WorldWideScience

Sample records for double layer capacitors

  1. Liquid Crystals of Lithium Dodecylbenzenesulfonate for Electric Double Layer Capacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzmin, Andrey Vasil’evich; Yurtov, Evgeny V.

    2016-01-01

    Ionic lyotropic liquid crystals based on lithium dodecylbenzenesulfonate were used as electrolytes for electric double layer capacitors with carbon fibrous electrodes. The capacitors were tasted by cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge and discharge, and impedance spectroscopy. The highest specific capacitance was achieved for electrical double layer capacitor equipped with ionic lyotropic liquid crystal of lithium dodecylbenzenesulfonate 35 wt% in water. The specific capacitance of capacitor was calculated from galvanostatic discharge curves – 15 F/g of carbon fibrous material

  2. Application of Electric Double Layer Capacitor for Solar Car

    OpenAIRE

    中西, 弘一; 岸, 純男; 仲森, 昌也; 荒賀, 浩一

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a method for efficient work of electrical energy, using DC-DC converter as insulate between battery and Electrical Double Layer Capacitor (EDLC). In case of constant-current charge to the EDLC, the efficiency of the electric power is higher, compared to the constant-voltage charge.

  3. A review of molecular modelling of electric double layer capacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, Ryan; Birkett, Greg; Zhao, X S

    2014-04-14

    Electric double-layer capacitors are a family of electrochemical energy storage devices that offer a number of advantages, such as high power density and long cyclability. In recent years, research and development of electric double-layer capacitor technology has been growing rapidly, in response to the increasing demand for energy storage devices from emerging industries, such as hybrid and electric vehicles, renewable energy, and smart grid management. The past few years have witnessed a number of significant research breakthroughs in terms of novel electrodes, new electrolytes, and fabrication of devices, thanks to the discovery of innovative materials (e.g. graphene, carbide-derived carbon, and templated carbon) and the availability of advanced experimental and computational tools. However, some experimental observations could not be clearly understood and interpreted due to limitations of traditional theories, some of which were developed more than one hundred years ago. This has led to significant research efforts in computational simulation and modelling, aimed at developing new theories, or improving the existing ones to help interpret experimental results. This review article provides a summary of research progress in molecular modelling of the physical phenomena taking place in electric double-layer capacitors. An introduction to electric double-layer capacitors and their applications, alongside a brief description of electric double layer theories, is presented first. Second, molecular modelling of ion behaviours of various electrolytes interacting with electrodes under different conditions is reviewed. Finally, key conclusions and outlooks are given. Simulations on comparing electric double-layer structure at planar and porous electrode surfaces under equilibrium conditions have revealed significant structural differences between the two electrode types, and porous electrodes have been shown to store charge more efficiently. Accurate electrolyte and

  4. Capacitance of carbon-based electrical double-layer capacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Hengxing; Zhao, Xin; Qiao, Zhenhua; Jung, Jeil; Zhu, Yanwu; Lu, Yalin; Zhang, Li Li; MacDonald, Allan H; Ruoff, Rodney S

    2014-01-01

    Experimental electrical double-layer capacitances of porous carbon electrodes fall below ideal values, thus limiting the practical energy densities of carbon-based electrical double-layer capacitors. Here we investigate the origin of this behaviour by measuring the electrical double-layer capacitance in one to five-layer graphene. We find that the capacitances are suppressed near neutrality, and are anomalously enhanced for thicknesses below a few layers. We attribute the first effect to quantum capacitance effects near the point of zero charge, and the second to correlations between electrons in the graphene sheet and ions in the electrolyte. The large capacitance values imply gravimetric energy storage densities in the single-layer graphene limit that are comparable to those of batteries. We anticipate that these results shed light on developing new theoretical models in understanding the electrical double-layer capacitance of carbon electrodes, and on opening up new strategies for improving the energy density of carbon-based capacitors.

  5. Atomic Layer Deposition Alumina-Passivated Silicon Nanowires: Probing the Transition from Electrochemical Double-Layer Capacitor to Electrolytic Capacitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaboriau, Dorian; Boniface, Maxime; Valero, Anthony; Aldakov, Dmitry; Brousse, Thierry; Gentile, Pascal; Sadki, Said

    2017-04-19

    Silicon nanowires were coated by a 1-5 nm thin alumina layer by atomic layer deposition (ALD) in order to replace poorly reproducible and unstable native silicon oxide by a highly conformal passivating alumina layer. The surface coating enabled probing the behavior of symmetric devices using such electrodes in the EMI-TFSI electrolyte, allowing us to attain a large cell voltage up to 6 V in ionic liquid, together with very high cyclability with less than 4% capacitance fade after 10 6 charge/discharge cycles. These results yielded fruitful insights into the transition between an electrochemical double-layer capacitor behavior and an electrolytic capacitor behavior. Ultimately, thin ALD dielectric coatings can be used to obtain hybrid devices exhibiting large cell voltage and excellent cycle life of dielectric capacitors, while retaining energy and power densities close to the ones displayed by supercapacitors.

  6. Superionic state in double-layer capacitors with nanoporous electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondrat, S; Kornyshev, A

    2011-01-01

    In recent experiments (Chmiola et al 2006 Science 313 1760; Largeot et al 2008 J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130 2730) an anomalous increase of the capacitance with a decrease of the pore size of a carbon-based porous electric double-layer capacitor has been observed. We explain this effect by image forces which exponentially screen out the electrostatic interactions of ions in the interior of a pore. Packing of ions of the same sign becomes easier and is mainly limited by steric interactions. We call this state 'superionic' and suggest a simple model to describe it. The model reveals the possibility of a voltage-induced first order transition between a cation(anion)-deficient phase and a cation(anion)-rich phase which manifests itself in a jump of capacitance as a function of voltage. (fast track communication)

  7. Superionic state in double-layer capacitors with nanoporous electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondrat, S; Kornyshev, A

    2011-01-19

    In recent experiments (Chmiola et al 2006 Science 313 1760; Largeot et al 2008 J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130 2730) an anomalous increase of the capacitance with a decrease of the pore size of a carbon-based porous electric double-layer capacitor has been observed. We explain this effect by image forces which exponentially screen out the electrostatic interactions of ions in the interior of a pore. Packing of ions of the same sign becomes easier and is mainly limited by steric interactions. We call this state 'superionic' and suggest a simple model to describe it. The model reveals the possibility of a voltage-induced first order transition between a cation(anion)-deficient phase and a cation(anion)-rich phase which manifests itself in a jump of capacitance as a function of voltage.

  8. A review on electrochemical double-layer capacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Pawan; Bhatti, T.S.

    2010-01-01

    Various energy storage technologies have been developed in the market for various applications. Batteries flywheels, fuel cells are a few which are much common, those are being used in several countries and also research is also carrying on these technologies to make much better them. The electrochemical double-layer capacitor (EDLC) is an emerging technology, which really plays a key part in fulfilling the demands of electronic devices and systems, for present and future. This paper presents the historical background, classification, construction, modeling, testing, and voltage balancing of the EDLC technology. The applications of EDLC in electrical vehicles, power quality, and others are also discussed and their advantages over other storages technologies are also discussed.

  9. Studies on electrical double layer capacitor with a low-viscosity ionic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The performance of an electrical double layer capacitor (EDLC) composed of high surface area acti- vated carbon ... Since the electric energy stored in EDLCs are raised by the ..... capacitance value, observed by us with the present system, is.

  10. Electrochemical double-layer capacitors based on functionalized graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Michael Allan

    Graphene is a promising electrode material for electrochemical double-layer capacitors (EDLCs) used for energy storage due to its high electrical conductivity and theoretical specific surface area. However, the intrinsic capacitance of graphene is known to be low and governed by the electronic side of the interface. Furthermore, graphene tends to aggregate and stack together when processed into thick electrode films. This significantly lowers the ion-accessible specific surface area (SSA). Maximizing both the SSA and the intrinsic capacitance are the main problems addressed in this thesis in an effort to improve the specific capacitance and energy density of EDLCs. In contrast to pristine graphene, functionalized graphene produced by the thermal exfoliation of graphite oxide contains residual functional groups and lattice defects. To study how these properties affect the double-layer capacitance, a model electrode system capable of measuring the intrinsic electrochemical properties of functionalized graphene was developed. To prevent artifacts and uncertainties related to measurements on porous electrodes, the functionalized graphene sheets (FGSs) were assembled as densely tiled monolayers using a Langmuir-Blodgett technique. In this way, charging can be studied in a well-defined 2D geometry. The possibility of measuring and isolating the intrinsic electrochemical properties of FGS monolayers was first demonstrated by comparing capacitance and redox probe measurements carried out on coatings deposited on passivated gold and single crystal graphite substrates. This monolayer system was then used to follow the double-layer capacitance of the FGS/electrolyte interface as the structure and chemistry of graphene was varied by thermal treatments ranging from 300 °C to 2100 °C. Elemental analysis and Raman spectroscopy were used to determine the resulting chemical and structural transformation upon heat treatment. It was demonstrated that intrinsically defective

  11. Memory characteristics of an MOS capacitor structure with double-layer semiconductor and metal heterogeneous nanocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ni Henan; Wu Liangcai; Song Zhitang; Hui Chun

    2009-01-01

    An MOS (metal oxide semiconductor) capacitor structure with double-layer heterogeneous nanocrystals consisting of semiconductor and metal embedded in a gate oxide for nonvolatile memory applications has been fabricated and characterized. By combining vacuum electron-beam co-evaporated Si nanocrystals and self-assembled Ni nanocrystals in a SiO 2 matrix, an MOS capacitor with double-layer heterogeneous nanocrystals can have larger charge storage capacity and improved retention characteristics compared to one with single-layer nanocrystals. The upper metal nanocrystals as an additional charge trap layer enable the direct tunneling mechanism to enhance the flat voltage shift and prolong the retention time. (semiconductor devices)

  12. Electric-Field-Induced Superconductivity Detected by Magnetization Measurements of an Electric-Double-Layer Capacitor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kasahara, Yuichi; Nishijima, Takahiro; Sato, Tatsuya; Takeuchi, Yuki; Ye, Jianting; Yuan, Hongtao; Shimotani, Hidekazu; Iwasa, Yoshihiro

    We report evidence for superconductivity induced by the application of strong electric fields onto the surface of a band insulator, ZrNCl, provided by the observation of a shielding diamagnetic signal. We introduced an electric-double-layer capacitor configuration and in situ magnetization

  13. Application of electric double layer capacitor to pulse coil power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Keita; Inomoto, Michiaki; Yamada, Takuma; Kamio, Shuji; Sakumura, Morio; Cao, Qinghong; Ono, Yasushi; Kuwahata, Akihiro; Imazawa, Ryota

    2011-01-01

    We developed a new application of the electric double layer capacitor (EDLC) as a sec-order quasi-DC power supply like flying-wheel motor-generators. We constructed the power supply using IGBT switching circuit and successfully demonstrated its initial operation whose current and duration time are 100 A and 3 sec, respectively, indicating a new potential of EDLC. (author)

  14. Graphene electric double layer capacitor with ultra-high-power performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, John R.; Outlaw, R.A.; Holloway, B.C.

    2011-01-01

    We have demonstrated, for the first time, efficient 120 Hz filtering by an electric double layer capacitor (EDLC). The key to this ultra-high-power performance is electrodes made from vertically oriented graphene nanosheets grown directly on metal current collectors. This design minimized both electronic and ionic resistance and produced capacitors having RC time-constants of less than 200 μs. Significantly, graphene nanosheets have a preponderance of exposed edge planes that greatly increase stored charge over designs relying on basal plane surfaces. Collectively these factors make vertically oriented graphene nanosheet electrodes ideally suited for producing high-frequency EDLCs. Capacitors constructed with these electrodes are predicted to be significantly smaller than aluminum electrolyte capacitors that they could functionally replace plus be manufactured using standard semiconductor process equipment, creating interesting commercial opportunities.

  15. Graphene double-layer capacitor with ac line-filtering performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, John R; Outlaw, R A; Holloway, B C

    2010-09-24

    Electric double-layer capacitors (DLCs) can have high storage capacity, but their porous electrodes cause them to perform like resistors in filter circuits that remove ripple from rectified direct current. We have demonstrated efficient filtering of 120-hertz current with DLCs with electrodes made from vertically oriented graphene nanosheets grown directly on metal current collectors. This design minimized electronic and ionic resistances and produced capacitors with RC time constants of less than 200 microseconds, in contrast with ~1 second for typical DLCs. Graphene nanosheets have a preponderance of exposed edge planes that greatly increases charge storage as compared with that of designs that rely on basal plane surfaces. Capacitors constructed with these electrodes could be smaller than the low-voltage aluminum electrolyte capacitors that are typically used in electronic devices.

  16. Graphene Double-Layer Capacitor with ac Line-Filtering Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, John R.; Outlaw, R. A.; Holloway, B. C.

    2010-09-01

    Electric double-layer capacitors (DLCs) can have high storage capacity, but their porous electrodes cause them to perform like resistors in filter circuits that remove ripple from rectified direct current. We have demonstrated efficient filtering of 120-hertz current with DLCs with electrodes made from vertically oriented graphene nanosheets grown directly on metal current collectors. This design minimized electronic and ionic resistances and produced capacitors with RC time constants of less than 200 microseconds, in contrast with ~1 second for typical DLCs. Graphene nanosheets have a preponderance of exposed edge planes that greatly increases charge storage as compared with that of designs that rely on basal plane surfaces. Capacitors constructed with these electrodes could be smaller than the low-voltage aluminum electrolyte capacitors that are typically used in electronic devices.

  17. Substituted Quaternary Ammonium Salts Improve Low-Temperature Performance of Double-Layer Capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandon, Erik J.; Smart, Marshall C.; West, William C.

    2011-01-01

    Double-layer capacitors are unique energy storage devices, capable of supporting large current pulses as well as a very high number of charging and discharging cycles. The performance of doublelayer capacitors is highly dependent on the nature of the electrolyte system used. Many applications, including for electric and fuel cell vehicles, back-up diesel generators, wind generator pitch control back-up power systems, environmental and structural distributed sensors, and spacecraft avionics, can potentially benefit from the use of double-layer capacitors with lower equivalent series resistances (ESRs) over wider temperature limits. Higher ESRs result in decreased power output, which is a particular problem at lower temperatures. Commercially available cells are typically rated for operation down to only 40 C. Previous briefs [for example, Low Temperature Supercapacitors (NPO-44386), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 32, No. 7 (July 2008), p. 32, and Supercapacitor Electrolyte Solvents With Liquid Range Below 80 C (NPO-44855), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 34, No. 1 (January 2010), p. 44] discussed the use of electrolytes that employed low-melting-point co-solvents to depress the freezing point of traditional acetonitrile-based electrolytes. Using these modified electrolyte formulations can extend the low-temperature operational limit of double-layer capacitors beyond that of commercially available cells. This previous work has shown that although the measured capacitance is relatively insensitive to temperature, the ESR can rise rapidly at low temperatures, due to decreased electrolyte conductance within the pores of the high surface- area carbon electrodes. Most of these advanced electrolyte systems featured tetraethylammonium tetrafluoroborate (TEATFB) as the salt. More recent work at JPL indicates the use of the asymmetric quaternary ammonium salt triethylmethylammonium tetrafluoroborate (TEMATFB) or spiro-(l,l')-bipyrrolidium tetrafluoroborate (SBPBF4) in a 1:1 by volume solvent

  18. Novel electric double-layer capacitor with a coaxial fiber structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xuli; Qiu, Longbin; Ren, Jing; Guan, Guozhen; Lin, Huijuan; Zhang, Zhitao; Chen, Peining; Wang, Yonggang; Peng, Huisheng

    2013-11-26

    A coaxial electric double-layer capacitor fiber is developed from the aligned carbon nanotube fiber and sheet, which functions as two electrodes with a polymer gel sandwiched between them. The unique coaxial structure enables a rapid transportation of ions between the two electrodes with a high electrochemical performance. These energy storage fibers are also flexible and stretchable, and can be woven into and widely used for electronic textiles. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Electric Double-Layer Capacitor Fabricated with Addition of Carbon Nanotube to Polarizable Electrode

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshiyuki Show

    2012-01-01

    Electrical double-layer capacitor (EDLC) was fabricated with addition of carbon nanotube (CNT) to polarization electrodes as a conducting material. The CNT addition reduced the series resistance of the EDLC by one-twentieth, while the capacitance was not increased by the CNT addition. The low series resistance leaded to the high electrical energy stored in the EDLC. In this paper, the dependence of the series resistance, the specific capacitance, the energy, and the energy efficiencies on the...

  20. Low Temperature Double-layer Capacitors with Improved Energy Density: An Overview of Recent Development Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandon, Erik J.; West, William C.; Smart, Marshall C.; Yushin, Gleb; Korenblit, Yair; Kajdos, Adam; Kvit, Alexander; Jagiello, Jacek

    2012-01-01

    Electrochemical double-layer capacitors are finding increased use in a wide range of energy storage applications, particularly where high pulse power capabilities are required. Double-layer capacitors store charge at a liquid/solid interface, making them ideal for low temperature power applications, due to the facile kinetic processes associated with the rearrangement of the electrochemical double-layer at these temperatures. Potential low temperature applications include hybrid and electric vehicles, operations in polar regions, high altitude aircraft and aerospace avionics, and distributed environmental and structural health monitoring. State-of-the-art capacitors can typically operate to -40 C, with a subsequent degradation in power performance below room temperature. However, recent efforts focused on advanced electrolyte and electrode systems can enable operation to temperatures as low as -70 C, with capacities similar to room temperature values accompanied by reasonably low equivalent series resistances. This presentation will provide an overview of recent development efforts to extend and improve the wide temperature performance of these devices.

  1. Effect of nuclear radiation on the electrical properties of chemical double layer capacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laghari, J.R.; Hammoud, A.N.

    1990-01-01

    The effects of nuclear radiation on the electrical properties of chemical double layer capacitors are determined. The capacitors were irradiated in a 2-MW nuclear reactor to different fluence levels. The exposure rate was 2.2 x 10 10 n/cm 2 · s of thermal neutrons, 9.52 x 10 8 n/cm 2 · s of fast neutrons (> 2 MeV), and 1.47 x 10 6 rad/h of gamma radiation. The properties measured during and after irradiation included the capacitance, equivalent series resistance, and open-circuit voltage. The post-irradiation effect on the leakage current was also determined. It was found that while the capacitance increased during irradiation, the equivalent series resistance and the open-circuit voltage decreased slightly during irradiation. Changes in these properties were not permanent s was evident from post-irradiation measurements. The leakage current did not show any significant change with radiation. The results indicate that chemical double layer capacitors can be suitably used as backup power source in electronic equipment operating in a radiation environment with total fluences up to 4.05 x 10 14 n/cm 2

  2. Aging and failure mode of electrochemical double layer capacitors during accelerated constant load tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koetz, R.; Ruch, P.W.; Cericola, D. [General Energy Research Department, Electrochemistry Laboratory, Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen (Switzerland)

    2010-02-01

    Electrochemical double layer capacitors of the BCAP0350 type (Maxwell Technologies) were tested under constant load conditions at different voltages and temperatures. The aging of the capacitors was monitored during the test in terms of capacitance, internal resistance and leakage current. Aging was significantly accelerated by elevated temperature or increased voltage. Only for extreme conditions at voltages of 3.5 V or temperatures above 70 C the capacitors failed due to internal pressure build-up. No other failure events such as open circuit or short circuit were detected. Impedance measurements after the tests showed increased high frequency resistance, an increased distributed resistance and most likely an increase in contact resistance between electrode and current collector together with a loss of capacitance. Capacitors aged at elevated voltages (3.3 V) exhibited a tilting of the low frequency component, which implies an increase in the heterogeneity of the electrode surface. This feature was not observed upon aging at elevated temperatures (70 C). (author)

  3. Temperature aspect of degradation of electrochemical double-layer capacitors (EDLC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Dong-Cheon; Kim, Hyun-Ho; Lee, Soon-Bok

    2015-03-01

    Electric double layer capacitors (EDLC) cells have a process variation and temperature dependency in capacitance so that balancing is required when they are connected in series, which includes electronic voltage management based on capacitance monitoring. This paper measured temperature aspect of capacitance periodically to monitor health and degradation behavior of EDLC stressed under high temperatures and zero below temperatures respectively, which enables estimation of the state of health (SOH) regardless of temperature. At high temperature, capacitance saturation and delayed expression of degradation was observed. After cyclic stress at zero below temperature, less effective degradation and time recovery phenomenon were occurred.

  4. Electric Double-Layer Capacitor Fabricated with Addition of Carbon Nanotube to Polarizable Electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshiyuki, S.

    2012-01-01

    Electrical double-layer capacitor (EDLC) was fabricated with addition of carbon nano tube (CNT) to polarization electrodes as a conducting material. The CNT addition reduced the series resistance of the EDLC by one-twentieth, while the capacitance was not increased by the CNT addition. The low series resistance leaded to the high electrical energy stored in the EDLC. In this paper, the dependence of the series resistance, the specific capacitance, the energy, and the energy efficiencies on the CNT addition is discussed

  5. Electric Double-Layer Capacitor Fabricated with Addition of Carbon Nanotube to Polarizable Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiyuki Show

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrical double-layer capacitor (EDLC was fabricated with addition of carbon nanotube (CNT to polarization electrodes as a conducting material. The CNT addition reduced the series resistance of the EDLC by one-twentieth, while the capacitance was not increased by the CNT addition. The low series resistance leaded to the high electrical energy stored in the EDLC. In this paper, the dependence of the series resistance, the specific capacitance, the energy, and the energy efficiencies on the CNT addition is discussed.

  6. Film of lignocellulosic carbon material for self-supporting electrodes in electric double-layer capacitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsubasa Funabashi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A novel thin, wood-based carbon material with heterogeneous pores, film of lignocellulosic carbon material (FLCM, was successfully fabricated by carbonizing softwood samples of Picea jezoensis (Jezo spruce. Simultaneous increase in the specific surface area of FLCM and its affinity for electrolyte solvents in an electric double-layer capacitor (EDLC were achieved by the vacuum ultraviolet/ozone (VUV/O3 treatment. This treatment increased the specific surface area of FLCM by 50% over that of original FLCM. The results obtained in this study confirmed that FLCM is an appropriate self-supporting EDLC electrode material without any warps and cracks.

  7. Electric-field-induced superconductivity detected by magnetization measurements of an electric-double-layer capacitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasahara, Yuichi; Takeuchi, Yuki; Ye, Jianting; Yuan, Hongtao; Shimotani, Hidekazu; Iwasa, Yoshihiro; Nishimura, Takahiro; Sato, Tatsuya

    2010-01-01

    We report evidence for superconductivity induced by the application of strong electric fields onto the surface of a band insulator, ZrNCl, provided by the observation of a shielding diamagnetic signal. We introduced an electric-double-layer capacitor configuration and in situ magnetization measurements at low temperatures as a method to detect the novel electric-field-induced superconducting state. The results showed excellent agreement with a previous report using a transistor configuration, demonstrating that the present technique is a novel method for investigating the nonequilibrium phase induced by electric fields. (author)

  8. Strategy for improved frequency response of electric double-layer capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Yoshifumi; Pu, Jiang; Takenobu, Taishi

    2015-10-01

    We propose a strategy for improving the response speed of electric double-layer capacitors (EDLCs) and electric double-layer transistors (EDLTs), based on an asymmetric structure with differently sized active materials and gate electrodes. We validate the strategy analytically by a classical calculation and experimentally by fabricating EDLCs with asymmetric Au electrodes (1:50 area ratio and 7.5 μm gap distance). The performance of the EDLCs is compared with that of conventional symmetric EDLCs. Our strategy dramatically improved the cut-off frequency from 14 to 93 kHz and this improvement is explained by fast charging of smaller electrodes. Therefore, this approach is particularly suitable to EDLTs, potentially expanding the applicability to medium speed (kHz-MHz) devices.

  9. Relation between the ion size and pore size for an electric double-layer capacitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Largeot, Celine; Portet, Cristelle; Chmiola, John; Taberna, Pierre-Louis; Gogotsi, Yury; Simon, Patrice

    2008-03-05

    The research on electrochemical double layer capacitors (EDLC), also known as supercapacitors or ultracapacitors, is quickly expanding because their power delivery performance fills the gap between dielectric capacitors and traditional batteries. However, many fundamental questions, such as the relations between the pore size of carbon electrodes, ion size of the electrolyte, and the capacitance have not yet been fully answered. We show that the pore size leading to the maximum double-layer capacitance of a TiC-derived carbon electrode in a solvent-free ethyl-methylimmidazolium-bis(trifluoro-methane-sulfonyl)imide (EMI-TFSI) ionic liquid is roughly equal to the ion size (approximately 0.7 nm). The capacitance values of TiC-CDC produced at 500 degrees C are more than 160 F/g and 85 F/cm(3) at 60 degrees C, while standard activated carbons with larger pores and a broader pore size distribution present capacitance values lower than 100 F/g and 50 F/cm(3) in ionic liquids. A significant drop in capacitance has been observed in pores that were larger or smaller than the ion size by just an angstrom, suggesting that the pore size must be tuned with sub-angstrom accuracy when selecting a carbon/ion couple. This work suggests a general approach to EDLC design leading to the maximum energy density, which has been now proved for both solvated organic salts and solvent-free liquid electrolytes.

  10. Nanographene derived from carbon nanofiber and its application to electric double-layer capacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitani, Satoshi; Sathish, Marappan; Rangappa, Dinesh; Unemoto, Atsushi; Tomai, Takaaki; Honma, Itaru

    2012-01-01

    The fascinating properties of graphene are attracting considerable attention in engineering fields such as electronics, optics, and energy engineering. These properties can be controlled by controlling graphene's structure, e.g., the number of layers and the sheet size. In this study, we synthesized nanosized graphene from a platelet-type carbon nanofiber. The thickness and size of nanographene oxide are around 1 nm and 60 nm and we obtained nanographene by hydrazine reduction of nanographene oxide. We applied the nanographene to an ionic-liquid electric double-layer capacitor (EDLC), which exhibited a much larger capacitance per specific surface area than an EDLC using conventional activated carbon. Furthermore, the capacitance increased significantly with increasing cycle time. After 30th cycle, the capacitance was achieved 130 F g −1 , though the surface area was only 240 m 2 g −1 . These results suggest that nanographene structure induce the capacitance enhancement.

  11. Performance of Liquid Phase Exfoliated Graphene As Electrochemical Double Layer Capacitors Electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffstutler, Jacob; Wasala, Milinda; Richie, Julianna; Winchester, Andrew; Ghosh, Sujoy; Kar, Swastik; Talapatra, Saikat

    2014-03-01

    We will present the results of our investigations of electrochemical double layer capacitors (EDLCs) or supercapacitors (SC) fabricated using liquid-phase exfoliated graphene. Several electrolytes, such as aqueous potassium hydroxide KOH (6M), ionic 1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate [BMIM][PF6], and ionic 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium tris(pentafluoroethyl)trifluorophosphate[BMP][FAP] were used. These EDLC's show good performance compared to other carbon nanomaterials based EDLC's devices. We found that the liquid phase exfoliated graphene based devices possess specific capacitance values as high as 262 F/g, when used with ionic liquid electrolyte[BMP][FAP], with power densities (~ 454 W/kg) and energy densities (~ 0.38Wh/kg). Further, these devices indicated rapid charge transfer response even without the use of any binders or specially prepared current collectors. A detailed electrochemical impedance spectroscopy analysis in order to understand the phenomenon of charge storage in these materials will be presented.

  12. Molecular Simulations of Graphene-Based Electric Double-Layer Capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalluri, Raja K.; Konatham, Deepthi; Striolo, Alberto

    2011-03-01

    Towards deploying renewable energy sources it is crucial to develop efficient and cost-effective technologies to store electricity. Traditional batteries are plagued by a number of practical problems that at present limit their widespread applicability. One possible solution is represented by electric double-layer capacitors (EDLCs). To deploy EDLCs at the large scale it is necessary to better understand how electrolytes pack and diffuse within narrow charged pores. We present here simulation results for the concentrated aqueous solutions of NaCl, CsCl, and NaI confined within charged graphene-based porous materials. We discuss how the structure of confined water, the salt concentration, the ions size, and the surface charge density determine the accumulation of electrolytes within the porous network. Our results, compared to data available for bulk systems, are critical for relating macroscopic observations to molecular-level properties of the confined working fluids. Research supported by the Department of Energy.

  13. Preparation and Characterization of Carbon Nanotubes-Based Composite Electrodes for Electric Double Layer Capacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Min Kang; Park, Soo Jin

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we prepared activated multi-walled carbon nanotubes/polyacrylonitrile (A-MWCNTs/C) composites by film casting and activation method. Electrochemical properties of the composites were investigated in terms of serving as MWCNTs-based electrode materials for electric double layer capacitors (EDLCs). As a result, the A-MWCNTs/C composites had much higher BET specific surface area, and pore volume, and lower volume ratio of micropores than those of pristine MWCNTs/PAN ones. Furthermore, some functional groups were added on the surface of the A-MWCNTs/C composites. The specific capacitance of the A-MWCNTs/C composites was more than 4.5 times that of the pristine ones at 0.1 V discharging voltage owing to the changes of the structure and surface characteristics of the MWCNTs by activation process

  14. Sub-millimeter arbitrary arrangements of monolithically micro-scale electrical double layer capacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laszczyk, Karolina U; Kazufumi, Kobashi; Sakurai, Shunsuke; Sekiguchi, Atsuko; Futaba, Don N; Yamada, Takeo; Hata, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    We report the investigation on the reproducibility of micro-scale electric double layer capacitors (micro-EDLCs). The micro-EDLC components were fabricated parallel using photolithography, wet and dry processing. Electrodes of the micro-EDLCs are highly dense packed Single Wall Carbon Nanotubes (SWCNTs) that form a mesh structure. The micro- EDLCs are connected 1-10 in series and in parallel being unified electrical circuits to tune the capacitance and the operational voltage. To confirm the reproducibility of the cells as well as the yield we performed electrochemical measurements in order to define the performance uniformity between cells strings and individual cells connected in a string. For 1-10 cells in series and in parallel the trends for the capacitance and operational voltage satisfied electrophysics rules governing cells addition. However, the measurements of the individual cells in a string revealed the significant performance discrepancy that might result in a shorten life cycling of a circuit. (paper)

  15. A micro-structured Si-based electrodes for high capacity electrical double layer capacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krikscikas, Valdas; Oguchi, Hiroyuki; Hara, Motoaki; Kuwano, Hiroki; Yanazawa, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    We challenged to make basis for Si electrodes of electric double layer capacitors (EDLC) used as a power source of micro-sensor nodes. Mcroelectromechanical systems (MEMS) processes were successfully introduced to fabricate micro-structured Si-based electrodes to obtain high surface area which leads to high capacity of EDLCs. Study of fundamental properties revealed that the microstructured electrodes benefit from good wettability to electrolytes, but suffer from electric resistance. We found that this problem can be solved by metal-coating of the electrode surface. Finally we build an EDLC consisting of Au-coated micro-structured Si electrodes. This EDLC showed capacity of 14.3 mF/cm 2 , which is about 530 times larger than that of an EDLC consisting of flat Au electrodes

  16. Sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) membranes for electric double layer capacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Wan Ju; Kim, Dong-Won

    2008-01-01

    Sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) (S-PEEK) with different degree of sulfonation (DS) has been prepared and evaluated as a proton conducting membrane for electric double layer capacitor (EDLC). The polymer electrolytes prepared with S-PEEK membrane exhibited ionic conductivities about 1.2 x 10 -3 -4.5 x 10 -3 S cm -1 at room temperature, which depended on both soaking solvent and degree of sulfonation. The quasi-solid-state EDLCs consisted of activated carbon electrodes and S-PEEK membrane were assembled, and their electrochemical characteristics were studied by cyclic voltammetry and charge-discharge cycle tests. The effect of DS on the electrochemical performances of EDLCs has been investigated

  17. Ultrathin Graphene Membranes as Flexible Electrodes for Electrochemical Double Layer Capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talapatra, Saikat; Kar, Swastik; Shah, Rakesh; Ghosh, Sujoy; An, Xiaohong; Simmons, Trevor; Washington, Morris; Nayak, Saroj

    2010-03-01

    We will present the results of our investigations of electrochemical double layer capacitors (EDLCs) or supercapacitors (SC) fabricated using graphene based ultra thin membranes. These EDLC's show far superior performance compared to other carbon nanomaterials based EDLC's devices. We found that the graphene based devices possess specific capacitance values as high as 120 F/g, with impressive power densities (˜105 kW/kg) and energy densities (˜9.2 Wh/kg). Further, these devices indicated rapid charge transfer response even without the use of any binders or specially prepared current collectors. Our ultracapacitors reflect a significant improvement over previously reported graphene-based ultracapacitors and are substantially better than those obtained with carbon nanotubes.

  18. Sub-millimeter arbitrary arrangements of monolithically micro-scale electrical double layer capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laszczyk, Karolina U.; Kazufumi, Kobashi; Sakurai, Shunsuke; Sekiguchi, Atsuko; Futaba, Don N.; Yamada, Takeo; Hata, Kenji

    2015-12-01

    We report the investigation on the reproducibility of micro-scale electric double layer capacitors (micro-EDLCs). The micro-EDLC components were fabricated parallel using photolithography, wet and dry processing. Electrodes of the micro-EDLCs are highly dense packed Single Wall Carbon Nanotubes (SWCNTs) that form a mesh structure. The micro- EDLCs are connected 1-10 in series and in parallel being unified electrical circuits to tune the capacitance and the operational voltage. To confirm the reproducibility of the cells as well as the yield we performed electrochemical measurements in order to define the performance uniformity between cells strings and individual cells connected in a string. For 1-10 cells in series and in parallel the trends for the capacitance and operational voltage satisfied electrophysics rules governing cells addition. However, the measurements of the individual cells in a string revealed the significant performance discrepancy that might result in a shorten life cycling of a circuit.

  19. Double-layer capacitors with a higher energy density; Doppelschichtkondensatoren mit hoeherem Energieinhalt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Presser, Volker [Leibniz-Institut fuer Neue Materialien (INM) gGmbH, Saarbruecken (Germany). Juniorforschungs-Gruppe Energie-Materialien; Universitaet des Saarlandes, Saarbruecken (Germany)

    2013-05-15

    Electrical double-layer capacitors, also known as supercapacitors (SC) are devices for electrical energy storage used for fast acceleration of hybrid cars or for the energy recovery during breaking operations. In contrast, lithium-ion batteries (LIB) are used as energy storage devices to provide an extended travel distance for plug-in hybrid cars and electric vehicles. Current research aims to overcome the major limitations of both technologies (SC: low energy density/LIB: slow recharge and limited service life) and hybrid cells are considered a promising solution. The goal is to improve the performance and energy density of storage devices which can be achieved, as shown by the Leibniz-Institute for New Materials (INM), with the use of nanotechnology. (orig.)

  20. Cooperation of micro- and meso-porous carbon electrode materials in electric double-layer capacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Cheng [State Key Laboratory of Electroanalytical Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 5625 Renmin Street, Changchun 130022, Jilin Province (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Qi, Li; Wang, Hongyu [State Key Laboratory of Electroanalytical Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 5625 Renmin Street, Changchun 130022, Jilin Province (China); Yoshio, Masaki [Advanced Research Center, Saga University, 1341 Yoga-machi, Saga 840-0047 (Japan)

    2010-07-01

    The capacitive characteristics of micro- and meso-porous carbon materials have been compared in cyclic voltammetric studies and galvanostatic charge-discharge tests. Meso-porous carbon can keep certain high capacitance values at high scan rates, whereas micro-porous carbon possesses very high capacitance values at low scan rates but fades quickly as the scan rate rises up. For better performance of electric double-layer capacitors (EDLCs), the cooperative application of both kinds of carbon materials has been proposed in the following two ways: mixing both kinds of carbons in the same electrode or using the asymmetric configuration of carbon electrodes in the same EDLC. The cooperative effect on the electrochemical performance has also been addressed. (author)

  1. Evaluation of electric double layer capacitor using Ketjenblack as conductive nanofiller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tashima, Daisuke; Yoshitama, Hiromu; Otsubo, Masahisa; Maeno, Seiji; Nagasawa, Yoshinobu

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The capacitances of electric double layer capacitors (EDLCs) with nanocomposite electrodes were examined. → It was found that the Ketjenblack-containing EDLCs showed fairly high capacitance (150-210 F/g) compared to EDLCs containing acetylene black with the aqueous electrolyte. → A maximum specific capacitance of 252 F/g was obtained in EDLCs containing 20 wt.% KB with a large amount of the surface functional group. → Reduction-oxidation reactions were thought to occur at the interface between the electrolyte and surface functional group, which increased the specific capacitance of the EDLCs. - Abstract: In this study, the capacitances of electric double layer capacitors (EDLCs) with nanocomposite electrodes were examined by analyzing their charge-discharge characteristics and cyclic voltammograms. In addition, the internal resistance of these EDLCs was evaluated using two kinds of conductive nanofillers: acetylene black (AB) and Ketjenblack (KB). Usually, KB exhibits higher electronic conductivity than AB. The temperature dependence of the capacitance and internal resistance of the prepared EDLCs at 0-50 deg. C using an aqueous electrolyte, organic electrolyte, and two kinds of ionic liquids was evaluated. Moreover, the influence on the capacitance and internal resistance when KB containing a surface functional group is used as the conductive nanofiller of the polarized electrode was examined. It was found that the KB-containing EDLCs showed fairly high capacitance (150-210 F/g) compared to EDLCs containing AB with the aqueous electrolyte. In addition, a maximum specific capacitance of 252 F/g was obtained in EDLCs containing 20 wt.% KB with a large amount of the surface functional group. Reduction-oxidation reactions were thought to occur at the interface between the electrolyte and surface functional group, which increased the specific capacitance of the EDLCs.

  2. Energize Electrochemical Double Layer Capacitor by Introducing an Ambipolar Organic Redox Radical in Electrolyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yonggang; Hu, Lintong; Zhang, Yue; Shi, Chao; Guo, Kai; Zhai, Tianyou; Li, Huiqiao

    2018-05-24

    Carbon based electrochemical double layer capacitors (EDLCs) generally exhibit high power and long life, but low energy density/capacitance. Pore/morphology optimization and pseudocapacitive materials modification of carbon materials have been used to improve electrode capacitance, but leading to the consumption of tap density, conductivity and stability. Introducing soluble redox mediators into electrolyte is a promising alternative to improve the capacitance of electrode. However, it is difficult to find one redox mediator that can provide additional capacitance for both positive and negative electrodes simultaneously. Here, an ambipolar organic radical, 2, 2, 6, 6-tetramethylpiperidinyloxyl (TEMPO) is first introduced to the electrolyte, which can substantially contribute additional pseudocapacitance by oxidation at the positive electrode and reduction at the negative electrode simultaneously. The EDLC with TEMPO mediator delivers an energy density as high as 51 Wh kg-1, 2.4 times of the capacitor without TEMPO, and a long cycle stability over 4000 cycles. The achieved results potentially point a new way to improve the energy density of EDLCs. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. An all-solid-state electrochemical double-layer capacitor based on a plastic crystal electrolyte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali eaabouimrane

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A plastic crystal, solid electrolyte was prepared by mixing tetrabutylammonium hexafluorophosphate salt, (C4H94NPF6, (10 molar % with succinonitrile, SCN, (N C−CH2−CH2−C N, [SCN-10%TBA-PF6]. The resultant waxy material shows a plastic crystalline phase that extend from -36 °C up to its melting at 23 °C. It shows a high ionic conductivity reaching 4 × 10−5 S/cm in the plastic crystal phase (15 °C and ~ 3 × 10−3 S/cm in the molten state (25 °C. These properties along with the high electrochemical stability rendered the use of this material as an electrolyte in an electrochemical double-layer capacitor (EDLC. The EDLC was assembled and its performance was tested by cyclic voltammetry, AC impedance spectroscopy and galvanostatic charge-discharge methods. Specific capacitance values in the range of 4-7 F/g. (of electrode active material were obtained in the plastic crystal phase at 15 °C, that although compare well with those reported for some polymer electrolytes, can be still enhanced with further development of the device and its components, and only demonstrate their great potential use for capacitors as a new application.

  4. An All-Solid-State Electrochemical Double-Layer Capacitor Based on a Plastic Crystal Electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abouimrane, Ali; Belharouak, Ilias [Qatar Environment and Energy Research Institute, Qatar Foundation, Doha (Qatar); Abu-Lebdeh, Yaser A., E-mail: yaser.abu-lebdeh@nrc.gc.ca [Energy, Mining and Environment Portfolio and Automotive and Surface Transportation Portfolio, National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2015-08-18

    A plastic crystal, solid electrolyte was prepared by mixing tetrabutylammonium hexafluorophosphate salt, (C{sub 4}H{sub 9}){sub 4}-NPF{sub 6}, (10 molar %) with succinonitrile, SCN, (N≡C−CH{sub 2}−CH{sub 2}−C≡N), [SCN-10%TBA-PF{sub 6}]. The resultant waxy material shows a plastic crystalline phase that extends from −36°C up to its melting at 23°C. It shows a high ionic conductivity reaching 4 × 10{sup -5} S/cm in the plastic crystal phase (15°C) and ~ 3 × 10{sup -3} S/cm in the molten state (25°C). These properties along with the high electrochemical stability rendered the use of this material as an electrolyte in an electrochemical double-layer capacitor (EDLC). The EDLC was assembled, and its performance was tested by cyclic voltammetry, AC impedance spectroscopy, and galvanostatic charge–discharge methods. Specific capacitance values in the range of 4–7 F/g (of electrode active material) were obtained in the plastic crystal phase at 15°C, that although compare well with those reported for some polymer electrolytes, can be still enhanced with further development of the device and its components, and only demonstrate their great potential use for capacitors as a new application.

  5. Important parameters affecting the cell voltage of aqueous electrical double-layer capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tzu-Ho; Hsu, Chun-Tsung; Hu, Chi-Chang; Hardwick, Laurence J.

    2013-11-01

    This study discusses and demonstrates how the open-circuit potential and charges stored in the working potential window on positive and negative electrodes affect the cell voltage of carbon-based electrical double-layer capacitors (EDLCs) in aqueous electrolytes. An EDLC consisting of two activated carbon electrodes is employed as the model system for identifying these key parameters although the potential window of water decomposition can be simply determined by voltammetric methods. First, the capacitive performances of an EDLC with the same charge on positive and negative electrodes are evaluated by cyclic voltammetric, charge-discharge, electrochemical impedance spectroscopic (EIS) analyses, and inductance-capacitance-resistance meter (LCR meter). The principles for obtaining the highest acceptable cell voltage of such symmetric ECs with excellent reversibility and capacitor-like behaviour are proposed. Aqueous charge-balanced EDLCs can be operated as high as 2.0 V with high energy efficiency (about 90%) and only 4% capacitance loss after the 600-cycle stability checking. The necessity of charge balance (but not capacitance balance) for positive and negative electrodes is substantiated from the lower acceptable cell voltage of charge-unbalanced EDLCs.

  6. An All-Solid-State Electrochemical Double-Layer Capacitor Based on a Plastic Crystal Electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abouimrane, Ali; Belharouak, Ilias; Abu-Lebdeh, Yaser A.

    2015-01-01

    A plastic crystal, solid electrolyte was prepared by mixing tetrabutylammonium hexafluorophosphate salt, (C 4 H 9 ) 4 -NPF 6 , (10 molar %) with succinonitrile, SCN, (N≡C−CH 2 −CH 2 −C≡N), [SCN-10%TBA-PF 6 ]. The resultant waxy material shows a plastic crystalline phase that extends from −36°C up to its melting at 23°C. It shows a high ionic conductivity reaching 4 × 10 -5 S/cm in the plastic crystal phase (15°C) and ~ 3 × 10 -3 S/cm in the molten state (25°C). These properties along with the high electrochemical stability rendered the use of this material as an electrolyte in an electrochemical double-layer capacitor (EDLC). The EDLC was assembled, and its performance was tested by cyclic voltammetry, AC impedance spectroscopy, and galvanostatic charge–discharge methods. Specific capacitance values in the range of 4–7 F/g (of electrode active material) were obtained in the plastic crystal phase at 15°C, that although compare well with those reported for some polymer electrolytes, can be still enhanced with further development of the device and its components, and only demonstrate their great potential use for capacitors as a new application.

  7. Electrochemical properties of novel ionic liquids for electric double layer capacitor applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Takaya; Masuda, Gen; Takagi, Kentaro

    2004-01-01

    An aliphatic quaternary ammonium salt which has a methoxyethyl group on the nitrogen atom formed an ionic liquid (room temperature molten salt) when combined with the tetrafluoroborate (BF 4 - ) and bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide [TFSI; (CF 3 SO 2 ) 2 N - ] anions. The limiting oxidation and reduction potentials, specific conductivity, and some other physicochemical properties of the novel ionic liquids, N,N-diethyl-N-methyl-N-(2-methoxyethyl)ammonium tetrafluoroborate (DEME-BF 4 ) and DEME-TFSI have been evaluated and compared with those of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate. DEME-BF 4 is a practically useful ionic liquid for electrochemical capacitors as it has a quite wide potential window (6.0 V) and high ionic conductivity (4.8 mS cm -1 at 25 deg. C). We prepared an electric double layer capacitor (EDLC) composed of a pair of activated carbon electrodes and DEME-BF 4 as the electrolyte. This EDLC (working voltage ∼2.5 V) has both, a higher capacity above room temperature and a better charge-discharge cycle durability at 100 deg. C when compared to a conventional EDLC using an organic liquid electrolyte such as a tetraethylammonium tetrafluoroborate in propylene carbonate

  8. Multi-electrode double layer capacitor having single electrolyte seal and aluminum-impregnated carbon cloth electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahmandi, C. Joseph; Dispennette, John M.; Blank, Edward; Kolb, Alan C.

    1999-01-19

    A single cell, multi-electrode high performance double layer capacitor includes first and second flat stacks of electrodes adapted to be housed in a closeable two-part capacitor case which includes only a single electrolyte seal. Each electrode stack has a plurality of electrodes connected in parallel, with the electrodes of one stack being interleaved with the electrodes of the other stack to form an interleaved stack, and with the electrodes of each stack being electrically connected to respective capacitor terminals. A porous separator sleeve is inserted over the electrodes of one stack before interleaving to prevent electrical shorts between the electrodes. The electrodes are made by folding a compressible, low resistance, aluminum-impregnated carbon cloth, made from activated carbon fibers, around a current collector foil, with a tab of the foils of each electrode of each stack being connected in parallel and connected to the respective capacitor terminal. The height of the interleaved stack is somewhat greater than the inside height of the closed capacitor case, thereby requiring compression of the interleaved electrode stack when placed inside of the case, and thereby maintaining the interleaved electrode stack under modest constant pressure. The closed capacitor case is filled with an electrolytic solution and sealed. A preferred electrolytic solution is made by dissolving an appropriate salt into acetonitrile (CH.sub.3 CN). In one embodiment, the two parts of the capacitor case are conductive and function as the capacitor terminals.

  9. Modeling Electric Double-Layer Capacitors Using Charge Variation Methodology in Gibbs Ensemble

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganeshprasad Pavaskar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Supercapacitors deliver higher power than batteries and find applications in grid integration and electric vehicles. Recent work by Chmiola et al. (2006 has revealed unexpected increase in the capacitance of porous carbon electrodes using ionic liquids as electrolytes. The work has generated curiosity among both experimentalists and theoreticians. Here, we have performed molecular simulations using a recently developed technique (Punnathanam, 2014 for simulating supercapacitor system. In this technique, the two electrodes (containing electrolyte in slit pore are simulated in two different boxes using the Gibbs ensemble methodology. This reduces the number of particles required and interfacial interactions, which helps in reducing computational load. The method simulates an electric double-layer capacitor (EDLC with macroscopic electrodes with much smaller system sizes. In addition, the charges on individual electrode atoms are allowed to vary in response to movement of electrolyte ions (i.e., electrode is polarizable while ensuring these atoms are at the same electric potential. We also present the application of our technique on EDLCs with the electrodes modeled as slit pores and as complex three-dimensional pore networks for different electrolyte geometries. The smallest pore geometry showed an increase in capacitance toward the potential of 0 charge. This is in agreement with the new understanding of the electrical double layer in regions of dense ionic packing, as noted by Kornyshev’s theoretical model (Kornyshev, 2007, which also showed a similar trend. This is not addressed by the classical Gouy–Chapman theory for the electric double layer. Furthermore, the electrode polarizability simulated in the model improved the accuracy of the calculated capacitance. However, its addition did not significantly alter the capacitance values in the voltage range considered.

  10. Recent progress in layered double hydroxide based materials for electrochemical capacitors: design, synthesis and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Mingming; Zhao, Qunxing; Li, Bing; Xue, Huaiguo; Pang, Huan; Chen, Changyun

    2017-10-19

    As representative two-dimensional (2D) materials, layered double hydroxides (LDHs) have received increasing attention in electrochemical energy storage and conversion because of the facile tunability between their composition and morphology. The high dispersion of active species in layered arrays, the simple exfoliation into monolayer nanosheets and chemical modification offer the LDHs an opportunity as active electrode materials in electrochemical capacitors (ECs). LDHs are favourable in providing large specific surface areas, good transport features as well as attractive physicochemical properties. In this review, our purpose is to provide a detailed summary of recent developments in the synthesis and electrochemical performance of the LDHs. Their composites with carbon (carbon quantum dots, carbon black, carbon nanotubes/nanofibers, graphene/graphene oxides), metals (nickel, platinum, silver), metal oxides (TiO 2 , Co 3 O 4 , CuO, MnO 2 , Fe 3 O 4 ), metal sulfides/phosphides (CoS, NiCo 2 S 4 , NiP), MOFs (MOF derivatives) and polymers (PEDOT:PSS, PPy (polypyrrole), P(NIPAM-co-SPMA) and PET) are also discussed in this review. The relationship between structures and electrochemical properties as well as the associated charge-storage mechanisms is discussed. Moreover, challenges and prospects of the LDHs for high-performance ECs are presented. This review sheds light on the sustainable development of ECs with LDH based electrode materials.

  11. High-Surface-Area Nitrogen-Doped Reduced Graphene Oxide for Electric Double-Layer Capacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youn, Hee-Chang; Bak, Seong-Min; Kim, Myeong-Seong; Jaye, Cherno; Fischer, Daniel A; Lee, Chang-Wook; Yang, Xiao-Qing; Roh, Kwang Chul; Kim, Kwang-Bum

    2015-06-08

    A two-step method consisting of solid-state microwave irradiation and heat treatment under NH3 gas was used to prepare nitrogen-doped reduced graphene oxide (N-RGO) with a high specific surface area (1007 m(2)  g(-1) ), high electrical conductivity (1532 S m(-1) ), and low oxygen content (1.5 wt %) for electrical double-layer capacitor applications. The specific capacitance of N-RGO was 291 F g(-1) at a current density of 1 A g(-1) , and a capacitance of 261 F g(-1) was retained at 50 A g(-1) , which indicated a very good rate capability. N-RGO also showed excellent cycling stability and preserved 96 % of the initial specific capacitance after 100 000 cycles. Near-edge X-ray absorption fine-structure spectroscopy results provided evidenced for the recovery of π conjugation in the carbon networks with the removal of oxygenated groups and revealed chemical bonding of the nitrogen atoms in N-RGO. The good electrochemical performance of N-RGO is attributed to its high surface area, high electrical conductivity, and low oxygen content. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Polyfurfuryl alcohol derived activated carbons for high power electrical double layer capacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz, V. [CSIRO Division of Energy Technology, Box 312, Clayton South, Vic. 3169 (Australia); Pandolfo, A.G., E-mail: tony.pandolfo@csiro.a [CSIRO Division of Energy Technology, Box 312, Clayton South, Vic. 3169 (Australia)

    2010-10-30

    Polyfurfuryl alcohol (PFA) derived activated carbons were prepared by the acid catalysed polymerization of furfuryl alcohol, followed by potassium hydroxide activation. Activated carbons with apparent BET surface areas ranging from 1070 to 2600 m{sup 2} g{sup -1}, and corresponding average micropore sizes between 0.6 and 1.6 nm were obtained. The porosity of these carbons can be carefully controlled during activation and their performance as electrode materials in electric double layer capacitors (EDLCs) in a non-aqueous electrolyte (1 M Et{sub 4}NBF{sub 4}/ACN) is investigated. Carbon materials with a low average pore size (<{approx}0.6 nm) exhibited electrolyte accessibility issues and an associated decrease in capacitance at high charging rates. PFA carbons with larger average pore sizes exhibited greatly improved performance, with specific electrode capacitances of 150 F g{sup -1} at an operating voltage window of 0-2.5 V; which corresponds to 32 Wh kg{sup -1} and 38 kW kg{sup -1} on an active material basis. These carbons also displayed an outstanding performance at high current densities delivering up to 100 F g{sup -1} at current densities as high as 250 A g{sup -1}. The exceptionally high capacitance and power of this electrode material is attributed to its good electronic conductivity and a highly effective combination of micro- and fine mesoporosity.

  13. Polyfurfuryl alcohol derived activated carbons for high power electrical double layer capacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz, V.; Pandolfo, A.G.

    2010-01-01

    Polyfurfuryl alcohol (PFA) derived activated carbons were prepared by the acid catalysed polymerization of furfuryl alcohol, followed by potassium hydroxide activation. Activated carbons with apparent BET surface areas ranging from 1070 to 2600 m 2 g -1 , and corresponding average micropore sizes between 0.6 and 1.6 nm were obtained. The porosity of these carbons can be carefully controlled during activation and their performance as electrode materials in electric double layer capacitors (EDLCs) in a non-aqueous electrolyte (1 M Et 4 NBF 4 /ACN) is investigated. Carbon materials with a low average pore size ( -1 at an operating voltage window of 0-2.5 V; which corresponds to 32 Wh kg -1 and 38 kW kg -1 on an active material basis. These carbons also displayed an outstanding performance at high current densities delivering up to 100 F g -1 at current densities as high as 250 A g -1 . The exceptionally high capacitance and power of this electrode material is attributed to its good electronic conductivity and a highly effective combination of micro- and fine mesoporosity.

  14. Evaluation of the constant potential method in simulating electric double-layer capacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhenxing; Laird, Brian B., E-mail: blaird@ku.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas 66045 (United States); Yang, Yang; Olmsted, David L.; Asta, Mark [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    2014-11-14

    A major challenge in the molecular simulation of electric double layer capacitors (EDLCs) is the choice of an appropriate model for the electrode. Typically, in such simulations the electrode surface is modeled using a uniform fixed charge on each of the electrode atoms, which ignores the electrode response to local charge fluctuations in the electrolyte solution. In this work, we evaluate and compare this Fixed Charge Method (FCM) with the more realistic Constant Potential Method (CPM), [S. K. Reed et al., J. Chem. Phys. 126, 084704 (2007)], in which the electrode charges fluctuate in order to maintain constant electric potential in each electrode. For this comparison, we utilize a simplified LiClO{sub 4}-acetonitrile/graphite EDLC. At low potential difference (ΔΨ ⩽ 2 V), the two methods yield essentially identical results for ion and solvent density profiles; however, significant differences appear at higher ΔΨ. At ΔΨ ⩾ 4 V, the CPM ion density profiles show significant enhancement (over FCM) of “inner-sphere adsorbed” Li{sup +} ions very close to the electrode surface. The ability of the CPM electrode to respond to local charge fluctuations in the electrolyte is seen to significantly lower the energy (and barrier) for the approach of Li{sup +} ions to the electrode surface.

  15. Energy and power performance of electrochemical double-layer capacitors based on molybdenum carbide derived carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomberg, T.; Jaenes, A.; Lust, E.

    2010-01-01

    Cyclic voltammetry, constant current charge/discharge, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy have been applied to establish the electrochemical characteristics for electric double-layer capacitor (EDLC) consisting of the 1 M (C 2 H 5 ) 3 CH 3 NBF 4 electrolyte in acetonitrile and micro/mesoporous carbon electrodes prepared from Mo 2 C, noted as C(Mo 2 C). The N 2 sorption (total BET specific surface area (S BET ≤ 1855 m 2 g -1 ), micropore area (S micro ≤ 1823 m 2 g -1 ), total pore volume (V tot ≤ 1.399 m 3 g -1 ) and pore size distribution (average NLDFT pore width d NLDFT ≥ 0.89 nm) values obtained have been correlated with the electrochemical characteristics for EDLCs (region of ideal polarizability (ΔV = 3.0 V), characteristic time constant (τ R = 1.05 s), gravimetric capacitance (C m ≤ 143 F g -1 )) dependent strongly on the C(Mo 2 C) synthesis temperature. High gravimetric energy (35 Wh kg -1 ) and gravimetric power (237 kW kg -1 ) values, normalised to the total active mass of both C(Mo 2 C) electrodes, synthesised at T synt = 800 deg. C, have been demonstrated at cell voltage 3.0 V and T = 20 deg. C.

  16. Edge effects in vertically-oriented graphene based electric double-layer capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huachao; Yang, Jinyuan; Bo, Zheng; Zhang, Shuo; Yan, Jianhua; Cen, Kefa

    2016-08-01

    Vertically-oriented graphenes (VGs) have been demonstrated as a promising active material for electric double-layer capacitors (EDLCs), partially due to their edge-enriched structure. In this work, the 'edge effects', i.e., edges as the promoters of high capacitance, in VG based EDLCs are investigated with experimental research and numerical simulations. VGs with diverse heights (i.e., edge-to-basal ratios) and edge densities are prepared with varying the plasma-enabled growth time and employing different plasma sources. Electrochemical measurements show that the edges play a predominant role on the charge storage behavior of VGs. A simulation is further conducted to unveil the roles of the edges on the separation and adsorption of ions within VG channels. The initial charge distribution of a VG plane is obtained with density functional theory (DFT) calculations, which is subsequently applied to a molecular dynamics (MD) simulation system to gain the insights into the microscope EDLC structures. Compared with the basal planes, the edges present higher initial charge density (by 4.2 times), higher ion packing density (by 2.6 times), closer ion packing location (by 0.8 Å), and larger ion separation degree (by 14%). The as-obtained findings will be instructive in designing the morphology and structure of VGs for enhanced capacitive performances.

  17. Electric double-layer capacitor based on an ionic clathrate hydrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wonhee; Kwon, Minchul; Park, Seongmin; Lim, Dongwook; Cha, Jong-Ho; Lee, Huen

    2013-07-01

    Herein, we suggest a new approach to an electric double-layer capacitor (EDLC) that is based on a proton-conducting ionic clathrate hydrate (ICH). The ice-like structures of clathrate hydrates, which are comprised of host water molecules and guest ions, make them suitable for applications in EDLC electrolytes, owing to their high proton conductivities and thermal stabilities. The carbon materials in the ICH Me4NOH⋅5 H2O show a high specific capacitance, reversible charge-discharge behavior, and a long cycle life. The ionic-hydrate complex provides the following advantages in comparison with conventional aqueous and polymer electrolytes: 1) The ICH does not cause leakage problems under normal EDLC operating conditions. 2) The hydrate material can be utilized itself, without requiring any pre-treatments or activation for proton conduction, thus shortening the preparation procedure of the EDLC. 3) The crystallization of the ICH makes it possible to tailor practical EDLC dimensions because of its fluidity as a liquid hydrate. 4) The hydrate solid electrolyte exhibits more-favorable electrochemical stability than aqueous and polymer electrolytes. Therefore, ICH materials are expected to find practical applications in versatile energy devices that incorporate electrochemical systems. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Electric potential calculation in molecular simulation of electric double layer capacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Zhenxing; Laird, Brian B; Olmsted, David L; Asta, Mark

    2016-01-01

    For the molecular simulation of electric double layer capacitors (EDLCs), a number of methods have been proposed and implemented to determine the one-dimensional electric potential profile between the two electrodes at a fixed potential difference. In this work, we compare several of these methods for a model LiClO 4 -acetonitrile/graphite EDLC simulated using both the traditional fixed-charged method (FCM), in which a fixed charge is assigned a priori to the electrode atoms, or the recently developed constant potential method (CPM) (2007 J. Chem. Phys . 126 084704), where the electrode charges are allowed to fluctuate to keep the potential fixed. Based on an analysis of the full three-dimensional electric potential field, we suggest a method for determining the averaged one-dimensional electric potential profile that can be applied to both the FCM and CPM simulations. Compared to traditional methods based on numerically solving the one-dimensional Poisson’s equation, this method yields better accuracy and no supplemental assumptions. (paper)

  19. Preparation of porous carbon sphere from waste sugar solution for electric double-layer capacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Zhi-Qiang; Cao, Jing-Pei; Wu, Yan; Zhao, Xiao-Yan; Zhuang, Qi-Qi; Wang, Xing-Yong; Wei, Xian-Yong

    2017-09-01

    Waste sugar solution (WSS), which contains abundant 2-keto-L-gulonic acid, is harmful to the environment if discharged directly. For value-added utilization of the waste resource, a novel process is developed for preparation of porous carbon spheres by hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) of WSS followed by KOH activation. Additionally, the possible preparation mechanism of carbon spheres is proposed. The effects of hydrothermal and activation parameters on the properties of the carbon sphere are also investigated. The carbon sphere is applied to electric double-layer capacitor and its electrochemical performance is studied. These results show that the carbon sphere obtained by HTC at 180 °C for 12 h with the WSS/deionized water volume ratio of 2/3 possess the highest specific capacitance under identical activation conditions. The specific capacitance of the carbon spheres can reach 296.1 F g-1 at a current density of 40 mA g-1. Besides, excellent cycle life and good capacitance retention (89.6%) are observed at 1.5 A g-1 after 5000 cycles. This study not only provides a facile and potential method for the WSS treatment, but also achieves the high value-added recycling of WSS for the preparation of porous carbon spheres with superior electrochemical properties.

  20. Outstanding features of alginate-based gel electrolyte with ionic liquid for electric double layer capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soeda, Kazunari; Yamagata, Masaki; Ishikawa, Masashi

    2015-04-01

    An alginate-based gel electrolyte with an ionic liquid (Alg/IL) is investigated for electric double-layer capacitors (EDLCs) by using physicochemical and electrochemical measurements. The Alg/EMImBF4 (EMImBF4 = 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate) gel electrolyte is thermally stable up to 280 °C, where EMImBF4 decomposes. Furthermore, the EDLC with the gel electrolyte can be operated even at high temperature. The cell containing Alg/EMImBF4 is also electrochemically stable even under high voltage (∼3.5 V) operation. Thus, the alginate is a suitable host polymer for the gel electrolyte for EDLCs. According to the result of charge-discharge characteristics, the voltage drop in the charge-discharge curve for the cell with Alg/EMImBF4 gel electrolyte is considerably smaller than that with liquid-phase EMImBF4 electrolyte. To clarify the effect of Alg in contact with the activated carbon electrode, we also prepared an Alg-containing ACFC electrode (Alg + ACFC), and evaluated its EDLC characteristics in liquid EMImBF4. The results prove that the presence of Alg close to the active materials significantly reduces the internal resistance of the EDLC cell, which may be attributed to the high affinity of Alg to activated carbon.

  1. Evaluation of the constant potential method in simulating electric double-layer capacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Zhenxing; Laird, Brian B.; Yang, Yang; Olmsted, David L.; Asta, Mark

    2014-01-01

    A major challenge in the molecular simulation of electric double layer capacitors (EDLCs) is the choice of an appropriate model for the electrode. Typically, in such simulations the electrode surface is modeled using a uniform fixed charge on each of the electrode atoms, which ignores the electrode response to local charge fluctuations in the electrolyte solution. In this work, we evaluate and compare this Fixed Charge Method (FCM) with the more realistic Constant Potential Method (CPM), [S. K. Reed et al., J. Chem. Phys. 126, 084704 (2007)], in which the electrode charges fluctuate in order to maintain constant electric potential in each electrode. For this comparison, we utilize a simplified LiClO 4 -acetonitrile/graphite EDLC. At low potential difference (ΔΨ ⩽ 2 V), the two methods yield essentially identical results for ion and solvent density profiles; however, significant differences appear at higher ΔΨ. At ΔΨ ⩾ 4 V, the CPM ion density profiles show significant enhancement (over FCM) of “inner-sphere adsorbed” Li + ions very close to the electrode surface. The ability of the CPM electrode to respond to local charge fluctuations in the electrolyte is seen to significantly lower the energy (and barrier) for the approach of Li + ions to the electrode surface

  2. Preparation of activated carbon aerogels with hierarchically porous structures for electrical double layer capacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Dong; Shen, Jun; Liu, Nianping; Yang, Huiyu; Du, Ai

    2013-01-01

    Activated carbon aerogels (ACAs) with hierarchically porous structures and high specific surface area have been prepared via CO 2 and KOH activation processes. The pore structures of ACAs are characterized by N 2 adsorption/desorption and scanning electron microscopy. The experimental results show that the ACAs contain three types of pores: micropores with diameters below 2 nm, small mesopores with diameters from 2 to 4 nm and large pores or channels with diameters over 30 nm. The typical sample ACAs-4, which possess pore volume of 2.73 cm 3 g −1 and specific surface area of 2119 m 2 g −1 , exhibits high specific capacitances of 250 F g −1 and 198 F g −1 at the current densities of 0.5 A g −1 and 20 A g −1 respectively in 6 M KOH aqueous solution. Furthermore, the resultant ACAs electrode materials also exhibit high power density, good cycling stability and long lifetime. With these features, ACAs are expected to be promising electrode materials for electrical double layer capacitors

  3. Development of energy storage system for DC electric rolling stock applying electric double layer capacitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sekijima, Y.; Kudo, Y.; Inui, M. [Central Japan Railway Co., Aichi (Japan); Monden, Y.; Toda, S.; Aoyama, I. [Toshiba Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    2006-07-01

    This paper provided details of an energy storage system designed for use with DC electric rolling stock through the application of an electric double layer capacitor (EDLC). The EDLC was selected due to its long life-span and its low operational costs. Testing was conducted to assess the system's basic control function, acceleration using stored energy, and behaviour during regenerative brake failure. A control circuit chip was used in the DC electric rolling stock on an inverter of the energy storage system. Tests confirmed that the control method was effective for actual rolling stocks. A full-scale energy storage system for installation on series 313 locomotives was then constructed. Braking energy was generated only from a regenerative brake. In case of brake failure, braking energy was generated from an air brake was well as an electric brake. Data from a field test conducted at the Tokaido and Chuo railway lines showed a capacity of 0.6 kWh. The EDLC was used to reduce peak air brake energy. It was concluded that storing 0.28 kW of brake energy in the EDLC can reduce peaks of air brake energy in high speed ranges. Experimental equipment was used to confirm use of the system with 0.56 kWh of EDLC, the average energy of air brake used in regenerative energy failure. 1 tab., 10 figs.

  4. Driving mechanisms of ionic polymer actuators having electric double layer capacitor structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imaizumi, Satoru; Kato, Yuichi; Kokubo, Hisashi; Watanabe, Masayoshi

    2012-04-26

    Two solid polymer electrolytes, composed of a polyether-segmented polyurethaneurea (PEUU) and either a lithium salt (lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)amide: Li[NTf2]) or a nonvolatile ionic liquid (1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)amide: [C2mim][NTf2]), were prepared in order to utilize them as ionic polymer actuators. These salts were preferentially dissolved in the polyether phases. The ionic transport mechanism of the polyethers was discussed in terms of the diffusion coefficients and ionic transference numbers of the incorporated ions, which were estimated by means of pulsed-field gradient spin-echo (PGSE) NMR. There was a distinct difference in the ionic transport properties of each polymer electrolyte owing to the difference in the magnitude of interactions between the cations and the polyether. The anionic diffusion coefficient was much faster than that of the cation in the polyether/Li[NTf2] electrolyte, whereas the cation diffused faster than the anion in the polyether/[C2mim][NTf2] electrolyte. Ionic polymer actuators, which have a solid-state electric-double-layer-capacitor (EDLC) structure, were prepared using these polymer electrolyte membranes and ubiquitous carbon materials such as activated carbon and acetylene black. On the basis of the difference in the motional direction of each actuator against applied voltages, a simple model of the actuation mechanisms was proposed by taking the difference in ionic transport properties into consideration. This model discriminated the behavior of the actuators in terms of the products of transference numbers and ionic volumes. The experimentally observed behavior of the actuators was successfully explained by this model.

  5. Characteristics of powdered activated carbon treated with dielectric barrier discharge for electric double-layer capacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tashima, Daisuke; Yoshitama, Hiromu; Sakoda, Tatsuya; Okazaki, Akihito; Kawaji, Takayuki

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The specific capacitance of the EDLCs could be improved by oxygen plasma treatment. ► 15 s treated EDLCs showed a 20% increase in capacitance relative to untreated EDLCs. ► The plasma treatment yields EDLCs that are suitable for high-energy applications. - Abstract: The electrochemical properties of electric double-layer capacitors (EDLCs) made with plasma-treated powdered activated carbon (treated using a dielectric barrier discharge) were examined using cyclic voltammetry (CV), Cole–Cole plots, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The dielectric barrier discharge method, which operates at atmospheric pressure, dramatically reduces the processing time and does not require vacuum equipment, making it a more practical alternative than low-pressure plasma treatment. The experimental data indicate that the specific capacitance of the EDLCs could be improved by oxygen plasma treatment. Capacitance of EDLCs made with activated carbon treated for 15 s showed 193.5 F/g that 20% increase in the specific capacitance relative to untreated EDLCs. This result indicates that the plasma treatment yields EDLCs that are suitable for high-energy applications. The enhancement of capacitance was mainly attributed to an increase in the BET surface area of the activated carbon and the creation of carboxyl groups on the surface of the carbon. The carboxyl groups induced oxidation–reduction reactions in the presence of O 2 which was included in the operation gas. In addition, the carboxyl groups improved the penetration of the electrolyte solution into the carbon electrodes.

  6. Structures and electrochemical performances of pyrolized carbons from graphite oxides for electric double-layer capacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ick-Jun; Yang, Sunhye; Jeon, Min-Je; Moon, Seong-In; Kim, Hyun-Soo; Lee, Yoon-Pyo; An, Kye-Hyeok; Lee, Young-Hee

    The structural features and the electrochemical performances of pyrolized needle cokes from oxidized cokes are examined and compared with those of KOH-activated needle coke. The structure of needle coke is changed to a single phase of graphite oxide after oxidation treatment with an acidic solution having an NaClO 3/needle coke composition ratio of above 7.5, and the inter-layer distance of the oxidized needle coke is expanded to 6.9 Å with increasing oxygen content. After heating at 200 °C, the oxidized needle coke is reduced to a graphite structure with an inter-layer distance of 3.6 Å. By contrast, a change in the inter-layer distance in KOH-activated needle coke is not observed. An intercalation of pyrolized needle coke, observed on first charge, occurs at 1.0 V. This value is lower than that of KOH-activation needle coke. A capacitor using pyrolized needle coke exhibits a lower internal resistance of 0.57 Ω in 1 kHz, and a larger capacitance per weight and volume of 30.3 F g -1 and 26.9 F ml -1, in the two-electrode system over the potential range 0-2.5 V compared with those of a capacitor using KOH-activation of needle coke. This better electrochemical performance is attributed to a distorted graphene layer structure derived from the process of the inter-layer expansion and shrinkage.

  7. Solid state double layer capacitor based on a polyether polymer electrolyte blend and nanostructured carbon black electrode composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavall, Rodrigo L.; Borges, Raquel S.; Calado, Hallen D.R.; Welter, Cezar; Trigueiro, Joao P.C.; Silva, Glaura G. [Departamento de Quimica, Instituto de Ciencias Exatas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, CEP 31270-901, Belo Horizonte (Brazil); Rieumont, Jacques [Departamento de Quimica, Instituto de Ciencias Exatas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, CEP 31270-901, Belo Horizonte (Brazil); Facultad de Quimica, Universidad de La Habana, Habana 10400 (Cuba); Neves, Bernardo R.A. [Departamento de Fisica, Instituto de Ciencias Exatas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, CEP 31270-901, Belo Horizonte (Brazil)

    2008-03-01

    An all solid double layer capacitor was assembled by using poly(ethylene oxide)/poly(propylene glycol)-b-poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(propylene glycol)-bis(2-aminopropyl ether) blend (PEO-NPPP) and LiClO{sub 4} as polymer electrolyte layer and PEO-NPPP-carbon black (CB) as electrode film. High molecular weight PEO and the block copolymer NPPP with molecular mass of 2000 Da were employed, which means that the design is safe from the point of view of solvent or plasticizer leakage and thus, a separator is not necessary. Highly conductive with large surface area nanostructured carbon black was dispersed in the polymer blend to produce the electrode composite. The electrolyte and electrode multilayers prepared by spray were studied by differential scanning calorimetry, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and impedance spectroscopy. The ionic conductivity as a function of temperature was fitted with the Williams-Landel-Ferry equation, which indicates a conductivity mechanism typical of solid polymer electrolyte. AFM images of the nanocomposite electrode showed carbon black particles of approximately 60 nm in size well distributed in a semicrystalline and porous polymer blend coating. The solid double layer capacitor with 10 wt.% CB was designed with final thickness of approximately 130 {mu}m and delivered a capacitance of 17 F g{sup -1} with a cyclability of more than 1000 cycles. These characteristics make possible the construction of a miniature device in complete solid state which will avoid electrolyte leakage and present a performance superior to other similar electric double layer capacitors (EDLCs) presented in literature, as assessed in specific capacitance by total carbon mass. (author)

  8. Development of a model for the aging of double-layer capacitors; Entwicklung eines Modells zur Alterung von Doppelschichtkondensatoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melzer, Michael [TU Dresden (Germany). Professur Elektrische Bahnen

    2012-05-15

    In past years, energy stores based on double-layer capacitors have been increasingly tested and used on rolling stock. The reasons for using energy stores are the recuperation of the braking work, the reduction of emissions related therewith, and the possibility of doing without overhead line installations in sensitive areas. In order to be able to assess the efficiency of such a system, it is necessary to estimate its expected service life, which is the subject matter of this paper. Examined is the dynamic influence of temperature and cell voltage on the ageing process. (orig.)

  9. Electrolytes for high voltage electrochemical double layer capacitors: A perspective article

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balducci, A.

    2016-09-01

    The development of innovative electrolyte components is nowadays considered one of the most important aspects for the realization of high energy electrochemical double capacitors (EDLCs). Consequently, in the last years many investigations have been dedicated towards new solvents, new salts and ionic liquids able to replace the current electrolytes. This perspective article aims to supply a critical analysis about the results obtained so far on the development of new electrolytes for high energy EDLCs and to outline the advantages as well as the limits related to the use of these innovative components. Furthermore, this article aims to give indications about the strategies could be used in the future for a further development of advanced electrolytes.

  10. Aging of electrochemical double layer capacitors with acetonitrile-based electrolyte at elevated voltages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruch, P.W.; Cericola, D.; Foelske-Schmitz, A.; Koetz, R.; Wokaun, A.

    2010-01-01

    Laboratory-scale electrochemical capacitor cells with bound activated carbon electrodes and acetonitrile-based electrolyte were aged at various elevated constant cell voltages between 2.75 V and 4.0 V. During the constant voltage tests, the cell capacitance as well as the capacitance and resistance of each electrode was determined. Following each aging experiment, the cells were analyzed by means of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and the individual electrodes were characterized by gas adsorption and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. At cell voltages above 3.0 V, the positive electrode ages much faster than the negative. Both the capacitance loss and resistance increase of the cell could be totally attributed to the positive electrode. At cell voltages above 3.5 V also the negative electrode aged significantly. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicated the presence of degradation products on the electrode surface with a much thicker layer on the positive electrode. Simultaneously, a significant decrease in electrode porosity could be detected by gas adsorption.

  11. The surface chemical properties of multi-walled carbon nanotubes modified by thermal fluorination for electric double-layer capacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Min-Jung; Jeong, Euigyung; Lee, Young-Seak

    2015-08-01

    The surfaces of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were thermally fluorinated at various temperatures to enhance the electrochemical properties of the MWCNTs for use as electric double-layer capacitor (EDLC) electrodes. The fluorine functional groups were added to the surfaces of the MWCNTs via thermal fluorination. The thermal fluorination exposed the Fe catalyst on MWCNTs, and the specific surface area increased due to etching during the fluorination. The specific capacitances of the thermally fluorinated at 100 °C, MWCNT based electrode increased from 57 to 94 F/g at current densities of 0.2 A/g, respectively. This enhancement in capacitance can be attributed to increased polarization of the thermally fluorinated MWCNT surface, which increased the affinity between the electrode surface and the electrolyte ions.

  12. CVD synthesis of carbon nanotubes using a finely dispersed cobalt catalyst and their use in double layer electrochemical capacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatterjee, A.K.; Sharon, Maheshwar; Banerjee, Rangan; Neumann-Spallart, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNT) were obtained by chemical vapour deposition (CVD), decomposing turpentine oil over finely dispersed Co metal as a catalyst at 675 deg. C. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) images reveal that the nanotubes are densely packed and of 10-50 nm in diameter. The XRD pattern of purified CNT shows that they are graphitic in nature. Resistivity measurements of these CNT indicate that they are highly conducting. Hall measurements of CNT reveal that electrons are the majority carriers with a carrier concentration of 1.35x10 20 cm -3 . Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and constant current charging/discharging was used to characterise the behaviour of electrochemical double layer capacitors of purified CNT with H 2 SO 4 . For CNT/2 M H 2 SO 4 /CNT, a capacitance of 12 F g -1 (based on the weight of the active material) was obtained

  13. Superparamagnetic magnetite nanocrystals-graphene oxide nanocomposites: facile synthesis and their enhanced electric double-layer capacitor performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qihua; Wang, Dewei; Li, Yuqi; Wang, Tingmei

    2012-06-01

    Superparamagnetic magnetite nanocrystals-graphene oxide (FGO) nanocomposites were successfully synthesized through a simple yet versatile one-step solution-processed approach at ambient conditions. Magnetite (Fe3O4) nanocrystals (NCs) with a size of 10-50 nm were uniformly deposited on the surfaces of graphene oxide (GO) sheets, which were confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high-angle annular dark field scanning transmission election microscopy (HAADF-STEM) studies. FGO with different Fe3O4 loadings could be controlled by simply manipulating the initial weight ratio of the precursors. The M-H measurements suggested that the as-prepared FGO nanocomposites have a large saturation magnetizations that made them can move regularly under an external magnetic field. Significantly, FGO nanocomposites also exhibit enhanced electric double-layer capacitor (EDLC) activity compared with pure Fe3O4 NCs and GO in terms of specific capacitance and high-rate charge-discharge.

  14. Performance of electrical double layer capacitors fabricated with gel polymer electrolytes containing Li+ and K+-salts: A comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Manoj K.; Hashmi, S. A.

    2015-01-01

    The comparative performance of the solid-state electrical double layer capacitors (EDLCs) based on the multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) electrodes and poly (vinaylidinefluoride-co-hexafluoropropyline) (PVdF-HFP) based gel polymer electrolytes (GPEs) containing potassium and lithium salts have been studied. The room temperature ionic conductivity of the GPEs have been found to be ∼3.8×10 −3 and 5.9×10 −3 S cm −1 for lithium and potassium based systems. The performance of EDLC cells studied by impedance spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry and constant current charge-discharge techniques, indicate that the EDLC with potassium salt containing GPE shows excellent performance almost equivalent to the EDLC with Li-salt-based GPE

  15. Bulk Concentration Dependence of Electrolyte Resistance Within Mesopores of Carbon Electrodes in Electric Double-Layer Capacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jaekwang; Kim, Daeun; Lee, Ilbok; Son, Hyungbin; Lee, Donghyun; Yoon, Songhun [Chung-Ang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Shim, Hyewon [Korea Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferation and Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jinwoo [POSTECH, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    Hexagonally ordered mesoporous carbon materials were prepared and used as electrode materials in an electric double-layer capacitor. Using this electrode, the change of electrolyte resistance within the mesopores was investigated according to the bulk electrolyte concentration. Using three different electrochemical transient experiments-imaginary capacitance analysis, chronoamperometry, and hronopotentiometry-the time constant associated with electrolyte transport was determined, which was then used to obtain the electrolyte resistance within the mesopores. With decreasing electrolyte concentration, the increase in electrolyte resistance was smaller than the increase in the resistivity of the bulk electrolyte, which is indicative of a different environment for ionic transport within the mesopores. On using the confinement effect within the mesopores, the predicted higher concentration within mesopore probably results in lower electrolyte resistance, especially under low bulk concentrations.

  16. TiO2 coated Si nanowire electrodes for electrochemical double layer capacitors in room temperature ionic liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konstantinou, F; Shougee, A; Albrecht, T; Fobelets, K

    2017-01-01

    Three TiO 2 deposition processes are used to coat the surface of Si nanowire array electrodes for electrochemical double layer capacitors in room temperature ionic liquid [Bmim][NTF 2 ]. The fabrication processes are based on wet chemistry only and temperature treatments are kept below 450 °C. Successful TiO 2 coatings are found to be those that are carried out at low pressure and with low TiO 2 coverage to avoid nanowires breakage. The best TiO 2 coated Si nanowire array electrode in [Bmim][NTF 2 ] showed energy densities of 0.9 Wh·kg −1 and power densities of 2.2 kW·kg −1 with a nanowire length of ∼10 µ m. (paper)

  17. Studies on Me/Al-layered double hydroxides (Me = Ni and Co) as electrode materials for electrochemical capacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xianming; Zhang Yihe; Zhang Xiaogang; Fu Shaoyun

    2004-01-01

    Me/Al-layered double hydroxides (Me=Ni and Co) prepared by the chemical co-precipitation method have been shown to be outstanding novel materials for electrochemical capacitors. The crystalline structure and the electrochemical properties of the electrodes have been studied by considering the effect of the mole ratio of nickel/cobalt. X-ray diffraction analysis shows that the materials belong to hexagonal system with layered structure. Cyclic voltammetric measurements indicate that Me/Al-layered double hydroxides with the Ni/Co mole ratio of 4:6 exhibit excellent capacitive properties within the potential range of 0.0-0.6 V versus Hg/HgO in 6 mol/L KOH electrolyte. Charge/discharge behaviors have been observed with the highest specific capacitance values of 960 F/g at the current density of 400 mA/g. Impedance studies show that the enhanced electrical properties and high frequency response are attributed to the presence of Co oxides

  18. Method of making a multi-electrode double layer capacitor having single electrolyte seal and aluminum-impregnated carbon cloth electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahmandi, C. Joseph; Dispennette, John M.; Blank, Edward; Kolb, Alan C.

    2002-09-17

    A single cell, multi-electrode high performance double layer capacitor includes first and second flat stacks of electrodes adapted to be housed in a closeable two-part capacitor case which includes only a single electrolyte seal. Each electrode stack has a plurality of electrodes connected in parallel, with the electrodes of one stack being interleaved with the electrodes of the other stack to form an interleaved stack, and with the electrodes of each stack being electrically connected to respective capacitor terminals. A porous separator is positioned against the electrodes of one stack before interleaving to prevent electrical shorts between the electrodes. The electrodes are made by folding a compressible, low resistance, aluminum-impregnated carbon cloth, made from activated carbon fibers, around a current collector foil, with a tab of the foils of each electrode of each stack being connected in parallel and connected to the respective capacitor terminal. The height of the interleaved stack is somewhat greater than the inside height of the closed capacitor case, thereby requiring compression of the interleaved electrode stack when placed inside of the case, and thereby maintaining the interleaved electrode stack under modest constant pressure. The closed capacitor case is filled with an electrolytic solution and sealed. A preferred electrolytic solution is made by dissolving an appropriate salt into acetonitrile (CH.sub.3 CN). In one embodiment, the two parts of the capacitor case are conductive and function as the capacitor terminals.

  19. The Effects of Self-Discharge on the Performance of Symmetric Electric Double-Layer Capacitors and Active Electrolyte-Enhanced Supercapacitors: Insights from Modeling and Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ike, Innocent S.; Sigalas, Iakovos; Iyuke, Sunny E.

    2017-02-01

    The effects of self-discharge on the performance of symmetric electric double-layer capacitors (EDLCs) and active electrolyte-enhanced supercapacitors were examined by incorporating self-discharge into electrochemical capacitor models during charging and discharging. The sources of self-discharge in capacitors were side reactions or redox reactions and several impurities and electric double-layer (EDL) instability. The effects of self-discharge during capacitor storage was negligible since it took a fully charged capacitor a minimum of 14.0 days to be entirely discharged by self-discharge in all conditions studied, hence self-discharge in storage condition can be ignored. The first and second charge-discharge cycle energy efficiencies η_{{{{E}}1}} and η_{{{{E}}2}} of a capacitor of electrode effective conductivity α1 = 0.05 S/cm with only EDL instability self-discharge with current density J_{{VR}} = 1.25 × 10-3 A/cm2 were 72.33% and 72.34%, respectively. Also, energy efficiencies η_{{{{E}}1}} and η_{{{{E}}2}} of a similar capacitor with both side reactions and redox reactions and EDL instability self-discharges with current densities J_{{VR}} = 0.00125 A/cm2 and J_{{{{VR}}1}} = 0.0032 A/cm2 were 38.13% and 38.14% respectively, compared with 84.24% and 84.25% in a similar capacitor without self-discharge. A capacitor with only EDL instability self-discharge and that with both side reactions and redox reactions and EDL instability self-discharge lost 9.73 Wh and 28.38 Wh of energy, respectively, through self-discharge during charging and discharging. Hence, EDLCs charging and discharging time is significantly dependent on the self-discharge rate which are too large to be ignored.

  20. Charge storage mechanism in nanoporous carbons and its consequence for electrical double layer capacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, P.; Gogotsi, Y.

    2010-06-21

    Electrochemical capacitors, also known as supercapacitors, are energy storage devices that fill the gap between batteries and dielectric capacitors. Thanks to their unique features, they have a key role to play in energy storage and harvesting, acting as a complement to or even a replacement of batteries which has already been achieved in various applications. One of the challenges in the supercapacitor area is to increase their energy density. Some recent discoveries regarding ion adsorption in microporous carbon exhibiting pores in the nanometre range can help in designing the next generation of high-energy-density supercapacitors.

  1. Debye length dependence of the anomalous dynamics of ionic double layers in a parallel plate capacitor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kortschot, R. J.; Philipse, A. P.; Erné, B. H.

    2014-01-01

    The electrical impedance spectrum of simple ionic solutions is measured in a parallel plate capacitor at small applied ac voltage. The influence of the ionic strength is investigated using several electrolytes at different concentrations in solvents of different dielectric constants. The electric

  2. Insights into the effects of solvent properties in graphene based electric double-layer capacitors with organic electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuo; Bo, Zheng; Yang, Huachao; Yang, Jinyuan; Duan, Liangping; Yan, Jianhua; Cen, Kefa

    2016-12-01

    Organic electrolytes are widely used in electric double-layer capacitors (EDLCs). In this work, the microstructure of planar graphene-based EDLCs with different organic solvents are investigated with molecular dynamics simulations. Results show that an increase of solvent polarity could weaken the accumulation of counter-ions nearby the electrode surface, due to the screen of electrode charges and relatively lower ionic desolvation. It thus suggests that solvents with low polarity could be preferable to yield high EDL capacitance. Meanwhile, the significant effects of the size and structure of solvent molecules are reflected by non-electrostatic molecule-electrode interactions, further influencing the adsorption of solvent molecules on electrode surface. Compared with dimethyl carbonate, γ-butyrolactone, and propylene carbonate, acetonitrile with relatively small-size and linear structure owns weak non-electrostatic interactions, which favors the easy re-orientation of solvent molecules. Moreover, the shift of solvent orientation in surface layer, from parallel orientation to perpendicular orientation relative to the electrode surface, deciphers the solvent twin-peak behavior near negative electrode. The as-obtained insights into the roles of solvent properties on the interplays among particles and electrodes elucidate the solvent influences on the microstructure and capacitive behavior of EDLCs using organic electrolytes.

  3. A mini review of designed mesoporous materials for energy-storage applications: from electric double-layer capacitors to hybrid supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Eunho; Jo, Changshin; Lee, Jinwoo

    2016-04-01

    In recent years, porous materials have attracted significant attention in various research fields because of their structural merits. In particular, well-designed mesoporous structures with two- or three-dimensionally interconnected pores have been recognized as electrode materials of particular interest for achieving high-performance electrochemical capacitors (ECs). In this mini review, recent progress in the design of mesoporous electrode materials for ECs, from electric double-layer capacitors (EDLCs) and pseudocapacitors (PCs) to hybrid supercapacitors (HSCs), and research challenges for the development of new mesoporous electrode materials has been discussed.

  4. Reevaluation of Performance of Electric Double-layer Capacitors from Constant-current Charge/Discharge and Cyclic Voltammetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allagui, Anis; Freeborn, Todd J; Elwakil, Ahmed S; Maundy, Brent J

    2016-12-09

    The electric characteristics of electric-double layer capacitors (EDLCs) are determined by their capacitance which is usually measured in the time domain from constant-current charging/discharging and cyclic voltammetry tests, and from the frequency domain using nonlinear least-squares fitting of spectral impedance. The time-voltage and current-voltage profiles from the first two techniques are commonly treated by assuming ideal R s C behavior in spite of the nonlinear response of the device, which in turn provides inaccurate values for its characteristic metrics [corrected]. In this paper we revisit the calculation of capacitance, power and energy of EDLCs from the time domain constant-current step response and linear voltage waveform, under the assumption that the device behaves as an equivalent fractional-order circuit consisting of a resistance R s in series with a constant phase element (CPE(Q, α), with Q being a pseudocapacitance and α a dispersion coefficient). In particular, we show with the derived (R s , Q, α)-based expressions, that the corresponding nonlinear effects in voltage-time and current-voltage can be encompassed through nonlinear terms function of the coefficient α, which is not possible with the classical R s C model. We validate our formulae with the experimental measurements of different EDLCs.

  5. Poly(Acrylic acid–Based Hybrid Inorganic–Organic Electrolytes Membrane for Electrical Double Layer Capacitors Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiam-Wen Liew

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Nanocomposite polymer electrolyte membranes (NCPEMs based on poly(acrylic acid(PAA and titania (TiO2 are prepared by a solution casting technique. The ionic conductivity of NCPEMs increases with the weight ratio of TiO2.The highest ionic conductivity of (8.36 ± 0.01 × 10−4 S·cm−1 is obtained with addition of 6 wt % of TiO2 at ambient temperature. The complexation between PAA, LiTFSI and TiO2 is discussed in Attenuated total reflectance-Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR studies. Electrical double layer capacitors (EDLCs are fabricated using the filler-free polymer electrolyte or the most conducting NCPEM and carbon-based electrodes. The electrochemical performances of fabricated EDLCs are studied through cyclic voltammetry (CV and galvanostatic charge-discharge studies. EDLC comprising NCPEM shows the specific capacitance of 28.56 F·g−1 (or equivalent to 29.54 mF·cm−2 with excellent electrochemical stability.

  6. Enhancing the performance of green solid-state electric double-layer capacitor incorporated with fumed silica nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Mee Yoke; Numan, Arshid; Liew, Chiam-Wen; Ng, H. M.; Ramesh, K.; Ramesh, S.

    2018-06-01

    Solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) based on fumed silica nanoparticles as nanofillers, hydroxylethyl cellulose (HEC) as host polymer, magnesium trifluoromethanesulfonate salt and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoromethanesulfonate ionic liquid is prepared by solution casting technique. The ionic conductivity, interactions of adsorbed ions on the host polymer, structural crystallinity and thermal stability are evaluated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), respectively. Ionic conductivity studies at room temperature reveals that the SPE with 2 wt. % of fumed silica nanoparticles gives the highest conductivity compared to its counterpart. The XRD and FTIR studies confirm the dissolution of salt, ionic liquid and successful incorporation of fumed silica nanoparticles with host polymer. In order to examine the performance of SPEs, electric double-layer capacitor (EDLC) are fabricated by using activated carbon electrodes. EDLC studies demonstrate that SPE incorporated with 2 wt. % fumed silica nanoparticles gives high specific capacitance (25.0 F/g) at a scan rate of 5 mV/s compared to SPE without fumed silica. Additionally, it is able to withstand 71.3% of capacitance from its initial capacitance value over 1600 cycles at a current density of 0.4 A/g.

  7. Introduction of electric double layer capacitors in the solar-EV; Solar denki jidosha eno denki nijuso condenser no oyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujinaka, M [Tokyo Denki University, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    A basic experiment was carried out on a supplementary power supply, in which solar cells and electric double layer capacitors(EDLC) were combined for a DC/DC converter, for the use of a solar-electric vehicle (S-EV); and in actuality, an S-EV was loaded with the power supply with a running test conducted on a public road. The EDLC was found effective and useful for avoiding temporary lowering of voltage and momentary break. An electric supply was thereby made possible for an emergency light without the use of the DC/DC converter. However, in a tunnel or a night driving and in case of failure of the DC/DC converter, an operating time of only 7 minutes or so was affordable with the EDLC having a capacity of 100F. Moreover, particularly with a heavy load, it was impossible to maintain a voltage for many hours. Under the circumstances, an S-EV design would primarily require two sets of independent DC/DC converter loaded in the future. The EDLC, young after it was developed, still has a small energy density compared with a lead storage battery. Yet, an EDLC with a higher performance being developed, there is a possibility that it will be applied to S-EV`s by utilizing its characteristics such as a high efficiency and a long service life. 4 refs., 8 figs.

  8. Probing the characteristics of casein as green binder for non-aqueous electrochemical double layer capacitors' electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varzi, Alberto; Raccichini, Rinaldo; Marinaro, Mario; Wohlfahrt-Mehrens, Margret; Passerini, Stefano

    2016-09-01

    Casein from bovine milk is evaluated in this work as binding agent for electrochemical double layer capacitors (EDLCs) electrodes. It is demonstrated that casein provides excellent adhesion strength to the current collector (1187 kPa compared to 51 kPa achieved with PVdF), thus leading to mechanically stable electrodes. At the same time, it offers high thermal stability (above 200 °C) and electrochemical stability in organic electrolytes. Apparently though, the casein-based electrodes offer lower electronic conductivity than those based on other state-of-the-art binders, which can limit the rate performance of the resulting EDLC. In the attempt of improving the electrochemical performance, it is found that the application of a pressing step can solve this issue, leading to excellent rate capability (up to 84% capacitance retention at 50 mA cm-2) and cycling stability (96.8% after 10,000 cycles at 10 mA cm-2) in both PC- and ACN-based electrolytes. Although the adhesive power casein is known since ancient times, this report presents the first proof of concept of its employment in electrochemical power sources.

  9. Effects of surface chemical properties of activated carbon modified by amino-fluorination for electric double-layer capacitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Min-Jung; Jeong, Euigyung; Cho, Seho; Yeo, Sang Young; Lee, Young-Seak

    2012-09-01

    The surface of phenol-based activated carbon (AC) was seriatim amino-fluorinated with solution of ammonium hydroxide and hydrofluoric acid in varying ratio to fabricate electrode materials for use in an electric double-layer capacitor (EDLC). The specific capacitance of the amino-fluorinated AC-based EDLC was measured in a 1 M H(2)SO(4) electrolyte, in which it was observed that the specific capacitances increased from 215 to 389 Fg(-1) and 119 and 250 Fg(-1) with the current densities of 0.1 and 1.0 Ag(-1), respectively, in comparison with those of an untreated AC-based EDLC when the amino-fluorination was optimized via seriatim mixed solution of 7.43 mol L(-1) ammonium hydroxide and 2.06 mol L(-1) hydrofluoric acid. This enhancement of capacitance was attributed to the synergistic effects of an increased electrochemical activity due to the formation of surface N- and F-functional groups and increased, specific surface area, and mesopore volumes, all of which resulted from the amino-fluorination of the electrode material. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Electric double-layer capacitors with tea waste derived activated carbon electrodes and plastic crystal based flexible gel polymer electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suleman, M.; Deraman, M.; Othman, M. A. R.; Omar, R.; Hashim, M. A.; Basri, N. H.; Nor, N. S. M.; Dolah, B. N. M.; Hanappi, M. F. Y. M.; Hamdan, E.; Sazali, N. E. S.; Tajuddin, N. S. M.; Jasni, M. R. M.

    2016-08-01

    We report a novel configuration of symmetrical electric double-layer capacitors (EDLCs) comprising a plastic crystalline succinonitrile (SN) based flexible polymer gel electrolyte, incorporated with sodium trifluoromethane sulfonate (NaTf) immobilised in a host polymer poly (vinylidine fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVdF-HFP). The cost-effective activated carbon powder possessing a specific surface area (SSA) of ~ 1700 m2g-1 containing a large proportion of meso-porosity has been derived from tea waste to use as supercapacitor electrodes. The high ionic conductivity (~3.6×10-3 S cm-1 at room temperature) and good electrochemical stability render the gel polymer electrolyte film a suitable candidate for the fabrication of EDLCs. The performance of the EDLCs has been tested by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), cyclic voltammetry (CV), and galvanostatic charge-discharge studies. The performance of the EDLC cell is found to be promising in terms of high values of specific capacitance (~270 F g-1), specific energy (~ 36 Wh kg-1), and power density (~ 33 kW kg-1).

  11. Reevaluation of Performance of Electric Double-layer Capacitors from Constant-current Charge/Discharge and Cyclic Voltammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allagui, Anis; Freeborn, Todd J.; Elwakil, Ahmed S.; Maundy, Brent J.

    2016-12-01

    The electric characteristics of electric-double layer capacitors (EDLCs) are determined by their capacitance which is usually measured in the time domain from constant-current charging/discharging and cyclic voltammetry tests, and from the frequency domain using nonlinear least-squares fitting of spectral impedance. The time-voltage and current-voltage profiles from the first two techniques are commonly treated by assuming ideal SsC behavior in spite of the nonlinear response of the device, which in turn provides inaccurate values for its characteristic metrics. In this paper we revisit the calculation of capacitance, power and energy of EDLCs from the time domain constant-current step response and linear voltage waveform, under the assumption that the device behaves as an equivalent fractional-order circuit consisting of a resistance Rs in series with a constant phase element (CPE(Q, α), with Q being a pseudocapacitance and α a dispersion coefficient). In particular, we show with the derived (Rs, Q, α)-based expressions, that the corresponding nonlinear effects in voltage-time and current-voltage can be encompassed through nonlinear terms function of the coefficient α, which is not possible with the classical RsC model. We validate our formulae with the experimental measurements of different EDLCs.

  12. Electric double-layer capacitors with tea waste derived activated carbon electrodes and plastic crystal based flexible gel polymer electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suleman, M; Deraman, M; Othman, M A R; Omar, R; Basri, N H; Nor, N S M; Dolah, B N M; Hanappi, M F Y M; Hamdan, E; Sazali, N E S; Tajuddin, N S M; Jasni, M R M; Hashim, M A

    2016-01-01

    We report a novel configuration of symmetrical electric double-layer capacitors (EDLCs) comprising a plastic crystalline succinonitrile (SN) based flexible polymer gel electrolyte, incorporated with sodium trifluoromethane sulfonate (NaTf) immobilised in a host polymer poly (vinylidine fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVdF-HFP). The cost-effective activated carbon powder possessing a specific surface area (SSA) of ∼ 1700 m 2 g -1 containing a large proportion of meso-porosity has been derived from tea waste to use as supercapacitor electrodes. The high ionic conductivity (∼3.6×10 -3 S cm -1 at room temperature) and good electrochemical stability render the gel polymer electrolyte film a suitable candidate for the fabrication of EDLCs. The performance of the EDLCs has been tested by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), cyclic voltammetry (CV), and galvanostatic charge-discharge studies. The performance of the EDLC cell is found to be promising in terms of high values of specific capacitance (∼270 F g -1 ), specific energy (∼ 36 Wh kg -1 ), and power density (∼ 33 kW kg -1 ). (paper)

  13. A Novel Degradation Estimation Method for a Hybrid Energy Storage System Consisting of Battery and Double-Layer Capacitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanbin Yu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new method for battery degradation estimation using a power-energy (PE function in a battery/ultracapacitor hybrid energy storage system (HESS, and the integrated optimization which concerns both parameters matching and control for HESS has been done as well. A semiactive topology of HESS with double-layer capacitor (EDLC coupled directly with DC-link is adopted for a hybrid electric city bus (HECB. In the purpose of presenting the quantitative relationship between system parameters and battery serving life, the data during a 37-minute driving cycle has been collected and decomposed into discharging/charging fragments firstly, and then the optimal control strategy which is supposed to maximally use the available EDLC energy is presented to decompose the power between battery and EDLC. Furthermore, based on a battery degradation model, the conversion of power demand by PE function and PE matrix is applied to evaluate the relationship between the available energy stored in HESS and the serving life of battery pack. Therefore, according to the approach which could decouple parameters matching and optimal control of the HESS, the process of battery degradation and its serving life estimation for HESS has been summed up.

  14. Experimental studies on poly methyl methacrylate based gel polymer electrolytes for application in electrical double layer capacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashmi, S A; Kumar, Ashok; Tripathi, S K

    2007-01-01

    Studies have been carried out on gel polymer electrolytes comprising poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA)-ethylene carbonate (EC)-propylene carbonate (PC)-salts, LiClO 4 , NaClO 4 and (C 2 H 5 ) 4 NClO 4 (TEAClO 4 ) with a view to using them as electrolytes in electrical double layer capacitors (EDLCs) based on activated charcoal powder electrodes. The optimum composition of gel electrolytes, PMMA (20 wt%)-EC : PC (1 : 1 v/v)-1.0 M salts exhibit high ionic conductivity of the order of ∼10 -3 S cm -1 at room temperature with good mechanical/dimensional stability, suitable for their application in EDLCs. The EDLCs have been characterized using linear sweep cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge-discharge tests and ac impedance spectroscopy. The values of capacitance of 68-151 mF cm -2 (equivalent to single electrode specific capacitance of 38-78 Fg -1 of activated charcoal powder) have been observed. These values correspond to a specific energy of 5.3-10.8 Wh kg -1 and a power density of 0.19-0.22 kW kg -1 . The capacitance values have been observed to be stable up to 5000 voltammetric cycles or even more. A comparison of studies shows the predominant role of anions of the gel electrolytes in the capacitive behaviour of EDLCs

  15. Spatiotemporal electrochemical measurements across an electric double layer capacitor electrode with application to aqueous sodium hybrid batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tully, Katherine C.; Whitacre, Jay F.; Litster, Shawn

    2014-02-01

    This paper presents in-situ spatiotemporal measurements of the electrolyte phase potential within an electric double layer capacitor (EDLC) negative electrode as envisaged for use in an aqueous hybrid battery for grid-scale energy storage. The ultra-thick electrodes used in these batteries to reduce non-functional material costs require sufficiently fast through-plane mass and charge transport to attain suitable charging and discharging rates. To better evaluate the through-plane transport, we have developed an electrode scaffold (ES) for making in situ electrolyte potential distribution measurements at discrete known distances across the thickness of an uninterrupted EDLC negative electrode. Using finite difference methods, we calculate local current, volumetric charging current and charge storage distributions from the spatiotemporal electrolyte potential measurements. These potential distributions provide insight into complex phenomena that cannot be directly observed using other existing methods. Herein, we use the distributions to identify areas of the electrode that are underutilized, assess the effects of various parameters on the cumulative charge storage distribution, and evaluate an effectiveness factor for charge storage in EDLC electrodes.

  16. Preparation of hierarchical porous carbon from waste printed circuit boards for high performance electric double-layer capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xuan; Wang, Li; Zhao, Wei; Wang, Yi; Qi, Tao; Li, Chang Ming

    2016-08-01

    Renewable clean energy and resources recycling have become inevitable choices to solve worldwide energy shortages and environmental pollution problems. It is a great challenge to recycle tons of waste printed circuit boards (PCB) produced every year for clean environment while creating values. In this work, low cost, high quality activated carbons (ACs) were synthesized from non-metallic fractions (NMF) of waste PCB to offer a great potential for applications of electrochemical double-layer capacitors (EDLCs). After recovering metal from waste PCB, hierarchical porous carbons were produced from NMF by carbonization and activation processes. The experimental results exhibit that some pores were formed after carbonization due to the escape of impurity atoms introduced by additives in NMF. Then the pore structure was further tailored by adjusting the activation parameters. Roles of micropores and non-micropores in charge storage were investigated when the hierarchical porous carbons were applied as electrode of EDLCs. The highest specific capacitance of 210 F g-1 (at 50 mA g-1) and excellent rate capability were achieved when the ACs possessing a proper micropores/non-micropores ratio. This work not only provides a promising method to recycle PCB, but also investigates the structure tailoring arts for a rational hierarchical porous structure in energy storage/conversion.

  17. Can ionophobic nanopores enhance the energy storage capacity of electric-double-layer capacitors containing nonaqueous electrolytes?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lian, Cheng; University of California, Riverside, CA; Liu, Honglai; Henderson, Douglas; Wu, Jianzhong

    2016-01-01

    The ionophobicity effect of nanoporous electrodes on the capacitance and the energy storage capacity of nonaqueous-electrolyte supercapacitors is studied by means of the classical density functional theory (DFT). It has been hypothesized that ionophobic nanopores may create obstacles in charging, but they store energy much more efficiently than ionophilic pores. In this paper, we find that, for both ionic liquids and organic electrolytes, an ionophobic pore exhibits a charging behavior different from that of an ionophilic pore, and that the capacitance–voltage curve changes from a bell shape to a two-hump camel shape when the pore ionophobicity increases. For electric-double-layer capacitors containing organic electrolytes, an increase in the ionophobicity of the nanopores leads to a higher capacity for energy storage. Without taking into account the effects of background screening, the DFT predicts that an ionophobic pore containing an ionic liquid does not enhance the supercapacitor performance within the practical voltage ranges. However, by using an effective dielectric constant to account for ion polarizability, the DFT predicts that, like an organic electrolyte, an ionophobic pore with an ionic liquid is also able to increase the energy stored when the electrode voltage is beyond a certain value. We find that the critical voltage for an enhanced capacitance in an ionic liquid is larger than that in an organic electrolyte. Finally, our theoretical predictions provide further understanding of how chemical modification of porous electrodes affects the performance of supercapacitors.

  18. Memory Effect of Metal-Oxide-Silicon Capacitors with Self-Assembly Double-Layer Au Nanocrystals Embedded in Atomic-Layer-Deposited HfO2 Dielectric

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yue, Huang; Hong-Yan, Gou; Qing-Qing, Sun; Shi-Jin, Ding; Wei, Zhang; Shi-Li, Zhang

    2009-01-01

    We report the chemical self-assembly growth of Au nanocrystals on atomic-layer-deposited HfO 2 films aminosilanized by (3-Aminopropyl)-trimethoxysilane aforehand for memory applications. The resulting Au nanocrystals show a density of about 4 × 10 11 cm −2 and a diameter range of 5–8nm. The metal-oxide-silicon capacitor with double-layer Au nanocrystals embedded in HfO 2 dielectric exhibits a large C – V hysteresis window of 11.9V for ±11 V gate voltage sweeps at 1 MHz, a flat-band voltage shift of 1.5 V after the electrical stress under 7 V for 1 ms, a leakage current density of 2.9 × 10 −8 A/cm −2 at 9 V and room temperature. Compared to single-layer Au nanocrystals, the double-layer Au nanocrystals increase the hysteresis window significantly, and the underlying mechanism is thus discussed

  19. New Approach for High-Voltage Electrical Double-Layer Capacitors Using Vertical Graphene Nanowalls with and without Nitrogen Doping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Yu-Wen; Hu, Chi-Chang; Shen, Hsiao-Hsuan; Huang, Kun-Ping

    2016-09-14

    Integrating various devices to achieve high-performance energy storage systems to satisfy various demands in modern societies become more and more important. Electrical double-layer capacitors (EDLCs), one kind of the electrochemical capacitors, generally provide the merits of high charge-discharge rates, extremely long cycle life, and high efficiency in electricity capture/storage, leading to a desirable device of electricity management from portable electronics to hybrid vehicles or even smart grid application. However, the low cell voltage (2.5-2.7 V in organic liquid electrolytes) of EDLCs lacks the direct combination of Li-ion batteries (LIBs) and EDLCs for creating new functions in future applications without considering the issue of a relatively low energy density. Here we propose a guideline, "choosing a matching pair of electrode materials and electrolytes", to effectively extend the cell voltage of EDLCs according to three general strategies. Based on the new strategy proposed in this work, materials with an inert surface enable to tolerate a wider potential window in commercially available organic electrolytes in comparison with activated carbons (ACs). The binder-free, vertically grown graphene nanowalls (GNW) and nitrogen-doped GNW (NGNW) electrodes respectively provide good examples for extending the upper potential limit of a positive electrode of EDLCs from 0.1 to 1.5 V (vs Ag/AgNO3) as well as the lower potential limit of a negative electrode of EDLCs from -2.0 V to ca. -2.5 V in 1 M TEABF4/PC (propylene carbonate) compared to ACs. This newly designed asymmetric EDLC exhibits a cell voltage of 4 V, specific energy of 52 Wh kg(-1) (ca. a device energy density of 13 Wh kg(-1)), and specific power of 8 kW kg(-1) and ca. 100% retention after 10,000 cycles charge-discharge, reducing the series number of EDLCs to enlarge the module voltage and opening the possibility for directly combining EDLCs and LIBs in advanced applications.

  20. Electrode Mass Balancing as an Inexpensive and Simple Method to Increase the Capacitance of Electric Double-Layer Capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andres, Britta; Engström, Ann-Christine; Blomquist, Nicklas; Forsberg, Sven; Dahlström, Christina; Olin, Håkan

    2016-01-01

    Symmetric electric double-layer capacitors (EDLCs) have equal masses of the same active material in both electrodes. However, having equal electrode masses may prevent the EDLC to have the largest possible specific capacitance if the sizes of the hydrated anions and cations in the electrolyte differ because the electrodes and the electrolyte may not be completely utilized. Here we demonstrate how this issue can be resolved by mass balancing. If the electrode masses are adjusted according to the size of the ions, one can easily increase an EDLC’s specific capacitance. To that end, we performed galvanostatic cycling to measure the capacitances of symmetric EDLCs with different electrode mass ratios using four aqueous electrolytes— Na2SO4, H2SO4, NaOH, and KOH (all with a concentration of 1 M)—and compared these to the theoretical optimal electrode mass ratio that we calculated using the sizes of the hydrated ions. Both the theoretical and experimental values revealed lower-than-1 optimal electrode ratios for all electrolytes except KOH. The largest increase in capacitance was obtained for EDLCs with NaOH as electrolyte. Specifically, we demonstrate an increase of the specific capacitance by 8.6% by adjusting the electrode mass ratio from 1 to 0.86. Our findings demonstrate that electrode mass balancing is a simple and inexpensive method to increase the capacitance of EDLCs. Furthermore, our results imply that one can reduce the amount of unused material in EDLCs and thus decrease their weight, volume and cost. PMID:27658253

  1. Can ionophobic nanopores enhance the energy storage capacity of electric-double-layer capacitors containing nonaqueous electrolytes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Cheng; Liu, Honglai; Henderson, Douglas; Wu, Jianzhong

    2016-10-01

    The ionophobicity effect of nanoporous electrodes on the capacitance and the energy storage capacity of nonaqueous-electrolyte supercapacitors is studied by means of the classical density functional theory (DFT). It has been hypothesized that ionophobic nanopores may create obstacles in charging, but they store energy much more efficiently than ionophilic pores. In this study, we find that, for both ionic liquids and organic electrolytes, an ionophobic pore exhibits a charging behavior different from that of an ionophilic pore, and that the capacitance-voltage curve changes from a bell shape to a two-hump camel shape when the pore ionophobicity increases. For electric-double-layer capacitors containing organic electrolytes, an increase in the ionophobicity of the nanopores leads to a higher capacity for energy storage. Without taking into account the effects of background screening, the DFT predicts that an ionophobic pore containing an ionic liquid does not enhance the supercapacitor performance within the practical voltage ranges. However, by using an effective dielectric constant to account for ion polarizability, the DFT predicts that, like an organic electrolyte, an ionophobic pore with an ionic liquid is also able to increase the energy stored when the electrode voltage is beyond a certain value. We find that the critical voltage for an enhanced capacitance in an ionic liquid is larger than that in an organic electrolyte. Our theoretical predictions provide further understanding of how chemical modification of porous electrodes affects the performance of supercapacitors. The authors are saddened by the passing of George Stell but are pleased to contribute this article in his memory. Some years ago, DH gave a talk at a Gordon Conference that contained an approximation that George had demonstrated previously to be in error in one of his publications. Rather than making this point loudly in the discussion, George politely, quietly, and privately pointed this out

  2. High Power Electric Double-Layer Capacitors based on Room-Temperature Ionic Liquids and Nanostructured Carbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Carlos R.

    The efficient storage of electrical energy constitutes both a fundamental challenge for 21st century science and an urgent requirement for the sustainability of our technological civilization. The push for cleaner renewable forms of energy production, such as solar and wind power, strongly depends on a concomitant development of suitable storage methods to pair with these intermittent sources, as well as for mobile applications, such as vehicles and personal electronics. In this regard, Electrochemical Double-Layer Capacitors (supercapacitors) represent a vibrant area of research due to their environmental friendliness, long lifetimes, high power capability, and relative underdevelopment when compared to electrochemical batteries. Currently supercapacitors have gravimetric energies one order of magnitude lower than similarly advanced batteries, while conversly enjoying a similar advantage over them in terms of power. The challenge is to increase the gravimentric energies and conserve the high power. On the material side, research focuses on highly porous supports and electrolytes, the critical components of supercapacitors. Through the use of electrolyte systems with a wider electrochemical stability window, as well as properly tailored carbon nanomaterials as electrodes, significant improvements in performance are possible. Room Temperature Ionic Liquids and Carbide-Derived Carbons are promising electrolytes and electrodes, respectively. RTILs have been shown to be stable at up to twice the voltage of organic solvent-salt systems currently employed in supercapacitors, and CDCs are tunable in pore structure, show good electrical conductivity, and superior demonstrated capability as electrode material. This work aims to better understand the interplay of electrode and electrolyte parameters, such as pore structure and ion size, in the ultimate performance of RTIL-based supercapacitors in terms of power, energy, and temperature of operation. For this purpose, carbon

  3. Boron cross-linked graphene oxide/polyvinyl alcohol nanocomposite gel electrolyte for flexible solid-state electric double layer capacitor with high performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Yi-Fu; Wu, Peng-Fei; Zhang, Ming-Qiu; Ruan, Wen-Hong; Giannelis, Emmanuel P.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Gel electrolyte is prepared and used in electric double layer capacitor. • Insertion of boron crosslinks into GO agglomerates opens channels for ion migration. • Solid supercapacitors show excellent specific capacitance and cycle stability. • Nanocomposite electrolyte shows better thermal stability and mechanical properties. - Abstract: A new family of boron cross-linked graphene oxide/polyvinyl alcohol (GO-B-PVA) nanocomposite gels is prepared by freeze-thaw/boron cross-linking method. Then the gel electrolytes saturated with KOH solution are assembled into electric double layer capacitors (EDLCs). Structure, thermal and mechanical properties of GO-B-PVA are explored. The electrochemical properties of EDLCs using GO-B-PVA/KOH are investigated, and compared with those using GO-PVA/KOH gel or KOH solution electrolyte. FTIR shows that boron cross-links are introduced into GO-PVA, while the boronic structure inserted into agglomerated GO sheets is demonstrated by DMA analysis. The synergy effect of the GO and the boron crosslinking benefits for ionic conductivity due to unblocking ion channels, and for improvement of thermal stability and mechanical properties of the electrolytes. Higher specific capacitance and better cycle stability of EDLCs are obtained by using the GO-B-PVA/KOH electrolyte, especially the one at higher GO content. The nanocomposite gel electrolytes with excellent electrochemical properties and solid-like character are candidates for the industrial application in high-performance flexible solid-state EDLCs

  4. Observation of turnover of spontaneous polarization in ferroelectric layer of pentacene/poly-(vinylidene-trifluoroethylene) double-layer capacitor under photo illumination by optical second-harmonic generation measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zhemin; Taguchi, Dai; Manaka, Takaaki; Iwamoto, Mitsumasa

    2016-04-01

    The details of turnover process of spontaneous polarization and associated carrier motions in indium-tin oxide/poly-(vinylidene-trifluoroethylene)/pentacene/Au capacitor were analyzed by coupling displacement current measurement (DCM) and electric-field-induced optical second-harmonic generation (EFISHG) measurement. A model was set up from DCM results to depict the relationship between electric field in semiconductor layer and applied external voltage, proving that photo illumination effect on the spontaneous polarization process lied in variation of semiconductor conductivity. The EFISHG measurement directly and selectively probed the electric field distribution in semiconductor layer, modifying the model and revealing detailed carrier behaviors involving photo illumination effect, dipole reversal, and interfacial charging in the device. A further decrease of DCM current in the low voltage region under illumination was found as the result of illumination effect, and the result was argued based on the changing of the total capacitance of the double-layer capacitors.

  5. Observation of turnover of spontaneous polarization in ferroelectric layer of pentacene/poly-(vinylidene-trifluoroethylene) double-layer capacitor under photo illumination by optical second-harmonic generation measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Zhemin [State Key Laboratory of New Ceramics and Fine Processing, School of Materials Science and Technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Department of Physical Electronics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 O-okayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8552 (Japan); Taguchi, Dai; Manaka, Takaaki; Iwamoto, Mitsumasa, E-mail: iwamoto@pe.titech.ac.jp [Department of Physical Electronics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 O-okayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8552 (Japan)

    2016-04-28

    The details of turnover process of spontaneous polarization and associated carrier motions in indium-tin oxide/poly-(vinylidene-trifluoroethylene)/pentacene/Au capacitor were analyzed by coupling displacement current measurement (DCM) and electric-field-induced optical second-harmonic generation (EFISHG) measurement. A model was set up from DCM results to depict the relationship between electric field in semiconductor layer and applied external voltage, proving that photo illumination effect on the spontaneous polarization process lied in variation of semiconductor conductivity. The EFISHG measurement directly and selectively probed the electric field distribution in semiconductor layer, modifying the model and revealing detailed carrier behaviors involving photo illumination effect, dipole reversal, and interfacial charging in the device. A further decrease of DCM current in the low voltage region under illumination was found as the result of illumination effect, and the result was argued based on the changing of the total capacitance of the double-layer capacitors.

  6. 1st Kassel user forum: Double-layer capacitors for high-performance applications. Proceedings '99; 1. Kasseler Anwenderforum: Doppelschichtkondensatoren fuer hohe Leistung. Tagungsband '99

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    Double-layer capacitors ('Super Caps') have excellent perspectives as dynamic short-term stores. They have a long life of more than 200000 cycles, immunity against full discharge, and are maintenance-free. Apart from their high short-term power density, they also have an extremely high energy density which recommends them for many applications. Currently, motor car engineering, autonomous networks, power quality and solar applications are investigated. [German] Doppelschichtkondensatoren oder 'Super-Caps' sind Speicher fuer elektrische Energie und weisen, dank ihrer Eigenschaften, hervorragende Perspektiven als dynamische Kurzzeitspeicher auf. Sie besitzen eine hohe Lebenserwartung von mehr als 200000 Zyklen, Immunitaet gegen vollstaendige Entladung und Wartungsfreiheit. Neben einer hohen Leistungsdichte im Kurzzeitbereich verfuegen sie ueber eine fuer Kondensatoren extrem hohe Energiedichte. Zahlreiche Einsatzgebiete koennen auf diese Weise erschlossen werden. Derzeit stehen die Bereiche Automobiltechnik, autarke Netze, Power Quality und solare Applikationen im Vordergrund. (orig.)

  7. Catalytic Graphitization for Preparation of Porous Carbon Material Derived from Bamboo Precursor and Performance as Electrode of Electrical Double-Layer Capacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsubota, Toshiki; Maguchi, Yuta; Kamimura, Sunao; Ohno, Teruhisa; Yasuoka, Takehiro; Nishida, Haruo

    2015-12-01

    The combination of addition of Fe (as a catalyst for graphitization) and CO2 activation (a kind of gaseous activation) was applied to prepare a porous carbon material from bamboo powder (a waste product of superheated steam treatment). Regardless of the heat treatment temperature, many macropores were successfully formed after the heating process by removal of Fe compounds. A turbostratic carbon structure was generated in the Fe-added sample heated at 850°C. It was confirmed that the added Fe acted as a template for pore formation. Moreover, it was confirmed that the added Fe acted as a catalyst for graphitization. The resulting electrochemical performance as the electrode of an electrical double-layer capacitor, as demonstrated by cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and charge-discharge testing, could be explained based on the graphitization and activation effects. Addition of Fe could affect the electrical properties of carbon material derived from bamboo.

  8. High-performance hybrid (electrostatic double-layer and faradaic capacitor-based) polymer actuators incorporating nickel oxide and vapor-grown carbon nanofibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terasawa, Naohiro; Asaka, Kinji

    2014-12-02

    The electrochemical and electromechanical properties of polymeric actuators prepared using nickel peroxide hydrate (NiO2·xH2O) or nickel peroxide anhydride (NiO2)/vapor-grown carbon nanofibers (VGCF)/ionic liquid (IL) electrodes were compared with actuators prepared using solely VGCFs or single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and an IL. The electrode in these actuator systems is equivalent to an electrochemical capacitor (EC) exhibiting both electrostatic double-layer capacitor (EDLC)- and faradaic capacitor (FC)-like behaviors. The capacitance of the metal oxide (NiO2·xH2O or NiO2)/VGCF/IL electrode is primarily attributable to the EDLC mechanism such that, at low frequencies, the strains exhibited by the NiO2·xH2O/VGCF/IL and NiO2/VGCF/IL actuators primarily result from the FC mechanism. The VGCFs in the NiO2·xH2O/VGCF/IL and NiO2/VGCF/IL actuators strengthen the EDLC mechanism and increase the electroconductivity of the devices. The mechanism underlying the functioning of the NiO2·xH2O/VGCF/IL actuator in which NiO2·xH2O/VGCF = 1.0 was found to be different from that of the devices produced using solely VGCFs or SWCNTs, which exhibited only the EDLC mechanism. In addition, it was found that both NiO2 and VGCFs are essential with regard to producing actuators that are capable of exhibiting strain levels greater than those of SWCNT-based polymer actuators and are thus suitable for practical applications. Furthermore, the frequency dependence of the displacement responses of the NiO2·xH2O/VGCF and NiO2/VGCF polymer actuators were successfully simulated using a double-layer charging kinetic model. This model, which accounted for the oxidization and reduction reactions of the metal oxide, can also be applied to SWCNT-based actuators. The results of electromechanical response simulations for the NiO2·xH2O/VGCF and NiO2/VGCF actuators predicted the strains at low frequencies as well as the time constants of the devices, confirming that the model is applicable

  9. Electrochemical characterization of single-walled carbon nanotubes for electrochemical double layer capacitors using non-aqueous electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruch, P.W.; Koetz, R.; Wokaun, A.

    2009-01-01

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) were investigated by cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy in a non-aqueous electrolyte, 1 M Et 4 NBF 4 in acetonitrile, suitable for supercapacitors. Further, in situ dilatometry and in situ conductance measurements were performed on single electrodes and the results compared to an activated carbon, YP17. Both materials show capacitive behavior characteristic of high surface area electrodes for supercapacitors, with the maximum full cell gravimetric capacitance being 34 F/g for YP17 and 20 F/g for SWCNTs at 2.5 V with respect to the total active electrode mass. The electronic resistance of SWCNTs and activated carbon decreases significantly during charging, showing similarities of the two materials during electrochemical doping. The SWCNT electrode expands irreversibly during the first electrochemical potential sweep as verified by in situ dilatometry, indicative of at least partial debundling of the SWCNTs. A reversible periodic swelling and shrinking during cycling is observed for both materials, with the magnitude of expansion depending on the type of ions forming the double layer.

  10. Performance of palladium nanoparticle–graphene composite as an efficient electrode material for electrochemical double layer capacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dar, Riyaz A.; Giri, Lily; Karna, Shashi P.; Srivastava, Ashwini K.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Single step synthesis of palladium nanoparticles decorated-graphene nanocomposite. • Improved electron transfer kinetics and superior capacitive performance. • High specific capacitance of 637 F g −1 at a current density of 1.25 A g −1 . • Retention of 91.4% of its initial capacitance after 10000 cycles of testing. - Abstract: Palladium nanoparticle–graphene nanosheet composite (PdNP–GN) is demonstrated as an efficient electrode material in energy storage applications in supercapacitors. Palladium nanoparticle (PdNP) decorated graphene nanosheet (GN) composite was synthesized via a chemical approach in a single step by the simultaneous reduction of graphene oxide (GO) and palladium chloride from the aqueous phase using ascorbic acid as reducing agent. The materials were characterized by scanning and high resolution transmission electron microscopy, Raman, X-ray diffraction and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy which demonstrate that the metal nanoparticles have been uniformly deposited on the surface of graphene nanosheets. The synthesized material has been analyzed by cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectrometry and chronopotentiometry using 1 M KCl as the supporting electrolyte for its application in electrochemical double layer supercapacitors. PdNPs-GN composite showed improved electron transfer kinetics and superior capacitive performance with large specific capacitance of 637 F g −1 , excellent cyclic performance and maximum energy and power densities of 56 Wh kg −1 and 1166 W kg −1 , respectively at a current density of 1.25 A g −1 . This highlights the importance of the synergetic effects of electrochemically efficient Pd nanoparticles and graphene for energy storage applications in supercapacitors.

  11. Preparation of porous carbon spheres from 2-keto-l-gulonic acid mother liquor by oxidation and activation for electric double-layer capacitor application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Zhi-Qiang; Cao, Jing-Pei; Zhao, Xiao-Yan; Wu, Yan; Zhu, Jun-Sheng; Dang, Ya-Li; Zhuang, Qi-Qi; Wei, Xian-Yong

    2018-03-01

    A novel strategy is proposed for the increase of specific surface area (SSA) of porous carbon sphere (PCS) by oxidation and activation. 2-keto-l-gulonic acid mother liquor (GAML) as a high-pollution waste has a relatively high value of reutilization. For its high value-added utilization, GAML is used as the precursor for preparation of PCS as carbon-based electrode materials for electric double-layer capacitor. PCS is prepared by hydrothermal carbonization, carbonization and KOH activation, and Fe(NO 3 ) 3 9H 2 O is used as an oxidizing agent during carbonization. The as-prepared PCS has excellent porosity and high SSA of 2478 m 2  g -1 . Meanwhile, the pore structure of PCS can be controlled by the adjustment of carbonization parameters (carbonization temperature and the loading of Fe(NO 3 ) 3 9H 2 O). Besides, the SSA and specific capacitance of PCS can be increased remarkably when Fe(NO 3 ) 3 9H 2 O is added in carbonization. The specific capacitance of PCS can reach 303.7 F g -1 at 40 mA g -1 . PCSs as electrode material have superior electrochemical stability. After 8000 cycles, the capacitance retention is 98.3% at 2 A g -1 . The electric double-layer capacitance of PCS is improved when CS is carbonized with Fe(NO 3 ) 3 9H 2 O, and the economic and environmental benefits are achieved by the effective recycle of GAML. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The preparation and properties of a novel electrolyte of electrochemical double layer capacitors based on LiPF6 and acetamide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Qi; Zuo Xiaoxi; Liu Jiansheng; Xiao Xin; Shu Dong; Nan Junmin

    2011-01-01

    A novel electrolyte applied in electrochemical double-layer capacitors (EDLCs) has been prepared based on lithium hexafluorophosphate (LiPF 6 ) and acetamide and subsequently characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), electrochemical techniques and so on. The mixtures of LiPF 6 and acetamide at the molar ratios of 1:4 to 1:6 exist as liquids below 25 °C, which is attributed to the melting point depression of mixture and the coordination of the polar groups (C=O and NH groups) of acetamide with Li + and PF 6 − ions. The strong interaction between LiPF 6 and acetamide results in the rupture of the electrovalent bond of LiPF 6 and the breakage of hydrogen bonds among the acetamide molecules, leading to the formation of a liquid electrolyte. The LiPF 6 /acetamide electrolyte with a molar ratio of 1:5.5 exhibits a 5.2 V electrochemical window and suitable ionic conductivity at room temperature. In particular, the coin-type cells with carbon electrodes and LiPF 6 /acetamide electrolyte possess high thermal stability and electrochemical properties, showing that the as-prepared LiPF 6 /acetamide electrolyte is a promising candidate for EDLCs.

  13. Centrifugal spinning: A novel approach to fabricate porous carbon fibers as binder-free electrodes for electric double-layer capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yao; Fu, Kun; Zhang, Shu; Li, Ying; Chen, Chen; Zhu, Jiadeng; Yanilmaz, Meltem; Dirican, Mahmut; Zhang, Xiangwu

    2015-01-01

    Carbon nanofibers (CNFs), among various carbonaceous candidates for electric double-layer capacitor (EDLC) electrodes, draw extensive attention because their one-dimensional architecture offers both shortened electron pathways and high ion-accessible sites. Creating porous structures on CNFs yields larger surface area and enhanced capacitive performance. Herein, porous carbon nanofibers (PCNFs) were synthesized via centrifugal spinning of polyacrylonitrile (PAN)/poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) solutions combined with thermal treatment and were used as binder-free EDLC electrodes. Three precursor fibers with PAN/PMMA weight ratios of 9/1, 7/3 and 5/5 were prepared and carbonized at 700, 800, and 900 °C, respectively. The highest specific capacitance obtained was 144 F g-1 at 0.1 A g-1 with a rate capability of 74% from 0.1 to 2 A g-1 by PCNFs prepared with PAN/PMMA weight ratio of 7/3 at 900 °C. These PCNFs also showed stable cycling performance. The present work demonstrates that PCNFs are promising EDLC electrode candidate and centrifugal spinning offers a simple, cost-effective strategy to produce PCNFs.

  14. Boron cross-linked graphene oxide/polyvinyl alcohol nanocomposite gel electrolyte for flexible solid-state electric double layer capacitor with high performance

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Yi-Fu; Wu, Peng-Fei; Zhang, Ming-Qiu; Ruan, Wen-Hong; Giannelis, Emmanuel P.

    2014-01-01

    A new family of boron cross-linked graphene oxide/polyvinyl alcohol (GO-B-PVA) nanocomposite gels is prepared by freeze-thaw/boron cross-linking method. Then the gel electrolytes saturated with KOH solution are assembled into electric double layer capacitors (EDLCs). Structure, thermal and mechanical properties of GO-B-PVA are explored. The electrochemical properties of EDLCs using GO-B-PVA/KOH are investigated, and compared with those using GO-PVA/KOH gel or KOH solution electrolyte. FTIR shows that boron cross-links are introduced into GO-PVA, while the boronic structure inserted into agglomerated GO sheets is demonstrated by DMA analysis. The synergy effect of the GO and the boron crosslinking benefits for ionic conductivity due to unblocking ion channels, and for improvement of thermal stability and mechanical properties of the electrolytes. Higher specific capacitance and better cycle stability of EDLCs are obtained by using the GO-B-PVA/KOH electrolyte, especially the one at higher GO content. The nanocomposite gel electrolytes with excellent electrochemical properties and solid-like character are candidates for the industrial application in high-performance flexible solid-state EDLCs. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  15. An Approach to Solid-State Electrical Double Layer Capacitors Fabricated with Graphene Oxide-Doped, Ionic Liquid-Based Solid Copolymer Electrolytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattah, N F A; Ng, H M; Mahipal, Y K; Numan, Arshid; Ramesh, S; Ramesh, K

    2016-06-06

    Solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) composed of semi-crystalline poly (vinylidene fluoride-hexafluoropropylene) [P(VdF-HFP)] copolymer, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis (trifluoromethyl sulphonyl) imide [EMI-BTI] and graphene oxide (GO) was prepared and its performance evaluated. The effects of GO nano-filler were investigated in terms of enhancement in ionic conductivity along with the electrochemical properties of its electrical double layer capacitors (EDLC). The GO-doped SPE shows improvement in ionic conductivity compared to the P(VdF-HFP)-[EMI-BTI] SPE system due to the existence of the abundant oxygen-containing functional group in GO that assists in the improvement of the ion mobility in the polymer matrix. The complexation of the materials in the SPE is confirmed in X-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) studies. The electrochemical performance of EDLC fabricated with GO-doped SPE is examined using cyclic voltammetry and charge-discharge techniques. The maximum specific capacitance obtained is 29.6 F∙g -1 , which is observed at a scan rate of 3 mV/s in 6 wt % GO-doped, SPE-based EDLC. It also has excellent cyclic retention as it is able keep the performance of the EDLC at 94% even after 3000 cycles. These results suggest GO doped SPE plays a significant role in energy storage application.

  16. Boron cross-linked graphene oxide/polyvinyl alcohol nanocomposite gel electrolyte for flexible solid-state electric double layer capacitor with high performance

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Yi-Fu

    2014-06-01

    A new family of boron cross-linked graphene oxide/polyvinyl alcohol (GO-B-PVA) nanocomposite gels is prepared by freeze-thaw/boron cross-linking method. Then the gel electrolytes saturated with KOH solution are assembled into electric double layer capacitors (EDLCs). Structure, thermal and mechanical properties of GO-B-PVA are explored. The electrochemical properties of EDLCs using GO-B-PVA/KOH are investigated, and compared with those using GO-PVA/KOH gel or KOH solution electrolyte. FTIR shows that boron cross-links are introduced into GO-PVA, while the boronic structure inserted into agglomerated GO sheets is demonstrated by DMA analysis. The synergy effect of the GO and the boron crosslinking benefits for ionic conductivity due to unblocking ion channels, and for improvement of thermal stability and mechanical properties of the electrolytes. Higher specific capacitance and better cycle stability of EDLCs are obtained by using the GO-B-PVA/KOH electrolyte, especially the one at higher GO content. The nanocomposite gel electrolytes with excellent electrochemical properties and solid-like character are candidates for the industrial application in high-performance flexible solid-state EDLCs. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Double-layer capacitors as dynamic stores for PV applications. Final report; Doppelschichtkondensatoren als dynamische Speicher fuer PV-Anwendungen. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willer, B.; Knorr, R.; Broeker, C.; Burger, B.; Wollny, M.

    1999-07-01

    Double layer capacitors are the system of choice whenever a large number of cycles and high capacity are required. They have the advantages of high cyclic strength, high capacity, freedom of servicing, insensitivity to high temperatures and long life. Drawbacks are low energy density, high self-discharge and high cost.Applications in water pumps, pathfinders and roller blind control systems were investigated. [German] Mit den Ergebnissen steht ein detailliertes Wissen ueber den weltweiten Entwicklungsstand und die physikalischen Eigenschaften von Doppelschichtkondensatoren zur Verfuegung. Ihre Eigenschaften wurden in Bezug auf moegliche photovoltaische Anwendungen hin analysiert. Anwendungsfehlder ergeben sich vorzugsweise dann, wenn hohe Zyklenzahl und Leistungsfaehigkeit gefordert werden. Die Vorteile des neuen Energiespeichers sind seine hohe Zyklenfestigkeit und Leistungsfaehigkeit, seine Wartungsfreiheit, Temperaturunempfindlichkeit und lange Lebensdauer. Ihnen stehen die Nachteile einer geringen Energiedichte, hohen Selbstentladung und hoher Kosten gegenueber. Eine deutliche Steigerung der Gesamteffizienz von photovoltaischen Versorgungseinheiten beim Einsatz von Doppelschichtkondensatoren ergeben energetische Simulationen unterschiedlicher Systeme. Fuer ausgewaehlte photovoltaisch versorgte Anwendungen konnte die Einsatzfaehigkeit von Doppelschichtkondensatoren in Feldtests erprobt und nachgewiesen werden. Wasserpumpensysteme, Pathfinders und eine Rolladensteuerung fuer ein Fenster wurden getestet. Der Einsatz von Doppelschichtkondensatoren zur weiteren Verbreitung photovoltaischer Anwendungen ist bereits heute fuer spezielle Anwendungen sinnvoll und wirtschaftlich. Mit weiter fallenden Preisen fuer die Kondensatoren und der Entwicklung von Kondensatorsystemen mit hoeheren Spannungen werden weitere Anwendungsfelder hinzukommen. Die Basis zur Entwicklung der notwendigen Systemtechnik und ihrer Demonstration in Feldversuchen ist durch die Ergebnisse des

  18. An Approach to Solid-State Electrical Double Layer Capacitors Fabricated with Graphene Oxide-Doped, Ionic Liquid-Based Solid Copolymer Electrolytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. F. A. Fattah

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Solid polymer electrolyte (SPE composed of semi-crystalline poly (vinylidene fluoride-hexafluoropropylene [P(VdF-HFP] copolymer, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis (trifluoromethyl sulphonyl imide [EMI-BTI] and graphene oxide (GO was prepared and its performance evaluated. The effects of GO nano-filler were investigated in terms of enhancement in ionic conductivity along with the electrochemical properties of its electrical double layer capacitors (EDLC. The GO-doped SPE shows improvement in ionic conductivity compared to the P(VdF-HFP-[EMI-BTI] SPE system due to the existence of the abundant oxygen-containing functional group in GO that assists in the improvement of the ion mobility in the polymer matrix. The complexation of the materials in the SPE is confirmed in X-ray diffraction (XRD and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA studies. The electrochemical performance of EDLC fabricated with GO-doped SPE is examined using cyclic voltammetry and charge–discharge techniques. The maximum specific capacitance obtained is 29.6 F∙g−1, which is observed at a scan rate of 3 mV/s in 6 wt % GO-doped, SPE-based EDLC. It also has excellent cyclic retention as it is able keep the performance of the EDLC at 94% even after 3000 cycles. These results suggest GO doped SPE plays a significant role in energy storage application.

  19. Investigation of the Characteristic Properties of Glacial Acetic Acid-Catalyzed Carbon Xerogels and Their Electrochemical Performance for Use as Electrode Materials in Electrical Double-Layer Capacitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Khanh Nguyen Quach

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Glacial acetic acid was used as a catalyst in the preparation process of carbon xerogels from the condensation of resorcinol and formaldehyde for shortening significantly the gelation time. The effect of the resorcinol/catalyst ratio over a large range of 2 to 500, the solvent exchange manner with acetone, and the pyrolysis temperature of 700 to 1000°C on the characteristic properties of the carbon xerogels were investigated. A resorcinol/catalyst ratio of 2 and a pyrolysis temperature at 800°C were found to be the optimal condition for the preparation of carbon xerogels with a well-balanced porosity between micro- and mesopores, high surface area (577.62 m2g−1, and large pore volume (0.97 cm3g−1, which are appropriate for use as electrode materials in an electrical double-layer capacitor. The carbon xerogel electrodes that were prepared under these optimal conditions exhibited a good electrochemical performance with the highest specific capacitance of 169 Fg−1 in 6 M KOH electrolyte at a scan rate of 5 mVs−1 from cyclic voltammetry.

  20. Characterization and organic electric-double-layer-capacitor application of KOH activated coal-tar-pitch-based carbons: Effect of carbonization temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Poo Reum; Lee, Eunji; Kwon, Soon Hyung; Jung, Ji Chul; Kim, Myung-Soo

    2015-12-01

    The present study reports the influence of pre-carbonization on the properties of KOH-activated coal tar pitch (CTP). The change of crystallinity and pore structure of pre-carbonized CTPs as well as their activated carbons (ACs) as function of pre-carbonization temperature are investigated. The crystallinity of pre-carbonized CTPs increases with increasing the carbonization temperature up to 600 °C, but a disorder occurs during the carbonization around 700 °C and an order happens gradually with increasing the carbonization temperatures in range of 800-1000 °C. The CTPs pre-carbonized at high temperatures are more difficult to be activated with KOH than those pre-carbonized at low temperatures due to the increase of micro-crystalline size and the decrease of surface functional groups. The micro-pores and meso-pores are well developed at around 1.0 nm and 2.4 nm, respectively, as the ACs are pre-carbonized at temperatures of 500-600 °C, exhibiting high specific capacitances as electrode materials for electric double layer capacitor (EDLC). Although the specific surface area (SSA) and pore volume of ACs pre-carbonized at temperatures of 900-1000 °C are extraordinary low (non-porous) as compared to those of AC pre-carbonized at 600 °C, their specific capacitances are comparable to each other. The large specific capacitances with low SSA ACs can be attributed to the structural change resulting from the electrochemical activation during the 1st charge above 2.0 V.

  1. Super-capacitive electro-chemical performance of polymer blend gel polymer electrolyte (GPE) in carbon-based electrical double-layer capacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syahidah, S. Nuur; Majid, S.R.

    2013-01-01

    This study reports on the fabrication and comparative performance characteristics of a symmetrical electrical double-layer capacitor (EDLC) employed gel polymer electrolyte (GPE) assembled between carbon based electrodes. Three cells, A, B and C were fabricated using different composition of active materials (activated or porous carbon), binder (PVdF-HFP) and conductivity enhancer (super-P). The configuration of cell A: 0.9 porous carbon/0.1 PVdF-HFP, cell B: 0.45 activated carbon/0.45 porous carbon/0.1 PVdF-HFP and cell C: 0.8 activated carbon/0.1 super-P/0.1 PVdF-HFP. The GPE, comprising a poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP)/poly(vinylidene fluoride co-hexafluoroproplyne) (PVdF-HFP) blend complexed with magnesium triflate, Mg(CF 3 SO 3 ) 2 , was prepared by the solution casting technique at 60 °C. The physico-chemical properties of the GPEs were characterized by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) and cyclic voltammetry (CV). The ionic conductivity at the ambient temperature of the GPE is 2.16 × 10 −4 S cm −1 at 7.5 wt.% of Mg(CF 3 SO 3 ) 2 with a ∼2.6 V electro-chemical stability window. At the 1000th cycle, the specific capacitance, C s of cell A is 89 F g −1 while cell B and C are 63 and 49 F g −1 . Cell A shows excellent long-term cyclic stability (less than a 5% decrease in specific capacitance after 1000 cycles). The best operating voltage for cell A is 1.6 V with the specific capacitance 106 F g −1 after 500 cycles

  2. Leveling of battery load and extension of battery life by serial connection of electric double layer capacitors with batteries for electric vehicles. Experimental results on the small model; Denki jidoshayo denchi to denki nijuso capacitor no chokuretsu setsuzoku ni yoru denchi futan no heijunka oyobi denchijumyo no enshinka. (kogata model ni yoru jikken seika). Kogata model ni yoru jikken seika

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takehara, J.; Okubo, N.; Miyaoka, K. [Chugoku Electric Power Co. Inc., Hiroshima (Japan)

    1996-10-25

    The load leveling method of batteries for electric vehicles was studied for extension of a battery life and mileage every charging. Under large load fluctuation conditions such as deceleration and acceleration, use of electric power sources other than battery for peek load at acceleration can improve a battery life, output power capacity and mileage every charging. Combination of effective recovery of regenerative power at deceleration with its discharge at acceleration is one of the effective methods. The electric double layer capacitors are serially connected with the batteries, regenerative power is charged only into the capacitors, and both voltages of the battery and capacitor are applied to a power circuit. Battery load is reduced by load on the capacitor. Until the capacitor is re-charged by regenerative power after full discharge, power is supplied only by battery through a diode. Capacitor power is used as effectively as possible until approaching considerably low voltage. As peak load of the battery is reduced by 30%, the mileage increases by 5.7%, and the battery cycle life becomes 1.5 times longer. 7 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Capacitive behavior studies on electrical double layer capacitor using poly (vinyl alcohol)–lithium perchlorate based polymer electrolyte incorporated with TiO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Chin-Shen; Teoh, K.H.; Liew, Chiam-Wen; Ramesh, S., E-mail: rameshtsubra@gmail.com

    2014-01-15

    Electric double layer capacitors (EDLCs) based on activated carbon electrodes and poly (vinyl alcohol)–lithium perchlorate (PVA–LiClO{sub 4})-nanosized titania (TiO{sub 2}) doped polymer electrolyte have been fabricated. Incorporation of TiO{sub 2} into PVA–LiClO{sub 4} system increases the ionic conductivity. The highest ionic conductivity of 1.3 × 10{sup −4} S cm{sup −1} is achieved at ambient temperature upon inclusion of 8 wt.% of TiO{sub 2}. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analyses reveal that addition of TiO{sub 2} into polymer system increases the flexibility of polymer chain and favors the ion migration. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses display the surface morphology of the nanocomposite polymer electrolytes. The electrochemical stability window of composite polymer electrolyte is in the range of −2.3 V to 2.3 V as shown in cyclic voltammetry (CV) studies. The performance of EDLC is evaluated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), CV and galvanostatic charge–discharge technique. CV test discloses a nearly rectangular shape, which signifies the capacitive behavior of an ELDC. The EDLC containing composite polymer electrolyte gives higher specific capacitance value of 12.5 F g{sup −1} compared to non-composite polymer electrolyte with capacitance value of 3.0 F g{sup −1} in charge–discharge technique. The obtained specific capacitance of EDLC is in good agreement with each method used in this present work. Inclusion of filler into the polymer electrolyte enhances the electrochemical stability of EDLC. - Highlights: • PVA–LiClO{sub 4}–TiO{sub 2} possesses ionic conductivity value of 1.30 × 10{sup −4} S cm{sup −1}. • CV indicates the electrochemical stability window in the range of −2.3 V to 2.3 V. • The EDLC gives specific capacitance value of 12.5 F g{sup −1}.

  4. Solid-state electric double layer capacitors fabricated with plastic crystal based flexible gel polymer electrolytes: Effective role of electrolyte anions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suleman, Mohd; Kumar, Yogesh; Hashmi, S.A.

    2015-01-01

    Flexible gel polymer electrolyte (GPE) thick films incorporated with solutions of lithium trifluoromethanesulfonate (Li-triflate or LiTf) and lithium bis trifluoromethane-sulfonimide (LiTFSI) in a plastic crystal succinonitrile (SN), entrapped in poly(vinylidine fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVdF-HFP) have been prepared and characterized. The films have been used as electrolytes in the electrical double layer capacitors (EDLCs). Coconut-shell derived activated carbon with high specific surface area (∼2100 m 2 g −1 ) and mixed (micro- and meso-) porosity has been used as EDLC electrodes. The structural, thermal, and electrochemical characterization of the GPEs have been performed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), impedance measurements and cyclic voltammetry. The high ionic conductivity (∼10 −3 S cm −1 at 25 °C), good electrochemical stability window (>4.0 V) and flexible nature of the free-standing films of GPEs show their competence in the fabrication of EDLCs. The EDLCs have been tested using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry, and charge–discharge studies. The EDLCs using LiTf based electrolyte have been found to give higher values of specific capacitance, specific energy, power density (240–280 F g −1 , ∼39 Wh kg −1 and ∼19 kW kg −1 , respectively) than the EDLC cell with LiTFSI based gel electrolyte. EDLCs have been found to show stable performance for ∼10 4 charge–discharge cycles. The comparative studies indicate the effective role of electrolyte anions on the capacitive performance of the solid-state EDLCs. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • Flexible EDLCs with succinonitrile based gel electrolyte membranes are reported. • Anionic size of salts in gel electrolytes plays important role on capacitive performance. • Li-triflate incorporated gel electrolyte shows better performance over LiTFSI-based gel.

  5. Solid-state electric double layer capacitors fabricated with plastic crystal based flexible gel polymer electrolytes: Effective role of electrolyte anions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suleman, Mohd; Kumar, Yogesh; Hashmi, S.A., E-mail: sahashmi@physics.du.ac.in

    2015-08-01

    Flexible gel polymer electrolyte (GPE) thick films incorporated with solutions of lithium trifluoromethanesulfonate (Li-triflate or LiTf) and lithium bis trifluoromethane-sulfonimide (LiTFSI) in a plastic crystal succinonitrile (SN), entrapped in poly(vinylidine fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVdF-HFP) have been prepared and characterized. The films have been used as electrolytes in the electrical double layer capacitors (EDLCs). Coconut-shell derived activated carbon with high specific surface area (∼2100 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}) and mixed (micro- and meso-) porosity has been used as EDLC electrodes. The structural, thermal, and electrochemical characterization of the GPEs have been performed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), impedance measurements and cyclic voltammetry. The high ionic conductivity (∼10{sup −3} S cm{sup −1} at 25 °C), good electrochemical stability window (>4.0 V) and flexible nature of the free-standing films of GPEs show their competence in the fabrication of EDLCs. The EDLCs have been tested using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry, and charge–discharge studies. The EDLCs using LiTf based electrolyte have been found to give higher values of specific capacitance, specific energy, power density (240–280 F g{sup −1}, ∼39 Wh kg{sup −1} and ∼19 kW kg{sup −1}, respectively) than the EDLC cell with LiTFSI based gel electrolyte. EDLCs have been found to show stable performance for ∼10{sup 4} charge–discharge cycles. The comparative studies indicate the effective role of electrolyte anions on the capacitive performance of the solid-state EDLCs. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • Flexible EDLCs with succinonitrile based gel electrolyte membranes are reported. • Anionic size of salts in gel electrolytes plays important role on capacitive performance. • Li-triflate incorporated gel electrolyte shows better

  6. Effect of Pore Structure and Chemistry on the Performance of Activated Oil Sands Petroleum Coke Electrodes for use in Electrochemical Double-Layer Capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuliani, Jocelyn Ellen

    Electrical energy storage is a limiting barrier to widespread usage and commercialization of sustainable and renewable energy sources, such as wind and solar energy, as well as integration of electric vehicles. Electrochemical double-layer capacitors (EDLCs) are a promising energy storage technology that offers the benefits of high power density, long cycle life, rapid charging rates, and moderate energy density. The energy storage mechanism of EDLCs is physical ion adsorption on the surface of porous carbon electrodes. This thesis is an investigation of three different sections relating to EDLCs: 1) techniques to properly characterize novel porous carbon electrode materials, 2) investigation of activated oil sands petroleum coke (APC) as the electrode material for EDLCs, and 3) a systematic study of the effects of porous carbon structure and chemistry on EDLC performance. In the first section, it was shown that variations in operating conditions and testing techniques can lead to discrepancies in measured and reported capacitance. Therefore, it was concluded that a standardized approach is necessary in order to properly compare different porous carbon electrodes. In the second section, APC was investigated as a novel electrode material for EDLCs. PetCoke is a carbon dense material that can be activated with potassium hydroxide to generate high surface area porous carbon materials. These materials show promising electrochemical performance in EDLCs, with capacitance values up to 400 Fg-1 in 4M potassium hydroxide aqueous electrolytes, depending on the operating conditions. Additionally, the power density of these materials is comparable to that of other carbon nanomaterials, which are more costly and challenging to produce. Finally, the third section investigates the relationship between measured capacitance, and carbon macrostructure, meso-structure, microstructure, and oxygen content. In each of these studies, the desired parameter was varied, while all others

  7. Analysis of carrier behavior in C60/P(VDF-TrFE) double-layer capacitor by using electric-field-induced optical second-harmonic generation measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui, Xiaojin; Taguchi, Dai; Manaka, Takaaki; Iwamoto, Mitsumasa

    2013-01-01

    By using displacement current measurement (DCM) and electric-field-induced optical second-harmonic generation (EFISHG) measurement, we studied the carrier behavior in the indium-tin oxide (ITO)/Poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) (P(VDF-TrFE))/C60/Au(or Al) capacitors. Two DCM peaks appeared asymmetrically at around −35.5 V and +30.0 V in the dark. Correspondingly, the EFISHG response from the C60 layer was observed, but the peak positions were different with respect to DCM ones. The results show that the spontaneous polarization of the ferroelectric P(VDF-TrFE) polymeric layer directly affects the electric field in the C60 layer, and thus governs the carrier motion in this layer. As a result, the C60 layer serves like an insulator in the dark, while electrons and holes are captured and released at the interface in response to the turn-over of spontaneous polarization of ferroelectric layer. On the other hand, under white light illumination, C60 layer serves like a conductor due to the increase of photogenerated mobile carriers, and these carriers dominate the carrier motions therein. Our findings here will be helpful for analyzing carrier behaviors in organic electronic devices using ferroelectric polymers

  8. Analysis of carrier behavior in C60/P(VDF-TrFE) double-layer capacitor by using electric-field-induced optical second-harmonic generation measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, Xiaojin [Department of Physical Electronics, Tokyo Institute of Technology 2-12-1 O-okayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8552 (Japan); State Key Laboratory of New Ceramics and Fine Processing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Taguchi, Dai; Manaka, Takaaki; Iwamoto, Mitsumasa, E-mail: iwamoto@pe.titech.ac.jp [Department of Physical Electronics, Tokyo Institute of Technology 2-12-1 O-okayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8552 (Japan)

    2013-12-21

    By using displacement current measurement (DCM) and electric-field-induced optical second-harmonic generation (EFISHG) measurement, we studied the carrier behavior in the indium-tin oxide (ITO)/Poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) (P(VDF-TrFE))/C60/Au(or Al) capacitors. Two DCM peaks appeared asymmetrically at around −35.5 V and +30.0 V in the dark. Correspondingly, the EFISHG response from the C60 layer was observed, but the peak positions were different with respect to DCM ones. The results show that the spontaneous polarization of the ferroelectric P(VDF-TrFE) polymeric layer directly affects the electric field in the C60 layer, and thus governs the carrier motion in this layer. As a result, the C60 layer serves like an insulator in the dark, while electrons and holes are captured and released at the interface in response to the turn-over of spontaneous polarization of ferroelectric layer. On the other hand, under white light illumination, C60 layer serves like a conductor due to the increase of photogenerated mobile carriers, and these carriers dominate the carrier motions therein. Our findings here will be helpful for analyzing carrier behaviors in organic electronic devices using ferroelectric polymers.

  9. Double layers in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlqvist, P.

    1982-07-01

    For more than a decade it has been realised that electrostatic double layers are likely to occur in space. We briefly discuss the theoretical background of such double layers. Most of the paper is devoted to an account of the observational evidence for double layers in the ionosphere and magnetosphere of the Earth. Several different experiments are reviewed including rocket and satellite measurements and ground based observations. It is concluded that the observational evidence for double layers in space is very strong. The experimental results indicate that double layers with widely different properties may exist in space. (Author)

  10. Double layers in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlqvist, P.

    1982-01-01

    For more than a decade it has been realised that electrostatic double layers are likely to occur in space. The author briefly discusses the theoretical background of such double layers. Most of the paper is devoted to an account of the observational evidence for double layers in the ionosphere and magnetosphere of the Earth. Several different experiments are reviewed including rocket and satellite measurements and ground based observations. It is concluded that the observational evidence for double layers in space is very strong. The experimental results indicate that double layers with widely different properties may exist in space. (Auth.)

  11. Significance of the double-layer capacitor effect in polar rubbery dielectrics and exceptionally stable low-voltage high transconductance organic transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Lee, Wen-Ya; Kong, Desheng; Pfattner, Raphael; Schweicher, Guillaume; Nakajima, Reina; Lu, Chien; Mei, Jianguo; Lee, Tae Hoon; Wu, Hung-Chin; Lopez, Jeffery; Diao, Ying; Gu, Xiaodan; Himmelberger, Scott; Niu, Weijun; Matthews, James R; He, Mingqian; Salleo, Alberto; Nishi, Yoshio; Bao, Zhenan

    2015-12-14

    Both high gain and transconductance at low operating voltages are essential for practical applications of organic field-effect transistors (OFETs). Here, we describe the significance of the double-layer capacitance effect in polar rubbery dielectrics, even when present in a very low ion concentration and conductivity. We observed that this effect can greatly enhance the OFET transconductance when driven at low voltages. Specifically, when the polar elastomer poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (e-PVDF-HFP) was used as the dielectric layer, despite a thickness of several micrometers, we obtained a transconductance per channel width 30 times higher than that measured for the same organic semiconductors fabricated on a semicrystalline PVDF-HFP with a similar thickness. After a series of detailed experimental investigations, we attribute the above observation to the double-layer capacitance effect, even though the ionic conductivity is as low as 10(-10) S/cm. Different from previously reported OFETs with double-layer capacitance effects, our devices showed unprecedented high bias-stress stability in air and even in water.

  12. Significance of the double-layer capacitor effect in polar rubbery dielectrics and exceptionally stable low-voltage high transconductance organic transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Lee, Wen-Ya; Kong, Desheng; Pfattner, Raphael; Schweicher, Guillaume; Nakajima, Reina; Lu, Chien; Mei, Jianguo; Lee, Tae Hoon; Wu, Hung-Chin; Lopez, Jeffery; Diao, Ying; Gu, Xiaodan; Himmelberger, Scott; Niu, Weijun; Matthews, James R.; He, Mingqian; Salleo, Alberto; Nishi, Yoshio; Bao, Zhenan

    2015-01-01

    Both high gain and transconductance at low operating voltages are essential for practical applications of organic field-effect transistors (OFETs). Here, we describe the significance of the double-layer capacitance effect in polar rubbery dielectrics, even when present in a very low ion concentration and conductivity. We observed that this effect can greatly enhance the OFET transconductance when driven at low voltages. Specifically, when the polar elastomer poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (e-PVDF-HFP) was used as the dielectric layer, despite a thickness of several micrometers, we obtained a transconductance per channel width 30 times higher than that measured for the same organic semiconductors fabricated on a semicrystalline PVDF-HFP with a similar thickness. After a series of detailed experimental investigations, we attribute the above observation to the double-layer capacitance effect, even though the ionic conductivity is as low as 10–10 S/cm. Different from previously reported OFETs with double-layer capacitance effects, our devices showed unprecedented high bias-stress stability in air and even in water. PMID:26658331

  13. Formation of double layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leung, P.; Wong, A.Y.; Quon, B.H.

    1981-01-01

    Experiments on both stationary and propagating double layers and a related analytical model are described. Stationary double layers were produced in a multiple plasma device, in which an electron drift current was present. An investigation of the plasma parameters for the stable double layer condition is described. The particle distribution in the stable double layer establishes a potential profile, which creates electron and ion beams that excite plasma instabilities. The measured characteristics of the instabilities are consistent with the existence of the double layer. Propagating double layers are formed when the initial electron drift current is large. Ths slopes of the transition region increase as they propagate. A physical model for the formation of a double layer in the experimental device is described. This model explains the formation of the low potential region on the basis of the space charge. This space charge is created by the electron drift current. The model also accounts for the role of ions in double layer formation and explains the formation of moving double layers. (Auth.)

  14. The electric double layer has a life of its own

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merlet, Céline; Limmer, David T.; Salanne, Mathieu; Van Roij, René; Madden, Paul A.; Chandler, David; Rotenberg, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    Using molecular dynamics simulations with recently developed importance sampling methods, we show that the differential capacitance of a model ionic liquid based double-layer capacitor exhibits an anomalous dependence on the applied electrical potential. Such behavior is qualitatively incompatible

  15. Physical properties of a new Deep Eutectic Solvent based on lithium bis[(trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl]imide and N-methylacetamide as superionic suitable electrolyte for lithium ion batteries and electric double layer capacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boisset, Aurélien; Jacquemin, Johan; Anouti, Mérièm

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Preparation of new Deep Eutectic Solvent (DES) based on N-methylacetamide and TFSI. • Characterization of conductivity, viscosity and thermal properties of DES. • DES presents a superionic character in Walden classification. • DES is suitable electrolyte for lithium ion batteries and electric double layer capacitors. -- Abstract: Herein we present a study on the physical/chemical properties of a new Deep Eutectic Solvent (DES) based on N-methylacetamide (MAc) and lithium bis[(trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl]imide (LiTFSI). Due to its interesting properties, such as wide liquid-phase range from −60 °C to 280 °C, low vapor pressure, and high ionic conductivity up to 28.4 mS cm −1 at 150 °C and at x LiTFSI = 1/4, this solution can be practically used as electrolyte for electrochemical storage systems such as electric double-layer capacitors (EDLCs) and/or lithium ion batteries (LiBs). Firstly, relationships between its transport properties (conductivity and viscosity) as a function of composition and temperature were discussed through Arrhenius’ Law and Vogel–Tamman–Fulcher (VTF) equations, as well as by using the Walden classification. From this investigation, it appears that this complex electrolyte possesses a number of excellent transport properties, like a superionic character for example. Based on which, we then evaluated its electrochemical performances as electrolyte for EDLCs and LiBs applications by using activated carbon (AC) and lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO 4 ) electrodes, respectively. These results demonstrate that this electrolyte has a good compatibility with both electrodes (AC and LiFePO 4 ) in each testing cell driven also by excellent electrochemical properties in specific capacitance, rate and cycling performances, indicating that the LiTFSI/MAc DES can be a promising electrolyte for EDLCs and LiBs applications especially for those requiring high safety and stability

  16. A double layer review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Block, L.P.

    1977-06-01

    A review of the main results on electrostatic double layers (sometimes called space charge layers or sheaths) obtained from theory, and laboratory and space experiments up to the spring of 1977 is given. By means of barium jets and satellite probes, double layers have now been found at the altitudes, earlier predicted theoretically. The general potential distribution above the auroral zone, suggested by inverted V-events and electric field reversals, is corroborated. (author)

  17. Tunable fractional-order capacitor using layered ferroelectric polymers

    KAUST Repository

    Agambayev, Agamyrat; Patole, Shashikant P.; Bagci, Hakan; Salama, Khaled N.

    2017-01-01

    Pairs of various Polyvinylidene fluoride P(VDF)-based polymers are used for fabricating bilayer fractional order capacitors (FOCs). The polymer layers are constructed using a simple drop casting approach. The resulting FOC has two advantages: It can

  18. A critical overview of definitions and determination techniques of the internal resistance using lithium-ion, lead-acid, nickel metal-hydride batteries and electrochemical double-layer capacitors as examples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piłatowicz, Grzegorz; Marongiu, Andrea; Drillkens, Julia; Sinhuber, Philipp; Sauer, Dirk Uwe

    2015-11-01

    The internal resistance (Ri) is one of the key parameters that determine the current state of electrochemical storage systems (ESS). It is crucial for estimating cranking capability in conventional cars, available power in modern hybrid and electric vehicles and for determining commonly used factors such as state-of-health (SoH) and state-of-function (SoF). However, ESS are complex and non-linear systems. Their Ri depends on many parameters such as current rate, temperature, SoH and state-of-charge (SoC). It is also a fact that no standardized methodologies exist and many different definitions and ways of Ri determination are being used. Nevertheless, in many cases authors are not aware of the consequences that occur when different Ri definitions are being used, such as possible misinterpretations, doubtful comparisons and false figures of merit. This paper focuses on an application-oriented separation between various Ri definitions and highlights the differences between them. The investigation was based on the following technologies: lead-acid, lithium-ion and nickel metal-hydride batteries as well as electrochemical double-layer capacitors. It is not the target of this paper to provide a standardized definition of Ri but to give researchers, engineers and manufacturers a possibility to understand what the term Ri means in their own work.

  19. Electrical double layer capacitor using poly(methyl methacrylate)–C4BO8Li gel polymer electrolyte and carbonaceous material from shells of mata kucing (Dimocarpus longan) fruit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arof, A.K.; Kufian, M.Z.; Syukur, M.F.; Aziz, M.F.; Abdelrahman, A.E.; Majid, S.R.

    2012-01-01

    Poly(methyl methacrylate), PMMA based gel polymer electrolytes (GPE) containing immobilized lithium bis(oxalato)borate, C 4 BO 8 Li or LiBOB dissolved in a propylene carbonate–ethylene carbonate binary solvent were prepared by heating the cast solution between 70 and 80 °C for 20 min. The electrolyte composition with 5 wt.% PMMA exhibited the highest conductivity of 3.27 and 7.46 mS cm −1 at 298 and 343 K respectively. Cyclic voltammetry studies on the GPE containing 15 wt.% PMMA and 85 wt.% (0.6 M LiBOB) dissolved in equal weight of ethylene and propylene carbonates showed that the electrochemical potential stability window of the electrolyte lies in the range between −1.7 to +1.7 V. Linear sweep voltammetry indicates the gel polymer electrolyte is stable up to 1.7 V. The electrical double layer capacitor (EDLC) using the highest conducting GPE and activated carbon derived from shells of the mata kucing (Dimocarpus longan) fruit has capacitance of ∼685 mF g −1 on the first cycle. The EDLC performance was also characterized using cyclic voltammetry and charge–discharge processes at constant current.

  20. Layered double hydroxides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    López Rayo, Sandra; Imran, Ahmad; Hansen, Hans Chr. Bruun

    2017-01-01

    A novel zinc (Zn) fertilizer concept based on Zn doped layered double hydroxides (Zn-doped Mg-Fe-LDHs) has been investigated. Zn-doped Mg-Fe-LDHs were synthetized, their chemical composition was analyzed and their nutrient release was studied in buffered solutions with different pH values. Uptake...

  1. Gravitational double layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senovilla, José M M

    2014-01-01

    I analyze the properties of thin shells through which the scalar curvature R is discontinuous in gravity theories with Lagrangian F(R) = R − 2Λ + αR 2 on the bulk. These shells/domain walls are of a new kind because they possess, in addition to the standard energy–momentum tensor, an external energy flux vector, an external scalar pressure/tension and, most exotic of all, another energy–momentum contribution resembling classical dipole distributions on a shell: a double layer. I prove that all these contributions are necessary to make the entire energy–momentum tensor divergence-free. This is the first known occurrence of such a type of double layer in a gravity theory. I present explicit examples in constant-curvature five-dimensional bulks, with a brief study of their properties: new physical behaviors arise. (fast track communications)

  2. Capacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trotter, Donald M., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Presents a historical backdrop for a discussion of capacitor design and function. Discusses the production, importance, and function of two types of miniature capacitors; electrolytic and multilayer ceramic capacitors. Describes the function of these miniature capacitors in comparison to the Leyden jar, a basic demonstration of capacitance. (CW)

  3. Layered double hydroxides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    López Rayo, Sandra; Imran, Ahmad; Hansen, Hans Chr. Bruun

    2017-01-01

    A novel zinc (Zn) fertilizer concept based on Zn doped layered double hydroxides (Zn-doped Mg-Fe-LDHs) has been investigated. Zn-doped Mg-Fe-LDHs were synthetized, their chemical composition was analyzed and their nutrient release was studied in buffered solutions with different pH values. Uptake...... equation showing maximum release at pH 5.2, reaching approximately 45% of the total Zn content. The Zn concentrations in the plants receiving the LDHs were between 2- and 9.5-fold higher than those in plants without Zn addition. A positive effect of the LDHs was also found in soil. This work documents...

  4. Nanoporous carbons from cypress Ⅱ. Application to electric double layer capacitors%由柏木制备纳米孔结构炭材料Ⅱ.电双层电容器中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eiki Ito; Sylwia Mozia; Masaharu Okuda; Takashi Nakano; Masahiro Toyoda; Michio Inagaki

    2007-01-01

    通过过热蒸气活化法制备的柏木炭中含有大量的中孔,可用于制备以1 mol/L硫酸为电解液的双电层电容器(EDLCs).在50 mA/g电流密度下,柏木炭的质量比电容(C50)为190 F/g;在1 000 mA/g电流密度下,其质量比电容(C1000)为140 F/g.按C1000/C50定义的性能倍率约为0.72.测得的高电容量可归因于微孔和大孔所造成表面的贡献.以简易浸泡法负载少量NiO粒子后,柏木炭的质量比电容可以提高约13%,体积比电容提高约27%,而其性能倍率保持不变.%Cypress charcoals, which were prepared under super-heated steam and had a relatively large amount of mesopores, were used in electric double layer capacitors (EDLCs) in 1 mol/L H2SO4 electrolyte. The gravimetric capacitance of cypress charcoals was about 190 F/g at a current density of 50 mA/g (C50) and 140 F/g at 1 000 mA/g (C1000) and the performance rating defined by C1000/C50 was about 0.72. The capacitance observed was explained by the contributions from the surfaces from the micropores and the larger pores. By loading minute NiO particles through a simple impregnating process, the capacitance of the loaded charcoals was enhanced by about 13% in gravimetric capacitance and by about 27% in volumetric capacitance and the performance rating was kept the same.

  5. Layering and Ordering in Electrochemical Double Layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yihua [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439, United States; Kawaguchi, Tomoya [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439, United States; Pierce, Michael S. [Rochester Institute of Technology, School of Physics and Astronomy, Rochester, New York 14623, United States; Komanicky, Vladimir [Faculty of Science, Safarik University, 041 54 Kosice, Slovakia; You, Hoydoo [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439, United States

    2018-02-26

    Electrochemical double layers (EDL) form at electrified interfaces. While Gouy-Chapman model describes moderately charged EDL, formation of Stern layers was predicted for highly charged EDL. Our results provide structural evidence for a Stern layer of cations, at potentials close to hydrogen evolution in alkali fluoride and chloride electrolytes. Layering was observed by x-ray crystal truncation rods and atomic-scale recoil responses of Pt(111) surface layers. Ordering in the layer is confirmed by glancing-incidence in-plane diffraction measurements.

  6. A quick method to determine the capacitance characteristics of thin layer X5R multilayer capacitors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mikkenie, R.; Steigelmann, O.; Groen, W.A.; ten Elshof, Johan E.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of Y2O3 concentration on the dielectric properties of ceramic disc capacitors and multilayer capacitors containing 50 dielectric layers with an approximate thickness of 3 μm were investigated. The relative permittivity and temperature coefficient of capacity of multilayer capacitors at

  7. A quick method to determine the capacitance characteristics of thin layer X5R multilayer capacitors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mikkenie, R.; Steigelmann, O.; Groen, W.A.; Elshof, J.E. ten

    2012-01-01

    The effect of Y2O3 concentration on the dielectric properties of ceramic disc capacitors and multilayer capacitors containing 50 dielectric layers with an approximate thickness of 3µm were investigated. The relative permittivity and temperature coefficient of capacity of multilayer capacitors at low

  8. Electroresistance Effect in Gold Thin Film Induced by Ionic-Liquid-Gated Electric Double Layer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nakayama, Hiroyasu; Ye, Jianting; Ohtani, Takashi; Fujikawa, Yasunori; Ando, Kazuya; Iwasa, Yoshihiro; Saitoh, Eiji

    Electroresistance effect was detected in a metallic thin film using ionic-liquid-gated electric-double-layer transistors (EDLTs). We observed reversible modulation of the electric resistance of a Au thin film. In this system, we found that an electric double layer works as a nanogap capacitor with

  9. Tunable fractional-order capacitor using layered ferroelectric polymers

    KAUST Repository

    Agambayev, Agamyrat

    2017-09-05

    Pairs of various Polyvinylidene fluoride P(VDF)-based polymers are used for fabricating bilayer fractional order capacitors (FOCs). The polymer layers are constructed using a simple drop casting approach. The resulting FOC has two advantages: It can be easily integrated with printed circuit boards, and its constant phase angle (CPA) can be tuned by changing the thickness ratio of the layers. Indeed, our experiments show that the CPA of the fabricated FOCs can be tuned within the range from -83° to -65° in the frequency band changing from 150 kHz to 10 MHz. Additionally, we provide an empirical formula describing the relationship between the thickness ratio and the CPA, which is highly useful for designing FOCs with the desired CPA.

  10. Double layers above the aurora

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Temerin, M.; Mozer, F.S.

    1987-01-01

    Two different kinds of double layers were found in association with auroral precipitation. One of these is the so-called electrostatic shock, which is oriented at an oblique angle to the magnetic field in such a way that the perpendicular electric field is much larger than the parallel electric field. This type of double layer is often found at the edges of regions of upflowing ion beams and the direction of the electric fields in the shock points toward the ion beam. The potential drop through the shock can be several kV and is comparable to the total potential needed to produce auroral acceleration. Instabilities associated with the shock may generate obliquely propagating Alfven waves, which may accelerate electrons to produce flickering auroras. The flickering aurora provides evidence that the electrostatic shock may have large temporal fluctuations. The other kind of double layer is the small-amplitude double layer found in regions of upward flowing in beams, often in association with electrostatic ion cyclotron waves. The parallel and perpendicular electric fields in these structures are comparable in magnitude. The associated potentials are a few eV. Since many such double layers are found in regions of upward flowing ion beams, the combined potential drop through a set of these double layers can be substantial

  11. Global effects of double layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raad, M.A.

    1984-12-01

    Locally the formation of an electrostatic double layer in a current carrying plasma leads to a direct acceleration of particles which may penetrate far into the surrounding medium. The potential across the double layer, giving this acceleration, must be maintained by the external system and is a basic parameter for the local to global coupling. The double layer potential is associated with an electric field parallel to the magnetic field. In general this leads to a magnetohydrodynamic relaxation of the surrounding medium providing the influx of energy which is dissipated by the double layer. The double layer potential is limited as is the maximum possible rate of energy influx. If the global response of the external medium can be represented by an external circuit and if an equivalent circuit element can be found to represent the double layer, for example a negative resistance for intermediate time scales, it is possible to give a description of the dynamics and stability of the whole system. (Author)

  12. On the physics of relativistic double layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlqvist, P.

    1982-06-01

    A model of a strong, time-independent, and relativistic double layer is studied. Besides double layers having the electric field parallel to the current the model also describes a certain type of oblique double layers. The 'Langmuir condition' (ratio of ion current density to electron current density) as well as an expression for the potential drop of the double layer are derived. Furthermore, the distribution of charged particles, electric field, and potential within the double layer are clarified and discussed. It is found that the properties of relativistic double layers differ substantially from the properties of corresponding non-relativistic double layers. (Author)

  13. Transition from single to multiple double layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, C.; Hershkowitz, N.

    1982-01-01

    It is shown that laboratory double layers become multiple double layers when the ratio of Debye length to system length is decreased. This result exhibits characteristics described by boundary layer theory

  14. Some theoretical aspects of electrostatic double layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlqvist, P.

    1978-11-01

    A review is presented of the main results of the theoretical work on electrostatic double layers. The general properties of double layers are first considered. Then the time-independent double layer is discussed. The discussion deals with the potential drop, the thickness, and some necessary criteria for the existence and stability of the layer. As a complement to the study of the timeindependent double layer a few remarks are also made upon the timedependent double layer. Finally the question of how double layers are formed and maintained is treated. Several possible formation mechanisms are considered. (author)

  15. Phase shift PWM with double two-switch bridge for high power capacitor charging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karandikar, U.S.; Singh, Yashpal; Thakurta, A.C.

    2013-01-01

    Pulse power supply systems working at higher voltage and high repetition rate demands for higher power from capacitor chargers. Capacitor charging requirement become more challenging in such cases. In pulse power circuits, energy storage capacitor should be charged to its desired voltage before the next switching occurs. It is discharged within a small time, delivering large pulse power. A capacitor charger has to work with wide load variation repeatedly. Many schemes are used for this purpose. The proposed scheme aims at reducing stresses on switches by reducing peak current and their evils. A high voltage power supply is designed for capacitor charging. The proposed scheme is based on a Phase-Shifted PWM without using any extra component to achieve soft switching. Indirect constant average current capacitor charging is achieved with a simple control scheme. A double two-switch bridge is proposed to enhance reliability. Power supply has been developed to charge a capacitor of 50 μF to 2.5 kV at 25 Hz. (author)

  16. Two-layer radio frequency MEMS fractal capacitors in PolyMUMPS for S-band applications

    KAUST Repository

    Elshurafa, Amro M.; Salama, Khaled N.

    2012-01-01

    In this Letter, the authors fabricate for the first time MEMS fractal capacitors possessing two layers and compare their performance characteristics with the conventional parallel-plate capacitor and previously reported state-of-the-art single

  17. Modelling of Leakage Current Through Double Dielectric Gate Stack in Metal Oxide Semiconductor Capacitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fatimah A Noor; Mikrajuddin Abdullah; Sukirno; Khairurrijal

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we have derived analytical expression of leakage current through double barriers in Metal Oxide Semiconductor (MOS) capacitor. Initially, electron transmittance through the MOS capacitor was derived by including the coupling between the transverse and longitudinal energies. The transmittance was then employed to obtain leakage current through the double barrier. In this model, we observed the effect of electron velocity due to the coupling effect and the oxide thickness to the leakage current. The calculated results showed that the leakage current decreases as the electron velocity increases. (author)

  18. Two-layer radio frequency MEMS fractal capacitors in PolyMUMPS for S-band applications

    KAUST Repository

    Elshurafa, Amro M.

    2012-07-23

    In this Letter, the authors fabricate for the first time MEMS fractal capacitors possessing two layers and compare their performance characteristics with the conventional parallel-plate capacitor and previously reported state-of-the-art single-layer MEMS fractal capacitors. Explicitly, a capacitor with a woven structure and another with an interleaved configuration were fabricated in the standard PolyMUMPS surface micromachining process and tested at S-band frequencies. The self-resonant frequencies of the fabricated capacitors were close to 10GHz, which is better than that of the parallel-plate capacitor, which measured only 5.5GHz. Further, the presented capacitors provided a higher capacitance when compared with the state-of-the-art-reported MEMS fractal capacitors created using a single layer at the expense of a lower quality factor. © 2012 The Institution of Engineering and Technology.

  19. The theory of double layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schamel, H.

    1982-01-01

    Numerical and in some degree laboratory experiments suggest the existence of at least two different kinds of time-independent double layers: a strictly monotonic transition of the electrostatic potential and a transition accompanied by a negative spike at the low potential side (ion acoustic DL). An interpretation of both is presented in terms of analytic BGK modes. The first class of DLs commonly observed in voltage- or beam-driven plasmas needs for its existence beam-type distributions satisfying a Bohm criterion. The potential drop is at least of the order of Tsub(e), and stability arguments favour currents which satisfy the Langmuir condition. The second class found in current-driven plasma simulations is correlated with ion holes. This latter kind of nonlinear wave-solutions is linearly based on the slow ion-acoustic mode and exists due to a vortex-like distortion of the ion distribution in the thermal range. During the growth of an ion hole which is triggered by ion-acoustic fluctuations, the partial reflection of streaming electrons causes different plasma states on both sides of the potential dip and makes the ion hole asymmetric giving rise to an effective potential drop. This implies that the amplitude of this second type of double layers has an upper limit of 1-2 Tsub(e) and presumes a temperature ratio of Tsub(e)/Tsub(i) > or approximately 3 in coincidence with the numerical results. (Auth.)

  20. Capacitors for Integrated Circuits Produced by Means of a Double Implantation Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zukowski, P.; Partyka, J.; Wegierek, P.

    1998-01-01

    The paper presents a description of a method to produce capacitors in integrated circuits that consists in implanting weakly doped silicon with the same impurity, then subjecting it to annealing (producing the inner plate) and implanting it again with ions of neutral elements to produce the dielectric layer. Results of the testing capacitors produced that way are also presented. Unit capacity of C u = 4.5 nF/mm 2 at tgδ = 0.01 has been obtained. The authors are of the opinion that the interesting problem of discontinuous variations of dielectric losses and capacities considered as functions of temperature, must be viewed as an open problem. (author)

  1. Double Layer Dynamics in a Collisionless Magnetoplasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iizuka, S.; Michelsen, Poul; Juul Rasmussen, Jens

    and propagation of a double layer. The period of the oscillations is determined by the propagation length of the double layer. The current is limited during the propagation of the double layer by a growing negative potential barrier formed on the low potential tail. Similar phenomena appear when a potential......An experimental investigation of the dynamics of double layers is presented. The experiments are performed in a Q-machine plasma and the double layers are generated by applying a positive step potential to a cold collector plate terminating the plasma column. The double layer is created...... at the grounded plasma source just after the pulse is applied and it propagates towards the collector with a speed around the ion acoustic speed. When the collector is biased positively, large oscillations are obserced in the plasma current. These oscillations are found to be related to a recurring formation...

  2. Three Dimensional Double Layers in Magnetized Plasmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jovanovic, D.; Lynov, Jens-Peter; Michelsen, Poul

    1982-01-01

    Experimental results are presented which demonstrate the formation of fully three dimensional double layers in a magnetized plasma. The measurements are performed in a magnetized stationary plasma column with radius 1.5 cm. Double layers are produced by introducing an electron beam with radius 0.......4 cm along the magnetic field from one end of the column. The voltage drop across the double layer is found to be determined by the energy of the incoming electron beam. In general we find that the width of the double layer along the external magnetic field is determined by plasma density and beam...

  3. Dynamical Aspects of Electrostatic Double Layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raadu, M.A.; Juul Rasmussen, J.

    1988-01-01

    Electrostatic double layers have been proposed as an acceleration mechanism in solar flares and other astrophysical objects. They have been extensively studied in the laboratory and by means of computer simulations. The theory of steady-state double layers implies several existence criteria...

  4. Instability limits for spontaneous double layer formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, J. Jr.; Galante, M. E.; McCarren, D.; Scime, E. E.; Sears, S.; VanDervort, R. W.; Magee, R. M.; Reynolds, E.

    2013-01-01

    We present time-resolved measurements that demonstrate that large amplitude electrostatic instabilities appear in pulsed, expanding helicon plasmas at the same time as particularly strong double layers appear in the expansion region. A significant cross-correlation between the electrostatic fluctuations and fluctuations in the number of ions accelerated by the double layer electric field is observed. No correlation is observed between the electrostatic fluctuations and ions that have not passed through the double layer. These measurements confirm that the simultaneous appearance of the electrostatic fluctuations and the double layer is not simple coincidence. In fact, the accelerated ion population is responsible for the growth of the instability. The double layer strength, and therefore, the velocity of the accelerated ions, is limited by the appearance of the electrostatic instability

  5. Iodine encapsulation in CNTs and its application for electrochemical capacitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taniguchi, Y.; Ishii, Y.; Al-zubaidi, A.; Kawasaki, S.; Rashid, M.; Syakirin, A.

    2016-01-01

    We report the experimental results for new type electrochemical capacitor using iodine redox reaction in single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). It was found that the energy density of the present redox capacitor using SWCNTs is almost three times larger than that of the normal electric double layer capacitor.

  6. Iodine encapsulation in CNTs and its application for electrochemical capacitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taniguchi, Y.; Ishii, Y.; Al-zubaidi, A.; Kawasaki, S., E-mail: kawasaki.shinji@nitech.ac.jp [Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso, Showa, Nagoya, Aichi (Japan); Rashid, M.; Syakirin, A. [Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2016-07-06

    We report the experimental results for new type electrochemical capacitor using iodine redox reaction in single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). It was found that the energy density of the present redox capacitor using SWCNTs is almost three times larger than that of the normal electric double layer capacitor.

  7. Synthesis and charge storage properties of double-layered NiSi nanocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Jong-Hwan

    2010-01-01

    Based on bidirectional diffusion of Ni atoms, double-layered nickel silicide (NiSi) nanocrystals (NCs) for multilevel charge storage were fabricated, and their charge storage properties were examined. The double layer was produced by long-term thermal annealing (for 4 h at 900 o C) of a sandwich structure comprised of a thin Ni film of 0.3 nm sandwiched between two silicon-rich oxide (SiO 1.36 ) layers. Transmission electron microscopic image clearly exhibits a distinct NiSi nanocrystal double layer with a gap of about 7 nm between the mean positions of particle distribution in each NC layer. Capacitance-voltage measurements on the metal/oxide/semiconductor (MOS) capacitors with the double-layered NiSi nanocrystals are shown to have the apparent two plateaus of charge storage, the large memory window of about 9 V and the improved charge retention stability.

  8. Double layers and circuits in astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfven, H.

    1986-05-01

    As the rate of energy release in a double layer with voltage DeltaV is P corresponding to IDeltaV, a double layer must be treated part of a circuit which delivers the current I. As neither double layer nor circuit can be derived from magnetofluid models of a plasma, such models are useless for treating energy transfer by menas of double layers. They must be replaced by particle models and circuit theory. A simple circuit is suggested which is applied to the energizing of auroroal particles, to solar flares, and to intergalactic double radio sources. Application to the heliospheric current systems leads to the prediction of two double layers on the sun's axis which may give radiations detectable from earth. Double layers in space should be classified as a new type of celestial object (one example is the double radio sources). It is tentatively suggested in X-ray and gamma-ray bursts may be due to exploding double layers (although annihilation is an alternative energy source). A study of how a number of the most used textbooks in astrophysics treat important concepts like double layers, critical velocity, pinch effects and circuits is made. It is found that students using these textbooks remain essentially ignorant of even the existence of these, in spite of the fact that some of them have been well known for half a centry (e.g., double layers, Langmuir, 1929: pinch effect, Bennet, 1934). The conclusion is that astrophysics is too important to be left in the hands of the astrophysicist. Earth bound and space telescope data must be treated by scientists who are familiar with laboratory and magnetospheric physics and circuit theory, and of course with modern plasma theory. At least by volume the universe consists to more than 99 percent of plasma, and electromagnetic forces are 10/sup39/ time stronger than gravitation

  9. Nanostructured Electrode Materials for Electrochemical Capacitor Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hojin; Yoon, Hyeonseok

    2015-06-02

    The advent of novel organic and inorganic nanomaterials in recent years, particularly nanostructured carbons, conducting polymers, and metal oxides, has enabled the fabrication of various energy devices with enhanced performance. In this paper, we review in detail different nanomaterials used in the fabrication of electrochemical capacitor electrodes and also give a brief overview of electric double-layer capacitors, pseudocapacitors, and hybrid capacitors. From a materials point of view, the latest trends in electrochemical capacitor research are also discussed through extensive analysis of the literature and by highlighting notable research examples (published mostly since 2013). Finally, a perspective on next-generation capacitor technology is also given, including the challenges that lie ahead.

  10. Simulation of plasma double-layer structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borovsky, J.E.; Joyce, G.

    1982-01-01

    Electrostatic plasma double layers are numerically simulated by means of a magnetized 2 1/2-dimensional particle-in-cell method. The investigation of planar double layers indicates that these one-dimensional potential structures are susceptible to periodic disruption by instabilities in the low-potential plasmas. Only a slight increase in the double-layer thickness with an increase in its obliqueness to the magnetic field is observed. Weak magnetization results in the double-layer electric-field alignment of accelerated particles and strong magnetization results in their magnetic-field alignment. The numerial simulations of spatially periodic two-dimensional double layers also exhibit cyclical instability. A morphological invariance in two-dimensional double layers with respect to the degree of magnetization implies that the potential structures scale with Debye lengths rather than with gyroradii. Electron-beam excited electrostatic electron-cyclotron waves and (ion-beam driven) solitary waves are present in the plasmas adjacent to the double layers

  11. Stationary Double Layers in a Collisionless Magnetoplasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noriyoshi, Sato; Mieno, Tetsu; Hatakeyama, Rikizo

    1983-01-01

    of the plate on the low-potential side, being accompanied with current limitation. This localized potential drop moves along the plasma column, but finally stops and results in the formation of the stationary double layer in the presence of sufficient plasma supply from the plate on the high-potential side.......Stationary double layers are generated in a magnetoplasma by applying potential differences between two heated plates on which the plasma is produced by surface ionization. By measuring the double-layer formation process, a localized potential drop is found to be formed initially in front...

  12. Materials for electrochemical capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Patrice; Gogotsi, Yury

    2008-11-01

    Electrochemical capacitors, also called supercapacitors, store energy using either ion adsorption (electrochemical double layer capacitors) or fast surface redox reactions (pseudo-capacitors). They can complement or replace batteries in electrical energy storage and harvesting applications, when high power delivery or uptake is needed. A notable improvement in performance has been achieved through recent advances in understanding charge storage mechanisms and the development of advanced nanostructured materials. The discovery that ion desolvation occurs in pores smaller than the solvated ions has led to higher capacitance for electrochemical double layer capacitors using carbon electrodes with subnanometre pores, and opened the door to designing high-energy density devices using a variety of electrolytes. Combination of pseudo-capacitive nanomaterials, including oxides, nitrides and polymers, with the latest generation of nanostructured lithium electrodes has brought the energy density of electrochemical capacitors closer to that of batteries. The use of carbon nanotubes has further advanced micro-electrochemical capacitors, enabling flexible and adaptable devices to be made. Mathematical modelling and simulation will be the key to success in designing tomorrow's high-energy and high-power devices.

  13. Materials science and integration bases for fabrication of (BaxSr1-x)TiO3 thin film capacitors with layered Cu-based electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, W.; Kabius, B.; Hiller, J. M.; Saha, S.; Carlisle, J. A.; Auciello, O.; Chang, R. P. H.; Ramesh, R.

    2003-11-01

    The synthesis and fundamental material properties of layered TiAl/Cu/Ta electrodes were investigated to achieve the integration of Cu electrodes with high-dielectric constant (κ) oxide thin films for application to the fabrication of high-frequency devices. The Ta layer is an excellent diffusion barrier to inhibit deleterious Cu diffusion into the Si substrate, while the TiAl layer provides an excellent barrier against oxygen diffusion into the Cu layer to inhibit Cu oxidation during the growth of the high-κ layer in an oxygen atmosphere. Polycrystalline (BaxSr1-x)TiO3 (BST) thin films were grown on the Cu-based bottom electrode by rf magnetron sputtering at temperatures in the range 400-600 °C in oxygen, to investigate the performance of BST/Cu-based capacitors. Characterization of the Cu-based layered structure using surface analytical methods showed that two amorphous oxide layers were formed on both sides of the TiAl barrier, such that the oxide layer on the free surface of the TiAl layer correlates with TiAlOx, while the oxide layer at the TiAl/Cu interface is an Al2O3-rich layer. This double amorphous barrier layer structure effectively prevents oxygen penetration towards the underlying Cu and Ta layers. The TiAlOx interfacial layer, which has a relatively low dielectric constant compared with BST, reduced the total capacitance of the BST thin film capacitors. In addition, the layered electrode-oxide interface roughening observed during the growth of BST films at high temperature, due to copper grain growth, resulted in large dielectric loss on the fabricated BST capacitors. These problems were solved by growing the BST layer at 450 °C followed by a rapid thermal annealing at 700 °C. This process significantly reduced the thickness of the TiAlOx layer and interface roughness resulting in BST capacitors exhibiting properties suitable for the fabrication of high-performance high-frequency devices. In summary, relatively high dielectric constant (280), low

  14. Materials science and integration bases for fabrication of (BaxSr1-x)TiO3 thin film capacitors with layered Cu-based electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, W.; Kabius, B.; Hiller, J.M.; Saha, S.; Carlisle, J.A.; Auciello, O.; Chang, R.P.H.; Ramesh, R.

    2003-01-01

    The synthesis and fundamental material properties of layered TiAl/Cu/Ta electrodes were investigated to achieve the integration of Cu electrodes with high-dielectric constant (κ) oxide thin films for application to the fabrication of high-frequency devices. The Ta layer is an excellent diffusion barrier to inhibit deleterious Cu diffusion into the Si substrate, while the TiAl layer provides an excellent barrier against oxygen diffusion into the Cu layer to inhibit Cu oxidation during the growth of the high-κ layer in an oxygen atmosphere. Polycrystalline (Ba x Sr 1-x )TiO 3 (BST) thin films were grown on the Cu-based bottom electrode by rf magnetron sputtering at temperatures in the range 400-600 deg. C in oxygen, to investigate the performance of BST/Cu-based capacitors. Characterization of the Cu-based layered structure using surface analytical methods showed that two amorphous oxide layers were formed on both sides of the TiAl barrier, such that the oxide layer on the free surface of the TiAl layer correlates with TiAlO x , while the oxide layer at the TiAl/Cu interface is an Al 2 O 3 -rich layer. This double amorphous barrier layer structure effectively prevents oxygen penetration towards the underlying Cu and Ta layers. The TiAlO x interfacial layer, which has a relatively low dielectric constant compared with BST, reduced the total capacitance of the BST thin film capacitors. In addition, the layered electrode-oxide interface roughening observed during the growth of BST films at high temperature, due to copper grain growth, resulted in large dielectric loss on the fabricated BST capacitors. These problems were solved by growing the BST layer at 450 deg. C followed by a rapid thermal annealing at 700 deg. C. This process significantly reduced the thickness of the TiAlO x layer and interface roughness resulting in BST capacitors exhibiting properties suitable for the fabrication of high-performance high-frequency devices. In summary, relatively high

  15. Transition of hydrated oxide layer for aluminum electrolytic capacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chi, Choong-Soo; Jeong, Yongsoo; Ahn, Hong-Joo; Lee, Jong-Ho; Kim, Jung-Gu; Lee, Jun-Hee; Jang, Kyung-Wook; Oh, Han-Jun

    2007-01-01

    A hydrous oxide film for the application as dielectric film is synthesized by immersion of pure aluminum in hot water. From a Rutherford backscattering analysis, the ratio of aluminum to oxygen atoms was found to be 3:2 in the anodized aluminum oxide film, and 2:1 in the hydrous oxide layer. Anodization of the hydrous oxide layer was more effective for the transition of amorphous anodic oxides to the crystalline aluminum oxides

  16. Double layer dynamics in a collisionless magnetoplasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iizuka, Satoru; Michelsen, P.; Rasmussen, J.J.; Schrittwieser, R.; Hatakeyama, Rikizo; Saeki, Koichi; Sato, Noriyoshi.

    1985-01-01

    Investigations of double layer dynamics are performed in a Q-machine plasma by applying a positive step potential to a cold end-plate collector. The double layer created at the grounded plasma source just after the pulse is applied propagates towards the collector with the plasma flow speed. Large oscillations occur in the plasma current which is related to a recurring formation and propagation of the double layer. The current is limited during the propagation by a growing negative potential dip formed on the low-potential tail. Similar phenomena appear on the low-potential tail of the stationary double layer formed by applying a potential difference between two plasma sources. (author)

  17. Double layer dynamics in a collisionless magnetoplasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iizuka, S.; Michelsen, Poul; Juul Rasmussen, Jens

    1985-01-01

    Investigations of double layer dynamics are performed in a Q-machine plasma by applying a positive step potential to a cold end-plate collector. The double layer created at the grounded plasma source just after the pulse is applied propagates towards the collector with the plasma flow speed. Large...... oscillations occur in the plasma current which is related to a recurring formation and propagation of the double layer. The current is limited during the propagation by a growing negative potential dip formed on the low-potential tail. Similar phenomena appear on the low-potential tail of the stationary double...... layer formed by applying a potential difference between two plasma sources...

  18. Numerical simulations on ion acoustic double layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, T.; Okuda, H.

    1980-07-01

    A comprehensive numerical study of ion acoustic double layers has been performed for both periodic as well as for nonperiodic systems by means of one-dimensional particle simulations. For a nonperiodic system, an external battery and a resistance are used to model the magnetospheric convection potential and the ionospheric Pedersen resistance. It is found that the number of double layers and the associated potential buildup across the system increases with the system length

  19. Effect of interfacial layers on dielectric properties in very thin SrBi2Ta2O9 capacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Bum-Ki; Isobe, Chiharu; Hironaka, Katsuyuki; Hishikawa, Shinichi

    2001-01-01

    The effect of interfacial layers on the dielectric properties in very thin SrBi 2 Ta 2 O 9 (SBT) capacitors has been investigated using static measurements. Total permittivity (ε t ) decreased as the film thickness was reduced in both Pt/SBT/Pt and Ir/SBT/Pt capacitors. The contribution of the interfacial capacitance (C int ) and bulk capacitance to the total capacitance indicates that C int of the Ir/SBT/Pt structure was lower than that of the Pt/SBT/Pt structure, while the bulk permittivity (ε b ) was essentially the same. The dispersion of all capacitors followed the power law, while the Ir/SBT/Pt capacitor showed a larger dispersion of C int . These results suggest that the Pt/SBT/Pt capacitor is preferred for obtaining the high performance with less effect of the interfacial layers on the dielectric properties. [copyright] 2001 American Institute of Physics

  20. Electric double-layer capacitance between an ionic liquid and few-layer graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uesugi, Eri; Goto, Hidenori; Eguchi, Ritsuko; Fujiwara, Akihiko; Kubozono, Yoshihiro

    2013-01-01

    Ionic-liquid gates have a high carrier density due to their atomically thin electric double layer (EDL) and extremely large geometrical capacitance Cg. However, a high carrier density in graphene has not been achieved even with ionic-liquid gates because the EDL capacitance CEDL between the ionic liquid and graphene involves the series connection of Cg and the quantum capacitance Cq, which is proportional to the density of states. We investigated the variables that determine CEDL at the molecular level by varying the number of graphene layers n and thereby optimising Cq. The CEDL value is governed by Cq at n 4. This transition with n indicates a composite nature for CEDL. Our finding clarifies a universal principle that determines capacitance on a microscopic scale, and provides nanotechnological perspectives on charge accumulation and energy storage using an ultimately thin capacitor.

  1. Gastroesophageal anastomosis: single-layer versus double-layer technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslam, V.A.; Bilal, A.; Khan, A.; Ahmed, M.

    2008-01-01

    Considerable controversy exists regarding the optimum technique for gastroesophageal anastomosis. Double layer technique has long been considered important for safe healing but there is evidence that single layer technique is also safe and can be performed in much shorter time. The purpose of this study was to compare the outcome of single layer and double layer techniques for gastroesophageal anastomosis. A prospective randomized study was conducted in cardiothoracic unit, Lady Reading Hospital from Jan 2006 to Jan 2008. Fifty patients with oesophageal carcinoma undergoing subtotal oesophagectomy were randomized to have the anastomosis by single layer continuous or double layer continuous technique (group A (n=24) and B (n=26) respectively). The demographic data, operative and anastomosis time, postoperative complications and hospital mortality were recorded on a proforma and analyzed on SPSS 10. There was no significant difference between group A and B in terms of age, gender, postoperative complications and duration of hospital stay. Anastomotic leak occurred in 4.2% patients in group A and 7.7% in group B (p=NS). Mean anastomosis time was 10.04 minutes in group A and 19.2 minutes in group B (p=0.0001). Mean operative time was 163.83 minutes and 170.96 minutes in group A and B respectively. Overall hospital mortality was 2%; no deaths occurred due to anastomotic leak. Single layer continuous technique is equally safe and can be performed in shorter time and at a lower cost than the double layer technique. (author)

  2. Electroresistance effect in gold thin film induced by ionic-liquid-gated electric double layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakayama, Hiroyasu; Ohtani, Takashi; Fujikawa, Yasunori; Ando, Kazuya; Saitoh, Eiji; Ye, Jianting; Iwasa, Yoshihiro

    2012-01-01

    Electroresistance effect was detected in a metallic thin film using ionic-liquid-gated electric-double-layer transistors (EDLTs). We observed reversible modulation of the electric resistance of a Au thin film. In this system, we found that an electric double layer works as a nanogap capacitor with 27 (-25) MV cm -1 of electric field by applying only 1.7 V of positive (negative) gate voltage. The experimental results indicate that the ionic-liquid-gated EDLT technique can be used for controlling the surface electronic states on metallic systems. (author)

  3. Experiments on ion acoustic typed double layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, C.; Cho, M.H.; Intrator, T.; Hershkowitz, N.

    1984-01-01

    The formation of small amplitude double layers with potential drops the order of the electron temperature, was examined experimentally by pulsing a grid and thereby changing the electron drift across the target chamber of a triple plasma device. The rarefactive part of a long wavelength, low frequency ion wave grew in amplitude due to the presence of slowly drifting electrons. The corresponding current limitation led to the formation of the double layers. Depending on the plasma conditions, the asymmetric double layers either transform into a weak monotonic layer, a propagating shock, or a series of rarefactive solitary pulses. The rarefactive pulses propagate with Mach number less than one and resemble solitary plasma holes with density cavities in both the electron and the ion density profiles

  4. Nanohybrid capacitor: the next generation electrochemical capacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naoi, K. [Institute of Symbiotic Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 2-24-16 Naka-cho, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8558 (Japan)

    2010-10-15

    Conventional electric double layer capacitors (EDLC) designed with two symmetrical activated carbon electrodes can deliver substantially more power than similar size Li-ion batteries. There is presently a major effort to increase the energy density of EDLC s up to a target value in the vicinity of 20-30 Wh kg{sup -1}.The present review article deals with the recent contributions to get this high energy density and new approaches that have been made to increase the withstanding voltage of the EDLCs. Important alternative approach to meet this goal that is under serious investigation is to develop an asymmetric (hybrid) capacitors. Hybrid capacitor systems are the promising approach to meet the goal to effectively increase the energy density. The investigation is to develop hybrid capacitors has been initiated by Li-ion capacitors. And, now Nanohybrid capacitor certainly achieves as high energy density as Li-ion capacitors with higher stability, higher safety and higher productivity. This is the new lithium-ion based hybrid capacitor using the lithium titanate (Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12}) negative intercalation electrode that can operate at unusually high current densities. The high-rate Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} negative electrode has a unique nano-structure consisting of unusually small nano-crystalline Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} nucleated and grafted onto carbon nano-fiber anchors (nc-Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12}/CNF). (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  5. Electric double layer capacitance on hierarchical porous carbons in an organic electrolyte

    OpenAIRE

    Yamada, Hirotoshi; Moriguchi, Isamu; Kudo, Tetsuichi

    2008-01-01

    Nanoporous carbons were prepared by using colloidal crystal as a template. Nitrogen adsorption/desorption isotherms and transmission electron microscope images revealed that the porous carbons exhibit hierarchical porous structures with meso/macropores and micropores. Electric double layer capacitor performance of the porous carbons was investigated in an organic electrolyte of 1 M LiClO4 in propylene carbonate and dimethoxy ethane. The hierarchical porous carbons exhibited large specific dou...

  6. Mesoporous Carbon Design for Ionic Liquid-Based, Double-Layer Supercapacitors

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The use of pyrrolidinium-based ionic liquids (ILs) in asymmetric electric double-layer capacitors (AEDLC) with positive and negative carbon electrodes of different weight is a powerful strategy for developing safe, high specific-energy supercapacitors operating at > 3.5 V. The preparation and characterization of ordered (OTC) and disordered (DTC) template carbons, the latter obtained by a fast and low-cost method, are reported. The porosity and capacitance features of the ...

  7. Multiferroic properties of BiFeO3/Bi4Ti3O12 double-layered thin films fabricated by chemical solution deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi, Seung Woo; Kim, Sang Su; Kim, Jin Won; Jo, Hyun Kyung; Do, Dalhyun; Kim, Won-Jeong

    2009-01-01

    Multiferroic BiFeO 3 /Bi 4 Ti 3 O 12 (BFO/BTO) double-layered film was fabricated on a Pt(111)/Ti/SiO 2 /Si(100) substrate by a chemical solution deposition method. The effect of an interfacial BTO layer on electrical and magnetic properties of BFO was investigated by comparing those of pure BFO and BTO films prepared by the same condition. The X-ray diffraction result showed that no additional phase was formed in the double-layered film, except BFO and BTO phases. The remnant polarization (2P r ) of the double-layered film capacitor was 100 μC/cm 2 at 250 kV/cm, which is much larger than that of the pure BFO film capacitor. The magnetization-magnetic field hysteresis loop revealed weak ferromagnetic response with remnant magnetization (2M r ) of 0.4 kA/m. The values of dielectric constant and dielectric loss of the double-layered film capacitor were 240 and 0.03 at 100 kHz, respectively. Leakage current density measured from the double-layered film capacitor was 6.1 x 10 -7 A/cm 2 at 50 kV/cm, which is lower than the pure BFO and BTO film capacitors.

  8. Buffer layer investigations on MFIS capacitors consisting of ferroelectric poly[vinylidene fluoride trifluoroethylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henkel, K; Seime, B; Paloumpa, I; Mueller, K; Schmeisser, D

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present capacitance-voltage (CV) measurements on metal-ferroelectric-insulator-semiconductor (MFIS) capacitors with poly[vinylidene fluoride trifluoroethylene] (P[VDF/TrFE] as ferroelectric layer and SiO 2 , Al 2 O 3 and HfO 2 as buffering insulator layer. In order to discuss our data in a quantitative manner we perform fits to the data based on a model proposed by Miller and McWorther. The improvement of the polarization values and subsequently its effect on the hysteresis of the CV curve by the successive shrinking of the buffer layer thickness and the following choice of a high-k buffer material is demonstrated. Our data underline that a saturated polarization of P[VDF/TrFE] cannot be controlled with a SiO 2 buffer layer and the insertion of a high-k buffer layer is essential for further improvements of the characteristics of MFIS stacks.

  9. Progress in MOSFET double-layer metalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gassaway, J. D.; Trotter, J. D.; Wade, T. E.

    1980-01-01

    Report describes one-year research effort in VLSL fabrication. Four activities are described: theoretical study of two-dimensional diffusion in SOS (silicon-on-sapphire); setup of sputtering system, furnaces, and photolithography equipment; experiments on double layer metal; and investigation of two-dimensional modeling of MOSFET's (metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors).

  10. Double layers are not particle accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryant, D.A.; Bingham, R.; Angelis, U. de.

    1991-02-01

    It is pointed out that the continuing advocacy of electrostatic double layers as particle accelerators in the aurora and other space and astrophysical plasmas is fundamentally unsound. It is suggested furthermore that there is little reason to invoke static or quasi-static electric fields as the cause of auroral electron acceleration. Stochastic acceleration by electrostatic wave turbulence appears to present a natural explanation for this and for electron acceleration in other space and astrophysical plasmas. (author)

  11. Double layers, waves and particle acceleration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryant, D.A.; Perry, C.H.; Bingham, R.; de Angelis, U.

    1993-09-01

    The author's conclusions that static potential differences, including those associated with double layers, could not be the cause of auroral electron acceleration, and that resonance with electrostatic wave turbulence provided a possible mechanism were dismissed in a recent publication as being totally incorrect. In this reply, the author finds the criticism to be built upon a number of misconceptions and factual errors which render it invalid. He is, therefore, able to re-affirm his earlier conclusions.

  12. Exceptionally High Electric Double Layer Capacitances of Oligomeric Ionic Liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Michio; Shimizu, Sunao; Sotoike, Rina; Watanabe, Masayoshi; Iwasa, Yoshihiro; Itoh, Yoshimitsu; Aida, Takuzo

    2017-11-15

    Electric double layer (EDL) capacitors are promising as next-generation energy accumulators if their capacitances and operation voltages are both high. However, only few electrolytes can simultaneously fulfill these two requisites. Here we report that an oligomeric ionic liquid such as IL4 TFSI with four imidazolium ion units in its structure provides a wide electrochemical window of ∼5.0 V, similar to monomeric ionic liquids. Furthermore, electrochemical impedance measurements using Au working electrodes demonstrated that IL4 TFSI exhibits an exceptionally high EDL capacitance of ∼66 μF/cm 2 , which is ∼6 times as high as those of monomeric ionic liquids so far reported. We also found that an EDL-based field effect transistor (FET) using IL4 TFSI as a gate dielectric material and SrTiO 3 as a channel material displays a very sharp transfer curve with an enhanced carrier accumulation capability of ∼64 μF/cm 2 , as determined by Hall-effect measurements.

  13. Numerical double layer solutions with ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, D.; Soerensen, J.

    1982-08-01

    Maxwell's equation div D = ro in one dimension is solved numerically, taking ionization into account. Time independent anode sheath and double layer solutions are obtained. By varying voltage, neutral gas pressure, temperature of the trapped ions on the cathode side and density and temperature of the trapped electrones on the anode side, diagrams are constructed that show permissible combinations of these parameters. Results from a recent experiment form a subset. Distribution functions, the Langmuir condition, some scaling laws and a possible application to the lower ionosphere are discussed. (Authors)

  14. Equilibrium double layers in extended Pierce diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciubotariu-Jassy, C.I.

    1992-01-01

    The extended Pierce diode is similar to the standard (or classical) Pierce diode, but has passive circuit elements in place of the short circuit between the electrodes. This device is important as an approximation to real bounded plasma systems. It consists of two parallel plane electrodes (an emitter located at x=0 and a collector located at x=l) and a collisionless cold electron beam travelling between them. The electrons are neutralized by a background of comoving massive ions. This situation is analysed in this paper and new equilibrium double layer (DL) plasma structures are obtained. (author) 6 refs., 3 figs

  15. Microwave assisted synthesis and characterization of barium titanate nanoparticles for multi layered ceramic capacitor applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirumalai, Sundararajan; Shanmugavel, Balasivanandha Prabu

    2011-01-01

    Barium titanate is a common ferroelectric electro-ceramic material having high dielectric constant, with photorefractive effect and piezoelectric properties. In this research work, nano-scale barium titanate powders were synthesized by microwave assisted mechano-chemical route. Suitable precursors were ball milled for 20 hours. TGA studies were performed to study the thermal stability of the powders. The powders were characterized by XRD, SEM and EDX Analysis. Microwave and Conventional heating were performed at 1000 degrees C. The overall heating schedule was reduced by 8 hours in microwave heating thereby reducing the energy and time requirement. The nano-scale, impurity-free and defect-free microstructure was clearly evident from the SEM micrograph and EDX patterns. LCR meter was used to measure the dielectric constant and dielectric loss values at various frequencies. Microwave heated powders showed superior dielectric constant value with low dielectric loss which is highly essential for the fabrication of Multi Layered Ceramic Capacitors.

  16. Building a Better Capacitor with Thin-Film Atomic Layer Deposition Processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pike, Christopher [North Seattle College, WA (United States)

    2015-08-28

    The goal of this research is to determine procedures for creating ultra-high capacity supercapacitors by using nanofabrication techniques and high k-value dielectrics. One way to potentially solve the problem of climate change is to switch the source of energy to a source that doesn’t release many tons of greenhouse gases, gases which cause global warming, into the Earth’s atmosphere. These trap in more heat from the Sun’s solar energy and cause global temperatures to rise. Atomic layer deposition will be used to create a uniform thin-film of dielectric to greatly enhance the abilities of our capacitors and will build them on the nanoscale.

  17. Switchable capacitor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rottenberg, Xavier; Jansen, Henricus V.; Tilmans, H.A.C.; Tilmans, Hendrikus; De Raedt, Walter

    2011-01-01

    A micro electromechanical switchable capacitor is disclosed, comprising a substrate, a bottom elecrode, a dielaectric layer deposited on at least part of sai bottum electrode, a conductive floating electrode deposited on at least part of said dielectric layer, an armature positioned proximate to the

  18. Switchable capacitor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rottenberg, X.; Jansen, Henricus V.; Tilmans, H.A.C.; De Raedt, W.

    2003-01-01

    A micro electromechanical switchable capacitor is disclosed, comprising a substrate, a bottom elecrode, a dielaectric layer deposited on at least part of sai bottum electrode, a conductive floating electrode deposited on at least part of said dielectric layer, an armature positioned proximate to the

  19. Investigation of porosity and fractal properties of the sintered metal and semiconductor layers in the MDS capacitor structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skatkov Leonid

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available MDS capacitor (metal - dielectric - semiconductor is a structure in which metal plate is represented by compact bulk-porous pellets of niobium sintered powder, and semiconductor plate - by pyrolytic layer of MnO2. In the present paper we report the results of investigation of microporosity of sintered Nb and pyrolytic MnO2 and also the fractal properties of semiconductor layer.

  20. Stress effects of the inter-level dielectric layer on the ferroelectric performance of integrated SrBi2Ta2O9 capacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Suk-Kyoung; Yang, B.; Oh, Sang Hyun; Kang, Young Min; Kang, Nam Soo; Hwang, Cheol Seong; Kwon, Oh Seong

    2001-01-01

    The thermal stress effects of the inter-level dielectric (ILD) layer on the ferroelectric performance of integrated Pt/SrBi 2 Ta 2 O 9 (SBT)/Pt capacitors were investigated. Two different thin film materials, pure SiO 2 grown at 650 degree C and B- and P-doped SiO 2 grown at 400 degree C by chemical vapor deposition techniques, were tested as an ILD layer. The ILD layer encapsulated the SBT capacitor array. During high temperature thermal cycling (up to 800 degree C) after ILD deposition, which is used for both densifying the ILD and curing of the various damage imposed on the SBT capacitors, a large thermal stress occurred in the bottom Pt layer due to the thermal expansion mismatch between the various layers. In particular, the pure SiO 2 ILD layer between the capacitors did not allow thermal expansion of the Pt layers, which led to a large accumulation of compressive stress in the layer. This resulted in hillock formation in the bottom Pt layer and eventual capacitor failure. However, the B- and P-doped SiO 2 ILD layer contracted during thermal cycling by removing residual impurities, which allowed greater expansion of the Pt layer. Therefore, compressive stress accumulation did not occur and excellent ferroelectric properties were thus obtained from the integrated capacitor array. [copyright] 2001 American Institute of Physics

  1. Nanostructured Electrode Materials for Electrochemical Capacitor Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hojin Choi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The advent of novel organic and inorganic nanomaterials in recent years, particularly nanostructured carbons, conducting polymers, and metal oxides, has enabled the fabrication of various energy devices with enhanced performance. In this paper, we review in detail different nanomaterials used in the fabrication of electrochemical capacitor electrodes and also give a brief overview of electric double-layer capacitors, pseudocapacitors, and hybrid capacitors. From a materials point of view, the latest trends in electrochemical capacitor research are also discussed through extensive analysis of the literature and by highlighting notable research examples (published mostly since 2013. Finally, a perspective on next-generation capacitor technology is also given, including the challenges that lie ahead.

  2. Polysulfide intercalated layered double hydroxides for metal capture applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanatzidis, Mercouri G.; Ma, Shulan

    2017-04-04

    Polysulfide intercalated layered double hydroxides and methods for their use in vapor and liquid-phase metal capture applications are provided. The layered double hydroxides comprise a plurality of positively charged host layers of mixed metal hydroxides separated by interlayer spaces. Polysulfide anions are intercalated in the interlayer spaces.

  3. Optical and Electrical Characteristics of Graphene Double Layer Formed by a Double Transfer of Graphene Single Layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Jun; Bae, Gi Yoon; Chun, Sungwoo; Park, Wanjun

    2016-03-01

    We demonstrate formation of double layer graphene by means of a double transfer using two single graphene layers grown by a chemical vapor deposition method. It is observed that shiftiness and broadness in the double-resonance of Raman scattering are much weaker than those of bilayer graphene formed naturally. Transport characteristics examined from transmission line measurements and field effect transistors show the similar behavior with those of single layer graphene. It indicates that interlayer separation, in electrical view, is large enough to avoid correlation between layers for the double layer structure. It is also observed from a transistor with the double layer graphene that molecules adsorpted on two inner graphene surfaces in the double layered structure are isolated and conserved from ambient environment.

  4. Some dynamical properties of very strong double layers in a triple plasma device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, T.; Torven, S.

    1987-01-01

    Experimental results on three dynamic properties of very strong double layers observed in a triple plasma device are presented. First, it is observed that when an inductance of sufficient size is inserted in series with the external bias supply used to produce the double layer, disruptions in the plasma current occur accompanied by disruptions in the double layer potential. Second, it is observed that with all external reactances reduced as much as possible, a sort of jitter-motion occurs in the position of the double layer around its equilibrium position. Third, when the external bias supply is pulsed, the initial potential distribution is observed to have an essentially uniform slope, as in the case of a vacuum capacitor. The disruption phenomenon may be explained in terms of the behavior of the potential structure as a function of the bias voltage and this explanation is discussed along with the experimental evidence for its validity. A comparable understanding of the other two phenomena has not been achieved, but in both cases there are qualitative difference between the behavior reported here and what has been observed in Q-machines and these difference are discussed. (author)

  5. Ultrastrong Stationary Double Layers in a Nondischarge Magnetoplasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sato, N.; Hatakeyama, R.; Iizuka, S.

    1981-01-01

    Ultrastrong stationary double layers are generated in a magnetoplasma by simply applying potential differences between two plasma sources. The potential drop ϕD of the double layer is increased up to eϕD/Te≃2×103 (Te is the electron temperature in eV) with no difficulties caused by gas discharge....... There are always large spiky fluctuations on the low-potential tail of the double layers....

  6. Double layer formed by beam driven ion-acoustic turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludwig, G.O.; Ferreira, J.L.; Montes, A.

    1987-08-01

    Small amplitudes steady-state ion-acoustic double layers are observed to form in a plasma transversed by a beam of cold electrons. The importance of turbulence in maintaining the double layer is demonstrated. The measured wave spectrum is in approximate agreement with models deriveted from renornalized turbulence theory. The general features of the double layer are compared with results from particle simulation studies. (author) [pt

  7. The double layers in the plasma sheet boundary layer during magnetic reconnection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, J.; Yu, B.

    2014-11-01

    We studied the evolutions of double layers which appear after the magnetic reconnection through two-dimensional electromagnetic particle-in-cell simulation. The simulation results show that the double layers are formed in the plasma sheet boundary layer after magnetic reconnection. At first, the double layers which have unipolar structures are formed. And then the double layers turn into bipolar structures, which will couple with another new weak bipolar structure. Thus a new double layer or tripolar structure comes into being. The double layers found in our work are about several ten Debye lengths, which accords with the observation results. It is suggested that the electron beam formed during the magnetic reconnection is responsible for the production of the double layers.

  8. Low-β magnetic reconnection driven by the intense lasers with a double-turn capacitor-coil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xiaoxia; Zhong, Jiayong; Zhang, Zhe; Zhou, Weimin; Teng, Jian; Li, Yutong; Han, Bo; Yuan, Dawei; Lin, Jun; Liu, Chang; Li, Yanfei; Zhu, Baojun; Wei, Huigang; Liang, Guiyun; Hong, Wei; He, Shukai; Yang, Siqian; Zhao, Yongqiang; Deng, Zhigang; Lu, Feng; Zhang, Zhimeng; Zhu, Bin; Zhou, Kainan; Su, Jingqin; Zhao, Zongqing; Gu, Yuqiu; Zhao, Gang; Zhang, Jie

    2018-06-01

    A double-turn capacitor-coil is used to produce a magnetic field (38.5 T) and construct a topology of magnetic reconnection in a low-β (β magnetic field topology. We demonstrated through experiments and numerical simulations that the reconnection process takes place between two non-uniform magnetic fields created by the coils, and that the plasma state and the associated magnetic topology in the process can be seen via the technology of the optical probe beam and the proton backlight.

  9. Investigation of surface charge density on solid–liquid interfaces by modulating the electrical double layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Jong Kyun; Song, Myung Won; Pak, Hyuk Kyu

    2015-01-01

    A solid surface in contact with water or aqueous solution usually carries specific electric charges. These surface charges attract counter ions from the liquid side. Since the geometry of opposite charge distribution parallel to the solid–liquid interface is similar to that of a capacitor, it is called an electrical double layer capacitor (EDLC). Therefore, there is an electrical potential difference across an EDLC in equilibrium. When a liquid bridge is formed between two conducting plates, the system behaves as two serially connected EDLCs. In this work, we propose a new method for investigating the surface charge density on solid–liquid interfaces. By mechanically modulating the electrical double layers and simultaneously applying a dc bias voltage across the plates, an ac electric current can be generated. By measuring the voltage drop across a load resistor as a function of bias voltage, we can study the surface charge density on solid–liquid interfaces. Our experimental results agree very well with the simple equivalent electrical circuit model proposed here. Furthermore, using this method, one can determine the polarity of the adsorbed state on the solid surface depending on the material used. We expect this method to aid in the study of electrical phenomena on solid–liquid interfaces. (paper)

  10. Reaching state-of-the art requirements for MIM capacitors with a single-layer anodic Al2O3 dielectric and imprinted electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hourdakis, Emmanouel; Nassiopoulou, Androula G.

    2017-07-01

    Metal-Insulator-Metal (MIM) capacitors with a high capacitance density and low non-linearity coefficient using a single-layer dielectric of barrier-type anodic alumina (Al2O3) and an imprinted bottom Al electrode are presented. Imprinting of the bottom electrode aimed at increasing the capacitor effective surface area by creating a three-dimensional MIM capacitor architecture. The bottom Al electrode was only partly nanopatterned so as to ensure low series resistance of the MIM capacitor. With a 3 nm thick anodic Al2O3 dielectric, the capacitor with the imprinted electrode showed a 280% increase in capacitance density compared to the flat electrode capacitor, reaching a value of 20.5 fF/μm2. On the other hand, with a 30 nm thick anodic Al2O3 layer, the capacitance density was 7.9 fF/μm2 and the non-linearity coefficient was as low as 196 ppm/V2. These values are very close to reaching all requirements of the last International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors for MIM capacitors [ITRS, http://www.itrs2.net/2013-itrs.html for ITRS Roadmap (2013)], and they are achieved by a single-layer dielectric instead of the complicated dielectric stacks of the literature. The obtained results constitute a real progress compared to previously reported results by our group for MIM capacitors using imprinted electrodes.

  11. On the negative resistance of double layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raadu, M.A.; Silevitch, M.B.

    1982-08-01

    It is known that large amplitudes oscillations can occur in the current flowing through a plasma diode, typically when a constant potential is applied across the device. Burger (1965) suggested via a computer simulation that the oscillation characteristics was a function of the quantities T sub (e) and T sub (i), namely the respective time for an electron and an ion to cross the electric field region inside the diode. On the rapid time scale T sub (e) the self consistent equilibrium configuration, was unstable. Norris (1964) had previously arrived at the same conclusion using analytical arguments. In that work, it was concluded that the instability occurred since the diode acted as a negative resistance on the T sub (e) scale. A positive feedback effect forced the system away from equilibrium. Silevitch (1981) used the Burger mechanism to suggest an explanation for the flickering aurora phenomenon. He extended the Norris argument and showed by a variational method that a plausible analytic model for a double layer (DL) behaved as a negative resistance on the T sub (e) scale. In this present work we re-examine the negative resistance calculation by taking a more detailed account of the constraints which are imposed on the electron distributions that exist in the DL region. Specifically, we shall focus at the high potential side of the DL. (Authors)

  12. Anomalous dc resistivity and double layers in the auroral ionosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kindel, J.M.; Barnes, C.; Forslund, D.W.

    1980-01-01

    There are at least four candidate instabilities which might account for anomalous dc rereresistivity in the auroral ionosphere. These are: the ion-acoustic instability, the Buneman instability, the ion-cyclotron instability and double layers. Results are reported of computer simulations of these four instabilities which suggest that double layers are most likely to be responsible for sistivity in the auroral zone

  13. Ion-acoustic solitary waves near double layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuehl, H.H.; Imen, K.

    1985-01-01

    The possibility of ion-acoustic solitary-wave solutions in the uniform plasma on the high-potential side of double layer is investigated. Based on a fluid model of the double layer, it is found that both compressive and rarefactive solitary waves are allowed. Curves are presented which show the regions in parameter space in which these solutions exist

  14. Double layers formed by beam driven ion-acoustic turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludwig, G.O.; Ferreira, J.L.; Montes, A.

    1987-01-01

    Small amplitude steady-state ion-acoustic layers are observed to form in a plasma traversed by a beam of cold electrons. The importance of turbulence in maintaining the double layer is demonstrated. The measured wave spectrum is in approximate agrreement with models derived from renormalized turbulence theory. The general features of the double layer are compared with results from particle simulation studies. (author) [pt

  15. Pseudo-capacitor device for aqueous electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Jai; Thackeray, Michael M.; Dees, Dennis W.; Vissers, Donald R.; Myles, Kevin M.

    1998-01-01

    A pseudo-capacitor having a high energy storage capacity develops a double layer capacitance as well as a Faradaic or battery-like redox reaction, also referred to as pseudo-capacitance. The Faradaic reaction gives rise to a capacitance much greater than that of the typical ruthenate oxide ultracapacitor which develops only charge separation-based double layer capacitance. The capacitor employs a lead and/or bismuth/ruthenate and/or iridium system having the formula A.sub.2 ›B.sub.2-x Pb.sub.x !O.sub.7-y, where A=Pb, Bi, and B=Ru, Ir, and Ocapacitor. The amount of expensive ruthenate and iridium can be substantially reduced in the pseudo-capacitor by increasing the lead content while improving energy storage capacity.

  16. Metal-doped graphene layers composed with boron nitride-graphene as an insulator: a nano-capacitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monajjemi, Majid

    2014-11-01

    A model of a nanoscale dielectric capacitor composed of a few dopants has been investigated in this study. This capacitor includes metallic graphene layers which are separated by an insulating medium containing a few h-BN layers. It has been observed that the elements from group IIIA of the periodic table are more suitable as dopants for hetero-structures of the {metallic graphene/hBN/metallic graphene} capacitors compared to those from groups IA or IIA. In this study, we have specifically focused on the dielectric properties of different graphene/h-BN/graphene including their hetero-structure counterparts, i.e., Boron-graphene/h-BN/Boron-graphene, Al-graphene/h-BN/Al-graphene, Mg-graphene/h-BN/Mg-graphene, and Be-graphene/h-BN/Be-graphene stacks for monolayer form of dielectrics. Moreover, we studied the multi dielectric properties of different (h-BN)n/graphene hetero-structures of Boron-graphene/(h-BN)n/Boron-graphene.

  17. Capacitor-less memory cell fabricated on nano-scale strained Si on a relaxed SiGe layer-on-insulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Tae-Hyun; Park, Jea-Gun

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the combined effect of the strained Si channel and hole confinement on the memory margin enhancement for a capacitor-less memory cell fabricated on nano-scale strained Si on a relaxed SiGe layer-on-insulator (ε-Si SGOI). The memory margin for the ε-Si SGOI capacitor-less memory cell was higher than that of the memory cell fabricated on an unstrained Si-on-insulator (SOI) and increased with increasing Ge concentration of the relaxed SiGe layer; i.e. the memory margin for the ε-Si SGOI capacitor-less memory cell (138.6 µA) at a 32 at% Ge concentration was 3.3 times higher than the SOI capacitor-less memory cell (43 µA). (paper)

  18. NO and SCN -intercalated layered double hydroxides: structure and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2018-02-05

    Feb 5, 2018 ... Keywords. Nitrite ion; thiocyanate ion; layered double hydroxide; structure refinement. 1. Introduction .... applications of LDHs is sorption/uptake of toxic anions ... by ion chromatography using a Metrohm Model 861 Advanced.

  19. Emergence of a Stern Layer from the Incorporation of Hydration Interactions into the Gouy-Chapman Model of the Electrical Double Layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Matthew A; Bossa, Guilherme Volpe; May, Sylvio

    2015-10-27

    In one of the most commonly used phenomenological descriptions of the electrical double layer, a charged solid surface and a diffuse region of mobile ions are separated from each other by a thin charge-depleted Stern layer. The Stern layer acts as a capacitor that improves the classical Gouy-Chapman model by increasing the magnitude of the surface potential and limiting the maximal counterion concentration. We show that very similar Stern-like properties of the diffuse double layer emerge naturally from adding a nonelectrostatic hydration repulsion to the electrostatic Coulomb potential. The interplay of electrostatic attraction and hydration repulsion of the counterions and the surface leads to the formation of a diffuse counterion layer that remains well separated from the surface. In addition, hydration repulsions between the ions limit and control the maximal ion concentration and widen the width of the diffuse double layer. Our mean-field model, which we express in terms of electrostatic and hydration potentials, is physically consistent and conceptually similar to the classical Gouy-Chapman model. It allows the incorporation of ion specificity, accounts for hydration properties of charged surfaces, and predicts Stern layer properties, which we analyze in terms of the effective size of the hydrated counterions.

  20. Generation mechanism and properties of plasma double layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanduloviciu, M.; Lozneanu, E.

    1985-01-01

    The generation mechanism of plasma double layers is studied surveying the results of some experiments. The main mechanism is the same in the cases of collisional and collisionless plasmas. Inelastic quantum collision processes taking place between plasma electrons, accelerated in a local field up to near the same oriented velocity and the neutral particles of the background gases create the necessary conditions for double layer formation. (D.Gy.)

  1. Drag Effect in Double-Layer Dipolar Fermi Gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanatar, B; Renklioglu, B; Oktel, M O

    2014-01-01

    We consider two parallel layers of two-dimensional spin-polarized dipolar Fermi gas without any tunneling between the layers. The effective interactions describing screening and correlation effects between the dipoles in a single layer (intra-layer) and across the layers (interlayer) are modeled within the Hubbard approximation. We calculate the rate of momentum transfer between the layers when the gas in one layer has a steady flow. The momentum transfer induces a steady flow in the second layer which is assumed initially at rest. This is the drag effect familiar from double-layer semiconductor and graphene structures. Our calculations show that the momentum relaxation time has temperature dependence similar to that in layers with charged particles which we think is related to the contributions from the collective modes of the system

  2. Double transparent conducting layers for Si photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Ju-Hyung [Department of Electrical Engineering, University at Buffalo, State University of New York, Buffalo, NY 14260 (United States); Kim, Joondong, E-mail: joonkim@incheon.ac.kr [Department of Electrical Engineering, Incheon National University, Incheon, 406772 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Yun Chang [Measurement and Analysis Division, National Nanofab Center (NNFC), Daejeon 305806 (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Sang-Jin [Energy Materials Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology (KRICT), Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); Anderson, Wayne A. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University at Buffalo, State University of New York, Buffalo, NY 14260 (United States)

    2013-11-29

    Double transparent conductive oxide (TCO) film-embedded Si heterojunction solar cells were fabricated. An intentional doping was not applied for heterojunction solar cells due to the spontaneous Schottky junction formation between TCO films and an n-type Si substrate. Three different TCO coatings were formed by sputtering method for an Al-doped ZnO (AZO) film, an indium-tin-oxide (ITO) film and double stacks of ITO/AZO films. An improved crystalline ITO film was grown on an AZO template upon hetero-epitaxial growth. This double TCO films-embedded Si (ITO/AZO/Si) heterojunction solar cell provided significantly enhanced efficiency of 9.23 % as compared to the single TCO/Si (ITO/Si or AZO/Si) devices due to the optical and the electrical benefits. The effective arrangement of TCO films (ITO/AZO) provides benefits of a lower front contact resistance and a smaller band offset to Si leading enhanced photovoltaic performances. This demonstrates a potential scheme for an effective TCO film-embedded heterojunction Si solar cell. - Highlights: • Double transparent conducting oxide films form a heterojunction to Si. • A quality indium-tin-oxide film was grown above an Al-doped zinc oxide template. • Heterojunction Si solar cell was made without an intentional doping process.

  3. Double transparent conducting layers for Si photovoltaics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, Ju-Hyung; Kim, Joondong; Park, Yun Chang; Moon, Sang-Jin; Anderson, Wayne A.

    2013-01-01

    Double transparent conductive oxide (TCO) film-embedded Si heterojunction solar cells were fabricated. An intentional doping was not applied for heterojunction solar cells due to the spontaneous Schottky junction formation between TCO films and an n-type Si substrate. Three different TCO coatings were formed by sputtering method for an Al-doped ZnO (AZO) film, an indium-tin-oxide (ITO) film and double stacks of ITO/AZO films. An improved crystalline ITO film was grown on an AZO template upon hetero-epitaxial growth. This double TCO films-embedded Si (ITO/AZO/Si) heterojunction solar cell provided significantly enhanced efficiency of 9.23 % as compared to the single TCO/Si (ITO/Si or AZO/Si) devices due to the optical and the electrical benefits. The effective arrangement of TCO films (ITO/AZO) provides benefits of a lower front contact resistance and a smaller band offset to Si leading enhanced photovoltaic performances. This demonstrates a potential scheme for an effective TCO film-embedded heterojunction Si solar cell. - Highlights: • Double transparent conducting oxide films form a heterojunction to Si. • A quality indium-tin-oxide film was grown above an Al-doped zinc oxide template. • Heterojunction Si solar cell was made without an intentional doping process

  4. Nonlocal Poisson-Fermi double-layer models: Effects of nonuniform ion sizes on double-layer structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Dexuan; Jiang, Yi

    2018-05-01

    This paper reports a nonuniform ionic size nonlocal Poisson-Fermi double-layer model (nuNPF) and a uniform ionic size nonlocal Poisson-Fermi double-layer model (uNPF) for an electrolyte mixture of multiple ionic species, variable voltages on electrodes, and variable induced charges on boundary segments. The finite element solvers of nuNPF and uNPF are developed and applied to typical double-layer tests defined on a rectangular box, a hollow sphere, and a hollow rectangle with a charged post. Numerical results show that nuNPF can significantly improve the quality of the ionic concentrations and electric fields generated from uNPF, implying that the effect of nonuniform ion sizes is a key consideration in modeling the double-layer structure.

  5. Carbon-based fibrous EDLC capacitors and supercapacitors

    OpenAIRE

    Lekakou, C; Moudam, O; Markoulidis, F; Andrews, T; Watts, JF; Reed, GT

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates electrochemical double-layer capacitors (EDLCs) including two alternative types of carbon-based fibrous electrodes, a carbon fibre woven fabric (CWF) and a multiwall carbon nanotube (CNT) electrode, as well as hybrid CWF-CNT electrodes. Two types of separator membranes were also considered. An organic gel electrolyte PEO-LiCIO4-EC-THF was used to maintain a high working voltage. The capacitor cells were tested in cyclic voltammetry, charge-discharge, and impedance test...

  6. CAPMIX -Deploying Capacitors for Salt Gradient Power Extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Bijmans, M.F.M.; Burheim, O.S.; Bryjak, M.; Delgado, A.; Hack, P.; Mantegazza, F.; Tenisson, S.; Hamelers, H.V.M.

    2012-01-01

    The process of mixing sea and river water can be utilised as a power source. At present, three groups of technology are established for doing so; i) mechanical; Pressure Retarded Osmosis PRO, ii) electrochemical reactions; Reverse ElectroDialysis (RED) and Nano Battery Electrodes (NBE) and iii) ultra capacitors; Capacitive Double Layer Expansion (CDLE) and Capacitors charge by the Donnan Potentials (CDP). The chemical potential for salt gradient power systems is only limited by th...

  7. Influence of carbon conductive additives on electrochemical double-layer supercapacitor parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiseleva, E. A.; Zhurilova, M. A.; Kochanova, S. A.; Shkolnikov, E. J.; Tarasenko, A. B.; Zaitseva, O. V.; Uryupina, O. V.; Valyano, G. V.

    2018-01-01

    Electrochemical double-layer capacitors (EDLC) offer energy storage technology, highly demanded for rapid transition processes in transport and stationary applications, concerned with fast power fluctuations. Rough structure of activated carbon, widely used as electrode material because of its high specific area, leads to poor electrode conductivity. Therefore there is the need for conductive additive to decrease internal resistance and to achieve high specific power and high specific energy. Usually carbon blacks are widely used as conductive additive. In this paper electrodes with different conductive additives—two types of carbon blacks and single-walled carbon nanotubes—were prepared and characterized in organic electrolyte-based EDLC cells. Electrodes are based on original wood derived activated carbon produced by potassium hydroxide high-temperature activation at Joint Institute for High Temperatures RAS. Electrodes were prepared from slurry by cold-rolling. For electrode characterization cyclic voltammetry, impedance spectra analysis, equivalent series resistance measurements and galvanostatic charge-discharge were used.

  8. Effect of turbulent flow on the double electric layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutten, F. van.

    1978-01-01

    The existence of the double electric layer could explain the local deposition of corrosion products in water cooled reactors. It is shown that turbulent flow tends to drive the ions away from the wall, disturbs the diffuse layer and enables the electric field to extend further into the liquid phase. This electric field attracts the particles to the walls by electrophoresis [fr

  9. SISGR: Improved Electrical Energy Storage with Electrochemical Double Layer Capacitance Based on Novel Carbon Electrodes, New Electrolytes, and Thorough Development of a Strong Science Base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruoff, Rodney S. [PI; Alam, Todd M. [co-PI; Bielawski, Christopher W. [co-PI; Chabal, Yves [co-PI; Hwang, Gyeong [co-PI; Ishii, Yoshitaka [co-PI; Rogers, Robin [co-PI

    2014-07-23

    The broad objective of the SISGR program is to advance the fundamental scientific understanding of electrochemical double layer capacitance (EDLC) and thus of ultracapacitor systems composed of a new type of electrode based on chemically modified graphene (CMG) and (primarily) with ionic liquids (ILs) as the electrolyte. Our team has studied the interplay between graphene-based and graphene-derived carbons as the electrode materials in electrochemical double layer capacitors (EDLC) systems on the one hand, and electrolytes including novel ionic liquids (ILs), on the other, based on prior work on the subject.

  10. Microstructure and chemical analysis of Hf-based high-k dielectric layers in metal-insulator-metal capacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thangadurai, P. [Department of Materials Engineering, Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel); Mikhelashvili, V.; Eisenstein, G. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel); Kaplan, W.D., E-mail: kaplan@tx.technion.ac.i [Department of Materials Engineering, Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel)

    2010-05-31

    The microstructure and chemistry of the high-k gate dielectric significantly influences the performance of metal-insulator-metal (MIM) and metal-oxide-semiconductor devices. In particular, the local structure, chemistry, and inter-layer mixing are important phenomena to be understood. In the present study, high resolution and analytical transmission electron microscopy are combined to study the local structure, morphology, and chemistry in MIM capacitors containing a Hf-based high-k dielectric. The gate dielectric, bottom and gate electrodes were deposited on p-type Si(100) wafers by electron beam evaporation. Four chemically distinguishable sub-layers were identified within the dielectric stack. One is an unintentionally formed 4.0 nm thick interfacial layer of Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} at the interface between the Ta electrode and the dielectric. The other three layers are based on HfN{sub x}O{sub y} and HfTiO{sub y}, and intermixing between the nearby sub-layers including deposited SiO{sub 2}. Hf-rich clusters were found in the HfN{sub x}O{sub y} layer adjacent to the Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} layer.

  11. Water transport and desalination through double-layer graphyne membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhavan, Mojdeh; Schofield, Jeremy; Jalili, Seifollah

    2018-05-16

    Non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations of water-salt solutions driven through single and double-layer graphyne membranes by a pressure difference created by rigid pistons are carried out to determine the relative performance of the membranes as filters in a reverse osmosis desalination process. It is found that the flow rate of water through a graphyne-4 membrane is twice that of a graphyne-3 membrane for both single and double-layer membranes. Although the addition of a second layer to a single-layer membrane reduces the membrane permeability, the double-layer graphyne membranes are still two or three orders of magnitude more permeable than commercial reverse osmosis membranes. The minimum reduction in flow rate for double-layer membranes occurs at a layer spacing of 0.35 nm with an AA stacking configuration, while at a spacing of 0.6 nm the flow rate is close to zero due to a high free energy barrier for permeation. This is caused by the difference in the environments on either side of the membrane sheets and the formation of a compact two-dimensional layer of water molecules in the interlayer space which slows down water permeation. The distribution of residence times of water molecules in the interlayer region suggests that at the critical layer spacing of 0.6 nm, a cross-over occurs in the mechanism of water flow from the collective movement of hydrogen-bonded water sheets to the permeation of individual water molecules. All membranes are demonstrated to have a high salt rejection fraction and the double-layered graphyne-4 membranes can further increase the salt rejection by trapping ions that have passed through the first membrane from the feed solution in the interlayer space.

  12. Voltage Drop in a Ferroelectric Single Layer Capacitor by Retarded Domain Nucleation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yu Jin; Park, Hyeon Woo; Hyun, Seung Dam; Kim, Han Joon; Kim, Keum Do; Lee, Young Hwan; Moon, Taehwan; Lee, Yong Bin; Park, Min Hyuk; Hwang, Cheol Seong

    2017-12-13

    Ferroelectric (FE) capacitor is a critical electric component in microelectronic devices. Among many of its intriguing properties, the recent finding of voltage drop (V-drop) across the FE capacitor while the positive charges flow in is especially eye-catching. This finding was claimed to be direct evidence that the FE capacitor is in negative capacitance (NC) state, which must be useful for (infinitely) high capacitance and ultralow voltage operation of field-effect transistors. Nonetheless, the NC state corresponds to the maximum energy state of the FE material, so it has been widely accepted in the community that the material alleviates that state by forming ferroelectric domains. This work reports a similar V-drop effect from the 150 nm thick epitaxial BaTiO 3 ferroelectric thin film, but the interpretation was completely disparate; the V-drop can be precisely simulated by the reverse domain nucleation and propagation of which charge effect cannot be fully compensated for by the supplied charge from the external charge source. The disappearance of the V-drop effect was also observed by repeated FE switching only up to 10 cycles, which can hardly be explained by the involvement of the NC effect. The retained reverse domain nuclei even after the subsequent poling can explain such behavior.

  13. Atomic Layer-Deposited Molybdenum Oxide/Carbon Nanotube Hybrid Electrodes: The Influence of Crystal Structure on Lithium-Ion Capacitor Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischmann, Simon; Zeiger, Marco; Quade, Antje; Kruth, Angela; Presser, Volker

    2018-05-25

    Merging of supercapacitors and batteries promises the creation of electrochemical energy storage devices that combine high specific energy, power, and cycling stability. For that purpose, lithium-ion capacitors (LICs) that store energy by lithiation reactions at the negative electrode and double-layer formation at the positive electrode are currently investigated. In this study, we explore the suitability of molybdenum oxide as a negative electrode material in LICs for the first time. Molybdenum oxide-carbon nanotube hybrid materials were synthesized via atomic layer deposition, and different crystal structures and morphologies were obtained by post-deposition annealing. These model materials are first structurally characterized and electrochemically evaluated in half-cells. Benchmarking in LIC full-cells revealed the influences of crystal structure, half-cell capacity, and rate handling on the actual device level performance metrics. The energy efficiency, specific energy, and power are mainly influenced by the overpotential and kinetics of the lithiation reaction during charging. Optimized LIC cells show a maximum specific energy of about 70 W·h·kg -1 and a high specific power of 4 kW·kg -1 at 34 W·h·kg -1 . The longevity of the LIC cells is drastically increased without significantly reducing the energy by preventing a deep cell discharge, hindering the negative electrode from crossing its anodic potential limit.

  14. Free double layers in mercury-arc discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maciel, H.S.; Allen, J.E.

    1989-01-01

    A study has been carried out of free double layers formed within the plasma volume of a low-pressure mercury-arc discharge at high current densities. The free double layer is observed to form as a visible boundary, which drifts slowly from the central section of the discharge. Current-driven instabilities are observed as the discharge current is gradually increased to a critical value, at which current limitation is observed to occur. This process, which is accompanied by high-current spikes, ceases when the free double layer becomes visible as a sharp boundary dividing the discharge column into two regions of different luminosities. The layer is observed to form in the later stages of current limitation, the onset of which occurs for a ratio of drift to thermal speed of electrons of about unity. Electrical energy is converted by the layer into kinetic energy of the changed particles. Accordingly high-energy ions were measured by means of an electrostatic energy analyser. The multiple-sheath character of the free 'double layer'', which is inferred from probe measurements of potential profiles, is discussed and comparisons with other space-charge structures with the same topology are made. (author)

  15. Observations of propagating double layers in a high current discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindberg, L.

    1988-01-01

    Observations of current disruptions and strong electric fields along the magnetic field in a high-density (2 x 10 19 m - 3 , highly-ionized, moving, and expanding plasma column are reported. The electric field is interpreted in terms of propagating, strong electric double layers (3-5kV). An initial plasma column is formed in an axial magnetic field (0.1T) by means of a conical theta-pinch plasma gun. When an axial current (max 5kA, 3-5 kV) is drawn through the column spontaneous disruptions and double-layer formation occur within a few microseconds. Floating, secondary emitting Langmuir probes are used. They often indicate very high positive potential peaks (1-2 kV above the anode potential during a few μs) in the plasma on the positive side of the double layer. Short, intense bursts of HF radiation are detected at the disruptions

  16. Some recent trends in computer simulations of aqueous double layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spohr, E.

    2003-01-01

    Recent molecular simulations of the electric double layer between an aqueous and a metallic phase are reviewed. Several trends in the field can be identified: (i) the increasing use of ab initio simulation methods, most notably the Car-Parrinello method, allows to combine a statistical mechanical description of the double layer with a description of elementary chemical processes on the electronic structure level; (ii) the application of free-energy methods in one and (recently) two dimensions to describe chemical reactivity within and beyond the framework of the Marcus theory of electron transfer; and (iii) at high concentrations, direct simulations of two-phase systems with an aqueous solution and a charged or uncharged solid phase or surface can model the entire double layer region

  17. Sandwich-like graphene/polypyrrole/layered double hydroxide nanowires for high-performance supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuejin; Zhang, Yu; Xing, Wei; Li, Li; Xue, Qingzhong; Yan, Zifeng

    2016-11-01

    Electrode design in nanoscale is considered to be ultra-important to construct a superb capacitor. Herein, a sandwich-like composite was made by combining graphene/polypyrrole (GPPY) with nickel-aluminum layered double hydroxide nanowires (NiAl-NWs) via a facile hydrothermal method. This sandwich-like architecture is promising in energy storage applications due to three unique features: (1) the conductive GPPY substrate not only effectively prevents the layered double hydroxides species from aggregating, but also considerably facilitates the electron transmission; (2) the ultrathin NiAl-NWs ensure a maximum exposure of active Ni2+, which can improve the efficiency of rapid redox reactions even at high current densities; (3) the sufficient space between anisotropic NiAl-NWs can accommodate a large volume change of the nanowires to avoid their collapse or distortion during the reduplicative redox reactions. Keeping all these unique features in mind, when the as-prepared composite was applied to supercapacitors, it presented an enhanced capacitive performance in terms of high specific capacitance (845 F g-1), excellent rate performance (67% retained at 30 A g-1), remarkable cyclic stability (92% maintained after 5000 cycles) and large energy density (40.1 Wh·Kg-1). This accomplishment in the present work inspires an innovative strategy of nanoscale electrode design for high-rate performance supercapacitor electrodes containing pseuducapacitive metal oxide.

  18. Solvothermal synthesis of Li–Al layered double hydroxides and their electrochemical performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Jinbo; Gao, Zan; Song, Yanchao; Yang, Wanlu; Wang, Jun; Li, Zhanshuang; Mann, Tom; Zhang, Milin; Liu, Lianhe

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, for the first time, Li/Al layered double hydroxides (LDHs) were synthesized by a facile and environment-friendly solvothermal approach. X-ray diffraction patterns show that the as-prepared products belong to the hexagonal phase. Well-defined LDHs particles with spiral-shape (1–2 μm), hexagonal (2–3 μm) and petal-like structures (10–15 μm) have been successfully fabricated by adjusting the content of water/ethanol in the synthesis process. A possible growth mechanism was proposed for the formation of these structures. Their electrochemical performances were investigated by cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge/discharge test and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The hexagonal Li/Al LDHs calcined at 450 °C exhibit the specific capacitance of 848 F g −1 at a current density of 1.25 A g −1 . The high specific capacitance and remarkable rate capacity of Li/Al LDHs are promising for applications in capacitors and low-cost aqueous lithium ion batteries. - Graphical abstract: Hexagonal Li/Al layered double hydroxides (LDHs) with high specific surface area and remarkable rate capacity via a facile and environmentally friendly solvothermal approach. Highlights: ► Li/Al LDHs with different morphologies were fabricated by a solvothermal method. ► Hexagonal Li/Al LDHs display better electrochemical performance. ► A possible growth mechanism to explain the different morphology is proposed

  19. Mesoporous carbon design for ionic liquid-based, double-layer supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazzari, M.; Soavi, F.; Mastragostino, M. [Dipartimento di Scienza dei Metalli, Elettrochimica e Tecniche Chimiche, University of Bologna (Italy)

    2010-10-15

    The use of pyrrolidinium-based ionic liquids (ILs) in asymmetric electric double-layer capacitors (AEDLC) with positive and negative carbon electrodes of different weight is a powerful strategy for developing safe, high specific-energy supercapacitors operating at >3.5 V. The preparation and characterisation of ordered (OTC) and disordered (DTC) template carbons, the latter obtained by a fast and low-cost method, are reported. The porosity and capacitance features of the template carbons are discussed in view of their application in IL-based AEDLCs and compared with the properties of aero/cryo/xerogel carbons and a commercial activated carbon. The performance of an N-butyl-N-methyl pyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide-based AEDLC assembled with DTC carbon electrodes operating at 3.9 V featuring high specific energy of 47 Wh kg{sup -1} is then reported. The impact of porosity and surface chemistry of carbons on the electrode capacitive response in IL and on the performance of the IL-based AEDLC in terms of energy, power and weight distribution of module components is discussed. The effect of IL nature and carbon porosity on the time constant of the double-layer charging process was also investigated by voltammetric and impedance studies. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  20. Double layer -- a particle accelerator in the magnetosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Xiangrong [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2015-07-16

    Slides present the material under the following topics: Introduction (What is a double layer (DL)? Why is it important? Key unsolved problems); Theory -- time-independent solutions of 1D Vlasov--Poisson system; Particle-in-cell simulations (Current-driven DLs); and Electron acceleration by DL (Betatron acceleration). Key problems include the generation mechanism, stability, and electron acceleration. In summary, recent observations by Van Allen Probes show large number of DLs in the outer radiation belt, associated with enhanced flux of relativistic electrons. Simulations show that ion acoustic double layers can be generated by field-aligned currents. Thermal electrons can gain energy via betatron acceleration in a dipole magnetic field.

  1. Double layers do accelerate particles in the auroral zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borovsky, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    In response to a recent report [D. A. Bryant, R. Bingham, and U. de Angelis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 37 (1991)] that makes the claim that electrostatic fields are weak in the auroral zone and that electrostatic fields cannot accelerate particles, it is pointed out that the evidence for electrostatic fields in the auroral zone is overwhelming and that these electrostatic fields often are accelerating electrons to produce aurora. The literature cited in the article above as evidence against double layers (strong electric fields) is reexamined and is found not to be evidence against double layers

  2. Circuit effects on pierce instabilities, and double-layer formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raadu, M.A.; Silevitch, M.B.

    1982-11-01

    The role of the Pierce instability in the formation of double layers is considered and compared with that of the Buneman instability. Pierce instabilities have been identified in a double-layer experiment, where they lead to ion trapping. Here the effects of external circuit elements are considered. In the case of immobile ions the onset criteria are unaffected, but in the unstable range the growth rate is reduced by the external impedance. Required experimental values of the circuit elements are estimated. The possible relevance to computer simulations is noted. (Authors)

  3. Fatigue-resistant epitaxial Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 capacitors on Pt electrode with ultra-thin SrTiO3 template layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahara, Seiichi; Morimoto, Akiharu; Kawae, Takeshi; Kumeda, Minoru; Yamada, Satoru; Ohtsubo, Shigeru; Yonezawa, Yasuto

    2008-01-01

    Lead zirconate-titanate Pb(Zr,Ti)O 3 (PZT) capacitors with Pt bottom electrodes were prepared on MgO substrates by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique employing SrTiO 3 (STO) template layer. Perovskite PZT thin films are prepared via stoichiometric target using the ultra-thin STO template layers while it is quite difficult to obtain the perovskite PZT on Pt electrode via stoichiometric target in PLD process. The PZT capacitor prepared with the STO template layer showed good hysteresis and leakage current characteristics, and it showed an excellent fatigue resistance. The ultra-thin STO template layers were characterized by angle-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurement. The effect of the STO template layer is discussed based on the viewpoint of the perovskite nucleation and diffusion of Pb and O atoms

  4. Layer-by-layer self-assembly of polyimide precursor/layered double hydroxide ultrathin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Dan; Huang Shu; Zhang Chao; Wang Weizhi; Liu Tianxi

    2010-01-01

    The layer-by-layer (LBL) self-assembly has been extensively used as a simple and effective method for the preparation of polyelectrolyte multilayer films. In this work, we utilized this unique method to prepare polyimide precursor/layered double hydroxide (LDH) ultrathin films. Well-crystallized Co-Al-CO 3 LDH and subsequent anion exchanged Co-Al-NO 3 LDH were prepared and characterized by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD). By vigorous shaking of the as-prepared Co-Al-NO 3 LDH, positively charged and exfoliated LDH nanosheets were obtained. Atomic force microscopy and XRD investigations indicated the delamination of LDH nanosheets. The precursor of polyimide, poly(amic acid) tertiary amine salt (PAS) was prepared by the polycondensation of dianhydride and diamine, and subsequent amine salt formation. By using the LBL method, heterogeneous ultrathin films of PAS and LDH were prepared. The formation of the ordered nanostructured assemblies was confirmed by the progressive enhancement of UV absorbance and the XRD results.

  5. Single Layered Versus Double Layered Intestinal Anastomosis: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohapatra, Vandana; Singh, Surendra; Rath, Pratap Kumar; Behera, Tapas Ranjan

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Gastrointestinal anastomosis is one of the most common procedures being performed in oesophagogastric, hepatobiliary, bariatric, small bowel and colorectal surgery; however, the safety and efficacy of single layer or double layer anastomotic technique is still unclear. Aim To assess and compare the efficacy, safety and cost effectiveness of single layered versus double layered intestinal anastomosis. Materials and Methods This prospective, double-blind, randomized controlled comparative study comprised of patients who underwent intestinal resection and anastomosis. They were randomly assigned to undergo either single layered extra-mucosal anastomosis (Group-A) or double layered intestinal anastomosis (Group-B). Primary outcome measures included average time taken for anastomosis, postoperative complications, mean duration of hospital stay and cost of suture material used; secondary outcome measures assessed the postoperative return of bowel function. Statistical analysis was done by Chi-square test and student t-test. Results A total of 97 participants were randomized. Fifty patients were allocated to single layered extramucosal continuous anastomosis (Group-A) and 47 patients to double layered anastomosis (Group-B). The patients in each group were well matched for age, sex and diagnosis. The mean time taken for anastomosis (15.12±2.27 minutes in Group-A versus 24.38±2.26 minutes in Group-B) and the length of hospital stay (5.90±1.43 days in Group-A versus 7.29±1.89 days in Group-B) was significantly shorter in Group-A {p-value anastomosis. However, there was no significant difference in the complication rates between the two groups. Conclusion It can be concluded that single layered extramucosal continuous intestinal anastomosis is equally safe and perhaps more cost effective than the conventional double layered method and may represent the optimal choice for routine surgical practice. PMID:28764239

  6. Double-layer Tablets of Lornoxicam: Validation of Quantification ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To formulate double-layer tablets of lornoxicam (LRX) prepared by direct compression method and ... including direct compression method which is ..... Mechanisms of potassium chloride release from compressed, hydrophilic, polymeric matrices: effect of entrapped air. J Pharm Sci 1983; 72(10): 1189-1191. 17.

  7. Double layer effects in the electroreduction of transition metal ions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fawcett, W. R.; Hromadová, Magdaléna

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 4 (2008), s. 347-351 ISSN 1432-8488 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB400400603; GA MŠk LC510 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : sphere electrode reactions * crystal gold electrodes * diffuse double - layer Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 1.597, year: 2008

  8. Double-layer Tablets of Lornoxicam: Validation of Quantification ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Double-layer Tablets of Lornoxicam: Validation of Quantification Method, In vitro Dissolution and Kinetic Modelling. ... Satisfactory results were obtained from all the tablet formulations met compendial requirements. The slowest drug release rate was obtained with tablet cores based on PVP K90 (1.21 mg%.h-1).

  9. Interaction of pristine hydrotalcite-like layered double hydroxides ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Metal oxides in general have surface acidic sites, but for exceptional circumstances, are not expected to mineralize CO2. Given their intrinsic basicity and an expandable interlayer gallery, the hydrotalcite-like layered double hydroxides (LDHs) are expected to be superior candidate materials for CO2 mineralization.

  10. Damping of double wall panels including a viscothermal air layer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Basten, T.G.H.; Stainhaouer, G.; Bakamidis, S.; Charalabopoulou, F.

    2001-01-01

    This paper deals with the dynamic behaviour of double wall panels, with emphasis on damping and sound radiation. It will be shown that a narrow air layer separating the two plates of a panel significantly alters the mentioned quantities by its viscothermal properties. Numerical and experimental

  11. On the magnetism of Heisenberg double-layer antiferromagnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uijen, C.M.J. van.

    1980-01-01

    The author investigates the sublattice magnetization and the susceptibility of the double-layer Heisenberg antiferromagnet K 3 M 2 F 7 by employing the techniques of elastic and quasi-elastic critical magnetic scattering of neutrons. (G.T.H.)

  12. Temperature-Dependent Physical and Memory Characteristics of Atomic-Layer-Deposited RuOx Metal Nanocrystal Capacitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Maikap

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Physical and memory characteristics of the atomic-layer-deposited RuOx metal nanocrystal capacitors in an n-Si/SiO2/HfO2/RuOx/Al2O3/Pt structure with different postdeposition annealing temperatures from 850–1000°C have been investigated. The RuOx metal nanocrystals with an average diameter of 7 nm and a highdensity of 0.7 × 1012/cm2 are observed by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy after a postdeposition annealing temperature at 1000°C. The density of RuOx nanocrystal is decreased (slightly by increasing the annealing temperatures, due to agglomeration of multiple nanocrystals. The RuO3 nanocrystals and Hf-silicate layer at the SiO2/HfO2 interface are confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. For post-deposition annealing temperature of 1000°C, the memory capacitors with a small equivalent oxide thickness of ~9 nm possess a large hysteresis memory window of >5 V at a small sweeping gate voltage of ±5 V. A promising memory window under a small sweeping gate voltage of ~3 V is also observed due to charge trapping in the RuOx metal nanocrystals. The program/erase mechanism is modified Fowler-Nordheim (F-N tunneling of the electrons and holes from Si substrate. The electrons and holes are trapped in the RuOx nanocrystals. Excellent program/erase endurance of 106 cycles and a large memory window of 4.3 V with a small charge loss of ~23% at 85°C are observed after 10 years of data retention time, due to the deep-level traps in the RuOx nanocrystals. The memory structure is very promising for future nanoscale nonvolatile memory applications.

  13. Plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition of TiN/Al2O3 stacks for metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogeland, D.; Jinesh, K.B.; Roozeboom, F.; Besling, W.F.A.; Sanden, van de M.C.M.; Kessels, W.M.M.

    2009-01-01

    By employing plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition, thin films of Al2O3 and TiN are subsequently deposited in a single reactor at a single substrate temperature with the objective of fabricating high-quality TiN/Al2O3 / p-Si metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors. Transmission electron microscopy

  14. Electric-double-layer potential distribution in multiple-layer immiscible electrolytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Das, S.; Hardt, Steffen

    2011-01-01

    In this Brief Report, we calculate the electric-double-layer (EDL) electrostatic potential in a system of several layers of immiscible electrolytes. Verwey-Niessen theory predicts that at the interface between two immiscible electrolytes back-to-back EDLs are formed. The present analysis extends

  15. Suppression in the electrical hysteresis by using CaF2 dielectric layer for p-GaN MIS capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Liwen; Ren, Bing; Liao, Meiyong; Koide, Yasuo; Sumiya, Masatomo

    2018-04-01

    The capacitance-voltage (C-V) hysteresis in the bidirectional measurements of the p-GaN metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) capacitor is suppressed by using a CaF2 dielectric layer and a post annealing treatment. The density of trapped charge states at the CaF2/p-GaN interface is dramatically reduced from 1.3 × 1013 cm2 to 1.1 × 1011/cm2 compared to that of the Al2O3/p-GaN interface with a large C-V hysteresis. It is observed that the disordered oxidized interfacial layer can be avoided by using the CaF2 dielectric. The downward band bending of p-GaN is decreased from 1.51 to 0.85 eV as a result of the low-density oxides-related trap states. Our work indicates that the CaF2 can be used as a promising dielectric layer for the p-GaN MIS structures.

  16. 4.0-nm-thick amorphous Nb–Ni film as a conducting diffusion barrier layer for integrating ferroelectric capacitor on Si

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai, X.H.; Guo, J.X.; Zhang, L.; Jia, D.M.; Qi, C.G.; Zhou, Y.; Li, X.H.; Shi, J.B.; Fu, Y.J.; Wang, Y.L.; Lou, J.Z.; Ma, L.X.; Zhao, H.D.; Liu, B.T.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • 4-nm-thick amorphous Nb–Ni film is first used as the conducting barrier layer. • No obvious interdiffusion/reaction can be found from the LSCO/PZT/LSCO/Nb–Ni/Si. • The LSCO/PZT/LSCO capacitor, measured at 5 V, possesses very good properties. • Ultrathin amorphous Nb–Ni film is ideal to fabricate silicon-based FRAM. - Abstract: We have successfully integrated La 0.5 Sr 0.5 CoO 3 /PbZr 0.4 Ti 0.6 O 3 /La 0.5 Sr 0.5 CoO 3 (LSCO/PZT/LSCO) capacitors on silicon substrate using a ∼4.0-nm-thick amorphous Nb–Ni film as the conducting diffusion barrier layer. Transmission electron microscopy technique confirms that the Nb–Ni film is still amorphous after fabrication of the capacitors, and the interfaces related to Nb–Ni are clean and sharp without any findable interdiffusion/reaction. The LSCO/PZT/LSCO capacitor, measured at 5 V, possesses very good properties, such as large remanent polarization of ∼22.1 μC/cm 2 , small coercive voltage of ∼1.27 V, good fatigue-resistance, and small pulse width dependence, implying that ultrathin amorphous Nb–Ni film is ideal as the conducting diffusion barrier layer to fabricate high-density silicon-based ferroelectric random access memories

  17. Integrated capacitor arrangement for ultrahigh capacitance values

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roozeboom, F.; Klootwijk, J.H.; Kemmeren, A.L.A.M.; Reefman, D.; Verhoeven, J.F.C.M.

    2011-01-01

    An electronic device includes at least one trench capacitor that can also take the form of an inverse structure, a pillar capacitor. An alternating layer sequence of at least two dielectric layers and at least two electrically conductive layers is provided in the trench capacitor or on the pillar

  18. The Importance of Ion Size and Electrode Curvature on Electrical Double Layers in Ionic Liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Guang [Clemson University; Qiao, Rui [ORNL; Huang, Jingsong [ORNL; Dai, Sheng [ORNL; Sumpter, Bobby G [ORNL; Meunier, Vincent [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    Room-temperature ionic liquids (ILs) are an emerging class of electrolytes for supercapacitors. We investigate the effects of ion size and electrode curvature on the electrical double layers (EDLs) in two ILs 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride [BMIM][Cl] and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate [BMIM][PF(6)], using a combination of molecular dynamics (MD) and quantum density functional theory (DFT) simulations. The sizes of the counter-ion and co-ion affect the ion distribution and orientational structure of EDLs. The EDL capacitances near both planar and cylindrical electrodes were found to follow the order: [BMIM][Cl] (near the positive electrode) > [BMIM][PF(6)] (near the positive electrode) {approx} [BMIM][Cl] (near the negative electrode) {approx} [BMIM][PF(6)] (near the negative electrode). The EDL capacitance was also found to increase as the electrode curvature increases. These capacitance data can be fit to the Helmholtz model and the recently proposed exohedral electrical double-cylinder capacitor (xEDCC) model when the EDL thickness is properly parameterized, even though key features of the EDLs in ILs are not accounted for in these models. To remedy the shortcomings of existing models, we propose a 'Multiple Ion Layers with Overscreening' (MILO) model for the EDLs in ILs that takes into account two critical features of such EDLs, i.e., alternating layering of counter-ions and co-ions and charge overscreening. The capacitance computed from the MILO model agrees well with the MD prediction. Although some input parameters of the MILO model must be obtained from MD simulations, the MILO model may provide a new framework for understanding many important aspects of EDLs in ILs (e.g., the variation of EDL capacitance with the electrode potential) that are difficult to interpret using classical EDL models and experiments.

  19. Thin-film composite materials as a dielectric layer for flexible metal-insulator-metal capacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Jitendra N; Meena, Jagan Singh; Wu, Chung-Shu; Tiwari, Rajanish N; Chu, Min-Ching; Chang, Feng-Chih; Ko, Fu-Hsiang

    2010-09-24

    A new organic-organic nanoscale composite thin-film (NCTF) dielectric has been synthesized by solution deposition of 1-bromoadamantane and triblock copolymer (Pluronic P123, BASF, EO20-PO70-EO20), in which the precursor solution has been achieved with organic additives. We have used a sol-gel process to make a metal-insulator-metal capacitor (MIM) comprising a nanoscale (10 nm-thick) thin-film on a flexible polyimide (PI) substrate at room temperature. Scanning electron microscope and atomic force microscope revealed that the deposited NCTFs were crack-free, uniform, highly resistant to moisture absorption, and well adhered on the Au-Cr/PI. The electrical properties of 1-bromoadamantane-P123 NCTF were characterized by dielectric constant, capacitance, and leakage current measurements. The 1-bromoadamantane-P123 NCTF on the PI substrate showed a low leakage current density of 5.5 x 10(-11) A cm(-2) and good capacitance of 2.4 fF at 1 MHz. In addition, the calculated dielectric constant of 1-bromoadamantane-P123 NCTF was 1.9, making them suitable candidates for use in future flexible electronic devices as a stable intermetal dielectric. The electrical insulating properties of 1-bromoadamantane-P123 NCTF have been improved due to the optimized dipole moments of the van der Waals interactions.

  20. Simultaneous control of thermoelectric properties in p- and n-type materials by electric double-layer gating: New design for thermoelectric device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayanagi, Ryohei; Fujii, Takenori; Asamitsu, Atsushi

    2015-05-01

    We report a novel design of a thermoelectric device that can control the thermoelectric properties of p- and n-type materials simultaneously by electric double-layer gating. Here, p-type Cu2O and n-type ZnO were used as the positive and negative electrodes of the electric double-layer capacitor structure. When a gate voltage was applied between the two electrodes, holes and electrons accumulated on the surfaces of Cu2O and ZnO, respectively. The thermopower was measured by applying a thermal gradient along the accumulated layer on the electrodes. We demonstrate here that the accumulated layers worked as a p-n pair of the thermoelectric device.

  1. Patch holography using a double layer microphone array

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gomes, Jesper Skovhus

    a closed local element mesh that surrounds the microphone array, and with a part of the mesh coinciding with a patch, the entire source is not needed in the model. Since the array has two layers, sources/reflections behind the array are also allowed. The Equivalent Source Method (ESM) is another technique...... in which the sound field is represented by a set of monopoles placed inside the source. In this paper these monopoles are distributed so that they surround the array, and the reconstruction is compared with the IBEM-based approach. The comparisons are based on computer simulations with a planar double...... layer array and sources with different shapes....

  2. Double layers in a modestly collisional electronegative discharge

    CERN Document Server

    Sheridan, T E

    1999-01-01

    The effect of ion-neutral collisions on the structure and ion flux emanating from a steady-state, planar discharge with two negative components is investigated. The positive ion component is modelled as a cold fluid subject to constant-mobility collisions, while the electrons and negative ions obey Boltzmann relations. The model includes the collisionless limit. When the negative ions are sufficiently cold three types of discharge structures are found. For small negative ion concentrations or high collisionality, the discharge is 'stratified', with an electronegative core and an electropositive edge. For the opposite conditions, the discharge is 'uniform' with the negative ion density remaining significant at the edge of the plasma. Between these cases lies the special case of a double-layer-stratified discharge, where quasi-neutrality is violated at the edge of the electronegative core. Double-layer-stratified solutions are robust in that they persist for moderate collisionality. Numerical solutions for fini...

  3. Electrostatic supersolitons and double layers at the acoustic speed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verheest, Frank; Hellberg, Manfred A.

    2015-01-01

    Supersolitons are characterized by subsidiary extrema on the sides of a typical bipolar electric field signature or by association with a root beyond double layers in the fully nonlinear Sagdeev pseudopotential description. It has been proven that supersolitons may exist in several plasmas having at least three constituent species, but they cannot be found in weakly nonlinear theory. Another recent aspect of pseudopotential theory is that in certain plasma models and parameter regimes solitons and/or double layers can exist at the acoustic speed, having no reductive perturbation counterparts. Importantly, they signal coexistence between solitons having positive and negative polarity, in that one solution can be realized at a time, depending on infinitesimal perturbations from the equilibrium state. Weaving the two strands together, we demonstrate here that one can even find supersolitons and double layers at the acoustic speed, as illustrated using the model of cold positive and negative ions, in the presence of nonthermal electrons following a Cairns distribution. This model has been discussed before, but the existence and properties of supersolitons at the acoustic speed were not established at the time of publication

  4. Electrostatic supersolitons and double layers at the acoustic speed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verheest, Frank, E-mail: frank.verheest@ugent.be [Sterrenkundig Observatorium, Universiteit Gent, Krijgslaan 281, B–9000 Gent (Belgium); School of Chemistry and Physics, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban 4000 (South Africa); Hellberg, Manfred A., E-mail: hellberg@ukzn.ac.za [School of Chemistry and Physics, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban 4000 (South Africa)

    2015-01-15

    Supersolitons are characterized by subsidiary extrema on the sides of a typical bipolar electric field signature or by association with a root beyond double layers in the fully nonlinear Sagdeev pseudopotential description. It has been proven that supersolitons may exist in several plasmas having at least three constituent species, but they cannot be found in weakly nonlinear theory. Another recent aspect of pseudopotential theory is that in certain plasma models and parameter regimes solitons and/or double layers can exist at the acoustic speed, having no reductive perturbation counterparts. Importantly, they signal coexistence between solitons having positive and negative polarity, in that one solution can be realized at a time, depending on infinitesimal perturbations from the equilibrium state. Weaving the two strands together, we demonstrate here that one can even find supersolitons and double layers at the acoustic speed, as illustrated using the model of cold positive and negative ions, in the presence of nonthermal electrons following a Cairns distribution. This model has been discussed before, but the existence and properties of supersolitons at the acoustic speed were not established at the time of publication.

  5. Effects of Complex Structured Anodic Oxide Dielectric Layer Grown in Pore Matrix for Aluminum Capacitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jin-Ha; Yun, Sook Young; Lee, Chang Hyoung; Park, Hwa-Sun; Suh, Su-Jeong

    2015-11-01

    Anodization of aluminum is generally divided up into two types of anodic aluminum oxide structures depending on electrolyte type. In this study, an anodization process was carried out in two steps to obtain high dielectric strength and break down voltage. In the first step, evaporated high purity Al on Si wafer was anodized in oxalic acidic aqueous solution at various times at a constant temperature of 5 degrees C. In the second step, citric acidic aqueous solution was used to obtain a thickly grown sub-barrier layer. During the second anodization process, the anodizing potential of various ranges was applied at room temperature. An increased thickness of the sub-barrier layer in the porous matrix was obtained according to the increment of the applied anodizing potential. The microstructures and the growth of the sub-barrier layer were then observed with an increasing anodizing potential of 40 to 300 V by using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). An impedance analyzer was used to observe the change of electrical properties, including the capacitance, dissipation factor, impedance, and equivalent series resistance (ESR) depending on the thickness increase of the sub-barrier layer. In addition, the breakdown voltage was measured. The results revealed that dielectric strength was improved with the increase of sub-barrier layer thickness.

  6. PLZT capacitor on glass substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairchild, M. Ray; Taylor, Ralph S.; Berlin, Carl W.; Wong, Celine W. K.; Ma, Beihai; Balachandran, Uthamalingam

    2016-01-05

    A lead-lanthanum-zirconium-titanate (PLZT) capacitor on a substrate formed of glass. The first metallization layer is deposited on a top side of the substrate to form a first electrode. The dielectric layer of PLZT is deposited over the first metallization layer. The second metallization layer deposited over the dielectric layer to form a second electrode. The glass substrate is advantageous as glass is compatible with an annealing process used to form the capacitor.

  7. Single-particle thermal diffusion of charged colloids: Double-layer theory in a temperature gradient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dhont, J.K.G.; Briels, Willem J.

    2008-01-01

    The double-layer contribution to the single-particle thermal diffusion coefficient of charged, spherical colloids with arbitrary double-layer thickness is calculated and compared to experiments. The calculation is based on an extension of the Debye-Hückel theory for the double-layer structure that

  8. Interfacial and Electrical Properties of Ge MOS Capacitor by ZrLaON Passivation Layer and Fluorine Incorporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yong; Xu, Jing-Ping; Liu, Lu; Cheng, Zhi-Xiang; Lai, Pui-To; Tang, Wing-Man

    2017-09-01

    Ge Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (MOS) capacitor with HfTiON/ZrLaON stacked gate dielectric and fluorine-plasma treatment is fabricated, and its interfacial and electrical properties are compared with its counterparts without the ZrLaON passivation layer or the fluorine-plasma treatment. Experimental results show that the sample exhibits excellent performances: low interface-state density (3.7×1011 cm-2eV-1), small flatband voltage (0.21 V), good capacitance-voltage behavior, small frequency dispersion and low gate leakage current (4.41×10-5 A/cm2 at Vg = Vfb + 1V). These should be attributed to the suppressed growth of unstable Ge oxides on the Ge surface during gate-dielectric annealing by the ZrLaON interlayer and fluorine incorporation, thus greatly reducing the defective states at/near the ZrLaON/Ge interface and improving the electrical properties of the device.

  9. CoCr/NiFe double layers studied by FMR and VSM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stam, M.T.H.C.W.; Gerritsma, G.J.; Lodder, J.C.; Popma, T.J.A.

    1987-01-01

    CoCr/NiFe double layers were investigated by FMR and VSM. The FMR linewidth of NiFe of the double layer is about twice that of a single NiFe layer. The resonance field is the same in both cases. Using the VSM the coercive field of the CoCr layer of the double layer was obtained. It is approximately

  10. Evolution of plasma double layers in laser-ablation plumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurlui, S.; Sanduloviciu, M.; Mihesan, C.; Ziskind, M.; Focsa, C.

    2005-01-01

    The double layers (DLs) are one of the most complex problems of the plasma physics. These layers are apparently important not only in laboratory plasmas and laser-ablation plasma plumes but also in natural phenomena, e.g. the aurora and fire balls.This work studies the dynamics of the double layers in a laser ablation plume from different targets irradiated by a Nd: YAG 10 ns pulsed laser. The plasma formation was studied by means of both Langmuir probe and mass spectrometry methods using an experimental set-up developed for the study of environmental or technological interest samples. The ionic current distribution in plasma plume formation was recorded in different experimental conditions. We have found that it depends on the laser energy, the pressure of the buffer gas and the probe position. The periodical oscillations recorded in different experimental conditions prove that these plasma formations (DLs) are local physical systems able to accumulate and release energy. Acting as storing and releasing energy elements, the DLs can sustain periodical or non-periodical variations of the current or of the other global parameters of the plasma. (author)

  11. Mechanical states in wound capacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, J.J.; Reuter, R.C. Jr.

    1989-01-01

    The winding process is encountered frequently in manufacturing, such as winding of polymer films and paper, laminated pressure vessel construction, and the manufacture of wound capacitors. The winding of capacitors will typically involve hundreds of plies of conductor and dielectric wound over a core. Due to the large number of layers, the calculation of the mechanical studies within a wound capacitor is a significant computational task. The focus of Part II of this paper is the formulation and application of optimization techniques for the design of wound capacitors. The design criteria to be achieved is a specified uniform wound tension in a capacitor. The paper will formulate an optimization statement of the wound capacitor design problem, develop a technique for reducing the numerical calculation required to repeatedly analyze the capacitor as required by the optimization algorithm, and apply the technique to an example. 4 refs., 13 figs., 4 tabs

  12. Anomalous or regular capacitance? The influence of pore size dispersity on double-layer formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäckel, N.; Rodner, M.; Schreiber, A.; Jeongwook, J.; Zeiger, M.; Aslan, M.; Weingarth, D.; Presser, V.

    2016-09-01

    The energy storage mechanism of electric double-layer capacitors is governed by ion electrosorption at the electrode surface. This process requires high surface area electrodes, typically highly porous carbons. In common organic electrolytes, bare ion sizes are below one nanometer but they are larger when we consider their solvation shell. In contrast, ionic liquid electrolytes are free of solvent molecules, but cation-anion coordination requires special consideration. By matching pore size and ion size, two seemingly conflicting views have emerged: either an increase in specific capacitance with smaller pore size or a constant capacitance contribution of all micro- and mesopores. In our work, we revisit this issue by using a comprehensive set of electrochemical data and a pore size incremental analysis to identify the influence of certain ranges in the pore size distribution to the ion electrosorption capacity. We see a difference in solvation of ions in organic electrolytes depending on the applied voltage and a cation-anion interaction of ionic liquids in nanometer sized pores.

  13. Holey nickel-cobalt layered double hydroxide thin sheets with ultrahigh areal capacitance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhi, Lei; Zhang, Wenliang; Dang, Liqin; Sun, Jie; Shi, Feng; Xu, Hua; Liu, Zonghuai; Lei, Zhibin

    2018-05-01

    Strong coupling of electroactive components on conductive carbonaceous matrix to fabricate flexible hybrid electrodes represents a promising approach towards high performance supercapacitors. This work reports the fabrication of holey nickel cobalt layered double hydroxide (NiCo-LDH) nanosheets that are vertically grown on the cotton cloth-derived activated textile carbon (aTC). The abundant nanoholes on the thin-sheet NiCo-LDH not only enhance the electrode efficiency for efficient Faradaic redox reactions but also facilitate access of electrolyte to the electrode surface, thus giving rise to 70% capacitance arising from their outer surface. As a result, the aTC-NiCo hybrid electrode is capable of simultaneously achieving extremely high areal capacitance (6.37 F cm-2), mass capacitance (525 F g-1) and volumetric capacitance (249 F cm-3) at a practical level of mass loading (6.72 mg cm-2). Moreover, a solid-state asymmetric capacitor built with aTC-NiCo as positive electrode and active carbon-coated on aTC as negative electrode can deliver a volumetric energy density of 7.4 mWh cm-3 at a power density of 103 mW cm-3, while preserving a superior power performance, satisfying cycling stability and good mechanical flexibility.

  14. GeO{sub x} interfacial layer scavenging remotely induced by metal electrode in metal/HfO{sub 2}/GeO{sub x}/Ge capacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Taehoon; Jung, Yong Chan; Seong, Sejong; Ahn, Jinho, E-mail: jhahn@hanyang.ac.kr [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 04763 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sung Bo [Department of Materials Science and Engineering and Research Institute of Advanced Materials (RIAM), Seoul National University, Seoul 08826 (Korea, Republic of); Park, In-Sung, E-mail: parkis77@hanyang.ac.kr [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 04763 (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Nano Science and Technology, Hanyang University, Seoul 04763 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-07-11

    The metal gate electrodes of Ni, W, and Pt have been investigated for their scavenging effect: a reduction of the GeO{sub x} interfacial layer (IL) between HfO{sub 2} dielectric and Ge substrate in metal/HfO{sub 2}/GeO{sub x}/Ge capacitors. All the capacitors were fabricated using the same process except for the material used in the metal electrodes. Capacitance-voltage measurements, scanning transmission electron microscopy, and electron energy loss spectroscopy were conducted to confirm the scavenging of GeO{sub x} IL. Interestingly, these metals are observed to remotely scavenge the interfacial layer, reducing its thickness in the order of Ni, W, and then Pt. The capacitance equivalent thickness of these capacitors with Ni, W, and Pt electrodes are evaluated to be 2.7 nm, 3.0 nm, and 3.5 nm, and each final remnant physical thickness of GeO{sub x} IL layer is 1.1 nm 1.4 nm, and 1.9 nm, respectively. It is suggested that the scavenging effect induced by the metal electrodes is related to the concentration of oxygen vacancies generated by oxidation reaction at the metal/HfO{sub 2} interface.

  15. Interaction between depolarization effects, interface layer, and fatigue behavior in PZT thin film capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böttger, U.; Waser, R.

    2017-07-01

    The existence of non-ferroelectric regions in ferroelectric thin films evokes depolarization effects leading to a tilt of the P(E) hysteresis loop. The analysis of measured hysteresis of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) thin films is used to determine a depolarization factor which contains quantitative information about interfacial layers as well as ferroelectrically passive zones in the bulk. The derived interfacial capacitance is smaller than that estimated from conventional extrapolation techniques. In addition, the concept of depolarization is used for the investigation of fatigue behavior of PZT thin films indicating that the mechanism of seed inhibition, which is responsible for the effect, occurs in the entire film.

  16. Fabrication of birnessite-type layered manganese oxide films for super capacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Y.K.; Dorval-Douville, G.; Favier, F. [Montpellier-2 Univ., LAMMI, UMR CNRS 5072, 34 (France)

    2004-07-01

    Birnessite-type layered manganese oxide films were anodically deposited at the surface of an inexpensive stainless steel. MnSO{sub 4} plating solutions were used at various potentials and for various durations. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy were used to examine the material structure and surface morphologies of obtained manganese oxide films. The capacitive characteristics and stability of these oxides were systematically investigated by means of cyclic voltammetry method in aqueous electrolytes. Deposition conditions affected the oxides structure and morphologies, and consequently greatly affected their electrochemical capacitance performance. (authors)

  17. The effect of dispersion status with functionalized graphenes for electric double-layer capacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Y.-R.; Chiu, K.-F.; Lin, H.C.; Hsieh, C.-Y.; Tsai, C.B.; Chu, B.T.T.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • MrGO/NMP can reduce the IR drops and R ct of the supercapacitors. • M-rGO can provide excellent plane-to-point conducting network. • M-rGO can effectively enhance high rate performance of supercapacitors. • M-rGO additive can deliver high capacity under high rate cycling. - Abstract: Graphene with oxygen (M-rGO and H-rGO) and nitrogen (N-rGO) related functional groups have been fabricated. Reduced graphenes including H-rGO, M-rGO and N-rGO were mixed with activated carbons as the composite electrodes and characterized for supercapacitors. The effects of the functional groups on graphenes as the conductive additive have been investigated. It was found that a suitable content of functional groups can improve the stability of dispersion, and therefore reduce the internal resistance (IR drop) and charge transfer resistance (R ct ) resulting in higher rate capability. The supercapacitor with M-rGO and KS6 as additive at the activated carbon electrode can be operated at a rate as high as 6 A/g and exhibits a capacitance of 208 F/g, whereas the supercapacitor using only KS6 as additive shows a capacitance of only 107 F/g. The graphene contained supercapacitor has been cycled over 2000 times at 4 A/g with almost no capacitance fading

  18. The effect of dispersion status with functionalized graphenes for electric double-layer capacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Y.-R., E-mail: d98527015@ntu.edu.tw [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University, No. 1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Rd, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Feng Chia University, 100 Wen Hwa Rd, 407 Taichung, Taiwan (China); Chiu, K.-F. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Feng Chia University, 100 Wen Hwa Rd, 407 Taichung, Taiwan (China); Lin, H.C. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University, No. 1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Rd, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Hsieh, C.-Y. [Enerage Inc., No. 5, Ligong 3rd Rd, Wujie Township, Yilan County 26841, Taiwan (China); Tsai, C.B. [Taiwan Textile Research Institute, No. 6, Chengtian Rd, Tucheng City, Taipei 23674, Taiwan (China); Chu, B.T.T. [Laboratory for Functional Polymers, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology (Empa), Überlandstrasse 129, 8600 Dübendorf (Switzerland)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • MrGO/NMP can reduce the IR drops and R{sub ct} of the supercapacitors. • M-rGO can provide excellent plane-to-point conducting network. • M-rGO can effectively enhance high rate performance of supercapacitors. • M-rGO additive can deliver high capacity under high rate cycling. - Abstract: Graphene with oxygen (M-rGO and H-rGO) and nitrogen (N-rGO) related functional groups have been fabricated. Reduced graphenes including H-rGO, M-rGO and N-rGO were mixed with activated carbons as the composite electrodes and characterized for supercapacitors. The effects of the functional groups on graphenes as the conductive additive have been investigated. It was found that a suitable content of functional groups can improve the stability of dispersion, and therefore reduce the internal resistance (IR drop) and charge transfer resistance (R{sub ct}) resulting in higher rate capability. The supercapacitor with M-rGO and KS6 as additive at the activated carbon electrode can be operated at a rate as high as 6 A/g and exhibits a capacitance of 208 F/g, whereas the supercapacitor using only KS6 as additive shows a capacitance of only 107 F/g. The graphene contained supercapacitor has been cycled over 2000 times at 4 A/g with almost no capacitance fading.

  19. Vertically Oriented Graphene Electrochemical Double Layer Capacitor with Very Fast Dynamic Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    the sheet density, but electronic problems with the RF, overwhelming the dc power supply, require further electronic refinement ( Faraday cage ). The...electronic refinement ( Faraday cage ). The plasma in the center of the mesh elements to the substrate surface or to the mesh edge is  ~ 125 micrometers...other carbon states in the plasma. In this work, the edges at 0 V in the plasma provided a similar ion focusing effect that resulted in a rate-limited

  20. Double layers in the laboratory and above the aurora

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Block, L.P.

    1980-11-01

    Recent laboratory double layer experiments have simulated, much better than before, the conditions prevailing on auroral field lines at high altitudes. In particular, magnetic fields strong enough to magnetize the electrons (but not quite the ions) have been used. Particle and wave spectra have been measured. Wave-particle interaction has been shown to play a minor role in the only case that has been quantitatively analyzed. The three-dimensional potential distribution has been mapped. The particle budget requires the radial electric field to be outward in the no magnetic field case but inward with magnetic field, in agreement with what is observed above the aurora. (author)

  1. LAYERED DOUBLE HYDROXIDES: NANOMATERIALS FOR APPLICATIONS IN AGRICULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luíz Paulo Figueredo Benício

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The current research aims to introduce Layered Double Hydroxides (LDH as nanomaterials to be used in agriculture, with particular reference to its use as storage and slow release matrix of nutrients and agrochemicals for plant growing. Structural characteristics, main properties, synthesis methods and characterization of LDH were covered in this study. Moreover, some literature data have been reported to demonstrate their potential for storage and slow release of nitrate, phosphate, agrochemicals, besides as being used as adsorbent for the wastewater treatment. This research aims to expand, in near future, the investigation field on these materials, with application in agriculture, increasing the interface between chemistry and agronomy.

  2. The photoluminescence of Co-Al-layered double hydroxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    We report a new optical behaviour of pure Co-Al-layered double hydroxide (LDH). It was found that the Co-Al-LDH sample could emit fluorescence without any fluorescent substances intercalated. Its excitation spectrum shows a maximum peak near the wavelength 370 nm, the maximum emission peak appears at 430 nm and the photoluminescence colour of the Co-Al-LDH sample is blue. This new optical property will be expected to extend the potential applications of LDHs in optical materials field.

  3. Electrostatic double-layer interaction between stacked charged bilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hishida, Mafumi; Nomura, Yoko; Akiyama, Ryo; Yamamura, Yasuhisa; Saito, Kazuya

    2017-10-01

    The inapplicability of the DLVO theory to multilayered anionic bilayers is found in terms of the co-ion-valence dependence of the lamellar repeat distance. Most of the added salt is expelled from the interlamellar space to the bulk due to the Gibbs-Donnan effect on multiple bilayers with the bulk. The electrostatic double-layer interaction is well expressed by the formula recently proposed by Trefalt. The osmotic pressure due to the expelled ions, rather than the van der Waals interaction, is the main origin of the attractive force between the bilayers.

  4. Ion acoustic double layers in the presence of plasma source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuda, H.; Ashour-Abdalla, M.

    1982-01-01

    Steady-state plasma turbulence and the formation of negative potential spikes and double layers in the presence of ion acoustic instabilities have been studied by means of one-dimensional particle simulations in which the velocities of a small fraction of electrons are replaced by the initial drifting Maxwellian at a constant rate. A steady state is found where negative potential spikes appear randomly in space and time giving rise to an anomalous resistivity much greater than previously found. Comparisons of the simulation results with laboratory and space plasmas are discussed

  5. Optical properties of single-layer, double-layer, and bulk MoS2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molina-Sanchez, Alejandro; Wirtz, Ludger [University of Luxembourg (Luxembourg); Hummer, Kerstin [University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria)

    2013-07-01

    The rise of graphene has brought attention also to other layered materials that can complement graphene or that can be an alternative in applications as transistors. Single-layer MoS{sub 2} has shown interesting electronic and optical properties such as as high electron mobility at room temperature and an optical bandgap of 1.8 eV. This makes the material suitable for transistors or optoelectronic devices. We present a theoretical study of the optical absorption and photoluminescence spectra of single-layer, double-layer and bulk MoS{sub 2}. The excitonic states have been calculated in the framework of the Bethe-Salpeter equation, taking into account the electron-hole interaction via the screened Coulomb potential. In addition to the step-function like behaviour that is typical for the joint-density of states of 2D materials with parabolic band dispersion, we find a bound excitonic peak that is dominating the luminescence spectra. The peak is split due to spin-orbit coupling for the single-layer and split due to layer-layer interaction for few-layer and bulk MoS{sub 2}. We discuss the changes of the optical bandgap and of the exciton binding energy with the number of layers, comparing our results with the reported experimental data.

  6. Organic biocides hosted in layered double hydroxides: enhancing antimicrobial activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cruz Alejandra Santana

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Samples of layered double hydroxides containing carbonates as compensating anions were prepared by the urea method. These LDHs were used as hosts of anions coming from pipemidic and nalidixic acid. XRD results confirm that these anions were hosted in the interlayer space of LDHs. Further, from 27Al NMR MAS characterization of an interaction between the brucite-like layers and anions was suggested. Then the hybrids LDHs were used as biocide of Salmonella typhi and Escherichia coli. The release profile of pipemidic and nalidixic anions from hybrid LDHs occurs for periods as long as 3.5 hours. The free-organic acid LDHs were not able to kill S. Typhi, neither E. coli. In contrast, the hybrids LDHs eliminate almost completely bacteria within short times.

  7. Effects of electrolytic composition on the electric double-layer capacitance at smooth-surface carbon electrodes in organic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, In-Tae; Egashira, Minato; Yoshimoto, Nobuko; Morita, Masayuki

    2010-01-01

    As a fundamental research on the optimization of electrolyte composition in practical electrochemical capacitor device, double-layer capacitance at Glassy Carbon (GC) and Boron-doped Diamond (BDD), as typical smooth-surface carbon electrodes, has been studied as a function of the electrolyte composition in organic media. Specific capacitance (differential capacitance: F cm -2 ) determined by an AC impedance method, in which no contribution of mass-transport effects is included, corresponded well to integrated capacitance evaluated by conventional cyclic voltammetry. The specific capacitance at the GC electrode varied with polarized potential and showed clear PZC (potential of zero charge), while the potential dependence of the capacitance at BDD was very small. The effects of the solvent and the electrolytic salt on the capacitance behavior were common for both electrodes. That is, the sizes of the solvent molecule and the electrolytic ion (cation) strongly affected the capacitance at these smooth-surface carbon electrodes.

  8. 4.0-nm-thick amorphous Nb–Ni film as a conducting diffusion barrier layer for integrating ferroelectric capacitor on Si

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, X.H. [Hebei Key Lab of Optic-electronic Information and Materials, College of Physics Science & Technology, Hebei University, Hebei 071002 (China); College of Electronic and Information Engineering, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin 300401 (China); Guo, J.X.; Zhang, L.; Jia, D.M.; Qi, C.G.; Zhou, Y.; Li, X.H.; Shi, J.B.; Fu, Y.J.; Wang, Y.L.; Lou, J.Z. [Hebei Key Lab of Optic-electronic Information and Materials, College of Physics Science & Technology, Hebei University, Hebei 071002 (China); Ma, L.X. [Department of Physics, Blinn College, Bryan, TX 77805 (United States); Zhao, H.D. [College of Electronic and Information Engineering, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin 300401 (China); Liu, B.T., E-mail: btliu@hbu.cn [Hebei Key Lab of Optic-electronic Information and Materials, College of Physics Science & Technology, Hebei University, Hebei 071002 (China)

    2015-10-05

    Highlights: • 4-nm-thick amorphous Nb–Ni film is first used as the conducting barrier layer. • No obvious interdiffusion/reaction can be found from the LSCO/PZT/LSCO/Nb–Ni/Si. • The LSCO/PZT/LSCO capacitor, measured at 5 V, possesses very good properties. • Ultrathin amorphous Nb–Ni film is ideal to fabricate silicon-based FRAM. - Abstract: We have successfully integrated La{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}CoO{sub 3}/PbZr{sub 0.4}Ti{sub 0.6}O{sub 3}/La{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}CoO{sub 3} (LSCO/PZT/LSCO) capacitors on silicon substrate using a ∼4.0-nm-thick amorphous Nb–Ni film as the conducting diffusion barrier layer. Transmission electron microscopy technique confirms that the Nb–Ni film is still amorphous after fabrication of the capacitors, and the interfaces related to Nb–Ni are clean and sharp without any findable interdiffusion/reaction. The LSCO/PZT/LSCO capacitor, measured at 5 V, possesses very good properties, such as large remanent polarization of ∼22.1 μC/cm{sup 2}, small coercive voltage of ∼1.27 V, good fatigue-resistance, and small pulse width dependence, implying that ultrathin amorphous Nb–Ni film is ideal as the conducting diffusion barrier layer to fabricate high-density silicon-based ferroelectric random access memories.

  9. Ray-theory approach to electrical-double-layer interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnitzer, Ory

    2015-02-01

    A novel approach is presented for analyzing the double-layer interaction force between charged particles in electrolyte solution, in the limit where the Debye length is small compared with both interparticle separation and particle size. The method, developed here for two planar convex particles of otherwise arbitrary geometry, yields a simple asymptotic approximation limited to neither small zeta potentials nor the "close-proximity" assumption underlying Derjaguin's approximation. Starting from the nonlinear Poisson-Boltzmann formulation, boundary-layer solutions describing the thin diffuse-charge layers are asymptotically matched to a WKBJ expansion valid in the bulk, where the potential is exponentially small. The latter expansion describes the bulk potential as superposed contributions conveyed by "rays" emanating normally from the boundary layers. On a special curve generated by the centers of all circles maximally inscribed between the two particles, the bulk stress-associated with the ray contributions interacting nonlinearly-decays exponentially with distance from the center of the smallest of these circles. The force is then obtained by integrating the traction along this curve using Laplace's method. We illustrate the usefulness of our theory by comparing it, alongside Derjaguin's approximation, with numerical simulations in the case of two parallel cylinders at low potentials. By combining our result and Derjaguin's approximation, the interaction force is provided at arbitrary interparticle separations. Our theory can be generalized to arbitrary three-dimensional geometries, nonideal electrolyte models, and other physical scenarios where exponentially decaying fields give rise to forces.

  10. Electrostatic double layers and a plasma evacuation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raadu, M.A.; Carlqvist, P.

    1979-12-01

    An evacuation process due to the growth of current driven instabilities in a plasma is discussed. The process, which leads to localized extreme density reductions, is related to the formation of electrostatic double layers. The initial linear phase is treated using the superposition of unstable plasma waves. In the long wave length, non-dispersive limit a density dip, which is initially present as a small disturbance, grows rapidly and remains localized in the plasma. The process works for a variety of plasma conditions provided a certain current density is exceeded. For a particular choice of plasma parameters the non-linear development is followed, by solving the coupled Vlasov-Poisson equations by finite difference methods. The evacuation process is found to work even more effectively in the non-linear phase and leads to an extreme density reduction within the dip. It is suggested that the growth of such structures produces weak points within the plasma that can lead to the formation of double layers. (Auth.)

  11. Uptake Fluoride from Water by Starch Stabilized Layered Double Hydroxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiming Liu

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available A novel starch stabilized Mg/Al layered Double hydroxides (S-LDHs was prepared in a facile approach and its fluoride ion removal performance was developed. Characterization of S-LDHs was employed by using X-ray diffraction (XRD, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, and particle size distribution. The adsorption property was studied through the assessment of the adsorption isotherms, kinetic models, thermal dynamics, and pH influence. The result shows that a low loading of starch of 10 mg onto layered double hydroxides (LDHs could obviously improve the fluoride removal rate. The S-LDHs had three times higher the adsorption capacity to fluoride than that of Mg/Al LDHs to fluoride. The particle size was smaller and the particle size distribution was narrower for S-LDHs than that for Mg/Al LDHs. The Langmuir adsorption isotherm model and pseudo-second-order kinetic model fitted well with the experimental data. In thermodynamic parameters, the enthalpy (ΔH0 value was 35.63 kJ·mol−1 and the entropy (ΔS0 value was 0.0806 kJ·mol−1K−1. The values of ΔG0 were negative, implying the adsorption process is spontaneous. S-LDHs reveals stable adsorption property in a wide pH range from 3 to 9. The mechanism for fluoride adsorption on S-LDHs included surface adsorption and interaction ion exchange.

  12. Capacitance characteristics of metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors with a single layer of embedded nickel nanoparticles for the application of nonvolatile memory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Li; Ling, Xu; Wei-Ming, Zhao; Hong-Lin, Ding; Zhong-Yuan, Ma; Jun, Xu; Kun-Ji, Chen

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports that metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) capacitors with a single layer of Ni nanoparticles were successfully fabricated by using electron-beam evaporation and rapid thermal annealing for application to nonvolatile memory. Experimental scanning electron microscopy images showed that Ni nanoparticles of about 5 nm in diameter were clearly embedded in the SiO 2 layer on p-type Si (100). Capacitance–voltage measurements of the MOS capacitor show large flat-band voltage shifts of 1.8 V, which indicate the presence of charge storage in the nickel nanoparticles. In addition, the charge-retention characteristics of MOS capacitors with Ni nanoparticles were investigated by using capacitance–time measurements. The results showed that there was a decay of the capacitance embedded with Ni nanoparticles for an electron charge after 10 4 s. But only a slight decay of the capacitance originating from hole charging was observed. The present results indicate that this technique is promising for the efficient formation or insertion of metal nanoparticles inside MOS structures. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  13. Geometric corrections due to inhomogeneous field in the magnetospheric double current layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callebaut, D.K.; Van den Buys, A.M.

    1985-01-01

    The case of oblique incidence and of a slope in the magnetic field for plane parallel models of the magnetospheric double layer is considered. The two models are the Magnetospheric Double Layer (MDL) and the Magnetospheric Double Current Layer (MDCL). The latter is more appropriate but due to some approximations it gives sometimes incorrect results. An improved model uses a triple current layer. (R.P.)

  14. Flexible and weaveable capacitor wire based on a carbon nanocomposite fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jing; Bai, Wenyu; Guan, Guozhen; Zhang, Ye; Peng, Huisheng

    2013-11-06

    A flexible and weaveable electric double-layer capacitor wire is developed by twisting two aligned carbon nanotube/ordered mesoporous carbon composite fibers with remarkable mechanical and electronic properties as electrodes. This capacitor wire exhibits high specific capacitance and long life stability. Compared with the conventional planar structure, the capacitor wire is also lightweight and can be integrated into various textile structures that are particularly promising for portable and wearable electronic devices. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Thermal analysis of a double layer phase change material floor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Xing; Zhang Xiaosong

    2011-01-01

    Phase change materials (PCMs) can be used to shift the cooling or heating load from the peak period to the off-peak period. In this paper, a new double layer phase change material (PCM) floor is put forward. The two layers of PCM have different melting temperature. The system is used to store heat or cold energy in the off-peak period and release them in the peak period during heating or cooling. According to the numerical model built in this paper, the thermal performances of the floor are analyzed. The results show that the optimal melting temperatures of PCMs exist. The fluctuations of the floor surface temperatures and the heat fluxes will be reduced and the system still can provide a certain amount of heat or cold energy after the heat pump or chiller has been turned off for a long time. Compared to the floor without PCM, the energy released by the floor with PCM in peak period will be increased by 41.1% and 37.9% during heating and cooling when the heat of fusion of PCM is 150 kJ/kg. - Highlights: → A new double layer phase change material floor is put forward. → The system is used to store heat or cold energy in the off-peak period and release them in the peak period during heating or cooling. → The optimal melting temperatures of PCMs in the system exist. → The heat and cold energy released by the floor with PCM in peak period can be increased by 41.1% and 37.9%.

  16. Modeling Electric Double-Layers Including Chemical Reaction Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paz-Garcia, Juan Manuel; Johannesson, Björn; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2014-01-01

    A physicochemical and numerical model for the transient formation of an electric double-layer between an electrolyte and a chemically-active flat surface is presented, based on a finite elements integration of the nonlinear Nernst-Planck-Poisson model including chemical reactions. The model works...... for symmetric and asymmetric multi-species electrolytes and is not limited to a range of surface potentials. Numerical simulations are presented, for the case of a CaCO3 electrolyte solution in contact with a surface with rate-controlled protonation/deprotonation reactions. The surface charge and potential...... are determined by the surface reactions, and therefore they depends on the bulk solution composition and concentration...

  17. Mechanochemical approach for synthesis of layered double hydroxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoqing; Li, Shuping

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, a mechanochemical approach is used to prepare layered double hydroxides (LDHs). This approach involves manually grinding the precursor, nitrates and then the hydrothermal treatment. The study indicates that grinding leads to the incomplete formation of LDHs phase, LDHs-M. The reaction degree of precursor salts to LDHs after grinding depends on the melting points of the precursors. As expected, hydrothermal treatment is beneficial for the good crystallization and regularity of LDHs. Especially, the effect of hydrothermal treatment has been emphatically explored. The hydration of LDHs-M, increment of zeta potentials and the complete exchange of NO3- by CO32- anions occur successively or in parallel during the hydrothermal treatment. It can be found that combination of grinding and hydrothermal treatment gives rise to the formation of uniform and monodispersed particles of LDHs.

  18. Isolating the effect of pore size distribution on electrochemical double-layer capacitance using activated fluid coke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuliani, Jocelyn E.; Tong, Shitang; Kirk, Donald W.; Jia, Charles Q.

    2015-12-01

    Electrochemical double-layer capacitors (EDLCs) use physical ion adsorption in the capacitive electrical double layer of high specific surface area (SSA) materials to store electrical energy. Previous work shows that the SSA-normalized capacitance increases when pore diameters are less than 1 nm. However, there still remains uncertainty about the charge storage mechanism since the enhanced SSA-normalized capacitance is not observed in all microporous materials. In previous studies, the total specific surface area and the chemical composition of the electrode materials were not controlled. The current work is the first reported study that systematically compares the performance of activated carbon prepared from the same raw material, with similar chemical composition and specific surface area, but different pore size distributions. Preparing samples with similar SSAs, but different pores sizes is not straightforward since increasing pore diameters results in decreasing the SSA. This study observes that the microporous activated carbon has a higher SSA-normalized capacitance, 14.1 μF cm-2, compared to the mesoporous material, 12.4 μF cm-2. However, this enhanced SSA-normalized capacitance is only observed above a threshold operating voltage. Therefore, it can be concluded that a minimum applied voltage is required to induce ion adsorption in these sub-nanometer micropores, which increases the capacitance.

  19. Vented Capacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brubaker, Michael Allen; Hosking, Terry Alan

    2006-04-11

    A technique of increasing the corona inception voltage (CIV), and thereby increasing the operating voltage, of film/foil capacitors is described. Intentional venting of the capacitor encapsulation improves the corona inception voltage by allowing internal voids to equilibrate with the ambient environment.

  20. Plasmons in spatially separated double-layer graphene nanoribbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagheri, Mehran; Bahrami, Mousa

    2014-01-01

    Motivated by innovative progresses in designing multi-layer graphene nanostructured materials in the laboratory, we theoretically investigate the Dirac plasmon modes of a spatially separated double-layer graphene nanoribbon system, made up of a vertically offset armchair and metallic graphene nanoribbon pair. We find striking features of the collective excitations in this novel Coulomb correlated system, where both nanoribbons are supposed to be either intrinsic (undoped/ungated) or extrinsic (doped/gated). In the former, it is shown the low-energy acoustical and the high-energy optical plasmon modes are tunable only by the inter-ribbon charge separation. In the later, the aforementioned plasmon branches are modified by the added doping factor. As a result, our model could be useful to examine the existence of a linear Landau-undamped low-energy acoustical plasmon mode tuned via the inter-ribbon charge separation as well as doping. This study might also be utilized for devising novel quantum optical waveguides based on the Coulomb coupled graphene nanoribbons

  1. Relative permittivity in the electrical double layer from nonlinear optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boamah, Mavis D.; Ohno, Paul E.; Geiger, Franz M.; Eisenthal, Kenneth B.

    2018-06-01

    Second harmonic generation (SHG) spectroscopy has been applied to probe the fused silica/water interface at pH 7 and the uncharged 11 ¯ 02 sapphire/water interface at pH 5.2 in contact with aqueous solutions of NaCl, NaBr, NaI, KCl, RbCl, and CsCl as low as several 10 μM. For ionic strengths up to about 0.1 mM, the SHG responses were observed to increase, reversibly for all salts surveyed, when compared to the condition of zero salt added. Further increases in the salt concentration led to monotonic decreases in the SHG response. The SHG increases followed by decreases are found to be consistent with recent reports of phase interference and phase matching in nonlinear optics. By varying the relative permittivity employed in common mean field theories used to describe electrical double layers and by comparing our results to available literature data, we find that models recapitulating the experimental observations are the ones in which (1) the relative permittivity of the diffuse layer is that of bulk water, with other possible values as low as 30, (2) the surface charge density varies with salt concentration, and (3) the charge in the Stern layer or its thickness varies with salt concentration. We also note that the experimental data exhibit sensitivity depending on whether the salt concentration is increased from low to high values or decreased from high to low values, which, however, is not borne out in the fits, at least within the current uncertainties associated with the model point estimates.

  2. Obliquely Propagating Non-Monotonic Double Layer in a Hot Magnetized Plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, T.H.; Kim, S.S.; Hwang, J.H.; Kim, H.Y.

    2005-01-01

    Obliquely propagating non-monotonic double layer is investigated in a hot magnetized plasma, which consists of a positively charged hot ion fluid and trapped, as well as free electrons. A model equation (modified Korteweg-de Vries equation) is derived by the usual reductive perturbation method from a set of basic hydrodynamic equations. A time stationary obliquely propagating non-monotonic double layer solution is obtained in a hot magnetized-plasma. This solution is an analytic extension of the monotonic double layer and the solitary hole. The effects of obliqueness, external magnetic field and ion temperature on the properties of the non-monotonic double layer are discussed

  3. Electron emission from a double-layer metal under femtosecond laser irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Shuchang; Li, Suyu; Jiang, Yuanfei; Chen, Anmin, E-mail: amchen@jlu.edu.cn; Ding, Dajun; Jin, Mingxing, E-mail: mxjin@jlu.edu.cn

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we theoretically investigate electron emission during femtosecond laser ablation of single-layer metal (copper) and double-layer structures. The double-layer structure is composed of a surface layer (copper) and a substrate layer (gold or chromium). The calculated results indicate that the double-layer structure brings a change to the electron emission from the copper surface. Compared with the ablation of a single-layer, a double-layer structure may be helpful to decrease the relaxation time of the electron temperature, and optimize the electron emission by diminishing the tailing phenomenon under the same absorbed laser fluence. With the increase of the absorbed laser fluence, the effect of optimization becomes significant. This study provides a way to optimize the electron emission which can be beneficial to generate laser induced ultrafast electron pulse sources.

  4. Application of proton conducting polymeric electrolytes to electrochemical capacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morita, Masayuki; Qiao, Jin-Li; Yoshimoto, Nobuko; Ishikawa, Masashi

    2004-01-01

    Non-aqueous polymeric gel complexes composed of poly(ethylene oxide)-modified polymethacrylate (PEO-PMA) dissolving anhydrous H 3 PO 4 have been examined as solid electrolytes of electrochemical capacitors. High ionic conductivity of ∼10 -3 S cm -1 (at 70 deg. C) was obtained for non-aqueous gel systems based on PEO-PMA with proper amounts of organic plasticizers. The ionic conductivity depended on the composition of the gel, especially on the content of the dopant H 3 PO 4 . A test cell of the electric double layer capacitor (EDLC) was assembled using the present gel electrolyte with activated carbon fiber (ACF) cloth electrodes. It gave as high capacity as that obtained for the capacitor using an aqueous liquid electrolyte. High rate capability was obtained for the cell operating at 90 deg. C

  5. Method of making dielectric capacitors with increased dielectric breakdown strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Beihai; Balachandran, Uthamalingam; Liu, Shanshan

    2017-05-09

    The invention is directed to a process for making a dielectric ceramic film capacitor and the ceramic dielectric laminated capacitor formed therefrom, the dielectric ceramic film capacitors having increased dielectric breakdown strength. The invention increases breakdown strength by embedding a conductive oxide layer between electrode layers within the dielectric layer of the capacitors. The conductive oxide layer redistributes and dissipates charge, thus mitigating charge concentration and micro fractures formed within the dielectric by electric fields.

  6. Carrier mobility and scattering lifetime in electric double-layer gated few-layer graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piatti, E.; Galasso, S.; Tortello, M.; Nair, J.R.; Gerbaldi, C. [Dipartimento di Scienza Applicata e Tecnologia, Politecnico di Torino, 10129 Torino (Italy); Bruna, M.; Borini, S. [Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca Metrologica (INRIM), 10135 Torino (Italy); Daghero, D. [Dipartimento di Scienza Applicata e Tecnologia, Politecnico di Torino, 10129 Torino (Italy); Gonnelli, R.S., E-mail: renato.gonnelli@polito.it [Dipartimento di Scienza Applicata e Tecnologia, Politecnico di Torino, 10129 Torino (Italy)

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • We fabricated few-layer graphene FETs by mechanical exfoliation and standard microfabrication techniques. • We employed a Li-TFSI based ion gel to induce carrier densities as high as ≈6e14 e{sup −}/cm{sup 2} in the devices' channel. • We found a strong asymmetry in the sheet conductance and mobility doping dependences between electron and hole doping. • We combined the experimental results with ab initio DFT calculations to obtain the average scattering lifetime of the charge carriers. • We found that the increase in the carrier density and an unexpected increase in the density of charged scattering centers compete in determining the scattering lifetime. - Abstract: We fabricate electric double-layer field-effect transistor (EDL-FET) devices on mechanically exfoliated few-layer graphene. We exploit the large capacitance of a polymeric electrolyte to study the transport properties of three, four and five-layer samples under a large induced surface charge density both above and below the glass transition temperature of the polymer. We find that the carrier mobility shows a strong asymmetry between the hole and electron doping regime. We then employ ab initio density functional theory (DFT) calculations to determine the average scattering lifetime from the experimental data. We explain its peculiar dependence on the carrier density in terms of the specific properties of the electrolyte we used in our experiments.

  7. Electrochemical capacitor based on materials with pseudocapacitive properties

    OpenAIRE

    Olivia Moreno, David

    2011-01-01

    This thesis is divided into two chapters. Chapter 1 is about energy storage device such as the electrochemical capacitor (EC) and the electrode materials used for its construction. The basic principle of supercapacitor performance, double-layer capacitance and pseudocapacitance phenomena are described in the introduction. Activated carbons, nanotubes, conducting polymers and metal oxides as well as their composites were considered as electrode materials. Symmetric and asymmetric configurat...

  8. Layered double hydroxide nanoparticles in gene and drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladewig, Katharina; Xu, Zhi Ping; Lu, Gao Qing Max

    2009-09-01

    Layered double hydroxides (LDHs) have been known for many decades as catalyst and ceramic precursors, traps for anionic pollutants, catalysts and additives for polymers, but their successful synthesis on the nanometer scale a few years ago opened up a whole new field for their application in nanomedicine. The delivery of drugs and other therapeutic/bioactive molecules (e.g., peptides, proteins, nucleic acids) to mammalian cells is an area of research that is of tremendous importance to medicine and provides manifold applications for any new developments in the area of nanotechnology. Among the many different nanoparticles that have been shown to facilitate gene and/or drug delivery, LDH nanoparticles have attracted particular attention owing to their many desirable properties. This review aims to report recent progress in gene and drug delivery using LDH nanoparticles. It summarizes the advantages and disadvantages of using LDH nanoparticles as carriers for nucleic acids and drugs against the general background of bottlenecks that are encountered by cellular delivery systems. It describes further the models that have been proposed for the internalization of LDH nanoparticles into cells so far and discusses the intracellular fate of the particles and their cargo. The authors offer some remarks on how this field of research will progress in the near future and which challenges need to be overcome before LDH nanoparticles can be used in a clinical setting.

  9. Acid Green 1 removal from wastewater by layered double hydroxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkhattabi, El Hassan; Lakraimi, Mohamed; Berraho, Moha; Legrouri, Ahmed; Hammal, Radouan; El Gaini, Layla

    2018-03-01

    The paper presents the removal of Acid Green 1 (AG1) from aqueous solutions by [Zn-Al-Cl]-layered double hydroxides (LDHs). The LDH was prepared by coprecipitation at constant pH. The affinity of this material for AG1 was studied as a function of contact time, pH of the solution, LDH dose and AG1/LDH mass ratio. It was found that 32 h are enough to reach the equilibrium with a maximum retention at pH 8 for an LDH dose of 100 mg and with an AG1/LDH mass ratio higher than 2. The adsorption isotherm is of L-type, as described by the Langmuir model. The results demonstrate that AG1 retention on LDHs occurs by adsorption on external surface when AG1/LDH mass ratio is equal or lower than 2 and by both adsorption and interlayer ion exchange for ratios higher than 2. A mechanism for the AG1 removal has been confirmed by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric-differential thermal analyses and scanning electron microscopy.

  10. Silicon epitaxy on textured double layer porous silicon by LPCVD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Hong; Shen Honglie; Zhang Lei; Huang Haibin; Lu Linfeng; Tang Zhengxia; Shen Jiancang

    2010-01-01

    Epitaxial silicon thin film on textured double layer porous silicon (DLPS) was demonstrated. The textured DLPS was formed by electrochemical etching using two different current densities on the silicon wafer that are randomly textured with upright pyramids. Silicon thin films were then grown on the annealed DLPS, using low-pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD). The reflectance of the DLPS and the grown silicon thin films were studied by a spectrophotometer. The crystallinity and topography of the grown silicon thin films were studied by Raman spectroscopy and SEM. The reflectance results show that the reflectance of the silicon wafer decreases from 24.7% to 11.7% after texturing, and after the deposition of silicon thin film the surface reflectance is about 13.8%. SEM images show that the epitaxial silicon film on textured DLPS exhibits random pyramids. The Raman spectrum peaks near 521 cm -1 have a width of 7.8 cm -1 , which reveals the high crystalline quality of the silicon epitaxy.

  11. Wet thermal annealing effect on TaN/HfO2/Ge metal—oxide—semiconductor capacitors with and without a GeO2 passivation layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Guan-Zhou; Li Cheng; Lu Chang-Bao; Tang Rui-Fan; Tang Meng-Rao; Wu Zheng; Yang Xu; Huang Wei; Lai Hong-Kai; Chen Song-Yan

    2012-01-01

    Wet thermal annealing effects on the properties of TaN/HfO 2 /Ge metal—oxide—semiconductor (MOS) structures with and without a GeO 2 passivation layer are investigated. The physical and the electrical properties are characterized by X-ray photoemission spectroscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, capacitance—voltage (C—V) and current—voltage characteristics. It is demonstrated that wet thermal annealing at relatively higher temperature such as 550 °C can lead to Ge incorporation in HfO 2 and the partial crystallization of HfO 2 , which should be responsible for the serious degradation of the electrical characteristics of the TaN/HfO 2 /Ge MOS capacitors. However, wet thermal annealing at 400 °C can decrease the GeO x interlayer thickness at the HfO 2 /Ge interface, resulting in a significant reduction of the interface states and a smaller effective oxide thickness, along with the introduction of a positive charge in the dielectrics due to the hydrolyzable property of GeO x in the wet ambient. The pre-growth of a thin GeO 2 passivation layer can effectively suppress the interface states and improve the C—V characteristics for the as-prepared HfO 2 gated Ge MOS capacitors, but it also dissembles the benefits of wet thermal annealing to a certain extent

  12. Numerical simulation of diffuse double layer around microporous electrodes based on the Poisson–Boltzmann equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitazumi, Yuki; Shirai, Osamu; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Kano, Kenji

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Diffuse double layers overlap with each other in the micropore. • The overlapping of the diffuse double layer affects the double layer capacitance. • The electric field becomes weak in the micropore. • The electroneutrality is unsatisfactory in the micropore. - Abstract: The structure of the diffuse double layer around a nm-sized micropore on porous electrodes has been studied by numerical simulation using the Poisson–Boltzmann equation. The double layer capacitance of the microporous electrode strongly depends on the electrode potential, the electrolyte concentration, and the size of the micropore. The potential and the electrolyte concentration dependence of the capacitance is different from that of the planner electrode based on the Gouy's theory. The overlapping of the diffuse double layer becomes conspicuous in the micropore. The overlapped diffuse double layer provides the mild electric field. The intensified electric field exists at the rim of the orifice of the micropore because of the expansion of the diffuse double layers. The characteristic features of microporous electrodes are caused by the heterogeneity of the electric field around the micropores

  13. Synthesis and characterization of laurate-intercalated Mg–Al layered double hydroxide prepared by coprecipitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerds, Nathalie Christiane; Katiyar, Vimal; Koch, Christian Bender

    2012-01-01

    Effective utilization of layered double hydroxides (LDH) for industrial applications requires the synthesis of pure and well-defined LDH phases. In the present study, dodecanoate (laurate) anions were intercalated into Mg–Al-layered double hydroxide (LDH-C12) by coprecipitation in the presence of...

  14. The electric double layer put to work : thermal physics at electrochemical interfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, M.A.

    2017-01-01

    Where charged electrode surfaces meet fluids that contain mobile ions, so-called electric double layers (EDLs) form to screen the electric surface charge by a diffuse cloud of counterionic charge in the fluid phase. This double layer has been studied for over a century and is of paramount importance

  15. Large-amplitude double layers in a dusty plasma with an arbitrary ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Formation of large-amplitude double layers in a dusty plasma whose constituents are electrons, ions, warm dust grains and positive ion beam are studied using Sagdeev's pseudopotential technique. Existence of double layers is investigated. It is found that both the temperature of dust particles and ion beam temperature ...

  16. Double-layer structure in polar mesospheric clouds observed from SOFIE/AIM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Gao

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Double-layer structures in polar mesospheric clouds (PMCs are observed by using Solar Occultation for Ice Experiment (SOFIE data between 2007 and 2014. We find 816 and 301 events of double-layer structure with percentages of 10.32 and 7.25 % compared to total PMC events, and the mean distances between two peaks are 3.06 and 2.73 km for the Northern Hemisphere (NH and Southern Hemisphere (SH respectively. Double-layer PMCs almost always have less mean ice water content (IWC than daily IWC during the core of the season, but they are close to each other at the beginning and the end. The result by averaging over all events shows that the particle concentration has obvious double peaks, while the particle radius exhibits an unexpected monotonic increase with decreasing altitude. By further analysis of the background temperature and water vapour residual profiles, we conclude that the lower layer is a reproduced one formed at the bottom of the upper layer. 56.00 and 47.51 % of all double-layer events for the NH and SH respectively have temperature enhancements larger than 2 K locating between their double peaks. The longitudinal anti-correlation between the gravity waves' (GWs' potential energies and occurrence frequencies of double-layer PMCs suggests that the double-layer PMCs tend to form in an environment where the GWs have weaker intensities.

  17. Experimental validation of sound field control with a circular double-layer array of loudspeakers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chang, Jiho; Jacobsen, Finn

    2013-01-01

    This paper is concerned with experimental validation of a recently proposed method of controlling sound fields with a circular double-layer array of loudspeakers [Chang and Jacobsen, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 131(6), 4518-4525 (2012)]. The double-layer of loudspeakers is realized with 20 pairs of closed...

  18. Coulomb drag in anisotropic systems: a theoretical study on a double-layer phosphorene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saberi-Pouya, S.; Vazifehshenas, T.; Farmanbar Gelepordsari, M.; Salavati-Fard, T.

    2016-01-01

    We theoretically study the Coulomb drag resistivity in a double-layer electron system with highly anisotropic parabolic band structure using Boltzmann transport theory. As an example, we consider a double-layer phosphorene on which we apply our formalism. This approach, in principle, can be tuned

  19. Effect of negative ions on the formation of weak ion acoustic double layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalita, M.K.; Bujarbarua, S.

    1985-01-01

    Using kinetic theory, small amplitude double layers associated with ion acoustic waves in a plasma containing negative species of ions were investigated. Analytic solution for the double layer potential was carried out. The limiting values of the negative ion density for the existence of this type of DL were calculated and the application of this result to space plasmas is discussed. (author)

  20. Double Layer of a Gold Electrode Probed by AFM Force Measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barten, D.; Kleijn, J.M.; Duval, J.F.L.; Leeuwen, van H.P.; Lyklema, J.; Cohen Stuart, M.A.

    2003-01-01

    Colloidal probe atomic force microscopy was used to determine the electric double layer interactions between a gold electrode and a spherical silica probe. The double layer properties of the gold/solution interface were varied through the pH and salt concentration of the electrolyte, as well as by

  1. Current limitation by an electric double layer in ion laser discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torven, S.

    1977-12-01

    A theory for current limitation in ion laser discharges is investigated. The basic mechanism considered is saturation of the positive ion flux at an electric double layer by the limited flux of neutral atoms. The result is compared with a recently published synthesis of a large number of experimental data which agree well with those predicted by the double layer model

  2. An investigation of the double layers caused by space vehicles moving through the ionosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Sanqiu; Liao Jingjing

    2010-01-01

    On the basis of non-steady-state nonlinear coupling equations of high-frequency field, density disturbance and potential, the evolution of double layers in the wake region of space vehicles moving through the ionosphere is numerically simulated in the non-static limit case. The results show that the interactions among plasmas, the vehicle and high-frequency electromagnetic waves radiated from the antenna system of the vehicle can lead to the formation of double layers. It is shown that the double layer is a nonlinear entity-caviton. Potential disturbance far away from the vehicle and the peak value of potential near the vehicle in the double layer are obvious. This is very important for detecting space vehicles with a stealth characteristic and preventing space vehicles from being harmed by double layers.

  3. Adsorption of procion red using layer double hydroxide Mg/Al

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Imron

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Layer double hydroxide Mg/Al was synthesized by inorganic synthetic method. Material was characterized using FTIR and XRD analyses and used as adsorbent of procion red dye in aqueous medium.  Factors that affect the adsorption process are adsorption time as the kinetic parameter; and the temperature and concentration of procion red as the thermodynamic parameter. FTIR spectra of layer double hydroxides showed unique vibration at wavenumber 1300 cm-1 and 1600 cm-1. Characterization using XRD shows diffraction angles at 29o, 27o, and 28o, which are typical of Mg/Al double layer hydroxides. Adsorption of procion red using layer double hydroxide Mg/Al resulted adsorption rate 7.1 minutes-1, maximum adsorption capacity 111.1 mg/g at 60 oC with increasing energy by increasing adsorption temperature.   Keywords: Layered double hydroxides, adsorption, procion red.

  4. Development of polymer nanocomposites based on layered double hydroxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sipusic, J.

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Polymeric nanocomposites are commonly considered as systems composed of a polymeric matrix and - usually inorganic - filler. The types of nanofillers are indicated in Fig. 1. Beside wellknown layered silicate fillers, recent attention is attracted to layered double hydroxide fillers (LDH, mainly of synthetic origin. The structure of LDH is based on brucite, or magnesium hydroxide, Mg(OH2 and is illustrated in Fig. 2. The modification of LDHs is commonly done by organic anions, to increase the original interlayer distance and to improve the organophilicity of the filler, keeping in mind their final application as fillers for, usually hydrophobic, polymer matrices. We have used the modified rehydration procedure for preparing organically modified LDH. The stoichiometric quantities of Ca33Al2O6, CaO and benzoic (B (or undecenoic (U acid were mixed with water and some acetone. After long and vigorous shaking, the precipitated fillers were washed, dried and characterized. X-ray diffraction method (XRD has shown the increase of the original interlayer distance for unmodified LDH (OH–-saturated of 0.76 nm to the 1.6 nm in LDH-B or LDH-U fillers (Fig. 3. Infrared spectroscopy method (FTIR has confirmed the incorporation of benzoic anion within the filler layers (Fig. 4. For the preparation of LDH-B and LDH-U composites with polystyrene (PS, poly(methyl methacrylate (PMMA and copolymer (SMMA matrices, a two-step in situ bulk radical polymerization was selected (Table 1 for recipes, azobisisobutyronitrile as initiator, using conventional stirred tank reactor in the first step, and heated mold with the movable wall (Fig. 6 in the second step of polymerization. All the prepared composites with LDH-U fillers were macroscopically phase-separated, as was the PMMA/LDH-B composite.PS/LDH-B and SMMA/LDH-B samples were found to be transparent and were further examined for deduction of their structure (Fig. 5 and thermal properties. FTIR measurements showed that

  5. Towards understanding the effects of van der Waals strengths on the electric double-layer structures and capacitive behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huachao; Bo, Zheng; Yang, Jinyuan; Yan, Jianhua; Cen, Kefa

    2017-10-01

    Solid-liquid interactions are considered to play a crucial role in charge storage capability of electric double-layer capacitors (EDLCs). In this work, effects of van der Waals (VDW) strengths on the EDL structures and capacitive performances within two representative electrolytes of solvated aqueous solutions and solvent-free ionic liquids are illuminated by molecular dynamics simulations. Single crystalline metals with similar lattice constant but diverse VDW potentials are employed as electrodes. Upon enhancing VDW strengths, capacitance of aqueous electrolytes first increases conspicuously by ∼34.0% and then descends, manifesting a non-monotonic trend, which goes beyond traditional perspectives. Such unusual observation is interpreted by the excluded-volume effects stemmed from ion-solvent competitions. Stimulated by predominant coulombic interactions, more ions are aggregated at the interface despite of the increasing VDW potentials, facilitating superior screening efficiency and capacitance. However, further enhancing strengths preferentially attracts more solvents instead of ions to the electrified surface, which in turn strikingly repels ions from Helmholtz layers, deteriorating electrode capacitance. An essentially similar feather is also recognized for ionic liquids, while the corresponding mechanisms are prominently ascribed to the suppressed ionic separations issued from cation-anion competitions. We highlight that constructing electrode materials with a moderate-hydrophilicity could further advance the performances of EDLCs.

  6. Layered assembly of graphene oxide and Co-Al layered double hydroxide nanosheets as electrode materials for supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Wang, Dong; Dong, Xin Yi; Zhang, Zhi Jun; Pei, Xian Feng; Chen, Xin Jiang; Chen, Biao; Jin, Jian

    2011-03-28

    An innovative strategy of fabricating electrode material by layered assembling two kinds of one-atom-thick sheets, carboxylated graphene oxide (GO) and Co-Al layered double hydroxide nanosheet (Co-Al LDH-NS) for the application as a pseudocapacitor is reported. The Co-Al LDH-NS/GO composite exhibits good energy storage properties.

  7. Large amplitude ion-acoustic solitary waves and double layers in multicomponent plasma with positrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabry, R.

    2009-01-01

    A finite amplitude theory for ion-acoustic solitary waves and double layers in multicomponent plasma consisting of hot positrons, cold ions, and electrons with two-electron temperature distributions is presented. Conditions are obtained under which large amplitude stationary ion-acoustic solitary waves and double layers can exist. For the physical parameters of interest, the ion-acoustic solitary wave (double layers) profiles and the relationship between the maximum soliton (double layers) amplitude and the Mach number are found. Also, we have presented the region of existence of the large amplitude ion-acoustic waves by analyzing the structure of the pseudopotential. For the selected range of parameters, it is found that only positive solitary waves and double layers can exist. An analysis for the small amplitude limit through the Sagdeev pseudopotential analysis and the reductive perturbation theory shows the existence of positive and negative ion-acoustic solitary waves and double layers. The effects of positron concentration and temperature ratio on the characteristics of the solitary ion-acoustic waves and double layers (namely, the amplitude and width) are discussed in detail. The relevance of this investigation to space and laboratory plasmas is pointed out.

  8. Influence of the charge double layer on solid oxide fuel cell stack behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiston, Michael M.; Bilec, Melissa M.; Schaefer, Laura A.

    2015-10-01

    While the charge double layer effect has traditionally been characterized as a millisecond phenomenon, longer timescales may be possible under certain operating conditions. This study simulates the dynamic response of a previously developed solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stack model that incorporates the charge double layer via an equivalent circuit. The model is simulated under step load changes. Baseline conditions are first defined, followed by consideration of minor and major deviations from the baseline case. This study also investigates the behavior of the SOFC stack with a relatively large double layer capacitance value, as well as operation of the SOFC stack under proportional-integral (PI) control. Results indicate that the presence of the charge double layer influences the SOFC stack's settling time significantly under the following conditions: (i) activation and concentration polarizations are significantly increased, or (ii) a large value of the double layer capacitance is assumed. Under normal (baseline) operation, on the other hand, the charge double layer effect diminishes within milliseconds, as expected. It seems reasonable, then, to neglect the charge double layer under normal operation. However, careful consideration should be given to potential variations in operation or material properties that may give rise to longer electrochemical settling times.

  9. Photon induced non-linear quantized double layer charging in quaternary semiconducting quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Vishnu; Ananthoju, Balakrishna; Mohapatra, Jeotikanta; Aslam, M

    2018-03-15

    Room temperature quantized double layer charging was observed in 2 nm Cu 2 ZnSnS 4 (CZTS) quantum dots. In addition to this we observed a distinct non-linearity in the quantized double layer charging arising from UV light modulation of double layer. UV light irradiation resulted in a 26% increase in the integral capacitance at the semiconductor-dielectric (CZTS-oleylamine) interface of the quantum dot without any change in its core size suggesting that the cause be photocapacitive. The increasing charge separation at the semiconductor-dielectric interface due to highly stable and mobile photogenerated carriers cause larger electrostatic forces between the quantum dot and electrolyte leading to an enhanced double layer. This idea was supported by a decrease in the differential capacitance possible due to an enhanced double layer. Furthermore the UV illumination enhanced double layer gives us an AC excitation dependent differential double layer capacitance which confirms that the charging process is non-linear. This ultimately illustrates the utility of a colloidal quantum dot-electrolyte interface as a non-linear photocapacitor. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Vertically aligned carbon nanotubes/diamond double-layered structure for improved field electron emission stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, L., E-mail: qiaoqin.yang@mail.usask.ca; Yang, Q.; Zhang, C.; Li, Y.S.

    2013-12-31

    A double-layered nanostructure consisting of a layer of vertically aligned Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) and a layer of diamond beneath has been synthesized on silicon substrate by Hot Filament Chemical Vapor Deposition. The synthesis was achieved by first depositing a layer of diamond on silicon and then depositing a top layer of vertically aligned CNTs by applying a negative bias on the substrate holder. The growth of CNTs was catalyzed by a thin layer of spin-coated iron nitride. The surface morphology and structure of the CNTs/diamond double-layered structure were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscope, Energy Dispersive X-ray spectrum, and Raman Spectroscopy. Their field electron emission (FEE) properties were measured by KEITHLEY 237 high voltage measurement unit, showing much higher FEE current stability than single layered CNTs. - Highlights: • A new double-layered nanostructure consisting of a layer of vertically aligned CNTs and a layer of diamond beneath has been synthesized by hot filament chemical vapor deposition. • This double-layered structure exhibits superior field electron emission stability. • The improvement of emission stability is due to the combination of the unique properties of diamond and CNTs.

  11. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF SINGLE VERSUS DOUBLE LAYER CLOSURE ON LOWER SEGMENT CAESAREAN SCAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirtirekha Mohapatra

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND There are few issues in modern obstetrics that have been as controversial as management of a woman with a prior caesarean delivery. Hence, it is required to have evidence based correct practice of this surgical procedure. Healing of the uterine incision and the strength of the scar should be the most important consideration. The aim of the study is to compare the effect of technique of uterine closure (Single Layer vs. Double Layer on subsequent pregnancies and to find out, which technique has a better maternal and neonatal outcome by strengthening the scar. MATERIALS AND METHODS 500 cases of previous caesarean section pregnancies were taken, 250 from single layer closure group and 250 from double layer closure group. The mode of delivery during present pregnancy was noted. Integrity of scar, thickness of scar, presence of adhesion were documented. The neonates were observed. Results were compared so as to draw an inference about the better method. RESULTS Mean age between the two groups were similar. Majority did not have history of premature rupture of membrane during previous pregnancy. Postoperative complications were more when double layer closure of uterine scar was done in index surgery. Interpregnancy gap of <3 years was more commonly present in double layer closure group (52.8% in double layer versus 34.8% in single layer. Single layer had more scar tenderness (21.2%, thinned out scars (34.6%, incomplete ruptures (7.1% and complete ruptures (2.8% than double layer closure group. Neonatal outcomes were not statistically different in both the groups. CONCLUSION Double layer uterine closure seems to have better impact on scar integrity as compared to single layer uterine closure.

  12. Modified Back Contact Interface of CZTSe Thin Film Solar Cells: Elimination of Double Layer Distribution in Absorber Layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhaojing; Yao, Liyong; Zhang, Yi; Ao, Jianping; Bi, Jinlian; Gao, Shoushuai; Gao, Qing; Jeng, Ming-Jer; Sun, Guozhong; Zhou, Zhiqiang; He, Qing; Sun, Yun

    2018-02-01

    Double layer distribution exists in Cu 2 SnZnSe 4 (CZTSe) thin films prepared by selenizing the metallic precursors, which will degrade the back contact of Mo substrate to absorber layer and thus suppressing the performance of solar cell. In this work, the double-layer distribution of CZTSe film is eliminated entirely and the formation of MoSe 2 interfacial layer is inhibited successfully. CZTSe film is prepared by selenizing the precursor deposited by electrodeposition method under Se and SnSe x mixed atmosphere. It is found that the insufficient reaction between ZnSe and Cu-Sn-Se phases in the bottom of the film is the reason why the double layer distribution of CZTSe film is formed. By increasing Sn content in the metallic precursor, thus making up the loss of Sn because of the decomposition of CZTSe and facilitate the diffusion of liquid Cu 2 Se, the double layer distribution is eliminated entirely. The crystallization of the formed thin film is dense and the grains go through the entire film without voids. And there is no obvious MoSe 2 layer formed between CZTSe and Mo. As a consequence, the series resistance of the solar cell reduces significantly to 0.14 Ω cm 2 and a CZTSe solar cell with efficiency of 7.2% is fabricated.

  13. Experimental investigation of Cu-based, double-layered, microchannel heat exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Bin; Meng, W J; Mei, Fanghua

    2013-01-01

    Cu-based, single- and double-layered, microchannel heat exchangers (MHEs) were fabricated and assembled. Comparative measurements on liquid flow characteristics and heat transfer performance were conducted on these devices. Results were compared at the individual microchannel level as well as at the device level. The present results demonstrate that double-layered MHEs exhibit similar heat transfer performance while suffering a much lower pressure drop penalty compared to single-layered MHEs. Another Cu-based, double-layered, liquid–liquid counter-flow MHE was fabricated, assembled and tested. Results show that a low-volume, multilayered, high-performance, liquid-to-liquid MHE is achievable following the manufacturing protocols of the present double-layered, liquid–liquid counter-flow MHE. (paper)

  14. Electronic spectra of anions intercalated in layered double hydroxides

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    groups of the layers and interlayer water through the termi- nal atom symmetry ... results in a reaction with the metal hydroxide layers lead- ing to the ..... List of band positions observed for potassium salts of anion and LDH samples. Salts.

  15. Biomechanical evaluation of knotless anatomical double-layer double-row rotator cuff repair: a comparative ex vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepp, Pierre; Osterhoff, Georg; Engel, Thomas; Marquass, Bastian; Klink, Thomas; Josten, Christoph

    2009-07-01

    The layered configuration of the rotator cuff tendon is not taken into account in classic rotator cuff tendon repair techniques. The mechanical properties of (1) the classic double-row technique, (2) a double-layer double-row (DLDR) technique in simple suture configuration, and (3) a DLDR technique in mattress suture configuration are significantly different. Controlled laboratory study. Twenty-four sheep shoulders were assigned to 3 repair groups of full-thickness infraspinatus tears: group 1, traditional double-row repair; group 2, DLDR anchor repair with simple suture configuration; and group 3, DLDR knotless repair with mattress suture configuration. After ultrasound evaluation of the repair, each specimen was cyclically loaded with 10 to 100 N for 50 cycles. Each specimen was then loaded to failure at a rate of 1 mm/s. There were no statistically significant differences among the 3 testing groups for the mean footprint area. The cyclic loading test revealed no significant difference among the 3 groups with regard to elongation. For the load-to-failure test, groups 2 and 3 showed no differences in ultimate tensile load when compared with group 1. However, when compared to group 2, group 3 was found to have significantly higher values regarding ultimate load, ultimate elongation, and energy absorbed. The DLDR fixation techniques may provide strength of initial repair comparable with that of commonly used double-row techniques. When compared with the knotless technique with mattress sutures, simple suture configuration of DLDR repair may be too weak. Knotless DLDR rotator cuff repair may (1) restore the footprint by the use of double-row principles and (2) enable restoration of the shape and profile. Double-layer double-row fixation in mattress suture configuration has initial fixation strength comparable with that of the classic double-row fixation and so may potentially improve functional results of rotator cuff repair.

  16. Ferroelectric capacitor with reduced imprint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Jr., Joseph T.; Warren, William L.; Tuttle, Bruce A.; Dimos, Duane B.; Pike, Gordon E.

    1997-01-01

    An improved ferroelectric capacitor exhibiting reduced imprint effects in comparison to prior art capacitors. A capacitor according to the present invention includes top and bottom electrodes and a ferroelectric layer sandwiched between the top and bottom electrodes, the ferroelectric layer comprising a perovskite structure of the chemical composition ABO.sub.3 wherein the B-site comprises first and second elements and a dopant element that has an oxidation state greater than +4. The concentration of the dopant is sufficient to reduce shifts in the coercive voltage of the capacitor with time. In the preferred embodiment of the present invention, the ferroelectric element comprises Pb in the A-site, and the first and second elements are Zr and Ti, respectively. The preferred dopant is chosen from the group consisting of Niobium, Tantalum, and Tungsten. In the preferred embodiment of the present invention, the dopant occupies between 1 and 8% of the B-sites.

  17. Efficient uranium capture by polysulfide/layered double hydroxide composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Shulan; Huang, Lu; Ma, Lijiao; Shim, Yurina; Islam, Saiful M; Wang, Pengli; Zhao, Li-Dong; Wang, Shichao; Sun, Genban; Yang, Xiaojing; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G

    2015-03-18

    There is a need to develop highly selective and efficient materials for capturing uranium (normally as UO2(2+)) from nuclear waste and from seawater. We demonstrate the promising adsorption performance of S(x)-LDH composites (LDH is Mg/Al layered double hydroxide, [S(x)](2-) is polysulfide with x = 2, 4) for uranyl ions from a variety of aqueous solutions including seawater. We report high removal capacities (q(m) = 330 mg/g), large K(d)(U) values (10(4)-10(6) mL/g at 1-300 ppm U concentration), and high % removals (>95% at 1-100 ppm, or ∼80% for ppb level seawater) for UO2(2+) species. The S(x)-LDHs are exceptionally efficient for selectively and rapidly capturing UO2(2+) both at high (ppm) and trace (ppb) quantities from the U-containing water including seawater. The maximum adsorption coeffcient value K(d)(U) of 3.4 × 10(6) mL/g (using a V/m ratio of 1000 mL/g) observed is among the highest reported for U adsorbents. In the presence of very high concentrations of competitive ions such as Ca(2+)/Na(+), S(x)-LDH exhibits superior selectivity for UO2(2+), over previously reported sorbents. Under low U concentrations, (S4)(2-) coordinates to UO2(2+) forming anionic complexes retaining in the LDH gallery. At high U concentrations, (S4)(2-) binds to UO2(2+) to generate neutral UO2S4 salts outside the gallery, with NO3(-) entering the interlayer to form NO3-LDH. In the presence of high Cl(-) concentration, Cl(-) preferentially replaces [S4](2-) and intercalates into LDH. Detailed comparison of U removal efficiency of S(x)-LDH with various known sorbents is reported. The excellent uranium adsorption ability along with the environmentally safe, low-cost constituents points to the high potential of S(x)-LDH materials for selective uranium capture.

  18. Novel Dry-Type Glucose Sensor Based on a Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Capacitor Structure with Horseradish Peroxidase + Glucose Oxidase Catalyzing Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jing-Jenn; Wu, You-Lin; Hsu, Po-Yen

    2007-10-01

    In this paper, we present a novel dry-type glucose sensor based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor (MOSC) structure using SiO2 as a gate dielectric in conjunction with a horseradish peroxidase (HRP) + glucose oxidase (GOD) catalyzing layer. The tested glucose solution was dropped directly onto the window opened on the SiO2 layer, with a coating of HRP + GOD catalyzing layer on top of the gate dielectric. From the capacitance-voltage (C-V) characteristics of the sensor, we found that the glucose solution can induce an inversion layer on the silicon surface causing a gate leakage current flowing along the SiO2 surface. The gate current changes Δ I before and after the drop of glucose solution exhibits a near-linear relationship with increasing glucose concentration. The Δ I sensitivity is about 1.76 nA cm-2 M-1, and the current is quite stable 20 min after the drop of the glucose solution is tested.

  19. Electrochemical capacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Marc A.; Liu, Kuo -Chuan; Mohr, Charles M.

    1999-10-05

    An inexpensive porous metal oxide material having high surface area, good conductivity and high specific capacitance is advantageously used in an electrochemical capacitor. The materials are formed in a sol-gel process which affords control over the properties of the resultant metal oxide materials.

  20. Rotary capacitor

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1971-01-01

    The rotating wheel of the rotary capacitor representing the most critical part of the new radio-frequency system of the synchro-cyclotron. The three rows of teeth on the circumference of the wheel pass between four rows of stator blades with a minimum clearance of 1 mm at a velocity of 1700 rev/min.

  1. Influence of temperature on the dielectric nonlinearity of BaTiO{sub 3}-based multi-layer ceramic capacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Seok-Hyun, E-mail: seokhyun72.yoon@samsung.com; Kim, Mi-Yang [LCR Materials Group, Corporate R& D Institute, Samsung Electro-Mechanics Co., Ltd., Suwon, Gyunggi-Do 443-743 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-13

    Temperature dependence of the dielectric nonlinearity was investigated for the BaTiO{sub 3} multilayer ceramic capacitor. The decrease in temperature caused a significant increase in the degree of dielectric nonlinearity. The Preisach analysis shows that such effect corresponds to a decrease in reversible and a significant increase in irreversible domain wall contribution to polarization. The magnitude of spontaneous polarization (P{sub S}) was increased with decreasing temperature. It can be associated with phase transition from pseudo-cubic to monoclinic and its resultant change in the polar direction, which was observed through transmission electron microscopy. These results demonstrate that the increase in P{sub S} with the decrease in temperature inhibits domain wall motion in low driving field as it is anticipated to increase the degree of intergranular constraints during domain wall motion. But it results in a more steep increase in the dielectric constants beyond the threshold field where domain wall motion can occur.

  2. Plasmon resonance in single- and double-layer CVD graphene nanoribbons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Di; Emani, Naresh K.; Chung, Ting Fung

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic tunability of the plasmonic resonance in graphene nanoribbons is desirable in the near-infrared. We demonstrated a constant blue shift of plasmonic resonances in double-layer graphene nanoribbons with respect to single-layer graphene nanoribbons. © OSA 2015.......Dynamic tunability of the plasmonic resonance in graphene nanoribbons is desirable in the near-infrared. We demonstrated a constant blue shift of plasmonic resonances in double-layer graphene nanoribbons with respect to single-layer graphene nanoribbons. © OSA 2015....

  3. Chloride adsorption by calcined layered double hydroxides in hardened Portland cement paste

    KAUST Repository

    Yoon, Seyoon; Moon, Juhyuk; Bae, Sungchul; Duan, Xiaonan; Giannelis, Emmanuel P.; Monteiro, Paulo M.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the feasibility of using calcined layered double hydroxides (CLDHs) to prevent chloride-induced deterioration in reinforced concrete. CLDHs not only adsorbed chloride ions in aqueous solution with a memory effect but also had

  4. Conditions for double layers in the Earth's magnetosphere and perhaps in other astrophysical objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyons, L.R.

    1987-01-01

    Double layers (i.e., electric fields parallel to B) form along auroral field lines in the Earth's magnetosphere. They form in order to maintain current continuity in the ionosphere in the presence of a magnetospheric electric field E with DEL.E not= O. Features which govern the formation of the double layers are: 1) the divergence of E; 2) the conductivity of the ionosphere; and 3) the current-voltage characteristics of auroral magnetic field lines. Astrophysical situations where DEL.E not= O is applied to a conducting plasma similar to the Earth's ionosphere are potential candidates for the formation of double layers. The region with DEL.E not= O can be generated within, or along field lines connected to, the conducting plasma. In addition to DEL.E, shear neutral flow in the conducting plasma can also form double layers. (author)

  5. Conditions for double layers in the Earth's magnetosphere and perhaps in other astrophysical objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyons, L.R.

    1987-01-01

    Double layers form along auroral field lines in the Earth's magnetosphere. They form in order to maintain current continuity in the ionosphere in the presence of a magnetospheric electric field E with nabla x E is not equal to 0. Features which govern the formation of the double layers are: (1) the divergence of E, (2) the conductivity of the ionosphere, and (3) the current-voltage characteristics of auroral magnetic field lines. Astrophysical situations where nabla x E is not equal to 0 is applied to a conducting plasma similar to the Earth's ionosphere are potential candidates for the formation of double layers. The region with nabla x E is not equal to 0 can be generated within, or along field lines connected to, the conducting plasma. In addition to nabla x E, shear neutral flow in the conducting plasma can also form double layers

  6. Thermal behaviour of layered double hydroxides studied by emanation thermal analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dorničák, V.; Balek, V.; Kovanda, F.; Večerníková, Eva

    90-91, - (2003), s. 475-480 ISSN 1012-0394 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4032918 Keywords : hydrotalcite * layered double hydroxides * thermal decomposition Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 0.687, year: 2003

  7. Long-term stability of a one-dimensional current-driven double layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hori, N.; Yamamoto, T.

    1988-01-01

    Long-term (>an electron transit time over the system) stability of a one-dimensional current-driven double layer is studied by numerical experiments using particles. In these experiments, the potential difference across the system is self-consistently determined by the space charge distributions inside the system. Each boundary of the system supplies a nondrifting half-Maxwellian plasma. The current density is increased by increasing the number density of the source plasma at the injection (right) boundary. A double layer can be developed by injection of a sufficiently high current density. For a fixed level of current injection, plasmas carrying no current with various densities (n/sup ts/ 0 ) are loaded on the left side of the system. Whether or not the generated double layer can maintain its potential drop for a long period depends on the density (n/sup ts/ 0 ) relative to the initial density (n/sup */ 0 ) near the injection boundary: (1) the double layer is found to grow when n/sup ts/ 0 = n/sup */ 0 ; (2) the steady double layer is seen for a long period when n/sup ts/ 0 approx. >n/sup */ 0 ; (3) the double layer is found to decay when n/sup ts/ 0 is even higher than n/sup */ 0 . A new concept of the current polarizability P/sub c/ = J/n/sup number/ is introduced for understanding these results, where J is the current density flowing through the double layer and n/sup number/ is the plasma density at the injection front, i.e., the low-potential edge of the double layer

  8. Large-amplitude ion-acoustic double layers in a plasma with warm ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roychoudury, R.K.; Bhattacharyya, S.; Varshni, Y.P.

    1990-01-01

    The conditions for the existence of an ion-acoustic double layer in a plasma with warm ions and two distinct groups of hot electrons have been studied using the Sagdeev potential method. A comparison is made with the published results of Bharuthram and Shukla for cold ions and a two temperature electron population. Numerical studies have been made to find out the effect of a finite ion temperature on the Mach number of the double layers

  9. Mixing Acid Salts and Layered Double Hydroxides in Nanoscale under Solid Condition

    OpenAIRE

    Nakayama, Hirokazu; Hayashi, Aki

    2014-01-01

    The immobilization of potassium sorbate, potassium aspartate and sorbic acid in layered double hydroxide under solid condition was examined. By simply mixing two solids, immobilization of sorbate and aspartate in the interlayer space of nitrate-type layered double hydroxide, so called intercalation reaction, was achieved, and the uptakes, that is, the amount of immobilized salts and the interlayer distances of intercalation compounds were almost the same as those obtained in aqueous solution...

  10. Preparation and properties of Mg/Al layered double hydroxide-oleate and -stearate intercalation compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inomata, Kazuya; Ogawa, Makoto

    2006-01-01

    Mg/Al layered double hydroxide-oleate and -stearate intercalation compounds were successfully synthesized by the reconstruction method under hydrothermal conditions from calcined hydrotalcite. The intercalation compounds were characterized by the high structural regularity as evidenced by the sharp and intense X-ray diffraction peaks. The oleate intercalated layered double hydroxide exhibits unique physicochemical properties such as a reversible thermoresponsive change in the basal spacing and swelling in organic solvents such as n-alkanes. (author)

  11. Fundamental measure theory for the electric double layer: implications for blue-energy harvesting and water desalination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Härtel, Andreas; Janssen, Mathijs; Samin, Sela; Roij, René van

    2015-01-01

    Capacitive mixing (CAPMIX) and capacitive deionization (CDI) are promising candidates for harvesting clean, renewable energy and for the energy efficient production of potable water, respectively. Both CAPMIX and CDI involve water-immersed porous carbon (supercapacitors) electrodes at voltages of the order of hundreds of millivolts, such that counter-ionic packing is important for the electric double layer (EDL) which forms near the surfaces of these porous materials. Thus, we propose a density functional theory (DFT) to model the EDL, where the White-Bear mark II fundamental measure theory functional is combined with a mean-field Coulombic and a mean spherical approximation-type correction to describe the interplay between dense packing and electrostatics, in good agreement with molecular dynamics simulations. We discuss the concentration-dependent potential rise due to changes in the chemical potential in capacitors in the context of an over-ideal theoretical description and its impact on energy harvesting and water desalination. Compared to less elaborate mean-field models our DFT calculations reveal a higher work output for blue-energy cycles and a higher energy demand for desalination cycles. (paper)

  12. Ion-acoustic double layers in multi-species plasmas maintained by negative ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verheest, F.

    1989-01-01

    A study is made of ion-acoustic double layers in a plasma consisting of any number of cold positive and negative ion (and cold electron) species in addition to one isothermal electron population. The Sagdeev potential is obtained in general, together with limits on both compressive and rarefactive solutions for ion-acoustic double layers and/or solitons. Weak ion-acoustic double layers are described by a modified Korteweg-de Vries equation. Such double layers are not possible in plasmas with only positive ion species and one electron population. When one or more negative ion and/or cold electron species are included above a certain threshold density, rarefactive ion-acoustic double layers occur, but no compressive ones. The double-layer form of the potential is given, together with an application to a plasma with one positive and one negative ion component. It is shown that there is indeed such a threshold density for the negative ion density, depending on the charge-to-mass ratios of both types of ions. The threshold density is determined numerically for a range of such ratios and discussed in view of possible relevance to auroral and experimental plasmas. In the discussion, cold electrons can play the role of the negative ion species. (author)

  13. Double-layer appearance after evacuation of a chronic subdural hematoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sucu, Hasan Kamil; Akar, Ömer

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the reason for and the course of the double-layer appearance in the postoperative computed tomographies (CTs) of chronic subdural hematoma (CSDHs). We reviewed CSDH cases that were operated on during the last 3 years, between January 2008 and December 2010. We checked the preoperative, early postoperative, and late postoperative CTs of these patients. We investigated the relationship between the formation of a double-layer appearance and the prognoses and demographic characteristics of the patients. Our database included 119 cases. A double-layer appearance was found in the postoperative CTs of 34 cases. The mean age of double-layer cases was older (72.5 ± 12.1) than that of the remaining 85 cases (63.1 ± 17.8). We did not find any relationship between the double-layer appearance and the reoperation/recurrence/death rates. The double-layer appearance after evacuation of a CSDH might be caused by enlargement of the subarachnoid space and is not related to the presence of any residual hematoma. This appearance is not considered as a reason for reoperation.

  14. Ion acoustic waves and double-layers in electronegative expanding plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plihon, Nicolas; Chabert, Pascal

    2011-01-01

    Ion acoustic waves and double-layers are observed in expanding plasmas in electronegative gases, i.e., plasmas containing an appreciable fraction of negative ions. The reported experiments are performed in argon gas with a variable amount of SF 6 . When varying the amount of SF 6 , the negative ion fraction increases and three main regimes were identified previously: (i) the plasma smoothly expands at low negative ion fraction, (ii) a static double-layer (associated with an abrupt potential drop and ion acceleration) forms at intermediate negative ion fraction, (iii) double-layers periodically form and propagate (in the plasma expansion direction) at high negative ion fraction. In this paper, we show that transition phases exist in between these regimes, where fluctuations are observed. These fluctuations are unstable slow ion acoustic waves, propagating in the direction opposite to the plasma expansion. These fluctuations are excited by the most unstable eigenmodes and display turbulent features. It is suggested that the static double layer forms when the ion acoustic fluctuations become non-linearly unstable: the double layer regime being a bifurcated state of the smoothly expanding regime. For the highest negative ion fraction, a coexistence of (upstream propagating) slow ion acoustic fluctuations and (downstream) propagating double layers was observed.

  15. Cyclotron resonance study of the two-dimensional electron layers and double layers in tilted magnetic fields

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Goncharuk, Natalya; Smrčka, Ludvík; Kučera, Jan

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 22, - (2004), s. 590-593 ISSN 1386-9477. [International Conference on Electronic Properties of Two-Dimensional Systems /15./. Nara, 14.07.2003-18.07.2003] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/01/0754 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : single layer * double layer * two-dimensional electron system * cyclotron resonance Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.898, year: 2004

  16. Study on dynamic deformation synchronized measurement technology of double-layer liquid surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Huiying; Dong, Huimin; Liu, Zhanwei

    2017-11-01

    Accurate measurement of the dynamic deformation of double-layer liquid surfaces plays an important role in many fields, such as fluid mechanics, biomechanics, petrochemical industry and aerospace engineering. It is difficult to measure dynamic deformation of double-layer liquid surfaces synchronously for traditional methods. In this paper, a novel and effective method for full-field static and dynamic deformation measurement of double-layer liquid surfaces has been developed, that is wavefront distortion of double-wavelength transmission light with geometric phase analysis (GPA) method. Double wavelength lattice patterns used here are produced by two techniques, one is by double wavelength laser, and the other is by liquid crystal display (LCD). The techniques combine the characteristics such as high transparency, low reflectivity and fluidity of liquid. Two color lattice patterns produced by laser and LCD were adjusted at a certain angle through the tested double-layer liquid surfaces simultaneously. On the basis of the refractive indexes difference of two transmitted lights, the double-layer liquid surfaces were decoupled with GPA method. Combined with the derived relationship between phase variation of transmission-lattice patterns and out-of plane heights of two surfaces, as well as considering the height curves of the liquid level, the double-layer liquid surfaces can be reconstructed successfully. Compared with the traditional measurement method, the developed method not only has the common advantages of the optical measurement methods, such as high-precision, full-field and non-contact, but also simple, low cost and easy to set up.

  17. Development of ion-acoustic double layers through ion-acoustic fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekar, A.N.; Saxena, Y.C.

    1985-01-01

    Experimental results on the formation of ion acoustic double layers resembling asymmetric ion-holes are presented. In a double plasma device, modified suitably to inject electron beam into the target plasma, modulation of the beam through step potential leads to excitation of ion-acoustic fluctuation. The ion-acoustic fluctuation, growing away from the grids separating source and target plasmas, developed into weak asymmetric ion-acoustic double layer. The observations are in qualitative agreement with theoretical models and computer simulations. (author)

  18. Mg/Al Ordering in Layered Double Hydroxides Revealed by Multinuclear NMR Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ulla Gro; Grey, Clare P.; Sideris, Paul J.

    2008-01-01

    The anion- exchange ability of layered double hydroxides ( LDHs) has been exploited to create materials for use in catalysis, drug delivery, and environmental remediation. The specific cation arrangements in the hydroxide layers of hydrotalcite- like LDHs, of general formula Mg1-x2+Alx3+OH2(Anion...

  19. Analytical and Numerical Modeling of Tsunami Wave Propagation for double layer state in Bore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuvaraj, V.; Rajasekaran, S.; Nagarajan, D.

    2018-04-01

    Tsunami wave enters into the river bore in the landslide. Tsunami wave propagation are described in two-layer states. The velocity and amplitude of the tsunami wave propagation are calculated using the double layer. The numerical and analytical solutions are given for the nonlinear equation of motion of the wave propagation in a bore.

  20. Porous layered double hydroxides synthesized using oxygen generated by decomposition of hydrogen peroxide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonzalez Rodriguez, P.; de Ruiter, M.P.; Wijnands, Tom; ten Elshof, Johan E.

    2017-01-01

    Porous magnesium-aluminium layered double hydroxides (LDH) were prepared through intercalation and decomposition of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). This process generates oxygen gas nano-bubbles that pierce holes in the layered structure of the material by local pressure build-up. The decomposition of the

  1. Fracture Characteristics Analysis of Double-layer Rock Plates with Both Ends Fixed Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. R. Wang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to research on the fracture and instability characteristics of double-layer rock plates with both ends fixed, the three-dimension computational model of double-layer rock plates under the concentrated load was built by using PFC3D technique (three-dimension particle flow code, and the mechanical parameters of the numerical model were determined based on the physical model tests. The results showed the instability process of the double-layer rock plates had four mechanical response phases: the elastic deformation stage, the brittle fracture of upper thick plate arching stage, two rock-arch bearing stage and two rock-arch failure stage; moreover, with the rock plate particle radius from small to large change, the maximum vertical force of double rock-arch appeared when the particle size was a certain value. The maximum vertical force showed an upward trend with the increase of the rock plate temperature, and in the case of the same thickness the maximum vertical force increased with the increase of the upper rock plate thickness. When the boundary conditions of double-layer rock plates changed from the hinged support to the fixed support, the maximum horizontal force observably decreased, and the maximum vertical force showed small fluctuations and then tended towards stability with the increase of cohesive strength of double-layer rock plates.

  2. Graphene hydrogels deposited in nickel foams for high-rate electrochemical capacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ji; Sheng, Kaixuan; Luo, Peihui; Li, Chun; Shi, Gaoquan

    2012-08-28

    Graphene hydrogel/nickel foam composite electrodes for high-rate electrochemical capacitors are produced by reduction of an aqueous dispersion of graphene oxide in a nickel foam (upper half of figure). The micropores of the hydrogel are exposed to the electrolyte so that ions can enter and form electrochemical double-layers. The nickel framework shortens the distances of charge transfer. Therefore, the electrochemical capacitor exhibits highrate performance (see plots). Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Read/write performance of perpendicular double-layered cylindrical media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, H.; Shimatsu, T.; Watanabe, I.; Tsuchiyama, R.; Aoi, H.; Muraoka, H.; Nakamura, Y.

    2005-01-01

    A cylindrical magnetic storage system using perpendicular double-layered media has been developed. CoCrTa/CoZrNb deposited on a rotating cylindrical substrate shows perpendicular anisotropy and magnetic properties, which have almost the same characteristics as conventional disk-media. The fundamental read/write characteristics of perpendicular double-layered cylindrical media were measured using a single-pole-type (SPT) writer with a sliding-contact-type slider and a merged giant magneto-resistive (GMR) reader with a one-pad-type slider designed for use with cylindrical media. Preliminary studies for improving the characteristics of the recording layer are also described

  4. Improved Electrochemical Cycling Durability in a Nickel Oxide Double-Layered Film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Shuai; Zhang, Xiang; Tian, Yanlong; Zhao, Jiupeng; Geng, Hongbin; Qu, Huiying; Zhang, Hangchuan; Zhang, Kun; Wang, Binsheng; Gavrilyuk, Alexander; Li, Yao

    2017-11-16

    For the first time, a crystalline-amorphous double-layered NiO x film has been prepared by reactive radio frequency magnetron sputtering. This film has exhibited improved electrochemical cycling durability, whereas other electrochromic parameters have been maintained at the required level, namely, a short coloration/bleaching time (0.8 s/1.1 s) and an enhanced transmittance modulation range (62.2 %) at λ=550 nm. Additionally, the double-layered film has shown better reversibility than that of amorphous and crystalline single-layered films. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Arrangements of a pair of loudspeakers for sound field control with double-layer arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chang, Jiho; Agerkvist, Finn T.; Olsen, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have attempted to control sound fields, and also to reduce room reflections with a circular or spherical array of loudspeakers. One of the attempts was to suppress sound waves propagating to the walls outside the array with a circular double-layer array of loudspeakers. The double-layer...... array represents a set of a monopole and a dipole in the Kirchhoff-Helmholtz integral equation, and thus the distance between these layers should be short compared with the wavelength. In practice, however, this condition is occasionally hard to satisfy because of the sizes of loudspeaker cabinets...

  6. XPS and TEM study of W-DLC/DLC double-layered film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeno, Takanori; Komiyama, Takao; Miki, Hiroyuki; Takagi, Toshiyuki; Aoyama, Takashi

    2009-01-01

    A double-layered film of tungsten-containing diamond-like carbon (W-DLC) and DLC, (W-DLC)/DLC, was investigated. A film of 1.6 μm in thickness was deposited onto silicon substrate. The investigate double-layered coating was deposited by using the combination of PECVD and co-sputtering of tungsten metal target. Structure, interface and chemical bonding state of the investigated film were analyzed by Transmission electron microscope (TEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). From the results of the analyses, the structure of double-layered film is that amorphous phase of carbon is continued from DLC to W-DLC and tungsten metal clusters are dispersed in W-DLC layer.

  7. Maglev performance of a double-layer bulk high temperature superconductor above a permanent magnet guideway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng, Z; Wang, J; Zheng, J; Lin, Q; Zhang, Y; Wang, S

    2009-01-01

    In order to improve the performance of the present high temperature superconducting (HTS) maglev vehicle system, the maglev performance of single- and double-layer bulk high temperature superconductors (HTSC) was investigated above a permanent magnet guideway (PMG). It is found that the maglev performance of a double-layer bulk HTSC is not a simple addition of each layer's levitation and guidance force. Moreover, the applied magnetic field at the position of the upper layer bulk HTSC is not completely shielded by the lower layer bulk HTSC either. 53.5% of the levitation force and 27.5% of the guidance force of the upper layer bulk HTSC are excited in the double-layer bulk HTSC arrangement in the applied field-cooling condition and working gap, bringing a corresponding improvement of 16.9% and 8.8% to the conventional single-layer bulk HTSC. The present research implies that the cost performance of upper layer bulk HTSC is a little low for the whole HTS maglev system.

  8. Maglev performance of a double-layer bulk high temperature superconductor above a permanent magnet guideway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Z; Wang, J; Zheng, J; Lin, Q; Zhang, Y; Wang, S [Applied Superconductivity Laboratory, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, 610031 (China)], E-mail: asclab@asclab.cn

    2009-05-15

    In order to improve the performance of the present high temperature superconducting (HTS) maglev vehicle system, the maglev performance of single- and double-layer bulk high temperature superconductors (HTSC) was investigated above a permanent magnet guideway (PMG). It is found that the maglev performance of a double-layer bulk HTSC is not a simple addition of each layer's levitation and guidance force. Moreover, the applied magnetic field at the position of the upper layer bulk HTSC is not completely shielded by the lower layer bulk HTSC either. 53.5% of the levitation force and 27.5% of the guidance force of the upper layer bulk HTSC are excited in the double-layer bulk HTSC arrangement in the applied field-cooling condition and working gap, bringing a corresponding improvement of 16.9% and 8.8% to the conventional single-layer bulk HTSC. The present research implies that the cost performance of upper layer bulk HTSC is a little low for the whole HTS maglev system.

  9. Interaction of pristine hydrotalcite-like layered double hydroxides ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1783–1790. c Indian Academy of Sciences. ... adversely impacts the ability of the metal hydroxide layer to interact with CO2 in the gas ... CO2 is a greenhouse gas and the bulk of anthropogenic CO2 ... decomposes by the release of gaseous CO2 and water in ... systems such as [Co–Al] LDH the decomposition tempera-.

  10. One-dimensional magnetophotonic crystals with magnetooptical double layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berzhansky, V. N.; Shaposhnikov, A. N.; Prokopov, A. R.; Karavainikov, A. V.; Mikhailova, T. V.; Lukienko, I. N.; Kharchenko, Yu. N.; Golub, V. O.; Salyuk, O. Yu.; Belotelov, V. I.

    2016-01-01

    One-dimensional magnetophotonic microcavity crystals with nongarnet dielectric mirrors are created and investigated. The defect layers in the magnetophotonic crystals are represented by two bismuth-substituted yttrium iron garnet Bi:YIG layers with various bismuth contents in order to achieve a high magnetooptical response of the crystals. The parameters of the magnetophotonic crystal layers are optimized by numerical solution of the Maxwell equations by the transfer matrix method to achieve high values of Faraday rotation angle Θ F and magnetooptical Q factor. The calculated and experimental data agree well with each other. The maximum values of Θ F =–20.6°, Q = 8.1° at a gain t = 16 are obtained for magnetophotonic crystals with m = 7 pairs of layers in Bragg mirrors, and the parameters obtained for crystals with m = 4 and t = 8.5 are Θ F =–12.5° and Q = 14.3°. It is shown that, together with all-garnet and multimicrocavities magnetophotonic crystals, such structures have high magnetooptical characteristics.

  11. One-dimensional magnetophotonic crystals with magnetooptical double layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berzhansky, V. N., E-mail: v.n.berzhansky@gmail.com; Shaposhnikov, A. N.; Prokopov, A. R.; Karavainikov, A. V.; Mikhailova, T. V. [V.I. Vernadsky Crimean Federal University (Russian Federation); Lukienko, I. N.; Kharchenko, Yu. N., E-mail: kharcenko@ilt.kharkov.ua [National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Verkin Institute for Low Temperature Physics and Engineering (Ukraine); Golub, V. O., E-mail: v-o-golub@yahoo.com; Salyuk, O. Yu. [National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Institute of Magnetism (Ukraine); Belotelov, V. I., E-mail: belotelov@physics.msu.ru [Russian Quantum Center (Russian Federation)

    2016-11-15

    One-dimensional magnetophotonic microcavity crystals with nongarnet dielectric mirrors are created and investigated. The defect layers in the magnetophotonic crystals are represented by two bismuth-substituted yttrium iron garnet Bi:YIG layers with various bismuth contents in order to achieve a high magnetooptical response of the crystals. The parameters of the magnetophotonic crystal layers are optimized by numerical solution of the Maxwell equations by the transfer matrix method to achieve high values of Faraday rotation angle Θ{sub F} and magnetooptical Q factor. The calculated and experimental data agree well with each other. The maximum values of Θ{sub F} =–20.6°, Q = 8.1° at a gain t = 16 are obtained for magnetophotonic crystals with m = 7 pairs of layers in Bragg mirrors, and the parameters obtained for crystals with m = 4 and t = 8.5 are Θ{sub F} =–12.5° and Q = 14.3°. It is shown that, together with all-garnet and multimicrocavities magnetophotonic crystals, such structures have high magnetooptical characteristics.

  12. Improved Reliability of Small Molecule Organic Solar Cells by Double Anode Buffer Layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pao-Hsun Huang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An optimized hybrid planar heterojunction (PHJ of small molecule organic solar cells (SM-OSCs based on copper phthalocyanine (CuPc as donor and fullerene (C60 as acceptor was fabricated, which obviously enhanced the performance of device by sequentially using both MoO3 and pentacene as double anode buffer layers (ABL, also known as hole extraction layer (HEL. A series of the vacuum-deposited ABL, acting as an electron and exciton blocking layer, were examined for their characteristics in SM-OSCs. The performance and reliability were compared between conventional ITO/ABL/CuPc/C60/BCP/Ag cells and the new ITO/double ABL/CuPc/C60/BCP/Ag cells. The effect on the electrical properties of these materials was also investigated to obtain the optimal thickness of ABL. The comparison shows that the modified cell has an enhanced reliability compared to traditional cells. The improvement of lifetime was attributed to the idea of double layers to prevent humidity and oxygen from diffusing into the active layer. We demonstrated that the interfacial extraction layers are necessary to avoid degradation of device. That is to say, in normal temperature and pressure, a new avenue for the device within double buffer layers has exhibited the highest values of open circuit voltage (Voc, fill factor (FF, and lifetime in this work compared to monolayer of ABL.

  13. Double layer mixed matrix membrane adsorbers improving capacity and safety hemodialysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiful; Borneman, Z.; Wessling, M.

    2018-05-01

    Double layer mixed matrix membranes adsorbers have been developed for blood toxin removal by embedding activated carbon into cellulose acetate macroporous membranes. The membranes are prepared by phase inversion method via water vapor induced phase separation followed by an immersion precipitation step. Double layer MMM consisting of an active support and a separating layer. The active support layer consists of activated carbon particles embedded in macroporous cellulose acetate; the separating layer consists of particle free cellulose acetate. The double layer membrane possess an open and interconnected macroporous structure with a high loading of activated carbon available for blood toxins removal. The MMM AC has a swelling degree of 6.5 %, porosity of 53 % and clean water flux of 800 Lm-2h-1bar-1. The prepared membranes show a high dynamic Creatinine (Crt) removal during hemodilysis process. The Crt removal by adsorption contributes to amore than 83 % of the total removal. The double layer adsorptive membrane proves hemodialysis membrane can integrated with adsorption, in which blood toxins are removed in one step.

  14. High power laser interaction with single and double layer targets

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Borodziuk, S.; Demchenko, N. N.; Gus'kov, S. Yu.; Jungwirth, Karel; Kálal, M.; Kasperczuk, A.; Kondrashov, V. N.; Králiková, Božena; Krouský, Eduard; Limpouch, Jiří; Mašek, Karel; Pisarczyk, P.; Pisarczyk, T.; Pfeifer, Miroslav; Rohlena, Karel; Rozanov, V. B.; Skála, Jiří; Ullschmied, Jiří

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 35, č. 2 (2005), s. 241-262 ISSN 0078-5466 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LN00A100; GA AV ČR(CZ) KSK2043105 Grant - others:EU(XE) HPRI-CT-1999-00053; RFBR(RU) 02-02-16966; IAEA(XE) 11655/RBF; INTAS(XX) 01-0572 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100523; CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : laser produced plasma * three-frame interferometry * macroparticle * single and double targets * crater * shock wave * laser energy absorption Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 0.459, year: 2005

  15. Method of manufacturing a shapeable short-resistant capacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Ralph S.; Myers, John D.; Baney, William J.

    2013-04-02

    A method that employs a novel combination of conventional fabrication techniques provides a ceramic short-resistant capacitor that is bendable and/or shapeable to provide a multiple layer capacitor that is extremely compact and amenable to desirable geometries. The method allows thinner and more flexible ceramic capacitors to be made. The method includes forming a first thin metal layer on a substrate; depositing a thin, ceramic dielectric layer over the metal layer; depositing a second thin metal layer over the dielectric layer to form a capacitor exhibiting a benign failure mode; and separating the capacitor from the substrate. The method may also include bending the resulting capacitor into a serpentine arrangement with gaps between the layers that allow venting of evaporated electrode material in the event of a benign failure.

  16. Improving Breakdown Behavior by Substrate Bias in a Novel Double Epi-layer Lateral Double Diffused MOS Transistor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Qi; Wang Wei-Dong; Liu Yun; Wei Xue-Ming

    2012-01-01

    A new lateral double diffused MOS (LDMOS) transistor with a double epitaxial layer formed by an n-type substrate and a p-type epitaxial layer is reported (DEL LDMOS). The mechanism of the improved breakdown characteristic is that the high electric field around the drain is reduced by substrate reverse bias, which causes the redistribution of the bulk electric field in the drift region, and the vertical blocking voltage is shared by the drain side and the source side. The numerical results indicate that the trade-off between breakdown voltage and on-resistance of the proposed device is improved greatly in comparison to that of the conventional LDMOS. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  17. Interlayer Structures and Dynamics of Arsenate and Arsenite Intercalated Layered Double Hydroxides: A First Principles Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingchun Zhang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, by using first principles simulation techniques, we explored the basal spacings, interlayer structures, and dynamics of arsenite and arsenate intercalated Layered double hydroxides (LDHs. Our results confirm that the basal spacings of NO3−-LDHs increase with layer charge densities. It is found that Arsenic (As species can enter the gallery spaces of LDHs with a Mg/Al ratio of 2:1 but they cannot enter those with lower charge densities. Interlayer species show layering distributions. All anions form a single layer distribution while water molecules form a single layer distribution at low layer charge density and a double layer distribution at high layer charge densities. H2AsO4− has two orientations in the interlayer regions (i.e., one with its three folds axis normal to the layer sheets and another with its two folds axis normal to the layer sheets, and only the latter is observed for HAsO42−. H2AsO3− orientates in a tilt-lying way. The mobility of water and NO3− increases with the layer charge densities while As species have very low mobility. Our simulations provide microscopic information of As intercalated LDHs, which can be used for further understanding of the structures of oxy-anion intercalated LDHs.

  18. Double Charged Surface Layers in Lead Halide Perovskite Crystals

    KAUST Repository

    Sarmah, Smritakshi P.

    2017-02-01

    Understanding defect chemistry, particularly ion migration, and its significant effect on the surface’s optical and electronic properties is one of the major challenges impeding the development of hybrid perovskite-based devices. Here, using both experimental and theoretical approaches, we demonstrated that the surface layers of the perovskite crystals may acquire a high concentration of positively charged vacancies with the complementary negatively charged halide ions pushed to the surface. This charge separation near the surface generates an electric field that can induce an increase of optical band gap in the surface layers relative to the bulk. We found that the charge separation, electric field, and the amplitude of shift in the bandgap strongly depend on the halides and organic moieties of perovskite crystals. Our findings reveal the peculiarity of surface effects that are currently limiting the applications of perovskite crystals and more importantly explain their origins, thus enabling viable surface passivation strategies to remediate them.

  19. Numerical simulation of white double-layer coating with different submicron particles on the spectral reflectance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chai, Jiale; Cheng, Qiang; Si, Mengting; Su, Yang; Zhou, Yifan; Song, Jinlin

    2017-01-01

    The spectral selective coating is becoming more and more popular against solar irradiation not only in keeping the coated objects stay cool but also retain the appearance of the objects by reducing the glare of reflected sunlight. In this work a numerical study is investigated to design the double-layer coating with different submicron particles to achieve better performance both in thermal and aesthetic aspects. By comparison, the performance of double-layer coating with TiO_2 and ZnO particles is better than that with single particles. What's more, the particle diameter, volume fraction of particle as well as substrate condition is also investigated. The results show that an optimized double-layer coating with particles should be the one with an appropriate particle diameter, volume fraction and the black substrate. - Highlights: • The double-layer coating has a great influence on both thermal and aesthetic aspects. • The double-layer coating performs better than the uniform one with single particles. • The volume fraction, particle diameter and substrate conditions are optimized.

  20. Mixing Acid Salts and Layered Double Hydroxides in Nanoscale under Solid Condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Hirokazu; Hayashi, Aki

    2014-07-30

    The immobilization of potassium sorbate, potassium aspartate and sorbic acid in layered double hydroxide under solid condition was examined. By simply mixing two solids, immobilization of sorbate and aspartate in the interlayer space of nitrate-type layered double hydroxide, so called intercalation reaction, was achieved, and the uptakes, that is, the amount of immobilized salts and the interlayer distances of intercalation compounds were almost the same as those obtained in aqueous solution. However, no intercalation was achieved for sorbic acid. Although intercalation of sorbate and aspartate into chloride-type layered double hydroxide was possible, the uptakes for these intercalation compounds were lower than those obtained using nitrate-type layered double hydroxide. The intercalation under solid condition could be achieved to the same extent as for ion-exchange reaction in aqueous solution, and the reactivity was similar to that observed in aqueous solution. This method will enable the encapsulation of acidic drug in layered double hydroxide as nano level simply by mixing both solids.

  1. Mixing Acid Salts and Layered Double Hydroxides in Nanoscale under Solid Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirokazu Nakayama

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The immobilization of potassium sorbate, potassium aspartate and sorbic acid in layered double hydroxide under solid condition was examined. By simply mixing two solids, immobilization of sorbate and aspartate in the interlayer space of nitrate-type layered double hydroxide, so called intercalation reaction, was achieved, and the uptakes, that is, the amount of immobilized salts and the interlayer distances of intercalation compounds were almost the same as those obtained in aqueous solution. However, no intercalation was achieved for sorbic acid. Although intercalation of sorbate and aspartate into chloride-type layered double hydroxide was possible, the uptakes for these intercalation compounds were lower than those obtained using nitrate-type layered double hydroxide. The intercalation under solid condition could be achieved to the same extent as for ion-exchange reaction in aqueous solution, and the reactivity was similar to that observed in aqueous solution. This method will enable the encapsulation of acidic drug in layered double hydroxide as nano level simply by mixing both solids.

  2. Carbons, ionic liquids and quinones for electrochemical capacitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul eDiaz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Carbons are the main electrode materials used in electrochemical capacitors, which are electrochemical energy storage devices with high power densities and long cycling lifetimes. However, increasing their energy density will improve their potential for commercial implementation. In this regard, the use of high surface area carbons and high voltage electrolytes are well known strategies to increase the attainable energy density, and lately ionic liquids have been explored as promising alternatives to current state of the art acetonitrile-based electrolytes. Also, in terms of safety and sustainability ionic liquids are attractive electrolyte materials for electrochemical capacitors. In addition, it has been shown that the matching of the carbon pore size with the electrolyte ion size further increases the attainable electric double layer (EDL capacitance and energy density.The use of pseudocapacitive reactions can significantly increase the attainable energy density, and quinonic-based materials offer a potentially sustainable and cost effective research avenue for both the electrode and the electrolyte. This perspective will provide an overview of the current state of the art research on electrochemical capacitors based on combinations of carbons, ionic liquids and quinonic compounds, highlighting performances and challenges and discussing possible future research avenues. In this regard, current interest is mainly focused on strategies which may ultimately lead to commercially competitive sustainable high performance electrochemical capacitors for different applications including those requiring mechanical flexibility and biocompatibility.

  3. Double-layered ZnO nanostructures for efficient perovskite solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Mahmood, Khalid; S. Swain, Bhabani; Amassian, Aram

    2014-01-01

    To date, a single layer of TiO2 or ZnO has been the most successful implementations of any electron transport layer (ETL) in solution-processed perovskite solar cells. In a quest to improve the ETL, we explore a new nanostructured double-layer ZnO film for mesoscopic perovskite-based thin film photovoltaics. This approach yields a maximum power conversion efficiency of 10.35%, which we attribute to the morphology of oxide layer and to faster electron transport. The successful implementation of the low-temperature hydrothermally processed double-layer ZnO film as ETL in perovskite solar cells highlights the opportunities to further improve the efficiencies by focusing on the ETL in this rapidly developing field. This journal is

  4. A Difference in Using Atomic Layer Deposition or Physical Vapour Deposition TiN as Electrode Material in Metal-Insulator-Metal and Metal-Insulator-Silicon Capacitors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenland, A.W.; Wolters, Robertus A.M.; Kovalgin, Alexeij Y.; Schmitz, Jurriaan

    2011-01-01

    In this work, metal-insulator-metal (MIM) and metal-insulator-silicon (MIS) capacitors are studied using titanium nitride (TiN) as the electrode material. The effect of structural defects on the electrical properties on MIS and MIM capacitors is studied for various electrode configurations. In the

  5. Electrochemical properties of arc-black and carbon nano-balloon as electrochemical capacitor electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, T; Suda, Y; Uruno, H; Takikawa, H; Tanoue, H; Ue, H; Aoyagi, N; Okawa, T; Shimizu, K

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we used two types of carbon nanomaterials, arc-black (AcB) which has an amorphous structure and carbon nano-balloon (CNB) which has a graphitic structure as electrochemical capacitor electrodes. We made a coin electrode from these carbon materials and fabricated an electric double-layer capacitor (EDLC) that sandwiches a separator between the coin electrodes. On the other hand, RuO 2 was loaded on these carbon materials, and we fabricated a pseudo-capacitor that has an ion insertion mechanism into RuO 2 . For comparison with these carbon materials, activated carbon (AC) was also used for a capacitor electrode. The electrochemical properties of all the capacitors were evaluated in 1M H 2 SO 4 aqueous solution. As a result of EDLC performance, AcB electrode had a higher specific capacitance than AC electrode at a high scan rate (≥ 100 mV/s). In the evaluation of pseudo-capacitor performance, RuO 2 -loaded CNB electrode showed a high specific capacitance of 734 F/g per RuO 2 weight.

  6. High-energy power capacitors, their applied technology and the trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    High-voltage and high-energy-density power capacitors called high-power ones such as film or electrolytic capacitors, have been used in large quantities for the pulse power technology such as an impulse current or voltage generator and a laser power supply, and for the power electronics one with progress of the power semiconductor device and the inverter technology. Recently, electric double layer capacitors (EDLC) with remarkable technical progress have been applied for the equipments of electric power and industrial field for the purpose of energy saving or electric power quality improvement, which have come to link to the electric power system. Thus, using a lot of high-power capacitors near our life would require to know the structure, the principle and the characteristic of capacitors, and also to consider suitable directions for use, maintenance and safety and so on, when carrying out a system and a facility design. In the technical report, while describing the dielectric and the feature of some high-power capacitors, and introducing the application examples to the laser-fusion power supply and some systems with EDLC, the trend of standardization of EDLC and the directivity of the examination about installation and maintenance of the applied equipments are described. (author)

  7. Experiment and simulation of double-layered RC plates under impact loadings. Part 1: Impact tests for double-layered RC plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirai, T.; Ueda, M.; Taniguchi, H.; Kambayashi, A.; Ohno, T.; Ishikawa, N.

    1993-01-01

    At a nuclear power plant facility, it should be of interest and important problem to ensure structures against impact loads induced by projectile impacts or plant-internal accidents. It has been well known that local damage consists of spalling of concrete from the impacted area and scabbing of concrete from the back face of the target together with projectile penetration into the target. There are several techniques for improving the impact resistance of RC slabs, that is, lining with a steel plate on the impacted and/or rear face of the slab, making the slab a double-layered composite slab with an elastic absorber and employing a fiber reinforced concrete or a high-strength concrete as the slab materials. Of the many measures available for withstanding impact loads, the use of a double-layered reinforced concrete (RC) slab with absorber is expected to have the higher resistance in reducing or preventing local damage. This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation on the impact resistance of double-layered RC plates subjected to the impact of projectile. In the experiment, the effects of two parameters; the combination of two RC plates having different thicknesses and the existence of an absorber in the middle layer, are mainly investigated. And, the effects of the concrete thickness (7,9 and 11 cm) and the concrete strength (a normal-:35MPa, a lightweight-:40MPa and a high-strength:57MPa) of target were also examined. RC plates, 0.6m-square, were used for test specimens. The projectile has a mass of 0.43kg, made of steel with a flat nose. An average projectile velocity was about 170m/sec. A rubber plate shaped into a square with the same size of RC plate was used for a double-layered specimen as an absorber which was put between two RC plates. It could be concluded that double-layering and presence of an absorber had a considerable effect on the increase of impact resistance of RC plate. In order to reduce local damage, it is more effective to

  8. Shapeable short circuit resistant capacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Ralph S.; Myers, John D.; Baney, William J.

    2015-10-06

    A ceramic short circuit resistant capacitor that is bendable and/or shapeable to provide a multiple layer capacitor that is extremely compact and amenable to desirable geometries. The capacitor that exhibits a benign failure mode in which a multitude of discrete failure events result in a gradual loss of capacitance. Each event is a localized event in which localized heating causes an adjacent portion of one or both of the electrodes to vaporize, physically cleaning away electrode material from the failure site. A first metal electrode, a second metal electrode, and a ceramic dielectric layer between the electrodes are thin enough to be formed in a serpentine-arrangement with gaps between the first electrode and the second electrode that allow venting of vaporized electrode material in the event of a benign failure.

  9. Membrane interactions and antimicrobial effects of layered double hydroxide nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malekkhaiat Häffner, S; Nyström, L; Nordström, R

    2017-01-01

    Membrane interactions are critical for the successful use of inorganic nanoparticles as antimicrobial agents and as carriers of, or co-actives with, antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). In order to contribute to an increased understanding of these, we here investigate effects of particle size (42-208 nm...... into size-dependent synergistic effects with the antimicrobial peptide LL-37. Due to strong interactions with anionic lipopolysaccharide and peptidoglycan layers, direct membrane disruption of both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria is suppressed. However, LDH nanoparticles cause size-dependent charge...

  10. Application of double-layered skin phantoms for optical flow imaging during laser tattoo treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byeong-il; Song, Woosub; Kim, Hyejin; Kang, Hyun Wook

    2016-05-01

    The feasible application of double-layered skin phantoms was evaluated to identify artificial blood flow with a Doppler optical coherence tomography (DOCT) system for laser tattoo treatments. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) was used to fabricate the artificial phantoms with flow channels embedded. A double-integrating sphere system with an inverse adding-doubling method quantified both the absorption and the reduced scattering coefficients for epidermis and dermis phantoms. Both OCT and caliper measurements confirmed the double-layered phantom structure (epidermis = 136 ± 17 µm vs. dermis = 3.0 ± 0.1 mm). The DOCT method demonstrated that high flow rates were associated with high image contrast, visualizing the position and the shape of the flow channel. Application of the channel-embedded skin phantoms in conjunction with DOCT can be a reliable technique to assess dynamic variations in the blood flow during and after laser tattoo treatments.

  11. Multilayer capacitors, method for making multilayer capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Beihai; Balachandran, Uthamalingam

    2018-03-06

    The invention provides a stacked capacitor configuration comprising subunits each with a thickness of as low as 20 microns. Also provided is combination capacitor and printed wire board wherein the capacitor is encapsulated by the wire board. The invented capacitors are applicable in micro-electronic applications and high power applications, whether it is AC to DC or DC to AC, or DC to DC.

  12. Current limitation and formation of plasma double layers in a non-uniform magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plamondon, R.; Teichmann, J.; Torven, S.

    1986-07-01

    Formation of strong double layers has been observed experimentally in a magnetised plasma column maintained by a plasma source. The magnetic field is approximately axially homogenous except in a region at the anode where the electric current flows into a magnetic mirror. The double layer has a stationary position only in the region of non-uniform magnetic field or at the aperture separating the source and the plasma column. It is characterized by a negative differential resistance in the current-voltage characteristic of the device. The parameter space,where the double layer exists, has been studied as well as the corresponding potential profiles and fluctuation spectra. The electric current and the axial electric field are oppositely directed between the plasma source and a potential minimum which is formed in the region of inhomogeneous magnetic field. Electron reflection by the resulting potential barrier is found to be an important current limitation mechanism. (authors)

  13. Density functional theory of the electrical double layer: the RFD functional

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillespie, Dirk; Valisko, Monika; Boda, Dezso

    2005-01-01

    Density functional theory (DFT) of electrolytes is applied to the electrical double layer under a wide range of conditions. The ions are charged, hard spheres of different size and valence, and the wall creating the double layer is uncharged, weakly charged, and strongly charged. Under all conditions, the density and electrostatic potential profiles calculated using the recently proposed RFD electrostatic functional (Gillespie et al 2002 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 14 12129; 2003 Phys. Rev. E 68 031503) compare well to Monte Carlo simulations. When the wall is strongly charged, the RFD functional results agree with the results of a simpler perturbative electrostatic DFT, but the two functionals' results qualitatively disagree when the wall is uncharged or weakly charged. The RFD functional reproduces these phenomena of weakly charged double layers. It also reproduces bulk thermodynamic quantities calculated from pair correlation functions

  14. Low frequency solitons and double layers in a magnetized plasma with two temperature electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rufai, O. R. [Department of Physics, University of the Western Cape, Private Bag X17, Bellville 7535 (South Africa); Bharuthram, R. [Office of the Deputy Vice Chancellor (Academic), University of the Western Cape, Bellville (South Africa); Singh, S. V. [Indian Institute of Geomagnetism, New Panvel (W), Navi Mumbai-410218 (India); School of Chemistry and Physics, University of Kwa-Zulu Natal, Durban (South Africa); Lakhina, G. S. [Indian Institute of Geomagnetism, New Panvel (W), Navi Mumbai-410218 (India)

    2012-12-15

    Finite amplitude non-linear ion-acoustic solitary waves and double layers are studied in a magnetized plasma with cold ions fluid and two distinct groups of Boltzmann electrons, using the Sagdeev pseudo-potential technique. The conditions under which the solitary waves and double layers can exist are found both analytically and numerically. We have shown the existence of negative potential solitary waves and double layers for subsonic Mach numbers, whereas in the unmagnetized plasma they can only in the supersonic Mach number regime. For the plasma parameters in the auroral region, the electric field amplitude of the solitary structures comes out to be 49 mV/m which is in agreement of the Viking observations in this region.

  15. Low frequency solitons and double layers in a magnetized plasma with two temperature electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rufai, O. R.; Bharuthram, R.; Singh, S. V.; Lakhina, G. S.

    2012-01-01

    Finite amplitude non-linear ion-acoustic solitary waves and double layers are studied in a magnetized plasma with cold ions fluid and two distinct groups of Boltzmann electrons, using the Sagdeev pseudo-potential technique. The conditions under which the solitary waves and double layers can exist are found both analytically and numerically. We have shown the existence of negative potential solitary waves and double layers for subsonic Mach numbers, whereas in the unmagnetized plasma they can only in the supersonic Mach number regime. For the plasma parameters in the auroral region, the electric field amplitude of the solitary structures comes out to be 49 mV/m which is in agreement of the Viking observations in this region.

  16. Double-layer neutron shield design as neutron shielding application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sariyer, Demet; Küçer, Rahmi

    2018-02-01

    The shield design in particle accelerators and other high energy facilities are mainly connected to the high-energy neutrons. The deep penetration of neutrons through massive shield has become a very serious problem. For shielding to be efficient, most of these neutrons should be confined to the shielding volume. If the interior space will become limited, the sufficient thickness of multilayer shield must be used. Concrete and iron are widely used as a multilayer shield material. Two layers shield material was selected to guarantee radiation safety outside of the shield against neutrons generated in the interaction of the different proton energies. One of them was one meter of concrete, the other was iron-contained material (FeB, Fe2B and stainless-steel) to be determined shield thicknesses. FLUKA Monte Carlo code was used for shield design geometry and required neutron dose distributions. The resulting two layered shields are shown better performance than single used concrete, thus the shield design could leave more space in the interior shielded areas.

  17. Conditions for double layers in the earth's magnetosphere and perhaps in other astrophysical objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, L. R.

    1987-01-01

    It is suggested that the features which govern the formation of the double layers are: (1) the divergence of the magnetospheric electric field, (2) the ionospheric conductivity, and (3) the current-voltage characteristics of auroral magnetic field lines. Also considered are conditions in other astrophysical objects that could lead to the formation of DLs in a manner analogous to what occurs in the earth's auroral zones. It is noted that two processes can drive divergent Pedersen currents within a collisional conducting layer: (1) sheared plasma flow applied anywhere along the magnetic field lines connected to the conducting layer and (2) a neutral flow with shear within the conducting layer.

  18. Extracting renewable energy from a salinity difference using a capacitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brogioli, Doriano

    2009-07-31

    Completely renewable energy can be produced by using water solutions of different salinity, like river water and sea water. Many different methods are already known, but development is still at prototype stage. Here I report a novel method, based on electric double-layer capacitor technology. Two porous electrodes, immersed in the salt solution, constitute a capacitor. It is first charged, then the salt solution is brought into contact with fresh water. The electrostatic energy increases as the salt concentration of the solution is reduced due to diffusion. This device can be used to turn sources of salinity difference into completely renewable sources of energy. An experimental demonstration is given, and performances and possible improvements are discussed.

  19. Carbon-Based Fibrous EDLC Capacitors and Supercapacitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Lekakou

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates electrochemical double-layer capacitors (EDLCs including two alternative types of carbon-based fibrous electrodes, a carbon fibre woven fabric (CWF and a multiwall carbon nanotube (CNT electrode, as well as hybrid CWF-CNT electrodes. Two types of separator membranes were also considered. An organic gel electrolyte PEO-LiCIO4-EC-THF was used to maintain a high working voltage. The capacitor cells were tested in cyclic voltammetry, charge-discharge, and impedance tests. The best separator was a glass fibre-fine pore filter. The carbon woven fabric electrode and the corresponding supercapacitor exhibited superior performance per unit area, whereas the multiwall carbon nanotube electrode and corresponding supercapacitor demonstrated excellent specific properties. The hybrid CWF-CNT electrodes did not show a combined improved performance due to the lack of carbon nanotube penetration into the carbon fibre fabric.

  20. Capacitor Discharge - A Capacitor Tutorial [video

    OpenAIRE

    Naval Postgraduate School Physics

    2014-01-01

    NPS Physics Physics Demonstrations Here's a capacitor discharge demonstrated by physicist Dr. Dernardo. Dr. D gives a nice capacitor lesson along with some fireworks. Charging and Discharging a Capacitor is dangerous. Do not try this at home. Dr. Bruce Denardo uses eleven 9V batteries, connected in series for a total of 99 creating a pretty large spark.

  1. Voltage linearity modulation and polarity dependent conduction in metal-insulator-metal capacitors with atomic-layer-deposited Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/ZrO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2} nano-stacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Bao; Liu, Wen-Jun; Wei, Lei; Zhang, David Wei; Jiang, Anquan; Ding, Shi-Jin, E-mail: sjding@fudan.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of ASIC and System, School of Microelectronics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)

    2015-07-07

    Excellent voltage linearity of metal-insulator-metal (MIM) capacitors is highly required for next generation radio frequency integration circuits. In this work, employing atomic layer deposition technique, we demonstrated how the voltage linearity of MIM capacitors was modulated by adding different thickness of SiO{sub 2} layer to the nano-stack of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/ZrO{sub 2}. It was found that the quadratic voltage coefficient of capacitance (α) can be effectively reduced from 1279 to −75 ppm/V{sup 2} with increasing the thickness of SiO{sub 2} from zero to 4 nm, which is more powerful than increasing the thickness of ZrO{sub 2} in the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/ZrO{sub 2} stack. This is attributed to counteraction between the positive α for Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/ZrO{sub 2} and the negative one for SiO{sub 2} in the MIM capacitors with Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/ZrO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2} stacks. Interestingly, voltage-polarity dependent conduction behaviors in the MIM capacitors were observed. For electron bottom-injection, the addition of SiO{sub 2} obviously suppressed the leakage current; however, it abnormally increased the leakage current for electron top-injection. These are ascribed to the co-existence of shallow and deep traps in ZrO{sub 2}, and the former is in favor of the field-assisted tunnelling conduction and the latter contributes to the trap-assisted tunnelling process. The above findings will be beneficial to device design and process optimization for high performance MIM capacitors.

  2. Near-infrared electroluminescence from double-emission-layers devices based on Ytterbium (III) complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zhefeng; Zhang Hongjie; Yu Jiangbo

    2012-01-01

    We investigated near-infrared electroluminescence properties of two lanthanide complexes Yb(PMBP) 3 Bath [PMBP = tris(1-phenyl-3-methyl-4-(4-tert-butylbenzacyl)-5-pyrazolone); Bath = bathophenanthroline] and Yb(PMIP) 3 TP 2 [PMIP = tris(1-phenyl-3-methyl-4-isobutyryl-5-pyrazolone); TP = triphenyl phosphine oxide] by fabricated the double-emission-layers devices. From the device characteristics, it is known that holes are easier to transport in Yb(PMIP) 3 TP 2 layer and electrons are easier to transport in Yb(PMBP) 3 Bath layer, at the same time, both of the two complexes can be acted as emission layers in the device. The recombination region of carriers has been confined in the interface of Yb(PMIP) 3 TP 2 /Yb(PMBP) 3 Bath, and pure Yb 3+ ion characteristic emission centered at 980 nm has been obtained. The device shows the maximum near-infrared irradiance as 14.7 mW/m 2 at the applied voltage of 17.8 V. - Highlights: ► Near-infrared electroluminescent devices with Yb(III) complexes as emission layers. ► Double-emission layer device structure introduced to balance carriers. ► Improved performance of double-emission layer device.

  3. Current carrying properties of double layers and low frequency auroral fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, N.; Schunk, R.W.

    1982-01-01

    Numerical simulations showed recurring interruption and recovery of electron and ion currents through double layers. The time period tau of the recurring phenomena is governed by the ion dynamics; for ions with a drift V/sub i/ entering the simulation plasma such that V/sub i/ V/sub ti/ ion-acoustic modes also appear in the electron- and ion-current fluctuations. The electron current fluctuations are governed by the ion current through the Langmuir criterion. It is suggested that some low frequency auroral fluctuations could possibly be explained by current fluctuations through double layers

  4. Luminescent materials based on Tb, Eu-containing layered double hydroxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuravleva, N.G.; Eliseev, A.A.; Lukashin, A.V.; Kinast, U.; Tret'yakov, Yu.D.

    2004-01-01

    Luminescent materials on the basis of magnesium-aluminium layered double hydroxides with intercalated anionic complexes of terbium and europium picolinates were synthesized. Relying on data of spectroscopy, elementary and X-ray phase analyses, the change in the rare earth complex structure and metal/ligand ratio, depending on the hydroxide layer charge, determined by Mg/Al ratio in the double hydroxide, were ascertained. The values of quantum yields of luminescence for terbium-containing samples amounted to 30-50% [ru

  5. Influence of Fabric Parameters on Thermal Comfort Performance of Double Layer Knitted Interlock Fabrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afzal Ali

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyse the effects of various fabric parameters on the thermal resistance, thermal conductivity, thermal transmittance, thermal absorptivity and thermal insulation of polyester/cotton double layer knitted interlock fabrics. It was found that by increasing fibre content with higher specific heat increases the thermal insulation while decreases the thermal transmittance and absorptivity of the fabric. It was concluded that double layer knitted fabrics developed with higher specific heat fibres, coarser yarn linear densities, higher knitting loop length and fabric thickness could be adequately used for winter clothing purposes.

  6. Ion-acoustic double-layers in a magnetized plasma with nonthermal electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rios, L. A. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Físicas and Instituto Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia de Sistemas Complexos, Rua Xavier Sigaud 150, 22290-180 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Galvão, R. M. O. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Físicas and Instituto Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia de Sistemas Complexos, Rua Xavier Sigaud 150, 22290-180 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Instituto de Física, Universidade de São Paulo, 05508-900 São Paulo (Brazil)

    2013-11-15

    In the present work we investigate the existence of obliquely propagating ion-acoustic double layers in magnetized two-electron plasmas. The fluid model is used to describe the ion dynamics, and the hot electron population is modeled via a κ distribution function, which has been proved to be appropriate for modeling non-Maxwellian plasmas. A quasineutral condition is assumed to investigate these nonlinear structures, which leads to the formation of double-layers propagating with slow ion-acoustic velocity. The problem is investigated numerically, and the influence of parameters such as nonthermality is discussed.

  7. Double-layer ion acceleration triggered by ion magnetization in expanding radiofrequency plasma sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Kazunori; Charles, Christine; Boswell, Rod W.; Fujiwara, Tamiya

    2010-01-01

    Ion energy distribution functions downstream of the source exit in magnetically expanding low-pressure plasmas are experimentally investigated for four source tube diameters ranging from about 5 to 15 cm. The magnetic-field threshold corresponding to a transition from a simple expanding plasma to a double layer-containing plasma is observed to increase with a decrease in the source tube diameter. The results demonstrate that for the four geometries, the double layer and the accelerated ion beam form when the ion Larmour radius in the source becomes smaller than the source tube radius, i.e., when the ions become magnetized in the source tube.

  8. Double-Layered Lateral Meniscus in an 8-Year-Old Child: Report of a Rare Case

    OpenAIRE

    Araki, Susumu; Kubo, Mitsuhiko; Kumagai, Kosuke; Imai, Shinji

    2016-01-01

    Reports of congenital abnormalities of the lateral meniscus include discoid meniscus, accessory meniscus, double-layered meniscus, and ring-shaped meniscus. Particularly, only a few cases of double-layered meniscus have been reported. We report a case of double-layered lateral meniscus, in which an additional semicircular meniscus was observed under the normal lateral meniscus. The accessory hemimeniscus was resected by means of arthroscopic surgery. This case demonstrates an interesting and ...

  9. Application of magnetic printing method to hard-disk media with double recording layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, Takuya; Kuboki, Yoshiyuki; Ajishi, Yoshifumi; Saito, Akira

    2003-01-01

    The magnetic printing method, which can duplicate soft magnetic patterns containing digital information such as servosignals formed on a master disk onto recording media, enables signals to be written to hard-disk media having high coercivities above 6000 Oe. We propose the application of the magnetic printing method to a hard-disk medium having double recording layers, one layer of which has high coercivity and is to be printed with digital information. This double recording layer medium is a hard-disk medium that has a magnetic read-only-memory (MROM) layer. In this study, we demonstrated a method for printing to this medium, which has MROM, and discussed the magnetic properties and recording performances of this medium

  10. Observation of negative potential depression on double layer during a phase of current disruption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, H.; Matsuo, K.; Yagura, S.

    1984-01-01

    The negative potential depression with a depth of approximately electron temperature is observed on the low potential tail of the double layer just at the moment when the electron current passing through the layer is disrupted. The depression is confirmed to serve as an electron thermal barrier and form an ion hole from phase-space measurements of electrons and ions, respectively. The depth of the depression becomes maximum when the density around the depression becomes most inhomogeneous. (author)

  11. Asymptotic theory of double layer and shielding of electric field at the edge of illuminated plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benilov, M. S. [Departamento de Física, CCCEE, Universidade da Madeira, Largo do Município, 9000 Funchal (Portugal); Thomas, D. M. [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2BW (United Kingdom)

    2014-04-15

    The method of matched asymptotic expansions is applied to the problem of a collisionless plasma generated by UV illumination localized in a central part of the plasma in the limiting case of small Debye length λ{sub D}. A second-approximation asymptotic solution is found for the double layer positioned at the boundary of the illuminated region and for the un-illuminated plasma for the plane geometry. Numerical calculations for different values of λ{sub D} are reported and found to confirm the asymptotic results. The net integral space charge of the double layer is asymptotically small, although in the plane geometry it is just sufficient to shield the ambipolar electric field existing in the illuminated region and thus to prevent it from penetrating into the un-illuminated region. The double layer has the same mathematical nature as the intermediate transition layer separating an active plasma and a collisionless sheath, and the underlying physics is also the same. In essence, the two layers represent the same physical object: a transonic layer.

  12. Capacitor with a composite carbon foam electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Steven T.; Pekala, Richard W.; Kaschmitter, James L.

    1999-01-01

    Carbon aerogels used as a binder for granularized materials, including other forms of carbon and metal additives, are cast onto carbon or metal fiber substrates to form composite carbon thin film sheets. The thin film sheets are utilized in electrochemical energy storage applications, such as electrochemical double layer capacitors (aerocapacitors), lithium based battery insertion electrodes, fuel cell electrodes, and electrocapacitive deionization electrodes. The composite carbon foam may be formed by prior known processes, but with the solid partides being added during the liquid phase of the process, i.e. prior to gelation. The other forms of carbon may include carbon microspheres, carbon powder, carbon aerogel powder or particles, graphite carbons. Metal and/or carbon fibers may be added for increased conductivity. The choice of materials and fibers will depend on the electrolyte used and the relative trade off of system resistivity and power to system energy.

  13. Hybrid capacitor with activated carbon electrode, Ni(OH){sub 2} electrode and polymer hydrogel electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nohara, Shinji; Asahina, Toshihide; Wada, Hajime; Furukawa, Naoji; Inoue, Hiroshi; Iwakura, Chiaki [Department of Applied Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-1 Gakuen-cho, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan); Sugoh, Nozomu; Iwasaki, Hideharu [Kurashiki Research Laboratory, Kuraray Co., Ltd., 2045-1 Sakazu, Kurashiki, Okayama 710-8691 (Japan)

    2006-06-19

    A new hybrid capacitor (HC) cell was assembled using an activated carbon (AC) negative electrode, an Ni(OH){sub 2} positive electrode and a polymer hydrogel electrolyte prepared from crosslinked potassium poly(acrylate) (PAAK) and KOH aqueous solution. The HC cell was characterized compared with an electric double layer capacitor (EDLC) using two AC electrodes and the polymer hydrogel electrolyte. It was found that the HC cell successfully worked in the larger voltage range and exhibited ca. 2.4 times higher capacitance than the EDLC cell. High-rate dischargeability of the HC cell was also superior to that of the EDLC cell. These improved characteristics strongly suggest that the HC cell can be a promising system of capacitors with high energy and power densities. (author)

  14. Hybrid capacitor with activated carbon electrode, Ni(OH) 2 electrode and polymer hydrogel electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nohara, Shinji; Asahina, Toshihide; Wada, Hajime; Furukawa, Naoji; Inoue, Hiroshi; Sugoh, Nozomu; Iwasaki, Hideharu; Iwakura, Chiaki

    A new hybrid capacitor (HC) cell was assembled using an activated carbon (AC) negative electrode, an Ni(OH) 2 positive electrode and a polymer hydrogel electrolyte prepared from crosslinked potassium poly(acrylate) (PAAK) and KOH aqueous solution. The HC cell was characterized compared with an electric double layer capacitor (EDLC) using two AC electrodes and the polymer hydrogel electrolyte. It was found that the HC cell successfully worked in the larger voltage range and exhibited ca. 2.4 times higher capacitance than the EDLC cell. High-rate dischargeability of the HC cell was also superior to that of the EDLC cell. These improved characteristics strongly suggest that the HC cell can be a promising system of capacitors with high energy and power densities.

  15. High voltage AC/AC electrochemical capacitor operating at low temperature in salt aqueous electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Qamar; Béguin, François

    2016-06-01

    We demonstrate that an activated carbon (AC)-based electrochemical capacitor implementing aqueous lithium sulfate electrolyte in 7:3 vol:vol water/methanol mixture can operate down to -40 °C with good electrochemical performance. Three-electrode cell investigations show that the faradaic contributions related with hydrogen chemisorption in the negative AC electrode are thermodynamically unfavored at -40 °C, enabling the system to work as a typical electrical double-layer (EDL) capacitor. After prolonged floating of the AC/AC capacitor at 1.6 V and -40°C, the capacitance, equivalent series resistance and efficiency remain constant, demonstrating the absence of ageing related with side redox reactions at this temperature. Interestingly, when temperature is increased back to 24 °C, the redox behavior due to hydrogen storage reappears and the system behaves as a freshly prepared one.

  16. Single-layer versus double-layer laparoscopic intracorporeally sutured gastrointestinal anastomoses in the canine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakoli, Azine; Bakhtiari, Jalal; Khalaj, Ali Reza; Gharagozlou, Mohammad Javad; Veshkini, Abbas

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the gross and histopathologic changes following 1- versus 2-layer hand-sewn suture techniques in laparoscopic gastrointestinal anastomosis in dogs. This was an experimental prospective study of 16 healthy mixed breed male and female dogs. Animals were randomly divided into 2 groups. Two-layer side-to-side hand-sewn laparoscopic gastrojejunostomies were performed in group A, so that simple interrupted sutures were placed in the outer layer and simple continuous suture was used in the inner layer. The 1-layer simple continuous anastomosis between the stomach and jejunum was done in group B precisely. Specimen were collected from the sites of anastomosis, and H&E statining was performed for light microscopic studies. All animals survived the surgery. There was no gross inflammation, ischemia, apparent granulation tissue, abscess or fistula formation, leakage or stricture formation, and all sites of anastomosis were patent. Several adhesion formations were found in the abdomen with the higher incidence in the control group. Mean scores of leukocyte infiltration and granulation tissue formation at the sites of anastomosis were statistically insignificant between groups (P>0.05). Gross and histopathologic findings revealed that hand-sewn laparoscopic gastrointestinal anastomosis with the 1-layer suture technique is comparable to the 2-layer suture technique.

  17. Improved Efficiency of Polymer Solar Cells by means of Coating Hole Transporting Layer as Double Layer Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chonsut, T.; Kayunkid, N.; Rahong, S.; Rangkasikorn, A.; Wirunchit, S.; Kaewprajak, A.; Kumnorkaew, P.; Nukeaw, J.

    2017-09-01

    Polymer solar cells is one of the promising technologies that gain tremendous attentions in the field of renewable energy. Optimization of thickness for each layer is an important factor determining the efficiency of the solar cells. In this work, the optimum thickness of Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythione): poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS), a famous polymer widely used as hole transporting layer in polymer solar cells, is determined through the analyzing of device’s photovoltaic parameters, e.g. short circuit current density (Jsc), open circuit voltage (Voc), fill factor (FF) as well as power conversion efficiency (PCE). The solar cells were prepared with multilayer of ITO/PEDOT:PSS/PCDTBT:PC70BM/TiOx/Al by rapid convective deposition. In such preparation technique, the thickness of the thin film is controlled by the deposition speed. The faster deposition speed is used, the thicker film is obtained. Furthermore, double layer deposition of PEDOT:PSS was introduced as an approach to improve solar cell efficiency. The results obviously reveal that, with the increase of PEDOT:PSS thickness, the increments of Jsc and FF play the important role to improve PCE from 3.21% to 4.03%. Interestingly, using double layer deposition of PEDOT:PSS shows the ability to enhance the performance of the solar cells to 6.12% under simulated AM 1.5G illumination of 100 mW/cm2.

  18. Preparation of PLGA/Rose Bengal colloidal particles by double emulsion and layer-by-layer for breast cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loya-Castro, María F; Sánchez-Mejía, Mariana; Sánchez-Ramírez, Dante R; Domínguez-Ríos, Rossina; Escareño, Noé; Oceguera-Basurto, Paola E; Figueroa-Ochoa, Édgar B; Quintero, Antonio; Del Toro-Arreola, Alicia; Topete, Antonio; Daneri-Navarro, Adrián

    2018-05-15

    The use of colloidal particles (CPs) in the transport of drugs is developing rapidly thanks to its effectiveness and biosafety, especially in the treatment of various types of cancer. In this study Rose Bengal/PLGA CPs synthesized by double emulsion (W/O/W) and by electrostatic adsorption (layer-by-layer), were characterized and evaluated as potential breast cancer treatment. CPs were evaluated in terms of size, zeta potential, drug release kinetics and cell viability inhibition efficacy with the triple negative breast cancer cell line HCC70. The results showed that both types of CPs can be an excellent alternative to conventional cancer treatment by taking advantage of the enhanced permeation and retention (EPR) effect, manifested by solid tumors; however, the double emulsion CPs showed more suitable delivery times of up to 60% within two days, while layer-by-layer showed fast release of 50% in 90 min. Both types of CPs were capable to decrease cell viability, which encourage us to further testing in in vivo models to prove their efficacy and feasible use in the treatment of triple negative breast cancer. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Preparation of activated carbon hollow fibers from ramie at low temperature for electric double-layer capacitor applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xuan; Zhao, Wei; Wang, Yi; Wang, Chengyang; Chen, Mingming; Qi, Tao; Hua, Chao; Ma, Mingguo

    2013-12-01

    Activated carbon hollow fibers (ACHFs) with high surface area were prepared from inexpensive, renewable ramie fibers (RFs) by a single-step activation method under lower temperature than that of other reports. The effects of activation conditions on the pore structure and turbostratic structure of ACHFs were investigated systematically. The results show that ACHFs surface area decreased but micropore volume and conductivity increased as the increase of activation temperature and activation time. The electrochemical measurements of supercapacitors fabricated from these ACHFs electrodes reveal that the electrochemical properties improved with the enhancing of activation degree. However, too high activation temperature can make the ion diffusion resistance increase. It suggests that pore structure and conductivity are as important as surface area to decide the electrochemical performances of ACHFs electrode materials. A maximum capacity of 287 F g(-1) at 50 mA g(-1) was obtained for the ACHFs electrode prepared under suitable conditions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Ionic liquids in a poly ethylene oxide cross-linked gel polymer as an electrolyte for electrical double layer capacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudoy, V.; Tran Van, F.; Deschamps, M.; Ghamouss, F.

    2017-02-01

    In the present work, we developed a gel polymer electrolyte via the incorporation of a room temperature ionic liquid into a cross-linked polymer matrix. The cross-linked gel electrolyte was prepared using a free radical polymerization of methacrylate and dimethacrylate oligomers dissolved in 1-propyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide. Combining the advantages of the ionic liquids and of conventional polymers, the cross-linked gel polymer electrolyte was used both as a separator and as an electrolyte for a leakage-free and non-flammable EDLC supercapacitor. The quasi-all solid-state supercapacitors showed rather good capacitance, power and energy densities by comparison to a liquid electrolyte-based EDLC.

  1. A facile one-pot fabrication of flowerlike graphene-based particles for electric double-layer capacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia, Xiaohong; Ma, Qian; Yi, Shangqi; Chen, Hui; Liu, Hongbo; Chen, Yuxi; Yang, Li

    2014-01-01

    Flowerlike graphene-based particles had been successfully synthesized from the suspension of graphene oxide (GO) in the aqueous solution of sucrose by one-pot hydrothermal carbonization approach. Porous carbon from sucrose prompted the evolution of graphene from flat-shaped to flowerlike curved morphology, which was confirmed by the observation of scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The graphene-based particles possess large pore volume (0.69 cm 3  g −1 ) and surface area (470.5 m 2  g −1 ), which is about 6 times greater than that of carbonized graphene sheets (79.2 m 2  g −1 ). Electrochemical investigation indicated that the specific capacitance of the particles reached 162 F g −1 at current density of 0.1 A g −1 in 30 wt% KOH aqueous electrolytes and the capacitance maintenance achieved 90% as the current density enlarged 50 times. The keys to the ideal capacitive performance are the abilities to make full utilization of specific surface area of graphene and ensure a quick kinetic process for the diffusion of ions within curved graphene particles with considerable open edges. - Highlights: • Flowerlike graphene-based particles were synthesized by one-pot hydrothermal method. • Carbon from sucrose prompted the evolution of flat-shaped graphene to curved-shaped. • Carbonized curved particles with considerable open edges exhibit large pore volume. • A high specific capacitance and rate performance of the electrode were achieved

  2. Double-layer imprint lithography on wafers and foils from the submicrometer to the millimeter scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moonen, P.F.; Yakimets, I.; Peter, M.; Meinders, E.R.; Huskens, J.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a thermal imprint technique, double-layer nanoimprint lithography (dlNIL), is introduced, allowing complete filling of features in the dimensional range of submicrometer to millimeter. The imprinting and filling quality of dlNIL was studied on Si substrates as a model system and

  3. Competitive reactions during synthesis of zinc aluminum layered double hydroxides by thermal hydrolysis of urea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staal, Line Boisen; Pushparaj, Suraj Shiv Charan; Forano, Claude

    2017-01-01

    Homogeneous precipitation by thermal hydrolysis of urea (“The urea method”) is preferred for the preparation of pure and highly crystalline layered double hydroxides (LDHs). However, our recent study revealed large concentrations of amorphous aluminum hydroxide (AOH) in several zinc(II) aluminum(...

  4. High-frequency permeability in double-layered structure of amorphous Co-Ta-Zr films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochiai, Y.; Hayakawa, M.; Hayashi, K.; Aso, K.

    1988-01-01

    The high-frequency permeability of amorphous Co-Ta-Zr films was studied and the frequency dependence was described in terms of the eddy-current-loss formula. For the double-layered structure intervened with SiO 2 film, the degradation of the permeability became apparent with the decrease of SiO 2 thickness

  5. The recording characteristics of particulate double layers with hard-magnetic and soft-magnetic underlayers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lalbahadoersing, S.; Groenland, J.P.J.; Luitjens, S.B.; Lodder, J.C.

    2002-01-01

    Particulate double-layer tape samples with magnetic underlayers have been investigated by performing magnetic recording measurements and by computer simulation.The presence of soft-magnetic underlayers resulted in decreased signal output and better overwrite behavior. Hard-magnetic underlayers

  6. Surface wave propagation in a double liquid layer over a liquid ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Abstract. The frequency equation is derived for surface waves in a liquid- saturated porous half-space supporting a double layer, that of inhomogeneous and homogeneous liquids. Asymptotic approximations of Bessel functions are used for long and short wavelength cases. Certain other problems are discussed as spe-.

  7. Small amplitude variable charge dust Bernstein-Greene-Kruskal double layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amour, Rabia [Plasma Physics Group, Theoretical Physics Laboratory, Faculty of Sciences - Physics, U.S.T.H.B, Bab-Ezzouar, B.P. 32, El Alia, Algiers 16111 (Algeria); Tribeche, Mouloud [Plasma Physics Group, Theoretical Physics Laboratory, Faculty of Sciences - Physics, U.S.T.H.B, Bab-Ezzouar, B.P. 32, El Alia, Algiers 16111 (Algeria)], E-mail: mouloud-tribeche@lycos.com

    2009-05-11

    A first theoretical attempt is made to investigate small amplitude, variable charge dust Bernstein-Greene-Kruskal (BGK) double layers (DLs). The nature of the dust BGK-DLs (compressive or rarefactive), their strength and thickness depend sensitively on the net negative charge residing on the grain surface, the dust grain dynamics and, more interestingly, on the ion-to-electron temperatures ratio.

  8. Small amplitude variable charge dust Bernstein-Greene-Kruskal double layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amour, Rabia; Tribeche, Mouloud

    2009-01-01

    A first theoretical attempt is made to investigate small amplitude, variable charge dust Bernstein-Greene-Kruskal (BGK) double layers (DLs). The nature of the dust BGK-DLs (compressive or rarefactive), their strength and thickness depend sensitively on the net negative charge residing on the grain surface, the dust grain dynamics and, more interestingly, on the ion-to-electron temperatures ratio.

  9. Ionic diffusion in the double layer at model electrode/molten salt interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tankeshwar, K.; Tosi, M.P.

    1991-08-01

    The anisotropic ionic diffusion coefficients in model electrochemical cells in the molten-salt regime for the electrolyte are evaluated from the ionic density profiles reported in simulation work of Grout and coworkers. A local description of the diffusion processes for counterions and coions in the electrical double layer is obtained from the data. (author). 10 refs, 1 fig., 1 tab

  10. Inorganic layered double hydroxides as a 4-hexyl resorcinol delivery system for topical applications

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mosangi, Damodar

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the hydrophobic even skin tone active, 4-hexylresorcinol (HR), was intercalated into a zinc aluminium layered double hydroxide (ZnAl-LDH) by a co-precipitation method and used as a controlled release ingredient in skin care...

  11. The electric double layer at high surface potentials: The influence of excess ion polarizability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hatlo, M. M.; van Roij, R.H.H.G.; Lue, L.

    2012-01-01

    By including the excess ion polarizability into the Poisson-Boltzmann theory, we show that the decrease in differential capacitance with voltage, observed for metal electrodes above a threshold potential, can be understood in terms of thickening of the double layer due to ion-induced polarizability

  12. Electrical double layer at various electrode potentials: A modification by vibration

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zhan, H.; Červenka, Jiří; Prawer, S.; Garrett, D.J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 121, č. 8 (2017), s. 4760-4764 ISSN 1932-7447 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : electrical double layer * vibration * high concentration * model Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry OBOR OECD: Physical chemistry Impact factor: 4.536, year: 2016

  13. Electric double layer transistors with ferroelectric BaTiO3 channels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ito, M.; Matsubara, Y.; Kozuka, Y.; Takahashi, K. S.; Kagawa, F.; Ye, J. T.; Iwasa, Y.; Ueno, K.; Tokura, Y.; Kawasaki, M.

    2014-01-01

    We report the surface conduction of a BaTiO3 thin film using electric double layer transistor (EDLT) structure. A transistor operation was observed at 220 K with an on/off ratio exceeding 10(5), demonstrating that ionic liquid gating is effective to induce carriers at the surface of ferroelectric

  14. Surface wave propagation in a double liquid layer over a liquid ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The frequency equation is derived for surface waves in a liquidsaturated porous half-space supporting a double layer, that of inhomogeneous and homogeneous liquids. Asymptotic approximations of Bessel functions are used for long and short wavelength cases. Certain other problems are discussed as special cases.

  15. Control of sound fields with a circular double-layer array of loudspeakers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chang, Jiho; Jacobsen, Finn

    2012-01-01

    by the Kirchhoff-Helmholtz integral theorem a double-layer array of loudspeakers is used. Several solution methods are suggested and examined with computer simulations: pure contrast control, pure pressure matching, and a weighted combination. In order to compare the performance of the methods two performance...

  16. Sound field separation with a double layer velocity transducer array (L)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez Grande, Efren; Jacobsen, Finn

    2011-01-01

    of the array. The technique has been examined and compared with direct velocity based reconstruction, as well as with a technique based on the measurement of the sound pressure and particle velocity. The double layer velocity method circumvents some of the drawbacks of the pressure-velocity based...

  17. Mg-Al layered double hydroxide intercalated with porphyrin anions: molecular simulations and experiments

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kovář, P.; Pospíšil, M.; Káfuňková, Eva; Lang, Kamil; Kovanda, F.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 2 (2010), s. 223-233 ISSN 1610-2940 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA203/06/1244; GA AV ČR KAN100500651 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40320502 Keywords : layered double hydroxide * porphyrin * molecular simulations Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.871, year: 2010

  18. Acetyl salicylic acid–ZnAl layered double hydroxide functional nanohybrid for skin care application

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mosangi, Damodar

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a pharmaceutically active ingredient, acetyl salicylic acid (ASA), was intercalated into ZnAl layered double hydroxide (LDH). The LDH–ASA nanohybrid material was characterized by XRD, FTIR, SEM, ICP-MS, TEM and TGA. Successful...

  19. Hydrothermal Synthesis and Characterization of 3R Polytypes of Mg-Al Layered Double Hydroxides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Budhysutanto, W.N.

    2010-01-01

    Layered Double Hydroxides (LDH) is a unique group of clays that have an anionic exchange capability. This research explored the hydrothermal method as an alternative method to synthesize Mg-Al LDH. It is a simple and more environmentally friendly compared to the conventional method of

  20. Formation of Layered Double Hydroxides on Alumina Surface in Aqueous Solutions Containing Divalent Metal Cations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kovanda, F.; Mašátová, P.; Novotná, P.; Jirátová, Květa

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 4 (2009), s. 425-432 ISSN 0009-8604 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA104/07/1400 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : deposition * layered double hydroxides * supported mixed oxides Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 1.431, year: 2009

  1. Facile preparation of layered double hydroxide/MoS{sub 2}/poly(vinyl alcohol) composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Keqing, E-mail: zhoukq@cug.edu.cn [Faculty of Engineering, China University of Geosciences (Wuhan), 388 Lumo Road, Wuhan, Hubei, 430074 (China); Hu, Yixin [Department of Chemistry, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Liu, Jiajia [State Key Laboratory of Fire Science, University of Science and Technology of China, 96 Jinzhai Road, Hefei, Anhui, 230026 (China); Gui, Zhou, E-mail: zgui@ustc.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Fire Science, University of Science and Technology of China, 96 Jinzhai Road, Hefei, Anhui, 230026 (China); Jiang, Saihua [School of Mechanical and Automotive Engineering, South China University of Technology, Wushan Road 381, Guangzhou, 510641 (China); Tang, Gang [School of Architecture and Civil Engineering, Anhui University of Technology, 59 Hudong Road, Ma' anshan, Anhui, 243002 (China)

    2016-08-01

    In present study, the layered double hydroxide/MoS{sub 2} hybrids are facilely synthesized by self-assembly of exfoliated MoS{sub 2} nanosheets and layered double hydroxide nanoplates via electrostatic interaction, with the aim of combining their physical and chemical functionalities to form a promising nanofiller for flame retardancy in polymer composites. The structure and morphology of the layered double hydroxide/MoS{sub 2} hybrids are probed by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. Subsequently, the hybrids are incorporated into poly (vinyl alcohol) to serve as reinforcements. The flame retardant efficiency of MoS{sub 2} nanosheets in poly (vinyl alcohol) is significantly enhanced after the incorporation of layered double hydroxide nanoplates, which can be explained by the forming of a compact and uniform char during combustion. - Highlights: • The LDH/MoS{sub 2} hybrids were facilely synthesized by self-assembly method. • The flame retardant efficiency of LDH/MoS{sub 2} hybrids in PVA was significantly enhanced. • It is a promising strategy for improving the flame retardant efficiency of MoS{sub 2}.

  2. Large acoustic solitons and double layers in plasmas with two positive ion species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verheest, Frank; Hellberg, Manfred A.; Saini, Nareshpal Singh; Kourakis, Ioannis

    2011-01-01

    Large nonlinear acoustic waves are discussed in a plasma made up of cold supersonic and adiabatic subsonic positive ions, in the presence of hot isothermal electrons, with the help of Sagdeev pseudopotential theory. In this model, no solitons are found at the acoustic speed, and no compositional parameter ranges exist where solutions of opposite polarities can coexist. All nonlinear modes are thus super-acoustic, but polarity changes are possible. The upper limits on admissible structure velocities come from different physical arguments, in a strict order when the fractional cool ion density is increased: infinite cold ion compression, warm ion sonic point, positive double layers, negative double layers, and finally, positive double layers again. However, not all ranges exist for all mass and temperature ratios. Whereas the cold and warm ion sonic point limitations are always present over a wide range of mass and temperature ratios, and thus positive polarity solutions can easily be obtained, double layers have a more restricted existence range, specially if polarity changes are sought.

  3. Does electrical double layer formation lead to salt exclusion or to uptake?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lyklema, J.

    2005-01-01

    When electric double layers are formed, cases have been reported where this formation nvolves expulsion of electrolyte into the solution and cases in which electrolyte is absorbed from the solution. Both situations are experimentally and theoretically documented, but they cannot be simultaneously

  4. Interstratified nanohybrid assembled by alternating cationic layered double hydroxide nanosheets and anionic layered titanate nanosheets with superior photocatalytic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Bizhou; Sun, Ping; Zhou, Yi; Jiang, Shaofeng; Gao, Bifen; Chen, Yilin

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Two kinds of nanosheets are well arranged in a layer-by-layer alternating fashion. • Effective interfacial heterojunction and high specific surface were observed. • Interstratified nanohybrid exhibits a superior photocatalytic activity. - Abstract: Oppositely charged 2D inorganic nanosheets of ZnAl-layered double hydroxide and layered titanate were successfully assembled into an interstratified nanohybrid through simply mixing the corresponding nanosheet suspensions. Powder X-ray diffraction and high-resolution transmission electron microscope clearly revealed that the component nanosheets in the as-obtained nanohybrid ZnAl–Ti 3 O 7 retain the 2D sheet skeletons of the pristine materials and that the two kinds of nanosheets are well arranged in a layer-by-layer alternating fashion with a basal spacing of about 1.3 nm, coincident with the thickness summation of the two component nanosheets. The effective interfacial heterojunction between them and the high specific surface area resulted in that the nanohybrid exhibits a superior photocatalytic activity in the degradation of methylene blue with a reaction constant k of 2.81 × 10 −2 min −1 , which is about 9 and 4 times higher than its precursors H 2 Ti 3 O 7 and ZnAl-LDH, respectively. Based on UV–vis, XPS and photoelectrochemical measurements, a proposed photoexcitation model was provided to understand its photocatalytic behavior

  5. Integration substrate with a ultra-high-density capacitor and a through-substrate via

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2008-01-01

    An integration substrate for a system in package comprises a through-substrate via and a trench capacitor wherein with a trench filling that includes at least 4 elec. conductive capacitor-electrode layers in an alternating arrangement with dielec. layers. The capacitor-electrode layers are

  6. Ion acoustic solitons/double layers in two-ion plasma revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakhina, G. S.; Singh, S. V.; Kakad, A. P.

    2014-01-01

    Ion acoustic solitons and double layers are studied in a collisionless plasma consisting of cold heavier ion species, a warm lighter ion species, and hot electrons having Boltzmann distributions by Sagdeev pseudo-potential technique. In contrast to the previous results, no double layers and super-solitons are found when both the heavy and lighter ion species are treated as cold. Only the positive potential solitons are found in this case. When the thermal effects of the lighter ion species are included, in addition to the usual ion-acoustic solitons occurring at M > 1 (where the Mach number, M, is defined as the ratio of the speed of the solitary wave and the ion-acoustic speed considering temperature of hot electrons and mass of the heavier ion species), slow ion-acoustic solitons/double layers are found to occur at low Mach number (M < 1). The slow ion-acoustic mode is actually a new ion-ion hybrid acoustic mode which disappears when the normalized number density of lighter ion species tends to 1 (i.e., no heavier species). An interesting property of the new slow ion-acoustic mode is that at low number density of the lighter ion species, only negative potential solitons/double layers are found whereas for increasing densities there is a transition first to positive solitons/double layers, and then only positive solitons. The model can be easily applicable to the dusty plasmas having positively charged dust grains by replacing the heavier ion species by the dust mass and doing a simple normalization to take account of the dust charge

  7. Electrochemical performance of a hybrid lithium-ion capacitor with a graphite anode preloaded from lithium bis(trifluoromethane)sulfonimide-based electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decaux, C.; Lota, G.; Raymundo-Piñero, E.; Frackowiak, E.; Béguin, F.

    2012-01-01

    A hybrid LiC capacitor combining a lithium-ion battery type (graphite) electrode and an electrical double-layer (activated carbon) one has been developed by preloading graphite from 2 mol L −1 lithium bis(trifluoromethane)sulfonimide (LiTFSI) organic electrolyte. The graphite intercalation compound was formed by applying ca. 10 successive charge/self-discharge pulses. The optimized hybrid device operates in the voltage range from 1.5 to 4.2 V and displays 60% higher gravimetric capacitance than an electric double-layer (EDL) capacitor using the same activated carbon for both electrodes. As a result, the energy density reaches 80 Wh kg −1 , which is four times higher than the value for the EDL capacitor with the same total mass of carbon.

  8. First steps towards the realization of a double layer perceptron based on organic memristive devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Emelyanov

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Memristors are widely considered as promising elements for the efficient implementation of synaptic weights in artificial neural networks (ANNs since they are resistors that keep memory of their previous conductive state. Whereas demonstrations of simple neural networks (e.g., a single-layer perceptron based on memristors already exist, the implementation of more complicated networks is more challenging and has yet to be reported. In this study, we demonstrate linearly nonseparable combinational logic classification (XOR logic task using a network implemented with CMOS-based neurons and organic memrisitive devices that constitutes the first step toward the realization of a double layer perceptron. We also show numerically the ability of such network to solve a principally analogue task which cannot be realized by digital devices. The obtained results prove the possibility to create a multilayer ANN based on memristive devices that paves the way for designing a more complex network such as the double layer perceptron.

  9. First steps towards the realization of a double layer perceptron based on organic memristive devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emelyanov, A. V.; Lapkin, D. A.; Demin, V. A.; Erokhin, V. V.; Battistoni, S.; Baldi, G.; Dimonte, A.; Korovin, A. N.; Iannotta, S.; Kashkarov, P. K.; Kovalchuk, M. V.

    2016-11-01

    Memristors are widely considered as promising elements for the efficient implementation of synaptic weights in artificial neural networks (ANNs) since they are resistors that keep memory of their previous conductive state. Whereas demonstrations of simple neural networks (e.g., a single-layer perceptron) based on memristors already exist, the implementation of more complicated networks is more challenging and has yet to be reported. In this study, we demonstrate linearly nonseparable combinational logic classification (XOR logic task) using a network implemented with CMOS-based neurons and organic memrisitive devices that constitutes the first step toward the realization of a double layer perceptron. We also show numerically the ability of such network to solve a principally analogue task which cannot be realized by digital devices. The obtained results prove the possibility to create a multilayer ANN based on memristive devices that paves the way for designing a more complex network such as the double layer perceptron.

  10. Acoustic radiation force on a double-layer microsphere by a Gaussian focused beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Rongrong; Cheng, Kaixuan; Liu, Jiehui; Mao, Yiwei; Gong, Xiufen; Liu, Xiaozhou

    2014-01-01

    A new model for calculating the radiation force on double-layer microsphere is proposed based on the ray acoustics approach. The axial acoustic radiation force resulting from a focused Gaussian beam incident on spherical shells immersed in water is examined theoretically in relation to its thickness and the contents of its double-layer. The attenuation both in the water and inside the sphere is considered in this method, which cannot be ignored while the high frequency ultrasonic is used. Results of numerical calculations are presented for fat and low density polyethylene materials, with the hollow region filled with animal oil, water, or air. These results show how the acoustic impedance and the sound velocity of both layers, together with the thickness of the shell, affect the acoustic radiation force.

  11. Frictional Magneto-Coulomb Drag in Graphene Double-Layer Heterostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaomeng; Wang, Lei; Fong, Kin Chung; Gao, Yuanda; Maher, Patrick; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Hone, James; Dean, Cory; Kim, Philip

    2017-08-04

    Coulomb interaction between two closely spaced parallel layers of conductors can generate the frictional drag effect by interlayer Coulomb scattering. Employing graphene double layers separated by few-layer hexagonal boron nitride, we investigate density tunable magneto- and Hall drag under strong magnetic fields. The observed large magnetodrag and Hall-drag signals can be related with Laudau level filling status of the drive and drag layers. We find that the sign and magnitude of the drag resistivity tensor can be quantitatively correlated to the variation of magnetoresistivity tensors in the drive and drag layers, confirming a theoretical formula for magnetodrag in the quantum Hall regime. The observed weak temperature dependence and ∼B^{2} dependence of the magnetodrag are qualitatively explained by Coulomb scattering phase-space argument.

  12. Meissner effect in clean proximity-contact N-S double layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higashitani, S.; Nagai, K.

    1994-01-01

    The Meissner effect in proximity-contact normal-superconducting (N-S) double layers is discussed in the clean limit. We obtain the quasi-classical Green's function linear in the vector potential such that satisfies the boundary conditions at the layer ends and also at the N-S interface with a finite reflection coefficient R. We find that, when there is no pairing interaction in the normal layer, the diamagnetic current in the normal layer is constant in space, consequently the magnetic field decreases linearly in the normal layer. To compare our theory with experiments, we calculate the screening length and find a good agreement in the temperature dependence with the experiments in the Au-Nb system. (orig.)

  13. Leakage current conduction mechanisms and electrical properties of atomic-layer-deposited HfO2/Ga2O3 MOS capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongpeng; Jia, Renxu; Lei, Yuan; Tang, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Yimen; Zhang, Yuming

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, current conduction mechanisms in HfO2/β-Ga2O3 metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) capacitors under positive and negative biases are investigated using the current-voltage (I-V) measurements conducted at temperatures from 298 K to 378 K. The Schottky emission is dominant under positively biased electric fields of 0.37-2.19 MV cm-1, and the extracted Schottky barrier height ranged from 0.88 eV to 0.91 eV at various temperatures. The Poole-Frenkel emission dominates under negatively biased fields of 1.92-4.83 MV cm-1, and the trap energy levels are from 0.71 eV to 0.77 eV at various temperatures. The conduction band offset (ΔE c) of HfO2/β-Ga2O3 is extracted to be 1.31  ±  0.05 eV via x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, while a large negative sheet charge density of 1.04  ×  1013 cm-2 is induced at the oxide layer and/or HfO2/β-Ga2O3 interface. A low C-V hysteresis of 0.76 V, low interface state density (D it) close to 1  ×  1012 eV-1 cm-2, and low leakage current density of 2.38  ×  10-5 A cm-2 at a gate voltage of 7 V has been obtained, suggesting the great electrical properties of HfO2/β-Ga2O3 MOSCAP. According to the above analysis, ALD-HfO2 is an attractive candidate for high voltage β-Ga2O3 power devices.

  14. Facile chemical synthesis of nanoporous layered δ-MnO{sub 2} thin film for high-performance flexible electrochemical capacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Yu; Wang, Jun; Jiang, Xionghua; Zheng, Yanfeng [The Key Laboratory of Low-Carbon Chemistry and Energy Conservation of Guangdong Province, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Chen, Zhenxing, E-mail: chenzx65@mail.sysu.edu.cn [The Key Laboratory of Low-Carbon Chemistry and Energy Conservation of Guangdong Province, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China)

    2013-04-15

    Layered δ-MnO{sub 2} thin films with a three-dimensional nanostructure are successfully fabricated on stainless steel foil substrates for flexible electrochemical capacitors by a facile and effective chemical bath deposition technology from ethanol and potassium permanganate solution at 15 °C. The as-prepared thin films display nanoporous morphology and a water contact angle of 20°. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analyses reveal that the thin films are composed of δ-MnO{sub 2}. Electrochemical data demonstrate that the δ-MnO{sub 2} thin film electrodes can deliver a high special capacitance of 447 F/g at 2 mV/s, and provide a good capacitance retention ratio of 87% after 1000 continuous cycles at 10 mV/s in 0.5 M Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. Compressive and tensile bending tests show that the as-prepared electrodes can steadily work over a wide range of applied curvatures between −2.5 cm{sup −1} (tension) and 2.5 cm{sup −1} (compression). Only a small decrease in special capacitance (0.9% at a curvature of 2.5 cm{sup −1} under compressive strain, or 1.2% at a curvature of −2.5 cm{sup −1} under tensile strain) is observed even after bending for 200 cycles, indicating the excellent mechanical flexibility and electrochemical stability of the δ-MnO{sub 2} thin film electrodes.

  15. MgO-templated carbon as a negative electrode material for Na-ion capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kado, Yuya; Soneda, Yasushi

    2016-12-01

    In this study, MgO-templated carbon with different pore structures was investigated as a negative electrode material for Na-ion capacitors. With increasing the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area, the irreversible capacity increased, and the coulombic efficiency of the 1st cycle decreased because of the formation of solid electrolyte interface layers. MgO-templated carbon annealed at 1000 °C exhibited the highest capacity and best rate performance, suggesting that an appropriate balance between surface area and crystallinity is imperative for fast Na-ion storage, attributed to the storage mechanism: combination of non-faradaic electric double-layer capacitance and faradaic Na intercalation in the carbon layers. Finally, a Na-ion capacitor cell using MgO-templated carbon and activated carbon as the negative and positive electrodes, respectively, exhibited an energy density at high power density significantly greater than that exhibited by the cell using a commercial hard carbon negative electrode.

  16. Electric field mapping inside metallized film capacitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Dennis Achton; Popok, Vladimir; Pedersen, Kjeld

    2015-01-01

    (s) they suffered from accelerated testing. We have prepared film capacitors for analysis by micro-sectioning and verified the quality of the preparation procedure using optical and atomic force microscopy. The potential distribution in the layer structure (alternating 7 µm thick dielectric and 50-100 nm thick...... and durability and serves as verification that failure- and degradation mechanisms remain the same at different stress levels during accelerated testing. In this work we have used Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) to analyze metallized film capacitors with the purpose of determining the degradation mechanism...... metal) of a new capacitor was used as reference. KPFM measurements on the degraded capacitors showed a change in contact potential difference from -0.61V on the reference capacitor to 3.2V on the degraded ones, indicating that corrosion of the metallization had happened. Studies also showed that some...

  17. Thermal shock behavior of toughened gadolinium zirconate/YSZ double-ceramic-layered thermal barrier coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong, Xinghua; Zhao, Huayu; Zhou, Xiaming; Liu, Chenguang; Wang, Liang; Shao, Fang; Yang, Kai; Tao, Shunyan; Ding, Chuanxian

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Gd 2 Zr 2 O 7 /YSZ DCL thermal barrier coating was designed and fabricated. • The Gd 2 Zr 2 O 7 top ceramic layer was toughened by addition of nanostructured 3YSZ. • Remarkable improvement in thermal shock resistance of the DCL coating was achieved. - Abstract: Double-ceramic-layered (DCL) thermal barrier coating system comprising of toughened Gadolinium zirconate (Gd 2 Zr 2 O 7 , GZ) as the top ceramic layer and 4.5 mol% Y 2 O 3 partially-stabilized ZrO 2 (4.5YSZ) as the bottom ceramic layer was fabricated by plasma spraying and thermal shock behavior of the DCL coating was investigated. The GZ top ceramic layer was toughened by addition of nanostructured 3 mol% Y 2 O 3 partially-stabilized ZrO 2 (3YSZ) to improve fracture toughness of the matrix. The thermal shock resistance of the DCL coating was enhanced significantly compared to that of single-ceramic-layered (SCL) GZ-3YSZ composite coating, which is believed to be primarily attributed to the two factors: (i) the increase in fracture toughness of the top ceramic layer by incorporating nanostructured YSZ particles and (ii) the improvement in strain tolerance through the utilization of 4.5YSZ as the bottom ceramic layer. In addition, the failure mechanisms are mainly attributed to the still low fracture toughness of the top ceramic layer and oxidation of the bond-coat

  18. The influence of double nested layer waviness on compression strength of carbon fiber composite materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Z.M.

    1997-01-01

    As advanced composite materials having superior physical and mechanical properties are being developed, optimization of their production processes in eagerly being sought. One of the most common defect in production of structural composites is layer waviness. Layer waviness is more pronounced in thick section flat and cylindrical laminates that are extensively used in missile casings, submersibles and space platforms. Layer waviness undulates the entire layers of a multidirectional laminate in through-the-thickness direction leading to gross deterioration of its compression strength. This research investigates the influence of multiple layer waviness in a double nest formation on the compression strength of a composite laminate. Different wave fractions of wave 0 degree centigrade layer fabricated in IM/85510-7 carbon - epoxy composite laminate on a steel mold using single step fabrication procedure. The laminate was cured on a heated press according to specific curing cycle. Static compression testing was performed using NASA short block compression fixture on an MTS servo Hydraulic machine. The purpose of these tests was to determine the effects of multiple layer wave regions on the compression strength of composite laminate. The experimental and analytical results revealed that up to about 35% fraction of wave 0 degree layer exceeded 35%. This analysis indicated that the percentage of 0 degree wavy layer may be used to estimate the reduction in compression strength of a composite laminate under restricted conditions. (author)

  19. Synthesis of Zn–Fe layered double hydroxides via an oxidation process and structural analysis of products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morimoto, Kazuya, E-mail: kazuya.morimoto@aist.go.jp [Institute for Geo-Resources and Environment, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-1-1 Higashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8567 (Japan); Tamura, Kenji [Environmental Remediation Materials Unit, National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan); Anraku, Sohtaro [Graduate School of Engineering, Hokkaido University, Kita 13 Nishi 8, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan); Sato, Tsutomu [Faculty of Engineering, Hokkaido University, Kita 13 Nishi 8, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan); Suzuki, Masaya [Institute for Geo-Resources and Environment, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-1-1 Higashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8567 (Japan); Yamada, Hirohisa [Environmental Remediation Materials Unit, National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan)

    2015-08-15

    The synthesis of Zn–Fe(III) layered double hydroxides was attempted, employing different pathways using either Fe(II) or Fe(III) species together with Zn as the initial reagents. The product derived from the synthesis employing Fe(II) was found to transition to a Zn–Fe(III) layered double hydroxides phase following oxidation process. In contrast, the product obtained with Fe(III) did not contain a layered double hydroxides phase, but rather consisted of simonkolleite and hydrous ferric oxide. It was determined that the valency of the Fe reagent used in the initial synthesis affected the generation of the layered double hydroxides phase. Fe(II) species have ionic radii and electronegativities similar to those of Zn, and therefore are more likely to form trioctahedral hydroxide layers with Zn species. - Graphical abstract: The synthesis of Zn–Fe(III) layered double hydroxides was attempted, employing different pathways using either Fe(II) or Fe(III) species together with Zn as the initial reagents. - Highlights: • Iron valency affected the generation of Zn–Fe layered double hydroxides. • Zn–Fe layered double hydroxides were successfully synthesized using Fe(II). • Fe(II) species were likely to form trioctahedral hydroxide layers with Zn species.

  20. Double-detonation model of type Ia supernovae with a variable helium layer ignition mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Wei-Hong; Zhao Gang; Wang Bo

    2014-01-01

    Although Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) play an important role in the study of cosmology, their progenitors are still poorly understood. Thermonuclear explosions from the helium double-detonation sub-Chandrasekhar mass model have been considered as an alternative method for producing SNe Ia. By adopting the assumption that a double detonation occurs when a He layer with a critical ignition mass accumulates on the surface of a carbon—oxygen white dwarf (CO WD), we perform detailed binary evolution calculations for the He double-detonation model, in which a He layer from a He star accumulates on a CO WD. According to these calculations, we obtain the initial parameter spaces for SNe Ia in the orbital period and secondary mass plane for various initial WD masses. We implement these results into a detailed binary population synthesis approach to calculate SN Ia birthrates and delay times. From this model, the SN Ia birthrate in our Galaxy is ∼0.4 − 1.6 × 10 −3 yr −1 . This indicates that the double-detonation model only produces part of the SNe Ia. The delay times from this model are ∼ 70 – 710 Myr, which contribute to the young population of SNe Ia in the observations. We found that the CO WD + sdB star system CD–30 11223 could produce an SN Ia via the double-detonation model in its future evolution. (research papers)

  1. Diffusion barrier performance of novel Ti/TaN double layers for Cu metallization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Y.M.; He, M.Z.; Xie, Z.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Novel Ti/TaN double layers offering good stability as a barrier against Cu metallization have been made achievable by annealing in vacuum. • The Ti/TaN double layers improved the adhesion with Cu thin films and showed good diffusion barrier between Cu and SiO 2 /Si up to the annealing condition. • The failure mechanism of Ti/TaN bi-layer is similar with the Cu/TaN/Si metallization system in which Cu atoms diffuse through the grain boundary of barrier and react with silicon to form Cu 3 Si. - Abstract: Novel Ti/TaN double layers offering good stability as a barrier against Cu metallization have been made achievable by annealing in vacuum better than 1 × 10 −3 Pa. Ti/TaN double layers were formed on SiO 2 /Si substrates by DC magnetron sputtering and then the properties of Cu/Ti/TaN/SiO 2 /Si film stacks were studied. It was found that the Ti/TaN double layers provide good diffusion barrier between Cu and SiO 2 /Si up to 750 °C for 30 min. The XRD, Auger and EDS results show that the Cu–Si compounds like Cu 3 Si were formed by Cu diffusion through Ti/TaN barrier for the 800 °C annealed samples. It seems that the improved diffusion barrier property of Cu/Ti/TaN/SiO 2 /Si stack is due to the diffusion of nitrogen along the grain boundaries in Ti layer, which would decrease the defects in Ti film and block the diffusion path for Cu diffusion with increasing annealing temperature. The failure mechanism of Ti/TaN bi-layer is similar to the Cu/TaN/Si metallization system in which Cu atoms diffuse through the grain boundary of barrier and react with silicon to form Cu 3 Si

  2. Effectiveness evaluation of double-layered satellite network with laser and microwave hybrid links based on fuzzy analytic hierarchy process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Rao, Qiaomeng

    2018-01-01

    In order to solve the problem of high speed, large capacity and limited spectrum resources of satellite communication network, a double-layered satellite network with global seamless coverage based on laser and microwave hybrid links is proposed in this paper. By analyzing the characteristics of the double-layered satellite network with laser and microwave hybrid links, an effectiveness evaluation index system for the network is established. And then, the fuzzy analytic hierarchy process, which combines the analytic hierarchy process and the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation theory, is used to evaluate the effectiveness of the double-layered satellite network with laser and microwave hybrid links. Furthermore, the evaluation result of the proposed hybrid link network is obtained by simulation. The effectiveness evaluation process of the proposed double-layered satellite network with laser and microwave hybrid links can help to optimize the design of hybrid link double-layered satellite network and improve the operating efficiency of the satellite system.

  3. Layered double hydroxides/polymer thin films grown by matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birjega, R.; Matei, A.; Mitu, B.; Ionita, M.D.; Filipescu, M.; Stokker-Cheregi, F.; Luculescu, C.; Dinescu, M. [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, 409 Atomistilor Str., 77125 Bucharest–Magurele (Romania); Zavoianu, R.; Pavel, O.D. [University of Bucharest, Faculty of Chemistry, Department of Chemical Technology and Catalysis, 4-12 Regina Elisabeta Bd., Bucharest (Romania); Corobea, M.C. [National R. and S. Institute for Chemistry and Petrochemistry, ICECHIM, 202 Splaiul Independentei Str., CP-35-274, 060021, Bucharest (Romania)

    2013-09-30

    Due to their highly tunable properties, layered double hydroxides (LDHs) are an emerging class of the favorably layered crystals used for the preparation of multifunctional polymer/layered crystal nanocomposites. In contrast to cationic clay materials with negatively charge layers, LDHs are the only host lattices with positively charged layers (brucite-like), with interlayer exchangeable anions and intercalated water. In this work, the deposition of thin films of Mg and Al based LDH/polymers nanocomposites by laser techniques is reported. Matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation was the method used for thin films deposition. The Mg–Al LDHs capability to act as a host for polymers and to produce hybrid LDH/polymer films has been investigated. Polyethylene glycol with different molecular mass compositions and ethylene glycol were used as polymers. The structure and surface morphology of the deposited LDH/polymers films were examined by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. - Highlights: • Hybrid composites deposited by matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE). • Mg–Al layered double hydroxides (LDH) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) are used. • Mixtures of PEG1450 and LDH were deposited by MAPLE. • Deposited thin films preserve the properties of the starting material. • The film wettability can be controlled by the amount of PEG.

  4. Pore Pressure Response to Groundwater Fluctuations in Saturated Double-Layered Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongwei Ying

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Analytical solutions are developed for one-dimensional consolidation of double-layered saturated soil subjected to groundwater fluctuations. The solutions are derived by an explicit mathematical procedure using Duhamel’s theorem in conjunction with a Fourier series, when groundwater fluctuation is described by a general time-dependent function and assumed to be the pore water pressure variations at the upper boundary. Taking as an example the harmonic groundwater fluctuation, the relevant response of the excess pore water pressure is discussed in detail, and the main influencing factors of the excess pore pressure distribution are analyzed. A dimensionless parameter θ has been introduced because it significantly affects the phase and the amplitude of excess pore pressures. The influences of the coefficients of permeability and compressibility of soil on the excess pore pressure distribution are different and cannot be incorporated into the coefficient of consolidation in double-layered soil. The relative permeability ratio of two clayey soils also plays an important role on the curves of the distributions of the excess pore pressures. The effects of the thickness of the soil layer on the excess pore pressure distribution should be considered together with the dimensionless parameter θ and the permeability and compressibility of the double-layered soil system.

  5. Influence of nonelectrostatic ion-ion interactions on double-layer capacitance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hui

    2012-11-01

    Recently a Poisson-Helmholtz-Boltzmann (PHB) model [Bohinc , Phys. Rev. EPLEEE81539-375510.1103/PhysRevE.85.031130 85, 031130 (2012)] was developed by accounting for solvent-mediated nonelectrostatic ion-ion interactions. Nonelectrostatic interactions are described by a Yukawa-like pair potential. In the present work, we modify the PHB model by adding steric effects (finite ion size) into the free energy to derive governing equations. The modified PHB model is capable of capturing both ion specificity and ion crowding. This modified model is then employed to study the capacitance of the double layer. More specifically, we focus on the influence of nonelectrostatic ion-ion interactions on charging a double layer near a flat surface in the presence of steric effects. We numerically compute the differential capacitance as a function of the voltage under various conditions. At small voltages and low salt concentrations (dilute solution), we find out that the predictions from the modified PHB model are the same as those from the classical Poisson-Boltzmann theory, indicating that nonelectrostatic ion-ion interactions and steric effects are negligible. At moderate voltages, nonelectrostatic ion-ion interactions play an important role in determining the differential capacitance. Generally speaking, nonelectrostatic interactions decrease the capacitance because of additional nonelectrostatic repulsion among excess counterions inside the double layer. However, increasing the voltage gradually favors steric effects, which induce a condensed layer with crowding of counterions near the electrode. Accordingly, the predictions from the modified PHB model collapse onto those computed by the modified Poisson-Boltzmann theory considering steric effects alone. Finally, theoretical predictions are compared and favorably agree with experimental data, in particular, in concentrated solutions, leading one to conclude that the modified PHB model adequately predicts the diffuse

  6. Effect of electronic spatial extents (ESE) of ions on overpotential of lithium ion capacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Fan; Lee, Chung ho; Koo, Chong Min; Jung, Cheolsoo

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: •Electronic spatial extent (ESE) of ion characterizes its electron density volume. •The ESE of ion proposes to assess overpotential of nanoporous capacitor. •Anion with low ESE shows low overpotential of the capacitor. •The ESE is more realistic to assess overpotential than conductivity or ion size. -- Abstract: The electronic spatial extent (ESE) of ions was defined as a major concept for assessing the cause of overpotential in the charging and discharging processes of a nanoporous activated carbon (AC) electrode. The performance degradation of AC/Li half-cells was caused by the overpotential, which was in discord with the electrolyte conductivity and ion size. Compared to the overpotential with the salt concentration, the AC/Li half-cell with a high concentration had a smaller overpotential, and its discharge patterns were similar to the curves obtained from the half-cells with a smaller ESE of BF 4 − ion. The ESE is a more realistic solution for determining the overpotential of the nanoporous capacitor, such as supercapacitor and Li ion capacitor, because its capacity is dependent on the electron density at the electric double layer of the capacitor electrode

  7. The Comparison of Engineering Properties Between Single and Double Layer Porous Asphalt made of Packing Gradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardiman M. Y

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available is paper presents the comparison of engineering properties between single and double layer porous asphalt (SLPA and DLPA made of packing gradation. Three nominal maximum aggregate sizes (NMAS were tested each made up of 10, 14, and 20 mm for SLPA. While for the DLPA with 30, 20, and 15 mm top layer are made of 10 and 14 mm NMAS, with a base layer of 20 mm NMAS. Total thickness of all mixes is 70 mm. Binders used are 60/70 penetration base bitumen and polymer binder styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS. The result shows that the properties of SLPA mix namely permeability and resistance to abrasion loss decreases when the NMAS in SLPA decreases. The abrasion loss of DLPA mixes increases when the porous asphalt top layer thickness decreases, while drainage time value decreases. However, SLPA with 20 mm NMAS exhibits higher abrasion loss compared to all DLPA mixes.

  8. AA stacking, tribological and electronic properties of double-layer graphene with krypton spacer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, Andrey M; Lebedeva, Irina V; Knizhnik, Andrey A; Lozovik, Yurii E; Potapkin, Boris V; Poklonski, Nikolai A; Siahlo, Andrei I; Vyrko, Sergey A

    2013-10-21

    Structural, energetic, and tribological characteristics of double-layer graphene with commensurate and incommensurate krypton spacers of nearly monolayer coverage are studied within the van der Waals-corrected density functional theory. It is shown that when the spacer is in the commensurate phase, the graphene layers have the AA stacking. For this phase, the barriers to relative in-plane translational and rotational motion and the shear mode frequency of the graphene layers are calculated. For the incommensurate phase, both of the barriers are found to be negligibly small. A considerable change of tunneling conductance between the graphene layers separated by the commensurate krypton spacer at their relative subangstrom displacement is revealed by the use of the Bardeen method. The possibility of nanoelectromechanical systems based on the studied tribological and electronic properties of the considered heterostructures is discussed.

  9. Effects of layer sequence and postdeposition annealing temperature on performance of La2O3 and HfO2 multilayer composite oxides on In0.53Ga0.47As for MOS capacitor application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wen-Hao; Lin, Yueh-Chin; Chuang, Ting-Wei; Chen, Yu-Chen; Hou, Tzu-Ching; Yao, Jing-Neng; Chang, Po-Chun; Iwai, Hiroshi; Kakushima, Kuniyuki; Chang, Edward Yi

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, we report on high-k composite oxides that are formed by depositing multiple layers of HfO2 and La2O3 on In0.53Ga0.47As for MOS device application. Both multilayer HfO2 (0.8 nm)/La2O3 (0.8 nm)/In0.53Ga0.47As and La2O3 (0.8 nm)/HfO2 (0.8 nm)/In0.53Ga0.47As MOS structures were investigated. The effects of oxide thickness and postdeposition annealing (PDA) temperature on the interface properties of the composite oxide MOS capacitors were studied. It was found that a low CET of 1.41 nm at 1 kHz was achieved using three-layer composite oxides. On the other hand, a small frequency dispersion of 2.8% and an excellent Dit of 7.0 × 1011 cm-2·eV-1 can be achieved using multiple layers of La2O3 (0.8 nm) and HfO2 (0.8 nm) on the In0.53Ga0.47As MOS capacitor with optimum thermal treatment and layer thickness.

  10. A polygonal double-layer coil design for high-efficiency wireless power transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Shitong; Wang, Hao; Mao, Zhi-Hong; Sun, Mingui

    2018-05-01

    In this work, we present a novel coil structure for the design of Wireless Power Transfer (WPT) systems via magnetic resonant coupling. The new coil consists of two layers of flat polygonal windings in square, pentagonal and hexagonal shapes. The double-layer coil can be conveniently fabricated using the print circuit broad (PCB) technology. In our design, we include an angle between the two layers which can be adjusted to change the area of inter-layer overlap. This unique structure is thoroughly investigated with respect to the quality factor Q and the power transfer efficiency (PTE) using the finite element method (FEM). An equivalent circuit is derived and used to explain the properties of the angularly shifted double-layer coil theoretically. Comparative experiments are conducted from which the performance of the new coil is evaluated quantitatively. Our results have shown that an increased shift angle improves the Q-factor, and the optimal PTE is achieved when the angle reaches the maximum. When compared to the pentagonal and hexagonal coils, the square coil achieves the highest PTE due to its lowest parasitic capacitive effects. In summary, our new coil design improves the performance of WPT systems and allows a formal design procedure for optimization in a given application.

  11. Numerical Well Testing Interpretation Model and Applications in Crossflow Double-Layer Reservoirs by Polymer Flooding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiyang Yu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents numerical well testing interpretation model and analysis techniques to evaluate formation by using pressure transient data acquired with logging tools in crossflow double-layer reservoirs by polymer flooding. A well testing model is established based on rheology experiments and by considering shear, diffusion, convection, inaccessible pore volume (IPV, permeability reduction, wellbore storage effect, and skin factors. The type curves were then developed based on this model, and parameter sensitivity is analyzed. Our research shows that the type curves have five segments with different flow status: (I wellbore storage section, (II intermediate flow section (transient section, (III mid-radial flow section, (IV crossflow section (from low permeability layer to high permeability layer, and (V systematic radial flow section. The polymer flooding field tests prove that our model can accurately determine formation parameters in crossflow double-layer reservoirs by polymer flooding. Moreover, formation damage caused by polymer flooding can also be evaluated by comparison of the interpreted permeability with initial layered permeability before polymer flooding. Comparison of the analysis of numerical solution based on flow mechanism with observed polymer flooding field test data highlights the potential for the application of this interpretation method in formation evaluation and enhanced oil recovery (EOR.

  12. Reconstruction Effects on Surface Properties of Co/Mg/Al Layered Double Hydroxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis SOKOL

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Layered double hydroxides having different cationic (Mg2+, Co2+, Al3+ composition were successfully synthesized by the low supersaturation method. The samples were thermally decomposed and reconstructed using water and nitrate media at different temperatures. X-ray powder diffraction analysis, X-ray fluorescence analysis, thermogravimetry and BET/BJH methods were used to investigate the differences between the directly obtained layered materials and those after the reconstruction process.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.23.2.15184

  13. Synthesis and carbon dioxide sorption of layered double hydroxide/silica foam nanocomposites with hierarchical mesostructure

    KAUST Repository

    Fu, Liling; Qi, Genggeng; Shekhah, Osama; Belmabkhout, Youssef; Esté vez, Luis Antonio; Eddaoudi, Mohamed; Giannelis, Emmanuel P.

    2014-01-01

    Layered double hydroxides (LDHs) with a hierarchical mesostructure are successfully synthesized on mesoporous silica foams by simple impregnation and hydrothermal treatment. The as-synthesized LDH/silica foam nanocomposites show well-defined mesostructures with high surface areas, large pore volumes, and mesopores of 6-7 nm. The nanocomposites act as carbon dioxide (CO2) sorbents under simulated flue gas conditions. They also exhibit significantly enhanced CO2 capacities under high-pressure conditions and high CO2/N2 and CO2/CH4 selectivities. Respect the hierarchy: Hierarchical mesoporous layered double hydroxide (LDH) nanocomposites with high surface areas and large pore volumes are synthesized by controlled hydrothermal growth of LDH precursors on a mesoporous silica foam. The as-synthesized nanocomposites exhibit a significantly enhanced capacity and selectivity towards carbon dioxide, making them very promising candidates for carbon dioxide (CO2) separation applications. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Anion-exchange membranes derived from quaternized polysulfone and exfoliated layered double hydroxide for fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Wan; Liang, Na; Peng, Pai; Qu, Rong; Chen, Dongzhi; Zhang, Hongwei, E-mail: hanqiujiang@163.com

    2017-02-15

    Layered double hydroxides (LDH) are prepared by controlling urea assisted homogeneous precipitation conditions. Morphology and crystallinity of LDHs are confirmed by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscope. After LDHs are incorporated into quaternized polysulfone membranes, transmission electron microscope is used to observe the exfoliated morphology of LDH sheets in the membranes. The properties of the nanocomposite membranes, including water uptake, swelling ratio, mechanical property and ionic conductivity are investigated. The nanocomposite membrane containing 5% LDH sheets shows more balanced performances, exhibiting an ionic conductivity of 2.36×10{sup −2} S cm{sup −1} at 60 °C. - Graphical abstract: Anion-exchange membrane based on quaternized polysulfone and exfoliated layered double hydroxide is optically transparent and has good ionic properties.

  15. Synthesis and carbon dioxide sorption of layered double hydroxide/silica foam nanocomposites with hierarchical mesostructure

    KAUST Repository

    Fu, Liling

    2014-03-05

    Layered double hydroxides (LDHs) with a hierarchical mesostructure are successfully synthesized on mesoporous silica foams by simple impregnation and hydrothermal treatment. The as-synthesized LDH/silica foam nanocomposites show well-defined mesostructures with high surface areas, large pore volumes, and mesopores of 6-7 nm. The nanocomposites act as carbon dioxide (CO2) sorbents under simulated flue gas conditions. They also exhibit significantly enhanced CO2 capacities under high-pressure conditions and high CO2/N2 and CO2/CH4 selectivities. Respect the hierarchy: Hierarchical mesoporous layered double hydroxide (LDH) nanocomposites with high surface areas and large pore volumes are synthesized by controlled hydrothermal growth of LDH precursors on a mesoporous silica foam. The as-synthesized nanocomposites exhibit a significantly enhanced capacity and selectivity towards carbon dioxide, making them very promising candidates for carbon dioxide (CO2) separation applications. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Synthesis and properties of Mg2Al layered double hydroxides containing 5-fluorouracil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhongliang; Wang Enbo; Gao Lei; Xu Lin

    2005-01-01

    A pharmaceutically active compound, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) has been firstly intercalated into layered double hydroxide with the restructure method. Powder X-ray diffraction and spectroscopic analysis indicate that 5-FU molecule is stabilized in the host interlayer by electrostatic interaction and intermolecular interaction, and that the orientation of 5-FU is different when changing the pattern of aging treatment or the swelling agent. The release studies show that a rapid release of the drug during the first 40min is followed by a more sustained one, and that the total amount of drug released from hybrid material into the aqueous solution is almost 87% and 74% at pH 4 and 7, respectively. The studies mentioned above suggest that layered double hydroxide might be used as the basis of a tunable drug delivery carrier

  17. Volume ignition of laser driven fusion pellets and double layer effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cicchitelli, L.; Eliezer, S.; Goldsworthy, M.P.; Green, F.; Hora, H.; Ray, P.S.; Stening, R.J.; Szichman, H.

    1988-01-01

    The realization of an ideal volume compression of laser-irradiated fusion pellets opens the possibility for an alternative to spark ignition proposed for many years for inertial confinement fusion. A re-evaluation of the difficulties of the central spark ignition of laser driven pellets is given. The alternative volume compression theory, together with volume burn and volume ignition, have received less attention and are re-evaluated in view of the experimental verification generalized fusion gain formulas, and the variation of optimum temperatures derived at self-ignition. Reactor-level DT fusion with MJ-laser pulses and volume compression to 50 times the solid-state density are estimated. Dynamic electric fields and double layers at the surface and in the interior of plasmas result in new phenomena for the acceleration of thermal electrons to suprathermal electrons. Double layers also cause a surface tension which stabilizes against surface wave effects and Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities. (author)

  18. Poly I-lactide-layered double hydroxide nanocomposites via in situ polymerization of I-lactide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katiyar, Vimal; Gerds, N.; Koch, C.B.

    2010-01-01

    The use of clay nanofillers offers a potential route to improved barrier properties in polylactide films. Magnesium–aluminium layered double hydroxides (LDHs) are interesting in this respect and we therefore explored synthesis of PLA-LDH nanocomposites by ring-opening polymerization. This method ...... weight was significantly reduced when in-situ polymerization was conducted in the presence of the LDHs and we suggest that chain termination via LDH surface hydroxyl groups and/or metal-catalyzed degradation could be responsible.......The use of clay nanofillers offers a potential route to improved barrier properties in polylactide films. Magnesium–aluminium layered double hydroxides (LDHs) are interesting in this respect and we therefore explored synthesis of PLA-LDH nanocomposites by ring-opening polymerization. This method...

  19. Luminescence spectra of CdSe/ZnSe double layers of quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reznitsky, Alexander; Permogorov, Sergei; Korenev, Vladimir V.; Sedova, Irina; Sorokin, Sergey; Sitnikova, Alla; Ivanov, Sergei [A.F. Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute, Polytekhnicheskaya 26, 194021 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Klochikhin, Albert [B.P. Konstantinov Nuclear Physics Institute, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2009-12-15

    We have studied the emission spectra and structural properties of double CdSe/ZnSe quantum dot (QD) sheet structures grown by molecular beam epitaxy in order to elucidate the mechanisms of the electronic and strain field interaction between the QD planes. The thickness of the ZnSe barrier separating the CdSe sheets was in the range of 10-60 monolayers (ML) in the set of samples studied. We have found that coupling between dots in adjacent layers becomes relatively strong in CdSe/ZnSe double layers structures with 25-27 ML barrier, while it is rather weak when the barrier thickness exceeds 30 ML. (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  20. Formation of presheath and current-free double layer in a two-electron-temperature plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Kunihiro; Miyawaki, Fujio

    1992-02-01

    Development of the steady-state potential in a two-temperature-electron plasma in contact with the wall is investigated analytically. It is shown that if the hot- to cold electron temperature ratio is greater than ten, the potential drop in the presheath, which is allowed to have either a small value characterized by the cold electrons or a large value by the hot electrons, discontinuously changes at a critical value for the hot- to total electron density ratio. It is also found that the monotonically decreasing potential structure which consists of the first presheath, a current-free double layer, the second presheath, and the sheath can be steadily formed in a lower range of the hot- to total electron density ratio around the critical value. The current-free double layer is set up due to existence of the two electron species and cold ions generated by ionization so as to connect two presheath potentials at different levels. (author)

  1. High efficient photocatalytic activity of Zn-Al-Ti layered double hydroxides nanocomposite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amor F.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This work establishes a simple method for synthesising layered double hydroxides (LDHs powders with coprecipitation. The characteristics of the samples were investigated y X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and spectrophotometer UV–Vis (DRS. Non-uniform distribution was shown for LDHs samples by SEM. Photocatalytic efficiencies were tested using methylene blue (MB dye as a model contaminant under UV irradiation. In particular, Zn–Al-Ti LDH exhibited an excellent performance towards MB degradation compared with commercial TiO2 nanoparticles. Methylene blue removal percentage was reached at almost 100%, whereas commercial TiO2 reached a removal rate of only 66% under the same conditions within 20 min. The aim of the current work is to prepare Zn-Al-Ti layered double hydroxides nanocomposite and to evaluate their photocatalytic activity in the removal of methylene blue under UV irradiation.

  2. Analysis of adsorption behavior of cations onto quartz surface by electrical double-layer model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitamura, Akira; Yamamoto, Tadashi; Fujiwara, Kenso; Nishikawa, Sataro; Moriyama, Hirotake

    1999-01-01

    In a study of the adsorption behavior of cations onto quartz, the distribution coefficient of a variety of cations was determined using the batch method, and using the titration method, the surface charge densities of quartz in a number of electrolyte solutions. The two values thus determined were analyzed applying the electrical double-layer model, from which optimum parameter values were derived for double-layer electrostatics and intrinsic adsorption equilibrium constants. Based on these parameter values, the mechanism of cation adsorption is discussed: A key factor governing this mechanism proved to be the hydration behavior of cations. Consideration of the Coulomb interaction between the adsorbate ions and adsorbent surface led to the finding of a simple rule governing in common the adsorption equilibrium constants of different metal ions. (author)

  3. Thermal analysis of mass concrete embedded with double-layer staggered heterogeneous cooling water pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Jian; Hu Yu; Zuo Zheng; Jin Feng; Li Qingbin

    2012-01-01

    Removal of hydration heat from mass concrete during construction is important for the quality and safety of concrete structures. In this study, a three-dimensional finite element program for thermal analysis of mass concrete embedded with double-layer staggered heterogeneous cooling water pipes was developed based on the equivalent equation of heat conduction including the effect of cooling water pipes and hydration heat of concrete. The cooling function of the double-layer staggered heterogeneous cooling pipes in a concrete slab was derived from the principle of equivalent cooling. To improve the applicability and precision of the equivalent heat conduction equation under small flow, the cooling function was revised according to its monotonicity and empirical formulas of single-phase forced-convection heat transfer in tube flow. Considering heat hydration of concrete at later age, a double exponential function was proposed to fit the adiabatic temperature rise curve of concrete. Subsequently, the temperature variation of concrete was obtained, and the outlet temperature of cooling water was estimated through the energy conservation principle. Comparing calculated results with actual measured data from a monolith of an arch dam in China, the numerical model was proven to be effective in sufficiently simulating accurate temperature variations of mass concrete. - Highlights: ► Three-dimensional program is developed to model temperature history of mass concrete. ► Massive concrete is embedded with double-layer heterogeneous cooling pipes. ► Double exponential function is proposed to fit the adiabatic temperature rise curve. ► Outlet temperature of cooling water is estimated. ► A comparison is made between the calculated and measured data.

  4. Multiple Interfacial Fe3O4@BaTiO3/P(VDF-HFP) Core-Shell-Matrix Films with Internal Barrier Layer Capacitor (IBLC) Effects and High Energy Storage Density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ling; Fu, Qiuyun; Xue, Fei; Tang, Xiahui; Zhou, Dongxiang; Tian, Yahui; Wang, Geng; Wang, Chaohong; Gou, Haibo; Xu, Lei

    2017-11-22

    Flexible nanocomposites composed of high dielectric constant fillers and polymer matrix have shown great potential for electrostatic capacitors and energy storage applications. To obtain the composited material with high dielectric constant and high breakdown strength, multi-interfacial composited particles, which composed of conductive cores and insulating shells and possessed the internal barrier layer capacitor (IBLC) effect, were adopted as fillers. Thus, Fe 3 O 4 @BaTiO 3 core-shell particles were prepared and loaded into the poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (P(VDF-HFP)) polymer matrix. As the mass fraction of core-shell fillers increased from 2.5 wt % to 30 wt %, the dielectric constant of the films increased, while the loss tangent remained at a low level (capacitor model was also adopted to interpret the efficiency of IBLC effects on the suppressed loss tangent and the superior breakdown strength. This work explored an effective approach to prepare dielectric nanocomposites for energy storage applications experimentally and theoretically.

  5. Observation of a current-limited double layer in a linear turbulent-heating device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inuzuka, H.; Torii, Y.; Nagatsu, M.; Tsukishima, T.

    1985-01-01

    Time- and space-resolved measurements of strong double layers (DLs) have been carried out for the first time on a linear turbulent-heating device, together with those of fluctuation spectra and precise current measurements. A stable stong DL is formed even when the electric current through the DL is less than the so-called Bohm value. Discussion of the formation and decay processes is given, indicating a transition from an ion-acoustic DL to a monotonic DL

  6. Effect of the surface charge discretization on electric double layers. A Monte Carlo simulation study

    OpenAIRE

    Madurga Díez, Sergio; Martín-Molina, Alberto; Vilaseca i Font, Eudald; Mas i Pujadas, Francesc; Quesada-Pérez, Manuel

    2007-01-01

    The structure of the electric double layer in contact with discrete and continuously charged planar surfaces is studied within the framework of the primitive model through Monte Carlo simulations. Three different discretization models are considered together with the case of uniform distribution. The effect of discreteness is analyzed in terms of charge density profiles. For point surface groups,a complete equivalence with the situation of uniformly distributed charge is found if profiles are...

  7. Preparation of Fe-Pt perpendicular double-layered media with high electric resistivity backlayer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchida, Masaru; Suzuki, Toshio; Ouchi, Kazuhiro

    2001-01-01

    High electric resistivity materials, oxide-added Fe-Si, were investigated as a soft-magnetic backlayer for Fe-Pt perpendicular double-layered media. It was found that there is a possibility of using (Fe-Si)-MgO as a backlayer. To promote a hetero-epitaxial growth of ordered Fe-Pt FCT(0 0 1), the backlayer needed a BCC(2 0 0) crystal orientation, in a situation where surface topology also played an important role

  8. Mixed oxides obtained from Co and Mn containing layered double hydroxides: Preparation, characterization, and catalytic properties

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kovanda, F.; Rojka, T.; Dobešová, J.; Machovič, V.; Bezdička, Petr; Obalová, L.; Jirátová, Květa; Grygar, Tomáš

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 179, č. 3 (2006), s. 812-823 ISSN 0022-4596 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA104/04/2116; GA ČR(CZ) GA106/05/0366 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40320502; CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : layered double hydroxides * hydrotalcite-like compounds * thermal decomposition Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.107, year: 2006

  9. Facile synthesis of deoxycholate intercalated layered double hydroxide nanohybrids via a coassembly process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Xiaowen; Wang, Shuang; Du, Na; Zhang, Renjie; Hou, Wanguo

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a synthesis strategy of deoxycholate (DC) intercalated layered double hydroxide (LDH) nanohybrids via a coassembly method at room temperature. For this strategy, LDH particles were delaminated to well-dispersed 2D nanosheets in formamide, and the resulting LDH nanosheets were then coassembled with DC anions into the DC intercalated LDH (DC-LDH) nanohybrids. The so-synthesized nanohybrids were characterized by XRD, TEM, FT-IR, elemental analyses and TG-DSC. It was found that the loading amount of DC in the nanohybrids could be easily controlled by changing the ratio of DC to LDH. In addition, the nanohybrids have similar characteristics with the DC-LDH nanohybrids synthesized by the hydrothermal method, including their DC loading, crystal structure, morphology and thermal gravimetric behavior. However, this strategy exhibited the advantages of short reaction time and mild experimental conditions compared with the hydrothermal method. - Graphical abstract: Deoxycholate intercalated layered double hydroxide nanohybrids were successfully synthesized via a coassembly strategy. In this strategy, the interlayer spaces of LDHs can be efficiently used for the intercalation of guest species. - Highlights: • Deoxycholate intercalated layered double hydroxide nanohybrids were synthesized via a coassembly strategy. • This strategy exhibited the advantages of short time and mild conditions. • This strategy can enable organic species to be readily intercalated into the LDH galleries

  10. Anomalous transport in discrete arcs and simulation of double layers in a model auroral circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    The evolution and long-time stability of a double layer in a discrete auroral arc requires that the parallel current in the arc, which may be considered uniform at the source, be diverted within the arc to change the flanks of the U-shaped double-layer potential structure. A simple model is presented in which this current re-distribution is effected by anomalous transport based on electrostatic lower hybrid waves driven by the flank structure itself. This process provides the limiting constraint on the double-layer potential. The flank charging may be represented as that of a nonlinear transmission line. A simplified model circuit, in which the transmission line is represented by a nonlinear impedance in parallel with a variable resistor, is incorporated in a 1-d simulation model to give the current density at the DL boundaries. Results are presented for the scaling of the DL potential as a function of the width of the arc and the saturation efficiency of the lower hybrid instability mechanism. (author)

  11. Anomalous transport in discrete arcs and simulation of double layers in a model auroral circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Robert A.

    1987-01-01

    The evolution and long-time stability of a double layer in a discrete auroral arc requires that the parallel current in the arc, which may be considered uniform at the source, be diverted within the arc to charge the flanks of the U-shaped double-layer potential structure. A simple model is presented in which this current re-distribution is effected by anomalous transport based on electrostatic lower hybrid waves driven by the flank structure itself. This process provides the limiting constraint on the double-layer potential. The flank charging may be represented as that of a nonlinear transmission. A simplified model circuit, in which the transmission line is represented by a nonlinear impedance in parallel with a variable resistor, is incorporated in a 1-d simulation model to give the current density at the DL boundaries. Results are presented for the scaling of the DL potential as a function of the width of the arc and the saturation efficiency of the lower hybrid instability mechanism.

  12. Anomalous transport in discrete arcs and simulation of double layers in a model auroral circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    The evolution and long-time stability of a double layer (DL) in a discrete auroral arc requires that the parallel current in the arc, which may be considered uniform at the source, be diverted within the arc to charge the flanks of the U-shaped double layer potential structure. A simple model is presented in which this current redistribution is effected by anomalous transport based on electrostatic lower hybrid waves driven by the flank structure itself. This process provides the limiting constraint on the double layer potential. The flank charging may be represented as that of a nonlinear transmission line. A simplified model circuit, in which the transmission line is represented by a nonlinear impedance in parallel with a variable resistor, is incorporated in a one-dimensional simulation model to give the current density at the DL boundaries. Results are presented for the scaling of the DL potential as a function of the width of the arc and the saturation efficiency of the lower hybrid instability mechanism

  13. Ionic double layer of atomically flat gold formed on mica templates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chilcott, Terry C.; Wong, Elicia L.S.; Coster, Hans G.L.; Coster, Adelle C.F.; James, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Electrical impedance spectroscopy characterisations of gold surfaces formed on mica templates in contact with potassium chloride electrolytes were performed at the electric potential of zero charge over a frequency range of 6 x 10 -3 to 100 x 10 3 Hz. They revealed constant-phase-angle (CPA) behaviour with a frequency exponent value of 0.96 for surfaces that were also characterised as atomically flat using atomic force microscopy (AFM). As the frequency exponent value was only marginally less than unity, the CPA behaviour yielded a realistic estimate for the capacitance of the ionic double layer. The retention of the CPA behaviour was attributed to specific adsorption of chloride ions which was detected as an adsorption conductance element in parallel with the CPA impedance element. Significant variations in the ionic double layer capacitance as well as the adsorption conductance were observed for electrolyte concentrations ranging from 33 μM to 100 mM, but neither of these variations correlated with concentration. This is consistent with the electrical properties of the interface deriving principally from the inner or Stern region of the double layer.

  14. Time resolved measurements of plasma potential across an anode double layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pohoata, V.; Popa, Gh.; Schrittwieser, R.; Ionita, Codrina

    2002-01-01

    Experimental results are presented on self-sustained oscillations produced by the dynamics of an anode double layer or fireball in a DP-machine. By additional ionisation processes the fireball is formed in front of an additional small plane anode inserted in the diffusive plasma. An annular (ring) electrode surrounds the anode. The thickness of the ion sheath in front of this ring affects the anode current by controlling its effective diameter during the fireball oscillations. The ring potential controls first the oscillation frequency of the anode current, but also other characteristics of the instability. The ring potential was chosen as a pulsed one so that only single anode double layer instability can be excited. The ring signal was used for triggering the data acquisition system. The spatial distribution of the plasma potential in front of the anode is presented as a time resolved measurement one. A negative drop potential was found that controls the charge flux particle across the double layer. Also the plasma density inside the fireball relaxes during the disrupting time controlled by ambipolar diffusion and also by the negative potential drop. (authors)

  15. The electric double layer at a metal electrode in pure water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brüesch, Peter; Christen, Thomas

    2004-03-01

    Pure water is a weak electrolyte that dissociates into hydronium ions and hydroxide ions. In contact with a charged electrode a double layer forms for which neither experimental nor theoretical studies exist, in contrast to electrolytes containing extrinsic ions like acids, bases, and solute salts. Starting from a self-consistent solution of the one-dimensional modified Poisson-Boltzmann equation, which takes into account activity coefficients of point-like ions, we explore the properties of the electric double layer by successive incorporation of various correction terms like finite ion size, polarization, image charge, and field dissociation. We also discuss the effect of the usual approximation of an average potential as required for the one-dimensional Poisson-Boltzmann equation, and conclude that the one-dimensional approximation underestimates the ion density. We calculate the electric potential, the ion distributions, the pH-values, the ion-size corrected activity coefficients, and the dissociation constants close to the electric double layer and compare the results for the various model corrections.

  16. An alternative design method for the double-layer combined die using autofrettage theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Hu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The double-layer combined die is used for its longer life in forging. Autofrettage is a well-known elastic–plastic technology that increases the durability of thick-walled cylinders. This study explores an alternative design method of the double-layer combined die using autofrettage theory. An analytical solution for the autofrettage process of the double-layer combined die is obtained based on Lamé's equation. The relationship between the autofrettage pressure and the yield radius of the die insert is obtained, and expressions of residual stresses and displacements, which are directly related to geometric parameters, material properties and internal pressure, are derived. The finite-element simulation of a specific case is performed, and good agreement between theoretical calculations and simulation results is found. Furthermore, the effects of important parameters, including the ratio of the plastic area and yield strength of the die insert and the outer diameters of the die insert and stress ring, on the autofrettage effect are investigated. Compared with the conventional combined die, the autofrettaged die can bear larger working pressure, as expected. The use of the autofrettaged die can reduce the amount of expensive material required for the die insert and the working space of the die set, which would benefit the practical forging process.

  17. Slow electron acoustic double layer (SEADL) structures in bi-ion plasma with trapped electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Shaukat Ali; Imtiaz, Nadia

    2018-05-01

    The properties of ion acoustic double layer (IADL) structures in bi-ion plasma with electron trapping are investigated by using the quasi-potential analysis. The κ-distributed trapped electrons number density expression is truncated to some finite order of the electrostatic potential. By utilizing the reductive perturbation method, a modified Schamel equation which describes the evolution of the slow electron acoustic double layer (SEADL) with the modified speed due to the presence of bi-ion species is investigated. The Sagdeev-like potential has been derived which accounts for the effect of the electron trapping and superthermality in a bi-ion plasma. It is found that the superthermality index, the trapping efficiency of electrons, and ion to electron temperature ratio are the inhibiting parameters for the amplitude of the slow electron acoustic double layers (SEADLs). However, the enhanced population of the cold ions is found to play a supportive role for the low frequency DLs in bi-ion plasmas. The illustrations have been presented with the help of the bi-ion plasma parameters in the Earth's ionosphere F-region.

  18. The performance of double layer structure membrane prepared from flowing coagulant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mieow Kee, Chan; Xeng, Anthony Leong Chan; Regal, Sasiskala; Singh, Balvinder; Raoo, Preeshaath; Koon Eu, Yap; Sok Choo, Ng

    2017-12-01

    Membrane with double layer structure is favourable as it exhibits smooth surface and macrovoids free structure. However, its’ performance in terms of permeability, porosity and strength has not been studied thoroughly. Additionally, the effect of flowing coagulant on the formation of double layer membrane has not been reported. Thus, the objective of this study is to investigate the performance of double layer membranes, which were prepared using flowing coagulant. Results showed that when the coagulant flow changed from laminar to turbulent, the pure water permeation of the membrane increased. It was due to the higher porosity in the membrane, which prepared by turbulent flow (CA-Turbulent) compared to the membrane which fabricated under laminar condition (CA-Laminar). This can be explained by the rapid solvent-coagulant exchange rate between the polymer solution and the turbulent coagulant. In term of strength, the tensile strength of the CA-Turbulent was ~32 MPa, which was 100% higher compared to CA-Laminar. This may due to the presence of large amount of nodules on its surface, which reduced the surface integrity. In conclusion, flowing coagulant altered the membrane properties and adopting turbulent coagulant flow in membrane fabrication would improve the porosity, surface roughness and the strength of the membrane.

  19. The electron-electron instability in a spherical plasma structure with an intermediate double layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapuerta, V.; Ahedo, E.

    2003-01-01

    A linear dynamic model of a spherical plasma structure with an intermediate double layer is analyzed in the high-frequency range. The two ion populations tend to stay frozen in their stationary response and this prevents the displacement of the double layer. Different electron modes dominate the plasma dynamics in each quasineutral region. The electrostatic potential and the electron current are the magnitudes most perturbed. The structure develops a reactive electron-electron instability, which is made up of a countable family of eigenmodes. Space-charge effects must be included in the quasineutral regions to determine the eigenmode carrying the maximum growth rate. Except for very small Debye lengths, the fundamental eigenmode governs the instability. The growth rate for the higher harmonics approaches that of an infinite plasma. The instability modes develop mainly on the plasma at the high-potential side of the double layer. The influence of the parameters defining the stationary solution on the instability growth rate is investigated, and the parametric regions of stability are found. The comparison with a couple of experiments on plasma contactors is satisfactory

  20. Thermal stability of double-ceramic-layer thermal barrier coatings with various coating thickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai Hui; Zhong Xinghua; Li Jiayan; Zhang Yanfei; Meng Jian; Cao Xueqiang

    2006-01-01

    Double-ceramic-layer (DCL) coatings with various thickness ratios composed of YSZ (6-8 wt.% Y 2 O 3 + ZrO 2 ) and lanthanum zirconate (LZ, La 2 Zr 2 O 7 ) were produced by the atmospheric plasma spraying. Chemical stability of LZ in contact with YSZ in DCL coatings was investigated by calcining powder blends at different temperatures. No obvious reaction was observed when the calcination temperature was lower than 1250 deg. C, implying that LZ and YSZ had good chemical applicability for producing DCL coating. The thermal cycling test indicate that the cycling lives of the DCL coatings are strongly dependent on the thickness ratio of LZ and YSZ, and the coatings with YSZ thickness between 150 and 200 μm have even longer lives than the single-layer YSZ coating. When the YSZ layer is thinner than 100 μm, the DCL coatings failed in the LZ layer close to the interface of YSZ layer and LZ layer. For the coatings with the YSZ thickness above 150 μm, the failure mainly occurs at the interface of the YSZ layer and the bond coat