDH NSs on CTs (Ni-Co LDH NSs/CTs) architecture with high porosity facilitates enhanced electrochemical performance in 1 M KOH electrolyte solution. The effect of growth concentration and external cathodic voltage on the electrochemical properties of Ni-Co LDH NSs/CTs is also investigated. The Ni10Co5 LDH NSs/CTs electrode exhibits a high specific capacitance of 2105 F g-1 at a current density of 2 A g-1 as well as an excellent cyclic stability as a pseudocapacitive electrode due to the advantageous properties of 3D interconnected porous frameworks of Ni10Co5 LDH NSs/CTs. This facile fabrication of bimetallic hydroxide nanostructures on CTs can provide a promising electrode for low-cost energy storage device applications.Hierarchical three-dimensional (3D) porous nanonetworks of nickel-cobalt layered double hydroxide (Ni-Co LDH) nanosheets (NSs) are grown and decorated on flexible conductive textile substrate (CTs) via a simple two-electrode system based electrochemical deposition (ED) method. By applying a proper external cathodic voltage of -1.2 V for 15 min, the Ni-Co LDH NSs are densely deposited over the entire surface of the CTs with good adhesion. The flexible Ni-Co LDH NSs on CTs (Ni-Co LDH NSs/CTs) architecture with high porosity facilitates enhanced electrochemical performance in 1 M KOH electrolyte solution. The effect of growth concentration and external cathodic voltage on the electrochemical properties of Ni-Co LDH NSs/CTs is also investigated. The Ni10Co5 LDH NSs/CTs electrode exhibits a high

  14. Effect of Pore Structure and Chemistry on the Performance of Activated Oil Sands Petroleum Coke Electrodes for use in Electrochemical Double-Layer Capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuliani, Jocelyn Ellen

    Electrical energy storage is a limiting barrier to widespread usage and commercialization of sustainable and renewable energy sources, such as wind and solar energy, as well as integration of electric vehicles. Electrochemical double-layer capacitors (EDLCs) are a promising energy storage technology that offers the benefits of high power density, long cycle life, rapid charging rates, and moderate energy density. The energy storage mechanism of EDLCs is physical ion adsorption on the surface of porous carbon electrodes. This thesis is an investigation of three different sections relating to EDLCs: 1) techniques to properly characterize novel porous carbon electrode materials, 2) investigation of activated oil sands petroleum coke (APC) as the electrode material for EDLCs, and 3) a systematic study of the effects of porous carbon structure and chemistry on EDLC performance. In the first section, it was shown that variations in operating conditions and testing techniques can lead to discrepancies in measured and reported capacitance. Therefore, it was concluded that a standardized approach is necessary in order to properly compare different porous carbon electrodes. In the second section, APC was investigated as a novel electrode material for EDLCs. PetCoke is a carbon dense material that can be activated with potassium hydroxide to generate high surface area porous carbon materials. These materials show promising electrochemical performance in EDLCs, with capacitance values up to 400 Fg-1 in 4M potassium hydroxide aqueous electrolytes, depending on the operating conditions. Additionally, the power density of these materials is comparable to that of other carbon nanomaterials, which are more costly and challenging to produce. Finally, the third section investigates the relationship between measured capacitance, and carbon macrostructure, meso-structure, microstructure, and oxygen content. In each of these studies, the desired parameter was varied, while all others

  15. Tailoring the properties of magnetite nanoparticles clusters by coating with double inorganic layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petran, Anca [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, 67-103 Donat Str., 400293 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Radu, Teodora, E-mail: teodora.radu@itim-cj.ro [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, 67-103 Donat Str., 400293 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Culic, Bogdan [Faculty of Dental Medicine,Iuliu Hatieganu University of Medicine and Pharmacy, 32 Clinicilor Str., 400006 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Turcu, Rodica, E-mail: rodica.turcu@itim-cj.ro [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, 67-103 Donat Str., 400293 Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2016-12-30

    Highlights: • New magnetite clusters covered with inorganic oxides double layers. • Coating layers influence on the surface properties of the magnetic clusters. • Color parameters assessment for the inorganic oxides coated magnetic clusters. • High magnetization clusters with appropiate color for magnetic security paper. - Abstract: New magnetic nanoparticles based on Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} clusters covered with a double layer of inorganic salts/oxides with high magnetization for incorporation in security materials such as security paper were synthesized. For the inorganic layers ZnO, SiO{sub 2} and BaSO{sub 4} were used. The microstructure and composition of the products were determined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Magnetization measurements on the obtained samples show a straightforward correlation between the saturation magnetization (M{sub s}) and morphology of the samples. The results obtained from color parameter assessment are discussed in relation with the morphology and microstructure of the prepared samples.

  16. Effect of double-layer application on bond quality of adhesive systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Satoshi; Takamizawa, Toshiki; Barkmeier, Wayne W; Tsujimoto, Akimasa; Imai, Arisa; Watanabe, Hidehiko; Erickson, Robert L; Latta, Mark A; Nakatsuka, Toshiyuki; Miyazaki, Masashi

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of double-layer application of universal adhesives on the bond quality and compare to other adhesive systems. Two universal adhesives used were in this study: Scotchbond Universal (SU), [3M ESPE] and Prime & Bond elect (PE), [Dentsply Caulk]. The conventional single-step self-etch adhesives G-ӕnial Bond (GB), [GC Corporation.] and BeautiBond (BB), [Shofu Inc.], and a two-step self-etch adhesive, Optibond XTR (OX), [Kerr Corporation], were used as comparison adhesives. Shear bond strengths (SBS) and shear fatigue strengths (SFS) to human enamel and dentin were measured in single application mode and double application mode. For each test condition, 15 specimens were prepared for SBS testing and 30 specimens for SFS testing. Enamel and dentin SBS of the universal adhesives in the double application mode were significantly higher than those of the single application mode. In addition, the universal adhesives in the double application mode had significantly higher dentin SFS values than those of the single application mode. The two-step self-etch adhesive OX tended to have lower bond strengths in the double application mode, regardless of the test method or adherent substrate. The double application mode is effective in enhancing SBS and SFS of universal adhesives, but not conventional two-step self-etch adhesives. These results suggest that, although the double application mode may enhance the bonding quality of a universal adhesive, it may be counter-productive for two-step self-etch adhesives in clinical use. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Enhanced activity of CaFeMg layered double hydroxides-supported gold nanodendrites for the electrochemical evolution of oxygen and hydrogen in alkaline media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havakeshian, Elaheh; Salavati, Hossein; Taei, Masoumeh; Hasheminasab, Fatemeh; Seddighi, Mohadeseh

    2018-02-01

    In this study, Au was electrodeposited on a support of CaFeMg layered double hydroxide and then, its catalytic activity was investigated for oxygen evolution reaction (OER) and hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). Field emission scanning electron microscopy images showed that a uniform porous film of aggregated nano-particles of the LDH has been decorated with Au nanodendrite-like structures (AuNDs@LDH). The results obtained from polarization curves, Tafel plots and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy showed that the AuNDs@LDH exhibits lower overpotential, higher current density, faster kinetics and enhanced stability for both of the OER and HER, in comparison with the single AuNPs and LDH catalysts.

  18. Control strategy on the double-diffusive convection in a nanofluid layer with internal heat generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtar, N. F. M.; Khalid, I. K.; Siri, Z.; Ibrahim, Z. B.; Gani, S. S. A.

    2017-10-01

    The influences of feedback control and internal heat source on the onset of Rayleigh-Bénard convection in a horizontal nanofluid layer is studied analytically due to Soret and Dufour parameters. The confining boundaries of the nanofluid layer (bottom boundary-top boundary) are assumed to be free-free, rigid-free, and rigid-rigid, with a source of heat from below. Linear stability theory is applied, and the eigenvalue solution is obtained numerically using the Galerkin technique. Focusing on the stationary convection, it is shown that there is a positive thermal resistance in the presence of feedback control on the onset of double-diffusive convection, while there is a positive thermal efficiency in the existence of internal heat generation. The possibilities of suppress or augment of the Rayleigh-Bénard convection in a nanofluid layer are also discussed in detail.

  19. A double-layer based model of ion confinement in electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mascali, D., E-mail: davidmascali@lns.infn.it; Neri, L.; Celona, L.; Castro, G.; Gammino, S.; Ciavola, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Torrisi, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Università Mediterranea di Reggio Calabria, Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell’Informazione, delle Infrastrutture e dell’Energia Sostenibile, Via Graziella, I-89100 Reggio Calabria (Italy); Sorbello, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Università degli Studi di Catania, Dipartimento di Ingegneria Elettrica Elettronica ed Informatica, Viale Andrea Doria 6, 95125 Catania (Italy)

    2014-02-15

    The paper proposes a new model of ion confinement in ECRIS, which can be easily generalized to any magnetic configuration characterized by closed magnetic surfaces. Traditionally, ion confinement in B-min configurations is ascribed to a negative potential dip due to superhot electrons, adiabatically confined by the magneto-static field. However, kinetic simulations including RF heating affected by cavity modes structures indicate that high energy electrons populate just a thin slab overlapping the ECR layer, while their density drops down of more than one order of magnitude outside. Ions, instead, diffuse across the electron layer due to their high collisionality. This is the proper physical condition to establish a double-layer (DL) configuration which self-consistently originates a potential barrier; this “barrier” confines the ions inside the plasma core surrounded by the ECR surface. The paper will describe a simplified ion confinement model based on plasma density non-homogeneity and DL formation.

  20. Interactions Between Biological Cells and Layered Double Hydroxides: Towards Functional Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forano, Claude; Bruna, Felipe; Mousty, Christine; Prevot, Vanessa

    2018-03-08

    This review highlights the current research on the interactions between biological cells and Layered Double Hydroxides (LDH). The as-prepared biohybrid materials appear extremely attractive in diverse fields of application relating to health care, environment and energy production. We describe how thanks to the main features of biological cells and LDH layers, various strategies of assemblies can be carried out for constructing smart biofunctional materials. The interactions between the two components are described with a peculiar attention to the adsorption, biocompatibilization, LDH layer internalization, antifouling and antimicrobial properties. The most significant achievements including authors' results, involving biological cells and LDH assemblies in waste water treatment, bioremediation and bioenergy generation are specifically addressed. © 2018 The Chemical Society of Japan & Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Double-Layer Magnetic Nanoparticle-Embedded Silica Particles for Efficient Bio-Separation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    San Kyeong

    Full Text Available Superparamagnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles (NPs based nanomaterials have been exploited in various biotechnology fields including biomolecule separation. However, slow accumulation of Fe3O4 NPs by magnets may limit broad applications of Fe3O4 NP-based nanomaterials. In this study, we report fabrication of Fe3O4 NPs double-layered silica nanoparticles (DL MNPs with a silica core and highly packed Fe3O4 NPs layers. The DL MNPs had a superparamagnetic property and efficient accumulation kinetics under an external magnetic field. Moreover, the magnetic field-exposed DL MNPs show quantitative accumulation, whereas Fe3O4 NPs single-layered silica nanoparticles (SL MNPs and silica-coated Fe3O4 NPs produced a saturated plateau under full recovery of the NPs. DL MNPs are promising nanomaterials with great potential to separate and analyze biomolecules.

  2. Efficient InGaP/GaAs DJ solar cell with double back surface field layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.P. Mishra

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available An effective and optimised BSF layer is an important layer in both single junction and multijunction solar cells. In this work the use of the double layer BSF for top cell with their varied thicknesses is investigated on GaInP/GaAs DJ solar cell using the computational numerical modelling TCAD tool Silvaco ATLAS. The detail photo-generation rates are determined. The major modelling stages are described and the simulation results are validated with published experimental data in order to describe the accuracy of our results produced. For this optimized cell structure, the maximum Jsc = 17.33 mA/cm2, Voc = 2.66 V, and fill factor (FF = 88.67% are obtained under AM1.5G illumination, exhibiting a maximum conversion efficiency of 34.52% (1 sun and 39.15% (1000 suns.

  3. On the Onset of Thermal Convection in a Layer of Oldroydian Visco-Elastic Fluid Saturated by Brinkman–Darcy Porous Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chand Ramesh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Thermal instability in a horizontal layer of Oldroydian visco-elastic fluid in a porous medium is investigated. For porous medium the Brinkman–Darcy model is considered. A linear stability analysis based upon perturbation method and normal mode technique is used to find solution of the fluid layer confined between two free-free boundaries. The onset criterion for stationary and oscillatory convection is derived analytically. The influence of the Brinkman–Darcy, Prandtl–Darcy number, stress relaxation parameter on the stationary and oscillatory convection is studied both analytically and graphically. The sufficient condition for the validity of PES has also been derived.

  4. Limitation of parallel flow in double diffusive convection: Two- and three-dimensional transitions in a horizontal porous domain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mimouni, N.; Chikh, S.; Rahli, O. [Laboratoire LTPMP, Fac GMGP, USTHB, BP 32, Alia, Bab Ezzouar, Algiers (Algeria); Bennacer, R., E-mail: Rachid.Bennacer@ens-cachan.fr [LMT-ENS Cachan, 61 av. du président Wilson F-94235 Cachan Cedex (France)

    2014-07-15

    Two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) numerical simulations of double diffusion natural convection in an elongated enclosure filled with a binary fluid saturating a porous medium are carried out in the present work. The Boussinesq approximation is made in the formulation of the problem, and Neumann boundary conditions for temperature and concentration are adopted, respectively, on vertical and horizontal walls of the cavity. The used numerical method is based on the control volume approach, with the third order quadratic upstream interpolation scheme in approximating the advection terms. A semi implicit method algorithm is used to handle the velocity-pressure coupling. To avoid the excessively high computer time inherent to the solution of 3D natural convection problems, full approximation storage with full multigrid method is used to solve the problem. A wide range of the controlling parameters (Rayleigh-Darcy number Ra, lateral aspect ratio Ay, Lewis number Le, and the buoyancy ration N) is investigated. We clearly show that increasing the depth of the cavity (i.e., the lateral aspect ratio) has an important effect on the flow patterns. The 2D perfect parallel flows obtained for small lateral aspect ratio are drastically destabilized by increasing the cavity lateral dimension. This yields a 3D fluid motion with a much more complex flow pattern and the usually considered 2D parallel flow model cannot be applied.

  5. A "counter-charge layer in generalized solvents" framework for electrical double layers in neat and hybrid ionic liquid electrolytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Guang; Huang, Jingsong; Sumpter, Bobby G; Meunier, Vincent; Qiao, Rui

    2011-08-28

    Room-temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) have received significant attention as electrolytes due to a number of attractive properties such as their wide electrochemical windows. Since electrical double layers (EDLs) are the cornerstone for the applications of RTILs in electrochemical systems such as supercapacitors, it is important to develop an understanding of the structure-capacitance relationships for the EDLs of these systems. Here we present a theoretical framework termed "counter-charge layer in generalized solvents" (CGS) for describing the structure and capacitance of the EDLs in neat RTILs and in RTILs mixed with different mass fractions of organic solvents. Within this framework, an EDL is made up of a counter-charge layer exactly balancing the electrode charge, and of polarized generalized solvents (in the form of layers of ion pairs, each of which has a zero net charge but has a dipole moment--the ion pairs thus can be considered as a generalized solvent) consisting of all RTILs inside the system except the counter-ions in the counter-charge layer, together with solvent molecules if present. Several key features of the EDLs that originate from the strong ion-ion correlation in RTILs, e.g., overscreening of electrode charge and alternating layering of counter-ions and co-ions, are explicitly incorporated into this framework. We show that the dielectric screening in EDLs is governed predominantly by the polarization of generalized solvents (or ion pairs) in the EDL, and the capacitance of an EDL can be related to its microstructure with few a priori assumptions or simplifications. We use this framework to understand two interesting phenomena observed in molecular dynamics simulations of EDLs in a neat IL of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([BMIM][BF(4)]) and in a mixture of [BMIM][BF(4)] and acetonitrile (ACN): (1) the capacitance of the EDLs in the [BMIM][BF(4)]/ACN mixture increases only slightly when the mass fraction of ACN in the mixture

  6. 2D Porous Carbons prepared from Layered Organic-Inorganic Hybrids and their Use as Oxygen-Reduction Electrocatalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuang; Cheng, Chong; Liang, Hai-Wei; Feng, Xinliang; Thomas, Arne

    2017-07-01

    2D porous carbon nanomaterials have attracted tremendous attention in different disciplines especially for electrochemical catalysis. The significant advantage of such 2D materials is that nearly all their surfaces are exposed to the electrolyte and can take part in the electrochemical reaction. Here, a versatile active-salt-templating strategy to efficiently synthesize 2D porous carbon nanosheets from layered organic-inorganic hybrids is presented. The resulting heteroatom-doped carbon nanosheets (NFe/CNs) exhibit exceptional performance for the oxygen-reduction reaction and in Zn-air battery electrodes. The activity of the best catalyst within a series of NFe/CNs exceeds the performance of conventional carbon-supported Pt catalysts in terms of onset potential (0.930 vs 0.915 V of Pt/C), half-wave potential (0.859 vs 0.816 V of Pt/C), long-time stability, and methanol tolerance. Also, when applied as a cathode catalyst in a zinc-air battery the NFe/CNs presented here outperform commercial Pt/C catalysts. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Hexagonal ZnO porous plates prepared from microwave synthesized layered zinc hydroxide sulphate via thermal decomposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machovsky, Michal, E-mail: machovsky@ft.utb.cz [Centre of Polymer Systems, University Institute, Tomas Bata University in Zlin, Nad Ovcirnou 3685, 760 01 Zlin (Czech Republic); Polymer Centre, Faculty of Technology, Tomas Bata University in Zlin, Nam. T.G. Masaryka 275, 762 72 Zlin (Czech Republic); Kuritka, Ivo, E-mail: ivo@kuritka.net [Centre of Polymer Systems, University Institute, Tomas Bata University in Zlin, Nad Ovcirnou 3685, 760 01 Zlin (Czech Republic); Polymer Centre, Faculty of Technology, Tomas Bata University in Zlin, Nam. T.G. Masaryka 275, 762 72 Zlin (Czech Republic); Sedlak, Jakub, E-mail: j1sedlak@ft.utb.cz [Centre of Polymer Systems, University Institute, Tomas Bata University in Zlin, Nad Ovcirnou 3685, 760 01 Zlin (Czech Republic); Polymer Centre, Faculty of Technology, Tomas Bata University in Zlin, Nam. T.G. Masaryka 275, 762 72 Zlin (Czech Republic); Pastorek, Miroslav, E-mail: pastorek@ft.utb.cz [Centre of Polymer Systems, University Institute, Tomas Bata University in Zlin, Nad Ovcirnou 3685, 760 01 Zlin (Czech Republic); Department of Polymer Engineering, Faculty of Technology, Tomas Bata University in Zlin, Nam. T.G. Masaryka 275, 762 72 Zlin (Czech Republic)

    2013-10-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Zinc hydroxy sulphate was synthesized in 3 min via microwave hydrothermal route. • Zinc hydroxy sulphate was converted into mesh like porous ZnO by calcining at 900°. • The process of transformation is topotactic. - Abstract: Layered zinc hydroxide sulphate (ZHS) was prepared by microwave-assisted hydrothermal precipitation of zinc sulphate monohydrate with hexamethylenetetramine. Under ambient conditions, the structure of ZHS determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) was found to be a mixture of zinc hydroxide sulphate pentahydrate Zn{sub 4}SO{sub 4}(OH){sub 6}·5H{sub 2}O and tetrahydrate Zn{sub 4}SO{sub 4}(OH){sub 6}·4H{sub 2}O. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was used for characterization of the prepared materials. Based on the interpretation of ZHS's thermal decomposition profile obtained by thermogravimetric analysis, ZnO of high purity was prepared by calcination at 900 °C for 2 h. The structure of the resulting ZnO was confirmed by the XRD. The morphology examination by scanning electron microscopy revealed a porous mesh-like ZnO structure developed from the ZHS precursor at the expense of mass removal due to the release of water and sulphate during the calcination.

  8. Irreversible membrane fouling abatement through pre-deposited layer of hierarchical porous carbons

    KAUST Repository

    Hamad, Juma

    2014-11-01

    In this work, dual-templated hierarchical porous carbons (HPCs), produced from a coupled ice-hard templating approach, are shown to be a highly effective solution to the commonly occurring problem of irreversible fouling of low-pressure membranes used for pre-treatment in wastewater reuse. For the first time, dual-templated HPCs, along with their respective counterparts - single-templated meso-porous carbon (MPCs) (without macropores) - are tested in terms of their fouling reduction capacity and ability to remove different effluent organic matter fractions present in wastewater and compared with a commercially available powdered activated carbon (PAC). The synthesized HPCs provided exceptional fouling abatement, a 4-fold higher fouling reduction as compared to the previously reported best performing commercial PAC and ~2.5-fold better fouling reduction than their respective mesoporous counterpart. Thus, it is shown that not only mesoporosity, but macroporosity is also necessary to achieve high fouling reduction, thus emphasizing the need for dual templating. In the case of HPCs, the pre-deposition technique is also found to outperform the traditional sorbent-feed mixing approach, mainly in terms of removal of fouling components. Based on their superior performance, a high permeability (ultra-low-pressure) membrane consisting of the synthesized HPC pre-deposited on a large pore size membrane support (0.45μm membrane), is shown to give excellent pre-treatment performance for wastewater reuse application. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Superb adsorption capacity of hierarchical calcined Ni/Mg/Al layered double hydroxides for Congo red and Cr(VI) ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lei, Chunsheng [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Materials Synthesis and Processing, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China); College of Environmental & Safety Engineering, Changzhou University, Changzhou 213164 (China); Zhu, Xiaofeng [College of Environmental & Safety Engineering, Changzhou University, Changzhou 213164 (China); Zhu, Bicheng; Jiang, Chuanjia; Le, Yao [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Materials Synthesis and Processing, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China); Yu, Jiaguo, E-mail: jiaguoyu@yahoo.com [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Materials Synthesis and Processing, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia)

    2017-01-05

    Highlights: • Ni/Mg/Al layered double hydroxides (NMA-LDHs) synthesized. • NMA-LDHs with hierarchically hollow microsphere structure. • Calcined NMA-LDHs have large adsorption capacities for CR and Cr(VI) ions. - Abstract: The preparation of hierarchical porous materials as catalysts and sorbents has attracted much attention in the field of environmental pollution control. Herein, Ni/Mg/Al layered double hydroxides (NMA-LDHs) hierarchical flower-like hollow microspheres were synthesized by a hydrothermal method. After the NMA-LDHs was calcined at 600 °C, NMA-LDHs transformed into Ni/Mg/Al layered double oxides (NMA-LDOs), which maintained the hierarchical flower-like hollow structure. The crystal phase, morphology, and microstructure of the as-prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy elemental mapping, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and nitrogen adsorption−desorption methods. Both the calcined and non-calcined NMA-LDHs were examined for their performance to remove Congo red (CR) and hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) ions in aqueous solution. The maximum monolayer adsorption capacities of CR and Cr(VI) ions over the NMA-LDOs sample were 1250 and 103.4 mg/g at 30 °C, respectively. Thermodynamic studies indicated that the adsorption process was endothermic in nature. In addition, the addition of coexisting anions negatively influenced the adsorption capacity of Cr(VI) ions, in the following order: CO{sub 3}{sup 2−} > SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} > H{sub 2}PO{sub 4}{sup −} > Cl{sup −}. This work will provide new insight into the design and fabrication of advanced adsorption materials for water pollutant removal.

  10. Gold Nanoparticles on Layered Double Hydroxide Nanosheets and Its Electrocatalysis for Glucose Oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Hye Ran; Lee, Jong Hyeon [The Catholic University of Korea, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Se Hee; Ji, Hong Geun [H and A PharmaChem, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-15

    We developed a new way to form the well-defined nanocomposite of Au NPs and exfoliated LDH nanosheet by in situ chemical reduction with NaBH{sub 4}. The optical and structural studies indicate that the Au NPs are highly dispersed and immobilized on the surface of LDH nanosheets. The Au/LDH nanosheet exhibited an excellent electrocatalysis toward glucose oxidation reaction. The results strongly demonstrate that the nanoscopic natures and dense positive charges of LDH nanosheet effectively stabilized the Au NPs to maintain their inherent properties during the synthesis and the electrocatalysis. The use of the double hydroxide nanosheets as nanoscopic support materials for the transition-metal NPs will dramatically improve their functionalities in heterogeneous catalysis. Recently, two-dimensional nanosheet of exfoliated layered double hydroxide (LDH) has emerged as a new type of solid support to immobilize the diverse metal NPs because of the large metal hydroxide area, good biochemical stability, and highly charged positive potential of 1- to 2-nm thick LDH layers. LDHs consist of a continuous stack of positively charged metal hydroxide layers with counter anions and water molecules placed in interlayer spaces.

  11. A model for the electrical double layer combining integral equation techniques with quantum density functional theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luque, N.B.; Woelki, S.; Henderson, D.; Schmickler, W.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: · We augment a double-layer model based on integral equations by calculating the interaction parameters with the electrode from quantum density functional theory · Explicit model calculations for Ag(1 1 1) in aqueous solutions give at least qualitatively good results for the particle profiles · Ours is the only method which allows the calculation of capacity-charge characteristics. · We obtain reasonable values for the Helmholtz (inner-layer) capacity. - Abstract: We have complemented the singlet reference interaction site model for the electric double layer by quantum chemical calculations for the interaction of ions and solvents with an electrode. Specific calculations have been performed for an aqueous solution of NaCl in contact with a Ag(1 1 1) electrode. The particle profiles near the electrode show the specific adsorption of Cl - ions, but not of Na + , and are at least in qualitative agreement with those obtained by molecular dynamics. Including the electronic response of the silver surface into the model results in reasonable capacity-charge characteristics.

  12. Anisotropic hybrid excitation modes in monolayer and double-layer phosphorene on polar substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saberi-Pouya, S.; Vazifehshenas, T.; Salavati-fard, T.; Farmanbar, M.

    2017-09-01

    We investigate the anisotropic hybrid surface optical (SO) phonon-plasmon dispersion relations in monolayer and double-layer phosphorene systems located on the polar substrates, such as SiO2, h -BN, and Al2O3 . We calculate these hybrid modes by using the dynamical dielectric function in the random phase approximation in which the electron-electron interaction and long-range electric field generated by the substrate SO phonons via Fröhlich interaction are taken into account. In the long-wavelength limit, we obtain some analytical expressions for the hybrid SO phonon-plasmon dispersion relations which agree with those obtained from the loss function. Our results indicate a strong anisotropy in SO phonon-plasmon modes, which are stronger along the light-mass direction in our heterostructures. Furthermore, we find that the type of substrate has a significant effect on the dispersion relations of the coupled modes. Importantly, the hybrid excitations are apparently sensitive to the misalignment and separation between layers in double-layer phosphorene.

  13. Cost-Effective Double-Layer Hydrogel Composites for Wound Dressing Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Tavakoli

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Although poly vinyl alcohol-poly acrylic acid (PVA-PAA composites have been widely used for biomedical applications, their incorporation into double-layer assembled thin films has been limited because the interfacial binding materials negatively influence the water uptake capacity of PVA. To minimize the effect of interfacial binding, a simple method for the fabrication of a double-layered PVA-PAA hydrogel was introduced, and its biomedical properties were evaluated in this study. Our results revealed that the addition of PAA layers on the surface of PVA significantly increased the swelling properties. Compared to PVA, the equilibrium swelling ratio of the PVA-PAA hydrogel increased (p = 0.035 and its water vapour permeability significantly decreased (p = 0.04. Statistical analysis revealed that an increase in pH value from 7 to 10 as well as the addition of PAA at pH = 7 significantly increased the adhesion force (p < 0.04. The mechanical properties—including ultimate tensile strength, modulus, and elongation at break—remained approximately untouched compared to PVA. A significant increase in biocompatibility was found after day 7 (p = 0.016. A higher release rate for tetracycline was found at pH = 8 compared to neutral pH.

  14. Highly Durable Direct Methanol Fuel Cell with Double-Layered Catalyst Cathode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM is one of the key components in direct methanol fuel cells. However, the PEM usually gets attacked by reactive oxygen species during the operation period, resulting in the loss of membrane integrity and formation of defects. Herein, a double-layered catalyst cathode electrode consisting of Pt/CeO2-C as inner catalyst and Pt/C as outer catalyst is fabricated to extend the lifetime and minimize the performance loss of DMFC. Although the maximum power density of membrane electrode assembly (MEA with catalyst cathode is slightly lower than that of the traditional one, its durability is significantly improved. No obvious degradation is evident in the MEA with double-layered catalyst cathode within durability testing. These results indicated that Pt/CeO2-C as inner cathode catalyst layer greatly improved the stability of MEA. The significant reason for the improved stability of MEA is the ability of CeO2 to act as free-radical scavengers.

  15. Acoustic transmission resonance and suppression through double-layer subwavelength hole arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Zhifeng; Jin Guojun

    2010-01-01

    We present a theoretical study of acoustic waves passing through double-layer subwavelength hole arrays. The acoustic transmission resonance and suppression are observed. There are three mechanisms responsible for the transmission resonance: the excitation of geometrically induced acoustic surface waves, the Fabry-Perot resonance in a hole cavity (I-FP resonance) and the Fabry-Perot resonance between two plates (II-FP resonance). We can differentiate these mechanisms via the dispersion relation of acoustic modes supported by the double-layer structure. It is confirmed that the coupling between two single-layer perforated plates, associated with longitudinal interval and lateral displacement, plays a crucial role in modulating the transmission properties. The strong coupling between two plates can induce the splitting of the transmission peak, while the decoupling between plates leads to the appearance of transmission suppression. By analyzing the criterion derived for transmission suppression, we conclude that it is the destructive interference between the diffracted waves and the direct transmission waves assisted by the I-FP resonance of the first plate that leads to the decoupling between plates and then the transmission suppression.

  16. Synthesis and release behavior of composites of camptothecin and layered double hydroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Lun; Yan Li; Hou Wanguo; Liu Shaojie

    2010-01-01

    A simple method, reconstruction of calcinated layered double hydroxides (CLDH) in an organic (ethanol)-water mixed solvent medium containing drug, was developed to intercalate partially a non-ionic and poorly water-soluble drug (camptothecin) into the gallery of layered double hydroxides (LDHs) to form the drug-LDH composites. The purpose of choosing organic-water mixed solvent is to increase remarkably the solubility of camptothecin (CPT) in the reconstruction medium. A probable morphology of CPT molecules in the gallery of LDHs is that CPT molecules arrange as monolayer with the long axis parallel to the LDH layers. The in vitro drug release from the composites was remarkably lower than that from the corresponding physical mixture, which shows these drug-inorganic composites can be used as a potential drug delivery system. - Graphical abstract: A simple method, reconstruction of calcinated LDHs in an organic-water medium containing drug, was developed to intercalate non-ionic and poorly water-soluble camptothecin into the gallery of LDHs.

  17. Chloride adsorption by calcined layered double hydroxides in hardened Portland cement paste

    KAUST Repository

    Yoon, Seyoon

    2014-06-01

    This study investigated the feasibility of using calcined layered double hydroxides (CLDHs) to prevent chloride-induced deterioration in reinforced concrete. CLDHs not only adsorbed chloride ions in aqueous solution with a memory effect but also had a much higher binding capacity than the original layered double hydroxides (LDHs) in the cement matrix. We investigated this adsorption in hardened cement paste in batch cultures to determine adsorption isotherms. The measured and theoretical binding capacities (153 mg g -1 and 257 mg g-1, respectively) of the CLDHs were comparable to the theoretical capacity of Friedel\\'s salt (2 mol mol-1 or 121 mg g-1), which belongs to the LDH family among cementitious phases. We simulated chloride adsorption by CLDHs through the cement matrix using the Fickian model and compared the simulation result to the X-ray fluorescence (XRF) chlorine map. Based on our results, it is proposed that the adsorption process is governed by the chloride transport through the cement matrix; this process differs from that in an aqueous solution. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis showed that the CLDH rebuilds the layered structure in a cementitious environment, thereby demonstrating the feasibility of applying CLDHs to the cement and concrete industries. © 2014 Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Thermal buckling of double-layered graphene system in humid environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobhy, Mohammed; Zenkour, Ashraf M.

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, the effect of humidity conditions on thermal buckling analysis of graphene system contained two layers under different boundary conditions is investigated. The two-variable shear deformation plate theory is employed with the nonlocal continuum theory to deduce the governing stability equations. These equations are solved analytically to obtain the thermal buckling of the nanoplate system with simply supported, clamped and free boundary conditions. The present system of double-layered graphene sheets is composed from two sheets of graphene joined together by an elastic medium and hedged by two-parameter foundations. The external foundations are modeled as Winkler-Pasternak model. Two characteristic types of thermal buckling are considered: synchronous and asynchronous modes of buckling. The temperature rise and moisture concentration are assumed as a fixed, linear or nonlinear function of z (along the thickness direction). For the validation of the formulations, the present results are compared with those published in the references. Furthermore, the influences of the nonlocal parameter, humidity and other parameters on thermal buckling of double-layered graphene system are all discussed.

  19. Highly photocatalytic TiO2 interconnected porous powder fabricated by sponge-templated atomic layer deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Shengqiang; Zhao, Yuting; Huang, Gaoshan; Wang, Jiao; Baunack, Stefan; Gemming, Thomas; Li, Menglin; Zheng, Lirong; Schmidt, Oliver G; Mei, Yongfeng

    2015-09-11

    A titanium dioxide (TiO2) interconnected porous structure has been fabricated by means of atomic layer deposition of TiO2 onto a reticular sponge template. The obtained freestanding TiO2 with large surface area can be easily taken out of the water to solve a complex separation procedure. A compact and conformal nanocoating was evidenced by morphologic characterization. A phase transition, as well as production of oxygen vacancies with increasing annealing temperature, was detected by x-ray diffraction and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, respectively. The photocatalytic experimental results demonstrated that the powder with appropriate annealing treatment possessed excellent photocatalytic ability due to the co-action of high surface area, oxygen vacancies and the optimal crystal structure.

  20. Marangoni boundary layer flow and heat transfer of copper-water nanofluid over a porous medium disk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanhai Lin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a study of the Marangoni boundary layer flow and heat transfer of copper-water nanofluid over a porous medium disk. It is assumed that the base fluid water and the nanoparticles copper are in thermal equilibrium and that no slippage occurs between them. The governing partial differential equations are transformed into a set of ordinary differential equations by generalized Kármán transformation. The corresponding nonlinear two-point boundary value problem is solved by the Homotopy analysis method and the shooting method. The effects of the solid volume fraction, the permeability parameter and the Marangoni parameter on the velocity and temperature fields are presented graphically and analyzed in detail.

  1. A Sarsa(λ Algorithm Based on Double-Layer Fuzzy Reasoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quan Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Solving reinforcement learning problems in continuous space with function approximation is currently a research hotspot of machine learning. When dealing with the continuous space problems, the classic Q-iteration algorithms based on lookup table or function approximation converge slowly and are difficult to derive a continuous policy. To overcome the above weaknesses, we propose an algorithm named DFR-Sarsa(λ based on double-layer fuzzy reasoning and prove its convergence. In this algorithm, the first reasoning layer uses fuzzy sets of state to compute continuous actions; the second reasoning layer uses fuzzy sets of action to compute the components of Q-value. Then, these two fuzzy layers are combined to compute the Q-value function of continuous action space. Besides, this algorithm utilizes the membership degrees of activation rules in the two fuzzy reasoning layers to update the eligibility traces. Applying DFR-Sarsa(λ to the Mountain Car and Cart-pole Balancing problems, experimental results show that the algorithm not only can be used to get a continuous action policy, but also has a better convergence performance.

  2. Universal biomimetic preparation and immobilization of layered double hydroxide films and adsorption behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Wei; Zhang, Wenpeng; Chen, Zilin

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • An in situ method is developed for immobilization of nanoscale LDHs. • The universal method can be applied on multiple substrates. • The homogeneous LDHs film can be synthesis and immobilized in one step. • The LDHs film showed good adsorption performance towards anionic compounds. - Abstract: Preparation and immobilization of layered double hydroxides (LDHs) film onto multiple substrates is important and challenging in functional materials fields by date. In this work, a simple and universal polydopamine (PD)-based layer-by-layer assembly strategy was developed for the immobilization of LDHs film onto surfaces such as polypropylene chip, glass slides and metal coins. The surface of substrates was firstly modified by polydopamine functionalization, and then LDHs film was synthesized via urea method and directly immobilized on the PD layer by in situ growing strategy in one step. The PD layer as well as the final LDHs film was characterized by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope, infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction pattern and X-ray photoelectron spectra. It has been demonstrated the formation of the dense and homogeneous nanoscaled LDHs film with 400 nm thickness. Adsorption behavior of the fabricated NiAl-LDHs film toward anionic dyes and pharmaceuticals was further assessed. To demonstrate their extensive application, fast and high efficient adsorption of anionic dyes and pharmaceuticals was achieved by NiAl-LDHs-modified polypropylene centrifugal tube.

  3. Double-layer weekly sustained release transdermal patch containing gestodene and ethinylestradiol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yanli; Liang, Jinying; Liu, Jianping; Xiao, Yan

    2009-07-30

    The combination therapy of gestodene (GEST) and ethinylestradiol (EE) has shown advanced contraception effect and lower side effect. The present study was designed to develop a weekly sustained release matrix type transdermal patch containing GEST and EE using blends of different polymeric combinations. The multiple-layer technique was adopted in order to maintain a steady permeation flux for 7 days. The effects of polymer types, polymer ratios, permeation enhancers, drug loadings and drug ratios in different layers on the skin permeations of the drugs were evaluated using excised mice skin. Polariscope examination was carried out to observe the drug distribution behavior. The formulation with the mixture of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) (7:1) was found to provide the regular release and propylene glycol (PG) could enhance the permeation fluxes of drugs. Double-layer transdermal drug delivery system (TDDS) could sustain the steady permeation flux of drugs for 7 days when the ratio of drug in drug release layer and drug reservoir layer was 1:4 with the identical total drug amount. The in vitro transdermal permeation fluxes were 0.377 microg/cm(2)/h and 0.092 microg/cm(2)/h, for GEST and EE respectively. The uniformity of dosage units test showed that the distribution of drugs in the matrix was homogeneous, which was further demonstrated by the polariscope result. The developed transdermal delivery system containing GEST and EE could be a promising non-oral contraceptive method.

  4. Porous Proton- and Chloride-Ion Conducting Layers Based on Ethanolamine Derivatives of PVC on the Surfaces of Fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsivadze, A. Yu.; Fridman, A. Ya.; Morozova, E. M.; Sokolova, N. P.; Voloshchuk, A. M.; Bardyshev, I. I.; Gorbunov, A. M.; Novikov, A. K.; Polyakova, I. Ya.; Titova, B. N.; Yavich, A. A.

    2018-02-01

    Materials are produced with porous layers based on ethanolamine derivatives of PVC or compounds of active carbon with hydroxyethylcyclam derivatives of PVC with aqua complexes of chloride hydrogen cross-linked with the surface of cellulose or asbestos fabric. Their capacity for sorption with respect to hexane and benzene in the saturated vapor and liquid phases is determined. The dependences of current on voltage in a circuit are determined for bridges composed of these materials in air, and in the vapor and liquid phases of benzene and hexane between 3 M HCl solutions and 3 M HCl solutions containing 3 M CaCl2. It is established that only H+ ions migrate along the bridges between the HCl solutions, and H+ and Cl- ions were the only species that moved along the bridges between the HCl solutions containing CaCl2. The voltages at which the movement of ions starts are determined, and constants characterizing the conductivity of the layers are found. It is shown that these parameters depend on the structure of a layer, the nature of the fabric, and the medium surrounding a bridge.

  5. Forming and characteristics of lowest valley of 90Sr specific activity distribution during migration in two-layer porous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhiming; Li Shushen; Zhao Yingjie; Wu Qinghua

    2005-01-01

    Radionuclide migration experiment in unsaturated loess under sprinkling condition is briefly introduced in this paper. The tracers used for the experiment are 90 Sr and some transuraniums ( 237 Np, 238 Pu, 241 Am). Tracer source is mixture of nitrate solution of the above-mentioned tracers and quartz sand. Particle sizes of quartz sand range from 0.2 mm to 0.45 mm. Dimension of the tracer layer which was put 50 cm below ground is 120 cm x 50 cm and thickness 0.7 cm. Sprinkling rate is 5 mm/h and 3 h/d. A column was collected from experiment pit per half year and cut into samples. Specific activities of radionuclides in samples were measured in laboratory in order to obtain their longitudinal specific activity distribution. The data processing on the results for 90 Sr is conducted in this paper. It is found from the results that lowest valley of specific activity distribution is appeared during radionuclides migration in two-layer porous media. Taking 90 Sr as an example, the forming and characteristics of lowest valley are discussed. Water, which acts as a carrier of radionuclides, formed detouring flow because there exist quartz sand and hence migration distance of 90 Sr below quartz sand layer is much less than that of 85 Sr in single loess medium. (authors)

  6. Photocatalytic activity of porous multiwalled carbon nanotube-TiO{sub 2} composite layers for pollutant degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zouzelka, Radek [J. Heyrovsky Institute of Physical Chemistry, v.i.i., Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Dolejskova 3, 18223 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Department of Physical Chemistry, University of Chemistry and Technology Prague, 16628 Prague (Czech Republic); Kusumawati, Yuly [Chimie ParisTech, PSL Research University, CNRS, Institut de Recherche de Chimie Paris (IRCP), 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75005 Paris (France); Remzova, Monika [J. Heyrovsky Institute of Physical Chemistry, v.i.i., Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Dolejskova 3, 18223 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Department of Physical Chemistry, University of Chemistry and Technology Prague, 16628 Prague (Czech Republic); Rathousky, Jiri [J. Heyrovsky Institute of Physical Chemistry, v.i.i., Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Dolejskova 3, 18223 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Pauporté, Thierry, E-mail: thierry.pauporte@chimie-paristech.fr [Chimie ParisTech, PSL Research University, CNRS, Institut de Recherche de Chimie Paris (IRCP), 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75005 Paris (France)

    2016-11-05

    Highlights: • A simple method for TiO{sub 2}/graphene nanocomposite layer preparation. • Stable coatings on glass substrate. • Mesoporous nanocomposite films with high internal surface area. • High photoactivity for 4-chlorophenol degradation. • Analysis of photocatalysis enhancement mechanism. - Abstract: TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles are suitable building blocks nanostructures for the synthesis of porous functional thin films. Here we report the preparation of films using brookite, P25 titania and anatase pristine nanoparticles and of nanocomposite layers combining anatase nanoparticles and multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) at various concentrations. The structure and phase composition of the layers were characterized by X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. Their morphology and texture properties were determined by scanning electron microscopy and krypton adsorption experiments, respectively. Additionally to a strong absorption in the UV range, the composites exhibited light absorption in the visible range as well. The photocatalytic performance of the layers was tested in the degradation of aqueous solutions of 4-chlorophenol serving as a model of an eco-persistent pollutant. Besides the determination of the decrease in the concentration of 4-chlorophenol, also the formation of intermediate degradation products, namely hydroquinone and benzoquinone, was followed. The presence of MWCNTs had a beneficial effect on the photocatalytic performance, a marked increase in the photocatalytic degradation rate constant being observed even at very low concentrations of MWCNTs. Compared to a P25 reference layer, the first order rate reaction constant increased by about 100% for the composite films containing MWCNTs at concentrations above 0.6 wt%. The key parameters for the enhancement of the photocatalytic performance are discussed. The presence of carbon nanotubes influences beneficially the degradation of 4-chlorophenol by an attack of the primarily

  7. Multiple-layered effective medium approximation approach to modeling environmental effects on alumina passivated highly porous silicon nanostructured thin films measured by in-situ Mueller matrix ellipsometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mock, Alyssa; Carlson, Timothy; VanDerslice, Jeremy; Mohrmann, Joel; Woollam, John A.; Schubert, Eva; Schubert, Mathias

    2017-11-01

    Optical changes in alumina passivated highly porous silicon slanted columnar thin films during controlled exposure to toluene vapor are reported. Electron-beam evaporation glancing angle deposition and subsequent atomic layer deposition are utilized to deposit alumina passivated nanostructured porous silicon thin films. In-situ Mueller matrix generalized spectroscopic ellipsometry in an environmental cell is then used to determine changes in optical properties of the nanostructured thin films by inspection of individual Mueller matrix elements, each of which exhibit sensitivity to adsorption. The use of a multiple-layered effective medium approximation model allows for accurate description of the inhomogeneous nature of toluene adsorption onto alumina passivated highly porous silicon slanted columnar thin films.

  8. Adjustable threshold-voltage in all-inkjet-printed organic thin film transistor using double-layer dielectric structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Wen-Jong; Lee, Chang-Hung; Hsu, Chun-Hao; Yang, Shih-Hsien; Lin, Chih-Ting

    2013-01-01

    An all-inkjet-printed organic thin film transistor (OTFT) with a double-layer dielectric structure is proposed and implemented in this study. By using the double-layer structure with different dielectric materials (i.e., polyvinylphenol with poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene)), the threshold-voltage of OTFT can be adjusted. The threshold-voltage shift can be controlled by changing the composition of dielectric layers. That is, an enhancement-mode OTFT can be converted to a depletion-mode OTFT by selectively printing additional dielectric layers to form a high-k/low-k double-layer structure. The printed OTFT has a carrier mobility of 5.0 × 10 −3 cm 2 /V-s. The threshold-voltages of the OTFTs ranged between − 13 V and 10 V. This study demonstrates an additional design parameter for organic electronics manufactured using inkjet printing technology. - Highlights: • A double-layer dielectric organic thin film transistor, OTFT, is implemented. • The threshold voltage of OTFT can be configured by the double dielectric structure. • The composition of the dielectric determines the threshold voltage shift. • The characteristics of OTFTs can be adjusted by double dielectric structures

  9. CuGaS2 and CuGaS2–ZnS Porous Layers from Solution-Processed Nanocrystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taisiia Berestok

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The manufacturing of semiconducting films using solution-based approaches is considered a low cost alternative to vacuum-based thin film deposition strategies. An additional advantage of solution processing methods is the possibility to control the layer nano/microstructure. Here, we detail the production of mesoporous CuGaS2 (CGS and ZnS layers from spin-coating and subsequent cross-linking through chalcogen-chalcogen bonds of properly functionalized nanocrystals (NCs. We further produce NC-based porous CGS/ZnS bilayers and NC-based CGS–ZnS composite layers using the same strategy. Photoelectrochemical measurements are used to demonstrate the efficacy of porous layers, and particularly the CGS/ZnS bilayers, for improved current densities and photoresponses relative to denser films deposited from as-produced NCs.

  10. Intercalation of methotrexatum into layered double hydroxides via exfoliation-reassembly process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Su-Qing; Li, Shu-Ping, E-mail: lishuping@njnu.edu.cn; Li, Xiao-Dong, E-mail: lixiaodong1@njnu.edu.cn

    2015-03-01

    Graphical abstract: The intercalation of methotrexatum (MTX) into layered double hydroxides (LDHs) via an exfoliation-reassembly process was studied and the resulting MTX/LDHs hybrids were evaluated by anticancer effects on A549 cells together with pristine LDHs and MTX itself, the results indicated that the hybrids obtained from low concentration of MTX solution presented much better anticancer effect. - Highlights: • Exfoliation-reassembly process is a good method to synthesize hybrids. • MTX/LDHs from low concentration of MTX solution presented better release property. • MTX/LDHs from low concentration of MTX solution presented good anticancer effects. - Abstract: In this paper, the intercalation of methotrexatum (MTX) into layered double hydroxides (LDHs) via an exfoliation-reassembly process was reported and the resulting hybrids were then characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM) patterns etc. In the synthesis procedure, LDHs particles were firstly delaminated into well-dispersed 2D nanosheets in formamide by ultrasonic treatment at room temperature, and then the resulting LDH nanosheets were reassembled in MTX solution to form MTX intercalated LDH (MTX/LDHs) hybrids. AFM images showed that during the exfoliation process a large part of LDHs particles were delaminated into single and double brucite layers. XRD patterns and FTIR investigations manifested the successful intercalation of MTX anions into LDHs interlayers for the final samples. It was also found out that the drug-loading capacity of the hybrids increased with the concentrations of MTX solutions, while the morphology became even aggregated. At last, the cell cytotoxicity of the hybrids was estimated by MTT assays on the human lung cancer cells (A549), and the results stated that MTX/LDHs hybrids had effective suppress role on the proliferation of cancer cells.

  11. Intercalation and controlled release properties of vitamin C intercalated layered double hydroxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Xiaorui, E-mail: gxr_1320@sina.com [College of Science, Hebei University of Engineering, Handan 056038 (China); School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 211189 (China); Chemistry Research Laboratory, University of Oxford, Mansfield Road, Oxford OX1 3TA (United Kingdom); Lei, Lixu [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 211189 (China); O' Hare, Dermot [Chemistry Research Laboratory, University of Oxford, Mansfield Road, Oxford OX1 3TA (United Kingdom); Xie, Juan [College of Science, Hebei University of Engineering, Handan 056038 (China); Gao, Pengran [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 211189 (China); Chang, Tao [College of Science, Hebei University of Engineering, Handan 056038 (China)

    2013-07-15

    Two drug-inorganic composites involving vitamin C (VC) intercalated in Mg–Al and Mg–Fe layered double hydroxides (LDHs) have been synthesized by the calcination–rehydration (reconstruction) method. Powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), and UV–vis absorption spectroscopy indicate a successful intercalation of VC into the interlayer galleries of the LDH host. Studies of VC release from the LDHs in deionised water and in aqueous CO{sub 3}{sup 2−} solutions imply that Mg{sub 3}Al–VC LDH is a better controlled release system than Mg{sub 3}Fe–VC LDH. Analysis of the release profiles using a number of kinetic models suggests a solution-dependent release mechanism, and a diffusion-controlled deintercalation mechanism in deionised water, but an ion exchange process in CO{sub 3}{sup 2−} solution. - Graphical abstract: Vitamin C anions have been intercalated in the interlayer space of layered double hydroxide and released in CO{sub 3}{sup 2−} solution and deionised water. - Highlights: • Vitamin C intercalated Mg–Al and Mg–Fe layered double hydroxides were prepared. • Release property of vitamin C in aqueous CO{sub 3}{sup 2−} solution is better. • Avrami-Erofe’ev and first-order models provide better fit for release results. • Diffusion-controlled and ion exchange processes occur in deionised water. • An ion exchange process occurs in CO{sub 3}{sup 2−} solution.

  12. New layered double hydroxides by prepared by the intercalation of gibbsite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rees, Jennifer R.; Burden, Chloe S.; Fogg, Andrew M., E-mail: andrewmfogg@hotmail.com

    2015-04-15

    New layered double hydroxides (LDHs) with the composition [MAl{sub 4}(OH){sub 12}]Cl{sub 2}·1.5H{sub 2}O (M=Co, Ni) have been prepared by reacting gibbsite, γ-Al(OH){sub 3}, with the appropriate chloride salt in a synthesis in which the water of crystallization is the only solvent present and fully characterized. These LDHs have been shown to undergo facile anion exchange reactions with both organic and inorganic anions at room temperature making them comparable to other LDHs in this respect. Reactions under the same conditions with CuCl{sub 2}·2H{sub 2}O and ZnCl{sub 2} failed to form the desired LDHs but those with nitrate salts did lead to the formation of the previously reported [MAl{sub 4}(OH){sub 12}](NO{sub 3}){sub 2}·1.5H{sub 2}O (M=Co, Ni) compounds. - Graphical abstract: New layered double hydroxides (LDHs) with the composition [MAl{sub 4}(OH){sub 12}]Cl{sub 2}·1.5H{sub 2}O (M=Co, Ni) have been prepared by reacting gibbsite, γ-Al(OH){sub 3}, with the appropriate chloride salt in a synthesis in which no additional solvent is used and fully characterized. These LDHs have been shown to undergo facile anion exchange reactions with both organic and inorganic anions at room temperature. - Highlights: • Synthesis of new layered double hydroxides, [MAl{sub 4}(OH){sub 12}]Cl{sub 2}·1.5H{sub 2}O (M=Co, Ni). • Demonstration of the anion exchange capacity with both organic and inorganic anions. • Demonstration of the generality of the synthesis for LDHs.

  13. New layered double hydroxides by prepared by the intercalation of gibbsite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rees, Jennifer R.; Burden, Chloe S.; Fogg, Andrew M.

    2015-01-01

    New layered double hydroxides (LDHs) with the composition [MAl 4 (OH) 12 ]Cl 2 ·1.5H 2 O (M=Co, Ni) have been prepared by reacting gibbsite, γ-Al(OH) 3 , with the appropriate chloride salt in a synthesis in which the water of crystallization is the only solvent present and fully characterized. These LDHs have been shown to undergo facile anion exchange reactions with both organic and inorganic anions at room temperature making them comparable to other LDHs in this respect. Reactions under the same conditions with CuCl 2 ·2H 2 O and ZnCl 2 failed to form the desired LDHs but those with nitrate salts did lead to the formation of the previously reported [MAl 4 (OH) 12 ](NO 3 ) 2 ·1.5H 2 O (M=Co, Ni) compounds. - Graphical abstract: New layered double hydroxides (LDHs) with the composition [MAl 4 (OH) 12 ]Cl 2 ·1.5H 2 O (M=Co, Ni) have been prepared by reacting gibbsite, γ-Al(OH) 3 , with the appropriate chloride salt in a synthesis in which no additional solvent is used and fully characterized. These LDHs have been shown to undergo facile anion exchange reactions with both organic and inorganic anions at room temperature. - Highlights: • Synthesis of new layered double hydroxides, [MAl 4 (OH) 12 ]Cl 2 ·1.5H 2 O (M=Co, Ni). • Demonstration of the anion exchange capacity with both organic and inorganic anions. • Demonstration of the generality of the synthesis for LDHs

  14. Double Layers: Potential Formation and Related Nonlinear Phenomena in Plasmas: Proceedings of the 5th Symposium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iizuka, S.

    1998-02-01

    The Table of Contents for the book is as follows: * PREFACE * INTERNATIONAL SCIENTIFIC COMMITTEE * LOCAL ORGANIZING COMMITTEE AT TOHOKU UNIVERSITY * CHAPTER 1: DOUBLE LAYERS, SHEATHS, AND POTENTIAL STRUCTURES * 1.1 Double Layers * On Fluid Models of Stationary, Acoustic Double Layers (Invited) * Particle Simulation of Double Layer (Invited) * Space-Time Dependence of Non-Steady Double Layers * The Role of Low Energy Electrons for the Generation of Anode Double Layers in Glow Discharges * Arbitrary Amplitude Ion-Acoustic Double Layers in a Dusty Plasma * 1.2 Sheaths * Bounded Plasma Edge Physics as Observed from Simulations in 1D and 2D (Invited) * Control of RF Sheath Structure in RF Diode Discharge * Observation of Density Gradients with Fine Structures and Low Frequency Wave Excitation at the Plasma-Sheath Boundary * Double Sheath Associated with an Electron Emission to a Plasma Containing Negative Ions * Sheath Edge and Floating Potential for Multi-Species Plasmas Including Dust Particles * 1.3 Potential Structures and Oscillations * Potential Structure Formed at a Constriction of a DC He Positive Column and its Coupling with Ionization Wave * Potential Structure in a New RF Magnetron Device with a Hollow Electrode * Potential Disruption in a RF Afterglow Electronegative Plasma * Potential Oscillation in a Strongly Asymmetry RF Discharge Containing Negative Ions * Effects of External Potential Control on Coulomb Dust Behavior * Potential Structure of Carbon Arc Discharge for High-Yield Fullerenes Formation * Control of Axial and Radial Potential Profiles in Tandem Mirrors (Invited) * CHAPTER 2: FIELD-ALIGNED ELECTRIC FIELDS AND RELATED PARTICLE ACCELERATIONS * 2.1 Field-Aligned Potential Formation * Formation of Large Potential Difference in a Plasma Flow along Converging Magnetic Field Lines (Invited) * Presheath Formation in front of an Oblique End-Plate in a Magnetized Sheet Plasma * Plasma Potential Formation Due to ECRH in a Magnetic Well * Electrostatic

  15. Highly Durable Direct Methanol Fuel Cell with Double-Layered Catalyst Cathode

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Jing; Liu, Chun-Tao; Zhao, Lei; Wang, Zhen-Bo

    2015-01-01

    Polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) is one of the key components in direct methanol fuel cells. However, the PEM usually gets attacked by reactive oxygen species during the operation period, resulting in the loss of membrane integrity and formation of defects. Herein, a double-layered catalyst cathode electrode consisting of Pt/CeO2-C as inner catalyst and Pt/C as outer catalyst is fabricated to extend the lifetime and minimize the performance loss of DMFC. Although the maximum power density o...

  16. Antimicrobial Double-Layer Coating Prepared from Pure or Doped-Titanium Dioxide and Binders

    OpenAIRE

    Ran Li; Tony Z. Jin; Zengshe Liu; LinShu Liu

    2018-01-01

    Fruit and vegetable containers with microbe-free surfaces can be made by coating with titanium dioxide (TiO2) particles or nonmetal (C, N, B, F) doped-TiO2 particles, using wear resistant polymers, such as zein, and paint, as the binders and to form a continuous binding phase. The doped-TiO2 powders absorb visible light radiation, and thus possess a higher antibacterial effect than non-modified TiO2 particles in environmental conditions. The study also presents a double-layer coating to use l...

  17. An Evaluation of Fuel Consumption and Emission for Double Glazed Windows That Have Optimum Air Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okan KON

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, CO2and SO2emission reductions and fuel consumption were examined for double-glazed windows that have optimum air layer thickness compared to single glazed windows in different degree-days. CO2and SO2emissions reductions tests were performed according to the combustion equations. Coal, natural gas and fuel oil were used as fuel. Calculations were made for degree-days between 1000-6000. Life cycle cost analysis and degree-days method were used in the calculations.

  18. Post heat treatment effects on double layer metal structures for VLSI applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, T. E.; Trotter, J. D.

    1978-01-01

    The realization of high yield double layer metal systems using wet chemistry processes and the ability to extend yields beyond that attainable with wet chemistry by means of post sintering processes at temperatures below 500 C for potential applications in very large scale integration structures were studied. Yields in excess of 98% and average total contact resistance of less than 150 ohms and 200 ohms were realized for a series of 560 vias of 0.5 X 0.5 mils and 0.2 X 0.2 mils in size, respectively.

  19. Review of the synthesis of layered double hydroxides: a thermodynamic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bravo-Suárez Juan J.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of layered double hydroxides (LDHs by hydrothermal-LDH reconstruction and coprecipitation methods is reviewed using a thermodynamic approach. A mixture model was used for the estimation of the thermodynamics of formation of LDHs. The synthesis and solubility of LDHs are discussed in terms of standard molar Gibbs free energy change of reaction. Data for numerous divalent and trivalent metals as well as for some monovalent and tetravalent metals that may be part of the LDH structure have been compiled. Good agreement is found between theoretical and experimental data. Diagrams and tables for the prediction of possible new LDH materials are provided.

  20. Enhanced scrape-off layer plasma in DIII-D double-null discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watkins, J.G.; Jong, R.A.; Moyer, R.A.

    1994-07-01

    In this paper, the authors examine a denser and broader scrape-off layer (SOL) plasma, first seen in VH mode, in the DIII-D tokamak. The enhanced SOL appears in many types of double-null (DN) discharges and is not a property of VH-mode only. The DN enhanced SOL density and temperature profiles exhibit a 5--6 cm broad profile outside the separatrix. For DN and single-null (SN) boundary geometry with similar core plasma conditions, the enhanced SOL is only observed in high triangularity discharges. The origin of the enhanced SOL is, however, not yet understood

  1. Influence of ions on relativistic double layers radiation in astrophysical plasmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AM Ahadi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available As double layers (DLs are one of the most important acceleration mechanisms in space as well as in laboratory plasmas, they are studied from different points of view. In this paper, the emitted power and energy radiated from charged particles, accelerated in relativistic cosmic DLs are investigated. The effect of the presence of additional ions in a multi-species plasma, as a real example of astrophysical plasma, is also investigated. Considering the acceleration role of DLs, radiations from accelerated charged particles could be seen as a loss mechanism. These radiations are influenced directly by the additional ion species as well as their relative densities.

  2. Superconductivity. Light-induced superconductivity using a photoactive electric double layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suda, Masayuki; Kato, Reizo; Yamamoto, Hiroshi M

    2015-02-13

    Electric double layers (EDLs) of ionic liquids have been used in superconducting field-effect transistors as nanogap capacitors. Because of the freezing of the ionic motion below ~200 kelvin, modulations of the carrier density have been limited to the high-temperature regime. Here we observe carrier-doping-induced superconductivity in an organic Mott insulator with a photoinduced EDL based on a photochromic spiropyran monolayer. Because the spiropyran can isomerize reversibly between nonionic and zwitterionic isomers through photochemical processes, two distinct built-in electric fields can modulate the carrier density even at cryogenic conditions. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  3. Experimental observations of strong double layers. [in triple plasma device for lower magnetospheric simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coakley, P.; Hershkowitz, N.; Hubbard, R.; Joyce, G.

    1978-01-01

    A computer simulation is applied to the production of strong electric potential double layers (DL) in a triple plasma device. The simulation is intended to represent DL in the low magnetosphere above the auroral zones. The DL are described as standing electrostatic shocks with different energy coefficients in their strong and weak forms. The strong DL was generally found to be unstable, but stability could be imparted if a population of trapped electrons was presented. Stability increased with the length of the system. A schematic for the system is presented, and a phase-space plot of electrons (indicating system stability) is graphed.

  4. Electric Double Layer at Metal Oxide Surfaces: Static Properties of the Cassiterite-Water Interface

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vlček, Lukáš; Zhang, Z.; Machesky, M.L.; Fenter, P.; Rosenqvist, J.; Wesolowski, D.J.; Anovitz, L. M.; Předota, Milan; Cummings, P.T.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 9 (2007), s. 4925-4937 ISSN 0743-7463 Grant - others:OBES(US) DE-AC05-00OR22727; OBES(US) DE-AC02-05CH11231; OBES(US) DE-AC02-06CH11357 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Source of funding: N - neverejné zdroje ; N - neverejné zdroje ; N - neverejné zdroje Keywords : electric double layer * cassiterite * water Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 4.009, year: 2007

  5. Transport of energetic electrons in a magnetically expanding helicon double layer plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Kazunori; Charles, Christine; Boswell, Rod; Cox, Wes; Hatakeyama, Rikizo

    2009-01-01

    Peripheral magnetic field lines extending from the plasma source into the diffusion chamber are found to separate two regions of Maxwellian electron energy probability functions: the central, ion-beam containing region with an electron temperature of 5 eV, and region near the chamber walls with electrons at 3 eV. Along the peripheral field lines a bi-Maxwellian population with a hot tail at 9 eV is shown to both originate from electrons in the source traveling downstream across the double layer and correspond to a local maximum in ion and electron densities.

  6. Ion-acoustic double layers in the presence of plasma source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuda, H.; Ashour-Abdalla, M.

    1981-11-01

    Steady-state plasma turbulence and formation of negative potential spikes and double layers in the presence of ion acoustic instabilities have been studied by means of one-dimensional particle simulations in which velocities of a small fraction of electrons are replaced by the initial drifting Maxwellian at a constant rate. A steady state is found where negative potential spikes appear randomly in space and time giving rise to an anomalous resistivity much greater than previously found. Comparisons of the simulation results with laboratory and space plasmas are discussed

  7. Experimental investigation on the evaporation of a wet porous layer inside a vertical channel with resolution of the heat equation by inverse method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terzi, A.; Foudhil, W.; Harmand, S.; Ben Jabrallah, S.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Experimental study of the evaporation of a wet porous layer inside a vertical channel. • Resolution of the heat equation by inverse method. • The use of the porous layer is more efficient for high heating flux and low liquid inlet flow. • To improve the evaporation, the system must operate at low water inlet flow. - Abstract: In this paper, we realize an Experimental study of the evaporation of a wet porous layer inside a vertical channel. To develop this study, an experimental dispositive was realised. We measure the temperature along the plate and the evaporated flow rate using the test bed. From these measurements we note that the profiles of the temperature are divided into two areas: the heating and the evaporation zone. We also note that the use of the porous layer is more efficient for high heating flux and low liquid inlet flow. In addition, we studied different dimensionless numbers by solving the energy equation by inverse method. We note that the latent Nusselt number is more important than the sensible Nusselt Number, which proves that the flow dissipated by evaporation is greater than the one used by the film to increase its temperature.

  8. Porous nitrogen-enriched carbonaceous material from marine waste: chitosan-derived layered CNX catalyst for aerial oxidation of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) to 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitosan derived porous layered nitrogen-enriched carbonaceous CNx catalyst (PLCNx) has been synthesized from marine waste and its use demonstrated in a metal-free heterogeneous selective oxidation of 5-hydroxymethyl-furfural (HMF) to 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid (FDCA) using aeria...

  9. Anion capture with calcium, aluminium and iron containing layered double hydroxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, J. D.; Vandeperre, L. J.

    2011-09-01

    The competitive adsorption of nitrate, chloride and carbonate in layered double hydroxides (LHD) with the general formula Ca(1-x)2+Al(1-y)3+,Fe(y)3+x(OH)2xNO3-·nHO was investigated. Both normal ion exchange by exposure to a solution containing different anions, as well as addition of calcined material to solution thereby exploiting the memory effect of LDHs was studied. Changes in the interlayer anion changed the interlayer spacing of the LDH. The order of preference of intercalation was Cl≈CO32->NO3-. When multiple anions were present in the exchange solution, LDHs with several distinct interlayer spacing were produced indicating that LDHs with different anions in the interlayer existed at the same time. However for extended exchange times (14 days) where high concentrations of carbonate anion were present, the layered structure was destroyed resulting in the formation of calcite, CaCO 3.

  10. Tailoring the properties of magnetite nanoparticles clusters by coating with double inorganic layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petran, Anca; Radu, Teodora; Culic, Bogdan; Turcu, Rodica

    2016-12-01

    New magnetic nanoparticles based on Fe3O4 clusters covered with a double layer of inorganic salts/oxides with high magnetization for incorporation in security materials such as security paper were synthesized. For the inorganic layers ZnO, SiO2 and BaSO4 were used. The microstructure and composition of the products were determined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Magnetization measurements on the obtained samples show a straightforward correlation between the saturation magnetization (Ms) and morphology of the samples. The results obtained from color parameter assessment are discussed in relation with the morphology and microstructure of the prepared samples.

  11. Layered double hydroxide materials coated carbon electrode: New challenge to future electrochemical power devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djebbi, Mohamed Amine; Braiek, Mohamed; Namour, Philippe; Ben Haj Amara, Abdesslem; Jaffrezic-Renault, Nicole

    2016-11-01

    Layered double hydroxides (LDHs) have been widely used in the past years due to their unique physicochemical properties and promising applications in electroanalytical chemistry. The present paper is going to focus exclusively on magnesium-aluminum and zinc-aluminum layered double hydroxides (MgAl & ZnAl LDHs) in order to investigate the property and structure of active cation sites located within the layer structure. The MgAl and ZnAl LDH nanosheets were prepared by the constant pH co-precipitation method and uniformly supported on carbon-based electrode materials to fabricate an LDH electrode. Characterization by powder x-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy revealed the LDH form and well-crystallized materials. Wetting surface properties (hydrophilicity and hydrophobicity) of both prepared LDHs were recorded by contact angle measurement show hydrophilic character and basic property. The electrochemical performance of these hybrid materials was investigated by mainly cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and chronoamperometry techniques to identify the oxidation/reduction processes at the electrode/electrolyte interface and the effect of the divalent metal cations in total reactivity. The hierarchy of the modified electrode proves that the electronic conductivity of the bulk material is considerably dependent on the divalent cation and affects the limiting parameter of the overall redox process. However, MgAl LDH shows better performance than ZnAl LDH, due to the presence of magnesium cations in the layers. Following the structural, morphological and electrochemical behavior studies of both synthesized LDHs, the prepared LDH modified electrodes were tested through microbial fuel cell configuration, revealing a remarkable, potential new pathway for high-performance and cost-effective electrode use in electrochemical power devices.

  12. Structure and Capacitance of Electrical Double Layers at the Graphene–Ionic Liquid Interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengfei Lu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Molecular dynamics simulations are carried out to investigate the structure and capacitance of the electrical double layers (EDLs at the interface of vertically oriented graphene and ionic liquids [EMIM]+/[BF4]−. The distribution and migration of the ions in the EDL on the rough and non-rough electrode surfaces with different charge densities are compared and analyzed, and the effect of the electrode surface morphology on the capacitance of the EDL is clarified. The results suggest that alternate distributions of anions and cations in several consecutive layers are formed in the EDL on the electrode surface. When the electrode is charged, the layers of [BF4]− anions experience more significant migration than those of [EMIM]+ cations. These ion layers can be extended deeper into the bulk electrolyte solution by the stronger interaction of the rough electrode, compared to those on the non-rough electrode surface. The potential energy valley of ions on the neutral electrode surface establishes a potential energy difference to compensate the energy cost of the ion accumulation, and is capable of producing a potential drop across the EDL on the uncharged electrode surface. Due to the greater effective contact area between the ions and electrode, the rough electrode possesses a larger capacitance than the non-rough one. In addition, it is harder for the larger-sized [EMIM]+ cations to accumulate in the narrow grooves on the rough electrode, when compared with the smaller [BF4]−. Consequently, the double-hump-shaped C–V curve (which demonstrates the relationship between differential capacitance and potential drop across the EDL for the rough electrode is asymmetric, where the capacitance increases more significantly when the electrode is positively charged.

  13. Steric effects in the dynamics of electrolytes at large applied voltages. I. Double-layer charging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic, Mustafa Sabri; Bazant, Martin Z.; Ajdari, Armand

    2007-02-01

    The classical Poisson-Boltzmann (PB) theory of electrolytes assumes a dilute solution of point charges with mean-field electrostatic forces. Even for very dilute solutions, however, it predicts absurdly large ion concentrations (exceeding close packing) for surface potentials of only a few tenths of a volt, which are often exceeded, e.g., in microfluidic pumps and electrochemical sensors. Since the 1950s, several modifications of the PB equation have been proposed to account for the finite size of ions in equilibrium, but in this two-part series, we consider steric effects on diffuse charge dynamics (in the absence of electro-osmotic flow). In this first part, we review the literature and analyze two simple models for the charging of a thin double layer, which must form a condensed layer of close-packed ions near the surface at high voltage. A surprising prediction is that the differential capacitance typically varies nonmonotonically with the applied voltage, and thus so does the response time of an electrolytic system. In PB theory, the differential capacitance blows up exponentially with voltage, but steric effects actually cause it to decrease while remaining positive above a threshold voltage where ions become crowded near the surface. Other nonlinear effects in PB theory are also strongly suppressed by steric effects: The net salt adsorption by the double layers in response to the applied voltage is greatly reduced, and so is the tangential “surface conduction” in the diffuse layer, to the point that it can often be neglected compared to bulk conduction (small Dukhin number).

  14. Evaluation of molecular dynamics simulation methods for ionic liquid electric double layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskins, Justin B; Lawson, John W

    2016-05-14

    We investigate how systematically increasing the accuracy of various molecular dynamics modeling techniques influences the structure and capacitance of ionic liquid electric double layers (EDLs). The techniques probed concern long-range electrostatic interactions, electrode charging (constant charge versus constant potential conditions), and electrolyte polarizability. Our simulations are performed on a quasi-two-dimensional, or slab-like, model capacitor, which is composed of a polarizable ionic liquid electrolyte, [EMIM][BF4], interfaced between two graphite electrodes. To ensure an accurate representation of EDL differential capacitance, we derive new fluctuation formulas that resolve the differential capacitance as a function of electrode charge or electrode potential. The magnitude of differential capacitance shows sensitivity to different long-range electrostatic summation techniques, while the shape of differential capacitance is affected by charging technique and the polarizability of the electrolyte. For long-range summation techniques, errors in magnitude can be mitigated by employing two-dimensional or corrected three dimensional electrostatic summations, which led to electric fields that conform to those of a classical electrostatic parallel plate capacitor. With respect to charging, the changes in shape are a result of ions in the Stern layer (i.e., ions at the electrode surface) having a higher electrostatic affinity to constant potential electrodes than to constant charge electrodes. For electrolyte polarizability, shape changes originate from induced dipoles that soften the interaction of Stern layer ions with the electrode. The softening is traced to ion correlations vertical to the electrode surface that induce dipoles that oppose double layer formation. In general, our analysis indicates an accuracy dependent differential capacitance profile that transitions from the characteristic camel shape with coarser representations to a more diffuse

  15. On the physical mechanism at the origin of multiple double layers appearance in plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimitriu, D.G.; Gurlui, S.; Aflori, M.; Ivan, L.M.

    2005-01-01

    Double layers (DLs) in plasma are nonlinear potential structures consisting of two adjacent layers of positive and negative space charge, respectively. Between these layers a potential jump exists, creating an electric field. A common way to obtain a DL structure is to positively bias an electrode immersed in asymptotic stable plasma. In this way, a complex space charge structure (CSCS) in form of a positive 'nucleus' surrounded by a nearly spherical DL is obtained. Under certain experimental conditions (gas nature and pressure, plasma density, electron temperature) a more complex structure in form of two or more subsequent DLs was observed, which was called multiple double layers (MDL). It appears as several bright and concentric plasma shells attached to the electrode. The successive DLs are located at the abrupt changes of luminosity between two adjacent plasma shells. Probe measurements emphasized that the axial profile of the plasma potential has a stair steps shape, with potential jumps close to the ionization potential of the used gas. Experimental results clarify the essential role of excitation and ionization electron-neutral collisions for the generation and dynamics of MDL structures. However, if the electrode is large, the MDL structure appears non-concentrically, as a network of plasma spheres, near each other, almost equally distributed on the electrode surface. Each of the plasma spots is a CSCS as described above. Here, we will present experimental result on concentric and non-concentric MDL, which prove that the same physical mechanism is at the origin of their appearance in plasma. In this mechanism the electron-neutral impact excitations and ionizations play the key role. A simultaneously generation of both types of MDL was recorded. The dynamics of the MDL structures was analyzed by using the modern methods provided by the nonlinear dynamics. In this way, a scenario of transition to chaos by torus breakdown was emphasized, related with the

  16. Enhanced electrochemical performance of CoAl-layered double hydroxide nanosheet arrays coated by platinum films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, J.P.; Fang, J.H.; Li, M.; Zhang, W.F.; Liu, F.; Zhang, X.B.

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Schematic illustration for the electron transport between the current collector and the active CoAl LDH arrays, where the yellow arrows indicate the high resistance of CoAl LDH, while the green arrows present the high conductivity of Pt films on LDH. -- Highlights: •CoAl layered double hydroxide nanosheet arrays are synthesized by hydrothermal method. •Pt films coated on surface of CoAl nanosheets facilitate fast electron transport. •CoAl LDH nanosheets coated with Pt film for 5 min have an excellent performance. -- Abstract: Three-dimensional network of cobalt and aluminum layered double hydroxide (LDH) nanosheets was synthesized on nickel foam by a simple hydrothermal method. The CoAl-LDH nonosheets were subsequently coated by ion sputtering with thin layers of Pt films to facilitate fast electron transport between current collector and the CoAl-LDH active materials. The optimal thickness of the Pt film acquiring the best performance was identified by applying various sputtering time in controlled experiments. The supercapacitor built by the CoAl-LDH nanosheets coated with Pt film sputtered for 5 min has a high specific capacitance (734.4 F g −1 at 3 A g −1 ), excellent rate capability as well as cycling stability. Moreover, it showed a long life of 77% retention after 6000 cycles and its general morphology was preserved after the test. The synergetic affect of conductive layer of Pt films and CoAl-LDH on the improvement of electrochemical properties was discussed and this would provide a useful clue in designing novel and effective electrode materials for supercapacitors

  17. Improvement in photovoltaic properties of silicon solar cells with a doped porous silicon layer with rare earth (Ce, La) as antireflection coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atyaoui, Malek; Dimassi, Wissem; Atyaoui, Atef; Elyagoubi, Jalel; Ouertani, Rachid; Ezzaouia, Hatem

    2013-01-01

    The performance improvement of solar cells due to the formation of a porous silicon layer treated with rare earth (Ce, La) in the n + emitter of silicon n + /p junctions has been investigated. The photovoltaic properties of the cells with and without treatment of the porous silicon layer are compared. From the reflection measurements, it was shown that the cells with treated PS layers have lower reflectivity value compared to cell with untreated PS layer. The main result is that the photovoltaic energy conversion efficiency of solar cells can be enhanced by using the treated porous silicon layers with the rare earth (Ce, La) as anti-reflection coatings. -- Highlights: • The reduction of optical loss in silicon (c-Si) solar cells attracts the attention of many researches to achieve high efficiencies. • To attain this aim, the treated PS layers with rare earth (La, Ce) are suggested to be used as an (ARC) of c-Si solar cell. • The result showed a decrease in the optical losses which can explain the improved photovoltaic properties

  18. Improvement in photovoltaic properties of silicon solar cells with a doped porous silicon layer with rare earth (Ce, La) as antireflection coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atyaoui, Malek, E-mail: atyaoui.malek@yahoo.fr [Laboratoire de Photovoltaïque, Centre de recherches et des technologies de l' energie, technopole de Borj-Cédria, PB:95, Hammam Lif 2050 (Tunisia); Dimassi, Wissem [Laboratoire de Photovoltaïque, Centre de recherches et des technologies de l' energie, technopole de Borj-Cédria, PB:95,Hammam Lif 2050 (Tunisia); Atyaoui, Atef [Laboratoire de traitement des eaux usées, Centre de recherches et des technologies des eaux, technopole de Borj-Cédria, PB: 273, Soliman 8020 (Tunisia); Elyagoubi, Jalel; Ouertani, Rachid; Ezzaouia, Hatem [Laboratoire de Photovoltaïque, Centre de recherches et des technologies de l' energie, technopole de Borj-Cédria, PB:95,Hammam Lif 2050 (Tunisia)

    2013-09-15

    The performance improvement of solar cells due to the formation of a porous silicon layer treated with rare earth (Ce, La) in the n{sup +} emitter of silicon n{sup +}/p junctions has been investigated. The photovoltaic properties of the cells with and without treatment of the porous silicon layer are compared. From the reflection measurements, it was shown that the cells with treated PS layers have lower reflectivity value compared to cell with untreated PS layer. The main result is that the photovoltaic energy conversion efficiency of solar cells can be enhanced by using the treated porous silicon layers with the rare earth (Ce, La) as anti-reflection coatings. -- Highlights: • The reduction of optical loss in silicon (c-Si) solar cells attracts the attention of many researches to achieve high efficiencies. • To attain this aim, the treated PS layers with rare earth (La, Ce) are suggested to be used as an (ARC) of c-Si solar cell. • The result showed a decrease in the optical losses which can explain the improved photovoltaic properties.

  19. Porous nC-Si/SiOx nanostructured layer on Si substrate with tunable photoluminescent properties fabricated by direct, precursor-free microplasma irradiation in air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Hu, Mingshan; Yang, Bin; Wang, Xiaolin; Liu, Jingquan

    2018-03-01

    Porous nC-Si/SiOx photoluminescent nanostructured layer is fabricated by direct, precursor-free microplasma irradiation on Si substrate in air. It is confirmed that the deposited layer has porous and cluster-like structures by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and profile scanning. Fourier transform infrared transmission (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectrum (XPS) results indicate the produced layer is actually composed of nanocrystalline silicon (nC-Si) embedded in SiOx matrix. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Raman results show the mean particle size of nC-Si is mainly between 2 and 4 nm and the highest crystalline volume fraction reaches 86.9%. The photoluminescence (PL) measurement of nC-Si/SiOx layer exhibited a broad band centered at 1.7-1.9 eV, ranging from 1.2-2.4 eV, and could be tuned by varying the applied voltage. The synthetical mechanisms are discussed to explain the PL properties of the layers. We propose that the energetic ions bombing induced by high compressed electric field near the Si surface is the main reason for porous nC-Si/SiOx formation. Maskless deposition of the line pattern of nC-Si/SiOx layer was also successfully fabricated. This simple, maskless, vacuum-free and precursor-free technique could be used in various potential optoelectronics and biological applications in the future.

  20. Super-capacitive electro-chemical performance of polymer blend gel polymer electrolyte (GPE) in carbon-based electrical double-layer capacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syahidah, S. Nuur; Majid, S.R.

    2013-01-01

    This study reports on the fabrication and comparative performance characteristics of a symmetrical electrical double-layer capacitor (EDLC) employed gel polymer electrolyte (GPE) assembled between carbon based electrodes. Three cells, A, B and C were fabricated using different composition of active materials (activated or porous carbon), binder (PVdF-HFP) and conductivity enhancer (super-P). The configuration of cell A: 0.9 porous carbon/0.1 PVdF-HFP, cell B: 0.45 activated carbon/0.45 porous carbon/0.1 PVdF-HFP and cell C: 0.8 activated carbon/0.1 super-P/0.1 PVdF-HFP. The GPE, comprising a poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP)/poly(vinylidene fluoride co-hexafluoroproplyne) (PVdF-HFP) blend complexed with magnesium triflate, Mg(CF 3 SO 3 ) 2 , was prepared by the solution casting technique at 60 °C. The physico-chemical properties of the GPEs were characterized by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) and cyclic voltammetry (CV). The ionic conductivity at the ambient temperature of the GPE is 2.16 × 10 −4 S cm −1 at 7.5 wt.% of Mg(CF 3 SO 3 ) 2 with a ∼2.6 V electro-chemical stability window. At the 1000th cycle, the specific capacitance, C s of cell A is 89 F g −1 while cell B and C are 63 and 49 F g −1 . Cell A shows excellent long-term cyclic stability (less than a 5% decrease in specific capacitance after 1000 cycles). The best operating voltage for cell A is 1.6 V with the specific capacitance 106 F g −1 after 500 cycles

  1. A fast vibro-acoustic response analysis method for double wall structures including a viscothermal air layer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Basten, T.G.H.; Grooteman, F.P.

    2000-01-01

    The damping behaviour of a thin air layer between two flexible panels can be used to reduce sound radiation of structural excited panels. The numerical model of the double wall panels takes into account full acousto-elastic interaction and viscothermal wave propagation in the air layer. This means

  2. Development and design of double-layer co-injection moulded soy protein based drug delivery devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaz, C.M.; Doeveren, van P.F.N.M.; Reis, R.L.; Cunha, A.M.

    2003-01-01

    Novel double-layer delivery devices based on soy protein derived materials were designed and produced using an innovative two material co-injection moulding technique. It was demonstrated that the viscosity ratio between core and skin layer materials played an important role in the formation of the

  3. Thermal radiation and heat generation/absorption effects on viscoelastic double-diffusive convection from an isothermal sphere in porous media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Abdul Gaffar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Buoyancy-driven convective heat and mass transfer in boundary layer flow of a viscoelastic Jeffrey fluid from a permeable isothermal sphere embedded in a porous medium is studied. Thermal radiation flux and heat generation/absorption are also incorporated in the model. A non-Darcy drag force model is employed to simulate the effects of linear porous media drag and second order Forchheimer drag. The Rosseland diffusion algebraic approximation is utilized to simulate thermal radiation effects. The non-dimensionalized boundary layer equations are solved using implicit, finite-difference scheme. The influence of Darcy number (Da, Deborah number (De, ratio of relaxation to retardation times (λ, radiation parameter (F, Forchheimer inertial parameter (Λ and heat generation/absorption parameter (Δ, on normalized velocity, temperature, concentration, skin friction, heat and mass transfer rates are also studied. The present study has applications in the storage of nuclear waste materials.

  4. Synthesis of mesoporous silica@Co-Al layered double hydroxide spheres: layer-by-layer method and their effects on the flame retardancy of epoxy resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shu-Dong; Bai, Zhi-Man; Tang, Gang; Song, Lei; Stec, Anna A; Hull, T Richard; Hu, Yuan; Hu, Wei-Zhao

    2014-08-27

    Hierarchical mesoporous silica@Co-Al layered double hydroxide (m-SiO2@Co-Al LDH) spheres were prepared through a layer-by-layer assembly process, in order to integrate their excellent physical and chemical functionalities. TEM results depicted that, due to the electrostatic potential difference between m-SiO2 and Co-Al LDH, the synthetic m-SiO2@Co-Al LDH hybrids exhibited that m-SiO2 spheres were packaged by the Co-Al LDH nanosheets. Subsequently, the m-SiO2@Co-Al LDH spheres were incorporated into epoxy resin (EP) to prepare specimens for investigation of their flame-retardant performance. Cone results indicated that m-SiO2@Co-Al LDH incorporated obviously improved fire retardant of EP. A plausible mechanism of fire retardant was hypothesized based on the analyses of thermal conductivity, char residues, and pyrolysis fragments. Labyrinth effect of m-SiO2 and formation of graphitized carbon char catalyzed by Co-Al LDH play pivotal roles in the flame retardance enhancement.

  5. Free-standing double-layer terahertz band-pass filters fabricated by femtosecond laser micro-machining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yanzhang; Yao, Haizi; Ju, Xuewei; Chen, Ying; Zhong, Shuncong; Wang, Xiangfeng

    2017-10-16

    We report on the fabrication and transmission properties of free-standing single-layer and double-layer THz bandpass filters. These filters are fabricated on aluminum foils using femtosecond laser micro-machining. The aluminum foils are periodically patterned with cross apertures with a total area of 1.75×1.75 cm 2 , also known as frequency-selective surfaces. Their terahertz transmission properties were simulated using the FDTD method and measured using a time-domain terahertz spectroscopy system. The simulation results agree with the measurements results very well. The performance of single-layer bandpass filters is as good as the commercial equivalents on the market. The double-layer filters show extraordinary transmission peaks with changing spacing between the two layers. We show the contour map of the electric field distribution across the apertures, and ascribe the new transmission peaks to the interference and coupling of surface plasmon polaritons between the two layers.

  6. MULTILAYER POROUS COMPOSITE FROM WASTE GLASS FOR WATER FILTRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. P. Aji

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Multilayer porous composite have been produced through the heating process at temperature T=700oC for 2.5 h. Single layered porous composite was made with a varied mass percentage of from PEG polymer  1% to 10%. Double-layered porous composite were made by the arrangement of porosity (4:3%, (4:2% and (3:2%, while the three-layers porous composite have an arrangement (4:3:2%. Performance of multilayer porous composite for water filtration with pollutants of methylene blue 100 ppm was estimated from the absorbance spectrum. Rejection of methylene blue pollutants from single layered porous composite increases when the fraction of PEG polymer tend to be smaller in the matrix. Meanwhile, the double layered porous composite has a degradation of methylene blue pollutants are better than one layer. Triple layered porous composite have good performance for the water filtration where all the pollutants of methylene blue be able to be filtered.   Komposit pori berlapis telah dihasilkan dengan proses pemanasan pada temperatur T=700oC selama 2.5 jam. Komposit pori satu lapis dibuat dengan variasi persen massa polimer PEG 1% hingga 10%. Komposit pori dua lapis dibuat dengan susunan porositas (4:3%, (4:2% dan (3:2%, sedangkan komposit pori tiga lapis memiliki susunan porositas (4:3:2%. Kinerja komposit pori berlapis untuk filter air dengan polutan methylene blue 100 ppm diestimasi dari spektrum absorbansi. Rejeksi polutan methylene blue dari komposit pori satu lapis meningkat saat fraksi polimer PEG cenderung lebih kecil dalam matrik komposit. Sedangkan, komposit pori dua lapis memiliki kemampuan untuk degradasi polutan methylene blue yang lebih baik dari satu lapis. Komposit pori tiga lapis memiliki kinerja yang baik untuk filter air dimana seluruh polutan methylene blue mampu disaring. 

  7. Bose-Einstein condensation and superfluidity of dipolar excitons in a phosphorene double layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Oleg L.; Gumbs, Godfrey; Kezerashvili, Roman Ya.

    2017-07-01

    We study the formation of dipolar excitons and their superfluidity in a phosphorene double layer. The analytical expressions for the single dipolar exciton energy spectrum and wave function are obtained. It is predicted that a weakly interacting gas of dipolar excitons in a double layer of black phosphorus exhibits superfluidity due to the dipole-dipole repulsion between the dipolar excitons. In calculations are employed the Keldysh and Coulomb potentials for the interaction between the charge carriers to analyze the influence of the screening effects on the studied phenomena. It is shown that the critical velocity of superfluidity, the spectrum of collective excitations, concentrations of the superfluid and normal component, and mean-field critical temperature for superfluidity are anisotropic and demonstrate the dependence on the direction of motion of dipolar excitons. The critical temperature for superfluidity increases if the exciton concentration and the interlayer separation increase. It is shown that the dipolar exciton binding energy and mean-field critical temperature for superfluidity are sensitive to the electron and hole effective masses. The proposed experiment to observe a directional superfluidity of excitons is addressed.

  8. Double layer for hard spheres with an off-center charge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Silvestre-Alcantara

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Simulations for the density and potential profiles of the ions in the planar electrical double layer of a model electrolyte or an ionic liquid are reported. The ions of a real electrolyte or an ionic liquid are usually not spheres; in ionic liquids, the cations are molecular ions. In the past, this asymmetry has been modelled by considering spheres that are asymmetric in size and/or valence (viz., the primitive model or by dimer cations that are formed by tangentially touching spheres. In this paper we consider spherical ions that are asymmetric in size and mimic the asymmetrical shape through an off-center charge that is located away from the center of the cation spheres, while the anion charge is at the center of anion spheres. The various singlet density and potential profiles are compared to (i the dimer situation, that is, the constituent spheres of the dimer cation are tangentially tethered, and (ii the standard primitive model. The results reveal the double layer structure to be substantially impacted especially when the cation is the counterion. As well as being of intrinsic interest, this off-center charge model may be useful for theories that consider spherical models and introduce the off-center charge as a perturbation.

  9. Dynamical aspects of various solitary waves and double layers in dusty plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, G.C. [Plasma Physics Division, Institute of Advanced Study in Science Technology, Khanapara, Guwahati-781022, Assam (India); Sarma, J. [Department of Mathematics, R. G. Baruah College, Guwahati-781025, Assam (India); Talukdar, M. [Computer Science Division, Institute of Advanced Study in Science Technology, Khanapara, Guwahati-781022, Assam (India)

    1998-01-01

    Employing quasipotential analysis, the Sagdeev potential equation has been derived in a multicomponent plasma consisting of free and trapped electrons and contaminated by the dust charged grains forming therein by the attachment of electrons to finite-size dust particles. Because of the free and trapped electrons in the dusty plasma, the plasma-acoustic wave exhibits the different features of various solitary waves. The Sagdeev potential equation, at a small-amplitude approximation, leads to the evaluation, by a proposed new formalism of a simple wave solution technique, of the new scenario of solitary wave propagation in a dusty plasma. It has been shown that the ordering of the nonisothermality in the dusty plasma also plays a unique role. In the case of a plasma with first-order nonisothermality, the Sagdeev potential equation derives the compressive solitary wave propagation, while for plasma with higher-order nonisothermality the method might fail to solve the Sagdeev potential equation and, thus, an alternate method is used to reveal the coexistence of compressive and rarefactive solitary waves. In addition, for certain plasma parameters, the solitary waves disappear and a double layer is expected. Again, with the better approximation in the Sagdeev potential, more features of solitary waves, known as spiky and explosive, along with the double layers, are also highlighted. The observations made of the solitary waves could be of further interest in the understanding of laboratory and space plasmas.{copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  10. Relation between the ion size and pore size for an electric double-layer capacitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Largeot, Celine; Portet, Cristelle; Chmiola, John; Taberna, Pierre-Louis; Gogotsi, Yury; Simon, Patrice

    2008-03-05

    The research on electrochemical double layer capacitors (EDLC), also known as supercapacitors or ultracapacitors, is quickly expanding because their power delivery performance fills the gap between dielectric capacitors and traditional batteries. However, many fundamental questions, such as the relations between the pore size of carbon electrodes, ion size of the electrolyte, and the capacitance have not yet been fully answered. We show that the pore size leading to the maximum double-layer capacitance of a TiC-derived carbon electrode in a solvent-free ethyl-methylimmidazolium-bis(trifluoro-methane-sulfonyl)imide (EMI-TFSI) ionic liquid is roughly equal to the ion size (approximately 0.7 nm). The capacitance values of TiC-CDC produced at 500 degrees C are more than 160 F/g and 85 F/cm(3) at 60 degrees C, while standard activated carbons with larger pores and a broader pore size distribution present capacitance values lower than 100 F/g and 50 F/cm(3) in ionic liquids. A significant drop in capacitance has been observed in pores that were larger or smaller than the ion size by just an angstrom, suggesting that the pore size must be tuned with sub-angstrom accuracy when selecting a carbon/ion couple. This work suggests a general approach to EDLC design leading to the maximum energy density, which has been now proved for both solvated organic salts and solvent-free liquid electrolytes.

  11. Retention of heavy metals on layered double hydroxides thin films deposited by pulsed laser deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vlad, A., E-mail: angela.vlad@gmail.com [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, 409 Atomistilor Str., 76900 Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Birjega, R.; Matei, A.; Luculescu, C.; Mitu, B.; Dinescu, M. [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, 409 Atomistilor Str., 76900 Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Zavoianu, R.; Pavel, O.D. [University of Bucharest, Faculty of Chemistry, Department of Chemical Technology and Catalysis, 4-12 Regina Elisabeta Bd., Bucharest (Romania)

    2014-05-01

    Heavy metals are toxic and hazardous pollutants in the environment due to their nonbiodegradability and persistence, which can pose serious threats to living organisms. The ability of Mg–Al based layered double hydroxides (LDHs) thin films to retain heavy metals from aqueous solutions at different concentrations is a novel topic with prospects of attractive applications, such as detection of heavy metals. We report on the ability of a series of Mg–Al based layered double hydroxides thin films to detect Ni and Co cations in aqueous solutions. Uptake of heavy metals ions such as Ni{sup 2+}, Co{sup 2+} from aqueous solutions was studied as function of contact time at a standard metal ion concentration. The LDHs thin films were deposited using pulsed laser deposition (PLD). The different adsorption mechanisms were studied in connection with different heavy metals used as probe cations. X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy were the techniques used for the investigation of as deposited and after heavy metals retention thin films.

  12. A study of thermally activated Mg–Fe layered double hydroxides as potential environmental catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MILICA S. HADNAĐEV-KOSTIĆ

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Layered double hydroxides (LDHs and mixed oxides derived after thermal decomposition of LDHs with different Mg–Fe contents were investigated. These materials were chosen because of the possibility to tailor their various properties, such as ion-exchange capability, redox and acid–base and surface area. Layered double hydroxides, [Mg1-xFex(OH2](CO3x/2×mH2O (where x presents the content of trivalent ions, x = M(III/(M(II + M(III were synthesized using the low supersaturation precipitation method. The influence of different Mg/Fe ratios on the structure and surface properties of the LDH and derived mixed oxides was investigated in correlation to their catalytic properties in the chosen test reaction (Fischer–Tropsch synthesis. It was determined that the presence of active sites in the mixed oxides is influenced by the structural properties of the initial LDH and by the presence of additional Fe phases. Furthermore, a synthesis outside the optimal range for the synthesis of single phase LDHs leads to the formation of metastable, multiphase systems with specific characteristics and active sites.

  13. Defluoridation of groundwater by calcined Mg/Al layered double hydroxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Elhalil

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluated calcined Mg/Al layered double hydroxide (CLDH availability for the removal of fluoride from local groundwaters. The Mg/Al layered double hydroxide (LDH was synthesized by co-precipitation method and characterized by XRD, FT-IR and TGA-TDA analyses. Batch defluoridation experiments were performed under various conditions such as calcination, solution pH, contact time, temperature, material dosage and reuse. Experimental results indicate that fluoride removal strongly increased after calcination of the LDH up to 600 °C. The maximum fluoride removal was obtained at solution pH of 6.85. Kinetics of fluoride removal followed the pseudo-second order kinetic model. The rise in solution temperature strongly enhances the removal efficiency. The adsorption mechanism involved surface adsorption, ion exchange interaction and original LDH structure reconstruction by rehydration of mixed metal oxides and concomitant intercalation of fluoride ions into the interlayer region. The optimum dosages required to meet the national standard for drinking water quality were found to be 0.29 and 0.8 g/L, respectively, for Bejaad and Settat goundwaters. A decrease in the fluoride uptake with increasing the number of regeneration cycles was observed.

  14. Nonlinear electron acoustic structures generated on the high-potential side of a double layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Pottelette

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available High-time resolution measurements of the electron distribution function performed in the auroral upward current region reveals a large asymmetry between the low- and high-potential sides of a double-layer. The latter side is characterized by a large enhancement of a locally trapped electron population which corresponds to a significant part (~up to 30% of the total electron density. As compared to the background hot electron population, this trapped component has a very cold temperature in the direction parallel to the static magnetic field. Accordingly, the differential drift between the trapped and background hot electron populations generates high frequency electron acoustic waves in a direction quasi-parallel to the magnetic field. The density of the trapped electron population can be deduced from the frequency where the electron acoustic spectrum maximizes. In the auroral midcavity region, the electron acoustic waves may be modulated by an additional turbulence generated in the ion acoustic range thanks to the presence of a pre-accelerated ion beam located on the high-potential side of the double layer. Electron holes characterized by bipolar pulses in the electric field are sometimes detected in correlation with these electron acoustic wave packets.

  15. Formation of high aspect ratio polyamide-6 nanofibers via electrically induced double layer during electrospinning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nirmala, R.; Nam, Ki Taek; Park, Soo-Jin; Shin, Yu-Shik; Navamathavan, R.; Kim, Hak Yong

    2010-01-01

    In the present study, the formation of high aspect ratio nanofibers in polyamide-6 was investigated as a function of applied voltage ranging from 15 to 25 kV using electrospinning technique. All other experimental parameters were kept constant. The electrospun polyamide-6 nanofibers were characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF). FE-SEM images of polyamide-6 nanofibers showed that the diameter of the electrospun fiber was decreased with increasing applied voltage. At the critical applied voltage, the polymer solution was completely ionized to form the dense high aspect ratio nanofibers in between the main nanofibers. The diameter of the polyamide-6 nanofibers was observed to be in the range of 75-110 nm, whereas the high aspect ratio structures consisted of regularly distributed very fine nanofibers with diameters of about 9-28 nm. Trends in fiber diameter and diameter distribution were discussed for the high aspect ratio nanofibers. TEM results revealed that the formation of double layers in polyamide-6 nanofibers and then split-up into ultrafine fibers. The electrically induced double layer in combination with the polyelectrolytic nature of solution is proposed as the suitable mechanisms for the formation of high aspect ratio nanofibers in polyamide-6.

  16. Investigation of thermally stimulated properties of SHI beam irradiated polycarbonate/polystyrene double layered samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathore, Bhupendra Singh; Gaur, Mulayam Singh; Singh, Kripa Shanker

    2011-12-01

    The double layered samples of polycarbonate/polystyrene (PC/PS) have been prepared by solvent casting method and irradiated with 55 MeV C 5+ beam at different ion fluences range from 1 × 10 11 to 1 × 10 13 ion/cm 2. The effect of swift heavy ion (SHI) beam in interfacial phenomena, phase change, dielectric relaxation, degradation temperature, stability, charge storage and transport mechanism of PC/PS pristine and irradiated double layered samples have been investigated by thermally stimulated discharge current (TSDC), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). TSDC show α, β-relaxation peaks shifted to the lower temperatures side with increase of fluence. The activation energy and relaxation time decrease, while the depolarization current and charge released increase with increase in the ion fluences. DSC curve show the glass transition temperature ( T g) and heat capacity decreases with increase in the ion fluences. The TGA characteristics represent the thermal stability, which is found to be decreased with increase in the ion fluences.

  17. Preparation and properties of blends composed of lignosulfonated layered double hydroxide/plasticized starch and thermoplastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Privas, Edwige; Leroux, Fabrice; Navard, Patrick

    2013-07-01

    Layered double hydroxide prepared with lignosulfonate (LDH/LS) can be easily dispersed down to the nanometric scale in thermoplastic starch, at concentration of 1 up to 4 wt% of LDH/LS. They can thus be used as a bio-based reinforcing agent of thermoplastic starch. Incorporation of LDH/LS in starch must be done using LDH/LS slurry instead of powder on order to avoid secondary particles aggregation, the water of the paste being used as the starch plasticizer. This reinforced starch was used for preparing a starch-polyolefine composite. LDH/LS-starch nanocomposites were mixed in a random terpolymer of ethylene, butyl acrylate (6%) and maleic anhydride (3%) at concentrations of 20 wt% and 40 wt%. With a 20% loading of (1 wt% LDH/LS in thermoplastic starch), the ternary copolymer is partially bio-based while keeping nearly its original processability and mechanical properties and improving oxygen barrier properties. The use of layered double hydroxides is also removing most odours linked to the lignin phase. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The role of oleate-functionalized layered double hydroxide in the melt compounding of polypropylene nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donato, Ricardo K., E-mail: ricardokeitel@iq.ufrgs.br [Laboratory of Technological Processes and Catalysis, Institute of Chemistry, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Goncalves 9500, 91501-970, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Luza, Leandro, E-mail: leandro.luza@ufrgs.br [Laboratory of Technological Processes and Catalysis, Institute of Chemistry, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Goncalves 9500, 91501-970, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Silva, Renato F. da, E-mail: renato.figueira@ufrgs.br [Laboratory of Technological Processes and Catalysis, Institute of Chemistry, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Goncalves 9500, 91501-970, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Moro, Celso C., E-mail: celso@iq.ufrgs.br [Institute of Chemistry, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Goncalves 9500, 91501-970, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Guzatto, Rafael, E-mail: guzatto@gmail.com [Laboratory of Instrumentation and Molecular Dynamics, Institute of Chemistry, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Goncalves 9500, 91501-970, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Samios, Dimitrios, E-mail: dsamios@iq.ufrgs.br [Laboratory of Instrumentation and Molecular Dynamics, Institute of Chemistry, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Goncalves 9500, 91501-970, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Matejka, Libor, E-mail: matejka@imc.cas.cz [Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Heyrovsky Sq. 2, Prague 6, 162 06 (Czech Republic); Dimzoski, Bojan, E-mail: dimzoski@imc.cas.cz [Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Heyrovsky Sq. 2, Prague 6, 162 06 (Czech Republic); and others

    2012-12-01

    In this research, the oleate-functionalized magnesium and aluminum layered double hydroxide (LDH; Mg:Al = 3:1) o-LDH was applied as nanofiller in the melt blending of polypropylene (PP) nanocomposites, in order to understand its role in this process. o-LDH was prepared using the memory effect of the calcined carbonated LDH. Blending of PP and low o-LDH filler contents of 0.45 and 0.90 wt.% afforded the nanocomposites PP0.45 and PP0.90, respectively, which were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, small angle X-ray scattering, thermo-gravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry and dynamic mechanical analysis. The oleate LDH surface functionalization enhanced the system compatibility as a relative regular dispersion of o-LDH tactoids was observed within the matrix, together with partial PP intercalation. This o-LDH incorporation increased the PP relative crystallinity, induced crystalline orientation and decreased the glass transition temperature. Furthermore, the nanocomposites showed improved initial resistance to decomposition and stiffness. These results showed that the o-LDH acted as both nucleating agent and plasticizer, and that the presented approach can be used for the development of PP nanocomposites with distinguished properties. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanofiller induced orientation of the crystalline polypropylene phase. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Renewable feedstock as compatibilizer in the preparation of nanocomposites Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Layered double hydroxide as nucleating agent and plasticizer.

  19. Application of a site-binding, electrical, double-layer model to nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Relyea, J.F.; Silva, R.J.

    1981-09-01

    A site-binding, electrical, double-layer adsorption model has been applied to adsorption of Cs for both a montmorillonite clay and powdered SiO 2 . Agreement between experimental and predicted results indicates that C/sub s/ + is adsorbed by a simple cation-exchange mechanism. Further application of a combination equilibrium thermodynamic model and site-binding, electrical, double-layer adsorption model has been made to predict the behavior of U(VI) in solutions contacting either the montmorillonite clay or powdered SiO 2 . Experimentally determined U solution concentrations have been used to select what is felt to be the best available thermodynamic data for U under oxidizing conditions. Given the existing information about the probable U solution species, it was possible to determine that UO 2 +2 is most likely adsorbed by cation-exchange at pH 5. At higher values (pH 7 and 9), it was shown that UO 2 (OH) 2 0 is probably the most strongly adsorbed U solution species. It was also found that high NaCl solution concentrations at higher pH values lowered U concentrations (either because of enhanced sorption or lowered solubility); however, the mechanism responsible for this behavior has not been determined

  20. Evaluation of a starch-based double layer scaffold for bone regeneration in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Requicha, Joao F; Moura, Tiago; Leonor, Isabel B; Martins, Teresa; Muñoz, Fernando; Reis, Rui L; Gomes, Manuela E; Viegas, Carlos A

    2014-07-01

    Damages in the maxillofacial bones are frequent in humans following trauma, metabolic diseases, neoplasia, or inflammatory processes. Many of the available treatments to regenerate bone are often ineffective. The goal of this work was to assess the in vivo behavior of an innovative double-layered scaffold based on a blend of starch and polycaprolactone (SPCL) that comprises a membrane obtained by solvent casting, which aims to act as a guided tissue regeneration membrane, and a wet-spun fiber mesh (in some cases functionalized with osteoconductive silanol groups) targeting bone regeneration. The behavior of the double layer scaffold, functionalized with silanol groups (SPCL-Si) or without (SPCL), was assessed in a mandibular rodent model and compared to a commercial collagen membrane (positive control) and to empty defects (negative control). After 8 weeks of implantation, the micro-computed tomography and the histomorphometric analysis revealed that the SPCL-Si scaffolds induced significantly higher new bone formation compared to the collagen membrane and to the empty defects, although they had a similar performance when compared to the SPCL scaffolds. © 2014 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Mg/Al ordering in layered double hydroxides revealed by multinuclear NMR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sideris, Paul J; Nielsen, Ulla Gro; Gan, Zhehong; Grey, Clare P

    2008-07-04

    The anion-exchange ability of layered double hydroxides (LDHs) has been exploited to create materials for use in catalysis, drug delivery, and environmental remediation. The specific cation arrangements in the hydroxide layers of hydrotalcite-like LDHs, of general formula Mg2+(1-x)Al3+(x)OH2(Anion(n-)(x/n)).yH2O, have, however, remained elusive, and their elucidation could enhance the functional optimization of these materials. We applied rapid (60 kilohertz) magic angle spinning (MAS) to obtain high-resolution hydrogen-1 nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) spectra and characterize the magnesium and aluminum distribution. These data, in combination with 1H-27Al double-resonance and 25Mg triple-quantum MAS NMR data, show that the cations are fully ordered for magnesium:aluminum ratios of 2:1 and that at lower aluminum content, a nonrandom distribution of cations persists, with no Al3+-Al3+ close contacts. The application of rapid MAS NMR methods to investigate proton distributions in a wide range of materials is readily envisaged.

  2. Dual functional porous anti-reflective coatings with a photocatalytic effect based on a single layer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jilavi, M. H.; Mousavi, S. H.; Müller, T. S.; de Oliveira, P. W.

    2018-05-01

    Anti-reflection and photocatalytic properties are desirable for improving the optical properties of electronic devices. We describe a method of fabrication a single-layer, anti-reflective (AR) thin film with an additional photocatalytic property. The layer is deposited on glass substrates by means of a low-cost dip-coating method using a SiO2-TiO2 solution. A comparative study was undertaken to investigate the effects of TiO2 concentrations on the photocatalytic properties of the film and to determine the optimal balance between transmittance and photocatalysis. The average transmittance increases from T = 90.51% to T = 95.46 ± 0.07% for the wavelengths between 380 and 1200 nm. The structural characterization indicated the formation of thin, porous SiO2-TiO2 films with a roughness of less than 7.5 nm. The quality of the samples was evaluated by a complete test program of the mechanical, chemical and accelerated weathering stability. This results open up new possibilities for cost-effective AR coatings for the glass and solar cell industries.

  3. Improvement of efficiency roll-off in blue phosphorescence OLED using double dopants emissive layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Seung Il; Yoon, Ju An; Kim, Nam Ho; Kim, Jin Wook; Kang, Jin Sung; Moon, Chang-Bum; Kim, Woo Young

    2015-01-01

    Blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes (PHOLEDs) were fabricated using double dopants FIrpic and FIr6 in emissive layer (EML) with structure of ITO/NPB (700 Å)/mCP:FIrpic-8%:FIr6-x% (300 Å)/TPBi (300 Å)/Liq (20 Å)/Al (1200 Å). We optimized concentration of the second dopant FIr6 in the presence of a fixed FIrpic to observe its effect on electrical performance of PHOLED device. 24.8 cd/A of luminous efficiency was achieved by the device with dopant ratio of 8%FIrpic:4%FIr6 in EML. Efficiency roll-off was also improved 20% compared to the PHOLED device singly dopped with FIrpic or FIr6 only. Second doping proved its effect in stabilizing charge balance in EML and enhancing energy transfer of triplet excitons between two dopants. - Highlights: • We fabricated blue PHOLED with double blue phosphorescent dopants in single EML. • Efficiency roll-off was improved by using double dopant in single EML. • The host–dopant transfer is discussed by analyzing the photo-absorption and photoluminescence. • The spectroscopic analysis using multi-peak fits with a Gaussian function

  4. Improvement of efficiency roll-off in blue phosphorescence OLED using double dopants emissive layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Seung Il; Yoon, Ju An; Kim, Nam Ho; Kim, Jin Wook; Kang, Jin Sung; Moon, Chang-Bum [Department of Green Energy & Semiconductor Engineering, Hoseo University, Asan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Woo Young, E-mail: wykim@hoseo.edu [Department of Green Energy & Semiconductor Engineering, Hoseo University, Asan (Korea, Republic of); Department of Engineering Physics, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4L7 (Canada)

    2015-04-15

    Blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes (PHOLEDs) were fabricated using double dopants FIrpic and FIr6 in emissive layer (EML) with structure of ITO/NPB (700 Å)/mCP:FIrpic-8%:FIr6-x% (300 Å)/TPBi (300 Å)/Liq (20 Å)/Al (1200 Å). We optimized concentration of the second dopant FIr6 in the presence of a fixed FIrpic to observe its effect on electrical performance of PHOLED device. 24.8 cd/A of luminous efficiency was achieved by the device with dopant ratio of 8%FIrpic:4%FIr6 in EML. Efficiency roll-off was also improved 20% compared to the PHOLED device singly dopped with FIrpic or FIr6 only. Second doping proved its effect in stabilizing charge balance in EML and enhancing energy transfer of triplet excitons between two dopants. - Highlights: • We fabricated blue PHOLED with double blue phosphorescent dopants in single EML. • Efficiency roll-off was improved by using double dopant in single EML. • The host–dopant transfer is discussed by analyzing the photo-absorption and photoluminescence. • The spectroscopic analysis using multi-peak fits with a Gaussian function.

  5. Kinetics and transport at AMTEC electrodes. II - Temperature dependence of the interfacial impedance of Na(g)/porous Mo/Na-Beta-double prime alumina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, R. M.; Jeffries-Nakamura, B.; Underwood, M. L.; Bankston, C. P.; Kummer, J. T.

    1990-01-01

    The exchange current, transfer coefficient, mass-transport parameters, and electrode capacitance at the Na(g)/porous Mo/Na-Beta-double prime alumina solid electrolyte (BASE) phase boundary have been evaluated from 740 to 1220 K. The transfer coefficient exhibits a value close to 0.5 and the exchange current is dominated by collision frequency, with no significant activation energy. Since the porous Mp-electrode adopts a fairly regular microstructure on the BASE surface, the magnitude of the exchange current of mature electrodes directly depends on the actual contact zone of the porous metal film with the BASE ceramic, and decreases slightly as grain growth occurs. The exchange currents and the mass-transport parameters derived for very porous, thin Mo electrodes indicate that the charge-transfer reaction occurs at a small fraction of the interface. High-frequency limiting capacitance and resistance values due to the interface show potential dependence and a value on the order of 1 F/sq m and 0.1-1.0 Ohm-sq cm.

  6. Preparation and inhibition properties of molybdate intercalated ZnAlCe layered double hydroxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Huajie; Wang, Jihui, E-mail: jhwang@tju.edu.cn; Zhang, Yu; Hu, Wenbin

    2016-09-05

    ZnAlCe layered double hydroxide intercalated by molybdate (ZnAlCe−MoO{sub 4} LDH) was successfully synthesized by using co-precipitation method, and the morphology, structure of ZnAlCe−MoO{sub 4} LDH were observed and characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) techniques. The inhibition behavior of ZnAlCe−MoO{sub 4} LDH for Q235 steel in 3.5%NaCl solution was determined by polarization curves, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) and X-ray photoelectron spectrometer (XPS) methods. The results shows that the synthesized ZnAlCe−MoO{sub 4} LDH has a lamellar structure with a particle size of 0.1–2.0 μm, an average thickness of 30 nm, and a basal plane spacing of 0.898 nm. Compared with the addition of ZnAl layered double hydroxide intercalated by nitrate (ZnAl−NO{sub 3} LDH) and ZnAl layered double hydroxide intercalated by molybdate (ZnAl−MoO{sub 4} LDH) in 3.5% NaCl solution, Q235 steel in 3.5%NaCl + ZnAlCe−MoO{sub 4} LDH solution has a lower corrosion current density, larger polarization resistance and a higher inhibition efficiency. The addition of ZnAlCe−MoO{sub 4} LDH will reduce the chloride concentration in 3.5% NaCl solution by the anion exchanged with molybdate, and improve the corrosion resistance of Q235 steel owing to the formation of passive film with the composition of ferrous or iron molybdate and deposition film with zinc and cerium hydroxides. - Highlights: • ZnAlCe−MoO{sub 4} LDH compound was successfully synthesized by co-precipitation method. • ZnAlCe−MoO{sub 4} LDH has a better inhibition effect to Q235 steel in 3.5%NaCl solution. • The Cl{sup −} ions in solution was partially exchanged with MoO{sub 4}{sup 2−} ions in host layers. • The passive film and deposition film were formed by the release of LDH compound.

  7. Synthesis, characterization, and antimicrobial properties of novel double layer nanocomposite electrospun fibers for wound dressing applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassiba AJ

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Alaa J Hassiba,1 Mohamed E El Zowalaty,2 Thomas J Webster,3–5 Aboubakr M Abdullah,6 Gheyath K Nasrallah,7 Khalil Abdelrazek Khalil,8 Adriaan S Luyt,6 Ahmed A Elzatahry1 1Materials Science and Technology Program, College of Arts and Sciences, Qatar University, Doha, Qatar; 2School of Health Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa; 3Department of Chemical Engineering, 4Department of Bioengineering, Northeastern University, Boston, MA, USA; 5Center of Excellence for Advanced Materials Research, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia; 6Center for Advanced Materials, 7Department of Biomedical Science, College of Health Sciences, Biomedical Research Center, Qatar University, Doha, Qatar; 8Department of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Sharjah, Sharjah, United Arab Emirates Abstract: Herein, novel hybrid nanomaterials were developed for wound dressing applications with antimicrobial properties. Electrospinning was used to fabricate a double layer nanocomposite nanofibrous mat consisting of an upper layer of poly(vinyl alcohol and chitosan loaded with silver nanoparticles (AgNPs and a lower layer of polyethylene oxide (PEO or polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP nanofibers loaded with chlorhexidine (as an antiseptic. The top layer containing AgNPs, whose purpose was to protect the wound site against environmental germ invasion, was prepared by reducing silver nitrate to its nanoparticulate form through interaction with chitosan. The lower layer, which would be in direct contact with the injured site, contained the antibiotic drug needed to avoid wound infections which would otherwise interfere with the healing process. Initially, the upper layer was electrospun, followed sequentially by electrospinning the second layer, creating a bilayer nanofibrous mat. The morphology of the nanofibrous mats was studied by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy, showing successful nanofiber

  8. Dual nutraceutical nanohybrids of folic acid and calcium containing layered double hydroxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Tae-Hyun; Oh, Jae-Min, E-mail: jaemin.oh@yonsei.ac.kr

    2016-01-15

    Dual nutraceutical nanohybrids consisting of organic nutrient, folic acid (FA), and mineral nutrient, calcium, were prepared based on layered double hydroxide (LDH) structure. Among various hybridization methods such as coprecipitation, ion exchange, solid phase reaction and exfoliation-reassembly, it was found that exfoliation-reassembly was the most effective in terms of intercalation of FA moiety between Ca-containing LDH layers. X-ray diffraction patterns and infrared spectra indicated that FA molecules were well stabilized in the interlayer space of LDHs through electrostatic interaction. From the atomic force and scanning electron microscopic studies, particle thickness of LDH was determined to be varied with tens, a few and again tens of nanometers in pristine, exfoliated and reassembled state, respectively, while preserving particle diameter. The result confirmed layer-by-layer hybrid structure of FA and LDHs was obtained by exfoliation-reassembly. Solid UV–vis spectra showed 2-dimensional molecular arrangement of FA moiety in hybrid, exhibiting slight red shift in n→π* and π→π* transition. The chemical formulae of FA intercalated Ca-containing LDH were determined to Ca{sub 1.30}Al(OH){sub 4.6}FA{sub 0.74}·3.33H{sub 2}O and Ca{sub 1.53}Fe(OH){sub 5.06}FA{sub 2.24}·9.94H{sub 2}O by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy, high performance liquid chromatography and thermogravimetry, showing high nutraceutical content of FA and Ca. - Highlights: • We successfully intercalated FA molecules into Ca-containing LDHs. • Exfoliation-reassembly was proven to be the most effective. • The interaction between LDH and FA were studied by FT-IR and UV–vis spectra. • Thermal stability of FA were enhanced by electrostatic interaction with LDH layers.

  9. Hierarchical porous carbons with layer-by-layer motif architectures from confined soft-template self-assembly in layered materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jie; Tang, Jing; Ding, Bing; Malgras, Victor; Chang, Zhi; Hao, Xiaodong; Wang, Ya; Dou, Hui; Zhang, Xiaogang; Yamauchi, Yusuke

    2017-01-01

    Although various two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials have been explored as promising capacitive materials due to their unique layered structure, their natural restacking tendency impedes electrolyte transport and significantly restricts their practical applications. Herein, we synthesize all-carbon layer-by-layer motif architectures by introducing 2D ordered mesoporous carbons (OMC) within the interlayer space of 2D nanomaterials. As a proof of concept, MXenes are selected as 2D hosts to design 2D–2D heterostructures. Further removing the metal elements from MXenes leads to the formation of all-carbon 2D–2D heterostructures consisting of alternating layers of MXene-derived carbon (MDC) and OMC. The OMC layers intercalated with the MDC layers not only prevent restacking but also facilitate ion diffusion and electron transfer. The performance of the obtained hybrid carbons as supercapacitor electrodes demonstrates their potential for upcoming electronic devices. This method allows to overcome the restacking and blocking of 2D nanomaterials by constructing ion-accessible OMC within the 2D host material. PMID:28604671

  10. Hierarchical porous carbons with layer-by-layer motif architectures from confined soft-template self-assembly in layered materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jie; Tang, Jing; Ding, Bing; Malgras, Victor; Chang, Zhi; Hao, Xiaodong; Wang, Ya; Dou, Hui; Zhang, Xiaogang; Yamauchi, Yusuke

    2017-06-01

    Although various two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials have been explored as promising capacitive materials due to their unique layered structure, their natural restacking tendency impedes electrolyte transport and significantly restricts their practical applications. Herein, we synthesize all-carbon layer-by-layer motif architectures by introducing 2D ordered mesoporous carbons (OMC) within the interlayer space of 2D nanomaterials. As a proof of concept, MXenes are selected as 2D hosts to design 2D-2D heterostructures. Further removing the metal elements from MXenes leads to the formation of all-carbon 2D-2D heterostructures consisting of alternating layers of MXene-derived carbon (MDC) and OMC. The OMC layers intercalated with the MDC layers not only prevent restacking but also facilitate ion diffusion and electron transfer. The performance of the obtained hybrid carbons as supercapacitor electrodes demonstrates their potential for upcoming electronic devices. This method allows to overcome the restacking and blocking of 2D nanomaterials by constructing ion-accessible OMC within the 2D host material.

  11. CoCr double-layered media with NiFe and CoZrNb soft-magnetic layers (invited)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernards, J.P.C.; Schrauwen, C.P.G.; Zieren, V.; Luitjens, S.B.

    1988-01-01

    The magnetic, structural, and recording properties of CoCr double-layered media are investigated. The underlayer materials NiFe (crystalline) and CoZrNb (amorphous) were combined with two different kinds of intermediate layers: Ti (crystalline) and Ge (amorphous). Applying a bias voltage during sputtering of NiFe results in a low coercivity of the NiFe layer and in a high coercivity of the CoCr layer. The structure of the NiFe layer influences the structure of the CoCr layer. A Ti layer between the NiFe and CoCr layers decreases the in-plane remanence of the CoCr layer. The coercivity of all CoZrNb layers is low, independent of the application of a bias voltage. The orientation and structure of CoCr on CoZrNb can be improved by using a Ge intermediate layer, which results in a low coercivity of the CoCr. A Ti intermediate layer increases the coercivity. Ring heads show a dependence of spike noise on the underlayer coercivity and on the applied normal force. A probe-type head shows a dependence of its output on the CoCr coercivity, which may be understood in terms of demagnetization and writing depth

  12. Design technology co-optimization for 14/10nm metal1 double patterning layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Yingli; Su, Xiaojing; Chen, Ying; Su, Yajuan; Shao, Feng; Zhang, Recco; Lei, Junjiang; Wei, Yayi

    2016-03-01

    Design and technology co-optimization (DTCO) can satisfy the needs of the design, generate robust design rule, and avoid unfriendly patterns at the early stage of design to ensure a high level of manufacturability of the product by the technical capability of the present process. The DTCO methodology in this paper includes design rule translation, layout analysis, model validation, hotspots classification and design rule optimization mainly. The correlation of the DTCO and double patterning (DPT) can optimize the related design rule and generate friendlier layout which meets the requirement of the 14/10nm technology node. The experiment demonstrates the methodology of DPT-compliant DTCO which is applied to a metal1 layer from the 14/10nm node. The DTCO workflow proposed in our job is an efficient solution for optimizing the design rules for 14/10 nm tech node Metal1 layer. And the paper also discussed and did the verification about how to tune the design rule of the U-shape and L-shape structures in a DPT-aware metal layer.

  13. Structure and conductive properties of poly(ethylene oxide)/layered double hydroxide nanocomposite polymer electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao, C.-S.; Ye, W.-B.

    2004-01-01

    The oligo(ethylene oxide) modified layered double hydroxide (LDH) prepared by template method was added as a nanoscale nucleating agent into poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) to form PEO/OLDH nanocomposite electrolytes. The effects of OLDH addition on morphology and conductivities of nanocomposite electrolytes were studied using wide-angle X-ray diffractometer, polarized optical microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and ionic conductivity measurement. The results show that the exfoliated morphology of nanocomposites is formed due to the surface modification of LDH layers with PEO matrix compatible oligo(ethylene oxide)s. The nanoscale dispersed OLDH layers inhibit the crystal growth of PEO crystallites and result in a plenty amount of intercrystalline grain boundary within PEO/OLDH nanocomposites. The ionic conductivities of nanocomposite electrolytes are enhanced by three orders of magnitude compared to the pure PEO polymer electrolytes at ambient temperature. It can be attributed to the ease transport of Li + along intercrystalline amorphous phase. This novel nanocomposite electrolytes system with high conductivities will be benefited to fabricate the thin-film type of Li-polymer secondary battery

  14. RECONSTRUCTION OF CALCINED Zn -Al LAYERED DOUBLE HYDROXIDES DURING TETRACYCLINE ADSORPSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Starukh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Zn-Al mixed oxides containing ZnO different degree crystallinity were obtained by calcinations of Zn-Al layered double hydroxides (LDHs. The reconstruction of calcined Zn-Al LDHs has been performed under stirring in aqueous suspensions. The assynthesized LDHs, its decomposition products, as well as the reconstructed solids upon hydration were characterized by XRD, N2adsorption, differential and thermal gravimetric analysis. It was found that the ability of Zn-Al LDHs to recover a layered structure under the hydration of mixed oxides depends on the degree of ZnO crystallinity. The partial reconstruction of Zn-Al layered structure occurs in tetracycline solutions irrespective to the degree of ZnO crystallinity in calcined LDHs. Calcined Zn-Al LDHs demonstrate the higher adsorption capacity to tetracycline in comparison with as-prepared Zn-Al LDHs. The adsorption of TC on calcined and uncalcined ZnAl LDHs occurs on the centers of one particular type. It is suggested that surface complexation of the A-ring ligand of TC with Al-OH centers takes place.

  15. Electric double layer and electrokinetic potential of pectic macromolecules in sugar beet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuljanin Tatjana A.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrokinetic potential is an important property of colloidal particles and, regarding the fact that it is a well defined and easily measurable property, it is considered to be a permanent characteristic of a particular colloidal system. In fact, it is a measure of electrokinetic charge that surrounds the colloidal particle in a solution and is in direct proportion with the mobility of particles in an electric field. Gouy-Chapman-Stern-Graham's model of electric double layer was adopted and it was proven experimentally that the addition of Cu++ ions to sugar beet pectin caused a reduction in the negative electrokinetic potential proportional to the increase of Cu++ concentration. Higher Cu++ concentrations increased the proportion of cation specific adsorption (Cu++ and H+ with regard to electrostatic Coulombic forces. Consequently, there is a shift in the shear plane between the fixed and diffuse layers directed towards the diffuse layer, i.e. towards its compression and decrease in the electrokinetic potential or even charge inversion of pectin macromolecules.

  16. Incorporation of layered double nanomaterials in thin film nanocomposite nanofiltration membrane for magnesium sulphate removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tajuddin Muhammad Hanis

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Thin film nanocomposite (TFN membrane with copper-aluminium layered double hydroxides (LDH incorporated into polyamide (PA selective layer has been prepared for magnesium sulphate salt removal. 0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.15, 0.2 wt% of LDH were dispersed in the trimesoyl chloride (TMC in n-hexane as organic solution and embedded into PA layer during interfacial polymerization with piperazine. The fabricated membranes were further characterized to evaluate its morphological structure and membrane surface hydrophilicity. The TFN membranes performance were evaluated with divalent salt magnesium sulphate (MgSO4 removal and compared with thin film composite (TFC. The morphological structures of TFN membranes were altered and the surface hydrophilicity were enhanced with addition of LDH. Incorporation of LDH has improved the permeate water flux by 82.5% compared to that of TFC membrane with satisfactory rejection of MgSO4. This study has experimentally validated the potential of LDH to improve the divalent salt separation performance for TFN membranes.

  17. Incorporation of layered double nanomaterials in thin film nanocomposite nanofiltration membrane for magnesium sulphate removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanis Tajuddin, Muhammad; Yusof, Norhaniza; Salleh, Wan Norharyati Wan; Fauzi Ismail, Ahmad; Hanis Hayati Hairom, Nur; Misdan, Nurasyikin

    2018-03-01

    Thin film nanocomposite (TFN) membrane with copper-aluminium layered double hydroxides (LDH) incorporated into polyamide (PA) selective layer has been prepared for magnesium sulphate salt removal. 0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.15, 0.2 wt% of LDH were dispersed in the trimesoyl chloride (TMC) in n-hexane as organic solution and embedded into PA layer during interfacial polymerization with piperazine. The fabricated membranes were further characterized to evaluate its morphological structure and membrane surface hydrophilicity. The TFN membranes performance were evaluated with divalent salt magnesium sulphate (MgSO4) removal and compared with thin film composite (TFC). The morphological structures of TFN membranes were altered and the surface hydrophilicity were enhanced with addition of LDH. Incorporation of LDH has improved the permeate water flux by 82.5% compared to that of TFC membrane with satisfactory rejection of MgSO4. This study has experimentally validated the potential of LDH to improve the divalent salt separation performance for TFN membranes.

  18. The current-voltage characteristic and potential oscillations of a double layer in a triple plasma device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, R.T.; Torven, S.

    1986-07-01

    The properties of a strong double layer in a current circuit with a capacitance and an inductance are investigated in a triple plasma device. The double layer gives rise to a region of negative differential resistance in the current-voltage characteristic of the device, and this gives non-linear oscillations in the current and the potential drop over the double layer (PhiDL). For a sufficiently large circuit inductance PhiDL reaches an amplitude given by the induced voltage (-LdI/dt) which is much larger than the circuit EMF due to the rapid current decrease when PhiDL increases. A variable potential minimum exists in the plasma on the low potential side of the double layer, and the depth of the minimum increases when PhiDL increases. An increasing fraction of the electrons incident at the double layer are then reflected, and this is found to be the main process giving rise to the negative differential resistance. A qualitative model for the variation of the minimum potential with PhiDL is also proposed. It is based on the condition that the minimum potential must adjust itself self-consistentely so that quasi-neutrality is maintained in the plasma region where the minimum is assumed. (authors)

  19. A retrospective study comparing the outcome of horses undergoing small intestinal resection and anastomosis with a single layer (Lembert) or double layer (simple continuous and Cushing) technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Close, Kristyn; Epstein, Kira L; Sherlock, Ceri E

    2014-05-01

    To (1) compare postoperative complications and survival in horses after small intestinal resection and anastomosis using 2 anastomosis techniques (single layer Lembert; double layer simple continuous oversewn with Cushing), and (2) to compare outcome by anastomosis type (jejunoileostomy; jejunojejunostomy). Retrospective case series. Horses (n = 53). Medical records (July 2006-July 2010) of all horses that had small intestinal resection and anastomosis. Horses were divided into groups based on technique and type of anastomosis. Comparisons of pre- and intraoperative findings (disease severity), postoperative complications, and survival rates were made between groups. There were no differences in disease severity, postoperative complications, or survival between single layer (n = 23) or double layer (n = 31) anastomoses. There were no differences in disease severity or survival between jejunoileostomy (n = 16) or jejunojejunostomy (n = 38). There was a higher incidence of postoperative colic in hospital after jejunoileostomy (13/16) compared with jejunojejunostomy (18/38) (P = .0127). Postoperative complications and survival are comparable between horses undergoing single layer and double layer small intestinal end-to-end anastomoses. With the exception of increased postoperative colic in the hospital, postoperative complications and survival after jejunoileostomy and jejunojejunostomy are also comparable. © Copyright 2014 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  20. A two-phase moisture transport model accounting for sorption hysteresis in layered porous building constructions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannesson, Björn; Janz, Mårten

    2009-01-01

    and exhibits different transport properties. A successful model of such a case may shred light on the performance of different constructions with regards to, for example, mould growth and freeze thaw damages. For this purpose a model has been developed which is based on a two phase flow, vapor and liquid water......, with account also to sorption hysteresis. The different materials in the considered layered construction are assigned different properties, i.e. vapor and liquid water diffusivities and boundary (wetting and drying) sorption curves. Further, the scanning behavior between wetting and drying boundary curves...

  1. Four-flux model of the light scattering in porous varnish and paint layers: towards understanding the visual appearance of altered blanched easel oil paintings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genty-Vincent, Anaïs; Van Song, Théo Phan; Andraud, Christine; Menu, Michel

    2017-07-01

    Blanching of easel oil paintings is a recurring alteration that can affect the varnish layer and also the paint layer itself, and strongly alter the visual appearance. Our examinations by field emission gun scanning electron microscopy (FEG-SEM) of altered and unaltered samples revealed the presence of spherical pores in the altered layers, with a pore size ranging from few nanometers to few micrometers. The aim of the present study is to corroborate that the visual appearance modification can be explained by light scattering theories (Mie or Rayleigh depending on the pore size of the considered layer). The four-flux model was used to resolve the radiative transfer equation (RTE) and model the light scattering in porous varnish layers as well as in porous green earth and raw umber oil paint layers. It enables to highlight that the pore size has an important impact on the visual appearance of the altered layer (color and opacity modification). The pore concentration and the thickness of the altered part affect, however, only the opacity. This work points out that the blanching of easel oil paintings is due to light scattering by the pores, which is an important result toward the proposal of adapted and durable future conservation treatments.

  2. Characterization of Ag-porous silicon nanostructured layer formed by an electrochemical etching of p-type silicon surface for bio-application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naddaf, M.; Al-Mariri, A.; Haj-Mhmoud, N.

    2017-06-01

    Nanostructured layers composed of silver-porous silicon (Ag-PS) have been formed by an electrochemical etching of p-type (1 1 1) silicon substrate in a AgNO3:HF:C2H5OH solution at different etching times (10 min-30 min). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) results reveal that the produced layers consist of Ag dendrites and a silicon-rich porous structure. The nanostructuring nature of the layer has been confirmed by spatial micro-Raman scattering and x-ray diffraction techniques. The Ag dendrites exhibit a surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectrum, while the porous structure shows a typical PS Raman spectrum. Upon increasing the etching time, the average size of silicon nanocrystallite in the PS network decreases, while the average size of Ag nanocrystals is slightly affected. In addition, the immobilization of prokaryote Salmonella typhimurium DNA via physical adsorption onto the Ag-PS layer has been performed to demonstrate its efficiency as a platform for detection of biological molecules using SERS.

  3. Layered double hydroxide materials coated carbon electrode: New challenge to future electrochemical power devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djebbi, Mohamed Amine; Braiek, Mohamed; Namour, Philippe; Ben Haj Amara, Abdesslem; Jaffrezic-Renault, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • MgAl and ZnAl LDH nanosheets were chemically synthesized and deposited over carbon electrode materials. • Catalytic performance of both LDHs was investigated for Fe(II) reduction reaction. • Satisfactory results have been achieved with the MgAl LDH material. • MgAl and ZnAl LDH modified carbon felt were applied in MFC as an efficient anode catalyst. • The LDH-modified anode significantly increased power performance of MFC. - Abstract: Layered double hydroxides (LDHs) have been widely used in the past years due to their unique physicochemical properties and promising applications in electroanalytical chemistry. The present paper is going to focus exclusively on magnesium-aluminum and zinc-aluminum layered double hydroxides (MgAl & ZnAl LDHs) in order to investigate the property and structure of active cation sites located within the layer structure. The MgAl and ZnAl LDH nanosheets were prepared by the constant pH co-precipitation method and uniformly supported on carbon-based electrode materials to fabricate an LDH electrode. Characterization by powder x-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy revealed the LDH form and well-crystallized materials. Wetting surface properties (hydrophilicity and hydrophobicity) of both prepared LDHs were recorded by contact angle measurement show hydrophilic character and basic property. The electrochemical performance of these hybrid materials was investigated by mainly cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and chronoamperometry techniques to identify the oxidation/reduction processes at the electrode/electrolyte interface and the effect of the divalent metal cations in total reactivity. The hierarchy of the modified electrode proves that the electronic conductivity of the bulk material is considerably dependent on the divalent cation and affects the limiting parameter of the overall redox process. However

  4. Layered double hydroxide materials coated carbon electrode: New challenge to future electrochemical power devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djebbi, Mohamed Amine, E-mail: mohamed.djebbi@etu.univ-lyon1.fr [Institut des Sciences Analytiques UMR CNRS 5280, Université Claude Bernard-Lyon 1, 5 rue de la Doua, 69100 Villeurbanne (France); Laboratoire de Physique des Matériaux Lamellaires et Nano-Matériaux Hybrides, Faculté des Sciences de Bizerte, Université de Carthage, 7021 Bizerte (Tunisia); Braiek, Mohamed [Institut des Sciences Analytiques UMR CNRS 5280, Université Claude Bernard-Lyon 1, 5 rue de la Doua, 69100 Villeurbanne (France); Namour, Philippe [Institut des Sciences Analytiques UMR CNRS 5280, Université Claude Bernard-Lyon 1, 5 rue de la Doua, 69100 Villeurbanne (France); Irstea, 5 rue de la Doua, 69100 Villeurbanne (France); Ben Haj Amara, Abdesslem [Laboratoire de Physique des Matériaux Lamellaires et Nano-Matériaux Hybrides, Faculté des Sciences de Bizerte, Université de Carthage, 7021 Bizerte (Tunisia); Jaffrezic-Renault, Nicole [Institut des Sciences Analytiques UMR CNRS 5280, Université Claude Bernard-Lyon 1, 5 rue de la Doua, 69100 Villeurbanne (France)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • MgAl and ZnAl LDH nanosheets were chemically synthesized and deposited over carbon electrode materials. • Catalytic performance of both LDHs was investigated for Fe(II) reduction reaction. • Satisfactory results have been achieved with the MgAl LDH material. • MgAl and ZnAl LDH modified carbon felt were applied in MFC as an efficient anode catalyst. • The LDH-modified anode significantly increased power performance of MFC. - Abstract: Layered double hydroxides (LDHs) have been widely used in the past years due to their unique physicochemical properties and promising applications in electroanalytical chemistry. The present paper is going to focus exclusively on magnesium-aluminum and zinc-aluminum layered double hydroxides (MgAl & ZnAl LDHs) in order to investigate the property and structure of active cation sites located within the layer structure. The MgAl and ZnAl LDH nanosheets were prepared by the constant pH co-precipitation method and uniformly supported on carbon-based electrode materials to fabricate an LDH electrode. Characterization by powder x-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy revealed the LDH form and well-crystallized materials. Wetting surface properties (hydrophilicity and hydrophobicity) of both prepared LDHs were recorded by contact angle measurement show hydrophilic character and basic property. The electrochemical performance of these hybrid materials was investigated by mainly cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and chronoamperometry techniques to identify the oxidation/reduction processes at the electrode/electrolyte interface and the effect of the divalent metal cations in total reactivity. The hierarchy of the modified electrode proves that the electronic conductivity of the bulk material is considerably dependent on the divalent cation and affects the limiting parameter of the overall redox process. However

  5. Surface transport processes in charged porous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabitto, Jorge; Tsouris, Costas

    2017-07-15

    Surface transport processes are very important in chemistry, colloidal sciences, engineering, biology, and geophysics. Natural or externally produced charges on surfaces create electrical double layers (EDLs) at the solid-liquid interface. The existence of the EDLs produces several complex processes including bulk and surface transport of ions. In this work, a model is presented to simulate bulk and transport processes in homogeneous porous media comprising big pores. It is based on a theory for capacitive charging by ideally polarizable porous electrodes without Faradaic reactions or specific adsorption of ions. A volume averaging technique is used to derive the averaged transport equations in the limit of thin electrical double layers. Description of the EDL between the electrolyte solution and the charged wall is accomplished using the Gouy-Chapman-Stern (GCS) model. The surface transport terms enter into the average equations due to the use of boundary conditions for diffuse interfaces. Two extra surface transports terms appear in the closed average equations. One is a surface diffusion term equivalent to the transport process in non-charged porous media. The second surface transport term is a migration term unique to charged porous media. The effective bulk and transport parameters for isotropic porous media are calculated solving the corresponding closure problems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Synthesis of nanocomposite coating based on TiO2/ZnAl layer double hydroxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jovanov, V.; Rudic, O.; Ranogajec, J.; Fidanchevska, E.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was the synthesis of nanocomposite coatings based on Zn-Al layered double hydroxides (Zn-Al LDH) and TiO2. The Zn-Al LDH material, which acted as the catalyst support of the active TiO2 component (in the content of 3 and 10 wt. %), was synthesized by a low super saturation co-precipitation method. The interaction between the Zn-Al LDH and the active TiO2 component was accomplished by using vacuum evaporation prior to the mechanical activation and only by mechanical activation. The final suspension based on Zn-Al LDH and 10wt. % TiO2, impregnated only by mechanical activation, showed the optimal characteristics from the aspect of particle size distribution and XRD analysis. These properties had a positive effect on the functional properties of the coatings (photocatalytic activity and self-cleaning efficiency) after the water rinsing procedure. [es

  7. Antimicrobial Double-Layer Coating Prepared from Pure or Doped-Titanium Dioxide and Binders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ran Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Fruit and vegetable containers with microbe-free surfaces can be made by coating with titanium dioxide (TiO2 particles or nonmetal (C, N, B, F doped-TiO2 particles, using wear resistant polymers, such as zein, and paint, as the binders and to form a continuous binding phase. The doped-TiO2 powders absorb visible light radiation, and thus possess a higher antibacterial effect than non-modified TiO2 particles in environmental conditions. The study also presents a double-layer coating to use less TiO2 particles in coating, while achieving higher antimicrobial activity. Containers with microbe-free surfaces can stop cross-contamination from infected workers or spoiled/decayed/contaminated fruits or vegetables, and thus are expected to be able to reduce the risk from microbiological contamination of fruits and vegetables during harvest in fields, and postharvest storage or transportation.

  8. Sub-millimeter arbitrary arrangements of monolithically micro-scale electrical double layer capacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laszczyk, Karolina U; Kazufumi, Kobashi; Sakurai, Shunsuke; Sekiguchi, Atsuko; Futaba, Don N; Yamada, Takeo; Hata, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    We report the investigation on the reproducibility of micro-scale electric double layer capacitors (micro-EDLCs). The micro-EDLC components were fabricated parallel using photolithography, wet and dry processing. Electrodes of the micro-EDLCs are highly dense packed Single Wall Carbon Nanotubes (SWCNTs) that form a mesh structure. The micro- EDLCs are connected 1-10 in series and in parallel being unified electrical circuits to tune the capacitance and the operational voltage. To confirm the reproducibility of the cells as well as the yield we performed electrochemical measurements in order to define the performance uniformity between cells strings and individual cells connected in a string. For 1-10 cells in series and in parallel the trends for the capacitance and operational voltage satisfied electrophysics rules governing cells addition. However, the measurements of the individual cells in a string revealed the significant performance discrepancy that might result in a shorten life cycling of a circuit. (paper)

  9. Sub-millimeter arbitrary arrangements of monolithically micro-scale electrical double layer capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laszczyk, Karolina U.; Kazufumi, Kobashi; Sakurai, Shunsuke; Sekiguchi, Atsuko; Futaba, Don N.; Yamada, Takeo; Hata, Kenji

    2015-12-01

    We report the investigation on the reproducibility of micro-scale electric double layer capacitors (micro-EDLCs). The micro-EDLC components were fabricated parallel using photolithography, wet and dry processing. Electrodes of the micro-EDLCs are highly dense packed Single Wall Carbon Nanotubes (SWCNTs) that form a mesh structure. The micro- EDLCs are connected 1-10 in series and in parallel being unified electrical circuits to tune the capacitance and the operational voltage. To confirm the reproducibility of the cells as well as the yield we performed electrochemical measurements in order to define the performance uniformity between cells strings and individual cells connected in a string. For 1-10 cells in series and in parallel the trends for the capacitance and operational voltage satisfied electrophysics rules governing cells addition. However, the measurements of the individual cells in a string revealed the significant performance discrepancy that might result in a shorten life cycling of a circuit.

  10. Limitations and strengths of uniformly charged double-layer theory: physical significance of capacitance anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partenskii, Michael B; Jordan, Peter C

    2008-06-01

    Theoretical studies of electrical double layers typically consider the response of ionic conductors to the field of uniform charge-density distributions sigma ("sigma -control"). Many such analyses predict apparent anomalies of differential capacitance, C , including divergences and negative values. To clarify misconceptions regarding these predictions, we critically reexamine some theoretical approaches dealing with the admissible sign of C . We examine the anomalies' origin and stress its relation to the artificiality of sigma-control. We show that calculations based on sigma-control can illuminate the nature of instabilities and phase transitions under the physically attainable conditions of potential control, where applied voltage phi rather than sigma is fixed. For illustration, we discuss the physical nature of the "ultimate anomaly," negative integral capacitance predicted by some recent analyses. We also show that sigma-control anomalies can explain some experimentally observed features of C(phi) .

  11. Layered double hydroxide using hydrothermal treatment: morphology evolution, intercalation and release kinetics of diclofenac sodium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joy, Mathew; Iyengar, Srividhya J.; Chakraborty, Jui; Ghosh, Swapankumar

    2017-12-01

    The present work demonstrates the possibilities of hydrothermal transformation of Zn-Al layered double hydroxide (LDH) nanostructure by varying the synthetic conditions. The manipulation in washing step before hydrothermal treatment allows control over crystal morphologies, size and stability of their aqueous solutions. We examined the crystal growth process in the presence and the absence of extra ions during hydrothermal treatment and its dependence on the drug (diclofenac sodium (Dic-Na)) loading and release processes. Hexagonal plate-like crystals show sustained release with ˜90% of the drug from the matrix in a week, suggesting the applicability of LDH nanohybrids in sustained drug delivery systems. The fits to the release kinetics data indicated the drug release as a diffusion-controlled release process. LDH with rod-like morphology shows excellent colloidal stability in aqueous suspension, as studied by photon correlation spectroscopy.

  12. Influence of carbon conductive additives on electrochemical double-layer supercapacitor parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiseleva, E. A.; Zhurilova, M. A.; Kochanova, S. A.; Shkolnikov, E. J.; Tarasenko, A. B.; Zaitseva, O. V.; Uryupina, O. V.; Valyano, G. V.

    2018-01-01

    Electrochemical double-layer capacitors (EDLC) offer energy storage technology, highly demanded for rapid transition processes in transport and stationary applications, concerned with fast power fluctuations. Rough structure of activated carbon, widely used as electrode material because of its high specific area, leads to poor electrode conductivity. Therefore there is the need for conductive additive to decrease internal resistance and to achieve high specific power and high specific energy. Usually carbon blacks are widely used as conductive additive. In this paper electrodes with different conductive additives—two types of carbon blacks and single-walled carbon nanotubes—were prepared and characterized in organic electrolyte-based EDLC cells. Electrodes are based on original wood derived activated carbon produced by potassium hydroxide high-temperature activation at Joint Institute for High Temperatures RAS. Electrodes were prepared from slurry by cold-rolling. For electrode characterization cyclic voltammetry, impedance spectra analysis, equivalent series resistance measurements and galvanostatic charge-discharge were used.

  13. Activity Dependent Synaptic Plasticity Mimicked on Indium-Tin-Oxide Electric-Double-Layer Transistor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Juan; Zhu, Li Qiang; Fu, Yang Ming; Xiao, Hui; Guo, Li Qiang; Wan, Qing

    2017-10-25

    Ion coupling has provided an additional method to modulate electric properties for solid-state materials. Here, phosphorosilicate glass (PSG)-based electrolyte gated protonic/electronic coupled indium-tin-oxide electric-double-layer (EDL) transistors are fabricated. The oxide transistor exhibits good electrical performances due to an extremely strong proton gating behavior for the electrolyte. With interfacial electrochemical doping, channel conductances of the oxide EDL transistor can be regulated to different levels, corresponding to different initial synaptic weights. Thus, activity dependent synaptic responses such as excitatory postsynaptic current, paired-pulse facilitation, and high-pass filtering are discussed in detail. The proposed proton conductor gated oxide EDL synaptic transistors with activity dependent synaptic plasticities may act as fundamental building blocks for neuromorphic system applications.

  14. Poly I-lactide-layered double hydroxide nanocomposites via in situ polymerization of I-lactide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katiyar, Vimal; Gerds, N.; Koch, C.B.

    2010-01-01

    The use of clay nanofillers offers a potential route to improved barrier properties in polylactide films. Magnesium–aluminium layered double hydroxides (LDHs) are interesting in this respect and we therefore explored synthesis of PLA-LDH nanocomposites by ring-opening polymerization. This method...... is attractive because it should ensure good dispersion of LDH in the polymer. The effect of adding either LDH carbonate (LDH-CO3) or laurate-modified LDH (LDH-C12) was investigated. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy revealed that exfoliated nanocomposites were...... weight was significantly reduced when in-situ polymerization was conducted in the presence of the LDHs and we suggest that chain termination via LDH surface hydroxyl groups and/or metal-catalyzed degradation could be responsible....

  15. Recent advances in polymer supporting layered double hydroxides nanocomposite for electrochemical biosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanasekaran, T.; Padmanaban, A.; Gnanamoorthy, G.; Manigandan, R.; Praveen Kumar, S.; Stephen, A.; Narayanan, V.

    2018-01-01

    In recent years, layered double hydroxides (LDHs) materials having emerging due to their ability of intercalate a variety of anions, either organic or inorganic molecules. The most significance of the LDHs has been found potential applications in catalysis, wastewater treatment, and electrochemical sensors. The Mg-Al LDHs (MAL) and Poly-o-phenylenediamine @ Mg-Al LDHs (P-MAL) was prepared via simple one step hydrothermal method. As prepared material was characterized using many techniques such as, the structural and crystal phase was determined from XRD and Raman analyses. The functional groups were depicted using FT-IR spectroscopy. The optical propertied studied using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy UV-vis spectroscopy and the emission property were analyzed from Photoluminescence spectroscopy. The surface morphology and average particle size was analyzed using FESEM microscopy. The prepared polymer composite material P-MAL was further used for highly sensitive electrochemical detection towards dopamine (DA).

  16. Large-area WSe2 electric double layer transistors on a plastic substrate

    KAUST Repository

    Funahashi, Kazuma

    2015-04-27

    Due to the requirements for large-area, uniform films, currently transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDC) cannot be used in flexible transistor industrial applications. In this study, we first transferred chemically grown large-area WSe2 monolayer films from the as-grown sapphire substrates to the flexible plastic substrates. We also fabricated electric double layer transistors using the WSe2 films on the plastic substrates. These transistors exhibited ambipolar operation and an ON/OFF current ratio of ∼104, demonstrating chemically grown WSe2 transistors on plastic substrates for the first time. This achievement can be an important first step for the next-generation TMDC based flexible devices. © 2015 The Japan Society of Applied Physics.

  17. Layered-Double-Hydroxide Nanosheets as Efficient Visible-Light-Driven Photocatalysts for Dinitrogen Fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yufei; Zhao, Yunxuan; Waterhouse, Geoffrey I N; Zheng, Lirong; Cao, Xingzong; Teng, Fei; Wu, Li-Zhu; Tung, Chen-Ho; O'Hare, Dermot; Zhang, Tierui

    2017-11-01

    Semiconductor photocatalysis attracts widespread interest in water splitting, CO 2 reduction, and N 2 fixation. N 2 reduction to NH 3 is essential to the chemical industry and to the Earth's nitrogen cycle. Industrially, NH 3 is synthesized by the Haber-Bosch process under extreme conditions (400-500 °C, 200-250 bar), stimulating research into the development of sustainable technologies for NH 3 production. Herein, this study demonstrates that ultrathin layered-double-hydroxide (LDH) photocatalysts, in particular CuCr-LDH nanosheets, possess remarkable photocatalytic activity for the photoreduction of N 2 to NH 3 in water at 25 °C under visible-light irradiation. The excellent activity can be attributed to the severely distorted structure and compressive strain in the LDH nanosheets, which significantly enhances N 2 chemisorption and thereby promotes NH 3 formation. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Silver Orthophosphate Immobilized on Flaky Layered Double Hydroxides as the Visible-Light-Driven Photocatalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianlu Cui

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Flaky layered double hydroxide (FLDH was prepared by the reconstruction of its oxide in alkali solution. The composites with FLDH/Ag3PO4 mass ratios at 1.6 : 1 and 3 : 1 were fabricated by the coprecipitation method. The powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscope, and UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The results indicated that the well-distributed Ag3PO4 in a fine crystallite size was formed on the surface of FLDH. The photocatalytic activities of the Ag3PO4 immobilized on FLDH were significantly enhanced for the degradation of acid red G under visible light irradiation compared to bare Ag3PO4. The composite with the FLDH/Ag3PO4 mass ratio of 3 : 1 showed a higher photocatalytic efficiency.

  19. The smallest quaternary ammonium salts with ether groups for high-performance electrochemical double layer capacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Taihee; Park, Min-Sik; Kim, Jeonghun; Kim, Jung Ho; Kim, Ketack

    2016-03-01

    Electrochemical double layer capacitors (EDLCs) are energy storage devices that have been used for a wide range of electronic applications. In particular, the electrolyte is one of the important components, directly related to the capacitance and stability. Herein, we first report a series of the smallest quaternary ammonium salts (QASs), with ether groups on tails and tetrafluoroborate (BF 4 ) as an anion, for use in EDLCs. To find the optimal structure, various QASs with different sized head groups and ether-containing tail groups were systematically compared. Comparing two nearly identical structures with and without ether groups, QASs with oxygen atoms showed improved capacitance, proving that ions with oxygen atoms move more easily than their counterparts at lower electric fields. Moreover, the ether containing QASs showed low activation energy values of conductivities, leading to smaller IR drops during the charge and discharge processes, resulting in an overall higher capacitance.

  20. Preparation and characterization of trans-RhCl(CO)(TPPTS)2-intercalated layered double hydroxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xian; Wei Min; Pu Min; Li Xianjun; Chen Hua; Evans, David G.; Duan Xue

    2005-01-01

    trans-RhCl(CO)(TPPTS) 2 (TPPTS=tris(m-sulfonatophenyl)phosphine) has been intercalated into Zn-Al layered double hydroxides (LDHs) by the method of ion exchange. The structure, composition and thermal stability of the composite material have been characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared and 31 P solid-state magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, elemental analysis, thermogravimetry, and differential thermal analysis. The geometry of trans-RhCl(CO)(TPPTS) 2 was fully optimized using the PM3 semiempirical molecular orbital method, and a schematic model for the intercalated species has been proposed. The thermal stability of trans-RhCl(CO)(TPPTS) 2 is significantly enhanced by intercalation, which suggests that such materials may have prospective application as the basis of a supported catalyst system for the hydroformylation of higher olefins