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Sample records for double diffractive production

  1. Double Diffractive Process Factorization from ηc and γ Associated Production at Tevatron and LHC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANZhan-Yuan; LIZhi-Wen; DUANChun-Gui

    2004-01-01

    We present a study of associated ηc and γ double diffractive production in pp- collision based on Ingelman-Schlein model, and the framework of non-relativistic QOD factorization formalism for quarkonia production. The prediction of ηc and γ is more reliable than J/ψ production, because the associated ηc and γ production is a pure color-octet process, and the dominant contribution comes from color octet 1S0(8) subprocess, which is related to the color octet matrix element of 1S0(8) of J/ψ by the heavy quark spin symmetry and the large PT J/ψ production data. We find that the ratio of diffractive to inclusive cross sections is independent of the values of color octet matrix elements, but is sensitive to the gluon factor of the Pomeron and renormalized Pomeron flux factors. So experimental measurement of this ratio can give us more information of the nature of Pomeron and test the assumption of hard diffractive factorization in hadron-hadron collisions.

  2. Double Diffractive Process Factorization from ηc and γ Associated Production at Tevatron and LHC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Zhan-Yuan; LI Zhi-Wen; DUAN Chun-Gui

    2004-01-01

    We present a study of associated ηc and γ double diffractive production in p-p collision based on Ingelman-Schlein model, and the framework of non-relativistic QCD factorization formalism for quarkonia production. The predic-tion of ηc and γ is more reliable than J/ψ production, because the associated ηc and γ production is a pure color-octetprocess, and the dominant contribution comes from color octet 1So(8) subprocess, which is related to the color octet matrixelement of 1So(8) of J/ψ by the heavy quark spin symmetry and the large PT J/ψ production data. We find that the ratioof diffractive to inclusive cross sections is independent of the values of color octet matrix elements, but is sensitive to thegluon factor of the Pomeron and renormalized Pomeron flux factors. So experimental measurement of this ratio can giveus more information of the nature of Pomeron and test the assumption of hard diffractive factorization in hadron-hadron collisions.

  3. Diffractive production of mesons

    CERN Document Server

    Schicker, R

    2014-01-01

    The interest in the study of diffractive meson production is discussed. The description of diffraction within Regge phenomenology is presented, and the QCD-based understanding of diffractive processes is given. Central production is reviewed, and the corresponding main results from the COMPASS experiment and from the experiments at the ISR, RHIC, TEVATRON and LHC collider are summarised.

  4. Diffractive production of mesons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schicker Rainer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The interest in the study of diffractive meson production is discussed. The description of diffraction within Regge phenomenology is presented, and the QCD-based understanding of diffractive processes is given. Central production is reviewed, and the corresponding main results from the COMPASS experiment and from the experiments at the ISR, RHIC, TEVATRON and LHC collider are summarised.

  5. Coherent diffractive {rho} production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyett, N.M.; Tovey, S.N. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics

    1995-12-31

    Coherent diffractive {rho} production by neutrinos occurs at low four-momentum transfer and high energy transfer. These interactions are generally understood to occur via the coupling of the weak charged current to the vector meson, which scatters diffractively from the target nucleus. Since coherent events are those in which the nucleus interacts as a whole, ie without breakup, and with small recoil energy, these events have a very sharp |t|-distribution. This presentation deals mostly with the Monte Carlo simulation of the coherent diffractive production of the {rho} production and in particular with the reconstruction algorithm (description and efficiency) and the |t| distribution. 4 refs., 1 fig.

  6. Double diffraction in an atomic gravimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Malossi, Nicola; Merlet, Sébastien; Landragin, Arnaud; Santos, Franck Pereira Dos

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate the realization of a new scheme for cold atom gravimetry based on the use of double diffraction beamsplitters recently demonstrated in \\cite{Leveque}, where the use of two retro-reflected Raman beams allows symmetric diffraction in $\\pm \\hbar k_{eff}$ momenta. Though in principle restricted to the case of zero Doppler shift, for which the two pairs of Raman beams are simultaneously resonant, we demonstrate that such diffraction pulses can remain efficient on atoms with non zero velocity, such as in a gravimeter, when modulating the frequency of one of the two Raman laser sources. We use such pulses to realize an interferometer insensitive to laser phase noise and some of the dominant systematics. This reduces the technical requirements and would allow the realization of a simple atomic gravimeter. We demonstrate a sensitivity of $1.2\\times10^{-7}g$ per shot.

  7. Diffractive dijet production at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Bruni, A; Krämer, G; Schatzel, S

    2005-01-01

    We present recent experimental data from the H1 and ZEUS Collaborations at HERA for diffractive dijet production in deep-inelastic scattering (DIS) and photoproduction and compare them with next-to-leading order (NLO) QCD predictions using diffractive parton densities. While good agreement is found for DIS, the dijet photoproduction data are overestimated by the NLO theory, showing that factorization breaking occurs at this order. While this is expected theoretically for resolved photoproduction, the fact that the data are better described by a global suppression of direct and resolved contribution by about a factor of two comes as a surprise. We therefore discuss in some detail the factorization scheme and scale dependence between direct and resolved contributions and propose a new factorization scheme for diffractive dijet photoproduction.

  8. Quantum Theory of Electronic Double-Slit Diffraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Xiang-Yao; GUO Yi-Qing; ZHANG Bai-Jun; LI Hai-Bo; LU Jing-Bin; LIU Xiao-Jing; WANG Li; ZHANG Chun-Li; LIU Bing; FAN Xi-Hui

    2007-01-01

    Phenomena of electron, neutron, atomic and molecular diffraction have been studied in many experiments, and these experiments have been explained by some theoretical works. We study electronic double-slit diffraction with a quantum mechanical approach and obtain the following results: (1) When the ratio of d + a/a = n (n = 1, 2, 3,...),orders n, 2n, 3n,...are missing in diffraction pattern. (2) When the ratio of d+a/a ≠ n (n = 1, 2, 3,...), there is not missing order in diffraction pattern. (3) The slit thickness c has a large affect on the electronic diffraction pattern, which is a new quantum effect. We believe that all the predictions in our work can be tested by the electronic double slit diffraction experiment.

  9. Multiorder nonlinear diffraction in frequency doubling processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saltiel, Solomon M.; Neshev, Dragomir N.; Krolikowski, Wieslaw

    2009-01-01

    We analyze experimentally light scattering from 2 nonlinear gratings and observe two types of second-harmonic frequency-scattering processes. The first process is identified as Raman–Nath type nonlinear diffraction that is explained by applying only transverse phase-matching conditions. The angular...... position of this type of diffraction is defined by the ratio of the second-harmonic wavelength and the grating period. In contrast, the second type of nonlinear scattering process is explained by the longitudinal phase matching only, being insensitive to the nonlinear grating...

  10. Diffractive Production of the Higgs Boson

    CERN Document Server

    Peschanski, R

    2003-01-01

    Diffractive production of the Higgs boson at hadron colliders is discussed in the light of the observed rate of hard diffractive dijet events at the Tevatron. The Higgs predictions of models successful for dijets are compared. LHC seems promising for a diffractive light Higgs boson and its mass determination. Hard diffractive dijets, diphotons and dileptons at the Tevatron (Run II) will be necessary to remove the remaining large uncertainties on cross-sections and signals.

  11. Diffractive charged meson pair production

    CERN Document Server

    Lehmann-Dronke, B; Schäfer, S; Stein, E; Schäfer, A

    1999-01-01

    We investigate the possibility to measure the nonforward gluon distribution function by means of diffractively produced charged pion and kaon pairs in polarized lepton nucleon scattering. The resulting cross sections are sizable and are dominated by the gluonic contribution. We find large spin asymmetries, both for pion pairs and for kaon pairs.

  12. Advanced diffraction-based overlay for double patterning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; Liu, Yongdong; Dasari, Prasad; Hu, Jiangtao; Smith, Nigel; Kritsun, Oleg; Volkman, Catherine

    2010-03-01

    Diffraction based overlay (DBO) technologies have been developed to address the tighter overlay control challenges as the dimensions of integrated circuit continue to shrink. Several studies published recently have demonstrated that the performance of DBO technologies has the potential to meet the overlay metrology budget for 22nm technology node. However, several hurdles must be cleared before DBO can be used in production. One of the major hurdles is that most DBO technologies require specially designed targets that consist of multiple measurement pads, which consume too much space and increase measurement time. A more advanced spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) technology-Mueller Matrix SE (MM-SE) is developed to address the challenge. We use a double patterning sample to demonstrate the potential of MM-SE as a DBO candidate. Sample matrix (the matrix that describes the effects of the sample on the incident optical beam) obtained from MM-SE contains up to 16 elements. We show that the Mueller elements from the off-diagonal 2x2 blocks respond to overlay linearly and are zero when overlay errors are absent. This superior property enables empirical DBO (eDBO) using two pads per direction. Furthermore, the rich information in Mueller matrix and its direct response to overlay make it feasible to extract overlay errors from only one pad per direction using modeling approach (mDBO). We here present the Mueller overlay results using both eDBO and mDBO and compare the results with image-based overlay (IBO) and CD-SEM results. We also report the tool induced shifts (TIS) and dynamic repeatability.

  13. Diffraction-based overlay metrology for double patterning technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasari, Prasad; Korlahalli, Rahul; Li, Jie; Smith, Nigel; Kritsun, Oleg; Volkman, Cathy

    2009-03-01

    The extension of optical lithography to 32nm and beyond is made possible by Double Patterning Techniques (DPT) at critical levels of the process flow. The ease of DPT implementation is hindered by increased significance of critical dimension uniformity and overlay errors. Diffraction-based overlay (DBO) has shown to be an effective metrology solution for accurate determination of the overlay errors associated with double patterning [1, 2] processes. In this paper we will report its use in litho-freeze-litho-etch (LFLE) and spacer double patterning technology (SDPT), which are pitch splitting solutions that reduce the significance of overlay errors. Since the control of overlay between various mask/level combinations is critical for fabrication, precise and accurate assessment of errors by advanced metrology techniques such as spectroscopic diffraction based overlay (DBO) and traditional image-based overlay (IBO) using advanced target designs will be reported. A comparison between DBO, IBO and CD-SEM measurements will be reported. . A discussion of TMU requirements for 32nm technology and TMU performance data of LFLE and SDPT targets by different overlay approaches will be presented.

  14. The BFKL Pomeron Calculus in zero transverse dimensions: diffractive processes and survival probability for central diffractive production

    CERN Document Server

    Kozlov, M; Levin, E; Miller, J

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the processes of diffractive production in the framework of the BFKL Pomeron calculus in zero transverse dimension. Considering the diffractive production of a bunch of particles with not very large masses, namely, $\\ln\\Lb M^2/m^2 \\Rb \\ll \\frac{1}{\\bas} \\ln\\Lb \\frac{N^2_c}{\\bas^2}\\Rb$, we found explicit formulae for calculation of the cross sections for the single and double diffractive production as well as for the value of the survival probability for the diffractive central production. These formulae include the influence of the correlations due to so called Pomeron loops on the values of all discussed observables. The comparison with the other approaches on the market is given. The main conclusion of this comparison: the Mueller-Patel-Salam-Iancu approximation gives sufficiently good descriptions and close to the exact result for elastic and diffractive cross section but considerable overshoot the value of the survival probability.

  15. Diffractive hadronic production of D mesons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacKay, William Wallace [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States). Dept. of Physcis

    1980-01-01

    This thesis reports on data taken in experiment E369 using the Chicago Cyclotron Spectrometer at Fermilab. A search for charmed D mesons was made using a beam of 217 GeV π- incident on a liquid hydrogen target. The trigger required a recoil proton and a prompt muon. A total of 50 ± 12 charged D events were seen in the K±ππ channels and were split between the two channels in about equal amounts. Cuts were made which selected diffractive events, but when these cuts were removed the signal remained the same although the background was greatly increased. The Feynman x and angular distributions were consistent with diffractive production. A diffractive model yields a cross section of (6 -10) + 4 µb.

  16. Single and double diffraction dissociation at the LHC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiore, Roberto; Jenkovszky, László; Mieskolainen, Mikael; Orava, Risto

    2017-03-01

    Single and double diffraction dissociation at the LHC is studied in a factorizable Regge-pole model, dominated by a Pomeron pole exchange in the t channel. While the contribution from secondary reggeon exchanges at the LHC is negligible, they are indispensable to match the lower-energy, ISR and FNAL data. To this end we append to the leading Pomeron exchange an effective reggeon. The main emphasis in our study is on the nucleon resonances in missing masses, that are accounted for by a dual model of the inelastic pP → MX vertex, similar to the DIS structure function, known from HERA, with a non-linear nucleon, N∗ trajectory in the direct, MX2 channel. Regge factorization and its breakdown due to a renormalization factor, tempering the energy rise is discussed.

  17. ATLAS results on diffraction and exclusive production

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00224260; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Various aspects of forward physics have been studied by the ATLAS collaboration using data from Run I at the LHC. In this text, main results of three published analyses are summarized, based on data from proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s} = 7$ or 8 TeV collected between 2010 and 2012. One analysis deals with diffractive signature with at least two jets in the final state, the other two study exclusive production of a pair of leptons or W bosons.

  18. ATLAS results on diffraction and exclusive production

    CERN Document Server

    Tasevsky, Marek; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS collaboration has carried out a study of diffractive dijet production at 7 TeV pp collisions at the LHC, i.e. events with a hadronic system containing at least two jets in addition to a large region of pseudorapidity devoid of hadronic activity. The data distributions are compared with Monte Carlo models and the rapidity gap survival probability has been estimated in the kinematic region with high diffractive contribution. In the absence of forward proton tagging, exclusive processes can be distinguished in the central part of the ATLAS detector exploiting the large rapidity gap in the central region and the absence of charged particles reconstructed in the inner tracking detector. This strategy has been exploited to study the exclusive production of dilepton pairs in the data taken at centreofmass energies of 7 and 8 TeV. The 7 TeV study concentrates on a precision measurement of the dielectron and dimuon process, while the 8 TeV measurement explores the exclusive production of WW pairs in the elec...

  19. Diffractive dijet production in deep inelastic scattering at ZEUS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonato, A.

    2008-03-15

    This thesis presents a measurement of dijet production of diffractive deep inelastic scattering ep collisions. This type of process is specially relevant for the experimental validity of the perturbative QCD approach to diffractive physics. The measurement was based on an integrated luminosity of 61 pb{sup -1} collected at the HERA collider with the ZEUS experiment. The events were selected for virtualities of the photon, {gamma}*, 54 GeV. The jet with the highest transverse energy was required to have E{sub T} {sub jet}*>5 GeV. All jets were required to be in the pseudorapidity range -3.5<{eta}{sub jet}*<0 as measured in the {gamma}*p frame. The selection of diffractive events was carried out by requiring a large rapidity gap in the direction of the scattered proton. The value of the fraction of initial proton momentum entering in the hard process, x{sub P}, was required to be x{sub P}<0.03. The total cross section for the process was measured to be {sigma}{sub TOT}{sup D}(ep{yields}ep jet{sub 1}jet{sub 2} X')=9.15{+-}1.2 (stat.){sub 5.4}{sup 3.3} (syst.){sub -5.3}{sup +6.4} (corr.)pb. Single and double differential cross sections were extracted and compared to leading-order predictions and next-to-leading-order QCD calculations. The latter used several diffractive parton densities extracted from inclusive diffractive deep inelastic scattering data. The agreement with the leading and next-to-leading order predictions is good and no hints of factorisation breaking are observed. The double differential measurement can be a previous input for the extraction of more accurate diffractive parton densities. (orig.)

  20. Double diffractive cross-section measurement in the forward region at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Antchev, G.; Atanassov, I.; Baechler, J.; Avati, V.; Berardi, V.; Bossini, E.; Berretti, M.; Bottigli, U.; Bozzo, M.; Brucken, E.; Buzzo, A.; Cafagna, F.S.; Catanesi, M.G.; Csanad, M.; Csorgo, T.; Deile, M.; Eggert, K.; Eremin, V.; Ferro, F.; Fiergolski, A.; Garcia, F.; Giani, S.; Greco, V.; Grzanka, L.; Heino, J.; Hilden, T.; Karev, A.; Kaspar, J.; Kopal, J.; Kundrat, V.; Kurvinen, K.; Lami, S.; Latino, G.; Lauhakangas, R.; Leszko, T.; Lippmaa, E.; Lippmaa, J.; Lokajicek, M.; Losurdo, L.; Lo Vetere, M.; Lucas Rodriguez, F.; Macri, M.; Maki, T.; Mercadante, A.; Minafra, N.; Minutoli, S.; Nemes, F.; Niewiadomski, H.; Oliveri, E.; Orava, R.; Oljemark, F.; Oriunno, M.; Osterberg, K.; Palazzi, P.; Prochazka, J.; Quinto, M.; Radermacher, E.; Radicioni, E.; Ravotti, F.; Robutti, E.; Ropelewski, L.; Ruggiero, G.; Saarikko, H.; Scribano, A.; Smajek, J.; Snoeys, W.; Sziklai, J.; Taylor, C.; Turini, N.; Vacek, V.; Vitek, M.; Welti, J.; Whitmore, J.; Wyszkowski, P.

    2013-12-26

    The first double diffractive cross-section measurement in the very forward region has been carriedout by the TOTEM experiment at the LHC with center-of-mass energy of √s = 7 TeV. By utilizingthe very forward TOTEM tracking detectors T1 and T2, which extend up to pseudo rapidity |$\\eta$|=6.5, a clean sample of double diffractive pp events was extracted. From these events, we measured the cross-section $\\sigma_{DD}$ = (116±25) mb for events where both diffractive systems have 4.7 < |$\\eta$|$_{min}$ < 6.5.

  1. Double diffractive cross-section measurement in the forward region at the LHC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antchev, G; Aspell, P; Atanassov, I; Avati, V; Baechler, J; Berardi, V; Berretti, M; Bossini, E; Bottigli, U; Bozzo, M; Brücken, E; Buzzo, A; Cafagna, F S; Catanesi, M G; Covault, C; Csanád, M; Csörgő, T; Deile, M; Eggert, K; Eremin, V; Ferro, F; Fiergolski, A; Garcia, F; Giani, S; Greco, V; Grzanka, L; Heino, J; Hilden, T; Karev, A; Kašpar, J; Kopal, J; Kundrát, V; Kurvinen, K; Lami, S; Latino, G; Lauhakangas, R; Leszko, T; Lippmaa, E; Lippmaa, J; Lokajíček, M; Losurdo, L; Lo Vetere, M; Lucas Rodríguez, F; Macrí, M; Mäki, T; Mercadante, A; Minafra, N; Minutoli, S; Nemes, F; Niewiadomski, H; Oliveri, E; Oljemark, F; Orava, R; Oriunno, M; Österberg, K; Palazzi, P; Procházka, J; Quinto, M; Radermacher, E; Radicioni, E; Ravotti, F; Robutti, E; Ropelewski, L; Ruggiero, G; Saarikko, H; Scribano, A; Smajek, J; Snoeys, W; Sziklai, J; Taylor, C; Turini, N; Vacek, V; Vítek, M; Welti, J; Whitmore, J; Wyszkowski, P

    2013-12-27

    The first double diffractive cross-section measurement in the very forward region has been carried out by the TOTEM experiment at the LHC with a center-of-mass energy of sqrt[s]=7  TeV. By utilizing the very forward TOTEM tracking detectors T1 and T2, which extend up to |η|=6.5, a clean sample of double diffractive pp events was extracted. From these events, we determined the cross section σDD=(116±25)  μb for events where both diffractive systems have 4.7<|η|min<6.5.

  2. Low missing mass, single- and double diffraction dissociation at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Jenkovszky, Laszlo; Orava, Risto; Salii, Andrii

    2014-01-01

    Low missing mass, single- and double diffraction dissociation is calculated for the LHC energies from a dual-Regge model, dominated by a Pomeron Regge pole exchange. The model reproduces the rich resonance structure in the low missing mass Mx region. The diffractionly excited states lie on the nucleon trajectory, appended by the isolated Roper resonance. Detailed predictions for the squared momentum transfer and missing mass dependence of the differential and integrated single- and double diffraction dissociation in the kinematical range of present and future LHC measurements are given. The model predicts a possible turn-down of the cross section towards, t -> 0 in a region probably accessible in future experiments in the nearly forward direction. The present work is a continuation and extension (e.g. with double diffraction) of a previous work using the dual Regge approach.

  3. AIP Single and double diffraction dissociation at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Fiore, Roberto; Mieskolainen, Mikael; Orava, Risto

    2017-01-01

    Single and double di ff raction dissociation at the LHC is studied in a factorizable Regge-pole model, dominated by a Pomeron pole exchange in the t channel. While the contribution from secondary reggeon exchanges at the LHC is negligible, they are indispensable to match the lower-energy, ISR and FNAL data. To this end we append to the leading Pomeron exchange an e ff ective reggeon. The main emphasis in our study is on the nucleon resonances in missing masses, that are accounted for by a dual model of the inelastic pP → M X vertex, similar to the DIS structure function, known from HERA, with a non-linear nucleon, N ∗ trajectory in the direct, M 2 X channel. Regge factorization and its breakdown due to a renormalization factor, tempering the energy rise is discussed.

  4. Double Heavy Flavour Production at LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Yiming

    2017-01-01

    This proceeding summarises the latest LHCb results on associated heavy flavour productions, including double charm production and associated bottomonia and charm production. This article belongs to the Topical Collection “New Observables in Quarkonium Production”.

  5. ηc Diffractive Production in the Direct Photon Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Zhan-Yuan; DUAN Chun-Gui; LI Guang-Lie

    2003-01-01

    Based on the factorization theorem for lepton induced hard diffractive scattering and color octet heavyquarkonium production mechanism, ηc diffractive production in the direct photon process is studied. The results showthat this process can be measured at DESY HERA, and ηc production has different features from J/ψ production,which is weakly affected by the initial and final state gluon radiation. Therefore, ηc photoproduction can be viewed asreliable estimate. The experimental study of this process can give valuable insight in the color octet heavy quarkoniumproduction mechanism.

  6. Observation Of Diffractive J/ Y Production At The Fermilab Tevatron

    CERN Document Server

    Solodsky, A

    2001-01-01

    The first observation of diffractive J/ y (→ m+m- ) production in p¯p collisions at s = 1.8 TeV is presented using data collected from the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF). In a sample of events with two muons of transverse momentum PmT > 2 GeV/c within the pseudorapidity region |η| < 1.0, the ratio of diffractive to total J/ y production rates is found to be RJ/y = (1.45 ± 0.25)%. Diffractive events are identified by their rapidity gap signature. The ratio RJ/y is studied as a function of the momentum fraction x bj of the struck parton in the (anti)proton. By combining this measurement with a similar one of diffractive dijet production with a leading antiproton, the gluon fraction of the (anti)proton diffractive structure is found to be 0.59 ± 0.15. These results are compared with reported results for diffractive W, dijet and b-quark production.

  7. Probing the diffractive production of gauge bosons at forward rapidities

    CERN Document Server

    Basso, E; Rangel, M S

    2016-01-01

    The gauge boson production at forward rapidities in single diffractive events at the LHC is investigated considering $pp$ collisions at $\\sqrt{s} =$ 8 and 13 TeV. The impact of gap survival effects is analysed using two different models for the soft rescattering contributions. We demonstrate that using the Forward Shower Counter Project at LHCb -- HERSCHEL, together with the Vertex Locator -- VELO, it is possible to discriminate diffractive production of the gauge bosons $W$ and $Z$ from the non-diffractive processes and studies of the Pomeron structure and diffraction phenomenology are feasible. Moreover, we show that the analysis of this process can be useful to constrain the modelling of the gap survival effects.

  8. Probing diffractive production of gauge bosons at forward rapidities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basso, Eduardo; Rangel, Murilo S. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Fisica, Caixa Postal 68528, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Goncalves, Victor P. [Universidade Federal de Pelotas, Instituto de Fisica e Matematica, Pelotas, RS (Brazil)

    2016-12-15

    Gauge boson production at forward rapidities in single diffractive events at the LHC is investigated considering pp collisions at √(s) = 8 and 13 TeV. The impact of gap survival effects is analysed using two different models for the soft rescattering contributions. We demonstrate that using the forward shower counter Project at LHCb-HERSCHEL, together with the Vertex Locator-VELO, it is possible to discriminate diffractive production of the gauge bosons W and Z from the non-diffractive processes and studies of the Pomeron structure and diffraction phenomenology are feasible. Moreover, we show that the analysis of this process can be useful to constrain the modelling of the gap survival effects. (orig.)

  9. Dijet production in diffractive deep inelastic scattering at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Chekanov, S; Magill, S; Musgrave, B; Nicholass, D; Repond, J; Yoshida, R; Mattingly, M C K; Jechow, M; Pavel, N; Yagues-Molina, A G; Antonelli, S; Antonioli, P; Bari, G; Basile, M; Bellagamba, L; Bindi, M; Boscherini, D; Bruni, A; Bruni, G; Cifarelli, L; Cindolo, F; Contin, A; Corradi, M; De Pasquale, S; Iacobucci, G; Margotti, A; Nania, R; Polini, A; Sartorelli, G; Zichichi, A; Bartsch, D; Brock, I; Hartmann, H; Hilger, E; Jakob, H P; Jüngst, M; Kind, O M; Nuncio-Quiroz, A E; Paul, E; Renner, R; Samson, U; Schonberg, V; Shehzadi, R; Wlasenko, M; Brook, N H; Heath, G P; Morris, J D; Capua, M; Fazio, S; Mastroberardino, A; Schioppa, M; Susinno, G; Tassi, E; Kim, J Y; Ma, K J; Ibrahim, Z A; Kamaluddin, B; Wan-Abdullah, W A T; Ning, Y; Ren, Z; Sciulli, F; Chwastowski, J; Eskreys, A; Figiel, J; Galas, A; Gil, M; Olkiewicz, K; Stopa, P; Zawiejski, L; Adamczyk, L; Bold, T; Grabowska-Bold, I; Kisielewska, D; Lukasik, J; Przybycien, M; Suszycki, L; Kotanski, A; Slominski, W; Adler, V; Behrens, U; Bloch, I; Blohm, C; Bonato, A; Borras, K; Ciesielski, R; Coppola, N; Dossanov, A; Drugakov, V; Fourletova, J; Geiser, A; Gladkov, D; Göttlicher, P; Grebenyuk, J; Gregor, I; Haas, T; Hain, W; Horn, C; Huttmann, A; Kahle, B; Katkov, I I; Klein, U; Kötz, U; Kowalski, H; Lobodzinska, E; Löhr, B; Mankel, R; Melzer-, I A; Pellmann; Miglioranzi, S; Montanari, A; Namsoo, T; Notz, D; Rinaldi, L; Roloff, P; Rubinsky, I; Santamarta, R; Schneekloth, U; Spiridonov, A; Stadie, H; Szuba, D; Szuba, J; Theedt, T; Wolf, G; Wrona, K; Youngman, C; Zeuner, W; Lohmann, W; Schlenstedt, S; Barbagli, G; Gallo, E; Pelfer, P G; Bamberger, A; Dobur, D; Karstens, F; Vlasov, N N; Bussey, P J; Doyle, A T; Dunne, W; Forrest, M; Saxon, D H; Skillicorn, I O; Gialas, I; Papageorgiu, K; Gosau, T; Holm, U; Klanner, R; Lohrmann, E; Salehi, H; Schleper, P; Schörner-Sadenius, T; Sztuk, J; Wichmann, K; Wick, K; Foudas, C; Fry, C; Long, K R; Tapper, A D; Kataoka, M; Matsumoto, T; Nagano, K; Tokushuku, K; Yamada, S; Yamazaki, Y; Barakbaev, A N; Boos, E G; Pokrovskiy, N S; Zhautykov, B O; Aushev, V; Borodin, M; Kozulia, A; Lisovyi, M; Son, D; De Favereau, J; Piotrzkowski, K; Barreiro, F; Glasman, C; Jiménez, M; Labarga, L; Del Peso, J; Ron, E; Soares, M; Terron, J; Zambrana, M; Corriveau, F; Liu, C; Walsh, R; Zhou, C; Tsurugai, T; Antonov, A; Dolgoshein, B A; Sosnovtsev, V; Stifutkin, A; Suchkov, S; Dementiev, R K; Ermolov, P F; Gladilin, L K; Khein, L A; Korzhavina, I A; Kuzmin, V A; Levchenko, B B; Lukina, O Yu; Proskuryakov, A S; Shcheglova, L M; Zotkin, D S; Zotkin, S A; Abt, I; Büttner, C; Caldwell, A; Kollar, D; Schmidke, W B; Sutiak, J; Grigorescu, G; Keramidas, A; Koffeman, E; Kooijman, P; Pellegrino, A; Tiecke, H; Vázquez, M; Wiggers, L; Brümmer, N; Bylsma, B; Durkin, L S; Lee, A; Ling, T Y; Allfrey, P D; Bell, M A; Cooper-Sarkar, A M; Devenish, R C E; Ferrando, J; Foster, B; Korcsak-Gorzo, K; Oliver, K; Patel, S; Roberfroid, V; Robertson, A; Straub, P B; Uribe-Estrada, C; Walczak, R; Bellan, P; Bertolin, A; Brugnera, R; Carlin, R; Dal Corso, F; Dusini, S; Garfagnini, A; Limentani, S; Longhin, A; Stanco, L; Turcato, M; Oh, B Y; Raval, A; Ukleja, J; Whitmore, J J; Iga, Y; D'Agostini, G; Marini, G; Nigro, A; Cole, J E; Hart, J C; Abramowicz, H; Gabareen, A; Ingbir, R; Kananov, S; Levy, A; Smith, O; Stern, A; Kuze, M; Maeda, J; Hori, R; Kagawa, S; Okazaki, N; Shimizu, S; Tawara, T; Hamatsu, R; Kaji, H; Kitamura, S; Ota, O; Ri, Y D; Ferrero, M I; Monaco, V; Sacchi, R; Solano, A; Arneodo, M; Ruspa, M; Fourletov, S; Martin, J F; Boutle, S K; Butterworth, J M; Gwenlan, C; Jones, T W; Loizides, J H; Sutton, M R; Wing, M; Brzozowska, B; Ciborowski, J; Grzelak, G; Kulinski, P; Luzniak, P; Malka, J; Nowak, R J; Pawlak, J M; Tymieniecka, T; Ukleja, A; Zarnecki, A F; Adamus, M; Plucinsky, P P; Eisenberg, Y; Giller, I; Hochman, D; Karshon, U; Rosin, M; Brownson, E; Danielson, T; Everett, A; Kcira, D; Reeder, D D; Ryan, P; Savin, A A; Smith, W H; Wolfe, H; Bhadra, S; Catterall, C D; Cui, Y; Hartner, G; Menary, S; Noor, U; Standage, J; Whyte, J

    2007-01-01

    The production of dijets in diffractive deep inelastic scattering has been measured with the ZEUS detector at HERA using an integrated luminosity of $61 \\pbi$. The dijet cross section has been measured for virtualities of the exchanged virtual photon, $5 4 \\gev$ and the jet with the highest transverse energy was required to have $E^*_{T,\\rm jet} > 5 \\gev$. All jets were required to be in the pseudorapidity range $-3.5 < \\eta^*_{\\rm jet} < 0$. The differential cross sections are compared to leading-order predictions and next-to-leading-order QCD calculations based on recent diffractive parton densities extracted from inclusive diffractive deep inelastic scattering data.

  10. Single-diffractive Drell-Yan pair production at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Ceccopieri, Federico Alberto

    2016-01-01

    We present predictions for single-diffractive low-mass Drell-Yan pair production in $pp$ collisions at LHC at $\\sqrt{s}=13$ TeV. Predictions are obtained adopting a factorised form for the relevant cross sections and are based on a new set of diffractive parton distributions resulting from the QCD analysis of combined HERA leading proton data. We discuss a number of observables useful to characterise the expected factorisation breaking effects.

  11. Optical double-image cryptography based on diffractive imaging with a laterally-translated phase grating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen; Chen, Xudong; Sheppard, Colin J R

    2011-10-10

    In this paper, we propose a method using structured-illumination-based diffractive imaging with a laterally-translated phase grating for optical double-image cryptography. An optical cryptosystem is designed, and multiple random phase-only masks are placed in the optical path. When a phase grating is laterally translated just before the plaintexts, several diffraction intensity patterns (i.e., ciphertexts) can be correspondingly obtained. During image decryption, an iterative retrieval algorithm is developed to extract plaintexts from the ciphertexts. In addition, security and advantages of the proposed method are analyzed. Feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method are demonstrated by numerical simulation results.

  12. Diffractive Higgs Production from Intrinsic Heavy Flavors in the Proton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; Kopeliovich, Boris; Schmidt, Ivan; Soffer, Jacques

    2006-03-31

    We propose a novel mechanism for exclusive diffractive Higgs production pp {yields} pHp in which the Higgs boson carries a significant fraction of the projectile proton momentum. This mechanism will provide a clear experimental signal for Higgs production due to the small background in this kinematic region. The key assumption underlying our analysis is the presence of intrinsic heavy flavor components of the proton bound state, whose existence at high light-cone momentum fraction x has growing experimental and theoretical support. We also discuss the implications of this picture for exclusive diffractive quarkonium and other channels.

  13. Impact Factor for Exclusive Diffractive Dijet Production with NLO Accuracy

    CERN Document Server

    Boussarie, R; Szymanowski, L; Wallon, S

    2016-01-01

    Relying on the shockwave approach, we present the main steps of the computation of the impact factor for the exclusive diffractive photo- or electro- production of a forward dijet with NLO accuracy. We provide details of the cancellation mechanisms for all the divergences which appear in the intermediate results.

  14. From factorization to its breaking in diffractive dijet production

    CERN Document Server

    Klasen, M

    2005-01-01

    When comparing recent experimental data from the H1 and ZEUS Collaborations at HERA for diffractive dijet production in deep-inelastic scattering (DIS) and photoproduction with next-to-leading order (NLO) QCD predictions using diffractive parton densities, good agreement is found for DIS. However, the dijet photoproduction data are overestimated by the NLO theory, showing that factorization breaking occurs at this order. While this is expected theoretically for resolved photoproduction, the fact that the data are better described by a global suppression of direct and resolved contribution by about a factor of two comes as a surprise. We therefore discuss in some detail the factorization scheme and scale dependence between direct and resolved contributions and propose a new factorization scheme for diffractive dijet photoproduction.

  15. From Factorization to its Breaking in Diffractive Dijet Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klasen, M.

    2006-04-01

    When comparing recent experimental data from the H1 and ZEUS Collaborations at HERA for diffractive dijet production in deep-inelastic scattering (DIS) and photoproduction with next-to-leading order (NLO) QCD predictions using diffractive parton densities, good agreement is found for DIS. However, the dijet photoproduction data are overestimated by the NLO theory, showing that factorization breaking occurs at this order. While this is expected theoretically for resolved photoproduction, the fact that the data are better described by a global suppression of direct and resolved contribution by about a factor of two comes as a surprise. We therefore discuss in some detail the factorization scheme and scale dependence between direct and resolved contributions and propose a new factorization scheme for diffractive dijet photoproduction.

  16. Improving double patterning flow by analyzing the diffractive orders in the pupil plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeggaoui, N.; Farys, V.; Besacier, M.; Li, Q.; Yesilada, E.; Trouiller, Y.

    2011-04-01

    To print sub 22nm node features, current lithography technology faces some tool limitations. One possible solution to overcome these problems is to use the double patterning technique (DPT). The principle of the double patterning technique is pitch splitting where two adjacent features must be assigned opposite masks (colors) corresponding to different exposures if their pitch is less than a predefined minimum coloring pitch. However, certain design orientations for which pattern features separated by more than the minimum coloring pitch cannot be imaged with either of the two exposures. In these directions, the contrast and the process window are degraded because constructive interferences between diffractive orders in the pupil plane are not sufficient. The 22nm and 16nm nodes require the use of very coherent sources that will be generated using SMO (source mask cooptimization). Such pixelized sources while helpful in improving the contrast for selected configurations, can lead to degrade it for configurations which have not been counted for during the SMO process. Therefore, we analyze the diffractive orders interactions in the pupil plane in order to detect these limited orientations in the design and thus propose a new double patterning decomposition algorithm to enlarge the process window and the contrast of each mask.

  17. Optimization of double patterning split by analyzing diffractive orders in the pupil plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeggaoui, N.; Farys, V.; Trouiller, Y.; Yesilada, E.; Robert, F.; Besacier, M.

    2010-09-01

    In double patterning technology (DPT), two adjacent features must be assigned opposite colors, corresponding to different exposures if their pitch is less than a predefined minimum coloring pitch. However, certain design orientations for which pattern features separated by more than the minimum coloring pitch cannot be imaged with either of the two exposures. In such cases, there are no aerial images formed because in these directions there are no constructive interferences between diffractive orders in the pupil plane. The 22nm and 16nm nodes require the use of pixelized sources that will be generated using SMO (source mask co-optimization). Such pixelized sources while helpful in improving the contrast for selected configurations can lead to degraded contrast for configurations which have not been set during the SMO process. Therefore, we analyze the diffractive orders interactions in the pupil plane in order to detect limited orientations in the design and thus propose a decomposition to overcome the problem.

  18. Higgs boson production via Double Pomeron Exchange at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Boonekamp, M; Peschanski, R; Royon, C

    2002-01-01

    We study Higgs boson production via Double Pomeron Exchange allowing for the presence of Pomeron remnants. We estimate the number of events produced at the LHC collider, as a function of the Higgs boson mass and its decay channel. The model which successfully describes the high mass dijet spectrum observed at Tevatron (run I) is used to predict rates of events with tagged protons for the acceptance range of the CMS/Totem experiments. Sizeable cross-sections and encouraging event selection signals are found, demonstrating especially for smaller Higgs boson masses the importance to study the diffractive channels. Tagging of the Pomeron remnants can be exploited to achieve a good resolution on the Higgs boson mass for inclusive diffractive events, by optimizing an intermediary analysis between higher cross-sections of the fully {\\it inclusive} mode (all Pomeron remnants) and cleaner signals of the {\\it exclusive} mode (without Pomeron remnants).

  19. Validity of double scaling analysis in semi-inclusive processes - $J/\\psi$ production at HERA

    OpenAIRE

    Sarkar, Tapobrata; Basu, Rahul

    1997-01-01

    In this paper we check the validity of the ideas of double scaling as given by Ball and Forte in a semi inclusive process like $J/\\psi$ production at HERA, in different kinematical regions, for low values of the Bjorken variable $x$. In particular, we study $J/\\psi$ production in the inelastic and diffractive (elastic) regimes using the double scaling form of the gluon distribution functions. We compare these predictions with data (wherever available) and with other standard parameterisations...

  20. Diffractive D{sup *}-mesons production in DIS at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinokurova, Svetlana

    2010-05-15

    This thesis presents a measurement of the cross sections for the production of the charmed mesons in diffractive deep inelastic positron-proton scattering (DIS) interactions of the type ep{yields}eXY, where the system X is separated from a low-mass system Y, by a large rapidity gap where no particles are observed. These diffractive processes can be explained as a result of the exchange of a strongly interacting colour singlet object between the final state particles. In this measurement data taken with the H1 detector in the years 1999-2000, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of L{sub int}=46.7 pb{sup -1} are used. Inclusive DIS events are selected in the kinematic range with the momentum transfer Q{sup 2} element of [2;100] GeV and inelasticity y{sub bj} element of [0.05;07]. The charm quark is tagged by requiring a D{sup *} meson decaying into the channel D{sup *}{yields}D{sup 0}{pi}{sub slow}{yields}K{pi}{pi}{sub slow} inside the central tracking system with transverse momenta p{sub t}(D{sup *})>2 GeV. The forward components of the H1 detector are used to select genuine diffractive events on the basis of the forward sub-detectors activity and of the presence a large rapidity gap in the final state hadrons. The visible charm production cross sections are measured in the diffractive kinematic range M{sub Y} < 1.6 GeV, vertical stroke t vertical stroke < 1 GeV{sup 2} and x{sub P} < 0.04 to be {sigma}(ep{yields}e{sup '}(D{sup *}X)Y)=249{+-}31(stat.){+-}30(sys) pb, where the first uncertainty is statistical and the second systematic. The shape of the differential distributions for diffractive D{sup *} production are well described by the collinear factorisation model which is implemented in the Monte Carlo simulation RAPGAP. (orig.)

  1. Dijet production in diffractive deep inelastic scattering at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chekanov, S.; Derrick, M.; Magill, S. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL (US)] (and others)

    2007-08-15

    The production of dijets in diffractive deep inelastic scattering has been measured with the ZEUS detector at HERA using an integrated luminosity of 61 pb{sup -1}. The dijet cross section has been measured for virtualities of the exchanged virtual photon, 54 GeV and the jet with the highest transverse energy was required to have E{sup *}{sub T,jet}>5 GeV. All jets were required to be in the pseudorapidity range -3.5<{eta}{sup *}{sub jet}<0. The differential cross sections are compared to leading-order predictions and next-to-leading- order QCD calculations based on recent diffractive parton densities extracted from inclusive diffractive deep inelastic scattering data. (orig.)

  2. Diffractive and Exclusive Processes at CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Kuznetsova, Ekaterina

    2014-01-01

    We present an overview of the CMS results on diffractive and exclusive production.Measurements of inclusive single and double diffractive production are discussedas well as measurements of the diffractive production at a hard scale. Measurementsof charged particle multiplicities for single diffractive enhanced data sample and studies of central diffractive jet production were perfrmed in a collaboration with the TOTEM experiment. CMS results on cross section measurements for exclusive dilepton and WW production are also presented.

  3. Double-slit dynamical diffraction of X-rays in ideal crystals (Laue case).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balyan, Minas K

    2010-11-01

    The theoretical investigation of double-slit dynamical X-ray diffraction in ideal crystals shows that, on the exit surface of crystals, interference fringes similar to Young's fringes are formed. An expression for the period of the fringes was obtained. The visibility of the fringes depending on temporal and spatial coherent properties of the incident beam is studied. The polarization state of the incident beam also affects the visibility of the fringes, which in turn depends on the size of the slits. The deviation from Bragg's exact angle causes a shift of the fringes and can also affect the amplitude of the intensity. One of the parameters on which the visibility of the fringes depends is the source-crystal distance. The proposed scheme can be used as a Rayleigh X-ray interferometer. Use of the scheme as a Michelson X-ray stellar interferometer is also possible.

  4. Single- and double-slit collimating effects on fast-atom diffraction spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravielle, M. S.; Miraglia, J. E.

    2016-09-01

    Diffraction patterns produced by fast He atoms grazingly impinging on a LiF(0 0 1) surface are investigated focusing on the influence of the beam collimation. Single- and double-slit collimating devices situated in front of the beam source are considered. To describe the scattering process we use the Surface Initial Value Representation (SIVR) approximation, which is a semi-quantum approach that incorporates a realistic description of the initial wave packet in terms of the collimating parameters. Our initial wave-packet model is based on the Van Cittert-Zernike theorem. For a single-slit collimation the width of the collimating aperture controls the shape of the azimuthal angle distribution, making different interference mechanisms visible, while the length of the slit affects the polar angle distribution. Additionally, we found that by means of a double-slit collimation it might be possible to obtain a wide polar angle distribution, which is associated with a large spread of the initial momentum perpendicular to the surface, derived from the uncertainty principle. It might be used as a simple way to probe the surface potential for different normal energies.

  5. Double Image Design in Newspaper Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Barišić

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the high circulation production of daily newspapers, a double image, double information is set under the rules of Infraredesign theory (Pap et al, 2010. The management of visible and near infrared is posted with process colors for color setting configured for conventional newspaper print. The place of imprint that has delimited information in vs (Visible Spectrum and nir (Near InfraRed is called “a print with an infrared effect,” or conditionally “a print with infrared colors.” Daily newspapers, as massive carriers of information made by printing technique, are receiving a new form of presentation: printed image with a built-in invisible image.

  6. Double Image Design in Newspaper Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Barisic

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In the high circulation production of daily newspapers, a double image, double information is set under the rules of Infraredesign theory (Pap et al, 2010. The management of visible and near infrared is posted with process colors for color setting configured for conventional newspaper print. The place of imprint that has delimited information in vs (Visible Spectrum and nir (Near InfraRed is called “a print with an infrared effect,” or conditionally “a print with infrared colors.” Daily newspapers, as massive carriers of information made by printing technique, are receiving a new form of presentation: printed image with a built-in invisible image.  

  7. Double heavy meson production through double parton scattering in hadronic collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baranov, S.P. [P.N. Lebedev Institute of Physics, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Snigirev, A.M., E-mail: snigirev@lav01.sinp.msu.ru [D.V. Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Zotov, N.P. [D.V. Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2011-11-03

    It is shown that the contribution from double parton scattering to the inclusive double heavy meson yield is quite comparable with the usually considered mechanism of their production at the LHC energy. For some pairs of heavy flavored quarks in the final state the double parton scattering will be a dominant mode of their production.

  8. Double heavy meson production through double parton scattering in hadronic collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Baranov, S P; Zotov, N P

    2011-01-01

    It is shown that the contribution from double parton scattering to the inclusive double heavy meson yield is quite comparable with the usually considered mechanism of their production at the LHC energy. For some pairs of heavy flavored quarks in the final state the double parton scattering will be a dominant mode of their production.

  9. Exclusive central diffractive production of scalar, pseudoscalar and vector mesons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lebiedowicz P.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We discuss exclusive central diffractive production of scalar (ƒ0(980, ƒ0(1370, ƒ0(1500, pseudoscalar (η, η′(958, and vector (ρ0 mesons in proton-proton collisions. The amplitudes are formulated in terms of effective vertices required to respect standard rules of Quantum Field Theory and propagators for the exchanged pomeron and reggeons. Different pomeron-pomeron-meson tensorial (vectorial coupling structures are possible in general. In most cases two lowest orbital angular momentum - spin couplings are necessary to describe experimental differential distributions. For the ƒ0(980 and η production the reggeon-pomeron, pomeron-reggeon, and reggeon-reggeon exchanges are included in addition, which seems to be necessary at relatively low energies. The theoretical results are compared with the WA102 experimental data, in order to determine the model parameters. For the ρ0 production the photon-pomeron and pomeron-photon exchanges are considered. The coupling parameters of tensor pomeron and/or reggeon are fixed from the H1 and ZEUS experimental data of the γp → ρ0 p reaction. We present first predictions of this mechanism for pp → ppπ+π− reaction being studied at COMPASS, RHIC, Tevatron, and LHC. Correlation in azimuthal angle between outgoing protons and distribution in pion rapidities at √s = 7 TeV are presented. We show that high-energy central production of mesons could provide crucial information on the spin structure of the soft pomeron.

  10. Diffraction-based overlay for spacer patterning and double patterning technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byoung Hoon; Park, JeongSu; Lee, Jongsu; Park, Sarohan; Lim, ChangMoon; Yim, Dong-Gyu; Park, Sungki; Ryu, Chan-Ho; Morgan, Stephen; van de Schaar, Maurits; Fuchs, Andreas; Bhattacharyya, Kaustuve

    2011-03-01

    Overlay performance will be increasingly important for Spacer Patterning Technology (SPT) and Double Patterning Technology (DPT) as various Resolution Enhancement Techniques are employed to extend the resolution limits of lithography. Continuous shrinkage of devices makes overlay accuracy one of the most critical issues while overlay performance is completely dependent on exposure tool. Image Based Overlay (IBO) has been used as the mainstream metrology for overlay by the main memory IC companies, but IBO is not suitable for some critical layers due to the poor Tool Induced Shift (TIS) values. Hence new overlay metrology is required to improve the overlay measurement accuracy. Diffraction Based Overlay (DBO) is regarded to be an alternative metrology to IBO for more accurate measurements and reduction of reading errors. Good overlay performances of DBO have been reported in many articles. However applying DBO for SPT and DPT layers poses extra challenges for target design. New vernier designs are considered for different DPT and SPT schemes to meet overlay target in DBO system. In this paper, we optimize the design of the DBO target and the performance of DBO to meet the overlay specification of sub-3x nm devices which are using SPT and DPT processes. We show that the appropriate vernier design yields excellent overlay performance in residual and TIS. The paper also demonstrated the effects of vernier structure on overlay accuracy from SEM analysis.

  11. Measurement of inelastic, single- and double-diffraction cross sections in proton-proton collisions at the LHC with ALICE

    CERN Document Server

    Abelev, Betty; Adamova, Dagmar; Adare, Andrew Marshall; Aggarwal, Madan; Aglieri Rinella, Gianluca; Agocs, Andras Gabor; Agostinelli, Andrea; Aguilar Salazar, Saul; Ahammed, Zubayer; Ahmad, Nazeer; Ahmad, Arshad; Ahn, Sul-Ah; Ahn, Sang Un; Akindinov, Alexander; Aleksandrov, Dmitry; Alessandro, Bruno; Alfaro Molina, Jose Ruben; Alici, Andrea; Alkin, Anton; Almaraz Avina, Erick Jonathan; Alme, Johan; Alt, Torsten; Altini, Valerio; Altinpinar, Sedat; Altsybeev, Igor; Andrei, Cristian; Andronic, Anton; Anguelov, Venelin; Anielski, Jonas; Anson, Christopher Daniel; Anticic, Tome; Antinori, Federico; Antonioli, Pietro; Aphecetche, Laurent Bernard; Appelshauser, Harald; Arbor, Nicolas; Arcelli, Silvia; Arend, Andreas; Armesto, Nestor; Arnaldi, Roberta; Aronsson, Tomas Robert; Arsene, Ionut Cristian; Arslandok, Mesut; Asryan, Andzhey; Augustinus, Andre; Averbeck, Ralf Peter; Awes, Terry; Aysto, Juha Heikki; Azmi, Mohd Danish; Bach, Matthias Jakob; Badala, Angela; Baek, Yong Wook; Bailhache, Raphaelle Marie; Bala, Renu; Baldini Ferroli, Rinaldo; Baldisseri, Alberto; Baldit, Alain; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, Fernando; Ban, Jaroslav; Baral, Rama Chandra; Barbera, Roberto; Barile, Francesco; Barnafoldi, Gergely Gabor; Barnby, Lee Stuart; Barret, Valerie; Bartke, Jerzy Gustaw; Basile, Maurizio; Bastid, Nicole; Basu, Sumit; Bathen, Bastian; Batigne, Guillaume; Batyunya, Boris; Baumann, Christoph Heinrich; Bearden, Ian Gardner; Beck, Hans; Behera, Nirbhay Kumar; Belikov, Iouri; Bellini, Francesca; Bellwied, Rene; Belmont-Moreno, Ernesto; Bencedi, Gyula; Beole, Stefania; Berceanu, Ionela; Bercuci, Alexandru; Berdnikov, Yaroslav; Berenyi, Daniel; Bergognon, Anais Annick Erica; Berzano, Dario; Betev, Latchezar; Bhasin, Anju; Bhati, Ashok Kumar; Bhom, Jihyun; Bianchi, Livio; Bianchi, Nicola; Bianchin, Chiara; Bielcik, Jaroslav; Bielcikova, Jana; Bilandzic, Ante; Bjelogrlic, Sandro; Blanco, F; Blanco, Francesco; Blau, Dmitry; Blume, Christoph; Boccioli, Marco; Bock, Nicolas; Boettger, Stefan; Bogdanov, Alexey; Boggild, Hans; Bogolyubsky, Mikhail; Boldizsar, Laszlo; Bombara, Marek; Book, Julian; Borel, Herve; Borissov, Alexander; Bose, Suvendu Nath; Bossu, Francesco; Botje, Michiel; Botta, Elena; Boyer, Bruno Alexandre; Braidot, Ermes; Braun-Munzinger, Peter; Bregant, Marco; Breitner, Timo Gunther; Browning, Tyler Allen; Broz, Michal; Brun, Rene; Bruna, Elena; Bruno, Giuseppe Eugenio; Budnikov, Dmitry; Buesching, Henner; Bufalino, Stefania; Busch, Oliver; Buthelezi, Edith Zinhle; Caballero Orduna, Diego; Caffarri, Davide; Cai, Xu; Caines, Helen Louise; Calvo Villar, Ernesto; Camerini, Paolo; Canoa Roman, Veronica; Cara Romeo, Giovanni; Carena, Wisla; Carena, Francesco; Carlin Filho, Nelson; Carminati, Federico; Casanova Diaz, Amaya Ofelia; Castillo Castellanos, Javier Ernesto; Castillo Hernandez, Juan Francisco; Casula, Ester Anna Rita; Catanescu, Vasile; Cavicchioli, Costanza; Ceballos Sanchez, Cesar; Cepila, Jan; Cerello, Piergiorgio; Chang, Beomsu; Chapeland, Sylvain; Charvet, Jean-Luc Fernand; Chattopadhyay, Subhasis; Chattopadhyay, Sukalyan; Chawla, Isha; Cherney, Michael Gerard; Cheshkov, Cvetan; Cheynis, Brigitte; Chibante Barroso, Vasco Miguel; Chinellato, David; Chochula, Peter; Chojnacki, Marek; Choudhury, Subikash; Christakoglou, Panagiotis; Christensen, Christian Holm; Christiansen, Peter; Chujo, Tatsuya; Chung, Suh-Urk; Cicalo, Corrado; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, Federico; Cleymans, Jean Willy Andre; Coccetti, Fabrizio; Colamaria, Fabio; Colella, Domenico; Conesa Balbastre, Gustavo; Conesa del Valle, Zaida; Contin, Giacomo; Contreras, Jesus Guillermo; Cormier, Thomas Michael; Corrales Morales, Yasser; Cortese, Pietro; Cortes Maldonado, Ismael; Cosentino, Mauro Rogerio; Costa, Filippo; Cotallo, Manuel Enrique; Crescio, Elisabetta; Crochet, Philippe; Cruz Alaniz, Emilia; Cuautle, Eleazar; Cunqueiro, Leticia; Dainese, Andrea; Dalsgaard, Hans Hjersing; Danu, Andrea; Das, Kushal; Das, Indranil; Das, Debasish; Dash, Sadhana; Dash, Ajay Kumar; De, Sudipan; de Barros, Gabriel; De Caro, Annalisa; de Cataldo, Giacinto; de Cuveland, Jan; De Falco, Alessandro; De Gruttola, Daniele; Delagrange, Hugues; Deloff, Andrzej; De Marco, Nora; Denes, Ervin; De Pasquale, Salvatore; Deppman, Airton; D'Erasmo, Ginevra; de Rooij, Raoul Stefan; Diaz Corchero, Miguel Angel; Di Bari, Domenico; Dietel, Thomas; Di Giglio, Carmelo; Di Liberto, Sergio; Di Mauro, Antonio; Di Nezza, Pasquale; Divia, Roberto; Djuvsland, Oeystein; Dobrin, Alexandru Florin; Dobrowolski, Tadeusz Antoni; Dominguez, Isabel

    2013-01-01

    Measurements of cross sections of inelastic and diffractive processes in proton--proton collisions at LHC energies were carried out with the ALICE detector. The fractions of diffractive processes in inelastic collisions were determined from a study of gaps in charged particle pseudorapidity distributions: for single diffraction (diffractive mass $M_X 3$) $\\sigma_{\\rm DD}/\\sigma_{\\rm INEL} = 0.11 \\pm 0.03, 0.12 \\pm 0.05$, and $0.12^{+0.05}_{-0.04}$, respectively at $\\sqrt{s} = 0.9, 2.76$, and 7 TeV. To measure the inelastic cross section, beam properties were determined with van der Meer scans, and, using a simulation of diffraction adjusted to data, the following values were obtained: $\\sigma_{\\rm INEL} = 62.8^{+2.4}_{-4.0} (model) \\pm 1.2 (lumi)$ mb at $\\sqrt{s} =$ 2.76 TeV and $73.2^{+2.0}_{-4.6} (model) \\pm 2.6 (lumi)$ mb at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV. The single- and double-diffractive cross sections were calculated combining relative rates of diffraction with inelastic cross sections. The results are compared t...

  12. Measurement of inelastic, single- and double-diffraction cross sections in proton-proton collisions at the LHC with ALICE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abelev, B; Adam, J; Adamová, D; Adare, A M; Aggarwal, M M; Aglieri Rinella, G; Agocs, A G; Agostinelli, A; Aguilar Salazar, S; Ahammed, Z; Ahmad Masoodi, A; Ahmad, N; Ahn, S A; Ahn, S U; Akindinov, A; Aleksandrov, D; Alessandro, B; Alfaro Molina, R; Alici, A; Alkin, A; Almaráz Aviña, E; Alme, J; Alt, T; Altini, V; Altinpinar, S; Altsybeev, I; Andrei, C; Andronic, A; Anguelov, V; Anielski, J; Anson, C; Antičić, T; Antinori, F; Antonioli, P; Aphecetche, L; Appelshäuser, H; Arbor, N; Arcelli, S; Arend, A; Armesto, N; Arnaldi, R; Aronsson, T; Arsene, I C; Arslandok, M; Asryan, A; Augustinus, A; Averbeck, R; Awes, T C; Äystö, J; Azmi, M D; Bach, M; Badalà, A; Baek, Y W; Bailhache, R; Bala, R; Baldini Ferroli, R; Baldisseri, A; Baldit, A; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, F; Bán, J; Baral, R C; Barbera, R; Barile, F; Barnaföldi, G G; Barnby, L S; Barret, V; Bartke, J; Basile, M; Bastid, N; Basu, S; Bathen, B; Batigne, G; Batyunya, B; Baumann, C; Bearden, I G; Beck, H; Behera, N K; Belikov, I; Bellini, F; Bellwied, R; Belmont-Moreno, E; Bencedi, G; Beole, S; Berceanu, I; Bercuci, A; Berdnikov, Y; Berenyi, D; Bergognon, A A E; Berzano, D; Betev, L; Bhasin, A; Bhati, A K; Bhom, J; Bianchi, N; Bianchi, L; Bianchin, C; Bielčík, J; Bielčíková, J; Bilandzic, A; Bjelogrlic, S; Blanco, F; Blanco, F; Blau, D; Blume, C; Boccioli, M; Bock, N; Böttger, S; Bogdanov, A; Bøggild, H; Bogolyubsky, M; Boldizsár, L; Bombara, M; Book, J; Borel, H; Borissov, A; Bose, S; Bossú, F; Botje, M; Botta, E; Boyer, B; Braidot, E; Braun-Munzinger, P; Bregant, M; Breitner, T; Browning, T A; Broz, M; Brun, R; Bruna, E; Bruno, G E; Budnikov, D; Buesching, H; Bufalino, S; Busch, O; Buthelezi, Z; Caballero Orduna, D; Caffarri, D; Cai, X; Caines, H; Calvo Villar, E; Camerini, P; Canoa Roman, V; Cara Romeo, G; Carena, F; Carena, W; Carlin Filho, N; Carminati, F; Casanova Díaz, A; Castillo Castellanos, J; Castillo Hernandez, J F; Casula, E A R; Catanescu, V; Cavicchioli, C; Ceballos Sanchez, C; Cepila, J; Cerello, P; Chang, B; Chapeland, S; Charvet, J L; Chattopadhyay, S; Chattopadhyay, S; Chawla, I; Cherney, M; Cheshkov, C; Cheynis, B; Chibante Barroso, V; Chinellato, D D; Chochula, P; Chojnacki, M; Choudhury, S; Christakoglou, P; Christensen, C H; Christiansen, P; Chujo, T; Chung, S U; Cicalo, C; Cifarelli, L; Cindolo, F; Cleymans, J; Coccetti, F; Colamaria, F; Colella, D; Conesa Balbastre, G; Conesa Del Valle, Z; Constantin, P; Contin, G; Contreras, J G; Cormier, T M; Corrales Morales, Y; Cortese, P; Cortés Maldonado, I; Cosentino, M R; Costa, F; Cotallo, M E; Crescio, E; Crochet, P; Cruz Alaniz, E; Cuautle, E; Cunqueiro, L; Dainese, A; Dalsgaard, H H; Danu, A; Das, D; Das, K; Das, I; Dash, S; Dash, A; De, S; de Barros, G O V; De Caro, A; de Cataldo, G; de Cuveland, J; De Falco, A; De Gruttola, D; Delagrange, H; Deloff, A; Demanov, V; De Marco, N; Dénes, E; De Pasquale, S; Deppman, A; D Erasmo, G; de Rooij, R; Diaz Corchero, M A; Di Bari, D; Dietel, T; Di Giglio, C; Di Liberto, S; Di Mauro, A; Di Nezza, P; Divià, R; Djuvsland, Ø; Dobrin, A; Dobrowolski, T; Domínguez, I; Dönigus, B; Dordic, O; Driga, O; Dubey, A K; Dubla, A; Ducroux, L; Dupieux, P; Dutta Majumdar, M R; Dutta Majumdar, A K; Elia, D; Emschermann, D; Engel, H; Erazmus, B; Erdal, H A; Espagnon, B; Estienne, M; Esumi, S; Evans, D; Eyyubova, G; Fabris, D; Faivre, J; Falchieri, D; Fantoni, A; Fasel, M; Fearick, R; Fedunov, A; Fehlker, D; Feldkamp, L; Felea, D; Fenton-Olsen, B; Feofilov, G; Fernández Téllez, A; Ferretti, A; Ferretti, R; Festanti, A; Figiel, J; Figueredo, M A S; Filchagin, S; Finogeev, D; Fionda, F M; Fiore, E M; Floris, M; Foertsch, S; Foka, P; Fokin, S; Fragiacomo, E; Francescon, A; Frankenfeld, U; Fuchs, U; Furget, C; Fusco Girard, M; Gaardhøje, J J; Gagliardi, M; Gago, A; Gallio, M; Gangadharan, D R; Ganoti, P; Garabatos, C; Garcia-Solis, E; Garishvili, I; Gerhard, J; Germain, M; Geuna, C; Gheata, M; Gheata, A; Ghidini, B; Ghosh, P; Gianotti, P; Girard, M R; Giubellino, P; Gladysz-Dziadus, E; Glässel, P; Gomez, R; 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Szanto de Toledo, A; Szarka, I; Szczepankiewicz, A; Szostak, A; Szymański, M; Takahashi, J; Tapia Takaki, J D; Tauro, A; Tejeda Muñoz, G; Telesca, A; Terrevoli, C; Thäder, J; Thomas, D; Tieulent, R; Timmins, A R; Tlusty, D; Toia, A; Torii, H; Toscano, L; Trubnikov, V; Truesdale, D; Trzaska, W H; Tsuji, T; Tumkin, A; Turrisi, R; Tveter, T S; Ulery, J; Ullaland, K; Ulrich, J; Uras, A; Urbán, J; Urciuoli, G M; Usai, G L; Vajzer, M; Vala, M; Valencia Palomo, L; Vallero, S; Vande Vyvre, P; van Leeuwen, M; Vannucci, L; Vargas, A; Varma, R; Vasileiou, M; Vasiliev, A; Vechernin, V; Veldhoen, M; Venaruzzo, M; Vercellin, E; Vergara, S; Vernet, R; Verweij, M; Vickovic, L; Viesti, G; Vikhlyantsev, O; Vilakazi, Z; Villalobos Baillie, O; Vinogradov, Y; Vinogradov, A; Vinogradov, L; Virgili, T; Viyogi, Y P; Vodopyanov, A; Voloshin, S; Voloshin, K; Volpe, G; von Haller, B; Vranic, D; Øvrebekk, G; Vrláková, J; Vulpescu, B; Vyushin, A; Wagner, V; Wagner, B; Wan, R; Wang, M; Wang, D; Wang, Y; Wang, Y; Watanabe, K; Weber, M; Wessels, J P; Westerhoff, U; Wiechula, J; Wikne, J; Wilde, M; Wilk, A; Wilk, G; Williams, M C S; Windelband, B; Xaplanteris Karampatsos, L; Yaldo, C G; Yamaguchi, Y; Yang, H; Yang, S; Yasnopolskiy, S; Yi, J; Yin, Z; Yoo, I-K; Yoon, J; Yu, W; Yuan, X; Yushmanov, I; Zaccolo, V; Zach, C; Zampolli, C; Zaporozhets, S; Zarochentsev, A; Závada, P; Zaviyalov, N; Zbroszczyk, H; Zelnicek, P; Zgura, I S; Zhalov, M; Zhang, X; Zhang, H; Zhou, D; Zhou, Y; Zhou, F; Zhu, J; Zhu, J; Zhu, X; Zichichi, A; Zimmermann, A; Zinovjev, G; Zoccarato, Y; Zynovyev, M; Zyzak, M

    Measurements of cross sections of inelastic and diffractive processes in proton-proton collisions at LHC energies were carried out with the ALICE detector. The fractions of diffractive processes in inelastic collisions were determined from a study of gaps in charged particle pseudorapidity distributions: for single diffraction (diffractive mass MX 3) σDD/σINEL=0.11±0.03,0.12±0.05, and [Formula: see text], respectively at [Formula: see text]. To measure the inelastic cross section, beam properties were determined with van der Meer scans, and, using a simulation of diffraction adjusted to data, the following values were obtained: [Formula: see text] mb at [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] at [Formula: see text]. The single- and double-diffractive cross sections were calculated combining relative rates of diffraction with inelastic cross sections. The results are compared to previous measurements at proton-antiproton and proton-proton colliders at lower energies, to measurements by other experiments at the LHC, and to theoretical models.

  13. Production of antihydrogen via double charge exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muellers, Andreas

    2013-02-01

    Spectroscopy of the 1S-2S transition of antihydrogen confined in a neutral atom trap and comparison with the equivalent spectral line in hydrogen will provide an accurate test of CPT symmetry and the first one in a mixed baryon-lepton system. Also, with neutral antihydrogen atoms, the gravitational interaction between matter and antimatter can be tested unperturbed by the much stronger Coulomb forces. Antihydrogen is regularly produced at CERN's Antiproton Decelerator by three-body-recombination (TBR) of one antiproton and two positrons. The method requires injecting antiprotons into a cloud of positrons, which raises the average temperature of the antihydrogen atoms produced way above the typical 0.5 K trap depths of neutral atom traps. Therefore only very few antihydrogen atoms can be confined at a time. Precision measurements, like laser spectroscopy, will greatly benefit from larger numbers of simultaneously trapped antihydrogen atoms. Therefore, the ATRAP collaboration developed a different production method that has the potential to create much larger numbers of cold, trappable antihydrogen atoms. Positrons and antiprotons are stored and cooled in a Penning trap in close proximity. Laser excited cesium atoms collide with the positrons, forming Rydberg positronium, a bound state of an electron and a positron. The positronium atoms are no longer confined by the electric potentials of the Penning trap and some drift into the neighboring cloud of antiprotons where, in a second charge exchange collision, they form antihydrogen. The antiprotons remain at rest during the entire process, so much larger numbers of trappable antihydrogen atoms can be produced. Laser excitation is necessary to increase the efficiency of the process since the cross sections for charge-exchange collisions scale with the fourth power of the principal quantum number n. This method, named double charge-exchange, was demonstrated by ATRAP in 2004. Since then, ATRAP constructed a new

  14. Structures of an asymmetrically coupled double-well superlattice by double-crystal X-ray diffraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马文全; 庄岩; 王玉田; 江德生

    1997-01-01

    An asymmetrically coupled ( GaAs/AlAs/GaAs/AlAs)/GaAs(001) double-well supperlattice isstudied by HRDCD (high resolution double-crystal X-ray diffractometry).The intensity of satellite peaks is modulated by wave packet of different sublayers.In the course of simulation,the satellite peaks in the vicinity of the node points of wave packet are very informative for precise determination of sublayer thickness and for improving accuracy.

  15. Diffractive production of heavy mesons at the LHC within $k_t$ - factorization approach

    CERN Document Server

    Luszczak, Marta

    2016-01-01

    We discuss diffractive production of heavy mesons at the LHC. The differential cross sections for single- and central-diffractive mechanisms for $c\\bar c$ pair production are calculated in the framework of the Ingelman-Schlein model corrected for absorption effects. Here, leading-order gluon-gluon fusion and quark-antiquark anihilation partonic subprocesses are taken into consideration. Both pomeron flux factors as well as parton distributions in the pomeron are taken from the H1 Collaboration analysis of diffractive structure function and diffractive dijets at HERA. The extra corrections from subleading reggeon exchanges are also taken into consideration. In addition to standard collinear approach, for the first time the differential cross sections for the diffractive $c\\bar c$ pair production are calculated in the framework of the $k_t$-factorization approach, i.e. effectively including higher-order corrections. The unintegrated (transverse momentum dependent) diffractive parton distributions in proton are ...

  16. Measurement of Dijet Production in Diffractive Deep-Inelastic Scattering at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Schmitt, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    The production of dijets is measured in diffractive deep-inelastic scattering at HERA. The data were recorded with the H1 detector at DESY in the years 2003-2007. Diffractive events are selected by requiring a gap in the rapidity distribution of the hadronic systen, where no particles are produced. Two jets are selected with transverse momenta in the hadronic-centre-of-mass system larger than 4 and 5.5GeV, respectively. Cross sections are measured single- and doubledifferentially in various kinematic quantities. The data are found to be in good agreement with NLO QCD calculations based on diffractive parton densities determined frominclusive diffractive cross section measurements.

  17. Single and double diffractive dissociation and the problem of extraction of the proton-Pomeron cross-section

    CERN Document Server

    Petrov, V A

    2015-01-01

    Diffractive dissociation processes are analysed in the framework of covariant reggeization. We have considered the general form of hadronic tensor and its asymptotic behaviour for $t\\rightarrow 0$ in the case of conserved tensor currents before reggeization. Resulting expressions for differential cross-section of single dissociation (SD) process ($pp \\rightarrow p M$), double dissociation (DD) ($pp\\rightarrow M_1 M_2$) and for the proton-Pomeron cross-section are given in detail, and corresponding problems of the approach are discussed.

  18. Meson production from diffractive pion dissociation at COMPASS

    CERN Document Server

    Grabmüller, Stefanie

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents results of $\\pi^{-}N\\rightarrow\\pi^{-}\\pi^{-}\\pi^{+}N'$ diffractive dissociation events at COMPASS, with 190 GeV$/c$ $\\pi^{-}$ beam impinging on lead target during a short pilot run in 2004. A partial wave analysis was performed for the 3$\\pi$ final states with four-momentum transfer 0.1 GeV2/c$^{2}\\leq t′\\leq$ 1.0 GeV$^{2}/c^{2}$, showing well-known resonances and also a state with spin-exotic quantum numbers $J^{PC}=1^{−+}$. Additionally first results of 5$\\pi$ final states from 2004 and 3$\\pi$ final states from 2008, obtained from a liquid hydrogen target, are presented.

  19. Microlithography application for production of multilevel diffractive optical elements (as a security hologram feature)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braginets, Eugene; Kurashov, V.; Honcharuk, S.; Girnyk, V.; Kostyukevych, S.; Kostyukevych, K.

    2011-02-01

    The goal of a present research is to develop a method for production of multilevel Diffractive Optical Elements (DOEs) for use in Digital Security Holograms, using the direct-writing maskless lithography system.

  20. Measurement of diffractive production of D*+-(2010) mesons in deep inelastic scattering at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Abe, T; Adamczyk, L; Adamus, M; Aghuzumtsyan, G; Antonioli, P; Antonov, A; Arneodo, M; Bailey, D S; Bamberger, A; Barakbaev, A N; Barbagli, G; Barbi, M; Bari, G; Barreiro, F; Bartsch, D; Bashkirov, V; Basile, M; Bauerdick, L A T; Bednarek, B; Behrens, U; Bell, M; Bellagamba, L; Benen, A; Bertolin, A; Bhadra, S; Bodmann, B; Bokel, C; Boogert, S; Boos, E G; Borras, K; Boscherini, D; Brock, I; Brook, N H; Brugnera, R; Brümmer, N; Bruni, A; Bruni, G; Bussey, P J; Butterworth, J M; Bylsma, B; Caldwell, A; Capua, M; Cara Romeo, G; Carli, T; Carlin, R; Cartiglia, N; Catterall, C D; Chekanov, S; Chiochia, V; Chwastowski, J; Ciborowski, J; Ciesielski, R; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, F; Cirio, R; Cloth, P; Cole, J E; Collins-Tooth, C; Contin, A; Cooper-Sarkar, A M; Coppola, N; Cormack, C; Corradi, M; Corriveau, F; Costa, M; Crittenden, James Arthur; D'Agostini, Giulio; Dagan, S; Dal Corso, F; Danilov, P; Dannheim, D; De Pasquale, S; Dementiev, R K; Derrick, M; Deshpande, Abhay A; Devenish, R C E; Dhawan, S; Dolgoshein, B A; Doyle, A T; Drews, G; Durkin, L S; Dusini, S; Eisenberg, Y; Engelen, J; Ermolov, P F; Eskreys, Andrzej; Ferrando, J; Ferrero, M I; Figiel, J; Filges, D; Foster, B; Foudas, C; Fourletov, S; Fourletova, J; Fox-Murphy, A; Fricke, U; Fusayasu, T; Gabareen, A; Galea, R; Gallo, E; Garfagnini, A; Geiser, A; Genta, C; Gialas, I; Gilmore, J; Ginsburg, C M; Giusti, P; Gladilin, L K; Gladkov, D; Glasman, C; Göbel, F; Goers, S; Golubkov, Yu A; Goncalo, R; González, O; Göttlicher, P; Grabowska-Bold, I; Grijpink, S; Grzelak, G; Gutsche, O; Gwenlan, C; Haas, T; Hain, W; Hall-Wilton, R; Hamatsu, R; Hanlon, S; Hart, J C; Hartmann, H; Hartner, G F; Heaphy, E A; Heath, G P; Heath, H F; Helbich, M; Heusch, C A; Hilger, E; Hillert, S; Hirose, T; Hochman, D; Holm, U; Hughes, V W; Iacobucci, G; Iga, Y; Inuzuka, M; Irrgang, P; Jakob, H P; Jelen, K; Jones, T W; Kananov, S; Kappes, A; Karshon, U; Katkov, I I; Katz, U F; Kcira, D; Kerger, R; Khein, L A; Kim, C L; Kim, J Y; Kim, Y K; Kind, O; Kisielewska, D; Kitamura, S; Klimek, K; Koffeman, E; Kohno, T; Kooijman, P; Koop, T; Korzhav--, I A; Kotanski, A; Kötz, U; Kowal, A M; Kowal, M; Kowalski, H; Kowalski, T; Krakauer, D A; Kreisel, A; Krumnack, N; Kuze, M; Kuzmin, V A; Labarga, L; Labes, H; Lammers, S; Lane, J B; Lee, J H; Lee, S W; Lelas, D; Levchenko, B B; Levman, G M; Levy, A; Li, L; Lightwood, M S; Lim, H; Lim, I T; Limentani, S; Ling, T Y; Liu, X; Löhr, B; Lohrmann, E; Loizides, J H; Long, K R; Longhin, A; Lopez-Duran Viani, A; Lukina, O Yu; Lupi, A; Maddox, E; Magill, S; Mankel, R; Margotti, A; Marini, G; Martin, J F; Martínez, M; Maselli, S; Mastroberardino, A; Mat, T; Matsuzawa, K; Mattingly, M C K; Mc, G J; McCubbin, N A; Mellado, B; Menary, S R; Metlica, F; Meyer, A; Milite, M; Miller, D B; Mindur, B; Mirea, A; Monaco, V; Moritz, M; Musgrave, B; Nagano, K; Nania, R; Nigro, A; Nishimura, T; Notz, D; Nowak, R J; Ochs, A; Oh, B Y; Olkiewicz, K; Pac, M Y; Padhi, S; Paganis, S; Palmonari, F; Parenti, A; Park, I H; Paul, E; Pavel, N; Pawlak, J M; Pelfer, P G; Pellegrino, A; Pellmann, I A; Peroni, C; Pesci, A; Petrucci, M C; Piotrzkowski, K; Plucinsky, P P; Pokrovskiy, N S; Polini, A; Posocco, M; Proskuryakov, A S; Przybycien, M B; Raach, H; Rautenberg, J; Raval, A; Redondo, I; Reeder, D D; Renner, R; Repond, J; Rigby, M; Robins, S; Rodrigues, E; Rulikowska-Zarebska, E; Ruske, O; Ruspa, M; Sabetfakhri, A; Sacchi, R; Salehi, H; Sartorelli, G; Saull, P R B; Savin, A A; Saxon, D H; Schagen, S; Schioppa, M; Schlenstedt, S; Schmidke, W B; Schneekloth, U; Schnurbusch, H; Sciulli, F; Scott, J; Selonke, F; Shcheglova, L M; Skillicorn, I O; Slominski, W; Smalska, B; Smith, W H; Soares, M; Solano, A; Son, D; Sosnovtsev, V V; Saint-Laurent, M G; Staiano, A; Stairs, D G; Stanco, L; Standage, J; Stifutkin, A; Stonjek, S; Stopa, P; Straub, P B; Suchkov, S; Surrow, B; Susinno, G; Suszycki, L; Sutton, M R; Sztuk, J; Szuba, D; Szuba, J; Tandler, J; Tap, A D; Tapper, R J; Tassi, E; Terron, J; Tiecke, H G; Tokushuku, K; Tsurugai, T; Tuning, N; Turcato, M; Tymieniecka, T; Ukleja, A; Ukleja, J; Umemori, K; Vázquez, M; Velthuis, J J; Vlasov, N N; Voss, K C; Walczak, R; Walker, R; Weber, A; Wes, H; West, B J; Whitmore, J J; Wichmann, R; Wick, K; Wiggers, L; Wills, H H; Wing, M; Wolf, G; Yamada, S; Yamashita, T; Yamazaki, Y; Yoshida, R; Youngman, C; Zakrzewski, J A; Zawiejski, L; Zeuner, W; Zhautykov, B O; Zichichi, A; Ziegler, A; Zotkin, S A; De Wolf, E; Del Peso, J

    2002-01-01

    Diffractive production of D*+-(2010) mesons in deep inelastic scattering has been measured with the ZEUS detector at HERA using an integrated luminosity of 44.3 pb-1. Diffractive charm production is identified by the presence of a large rapidity gap in the final state of events in which a D*+-(2010) meson is reconstructed in the decay channel D*+ -> (D0 -> K-pi+) pi+ (+ charge conjugate). Differential cross sections when compared with theoretical predictions indicate the importance of gluons in such diffractive interactions.

  1. Measurement of Dijet Production in Diffractive Deep-Inelastic ep Scattering at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Andreev, V.; Begzsuren, K.; Belousov, A.; Boudry, V.; Brandt, G.; Brisson, V.; Britzger, D.; Buniatyan, A.; Bylinkin, A.; Bystritskaya, L.; Campbell, A.J.; Cantun Avila, K.B.; Ceccopieri, F.; Cerny, K.; Chekelian, V.; Contreras, J.G.; Cvach, J.; Dainton, J.B.; Daum, K.; Diaconu, C.; Dobre, M.; Dodonov, V.; Eckerlin, G.; Egli, S.; Elsen, E.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Feltesse, J.; Ferencei, J.; Fleischer, M.; Fomenko, A.; Gabathuler, E.; Gayler, J.; Ghazaryan, S.; Glazov, A.; Goerlich, L.; Gogitidze, N.; Gouzevitch, M.; Grab, C.; Grebenyuk, A.; Greenshaw, T.; Grindhammer, G.; Haidt, D.; Henderson, R.C.W.; Herbst, M.; Hladky, J.; Hoffmann, D.; Horisberger, R.; Hreus, T.; Huber, F.; Jacquet, M.; Janssen, X.; Jung, H.; Kapichine, M.; Kiesling, C.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Kogler, R.; Kostka, P.; Kretzschmar, J.; Kruger, K.; Landon, M.P.J.; Lange, W.; Laycock, P.; Lebedev, A.; Levonian, S.; Lipka, K.; List, B.; List, J.; Lobodzinski, B.; Malinovski, E.; Martyn, H.U.; Maxfield, S.J.; Mehta, A.; Meyer, A.B.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Mikocki, S.; Morozov, A.; Muller, K.; Naumann, Th.; Newman, P.R.; Niebuhr, C.; Nowak, G.; Olsson, J.E.; Ozerov, D.; Pahl, P.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G.D.; Perez, E.; Petrukhin, A.; Picuric, I.; Pirumov, H.; Pitzl, D.; Placakyte, R.; Pokorny, B.; Polifka, R.; Radescu, V.; Raicevic, N.; Ravdandorj, T.; Reimer, P.; Rizvi, E.; Robmann, P.; Roosen, R.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rotaru, M.; Rusakov, S.; Salek, D.; Sankey, D.P.C.; Sauter, M.; Sauvan, E.; Schmitt, S.; Schoeffel, L.; Schoning, A.; Schultz-Coulon, H.C.; Sefkow, F.; Shushkevich, S.; Soloviev, Y.; Sopicki, P.; South, D.; Spaskov, V.; Specka, A.; Steder, M.; Stella, B.; Straumann, U.; Sykora, T.; Thompson, P.D.; Traynor, D.; Truol, P.; Tsakov, I.; Tseepeldorj, B.; Turnau, J.; Valkarova, A.; Vallee, C.; Van Mechelen, P.; Vazdik, Y.; Wegener, D.; Wunsch, E.; Zacek, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zlebcik, R.; Zohrabyan, H.; Zomer, F.

    2015-01-01

    A measurement is presented of single- and double-differential dijet cross sections in diffractive deep-inelastic $ep$ scattering at HERA using data collected by the H1 experiment corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 290 pb^{-1}. The investigated phase space is spanned by the photon virtuality in the range of 4diffractive parton distribution functions and the value of the strong coupling constant is extracted.

  2. Content analyses in GaMnAs by double-crystal X-ray diffraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A model for analyzing point defects in compound crystals was improved. Based on this modified model,a method for measuring Mn content in GaMnAs was established. A technique for eliminating the zero-drift-error was also established in the experiments of X-ray diffraction. With these methods, the Mn content in GaMnAs single crystals fabricated by the ion-beam epitaxy system was analyzed.Kevwords: GaMnAs, diluted magnetic semiconductor, X-ray dff fraction, lattice parameter, content of Mn.

  3. Double-parton scattering effects in double charm production within gluon fragmentation scenario

    CERN Document Server

    Maciula, Rafal

    2016-01-01

    We discuss charm $D^0 D^0$ meson-meson pair production in the forward rapidity region related to the LHCb experimental studies at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV. We consider double-parton scattering mechanisms of double $c \\bar c$ production and subsequent standard $cc \\to D^{0}D^{0}$ scale-independent hadronization as well as new double $g$ and mixed $g c\\bar c $ production mechanisms with $gg \\to D^{0}D^{0}$ and $gc \\to D^{0}D^{0}$ scale-dependent hadronization. The new scenario with gluon fragmentation components results also in a new single-parton scattering mechanism of $gg$ production which is also taken here into account. Results of the numerical calculations are compared with the LHCb data for several correlation observables. The new mechanisms lead to a larger cross sections and to slightly different shapes of the calculated correlation observables.

  4. Factorization breaking in single-diffractive dijet production at the Tevatron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klasen, Michael

    2010-10-01

    We perform a NLO QCD analysis of single-diffractive dijet production in proton-antiproton collisions. By comparing the ratio of single- and non-diffractive cross sections to data from the Tevatron, the rapidity-gap survival probability is determined as a function of the momentum fraction of the parton in the antiproton. Assuming Regge factorization, this probability can be interpreted as a suppression factor for the diffractive structure function measured in deep-inelastic scattering at HERA. In contrast to the observations for photoproduction, the suppression factor in proton-antiproton collisions depends on the momentum fraction of the parton in the Pomeron even at NLO.

  5. Factorization breaking in single-diffractive dijet production at the Tevatron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klasen, Michael, E-mail: klasen@lpsc.in2p3.f [Laboratoire de Physique Subatomique et de Cosmologie, Universite Joseph Fourier / CNRS-IN2P3 / INPG, 53 Avenue des Martyrs, F-38026 Grenoble (France)

    2010-10-15

    We perform a NLO QCD analysis of single-diffractive dijet production in proton-antiproton collisions. By comparing the ratio of single- and non-diffractive cross sections to data from the Tevatron, the rapidity-gap survival probability is determined as a function of the momentum fraction of the parton in the antiproton. Assuming Regge factorization, this probability can be interpreted as a suppression factor for the diffractive structure function measured in deep-inelastic scattering at HERA. In contrast to the observations for photoproduction, the suppression factor in proton-antiproton collisions depends on the momentum fraction of the parton in the Pomeron even at NLO.

  6. NLO QCD analysis of single-diffractive dijet production at the Tevatron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klasen, M.

    We present the first NLO QCD analysis of single-diffractive dijet production in proton-antiproton collisions. By comparing the ratio of single- and non-diffractive cross sections to data from the Tevatron, the rapidity-gap survival probability is determined as a function of the momentum fraction of the parton in the antiproton. Assuming Regge factorization, this probability can be interpreted as a suppression factor for the diffractive structure function measured in deep-inelastic scattering at HERA. In contrast to the observations for photoproduction, the suppression factor in proton-antiproton collisions depends on the momentum fraction of the parton in the Pomeron even at NLO.

  7. Factorization breaking in single-diffractive dijet production at the Tevatron

    CERN Document Server

    Klasen, M

    2010-01-01

    We perform a NLO QCD analysis of single-diffractive dijet production in proton-antiproton collisions. By comparing the ratio of single- and non-diffractive cross sections to data from the Tevatron, the rapidity-gap survival probability is determined as a function of the momentum fraction of the parton in the antiproton. Assuming Regge factorization, this probability can be interpreted as a suppression factor for the diffractive structure function measured in deep-inelastic scattering at HERA. In contrast to the observations for photoproduction, the suppression factor in proton-antiproton collisions depends on the momentum fraction of the parton in the Pomeron even at NLO.

  8. NLO QCD analysis of single-diffractive dijet production at the Tevatron

    CERN Document Server

    Klasen, M

    2010-01-01

    We present the first NLO QCD analysis of single-diffractive dijet production in proton-antiproton collisions. By comparing the ratio of single- and non-diffractive cross sections to data from the Tevatron, the rapidity-gap survival probability is determined as a function of the momentum fraction of the parton in the antiproton. Assuming Regge factorization, this probability can be interpreted as a suppression factor for the diffractive structure function measured in deep-inelastic scattering at HERA. In contrast to the observations for photoproduction, the suppression factor in proton-antiproton collisions depends on the momentum fraction of the parton in the Pomeron even at NLO.

  9. Études par diffraction de fibres de l'ADN double brin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsyth, V. T.; Parrot, I. M.

    2005-11-01

    L'état fibreux est un état naturel pour les molécules de polymère qui ont tendance à adopter des conformations hélicoïdales régulières plutôt que des structures globulaires caractéristiques à de nombreuses protéines. La diffraction de fibres a donc une application étendue pour l'étude d'une grande variété de polymères biologiques et synthétiques. Ce papier a pour objectif d'illustrer l'étendue générale de la méthode et, en particulier, de démontrer l'impact des sources modernes de rayonnement synchrotron et de faisceaux neutroniques.

  10. Impact factor for high-energy two and three jets diffractive production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boussarie, R. [LPT, Université Paris-Sud, CNRS, 91405, Orsay (France); Grabovsky, A.V. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics and Novosibirsk State University, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Szymanowski, L. [National Centre for Nuclear Research (NCBJ), Warsaw (Poland); Wallon, S. [UPMC Univ. Paris 06, Faculté de Physique, 4 place Jussieu, 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France); LPT, Université Paris-Sud, CNRS, 91405, Orsay (France)

    2015-04-10

    We present the calculation of the impact factor for the photon to quark, antiquark and gluon transition within Balitsky’s shock-wave formalism. We also rederive the impact factor for photon to quark and antiquark transition. These results provide the necessary building blocks for further phenomenological studies of inclusive diffractive deep inelastic scattering as well as for two and three jets diffractive production which go beyond approximations discussed in the literature.

  11. 用Matlab比较双缝干涉和双缝衍射%The Comparison of Double-slit Interference and Double-slit Diffraction Based on the MATLAB

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄蕊; 张君霞; 刘志成; 翟永安

    2015-01-01

    This paper used the Matlab software, a numerical simulation of the double-slit interference and double-slit diffraction intensity distribution was made. It also drew in experiments which was difficult to observe in the light intensity distribution. Compared the relation and distinction between the double slit diffraction, double slit interference and single slit diffraction.%运用Matlab软件,对双缝衍射和双缝干涉、单缝衍射的光强分布和谱线特征进行了数值模拟,绘出实验中难以观察到的光强分布图,比较出双缝衍射与双缝干涉及单缝衍射的联系与区别。

  12. Diffractive Scattering Factorization from J/ψ and γ Associated Production in HERA ep Collisions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Using three sets of Pomeron structure functions,the cross sections of J/ψ and γ associated production via resolved photon and proton diffractive scatting in ep collision are investigated.It is found that the cross sections calculated with various gluon distribution functions of Pomeron are different.The discrepancy is about 1.8 times for differential cross sections and 1.7 times for total cross sections.The experimental studies of the process could give valuable insight in the diffractive production mechanism and test the color-octet mechanism for heavy quarkonium production in a new environment.

  13. East Sichuan to Double Gas Production in 10 Years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He Huachun

    2001-01-01

    @@ The general plan for annual 10-billion-cubic-meter productivity of natural gas in East Sichuan basin has recently passed appraisal by the expert group, indicating that China's current largest onshore natural gas field under production will double its output in a period of more than nine years from now to 2010.

  14. Test of Equivalence Principle at 10(-8) Level by a Dual-Species Double-Diffraction Raman Atom Interferometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lin; Long, Shitong; Tang, Biao; Chen, Xi; Gao, Fen; Peng, Wencui; Duan, Weitao; Zhong, Jiaqi; Xiong, Zongyuan; Wang, Jin; Zhang, Yuanzhong; Zhan, Mingsheng

    2015-07-01

    We report an improved test of the weak equivalence principle by using a simultaneous 85Rb-87Rb dual-species atom interferometer. We propose and implement a four-wave double-diffraction Raman transition scheme for the interferometer, and demonstrate its ability in suppressing common-mode phase noise of Raman lasers after their frequencies and intensity ratios are optimized. The statistical uncertainty of the experimental data for Eötvös parameter η is 0.8×10(-8) at 3200 s. With various systematic errors corrected, the final value is η=(2.8±3.0)×10(-8). The major uncertainty is attributed to the Coriolis effect.

  15. Test of Equivalence Principle at $10^{-8}$ Level by a Dual-species Double-diffraction Raman Atom Interferometer

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, Lin; Tang, Biao; Chen, Xi; Gao, Fen; Peng, Wencui; Duan, Weitao; Zhong, Jiaqi; Xiong, Zongyuan; Wang, Jin; Zhang, Yuanzhong; Zhan, Mingsheng

    2015-01-01

    We report an improved test of the weak equivalence principle by using a simultaneous $^{85}$Rb-$^{87}$Rb dual-species atom interferometer. We propose and implement a four-wave double-diffraction Raman transition scheme for the interferometer, and demonstrate its ability in suppressing common-mode phase noise of Raman lasers after their frequencies and intensity ratios are optimized. The statistical uncertainty of the experimental data for E\\"{o}tv\\"{o}s parameter $\\eta$ is $0.8\\times10^{-8}$ at 3200 s. With various systematic errors corrected the final value is $\\eta=(2.8\\pm3.0)\\times10^{-8}$. The major uncertainty is attributed to the Coriolis effect.

  16. Diffraction imaging for in-situ characterization of double-crystal x-ray monochromators

    CERN Document Server

    Stoupin, Stanislav; Heald, Steve M; Brewe, Dale; Meron, Mati

    2015-01-01

    Imaging of the Bragg reflected x-ray beam is proposed and validated as an in-situ method for characterization of performance of double-crystal monochromators under the heat load of intense synchrotron radiation. A sequence of images is collected at different angular positions on the reflectivity curve of the second crystal and analyzed. The method provides rapid evaluation of the wavefront of the exit beam, which relates to local misorientation of the crystal planes along the beam footprint on the thermally distorted first crystal. The measured misorientation can be directly compared to results of finite element analysis. The imaging method offers an additional insight on the local intrinsic crystal quality over the footprint of the incident x-ray beam.

  17. Measurement of dijet production in diffractive events with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00224260; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    A sample of pp collision data collected under low luminosity conditions at sqrt(s) = 7 TeV by the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider is used to study diffractive dijet production. Events containing at least two jets with pT > 20 GeV are selected and analysed in terms of variables which discriminate between diffractive and non-diffractive processes. Cross sections are measured differentially in \\Delta\\eta_F, the size of the observable forward region of pseudorapidity which is devoid of hadronic activity, and in an estimator, \\xi˜, of the fractional momentum loss of the proton assuming single diffractive dissociation (pp -> pX). Model comparisons indicate a dominant non-diffractive contribution up to moderately large \\Delta\\eta_F and small\\xi˜, with a diffractive contribution which is significant at the highest \\Delta\\etaF and the lowest \\xi˜. The rapidity gap survival probability is estimated from comparisons of the data in this latter region with predictions based on diffractive parton density fun...

  18. Diffractive di-jet production at the LHC with a Reggeon contribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Marquet

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available We study hard diffractive scattering in hadron–hadron collisions including, on top of the standard Pomeron-initiated processes, contributions due to the exchange of Reggeons. Using a simple model to describe the parton content of the Reggeon, we compute di-jet production in single diffractive and central diffractive events. We show that Reggeon contributions can be sizable at the LHC, and even sometimes dominant, and we identify kinematic windows in which they could be experimentally studied. We argue that suitable measurements must be performed in order to properly constrain the model, and be able to correctly account for Reggeon exchanges in the analysis of the many hard diffractive observables to be measured at the LHC.

  19. Diffractive di-jet production at the LHC with a Reggeon contribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquet, C.; Martins, D. E.; Pereira, A. V.; Rangel, M.; Royon, C.

    2017-03-01

    We study hard diffractive scattering in hadron-hadron collisions including, on top of the standard Pomeron-initiated processes, contributions due to the exchange of Reggeons. Using a simple model to describe the parton content of the Reggeon, we compute di-jet production in single diffractive and central diffractive events. We show that Reggeon contributions can be sizable at the LHC, and even sometimes dominant, and we identify kinematic windows in which they could be experimentally studied. We argue that suitable measurements must be performed in order to properly constrain the model, and be able to correctly account for Reggeon exchanges in the analysis of the many hard diffractive observables to be measured at the LHC.

  20. Diffractive di-jet production at the LHC with a Reggeon contribution

    CERN Document Server

    Marquet, C; Pereira, A V; Rangel, M; Royon, C

    2016-01-01

    We study hard diffractive scattering in hadron-hadron collisions including, on top of the standard Pomeron-initiated processes, contributions due to the exchange of Reggeons. Using a simple model to describe the parton content of the Reggeon, we compute di-jet production in single diffractive and central diffractive events. We show that Reggeon contributions can be sizable at the LHC, and even sometimes dominant, and we identify kinematic windows in which they could be experimentally studied. We argue that suitable measurements must be performed in order to properly constrain the model, and be able to correctly account for Reggeon exchanges in the analysis of the many hard diffractive observables to be measured at the LHC.

  1. Diffractive Scattering Factorization from J/ψ and γ Associated Production in HERA ep Collisions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Zhan-Yuan; DUAN Chun-Gui

    2002-01-01

    Using three sets of Pomeron structure functions, the cross sections of J/ψ and γ associated productionvia resolved photon and proton diffractive scatting in ep collision are investigated. It is found that the cross sectionscalculated with various gluon distribution functions of Pomeron are different. The discrepancy is about 1.8 times fordifferential cross sections and 1.7 times for total cross sections. The experimental studies of the process could give valuableinsight in the diffractive production mechanism and test the color-octet mechanism for heavy quarkonium production ina new environment.

  2. Diffractive Jet Production in Deep-Inelastic $e^{+}p$ Collisions at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Adloff, C.; Andrieu, B.; Anthonis, T.; Arkadov, V.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Ayyaz, I.; Babaev, A.; Bahr, J.; Baranov, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Bate, P.; Beglarian, A.; Behnke, O.; Beier, C.; Belousov, A.; Benisch, T.; Berger, Christoph; Berndt, T.; Bizot, J.C.; Boudry, V.; Braunschweig, W.; Brisson, V.; Broker, H.B.; Brown, D.P.; Bruckner, W.; Bruel, P.; Bruncko, D.; Burger, J.; Busser, F.W.; Bunyatyan, A.; Burkhardt, H.; Burrage, A.; Buschhorn, G.; Campbell, A.J.; Cao, Jun; Carli, T.; Caron, S.; Chabert, E.; Clarke, D.; Clerbaux, B.; Collard, C.; Contreras, J.G.; Coppens, Y.R.; Coughlan, J.A.; Cousinou, M.C.; Cox, B.E.; Cozzika, G.; Cvach, J.; Dainton, J.B.; Dau, W.D.; Daum, K.; Davidsson, M.; Delcourt, B.; Delerue, N.; Demirchyan, R.; De Roeck, A.; De Wolf, E.A.; Diaconu, C.; Dixon, P.; Dodonov, V.; Dowell, J.D.; Droutskoi, A.; Duprel, C.; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eckstein, D.; Efremenko, V.; Egli, S.; Eichler, R.; Eisele, F.; Eisenhandler, E.; Ellerbrock, M.; Elsen, E.; Erdmann, M.; Erdmann, W.; Faulkner, P.J.W.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Felst, R.; Ferencei, J.; Ferron, S.; Fleischer, M.; Fleming, Y.H.; Flugge, G.; Fomenko, A.; Foresti, I.; Formanek, J.; Foster, J.M.; Franke, G.; Gabathuler, E.; Gabathuler, K.; Garvey, J.; Gassner, J.; Gayler, Joerg; Gerhards, R.; Ghazaryan, Samvel; Goerlich, L.; Gogitidze, N.; Goldberg, M.; Goodwin, C.; Grab, C.; Grassler, H.; Greenshaw, T.; Grindhammer, Guenter; Hadig, T.; Haidt, D.; Hajduk, L.; Haynes, W.J.; Heinemann, B.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henderson, R.C.W.; Hengstmann, S.; Henschel, H.; Heremans, R.; Herrera, G.; Herynek, I.; Hildebrandt, M.; Hilgers, M.; Hiller, K.H.; Hladky, J.; Hoting, P.; Hoffmann, D.; Horisberger, R.; Hurling, S.; Ibbotson, M.; Issever, C .; Jacquet, M.; Jaffre, M.; Janauschek, L.; Jansen, D.M.; Janssen, X.; Jemanov, V.; Jonsson, L.; Johnson, D.P.; Jones, M.A.S.; Jung, H.; Kastli, H.K.; Kant, D.; Kapichine, M.; Karlsson, M.; Karschnick, O.; Keil, F.; Keller, N.; Kennedy, J.; Kenyon, I.R.; Kermiche, S.; Kiesling, Christian M.; Kjellberg, P.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Knies, G.; Koblitz, B.; Kolya, S.D.; Korbel, V.; Kostka, P.; Kotelnikov, S.K.; Koutouev, R.; Koutov, A.; Krasny, M.W.; Krehbiel, H.; Kroseberg, J.; Kruger, K.; Kupper, A.; Kuhr, T.; Kurca, T.; Lahmann, R.; Lamb, D.; Landon, M.P.J.; Lange, W.; Lastovicka, T.; Laycock, P.; Lebailly, E.; Lebedev, A.; Leissner, B.; Lemrani, R.; Lendermann, V.; Levonian, S.; Lindstroem, M.; List, B.; Lobodzinska, E.; Lobodzinski, B.; Loginov, A.; Loktionova, N.; Lubimov, V.; Luders, S.; Luke, D.; Lytkin, L.; Magnussen, N.; Mahlke-Kruger, H.; Malden, N.; Malinovski, E.; Malinovski, I.; Maracek, R.; Marage, P.; Marks, J.; Marshall, R.; Martyn, H.U.; Martyniak, J.; Maxfield, S.J.; Mehta, A.; Meier, K.; Merkel, P.; Meyer, A.B.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Meyer, P.O.; Mikocki, S.; Milstead, D.; Mkrtchyan, T.; Mohr, R.; Mohrdieck, S.; Mondragon, M.N.; Moreau, F.; Morozov, A.; Morris, J.V.; Muller, K.; Murin, P.; Nagovizin, V.; Naroska, B.; Naumann, J.; Naumann, T.; Nellen, G.; Newman, Paul R.; Nicholls, T.C.; Niebergall, F.; Niebuhr, C.; Nix, O.; Nowak, G.; Nunnemann, T.; Olsson, J.E.; Ozerov, D.; Panassik, V.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G.D.; Perez, E.; Phillips, J.P.; Pitzl, D.; Poschl, R.; Potachnikova, I.; Povh, B.; Rabbertz, K.; Radel, G.; Rauschenberger, J.; Reimer, P.; Reisert, B.; Reyna, D.; Riess, S.; Risler, C.; Rizvi, E.; Robmann, P.; Roosen, R.; Rostovtsev, A.; Royon, C.; Rusakov, S.; Rybicki, K.; Sankey, D.P.C.; Scheins, J.; Schilling, F.P.; Schleper, P.; Schmidt, D.; Schmidt, D.; Schmitt, S.; Schoeffel, L.; Schoning, A.; Schorner, T.; Schroder, V.; Schultz-Coulon, H.C.; Schwanenberger, C.; Sedlak, K.; Sefkow, F.; Chekelian, V.I.; Sheviakov, I.; Shtarkov, L.N.; Sievers, P.; Sirois, Y.; Sloan, T.; Smirnov, P.; Solochenko, V.; Solovev, Y.; Spaskov, V.; Specka, Arnd E.; Spitzer, H.; Stamen, R.; Steinhart, J.; Stella, B.; Stellberger, A.; Stiewe, J.; Straumann, U.; Struczinski, W.; Swart, M.; Tasevsky, M.; Chernyshov, V.; Chetchelnitski, S.; Thompson, Graham; Thompson, P.D.; Tobien, N.; Traynor, D.; Truoel, Peter; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsurin, I.; Turnau, J.; Turney, J.E.; Tzamariudaki, E.; Udluft, S.; Usik, A.; Valkar, S.; Valkarova, A.; Vallee, C.; Van Mechelen, P.; Vassiliev, S.; Vazdik, Y.; Vichnevski, A.; Wacker, K.; Wallny, R.; Walter, T.; Waugh, B.; Weber, G.; Weber, M.; Wegener, D.; Werner, M.; White, G.; Wiesand, S.; Wilksen, T.; Winde, M.; Winter, G.G.; Wissing, C.; Wobisch, M.; Wollatz, H.; Wunsch, E.; Wyatt, A.C.; Zacek, J.; Zalesak, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zhokin, A.; Zomer, F.; Zsembery, J.; zur Nedden, M.

    2001-01-01

    A measurement is presented of dijet and 3-jet cross sections in low-|t| diffractive deep-inelastic scattering interactions of the type ep -> eXY, where the system X is separated by a large rapidity gap from a low-mass baryonic system Y. Data taken with the H1 detector at HERA, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 18.0 pb^(-1), are used to measure hadron level single and double differential cross sections for 44 GeV. The energy flow not attributed to jets is also investigated. The measurements are consistent with a factorising diffractive exchange with trajectory intercept close to 1.2 and tightly constrain the dominating diffractive gluon distribution. Viewed in terms of the diffractive scattering of partonic fluctuations of the photon, the data require the dominance of qqbarg over qqbar states. Soft colour neutralisation models in their present form cannot simultaneously reproduce the shapes and the normalisations of the differential cross sections. Models based on 2-gluon exchange are able to reprod...

  3. Diffractive production of bb-bar in proton-antiproton collision at the Tevatron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, G. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Levin, E. [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Inst. (Russian Federation). Thoery Dept.; Santoro, A. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (United States)

    1996-08-01

    We show that the cross section of the diffractive production of b b-bar can be described as the sum of two contributions: the first is proportional to the probability of finding a small size b b-bar color dipole in the fast hadron wave function before the interaction with a target, while the second is the b b-bar production after or during the interaction with the target. The formulae are presented as well as the discussion of the interrelation between these two contributions and the Ingelman-Schlein and coherent diffraction mechanisms. The main prediction is that the coherent diffraction mechanism dominates, at least at the Tevatron energies, giving the unique possibility to study it experimentally. (author). 25 refs., 10 figs.

  4. Correlation effects in double-K-vacancy production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Briand, J.P.; Chevallier, P.; Chetioui, A.; Rozet, J.P.; Tavernier, M.; Touati, A.

    1981-01-01

    The probability of double-K-vacancy production accompanying internal conversion in three different atoms. In (Z=49), Ba (Z=56), and Tl (Z=81) has been measured in coincidence experiments. The comparison of our experimental results with various theoretical approaches exhibits the importance of correlation effects between the two K electrons.

  5. Diffractive open charm production in deep-inelastic scattering and photoproduction at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aktas, A. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Andreev, V. [Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Anthonis, T. [Inter-Univ. Institute for High Energies ULB-VUB, Brussels (Belgium)]|[Antwerp Univ. (BE)] (and others)

    2006-10-15

    Measurements are presented of diffractive open charm production at HERA. The event topology is given by ep{yields}eXY where the system X contains at least one charmed hadron and is well separated by a large rapidity gap from a leading low-mass proton remnant system Y. Two analysis techniques are used for the cross section measurements. In the first, the charm quark is tagged by the reconstruction of a D{sup *{+-}}(2010) meson. This technique is used in deep-inelastic scattering (DIS) and photoproduction ({gamma}p). In the second, a method based on the displacement of tracks from the primary vertex is used to measure the open charm contribution to the inclusive diffractive cross section in DIS. The measurements are compared with next-to-leading order QCD predictions based on diffractive parton density functions previously obtained from a QCD analysis of the inclusive diffractive cross section at H1. A good agreement is observed in the full kinematic regime, which supports the validity of QCD factorization for open charm production in diffractive DIS and {gamma}p. (orig.)

  6. CMS results on soft and hard diffraction

    CERN Document Server

    Obertino, Margherita Maria

    2016-01-01

    The measurement of the soft diffractive cross sections in single- and double-diffractive final states is presented at 7 TeV. Furthermore, also the production of jet-gap-get final states is discussed and the results are interpreted in terms of a hard color singlet exchange. Finally, general features of particle production in single-diffractive enhanced events are shown at 13 TeV.

  7. LHCb: $\\Upsilon$ and double $J/\\psi$ production at LHCb

    CERN Multimedia

    Frosini, M

    2011-01-01

    The measurement of the $\\Upsilon(1S)$ production cross-section with the LHCb detector is presented, as a function of the $\\Upsilon(1S)$ transverse momentum and rapidity. First observation of double $J/\\psi$ production is also reported together with a first measurement of the cross-section. Prospects for measurements of the $\\chi_c$ and $\\psi(2S)$ cross-sections are also shown.

  8. New single- and double-parton scattering mechanisms for double charmed meson production

    CERN Document Server

    Szczurek, Antoni; Saleev, Vladimir A; Shipilova, Alexandra V

    2016-01-01

    We discuss charm meson-meson pair production recently observed by the LHCb Collaboration at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV in proton-proton scattering. We examine double-parton scattering (DPS) mechanisms of double $c \\bar c$ production and following $cc \\to D^{0}D^{0}$ hadronization as well as double $g$ and mixed $g c\\bar c $ production with $gg \\to D^{0}D^{0}$ and $gc \\to D^{0}D^{0}$ hadronization calculated with the help of the scale-dependent KKKS08 fragmentation functions. A new single-parton scattering (SPS) mechanism of $gg$ production is also taken into consideration. Calculated differential distributions as a function of transverse momentum $p_{T}$ of one of the $D^{0}$ mesons, pair invariant mass $M_{D^{0}D^{0}}$ and azimuthal angle $\\varphi_{D^{0}D^{0}}$ distributions are confronted with the measured ones. The manifestation of the new SPS mechanisms with $g \\to D^{0}$ fragmentation within the scale-dependent fragmentation scheme change the overall picture suitable for standard scale-independent fragmentation ...

  9. Production of exclusive dijets in diffractive deep inelastic scattering at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Abramowicz, H; Adamczyk, L; Adamus, M; Antonelli, S; Aushev, V; Aushev, Y; Behnke, O; Behrens, U; Bertolin, A; Bloch, I; Boos, E G; Borras, K; Brock, I; Brook, N H; Brugnera, R; Bruni, A; Bussey, P J; Caldwell, A; Capua, M; Catterall, C D; Chwastowski, J; Ciborowski, J; Ciesielski, R; Cooper-Sarkar, A M; Corradi, M; Corriveau, F; Dementiev, R K; Devenish, R C E; Dolinska, G; Dusini, S; Figiel, J; Foster, B; Gach, G; Gallo, E; Garfagnini, A; Geiser, A; Gizhko, A; Gladilin, L K; Golubkov, Yu A; Grebenyuk, J; Gregor, I; Grzelak, G; Gueta, O; Guzik, M; Hain, W; Hochman, D; Hori, R; Ibrahim, Z A; Iga, Y; Ishitsuka, M; Iudin, A; Januschek, F; Jomhari, N Z; Kadenko, I; Kananov, S; Karshon, U; Kaur, M; Kaur, P; Kisielewska, D; Klanner, R; Klein, U; Kondrashova, N; Kononenko, O; Korol, Ie; Korzhavina, I A; Kotański, A; Kötz, U; Kovalchuk, N; Kowalski, H; Krupa, B; Kuprash, O; Kuze, M; Levchenko, B B; Levy, A; Libov, V; Limentani, S; Lisovyi, M; Lobodzinska, E; Löhr, B; Lohrmann, E; Longhin, A; Lontkovskyi, D; Lukina, O Yu; Makarenko, I; Malka, J; Mergelmeyer, S; Idris, F Mohamad; Nasir, N Mohammad; Myronenko, V; Nagano, K; Nobe, T; Notz, D; Nowak, R J; Onishchuk, Yu; Paul, E; Perlański, W; Pokrovskiy, N S; Przybycień, M; Roloff, P; Rubinsky, I; Ruspa, M; Saxon, D H; Schioppa, M; Schmidke, W B; Schneekloth, U; Schörner-Sadenius, T; Shcheglova, L M; Shevchenko, R; Shkola, O; Shyrma, Yu; Singh, I; Skillicorn, I O; Słomiński, W; Solano, A; Stanco, L; Stefaniuk, N; Stern, A; Stopa, P; Sztuk-Dambietz, J; Szuba, D; Szuba, J; Tassi, E; Tokushuku, K; Tomaszewska, J; Trofymov, A; Tsurugai, T; Turcato, M; Turkot, O; Tymieniecka, T; Verbytskyi, A; Viazlo, O; Walczak, R; Abdullah, W A T Wan; Wichmann, K; Wing, M; Wolf, G; Yamada, S; Yamazaki, Y; Zakharchuk, N; Żarnecki, A F; Zawiejski, L; Zenaiev, O; Zhautykov, B O; Zhmak, N; Zotkin, D S

    2015-01-01

    Production of exclusive dijets in diffractive deep inelastic $e^\\pm p$ scattering has been measured with the ZEUS detector at HERA using an integrated luminosity of 372 pb$^{-1}$. The measurement was performed for $\\gamma^*-p$ centre-of-mass energies in the range $90 25$ GeV$^2$. Energy and transverse-energy flows around the jet axis are presented. The cross section is presented as a function of $\\beta$ and $\\phi$, where $\\beta=x/x_{\\rm I\\!P}$, $x$ is the Bjorken variable and $x_{\\rm I\\!P}$ is the proton fractional longitudinal momentum loss. The angle $\\phi$ is defined by the $\\gamma^*-$dijet plane and the $\\gamma^*-e^\\pm$ plane in the rest frame of the diffractive final state. The $\\phi$ cross section is measured in bins of $\\beta$. The results are compared to predictions from models based on different assumptions about the nature of the diffractive exchange.

  10. From a 1D completed scattering and double slit diffraction to the quantum-classical problem for isolated systems

    CERN Document Server

    Chuprikov, N L

    2011-01-01

    By probability theory the probability space to underlie the set of statistical data described by the squared modulus of a coherent superposition of microscopically distinct (sub)states (CSMDS) is non-Kolmogorovian and, thus, such data are mutually incompatible. For us this fact means that the squared modulus of a CSMDS cannot be interpreted as the probability density and quantum mechanics itself, with its current approach to CSMDSs, does not allow a correct statistical interpretation. By the example of a 1D completed scattering and double slit diffraction we develop a new quantum-mechanical approach to CSMDSs, which implies decomposition of the non-Kolmogorovian probability space associated with the squared modulus of a CSMDS into the sum of Kolmogorovian ones. We adapt to CSMDSs the presented by Khrennikov ({\\it Found. of Phys., 35, No. 10, p.1655 (2005)}) concept of real contexts (complexes of physical conditions) to determine uniquely the properties of quantum ensembles. Namely we treat the context to crea...

  11. Diffractive Open Charm Production in Deep-Inelastic Scattering and Photoproduction at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Aktas, A.; Anthonis, T.; Antunovic, B.; Aplin, S.; Asmone, A.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Babaev, A.; Backovic, S.; Baghdasaryan, A.; Baranov, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Baudrand, S.; Beckingham, M.; Begzsuren, K.; Behnke, O.; Behrendt, O.; Belousov, A.; Berger, N.; Bizot, J.C.; Boenig, M.O.; Boudry, V.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Brandt, G.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Bruncko, D.; Busser, F.W.; Bunyatyan, A.; Buschhorn, G.; Bystritskaya, L.; Campbell, A.J.; Cantun Avila, K.B.; Cassol-Brunner, F.; Cerny, K.; Cerny, V.; Chekelian, V.; Contreras, J.G.; Coughlan, J.A.; Cox, B.E.; Cozzika, G.; Cvach, J.; Dainton, J.B.; Daum, K.; de Boer, Y.; Delcourt, B.; Del Degan, M.; De Roeck, A.; De Wolf, E.A.; Diaconu, C.; Dodonov, V.; Dubak, A.; Eckerlin, Guenter; Efremenko, V.; Egli, S.; Eichler, R.; Eisele, F.; Eliseev, A.; Elsen, E.; Essenov, S.; Falkewicz, A.; Faulkner, P.J.W.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Felst, R.; Feltesse, J.; Ferencei, J.; Finke, L.; Fleischer, M.; Flucke, G.; Fomenko, A.; Franke, G.; Frisson, T.; Gabathuler, E.; Garutti, E.; Gayler, J.; Ghazaryan, Samvel; Ginzburgskaya, S.; Glazov, A.; Glushkov, I.; Goerlich, L.; Goettlich, M.; Gogitidze, N.; Gorbounov, S.; Gouzevitch, M.; Grab, C.; Greenshaw, T.; Gregori, M.; Grell, B.R.; Grindhammer, G.; Gwilliam, C.; Habib, S.; Haidt, D.; Hansson, M.; Heinzelmann, G.; Helebrant, C.; Henderson, R.C.W.; Henschel, H.; Herrera, G.; Hildebrandt, M.; Hiller, K.H.; Hoffmann, D.; Horisberger, R.; Hovhannisyan, A.; Hreus, T.; Hussain, S.; Ibbotson, M.; Jacquet, M.; Janssen, X.; Jemanov, V.; Jonsson, L.; Johnson, D.P.; Jung, Andreas Werner; Jung, H.; Kapichine, M.; Katzy, J.; Kenyon, I.R.; Kiesling, Christian M.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Klimkovich, T.; Kluge, T.; Knies, G.; Knutsson, A.; Korbel, V.; Kostka, P.; Kraemer, M.; Krastev, K.; Kretzschmar, J.; Kropivnitskaya, A.; Kruger, K.; Landon, M.P.J.; Lange, W.; Lastovicka-Medin, G.; Laycock, P.; Lebedev, A.; Leibenguth, G.; Lendermann, V.; Levonian, S.; Lindfeld, L.; Lipka, K.; Liptaj, A.; List, B.; List, J.; Loktionova, N.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Lubimov, V.; Lucaci-Timoce, A.I.; Lueders, H.; Lytkin, L.; Makankine, A.; Malinovski, E.; Marage, P.; Marshall, R.; Marti, L.; Martisikova, M.; Martyn, H.U.; Maxfield, S.J.; Mehta, A.; Meier, K.; Meyer, A.B.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Michels, V.; Mikocki, S.; Milcewicz-Mika, I.; Mladenov, D.; Mohamed, A.; Moreau, F.; Morozov, A.; Morris, J.V.; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Muller, K.; Murin, P.; Nankov, K.; Naroska, B.; Naumann, T.; Newman, Paul R.; Niebuhr, C.; Nikiforov, A.; Nowak, G.; Nowak, K.; Nozicka, M.; Oganezov, R.; Olivier, B.; Olsson, J.E.; Osman, S.; Ozerov, D.; Palichik, V.; Panagoulias, I.; Pandurovic, M.; Papadopoulou, T.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G.D.; Peng, H.; Perez, E.; Perez-Astudillo, D.; Perieanu, A.; Petrukhin, A.; Picuric, I.; Piec, S.; Pitzl, D.; Placakyte, R.; Povh, B.; Prideaux, P.; Rahmat, A.J.; Raicevic, N.; Reimer, P.; Rimmer, A.; Risler, C.; Rizvi, E.; Robmann, P.; Roland, B.; Roosen, R.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rurikova, Z.; Rusakov, S.; Salvaire, F.; Sankey, D.P.C.; Sauter, M.; Sauvan, E.; Schmidt, S.; Schmitt, S.; Schmitz, C.; Schoeffel, L.; Schoning, A.; Schultz-Coulon, H.C.; Sefkow, F.; Shaw-West, R.N.; Sheviakov, I.; Shtarkov, L.N.; Sloan, T.; Smiljanic, Ivan; Smirnov, P.; Soloviev, Y.; South, D.; Spaskov, V.; Specka, Arnd E.; Steder, M.; Stella, B.; Stiewe, J.; Stoilov, A.; Straumann, U.; Sunar, D.; Sykora, T.; Tchoulakov, V.; Thompson, G.; Thompson, P.D.; Toll, T.; Tomasz, F.; Traynor, D.; Trinh, T.N.; Truoel, P.; Tsakov, I.; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsurin, I.; Turnau, J.; Tzamariudaki, E.; Urban, K.; Urban, Marcel; Usik, A.; Utkin, D.; Valkarova, A.; Vallee, C.; Van Mechelen, P.; Vargas Trevino, A.; Vazdik, Y.; Vinokurova, S.; Volchinski, V.; Wacker, K.; Weber, G.; Weber, R.; Wegener, D.; Werner, C.; Wessels, M.; Wissing, C.; Wolf, R.; Wunsch, E.; Xella, S.; Yan, W.; Yeganov, V.; Zacek, J.; Zalesak, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zhelezov, A.; Zhokin, A.; Zhu, Y.C.; Zimmermann, J.; Zimmermann, T.; Zohrabyan, H.; Zomer, F.

    2007-01-01

    Measurements are presented of diffractive open charm production at HERA. The event topology is given by ep -> eX Y where the system X contains at least one charmed hadron and is well separated by a large rapidity gap from a leading low-mass proton remnant system Y. Two analysis techniques are used for the cross section measurements. In the first, the charm quark is tagged by the reconstruction of a D*(2010) meson. This technique is used in deep-inelastic scattering (DIS) and photoproduction. In the second, a method based on the displacement of tracks from the primary vertex is used to measure the open charm contribution to the inclusive diffractive cross section in DIS. The measurements are compared with next-to-leading order QCD predictions based on diffractive parton density functions previously obtained from a QCD analysis of the inclusive diffractive cross section at H1. A good agreement is observed in the full kinematic regime, which supports the validity of QCD factorization for open charm production in...

  12. Measurement of D* production in diffractive deep inelastic scattering at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreev, V.; Belousov, A.; Fomenko, A.; Gogitidze, N.; Lebedev, A.; Malinovski, E.; Soloviev, Y.; Vazdik, Y. [Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Baghdasaryan, A.; Zohrabyan, H. [Yerevan Physics Institute, Yerevan (Armenia); Begzsuren, K.; Ravdandorj, T. [Academy of Sciences, Institute of Physics and Technology of the Mongolian, Ulaanbaatar (Mongolia); Bolz, A.; Huber, F.; Sauter, M.; Schoening, A. [Universitaet Heidelberg, Physikalisches Institut, Heidelberg (Germany); Boudry, V.; Specka, A. [LLR, Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS/IN2P3, Palaiseau (France); Brandt, G. [Universitaet Goettingen, II. Physikalisches Institut, Goettingen (Germany); Brisson, V.; Jacquet, M.; Pascaud, C.; Zhang, Z.; Zomer, F. [LAL, Universite Paris-Sud, CNRS/IN2P3, Orsay (France); Britzger, D.; Campbell, A.J.; Dodonov, V.; Eckerlin, G.; Elsen, E.; Fleischer, M.; Gayler, J.; Ghazaryan, S.; Haidt, D.; Jung, A.; Jung, H.; Katzy, J.; Kleinwort, C.; Kruecker, D.; Krueger, K.; Levonian, S.; Lipka, K.; List, B.; List, J.; Meyer, A.B.; Meyer, J.; Niebuhr, C.; Olsson, J.E.; Pirumov, H.; Pitzl, D.; Placakyte, R.; Schmitt, S.; Sefkow, F.; South, D.; Steder, M.; Wuensch, E. [DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Buniatyan, A.; Newman, P.R.; Thompson, P.D. [University of Birmingham, School of Physics and Astronomy, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Bylinkin, A. [Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, Dolgoprudny, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Bystritskaya, L.; Fedotov, A. [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Avila, K.B.C.; Contreras, J.G. [CINVESTAV, Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Merida, Yucatan (Mexico); Cerny, K.; Jansova, M.; Salek, D.; Valkarova, A.; Zacek, J.; Zlebcik, R. [Charles University, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Prague (Czech Republic); Chekelian, V.; Grindhammer, G.; Kiesling, C.; Lobodzinski, B. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Munich (Germany); Cvach, J.; Hladky, J.; Reimer, P. [Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Institute of Physics, Prague (Czech Republic); Dainton, J.B.; Gabathuler, E.; Greenshaw, T.; Klein, M.; Kostka, P.; Kretzschmar, J.; Laycock, P.; Maxfield, S.J.; Mehta, A.; Patel, G.D. [University of Liverpool, Department of Physics, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Daum, K.; Meyer, H. [Fachbereich C, Universitaet Wuppertal, Wuppertal (Germany); Diaconu, C.; Hoffmann, D.; Vallee, C. [Aix Marseille Universite, CNRS/IN2P3, CPPM UMR 7346, Marseille (France); Dobre, M.; Rotaru, M. [Horia Hulubei National Institute for R and D in Physics and Nuclear Engineering (IFIN-HH), Bucharest (Romania); Egli, S.; Horisberger, R.; Ozerov, D. [Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen (Switzerland); Favart, L.; Grebenyuk, A.; Hreus, T.; Janssen, X.; Roosen, R.; Mechelen, P. van [Brussels and Universiteit Antwerpen, Inter-University Institute for High Energies ULB-VUB, Antwerp (Belgium); Feltesse, J.; Schoeffel, L. [Irfu/SPP, CE Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Ferencei, J. [Nuclear Physics Institute of the CAS, Rez (Czech Republic); Goerlich, L.; Mikocki, S.; Nowak, G.; Sopicki, P. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Krakow (Poland); Gouzevitch, M.; Petrukhin, A. [IPNL, Universite Claude Bernard Lyon 1, CNRS/IN2P3, Villeurbanne (France); Grab, C. [Institut fuer Teilchenphysik, ETH, Zurich (Switzerland); Henderson, R.C.W. [University of Lancaster, Department of Physics, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Kapichine, M.; Morozov, A.; Spaskov, V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Kogler, R. [Universitaet Hamburg, Institut fuer Experimentalphysik, Hamburg (Germany); Landon, M.P.J.; Rizvi, E.; Traynor, D. [University of London, School of Physics and Astronomy, London (United Kingdom); Lange, W.; Naumann, T. [DESY, Zeuthen (Germany); Martyn, H.U. [I. Physikalisches Institut der RWTH, Aachen (Germany); Mueller, K.; Robmann, P.; Straumann, U.; Truoel, P. [Physik-Institut der Universitaet Zuerich, Zurich (Switzerland); Perez, E. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Picuric, I.; Raicevic, N. [University of Montenegro, Faculty of Science, Podgorica (Montenegro); Polifka, R. [Charles University, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Prague (Czech Republic); University of Toronto, Department of Physics, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2017-05-15

    Measurements of D*(2010) meson production in diffractive deep inelastic scattering (5 < Q{sup 2} < 100 GeV{sup 2}) are presented which are based on HERA data recorded at a centre-of-mass energy √(s) = 319 GeV with an integrated luminosity of 287 pb{sup -1}. The reaction ep → eXY is studied, where the system X, containing at least one D*(2010) meson, is separated from a leading low-mass proton dissociative system Y by a large rapidity gap. The kinematics of D* candidates are reconstructed in the D* → Kππ decay channel. The measured cross sections compare favourably with next-to-leading order QCD predictions, where charm quarks are produced via boson-gluon fusion. The charm quarks are then independently fragmented to the D* mesons. The calculations rely on the collinear factorisation theorem and are based on diffractive parton densities previously obtained by H1 from fits to inclusive diffractive cross sections. The data are further used to determine the diffractive to inclusive D* production ratio in deep inelastic scattering. (orig.)

  13. Low mass diffractive systems at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Schicker, R

    2008-01-01

    A rapidity gap trigger for the ALICE detector at the Large Hadron Collider LHC is presented and a few selected physics observables are discussed. First, some properties of double pomeron events are outlined. Second, signatures of the odderon in diffractive J/Psi production is discussed. Third, possible evidence of gluon saturation in the cross section of diffractive heavy quark photoproduction is investigated.

  14. What's in the Loop? The Anatomy of Double Higgs Production

    CERN Document Server

    Dawson, S; Low, Ian

    2015-01-01

    Determination of Higgs self-interactions through the double Higgs production from gluon fusion is a major goal of current and future collider experiments. We point out this channel could help disentangle and resolve the nature of ultraviolet contributions to Higgs couplings to two gluons. Analytic properties of the double Higgs amplitudes near kinematic threshold are used to study features resulting from scalar and fermionic loop particles mediating the interaction. Focusing on the hh invariant mass spectrum, we consider the effect from anomalous top and bottom Yukawa couplings, as well as from scalar and fermionic loop particles. In particular, the spectrum at high hh invariant mass is sensitive to the spin of the particles in the loop.

  15. Diffractive ρ production at small x in future electron-ion colliders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, V. P.; Navarra, F. S.; Spiering, D.

    2016-09-01

    The future electron-ion (eA) collider is expected to probe the high energy regime of the quantum chromodynamics (QCD), with the exclusive vector meson production cross section being one of the most promising observables. In this paper we complement previous studies of exclusive processes presenting a comprehensive analysis of diffractive ρ production at small x. We compute the coherent and incoherent cross sections taking into account non-linear QCD dynamical effects and considering different models for the dipole-proton scattering amplitude and vector meson wave function. The dependence of these cross sections on the energy, photon virtuality, nuclear mass number and squared momentum transfer is analysed in detail. Moreover, we compare the non-linear predictions with those obtained in the linear regime. Finally, we also estimate the exclusive photon, J/{{\\Psi }} and ϕ production and compare with the results obtained for ρ production. Our results demonstrate that the analysis of diffractive ρ production in future electron-ion colliders will be important in understanding the non-linear QCD dynamics.

  16. A double-imprinted diffraction-grating sensor based on a virus-responsive super-aptamer hydrogel derived from an impure extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Wei; Spivak, David A

    2014-02-17

    The detection of viruses is of interest for a number of fields including biomedicine, environmental science, and biosecurity. Of particular interest are methods that do not require expensive equipment or trained personnel, especially if the results can be read by the naked eye. A new "double imprinting" method was developed whereby a virus-bioimprinted hydrogel is further micromolded into a diffraction grating sensor by using imprint-lithography techniques to give a "Molecularly Imprinted Polymer Gel Laser Diffraction Sensor" (MIP-GLaDiS). A simple laser transmission apparatus was used to measure diffraction, and the system can read by the naked eye to detect the Apple Stem Pitting Virus (ASPV) at concentrations as low as 10 ng mL(-1), thus setting the limit of detection of these hydrogels as low as other antigen-binding methods such as ELISA or fluorescence-tag systems.

  17. Single and double charmed meson production at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Maciula, Rafal

    2014-01-01

    We discuss production of charmed mesons in proton-proton collisions at the LHC. The cross section for inclusive production of $c \\bar c$ pairs is calculated in the framework of the $k_{\\perp}$-factorization approach which effectively includes next-to-leading order corrections. Theoretical uncertainties of the model related to the choice of renormalization and factorization scales as well as due to the quark mass are discussed. Results of the $k_{\\perp}$-factorization approach are compared to NLO parton model predictions. The hadronization of charm quarks is included with the help of the Peterson fragmentation functions. Inclusive differential distributions in transverse momentum for several charmed mesons ($D^0$, $D^{\\pm}$, $D^{\\pm}_{S}$) are calculated and compared to recent results of the ALICE, ATLAS and LHCb collaborations. Furthermore, we also discuss production of two pairs of $c \\bar c$ within a simple formalism of double-parton scattering (DPS). Surprisingly large cross sections, comparable to single-...

  18. Can we discover double Higgs production at the LHC?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Alexandre; Ghosh, Tathagata; Sinha, Kuver

    2017-08-01

    We explore double Higgs production via gluon fusion in the b b ¯γ γ channel at the high-luminosity LHC using machine learning tools. We first propose a Bayesian optimization approach to select cuts on kinematic variables, obtaining a 30%-50% increase in the significance compared to current results in the literature. We show that this improvement persists once systematic uncertainties are taken into account. We next use boosted decision trees (BDT) to further discriminate signal and background events. Our analysis shows that a joint optimization of kinematic cuts and BDT hyperparameters results in an appreciable improvement in the significance. Finally, we perform a multivariate analysis of the output scores of the BDT. We find that assuming a very low level of systematics, the techniques proposed here will be able to confirm the production of a pair of standard model Higgs bosons at 5 σ level with 3 ab-1 of data. Assuming a more realistic projection of the level of systematics, around 10%, the optimization of cuts to train BDTs combined with a multivariate analysis delivers a respectable significance of 4.6 σ . Even assuming large systematics of 20%, our analysis predicts a 3.6 σ significance, which represents at least strong evidence in favor of double Higgs production. We carefully incorporate background contributions coming from light flavor jets or c jets being misidentified as b jets and jets being misidentified as photons in our analysis.

  19. Analysis of an industrial production suspension of Bacillus lentus subtilisin crystals by powder diffraction: a powerful quality-control tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frankær, Christian Grundahl; Moroz, Olga V.; Turkenburg, Johan P.

    2014-01-01

    A microcrystalline suspension of Bacillus lentus subtilisin (Savinase) produced during industrial large-scale production was analysed by X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) and X-ray single-crystal diffraction (MX). XRPD established that the bulk microcrystal sample representative of the entire...

  20. D* Meson Production in Deep-Inelastic Diffractive Interactions at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Adloff, C.; Andrieu, B.; Anthonis, T.; Arkadov, V.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Babaev, A.; Bahr, J.; Baranov, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Bate, P.; Becker, J.; Beglarian, A.; Behnke, O.; Beier, C.; Belousov, A.; Benisch, T.; Berger, C.; Berndt, T.; Bizot, J.C.; Boehme, J.; Boudry, V.; Braunschweig, W.; Brisson, V.; Broker, H.B.; Brown, D.P.; Bruckner, W.; Bruncko, D.; Burger, J.; Busser, F.W.; Bunyatyan, A.; Burrage, A.; Buschhorn, G.; Bystritskaya, L.; Campbell, A.J.; Cao, Jun; Caron, S.; Cassol-Brunner, F.; Clarke, D.; Clerbaux, B.; Collard, C.; Contreras, J.G.; Coppens, Y.R.; Coughlan, J.A.; Cousinou, M.C.; Cox, B.E.; Cozzika, G.; Cvach, J.; Dainton, J.B.; Dau, W.D.; Daum, K.; Davidsson, M.; Delcourt, B.; Delerue, N.; Demirchyan, R.; De Roeck, A.; De Wolf, E.A.; Diaconu, C.; Dingfelder, J.; Dixon, P.; Dodonov, V.; Dowell, J.D.; Droutskoi, A.; Dubak, A.; Duprel, C.; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eckstein, D.; Efremenko, V.; Egli, S.; Eichler, R.; Eisele, F.; Eisenhandler, E.; Ellerbrock, M.; Elsen, E.; Erdmann, M.; Erdmann, W.; Faulkner, P.J.W.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Felst, R.; Ferencei, J.; Ferron, S.; Fleischer, M.; Fleming, Y.H.; Flugge, G.; Fomenko, A.; Foresti, I.; Formanek, J.; Franke, G.; Gabathuler, E.; Gabathuler, K.; Garvey, J.; Gassner, J.; Gayler, Joerg; Gerhards, R.; Gerlich, C.; Ghazaryan, Samvel; Goerlich, L.; Gogitidze, N.; Goldberg, M.; Grab, C.; Grassler, H.; Greenshaw, T.; Grindhammer, Guenter; Hadig, T.; Haidt, D.; Hajduk, L.; Haller, J.; Haynes, W.J.; Heinemann, B.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henderson, R.C.W.; Hengstmann, S.; Henschel, H.; Heremans, R.; Herrera, G.; Herynek, I.; Hildebrandt, M.; Hilgers, M.; Hiller, K.H.; Hladky, J.; Hoting, P.; Hoffmann, D.; Horisberger, R.; Hurling, S.; Ibbotson, M.; Issever, C .; Jacquet, M.; Jaffre, M.; Janauschek, L.; Janssen, X.; Jemanov, V.; Jonsson, L.; Johnson, C.; Johnson, D.P.; Jones, M.A.S.; Jung, H.; Kant, D.; Kapichine, M.; Karlsson, M.; Karschnick, O.; Keil, F.; Keller, N.; Kennedy, J.; Kenyon, I.R.; Kermiche, S.; Kiesling, Christian M.; Kjellberg, P.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Kluge, T.; Knies, G.; Koblitz, B.; Kolya, S.D.; Korbel, V.; Kostka, P.; Kotelnikov, S.K.; Koutouev, R.; Koutov, A.; Krehbiel, H.; Kroseberg, J.; Kruger, K.; Kupper, A.; Kuhr, T.; Kurca, T.; Lahmann, R.; Lamb, D.; Landon, M.P.J.; Lange, W.; Lastovicka, T.; Laycock, P.; Lebailly, E.; Lebedev, A.; Leissner, B.; Lemrani, R.; Lendermann, V.; Levonian, S.; Lindstroem, M.; List, B.; Lobodzinska, E.; Lobodzinski, B.; Loginov, A.; Loktionova, N.; Lubimov, V.; Luders, S.; Luke, D.; Lytkin, L.; Mahlke-Kruger, H.; Malden, N.; Malinovski, E.; Malinovski, I.; Maracek, R.; Marage, P.; Marks, J.; Marshall, R.; Martyn, H.U.; Martyniak, J.; Maxfield, S.J.; Meer, D.; Mehta, A.; Meier, K.; Meyer, A.B.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Meyer, P.O.; Mikocki, S.; Milstead, D.; Mkrtchyan, T.; Mohr, R.; Mohrdieck, S.; Mondragon, M.N.; Moreau, F.; Morozov, A.; Morris, J.V.; Muller, K.; Murin, P.; Nagovizin, V.; Naroska, B.; Naumann, J.; Naumann, T.; Nellen, G.; Newman, Paul R.; Nicholls, T.C.; Niebergall, F.; Niebuhr, C.; Nix, O.; Nowak, G.; Olsson, J.E.; Ozerov, D.; Panassik, V.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G.D.; Peez, M.; Perez, E.; Phillips, J.P.; Pitzl, D.; Poschl, R.; Potachnikova, I.; Povh, B.; Rabbertz, K.; Radel, G.; Rauschenberger, J.; Reimer, P.; Reisert, B.; Reyna, D.; Risler, C.; Rizvi, E.; Robmann, P.; Roosen, R.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rusakov, S.; Rybicki, K.; Sankey, D.P.C.; Scheins, J.; Schilling, F.P.; Schleper, P.; Schmidt, D.; Schmidt, S.; Schmitt, S.; Schneider, M.; Schoeffel, L.; Schoning, A.; Schorner, T.; Schroder, V.; Schultz-Coulon, H.C.; Schwanenberger, C.; Sedlak, K.; Sefkow, F.; Chekelian, V.; Sheviakov, I.; Shtarkov, L.N.; Sirois, Y.; Sloan, T.; Smirnov, P.; Soloviev, Y.; South, D.; Spaskov, V.; Specka, Arnd E.; Spitzer, H.; Stamen, R.; Stella, B.; Stiewe, J.; Straumann, U.; Swart, M.; Tasevsky, M.; Tchernyshov, V.; Tchetchelnitski, S.; Thompson, Graham; Thompson, P.D.; Tobien, N.; Traynor, D.; Truoel, Peter; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsurin, I.; Turnau, J.; Turney, J.E.; Tzamariudaki, E.; Udluft, S.; Urban, Marcel; Usik, A.; Valkar, S.; Valkarova, A.; Vallee, C.; Van Mechelen, P.; Vassiliev, S.; Vazdik, Y.; Vichnevski, A.; Wacker, K.; Wallny, R.; Waugh, B.; Weber, G.; Weber, M.; Wegener, D.; Werner, C.; Werner, M.; Werner, N.; White, G.; Wiesand, S.; Wilksen, T.; Winde, M.; Winter, G.G.; Wissing, C.; Wobisch, M.; Woehrling, E.E.; Wunsch, E.; Wyatt, A.C.; Zacek, J.; Zalesak, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zhokin, A.; Zomer, F.; Zsembery, J.; zur Nedden, M.

    2001-01-01

    A measurement is presented of the cross section for D* meson production in diffractive deep-inelastic scattering for the first time at HERA. The cross section is given for the process ep -> eXY, where the system X contains at least one D* meson and is separated by a large rapidity gap from a low mass proton remnant system Y. The cross section is presented in the diffractive deep-inelastic region defined by 2 2 GeV and |\\eta_D* | < 1.5. The cross section is found to be 246+-54+-56 pb and forms about 6% of the corresponding inclusive D* cross section. The cross section is presented as a function of various kinematic variables, including z_pom^obs which is an estimate of the fraction of the momentum of the diffractive exchange carried by the parton entering the hard-subprocess. The data show a large component of the cross section at low z_pom^obs where the contribution of the Boson-Gluon-Fusion process is expected to dominate. The data are compared with several QCD--based calculations.

  1. Production of exclusive dijets in diffractive deep inelastic scattering at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abramowicz, H. [Tel Aviv Univ. (Israel). School of Physics; Max Planck Institute for Physics, Munich (Germany); Abt, I. [Max Planck Institute for Physics, Munich (Germany); Adamczyk, L. [AGH-Univ. of Science and Technology, Krakow (Poland). Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science; Collaboration: ZEUS Collaboration; and others

    2015-05-15

    Production of exclusive dijets in diffractive deep inelastic e{sup ±}p scattering has been measured with the ZEUS detector at HERA using an integrated luminosity of 372 pb{sup -1}. The measurement was performed for γ{sup *}-p centre-of-mass energies in the range 9025 GeV{sup 2}. Energy and transverse-energy flows around the jet axis are presented. The cross section is presented as a function of β and φ, where β=x/x{sub P}, x is the Bjorken variable and x{sub P} is the proton fractional longitudinal momentum loss. The angle φ is defined by the γ{sup *}-dijet plane and the γ{sup *}-e{sup ±} plane in the rest frame of the diffractive final state. The φ cross section is measured in bins of β. The results are compared to predictions from models based on different assumptions about the nature of the diffractive exchange.

  2. Production of exclusive dijets in diffractive deep inelastic scattering at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abramowicz, H.; Gueta, O.; Kananov, S.; Levy, A.; Stern, A. [Tel Aviv University, Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Sciences, School of Physics, Tel Aviv (Israel); Abt, I.; Caldwell, A.; Schmidke, W.B.; Verbytskyi, A. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Munich (Germany); Adamczyk, L.; Gach, G.; Guzik, M.; Kisielewska, D.; Przybycien, M. [AGH-University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, Krakow (Poland); Adamus, M.; Tymieniecka, T. [National Centre for Nuclear Research, Warsaw (Poland); Antonelli, S. [University, Bologna (Italy); INFN Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Aushev, V. [National Academy of Sciences, Institute for Nuclear Research, Kiev (Ukraine); National Taras Shevchenko University of Kyiv, Department of Nuclear Physics, Kiev (Ukraine); Aushev, Y.; Iudin, A.; Kadenko, I.; Kondrashova, N.; Kononenko, O.; Onishchuk, Yu.; Shevchenko, R.; Shkola, O.; Trofymov, A.; Viazlo, O.; Zakharchuk, N. [National Taras Shevchenko University of Kyiv, Department of Nuclear Physics, Kiev (Ukraine); Behnke, O.; Behrens, U.; Borras, K.; Ciesielski, R.; Dolinska, G.; Geiser, A.; Gizhko, A.; Grebenyuk, J.; Gregor, I.; Hain, W.; Januschek, F.; Klein, U.; Korol, I.; Koetz, U.; Kowalski, H.; Kuprash, O.; Libov, V.; Lisovyi, M.; Lobodzinska, E.; Loehr, B.; Lontkovskyi, D.; Makarenko, I.; Malka, J.; Myronenko, V.; Notz, D.; Roloff, P.; Rubinsky, I.; Schneekloth, U.; Schoerner-Sadenius, T.; Stefaniuk, N.; Szuba, J.; Turkot, O.; Wichmann, K.; Wolf, G.; Zenaiev, O. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Bertolin, A.; Dusini, S.; Longhin, A.; Stanco, L. [INFN Padova, Padua (Italy); Bloch, I. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Zeuthen (Germany); Boos, E.G.; Pokrovskiy, N.S.; Zhautykov, B.O. [Institute of Physics and Technology of Ministry of Education and Science of Kazakhstan, Almaty (Kazakhstan); Brock, I.; Mergelmeyer, S.; Paul, E. [Physikalisches Institut der Universitaet Bonn, Bonn (Germany); Brook, N.H.; Wing, M. [University College London, Physics and Astronomy Department, London (United Kingdom); Brugnera, R.; Garfagnini, A.; Limentani, S. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Univ., Padua (Italy); INFN, Padua (Italy); Bruni, A.; Corradi, M. [INFN Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Bussey, P.J.; Saxon, D.H.; Skillicorn, I.O. [University of Glasgow, School of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Capua, M.; Schioppa, M.; Tassi, E. [Calabria University, Physics Department, Cosenza (Italy); INFN, Cosenza (Italy); Catterall, C.D. [York University, Department of Physics, Ontario (Canada); Chwastowski, J.; Figiel, J.; Krupa, B.; Stopa, P.; Zawiejski, L. [Polish Academy of Sciences, The Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Krakow (Poland); Ciborowski, J.; Grzelak, G.; Nowak, R.J.; Perlanski, W.; Tomaszewska, J.; Zarnecki, A.F. [University of Warsaw, Faculty of Physics, Warsaw (Poland); Cooper-Sarkar, A.M.; Devenish, R.C.E.; Walczak, R. [University of Oxford, Department of Physics, Oxford (United Kingdom); Corriveau, F. [McGill University, Department of Physics, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Dementiev, R.K.; Gladilin, L.K.; Golubkov, Yu.A.; Korzhavina, I.A.; Levchenko, B.B.; Lukina, O.Yu.; Shcheglova, L.M.; Zotkin, D.S. [Lomonosov Moscow State University, Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Foster, B.; Gallo, E.; Klanner, R.; Kovalchuk, N.; Lohrmann, E.; Sztuk-Dambietz, J.; Szuba, D.; Turcato, M. [Hamburg University, Institute of Experimental Physics, Hamburg (Germany); Hochman, D.; Karshon, U. [Weizmann Institute, Department of Particle Physics and Astrophysics, Rehovot (Israel); Hori, R.; Nagano, K.; Tokushuku, K.; Yamada, S.; Yamazaki, Y. [Institute of Particle and Nuclear Studies, KEK, Tsukuba (Japan); Ibrahim, Z.A.; Jomhari, N.Z.; Mohamad Idris, F.; Mohammad Nasir, N.; Wan Abdullah, W.A.T. [Universiti Malaya, National Centre for Particle Physics, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Iga, Y. [Polytechnic University, Tokyo (Japan); Ishitsuka, M.; Kuze, M.; Nobe, T. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Department of Physics, Tokyo (JP); Kaur, M.; Kaur, P.; Singh, I. [Panjab University, Department of Physics, Chandigarh (IN); Kotanski, A.; Slominski, W. [Jagellonian University, Department of Physics, Krakow (PL); Ruspa, M. [Universita del Piemonte Orientale, Novara (IT); INFN, Turin (IT); Shyrma, Yu.; Zhmak, N. [National Academy of Sciences, Institute for Nuclear Research, Kiev (UA); Solano, A. [Universita di Torino (IT); INFN, Turin (IT); Tsurugai, T. [Meiji Gakuin University, Faculty of General Education, Yokohama (JP); Collaboration: ZEUS Collaboration

    2016-01-15

    Production of exclusive dijets in diffractive deep inelastic e{sup ±}p scattering has been measured with the ZEUS detector atHERAusing an integrated luminosity of 372 pb{sup -1}. The measurement was performed for γ* - p centre-of-mass energies in the range 90 < W < 250 GeV and for photon virtualities Q{sup 2} > 25 GeV{sup 2}. Energy flows around the jet axis are presented. The cross section is presented as a function of β and φ, where β = x/x{sub P}, x is the Bjorken variable and x{sub P} is the proton fractional longitudinal momentum loss. The angle φ is defined by the γ*-dijet plane and the γ*-e{sup ±} plane in the rest frame of the diffractive final state. The φ cross section is measured in bins of β. The results are compared to predictions from models based on different assumptions about the nature of the diffractive exchange. (orig.)

  3. Factorization scheme and scale dependence in diffractive dijet production at low Q{sup 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klasen, M. [Grenoble Univ. (France). Lab. de Physique Subatomique et de Cosmologie, CNRS-IN2P3; Kramer, G. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik

    2005-06-01

    We calculate diffractive dijet production in deep-inelastic scattering at next-to-leading order of perturbative QCD, including contributions from direct and resolved photons, and compare our predictions to preliminary data from the H1 collaboration at HERA. We study how the cross section depends on the factorization scheme and scale M{sub {gamma}} at the virtual photon vertex for the occurrence of factorization breaking. The strong M{sub {gamma}}-dependence, which is present when only the resolved cross section is suppressed, is tamed by introducing the suppression also into the initial-state NLO correction of the direct part. (orig.)

  4. Factorization scheme and scale dependence in diffractive dijet production at low Q^2

    CERN Document Server

    Klasen, M

    2005-01-01

    We calculate diffractive dijet production in deep-inelastic scattering at next-to-leading order of perturbative QCD, including contributions from direct and resolved photons, and compare our predictions to preliminary data from the H1 collaboration at HERA. We study how the cross section depends on the factorization scheme and scale M_\\gamma at the virtual photon vertex for the occurrence of factorization breaking. The strong M_\\gamma-dependence, which is present when only the resolved cross section is suppressed, is tamed by introducing the suppression also into the initial-state NLO correction of the direct part.

  5. Factorization scheme and scale dependence in diffractive dijet production at low Q{sup 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klasen, Michael [Laboratoire de Physique Subatomique et de Cosmologie, Universite Joseph Fourier/CNRS-IN2P3, 53 Avenue des Martyrs, F-38026 Grenoble (France); Kramer, Gustav [II Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Hamburg, Luruper Chaussee 149, D-22761 Hamburg (Germany)

    2005-12-01

    We calculate diffractive dijet production in deep-inelastic scattering at the next-to-leading order (NLO) of perturbative QCD, including contributions from direct and resolved photons, and compare our predictions to the preliminary data from the H1 collaboration at HERA. We study how the cross section depends on the factorization scheme and scale M{sub {gamma}} at the virtual photon vertex for the occurrence of factorization breaking. The strong M{sub {gamma}}-dependence, which is present when only the resolved cross section is suppressed, is tamed by introducing the suppression also into the initial-state NLO correction of the direct part.

  6. Double modulation of X radiation diffracted in a quartz single crystal by high and low frequency acoustic waves

    CERN Document Server

    Kocharyan, L A; Bornazyan, H S

    1986-01-01

    The time dependence of X radiation diffracted in a quartz single crystal is experimentally investigated when surface acoustic waves modulated by low frequency oscillations of different frequencies and forms are excited in the crystal.

  7. Investigation on quality of cubic GaN/GaAs (100) by double-crystal X-ray diffraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐大鹏; 王玉田; 杨辉; 郑联喜; 李建斌; 段俐宏; 吴荣汉

    1999-01-01

    Cubic GaN was grown on GaAs (100) by low pressure metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and photoluminescence (PL) spectra were performed to characterize the quality of the GaN film. The PL spectra of cubic GaN thin films being thicker than 1.5 μm were reported. Triple-crystal diffraction to analyze orientation distributions and strain of the thin films was also demonstrated.

  8. Evidence for neutral-current diffractive neutral pion production from hydrogen in neutrino interactions on hydrocarbon

    CERN Document Server

    Wolcott, J; Altinok, O; Bercellie, A; Betancourt, M; Bodek, A; Bravar, A; Budd, H; Cai, T; Carneiro, M F; Chvojka, J; Devan, J; Dytman, S A; Diaz, G A; Eberly, B; Endress, E; Felix, J; Fields, L; Galindo, R; Gallagher, H; Golan, T; Gran, R; Harris, D A; Higuera, A; Hurtado, K; Kiveni, M; Kleykamp, J; Kordosky, M; Le, T; Maher, E; Manly, S; Mann, W A; Marshall, C M; Caicedo, D A Martinez; McFarland, K S; McGivern, C L; McGowan, A M; Messerly, B; Miller, J; Mislivec, A; Morfin, J G; Mousseau, J; Naples, D; Nelson, J K; Norrick, A; Nuruzzaman,; Paolone, V; Park, J; Patrick, C E; Perdue, G N; Rakotondravohitra, L; Ramirez, M A; Ray, H; Ren, L; Rimal, D; Rodrigues, P A; Ruterbories, D; Schellman, H; Schmitz, D W; Salinas, C J Solano; Sanchez, S F; Tagg, N; Tice, B G; Valencia, E; Walton, T; Wospakrik, M; Zhang, D

    2016-01-01

    The MINERvA experiment observes an excess of events containing electromagnetic showers relative to the expectation from Monte Carlo simulations in neutral-current neutrino interactions with mean beam energy of 4.5 GeV on a hydrocarbon target. The excess is characterized and found to be consistent with neutral-current neutral pion production with a broad energy distribution peaking at 7 GeV and a total cross section of 0.26 +- 0.02 (stat) +- 0.08 (sys) x 10^{-39} cm^{2}. The angular distribution, electromagnetic shower energy, and spatial distribution of the energy depositions of the excess are consistent with expectations from neutrino neutral-current diffractive neutral pion production from hydrogen in the hydrocarbon target. These data comprise the first direct experimental observation and constraint for a reaction that poses an important background process in neutrino oscillation experiments searching for muon neutrino to electron neutrino oscillations.

  9. 量子理论新方法研究光的双缝衍射%Photon Double-slit Diffraction with Quantum Theory Approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严立云; 李宏; 刘晓静; 王婧; 张斯淇; 吴坤朋; 李春红; 吴向尧; 郭义庆

    2013-01-01

    用量子理论新方法研究光的双缝衍射实验现象,首先用光的量子理论计算光在缝中双缝衍射的波函数,再由基尔霍夫定律计算光的衍射波函数,由衍射强度正比于衍射波函数模方,从而得到光双缝衍射强度的解析式,把量子理论计算结果和经典电磁理论计算结果以及与实验数据三者进行比较,发现量子理论结果与实验数据符合更好,而经典电磁理论计算结果与实验有一定偏差.从而说明量子理论更能精确解释光的衍射现象.该方法还可进一步研究光的单缝、多缝以及光栅衍射的实验现象.%In this paper, the light double-slit diffraction with quantum theory approach is studied. Firstly, the light wave function in slits is calculated, and the diffraction wave function is obtained with Kirchhoff's law. The diffraction intensity is proportional to the diffraction wave function da party. Futhermore, the intensity formula of light double-slit diffraction is obtained; by comparing the quantum theory calculation results and classical electromagnetic theory calculation results and the experimental date, it is found that the calculate result of quantum theory is in accordance with the experment data, but the classical electromagnetic theory calculation result with the experiment date has certain deviation. So, the quantum theory can explain the light diffraction more precisely. The proposed method can also further study the light of the single slit, many slits and grating diffraction experiment phenomena.

  10. Double vector meson production in the International Linear Collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, F. [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo, Departamento de Ciencias Exatas e da Terra, Diadema, SP (Brazil); Goncalves, V.P. [Universidade Federal de Pelotas, High and Medium Energy Group, Instituto de Fisica e Matematica, Caixa Postal 354, Pelotas, RS (Brazil); Moreira, B.D.; Navarra, F.S. [Universidade de Sao Paulo, Instituto de Fisica, C.P. 66318, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-08-15

    In this paper we study double vector meson production in γγ interactions at high energies and estimate, using the color dipole picture, the main observables which can be probed at the International Linear Collider (ILC). The total γ(Q{sub 1}{sup 2}) + γ(Q{sub 2}{sup 2}) → V{sub 1} + V{sub 2} cross sections for V{sub i} = ρ, J/ψ, and Υ are computed and the energy and virtuality dependencies are studied in detail. Our results demonstrate that the experimental analysis of this process is feasible at the ILC and it can be useful to constrain the QCD dynamics at high energies. (orig.)

  11. Single-diffractive production of charmed mesons at the LHC within the $k_t$-factorization approach

    CERN Document Server

    Luszczak, Marta; Szczurek, Antoni; Trzebinski, Maciej

    2016-01-01

    We discuss the single diffractive production of $c \\bar c$ pairs and charmed mesons at the LHC. For a first time we propose a $k_t$-factorization approach to the diffractive processes. The transverse momentum dependent diffractive parton distributions are obtained from standard (collinear) diffractive parton distributions used in the literature. In this calculation the transverse momentum of the pomeron is neglected with respect to transverse momentum of partons entering the hard process. We also perform the first evaluation of the cross sections at the LHC using the diffractive transverse momentum dependent parton distributions. The results of the new approach are compared with those of the standard collinear one. Significantly larger cross sections are obtained in the $k_t$-factorization approach where some part of higher-order effects is effectively included. The differences between corresponding differential distributions are discussed. Finally, we present a feasibility study of the process at the LHC usi...

  12. Near-diffraction-limited green source by frequency doubling of a diode-stack pumped Q-switched Nd:YAG slab oscillator-amplifier system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hengli; Liu, Xiaomeng; Li, Daijun; Shi, Peng; Schell, Alex; Haas, Claus Rüdige; Du, Keming

    2007-09-10

    A near-diffraction-limited, stable, 18 mJ green source with a pulse width of 16.7 ns was generated at a 1 kHz repetition rate by frequency doubling of diode stacks end-pumped electro-optically Q-switched slab Nd:YAG oscillator-amplifier system. The pump to green optical conversion efficiency was 10.7%. At the output energy of 15 mJ at 532 nm, the M2 factors were 1.3 and 1.7 in the unstable and stable directions, respectively. The energy pulse stability was approximately 0.8%.

  13. t-dependence and slope-mass correlation of the double-diffractive reaction pp $\\rightarrow$(p$\\pi^{+}\\pi^{-}$) (p$\\pi^{+}\\pi{-}$ at the ISR

    CERN Document Server

    Cavalli-Sforza, M; Fraternali, M; Goggi, G; Impellizzeri, F; Mantovani, G C; Pastore, F; Ratti, S; Rossini, B; Sadrozinski, H F W; Scannicchio, D A

    1975-01-01

    Experimental data on the reaction pp to (p pi /sup +/ pi /sup -/)(p pi /sup +/ pi /sup -/), collected at CERN intersecting storage rings using the split field magnet facility, are reported. An analysis of the results obtained at energies of 23, 31, and 53 GeV is presented. The general picture arising from the data on cross section behaviour, mass spectra, and differential distributions indicates the exchange of a factorizable pomeron as a suitable scheme for describing connections between single-and double-diffractive processes. (1 refs).

  14. Exclusive diffractive production of π+π− continuum and resonances within tensor pomeron approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lebiedowicz Piotr

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We discuss exclusive central diffractive dipion production in proton-(antiproton collisions at high energies. The calculation is based on a tensor pomeron model and the amplitudes for the processes are formulated in an effective field-theoretic approach. We include the purely diffractive dipion continuum, and the scalar and tensor resonances decaying into the π+π− pairs as well as the photoproduction contributions (ρ0, Drell-Söding. We discuss how two pomerons couple to tensor meson f2(1270 and the interference effects of resonance and dipion continuum. The theoretical results are compared with CDF and CMS experimental data. We show the influence of the experimental cuts on the integrated cross section and on various differential distributions for outgoing particles. We find that the relative contribution of resonant f2(1270 and dipion continuum strongly depends on the cut on proton transverse momenta (or four-momentum transfer squared t1,2 which may explain some controversial observations made by different ISR experiments in the past. The cuts may play then the role of a ππ resonance filter. We suggest some experimental analyses to fix model parameters related to the pomeron-pomeron-meson coupling.

  15. Exclusive diffractive production of π+π- continuum and resonances within tensor pomeron approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebiedowicz, Piotr; Nachtmann, Otto; Szczurek, Antoni

    2016-11-01

    We discuss exclusive central diffractive dipion production in proton-(anti)proton collisions at high energies. The calculation is based on a tensor pomeron model and the amplitudes for the processes are formulated in an effective field-theoretic approach. We include the purely diffractive dipion continuum, and the scalar and tensor resonances decaying into the π+π- pairs as well as the photoproduction contributions (ρ0, Drell-Söding). We discuss how two pomerons couple to tensor meson f2(1270) and the interference effects of resonance and dipion continuum. The theoretical results are compared with CDF and CMS experimental data. We show the influence of the experimental cuts on the integrated cross section and on various differential distributions for outgoing particles. We find that the relative contribution of resonant f2(1270) and dipion continuum strongly depends on the cut on proton transverse momenta (or four-momentum transfer squared t1,2) which may explain some controversial observations made by different ISR experiments in the past. The cuts may play then the role of a ππ resonance filter. We suggest some experimental analyses to fix model parameters related to the pomeron-pomeron-meson coupling.

  16. Exclusive diffractive production of $\\pi^+ \\pi^-$ pairs within tensor pomeron approach

    CERN Document Server

    Lebiedowicz, Piotr; Szczurek, Antoni

    2016-01-01

    We discuss exclusive central diffractive production of $\\pi^{+} \\pi^{-}$ in proton-(anti)proton collisions at high energies. Based on a tensor pomeron model we present results of the purely diffractive dipion continuum, the scalar $f_{0}(500)$, $f_{0}(980)$ and tensor $f_{2}(1270)$ resonances decaying into the $\\pi^{+} \\pi^{-}$ pairs as well as the photoproduction mechanism ($\\rho^{0}$, Drell-S\\"oding). We discuss how two pomerons couple to the tensor meson $f_{2}(1270)$ and the interference effects of resonance and dipion continuum contributions. The theoretical results are compared with existing STAR, CDF, and CMS experimental data. Predictions for planned or being carried out experiments (ALICE, ATLAS) are presented. We find that the relative contribution of resonant $f_2(1270)$ and dipion continuum strongly depend on the cut on proton transverse momenta (or four-momentum transfer squared $t_{1,2}$) which may explain some controversial observations made by different ISR experiments in the past. The cuts ma...

  17. Diffraction based overlay and image based overlay on production flow for advanced technology node

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blancquaert, Yoann; Dezauzier, Christophe

    2013-04-01

    One of the main challenges for lithography step is the overlay control. For the advanced technology node like 28nm and 14nm, the overlay budget becomes very tight. Two overlay techniques compete in our advanced semiconductor manufacturing: the Diffraction based Overlay (DBO) with the YieldStar S200 (ASML) and the Image Based Overlay (IBO) with ARCHER (KLA). In this paper we will compare these two methods through 3 critical production layers: Poly Gate, Contact and first metal layer. We will show the overlay results of the 2 techniques, explore the accuracy and compare the total measurement uncertainty (TMU) for the standard overlay targets of both techniques. We will see also the response and impact for the Image Based Overlay and Diffraction Based Overlay techniques through a process change like an additional Hardmask TEOS layer on the front-end stack. The importance of the target design is approached; we will propose more adapted design for image based targets. Finally we will present embedded targets in the 14 FDSOI with first results.

  18. Scale Issues in High-Energy Diffractive Vector-Meson Production

    CERN Document Server

    Crittenden, James Arthur

    1998-01-01

    Recent measurements of diffractive vector-meson production with the general-purpose detectors H1 and ZEUS in electron-proton interactions with 300 GeV center-of-mass energy at the HERA accelerator complex have stimulated great interest in the question of whether perturbative QCD (pQCD) can provide an accurate description of such diffractive processes. The high flux of quasi-real photons from the 27.5 GeV electron beam has allowed high-statistics studies of vector-meson photoproduction to be compared to the deeply inelastic processes at high photon virtuality Q^2 >> \\Lambda^2_QCD. Special-purpose electron detectors at small scattering angle have been used to identify a transition region, 0.2 < Q^2 < 2 GeV^2, where the pQCD prediction for the dominance of point-like configurations of qqbar-pairs is verified. Data samples characterized by high momentum transfer to the 820 GeV initial-state proton, 1 < |t| < 13 GeV^2, have now become available, and the results lend support to the proposition that pQCD...

  19. Production of haploids and doubled haploids in oil palm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Croxford Adam E

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oil palm is the world's most productive oil-food crop despite yielding well below its theoretical maximum. This maximum could be approached with the introduction of elite F1 varieties. The development of such elite lines has thus far been prevented by difficulties in generating homozygous parental types for F1 generation. Results Here we present the first high-throughput screen to identify spontaneously-formed haploid (H and doubled haploid (DH palms. We secured over 1,000 Hs and one DH from genetically diverse material and derived further DH/mixoploid palms from Hs using colchicine. We demonstrated viability of pollen from H plants and expect to generate 100% homogeneous F1 seed from intercrosses between DH/mixoploids once they develop female inflorescences. Conclusions This study has generated genetically diverse H/DH palms from which parental clones can be selected in sufficient numbers to enable the commercial-scale breeding of F1 varieties. The anticipated step increase in productivity may help to relieve pressure to extend palm cultivation, and limit further expansion into biodiverse rainforest.

  20. Interference and Diffraction Phenomena of Young's Double Slit Experiment%杨氏双缝实验中的干涉与衍射现象

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王筠; 吉紫鹃; 肖鹏程

    2012-01-01

    This article shows the interference fringe observed in the Young's double slit interference experiment is actually located in the single-slit diffraction center of the stripe region.Taken together these two experiments in practical work,students in this process can understand clearly the inseparable relationship between the single-slit diffraction and double slit interference.This helps students to apply theoretical knowledge to practice,learn and use,promoting the improvement of students' theoretical level.%杨氏双缝干涉实验中观测的干涉条纹实际上是位于单缝衍射中央明条纹区域内。实际工作中可以将这两个实验综合起来,学生在这个过程中可以清楚单缝衍射与双缝干涉之间的不可分离的关系,有助于学生将理论知识应用于实际,活学活用,促进学生理论水平的提高。

  1. Possibilities and limitations of synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction with double crystal and double multilayer monochromators for microscopic speciation studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Nolf, Wout [Department of Chemistry, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, B-2610, Antwerpen (Wilrijk) (Belgium)], E-mail: wout.denolf@ua.ac.be; Jaroszewicz, Jakub [Department of Chemistry, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, B-2610, Antwerpen (Wilrijk) (Belgium); Terzano, Roberto [Dipartimento di Biologia e Chimica Agro-forestale ed Ambientale, Via Amendola 165/A, I-70126, University of Bari, Bari (Italy); Lind, Ole Christian; Salbu, Brit [Isotope Laboratory, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, PO Box 5003, N-1432 As (Norway); Vekemans, Bart [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281 S12, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); Janssens, Koen [Department of Chemistry, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, B-2610, Antwerpen (Wilrijk) (Belgium); Falkenberg, Gerald [HASYLAB at DESY, Beamline L, Notkestraat 85, D-22603, Hamburg (Germany)

    2009-08-15

    The performance of a combined microbeam X-ray fluorescence/X-ray powder diffraction (XRF/XRPD) measurement station at Hamburger Synchrotronstrahlungslabor (HASYLAB) Beamline L is discussed in comparison to that at European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) ID18F/ID22. The angular resolution in the X-ray diffractograms is documented when different combinations of X-ray source, optics and X-ray diffraction detectors are employed. Typical angular resolution values in the range 0.3-0.5 deg. are obtained at the bending magnet source when a 'pink' beam form of excitation is employed. A similar setup at European Synchrotron Radiation Facility beamlines ID18F and ID22 allows to reach angular resolution values of 0.1-0.15 deg. In order to document the possibilities and limitations for speciation of metals in environmental materials by means of Hamburger Synchrotronstrahlungslabor Beamline L X-ray fluorescence/X-ray powder diffraction setup, two case studies are discussed, one involved in the identification of the crystal phases in which heavy metals such as chromium, iron, barium and lead are present in polluted soils of an industrial site (Val Basento, Italy) and another involved in the speciation of uranium in depleted uranium particles (Ceja Mountains, Kosovo). In the former case, the angular resolution is sufficient to allow identification of most crystalline phases present while in the latter case, it is necessary to dispose of an angular resolution of ca. 0.2 deg. to distinguish between different forms of oxidized uranium.

  2. Diffractive Higgs boson production at the Fermilab Tevatron and the CERN Large Hadron Collider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enberg, R; Ingelman, G; Kissavos, A; Tîmneanu, N

    2002-08-19

    Improved possibilities to find the Higgs boson in diffractive events, having less hadronic activity, depend on whether the cross section is large enough. Based on the soft color interaction models that successfully describe diffractive hard scattering at DESY HERA and the Fermilab Tevatron, we find that only a few diffractive Higgs events may be produced at the Tevatron, but we predict a substantial rate at the CERN Large Hadron Collider.

  3. Applications of on-product diffraction-based focus metrology in logic high volume manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noyes, Ben F.; Mokaberi, Babak; Bolton, David; Li, Chen; Palande, Ashwin; Park, Kevin; Noot, Marc; Kea, Marc

    2016-03-01

    The integration of on-product diffraction-based focus (DBF) capability into the majority of immersion lithography layers in leading edge logic manufacturing has enabled new applications targeted towards improving cycle time and yield. A CD-based detection method is the process of record (POR) for excursion detection. The drawback of this method is increased cycle time and limited sampling due to CD-SEM metrology capacity constraints. The DBFbased method allows the addition of focus metrology samples to the existing overlay measurements on the integrated metrology (IM) system. The result enables the addition of measured focus to the SPC system, allowing a faster excursion detection method. For focus targeting, the current method involves using a dedicated focus-exposure matrix (FEM) on all scanners, resulting in lengthy analysis times and uncertainty in the best focus. The DBF method allows the measurement to occur on the IM system, on a regular production wafer, and at the same time as the exposure. This results in a cycle time gain as well as a less subjective determination of best focus. A third application aims to use the novel onproduct focus metrology data in order to apply per-exposure focus corrections to the scanner. These corrections are particularly effective at the edge of the wafer, where systematic layer-dependent effects can be removed using DBFbased scanner feedback. This paper will discuss the development of a methodology to accomplish each of these applications in a high-volume production environment. The new focus metrology method, sampling schemes, feedback mechanisms and analysis methods lead to improved focus control, as well as earlier detection of failures.

  4. Production of Doubly Charmed Baryons at the SELEX: double intrinsic charm approach

    CERN Document Server

    Koshkarev, Sergey

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we study the role of the double intrinsic charm mechanism in the production of the doubly charmed baryons at the SELEX experiment. The predictions of the cross section and related production properties are presented.

  5. Observation of a diffractive contribution to dijet production in proton-proton collisions at s=7TeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatrchyan, S.; Khachatryan, V.; Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; Adam, W.; Aguilo, E.; Bergauer, T.; Dragicevic, M.; Erö, J.; Fabjan, C.; Friedl, M.; Frühwirth, R.; Ghete, V. M.; Hammer, J.; Hörmann, N.; Hrubec, J.; Jeitler, M.; Kiesenhofer, W.; Knünz, V.; Krammer, M.; Krätschmer, I.; Liko, D.; Mikulec, I.; Pernicka, M.; Rahbaran, B.; Rohringer, C.; Rohringer, H.; Schöfbeck, R.; Strauss, J.; Taurok, A.; Waltenberger, W.; Walzel, G.; Widl, E.; Wulz, C.-E.; Mossolov, V.; Shumeiko, N.; Suarez Gonzalez, J.; Bansal, S.; Cornelis, T.; De Wolf, E. A.; Janssen, X.; Luyckx, S.; Mucibello, L.; Ochesanu, S.; Roland, B.; Rougny, R.; Selvaggi, M.; Staykova, Z.; Van Haevermaet, H.; Van Mechelen, P.; Van Remortel, N.; Van Spilbeeck, A.; Blekman, F.; Blyweert, S.; D'Hondt, J.; Gonzalez Suarez, R.; Kalogeropoulos, A.; Maes, M.; Olbrechts, A.; Van Doninck, W.; Van Mulders, P.; Van Onsem, G. P.; Villella, I.; Clerbaux, B.; De Lentdecker, G.; Dero, V.; Gay, A. P. R.; Hreus, T.; Léonard, A.; Marage, P. E.; Mohammadi, A.; Reis, T.; Thomas, L.; Vander Marcken, G.; Vander Velde, C.; Vanlaer, P.; Wang, J.; Adler, V.; Beernaert, K.; Cimmino, A.; Costantini, S.; Garcia, G.; Grunewald, M.; Klein, B.; Lellouch, J.; Marinov, A.; Mccartin, J.; Ocampo Rios, A. A.; Ryckbosch, D.; Strobbe, N.; Thyssen, F.; Tytgat, M.; Verwilligen, P.; Walsh, S.; Yazgan, E.; Zaganidis, N.; Basegmez, S.; Bruno, G.; Castello, R.; Ceard, L.; Delaere, C.; du Pree, T.; Favart, D.; Forthomme, L.; Giammanco, A.; Hollar, J.; Lemaitre, V.; Liao, J.; Militaru, O.; Nuttens, C.; Pagano, D.; Pin, A.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Schul, N.; Vizan Garcia, J. M.; Beliy, N.; Caebergs, T.; Daubie, E.; Hammad, G. H.; Alves, G. A.; Correa Martins Junior, M.; De Jesus Damiao, D.; Martins, T.; Pol, M. E.; Souza, M. H. G.; Aldá Júnior, W. L.; Carvalho, W.; Custódio, A.; Da Costa, E. M.; De Oliveira Martins, C.; Fonseca De Souza, S.; Matos Figueiredo, D.; Mundim, L.; Nogima, H.; Oguri, V.; Prado Da Silva, W. L.; Santoro, A.; Soares Jorge, L.; Sznajder, A.; Anjos, T. S.; Bernardes, C. A.; Dias, F. A.; Fernandez Perez Tomei, T. R.; Gregores, E. M.; Lagana, C.; Marinho, F.; Mercadante, P. G.; Novaes, S. F.; Padula, Sandra S.; Genchev, V.; Iaydjiev, P.; Piperov, S.; Rodozov, M.; Stoykova, S.; Sultanov, G.; Tcholakov, V.; Trayanov, R.; Vutova, M.; Dimitrov, A.; Hadjiiska, R.; Kozhuharov, V.; Litov, L.; Pavlov, B.; Petkov, P.; Bian, J. G.; Chen, G. M.; Chen, H. S.; Jiang, C. H.; Liang, D.; Liang, S.; Meng, X.; Tao, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, X.; Wang, Z.; Xiao, H.; Xu, M.; Zang, J.; Zhang, Z.; Asawatangtrakuldee, C.; Ban, Y.; Guo, S.; Guo, Y.; Li, W.; Liu, S.; Mao, Y.; Qian, S. J.; Teng, H.; Wang, D.; Zhang, L.; Zhu, B.; Zou, W.; Avila, C.; Gomez, J. P.; Gomez Moreno, B.; Osorio Oliveros, A. F.; Sanabria, J. C.; Godinovic, N.; Lelas, D.; Plestina, R.; Polic, D.; Puljak, I.; Antunovic, Z.; Kovac, M.; Brigljevic, V.; Duric, S.; Kadija, K.; Luetic, J.; Morovic, S.; Attikis, A.; Galanti, M.; Mavromanolakis, G.; Mousa, J.; Nicolaou, C.; Ptochos, F.; Razis, P. A.; Finger, M.; Finger, M., Jr.; Assran, Y.; Elgammal, S.; Ellithi Kamel, A.; Khalil, S.; Mahmoud, M. A.; Radi, A.; Kadastik, M.; Müntel, M.; Raidal, M.; Rebane, L.; Tiko, A.; Eerola, P.; Fedi, G.; Voutilainen, M.; Härkönen, J.; Heikkinen, A.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Kortelainen, M. J.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Mäenpää, T.; Peltola, T.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuovinen, E.; Ungaro, D.; Wendland, L.; Banzuzi, K.; Karjalainen, A.; Korpela, A.; Tuuva, T.; Besancon, M.; Choudhury, S.; Dejardin, M.; Denegri, D.; Fabbro, B.; Faure, J. L.; Ferri, F.; Ganjour, S.; Givernaud, A.; Gras, P.; Hamel de Monchenault, G.; Jarry, P.; Locci, E.; Malcles, J.; Millischer, L.; Nayak, A.; Rander, J.; Rosowsky, A.; Shreyber, I.; Titov, M.; Baffioni, S.; Beaudette, F.; Benhabib, L.; Bianchini, L.; Bluj, M.; Broutin, C.; Busson, P.; Charlot, C.; Daci, N.; Dahms, T.; Dobrzynski, L.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Haguenauer, M.; Miné, P.; Mironov, C.; Naranjo, I. N.; Nguyen, M.; Ochando, C.; Paganini, P.; Sabes, D.; Salerno, R.; Sirois, Y.; Veelken, C.; Zabi, A.; Agram, J.-L.; Andrea, J.; Bloch, D.; Bodin, D.; Brom, J.-M.; Cardaci, M.; Chabert, E. C.; Collard, C.; Conte, E.; Drouhin, F.; Ferro, C.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Gelé, D.; Goerlach, U.; Juillot, P.; Le Bihan, A.-C.; Van Hove, P.; Fassi, F.; Mercier, D.; Beauceron, S.; Beaupere, N.; Bondu, O.; Boudoul, G.; Chasserat, J.; Chierici, R.; Contardo, D.; Depasse, P.; El Mamouni, H.; Fay, J.; Gascon, S.; Gouzevitch, M.; Ille, B.; Kurca, T.; Lethuillier, M.; Mirabito, L.; Perries, S.; Sordini, V.; Tschudi, Y.; Verdier, P.; Viret, S.; Tsamalaidze, Z.; Anagnostou, G.; Beranek, S.; Edelhoff, M.; Feld, L.; Heracleous, N.; Hindrichs, O.; Jussen, R.; Klein, K.; Merz, J.

    2013-01-01

    The cross section for dijet production in proton-proton collisions at s=7TeV is presented as a function of ξ˜, a variable that approximates the fractional momentum loss of the scattered proton in single-diffractive events. The analysis is based on an integrated luminosity of 2.7nb-1 collected with the CMS detector at the LHC at low instantaneous luminosities, and uses events with jet transverse momentum of at least 20 GeV. The dijet cross section results are compared to the predictions of diffractive and nondiffractive models. The low-ξ˜ data show a significant contribution from diffractive dijet production, observed for the first time at the LHC. The associated rapidity gap survival probability is estimated.

  6. Test of Equivalence Principle at 1 0-8 Level by a Dual-Species Double-Diffraction Raman Atom Interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lin; Long, Shitong; Tang, Biao; Chen, Xi; Gao, Fen; Peng, Wencui; Duan, Weitao; Zhong, Jiaqi; Xiong, Zongyuan; Wang, Jin; Zhang, Yuanzhong; Zhan, Mingsheng

    2015-07-01

    We report an improved test of the weak equivalence principle by using a simultaneous 85Rb-87Rb dual-species atom interferometer. We propose and implement a four-wave double-diffraction Raman transition scheme for the interferometer, and demonstrate its ability in suppressing common-mode phase noise of Raman lasers after their frequencies and intensity ratios are optimized. The statistical uncertainty of the experimental data for Eötvös parameter η is 0.8 ×1 0-8 at 3200 s. With various systematic errors corrected, the final value is η =(2.8 ±3.0 )×1 0-8. The major uncertainty is attributed to the Coriolis effect.

  7. A variable temperature synchrotron X-ray diffraction study of the ferroelastic double perovskite Ba2GdMoO6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Thomas K; Colman, Ross H; McLaughlin, Abbie C

    2013-06-14

    A study of the magnetic and structural properties of the double perovskite Ba2GdMoO6 has been performed. The crystal structure distorts from the ideal cubic (Fm3m) structure to the tetragonal space group I4/m at 220 K, before undergoing a second distortion to a triclinic system (I1) at 80 K. The phase transition to triclinic symmetry is also evident in magnetic susceptibility measurements. The variable temperature synchrotron powder X-ray diffraction results reveal that Ba2GdMoO6 is ferroelastic, with the onset of ferroelastic domain formation occurring at the cubic-tetragonal phase transition. A number of Rietveld refinement techniques for modelling diffuse scattering from ferroelastic domain boundaries have been explored.

  8. 氦核双缝衍射实验的研究%Rsearch on Double-slit Diffraction of He with Quantum Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李春红; 吴坤朋; 张斯淇; 王婧; 郭义庆

    2012-01-01

    Using Schrdinger equation and KCL,we provided a new theoretical descr iption of the diffraction intensity pattern in double-slit experiments with He actom.And we also found the theory calculations and experiment data were consistent when the decoherence effect was considering.%应用薛定谔方程及基尔霍夫定律推导出一种新的关于氦核双缝衍射的强度计算公式,并利用新的衍射强度公式详细研究了氦核的双缝衍射问题.同时,我们也发现在考虑退相干效应时,理论与实验数据符合较好.

  9. QtUCP-A program for determining unit-cell parameters in electron diffraction experiments using double-tilt and rotation-tilt holders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao Hongsheng [Xinjiang Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Urumqi 830011 (China); Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 912, Beijing 100083 (China); Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)], E-mail: zhaohscas@yahoo.com.cn; Wu Deqi [Xinjiang Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Urumqi 830011 (China); Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 912, Beijing 100083 (China); Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Yao Jincheng; Chang Aimin [Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 912, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2008-11-15

    A computer program, QtUCP, has been developed based on several well-established algorithms using GCC 4.0 and Qt 4.0 (Open Source Edition) under Debian GNU/Linux 4.0r0. It can determine the unit-cell parameters from an electron diffraction tilt series obtained from both double-tilt and rotation-tilt holders. In this approach, two or more primitive cells of the reciprocal lattice are determined from experimental data, in the meantime, the measurement errors of the tilt angles are checked and minimized. Subsequently, the derived primitive cells are converted into the reduced form and then transformed into the reduced direct primitive cell. Finally all the patterns are indexed and the least-squares refinement is employed to obtain the optimized results of the lattice parameters. Finally, two examples are given to show the application of the program, one is based on the experiment, the other is from the simulation.

  10. Structural and microstructural changes during anion exchange of CoAl layered double hydroxides: an in situ X-ray powder diffraction study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, Rune; Krumeich, Frank; Norby, Poul

    2010-01-01

    Anion-exchange processes in cobalt-aluminium layered double hydroxides (LDHs) were studied by in situ synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD). The processes investigated were CoAl-CO3 CoAl-Cl CoAl-CO3, CoAl-Cl CoAl-NO3 and CoAl-CO3 CoAl-SO4. The XRPD data show that the CoAl-CO3 CoAl-Cl process...... that one of these intermediates is a mixed nitrate- and chloride-based LDH phase, where the disorder decreases as the nitrate content increases. The XRPD data of the partial CoAl-CO3 CoAl-SO4 anion-exchange reaction show that the process is a two-phase transformation involving a sulfate-containing LDH...

  11. QtUCP-a program for determining unit-cell parameters in electron diffraction experiments using double-tilt and rotation-tilt holders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hongsheng; Wu, Deqi; Yao, Jincheng; Chang, Aimin

    2008-11-01

    A computer program, QtUCP, has been developed based on several well-established algorithms using GCC 4.0 and Qt 4.0 (Open Source Edition) under Debian GNU/Linux 4.0r0. It can determine the unit-cell parameters from an electron diffraction tilt series obtained from both double-tilt and rotation-tilt holders. In this approach, two or more primitive cells of the reciprocal lattice are determined from experimental data, in the meantime, the measurement errors of the tilt angles are checked and minimized. Subsequently, the derived primitive cells are converted into the reduced form and then transformed into the reduced direct primitive cell. Finally all the patterns are indexed and the least-squares refinement is employed to obtain the optimized results of the lattice parameters. Finally, two examples are given to show the application of the program, one is based on the experiment, the other is from the simulation.

  12. X-ray powder diffraction beamline at D10B of LNLS: application to the Ba2FeReO6 double perovskite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Fabio Furlan; Granado, Eduardo; Carvalho, Wilson; Kycia, Stefan W; Bruno, Daniele; Droppa, Roosevelt

    2006-01-01

    A new beamline, fully dedicated to X-ray powder diffraction (XPD) measurements, has been installed after the exit port B of the bending magnet D10 at the Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS) and commissioned. The technical characteristics of the beamline are described and some performance indicators are listed, such as the incoming photon flux and the angular/energy resolutions obtainable under typical experimental conditions. The results of a Rietveld refinement for a standard sample of Y2O3 using high-resolution data are shown. The refined parameters match those found in the literature, within experimental error. High-resolution XPD measurements on Ba2FeReO6 demonstrate a slight departure from the ideal cubic double-perovskite structure at low temperatures, not detected by previous powder diffraction experiments. The onset of the structural transition coincides with the ferrimagnetic ordering temperature, Tc approximately equal to 315 K. Subtle structural features, such as those reported here for Ba2FeReO6, as well as the determination and/or refinement of complex crystal structures in polycrystalline samples are ideal candidate problems to be investigated on this beamline.

  13. Open charm production in Double Parton Scattering processes in the forward kinematics

    CERN Document Server

    Blok, B

    2016-01-01

    We calculate the rate of double open charm production in the forward kinematics studied recently in the LHCb experiment. We find that the mean field approximation for the double parton GPD (Generalized parton distributions), which neglects parton - parton correlations, underestimates the rate by a factor of two. The enhancement due to the perturbative QCD correlation \\12 mechanism which explains the rates of the double parton interactions at the central rapidities is found to explain 60--80 percentof the discrepancy. We argue that the nonperturbative fluctuations leading to non-factorized(correllated)contributions to the initial conditions for the DGLAP collinear evolution of the double parton GPD play an important role in this kinematics. Combined, two correlation mechanisms provide a good description of the rate of double charm production reported by the LHCb. We also give predictions for the variation of the ratio of double and square of single inclusive rates in the discussed kinematics as a function of p...

  14. Survival probability for diffractive dijet production in p-pbar collisions from next-to-leading order calculations

    CERN Document Server

    Klasen, M

    2009-01-01

    We perform next-to-leading order calculations of the single-diffractive and non-diffractive cross sections for dijet production in proton-antiproton collisions at the Tevatron. By comparing their ratio to the data published by the CDF collaboration for two different center-of-mass energies, we deduce the rapidity-gap survival probability as a function of the momentum fraction of the parton in the antiproton. Assuming Regge factorization, this probability can be interpreted as a suppression factor for the diffractive structure function measured in deep-inelastic scattering at HERA. In contrast to the observations for photoproduction, the suppression factor in proton-antiproton collisions depends on the momentum fraction of the parton in the Pomeron even at next-to-leading order.

  15. Survival probability for diffractive dijet production in p anti p collisions from next-to-leading order calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klasen, M. [Univ. Joseph Fourier, Laboratoire de Physique Subatomique et de Cosmologie, Grenoble (France); Kramer, G. [Univ. Hamburg, II. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik (Germany)

    2009-08-15

    We perform next-to-leading order calculations of the single-diffractive and non-diffractive cross sections for dijet production in proton-antiproton collisions at the Tevatron. By comparing their ratio to the data published by the CDF collaboration for two different center-of-mass energies, we deduce the rapidity-gap survival probability as a function of the momentum fraction of the parton in the antiproton. Assuming Regge factorization, this probability can be interpreted as a suppression factor for the diffractive structure function measured in deep-inelastic scattering at HERA. In contrast to the observations for photoproduction, the suppression factor in protonantiproton collisions depends on the momentum fraction of the parton in the Pomeron even at next-to-leading order. (orig.)

  16. Comparative X-ray diffraction and infrared spectroscopy study of Zn-Al layered double hydroxides: Vanadate vs nitrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salak, Andrei N.; Tedim, João; Kuznetsova, Alena I.; Ribeiro, José L.; Vieira, Luís G.; Zheludkevich, Mikhail L.; Ferreira, Mário G. S.

    2012-03-01

    Zn-Al layered double hydroxides (LDH) are promising as nanocontainers of corrosion inhibitors in self-healing corrosion protection coatings. Zn(2)Al-vanadate (Zn/Al = 2:1) is prepared by anion exchange from the parent composition Zn(2)Al-nitrate at pH ˜ 8. Crystal structure and vibrational spectra of both LDHs have been studied in comparison. Their interlayer distances are rather larger than those corresponding to the most compact arrangement of the intercalated anions. Nevertheless, no sign of a turbostratic disorder has been detected in these LDH. Based on the analysis of the spectroscopic data in combination with the XRD results, it has been shown that vanadate anion, which substitutes nitrate at the anion exchange, is pyrovanadate, VO74-. The observed disorder in the hydroxide layers in Zn(2)Al-V2O7 is likely to result from strong interactions between V5+ and Zn2+/Al3. Although Zn(2)Al-NO3 is less disordered than Zn(2)Al-V2O7, it exhibits no long-range order in arrangement of cations in the hydroxide layers.

  17. Calcination products of gibbsite studied by X-ray diffraction, XPS and solid-state NMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malki, A. [Laboratoire des structures, propriétés et interactions inter atomiques (LASPI2A), Faculté des sciences et technologies, Université Abbes Laghrour, Khenchela 40000 (Algeria); Mekhalif, Z.; Detriche, S.; Fonder, G. [Laboratoire de Chimie et Electrochimie des Surfaces, Facultés Universitaires Notre-Dame de la Paix, Rue de Bruxelles 61, B-5000 Namur (Belgium); Boumaza, A., E-mail: charif_boumaza@yahoo.com [Laboratoire des structures, propriétés et interactions inter atomiques (LASPI2A), Faculté des sciences et technologies, Université Abbes Laghrour, Khenchela 40000 (Algeria); Djelloul, A. [Laboratoire des structures, propriétés et interactions inter atomiques (LASPI2A), Faculté des sciences et technologies, Université Abbes Laghrour, Khenchela 40000 (Algeria)

    2014-07-01

    The changes caused by heat treatment of gibbsite powder at 300–1473 K were studied using the X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoemission (XPS) spectra and {sup 27}Al magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ({sup 27}Al MAS NMR). XRD analysis indicates that the transformation sequence involves the formation of κ-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} as an intermediate phase between χ- and α-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The crystallite size of χ-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} is as small as 10 nm. XPS analysis indicates that the ratio of aluminium atoms to oxygen atoms in χ-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and κ-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} increases, whereas the expected ratio is observed in α-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The percentage of AlO{sub 4} units in the transition aluminas follows the same behaviour as the ratio of Al/O. - Graphical abstract: The percentage of AlO{sub 4} units in transition aluminas follows the same behaviour as the ratio of Al/O. - Highlights: • Calcination products of gibbsite studied by XRD, XPS and solid-state NMR. • The crystallite size of χ-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} is as small as 10 nm. • The Al/O atomic ratio determined by XPS is larger than 2/3 in χ-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and κ-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. • The percentage of AlO{sub 4} in the aluminas follows the same behaviour as the Al/O atomic ratio.

  18. Production of the doubly charmed baryons at the SELEX experiment - The double intrinsic charm approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshkarev, Sergey; Anikeev, Vladimir

    2017-02-01

    The high production rate and > 0.33 of the doubly charmed baryons measured by the SELEX experiment is not amenable to perturbative QCD analysis. In this paper we calculate the production of the doubly heavy baryons with the double intrinsic charm Fock states whose existence is rigorously predicted by QCD. The production rate and the longitudinal momentum distribution are both reproduced. We also show that the production rates of the doubly charmed baryons and double J / ψ production observed by NA3 collaboration are comparable. Recent experimental results are reviewed. The production cross section of the doubly charmed baryons at a fixed-target experiment at the LHC is presented.

  19. An X-ray diffraction study of corrosion products from low carbon steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morales, A. L.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available It was found in earlier work a decrease in the corrosion rate from low carbon steel when it was subjected to the action of a combined pollutant concentration (SO4-2 = 10-4 M + Cl- = 1.5 x 10-3 M. It was also found that large magnetite content of the rust was related to higher corrosion rates. In the present study corrosion products are further analyzed by means of X-ray diffraction to account for composition changes during the corrosion process. It is found that lepidocrocite and goethite are the dominant components for the short-term corrosion in all batches considered while for long-term corrosion lepidocrite and goethite dominates if the corrosion rate is low and magnetite dominates if the corrosion rate is high. The mechanism for decreasing the corrosion rate is related to the inhibition of magnetite production at this particular concentration.

    En un estudio anterior se encontró que la tasa de corrosión, de un acero al carbono, decrecía cuando se le sometía al efecto combinado de una mezcla de contaminantes (SO4-2 = 10-4 M + Cl- = 1,5 x 10-3 M. También, se concluyó que altos contenidos de magnetita en la herrumbre estaban asociados a altas tasas de corrosión. En este trabajo se retoman estas herrumbres para analizarlas por difractometría de rayos X para tomar en cuenta los cambios en composición durante el proceso corrosivo. Se encuentra que goethita y lepidocrocita son las componentes dominantes durante la etapa inicial del proceso en todos los experimentos. En cambio para tiempos largos de exposición, y si la tasa de corrosión es alta, la magnetita es el producto de corrosión dominante. El mecanismo que reduce la tasa de corrosión, en la mezcla mencionada anteriormente, está relacionado con la inhibición del proceso de producción de la magnetita en estas condiciones.

  20. Double promoter expression systems for recombinant protein production by industrial microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öztürk, Sibel; Ergün, Burcu Gündüz; Çalık, Pınar

    2017-09-12

    Using double promoter expression systems is a promising approach to increase heterologous protein production. In this review, current double promoter expression systems for the production of recombinant proteins (r-proteins) by industrially important bacteria, Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli; and yeasts, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pichia pastoris, are discussed by assessing their potentials and drawbacks. Double promoter expression systems need to be designed to maintain a higher specific product formation rate within the production domain. While bacterial double promoter systems have been constructed as chimeric tandem promoters, yeast dual promoter systems have been developed as separate expression cassettes. To increase production and productivity, the optimal transcriptional activity should be justified either by simultaneously satisfying the requirements of both promoters, or by consecutively stimulating the changeover from one to another in a biphasic process or via successive-iterations. Thus, considering the dynamics of a fermentation process, double promoters can be classified according to their operational mechanisms, as: i) consecutively operating double promoter systems, and ii) simultaneously operating double promoter systems. Among these metabolic design strategies, extending the expression period with two promoters activated under different conditions, or enhancing the transcriptional activity with two promoters activated under similar conditions within the production domain, can be applied independently from the host. Novel studies with new insights, which aim a rational systematic design and construction of dual promoter expression vectors with tailored transcriptional activity, will empower r-protein production with enhanced production and productivity. Finally, the current state-of-the-art review emphasizes the advantages of double promoter systems along with the necessity for discovering new promoters for the development of more

  1. Tribological performance of Mg/Al/Ce layered double hydroxides nanoparticles and intercalated products as lubricant additives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Shuo; Qin, Haojing; Zuo, Ranfang; Bai, Zhimin, E-mail: zhimibai@cugb.edu.cn

    2015-10-30

    Highlights: • Mg/Al/Ce layered double hydroxides (LDHs) were synthesized by coprecipitation. • Mg/Al/Ce LDHs were intercalated with succinic acid and lauric acid respectively. • LDHs intercalated with lauric acid had the best friction properties among products. • Sliding of layers, good dispersity and a protective film decided the performance. - Abstract: Mg/Al/Ce ternary layered double hydroxides (LDHs) were synthesized via coprecipitation and intercalated by succinic acid and lauric acid through ion exchange method respectively. The LDHs products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR). Tribological properties of LDHs as lubricant additives were evaluated by four-ball friction and air compressor test. The results indicated that Mg/Al/Ce LDHs were prepared successfully with Ce/Al molar ratio of 0.05 and crystallization temperature of 140 °C. The interlayer spacing of LDHs precursor was expanded by succinic acid and lauric acid to 8.838 and 17.519 Å respectively. All the three LDHs products can reduce friction and wear of engine lubricating oil in the tests. LDHs intercalated with lauric acid showed best tribological performance among them which was attributed to sliding each other between laminates, good dispersibility in oil medium and a protective tribofilm formed on the worn surface.

  2. Diffractive Dijet Production with a Leading Proton in ep Collisions at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Andreev, V; Begzsuren, K; Belousov, A; Belov, P; Boudry, V; Brandt, G; Brinkmann, M; Brisson, V; Britzger, D; Buniatyan, A; Bylinkin, A; Bystritskaya, L; Campbell, A J; Cantun Avila, K B; Ceccopieri, F; Cerny, K; Chekelian, V; Contreras, J G; Cvach, J; Dainton, J B; Daum, K; Diaconu, C; Dobre, M; Dodonov, V; Dossanov, A; Eckerlin, G; Egli, S; Elsen, E; Favart, L; Fedotov, A; Feltesse, J; Ferencei, J; Fleischer, M; Fomenko, A; Gabathuler, E; Gayler, J; Ghazaryan, S; Glazov, A; Goerlich, L; Gogitidze, N; Gouzevitch, M; Grab, C; Grebenyuk, A; Greenshaw, T; Grindhammer, G; Haidt, D; Henderson, R C W; Herbst, M; Hladky, J; Hoffmann, D; Horisberger, R; Hreus, T; Huber, F; Jacquet, M; Janssen, X; Jung, H; Kapichine, M; Kiesling, C; Klein, M; Kleinwort, C; Kogler, R; Kostka, P; Kretzschmar, J; Krüger, K; Landon, M P J; Lange, W; Laycock, P; Lebedev, A; Levonian, S; Lipka, K; List, B; List, J; Lobodzinski, B; Malinovski, E; Martyn, H U; Maxfield, S J; Mehta, A; Meyer, A B; Meyer, H; Meyer, J; Mikocki, S; Morozov, A; Müller, K; Naumann, Th; Newman, P R; Niebuhr, C; Nowak, G; Olsson, J E; Ozerov, D; Pahl, P; Pascaud, C; Patel, G D; Perez, E; Petrukhin, A; Picuric, I; Pirumov, H; Pitzl, D; Placakyte, R; Pokorny, B; Polifka, R; Radescu, V; Raicevic, N; Ravdandorj, T; Reimer, P; Rizvi, E; Robmann, P; Roosen, R; Rostovtsev, A; Rotaru, M; Rusakov, S; Šálek, D; Sankey, D P C; Sauter, M; Sauvan, E; Schmitt, S; Schoeffel, L; Schöning, A; Schultz-Coulon, H C; Sefkow, F; Shushkevich, S; Soloviev, Y; Sopicki, P; South, D; Spaskov, V; Specka, A; Steder, M; Stella, B; Straumann, U; Sykora, T; Thompson, P D; Traynor, D; Truöl, P; Tsakov, I; Tseepeldorj, B; Turnau, J; Valkárová, A; Vallée, C; Van Mechelen, P; Vazdik, Y; Wegener, D; Wünsch, E; Žáček, J; Zhang, Z; Žlebčík, R; Zohrabyan, H; Zomer, F

    2015-01-01

    The cross section of the diffractive process e^+p -> e^+Xp is measured at a centre-of-mass energy of 318 GeV, where the system X contains at least two jets and the leading final state proton p is detected in the H1 Very Forward Proton Spectrometer. The measurement is performed in photoproduction with photon virtualities Q^2 <2 GeV^2 and in deep-inelastic scattering with 4 GeV^2diffractive parton distribution functions as extracted from measurements of inclusive cross sections in diffractive deep-inelastic scattering.

  3. Diffractive dijet production with a leading proton in ep collisions at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zlebcik, Radek

    2016-03-15

    The cross section of the diffractive process e{sup +}p → e{sup +}Xp is measured at a centre-of mass energies of 319 GeV, where the system X contains at least two jets and the leading final state proton p is detected in the H1 Very Forward Proton Spectrometer. The measurement is performed in photoproduction defined by photon virtualities Q{sup 2} < 2 GeV{sup 2} and in deep-inelastic scattering with 4 GeV{sup 2} < Q{sup 2} < 80 GeV{sup 2}. The results are compared to next-to-leading order QCD calculations based on diffractive parton distribution functions as extracted from measurements of inclusive cross sections in diffractive deep-inelastic scattering. A collinear QCD factorization theorem is tested against the measured cross sections and their ratios.

  4. Double quarkonium production at high Feynman-$x$

    CERN Document Server

    Koshkarev, Sergey

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we give estimates for the proton--proton cross sections into pairs of quarkonium states $J/\\psi$, $\\psi(2S)$, $\\Upsilon(1S)$ and $\\Upsilon(2S)$ at the scheduled AFTER@LHC energy of $115$GeV. The estimates are based on the intrinsic heavy flavor mechanism which is observable for high values of $x_F$, a range outside the dominance of single parton and double parton scattering.

  5. Double quarkonium production at high Feynman-x

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Koshkarev

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we give estimates for the proton–proton cross sections into pairs of quarkonium states J/ψ, ψ(2S, ϒ(1S and ϒ(2S at the scheduled AFTER@LHC energy of 115 GeV. The estimates are based on the intrinsic heavy quark mechanism which is observable for high values of xF, a range outside the dominance of single parton and double parton scattering.

  6. Double quarkonium production at high Feynman-x

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshkarev, Sergey; Groote, Stefan

    2017-02-01

    In this paper we give estimates for the proton-proton cross sections into pairs of quarkonium states J / ψ, ψ (2 S), ϒ (1 S) and ϒ (2 S) at the scheduled AFTER@LHC energy of 115 GeV. The estimates are based on the intrinsic heavy quark mechanism which is observable for high values of xF, a range outside the dominance of single parton and double parton scattering.

  7. Inclusive Higgs boson and dijet production via Double Pomeron exchange

    CERN Document Server

    Boonekamp, M; Royon, C

    2001-01-01

    We evaluate Higgs boson and dijet cross-sections at the Tevatron collider via Double Pomeron exchange when accompanying particles in the central region are taken into account. Such {\\it inclusive} processes, normalized to the observed dijet rate observed at run I, noticeably increase the predictions for tagged (anti)protons in the run II with respect to {\\it exclusive} ones, with the potentiality of Higgs boson detection.

  8. Double Helicity Asymmetry and Cross Section for eta Production in Polarized pp Collisions at PHENIX

    OpenAIRE

    Ellinghaus, Frank

    2006-01-01

    Measurements of double helicity asymmetries for inclusive hadron production in polarized proton-proton collisions are sensitive to spin-dependent parton distribution functions, in particular to the gluon distribution, Delta g. This study presents the double helicity asymmetry and the cross section for eta production. The cross section measurement yields valuable data for the extraction of the fragmentation functions, which are unknown at present but are a prerequisite for the extraction of th...

  9. Double product reflects the predictive power of systolic pressure in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schutte, Rudolph; Thijs, Lutgarde; Asayama, Kei

    2013-01-01

    The double product (DP), consisting of the systolic blood pressure (SBP) multiplied by the pulse rate (PR), is an index of myocardial oxygen consumption, but its prognostic value in the general population remains unknown.......The double product (DP), consisting of the systolic blood pressure (SBP) multiplied by the pulse rate (PR), is an index of myocardial oxygen consumption, but its prognostic value in the general population remains unknown....

  10. A measurement of single and double prompt photon production at the CERN overlinepp collider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alitti, J.; Ambrosini, G.; Ansari, R.; Autiero, D.; Bareyre, P.; Bertram, I. A.; Blaylock, G.; Bonamy, P.; Borer, K.; Bourliaud, M.; Buskulic, D.; Carboni, G.; Cavalli, D.; Cavasinni, V.; Cenci, P.; Chollet, J. C.; Conta, C.; Costa, F.; Costantini, F.; Cozzi, L.; Cravero, A.; Curatolo, M.; Dell'Acqua, A.; DelPrete, T.; DeWolf, R. S.; DiLella, L.; Ducros, Y.; Egan, G. F.; Einsweiler, K. F.; Esposito, B.; Fayard, L.; Federspiel, A.; Ferrari, R.; Fraternali, M.; Froidevaux, D.; Fumagalli, G.; Gaillard, J. M.; Gianotti, F.; Gildemeister, O.; Gössling, C.; Goggi, V. G.; Grünendahl, S.; Hara, K.; Hellman, S.; Hřivnáč, J.; Hufnagel, H.; Hugentobler, E.; Hultqvist, K.; Iacopini, E.; Incandela, J.; Jakobs, K.; Jenni, P.; Kluge, E. E.; Kurz, N.; Lami, S.; Lariccia, P.; Lefebvre, M.; Linssen, L.; Livan, M.; Lubrano, P.; Magneville, C.; Malgeri, L.; Mandelli, L.; Mapelli, L.; Mazzanti, M.; Meier, K.; Merkel, B.; Meyer, J. P.; Moniez, M.; Moning, R.; Morganti, M.; Müller, L.; Munday, D. J.; Nessi, M.; Nessi-Tedaldi, F.; Onions, C.; Pal, T.; Parker, M. A.; Parrour, G.; Pastore, F.; Pennacchio, E.; Pentney, J. M.; Pepe, M.; Perini, L.; Petridou, C.; Petroff, P.; Plothow-Besch, H.; Polesello, G.; Poppleton, A.; Pretzl, K.; Primavera, M.; Punturo, M.; Repellin, J. P.; Rimoldi, A.; Sacchi, M.; Scampoli, P.; Schacher, J.; Schmidt, B.; Šimák, V.; Singh, S. L.; Sondermann, V.; Spiwoks, R.; Stapnes, S.; Talamonti, C.; Tondini, F.; Tovey, S. N.; Tsesmelis, E.; Unal, G.; Valdata-Nappi, M.; Vercesi, V.; Weidberg, A. R.; Wells, P. S.; White, T. O.; Wood, D. R.; Wotton, S. A.; Zaccone, H.; Zylberstejn, A.; UA2 Collaboration

    1992-08-01

    A measurement of the cross-sections for single and double prompt photon production in overlinepp interactions at s = 630 GeV is presented. The data sample corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 13.2 pb -1. The results are in good agreement with the predictions of perturbative QCD. The signal from double prompt photon production has a statistical significance of 4.3 standard deviations.

  11. Unusual production features of isoscalar mesons in proton diffractive dissociation at the CERN-ISR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chauvat, P.; Erhan, S.; Hayes, K.; Smith, A.M.; Meritet, L.; Reyrolle, M.; Vazeille, F.; Bonino, R.; Castellina, A.; Cousins, R.

    1984-11-29

    D(1285) and E/iota(1422) are observed in the diffractive dissociation process, pp -> (pKKsup(+-) sup(-+))p, with s = 63 GeV. The D(1285) is produced with dominant +- 1 helicity. Several unusual features of the data suggest that the mesonic states result from gluonic interactions in the collision. (orig.).

  12. Unusual production features of isoscalar mesons in proton diffractive dissociation at the CERN-ISR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chauvat, P.; Erhan, S.; Hayes, K.; Smith, A.M. (European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland)); Meritet, L.; Reyrolle, M.; Vazeille, F. (Clermont-Ferrand-2 Univ., 63 - Aubiere (France). Lab. de Physique Corpusculaire); Bonino, R.; Castellina, A.; Cousins, R.

    1984-11-29

    D(1285) and E/iota(1422) are observed in the diffractive dissociation process, pp -> (pK/sup 0/Ksup(+-) ..pi..sup(-+))p, with ..sqrt..s = 63 GeV. The D(1285) is produced with dominant +-1 helicity. Several unusual features of the data suggest that the mesonic states result from gluonic interactions in the collision.

  13. Double K-shell vacancy production in the electron capture decay of 125I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindi, M. M.; Kozub, R. L.

    1992-03-01

    We have measured the probability of double K-shell vacancy production in the electron capture decay of 125I to the 35-keV level of 125Te. The probability was deduced from the number of triple coincidences between the Te hypersatellite and satellite x rays produced in filling the double vacancy, and the subsequent normal x ray accompanying the K internal conversion of the 35-keV level. The probability of double K-shell vacancy production per K-shell electron capture (PKK) was found to be (1.35+/-0.15)×10-5.

  14. Double-Spin Asymmetry in the Cross Section for Exclusive rho^0 Production in Lepton-Proton Scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Airapetian, A; Amarian, M; Arrington, J; Aschenauer, E C; Avakian, H; Avakian, R; Avetisian, A; Avetissian, E; Bailey, P; Bains, B; Baumgarten, C; Beckmann, M; Belostotskii, S; Bernreuther, S; Bianchi, N; Böttcher, Helmut B; Borisov, A; Bouwhuis, M; Brack, J; Brauksiepe, S; Braun, B; Brückner, W; Brüll, A; Budz, P; Bulten, H J; Capitani, G P; Carter, P; Chumney, P; Cisbani, E; Court, G R; Dalpiaz, P F; De Leo, R; De Nardo, L; De Sanctis, E; De Schepper, D; Devitsin, E G; De Witt-Huberts, P K A; Di Nezza, P; Dzhordzhadze, V; Düren, M; Dvoredsky, A P; Elbakian, G M; Ely, J; Fantoni, A; Feshchenko, A; Felawka, L; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Fiedler, K; Filippone, B W; Fischer, H; Fox, B; Franz, J; Frullani, S; Gärber, Y; Garibaldi, F; Garutti, E; Gavrilov, G E; Karibian, V; Golendukhin, A; Graw, G; Grebenyuk, O; Green, P W; Greeniaus, L G; Gute, A; Haeberli, W; Hartig, M; Hasch, D; Heesbeen, D; Heinsius, F H; Henoch, M; Hertenberger, R; Hesselink, W H A; Hofman, G J; Holler, Y; Holt, R J; Hommez, B; Iarygin, G; Iodice, M; Izotov, A A; Jackson, H E; Jgoun, A; Jung, P; Kaiser, R; Kanesaka, J; Kinney, E R; Kiselev, A; Kitching, P; Kobayashi, H; Koch, N; Königsmann, K C; Kolster, H; Korotkov, V A; Kotik, E; Kozlov, V; Krivokhizhin, V G; Kyle, G S; Lagamba, L; Laziev, A; Lenisa, P; Lindemann, T; Lorenzon, W; Makins, N C R; Martin, J W; Marukyan, H O; Masoli, F; McAndrew, M; McIlhany, K; McKeown, R D; Meissner, F; Menden, F; Metz, A; Meyners, N; Miklukho, O; Miller, C A; Milner, R; Muccifora, V; Mussa, R; Nagaitsev, A P; Nappi, E; Naryshkin, Yu; Nass, A; Negodaeva, K; Nowak, Wolf-Dieter; Oganesyan, K A; O'Neill, T G; Openshaw, R; Ouyang, J; Owen, B R; Pate, S F; Potashov, S Yu; Potterveld, D H; Rakness, G; Rappoport, V; Redwine, R P; Reggiani, D; Reolon, A R; Ristinen, R; Rith, K; Robinson, D; Rostomyan, A; Ruh, M; Ryckbosch, D; Sakemi, Y; Sato, F; Savin, I A; Scarlett, C; Schäfer, A; Schill, C; Schmidt, F; Schnell, G; Schüler, K P; Schwind, A; Seibert, J; Seitz, B; Shibata, T A; Shin, T; Shutov, V B; Simani, C; Simon, A; Sinram, K; Steffens, E; Steijger, J J M; Stewart, J; Stösslein, U; Suetsugu, K; Sutter, M F; Szymanowski, L; Taroian, S P; Terkulov, A R; Teryaev, O V; Tessarin, S; Thomas, E; Tipton, B; Tytgat, M; Urciuoli, G M; Van den Brand, J F J; van der Steenhoven, G; Van de Vyver, R; Van Hunen, J J; Vetterli, Martin C; Vikhrov, V V; Vincter, M G; Visser, J; Volk, E; Weiskopf, C; Wendland, J; Wilbert, J; Wise, T; Yen, S; Yoneyama, S; Zohrabyan, H G

    2001-01-01

    Evidence for a positive longitudinal double-spin asymmetry = 0.24 +-0.11 (stat) +-0.02 (syst) in the cross section for exclusive diffractive rho^0(770) vector meson production in polarised lepton-proton scattering was observed by the HERMES experiment. The longitudinally polarised 27.56 GeV HERA positron beam was scattered off a longitudinally polarised pure hydrogen gas target. The average invariant mass of the photon-proton system has a value of = 4.9 GeV, while the average negative squared four-momentum of the virtual photon is = 1.7 GeV^2. The ratio of the present result to the corresponding spin asymmetry in inclusive deep-inelastic scattering is in agreement with an early theoretical prediction based on the generalised vector meson dominance model.

  15. Interlayer intercalation and arrangement of 2-mercaptobenzothiazolate and 1,2,3-benzotriazolate anions in layered double hydroxides: In situ X-ray diffraction study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serdechnova, Maria; Salak, Andrei N.; Barbosa, Filipe S.; Vieira, Daniel E. L.; Tedim, João; Zheludkevich, Mikhail L.; Ferreira, Mário G. S.

    2016-01-01

    2-mercaptobenzothiazole (MBT) and 1,2,3-benzotriazole (BTA) are very promising inhibitors for the corrosion protection of aluminum alloys. These inhibitors can be incorporated in protective coatings in the form of anions intercalated into interlayers of layered double hydroxides (LDHs). Capacity and performance of such LDH-nanocontainers depend on the arrangement of the anions in their interlayers. In this work, intercalation of MBT- and BTA- into Mg-Al-NO3 and Zn-Al-NO3 LDHs were studied in detail using X-ray diffraction (XRD) methods including in situ XRD. The nitrate-to-MBT(BTA) anion exchange is much faster than considered previously. Well-formed Mg-Al-MBT, Zn-Al-MBT, Mg-Al-BTA LDHs were obtained after a 20-min exchange reaction at pH 11.5 at room temperature. It was demonstrated that Zn-Al-BTA LDH cannot be obtained under the same conditions due to the reaction between BTA and the Zn-Al hydroxide layers. Substitution of nitrates by organic anions occurs with the participation of hydroxide anions. Although no intermediate LDH phase intercalated with the combination of NO3 - and OH- appears, formation of the LDH-MBT and LDH-BTA phases results also in appearance of an LDH phase intercalated with OH- at the final stage of the anion exchange. In the LDH interlayer, MBT- and BTA- form a double layer in which these species have a tilted orientation against the layer plane (herringbone-like arrangement). Such an arrangement meets the LDH layer-interlayer electroneutrality and matches well with the observed values of the layer-interlayer distance.

  16. Monte Carlo study of particle production in diffractive proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt s$ = 13 TeV with the very forward detector combined with central information

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, Qi-Dong; Menjo, Hiroaki; Sako, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Very forward (VF) detectors in hadron colliders, having unique sensitivity to diffractive processes, can be a powerful tool for studying diffractive dissociation by combining them with central detectors. Several Monte Carlo simulation samples in $p$-$p$ collisions at $\\sqrt s = 13$ TeV were analyzed, and different nondiffractive and diffractive contributions were clarified through differential cross sections of forward neutral particles. Diffraction selection criteria in the VF-triggered-event samples were determined by using the central track information. The corresponding selection applicable in real experiments has $\\approx$100% purity and 30%-70% efficiency. Consequently, the central information enables classification of the forward productions into diffraction and nondiffraction categories; in particular, most of the surviving events from the selection belong to low-mass diffraction events at $\\log_{10}(\\xi_{x}) < -5.5$. Therefore, the combined method can uniquely access the low-mass diffraction regim...

  17. Effects of dynamic diffraction conditions on magnetic parameter determination in a double perovskite Sr2FeMoO6 using electron energy-loss magnetic chiral dichroism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z C; Zhong, X Y; Jin, L; Chen, X F; Moritomo, Y; Mayer, J

    2017-05-01

    Electron energy-loss magnetic chiral dichroism (EMCD) spectroscopy, which is similar to the well-established X-ray magnetic circular dichroism spectroscopy (XMCD), can determine the quantitative magnetic parameters of materials with high spatial resolution. One of the major obstacles in quantitative analysis using the EMCD technique is the relatively poor signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), compared to XMCD. Here, in the example of a double perovskite Sr2FeMoO6, we predicted the optimal dynamical diffraction conditions such as sample thickness, crystallographic orientation and detection aperture position by theoretical simulations. By using the optimized conditions, we showed that the SNR of experimental EMCD spectra can be significantly improved and the error of quantitative magnetic parameter determined by EMCD technique can be remarkably lowered. Our results demonstrate that, with enhanced SNR, the EMCD technique can be a unique tool to understand the structure-property relationship of magnetic materials particularly in the high-density magnetic recording and spintronic devices by quantitatively determining magnetic structure and properties at the nanometer scale. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Measurement of dijet production in diffractive deep-inelastic scattering with a leading proton at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaron, F.D. [National Inst. for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Bucharest (Romania); Bucharest Univ. (Romania). Faculty of Physics; Alexa, C. [National Inst. for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Bucharest (Romania); Andreev, V. [Lebedev Physical Inst., Moscow (RU)] (and others)

    2011-09-15

    The cross section of diffractive deep-inelastic scattering ep{yields}eXp is measured, where the system X contains at least two jets and the leading final state proton is detected in the H1 Forward Proton Spectrometer. The measurement is performed for fractional proton longitudinal momentum loss x{sub P}<0.1 and covers the range 0.1< vertical stroke t vertical stroke <0.7 GeV{sup 2} in squared four-momentum transfer at the proton vertex and 4diffractive parton distribution functions extracted from measurements of inclusive and dijet cross sections in diffractive deep-inelastic scattering. The data are also compared with leading order Monte Carlo models. (orig.)

  19. Diffractive Dijet Production in $\\bar{p}p$ Collisions at $\\sqrt{s}=1.96$ TeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaltonen, T.; /Helsinki Inst. of Phys.; Albrow, M.; /Fermilab; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; /Oviedo U. /Cantabria Inst. of Phys.; Amerio, S.; /INFN, Padua; Amidei, D.; /Michigan U.; Anastassov, A.; /Northwestern U. /Fermilab; Annovi, A.; /Frascati; Antos, J.; /Comenius U.; Apollinari, G.; /Fermilab; Appel, J.A.; /Fermilab; Arisawa, T.; /Waseda U. /Dubna, JINR

    2012-06-01

    We report on a study of diffractive dijet production in {bar p}p collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV using the CDF II detector at the Fermilab Tevatron {bar p}p collider. A data sample from 310 pb{sup -1} of integrated luminosity collected by triggering on a high transverse energy jet, E{sub T}{sup jet}, in coincidence with a recoil antiproton detected in a Roman pot spectrometer is used to measure the ratio of single-diffractive to inclusive-dijet event rates as a function of x{sup {bar p}} of the interacting parton in the antiproton, the Bjorken-x, x{sub Bj}{sup {bar p}}, and a Q{sup 2} {approx} (E{sub T}{sup jet}){sup 2} in the ranges 10{sup -3} < x{sub Bj}{sup {bar p}} < 10{sup -1} and 10{sup 2} < Q{sup 2} < 10{sup 4} GeV{sup 2}, respectively. Results are presented for the region of {bar p}-momentum-loss fraction 0.03 < {zeta}{sub {bar p}} < 0.09 and a four-momentum transfer squared t{sub {bar p}} > -4 GeV{sup 2}. The t{sub {bar p}} dependence is measured as a function of Q{sup 2} and x{sub Bj}{sup {bar p}} and compared with that of inclusive single diffraction dissociation. We find weak x{sub Bj}{sup bar p}} and Q{sup 2} dependencies in the ratio of single diffractive to inclusive event rates, and no significant Q{sup 2} dependence in the diffractive t{sub {bar p}} distributions.

  20. Light Production in the Double Chooz Photomultiplier Tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvo, E.; Cerrada, M.; Crespo, J. I.; Gil-Botella, I.; Jimenez, S.; Lopez, M.; Novella, P.; Palomares, C.; Santorelli, R.; Verdugo, A.

    2012-09-13

    In this document we present a study of the phenomenon of light emission (called glowing) in the bases of the Hamamatsu R7081MOD-ASSY photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) used in the Double Chooz experiment. The tests have been carried out at the CIEMAT laboratories over a photomultiplier tube of the same model. We have studied the phenomenon making first a characterization of it, and then focusing on the dependence of the rate and the amount of emitted light versus voltage and temperature. In addition, we have looked for the possible existence of an ultraviolet component in the light which would be harmful for the experiment because it could be able to excite the scintillator liquid. Finally, we propose and test a method to reduce the light emission using a cover on the base of the photomultiplier tube.. (Author)

  1. Structures of three dehydration products of bischofite from in situ synchrotron powder diffraction data (MgCl2.nH2O; n = 1, 2, 4).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Kunihisa; Dinnebier, Robert E; Hanson, Jonathan C

    2007-04-01

    High-quality in situ synchrotron powder diffraction data have been used to investigate the decomposition products of bischofite in the temperature range 298 diffraction data based on similarity criteria. MgCl(2).4H(2)O was found to be disordered and has been correctly determined for the first time. The crystal structures of bischofite and MgCl(2).4H(2)O consist of discrete Mg(H(2)O)(6) and MgCl(2)(H(2)O)(4) octahedra, respectively. The crystal structure of MgCl(2).2H(2)O is formed by single chains of edge-sharing MgCl(2)(H(2)O)(4) octahedra, while in the case of MgCl(2).H(2)O double chains of edge-sharing MgCl(H(2)O)(5) octahedra are found. The phases in the system MgCl(2)-H(2)O are intermediates in the technologically important process of MgO and subsequently Mg production. The same phases were recently found to be of key importance in the understanding of cracks in certain magnesia concrete floors.

  2. Survival probability for diffractive dijet production in pp¯ collisions from next-to-leading order calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klasen, Michael; Kramer, Gustav

    2009-10-01

    We perform next-to-leading order calculations of the single-diffractive and nondiffractive cross sections for dijet production in proton-antiproton collisions at the Tevatron. By comparing their ratio to the data published by the CDF collaboration for two different center-of-mass energies, we deduce the rapidity-gap survival probability as a function of the momentum fraction of the parton in the antiproton. Assuming Regge factorization, this probability can be interpreted as a suppression factor for the diffractive structure function measured in deep-inelastic scattering at HERA. In contrast to the observations for photoproduction, the suppression factor in proton-antiproton collisions depends on the momentum fraction of the parton in the Pomeron even at next-to-leading order.

  3. Double productive immunoglobulin sequence rearrangements in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visco, Carlo; Moretta, Francesca; Falisi, Erika; Facco, Monica; Maura, Francesco; Novella, Elisabetta; Nichele, Ilaria; Finotto, Silvia; Giaretta, Ilaria; Ave, Elisa; Perbellini, Omar; Guercini, Nicola; Scupoli, Maria Teresa; Trentin, Livio; Trimarco, Valentina; Neri, Antonino; Semenzato, Gianpietro; Rodeghiero, Francesco; Pizzolo, Giovanni; Ambrosetti, Achille

    2013-04-01

    The immunoglobulin heavy chain variable (IGHV) gene mutational status represents a major prognostic marker in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Usually, the prognostic implications of IGHV gene analysis can be reliably ascertained but, occasionally, double productive rearrangements have been detected. Clinical presentation and biological features of such cases are unknown. Sixty patients with morphologically and phenotypically monoclonal CLL but double productive IGHV rearrangements were retrospectively identified by mRNA analysis from three Hematology Institutions. Clinical and biological features and survival of these 60 patients were compared with a control group of patients with CLL and single IGHV rearrangement. A prospective registry was used to assess the epidemiology of double productive IGHV among incidental patients with CLL. Using standard criteria to define IGHV-mutated (M) or unmutated (U) cases, 39 of the 60 patients (65%) with double productive IGHV rearrangement had concordant status (23 MM, 16 UU), while 21 (35%) had discordant IGHV status. As compared with M patients, the MM ones had lower CD38 expression, more favorable cytogenetics and more indolent clinical behavior. Cases with UU had similar characteristics of U patients. Discordant cases presented with adverse prognostic features and had an aggressive clinical behavior requiring early treatment, similar to U patients. The prevalence of double IGHV was 3.1%. Patients with CLL with double concordant mutational status (MM or UU) have a clinical course similar to that of the corresponding single IGHV status, while those exhibiting discordant status represent a high risk population. This may help correct stratification within clinical trials.

  4. Non-perturbative gluons in diffractive photo-production of J/Psi

    CERN Document Server

    Ducati, M B G; Sauter, Werner K.

    2001-01-01

    The modifications induced in the calculation of the cross section of the diffractive process gamma gamma -> J/Psi J/Psi when the gluon propagator is changed are analyzed. Instead of the usual perturbative gluon propagator, alternative forms obtained using non-perturbative methods like Dyson-Schwinger equations are used to consider in a more consistent way the contributions of the infrared region. The result shows a reduction in the differential cross-section for low momentum transfer once compared with the perturbative result, to be confirmed with future experimental results from TESLA.

  5. Four-jet production in kt-factorization: single and double parton scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Serino, Mirko

    2016-01-01

    We present a preliminary study of both Single and Double Parton Scattering contributions to the inclusive 4-jet production in the kt-factorization framework at Leading Order and $E_{CM} = 7$ TeV. We compare our results to collinear results in the literature and to the ATLAS and CMS data at 8 and 7 TeV respectively. We also discuss the importance of double parton scattering for relatively soft cuts on the jet transverse momenta and find out that symmetric cuts do not quite suit well to kt-factorization predictions, because of a kinematic effect suppressing the double parton scattering contribution.

  6. Associated W±D (*) production at the LHC and prospects to observe double parton interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranov, S. P.; Lipatov, A. V.; Malyshev, M. A.; Snigirev, A. M.; Zotov, N. P.

    2015-06-01

    Associated production of charged gauge bosons and charged charmed mesons at the LHC is considered in the framework of kt-factorization approach. Theoretical predictions are compared with ATLAS data, and reasonably good agreement is found. Predictions on the same-sign W±D± configurations are presented including single parton scattering and double parton scattering contributions. The latter are shown to dominate over the former, thus giving evidence that the proposed process can serve as another indicator of double parton interactions.

  7. Production, crystallization and neutron diffraction of fully deuterated human myelin peripheral membrane protein P2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laulumaa, Saara; Blakeley, Matthew P; Raasakka, Arne; Moulin, Martine; Härtlein, Michael; Kursula, Petri

    2015-11-01

    The molecular details of the formation of the myelin sheath, a multilayered membrane in the nervous system, are to a large extent unknown. P2 is a peripheral membrane protein from peripheral nervous system myelin, which is believed to play a role in this process. X-ray crystallographic studies and complementary experiments have provided information on the structure-function relationships in P2. In this study, a fully deuterated sample of human P2 was produced. Crystals that were large enough for neutron diffraction were grown by a ten-month procedure of feeding, and neutron diffraction data were collected to a resolution of 2.4 Å from a crystal of 0.09 mm(3) in volume. The neutron crystal structure will allow the positions of H atoms in P2 and its fatty-acid ligand to be visualized, as well as shedding light on the fine details of the hydrogen-bonding networks within the P2 ligand-binding cavity.

  8. Hard Diffraction with Proton Tagging at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Trzebinski, Maciej

    2015-01-01

    The main parts of the LHC diffractive physics programme possible to be measured using a proton tagging technique are presented. The geometric acceptance of the ATLAS forward proton detectors: ALFA and AFP for various LHC optics settings are shown. The probabilities of observing a proton originating from a minimum-bias event in ALFA and AFP stations are given. The main properties of single diffractive and double Pomeron exchange production of dijets, photon+jet, jet-gap-jet and W/Z bosons are discussed. The possibility of measuring the jet production in exclusive (double proton tag) and semi-exclusive (single tag) mode is evaluated.

  9. 64nm pitch metal1 double patterning metrology: CD and OVL control by SEMCD, image based overlay and diffraction based overlay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducoté, Julien; Dettoni, Florent; Bouyssou, Régis; Le-Gratiet, Bertrand; Carau, Damien; Dezauzier, Christophe

    2015-03-01

    Patterning process control of advanced nodes has required major changes over the last few years. Process control needs of critical patterning levels since 28nm technology node is extremely aggressive showing that metrology accuracy/sensitivity must be finely tuned. The introduction of pitch splitting (Litho-Etch-Litho-Etch) at 14FDSOInm node requires the development of specific metrologies to adopt advanced process control (for CD, overlay and focus corrections). The pitch splitting process leads to final line CD uniformities that are a combination of the CD uniformities of the two exposures, while the space CD uniformities are depending on both CD and OVL variability. In this paper, investigations of CD and OVL process control of 64nm minimum pitch at Metal1 level of 14FDSOI technology, within the double patterning process flow (Litho, hard mask etch, line etch) are presented. Various measurements with SEMCD tools (Hitachi), and overlay tools (KT for Image Based Overlay - IBO, and ASML for Diffraction Based Overlay - DBO) are compared. Metrology targets are embedded within a block instanced several times within the field to perform intra-field process variations characterizations. Specific SEMCD targets were designed for independent measurement of both line CD (A and B) and space CD (A to B and B to A) for each exposure within a single measurement during the DP flow. Based on those measurements correlation between overlay determined with SEMCD and with standard overlay tools can be evaluated. Such correlation at different steps through the DP flow is investigated regarding the metrology type. Process correction models are evaluated with respect to the measurement type and the intra-field sampling.

  10. Exclusive $J/\\psi$ Production in Diffractive Process with AdS/QCD Holographic Wave Function in BLFQ

    CERN Document Server

    Xie, Ya-ping; Zhao, Xingbo

    2016-01-01

    The AdS/QCD holographic wave function of basis light-front quantization (BLFQ) for vector meson $J/\\psi$ is applied in this manuscript. The exclusive production of $J/\\psi$ in diffractive process is computed in dipole model with AdS/QCD holographic wave function. We use IP-Sat and IIM model in the calculation of the differential cross section of the dipole scattering off the proton. The prediction of AdS/QCD holographic wave function in BLFQ gives a good agreement to the experimental data.

  11. Searches for double Higgs production or decay using the CMS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Ortona, Giacomo

    2016-01-01

    The production of the pairs of Higgs bosons provides a direct handle on the structure of the Higgs field potential. While the HH production within the SM is very small and essentially out of the experimental reach within the Run I or II, several beyond SM theories foresee an enhancement that can be already probed with the available data. These proceedings detail the searches for double Higgs boson production performed at the Large Hadron Collider with the Compact Muon Solenoid experiment. Both resonant and non-resonant productions are discussed using final states in which one of the two Higgs bosons decay in a pair of b quarks, while the other can decay in pairs of $\\tau$, b, W or $\\gamma$ particles. Exclusion upper limits are set on the resonant and non-resonant double Higgs boson production cross-sections and on the presence of anomalous couplings affecting the non-resonant production.

  12. Production of the doubly charmed baryons at the SELEX experiment – The double intrinsic charm approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Koshkarev

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The high production rate and 〈xF〉>0.33 of the doubly charmed baryons measured by the SELEX experiment is not amenable to perturbative QCD analysis. In this paper we calculate the production of the doubly heavy baryons with the double intrinsic charm Fock states whose existence is rigorously predicted by QCD. The production rate and the longitudinal momentum distribution are both reproduced. We also show that the production rates of the doubly charmed baryons and double J/ψ production observed by NA3 collaboration are comparable. Recent experimental results are reviewed. The production cross section of the doubly charmed baryons at a fixed-target experiment at the LHC is presented.

  13. Open charm production in double parton scattering processes in the forward kinematics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blok, B. [Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, Department of Physics, Haifa (Israel); Strikman, M. [Pennsylvania State University, Physics Department, University Park, PA (United States)

    2016-12-15

    We calculate the rate of double open charm production in the forward kinematics studied recently in the LHCb experiment. We find that the mean field approximation for the double parton GPD (generalized parton distributions), which neglects parton-parton correlations, underestimates the rate by a factor of 2. The enhancement due to the perturbative QCD correlation 1 x 2 mechanism which explains the rate of double parton interactions at the central rapidities is found to explain 60 / 80% of the discrepancy. We argue that the nonperturbative fluctuations leading to non-factorized (correlated) contributions to the initial conditions for the DGLAP collinear evolution of the double parton GPD play an important role in this kinematics. Combined, the two correlation mechanisms provide a good description of the rate of double charm production reported by the LHCb. We also give predictions for the variation of the σ{sub eff} (i.e. the ratio of double and square of single inclusive rates) in the discussed kinematics as a function of p{sub t}. The account for two correlation mechanisms strongly reduces the sensitivity of the results to the starting point of the QCD evolution. (orig.)

  14. Comparison between Double Crystals X-ray Diffraction and Micro-Raman Measurement on Composition Determination of High Ge Content Si1-xGex Layer Epitaxied on Si Substrate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei ZHAO; Yuhua ZUO; Buwen CHENG; Jinzhong YU; Qiming WANG

    2006-01-01

    It is important to acquire the composition of Si1-xGex layer, especially that with high Ge content, epitaxied on Si substrate. Two nondestructive examination methods, double crystals X-ray diffraction(DCXRD)and micro-Raman measurement, were introduced comparatively to determine x value in Si1-xGex layer, which show that while the two methods are consistent with each other when x is low, the results obtained from double crystals X-ray diffraction are not credible due to the large strain relaxation occurring in Si1-xGex layers when Ge content is higher than about 20%. Micro-Raman measurement is more appropriate for determining high Ge content than DCXRD.

  15. Double-quarkonium production at a fixed-target experiment at the LHC (AFTER@LHC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Philippe Lansberg

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We present predictions for double-quarkonium production in the kinematical region relevant for the proposed fixed-target experiment using the LHC beams (dubbed as AFTER@LHC. These include all spin-triplet S-wave charmonium and bottomonium pairs, i.e. ψ(n1S+ψ(n2S, ψ(n1S+ϒ(m1S and ϒ(m1S+ϒ(m2S with n1,n2=1,2 and m1,m2=1,2,3. We calculate the contributions from double-parton scatterings and single-parton scatterings. With an integrated luminosity of 20 fb−1 to be collected at AFTER@LHC, we find that the yields for double-charmonium production are large enough for differential distribution measurements. We discuss some differential distributions for J/ψ+J/ψ production, which can help to study the physics of double-parton and single-parton scatterings in a new energy range and which might also be sensitive to double intrinsic cc¯ coalescence at large negative Feynman x.

  16. Double vector meson production in γγ interactions at hadronic colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncalves, V.P. [Lund University, Department of Astronomy and Theoretical Physics, Lund (Sweden); Universidade Federal de Pelotas, High and Medium Energy Group, Instituto de Fisica e Matematica, Pelotas, RS (Brazil); Moreira, B.D.; Navarra, F.S. [Universidade de Sao Paulo, Instituto de Fisica, C.P. 66318, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2016-03-15

    In this paper we revisit the double vector meson production in γγ interactions at heavy ion collisions and present, by the first time, predictions for the ρρ and J/ΨJ/Ψ production in proton.nucleus and proton.proton collisions. In order to obtain realistic predictions for rapidity distributions and total cross sections for the double vector production in ultra peripheral hadronic collisions we take into account the description of γγ → VV cross section at lowenergies as well as its behavior at large energies, associated to the gluonic interaction between the color dipoles. Our results demonstrate that the double ρ production is dominated by the low energy behavior of the γγ → VV cross section. In contrast, for the double J/Ψ production, the contribution associated to the description of the QCD dynamics at high energies contributes significantly, mainly in pp collisions. Predictions for the RHIC, LHC, FCC, and CEPC-SPPC energies are shown. (orig.)

  17. Production of Dynamic Frozen Waves: Controlling shape, location (and speed) of diffraction-resistant beams

    CERN Document Server

    Vieira, Tárcio A; Zamboni-Rached, Michel; Recami, Erasmo

    2015-01-01

    In recent times, we experimentally realized a quite efficient modeling of the shape of diffraction-resistant optical beams; thus generating for the first time the so-called Frozen Waves (FW), whose longitudinal intensity pattern can be arbitrarily chosen, within a prefixed space interval of the propagation axis. Such waves possess a host of potential applications: in medicine, biomedical optics, optical tweezers, atom guiding, remote sensing, tractor beams, optical communications or metrology, and other topics in photonic areas. In this work, we extend our theory of FWs -- which led to beams endowed with a static envelope -- through a dynamic modeling of the FWs, whose shape is now allowed to evolve in time in a predetermined way. And we experimentally create such dynamic FWs in Optics, via a computational holographic technique and a spatial light modulator. Experimental results are here presented for two cases of dynamic FWs, one of the zeroth and the other of higher order, the last one being the most intere...

  18. Analysis of an industrial production suspension of Bacillus lentus subtilisin crystals by powder diffraction: a powerful quality-control tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankaer, Christian G; Moroz, Olga V; Turkenburg, Johan P; Aspmo, Stein I; Thymark, Majbritt; Friis, Esben P; Stahl, Kenny; Nielsen, Jens E; Wilson, Keith S; Harris, Pernille

    2014-04-01

    A microcrystalline suspension of Bacillus lentus subtilisin (Savinase) produced during industrial large-scale production was analysed by X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) and X-ray single-crystal diffraction (MX). XRPD established that the bulk microcrystal sample representative of the entire production suspension corresponded to space group P212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 47.65, b = 62.43, c = 75.74 Å, equivalent to those for a known orthorhombic crystal form (PDB entry 1ndq). MX using synchrotron beamlines at the Diamond Light Source with beam dimensions of 20 × 20 µm was subsequently used to study the largest crystals present in the suspension, with diffraction data being collected from two single crystals (∼20 × 20 × 60 µm) to resolutions of 1.40 and 1.57 Å, respectively. Both structures also belonged to space group P2(1)2(1)2(1), but were quite distinct from the dominant form identified by XRPD, with unit-cell parameters a = 53.04, b = 57.55, c = 71.37 Å and a = 52.72, b = 57.13, c = 65.86 Å, respectively, and refined to R = 10.8% and Rfree = 15.5% and to R = 14.1% and Rfree = 18.0%, respectively. They are also different from any of the forms previously reported in the PDB. A controlled crystallization experiment with a highly purified Savinase sample allowed the growth of single crystals of the form identified by XRPD; their structure was solved and refined to a resolution of 1.17 Å with an R of 9.2% and an Rfree of 11.8%. Thus, there are at least three polymorphs present in the production suspension, albeit with the 1ndq-like microcrystals predominating. It is shown how the two techniques can provide invaluable and complementary information for such a production suspension and it is proposed that XRPD provides an excellent quality-control tool for such suspensions.

  19. Optimization of the flexible mould process for the production of double-curved concrete elements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schipper, H.R.; Grunewald, S.; Eigenraam, P.; Raghunath, P.; Kok, M.

    2014-01-01

    Free-form buildings tend to be expensive. By optimizing the production process, economical and wellperforming concrete structures and elements can be manufactured. In this paper, an innovative method is presented that allows producing highly accurate double curved-elements without the need for milli

  20. Tribological performance of Mg/Al/Ce layered double hydroxides nanoparticles and intercalated products as lubricant additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuo; Qin, Haojing; Zuo, Ranfang; Bai, Zhimin

    2015-10-01

    Mg/Al/Ce ternary layered double hydroxides (LDHs) were synthesized via coprecipitation and intercalated by succinic acid and lauric acid through ion exchange method respectively. The LDHs products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR). Tribological properties of LDHs as lubricant additives were evaluated by four-ball friction and air compressor test. The results indicated that Mg/Al/Ce LDHs were prepared successfully with Ce/Al molar ratio of 0.05 and crystallization temperature of 140 °C. The interlayer spacing of LDHs precursor was expanded by succinic acid and lauric acid to 8.838 and 17.519 Å respectively. All the three LDHs products can reduce friction and wear of engine lubricating oil in the tests. LDHs intercalated with lauric acid showed best tribological performance among them which was attributed to sliding each other between laminates, good dispersibility in oil medium and a protective tribofilm formed on the worn surface.

  1. Systematic investigation of products formed during synthesis of Ni, Mo, Cu/Kieselguhr catalyst by X-ray diffraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanuja Srivastava

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Catalytic hydrogenolysis of sucrose is industrially important for the production of glycerol, ethylene glycol, and propylene glycol. Ni catalyst promoted by Mo and Cu and supported on kieselguhr was synthesized in the aqueous medium by co- precipitating compounds of nickel, copper, and molybdenum on kieselguhr from solution of their salts using sodium carbonate. The composition of the constituents present along with desired catalyst formed during synthesis has profound impact on its catalytic activity. Therefore, the present study deals with the synthesis and characterization of all the constituents' major and minor products formed during synthesisof catalyst both unreduced and reduced by X-ray diffraction studies. The results indicated the formation of appreciable amount of nickel hydro silicates and small amount of ionic nickel carbonate and nickel carbonate hydrate in the unreduced catalyst. Besides the formation of major product, hetropolyacid and nickel molybdenum silicide were also present in the unreduced catalyst. The catalyst was reduced at 600°C before carrying the hydrogenolysis reactions and the reduced products were also analyzed for the composition, when the catalyst activity was the maximum. The various chemical reactions involved in the synthesis procedure have been discussed.

  2. Associated $W^{\\pm}D^{(*)}$ production at the LHC and prospects to observe double parton interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Baranov, S P; Malyshev, M A; Snigirev, A M; Zotov, N P

    2015-01-01

    Associated production of charged gauge bosons and charged charmed mesons at the LHC is considered in the framework of $k_T$-factorization approach. Theoretical predictions are compared with ATLAS data, and reasonably good agreement is found. Predictions on the same-sign $W^{\\pm}D^{\\pm}$ configurations are presented including single parton scattering and double parton scattering contributions. The latter are shown to dominate over the former, thus giving evidence that the proposed process can serve as another indicator of double parton interactions.

  3. Associated W±D(⁎ production at the LHC and prospects to observe double parton interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.P. Baranov

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Associated production of charged gauge bosons and charged charmed mesons at the LHC is considered in the framework of kt-factorization approach. Theoretical predictions are compared with ATLAS data, and reasonably good agreement is found. Predictions on the same-sign W±D± configurations are presented including single parton scattering and double parton scattering contributions. The latter are shown to dominate over the former, thus giving evidence that the proposed process can serve as another indicator of double parton interactions.

  4. Prompt double J/ψ production in proton-proton collisions at the LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baranov, S.P. [P.N. Lebedev Institute of Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Rezaeian, Amir H. [Univ. Tecnica Federico Santa Maria, Valparaiso (Chile). Dept. de Fisica; Univ. Tecnica Federico Santa Maria, Valparaiso (Chile). Centro Cientifico Tecnologico de Valparaiso (CCTVal)

    2015-11-15

    We provide a detailed study of prompt double J/ψ production within the non-relativistic QCD (NRQCD) framework in proton-proton collisions at the LHC.We confront the recent LHC data with the results obtained at leading-order (LO) in the NRQCD framework within two approaches of the collinear factorization and the k{sub T}-factorization. We show that the LHCb data can be fairly described within the k{sub T}-factorized LO NRQCD, while the collinearly factorized LO NRQCD significantly overshoots the LHCb data at low J/ψ-pair invariant mass. We show that the LO NRQCD formalism cannot describe the recent CMS data, with about one order of magnitude discrepancy. If the CMS data are confirmed, this indicates rather large higher-order corrections for prompt double J/ψ production. We provide various predictions which can further test the NRQCD-based approach at the LHC in a kinematic region that LO contributions dominate. We also investigate long-range in rapidity double J/ψ correlations. We found no evidence of a ridge-like structure for double J/ψ production in proton-proton collisions at the LHC up to subleading α{sup 6}{sub s} accuracy.

  5. Observation of a diffractive contribution to dijet production in proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$=7 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Chatrchyan, Serguei; Sirunyan, Albert M; Tumasyan, Armen; Adam, Wolfgang; Aguilo, Ernest; Bergauer, Thomas; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Fabjan, Christian; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Hammer, Josef; Hörmann, Natascha; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; Kiesenhofer, Wolfgang; Knünz, Valentin; Krammer, Manfred; Krätschmer, Ilse; Liko, Dietrich; Mikulec, Ivan; Pernicka, Manfred; Rahbaran, Babak; Rohringer, Christine; Rohringer, Herbert; Schöfbeck, Robert; Strauss, Josef; Taurok, Anton; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Walzel, Gerhard; Widl, Edmund; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Mossolov, Vladimir; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; Bansal, Sunil; Cornelis, Tom; De Wolf, Eddi A; Janssen, Xavier; Luyckx, Sten; Mucibello, Luca; Ochesanu, Silvia; Roland, Benoit; Rougny, Romain; Selvaggi, Michele; Staykova, Zlatka; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Van Spilbeeck, Alex; Blekman, Freya; Blyweert, Stijn; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Gonzalez Suarez, Rebeca; Kalogeropoulos, Alexis; Maes, Michael; Olbrechts, Annik; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Onsem, Gerrit Patrick; Villella, Ilaria; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Dero, Vincent; Gay, Arnaud; Hreus, Tomas; Léonard, Alexandre; Marage, Pierre Edouard; Mohammadi, Abdollah; Reis, Thomas; Thomas, Laurent; Vander Marcken, Gil; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Wang, Jian; Adler, Volker; Beernaert, Kelly; Cimmino, Anna; Costantini, Silvia; Garcia, Guillaume; Grunewald, Martin; Klein, Benjamin; Lellouch, Jérémie; Marinov, Andrey; Mccartin, Joseph; Ocampo Rios, Alberto Andres; Ryckbosch, Dirk; Strobbe, Nadja; Thyssen, Filip; Tytgat, Michael; Verwilligen, Piet; Walsh, Sinead; Yazgan, Efe; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Basegmez, Suzan; Bruno, Giacomo; Castello, Roberto; Ceard, Ludivine; Delaere, Christophe; Du Pree, Tristan; Favart, Denis; Forthomme, Laurent; Giammanco, Andrea; Hollar, Jonathan; Lemaitre, Vincent; Liao, Junhui; Militaru, Otilia; Nuttens, Claude; Pagano, Davide; Pin, Arnaud; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Schul, Nicolas; Vizan Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Beliy, Nikita; Caebergs, Thierry; Daubie, Evelyne; Hammad, Gregory Habib; Alves, Gilvan; Correa Martins Junior, Marcos; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; Martins, Thiago; Pol, Maria Elena; Henrique Gomes E Souza, Moacyr; Aldá Júnior, Walter Luiz; Carvalho, Wagner; Custódio, Analu; Da Costa, Eliza Melo; De Oliveira Martins, Carley; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Matos Figueiredo, Diego; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Oguri, Vitor; Prado Da Silva, Wanda Lucia; Santoro, Alberto; Soares Jorge, Luana; Sznajder, Andre; Souza Dos Anjos, Tiago; Bernardes, Cesar Augusto; De Almeida Dias, Flavia; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Lagana, Caio; Da Cunha Marinho, Franciole; Mercadante, Pedro G; Novaes, Sergio F; Padula, Sandra; Genchev, Vladimir; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Piperov, Stefan; Rodozov, Mircho; Stoykova, Stefka; Sultanov, Georgi; Tcholakov, Vanio; Trayanov, Rumen; Vutova, Mariana; Dimitrov, Anton; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Kozhuharov, Venelin; Litov, Leander; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Liang, Dong; Liang, Song; Meng, Xiangwei; Tao, Junquan; Wang, Jian; Wang, Xianyou; Wang, Zheng; Xiao, Hong; Xu, Ming; Zang, Jingjing; Zhang, Zhen; Asawatangtrakuldee, Chayanit; Ban, Yong; Guo, Shuang; Guo, Yifei; Li, Wenbo; Liu, Shuai; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Teng, Haiyun; Wang, Dayong; Zhang, Linlin; Zhu, Bo; Zou, Wei; Avila, Carlos; Gomez, Juan Pablo; Gomez Moreno, Bernardo; Osorio Oliveros, Andres Felipe; Sanabria, Juan Carlos; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Plestina, Roko; Polic, Dunja; Puljak, Ivica; Antunovic, Zeljko; Kovac, Marko; Brigljevic, Vuko; Duric, Senka; Kadija, Kreso; Luetic, Jelena; Morovic, Srecko; Attikis, Alexandros; Galanti, Mario; Mavromanolakis, Georgios; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr, Michael; Assran, Yasser; Elgammal, Sherif; Ellithi Kamel, Ali; Khalil, Shaaban; Mahmoud, Mohammed; Radi, Amr; Kadastik, Mario; Müntel, Mait; Raidal, Martti; Rebane, Liis; Tiko, Andres; Eerola, Paula; Fedi, Giacomo; Voutilainen, Mikko; Härkönen, Jaakko; Heikkinen, Mika Aatos; Karimäki, Veikko; Kinnunen, Ritva; Kortelainen, Matti J; Lampén, Tapio; Lassila-Perini, Kati; Lehti, Sami; Lindén, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; Mäenpää, Teppo; Peltola, Timo; Tuominen, Eija; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Tuovinen, Esa; Ungaro, Donatella; Wendland, Lauri; Banzuzi, Kukka; Karjalainen, Ahti; Korpela, Arja; Tuuva, Tuure; Besancon, Marc; Choudhury, Somnath; Dejardin, Marc; Denegri, Daniel; Fabbro, Bernard; Faure, Jean-Louis; Ferri, Federico; Ganjour, Serguei; Givernaud, Alain; Gras, Philippe; Hamel de Monchenault, Gautier; Jarry, Patrick; Locci, Elizabeth; Malcles, Julie; Millischer, Laurent; Nayak, Aruna; Rander, John; Rosowsky, André; Shreyber, Irina; Titov, Maksym; Baffioni, Stephanie; Beaudette, Florian; Benhabib, Lamia; Bianchini, Lorenzo; Bluj, Michal; Broutin, Clementine; Busson, Philippe; Charlot, Claude; Daci, Nadir; Dahms, Torsten; Dobrzynski, Ludwik; Granier de Cassagnac, Raphael; Haguenauer, Maurice; Miné, Philippe; Mironov, Camelia; Naranjo, Ivo Nicolas; Nguyen, Matthew; Ochando, Christophe; Paganini, Pascal; Sabes, David; Salerno, Roberto; Sirois, Yves; Veelken, Christian; Zabi, Alexandre; Agram, Jean-Laurent; Andrea, Jeremy; Bloch, Daniel; Bodin, David; Brom, Jean-Marie; Cardaci, Marco; Chabert, Eric Christian; Collard, Caroline; Conte, Eric; Drouhin, Frédéric; Ferro, Cristina; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Gelé, Denis; Goerlach, Ulrich; Juillot, Pierre; Le Bihan, Anne-Catherine; Van Hove, Pierre; Fassi, Farida; Mercier, Damien; Beauceron, Stephanie; Beaupere, Nicolas; Bondu, Olivier; Boudoul, Gaelle; Chasserat, Julien; Chierici, Roberto; Contardo, Didier; Depasse, Pierre; El Mamouni, Houmani; Fay, Jean; Gascon, Susan; Gouzevitch, Maxime; Ille, Bernard; Kurca, Tibor; Lethuillier, Morgan; Mirabito, Laurent; Perries, Stephane; Sordini, Viola; Tschudi, Yohann; Verdier, Patrice; Viret, Sébastien; Tsamalaidze, Zviad; Anagnostou, Georgios; Beranek, Sarah; Edelhoff, Matthias; Feld, Lutz; Heracleous, Natalie; Hindrichs, Otto; Jussen, Ruediger; Klein, Katja; Merz, Jennifer; Ostapchuk, Andrey; Perieanu, Adrian; Raupach, Frank; Sammet, Jan; Schael, Stefan; Sprenger, Daniel; Weber, Hendrik; Wittmer, Bruno; Zhukov, Valery; Ata, Metin; Caudron, Julien; Dietz-Laursonn, Erik; Duchardt, Deborah; Erdmann, Martin; Fischer, Robert; Güth, Andreas; Hebbeker, Thomas; Heidemann, Carsten; Hoepfner, Kerstin; Klingebiel, Dennis; Kreuzer, Peter; Magass, Carsten; Merschmeyer, Markus; Meyer, Arnd; Olschewski, Mark; Papacz, Paul; Pieta, Holger; Reithler, Hans; Schmitz, Stefan Antonius; Sonnenschein, Lars; Steggemann, Jan; Teyssier, Daniel; Weber, Martin; Bontenackels, Michael; Cherepanov, Vladimir; Flügge, Günter; Geenen, Heiko; Geisler, Matthias; Haj Ahmad, Wael; Hoehle, Felix; Kargoll, Bastian; Kress, Thomas; Kuessel, Yvonne; Nowack, Andreas; Perchalla, Lars; Pooth, Oliver; Sauerland, Philip; Stahl, Achim; Aldaya Martin, Maria; Behr, Joerg; Behrenhoff, Wolf; Behrens, Ulf; Bergholz, Matthias; Bethani, Agni; Borras, Kerstin; Burgmeier, Armin; Cakir, Altan; Calligaris, Luigi; Campbell, Alan; Castro, Elena; Costanza, Francesco; Dammann, Dirk; Diez Pardos, Carmen; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eckstein, Doris; Flucke, Gero; Geiser, Achim; Glushkov, Ivan; Gunnellini, Paolo; Habib, Shiraz; Hauk, Johannes; Hellwig, Gregor; Jung, Hannes; Kasemann, Matthias; Katsas, Panagiotis; Kleinwort, Claus; Kluge, Hannelies; Knutsson, Albert; Krämer, Mira; Krücker, Dirk; Kuznetsova, Ekaterina; Lange, Wolfgang; Lohmann, Wolfgang; Lutz, Benjamin; Mankel, Rainer; Marfin, Ihar; Marienfeld, Markus; Melzer-Pellmann, Isabell-Alissandra; Meyer, Andreas Bernhard; Mnich, Joachim; Mussgiller, Andreas; Naumann-Emme, Sebastian; Olzem, Jan; Perrey, Hanno; Petrukhin, Alexey; Pitzl, Daniel; Raspereza, Alexei; Ribeiro Cipriano, Pedro M; Riedl, Caroline; Ron, Elias; Rosin, Michele; Salfeld-Nebgen, Jakob; Schmidt, Ringo; Schoerner-Sadenius, Thomas; Sen, Niladri; Spiridonov, Alexander; Stein, Matthias; Walsh, Roberval; Wissing, Christoph; Autermann, Christian; Blobel, Volker; Draeger, Jula; Enderle, Holger; Erfle, Joachim; Gebbert, Ulla; Görner, Martin; Hermanns, Thomas; Höing, Rebekka Sophie; Kaschube, Kolja; Kaussen, Gordon; Kirschenmann, Henning; Klanner, Robert; Lange, Jörn; Mura, Benedikt; Nowak, Friederike; Peiffer, Thomas; Pietsch, Niklas; Rathjens, Denis; Sander, Christian; Schettler, Hannes; Schleper, Peter; Schlieckau, Eike; Schmidt, Alexander; Schröder, Matthias; Schum, Torben; Seidel, Markus; Sola, Valentina; Stadie, Hartmut; Steinbrück, Georg; Thomsen, Jan; Vanelderen, Lukas; Barth, Christian; Berger, Joram; Böser, Christian; Chwalek, Thorsten; De Boer, Wim; Descroix, Alexis; Dierlamm, Alexander; Feindt, Michael; Guthoff, Moritz; Hackstein, Christoph; Hartmann, Frank; Hauth, Thomas; Heinrich, Michael; Held, Hauke; Hoffmann, Karl-Heinz; Honc, Simon; Katkov, Igor; Komaragiri, Jyothsna Rani; Lobelle Pardo, Patricia; Martschei, Daniel; Mueller, Steffen; Müller, Thomas; Niegel, Martin; Nürnberg, Andreas; Oberst, Oliver; Oehler, Andreas; Ott, Jochen; Quast, Gunter; Rabbertz, Klaus; Ratnikov, Fedor; Ratnikova, Natalia; Röcker, Steffen; Scheurer, Armin; Schilling, Frank-Peter; Schott, Gregory; Simonis, Hans-Jürgen; Stober, Fred-Markus Helmut; Troendle, Daniel; Ulrich, Ralf; Wagner-Kuhr, Jeannine; Wayand, Stefan; Weiler, Thomas; Zeise, Manuel; Daskalakis, Georgios; Geralis, Theodoros; Kesisoglou, Stilianos; Kyriakis, Aristotelis; Loukas, Demetrios; Manolakos, Ioannis; Markou, Athanasios; Markou, Christos; Mavrommatis, Charalampos; Ntomari, Eleni; Gouskos, Loukas; Mertzimekis, Theodoros; Panagiotou, Apostolos; Saoulidou, Niki; Evangelou, Ioannis; Foudas, Costas; Kokkas, Panagiotis; Manthos, Nikolaos; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Patras, Vaios; Bencze, Gyorgy; Hajdu, Csaba; Hidas, Pàl; Horvath, Dezso; Sikler, Ferenc; Veszpremi, Viktor; Vesztergombi, Gyorgy; Beni, Noemi; Czellar, Sandor; Molnar, Jozsef; Palinkas, Jozsef; Szillasi, Zoltan; Karancsi, János; Raics, Peter; Trocsanyi, Zoltan Laszlo; Ujvari, Balazs; Bansal, Monika; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Dhingra, Nitish; Gupta, Ruchi; Kaur, Manjit; Mehta, Manuk Zubin; Nishu, Nishu; Saini, Lovedeep Kaur; Sharma, Archana; Singh, Jasbir; Kumar, Ashok; Kumar, Arun; Ahuja, Sudha; Bhardwaj, Ashutosh; Choudhary, Brajesh C; Malhotra, Shivali; Naimuddin, Md; Ranjan, Kirti; Sharma, Varun; Shivpuri, Ram Krishen; Banerjee, Sunanda; Bhattacharya, Satyaki; Dutta, Suchandra; Gomber, Bhawna; Jain, Sandhya; Jain, Shilpi; Khurana, Raman; Sarkar, Subir; Sharan, Manoj; Abdulsalam, Abdulla; Choudhury, Rajani Kant; Dutta, Dipanwita; Kailas, Swaminathan; Kumar, Vineet; Mehta, Pourus; Mohanty, Ajit Kumar; Pant, Lalit Mohan; Shukla, Prashant; Aziz, Tariq; Ganguly, Sanmay; Guchait, Monoranjan; Maity, Manas; Majumder, Gobinda; Mazumdar, Kajari; Mohanty, Gagan Bihari; Parida, Bibhuti; Sudhakar, Katta; Wickramage, Nadeesha; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Dugad, Shashikant; Arfaei, Hessamaddin; Bakhshiansohi, Hamed; Etesami, Seyed Mohsen; Fahim, Ali; Hashemi, Majid; Hesari, Hoda; Jafari, Abideh; Khakzad, Mohsen; Mohammadi Najafabadi, Mojtaba; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, Saeid; Safarzadeh, Batool; Zeinali, Maryam; Abbrescia, Marcello; Barbone, Lucia; Calabria, Cesare; Chhibra, Simranjit Singh; Colaleo, Anna; Creanza, Donato; De Filippis, Nicola; De Palma, Mauro; Fiore, Luigi; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Lusito, Letizia; Maggi, Giorgio; Maggi, Marcello; Marangelli, Bartolomeo; My, Salvatore; Nuzzo, Salvatore; Pacifico, Nicola; Pompili, Alexis; Pugliese, Gabriella; Selvaggi, Giovanna; Silvestris, Lucia; Singh, Gurpreet; Venditti, Rosamaria; Zito, Giuseppe; Abbiendi, Giovanni; Benvenuti, Alberto; Bonacorsi, Daniele; Braibant-Giacomelli, Sylvie; Brigliadori, Luca; Capiluppi, Paolo; Castro, Andrea; Cavallo, Francesca Romana; Cuffiani, Marco; Dallavalle, Gaetano-Marco; Fabbri, Fabrizio; Fanfani, Alessandra; Fasanella, Daniele; Giacomelli, Paolo; Grandi, Claudio; Guiducci, Luigi; Marcellini, Stefano; Masetti, Gianni; Meneghelli, Marco; Montanari, Alessandro; Navarria, Francesco; Odorici, Fabrizio; Perrotta, Andrea; Primavera, Federica; Rossi, Antonio; Rovelli, Tiziano; Siroli, Gian Piero; Travaglini, Riccardo; Albergo, Sebastiano; Cappello, Gigi; Chiorboli, Massimiliano; Costa, Salvatore; Potenza, Renato; Tricomi, Alessia; Tuve, Cristina; Barbagli, Giuseppe; Ciulli, Vitaliano; Civinini, Carlo; D'Alessandro, Raffaello; Focardi, Ettore; Frosali, Simone; Gallo, Elisabetta; Gonzi, Sandro; Meschini, Marco; Paoletti, Simone; Sguazzoni, Giacomo; Tropiano, Antonio; Benussi, Luigi; Bianco, Stefano; Colafranceschi, Stefano; Fabbri, Franco; Piccolo, Davide; Fabbricatore, Pasquale; Musenich, Riccardo; Tosi, Silvano; Benaglia, Andrea; De Guio, Federico; Di Matteo, Leonardo; Fiorendi, Sara; Gennai, Simone; Ghezzi, Alessio; Malvezzi, Sandra; Manzoni, Riccardo Andrea; Martelli, Arabella; Massironi, Andrea; Menasce, Dario; Moroni, Luigi; Paganoni, Marco; Pedrini, Daniele; Ragazzi, Stefano; Redaelli, Nicola; Sala, Silvano; Tabarelli de Fatis, Tommaso; Buontempo, Salvatore; Carrillo Montoya, Camilo Andres; Cavallo, Nicola; De Cosa, Annapaola; Dogangun, Oktay; Fabozzi, Francesco; Iorio, Alberto Orso Maria; Lista, Luca; Meola, Sabino; Merola, Mario; Paolucci, Pierluigi; Azzi, Patrizia; Bacchetta, Nicola; Bellan, Paolo; Bisello, Dario; Branca, Antonio; Carlin, Roberto; Checchia, Paolo; Dorigo, Tommaso; Gasparini, Fabrizio; Gozzelino, Andrea; Kanishchev, Konstantin; Lacaprara, Stefano; Lazzizzera, Ignazio; Margoni, Martino; Meneguzzo, Anna Teresa; Pazzini, Jacopo; Pozzobon, Nicola; Ronchese, Paolo; Simonetto, Franco; Torassa, Ezio; Tosi, Mia; Triossi, Andrea; Vanini, Sara; Zotto, Pierluigi; Zumerle, Gianni; Gabusi, Michele; Ratti, Sergio P; Riccardi, Cristina; Torre, Paola; Vitulo, Paolo; Biasini, Maurizio; Bilei, Gian Mario; Fanò, Livio; Lariccia, Paolo; Lucaroni, Andrea; Mantovani, Giancarlo; Menichelli, Mauro; Nappi, Aniello; Romeo, Francesco; Saha, Anirban; Santocchia, Attilio; Spiezia, Aniello; Taroni, Silvia; Azzurri, Paolo; Bagliesi, Giuseppe; Boccali, Tommaso; Broccolo, Giuseppe; Castaldi, Rino; D'Agnolo, Raffaele Tito; Dell'Orso, Roberto; Fiori, Francesco; Foà, Lorenzo; Giassi, Alessandro; Kraan, Aafke; Ligabue, Franco; Lomtadze, Teimuraz; Martini, Luca; Messineo, Alberto; Palla, Fabrizio; Rizzi, Andrea; Serban, Alin Titus; Spagnolo, Paolo; Squillacioti, Paola; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, Guido; Venturi, Andrea; Verdini, Piero Giorgio; Barone, Luciano; Cavallari, Francesca; Del Re, Daniele; Diemoz, Marcella; Fanelli, Cristiano; Grassi, Marco; Longo, Egidio; Meridiani, Paolo; Micheli, Francesco; Nourbakhsh, Shervin; Organtini, Giovanni; Paramatti, Riccardo; Rahatlou, Shahram; Sigamani, Michael; Soffi, Livia; Amapane, Nicola; Arcidiacono, Roberta; Argiro, Stefano; Arneodo, Michele; Biino, Cristina; Cartiglia, Nicolo; Costa, Marco; Demaria, Natale; Mariotti, Chiara; Maselli, Silvia; Migliore, Ernesto; Monaco, Vincenzo; Musich, Marco; Obertino, Maria Margherita; Pastrone, Nadia; Pelliccioni, Mario; Potenza, Alberto; Romero, Alessandra; Ruspa, Marta; Sacchi, Roberto; Solano, Ada; Staiano, Amedeo; Vilela Pereira, Antonio; Belforte, Stefano; Candelise, Vieri; Cossutti, Fabio; Della Ricca, Giuseppe; Gobbo, Benigno; Marone, Matteo; Montanino, Damiana; Penzo, Aldo; Schizzi, Andrea; Heo, Seong Gu; Kim, Tae Yeon; Nam, Soon-Kwon; Chang, Sunghyun; Kim, Dong Hee; Kim, Gui Nyun; Kong, Dae Jung; Park, Hyangkyu; Ro, Sang-Ryul; Son, Dong-Chul; Son, Taejin; Kim, Jae Yool; Kim, Zero Jaeho; Song, Sanghyeon; Choi, Suyong; Gyun, Dooyeon; Hong, Byung-Sik; Jo, Mihee; Kim, Hyunchul; Kim, Tae Jeong; Lee, Kyong Sei; Moon, Dong Ho; Park, Sung Keun; Choi, Minkyoo; Kim, Ji Hyun; Park, Chawon; Park, Inkyu; Park, Sangnam; Ryu, Geonmo; Cho, Yongjin; Choi, Young-Il; Choi, Young Kyu; Goh, Junghwan; Kim, Min Suk; Kwon, Eunhyang; Lee, Byounghoon; Lee, Jongseok; Lee, Sungeun; Seo, Hyunkwan; Yu, Intae; Bilinskas, Mykolas Jurgis; Grigelionis, Ignas; Janulis, Mindaugas; Juodagalvis, Andrius; Castilla-Valdez, Heriberto; De La Cruz-Burelo, Eduard; Heredia-de La Cruz, Ivan; Lopez-Fernandez, Ricardo; Magaña Villalba, Ricardo; Martínez-Ortega, Jorge; Sánchez-Hernández, Alberto; Villasenor-Cendejas, Luis Manuel; Carrillo Moreno, Salvador; Vazquez Valencia, Fabiola; Salazar Ibarguen, Humberto Antonio; Casimiro Linares, Edgar; Morelos Pineda, Antonio; Reyes-Santos, Marco A; Krofcheck, David; Bell, Alan James; Butler, Philip H; Doesburg, Robert; Reucroft, Steve; Silverwood, Hamish; Ahmad, Muhammad; Ansari, Muhammad Hamid; Asghar, Muhammad Irfan; Hoorani, Hafeez R; Khalid, Shoaib; Khan, Wajid Ali; Khurshid, Taimoor; Qazi, Shamona; Shah, Mehar Ali; Shoaib, Muhammad; Bialkowska, Helena; Boimska, Bozena; Frueboes, Tomasz; Gokieli, Ryszard; Górski, Maciej; Kazana, Malgorzata; Nawrocki, Krzysztof; Romanowska-Rybinska, Katarzyna; Szleper, Michal; Wrochna, Grzegorz; Zalewski, Piotr; Brona, Grzegorz; Bunkowski, Karol; Cwiok, Mikolaj; Dominik, Wojciech; Doroba, Krzysztof; Kalinowski, Artur; Konecki, Marcin; Krolikowski, Jan; Almeida, Nuno; Bargassa, Pedrame; David Tinoco Mendes, Andre; Faccioli, Pietro; Ferreira Parracho, Pedro Guilherme; Gallinaro, Michele; Seixas, Joao; Varela, Joao; Vischia, Pietro; Belotelov, Ivan; Bunin, Pavel; Gavrilenko, Mikhail; Golutvin, Igor; Gorbunov, Ilya; Kamenev, Alexey; Karjavin, Vladimir; Kozlov, Guennady; Lanev, Alexander; Malakhov, Alexander; Moisenz, Petr; Palichik, Vladimir; Perelygin, Victor; Shmatov, Sergey; Smirnov, Vitaly; Volodko, Anton; Zarubin, Anatoli; Evstyukhin, Sergey; Golovtsov, Victor; Ivanov, Yury; Kim, Victor; Levchenko, Petr; Murzin, Victor; Oreshkin, Vadim; Smirnov, Igor; Sulimov, Valentin; Uvarov, Lev; Vavilov, Sergey; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Andrey; Andreev, Yuri; Dermenev, Alexander; Gninenko, Sergei; Golubev, Nikolai; Kirsanov, Mikhail; Krasnikov, Nikolai; Matveev, Viktor; Pashenkov, Anatoli; Tlisov, Danila; Toropin, Alexander; Epshteyn, Vladimir; Erofeeva, Maria; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Kossov, Mikhail; Lychkovskaya, Natalia; Popov, Vladimir; Safronov, Grigory; Semenov, Sergey; Stolin, Viatcheslav; Vlasov, Evgueni; Zhokin, Alexander; Belyaev, Andrey; Boos, Edouard; Dubinin, Mikhail; Ershov, Alexander; Gribushin, Andrey; Khein, Lev; Klyukhin, Vyacheslav; Kodolova, Olga; Lokhtin, Igor; Markina, Anastasia; Obraztsov, Stepan; Perfilov, Maxim; Petrushanko, Sergey; Popov, Andrey; Proskuryakov, Alexander; Sarycheva, Ludmila; Savrin, Viktor; Andreev, Vladimir; Azarkin, Maksim; Dremin, Igor; Kirakosyan, Martin; Leonidov, Andrey; Mesyats, Gennady; Rusakov, Sergey V; Vinogradov, Alexey; Azhgirey, Igor; Bayshev, Igor; Bitioukov, Sergei; Grishin, Viatcheslav; Kachanov, Vassili; Konstantinov, Dmitri; Korablev, Andrey; Krychkine, Victor; Petrov, Vladimir; Ryutin, Roman; Sobol, Andrei; Tourtchanovitch, Leonid; Troshin, Sergey; Tyurin, Nikolay; Uzunian, Andrey; Volkov, Alexey; Adzic, Petar; Djordjevic, Milos; Ekmedzic, Marko; Krpic, Dragomir; Milosevic, Jovan; Aguilar-Benitez, Manuel; Alcaraz Maestre, Juan; Arce, Pedro; Battilana, Carlo; Calvo, Enrique; Cerrada, Marcos; Chamizo Llatas, Maria; Colino, Nicanor; De La Cruz, Begona; Delgado Peris, Antonio; Domínguez Vázquez, Daniel; Fernandez Bedoya, Cristina; Fernández Ramos, Juan Pablo; Ferrando, Antonio; Flix, Jose; Fouz, Maria Cruz; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gonzalez Lopez, Oscar; Goy Lopez, Silvia; Hernandez, Jose M; Josa, Maria Isabel; Merino, Gonzalo; Puerta Pelayo, Jesus; Quintario Olmeda, Adrián; Redondo, Ignacio; Romero, Luciano; Santaolalla, Javier; Soares, Mara Senghi; Willmott, Carlos; Albajar, Carmen; Codispoti, Giuseppe; de Trocóniz, Jorge F; Brun, Hugues; Cuevas, Javier; Fernandez Menendez, Javier; Folgueras, Santiago; Gonzalez Caballero, Isidro; Lloret Iglesias, Lara; Piedra Gomez, Jonatan; Brochero Cifuentes, Javier Andres; Cabrillo, Iban Jose; Calderon, Alicia; Chuang, Shan-Huei; Duarte Campderros, Jordi; Felcini, Marta; Fernandez, Marcos; Gomez, Gervasio; Gonzalez Sanchez, Javier; Graziano, Alberto; Jorda, Clara; Lopez Virto, Amparo; Marco, Jesus; Marco, Rafael; Martinez Rivero, Celso; Matorras, Francisco; Munoz Sanchez, Francisca Javiela; Rodrigo, Teresa; Rodríguez-Marrero, Ana Yaiza; Ruiz-Jimeno, Alberto; Scodellaro, Luca; Sobron Sanudo, Mar; Vila, Ivan; Vilar Cortabitarte, Rocio; Abbaneo, Duccio; Auffray, Etiennette; Auzinger, Georg; Baillon, Paul; Ball, Austin; Barney, David; Benitez, Jose F; Bernet, Colin; Bianchi, Giovanni; Bloch, Philippe; Bocci, Andrea; Bonato, Alessio; Botta, Cristina; Breuker, Horst; Camporesi, Tiziano; Cerminara, Gianluca; Christiansen, Tim; Coarasa Perez, Jose Antonio; D'Enterria, David; Dabrowski, Anne; De Roeck, Albert; Di Guida, Salvatore; Dobson, Marc; Dupont-Sagorin, Niels; Elliott-Peisert, Anna; Frisch, Benjamin; Funk, Wolfgang; Georgiou, Georgios; Giffels, Manuel; Gigi, Dominique; Gill, Karl; Giordano, Domenico; Giunta, Marina; Glege, Frank; Gomez-Reino Garrido, Robert; Govoni, Pietro; Gowdy, Stephen; Guida, Roberto; Hansen, Magnus; Harris, Philip; Hartl, Christian; Harvey, John; Hegner, Benedikt; Hinzmann, Andreas; Innocente, Vincenzo; Janot, Patrick; Kaadze, Ketino; Karavakis, Edward; Kousouris, Konstantinos; Lecoq, Paul; Lee, Yen-Jie; Lenzi, Piergiulio; Lourenco, Carlos; Maki, Tuula; Malberti, Martina; Malgeri, Luca; Mannelli, Marcello; Masetti, Lorenzo; Meijers, Frans; Mersi, Stefano; Meschi, Emilio; Moser, Roland; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Mulders, Martijn; Musella, Pasquale; Nesvold, Erik; Orimoto, Toyoko; Orsini, Luciano; Palencia Cortezon, Enrique; Perez, Emmanuelle; Perrozzi, Luca; Petrilli, Achille; Pfeiffer, Andreas; Pierini, Maurizio; Pimiä, Martti; Piparo, Danilo; Polese, Giovanni; Quertenmont, Loic; Racz, Attila; Reece, William; Rodrigues Antunes, Joao; Rolandi, Gigi; Rovelli, Chiara; Rovere, Marco; Sakulin, Hannes; Santanastasio, Francesco; Schäfer, Christoph; Schwick, Christoph; Segoni, Ilaria; Sekmen, Sezen; Sharma, Archana; Siegrist, Patrice; Silva, Pedro; Simon, Michal; Sphicas, Paraskevas; Spiga, Daniele; Tsirou, Andromachi; Veres, Gabor Istvan; Vlimant, Jean-Roch; Wöhri, Hermine Katharina; Worm, Steven; Zeuner, Wolfram Dietrich; Bertl, Willi; Deiters, Konrad; Erdmann, Wolfram; Gabathuler, Kurt; Horisberger, Roland; Ingram, Quentin; Kaestli, Hans-Christian; König, Stefan; Kotlinski, Danek; Langenegger, Urs; Meier, Frank; Renker, Dieter; Rohe, Tilman; Sibille, Jennifer; Bäni, Lukas; Bortignon, Pierluigi; Buchmann, Marco-Andrea; Casal, Bruno; Chanon, Nicolas; Deisher, Amanda; Dissertori, Günther; Dittmar, Michael; Donegà, Mauro; Dünser, Marc; Eugster, Jürg; Freudenreich, Klaus; Grab, Christoph; Hits, Dmitry; Lecomte, Pierre; Lustermann, Werner; Marini, Andrea Carlo; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, Pablo; Mohr, Niklas; Moortgat, Filip; Nägeli, Christoph; Nef, Pascal; Nessi-Tedaldi, Francesca; Pandolfi, Francesco; Pape, Luc; Pauss, Felicitas; Peruzzi, Marco; Ronga, Frederic Jean; Rossini, Marco; Sala, Leonardo; Sanchez, Ann - Karin; Starodumov, Andrei; Stieger, Benjamin; Takahashi, Maiko; Tauscher, Ludwig; Thea, Alessandro; Theofilatos, Konstantinos; Treille, Daniel; Urscheler, Christina; Wallny, Rainer; Weber, Hannsjoerg Artur; Wehrli, Lukas; Amsler, Claude; Chiochia, Vincenzo; 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    2013-01-01

    The cross section for dijet production in pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV is presented as a function of xi, a variable that approximates the fractional momentum loss of the scattered proton in single-diffractive events. The analysis is based on an integrated luminosity of 2.7 inverse nanobarns collected with the CMS detector at the LHC at low instantaneous luminosities, and uses events with jet transverse momentum of at least 20 GeV. The dijet cross section results are compared to the predictions of diffractive and non-diffractive models. The low-xi data show a significant contribution from diffractive dijet production, observed for the first time at the LHC. The associated rapidity gap survival probability is estimated.

  6. Diffractive J/Psi Production; Produção Difrativa de $J/psi$ no Experimento DØ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    dos Santos Assis Jesus, Ana Carolina [Federal Univ., Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2007-07-01

    This work presents measurements of two diffractive production ratio for heavy flavour physics with the use of a reconstructed J/Ψ → μ+μ- sample in p$\\bar{p}$ collisions at √s = 1.96 TeV using the D0 detector at Fermilab Tevatron. These events were selected using the Luminosity Monitor detectors, the calorimeter system and the muon system in a pseudo-rapidity region with range 2.7 ≤ |η| ≤ 4.4. The measured ratio were estimated to be N$J/Ψ\\atop{diff}$/N$J/Ψ\\atop{total}$ = (1.74 ± 0.16(stat) {+-} 0.13(syst))% e N$b\\atop{diff}$/N$b\\atop{total}$ = (0.79 ± 0.11(stat) ± 0.23(syst))%.

  7. Double K-shell vacancy production in the electron capture decay of 139Ce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindi, M. M.; Kozub, R. L.

    1991-02-01

    The probability of double K-shell vacancy production in the electron capture decay of 139Ce to the 166-keV level of 139La has been investigated. Triple coincidences between the 166-keV gamma ray, the La satellite Kα x ray, and the La hypersatellite Kα x ray were measured using two intrinsic Ge detectors. We looked for the sum of two of the three radiations in one detector in coincidence with the third radiation in the other detector. The probability of double K-shell vacancy production per K-shell electron capture (PKK) was found to be (2.0+/-1.6)×10-6. From this and the known PKK for 131Cs we estimate a probability for zero K-shell vacancy production (shakedown) per K-shell electron capture of <~2.4×10-5 for 139Ce.

  8. Yield Trends Are Insufficient to Double Global Crop Production by 2050.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Deepak K; Mueller, Nathaniel D; West, Paul C; Foley, Jonathan A

    2013-01-01

    Several studies have shown that global crop production needs to double by 2050 to meet the projected demands from rising population, diet shifts, and increasing biofuels consumption. Boosting crop yields to meet these rising demands, rather than clearing more land for agriculture has been highlighted as a preferred solution to meet this goal. However, we first need to understand how crop yields are changing globally, and whether we are on track to double production by 2050. Using ∼2.5 million agricultural statistics, collected for ∼13,500 political units across the world, we track four key global crops-maize, rice, wheat, and soybean-that currently produce nearly two-thirds of global agricultural calories. We find that yields in these top four crops are increasing at 1.6%, 1.0%, 0.9%, and 1.3% per year, non-compounding rates, respectively, which is less than the 2.4% per year rate required to double global production by 2050. At these rates global production in these crops would increase by ∼67%, ∼42%, ∼38%, and ∼55%, respectively, which is far below what is needed to meet projected demands in 2050. We present detailed maps to identify where rates must be increased to boost crop production and meet rising demands.

  9. Yield Trends Are Insufficient to Double Global Crop Production by 2050.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak K Ray

    Full Text Available Several studies have shown that global crop production needs to double by 2050 to meet the projected demands from rising population, diet shifts, and increasing biofuels consumption. Boosting crop yields to meet these rising demands, rather than clearing more land for agriculture has been highlighted as a preferred solution to meet this goal. However, we first need to understand how crop yields are changing globally, and whether we are on track to double production by 2050. Using ∼2.5 million agricultural statistics, collected for ∼13,500 political units across the world, we track four key global crops-maize, rice, wheat, and soybean-that currently produce nearly two-thirds of global agricultural calories. We find that yields in these top four crops are increasing at 1.6%, 1.0%, 0.9%, and 1.3% per year, non-compounding rates, respectively, which is less than the 2.4% per year rate required to double global production by 2050. At these rates global production in these crops would increase by ∼67%, ∼42%, ∼38%, and ∼55%, respectively, which is far below what is needed to meet projected demands in 2050. We present detailed maps to identify where rates must be increased to boost crop production and meet rising demands.

  10. Soft QCD, minimum bias and diffraction: results from ALICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonioli Pietro

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We report recent results from the ALICE experiment at the LHC for minimum bias pp collisions. This overview includes results on inelastic cross section, with analysis of single and double diffractive events; the study of hadron production mechanisms, both for inclusive and identified particles; Bose-Einstein correlations; and fluctuations in 〈PT〉.

  11. High mass exclusive diffractive dijet production in $\\mathbf{p\\bar{p}}$ collisions at $\\mathbf{\\sqrt{s}}$ = 1.96 TeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abazov, V.

    2010-09-01

    We present evidence for diffractive exclusive dijet production with an invariant dijet mass greater than 100 GeV in data collected with the D0 experiment at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider. A discriminant based on calorimeter information is used to measure a significant number of events with little energy (typically less than 10 GeV) outside the dijet system, consistent with the diffractive exclusive dijet production topology. The probability for these events to be explained by other dijet production processes is 2 x 10{sup -5}, corresponding to a 4.1 standard deviation significance.

  12. Inclusive double-charge-exchange. pi. /sup -/ production at 100 GeV/c

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cutts, D.; Dulude, R.; Lanou, R.E.; Massimo, J.T.; Meunier, R.; Brenner, A.E.; Carey, D.C.; Elias, J.E.; Garbincius, P.H.; Mikenberg, G.; Polychronakos, V.A.; Weitsch, G.A.; Chiaradia, M.T.; DeMarzo, C.; Favuzzi, C.; Germinario, G.; Guerriero, L.; Lavopa, P.; Maggi, G.; Posa, F.; Selvaggi, G.; Spinelli, P.; Waldner, F.; Aitkenhead, W.; Barton, D.S.; Brandenburg, G.; Busza, W.; Dobrowolski, T.; Friedman, J.I.; Kendall, H.W.; Lyons, T.; Nelson, B.; Rosenson, L.; Toy, W.; Verdier, R.; Votta, L.

    1978-01-16

    Measurements of inclusive cross sections at 100 GeV/c are presented for the double-charge-exchange reactions a/sup +/p ..-->.. ..pi../sup -/X with a = ..pi.., K, or p. The measurements covered a kinematic range in the Feynman x variable of 0.3 < or = x < or = 0.9 at transverse momenta of 0.3 and 0.5 GeV/c. A model summing the contributions from resonance production and from inclusive central-region ..pi../sup -/ production is used to fit the data and demonstrates the importance of resonance production via one-pion exchange for large values of the Feynman x.

  13. Observation and studies of double $J/\\psi$ production at the Tevatron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abazov, Victor Mukhamedovich; et al.

    2014-12-08

    We present the observation of doubly-produced $J/\\psi$ mesons with the D0 detector at Fermilab in $p\\bar{p}$ collisions at $\\sqrt{s}=1.96$ TeV. The production cross section for both singly and doubly-produced $J/\\psi$ mesons is measured using a sample with an integrated luminosity of 8.1fb$^{-1}$. For the first time, the double $J/\\psi$ production cross section is separated into contributions due to single and double parton scatterings. Using these measurements, we determine the effective cross section $\\sigma_{eff}$, a parameter characterizing an effective spatial area of the parton-parton interactions and related to the parton spatial density inside the nucleon.

  14. Double parton scattering in pair-production of $J/\\psi$ mesons at the LHC revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Borschensky, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Double parton scattering (DPS) is studied at the example of $J/\\psi$ pair-production in the LHCb and ATLAS experiments of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at centre-of-mass energies of $\\sqrt{S}=$ 7, 8, and 13 TeV. We report theoretical predictions delivered to the LHCb and ATLAS collaborations adjusted for the fiducial volumes of the corresponding measurements during Run I and provide new predictions at 13 TeV collision energy. It is shown that DPS can lead to noticeable contributions in the distributions of longitudinal variables of the di-$J/\\psi$ system, especially at 13 TeV. The increased DPS rate in double $J/\\psi$ production at high energies will open up more possibilities for the separation of single parton scattering (SPS) and DPS contributions in future studies.

  15. A general formalism for single and double spin asymmetries in inclusive hadron production

    CERN Document Server

    D'Alesio, U; Murgia, F

    2004-01-01

    We present a calculation of single and double spin asymmetries for inclusive hadron production in hadronic collisions. Our approach is based on Leading Order (LO) perturbative QCD and generalized factorization theorems, with full account of intrinsic parton momentum, k_T, effects. This leads to a new class of spin and k_T-dependent distribution and fragmentation functions. Limiting ourselves to consider leading twist functions, we show how they could play a relevant role in producing non-vanishing spin asymmetries.

  16. X-ray Powder Diffraction in Conservation Science: Towards Routine Crystal Structure Determination of Corrosion Products on Heritage Art Objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinnebier, Robert E; Fischer, Andrea; Eggert, Gerhard; Runčevski, Tomče; Wahlberg, Nanna

    2016-06-08

    The crystal structure determination and refinement process of corrosion products on historic art objects using laboratory high-resolution X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) is presented in detail via two case studies. The first material under investigation was sodium copper formate hydroxide oxide hydrate, Cu4Na4O(HCOO)8(OH)2∙4H2O (sample 1) which forms on soda glass/copper alloy composite historic objects (e.g., enamels) in museum collections, exposed to formaldehyde and formic acid emitted from wooden storage cabinets, adhesives, etc. This degradation phenomenon has recently been characterized as "glass induced metal corrosion". For the second case study, thecotrichite, Ca3(CH3COO)3Cl(NO3)2∙6H2O (sample 2), was chosen, which is an efflorescent salt forming needlelike crystallites on tiles and limestone objects which are stored in wooden cabinets and display cases. In this case, the wood acts as source for acetic acid which reacts with soluble chloride and nitrate salts from the artifact or its environment. The knowledge of the geometrical structure helps conservation science to better understand production and decay reactions and to allow for full quantitative analysis in the frequent case of mixtures.

  17. Effect of double-step steam explosion pretreatment in bioethanol production from softwood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotana, Franco; Cavalaglio, Gianluca; Gelosia, Mattia; Coccia, Valentina; Petrozzi, Alessandro; Nicolini, Andrea

    2014-09-01

    The study investigated the production of bioethanol from softwood, in particular pine wood chip. The steam explosion pretreatment was largely investigated, evaluating also the potential use of a double-step process to increase ethanol production through the use of both solid and liquid fraction after the pretreatment. The pretreatment tests were carried out at different conditions, determining the composition of solid and liquid fraction and steam explosion efficiency. The enzymatic hydrolysis was carried out with Ctec2 enzyme while the fermentation was carried out using Saccharomyces Cerevisiae yeast "red ethanol". It was found that the best experimental result was obtained for a single-step pretreated sample (10.6 g of ethanol/100 g of initial biomass dry basis) for a 4.53 severity. The best double-step overall performance was equal to 8.89 g ethanol/100 g of initial biomass dry basis for a 4.27 severity. The enzymatic hydrolysis strongly depended on the severity of the pretreatment while the fermentation efficiency was mainly influenced by the concentration of the inhibitors. The ethanol enhancing potential of a double-step steam explosion could slightly increase the ethanol production compared to single-step potential.

  18. POTENTIAL APPLICATION OF HORSE CHESTNUT (Aesculus hippocastanum L. EXTRACTS IN DOUBLE FACE PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADIGUZEL ZENGIN Arife Candas

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Aesculus hippocastanum L, known as horse chestnut, is generally used for therapeutic, medicinal and pharmaceutical applications and has large seed shells containing aesculin which is responsible for the dyeing property. Due to the lack of information on dyeing characteristics of horse chestnut extracts in leather and also textile engineering field, ecofriendly dyeing process of leathers with the extracts of horse chestnut seed shells has gained an interest. Therefore, in the study the dyeing properties of double face leathers with extracts of Aesculus hippocastanum L were investigated. Seed shells of A. hippocastanum were extracted with sodium hydroxide in different concentrations and the extraction yields were determined. In accordance with extraction results, the horse chestnut extracts were used for the dyeing process of double face leathers. To evaluate the effect of A. hippocastanum extract on dyeing properties of double face leathers, the proportions of the extracts were differentiated. The quality performance of dyed leathers was investigated in terms of colour measurements and to-and-fro rubbing fastness characteristics. The colour measurements were determined with Minolta CM-3600A spectrophotometer and to-and-fro rubbing fastness was examined in accordance with TS EN ISO 11640 standard. The results revealed that A. hippocastanum extract could be used as newly adapted natural dye stuff in eco-friendly double face production.

  19. Thermal analysis, X-ray powder diffraction and electron microscopy data related with the production of 1:1 Caffeine:Glutaric Acid cocrystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Íris Duarte

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The data presented in this article are related to the production of 1:1 Caffeine:Glutaric Acid cocrystals as part of the research article entitled “Green production of cocrystals using a new solvent-free approach by spray congealing” (Duarte et al., 2016 [1]. More specifically, here we present the thermal analysis and the X-ray powder diffraction data for pure Glutaric Acid, used as a raw material in [1]. We also include the X-ray powder diffraction and electron microscopy data obtained for the 1:1 Caffeine:Glutaric Acid cocrystal (form II produced using the cooling crystallization method reported in “Operating Regions in Cooling Cocrystallization of Caffeine and Glutaric Acid in Acetonitrile” (Yu et al., 2010 [2]. Lastly, we show the X-ray powder diffraction data obtained for assessing the purity of the 1:1 Caffeine:Glutaric cocrystals produced in [1].

  20. Double lepton pair production with electron capture in relativistic heavy--ion collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Artemyev, A N; Surzhykov, A

    2014-01-01

    We present a theoretical study of a double lepton pair production in ultra--relativistic collision between two bare ions. Special emphasis is placed to processes in which creation of (at least one) $e^+ e^-$ pair is accompanied by the capture of an electron into a bound ionic state. To evaluate the probability and cross section of these processes we employ two approaches based on (i) the first--order perturbation theory and multipole expansion of Dirac wavefunctions, and (ii) the equivalent photon approximation. With the help of such approaches, detailed calculations are made for the creation of two bound--free $e^+ e^-$ pairs as well as of bound--free $e^+ e^-$ and free--free $\\mu^+ \\mu^-$ pairs in collisions of bare lead ions Pb$^{82+}$. The results of the calculations indicate that observation of the double lepton processes may become feasible at the LHC facility.

  1. Double core hole production in N2: Beating the Auger clock

    CERN Document Server

    Fang, L; Gessner, O; Tarantelli, F; Pratt, S T; Kornilov, O; Buth, C; Güehr, M; Kanter, E P; Bostedt, C; Bozek, J D; Bucksbaum, P H; Chen, M; Coffee, R; Cryan, J; Glownia, M; Kukk, E; Leone, S R; Berrah, N

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the creation of double K-shell holes in N2 molecules via sequential absorption of two photons on a timescale shorter than the core-hole lifetime by using intense x-ray pulses from the Linac Coherent Light Source free electron laser. The production and decay of these states is characterized by photoelectron spectroscopy and Auger electron spectroscopy. In molecules, two types of double core holes are expected, the ?rst with two core holes on the same N atom, and the second with one core hole on each N atom. We report the ?rst direct observations of the former type of core hole in a molecule, in good agreement with theory, and provide an experimental upper bound for the relative contribution of the latter type.

  2. Relationship between double product break point, lactate threshold, and ventilatory threshold in cardiac patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omiya, Kazuto; Itoh, Haruki; Harada, Naomi; Maeda, Tomoko; Tajima, Akihiko; Oikawa, Keiko; Koike, Akira; Aizawa, Tadanori; Fu, Long-Tai; Osada, Naohiko

    2004-03-01

    A double product break point (DPBP) occurs simultaneously with both ventilatory threshold (VT) and lactate threshold (LT) in normal subjects. We sought to determine whether a DPBP also occurs in cardiac patients and to investigate correlations between DPBP, VT and LT (study 1). We also evaluated a non-invasive DPBP measurement system that determined blood pressure automatically by the cuff method (study 2). Study 1 comprised 15 patients [8 men and 7 women, mean (SD) age 47.7 (11.1) years] who performed cardiopulmonary exercise tests on a cycle ergometer. The double product was defined as the product of heart rate and direct systolic blood pressure. Arterial blood samples were obtained for measurement of lactate, pyruvate, pH, and norepinephrine levels. VT was determined by gas analysis, and LT was determined as the lactate/pyruvate ratio. DPBPs were detected in all 15 patients. Double product slopes above the DPBP were significantly greater than those below the DPBP (286.2 vs 98.5/W, P<0.001). The lactate/pyruvate ratio increased, arterial pH decreased, and plasma norepinephrine concentration increased above the DPBP. DPBP had strong positive correlations with VT ( r=0.93) and LT ( r=0.95). Study 2 comprised 65 cardiac patients. The DPBP was detected in 89.2% of patients and correlated closely with VT. We conclude that DPBP occurs near VT and LT in cardiac patients during incremental exercise, that the noninvasive DPBP measurement method is comparable to the invasive method, and that DPBP may be as useful an index of exercise intensity in patients with cardiac disease as VT or LT.

  3. Diffractive production of {pi}{sup -}f{sub 1} in {pi}{sup -}p interactions at COMPASS(CERN)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Hao

    2012-11-06

    Diffractive dissociation of a {pi}{sup -} beam(190 GeV/c) on a proton target was measured at the COMPASS spectrometer. During a run in 2008, a large number of events with {pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{eta} in the final state was recorded. Partial wave analyses(PWA) of these data are being performed, concentrating on the kinematic domain of momentum transfer t' from 0.1 to 1.0 GeV{sup 2}/c{sup 2}. Subject of this thesis is the diffractive production of X from {pi}{sup -}p{yields}Xp with the subsequent decays X{yields}{pi}{sup -}f{sub 1} and f{sub 1}{yields}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{eta}. Two different decays of the {eta} were selected: {eta}{yields}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup 0}({gamma}{gamma}) and {eta}{yields}{gamma}{gamma}. A kinematic fitting routine was used to improve the data selection. In order to do the PWA, a Monte Carlo(MC) simulation is needed to account for the detector acceptance. In the mass-independent PWA the angular distributions of the real events are compared with the event distributions imposed on Monte Carlo(MC) events in order to determine the production amplitudes of different assumed partial waves in mass bins of 50 MeV/c{sup 2} of the invariant mass m{sub X} of X in the range 1.3 < m{sub X} < 3.0 GeV/c{sup 2}, by means of a maximum-likelihood-fit. Then a simplified mass-dependent fit of Breit-Wigner amplitudes has been applied to the distributions of production intensities as a function of m{sub X} in order to determine the contributions of known or presumed resonances. In the {pi}{sup -}f{sub 1} channel, we focus on the S, P and D wave i.e. orbital angular momentum L=0, 1, 2 between {pi}{sup -} and f{sub 1}. Significant intensity and phase motion are observed for the following J{sup PC}M{sup {epsilon}} combinations, where J, P, C, M and {epsilon} stand for the total angular momentum, parity and charge conjugation, total spin projection and reflectivity: 1{sup -+}1{sup +} (S wave), 1{sup ++}0{sup +} (P wave), 2{sup -+}0{sup +} (D

  4. Heavy quark production in $pA$ collisions: the double parton scattering contribution

    CERN Document Server

    Cazaroto, E R; Navarra, F S

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we estimate the double parton scattering (DPS) contribution for the heavy quark production in $pA$ collisions at the LHC. The cross sections for the charm and bottom production are estimated using the dipole approach and taking into account the saturation effects, which are important for high energies and for the scattering with a large nucleus. We compare the DPS contribution with the single parton scattering one and demonstrate that both are similar in the kinematical range probed by the LHC. Predictions for the rapidity range analysed by the LHCb Collaboration are also presented. Our results indicate that the study of the DPS contribution for the heavy quark production in $pPb$ collisions at the LHC is feasible and can be useful to probe the main assumptions of the approach.

  5. Doubled haploid production from Spanish onion (Allium cepa L. germplasm: embryogenesis induction, plant regeneration and chromosome doubling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oreto eFayos

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The use of doubled haploids in onion breeding is limited due to the low gynogenesis efficiency of this species. Gynogenesis capacity from Spanish germplasm, including the sweet cultivar Fuentes de Ebro, the highly pungent landrace BGHZ1354 and the two Valenciana type commercial varieties Recas and Rita, was evaluated and optimized in this study. The OH-1 population, characterized by a high gynogenesis induction, was used as control. Growing conditions of the donor plants were tested with a one-step protocol and field plants produced a slightly higher percentage of embryogenesis induction than growth chamber plants. A one-step protocol was compared with a two-step protocol for embryogenesis induction. Spanish germplasm produced a 2 to 3 times higher percentage of embryogenesis with the two-step protocol, Recas showing the highest percentage (2.09% and Fuentes de Ebro the lowest (0.53%. These percentages were significantly lower than those from the OH-1 population, with an average of 15% independently of the protocol used. The effect of different containers on plant regeneration was tested using both protocols. The highest percentage of acclimated plants was obtained with the two-step protocol in combination with Eco2box (70%, whereas the lowest percentage was observed with glass tubes in the two protocols (20-23%. Different amiprofos-methyl (APM treatments were applied to embryos for chromosome doubling. A similar number of doubled haploid plants were recovered with 25 or 50 µM APM in liquid medium. However, the application of 25 µM in solid medium for 24 h produced the highest number of doubled haploid plants. Somatic regeneration from flower buds of haploid and mixoploid plants proved to be a successful approach for chromosome doubling, since diploid plants were obtained from the 4 regenerated lines. In this study, doubled haploid plants were produced from the four Spanish cultivars, however further improvements are needed to increase their

  6. Star products on graded manifolds and $\\alpha'$-corrections to double field theory

    CERN Document Server

    Deser, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Originally proposed as an $O(d,d)$-invariant formulation of classical closed string theory, double field theory (DFT) offers a rich source of mathematical structures. Most prominently, its gauge algebra is determined by the so-called C-bracket, a generalization of the Courant bracket of generalized geometry, in the sense that it reduces to the latter by restricting the theory to solutions of a "strong constraint". Recently, infinitesimal deformations of these structures in the string sigma model coupling $\\alpha'$ were found. In this short contribution, we review constructing the Drinfel'd double of a Lie bialgebroid and offer how this can be applied to reproduce the C-bracket of DFT in terms of Poisson brackets. As a consequence, we are able to explain the $\\alpha'$-deformations via a graded version of the Moyal-Weyl product in a class of examples. We conclude with comments on the relation between $B$- and $\\beta$-transformations in generalized geometry and the Atiyah algebra on the Drinfel'd double.

  7. Single and double inclusive forward jet production at the LHC at √{ s} = 7 and 13 TeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bury, Marcin; Deak, Michal; Kutak, Krzysztof; Sapeta, Sebastian

    2016-09-01

    We provide a description of the transverse momentum spectrum of single inclusive forward jets produced at the LHC, at the center-of-mass energies of 7 and 13 TeV, using the high energy factorization (HEF) framework. We subsequently study double inclusive forward jet production and, in particular, we calculate contributions to azimuthal angle distributions coming from double parton scattering. We also compare our results for double inclusive jet production to those obtained with the PYTHIA Monte Carlo generator. This comparison confirms that the HEF resummation acts like an initial state parton shower. It also points towards the need to include final state radiation effects in the HEF formalism.

  8. Single and double inclusive forward jet production at the LHC at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 and 13 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Bury, Marcin

    2016-01-01

    We provide a description of the transverse momentum spectrum of single inclusive forward jets produced at the LHC, at the center-of-mass energies of 7 and 13 TeV, using the high energy factorization (HEF) framework. We subsequently study double inclusive forward jet production and, in particular, we calculate contributions to azimuthal angle distributions coming from double parton scattering. We also compare our results for double inclusive jet production to those obtained with the Pythia Monte Carlo generator. This comparison confirms that the HEF resummation acts like an initial state parton shower. It also points towards the need to include final state radiation effects in the HEF formalism.

  9. Double Higgs production at the linear colliders and the probing of the Higgs self-coupling

    CERN Document Server

    Boudjema, F

    1995-01-01

    We study double Higgs production in the e^+ e^- and \\gamma \\gamma modes of the linear collider. It is also shown how one can probe the scalar potential in these reactions. We discuss the effective longitudinal W approximation in \\gamma \\gamma processes and the W_L W_L luminosities in the two modes of a high-energy linear collider. A generalised non-linear gauge-fixing condition, which is particularly useful for tree-level calculations of electroweak processes for the laser induced collider, is presented. Its connection with the background-field approach to gauge fixing is given.

  10. A double index transform with a product of Macdonald's functions revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semyon B. Yakubovich

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We prove an inversion theorem for a double index transform, which is associated with the product of Macdonald's functions \\(K_{i \\tau}(\\sqrt{x^2+y^2}-y K_{i \\tau}(\\sqrt{x^2+y^2}+y\\, where \\((x, y \\in \\mathbb{R}_+ \\times \\mathbb{R}_+\\ and \\(i \\tau, \\tau \\in \\mathbb{R}_+\\ is a pure imaginary index. The results obtained in the sequel are applied to find particular solutions of integral equations involving the square and the cube of the Macdonald function \\(K_{i \\tau}(t\\ as a kernel.

  11. Tests of QCD Factorisation in the Diffractive Production of Dijets in Deep-Inelastic Scattering and Photoproduction at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Aktas, A.; Anthonis, T.; Antunovic, B.; Aplin, S.; Asmone, A.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Babaev, A.; Backovic, S.; Baghdasaryan, A.; Baranov, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Baudrand, S.; Beckingham, M.; Begzsuren, K.; Behnke, O.; Behrendt, O.; Belousov, A.; Berger, N.; Bizot, J.C.; Boenig, M.-O.; Boudry, V.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Brandt, G.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Bruncko, D.; Busser, F.W.; Bunyatyan, A.; Buschhorn, G.; Bystritskaya, L.; Campbell, A.J.; Cantun Avila, K.B.; Cassol-Brunner, F.; Cerny, K.; Cerny, V.; Chekelian, V.; Cholewa, A.; Contreras, J.G.; Coughlan, J.A.; Cozzika, G.; Cvach, J.; Dainton, J.B.; Daum, K.; de Boer, Y.; Delcourt, B.; Del Degan, M.; De Roeck, A.; De Wolf, E.A.; Diaconu, C.; Dodonov, V.; Dubak, A.; Eckerlin, Guenter; Efremenko, V.; Egli, S.; Eichler, R.; Eisele, F.; Eliseev, A.; Elsen, E.; Essenov, S.; Falkewicz, A.; Faulkner, P.J.W.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Felst, R.; Feltesse, J.; Ferencei, J.; Finke, L.; Fleischer, M.; Flucke, G.; Fomenko, A.; Franke, G.; Frisson, T.; Gabathuler, E.; Garutti, E.; Gayler, J.; Ghazaryan, Samvel; Ginzburgskaya, S.; Glazov, A.; Glushkov, I.; Goerlich, L.; Goettlich, M.; Gogitidze, N.; Gorbounov, S.; Gouzevitch, M.; Grab, C.; Greenshaw, T.; Gregori, M.; Grell, B.R.; Grindhammer, G.; Habib, S.; Haidt, D.; Hansson, M.; Heinzelmann, G.; Helebrant, C.; Henderson, R.C.W.; Henschel, H.; Herrera, G.; Hildebrandt, M.; Hiller, K.H.; Hoffmann, D.; Horisberger, R.; Hovhannisyan, A.; Hreus, T.; Hussain, S.; Jacquet, M.; Janssen, X.; Jemanov, V.; Jonsson, L.; Johnson, D.P.; Jung, Andreas Werner; Jung, H.; Kapichine, M.; Katzy, J.; Kenyon, I.R.; Kiesling, Christian M.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Klimkovich, T.; Kluge, T.; Knies, G.; Knutsson, A.; Korbel, V.; Kostka, P.; Kraemer, M.; Krastev, K.; Kretzschmar, J.; Kropivnitskaya, A.; Kruger, K.; Landon, M.P.J.; Lange, W.; Lastovicka-Medin, G.; Laycock, P.; Lebedev, A.; Leibenguth, G.; Lendermann, V.; Levonian, S.; Lindfeld, L.; Lipka, K.; Liptaj, A.; List, B.; List, J.; Loktionova, N.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Lubimov, V.; Lucaci-Timoce, A.-I.; Lueders, H.; Lytkin, L.; Makankine, A.; Malinovski, E.; Marage, P.; Marti, Ll.; Martisikova, M.; Martyn, H.-U.; Maxfield, S.J.; Mehta, A.; Meier, K.; Meyer, A.B.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Michels, V.; Mikocki, S.; Milcewicz-Mika, I.; Mladenov, D.; Mohamed, A.; Moreau, F.; Morozov, A.; Morris, J.V.; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Muller, K.; Murin, P.; Nankov, K.; Naroska, B.; Naumann, Th.; Newman, Paul R.; Niebuhr, C.; Nikiforov, A.; Nowak, G.; Nowak, K.; Nozicka, M.; Oganezov, R.; Olivier, B.; Olsson, J.E.; Osman, S.; Ozerov, D.; Palichik, V.; Panagoulias, I.; Pandurovic, M.; Papadopoulou, Th.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G.D.; Peng, H.; Perez, E.; Perez-Astudillo, D.; Perieanu, A.; Petrukhin, A.; Picuric, I.; Piec, S.; Pitzl, D.; Placakyte, R.; Povh, B.; Prideaux, P.; Rahmat, A.J.; Raicevic, N.; Reimer, P.; Rimmer, A.; Risler, C.; Rizvi, E.; Robmann, P.; Roland, B.; Roosen, R.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rurikova, Z.; Rusakov, S.; Salvaire, F.; Sankey, D.P.C.; Sauter, M.; Sauvan, E.; Schatzel, S.; Schmidt, S.; Schmitt, S.; Schmitz, C.; Schoeffel, L.; Schoning, A.; Schultz-Coulon, H.-C.; Sefkow, F.; Shaw-West, R.N.; Sheviakov, I.; Shtarkov, L.N.; Sloan, T.; Smiljanic, Ivan; Smirnov, P.; Soloviev, Y.; South, D.; Spaskov, V.; Specka, Arnd E.; Steder, M.; Stella, B.; Stiewe, J.; Stoilov, A.; Straumann, U.; Sunar, D.; Sykora, T.; Tchoulakov, V.; Thompson, G.; Thompson, P.D.; Toll, T.; Tomasz, F.; Traynor, D.; Trinh, T.N.; Truol, P.; Tsakov, I.; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsurin, I.; Turnau, J.; Tzamariudaki, E.; Urban, K.; Usik, A.; Utkin, D.; Valkarova, A.; Vallee, C.; Van Mechelen, P.; Vargas Trevino, A.; Vazdik, Y.; Vinokurova, S.; Volchinski, V.; Wacker, K.; Weber, G.; Weber, R.; Wegener, D.; Werner, C.; Wessels, M.; Wissing, Ch.; Wolf, R.; Wunsch, E.; Xella, S.; Yan, W.; Yeganov, V.; Zacek, J.; Zalesak, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zhelezov, A.; Zhokin, A.; Zhu, Y.C.; Zimmerman, J.; Zimmerman, T.; Zohrabyan, H.; Zomer, F.

    2007-01-01

    Measurements are presented of differential dijet cross sections in diffractive photoproduction (Q^2 e X Y, in which the system X, containing at least two jets, is separated from a leading low-mass proton remnant system Y by a large rapidity gap. The dijet cross sections are compared with NLO QCD predictions based on diffractive parton densities previously obtained from a QCD analysis of inclusive diffractive DIS cross sections by H1. In DIS, the dijet data are well described, supporting the validity of QCD factorisation. The diffractive DIS dijet data are more sensitive to the diffractive gluon density at high fractional parton momentum than the measurements of inclusive diffractive DIS. In photoproduction, the predicted dijet cross section has to be multiplied by a factor of approximately 0.5 for both direct and resolved photon interactions to describe the measurements. The ratio of measured dijet cross section to NLO prediction in photoproduction is a factor 0.5+-0.1 smaller than the same ratio in DIS. This...

  12. Semiexclusive production of $J/\\psi$ mesons in proton-proton collisions with electromagnetic and diffractive dissociation of one of the protons

    CERN Document Server

    Cisek, Anna; Szczurek, Antoni

    2016-01-01

    We calculate the cross sections for both electromagnetic and diffractive dissociation of protons for semiexclusive production of $J/\\psi$ mesons in proton-proton collisions at the LHC. Several differential distributions in missing mass ($M_X$), or single-particle variables related exclusively to the $J/\\psi$ meson are calculated for $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV as an example. The cross sections and distributions are compared to the cross section of the purely exclusive reaction $p p \\to p p J/\\psi$. We show the corresponding ratio as a function of $J/\\psi$ meson rapidity. We compare the distributions for purely electromagnetic and purely diffractive proton excitations/dissociation. We predict cross sections for electromagnetic and diffractive excitations of similar order of magnitude.

  13. Diffraction to De-Diffraction

    CERN Document Server

    Tamari, V F

    2003-01-01

    De-diffraction (DD), a new procedure to totally cancel diffraction effects from wave-fields is presented, whereby the full field from an aperture is utilized and a truncated geometrical field is obtained, allowing infinitely sharp focusing and non-diverging beams. This is done by reversing a diffracted wave-fields' direction. The method is derived from the wave equation and demonstrated in the case of Kirchhoff's integral. An elementary bow-wavelet is described and the DD process is related to quantum and relativity theories.

  14. Associated production of electroweak bosons and heavy mesons at LHCb and the prospects to observe double parton interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranov, S. P.; Lipatov, A. V.; Malyshev, M. A.; Snigirev, A. M.; Zotov, N. P.

    2016-05-01

    The production of weak gauge bosons in association with heavy flavored mesons at the LHCb conditions is considered, and a detailed study of the different contributing processes is presented including single and double parton scattering (DPS) mechanisms. We find that the usual DPS factorization formula needs to be corrected for the limited partonic phase space, and that including the relevant corrections reduces discrepancies in the associated Z D production. We conclude finally that double parton scattering dominates the production of same-sign W±D± states, as well as the production of W- bosons associated with B mesons. The latter processes can thus be regarded as new useful DPS indicators.

  15. Measurement of double differential t anti t production cross sections with the CMS detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korol, Ievgen

    2016-05-15

    The high energy scale of the pp collisions at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN makes this facility to a real factory for the production of t anti t pairs. This enables to study the top-quark properties and its production and decay mechanisms in unprecedent detail. The dileptonic decay channel of the top-quark pair, in which both W bosons, produced from the top-quark decay, decay into a lepton and neutrino, is studied in this analysis. The limitation to one electron and one muon in final state used in this work allows to strongly suppress the possible background processes and leads to a higher signal purity. About 40k events with a top-quark pair have been selected using the √(s)=8 TeV data recorded with the CMS detector in the year 2012. Exploiting this large sample, double differential top-quark pair production cross sections are measured for the first time. The cross sections are studied as functions of various observables which describe the top and top-pair kinematics. To obtain the full kinematics of the t anti t final state, which contains two undetected neutrinos, a kinematic reconstruction procedure was developed and exploited in this work. The new procedure makes use of all available constraints and is based on a repeated reconstruction of each event with detector observables smeared according to their resolutions in order to obtain for each event solutions for the kinematic constraint equations. In order to obtain double differential cross sections, the distributions of reconstructed observables are then corrected for detector effects by using a double differential unfolding procedure, which is based on a χ{sup 2} minimization. The double differential cross sections presented in this work allow to test the Standard Model in detail and investigate previously seen disagreements between measured and predicted single differential cross sections. The results of this work are compared to Standard Model predictions (up to next-to-leading order of the

  16. A double built-in containment strategy for production of recombinant proteins in transgenic rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xianwen; Wang, Dongfang; Zhao, Sinan; Shen, Zhicheng

    2014-01-01

    Using transgenic rice as a bioreactor for mass production of pharmaceutical proteins could potentially reduce the cost of production significantly. However, a major concern over the bioreactor transgenic rice is the risk of its unintended spreading into environment and into food or feed supplies. Here we report a mitigating method to prevent unwanted transgenic rice spreading by a double built-in containment strategy, which sets a selectively termination method and a visual tag technology in the T-DNA for transformation. We created transgenic rice with an inserted T-DNA that harbors a human proinsulin gene fused with the far-red fluorescent protein gene mKate_S158A, an RNAi cassette suppressing the expression of the rice bentazon detoxification enzyme CYP81A6, and an EPSPS gene as the selection marker for transformation. Herbicide spray tests indicated that such transgenic rice plants can be killed selectively by a spray of bentazon at regular field application dosage for rice weed control. Moreover, the transgenic rice seeds were bright red in color due to the fused far-red fluorescent protein, and could be easily visualized under daylight by naked eyes. Thus, the transgenic rice plants reported in this study could be selectively killed by a commonly used herbicide during their growth stage, and their seeds may be detected visually during processing and consumption after harvest. This double built-in containment strategy may greatly enhance the confinement of the transgenic rice.

  17. Double scattering production of two positron-electron pairs in ultraperipheral heavy-ion collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kłusek-Gawenda, Mariola; Szczurek, Antoni

    2016-12-01

    We present first measurable predictions for electromagnetic (two-photon) double scattering production of two positron-electron pairs in ultraperipheral heavy-ion collisions at LHC. Measurable cross sections are obtained with realistic cuts on electron/positron (pseudo)rapidities and transverse momenta for the ALICE and ATLAS or CMS experiments. The predictions for total and differential cross sections are presented. We show also two-dimensional distributions in rapidities of the opposite-sign (from the same or different subcollisions) and of the same-sign (e+e+ or e-e-) electrons and in rapidity distance between them. Expected number of events are presented and discussed. Our calculations strongly suggest that relevant measurements with the help of ATLAS, CMS and ALICE detectors are possible in a near future. We show and compare energy dependence of the cross sections for one-pair and two-pair production.

  18. Neutron diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heger, G. [Rheinisch-Westfaelische Technische Hochschule Aachen, Inst. fuer Kristallographie, Aachen (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    X-ray diffraction using conventional laboratory equipment and/or synchrotron installations is the most important method for structure analyses. The purpose of this paper is to discuss special cases, for which, in addition to this indispensable part, neutrons are required to solve structural problems. Even though the huge intensity of modern synchrotron sources allows in principle the study of magnetic X-ray scattering the investigation of magnetic structures is still one of the most important applications of neutron diffraction. (author) 15 figs., 1 tab., 10 refs.

  19. Crystal structure and magnetic properties of Mo-substituted 'Ba{sub 2}(Fe,W){sub 2}O{sub 6}' double-perovskites: a synchrotron diffraction, magnetization and Moessbauer study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rammeh, N.; Bramnik, K.G.; Ehrenberg, H.; Stahl, B.; Fuess, H.; Cheikh-Rouhou, A

    2004-01-28

    Synchrotron diffraction and Moessbauer spectroscopy on Ba{sub 2}(Fe,W){sub 2}O{sub 6} confirmed an Fe excess in this double-perovskite, better described as Ba{sub 2}Fe(Fe{sub x}W{sub 1-x})O{sub 6-{delta}} with x=0.2. The crystal structure is cubic (Fm3-bar m) down to 10 K, and a recently reported tetragonal structure of Ba{sub 2}FeWO{sub 6} is critically reviewed. Magnetic properties of Ba{sub 2}(Fe,W{sub 1-x}Mo{sub x}){sub 2}O{sub 6} compounds were studied by SQUID measurements and revealed weak ferromagnetism at low temperatures, and T{sub C} increases with more substitution of Mo for W.

  20. Synthesis of Zn–Fe layered double hydroxides via an oxidation process and structural analysis of products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morimoto, Kazuya, E-mail: kazuya.morimoto@aist.go.jp [Institute for Geo-Resources and Environment, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-1-1 Higashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8567 (Japan); Tamura, Kenji [Environmental Remediation Materials Unit, National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan); Anraku, Sohtaro [Graduate School of Engineering, Hokkaido University, Kita 13 Nishi 8, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan); Sato, Tsutomu [Faculty of Engineering, Hokkaido University, Kita 13 Nishi 8, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan); Suzuki, Masaya [Institute for Geo-Resources and Environment, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-1-1 Higashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8567 (Japan); Yamada, Hirohisa [Environmental Remediation Materials Unit, National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan)

    2015-08-15

    The synthesis of Zn–Fe(III) layered double hydroxides was attempted, employing different pathways using either Fe(II) or Fe(III) species together with Zn as the initial reagents. The product derived from the synthesis employing Fe(II) was found to transition to a Zn–Fe(III) layered double hydroxides phase following oxidation process. In contrast, the product obtained with Fe(III) did not contain a layered double hydroxides phase, but rather consisted of simonkolleite and hydrous ferric oxide. It was determined that the valency of the Fe reagent used in the initial synthesis affected the generation of the layered double hydroxides phase. Fe(II) species have ionic radii and electronegativities similar to those of Zn, and therefore are more likely to form trioctahedral hydroxide layers with Zn species. - Graphical abstract: The synthesis of Zn–Fe(III) layered double hydroxides was attempted, employing different pathways using either Fe(II) or Fe(III) species together with Zn as the initial reagents. - Highlights: • Iron valency affected the generation of Zn–Fe layered double hydroxides. • Zn–Fe layered double hydroxides were successfully synthesized using Fe(II). • Fe(II) species were likely to form trioctahedral hydroxide layers with Zn species.

  1. Optimization of double chamber microbial fuel cell for domestic wastewater treatment and electricity production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Amr El-Hag Ali; Ola M Gomaa; Reham Fathey; Hussein Abd El Kareem; Mohamed Abou Zaid

    2015-01-01

    Microbial fuel cells ( MFCs) represent a new approach for treating waste water along with electricity production. The present study addressed electricity production from domestic wastewater using a mediator-less double chamber MFC. The electricity production was monitored under different operational conditions for both summer and winter samples. Optimization of the anodic and cathodic chambers resulted in a maximal current of 0. 784 and 0. 645 mA with the maximal power intensity of 209 and 117 mW/m2 in power duration of 24 h for the summer and winter samples, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the bacterial biofilm formation on the anode was denser for the summer sample than that when the winter sample was used, so was the total bacterial count. Therefore, samples taken during summer were considered better in electricity production and waste water treatment than those taken during winter basically because of the high microbial load during the hot season. In parallel, there was a decrease in both biological oxygen demand ( BOD5 ) and chemical oxygen demand ( COD) values which reached 71. 8% and 72. 85%, respectively at the end of the operation process for the summer sample, while there was no evident decrease for the winter sample. Optimizing the operating conditions not only increased the potential of using domestic waste water in microbial fuel cells to produce electricity, but also improved the quality of the domestic waste water.

  2. Successful development of a shed-microspore culture protocol for doubled haploid production in Indonesian hot pepper (Capsicum annuum L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Supena, E.D.J.; Suharsono, S.; Jacobsen, E.; Custers, J.B.M.

    2006-01-01

    Various systems of anther and microspore cultures were studied to establish an efficient doubled haploid production method for Indonesian hot pepper (Capsicum annuum L.). A shed-microspore culture protocol was developed which outperformed all the previously reported methods of haploid production in

  3. Cation distribution in Ba{sub 2}(Fe,W{sub 0.5}Mo{sub 0.5}){sub 2}O{sub 6} double-perovskites: A combined synchrotron and neutron diffraction, magnetization and Moessbauer spectroscopy study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rammeh, N. [Laboratoire de Physique des Materiaux, Faculte des Sciences de Sfax, BP 1171, 3000 Sfax (Tunisia); Institute for Materials Science, University of Technology, D-64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Ehrenberg, H. [Institute for Materials Science, University of Technology, D-64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Ritter, C. [Institut Laue Langevin, BP 156, F-38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Fuess, H. [Institute for Materials Science, University of Technology, D-64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Cheikhrouhou, A. [Laboratoire de Physique des Materiaux, Faculte des Sciences de Sfax, BP 1171, 3000 Sfax (Tunisia)], E-mail: abdcheikhrouhou@yahoo.fr

    2009-03-20

    The crystallographic and magnetic structures of polycrystalline Ba{sub 2}(Fe,W){sub 2}O{sub 6} and Ba{sub 2}(Fe,W{sub 0.5}Mo{sub 0.5}){sub 2}O{sub 6} double-perovskites have been investigated by X-ray and neutron powder diffraction (NPD), magnetization and Moessbauer spectroscopy. The samples were synthesized by conventional solid-state reaction at temperatures about 1273 K. The compounds crystallize in the cubic structure with space group Fm3-barm. The magnetic structures were determined by neutron powder diffraction between 5 K and 310 K. Evidence for an antiferromagnetic behavior has been observed for Ba{sub 2}(Fe,W){sub 2}O{sub 6} with T{sub N} = 24.7 K and a two-phase separation for Ba{sub 2}(Fe,W{sub 0.5}Mo{sub 0.5}){sub 2}O{sub 6} into an antiferromagnetic structure of the W-type with T{sub N} = 24.7 K and the ferromagnetic Mo-type with T{sub C} = 270 K.

  4. Diffractive and Exclusive Measurements at CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Ruspa, Marta

    2014-01-01

    Recent measurements are discussed of inclusive and exclusive diffractive processes in pp colli- sions at √ s = 7 TeV at the LHC using the CMS detector. Results are presented of the single- and double-diffractive cross section and of the inclusive differential cross section for events with a forward rapidity gap. A study of exclusive W + W − production by two-photon exchange, where, in different kinematic regions, both con fi rmation and deviations from the Standard Model predic- tions are searched, is reported. Finally, a joint measurement with the CMS and TOTEM detectors of the pseudorapidity distribution of charged particles produced in pp collisions at √ s = 8 TeV is presented. This is the fi rst joint study between the two experiments.

  5. Double K-shell-vacancy production in the decays of 181W and 165Er

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Eijk, C. W. E.; Wagenaar, J. P.; Bergsma, F.; Lourens, W.

    1982-11-01

    The probabilities PKK of double-K-shell-vacancy production per K-electron-capture decay of 181W and 165Er have been determined by means of Kα x-ray-K x-ray coincidence experiments: PKK=(2.4+/-0.6)×10-6 and PKK=(8.2+/-2.8)×10-6, respectively. The observed energy shifts of the hypersatellite Ta KαH1 x-ray and Ho KαH1 x-ray lines are 1026+/-62 eV and 930+/-70 eV, respectively. In the case of 181W, the theoretical PKK value deviates significantly from the above-mentioned experimental value. In combination with results from other experiments, this strongly suggests that, contrary to what the present theory predicts, PKK shows a considerable dependence on the ratio of transition energy to threshold energy.

  6. Coupled cluster method with single and double excitations tailored by matrix product state wave functions

    CERN Document Server

    Veis, Libor; Neese, Frank; Legeza, Örs; Pittner, Jiří

    2016-01-01

    We present an alternative method for accurate treatment of strongly correlated systems which combines the coupled cluster (CC) theory with the density matrix renormalization group method (DMRG). The connection is done in the spirit of the tailored CC method [T. Kinoshita, O. Hino, and R. J. Bartlett, \\textit{J. Chem. Phys.} {\\bf 123} (2005) 074106]. In the first step, the configuration interaction (CI) coefficients corresponding to single and double excitations within the DMRG active space are computed by contraction of the matrix product state (MPS) matrices. These coefficients are subsequently transformed into CC amplitudes. In the second step, the CC amplitudes are used to define a "tailored" single reference CCSD wavefunction. As a result, the DMRG method is responsible for the proper description of non-dynamic correlation, whereas the dynamic correlation is incorporated through the framework of the CC theory. We illustrate the potential of this method on prominent multireference model systems like N$_2$ ...

  7. Double scattering production of two positron-electron pairs in ultraperipheral heavy-ion collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Klusek-Gawenda, Mariola

    2016-01-01

    We present first measurable predictions for electromagnetic (two-photon) double scattering production of two positron-electron pairs in ultraperipheral heavy-ion collisions at LHC. Measureable cross sections are obtained with realistic cuts on electron/positron (pseudo)rapidities and transverse momenta for the ALICE and ATLAS or CMS experiments. The predictions for total and differential cross sections are presented. We show also two-dimensional distributions in rapidities of the opposite-sign (from the same or different subcollisions) and of the same-sign ($e^+ e^+$ or $e^- e^-$) electrons and in rapidity distance between them. Expected number of events are presented and discussed. Our calculations strongly suggest that relevant measurements with the help of ATLAS, CMS and ALICE detectors are possible in a near future.

  8. Variation of plasma parameters in a modified mode of plasma production in a double plasma device

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Phukan; M K Mishra; B K Saikia; M Chakraborty

    2010-03-01

    A modified mode of plasma production in a double plasma device is presented and plasma parameters are controlled in this configuration. Here plasma is produced by applying a discharge voltage between the hot filaments in the source (cathode) and the target magnetic cage (anode) of the device. In this configuration, the hot electron emitting filaments are present only in the source and the magnetic cage of this is kept at a negative bias such that due to the repulsion of the cage bias, the primary electrons can go to the grounded target and produce plasma there. The plasma parameters can be controlled by varying the voltages applied to the source magnetic cage and the separation grid of the device.

  9. Monte Carlo study of particle production in diffractive proton-proton collisions at √(s) = 13 TeV with the very forward detector combined with central information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Qi-Dong [Nagoya University, Institute for Space-Earth Environmental Research, Nagoya (Japan); Itow, Yoshitaka; Sako, Takashi [Nagoya University, Institute for Space-Earth Environmental Research, Nagoya (Japan); Nagoya University, Kobayashi-Maskawa Institute, Nagoya (Japan); Menjo, Hiroaki [Nagoya University, Graduate School of Science, Nagoya (Japan)

    2017-04-15

    Very forward (VF) detectors in hadron colliders, having unique sensitivity to diffractive processes, can be a powerful tool for studying diffractive dissociation by combining them with central detectors. Several Monte Carlo simulation samples in p-p collisions at √(s) = 13 TeV were analyzed, and different nondiffractive and diffractive contributions were clarified through differential cross sections of forward neutral particles. Diffraction selection criteria in the VF-triggered-event samples were determined by using the central track information. The corresponding selection applicable in real experiments has ∼ 100% purity and 30-70% efficiency. Consequently, the central information enables classification of the forward productions into diffraction and nondiffraction categories; in particular, most of the surviving events from the selection belong to low-mass diffraction events at log{sub 10}(ξ{sub x}) < -5.5. Therefore, the combined method can uniquely access the low-mass diffraction regime experimentally. (orig.)

  10. Measurement of Double Differential $t \\overline{t}$ Production Cross Sections with the CMS Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Korol, Ievgen

    2016-01-01

    The high energy scale of the pp collisions at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN makes this facility to a real factory for the production of $t\\overline{t}$ pairs. This enables to study the top-quark properties and its production and decay mechanisms in unprecedent detail.The dileptonic decay channel of the top-quark pair, in which both W bosons, produced from the top-quark decay, decay into a lepton and neutrino, is studied in this analysis.The limitation to one electron and one muon in final state used in this work allows to strongly suppress the possible background processes and leads to a higher signal purity. About 40k events with a top-quark pair have been selected using the $\\sqrt{s}$ = 8 TeV data recorded with the CMS detector in the year 2012. Exploiting this large sample, double differential top-quark pair production cross sections are measured for the first time. The cross sections are studied as functions of various observables which describe the top and top-pair kinematics. To obtain the ...

  11. Structure of PtFe/Fe double-period multilayers investigated by X-ray diffraction, reflectivity, diffuse scattering and TEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zotov, N. [Forschungszentrum CAESAR, Ludwig-Erhard-Allee 2, D-53175 Bonn (Germany)]. E-mail: zotov@caesar.de; Feydt, J. [Forschungszentrum CAESAR, Ludwig-Erhard-Allee 2, D-53175 Bonn (Germany); Walther, T. [Forschungszentrum CAESAR, Ludwig-Erhard-Allee 2, D-53175 Bonn (Germany); Ludwig, A. [Forschungszentrum CAESAR, Ludwig-Erhard-Allee 2, D-53175 Bonn (Germany); Institut fuer Werkstoffe, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany)

    2006-10-31

    Double-period [(Pt 1.7 nm/Fe 0.9 nm){sub 5}Fe(t {sub Fe2})]{sub 8} and [(Pt 1.8 nm/Fe 0.6 nm){sub 5}Fe(t {sub Fe2})]{sub 8} multilayers with different thickness t {sub Fe2} (between 0.23 and 4.32 nm) of the additional Fe layers, prepared by combinatorial sputter deposition, show differences in the mosaic spread and the vertical interfacial roughness when deposited on native or thermally oxidised Si wafers. Simulations of the wide-angle X-ray scattering intensities revealed the presence of interdiffusion in the (Pt/Fe){sub 5} bilayers and systematic variations of the grain sizes, perpendicular to the film surface, as well as the rms variations of the two superlattice periods with the total film thickness. A comparison of {omega}-rocking scans shows an increase of the correlated vertical roughness of the (Pt/Fe){sub 5} multilayers with the total multilayer thickness.

  12. Enhancement of H{sup -}/D{sup -} volume production in a double plasma type negative ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukumasa, Osamu; Nishimura, Hideki; Sakiyama, Satoshi [Yamaguchi Univ., Ube (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-02-01

    H{sup -}/D{sup -} production in a pure volume source has been studied. In our double plasma type negative ion source, both energy and density of fast electrons are well controlled. With the use of this source, the enhancement of H{sup -}/D{sup -} production has been observed. Namely, under the same discharge power, the extracted H{sup -}/D{sup -} current in the double plasma operation is higher than that in the single plasma operation. At the same time, measurements of plasma parameters have been made in the source and the extractor regions for these two cases. (author)

  13. Application of micro X-ray diffraction to investigate the reaction products formed by the alkali silica reaction in concrete structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dähn, R.; Arakcheeva, A.; Schaub, Ph.; Pattison, P.; Chapuis, G.; Grolimund, D.; Wieland, E.; Leemann, A. (Ecole); (PSI); (Phase Solutions); (ESRF)

    2015-12-21

    Alkali–silica reaction (ASR) is one of the most important deterioration mechanisms in concrete leading to substantial damages of structures worldwide. Synchrotron-based micro-X-ray diffraction (micro-XRD) was employed to characterize the mineral phases formed in micro-cracks of concrete aggregates as a consequence of ASR. This particular high spatial resolution technique enables to directly gain structural information on ASR products formed in a 40-year old motorway bridge damaged due to ASR. Micro-X-ray-fluorescence was applied on thin sections to locate the reaction products formed in veins within concrete aggregates. Micro-XRD pattern were collected at selected points of interest along a vein by rotating the sample. Rietveld refinement determined the structure of the ASR product consisting of a new layered framework similar to mountainite and rhodesite. Furthermore, it is conceivable that understanding the structure of the ASR product may help developing new technical treatments inhibiting ASR.

  14. A QCD analysis of ZEUS diffractive data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chekanov, S.; Derrick, M.; Magill, S. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL (US)] (and others)

    2009-11-15

    ZEUS inclusive diffractive cross-section measurements have been used in a DGLAP next-to-leading-order QCD analysis to extract the diffractive parton distribution functions. Data on diffractive dijet production in deep inelastic scattering have also been included to constrain the gluon density. Predictions based on the extracted parton densities are compared to diffractive charm and dijet photoproduction data. (orig.)

  15. Characterization of the products of the heme detoxification pathway in malarial late trophozoites by X-ray diffraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohle, D S; Dinnebier, R E; Madsen, S K; Stephens, P W

    1997-01-10

    In a process inhibited by the quinoline antimalarial drugs, Plasmodia detoxify heme released during the degradation of hemoglobin by aggregating it into malarial pigment, an insoluble crystalline heme coordination polymer. Synchrotron x-ray powder diffraction patterns for intact desiccated malarial trophozoites and synthetic beta-hematin have been measured; both materials correspond to a single crystalline triclinic lattice with unit cell parameters a = 12.2176(4), b = 14.7184(5), c = 8.0456(3) A; alpha = 90.200(2), beta = 96.806(3), gamma = 97.818(3) degrees and Z = 2. These results unambiguously demonstrate that hemozoin crystallites are identical to synthetic beta-hematin.

  16. Single and double inclusive forward jet production at the LHC at s=7 and 13 TeV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Bury

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We provide a description of the transverse momentum spectrum of single inclusive forward jets produced at the LHC, at the center-of-mass energies of 7 and 13 TeV, using the high energy factorization (HEF framework. We subsequently study double inclusive forward jet production and, in particular, we calculate contributions to azimuthal angle distributions coming from double parton scattering. We also compare our results for double inclusive jet production to those obtained with the Pythia Monte Carlo generator. This comparison confirms that the HEF resummation acts like an initial state parton shower. It also points towards the need to include final state radiation effects in the HEF formalism.

  17. Diffractive Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, A D; Khoze, V A; Krauss, F; Ryskin, M G; Zapp, K

    2012-01-01

    `Soft' high-energy interactions are clearly important in pp collisions. Indeed, these events are dominant by many orders of magnitude, and about 40% are of diffractive origin; that is, due to elastic scattering or proton dissociation. Moreover, soft interactions unavoidably give an underlying component to the rare `hard' events, from which we hope to extract new physics. Here, we discuss how to quantify this contamination. First we present a brief introduction to diffraction. We emphasize the different treatment required for proton dissociation into low- and high-mass systems; the former requiring a multichannel eikonal approach, and the latter the computation of triple-Pomeron diagrams with multi-Pomeron corrections. Then we give an overview of the Pomeron, and explain how the QCD (BFKL-type) Pomeron is the natural object to continue from the `hard' to the `soft' domain. In this way we can obtain a partonic description of soft interactions. We introduce the so-called KMR model, based on this partonic approac...

  18. Hard diffraction and rapidity gaps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albrow, M.G.

    1994-08-01

    I describe the evolution of experiments at hadron colliders on (a) high mass diffraction (b) double pomeron exchange, from the ISR through the Sp{bar p}S to the Tevatron. I emphasize an experimental approach to the question: ``What is the pomeron?``

  19. Energy production from distillery wastewater using single and double-phase upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muyodi, F.J.; Rubindamayugi, M.S.T. [Univ. of Dar es Salaam, Applied Microbiology Unit (Tanzania, United Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    A Single-phase (SP) and Double-phase (DP) Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) reactors treating distillery wastewater were operated in parallel. The DP UASB reactor showed better performance than the SP UASB reactor in terms of maximum methane production rate, methane content and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) removal efficiency. (au) 20 refs.

  20. Associated production of electroweak bosons and heavy mesons at LHCb and prospects to observe double parton interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Baranov, S P; Malyshev, M A; Snigirev, A M; Zotov, N P

    2016-01-01

    The production of weak gauge bosons in association with heavy flavored mesons at the LHCb conditions is considered, and a detailed study of the different contributing processes is presented including single (SPS) and double (DPS) parton scattering mechanisms. We find that the usual DPS factorization formula needs to be corrected for the limited partonic phase space, and that including the relevant corrections reduces discrepancies in the associated $ZD$ production. We conclude finally that double parton scattering dominates the production of same-sign $W^\\pm D^\\pm$ states, as well as the production of $W^-$ bosons associated with $B$-mesons. The latter processes can thus be regarded as new useful DPS indicators.

  1. Characterization of the Products of the Heme Detoxification Pathway in Malarial Late Trophozoites by X-ray Diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohle,D.; Dinnebier, R.; Madsen, S.; Stephens, P.

    2007-01-01

    Heme is a potent multifunction regulator whose biochemical levels and distribution are precisely controlled on both intra- and extracellular levels. Efficient regulation of heme is particularly critical for intra-erythrocytic parasites such as plasmodia which process large quantities of heme in the post-invasion digestion of the erythrocyte's hemoglobin. Plasmodia, which lack heme oxygenases, detoxify heme by sequestering it into an insoluble heme aggregate termed malarial pigment or hemozoin. The quinoline-based family of antimalarials interfere with this process by an as yet unknown mechanism that has recently come under intense scrutiny as part of the effort to combat the spread of chloroquine-resistant strains of Plasmodium. A variety of spectroscopic and bioanalytical techniques indicate that hemozoin is similar to the synthetic aggregated heme phase {beta}-hematin, which is thought to form strands of hemes linked by propionate oxygen-iron bonds as well as interstrand propionate hydrogen bonds. Characterization of the carboxylate stretching bands for the propionic acid side chains by IR and Raman spectroscopy provides the best evidence for the presence of iron-oxygen bonds to the propionate side chains. Unfortunately, crystallographic characterization of these heme aggregates has been hampered by the phase heterogeneity of many synthetic preparations as well as by the small size of the synthetic and natural crystallites isolated from either trophozoites and infected hosts. High resolution powder diffraction has been used extensively for the solution of many structural problems, and it can solve problems posed by diffraction from microcrystalline phases. In this communication we describe the characterization of {beta}-hematin derived from both synthetic and natural sources and provide new unambiguous evidence that the heme aggregate present in late stage trophozoites is {beta}-hematin. In a process inhibited by the quinoline antimalarial drugs, Plasmodia

  2. Double Higgs boson production and decay in Randall-Sundrum model at hadron colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Wen-Juan, Zhang; Ren-You, Zhang; Xiao-Zhou, Li; Lei, Guo; Chong, Chen

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the double Higgs production and decay at the $14~ {\\rm TeV}$ LHC and $33~ {\\rm TeV}$ HE-LHC in both the standard model and Randall-Sundrum (RS) model. In our calculation we consider reasonably only the contribution of the lightest two Kaluza-Klein (KK) gravitons. We present the integrated cross sections and some kinematic distributions in both models. Our results show that the RS effect in the vicinities of $M_{HH} \\sim M_{1}$, $M_{2}$ (the masses of the lightest two KK gravitons) or in the central Higgs rapidity region is quite significant, and can be extracted from the heavy SM background by imposing proper kinematic cuts on final particles. We also study the dependence of the cross section on the RS model parameters, the first KK graviton mass $M_1$ and the effective coupling $c_0$, and find that the RS effect is reduced obviously with the increment of $M_1$ or decrement of $c_0$.

  3. Double K-shell-vacancy production in the decay of 114mIn

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Eijk, C. W. E.; Wijnhorst, J.; Popelier, M. A.

    1981-08-01

    The probability PKK of double K-shell-vacancy production per K-shell internal conversion of the 192-keV E4 transition in the decay of 114mIn has been determined by means of a hypersatellite KαH-x-ray-K-x-ray coincidence experiment using an intrinsic Ge and a NaI(Tl) detector, and by means of a direct measurement of the KαH1- and KαH2-x-ray components with a curved-crystal spectrometer. The results are in good agreement: PKK=(10.8+/-0.9)×10-5 and PKK=(9.6+/-0.8)×10-5, respectively. The average value is PKK=(10.2+/-0.6)×10-5. For the intensity ratio of the KαH1- and KαH2-x-ray components we obtained 1.57+/-0.17, and for the energy shifts of the two components we obtained, respectively, 566.8+/-1.4 and 560.2+/-1.3 eV.

  4. Potential Applications of Hybrid Layered Double Hydroxide (LDH Particles in Pulp and Paper Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophia von Haartman

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Functionalization of papermaking pulp fibers using inorganic particles was investigated as a novel approach. Different layered double hydroxide (LDH particles were used in peroxide bleaching of thermomechanical pulp (TMP and in oxygen bleaching of eucalyptus kraft pulp. LDH particles were also tested as binding sites for optical brightening agents (OBA that are commonly used in paper production. The surface chemistry of LDH-treated pulps was examined using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS and apparent contact angle with water. Adsorbed LDH was not detected by XPS on the fiber surfaces after the bleaching trials, but it had a clear impact on the processes. LDH particles modified with terephthalate anions decreased the consumption of hydrogen peroxide and increased opacity by 3 units in TMP. Unmodified LDH particles enhanced the selectivity in oxygen delignification of kraft pulp, leading to 10% gain in ISO brightness and reduction of 2 units in Kappa number in comparison with conventional processes. Paper strength properties were unaffected in the presented system. After bleaching with LDH, the amount of anionic groups on pulp surfaces was increased. Also, the retention of OBA onto TMP fibers was improved with modified LDH particles. LDH proved to have great potential for current and prospective applications in pulp and paper manufacture.

  5. Double Higgs boson production and decay in Randall-Sundrum model at hadron colliders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wen-Juan; Ma, Wen-Gan; Zhang, Ren-You; Li, Xiao-Zhou; Guo, Lei; Chen, Chong

    2015-12-01

    We investigate the double Higgs production and decay at the 14 TeV LHC and 33 TeV HE-LHC in both the standard model (SM) and Randall-Sundrum (RS) model. In our calculation we consider reasonably only the contribution of the lightest two Kaluza-Klein (KK) gravitons. We present the integrated cross sections and some kinematic distributions in both models. Our results show that the RS effect in the vicinities of MH H˜M1, M2 (the masses of the lightest two KK gravitons) or in the central Higgs rapidity region is quite significant, and can be extracted from the heavy SM background by imposing proper kinematic cuts on final particles. We also study the dependence of the cross section on the RS model parameters, the first KK graviton mass M1, and the effective coupling c0, and find that the RS effect is reduced obviously with the increment of M1 or decrement of c0.

  6. Double product break point estimates ventilatory threshold in individuals with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victor de Sousa, Caio; Sales, Marcelo Magalhães; Aguiar, Samuel da Silva; Boullosa, Daniel Alexandre; Rosa, Thiago Dos Santos; Baldissera, Vilmar; Simões, Herbert Gustavo

    2016-06-01

    [Purpose] To verify the identification of the anaerobic threshold through the double product breakpoint (DPBP) method for individuals with type 2 diabetes. [Subjects and Methods] Nine individuals with T2D (7 females; age=63.2 ± 8.9 y) and 10 non-diabetic (ND) (7 females; age=58.3 ± 7.8 y) performed an incremental exercise test on a cycle ergometer. Heart rate (HR), blood pressure (BP) and expired gas were measured at the end of each stage. The ventilatory threshold (VT) and DPBP were considered as the exercise intensities above which an over proportional increases in VE and DP were observed in relation to increasing workload. [Results] No differences were observed between the workloads, HR and VO2 corresponding to the AT identified respectively by VT and DPBP. For the T2D, strong correlations between VT and DBPB workloads (r=0.853), HR (r=0.714), and VO2 (r=0.863) were found. These relationships were similar to those found for the control group (r=0.923; r=0.881; and r=0.863, respectively). [Conclusion] These results demonstrate that the DPBP enables for the prediction of AT and correlated well the VT in both the T2D and ND participants.

  7. Quantum Theory for Large Molecules $C_{60}$ Diffraction

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Xiang-Yao; Liu, Xiao-Jing; Ba, Nuo; Wu, Yi-Heng; Tang, Hou-Li; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Si-Qi

    2011-01-01

    Diffraction phenomena of large molecules have been studied in many experiments, and these experiments are described by many theoretical works. In this paper, we study $C_{60}$ molecules single and double-slit diffraction with quantum theory approach, and we pay close attention to the $C_{60}$ diffraction experiment carried out by A.Zeilinger et.at in 1999. In double-slit diffraction, we consider the decoherence effect, and find the theoretical results are good agreement with experimental data.

  8. Associated W{sup ±}D{sup (*)} production at the LHC and prospects to observe double parton interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baranov, S.P. [P.N. Lebedev Institute of Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Lipatov, A.V.; Malyshev, M.A.; Snigirev, A.M.; Zotov, N.P. [Lomonosov Moscow State Univ. (Russian Federation). Skobeltsyn Inst. of Nuclear Physics

    2015-03-15

    Associated production of charged gauge bosons and charged charmed mesons at the LHC is considered in the framework of k{sub t}-factorization approach. Theoretical predictions are compared with ATLAS data, and reasonably good agreement is found. Predictions on the same-sign W{sup ±}D{sup ±} configurations are presented including single parton scattering and double parton scattering contributions. The latter are shown to dominate over the former, thus giving evidence that the proposed process can serve as another indicator of double parton interactions.

  9. Search for optimal conditions for exploring double-parton scattering in four-jet production: $k_t$-factorization approach

    CERN Document Server

    Kutak, Krzysztof; Serino, Mirko; Szczurek, Antoni; van Hameren, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    In the present paper we discuss how to maximize the double-parton scattering (DPS) contribution in four-jet production. Here both single-parton and double-parton scattering effects are calculated in the $k_t$-factorization approach, following our recent developments of relevant methods and tools. Several differential distributions are shown and discussed in the context of future searches for DPS effects, such as rapidity of jets, rapidity distance, and azimuthal correlations between jets. The dependences of the relative DPS amount is studied as function of those observables. The regions with an enhanced DPS contribution are identified. Future experimental explorations could extract more precise values of $\\sigma_{eff}$.

  10. Is the color-octet mechanism consistent with the double J/ψ production measurement at B-factories?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Yu [Third Military Medical University, Department of Physics, School of Biomedical Engineering, Chongqing (China); Sun, Zhan [Guizhou Minzu University, School of Science, Guiyang (China); Zhang, Hong-Fei [Third Military Medical University, Department of Physics, School of Biomedical Engineering, Chongqing (China); Chongqing University of Posts and Telecommunications, School of Science, Chongqing (China)

    2017-04-15

    Double J/ψ production in e{sup +}e{sup -} collisions involving color-octet channels are evaluated up to order α{sup 2}α{sub s}{sup 3}. Having implemented the variation of the parameters (m{sub c}, μ{sub r} and long-distance matrix elements), we found that the cross sections for producing double J/ψ at B-factories range from -0.016 to 0.245 fb, which are even much smaller than that via the color-singlet mechanism. Accordingly, this result is consistent with the measurement by the Belle and BABAR Collaborations. (orig.)

  11. Determination of tacrolimus crystalline fraction in the commercial immediate release amorphous solid dispersion products by a standardized X-ray powder diffraction method with chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Ziyaur; Siddiqui, Akhtar; Bykadi, Srikant; Khan, Mansoor A

    2014-11-20

    Clinical performance of an amorphous solid dispersion (ASD) drug product is related to the amorphous drug content because of the greater bioavailability of this form of the drug than its crystalline form. Therefore, it is paramount to monitor the amorphous and the crystalline fractions in the ASD products. The objective of the present investigation was to study the feasibility of using a standardized X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) in conjunction with chemometric methods to quantitate the amorphous and crystalline fraction of the drug in several tacrolimus ASD products. Three ASD products were prepared in which drug to excipients ratios ranged from 1:19 to 1:49. The amorphous and crystalline drug products were mixed in various proportions so that amorphous/crystalline tacrolimus in the samples vary from 0 to 100%. XRPD of the samples of the drug products were collected, and PLSR and PCR chemometric methods were applied to the data. The R(2) was greater than '0.987' for all the models and bias in the models were statistically insignificant (p>0.05). RMSEP and SEP values were smaller for PLSR models than PCR models. The models prediction capabilities were good and can predict as low as 10% when drug to excipient ratio is as high as 1:49. In summary, XRPD and chemometric provide powerful analytical tools to monitor the crystalline fractions of the drug in the ASD products.

  12. Crucial Role of the Double Bond Isomerism in the Steroid B-Ring on the Membrane Properties of Sterols. Grazing Incidence X-Ray Diffraction and Brewster Angle Microscopy Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flasiński, Michał; Wydro, Paweł; Broniatowski, Marcin; Hąc-Wydro, Katarzyna; Fontaine, Philippe

    2015-07-01

    Three cholesterol precursors-desmosterol, zymosterol, and lanosterol-were comprehensively characterized in monolayers formed at the air/water interface. The studies were based on registration of the surface pressure (π)-area (A) isotherms complemented with in situ analysis performed with application of modern physicochemical techniques: grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXD) and Brewster angle microscopy (BAM). In this approach we were interested in the correlation between molecular structures of the studied sterols found in the cholesterol biosynthetic pathway and their membrane properties. Our results revealed that only desmosterol behaves in Langmuir monolayers comparably to cholesterol, the molecules of which arrange in the monolayers into a hexagonal lattice, while the two remaining sterols possess extremely different properties. We found that molecules of both zymosterol and lanosterol are organized on the water surface in the two-dimensional oblique unit cells despite the fact that they are oriented perpendicular to the monolayer plane. The comparison of chemical structures of the investigated sterols leads to the conclusion that the only structural motive that can be responsible for such unusual behavior is the double bond in the B sterol ring, which is located in desmosterol in a different position from in the other two sterols. This issue, which was neglected in the scientific literature, seems to have crucial importance for sterol activity in biomembranes. We showed that this structural modification in sterol molecules is directly responsible for their adaptation to proper functioning in biomembranes.

  13. Double-scattering mechanism of production of two $\\rho^0$ mesons in ultraperipheral, ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Szczurek, Antoni

    2015-01-01

    We study, for the first time, differential distributions for two $\\rho^0$ meson production in exclusive ultraperipheral, ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions via a double-scattering mechanism. The calculations are done in the impact parameter space. The cross section for $\\gamma A \\to \\rho^0 A$ is parametrized based on an existing model. Smearing of $\\rho^0$ masses is taken into account. The results of calculations for single and double-$\\rho^0$ production are compared to experimental data at the RHIC and LHC energies. The mechanism considered gives a significant contribution to the $AA \\to AA \\pi^+\\pi^-\\pi^+\\pi^-$ reaction. Some observables related to charged pions are presented too. We compare results of our calculations with the STAR collaboration results for four charged pion production.

  14. Super-diffraction imaging in three-dimensional localization precision of the double-helix point spread function∗%超衍射成像中双螺旋点扩展函数的三维定位精度*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    The combination of switch effect and single molecule positioning can realize the sample super diffraction resolution imaging, and double helix point spread function will be a single molecular orientation nanometer resolution extending from two dimensions to three dimensions. In this paper, three-dimensional (3D) positioning accuracy of the double helix point spread function is discussed. First, the theoretical localization accuracy for an unbiased estimator of the double-helix point spread function is compared with that for 3D localization using Fisher information and the influences of localization accuracy including photon number, varying levels of background and pixel size are analyzed. Second, based on the localization algorithm of gaussian fitting, which is usually adopted in data analysis of single molecular orientation in the experimental process, the axial localization accuracy of double helix point spread function is obtained by the error transfer function law. Computer simulation results show that under the condition of more than 1000 photons in number, the positioning accuracy of gaussian fitting localization algorithm and theory localization accuracy of Fisher information are in good agreement. The discussion of the paper provides not only the theoretical basis for 3D positioning accuracy of double helix point spread function, but also the theoretical guidance for the experiment at the same time.%  开关效应和单分子定位的结合可以实现样品的超衍射分辨成像,双螺旋点扩展函数将单分子定位纳米分辨从二维扩展到了三维。本文对双螺旋点扩展函数的三维定位精度展开了探讨。首先,基于费希尔信息量,计算了双螺旋点扩展函数的无偏估计,得出其理论定位精度,并分析了光子数、背景噪声以及有效像元尺寸大小对其定位精度的影响;其次,基于单分子定位实验过程中对于数据分析通常采用的高斯拟合质心定位算法

  15. Hard Diffraction at D{phi}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Gilvan A. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Cosmologia e Fisica Experimental de Altas Energias

    2000-07-01

    Full text follows: We review recent Hard Diffraction results from the D{phi} experiment at Fermilab, for the following processes: hard color singlet exchange, hard single diffraction, and hard double pomeron exchange. Measurements of rates, {eta}, E{sub T} and {radical}S dependencies are presented and comparisons made with predictions of several models. (author)

  16. Precision Meson Spectroscopy: Diffractive Production at COMPASS and Development of a GEM-based TPC for PANDA

    CERN Document Server

    Weitzel, Q

    Meson spectroscopy is a unique way to access Quantum Chromo Dynamics (QCD) and learn about its properties. Due to the non-Abelian structure, QCD predicts new states of matter with gluonic degrees of freedom. In particular q ¯ qg hybrids, which can have spin-exotic quantum numbers forbidden for conventional q ¯ q mesons, are expected to exist. Such states were searched for in the past, mostly in the light-quark sector. However, the experimental situation is still ambiguous and needs to be clarified. Further insights will certainly also come from the heavy-quark spectroscopy. Several new charmonium-like resonances were for example discovered during the last years, which have to be studied in more detail by future experiments to reveal their nature. Diffractive dissociation reactions at COMPASS provide clean access to meson resonances with masses below 2.5 GeV/c2. During a pilot run in 2004 using pion beams on lead targets, a competitive number of −−+ final state events were recorded within a few days of d...

  17. SPIN TILTS IN THE DOUBLE PULSAR REVEAL SUPERNOVA SPIN ANGULAR-MOMENTUM PRODUCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farr, Will M.; Kremer, Kyle; Kalogera, Vassiliki [Center for Interdisciplinary Exploration and Research in Astrophysics (CIERA), Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Lyutikov, Maxim, E-mail: w-farr@northwestern.edu, E-mail: kylekremer2012@u.northwestern.edu, E-mail: vicky@northwestern.edu, E-mail: lyutikov@purdue.edu [Physics Department, Purdue University, 525 Northwestern Avenue, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States)

    2011-12-01

    The system PSR J0737-3039 is the only binary pulsar known to consist of two radio pulsars (PSR J0737-3039 A and PSR J0737-3039 B). This unique configuration allows measurements of spin orientation for both pulsars: pulsar A's spin is tilted from the orbital angular momentum by no more than 14 deg at 95% confidence; pulsar B's by 130 {+-} 1 deg at 99.7% confidence. This spin-spin misalignment requires that the origin of most of B's present-day spin is connected to the supernova that formed pulsar B. Under the simplified assumption of a single, instantaneous kick during the supernova, the spin could be thought of as originating from the off-center nature of the kick, causing pulsar B to tumble to its misaligned state. With this assumption, and using current constraints on the kick magnitude, we find that pulsar B's instantaneous kick must have been displaced from the center of mass of the exploding star by at least 1 km and probably 5-10 km. Regardless of the details of the kick mechanism and the process that produced pulsar B's current spin, the measured spin-spin misalignment in the double pulsar system provides an empirical, direct constraint on the angular momentum production in this supernova. This constraint can be used to guide core-collapse simulations and the quest for understanding the spins and kicks of compact objects.

  18. Production of N-acetyl-D-neuraminic acid using two sequential enzymes overexpressed as double-tagged fusion proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Chung-Hsien

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Two sequential enzymes in the production of sialic acids, N-acetyl-D-glucosamine 2-epimerase (GlcNAc 2-epimerase and N-acetyl-D-neuraminic acid aldolase (Neu5Ac aldolase, were overexpressed as double-tagged gene fusions. Both were tagged with glutathione S-transferase (GST at the N-terminus, but at the C-terminus, one was tagged with five contiguous aspartate residues (5D, and the other with five contiguous arginine residues (5R. Results Both fusion proteins were overexpressed in Escherichia coli and retained enzymatic activity. The fusions were designed so their surfaces were charged under enzyme reaction conditions, which allowed isolation and immobilization in a single step, through a simple capture with either an anionic or a cationic exchanger (Sepharose Q or Sepharose SP that electrostatically bound the 5D or 5R tag. The introduction of double tags only marginally altered the affinity of the enzymes for their substrates, and the double-tagged proteins were enzymatically active in both soluble and immobilized forms. Combined use of the fusion proteins led to the production of N-acetyl-D-neuraminic acid (Neu5Ac from N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (GlcNAc. Conclusion Double-tagged gene fusions were overexpressed to yield two enzymes that perform sequential steps in sialic acid synthesis. The proteins were easily immobilized via ionic tags onto ionic exchange resins and could thus be purified by direct capture from crude protein extracts. The immobilized, double-tagged proteins were effective for one-pot enzymatic production of sialic acid.

  19. New CDF results on diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mesropian, Christina; /Rockefeller U.

    2006-12-01

    We report new diffraction results obtained by the CDF collaboration in proton-antiproton collisions at the Fermilab Tevatron collider at {radical}s=1.96 TeV. The first experimental evidence of exclusive dijet and diphoton production is presented. The exclusive results are discussed in context of the exclusive Higgs production at LHC. We also present the measurement of the Q{sup 2} and t dependence of the diffractive structure function.

  20. Double-Λ, twin-Λ, and single-Λ hypernuclear productions for stopped Ξ- particles in 12C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Taiichi; Ikeda, Kiyomi

    1997-12-01

    The production rates per Ξ via the 12C+Ξ--atomic states are investigated for the 12ΛΛBe+p, 12ΛΛB+n, 11ΛΛBe+d, 10ΛΛBe+t, 9ΛΛLi+α, 6ΛΛHe+7Li, 5ΛΛH+8Be, 9ΛBe+4ΛH, 8ΛLi+5ΛHe, and 12ΛB+Λ channels (including their excited channels) within the frame of the doorway double-Λ hypernuclear picture (direct reaction picture). We found that in the stopped Ξ- reaction (1) the excited double-Λ hypernuclear states for 12ΛΛB, 12ΛΛBe, and 11ΛΛBe are produced more strongly than other double-Λ hypernuclei, and (2) the production rates per Ξ depend considerably on the atomic orbital angular momentum of the Ξ- particle absorbed into nuclei. The calculated production rates per Ξ are discussed in comparison with the KEK-E176 experimental data.

  1. Exclusive Dijet production from CDF2LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallinaro, Michele; /Rockefeller U.

    2005-04-01

    Exclusive dijet production at the Tevatron can be used as a benchmark to establish predictions on exclusive diffractive Higgs production, a process with a much smaller cross section. Exclusive dijet production in Double Pomeron Exchange processes, including diffractive Higgs production with measurements at the Tevatron and predictions for the Large Hadron Collider are presented. Using new data from the Tevatron and dedicated diffractive triggers, no excess over a smooth falling distribution for exclusive dijet events could be found. Upper limits on the exclusive dijet production cross section are presented and compared to current theoretical predictions.

  2. Precision meson spectroscopy. Diffractive production at COMPASS and development of a GEM-based TPC for PANDA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weitzel, Quirin

    2008-09-24

    Meson spectroscopy is a unique way to access Quantum Chromo Dynamics (QCD) and learn about its properties. Due to the non-Abelian structure, QCD predicts new states of matter with gluonic degrees of freedom. In particular q anti qg hybrids, which can have spin-exotic quantum numbers forbidden for conventional q anti q mesons, are expected to exist. Such states were searched for in the past, mostly in the light-quark sector. However, the experimental situation is still ambiguous and needs to be clarified. Further insights will certainly also come from the heavy-quark spectroscopy. Several new charmonium-like resonances were for example discovered during the last years, which have to be studied in more detail by future experiments to reveal their nature. Diffractive dissociation reactions at COMPASS provide clean access to meson resonances with masses below 2.5 GeV/c{sup 2}. During a pilot run in 2004 using pion beams on lead targets, a competitive number of {pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup +} final state events were recorded within a few days of data taking. A full partial wave analysis (PWA) of these data has been performed for this dissertation, concentrating on the kinematic domain of large momentum transfer (t' element of [0.1, 1.0] GeV{sup 2}/c{sup 2}). While well-known mesons are resolved with high quality, also a strong signal consistent with the much disputed hybrid candidate {pi}{sub 1}(1600) is observed in the spin-exotic J{sup PC} = 1{sup -+} partial wave. A Breit-Wigner parameterization yields a mass and width of 1.660{sup +0.010}{sub -0.074} and 0.269{sup +0.063}{sub -0.085} GeV/c{sup 2}, respectively. In addition, a first PWA of events with small momentum transfer (t' element of [10{sup -3},10{sup -2}] GeV{sup 2}/c{sup 2}) has been carried out, yielding several high-mass radial-excitation states. In the future, the PANDA experiment at the FAIR facility will perform highprecision spectroscopy in the charm-sector employing anti pp annihilations

  3. On the one loop $\\gamma^{(*)}\\to q\\bar{q}$ impact factor and the exclusive diffractive cross sections for the production of two or three jets

    CERN Document Server

    Boussarie, R; Szymanowski, L; Wallon, S

    2016-01-01

    We present the calculation of the impact factor for the $\\gamma^{(*)}\\to q\\bar{q}$ transition with one loop accuracy in arbitrary kinematics. The calculation was done within Balitsky's high energy operator expansion. Together with our previous result for the $\\gamma^{(*)}\\to q\\bar{q} g$ Born impact factor it allows one to derive cross-sections for 2- (one loop) and 3-jet (Born) difractive electroproduction. We write such cross sections for the 2 and 3 jet exclusive diffractive electroproduction off a proton in terms of hadronic matrix elements of Wilson lines. For the 2-jet cross section we demonstrate the cancellation of IR, collinear and rapidity singularities. Our result can be directly exploited to describe the recently analyzed data on exclusive dijet production at HERA and used for the study of jet photoproduction in ultraperipheral proton or nuclear scattering.

  4. Central Production of Eta and Eta-prime via Double Pomeron Exchange in the Sakai-Sugimoto Model

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, Neil; Harvey, Jeffrey A; Mann, Nelia

    2014-01-01

    We construct a string-inspired model for the central production of $\\eta$ and $\\eta'$ mesons in proton-proton collisions, via double Pomeron exchange. Using general symmetry considerations, we construct a low-energy differential cross section for double glueball exchange in terms of some undetermined coupling constants and form factors. We extend this model to the Regge regime, replacing the glueball propagators with Pomeron trajectories, and modifying the interaction term by a factor derived from the 5-string scattering amplitude in flat space. We then fix the couplings which remain undetermined, using the Sakai-Sugimoto framework to model low-energy QCD. Finally, we generate a simulation of the scattering process at $\\sqrt{s} = 29.1 GeV$, where double Pomeron exchange should play a role (secondary to double Reggeon exchange). We focus on the dependence of the scattering cross section on the angle between the scattered protons in the transverse plane. The results exhibit a definite deviation from the angular...

  5. Characterization of morphology and hydration products of high-volume fly ash paste by monochromatic scanning x-ray micro-diffraction (μ-SXRD)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Sungchul [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Meral, Cagla [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Department of Civil Engineering, Middle East Technical University, 06800 Ankara (Turkey); Oh, Jae-eun [School of Urban and Environmental Engineering, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan 689-798 (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Juhyuk [Civil Engineering Program, Department of Mechanical Engineering, State University of New York at Stony Brook, NY 11794 (United States); Kunz, Martin [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Monteiro, Paulo J.M., E-mail: monteiro@ce.berkeley.edu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2014-05-01

    The present study focuses on identification and micro-structural characterization of the hydration products formed in high-volume fly ash (HVFA)/portland cement (PC) systems using monochromatic scanning x-ray micro-diffraction (μ-SXRD) and SEM-EDS. Pastes with up to 80% fly ash replacement were studied. Phase maps for HVFA samples using μ-SXRD patterns prove that μ-SXRD is an effective method to identify and visualize the distribution of phases in the matrix. μ-SXRD and SEM-EDS analysis shows that the C-S-H formed in HVFA system containing 50% or more of fly ash has a similar structure as C-S-H(I) with comparatively lower Ca/Si ratio than the one produced in PC system. Moreover, coexistence of C-S-H(I) and strätlingite is observed in the system containing 80% of fly ash, confirming that the amount of alumina and silicate phases provided by the fly ash is a major factor for the formation of C-S-H(I) and strätlingite in HVFA system. - Highlights: • High-volume fly ash (HVFA) paste was studied by scanning x-ray micro-diffraction. • Coexistence of C-S-H(I) and strätlingite in the HVFA system is clearly shown. • The distribution of minor phases in the HVFA system is shown. • Differences between inner and outer products of fly ash are observed by SEM-EDS.

  6. Semihard diffractive production of neutral mesons by off shell photons and the range of pQCD validity

    CERN Document Server

    Ginzburg, I F; Serbo, V G

    1995-01-01

    We study the dependence on photon virtuality Q^2 for the semihard quasi--elastic photoproduction of neutral vector mesons on a quark, gluon or real photon (at s\\gg p_{\\bot}^2,\\;Q^2; \\; p_{\\bot}^2 \\gg \\mu^2 \\approx (0.3 GeV)^2). To this end we calculate the corresponding amplitudes (in an analytical form) in the lowest nontrivial approximation of the perturbative QCD. The amplitudes for the production of mesons consisting of light quarks vary very rapidly with the photon virtuality near Q^2=0. We estimate the range of the pQCD validity for such processes. The estimated bounds of this region are surprisingly high. The clean signature of the pQCD validity is the longitudinal polarization of produced mesons (consisting of light quarks).

  7. Development and validation of X-ray diffraction method for quantitative determination of crystallinity in warfarin sodium products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Akhtar; Rahman, Ziyaur; Korang-Yeboah, Maxwell; Khan, Mansoor A

    2015-09-30

    The objective of this study was to develop and validate XRPD analytical method for the estimation of percent crystalline warfarin sodium present in drug products. Warfarin sodium (WS) is a clathrate containing Isopropyl alcohol entrapped in the crystalline structure. Four types of WS-excipient mixtures were prepared and used to make four formulations: M1 containing lactose monohydrate (WS: excipient 1:9), M2 containing anhydrous lactose (WS: excipient 1:9), M3 containing lactose monohydrate (WS: excipient 1:21.5), M4 containing lactose anhydrous (WS: excipient 1:21.5). Thoroughly mixed powders were packed in the XRD sample holders and diffractogram were collected. Diffractogram in the 7-9 2θ were found to be distinctive as the peak intensity grows with increasing percent crystalline WS. This peak region was, therefore, used to validate the XRPD method. Validation parameters were evaluated for accuracy, precision, linearity, limit of detection (LOD), and limit of quantitation (LOQ). LOD and LOQ for M1, M2, M3, and M4 were 3.04, 3.17, 4.17, 4.49% and 9.21, 9.62, 12.65, 13.30%, respectively. The method was found to be linear with R(2)>0.99. With changing scan speed, X-ray power output, and type of sample holder, the method was found to be robust. Prediction of the % crystalline content of the WS sample with known crystallinity showed close agreement between actual and predicted value. In summary, XRPD method was validated, which can be used as a quantitative method for the estimation of % crystalline WS present in a drug product.

  8. Complex language, complex thought? The relation between children's production of double embeddings and Theory of Mind

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogaerds-Hazenberg, Suzanne; Hendriks, Petra

    2016-01-01

    It has been argued (e.g., by De Villiers and colleagues) that the acquisition of sentence embedding is necessary for the development of first-order Theory of Mind (ToM): the ability to attribute beliefs to others. This raises the question whether the acquisition of double embedded sentences is relat

  9. Complex language, complex thought? The relationship between children's production of double embeddings and Theory of Mind

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hazenberg, S.T.M.; Hendriks, P.

    2016-01-01

    It has been argued (e.g., by De Villiers and colleagues) that the acquisition of sentence embedding is necessary for the development of first-order Theory of Mind (ToM): the ability to attribute beliefs to others. This raises the question whether the acquisition of double embedded sentences is relat

  10. Complex language, complex thought? The relation between children's production of double embeddings and Theory of Mind

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogaerds-Hazenberg, Suzanne; Hendriks, Petra

    2016-01-01

    It has been argued (e.g., by De Villiers and colleagues) that the acquisition of sentence embedding is necessary for the development of first-order Theory of Mind (ToM): the ability to attribute beliefs to others. This raises the question whether the acquisition of double embedded sentences is

  11. Complex language, complex thought? The relationship between children's production of double embeddings and Theory of Mind

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hazenberg, S.T.M.; Hendriks, P.

    2016-01-01

    It has been argued (e.g., by De Villiers and colleagues) that the acquisition of sentence embedding is necessary for the development of first-order Theory of Mind (ToM): the ability to attribute beliefs to others. This raises the question whether the acquisition of double embedded sentences is

  12. Denaturation strategies for detection of double stranded PCR products on GMR magnetic biosensor array

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rizzi, Giovanni; Lee, Jung-Rok; Guldberg, Per

    2017-01-01

    Microarrays and other surface-based nucleic acid detection schemes rely on the hybridization of the target to surface-bound detection probes. We present the first comparison of two strategies to detect DNA using a giant magnetoresistive (GMR) biosensor platform starting from an initially double...

  13. MgO:PPLN frequency doubling optical chips for green light generation: from lab research to mass production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chang-Qing; Gan, Yi; Sun, Jian

    2012-03-01

    Laser displays require red, green and blue (RGB) laser sources each with a low-cost, a high wall-plug efficiency, and a small size. However, semiconductor chips that directly emit green light with sufficient power and efficiency are not currently available on the market. A practical solution to the "green" bottleneck is to employ diode pumped solid state laser (DPSSL) technology, in which a frequency doubling crystal is used. In this paper, recent progress of MgO doped periodically poled lithium niobate (MgO:PPLN) frequency doubling optical chips will be presented. It is shown that MgO:PPLN can satisfy all of the requirements for laser displays and is ready for mass production.

  14. Closing the Phosphorus Loop by Recovering Phosphorus From Waste Streams With Layered Double Hydroxide Nanocomposites and Converting the Product into an Efficient Fertilizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, H.; Shih, K.

    2015-12-01

    Phosphorus (P) recovery has been frequently discussed in recent decades due to the uncertain availability and uneven distribution of global phosphate rock reserves. Sorption technology is increasingly considered as a reliable, efficient and environmentally friendly P removal method from aqueous solution. In this study, a series of Mg-Al-based layered double hydroxide nanocomposites and their corresponding calcined products were fabricated and applied as phosphate adsorbents. The prepared samples were with average size at ~50 nm and self-assembled into larger particles in irregular shapes. The results of batch adsorption experiments demonstrated that calcination significantly enhanced the adsorption ability of LDHs for phosphorus, and the maximum adsorption capacity of calcined Mg-Al-LDH was as high as 100.7 mg-P/g. Furthermore, incorporation of Zr4+ and La3+ into LDH materials increases the sorption selectivity as well as sorption amount of phosphorus in LDHs, which was confirmed by experiments operated in synthetic human urine. For the first time ammonia (NH4OH) and potassium hydroxide (KOH) solutions were employed to desorb the P-loaded LDH. Identification of solids derived from two eluting solutions showed that struvite (MgNH4PO4•6H2O, MAP) was precipitated in ammonia solution while most phosphate was desorbed into liquid phase in KOH system without crystallization of potassium struvite (MgKPO4•6H2O) due to its higher solubility. Quantitative X-ray diffraction technique was used to determine struvite contents in obtained solids and the results revealed that ~ 30% of adsorbed P was transferred into struvite form in the sample extracted by 0.5M NH4OH. Leaching tests suggested that the phosphorus releasing kinetics of ammonia treated LDH was comparable to that of pure struvite product, indicating that postsorption Mg-Al-LDH desorbed with ammonia could serve as a slow-releasing fertilizer in agriculture (see Figure 1).

  15. Characterization of Wax Esters by Electrospray Ionization Tandem Mass Spectrometry: Double Bond Effect and Unusual Product Ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianzhong; Green, Kari B; Nichols, Kelly K

    2015-08-01

    A series of different types of wax esters (represented by RCOOR') were systematically studied by using electrospray ionization (ESI) collision-induced dissociation tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) along with pseudo MS(3) (in-source dissociation combined with MS/MS) on a quadrupole time-of-flight (Q-TOF) mass spectrometer. The tandem mass spectra patterns resulting from dissociation of ammonium/proton adducts of these wax esters were influenced by the wax ester type and the collision energy applied. The product ions [RCOOH2](+), [RCO](+) and [RCO-H2O](+) that have been reported previously were detected; however, different primary product ions were demonstrated for the three wax ester types including: (1) [RCOOH2](+) for saturated wax esters, (2) [RCOOH2](+), [RCO](+) and [RCO-H2O](+) for unsaturated wax esters containing only one double bond in the fatty acid moiety or with one additional double bond in the fatty alcohol moiety, and (3) [RCOOH2](+) and [RCO](+) for unsaturated wax esters containing a double bond in the fatty alcohol moiety alone. Other fragments included [R'](+) and several series of product ions for all types of wax esters. Interestingly, unusual product ions were detected, such as neutral molecule (including water, methanol and ammonia) adducts of [RCOOH2](+) ions for all types of wax esters and [R'-2H](+) ions for unsaturated fatty acyl-containing wax esters. The patterns of tandem mass spectra for different types of wax esters will inform future identification and quantification approaches of wax esters in biological samples as supported by a preliminary study of quantification of isomeric wax esters in human meibomian gland secretions.

  16. Diffractive Bremsstrahlung in Hadronic Collisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Pasechnik

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Production of heavy photons (Drell-Yan, gauge bosons, Higgs bosons, and heavy flavors, which is treated within the QCD parton model as a result of hard parton-parton collision, can be considered a bremsstrahlung process in the target rest frame. In this review, we discuss the basic features of the diffractive channels of these processes in the framework of color dipole approach. The main observation is a dramatic breakdown of diffractive QCD factorisation due to the interplay between soft and hard interactions, which dominates these processes. This observation is crucial for phenomenological studies of diffractive reactions in high energy hadronic collisions.

  17. Copper Vapor Laser with One-Beam Radiation of Diffraction Quality and Its Capabilities for Microprocessing of Materials for Electronic Engineering Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Lyabin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The structure, spatial, time and energy characteristics of copper vapor laser radiation (CVL with optical resonators possessing high spatial selectivity have been investigated: with an unstable resonator (UR with two convex mirrors and telescopic UR, and the conditions to form one-beam radiation with diffraction divergence and high stability of directivity pattern axis have been defined.The most weighty and prospective application of CVL with UR with two convex mirrors is to use it as a driving oscillator (DO in a copper vapor laser system (CVLS of the type: driving oscillator – power amplifier (DO – PA when diffraction beam radiating power and power density in a focused spot of 10-20 µm in diameter increases by 1-2 orders. Using industrial sealed-off active elements (AE of “Kulon” series with an average radiation power of 15-25 W as PAs the peak power density increases up to 1011 W/cm 2 while an application of AE “Crystal” with 30- 50 W power gives up to 1012 W/cm 2 , which is sufficient for efficient and qualitative microprocessing of materials up to 1…2 mm thick. Such a CVLS has become the basis for creating up-to-date automated laser technological installations (ALTI of “Karavella-1” and “Karavella-1M” types to manufacture precision parts of electronic engineering products (EEP of metal up to 0.5 mm thick and of non-metal up to 1.5…1.8 mm thick.CVL with a telescopic UR with an average power of 5-6 W diffraction radiation beam has become the basis for creating industrial ALTI “Karavella-2” and “Karavella-2M” to manufacture precision parts of electronic engineering products (EEP of metal up to 0.3 mm thick and of non-metal up to 0.5 – 0.7 mm thick.Practical work on all types of ALTI “Karavella” has shown a set of significant advantages of a laser way of pulsed microprocessing over the traditional ones, including electro-erosion machining: a wide range of structural metal and non-metal materials to be

  18. Double $\\Delta$ production in the $\\gamma$ d --> p n pi+ pi- reaction

    CERN Document Server

    Gómez-Tejedor, J A; Toki, H; Oset, E; Toki, H

    1994-01-01

    We have studied the gamma d ---> Delta++ Delta- reaction which requires the collaboration of the two nucleons in deuteron. By means of a model previously developed for the gamma p ----> p pi+ pi- reaction, the two body exchange currents leading to double delta creation are derived. A fair agreement is obtained with a recent experiment, but more precise measurements and the extension to higher photon energies look advisable in order to see the limits of the present theoretical approach

  19. Central exclusive diffractive production of $\\pi^{+}\\pi^{-}$ continuum, scalar and tensor resonances in $pp$ and $p \\bar{p}$ scattering within tensor pomeron approach

    CERN Document Server

    Lebiedowicz, Piotr; Szczurek, Antoni

    2016-01-01

    We consider central exclusive diffractive dipion production in the reactions $pp \\to pp \\pi^{+} \\pi^{-}$ and $p\\bar{p} \\to p\\bar{p} \\pi^{+} \\pi^{-}$ at high energies. We include the dipion continuum, the dominant scalar $f_{0}(500)$, $f_{0}(980)$, and tensor $f_{2}(1270)$ resonances decaying into the $\\pi^{+} \\pi^{-}$ pairs. The calculation is based on a tensor pomeron model and the amplitudes for the processes are formulated in terms of vertices respecting the standard crossing and charge-conjugation relations of Quantum Field Theory. The formulae for the dipion continuum and tensor meson production are given here for the first time. The theoretical results are compared with existing STAR, CDF, CMS experimental data and predictions for planned or being carried out experiments (ALICE, ATLAS) are presented. We show the influence of the experimental cuts on the integrated cross section and on various differential distributions for outgoing particles. Distributions in rapidities and transverse momenta of outgoin...

  20. Nitrogen removal and electricity production at a double-chamber microbial fuel cell with cathode nitrite denitrification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yangyang; Zhao, Jianqiang; Wang, Sha; Zhao, Huimin; Ding, Xiaoqian; Gao, Kun

    2017-02-17

    Double-chamber microbial fuel cell was applied to investigate the performance of the electricity production and nitrite denitrification through feeding nitrite into the cathode. Factors influencing denitrification performance and power production, such as external resistance, influent nitrite concentration and Nitrite Oxygen Bacteria inhibitors, were studied. The results show that when the concentration of nitrite nitrogen and external resistance were 100 mg L(-1) and 10 Ω, respectively, the nitrite denitrification reached the best state. The NaN3 can inhibit nitrite oxidation effectively; meanwhile, the nitrite denitrification with N2O as the final products was largely improved. The [Formula: see text] was reduced to [Formula: see text], causing the cathode denitrification coulombic efficiency to exceed 100%. In chemoautotrophic bio-nitrification, microorganisms may utilize H2O to oxidize nitrite under anaerobic conditions. Proteobacteria might play a major role in the process of denitrification in MFC.

  1. Study of Diffractive Dissociation Especially into Strange and Charmed Particles with EHS

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    .PP The diffractive production of heavy quark-antiquark pairs leading to strangeness-antistrangeness and charm-anticharm systems is intended to be measured in this experiment. The use of the rapid cycling bubble chamber (RCBC) with a volume of 100 x 40 x 40 cm|3 and a picture taking rate of 15 Hz as vertex detector and EHS as forward spectrometer is suitable for the first step of this physics programme. Inclusive cross-sections for diffraction dissociation into ss are lacking whereas diffractive cc production is already better known. The gain of more insight into the mechanism of heavy quark-antiquark production, exclusive diffractive reactions with @p|0's, diffractive resonance production and also the extraction of data for the double Pomeron exchange mechanism are envisage This experiment will be run in two parts, the first one recording the entire unbiased sample of pp and @p|-p interactions, the second however using triggering for beam and high mass target diffraction dissociation against elastic scatteri...

  2. Transverse double-spin asymmetries for electroweak gauge-boson production in high-energy polarized p-> + p-> collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surrow, Bernd; Soffer, Jacques; Bourrely, Claude

    2016-09-01

    The collision of high-energy polarized proton beams at the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider at Brookhaven National Laboratory provides a powerful way to gain a deeper insight into the spin structure and dynamics of the proton such as the study of the helicity distributions of gluons and quarks / antiquarks based on well established high-energy QCD and W boson processes, respectively. Several studies have been suggested in the past to gain a better understanding of the transversity distribution, in particular the measurement of the transverse double-spin asymmetries (ATT) for Drell-Yan production. Prior NLO calculations for Drell-Yan γ / Z exchange have been used to evaluate ATT for Z production using maximal bounds for the transversity distribution. The transverse double-spin asymmetry for W production is expected to be zero. The status of ATT NLO calculations specifically for γ / Z exchange will be discussed using maximal bounds of transversity distributions within the framework by Bourrely and Soffer.

  3. The influence of aerobic exercise training on the double product break point in low-to-moderate risk adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargens, Trent A; Griffin, Diane C; Kaminsky, Leonard A; Whaley, Mitchell H

    2011-02-01

    The double product is the product of the heart rate and systolic blood pressure. The double product break point (DPBP) is a physiologic threshold that occurs at similar exercise intensities to that of the ventilatory threshold (VT). The influence of aerobic exercise training on the DPBP has not yet been examined. The purpose of this study was to examine whether aerobic exercise training (ET) increases the exercise intensity at which the DPBP occurs, and whether it increases in a similar fashion to the VT. Seven males and 11 females, all sedentary (mean ± SD: age = 29.9 ± 10.5 years) underwent supervised cardiopulmonary exercise testing using a cycle ergometer ramp protocol at baseline and after 8 weeks of vigorous ET on a cycle ergometer. The VT was determined by gas analysis and the V-slope method. Experienced observers using standardized instructions visually determined the DPBP. Following ET, VO(2 peak), maximal workload, and body composition variables all showed significant positive changes. The VO(2) at which the DPBP and VT occurred increased significantly from baseline to follow-up (P Results suggest that the DPBP responds to ET in a similar fashion to that of the VT, and may be an easier and more useful marker of the VT for exercise training purposes.

  4. Diffractive Dijet Photoproduction

    CERN Document Server

    Klasen, M

    2005-01-01

    We have calculated diffractive dijet production in deep-inelastic scattering (DIS) at low-Q^2 and next-to-leading order (NLO) of perturbative QCD, including contributions from direct and resolved photons. We study how the cross section depends on the factorization scheme and scale M_\\gamma at the virtual photon vertex for the occurance of factorization breaking. The strong M_\\gamma-dependence, which is present when only the resolved cross section is suppressed, is tamed by intodrucing the suppression also in the initial-state NLO correction of the direct part.

  5. Testing the scale dependence of the scale factor {sigma}{sub eff} in double dijet production at the LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domdey, Svend [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Heidelberg (Germany); Theory Division, CERN, Department of Physics, Geneve 23 (Switzerland); Pirner, Hans-Juergen [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Heidelberg (Germany); Wiedemann, Urs Achim [Theory Division, CERN, Department of Physics, Geneve 23 (Switzerland)

    2010-01-15

    The scale factor {sigma}{sub eff} is the effective cross section used to characterize the measured rate of inclusive double dijet production in high-energy hadron collisions. It is sensitive to the two-parton distributions in the hadronic projectile. In principle, the scale factor depends on the center of mass energy and on the minimal transverse energy E{sub T,min} of the jets contributing to the double dijet cross section. Here, we point out that proton-proton collisions at the LHC will provide for the first time experimental access to these scale dependences in a logarithmically wide, nominally perturbative kinematic range 10double-hard scattering events at the LHC. (orig.)

  6. The National Shipbuilding Research Program. 1995 Ship Production Symposium. Paper No. 5: Producibility of Double Hull Tankers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    Similar technique could be used in wing tanks and on double plate bulkheads etc. - see Figure 3. Materials Limit steel grades used to those which do not...steel ( grade AH32) in the deck and bottom except 4020 and 9520. All unidirectional vessels are mild steel except 40112, which has high strength steel in...Ship Production, November 1993. Burmeister & Wain (B&W - N.H. Brix ), telefax to MR&S 11/15/93. Maritech Engineering Japan Co. Ltd., Tokyo (H. 7. 8. 9. 10

  7. Double Functions of Knowledge Production in Education: Enlightenment and Emancipation or Dominance and Domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyung Hi

    1994-01-01

    Many critical educators claim that knowledge construction and production in education are tools for dominating and domesticating people, not enlightening or emancipating them. This article analyzes the nature of knowledge and the subject/object relationship in knowledge production. The contradictory functions of knowledge production are best…

  8. 矩形孔和圆孔构成的双孔Fraunhofer衍射图样模拟%Simulation of Fraunhofer diffraction pattern through double hole made of rectangle and circular holes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨坤; 成泰民; 葛崇员

    2012-01-01

    讨论的是光的衍射中的单缝Fraunhofer(夫琅禾费)衍射.通常在Fraunhofer衍射中改变孔的形状,衍射光斑形状会发生明显的变化.因此,讨论分析不同形状单孔Fraunhofer衍射的文章较多.用基尔霍夫衍射理论,推导出矩形孔和圆孔构成的不同形状双孔Fraunhofer衍射在屏幕上的相对衍射强度的分布公式.并利用mathematica软件模拟了矩形孔和圆孔构成的不同形状双孔Fraunhofer衍射图样和强度分布,从而找出了矩形孔和圆孔的相对位置变化、矩形孔大小变化、圆孔大小变化与Fraunhofer衍射图样之间的内在规律.%This article discusses specifically single slit Fraunhofer diffraction in light diffraction. Generally, in Fraunhofer diffraction, with the changing of the hole' s shape, the diffraction facula will change radically. Thus, there are many articles discuss Fraunhofer diffraction based on different shape of the hole, whereas, in this article, using the Kirchoff diffraction theory, the relative diffraction intensity formulas of Fraunhofer diffraction through two different shaped holes ( rectangular and circular) have been derived, and it simulated the pattern and the intensity distribution using Mathematica. Throughout the simulation, it summarized the inherent law between the Fraunhofer diffraction pattern, the relative position change of two holes, and the size change of the two holes.

  9. Transverse Double-Spin Asymmetries for Muon Pair Production in pp-Collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, O; Stratmann, M; Vogelsang, W

    1999-01-01

    We calculate the rapidity dependence of the transverse double-spin asymmetry for the Drell-Yan process to next-to-leading order in the strong coupling. Input transversity distributions are obtained by saturating the Soffer inequality at a low hadronic mass scale. Results for the polarized BNL-RHIC proton-proton collider and the proposed HERA-N fixed-target experiment are presented, and the influence of the limited muon acceptance of the detectors on measurements of the asymmetry is studied in detail.

  10. Hydrothermal Synthesis of Ni/Al Layered Double Hydroxide Nanorods

    OpenAIRE

    Yun Zhao; Fenfei Xiao; Qingze Jiao

    2011-01-01

    Ni/Al layered double hydroxide (LDH) nanorods were successfully synthesized by the hydrothermal reaction. The crystal structure of the products was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The morphology of the products was observed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The influences of reaction time and pH value on the morphology of the Ni/Al LDHs were investigated. The result showed that the well-crystallized nanorods of Ni/Al ...

  11. Antimitotic agents increase the production of doubled-haploid embryos from cork oak anther culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pintos, Beatriz; Manzanera, Jose A; Bueno, Maria A

    2007-12-01

    The objective of this study is to induce the nuclear DNA duplication of anther-derived embryos of cork oak (Quercus suber L.) to obtain doubled-haploid plants. Anther culture of this species produces a low percentage (7.78%) of spontaneous diploids, as assessed by flow cytometry. Therefore, three antimitotic agents, colchicine, oryzalin and amiprophos-methyl (APM), were applied in vitro to anther-derived cork oak haploid embryos from six genotypes at different concentrations and for different treatment durations. Antimitotic toxicity was determined by embryo survival. Efficiency in inducing chromosome doubling of haploid embryos was evaluated by flow cytometry measurements and differences were observed between treatments. Nuclear DNA duplication and embryo survival of cork oak haploid embryos was most efficiently induced with oryzalin 0.01 mM for 48 h. Around 50% diploid embryos were obtained. The rate of chromosome duplication induced by APM 0.01 mM was also acceptable but lower than that induced by oryzalin, regardless of the duration of the treatment. Colchicine 1.3 or 8.8 mM was the least efficient, with the induction of necrosis and only a small rate of nuclear DNA duplication.

  12. J/ψ -pair production at large momenta: Indications for double parton scatterings and large α$_s^5$ contributions

    CERN Document Server

    Lansberg, Jean-Philippe

    2015-01-01

    The recent observations of prompt J/psi-pair production by CMS at the LHC and by D0 at the Tevatron reveal the presence of different production mechanisms in different kinematical regions. We find out that next-to-leading-order single-parton-scattering contributions at alpha_s^5 dominate the yield at large transverse momenta of the pair. Our analysis further emphasises the importance of double-parton-scatterings --which are expected to dominate the yield at large rapidity differences-- at large invariant masses of the pair in the CMS acceptance. In addition, we provide the first exact --gauge-invariant and infrared-safe-- evaluation of a class of leading-P_T next-to-next-to-leading-order contributions, which are dominant in the region of large sub-leading transverse momenta, precisely where the colour-octet contributions can be non-negligible. Finally, we discuss the contribution from decays of excited charmonium states within both single- and double-parton scatterings and suggest measurements to distinguish ...

  13. Single and double production of the Higgs boson at hadron and lepton colliders in minimal composite Higgs models

    CERN Document Server

    Kanemura, Shinya; Machida, Naoki; Odori, Shinya; Shindou, Tetsuo

    2016-01-01

    In the composite Higgs models, originally proposed by Georgi and Kaplan, the Higgs boson is a pseudo Nambu-Goldstone boson (pNGB) of spontaneous breaking of a global symmetry. In the minimal version of such models, global SO(5) symmetry is spontaneously broken to SO(4), and the pNGBs form an isospin doublet field, which corresponds to the Higgs doublet in the Standard Model (SM). Predicted coupling constants of the Higgs boson can in general deviate from the SM predictions, depending on the compositeness parameter. The deviation pattern is determined also by the detail of the matter sector. We comprehensively study how the model can be tested via measuring single and double production processes of the Higgs boson at LHC and future electron-positron colliders. The possibility to distinguish the matter sector among the minimal composite Higgs models is also discussed. In addition, we point out differences in the cross section of double Higgs boson production from the prediction in other new physics models.

  14. Diffractive and ultraperipheral physics with ALICE

    CERN Document Server

    Schicker, Rainer

    2008-01-01

    The ALICE experiment consists of a central barrel, a muon spe ctrometer, zero degree calorimeters and additional detectors for trigger and event classificati on purposes. Such a geometry allows the implementation of a double gap trigger. A diffractive physi cs program of ALICE is outlined and a few specific reaction channels are discussed in order to ill ustrate the interest in such a diffractive physics program

  15. Beamline I11 at Diamond: a new instrument for high resolution powder diffraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, S P; Parker, J E; Potter, J; Hill, T P; Birt, A; Cobb, T M; Yuan, F; Tang, C C

    2009-07-01

    The performance characteristics of a new synchrotron x-ray powder diffraction beamline (I11) at the Diamond Light Source are presented. Using an in-vacuum undulator for photon production and deploying simple x-ray optics centered around a double-crystal monochromator and a pair of harmonic rejection mirrors, a high brightness and low bandpass x-ray beam is delivered at the sample. To provide fast data collection, 45 Si(111) analyzing crystals and detectors are installed onto a large and high precision diffractometer. High resolution powder diffraction data from standard reference materials of Si, alpha-quartz, and LaB6 are used to characterize instrumental performance.

  16. Life cycle assessment of the transesterification double step process for biodiesel production from refined soybean oil in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Monica; da Silva, Elson Santos; Andersen, Silvia L F; Abrahão, Raphael

    2016-06-01

    Biodiesel has been attracting considerable attention as being a renewable, biodegradable, and nontoxic fuel that can contribute to the solution of some energy issues as it presents potential to help mitigate climate change. The Life Cycle Assessment of biodiesel from soybean oil (transesterification double step process) was carried out herein. A pilot plant was considered, designed to produce 72 L of biodiesel in daily continuous flow, throughout a lifetime of 15 years (8000 annual hours). The materials and equipment utilized in the construction of the plant were considered as well as the energy and substances required for the production of biodiesel. Environmental impact assessment method IPCC 2013 GWP 100a was utilized within the SimaPro software to express the final result in kg CO2-equivalent. The results quantified the CO2 emissions associated with biodiesel production throughout the lifetime of the production plant (15 years), resulting in a total value of 1,441,426.05 kg CO2-eq. (96,095.07 kg CO2-eq. per year), which was equivalent to 4.01 kg CO2-eq. per liter of biodiesel produced. Decrease of environmental loads associated with the production of biodiesel could include improvements on the handling of biomass agriculture and on the technology production of biodiesel.

  17. Production of 82Se enriched Zinc Selenide (ZnSe) crystals for the study of neutrinoless double beta decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dafinei, I.; Nagorny, S.; Pirro, S.; Cardani, L.; Clemenza, M.; Ferroni, F.; Laubenstein, M.; Nisi, S.; Pattavina, L.; Schaeffner, K.; di Vacri, M. L.; Boyarintsev, A.; Breslavskii, I.; Galkin, S.; Lalayants, A.; Rybalka, I.; Zvereva, V.; Enculescu, M.

    2017-10-01

    High purity Zinc Selenide (ZnSe) crystals are produced starting from elemental Zn and Se to be used for the search of the neutrinoless double beta decay (0νDBD) of 82Se. In order to increase the number of emitting nuclides, enriched 82Se is used. Dedicated production lines for the synthesis and conditioning of the Zn82Se powder in order to make it suitable for crystal growth were assembled compliant with radio-purity constraints specific to rare event physics experiments. Besides routine check of impurities concentration, high sensitivity measurements are made for radio-isotope concentrations in raw materials, reactants, consumables, ancillaries and intermediary products used for ZnSe crystals production. Indications are given on the crystals perfection and how it is achieved. Since very expensive isotopically enriched material (82Se) is used, a special attention is given for acquiring the maximum yield in the mass balance of all production stages. Production and certification protocols are presented and resulting ready-to-use Zn82Se crystals are described.

  18. Study of soot production for double injections of n-dodecane in CI engine-like conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moiz, Ahmed Abdul; Ameen, Muhsin M.; Lee, Seong-Young; Som, Sibendu

    2016-11-01

    Soot production mechanism in multiple injections is complex since it involves its dependence on turbulent interactions of constituting injections and their combustion progress. A concise study was performed in a constant-volume combustion vessel by considering a double injection scheme of 0.3 ms pilot injection, 0.5 ms dwell time and 1.2 ms main injection (nomenclature: 0.3/0.5/12 ms) with n-dodecane as fuel and replicating the thermodynamic operating condition of a compression ignition (CI) engine. Experimental ambient temperature variations of 900 K and 800 K were performed at 15% ambient oxygen level. Simultaneous planar laser-induced fluorescence (PUP) of formaldehyde and schlieren imaging techniques were employed to analyze the ignition and flame characteristics experimentally. These studies revealed almost similar heat release rates for a double injection at 900 K and 800 K ambient gas temperatures due to combustion of a longer main injection which is enhanced by pilot combustion event A lower soot production for 800 K ambient condition over 900 K case was observed, which was concluded to be due to its higher lift-off length which would allow for a leaner combustion of fuel-air mixtures. Numerical simulations were performed using a Large Eddy Simulation (LES) approach by extensively validating the 900 K double injection condition with respect to non-reacting vapor penetration profiles of both injections, reacting jet heat release rate and spatial as well as temporal (qualitative) soot production. As part of LES work, a dwell time variation of 0.65 ms (0.3/0.65/1.2 ms) was performed to reveal the sensitivity of soot production to variations in dwell time. It was observed numerically that marginally higher quasi steady lift-off length of the 0.3/0.65/1.2 ms injection causes increased entrainment of surrounding oxygen into the flame region. This leads to combustion of slightly leaner fuel-air mixture and hence relatively less soot when compared to a 0

  19. Diffraction coherence in optics

    CERN Document Server

    Françon, M; Green, L L

    2013-01-01

    Diffraction: Coherence in Optics presents a detailed account of the course on Fraunhofer diffraction phenomena, studied at the Faculty of Science in Paris. The publication first elaborates on Huygens' principle and diffraction phenomena for a monochromatic point source and diffraction by an aperture of simple form. Discussions focus on diffraction at infinity and at a finite distance, simplified expressions for the field, calculation of the path difference, diffraction by a rectangular aperture, narrow slit, and circular aperture, and distribution of luminous flux in the airy spot. The book th

  20. Testing the Scale Dependence of the Scale Factor $\\sigma_{eff}$ in Double Dijet Production at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Domdey, Svend; Wiedemann, Urs Achim

    2010-01-01

    The scale factor σ eff is the effective cross section used to characterize the measured rate of inclusive double dijet production in high energy hadron collisions. It is sensitive to the two-parton distributions in the hadronic projectile. In principle, the scale factor depends on the center of mass energy and on the minimal transverse energy of the jets contributing to the double dijet cross section. Here, we point out that proton-proton collisions at the LHC will provide for the first time experimental access to these scale dependences in a logarithmically wide, nominally perturbative kinematic range of minimal transverse energy between 10 GeV and 100 GeV. This constrains the dependence of two-parton distribution functions on parton momentum fractions and parton localization in impact parameter space. Novel information is to be expected about the transverse growth of hadronic distribution functions in the range of semi-hard Bjorken x (0.001 < x < 0.1) and high resolution Q^2. We discuss to what exten...

  1. Combined chiral and diquark fluctuations along QCD critical line and enhanced baryon production with parity doubling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Zhao [North China Electric Power University, School of Mathematics and Physics, Beijing (China); Kunihiro, Teiji [Kyoto University, Department of Physics, Kyoto (Japan)

    2016-08-15

    We argue that there should exist the large combined fluctuations of chiral and diquark condensates along the phase boundary of QCD at moderately high density and relatively low temperature. Such fluctuations might lead to anomalous production of nucleons and its parity partner, which we propose to detect at NICA. (orig.)

  2. X-Ray Diffraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D. K.; Smith, K. L.

    1980-01-01

    Reviews applications in research and analytical characterization of compounds and materials in the field of X-ray diffraction, emphasizing new developments in applications and instrumentation in both single crystal and powder diffraction. Cites 414 references. (CS)

  3. X-Ray Diffraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D. K.; Smith, K. L.

    1980-01-01

    Reviews applications in research and analytical characterization of compounds and materials in the field of X-ray diffraction, emphasizing new developments in applications and instrumentation in both single crystal and powder diffraction. Cites 414 references. (CS)

  4. New diffractive results from the Tevatron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallinaro, Michele; /Rockefeller U.

    2005-05-01

    Experimental results in diffractive processes are summarized and a few notable characteristics described in terms of Quantum Chromodynamics. Exclusive dijet production is used to establish a benchmark for future experiments in the quest for diffractive Higgs production at the Large Hadron Collider. Using new data from the Tevatron and dedicated diffractive triggers, no excess over a smooth falling distribution for exclusive dijet events could be found. Stringent upper limits on the exclusive dijet production cross section are presented. The quark/gluon composition of dijet final states is used to provide additional hints on exclusive dijet production.

  5. Hydrogen production by draTGB hupL double mutant of Rhodospirillum rubrum under different light conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Ruiyan; WANG Di; ZHANG Yaoping; LI Jilun

    2006-01-01

    To increase H2 yield of Rhodospirillum rubrum in two-stage hydrogen production process,two deletion mutants were constructed. One is single mutant designated R. rubrum UR801 that deleted hupL gene encoding the large subunit of uptake hydrogenase, and the other is a double mutant designated R. rubrum UR805 lacked both draTGB encoding regulators for the activity of nitrogenase and hupL.Comparing H2 yields of two mutants with R. rubrum UR2 (wild type) and UR472 (△draTGB) under different light conditions, the results showed that the H2 yield of R. rubrum UR801 under continuous light is the highest (5700 mL of H2 per liter culture), and it is 1.56, 2.24 and 2.32-fold that of R. rubrum UR2,UR472 and UR805, respectively. However, the total H2 yield of R. rubrum UR805 in two-stage hydrogen production process is the highest (4303 mL/L), and it is 1.35, 1.21 and 1.04-fold that of R. rubrum UR2,UR801 and UR472, respectively. Thus, R. rubrum UR805 might be a valuable strain to produce a large amount of hydrogen in two-stage hydrogen production process.

  6. Neutron production from beam-modifying devices in a modern double scattering proton therapy beam delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Andújar, Angélica; Newhauser, Wayne D; Deluca, Paul M

    2009-02-21

    In this work the neutron production in a passive beam delivery system was investigated. Secondary particles including neutrons are created as the proton beam interacts with beam shaping devices in the treatment head. Stray neutron exposure to the whole body may increase the risk that the patient develops a radiogenic cancer years or decades after radiotherapy. We simulated a passive proton beam delivery system with double scattering technology to determine the neutron production and energy distribution at 200 MeV proton energy. Specifically, we studied the neutron absorbed dose per therapeutic absorbed dose, the neutron absorbed dose per source particle and the neutron energy spectrum at various locations around the nozzle. We also investigated the neutron production along the nozzle's central axis. The absorbed doses and neutron spectra were simulated with the MCNPX Monte Carlo code. The simulations revealed that the range modulation wheel (RMW) is the most intense neutron source of any of the beam spreading devices within the nozzle. This finding suggests that it may be helpful to refine the design of the RMW assembly, e.g., by adding local shielding, to suppress neutron-induced damage to components in the nozzle and to reduce the shielding thickness of the treatment vault. The simulations also revealed that the neutron dose to the patient is predominated by neutrons produced in the field defining collimator assembly, located just upstream of the patient.

  7. Embryo Incision as a New Technique for Double Seedling Production of Indonesian Elite Coconut Type “Kopyor”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sisunandar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the present major limitations of seedling production of kopyor type coconut using embryo culture is that only one seedling can be produced from a single embryo. Therefore, we report on the development of a new breakthrough technique for the production of double seedlings from a single embryo. The technique consists of four steps, viz. (i germination; (ii incision; (iii splitting; and (iv recovery. A histological study was carried out on the development of the halved embryo into a new shoot. The best recovery process was obtained when the incised embryo was split into two and recovered into Murashige and Skoog (MS medium supplemented with 2 μM IBA and 15 μM kinetin. Following this protocol, an average of 56 shoots was successfully recovered from 30 zygotic embryos. The histological study also revealed that the meristem tissue of the halved embryo was able to produce a new meristem and primordial leaf. Most of the shoots then went on to produce normal seedlings and could be acclimatized successfully after having developed 2 or 3 leaves. This protocol is useful for routine seedling production of the kopyor-type coconut.

  8. Robustness via Diffractal Architectures

    CERN Document Server

    Moocarme, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    When plane waves diffract through fractal-patterned apertures, the resulting far-field profiles or diffractals also exhibit iterated, self-similar features. Here we show that this specific architecture enables robust signal processing and spatial multiplexing: arbitrary parts of a diffractal contain sufficient information to recreate the entire original sparse signal.

  9. Mass-corrections to double-Higgs production & TopoID

    CERN Document Server

    Grigo, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    We consider power corrections due to a finite top quark mass M_t to the production of a Higgs boson pair within the Standard Model at next-to-leading order (NLO) in QCD. Previous calculations for this process and at this precision were done in the limit of an inifinitely heavy top quark. Our results for the inclusive production cross section at NLO include terms up to O(1/M_t^12). We present the Mathematica package TopoID which for arbitrary processes aims to perform the necessary steps from Feynman diagrams to unrenormalized results expressed in terms of master integrals. We employ it for advancing in this process towards next-to-next-to-leading order (NNLO) where further automatization is needed.

  10. A double-step Savonius rotor for local production of electricity: a design study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menet, J.L. [Valenciennes Univ. (France). Groupe de Recherche Energies et Environnement

    2004-09-01

    This paper presents a study, carried out with the help of the French Agency of Innovation (ANVAR). It deals with the conception of a small Savonius rotor (i.e. of low power) for local production of electricity. Our challenge was to design, develop and ultimately build a prototype of such a rotor, which was considered as a complete electromechanical system. An optimised configuration was chosen for the geometry of the present prototype. The building data were calculated on the basis of the nominal wind velocity V=10 m/s. Particular care was necessary to choose the appropriate generator, which was finally a rewound conventional car alternator. The whole design of the prototype has confirmed the high efficiency and the low technicality of the Savonius rotors for local production of electricity. The present prototype is to be tested in situ. (author)

  11. High-Tech Products and the Double Adverse Selection: Does Commercial Distribution Worsen Efficiency?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessio Emanuele BIONDO

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We all know that information about products drives consumption choices. But knowledge comes first. Without the correct consciousness about products, even with complete information inefficient outcomes may result. The adverse selection problem is revisited in this paper, successfully interpreting what happens any time when, even if a contract is complete and the information about the good being sold known, consumers either do not know enough about the existence of some relevant characteristic of products, or do not fully understand their specifications. One can argue that intermediaries (e.g., shop-assistants can solve the issue. But, unfortunately, this is not true. Intermediaries affect market mechanism, alter consumption experiences and can even create incentives for firms to cheat. This implies that high quality firms should quit commercial distribution to create self-owned mono brand dedicated shops, where assistants are educated (since they work directly for the producer, any asymmetry is equilibrated and the incentive to cheat for firms is ceased. The total social welfare will be increased and, in qualitative terms, consumers buy something that fits better their preferences.

  12. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis dysregulation and double product increases potentiate ischemic heart disease risk in a Black male cohort: the SABPA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malan, Leoné; Schutte, Christiaan E; Alkerwi, Ala'a; Stranges, Saverio; Malan, Nicolaas T

    2017-06-01

    Emotional distress has been associated with a poorer prognosis in myocardial infarction patients. Elevated adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH), lower cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) and cortisol:DHEAS, as measures of emotional distress, might correlate with silent myocardial ischemia (SMI) and workload. Thus, we assessed the relationship between emotional distress, SMI and double product (systolic blood pressure (SBP) × heart rate). Cross-sectional South African biethnic single-set cohorts (N=378), aged 44.7±9.52 years, were investigated. Depressive symptoms (Patient Health Questionnaire-9), anthropometric, fasting blood, 24-h double product and 24-h 2-lead electrocardiogram (ST-segment depression) values were obtained. Blacks, mostly men, had increased depressive symptoms, hyperglycemia, SMI, double product, SBP hypertension and ACTH but lower cortisol, DHEAS and cortisol:DHEAS than their White counterparts. Black men had the highest combined SBP hypertension and below-median cortisol prevalence, 38%, compared with 5.9-13.8% in the other groups. Their SMI was associated with ACTH and cortisol:DHEAS (adj. R(2) 0.29; β 0.27-0.31 (0.12-0.64); P⩽0.05), double product (adj. R(2) 0.29; β 0.38 (0.18-0.57); P=0.050) and SBP hypertension (area under the curve: 0.68 (95% CI: 0.56, 0.80); P=0.042; sensitivity/specificity 49/85%). Double product was positively associated with central obesity in all sex groups and with cortisol in the Black men (PHPAA) showed signs of a hyporesponsive adrenal cortex, suggesting chronic emotional stress in the Black male cohort. In this cohort, HPAA dysregulation and compensatory increases in double product occur as a potential defense mechanism to alleviate perfusion deficits, thereby potentiating ischemic heart disease risk.

  13. Production of aerogel double glazed units and measurement of key performance parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duer, Karsten; Svendsen, Sv Aa Højgaard

    1997-01-01

    By providing at the same time thermal insulation and transparency the silica aerogel is a very attractive material for the purpose of improving the thermal performance of windows. Nevertheless a lot of problems have to be solved on the way from concept to the developed product. The B1 Aerogels...... project in IEA SHCP Task 18 deals with some of these problems.This report summarizes the work that has been carried out on the subject of characterizing the optical and thermal performance of prototypical evacuated aerogel glazings produced in Denmark by means of a new edge seal technique with very small...

  14. Diffraction and interference of walking drops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pucci, Giuseppe; Harris, Daniel M.; Bush, John W. M.

    2016-11-01

    A decade ago, Yves Couder and Emmanuel Fort discovered a wave-particle association on the macroscopic scale: a drop can bounce indefinitely on a vibrating bath of the same liquid and can be piloted by the waves that it generates. These walking droplets have been shown to exhibit several quantum-like features, including single-particle diffraction and interference. Recently, the original diffraction and interference experiments of Couder and Fort have been revisited and contested. We have revisited this system using an improved experimental set-up, and observed a strong dependence of the behavior on system parameters, including drop size and vibrational forcing. In both the single- and the double-slit geometries, the diffraction pattern is dominated by the interaction of the walking droplet with a planar boundary. Critically, in the double-slit geometry, the walking droplet is influenced by both slits by virtue of its spatially extended wave field. NSF support via CMMI-1333242.

  15. Acid-base and catalytic properties of the products of oxidative thermolysis of double complex compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pechenyuk, S. I.; Semushina, Yu. P.; Kuz'mich, L. F.; Ivanov, Yu. V.

    2016-01-01

    Acid-base properties of the products of thermal decomposition of [M(A)6] x; [M1(L)6] y (where M is Co, Cr, Cu, Ni; M1 is Fe, Cr, Co; A is NH3, 1/2 en, 1/2 pn, CO(NH2)2; and L is CN, 1/2C2O4) binary complexes in air and their catalytic properties in the oxidation reaction of ethanol with atmospheric oxygen are studied. It is found that these thermolysis products are mixed oxides of the central atoms of complexes characterized by pH values of the zero charge point in the region of 4-9, OH-group sorption limits from 1 × 10-4 to 4.5 × 10-4 g-eq/g, OH-group surface concentrations of 10-50 nm-2 in 0.1 M NaCl solutions, and S sp from 3 to 95 m2/g. Their catalytic activity is estimated from the apparent rate constant of the conversion of ethanol in CO2. The values of constants are (1-6.5) × 10-5 s-1, depending on the gas flow rate and the S sp value.

  16. Roper resonance—Its static and dynamic properties from single- and double-pion production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skorodko, T.; Bashkanov, M.; Clement, H.; Doroshkevich, E.; Khakimova, O.; Kren, F.; Wagner, G. J.; The Celsius-Wasa Collaboration

    2008-07-01

    In most investigations the Roper resonance is sensed only very indirectly via complex partial wave analyses. We find indications for its excitation in the pp→npπ+ reaction, where some resonance-like structure is observed in the invariant nπ+ mass spectrum at M≈1360 MeV with a width of 150 MeV. The values fit very favorably to the most recent phase shift results as well as to the observations at BES. In near-threshold two-pion production pp→ppπ0π0 the Roper excitation and its subsequent decay into Nππ is the only dominant process. There we find its decay into the Nσ channel as the dominating decay process - in favor of a monopole nature of the Roper excitation.

  17. Exclusive Diffraction at HERA and Beyond

    CERN Document Server

    Fazio, S

    2010-01-01

    The exclusive diffractive production of vector mesons and real photons in ep collisions has been studied at HERA in a wide kinematic range. Here the most recent experimental results are presented together with a Regge-type model and projects for new diffractive studies at LHC.

  18. Double-real corrections at O(alpha alpha_s) to single gauge boson production

    CERN Document Server

    Bonciani, Roberto; Mondini, Roberto; Vicini, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    We consider the O(alpha alpha_s) corrections to single on-shell gauge boson production at hadron colliders. We concentrate on the contribution of all the subprocesses where the gauge boson is accompanied by the emission of two additional real partons and we evaluate the corresponding total cross sections. The latter are divergent quantities, because of soft and collinear emissions, and are expressed as Laurent series in the dimensional regularization parameter. The total cross sections are evaluated by means of reverse unitarity, i.e. expressing the phase-space integrals in terms of two-loop forward box integrals with cuts on the final state particles. The results are reduced to a combination of Master Integrals, which eventually are evaluated in terms of Generalized Polylogarithms. The presence of internal massive lines in the Feynman diagrams, due to the exchange of electroweak gauge bosons, causes the appearance of 14 Master Integrals which were not previously known in the literature and have been evaluate...

  19. Excitation of the Roper resonance in single- and double-pion production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skorodko, T.; Clement, H.; Bashkanov, M.; Doroshkevich, E.; Khakimova, O.; Kren, F.; Wagner, G. [Physikalisches Inst., Univ. Tuebingen (Germany); Kaskulov, M. [Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik, Univ. Giessen (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    The Roper resonance has been a puzzle ever since its detection in {pi}N phase shifts. In most investigations no apparent resonance signatures could be found in the observables. Not only its nature has been a matter of permanent debate, also its resonance parameters show a big scatter in their values. In the pp {yields} np{pi}{sup +} reaction measured at CELSIUS-WASA at several energies a pronounced resonance structure at M{sub n{pi}{sup +}} {approx} 1350 MeV with {gamma} {approx} 140 MeV has been found. These numbers agree very favourably with recent SAID {pi}N phase shift results for the Roper pole as well as with the very recent BES results from J/{psi} {yields} NN*. With the pole position being roughly 100 MeV below the previously believed value of the N*(1440), also its decay branchings (defined at the pole position) change dramatically. From near-threshold two-pion production, when Roper excitation is the only significant process, we find the decay N* {yields} N{sigma} to be the by far dominant process pointing to a breathing mode nature of the Roper resonance. (orig.)

  20. Application of powder X-ray diffraction and the Rietveld method to the analysis of oxidation processes and products in sulphidic mine tailings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balic Zunic, Tonci; Katerinopoulou, Anna; Edsberg, Anders

    2011-01-01

    The main strength of the Rietveld method as a tool for quantitative phase analysis lies in its ability to control and correct various parameters which influence powder diffraction patterns. The main sources of errors in this type of analysis are due to differences in properties of various constit...

  1. Diffractive Z/γ* → μ+μ- boson production in proton - antiproton collisions at√s = 1.96 TeV in the D0 experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendoza Navas, Luis Miguel [Univ. of the Andes, Bogota (Columbia)

    2007-07-01

    Measurements of the inclusive diffractive Z → μ+μ- cross section with gap requirement for Mμμ > 40 GeV at √s = 1.96 TeV and fraction of Z bosons produced diffractively with gap requirement from Z inclusive production are presented. The measurements are performed using a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 820 pb-1, collected with the D0 detector at the Tevatron, between 2002 to 2005. A total of 39945 di-muons events are selected and final results of: σ$gap\\atop{Diff}$ x Br(Z/γ* → μ+μ-) = 4.09 ± 0.64(stat.) ± 0.88(syst.) ± 0.27(lumi.) pb and, R$gap\\atop{Diff}$ = 1.92 ± 0.30(stat.) ± 0.41(syst.) ± 0.12(lumi) % are obtained. In addition, dσ/dζ and dσ/dy distributions are presented and they are compared with diffractive montecarlo (POMWIG). A reasonable agreement is obtained in this comparation. Finally, comparison of fraction of Z bosons produced diffractively with gap requirement (gap fraction) as measured with D0 during Run I of the Tevatron is compared. A good agreement is found for gap fraction results.

  2. Doubling Food Production to Feed the 9 Billion: A Critical Perspective on a Key Discourse of Food Security in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, Isobel

    2013-01-01

    Within the emergent international policy arena of "food security", the imperative to double global food production by 2050 has become ubiquitous. This statistic, as well as a revised figure of a 70% increase by 2050, have been widely used by key individuals in the food policy arena and have come to play a significant role in framing current UK and…

  3. Doubling Food Production to Feed the 9 Billion: A Critical Perspective on a Key Discourse of Food Security in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, Isobel

    2013-01-01

    Within the emergent international policy arena of "food security", the imperative to double global food production by 2050 has become ubiquitous. This statistic, as well as a revised figure of a 70% increase by 2050, have been widely used by key individuals in the food policy arena and have come to play a significant role in framing…

  4. Measurements of double-helicity asymmetries in inclusive $J/\\psi$ production in longitudinally polarized $p+p$ collisions at $\\sqrt{s}=510$ GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Adare, A.; Ajitanand, N.N.; Akiba, Y.; Akimoto, R.; Alfred, M.; Apadula, N.; Aramaki, Y.; Asano, H.; Atomssa, E.T.; Awes, T.C.; Azmoun, B.; Babintsev, V.; Bai, M.; Bandara, N.S.; Bannier, B.; Barish, K.N.; Bathe, S.; Bazilevsky, A.; Beaumier, M.; Beckman, S.; Belmont, R.; Berdnikov, A.; Berdnikov, Y.; Black, D.; Blau, D.S.; Bok, J.S.; Boyle, K.; Brooks, M.L.; Bryslawskyj, J.; Buesching, H.; Bumazhnov, V.; Campbell, S.; Chen, C. -H.; Chi, C.Y.; Chiu, M.; Choi, I.J.; Choi, J.B.; Chujo, T.; Citron, Z.; Csanád, M.; Csörgő, T.; Danley, T.W.; Datta, A.; Daugherity, M.S.; David, G.; DeBlasio, K.; Dehmelt, K.; Denisov, A.; Deshpande, A.; Desmond, E.J.; Ding, L.; Dion, A.; Diss, P.B.; Do, J.H.; Drees, A.; Drees, K.A.; Durham, J.M.; Durum, A.; Enokizono, A.; En'yo, H.; Esumi, S.; Fadem, B.; Feege, N.; Fields, D.E.; Finger, M.; Finger,, M.; Fokin, S.L.; Frantz, J.E.; Franz, A.; Frawley, A.D.; Gal, C.; Gallus, P.; Garg, P.; Ge, H.; Giordano, F.; Glenn, A.; Goto, Y.; Grau, N.; Greene, S.V.; Grosse Perdekamp, M.; Gu, Y.; Gunji, T.; Guragain, H.; Hachiya, T.; Haggerty, J.S.; Hahn, K.I.; Hamagaki, H.; Hamilton, H.F.; Han, S.Y.; Hanks, J.; Hasegawa, S.; Haseler, T.O.S.; Hashimoto, K.; He, X.; Hemmick, T.K.; Hill, J.C.; Hollis, R.S.; Homma, K.; Hong, B.; Hoshino, T.; Hotvedt, N.; Huang, J.; Huang, S.; Ikeda, Y.; Imai, K.; Imazu, Y.; Inaba, M.; Iordanova, A.; Isenhower, D.; Ivanishchev, D.; Jacak, B.V.; Jeon, S.J.; Jezghani, M.; Jia, J.; Jiang, X.; Johnson, B.M.; Joo, E.; Joo, K.S.; Jouan, D.; Jumper, D.S.; Kanda, S.; Kang, J.H.; Kang, J.S.; Kawall, D.; Kazantsev, A.V.; Key, J.A.; Khachatryan, V.; Khanzadeev, A.; Kihara, K.; Kim, C.; Kim, D.H.; Kim, D.J.; Kim, E. -J.; Kim, G.W.; Kim, H. -J.; Kim, M.; Kim, Y.K.; Kimelman, B.; Kistenev, E.; Kitamura, R.; Klatsky, J.; Kleinjan, D.; Kline, P.; Koblesky, T.; Kofarago, M.; Komkov, B.; Koster, J.; Kotov, D.; Kurita, K.; Kurosawa, M.; Kwon, Y.; Lacey, R.; Lajoie, J.G.; Lebedev, A.; Lee, K.B.; Lee, S.; Lee, S.H.; Leitch, M.J.; Leitgab, M.; Li, X.; Lim, S.H.; Liu, M.X.; Lynch, D.; Makdisi, Y.I.; Makek, M.; Manion, A.; Manko, V.I.; Mannel, E.; McCumber, M.; McGaughey, P.L.; McGlinchey, D.; McKinney, C.; Meles, A.; Mendoza, M.; Meredith, B.; Miake, Y.; Mignerey, A.C.; Miller, A.J.; Milov, A.; Mishra, D.K.; Mitchell, J.T.; Miyasaka, S.; Mizuno, S.; Mohanty, A.K.; Montuenga, P.; Moon, T.; Morrison, D.P.; Moukhanova, T.V.; Murakami, T.; Murata, J.; Mwai, A.; Nagamiya, S.; Nagashima, K.; Nagle, J.L.; Nagy, M.I.; Nakagawa, I.; Nakagomi, H.; Nakano, K.; Nattrass, C.; Netrakanti, P.K.; Nihashi, M.; Niida, T.; Nishimura, S.; Nouicer, R.; Novák, T.; Novitzky, N.; Nyanin, A.S.; O'Brien, E.; Ogilvie, C.A.; Orjuela Koop, J. D.; Osborn, J.D.; Oskarsson, A.; Ozawa, K.; Pak, R.; Pantuev, V.; Papavassiliou, V.; Park, J.S.; Park, S.; Pate, S.F.; Patel, L.; Patel, M.; Peng, J. -C.; Perepelitsa, D.V.; Perera, G.D.N.; Peressounko, D. Yu.; Perry, J.; Petti, R.; Pinkenburg, C.; Pinson, R.; Pisani, R.P.; Purschke, M.L.; Rak, J.; Ramson, B.J.; Ravinovich, I.; Read, K.F.; Reynolds, D.; Riabov, V.; Riabov, Y.; Rinn, T.; Riveli, N.; Roach, D.; Rolnick, S.D.; Rosati, M.; Rowan, Z.; Rubin, J.G.; Sahlmueller, B.; Saito, N.; Sakaguchi, T.; Sako, H.; Samsonov, V.; Sarsour, M.; Sato, S.; Sawada, S.; Schaefer, B.; Schmoll, B.K.; Sedgwick, K.; Seele, J.; Seidl, R.; Sen, A.; Seto, R.; Sett, P.; Sexton, A.; Sharma, D.; Shein, I.; Shibata, T. -A.; Shigaki, K.; Shimomura, M.; Shukla, P.; Sickles, A.; Silva, C.L.; Silvermyr, D.; Singh, B.K.; Singh, C.P.; Singh, V.; Slunečka, M.; Snowball, M.; Soltz, R.A.; Sondheim, W.E.; Sorensen, S.P.; Sourikova, I.V.; Stankus, P.W.; Stepanov, M.; Stoll, S.P.; Sugitate, T.; Sukhanov, A.; Sumita, T.; Sun, J.; Sziklai, J.; Takahara, A.; Taketani, A.; Tanida, K.; Tannenbaum, M.J.; Tarafdar, S.; Taranenko, A.; Tieulent, R.; Timilsina, A.; Todoroki, T.; Tomášek, M.; Torii, H.; Towell, C.L.; Towell, M.; Towell, R.; Towell, R.S.; Tserruya, I.; van Hecke, H.W.; Vargyas, M.; Velkovska, J.; Virius, M.; Vrba, V.; Vznuzdaev, E.; Wang, X.R.; Watanabe, D.; Watanabe, Y.; Watanabe, Y.S.; Wei, F.; Whitaker, S.; White, A.S.; Wolin, S.; Woody, C.L.; Wysocki, M.; Xia, B.; Xue, L.; Yalcin, S.; Yamaguchi, Y.L.; Yanovich, A.; Yoo, J.H.; Yoon, I.; Younus, I.; Yu, H.; Yushmanov, I.E.; Zajc, W.A.; Zelenski, A.; Zhou, S.; Zou, L.

    2016-01-01

    We report the double helicity asymmetry, $A_{LL}^{J/\\psi}$, in inclusive $J/\\psi$ production at forward rapidity as a function of transverse momentum $p_T$ and rapidity $|y|$. The data analyzed were taken during $\\sqrt{s}=510$ GeV longitudinally polarized $p

  5. Doubling Food Production to Feed the 9 Billion: A Critical Perspective on a Key Discourse of Food Security in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, Isobel

    2013-01-01

    Within the emergent international policy arena of "food security", the imperative to double global food production by 2050 has become ubiquitous. This statistic, as well as a revised figure of a 70% increase by 2050, have been widely used by key individuals in the food policy arena and have come to play a significant role in framing…

  6. Induced Diffraction in Phase-Mismatched Second-Harmonic Generation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Wen-Hua; QIAN Lie-Jia; FU Xi-Quan; YANG Hua; ZHU He-Yuan

    2007-01-01

    We show analytically that in phase-mismatched second-harmonic generation,an effective diffraction is induced at the second-harmonic (SH) frequency.Numerical simulation results agree with the analytical predictions.Compared to the case of linear propagation,the effect of the overall diffraction at the SH frequency becomes doubled due to the induced diffraction,which causes an interesting result that the SH beam width will be larger than that of the fundamental field.

  7. Fiber diffraction without fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon, H-C; Schwander, P; Uddin, M; Saldin, D K

    2013-06-28

    Postprocessing of diffraction patterns of completely randomly oriented helical particles, as measured, for example, in so-called "diffract-and-destroy" experiments with an x-ray free electron laser can yield "fiber diffraction" patterns expected of fibrous bundles of the particles. This will allow "single-axis alignment" to be performed computationally, thus obviating the need to do this by experimental means such as forming fibers and laser or flow alignment. The structure of such particles may then be found by either iterative phasing methods or standard methods of fiber diffraction.

  8. Modern diffraction methods

    CERN Document Server

    Mittemeijer, E J

    2013-01-01

    The role of diffraction methods for the solid-state sciences has been pivotal to determining the (micro)structure of a material. Particularly, the expanding activities in materials science have led to the development of new methods for analysis by diffraction. This book offers an authoritative overview of the new developments in the field of analysis of matter by (in particular X-ray, electron and neutron) diffraction. It is composed of chapters written by leading experts on 'modern diffraction methods'. The focus in the various chapters of this book is on the current forefront of research on

  9. Robustness of Cantor diffractals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Rupesh; Sharma, Manoj Kumar; Banerjee, Varsha; Senthilkumaran, Paramasivam

    2013-04-08

    Diffractals are electromagnetic waves diffracted by a fractal aperture. In an earlier paper, we reported an important property of Cantor diffractals, that of redundancy [R. Verma et. al., Opt. Express 20, 8250 (2012)]. In this paper, we report another important property, that of robustness. The question we address is: How much disorder in the Cantor grating can be accommodated by diffractals to continue to yield faithfully its fractal dimension and generator? This answer is of consequence in a number of physical problems involving fractal architecture.

  10. Production of negative hydrogen ions in a large multicusp ion source with double-magnetic filter configuration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ando, A.; Takeiri, Y.; Kaneko, O.; Oka, Y.; Wada, M.; Kuroda, T.

    1992-05-01

    The production of the negative hydrogen ions in a large multicusp ion source has been investigated in a double-magnetic filter (DMF) configuration. In the DMF configuration, the energetic electrons are trapped by the mirror of a magnetic multicusp field, and only the thermal electrons are present in the center of the arc chamber. A large amount of H[sup -] ions of more than 1 x 10[sup 12] cm[sup -3] are produced in the center region. The electron current extracted with the H[sup -] ions can be suppressed by a magnetic filter field in front of a plasma grid without affecting the H[sup -] ion current. The experimental data obtained in the DMF configuration are compared with those obtained in a single-magnetic filter (SMF) configuration. In the SMF configuration, the energetic electrons are present in the center region, and the magnetic filter in front of a plasma grid reduces the electron density and temperature, which results in the reduction of H[sup -] ion current as well as the electron current. The extracted electron current and the optimum gas pressure for the H[sup -] ion current are lower in the DMF configuration that those in the SMF configuration. (author).

  11. Production of negative hydrogen ions in a large multicusp ion source with double-magnetic filter configuration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ando, A.; Takeiri, Y.; Kaneko, O.; Oka, Y.; Wada, M.; Kuroda, T.

    1992-05-01

    The production of the negative hydrogen ions in a large multicusp ion source has been investigated in a double-magnetic filter (DMF) configuration. In the DMF configuration, the energetic electrons are trapped by the mirror of a magnetic multicusp field, and only the thermal electrons are present in the center of the arc chamber. A large amount of H{sup -} ions of more than 1 x 10{sup 12} cm{sup -3} are produced in the center region. The electron current extracted with the H{sup -} ions can be suppressed by a magnetic filter field in front of a plasma grid without affecting the H{sup -} ion current. The experimental data obtained in the DMF configuration are compared with those obtained in a single-magnetic filter (SMF) configuration. In the SMF configuration, the energetic electrons are present in the center region, and the magnetic filter in front of a plasma grid reduces the electron density and temperature, which results in the reduction of H{sup -} ion current as well as the electron current. The extracted electron current and the optimum gas pressure for the H{sup -} ion current are lower in the DMF configuration that those in the SMF configuration. (author).

  12. Acute resistance exercise with blood flow restriction effects on heart rate, double product, oxygen saturation and perceived exertion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neto, Gabriel R; Sousa, Maria S C; Costa e Silva, Gabriel V; Gil, Ana L S; Salles, Belmiro F; Novaes, Jefferson S

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the acute effect of resistance exercise (RE) with and without blood flow restriction (BFR) on heart rate (HR), double product (DP), oxygen saturation (SpO2 ) and rating of perceived exertion (RPE). Twenty-four men (21·79 ± 3·21 years) performed three experimental protocols in a random order (crossover): (i) high-intensity RE at 80% of 1RM (HI), (ii) low-intensity RE at 20% of 1RM (LI) and (iii) low-intensity RE at 20% of 1RM combined with partial blood flow restriction (LI+BFR). HR, blood pressure, SpO2 and RPE were assessed. The data were analysed using repeated measures analysis of variance and the Wilcoxon test for RPE. The results indicated that all protocols significantly increased HR, both immediately postexercise and during the subsequent 60 min (Pexercise and increase HR and DP while maintaining a perception of greater exertion on the lower limbs. © 2014 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. All-optical production of a large Bose-Einstein condensate in a double compressible crossed dipole trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Kazuya; Hanasaki, Kouhei; Ando, Akihiro; Takahama, Masahiro; Kinoshita, Toshiya

    2017-01-01

    We report on an all-optical production of a 87Rb Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) of 106 atoms. We construct a double compressible crossed dipole trap (DCDT) formed by a high-power multimode fiber laser (MCDT) and a single-mode fiber amplifier (SCDT), which are both operated at 1.06 μ m . A very cold dense gas is first cooled by polarization gradient cooling in a three-dimensional optical lattice. More than 2 ×107 atoms are loaded into the enlarged DCDT. Both CDTs are then simultaneously compressed to significantly different sizes followed by evaporation, which is performed by lowering only the MCDT power. The tighter SCDT produces an extremely high collision rate and maintains the trap stiffness, which leads to rapid and efficient evaporation. After 0.4 s, a gas of 5 ×106 atoms with a phase-space density of 0.2 is confined within the SCDT alone. Further evaporation in 2.8 s yields a nearly pure BEC of 1.2 ×106 atoms in the |F mF>=|11 > state. This number is the largest generated among all-optical methods. Our approach significantly improves the atom number of a condensate and circumvents the severe atom loss previously reported for multimode fiber lasers.

  14. Diffraction based overlay re-assessed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leray, Philippe; Laidler, David; D'havé, Koen; Cheng, Shaunee

    2011-03-01

    In recent years, numerous authors have reported the advantages of Diffraction Based Overlay (DBO) over Image Based Overlay (IBO), mainly by comparison of metrology figures of merit such as TIS and TMU. Some have even gone as far as to say that DBO is the only viable overlay metrology technique for advanced technology nodes; 22nm and beyond. Typically the only reported drawback of DBO is the size of the required targets. This severely limits its effective use, when all critical layers of a product, including double patterned layers need to be measured, and in-die overlay measurements are required. In this paper we ask whether target size is the only limitation to the adoption of DBO for overlay characterization and control, or are there other metrics, which need to be considered. For example, overlay accuracy with respect to scanner baseline or on-product process overlay control? In this work, we critically re-assess the strengths and weaknesses of DBO for the applications of scanner baseline and on-product process layer overlay control. A comprehensive comparison is made to IBO. For on product process layer control we compare the performance on critical process layers; Gate, Contact and Metal. In particularly we focus on the response of the scanner to the corrections determined by each metrology technique for each process layer, as a measure of the accuracy. Our results show that to characterize an overlay metrology technique that is suitable for use in advanced technology nodes requires much more than just evaluating the conventional metrology metrics of TIS and TMU.

  15. Preliminary consideration of a double, 480 GeV, fast cycling proton accelerator for production of neutrino beams at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piekarz, Henryk; Hays, Steven; /Fermilab

    2007-03-01

    We propose to build the DSF-MR (Double Super-Ferric Main Ring), 480 GeV, fast-cycling (2 second repetition rate) two-beam proton accelerator in the Main Ring tunnel of Fermilab. This accelerator design is based on the super-ferric magnet technology developed for the VLHC, and extended recently to the proposed LER injector for the LHC and fast cycling SF-SPS at CERN. The DSF-MR accelerator system will constitute the final stage of the proton source enabling production of two neutrino beams separated by 2 second time period. These beams will be sent alternately to two detectors located at {approx} 3000 km and {approx} 7500 km away from Fermilab. It is expected that combination of the results from these experiments will offer more than 3 order of magnitudes increased sensitivity for detection and measurement of neutrino oscillations with respect to expectations in any current experiment, and thus may truly enable opening the window into the physics beyond the Standard Model. We examine potential sites for the long baseline neutrino detectors accepting beams from Fermilab. The current injection system consisting of 400 MeV Linac, 8 GeV Booster and the Main Injector can be used to accelerate protons to 45 GeV before transferring them to the DSF-MR. The implementation of the DSF-MR will allow for an 8-fold increase in beam power on the neutrino production target. In this note we outline the proposed new arrangement of the Fermilab accelerator complex. We also briefly describe the DSF-MR magnet design and its power supply, and discuss necessary upgrade of the Tevatron RF system for the use with the DSF-MR accelerator. Finally, we outline the required R&D, cost estimate and possible timeline for the implementation of the DSF-MR accelerator.

  16. Gynogenesis in Beta vulgaris L.: From in vitro culture of unpollinated ovules to the production of doubled haploid plants in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossoutrot, D; Hosemans, D

    1985-12-01

    Our study concerns the different stages involved in the production of doubled haploid beet plants by in vitro gynogenesis. A histological study shows that the embryos obtained could come from the oosphere or the antipodals. Gynogenesis using male fertile plants gives nearly two haploid plants for 1000 ovules cultured: in this case, the problem is to avoid plating fertilized ovules. The gynogenetic plants obtained display an endopolyploidy phenomenon at the root meristem level while their shoot meristem remains haploid.Colchicine doubling during in vitro vegetative propagation of buds has been carried out successfully.

  17. Surprises in aperiodic diffraction

    CERN Document Server

    Baake, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Mathematical diffraction theory is concerned with the diffraction image of a given structure and the corresponding inverse problem of structure determination. In recent years, the understanding of systems with continuous and mixed spectra has improved considerably. Moreover, the phenomenon of homometry shows various unexpected new facets. Here, we report on some of the recent results in an exemplary and informal fashion.

  18. Effect of inter-pulse delay time on production and size properties of colloidal nanoparticles prepared by collinear double-pulse laser ablation in liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattahi, Behzad; Mahdieh, Mohammah Hossein

    2016-08-01

    The influence of inter-pulse delay times (0-20 ns) between two collinear sequential nanosecond pulses on the production and size properties (mean size and size distribution) of colloidal nanoparticles prepared by pulsed laser ablation of a silver target in a distilled water medium has been studied. Various laser fluences at different inter-pulse delay times between two collinear pulses were used. Furthermore, for a better understanding of the effect of the double-pulse and single-pulse mode, experiments were performed. The characterization of the synthesized colloidal nanoparticles was investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and UV-vis absorption spectroscopy. Our results showed that 5 ns time-delayed double-pulse laser ablation results in the production of nanoparticles with the highest concentration among the other time-delayed ablation experiments and even more than single-pulse-mode experiments. It also found that using a double-pulse approach with inter-pulse delay times in the range of 0-20 ns leads to the production of nanoparticles with smaller mean sizes and narrower size distributions in comparison to single-pulse-mode laser ablation. The effect of time overlapping between two pulses in the case of double-pulse ablation was analyzed.

  19. Double positive CD4+CD8+ T cells: key suppressive role in the production of autoantibodies in systemic lupus erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongkang Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: The presence of CD4+CD8+ (double positive T cells (DPT in the target organs of several autoimmune diseases has been reported. The aim of this study was to investigate the pathogenic role of DPT in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE. Methods: A total of 175 SLE cases and 125 matched healthy controls were investigated for CD3+, CD4+, CD8+ lymphocytes and DPT by flow cytometry. Serum samples from SLE patients and controls were tested for antinuclear antibody (ANA, anti-double strain deoxyribonucleic acid (anti-dsDNA, anti-U1 ribonucleoprotein (anti-U1 RNP, anti-sjogren syndrome A (anti-SSA, anti-ribosomal P protein (anti-rib-P, anti-Smith (anti-Sm, anti-Sjogren syndrome B (anti-SSB, complement 3 (C3 and complement 4 (C4. Results: The DPT median and 5-95 per cent range of SLE cases and healthy controls were 0.50 [0.10-2.60] and 0.80 [0.20-2.74] respectively (P<0.001. SLE patients were divided into a ≥1:1000 subgroup and a <1:1000 subgroup according to the ANA titre. The DPT of the former subgroup was significantly lower than that of the latter (P=0.032. The DPT medians of positive subgroups with anti-dsDNA (P<0.001, anti-U1RNP (P=0.018, anti-SSA (P=0.021 or anti-rib-P (P=0.039 were also significantly lower than the negative subgroups. Likewise, DPT was significantly lower in SLE subgroups with low concentration of C3 or C4 than those with high concentration (P<0.006. Interpretation & conclusions: Our findings show that the DPT cells may play a key suppressive role in the production of autoantibodies in SLE. Direct evidence that DPT regulates the pathogenesis of SLE needs to be investigated in future work.

  20. Synthesis of layered double hydroxides from eggshells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Songnan [Key Laboratory of Superlight Materials and Surface Technology, Ministry of Education, 150001 (China); Wang Fangyong [College of Engineering and Technology, Northeast Forestry University, 150001 (China); Jing Xiaoyan [Key Laboratory of Superlight Materials and Surface Technology, Ministry of Education, 150001 (China); Wang Jun, E-mail: zhqw1888@sohu.com [Key Laboratory of Superlight Materials and Surface Technology, Ministry of Education, 150001 (China); Saba, Jamil; Liu Qi; Ge Lan; Song Dalei; Zhang Milin [Key Laboratory of Superlight Materials and Surface Technology, Ministry of Education, 150001 (China)

    2012-01-16

    Graphical abstract: This is the XRD pattern and TEM image of 4Ca-Al layered double hydroxide, which is obtained from eggshells. It can be seen that the sample is of layered double hydroxide and shows the plate-like agglomerations with an average size of 20-100 nm. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We synthesize layered double hydroxides from eggshells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Eggshells are the mainly material in this method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The additional alkaline solution is not required. - Abstract: Ca-Al and Ca-Fe layered double hydroxides (LDHs) were successfully synthesized from chicken eggshells by an ultrasonic wave assistant method. The products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) techniques. XRD and TEM analyses showed that the 4Ca-Al LDHs were of high purity but other samples were not. The present study provides a simple, efficient and environmental friendly method to obtain LDHs from biowaste eggshells, in which additional alkaline solution is not required for synthesis. Moreover, eggshells provide all the requisite bivalent metal ions, which are needed to form layered double hydroxides.

  1. Double Pion Production Reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Oset, E; Cano, F; Hernández, E; Kamalov, S S; Nacher, J C; Tejedor, J A G

    1999-01-01

    We report on reactions producing two pions induced by real and virtual photons or nucleons. The role of different resonances in these reactions is emphasized. Novel results on coherent two pion photoproduction in nuclei are also reported.

  2. Production of associated $\\Upsilon$ and open charm hadrons in $pp$ collisions at $\\sqrt{s}=7$ and $8$ TeV via double parton scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, Roel; Adeva, Bernardo; Adinolfi, Marco; Affolder, Anthony; Ajaltouni, Ziad; Akar, Simon; Albrecht, Johannes; Alessio, Federico; Alexander, Michael; Ali, Suvayu; Alkhazov, Georgy; Alvarez Cartelle, Paula; Alves Jr, Antonio Augusto; Amato, Sandra; Amerio, Silvia; Amhis, Yasmine; An, Liupan; Anderlini, Lucio; Anderson, Jonathan; Andreassi, Guido; Andreotti, Mirco; Andrews, Jason; Appleby, Robert; Aquines Gutierrez, Osvaldo; Archilli, Flavio; d'Argent, Philippe; Artamonov, Alexander; Artuso, Marina; Aslanides, Elie; Auriemma, Giulio; Baalouch, Marouen; Bachmann, Sebastian; Back, John; Badalov, Alexey; Baesso, Clarissa; Baldini, Wander; Barlow, Roger; Barschel, Colin; Barsuk, Sergey; Barter, William; Batozskaya, Varvara; Battista, Vincenzo; Bay, Aurelio; Beaucourt, Leo; Beddow, John; Bedeschi, Franco; Bediaga, Ignacio; Bel, Lennaert; Bellee, Violaine; Belloli, Nicoletta; Belyaev, Ivan; Ben-Haim, Eli; Bencivenni, Giovanni; Benson, Sean; Benton, Jack; Berezhnoy, Alexander; Bernet, Roland; Bertolin, Alessandro; Bettler, Marc-Olivier; van Beuzekom, Martinus; Bien, Alexander; Bifani, Simone; Billoir, Pierre; Bird, Thomas; Birnkraut, Alex; Bizzeti, Andrea; Blake, Thomas; Blanc, Frédéric; Blouw, Johan; Blusk, Steven; Bocci, Valerio; Bondar, Alexander; Bondar, Nikolay; Bonivento, Walter; Borghi, Silvia; Borisyak, Maxim; Borsato, Martino; Bowcock, Themistocles; Bowen, Espen Eie; Bozzi, Concezio; Braun, Svende; Britsch, Markward; Britton, Thomas; Brodzicka, Jolanta; Brook, Nicholas; Buchanan, Emma; Burr, Christopher; Bursche, Albert; Buytaert, Jan; Cadeddu, Sandro; Calabrese, Roberto; Calvi, Marta; Calvo Gomez, Miriam; Campana, Pierluigi; Campora Perez, Daniel; Capriotti, Lorenzo; Carbone, Angelo; Carboni, Giovanni; Cardinale, Roberta; Cardini, Alessandro; Carniti, Paolo; Carson, Laurence; Carvalho Akiba, Kazuyoshi; Casse, Gianluigi; Cassina, Lorenzo; Castillo Garcia, Lucia; Cattaneo, Marco; Cauet, Christophe; Cavallero, Giovanni; Cenci, Riccardo; Charles, Matthew; Charpentier, Philippe; Chefdeville, Maximilien; Chen, Shanzhen; Cheung, Shu-Faye; Chiapolini, Nicola; Chrzaszcz, Marcin; Cid Vidal, Xabier; Ciezarek, Gregory; Clarke, Peter; Clemencic, Marco; Cliff, Harry; Closier, Joel; Coco, Victor; Cogan, Julien; Cogneras, Eric; Cogoni, Violetta; Cojocariu, Lucian; Collazuol, Gianmaria; Collins, Paula; Comerma-Montells, Albert; Contu, Andrea; Cook, Andrew; Coombes, Matthew; Coquereau, Samuel; Corti, Gloria; Corvo, Marco; Couturier, Benjamin; Cowan, Greig; Craik, Daniel Charles; Crocombe, Andrew; Cruz Torres, Melissa Maria; Cunliffe, Samuel; Currie, Robert; D'Ambrosio, Carmelo; Dall'Occo, Elena; Dalseno, Jeremy; David, Pieter; Davis, Adam; De Aguiar Francisco, Oscar; De Bruyn, Kristof; De Capua, Stefano; De Cian, Michel; De Miranda, Jussara; De Paula, Leandro; De Simone, Patrizia; Dean, Cameron Thomas; Decamp, Daniel; Deckenhoff, Mirko; Del Buono, Luigi; Déléage, Nicolas; Demmer, Moritz; Derkach, Denis; Deschamps, Olivier; Dettori, Francesco; Dey, Biplab; Di Canto, Angelo; Di Ruscio, Francesco; Dijkstra, Hans; Donleavy, Stephanie; Dordei, Francesca; Dorigo, Mirco; Dosil Suárez, Alvaro; Dossett, David; Dovbnya, Anatoliy; Dreimanis, Karlis; Dufour, Laurent; Dujany, Giulio; Durante, Paolo; Dzhelyadin, Rustem; Dziurda, Agnieszka; Dzyuba, Alexey; Easo, Sajan; Egede, Ulrik; Egorychev, Victor; Eidelman, Semen; Eisenhardt, Stephan; Eitschberger, Ulrich; Ekelhof, Robert; Eklund, Lars; El Rifai, Ibrahim; Elsasser, Christian; Ely, Scott; Esen, Sevda; Evans, Hannah Mary; Evans, Timothy; Falabella, Antonio; Färber, Christian; Farley, Nathanael; Farry, Stephen; Fay, Robert; Ferguson, Dianne; Fernandez Albor, Victor; Ferrari, Fabio; Ferreira Rodrigues, Fernando; Ferro-Luzzi, Massimiliano; Filippov, Sergey; Fiore, Marco; Fiorini, Massimiliano; Firlej, Miroslaw; Fitzpatrick, Conor; Fiutowski, Tomasz; Fohl, Klaus; Fol, Philip; Fontana, Marianna; Fontanelli, Flavio; Forshaw, Dean Charles; Forty, Roger; Frank, Markus; Frei, Christoph; Frosini, Maddalena; Fu, Jinlin; Furfaro, Emiliano; Gallas Torreira, Abraham; Galli, Domenico; Gallorini, Stefano; Gambetta, Silvia; Gandelman, Miriam; Gandini, Paolo; Gao, Yuanning; García Pardiñas, Julián; Garra Tico, Jordi; Garrido, Lluis; Gascon, David; Gaspar, Clara; Gauld, Rhorry; Gavardi, Laura; Gazzoni, Giulio; Gerick, David; Gersabeck, Evelina; Gersabeck, Marco; Gershon, Timothy; Ghez, Philippe; Gianì, Sebastiana; Gibson, Valerie; Girard, Olivier Göran; Giubega, Lavinia-Helena; Gligorov, V.V.; Göbel, Carla; Golubkov, Dmitry; Golutvin, Andrey; Gomes, Alvaro; Gotti, Claudio; Grabalosa Gándara, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Associated production of bottomonia and open charm hadrons in $pp$ collisions at $\\sqrt{s}=7$ and $8$TeV is observed using data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3$fb^{-1}$ accumulated with the LHCb detector. The observation of five combinations, $\\Upsilon(1S)D^0$, $\\Upsilon(2S)D^0$, $\\Upsilon(1S)D^+$, $\\Upsilon(2S)D^+$ and $\\Upsilon(1S)D^+_{s}$, is reported. Production cross-sections are measured for $\\Upsilon(1S)D^0$ and $\\Upsilon(1S)D^+$ pairs in the forward region. The measured cross-sections and the differential distributions indicate the dominance of double parton scattering as the main production mechanism. This allows a precise measurement of the effective cross-section for double parton scattering.

  3. Exclusive glueball production in high energy nucleus-nucleus collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Machado, M V T

    2010-01-01

    The cross sections for the glueball candidates production in quasi-real photon-photon collisions and on central diffraction processes, i.e. double Pomeron exchange, in heavy ion interactions at RHIC and LHC are computed. The rates for these distinct production channels are compared and they may be a fruitful approach to the investigation of glueballs.

  4. Non-diffractive waves

    CERN Document Server

    Hernandez-Figueroa, Hugo E; Recami, Erasmo

    2013-01-01

    This continuation and extension of the successful book ""Localized Waves"" by the same editors brings together leading researchers in non-diffractive waves to cover the most important results in their field and as such is the first to present the current state.The well-balanced presentation of theory and experiments guides readers through the background of different types of non-diffractive waves, their generation, propagation, and possible applications. The authors include a historical account of the development of the field, and cover different types of non-diffractive waves, including Airy

  5. Doubling the CO{sub 2} concentration enhanced the activity of carbohydrate-metabolism enzymes, source carbohydrate production, photoassimilate transport, and sink strength for Opuntia ficus-indica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Ning; Nobel, P.S. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    1996-03-01

    After exposure to a doubled CO{sub 2} concentration of 750 {mu}mol mol{sup -1} air for about 3 months, glucose and starch in the chlorenchyma of basal cladodes of Opuntia ficus-indica increased 175 and 57%, respectively, compared with the current CO{sub 2} concentration of 370 {mu}mol mol{sup -1}, but sucrose content was virtually unaffected. Doubling the CO{sub 2} concentration increased the noncturnal malate production in basal cladodes by 75%, inorganic phosphate (Pi) by 32% soluble starch synthase activity by 30%, and sucrose-Pi synthase activity by 146%, but did not affect the activity of hexokinase. Doubling CO{sub 2} accelerated phloem transport of sucrose out of the basal cladodes, resulting in a 73% higher dry weight for the daughter cladodes. Doubling CO{sub 2} increased the glucose content in 14-d-old daughter cladodes by 167%, increased nocturnal malate production by 22%, decreased total amino acid content by 61%, and increased soluble starch synthase activity by 30% and sucrose synthase activity by 62%. No downward acclimation of photosynthesis during long-term exposure to elevated CO{sub 2} concentrations occurs for O. ficus-indica, consistent with its higher source capacity and sink strength than under current CO{sub 2}. These changes apparently do not result in Pi limitation of photosynthesis or suppression of genes governing photosynthesis for this perennial Crassulacean acid metabolism species, as occur for some annual crops.

  6. Diffraction of limit periodic point sets

    CERN Document Server

    Baake, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Limit periodic point sets are aperiodic structures with pure point diffraction supported on a countably, but not finitely generated Fourier module that is based on a lattice and certain integer multiples of it. Examples are cut and project sets with p-adic internal spaces. We illustrate this by explicit results for the diffraction measures of two examples with 2-adic internal spaces. The first and well-known example is the period doubling sequence in one dimension, which is based on the period doubling substitution rule. The second example is a weighted planar point set that is derived from the classic chair tiling in the plane. It can be described as a fixed point of a block substitution rule.

  7. Production of a double-humped ion velocity distribution function in a single-ended Q-machine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, S.A.; Jensen, Vagn Orla; Michelsen, Poul

    1970-01-01

    An experimental method of producing a double-humped velocity distribution function for the ions in a Q-machine is described. The method is based on charge exchange processes between neutral ceasium and the ions in a ceasium plasma.......An experimental method of producing a double-humped velocity distribution function for the ions in a Q-machine is described. The method is based on charge exchange processes between neutral ceasium and the ions in a ceasium plasma....

  8. GENXICC2.0: An Upgraded Version of the Generator for Hadronic Production of Double Heavy Baryons $\\Xi_{cc}$, $\\Xi_{bc}$ and $\\Xi_{bb}$

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, Chao-Hsi; Wu, Xing-Gang

    2009-01-01

    An upgraded (second) version of the package GENXICC ({\\bf A Generator for Hadronic Production of the Double Heavy Baryons $\\Xi_{cc}$, $\\Xi_{bc}$ and $\\Xi_{bb}$ by C.H. Chang, J.X. Wang and X.G. Wu,} [its first version: in Comput. Phys. Commun. {\\bf 177} (2007) 467-478]) is presented. Users, with this version being implemented in PYTHIA and a GNU C compiler, may simulate full events of the production in various experimental environments conveniently. In comparison with the previous version, in order to implement it in PYTHIA properly, a subprogram for the fragmentation of the produced double heavy diquark to the relevant baryon is complemented and the interphase of the generator to PYTHIA is changed accordingly. In the subprogram, with explanation, certain necessary assumptions (approximations) are made so as to conserve the momenta and the QCD `color' flow for the fragmentation.

  9. Forward energy flow and diffraction at ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Staroba, P; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    First measurements of forward energy flow and diffractive dissociation processes at ATLAS are presented. Measurements are based on 7 TeV minimum bias (7.1μb−1) and dijet (585μb−1) data samples taken during March-May 2010 in the low pileup accelerator setup. Measurement of transverse energy density as a function of pseudorapidity was performed using the full acceptance of ATLAS detectors. Stable charged particles with PT > 500 MeV and stable neutral particles with PT > 200 MeV were included. Manifestation of diffractive processes of three classes (single, double and central diffractive dissociation) was studied using inelastic differential cross section in forward rapidity gap size ΔηF bins. Experimental distributions are compared with several Monte Carlo predictions (PYTHIA6, PYTHIA8, PHOJET, HERWIG++ and EPOS) using different tunes.

  10. Influence of Zn/Fe Molar Ratio on Optical and Magnetic Properties of ZnO and ZnFe2O4 Nanocrystal as Calcined Products of Layered Double Hydroxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Ahmed Ali Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The coprecipitation method has been used to synthesize layered double hydroxide (Zn-Fe-LDH nanostructure at different Zn2+/Fe3+ molar ratios. The structural properties of samples were studied using powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD. LDH samples were calcined at 600°C to produce mixed oxides (ZnO and ZnFe2O4. The crystallite size of mixed oxide was found in the nanometer scale (18.1 nm for ZnFe2O4 and 43.3 nm for ZnO. The photocatalytic activity of the calcination products was investigated using ultraviolet-visible-near infrared (UV-VIS-NIR diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The magnetic properties of calcined LDHs were investigated using a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM. The calcined samples showed a paramagnetic behavior for all Zn2+/Fe3+ molar ratios. The effect of molar ratio on magnetic susceptibility of the calcined samples was also studied.

  11. DNA hydration studied by neutron fiber diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuller, W.; Forsyth, V.T.; Mahendrasingam, A.; Langan, P.; Pigram, W.J. [Keele Univ. (United Kingdom)] [and others

    1994-12-31

    The development of neutron high angle fiber diffraction to investigate the location of water around the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) double-helix is described. The power of the technique is illustrated by its application to the D and A conformations of DNA using the single crystal diffractometer, D19, at the Institute Laue-Langevin, Grenoble and the time of flight diffractometer, SXD, at the Rutherford Appleton ISIS Spallation Neutron Source. These studies show the existence of bound water closely associated with the DNA. The patterns of hydration in these two DNA conformations are quite distinct and are compared to those observed in X-ray single crystal studies of two-stranded oligodeoxynucleotides. Information on the location of water around the DNA double-helix from the neutron fiber diffraction studies is combined with that on the location of alkali metal cations from complementary X-ray high angle fiber diffraction studies at the Daresbury Laboratory SRS using synchrotron radiation. These analyses emphasize the importance of viewing DNA, water and ions as a single system with specific interactions between the three components and provide a basis for understanding the effect of changes in the concentration of water and ions in inducing conformations] transitions in the DNA double-helix.

  12. Structural and thermal characterization of zolpidem hemitartrate hemihydrate (Form E) and its decomposition products by laboratory X-ray powder diffraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halasz, Ivan; Dinnebier, Robert E

    2010-02-01

    The crystal structure of zolpidem hemitartrate hemihydrate (I, Form E) has been solved from high-resolution laboratory powder diffraction data. It crystallizes in the orthorhombic P2(1)2(1)2(1) space group with a = 22.4664(6) A, b = 26.0420(7) A, and c = 7.4391(1) A. Protonation of zolpidem molecules could not be unambiguously determined. Thermal stability of Form E has been investigated by TG-DTA and in situ by temperature resolved X-ray powder diffraction. Water loss occurs between 50 degrees C

  13. Structural and Thermal Characterization of Zolpidem Hemitartrate Hemihydrate (Form E) and Its Decomposition Products by Laboratory X-Ray Powder Diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halasz, I.; Dinnebier, R

    2010-01-01

    The crystal structure of zolpidem hemitartrate hemihydrate (I, Form E) has been solved from high-resolution laboratory powder diffraction data. It crystallizes in the orthorhombic P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1} space group with a = 22.4664(6) {angstrom}, b = 26.0420(7) {angstrom}, and c = 7.4391(1) {angstrom}. Protonation of zolpidem molecules could not be unambiguously determined. Thermal stability of Form E has been investigated by TG-DTA and in situ by temperature resolved X-ray powder diffraction. Water loss occurs between 50 C {le} t {le} 100 C while structure decomposition commences at approximately 120 C yielding zolpidem tartrate (II) and pure zolpidem base (III) in approximately equimolar amounts. Crystal structures of II and III have been solved simultaneously from a single powder pattern of thermally decomposed I. Zolpidem tartrate crystallizes in the orthorhombic P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1} space group with a = 19.9278(8) {angstrom}, b = 15.1345(8) {angstrom}, and c = 7.6246(2) {angstrom} (at 140 C). Zolpidem base crystallizes in the orthorhombic Pcab space group with a = 9.9296(4) {angstrom}, b = 18.4412(9) {angstrom}, and c = 18.6807(9) {angstrom} (at 140 C). In the reported crystal structures zolpidem molecules form stacks through {pi}-{pi} interaction or dipole-dipole interactions while tartrate moieties, if present, form hydrogen bonded chains. Water molecule in I forms a hydrogen bond to the imidazole nitrogen atom of the zolpidem molecule. Free space in the crystal structure of I could allow for the additional water molecules and thus a variable water content.

  14. Exclusive glueball production at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Machado, M V T

    2011-01-01

    In this contribution we summarize recent results on the computation of cross sections for glueball candidates production in quasi-real photon-photon collisions and on central diffraction processes, i.e. double Pomeron exchange, in heavy ion interactions at the LHC are computed. In particular, we provide predictions for the production of exotic mesons f0(1500), f0(1710) and X(1835). The rates for these distinct production channels are compared.

  15. Diffractive Leptoproduction of Vector Mesons in QCD

    OpenAIRE

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; Frankfurt, L.; Gunion, J. F.; Mueller, A.H.; Strikman, M.

    1994-01-01

    We demonstrate that the distinctive features of the forward differential cross section of diffractive leptoproduction of a vector meson can be legitimately calculated in perturbative QCD in terms of the light-cone $q \\bar q$ wave function of the vector meson and the gluon distribution of the target. In particular, we calculate the $Q^2$ and nuclear dependence of the diffractive leptoproduction of vector mesons and estimate the cross section. The production of longitudinally polarized vector m...

  16. Product evolutionary design spirally guided by double threads%双线程螺旋导向式产品进化设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈卫敏; 李彦; 李文强; 杨琨

    2015-01-01

    In order to adapt to the dynamic changes of market demands, the ecological relationship of food chain was introduced into product conceptual design, the relations of products are systematically classified at a cognitive level as competition relation and symbiotic cooperation relation. These relations laid a foundation to systematically realize the spirally guide by double threads. Products need evolving from low level to high level to gradually adapt to the dynamic change of market environment which is similar to biological evolution, so products were classified based on the market, and product evolutionary chain and product symbiotic ring were built from junior to senior in accordance with the food chain relationship. Products in the process of evolution present the dynamic characteristics of spiral evolution under the dual function of radial symbiotic ring and axial evolutionary chain at the same time, the design methods and models guiding product evolution by double threads of competition and cooperation was put forward based on the analysis of the dynamic product evolution information. Applying components control template method between design objectives and competitors, In both applying properties related template method between design objectives and symbiotic objectives, the whole process of evolution design was guided by the competitive information and symbiotic information in the model, which make products evolution purposefully. This paper implement the testing and pushing of evolution degree step by step based on the evolutionary genetic algorithm, which guaranteed the rationality and adaptability of each product layer evolution process in the model. According to the practical innovation design conditions, the competition effect and symbiotic role in the process of evolution. The model spirally guided by double threads can dynamically and flexibly yield a total evolutionary scheme feasible for the desired product. The model spirally guided by double

  17. Small angle detectors for study diffractive processes with CMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albrow, M. [Fermilab; Bell, A. J. [CERN; d' Enterria, D. [CERN; Hall-Wilton, R. [CERN; Los, S. [Fermilab; Mokhov, N. [Fermilab; Murray, M. [Kansas State U.; Penzo, A. [INFN, Trieste; Popescu, S. [Bucharest, IFIN-HH; Ronzhin, A. [Fermilab; Samoylenko, V. D. [Serpukhov, IHEP; Sobol, A. [Serpukhov, IHEP; Veres, G. [CERN

    2014-10-22

    The approach and detectors for diffractive physics based on two current projects—Forward Shower Counter (FSC) and Proton Precision Spectrometer (PPS) are presented. FSC system consists of six (3+3) Stations of scintillator counters, which surround closely the beam pipes along 59 m < |z| < 140 m from IP5 on both plus (+) and minus (-) sides. These will detect showers from very forward particles with rapidity 7.5 < |η| < 10 interacting in the beam pipe and surrounding material. FSC allow measurements of single diffraction: p+p → p+G+X (where G is rapidity gap) for lower masses and double diffraction p+p → X+G+X with a large central rapidity gap. The counters can also be used for beam real-time monitoring and will make an invaluable contribution to the understanding of the background environment and its topology. PPS is designed for study the central exclusive production pp → p+X+p, where the + signs denote the absence of hadronic activity (that is, the presence of a rapidity gap) between the outgoing protons and the decay products of the central system X. The precise measurement of the kinematical parameters of the outgoing protons enables to study the properties of the central state X. In PPS part we consider the detector for high precision timing of these protons—QUARTIC. It consists of L-shape bars with quartz or sapphire radiator. The time resolution of the QUARTIC prototypes achieved ≈ 10 ps.

  18. Double Parton Scattering cross section limit from same-sign W bosons pair production in di-muon final state at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    CMS Collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The double parton scattering (DPS) in proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 8 TeV has been investigated using the same-sign W boson pair final state, with each W boson decaying into muon and associated neutrino. The data sample corresponds to an integrated luminosity of $19.7$ fb$^{-1}$ collected by the CMS detector at the Large Hadron Collider. The observables sensitive to double parton scattering are defined and studied, followed by a multivariate analysis in order to enhance the process sensitivity. A limit on the DPS yield, along with the corresponding limit on the production cross section ($\\sigma^{DPS}_{WW}$), has been evaluated.

  19. Cross Section and Double Helicity Asymmetry in Charged Hadron Production in p+p Collisions at sqrt(s)=62.4 GeV at PHENIX

    CERN Document Server

    Aidala, Christine A

    2011-01-01

    The cross section and double-helicity asymmetry for production of non-identified positive and negative charged hadrons at midrapidity in p+p collisions at sqrt(s) = 62.4 GeV have been measured by the PHENIX experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) for a transverse momentum range of 0.5-4.5 GeV/c. The cross section measurements are compared to next-to-leading order and next-to-leading log perturbative QCD calculations, providing information on the applicability of these calculation techniques in the measured kinematic range. The double-helicity asymmetry measurement at this moderate energy provides sensitivity to Delta G, the gluon spin contribution to the spin of the proton, up to modestly larger values of the gluon momentum fraction than previous RHIC measurements at 200 GeV.

  20. Study of Diffraction with the ATLAS detector at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Rafal, Staszewski; Royon, Christophe

    The thesis is devoted to the study of diffractive physics with the ATLAS detector at the LHC. After a short introduction to diffractive physics including soft and hard diffraction, we discuss diffractive exclusive production at the LHC whichis particularly interesting for Higgs and jet production. The QCD mechanism described by the Khoze Martin Ryskin and the CHIDe models are elucidated in detail. The uncertainties on these models are still large and a new possible exclusive jetmeasurement at the LHC will allow to reduce the uncertainty on diffarctive Higgs boson production to a factor 2 to 3. An additional measurement of exclusive pion production pp ! p_+_−p allows to constrain further exclusive model relying on theuse of the ALFA stations, which are used in the ATLAS Experiment for detection of protons scattered in elastic and diffractive interactions. In the last part of the thesis, the AFP detectors, aiming at measuring the protons scattered in diffractive interactions, are presented. They allow to exte...

  1. Doubling the CO2 Concentration Enhanced the Activity of Carbohydrate-Metabolism Enzymes, Source Carbohydrate Production, Photoassimilate Transport, and Sink Strength for Opuntia ficus-indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, N.; Nobel, P. S.

    1996-01-01

    After exposure to a doubled CO2 concentration of 750 [mu]mol mol-1 air for about 3 months glucose and starch in the chlorenchyma of basal cladodes of Opuntia ficus-indica increased 175 and 57%, respectively, compared with the current CO2 concentration of 370 [mu]mol mol-1, but sucrose content was virtually unaffected. Doubling the CO2 concentration increased the nocturnal malate production in basal cladodes by 75%, inorganic phosphate (Pi) by 32%, soluble starch synthase activity by 30%, and sucrose-Pi synthase activity by 146%, but did not affect the activity of hexokinase. Doubling CO2 accelerated phloem transport of sucrose out of the basal cladodes, resulting in a 73% higher dry weight for the daughter cladodes. Doubling CO2 increased the glucose content in 14-d-old daughter cladodes by 167%, increased nocturnal malate production by 22%, decreased total amino acid content by 61%, and increased soluble starch synthase activity by 30% and sucrose synthase activity by 62%. No downward acclimation of photosynthesis during long-term exposure to elevated CO2 concentrations occurs for O. ficus-indica (M. Cui, P.M. Miller, P.S. Nobel [1993] Plant Physiol 103: 519-524; P.S. Nobel, A.A. Israel [1994] J Exp Bot 45: 295-303), consistent with its higher source capacity and sink strength than under current CO2. These changes apparently do not result in Pi limitation of photosynthesis or suppression of genes governing photosynthesis for this perennial Crassulacean acid metabolism species, as occur for some annual crops. PMID:12226228

  2. Doubling the CO2 Concentration Enhanced the Activity of Carbohydrate-Metabolism Enzymes, Source Carbohydrate Production, Photoassimilate Transport, and Sink Strength for Opuntia ficus-indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, N.; Nobel, P. S.

    1996-03-01

    After exposure to a doubled CO2 concentration of 750 [mu]mol mol-1 air for about 3 months glucose and starch in the chlorenchyma of basal cladodes of Opuntia ficus-indica increased 175 and 57%, respectively, compared with the current CO2 concentration of 370 [mu]mol mol-1, but sucrose content was virtually unaffected. Doubling the CO2 concentration increased the nocturnal malate production in basal cladodes by 75%, inorganic phosphate (Pi) by 32%, soluble starch synthase activity by 30%, and sucrose-Pi synthase activity by 146%, but did not affect the activity of hexokinase. Doubling CO2 accelerated phloem transport of sucrose out of the basal cladodes, resulting in a 73% higher dry weight for the daughter cladodes. Doubling CO2 increased the glucose content in 14-d-old daughter cladodes by 167%, increased nocturnal malate production by 22%, decreased total amino acid content by 61%, and increased soluble starch synthase activity by 30% and sucrose synthase activity by 62%. No downward acclimation of photosynthesis during long-term exposure to elevated CO2 concentrations occurs for O. ficus-indica (M. Cui, P.M. Miller, P.S. Nobel [1993] Plant Physiol 103: 519-524; P.S. Nobel, A.A. Israel [1994] J Exp Bot 45: 295-303), consistent with its higher source capacity and sink strength than under current CO2. These changes apparently do not result in Pi limitation of photosynthesis or suppression of genes governing photosynthesis for this perennial Crassulacean acid metabolism species, as occur for some annual crops.

  3. Calculating cellulose diffraction patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although powder diffraction of cellulose is a common experiment, the patterns are not widely understood. The theory is mathematical, there are numerous different crystal forms, and the conventions are not standardized. Experience with IR spectroscopy is not directly transferable. An awful error, tha...

  4. Diffract, then destroy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Philip

    2016-09-01

    A new implementation of X-ray diffraction using free-electron lasers can take snapshots of biological molecules that are inaccessible via X-ray crystallography. As Philip Ball reports, the technique can even be used to create stop-motion films of dynamic molecular processes

  5. DIFFRACTION FROM MODEL CRYSTALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although calculating X-ray diffraction patterns from atomic coordinates of a crystal structure is a widely available capability, calculation from non-periodic arrays of atoms has not been widely applied to cellulose. Non-periodic arrays result from modeling studies that, even though started with at...

  6. Double Higgs Production in Vector Boson Fusion(VBF) Channel and Looking for Algorithms to Find VBF Jets

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmed, Wasif

    2016-01-01

    In the recent years, search for heavy particles on LHC data had consistently advanced on both CMS and ATLAS. So it would be worth looking for this heavy Kaluza-Klein graviton in one warped extra dimensional model. The analysis is on the VBF channel. Certain algorithms were tested to find jets that do not come from the double higgs produced by the decay of KK-graviton.

  7. 组份变化的InGaAsSb/AIGaAsSb多量子阱结构对其X射线衍射及发光性质的影响%Effects of Structure of InGaAsSb/AIGaAsSb Multi-quantum Well Based on AL and In Change on X-ray Double Crystal Diffraction and Photoluminescence Properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    单含; 李梅

    2012-01-01

    Due to the basic characteristics of InGaAsSb/AlGaAsSb, based on the calculate lattice constant and energy band of quaternary system through the calculation of structure constants of binary system and ternary system, and analyze the MBE growth parameters and process, we design and grow the InGaAsSb/AlGaAsSb multi-quantum-wells epitaxial materials. The characterization of the layers has been carried out by X-ray double crystal diffraction and photo luminescence. There are several satellite peaks in X-ray double crystal diffraction results which indicate that these prepared InGaAsSb/AlGaAsSb multi-quantum-Wells are with high crystallized quality. The results of PL spec tra at the room temperature indicate that the wave length are modulated from 1.6 to 2. 28 u.m, the narrowest PL FWHM is 22 meV.%通过二元系和三元系结构参数计算四元系量子阱结构的晶格常数、禁带宽度等,设计了InGaAsSb/AlGaAsSb结构的MBE生长参数及工艺,利用X射线双晶衍射和PL谱研究了InGaAsSb/AlGaAsSb多量子阱结构特性和光学特性.X射线双晶衍射谱中出现了8条卫星峰,表明制备的InGaAsSb/AlGaAsSb多量子阱结构具有良好的结晶质量.利用光致发光光谱方法对制备的样品的光学性质进行了表征,结果表明,不同组份的InGaAsSb/AlGaAsSb多量子阱的发光峰波长随组份的变化在1.6~2.28 μm范围内可调,样品PL谱的半峰宽最窄可达22 meV.

  8. What is Double Parton Scattering?

    CERN Document Server

    Manohar, Aneesh V

    2012-01-01

    Processes such as double Drell-Yan and same-sign WW production have contributions from double parton scattering, which are not well-defined because of a delta(z_\\perp=0) singularity that is generated by QCD evolution. We study the single and double parton contributions to these processes, and show how to handle the singularity using factorization and operator renormalization.

  9. Colored Flag by Double Refraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Bill

    1994-01-01

    Describes various demonstrations that illustrate double refraction and rotation of the plane of polarization in stressed, transparent plastics, with the consequent production of colored designs. (ZWH)

  10. Multi-order nonlinear diffraction in second harmonic generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saltiel, S. M.; Neshev, D.; Krolikowski, Wieslaw

    We analyze the emission patterns in the process of second harmonic (SH) generation in χ(2) nonlinear gratings and identify for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, the evidence of Raman-Nath type nonlinear diffraction in frequency doubling processes.......We analyze the emission patterns in the process of second harmonic (SH) generation in χ(2) nonlinear gratings and identify for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, the evidence of Raman-Nath type nonlinear diffraction in frequency doubling processes....

  11. Photoluminescence and X-ray Diffraction of Distributed Bragg Reflector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Lin; LI Yong-da; LIU Wen-li; LU Bin; JU Guo-xian; ZHANG Yong-ming; HAO Yong-qin; SU Wei; ZHONG Jing-chang

    2004-01-01

    Spectral and structural characteristics of distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers were studied with photoluminescence and double- crystal X- ray diffraction measurement. The expected high quality epitaxial DBR structure was verified. In the X- ray double- crystal rocking curves of DBR the zeroth- order peak, the first and second order satellite peaks were measured.Splitting of diffraction peak appeared in the rocking curves was analyzed. The effects of introduced deep energy levels on the structural perfection and optical properties were discussed.

  12. Longitudinal double-spin asymmetry for inclusive jet production in p+p collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$=200 GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Abelev, B I; Ahammed, Z; Anderson, B D; Arkhipkin, D; Averichev, G S; Bai, Y; Balewski, J; Barannikova, O; Barnby, L S; Baudot, J; Baumgart, S; Belaga, V V; Bellingeri-Laurikainen, A; Bellwied, R; Benedosso, F; Betts, R R; Bhardwaj, S; Bhasin, A; Bhati, A K; Bichsel, H; Bielcik, J; Bielcikova, J; Bland, L C; Blyth, S L; Bombara, M; Bonner, B E; Botje, M; Bouchet, J; Brandin, A V; Burton, T P; Bystersky, M; Cai, X Z; Caines, H; Calderón de la Barca-Sanchez, M; Callner, J; Catu, O; Cebra, D; Cervantes, M C; Chajecki, Z; Chaloupka, P; Chattopadhyay, S; Chen, H F; Chen, J H; Chen, J Y; Cheng, J; Cherney, M; Chikanian, A; Christie, W; Chung, S U; Clarke, R F; Codrington, M J M; Coffin, J P; Cormier, T M; Cosentino, M R; Cramer, J G; Crawford, H J; Das, D; Dash, S; Daugherity, M; De Moura, M M; Dedovich, T G; De Phillips, M; Derevshchikov, A A; Didenko, L; Dietel, T; Djawotho, P; Dogra, S M; Dong, X; Drachenberg, J L; Draper, J E; Du, F; Dunin, V B; Dunlop, J C; Dutta-Majumdar, M R; Edwards, W R; Efimov, L G; Elhalhuli, E; Emelianov, V; Engelage, J; Eppley, G; Erazmus, B; Estienne, M; Fachini, P; Fatemi, R; Fedorisin, J; Feng, A; Filip, P; Finch, E; Fine, V; Fisyak, Yu; Fu, J; Gagliardi, C A; Gaillard, L; Ganti, M S; García-Solis, E; Ghazikhanian, V; Ghosh, P; Gorbunov, Y N; Gos, H; Grebenyuk, O; Grosnick, D; Grube, B; Guertin, S M; Guimaraes, K S F F; Sen-Gupta, A; Gupta, N; Haag, B; Hallman, T J; Hamed, A; Harris, J W; He, W; Heinz, M; Henry, T W; Heppelmann, S; Hippolyte, B; Hirsch, A; Hjort, E; Hoffman, A M; Hoffmann, G W; Hofman, D J; Hollis, R S; Horner, M J; Huang, H Z; Hughes, E W; Humanic, T J; Igo, G; Iordanova, A; Jacobs, P; Jacobs, W W; Jakl, P; Jones, P G; Judd, E G; Kabana, S; Kang, K; Kapitan, J; Kaplan, M; Keane, D; Kechechyan, A; Kettler, D; Khodyrev, V Yu; Kiryluk, J; Kisiel, A; Kislov, E M; Klein, S R; Knospe, A G; Kocoloski, A; Koetke, D D; Kollegger, T; Kopytine, M; Kotchenda, L; Kouchpil, V; Kowalik, K L; Kravtsov, P; Kravtsov, V I; Krüger, K; Kuhn, C; Kulikov, A I; Kumar, A; Kurnadi, P; Kuznetsov, A A; Lamont, M A C; Landgraf, J M; Lange, S; La Pointe, S; Laue, F; Lauret, J; Lebedev, A; Lednicky, R; Lee, C H; Lehocka, S; Le Vine, M J; Li, C; Li, Q; Li, Y; Lin, G; Lin, X; Lindenbaum, S J; Lisa, M A; Liu, F; Liu, H; Liu, J; Liu, L; Ljubicic, T; Llope, W J; Longacre, R S; Love, W A; Lu, Y; Ludlam, T; Lynn, D; Ma, G L; Ma, J G; Ma, Y G; Mahapatra, D P; Majka, R; Mangotra, L K; Manweiler, R; Margetis, S; Markert, C; Martin, L; Matis, H S; Matulenko, Yu A; McShane, T S; Meschanin, A; Millane, J; Miller, M L; Minaev, N G; Mioduszewski, S; Mischke, A; Mitchell, J; Mohanty, B; Morozov, D A; Munhoz, M G; Nandi, B K; Nattrass, C; Nayak, T K; Nelson, J M; Nepali, C; Netrakanti, P K; Nogach, L V; Nurushev, S B; Odyniec, Grazyna Janina; Ogawa, A; Okorokov, V; Olson, D; Pachr, M; Pal, S K; Panebratsev, Yu A; Pavlinov, A I; Pawlak, T; Peitzmann, T; Perevozchikov, V; Perkins, C; Peryt, W; Phatak, S C; Planinic, M; Pluta, J; Poljak, N; Porile, N; Poskanzer, A M; Potekhin, M; Potrebenikova, E; Potukuchi, B V K S; Prindle, D; Pruneau, C; Pruthi, N K; Putschke, J; Qattan, I A; Raniwala, R; Raniwala, S; Ray, R L; Relyea, D; Ridiger, A; Ritter, H G; Roberts, J B; Rogachevski, O V; Romero, J L; Rose, A; Roy, C; Ruan, L; Russcher, M J; Sahoo, R; Sakrejda, I; Sakuma, T; Salur, S; Sandweiss, J; Sarsour, M; Sazhin, P S; Schambach, J; Scharenberg, R P; Schmitz, N; Seger, J; Selyuzhenkov, I; Seyboth, P; Shabetai, A; Shahaliev, E; Shao, M; Sharma, M; Shen, W Q; Shimansky, S S; Sichtermann, E P; Simon, F; Singaraju, R N; Skoby, M J; Smirnov, N; Snellings, R; Sørensen, P; Sowinski, J; Speltz, J; Spinka, H M; Srivastava, B; Stadnik, A; Stanislaus, T D S; Staszak, D; Stock, R; Strikhanov, M; Stringfellow, B; Suaide, A A P; Suarez, M C; Subba, N L; Sumbera, M; Sun, X M; Sun, Z; Surrow, B; Symons, T J M; Szanto de Toledo, A; Takahashi, J; Tang, A H; Tarnowsky, T; Thomas, J H; Timmins, A R; Timoshenko, S; Tokarev, M; Trainor, T A; Tram, V N; Trentalange, S; Tribble, R E; Tsai, O D; Ulery, J; Ullrich, T; Underwood, D G; Van Buren, G; Van der Kolk, N; Van Leeuwen, M; Van der Molen, A M; Varma, R; Vasilevski, I M; Vasilev, A N; Vernet, R; Vigdor, S E; Viyogi, Y P; Vokal, S; Voloshin, S A; Wada, M; Waggoner, W T; Wang, F; Wang, G; Wang, J S; Wang, X L; Wang, Y; Webb, J C; Westfall, G D; Whitten, C; Wieman, H; Wissink, S W; Witt, R; Wu, J; Wu, Y; Xu, N; Xu, Q H; Xu, Z; Yepes, P; Yoo, I K; Yue, Q; Yurevich, V I; Zawisza, M; Zhan, W; Zhang, H; Zhang, W M; Zhang, Y; Zhang, Z P; Zhao, Y; Zhong, C; Zhou, J; Zoulkarneev, R; Zoulkarneeva, Y; Zubarev, A N; Zuo, J X

    2007-01-01

    We report a new STAR measurement of the longitudinal double-spin asymmetry A_LL for inclusive jet production at mid-rapidity in polarized p+p collisions at a center-of-mass energy of $\\sqrt{s}$ = 200 GeV. The data, which cover jet transverse momenta 5 < p_T < 30 GeV/c, are substantially more precise than previous measurements. They provide significant new constraints on the gluon spin contribution to the nucleon spin through the comparison to predictions derived from one global fit of polarized deep-inelastic scattering measurements.

  13. Transesterification of edible, non-edible and used cooking oils for biodiesel production using calcined layered double hydroxides as reusable base catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankaranarayanan, Sivashunmugam; Antonyraj, Churchil A; Kannan, S

    2012-04-01

    Fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) were produced from edible, non-edible and used cooking oils with different fatty acid contents by transesterification with methanol using calcined layered double hydroxides (LDHs) as solid base catalysts. Among the catalysts, calcined CaAl2-LDH (hydrocalumite) showed the highest activity with >90% yield of FAME using low methanol:oil molar ratio (catalyzed process for production of biodiesel in high yields from a wide variety of triglyceride oils including used oils is possible using optimized conditions.

  14. A Doctoral Dissertation by Undesirable Learning Style——On Liu Fang's Song Dynasty Double Capital of Urban Culture and Literary Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tan Qingyang

    2011-01-01

    Recently,I saw a doctoral dissertation online.It is Liu Fang' s Song Dynasty Double Capital of Urban Culture and Literary Production which passed Ph.D.thesis defense in a university in 2008.At the first glance at the subject,it is very attractive.While I read the afterword and knew the topic had won three funds given by his university,his province and the Ministry of Education respectively,it seemed even better.But after carefully reading the text,I was disappointed.We can say that it is not only filled with faults everywhere,but also by undesirable learning style.

  15. Double differential cross section for light mass fragment production on tens of MeV proton, deuteron, helium and carbon induced reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanami, Toshiya; Yamaguchi, Yuji; Uozumi, Yusuke; Hagiwara, Masayuki; Koba, Yusuke

    2017-09-01

    Double differential cross sections (DDXs) of light mass fragment (LMFs - Li,Be,B,C,N and O) productions were measured for tens of MeV proton, deuteron helium and carbon induced reactions on Be, C, Al, Ti and Cu targets. The incident energies for the measurements were chosen to allow us to compare DDXs with same incident energy but different projectiles on various targets. Systematic data were obtained to see the differences between projectile energies, particles, targets and emitted particles. From the comparison, reaction processes of not only evaporation from complete fusion nucleus, but also scattering, pickup, stripping and projectile fragmentation were observed.

  16. Bottom production cross section from double muonic decays of b-Flavoured hadrons in 920 GeV proton-nucleus collision

    CERN Document Server

    Abt, I; Agari, M; Albrecht, H; Aleksandrov, A; Amaral, V S; Amorim, A; Aplin, S J; Aushev, V; Bagaturia, Yu S; Balagura, V; Bargiotti, M; Barsukova, O; Bastos, J; Batista, J; Bauer, C; Bauer, T S; Belkov, A; Belkov, Ar; Belotelov, I; Bertin, A; Bobchenko, B M; Bogatyrev, A; Brauer, M; Bruinsma, M; Bruschi, M; Buchholz, P; Buran, T; Böcker, M; Böhm, G; Carvalho, J; Conde, P; Cruse, C; Dam, M; Danielsen, K M; Danilov, M; De Castro, S; Deppe, H; Dong, X; Dreis, H B; Egorytchev, V; Ehret, K; Eisele, F; Emeliyanov, D; Essenov, S; Fabbri, L; Faccioli, P; Feuerstack-Raible, M; Flammer, J; Fominykh, B; Funcke, M; Garrido, L; Gellrich, A; Giacobbe, B; Giovannini, P; Glass, J; Goloubkov, D; Golubkov, Y; Golutvin, A; Golutvin, I A; Gorbounov, I; Gorisek, A; Gouchtchine, O; Goulart, D C; Gradl, S; Gradl, W; Grimaldi, F; Groth-Jensen, J; Guilitsky, Yu; Hansen, J D; Hernández, J M; Hofmann, W; Hohlmann, M; Hott, T; Hulsbergen, W; Husemann, U; Igonkina, O; Ispiryan, M; Jagla, T; Jiang, C; Kapitza, H; Karabekyan, S; Karpenko, N; Keller, S; Kessler, J; Khasanov, F; Kiryushin, Yu T; Kisel, I; Klinkby, E; Knöpfle, K T; Kolanoski, H; Korpar, S; Krauss, C; Kreuzer, P; Krizan, P; Krücker, D; Kupper, S; Kvaratskheliia, T; Lanyov, A; Lau, K; Lewendel, B; Lohse, T; Lomonosov, B; Mankel, R; Masciocchi, S; Massa, I; Matchikhilian, I; Medin, G; Medinnis, M; Mevius, M; Michetti, A; Mikhailov, Yu; Mizuk, R; Muresan, R; Männer, R; Negodaev, M; Nowak, S; Nörenberg, M; Núñez-Pardo de Vera, M T; Ouchrif, M; Ould-Saada, F; Padilla, C; Peralta, D; Pernack, R; Pestotnik, R; Petersen, B AA; Piccinini, M; Pleier, M A; Poli, M; Popov, V; Pose, D; Prystupa, S; Pugatch, V; Pylypchenko, Y; Pyrlik, J; Reeves, K; Reing, D; Rick, H; Riu, I; Robmann, P; Rostovtseva, I; Rybnikov, V; Sbrizzi, A; Schmelling, M; Schmidt, B; Schreiner, A; Schröder, H; Schwanke, U; Schwartz, A J; Schwarz, A S; Schwenninger, B; Schwingenheuer, B; Sciacca, F; Semprini-Cesari, N; Shuvalov, S; Silva, L; Solunin, S; Somov, A; Somov, S; Sozuer, L; Spengler, J; Spighi, R; Spiridonov, A A; Stanovnik, A; Staric, M; Stegmann, C; Subramanian, H S; Symalla, M; Sánchez, F; Tikhomirov, I; Titov, M; Tsakov, I; Uwer, U; Van Eldik, C; Vasilev, Yu; Villa, M; Vitale, A; Vukotic, I; Wahlberg, H; Walenta, A H; Walter, M; Wang, J J; Wegener, D; Werthenbach, U; Wolters, H; Wurth, R; Wurz, A; Xella, S M; Zaitsev, Yu; Zavertyaev, M; Zeuner, T; Zhelezov, A; Zheng, Z; Zimmermann, R; Zivko, T; Zoccoli, A; Zur Nedden, M; al, et

    2007-01-01

    The b-bbar production cross section in 920 GeV proton-nucleus fixed target collisions is measured by observing double muonic decays of b-flavored hadrons in the kinematic region $-0.3<\\xF(\\mu)<0.15$. A total number of $76\\pm12$ b-bbar events is obtained with a likelihood fit of the signal and background simulated events to the data. The resulting cross section is $\\sigbb = 16.2 \\pm 2.5_{stat} \\pm 2.8_{sys} \

  17. Improved Measurement of Double Helicity Asymmetry in Inclusive Midrapidity pi^0 Production for Polarized p+p Collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$=200 GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Adler, S S; Aidala, C; Ajitanand, N N; Akiba, Y; Al-Jamel, A; Alexander, J; Aoki, K; Aphecetche, L; Armendariz, R; Aronson, S H; Averbeck, R; Awes, T C; Azmoun, B; Babintsev, V; Baldisseri, Alberto; Barish, K N; Barnes, P D; Bassalleck, B; Bathe, S; Batsouli, S; Baublis, V; Bauer, F; Bazilevsky, A; Belikov, S; Bennett, R; Berdnikov, Y; Bjorndal, M T; Boissevain, J G; Borel, H; Boyle, K; Brooks, M L; Brown, D S; Bruner, N; Bucher, D; Büsching, H; Bumazhnov, V; Bunce, G; Burward-Hoy, J M; Butsyk, S; Camard, X; Campbell, S; Chai, J S; Chand, P; Chang, W C; Chernichenko, S; Chi, C Y; Chiba, J; Chiu, M; Choi, I J; Choudhury, R K; Chujo, T; Cianciolo, V; Cleven, C R; Cobigo, Y; Cole, B A; Comets, M P; Constantin, P; Csanad, M; Csörgö, T; Cussonneau, J P; D'Enterria, D G; Dahms, T; Das, K; Dávid, G; Deák, F; Delagrange, H; Denisov, A; Deshpande, Abhay A; Desmond, E J; Devismes, A; Dietzsch, O; Dion, A; Drachenberg, J L; Drapier, O; Drees, A; Dubey, A K; Durum, A; Dutta, D; Dzhordzhadze, V; Efremenko, Yu V; Egdemir, J; Enokizono, A; Enyo, H; Espagnon, B; Esumi, S; Fields, D E; Finck, C; Fleuret, F; Fokin, S L; Forestier, B; Fox, B D; Fraenkel, Zeev; Frantz, J E; Franz, A; Frawley, A D; Fukao, Y; Fung, S Y; Gadrat, S; Gastineau, F; Germain, M; Glenn, A; Gonin, M; Gosset, J; Goto, Y; Granier de Cassagnac, R; Grau, N; Greene, S V; Grosse-Perdekamp, M; Gunji, T; Gustafsson, Hans Åke; Hachiya, T; Hadj-Henni, A; Haggerty, J S; Hagiwara, M N; Hamagaki, H; Hansen, A G; Harada, H; Hartouni, E P; Haruna, K; Harvey, M; Haslum, E; Hasuko, K; Hayano, R; He, X; Heffner, M; Hemmick, T K; Heuser, J M; Hidas, P; Hiejima, H; Hill, J C; Hobbs, R; Holmes, M; Holzmann, W; Homma, K; Hong, B; Hoover, A; Horaguchi, T; Hur, M G; Ichihara, T; Ikonnikov, V V; Imai, K; Inaba, M; Inuzuka, M; Isenhower, D; Isenhower, L D; Ishihara, M; Isobe, T; Issah, M; Isupov, A; Jacak, B V; Jia, J; Jin, J; Jinnouchi, O; Johnson, B M; Johnson, S C; Joo, K S; Jouan, D; Kajihara, F; Kametani, S; Kamihara, N; Kaneta, M; Kang, J H; Katou, K; Kawabata, T; Kawagishi, T; Kazantsev, A V; Kelly, S; Khachaturov, B; Khanzadeev, A; Kikuchi, J; Kim, D J; Kim, E; Kim, G B; Kim, H J; Kim, Y S; Kinney, E; Kiss, A; Kistenev, E P; Kiyomichi, A; Klein-Bösing, C; Kobayashi, H; Kochenda, L; Kochetkov, V; Kohara, R; Komkov, B; Konno, M; Kotchetkov, D; Kozlov, A; Kroon, P J; Kuberg, C H; Kunde, G J; Kurihara, N; Kurita, K; Kweon, M J; Kwon, Y; Kyle, G S; Lacey, R; Lajoie, J G; Le Bornec, Y; Lebedev, A; Leckey, S; Lee, D M; Lee, M K; Leitch, M J; Leite, M A L; Li, X H; Lim, H; Litvinenko, A; Liu, M X; Maguire, C F; Makdisi, Y I; Malakhov, A; Malik, M D; Man'ko, V I; Mao, Y; Martínez, G; Masui, H; Matathias, F; Matsumoto, T; McCain, M C; McGaughey, P L; Miake, Y; Miller, T E; Milov, A; Mioduszewski, S; Mishra, G C; Mitchell, J T; Mohanty, A K; Morrison, D P; Moss, J M; Moukhanova, T V; Mukhopadhyay, D; Muniruzzaman, M; Murata, J; Nagamiya, S; Nagata, Y; Nagle, J L; Naglis, M; Nakamura, T; Newby, J; Nguyen, M; Norman, B E; Nyanin, A S; Nystrand, J; O'Brien, E; Ogilvie, C A; Ohnishi, H; Ojha, I D; Okada, H; Okada, K; Omiwade, O O; Oskarsson, A; Otterlund, I; Oyama, K; Ozawa, K; Pal, D; Palounek, A P T; Pantuev, V S; Papavassiliou, V; Park, J; Park, W J; Pate, S F; Pei, H; Penev, V; Peng, J C; Pereira, H; Peresedov, V; Peressounko, D Yu; Pierson, A; Pinkenburg, C; Pisani, R P; Purschke, M L; Purwar, A K; Qu, H; Qualls, J M; Rak, J; Ravinovich, I; Read, K F; Reuter, M; Reygers, K; Riabov, V; Riabov, Y; Roche, G; Romana, A; Rosati, M; Rosendahl, S S E; Rosnet, P; Rukoyatkin, P; Rykov, V L; Ryu, S S; Sahlmueller, B; Saitô, N; Sakaguchi, T; Sakai, S; Samsonov, V; Sanfratello, L; Santo, R; Sato, H D; Sato, S; Sawada, S; Schutz, Y; Semenov, V; Seto, R; Sharma, D; Shea, T K; Shein, I; Shibata, T A; Shigaki, K; Shimomura, M; Shohjoh, T; Shoji, K; Sickles, A; Silva, C L; Silvermyr, D; Sim, K S; Singh, C P; Singh, V; Skutnik, S; Smith, W C; Soldatov, A; Soltz, R A; Sondheim, W E; Sørensen, S P; Sourikova, I V; Staley, F; Stankus, P W; Stenlund, E; Stepanov, M; Ster, A; Stoll, S P; Sugitate, T; Suire, C; Sullivan, J P; Sziklai, J; Tabaru, T; Takagi, S; Takagui, E M; Taketani, A; Tanaka, K H; Tanaka, Y; Tanida, K; Tannenbaum, M J; Taranenko, A; Tarjan, P; Thomas, T L; Togawa, M; Tojo, J; Torii, H; Towell, R S; Tram, V N; Tserruya, Itzhak; Tsuchimoto, Y; Tuli, S K; Tydesjo, H; Tyurin, N; Uam, T J; Valle, H; van Hecke, H W; Velkovska, J; Velkovsky, M; Vertesi, R; Veszpremi, V; Vinogradov, A A; Volkov, M A; Vznuzdaev, E; Wagner, M; Wang, X R; Watanabe, Y; Wessels, J; White, S N; Willis, N; Winter, D; Wohn, F K; Woody, C L; Wysocki, M; Xie, W; Yanovich, A A; Yokkaichi, S; Young, G R; Younus, I; Yushmanov, I E; Zajc, W A; Zaudtke, O; Zhang, C; Zhou, S; Zimányi, J; Zolin, L; Zong, X

    2006-01-01

    We present an improved measurement of the double helicity asymmetry for pi^0 production in polarized proton-proton scattering at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 200 GeV employing the PHENIX detector at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). The improvements to our previous measurement come from two main factors: Inclusion of a new data set from the 2004 RHIC run with higher beam polarizations than the earlier run and a recalibration of the beam polarization measurements, which resulted in reduced uncertainties and increased beam polarizations. The results are compared to a Next to Leading Order (NLO) perturbative Quantum Chromodynamics (pQCD) calculation with a range of polarized gluon distributions.

  18. A double-edged sword: the effects of challenge and hindrance time pressure on new product development teams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chong, D.S.F.; van Eerde, W.; Chai, K.H.; Rutte, C.G.

    2011-01-01

    Bringing new products to market requires team effort. New product development teams often face demanding schedules and high deliverable expectations, making time pressure a common experience at the workplace. Past literature have generally associated the relationship between time pressure and

  19. SINGLE CRYSTAL NEUTRON DIFFRACTION.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KOETZLE,T.F.

    2001-03-13

    Single-crystal neutron diffraction measures the elastic Bragg reflection intensities from crystals of a material, the structure of which is the subject of investigation. A single crystal is placed in a beam of neutrons produced at a nuclear reactor or at a proton accelerator-based spallation source. Single-crystal diffraction measurements are commonly made at thermal neutron beam energies, which correspond to neutron wavelengths in the neighborhood of 1 Angstrom. For high-resolution studies requiring shorter wavelengths (ca. 0.3-0.8 Angstroms), a pulsed spallation source or a high-temperature moderator (a ''hot source'') at a reactor may be used. When complex structures with large unit-cell repeats are under investigation, as is the case in structural biology, a cryogenic-temperature moderator (a ''cold source'') may be employed to obtain longer neutron wavelengths (ca. 4-10 Angstroms). A single-crystal neutron diffraction analysis will determine the crystal structure of the material, typically including its unit cell and space group, the positions of the atomic nuclei and their mean-square displacements, and relevant site occupancies. Because the neutron possesses a magnetic moment, the magnetic structure of the material can be determined as well, from the magnetic contribution to the Bragg intensities. This latter aspect falls beyond the scope of the present unit; for information on magnetic scattering of neutrons see Unit 14.3. Instruments for single-crystal diffraction (single-crystal diffractometers or SCDs) are generally available at the major neutron scattering center facilities. Beam time on many of these instruments is available through a proposal mechanism. A listing of neutron SCD instruments and their corresponding facility contacts is included in an appendix accompanying this unit.

  20. Measuring slit width and separation in a diffraction experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gan, K K; Law, A T [Department of Physics, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)], E-mail: gan@mps.ohio-state.edu

    2009-11-15

    We present a procedure for measuring slit width and separation in single- and double-slit diffraction experiments. Intensity spectra of diffracted laser light are measured with an optical sensor (PIN diode). Slit widths and separations are extracted by fitting to the measured spectra. We present a simple fitting procedure to account for the integration (averaging) of light across the finite sensor aperture. This experiment provides students with a quantitative, in-depth verification of diffraction theory, as well as hands-on experience in sophisticated fitting methods.

  1. Polychromatic diffraction contrast tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, A., E-mail: king@synchrotron-soleil.fr [Synchrotron SOLEIL, Gif-sur-Yvette 91192 (France); Reischig, P. [Xnovo Technology ApS, 4600 Køge (Denmark); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Delft University of Technology, Delft 2628 CD (Netherlands); Adrien, J. [MATEIS, INSA de Lyon, Villeurbanne 69621 (France); Peetermans, S. [Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Ludwig, W. [MATEIS, INSA de Lyon, Villeurbanne 69621 (France); European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Grenoble 38043 (France)

    2014-11-15

    This tutorial review introduces the use of polychromatic radiation for 3D grain mapping using X-ray diffraction contrast tomography. The objective is to produce a 3D map of the grain shapes and orientations within a bulk, millimeter-sized polycrystalline sample. The use of polychromatic radiation enables the standard synchrotron X-ray technique to be applied in a wider range of contexts: 1) Using laboratory X-ray sources allows a much wider application of the diffraction contrast tomography technique. 2) Neutron sources allow large samples, or samples containing high Z elements to be studied. 3) Applied to synchrotron sources, smaller samples may be treated, or faster measurements may be possible. Challenges and particularities in the data acquisition and processing, and the limitations of the different variants, are discussed. - Highlights: • We present a tutorial review of polychromatic diffraction contrast tomography techniques. • The use of polychromatic radiation allows the standard synchrotron DCT technique to be extended to a range of other sources. • The characteristics and limitations of all variants of the techniques are derived, discussed and compared. • Examples using laboratory X-ray and cold neutron radiation are presented. • Suggestions for the future development of these techniques are presented.

  2. Diffraction at the LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khoze, V.A.; Ryskin, M.G. [University of Durham, Institute for Particle Physics Phenomenology, Durham (United Kingdom); NRC Kurchatov Institute, Gatchina, Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Martin, A.D. [University of Durham, Institute for Particle Physics Phenomenology, Durham (United Kingdom)

    2013-07-15

    We show that the diffractive pp (and p anti p) data (on {sigma}{sub tot}, d{sigma}{sub el}/dt, proton dissociation into low-mass systems, {sigma}{sup D}{sub low} {sub M}, and high-mass dissociation, d{sigma}/d({Delta}{eta})) in a wide energy range from CERN-ISR to LHC energies, may be described in a two-channel eikonal model with only one 'effective' pomeron. By allowing the pomeron coupling to the diffractive eigenstates to depend on the collider energy (as is expected theoretically) we are able to explain the low value of {sigma}{sup D}{sub low} {sub M} measured at the LHC. We calculate the survival probability, S{sup 2}, of a rapidity gap to survive 'soft rescattering'. We emphasise that the values found for S{sup 2} are particularly sensitive to the detailed structure of the diffractive eigenstates. (orig.)

  3. Diffractive leptoproduction of small masses in QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gotsman, Errol; Maor, Uri [Tel Aviv Univ. (Israel). Raymond and Sackler Faculty of Exact Sciences. School of Physics and Astronomy; Levin, Eugene [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]|[Petersburg Nuclear Physics Inst., St. Petersburg (Russian Federation). Theory Dept.

    1996-05-01

    In this paper we consider the process of diffraction dissociation in deeply inelastic scattering in the region of small produced mass, which we define as production of q-bar q-pair and q-bar q G system in the final state. We show that the small distance contributions (r perpendicular is proportional to 1/Q) to the longitudinal polarised virtual photon dominate. Formulae for the cross section using the gluon structure function are written within the framework of perturbative QCD. It is shown that the production of small masses by the transverse polarized photo is concentrated at moderate values of r perpendicular to {approx} 1 GeV{sup -1}, where the p QCD approach can be applied. This could be responsible for a considerable part of the diffractive production. It is shown that only q-bar q pair production contribute to the diffraction dissociation at {beta} > 0.4, the possibility to extract the value of the gluon structure function from the measurements in this kinematic region is discussed. The evolution of the DD structure function is studied, and a solution to the DD evolution equations is proposed. Shadowing corrections are discussed for both the transverse and longitudinal polarised photon, and estimates of the different damping factors are given. The relation between diffractive production and the corrections to F2, is alluded to. (author). 45 refs., 16 figs.

  4. [Effects of different tillage methods on photosynthetic characteristics, dry matter production and economic benefit of double cropping soybean].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jiang-hua; Su, Li-li; Li, Ya-jie; Xu, Wen-xiu; Peng, Jiang-long

    2016-01-01

    In order to explore suitable mode of high yield cultivation of double cropping soybean after wheat under drip irrigation in northern Xinjiang, field trials were set in 2013-2014 to investigate physiological indices and agronomic traits of double cropping soybean under different tillage methods under drip irrigation. The results showed that leaf area index (LAI), chlorophyll content (SPAD), leaf net photosynthetic rate (Pn), transpiration rate (Tr) and stomatal conductance (g(s)) during the determination period under different tillage methods were in the order of tillage plus film covering (TP)> tillage (T)> rotary tillage (RT) > no-tillage (NT) , and the concentration of intercellular CO₂(Ci) was the opposite. LAI, SPAD, Pn, Tr, and g(s) of TP were higher than that with NT by 55.0%, 9.1%, 41.8%, 37.5% and 56.4%, respectively, and Ci was decreased by 22.1%. TP enhanced the photosynthetic efficiency of soybean and improved the ability of CO₂assimilation, consequently leading to the increase of soybean yield under TP compared to NT. The plant dry matter accumulation of TP treatment was improved greatly, with the pod number and seeds number per plant, 100-seed mass and yield of quadric sowing soybean being increased by 50.3%, 48.1%, 11.8% and 20.8% compared with that under NT, and the differences were significant. Therefore, the plastic film mulching combined with tillage under drip irrigation technology was suitable for double cropping soybean after wheat in northern Xinjiang under this experimental condition.

  5. Preparation of double-walled carbon nanotubes using lanthanum as promoter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安玉良; 候青怡; 王俊; 郑朝晖; 赵晖; 张罡

    2010-01-01

    Double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWNTs) were prepared from graphite by arc discharge technique with La as promoter. The DWNTs products were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. The results demonstrated that La was a suitable promoter reagent for making high purity DWNTs with narrow diameter distribution by arc discharge method. The role of La in the growth of the DWNTs was briefly discussed in terms of the...

  6. Preparation of molecularly imprinted polymer with double templates for rapid simultaneous determination of melamine and dicyandiamide in dairy products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiang; Song, Han; Liu, Jie; Liu, Yuan; Li, Le; Tang, Hui; Li, Yingchun

    2015-03-01

    In this study, a rapid and accurate determination strategy was established for simultaneous measurement of melamine (MLM) and dicyandiamide (DCD) directly in powdered milk by coupling molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction (MISPE) with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). A novel double-template technique was adopted for preparing SPE packing agent and the obtained double-templated (MLM and DCD) molecularly imprinted polymers (MD-MIPs) was characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The molecular recognition ability and the binding capability of the as-prepared polymers towards MLM and DCD were evaluated via static and dynamic binding tests, and it was found that the MD-MIPs showed better affinity and selectivity for both templates compared with single-templated MIPs and non-imprinted polymers (NIPs). An approach based on MISPE and HPLC was then developed and optimized to detect MLM and DCD in powdered milk. The detection limit of the method (S/N=3) were 0.13 μg/g for MLM and 0.07 μg/g for DCD, and the relative standard deviation (RSD) of intra-day and inter-day determination for MLM was 3.3% and 4.7%, and 3.5% and 5.9% for DCD. The recoveries in MLM and DCD analysis at three spiked levels were 93.1-100.1% and 75.7-82.5%, respectively, with all RSD less than 5.2%.

  7. Transverse double-spin asymmetries for electroweak gauge-boson production in high-energy polarized $p^{\\uparrow} + p^{\\uparrow}$ collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Soffer, Jacques; Bourrely, Claude

    2016-01-01

    We consider the production of $W$ and $Z / \\gamma^{*}$ gauge bosons in proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of $\\sqrt{s} = 510 \\mbox{GeV}$ available at RHIC at BNL, operating at high luminosity. We stress the importance of measuring the transverse double-spin asymmetries $A_{TT}$, in connection with available transversely polarized beams with a high degree of polarisation. We will discuss some theoretical issues related to the predicted asymmetries. These studies are contrasted to the 2017 RHIC running operation of transversely polarized beams of mid-rapidity $W$ and $Z$ boson production at a center-of-mass energy of $\\sqrt{s}=510\\,$GeV along with long-term prospects beyond 2020 at RHIC.

  8. Inclusive cross sections, charge ratio and double-helicity asymmetries for $\\pi^+$ and $\\pi^-$ production in $p$$+$$p$ collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$=200 GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Adare, A; Ajitanand, N N; Akiba, Y; Akimoto, R; Al-Ta'ani, H; Alexander, J; Andrews, K R; Angerami, A; Aoki, K; Apadula, N; Appelt, E; Aramaki, Y; Armendariz, R; Aschenauer, E C; Atomssa, E T; Awes, T C; Azmoun, B; Babintsev, V; Bai, M; Bannier, B; Barish, K N; Bassalleck, B; Basye, A T; Bathe, S; Baublis, V; Baumann, C; Bazilevsky, A; Belmont, R; Ben-Benjamin, J; Bennett, R; Blau, D S; Bok, J S; Boyle, K; Brooks, M L; Broxmeyer, D; Buesching, H; Bumazhnov, V; Bunce, G; Butsyk, S; Campbell, S; Castera, P; Chen, C -H; Chi, C Y; Chiu, M; Choi, I J; Choi, J B; Choudhury, R K; Christiansen, P; Chujo, T; Chvala, O; Cianciolo, V; Citron, Z; Cole, B A; del Valle, Z Conesa; Connors, M; Csanád, M; Csörgő, T; Dairaku, S; Datta, A; David, G; Dayananda, M K; Denisov, A; Deshpande, A; Desmond, E J; Dharmawardane, K V; Dietzsch, O; Dion, A; Donadelli, M; Drapier, O; Drees, A; Drees, K A; Durham, J M; Durum, A; D'Orazio, L; Efremenko, Y V; Engelmore, T; Enokizono, A; En'yo, H; Esumi, S; Fadem, B; Fields, D E; Finger, M; Jr., \\,; Fleuret, F; Fokin, S L; Frantz, J E; Franz, A; Frawley, A D; Fukao, Y; Fusayasu, T; Gal, C; Garishvili, I; Giordano, F; Glenn, A; Gong, X; Gonin, M; Goto, Y; de Cassagnac, R Granier; Grau, N; Greene, S V; Perdekamp, M Grosse; Gunji, T; Guo, L; Gustafsson, H -Å; Haggerty, J S; Hahn, K I; Hamagaki, H; Hamblen, J; Han, R; Hanks, J; Harper, C; Hashimoto, K; Haslum, E; Hayano, R; He, X; Hemmick, T K; Hester, T; Hill, J C; Hollis, R S; Holzmann, W; Homma, K; Hong, B; Horaguchi, T; Hori, Y; Hornback, D; Huang, S; Ichihara, T; Ichimiya, R; Iinuma, H; Ikeda, Y; Imai, K; Inaba, M; Iordanova, A; Isenhower, D; Ishihara, M; Issah, M; Ivanischev, D; Iwanaga, Y; Jacak, B V; Jia, J; Jiang, X; John, D; Johnson, B M; Jones, T; Joo, K S; Jouan, D; Kamin, J; Kaneti, S; Kang, B H; Kang, J H; Kang, J S; Kapustinsky, J; Karatsu, K; Kasai, M; Kawall, D; Kazantsev, A V; Kempel, T; Khanzadeev, A; Kijima, K M; Kim, B I; Kim, D J; Kim, E -J; Kim, Y -J; Kim, Y K; Kinney, E; Kiss, Á; Kistenev, E; Kleinjan, D; Kline, P; Kochenda, L; Komkov, B; Konno, M; Koster, J; Kotov, D; Král, A; Kunde, G J; Kurita, K; Kurosawa, M; Kwon, Y; Kyle, G S; Lacey, R; Lai, Y S; Lajoie, J G; Lebedev, A; Lee, D M; Lee, J; Lee, K B; Lee, K S; Lee, S H; Lee, S R; Leitch, M J; Leite, M A L; Li, X; Lim, S H; Levy, L A Linden; Liu, H; Liu, M X; Love, B; Lynch, D; Maguire, C F; Makdisi, Y I; Manion, A; Manko, V I; Mannel, E; Mao, Y; Masui, H; McCumber, M; McGaughey, P L; McGlinchey, D; McKinney, C; Means, N; Mendoza, M; Meredith, B; Miake, Y; Mibe, T; Mignerey, A C; Miki, K; Milov, A; Mitchell, J T; Miyachi, Y; Mohanty, A K; Moon, H J; Morino, Y; Morreale, A; Morrison, D P; Motschwiller, S; Moukhanova, T V; Murakami, T; Murata, J; Nagamiya, S; Nagle, J L; Naglis, M; Nagy, M I; Nakagawa, I; Nakamiya, Y; Nakamura, K R; Nakamura, T; Nakano, K; Newby, J; Nguyen, M; Nihashi, M; Nouicer, R; Nyanin, A S; Oakley, C; O'Brien, E; Ogilvie, C A; Oka, M; Okada, K; Oskarsson, A; Ouchida, M; Ozawa, K; Pak, R; Pantuev, V; Papavassiliou, V; Park, B H; Park, I H; Park, S K; Pate, S F; Patel, L; Pei, H; Peng, J -C; Pereira, H; Peressounko, D Yu; Petti, R; Pinkenburg, C; Pisani, R P; Proissl, M; Purschke, M L; Qu, H; Rak, J; Ravinovich, I; Read, K F; Reygers, K; Riabov, V; Riabov, Y; Richardson, E; Roach, D; Roche, G; Rolnick, S D; Rosati, M; Rosendahl, S S E; Rubin, J G; Sahlmueller, B; Saito, N; Sakaguchi, T; Samsonov, V; Sano, S; Sarsour, M; Sato, T; Savastio, M; Sawada, S; Sedgwick, K; Seidl, R; Seto, R; Sharma, D; Shein, I; Shibata, T -A; Shigaki, K; Shim, H H; Shimomura, M; Shoji, K; Shukla, P; Sickles, A; Silva, C L; Silvermyr, D; Silvestre, C; Sim, K S; Singh, B K; Singh, C P; Singh, V; Slunečka, M; Sodre, T; Soltz, R A; Sondheim, W E; Sorensen, S P; Sourikova, I V; Stankus, P W; Stenlund, E; Stoll, S P; Sugitate, T; Sukhanov, A; Sun, J; Sziklai, J; Takagui, E M; Takahara, A; Taketani, A; Tanabe, R; Tanaka, Y; Taneja, S; Tanida, K; Tannenbaum, M J; Tarafdar, S; Taranenko, A; Tennant, E; Themann, H; Thomas, D; Togawa, M; Tomášek, L; Tomášek, M; Torii, H; Towell, R S; Tserruya, I; Tsuchimoto, Y; Utsunomiya, K; Vale, C; van Hecke, H W; Vazquez-Zambrano, E; Veicht, A; Velkovska, J; Vértesi, R; Virius, M; Vossen, A; Vrba, V; Vznuzdaev, E; Wang, X R; Watanabe, D; Watanabe, K; Watanabe, Y; Watanabe, Y S; Wei, F; Wei, R; Wessels, J; White, S N; Winter, D; Woody, C L; Wright, R M; Wysocki, M; Yamaguchi, Y L; Yang, R; Yanovich, A; Ying, J; Yokkaichi, S; Yoo, J S; You, Z; Young, G R; Younus, I; Yushmanov, I E; Zajc, W A; Zelenski, A; Zhou, S

    2014-01-01

    We present the midrapidity charged pion invariant cross sections and the ratio of $\\pi^-$-to-$\\pi^+$ production ($5double-helicity asymmetries ($5production when considering these scale uncertainties overestimates the measured value, suggesting further investigation of the uncertainties on the charge-separated pion fragmentation functions is needed. Due to cancellations of uncertainties in the charge ratio, direct inclusion of these ratio data in future parameterizations should improve constraints on the flavor dependence of quark fragmentation functions to pions. By measuring charge-separat...

  9. Diffractive vector meson leptoproduction and spin effects

    CERN Document Server

    Goloskokov, S V

    2006-01-01

    We analyse spin effects in diffractive vector meson leptoproduction at small $x$ on the basis of the generalized parton distribution (GPD) approach. We take into account quark transverse degrees of freedom in the hard subprocess. We calculate amplitudes for the longitudinally and transversely polarized photons and vector mesons. Our results on the cross section and spin density matrix elements (SDME) are in fair agreement with the DESY experiments. Predictions for HERMES and COMPASS energy range are made. The predicted double spin longitudinal $A_{LL}$ asymmetry is not small at HERMES energies

  10. GENXICC2.0: An upgraded version of the generator for hadronic production of double heavy baryons Ξ, Ξ and Ξ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chao-Hsi; Wang, Jian-Xiong; Wu, Xing-Gang

    2010-06-01

    An upgraded (second) version of the package GENXICC (A Generator for Hadronic Production of the Double Heavy Baryons Ξ, Ξ and Ξ by C.H. Chang, J.X. Wang and X.G. Wu [its first version in: Comput. Phys. Comm. 177 (2007) 467]) is presented. Users, with this version being implemented in PYTHIA and a GNU C compiler, may simulate full events of these processes in various experimental environments conveniently. In comparison with the previous version, in order to implement it in PYTHIA properly, a subprogram for the fragmentation of the produced double heavy diquark to the relevant baryon is supplied and the interface of the generator to PYTHIA is changed accordingly. In the subprogram, with explanation, certain necessary assumptions (approximations) are made in order to conserve the momenta and the QCD 'color' flow for the fragmentation. Program summaryProgram title: GENXICC2.0 Catalogue identifier: ADZJ_v2_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADZJ_v2_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 102 482 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 1 469 519 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Fortran 77/90 Computer: Any LINUX based on PC with FORTRAN 77 or FORTRAN 90 and GNU C compiler as well Operating system: Linux RAM: About 2.0 MByte Classification: 11.2 Catalogue identifier of previous version: ADZJ_v1_0 Journal reference of previous version: Comput. Phys. Comm. 177 (2007) 467 Does the new version supersede the previous version?: No Nature of problem: Hadronic production of double heavy baryons Ξ, Ξ and Ξ Solution method: The code is based on NRQCD framework. With proper options, it can generate weighted and un-weighted events of hadronic double heavy baryon production. When the hadronizations of the produced

  11. Inclusive Hard Diffraction at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Proskuryakov, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Recent data from the H1 and ZEUS experiments on hard inclusive diffraction are discussed. Results of QCD analyses of the diffractive deep-inelastic scattering processes are reported. Predictions based on the extracted parton densities are compared to diffractive dijet measurements.

  12. Field Guide to Diffractive Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Soskind, Yakov

    2011-01-01

    This SPIE Field Guide provides the operational principles and established terminology of diffractive optics as well as a comprehensive overview of the main types of diffractive optics components. An emphasis is placed on the qualitative explanation of the diffraction phenomenon by the use of field distributions and graphs, providing the basis for understanding the fundamental relations and important trends.

  13. Hard Diffraction in Pythia 8

    CERN Document Server

    Rasmussen, Christine O

    2015-01-01

    We present an overview of the options for diffraction implemented in the general--purpose event generator Pythia 8. We review the existing model for low-- and high--mass soft diffraction and present a new model for hard diffraction in pp and ppbar collisions. Both models uses the Pomeron approach pioneered by Ingelman and Schlein, factorising the single diffractive cross section into a Pomeron flux and a Pomeron PDF. The model for hard diffraction is implemented as a part of the multiparton interactions framework, thereby introducing a dynamical rapidity gap survival probability that explicitly breaks factorisation.

  14. Hard Diffraction in Pythia 8

    CERN Document Server

    Rasmussen, Christine O

    2015-01-01

    We present an overview of the options for diffraction implemented in the general-purpose event generator Pythia 8. We review the existing model for soft diffraction and present a new model for hard diffraction. Both models use the Pomeron approach pioneered by Ingelman and Schlein, factorising the diffractive cross section into a Pomeron flux and a Pomeron PDF, with several choices for both implemented in Pythia 8. The model of hard diffraction is implemented as a part of the multiparton interactions (MPI) framework, thus introducing a dynamical gap survival probability that explicitly breaks factorisation.

  15. Hard diffraction in Pythia 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overgaard Rasmussen, Christine

    2016-07-01

    We present an overview of the options for diffraction implemented in the general-purpose event generator Pythia 8 [1]. We review the existing model for soft diffraction and present a new model for hard diffraction. Both models use the Pomeron approach pioneered by Ingelman and Schlein, factorising the diffractive cross section into a Pomeron flux and a Pomeron PDF, with several choices for both implemented in Pythia 8. The model of hard diffraction is implemented as a part of the multiparton interactions (MPI) framework, thus introducing a dynamical gap survival probability that explicitly breaks factorisation.

  16. Efficient production of α-ketoglutarate in the gdh deleted Corynebacterium glutamicum by novel double-phase pH and biotin control strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanjun; Sun, Lanchao; Feng, Jia; Wu, Ruifang; Xu, Qingyang; Zhang, Chenglin; Chen, Ning; Xie, Xixian

    2016-06-01

    Production of L-glutamate using a biotin-deficient strain of Corynebacterium glutamicum has a long history. The process is achieved by controlling biotin at suboptimal dose in the initial fermentation medium, meanwhile feeding NH4OH to adjust pH so that α-ketoglutarate (α-KG) can be converted to L-glutamate. In this study, we deleted glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh1 and gdh2) of C. glutamicum GKG-047, an L-glutamate overproducing strain, to produce α-KG that is the direct precursor of L-glutamate. Based on the method of L-glutamate fermentation, we developed a novel double-phase pH and biotin control strategy for α-KG production. Specifically, NH4OH was added to adjust the pH at the bacterial growth stage and NaOH was used when the cells began to produce acid; besides adding an appropriate amount of biotin in the initial medium, certain amount of additional biotin was supplemented at the middle stage of fermentation to maintain a high cell viability and promote the carbon fixation to the flux of α-KG production. Under this control strategy, 45.6 g/L α-KG accumulated after 30-h fermentation in a 7.5-L fermentor and the productivity and yield achieved were 1.52 g/L/h and 0.42 g/g, respectively.

  17. Comparative efficacy and tolerability of pholcodine and dextromethorphan in the management of patients with acute, non-productive cough : a randomized, double-blind, multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Equinozzi, Roberto; Robuschi, Maria

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and tolerability of pholcodine with that of dextromethorphan, one of the most used cough sedative products, in patients with acute, non-productive cough. 129 adults with a diagnosis of acute, frequent, non-productive cough participated in a randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, multicenter trial. Medications were in a syrup formulation and were taken orally three times daily for 3 days. The efficacy endpoints were the change from baseline in the daytime and night-time cough frequency on 5-point scales at day 3, and cough intensity. A reduction of 1.4 and 1.3 points in the mean daytime cough frequency at day 3 was seen in the pholcodine and dextromethorphan groups, respectively, in the per-protocol population. The reduction in mean night-time cough was 1.3 for both groups. Cough intensity reduction was 0.7 for pholcodine and 0.8 for dextromethorphan. These findings indicate that the efficacy of a 3-day course of pholcodine is similar to that of dextromethorphan in the treatment of adult patients with acute, non-productive cough. Both medications were well tolerated.

  18. Improved bio-hydrogen production from glucose by adding a specific methane inhibitor to microbial electrolysis cells with a double anode arrangement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingnan; Bai, Yanxia; Fan, Yaoting; Hou, Hongwei

    2016-10-01

    Improved hydrogen production from glucose was achieved by adding a specific methane inhibitor (such as chloroform) to repress the activity of methanogens in a single-chamber microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) with a double anode arrangement. A maximum hydrogen production of 8.4±0.2 mol H2/mol-G (G represents glucose), a hydrogen production rate of 2.39±0.3 m(3) H2/m3/d and a high energy efficiency (relative to the electrical input) of ηE=165±5% had been recorded from 1 g/L glucose at a low dosage of chloroform (5‰, v:v) and an applied voltage of 0.8 V. Almost all of the glucose was removed within 4 h, with 66% of the electrons in intermediates (mainly including acetate and ethanol), and methane gas was not detected in the MECs through 11 batch cycles. The experimental results confirmed that chloroform was an effective methane inhibitor that improved hydrogen production from glucose in the MECs. In addition, the cyclic voltammetry tests demonstrated that the electron transfer in the MECs was mainly due to the biofilm-bound redox compounds rather than soluble electron shuttles. Copyright © 2016 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Double Trouble

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsaesser, Thomas; Kievit, Robert; Simons, Jan

    1994-01-01

    Double Trouble highlights the career of Dutch scriptwriter and television producer Chiem van Houweninge, well-known for his long-running TV comedy series and as author of episodes for TV detective series. Double Trouble gives Van Houweninge's own views on writing and filming in television prime impo

  20. Double Trouble

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsaesser, Thomas; Kievit, Robert; Simons, Jan

    1994-01-01

    Double Trouble highlights the career of Dutch scriptwriter and television producer Chiem van Houweninge, well-known for his long-running TV comedy series and as author of episodes for TV detective series. Double Trouble gives Van Houweninge's own views on writing and filming in television prime

  1. Diffraction by DNA, carbon nanotubes and other helical nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Amand A.; Lambin, Philippe

    2005-05-01

    This review discusses the diffraction patterns of x-rays or electrons scattered by fibres of helical biological molecules and by carbon nanotubes (CNTs) from the unified point of view of the Fourier-Bessel transform of an atomic helix. This paper is intended for scientists who are not professional crystallographers. X-ray fibre diffraction patterns of Pauling's protein α-helix and of Crick and Pauling's protein coiled-coil are revisited. This is followed by a non-technical comparison between the historic x-ray diffraction patterns of the A and B conformations of DNA, which were crucial for the discovery of the double helix. The qualitative analysis of the diffraction images is supported by novel optical simulation experiments designed to pinpoint the gross structural informational content of the patterns. The spectacular helical structure of the tobacco mosaic virus determined by Rosalind Franklin and co-workers will then be described as an early example of the great power of x-ray crystallography in determining the structure of a large biomolecular edifice. After these mostly historical and didactic case studies, this paper will consider electron diffraction and transmission electron microscopy of CNTs of great current interest, focusing particularly on recent data obtained for single-wall, double-wall and scrolled nanotubes. Several points of convergence between the interpretations of the diffraction patterns of biological helices and CNTs will be emphasized.

  2. Diffraction by DNA, carbon nanotubes and other helical nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucas, Amand A; Lambin, Philippe [Physics Department, FUNDP, 61 Rue de Bruxelles, B5000 Namur (Belgium)

    2005-05-01

    This review discusses the diffraction patterns of x-rays or electrons scattered by fibres of helical biological molecules and by carbon nanotubes (CNTs) from the unified point of view of the Fourier-Bessel transform of an atomic helix. This paper is intended for scientists who are not professional crystallographers. X-ray fibre diffraction patterns of Pauling's protein {alpha}-helix and of Crick and Pauling's protein coiled-coil are revisited. This is followed by a non-technical comparison between the historic x-ray diffraction patterns of the A and B conformations of DNA, which were crucial for the discovery of the double helix. The qualitative analysis of the diffraction images is supported by novel optical simulation experiments designed to pinpoint the gross structural informational content of the patterns. The spectacular helical structure of the tobacco mosaic virus determined by Rosalind Franklin and co-workers will then be described as an early example of the great power of x-ray crystallography in determining the structure of a large biomolecular edifice. After these mostly historical and didactic case studies, this paper will consider electron diffraction and transmission electron microscopy of CNTs of great current interest, focusing particularly on recent data obtained for single-wall, double-wall and scrolled nanotubes. Several points of convergence between the interpretations of the diffraction patterns of biological helices and CNTs will be emphasized.

  3. Diffraction studies with ALICE

    CERN Document Server

    Zamora, Pedro González

    2013-01-01

    The measurement of Single and Double Di raction cross-sections in pp collisions by the ALICE Collaboration at p s = 0.9, 2.76 and 7 TeV will be presented. The relevance of di raction to the understanding of inelastic pp interactions will be discussed and the measurement of the inelastic pp cross-section will be presented. A brief status of ALICE’s studies of centrally produced systems, selected with a two-pseudorapidity gap topology, will also be given

  4. Target and Double Spin Asymmetries of Deeply Virtual $\\pi^0$ Production with a Longitudinally Polarized Proton Target and CLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, A; Burkert, V; Joo, K; Kim, W; Adhikari, K P; Akbar, Z; Pereira, S Anefalos; Badui, R A; Battaglieri, M; Batourine, V; Bedlinskiy, I; Biselli, A S; Boiarinov, S; Briscoe, W J; Brooks, W K; Bültmann, S; Cao, T; Carman, D S; Celentano, A; Chandavar, S; Charles, G; Chetry, T; Colaneri, L; Cole, P L; Compton, N; Contalbrigo, M; Cortes, O; Crede, V; D'Angelo, A; Dashyan, N; De Vita, R; De Sanctis, E; Djalali, C; Egiyan, H; Alaoui, A El; Fassi, L El; Eugenio, P; Fedotov, G; Fersch, R; Filippi, A; Fleming, J A; Fradi, A; Garçon, M; Ghandilyan, Y; Gilfoyle, G P; Giovanetti, K L; Girod, F X; Gohn, W; Golovatch, E; Gothe, R W; Griffioen, K A; Guo, L; Hafidi, K; Hanretty, C; Hattawy, M; Heddle, D; Hicks, K; Holtrop, M; Ilieva, Y; Ireland, D G; Ishkhanov, B S; Jenkins, D; Jiang, H; Jo, H S; Joosten, S; Keller, D; Khachatryan, G; Khandaker, M; Klein, A; Klein, F J; Kubarovsky, V; Kuhn, S E; Kuleshov, S V; Lanza, L; Lenisa, P; Lu, H Y; MacGregor, I J D; Markov, N; Mattione, P; McCracken, M E; McKinnon, B; Mokeev, V; Movsisyan, A; Munevar, E; Nadel-Turonski, P; Net, L A; Niccolai, S; Osipenko, M; Ostrovidov, A I; Paolone, M; Park, K; Pasyuk, E; Phelps, W; Pisano, S; Pogorelko, O; Price, J W; Prok, Y; Ripani, M; Rizzo, A; Rosner, G; Rossi, P; Roy, P; Salgado, C; Schumacher, R A; Seder, E; Sharabian, Y G; Skorodumina, Iu; Smith, G D; Sokhan, D; Sparveris, N; Stepanyan, S; Stoler, P; Strakovsky, I I; Strauch, S; Sytnik, V; Taiuti, M; Torayev, B; Ungaro, M; Voskanyan, H; Voutier, E; Watts, D P; Wei, X; Weinstein, L B; Zachariou, N; Zana, L; Zhang, J; Zonta, I

    2015-01-01

    The target and double spin asymmetries of the exclusive pseudoscalar channel $\\vec e\\vec p\\to ep\\pi^0$ were measured for the first time in the deep-inelastic regime using a longitudinally polarized 5.9 GeV electron beam and a longitudinally polarized proton target at Jefferson Lab with the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS). The data were collected over a large kinematic phase space and divided into 110 four-dimensional bins of $Q^2$, $x_B$, $-t$ and $\\phi$. Large values of asymmetry moments clearly indicate a substantial contribution to the polarized structure functions from transverse virtual photon amplitudes. The interpretation of experimental data in terms of generalized parton distributions (GPDs) provides the first insight on the chiral-odd GPDs $\\tilde{H}_T$ and $E_T$, and complement previous measurements of unpolarized structure functions sensitive to the GPDs $H_T$ and $\\bar E_T$. These data provide necessary constraints for chiral-odd GPD parametrizations and will strongly influence existin...

  5. Target and double spin asymmetries of deeply virtual π0 production with a longitudinally polarized proton target and CLAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kim

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The target and double spin asymmetries of the exclusive pseudoscalar channel e→p→→epπ0 were measured for the first time in the deep-inelastic regime using a longitudinally polarized 5.9 GeV electron beam and a longitudinally polarized proton target at Jefferson Lab with the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS. The data were collected over a large kinematic phase space and divided into 110 four-dimensional bins of Q2, xB, −t and ϕ. Large values of asymmetry moments clearly indicate a substantial contribution to the polarized structure functions from transverse virtual photon amplitudes. The interpretation of experimental data in terms of generalized parton distributions (GPDs provides the first insight on the chiral-odd GPDs H˜T and ET, and complement previous measurements of unpolarized structure functions sensitive to the GPDs HT and E¯T. These data provide a crucial input for parametrizations of essentially unknown chiral-odd GPDs and will strongly influence existing theoretical calculations based on the handbag formalism.

  6. Measurement of four-jet production in proton-proton collisions at sqrt(s) = 7 TeV and UE tunes and double parton scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Gunnellini, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Using the ''Rivet" and ''Professor" framework, we construct a new PYTHIA 6 tune using the CTEQ6L1 PDF and two new PYTHIA 8 UE tunes (one using CTEQ6L1 and one using the HERAPDF1.5LO). By simultaneously fitting CDF data from collisions at 300 GeV, 900 GeV, and 1.96 TeV together with CMS data for pp collisions at 7 TeV, we test the Underlying Event (UE) models and constrain their parameters, allowing for more precise predictions at 13 TeV and 14 TeV. The consistency of these new tunes with measurements of double-parton scattering (DPS) is also investigated. DPS-based tunes are also extracted, relying on differential cross sections as a function of correlation observables, for the production of exactly four jets in proton-proton collisions. From this measurement it is found that the addition of parton showers to fixed-order matrix element calculations describe the measured differential cross sections in only some regions of phase space and that including a contribution from double parton scattering in the models...

  7. Birefringent coherent diffraction imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpov, Dmitry; dos Santos Rolo, Tomy; Rich, Hannah; Kryuchkov, Yuriy; Kiefer, Boris; Fohtung, E.

    2016-10-01

    Directional dependence of the index of refraction contains a wealth of information about anisotropic optical properties in semiconducting and insulating materials. Here we present a novel high-resolution lens-less technique that uses birefringence as a contrast mechanism to map the index of refraction and dielectric permittivity in optically anisotropic materials. We applied this approach successfully to a liquid crystal polymer film using polarized light from helium neon laser. This approach is scalable to imaging with diffraction-limited resolution, a prospect rapidly becoming a reality in view of emergent brilliant X-ray sources. Applications of this novel imaging technique are in disruptive technologies, including novel electronic devices, in which both charge and spin carry information as in multiferroic materials and photonic materials such as light modulators and optical storage.

  8. Radial Reflection Diffraction Tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehman, S K; Norton, S J

    2003-10-10

    We develop a wave-based tomographic imaging algorithm based upon a single rotating radially outward oriented transducer. At successive angular locations at a fixed radius, the transducer launches a primary field and collects the backscattered field in a ''pitch/catch'' operation. The hardware configuration, operating mode, and data collection method is identical to that of most medical intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) systems. IVUS systems form images of the medium surrounding the probe based upon ultrasonic B-scans, using a straight-ray model of sound propagation. Our goal is to develop a wave-based imaging algorithm using diffraction tomography techniques. Given the hardware configuration and the imaging method, we refer to this system as ''radial reflection diffraction tomography.'' We consider two hardware configurations: a multimonostatic mode using a single transducer as described above, and a multistatic mode consisting of a single transmitter and an aperture formed by multiple receivers. In this latter case, the entire source/receiver aperture rotates about the fixed radius. Practically, such a probe is mounted at the end of a catheter or snaking tube that can be inserted into a part or medium with the goal of forming images of the plane perpendicular to the axis of rotation. We derive an analytic expression for the multimonostatic inverse but ultimately use the new Hilbert space inverse wave (HSIW) algorithm to construct images using both operating modes. Applications include improved IVUS imaging, bore hole tomography, and non-destructive evaluation (NDE) of parts with existing access holes.

  9. Phenomenology of hard diffraction at high energies

    CERN Document Server

    Machado, Magno V T

    2016-01-01

    We present some of the topics covered in two lectures under the same title that was given at the "Summer School on High Energy Physics at the LHC: New trends in HEP" in Natal, Brazil. In this contribution we give a brief review on the application of perturbative QCD to the hard diffractive processes. Such reactions involving a hard scale can be understood in terms of quarks and gluons degrees of freedom and have become an useful tool for investigating the low-$x$ structure of the proton and the behavior of QCD in the high-density regime. We start using the information from the $ep$ collisions at HERA concerned to the inclusive diffraction to introduce the concept of diffractive parton distributions. Their interpretation in the resolved pomeron model is addressed and we discuss the limits of diffractive hard-scattering factorization for hadron-hadron collisions. Some examples of phenomenology for the diffractive production of $W/Z$, heavy $Q\\bar{Q}$ and quarkonium in hadron-hadron reactions are presented. We a...

  10. Strategic double cropping on Vertisols: A viable rainfed cropping option in the Indian SAT to increase productivity and reduce risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nageswara Rao, V.; Meinke, H.B.; Craufurd, P.Q.; Parsons, D.; Kropff, M.J.; Anten, N.P.R.; Wani, S.P.; Rego, T.J.

    2015-01-01

    Our study suggests the possibility for transformational change in the productivity and risk profile of someof India’s rainfed cropping systems. In the semi-arid regions of Southern India, farmers traditionally cropsorghum or chickpea on Vertisols during the post-rainy season, keeping the fields

  11. Strategic double cropping on Vertisols: A viable rainfed cropping option in the Indian SAT to increase productivity and reduce risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nageswara Rao, V.; Meinke, H.B.; Craufurd, P.Q.; Parsons, D.; Kropff, M.J.; Anten, N.P.R.; Wani, S.P.; Rego, T.J.

    2015-01-01

    Our study suggests the possibility for transformational change in the productivity and risk profile of someof India’s rainfed cropping systems. In the semi-arid regions of Southern India, farmers traditionally cropsorghum or chickpea on Vertisols during the post-rainy season, keeping the fields fall

  12. Prospects for Diffractive and Forward Physics at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Albrow, M; Arneodo, M; Avati, V; Bartalini, P; Berardi, V; Bottigli, U; Bozzo, M; Brucken, E; Burtovoy, V; Buzzo, A; Calicchio, M; Capurro, F; Catanesi, M G; Catastini, P; Ciocci, M A; Croft, R; Datsko, K; Deile, M; De Favereau De Jeneret, J; De Jesus Damiao, D; Robutti, E; de Roeck, A; D'Enterria, D G; De Wolf, E A; Eggert, K; Engel, R; Erhan, S; Ferro, F; García-Fuertes, W; Geist, W; Grothe, M; Guillaud, J P; Heino, J; Hees, A; Hilden, T; Kalliopuska, J; Kaspar, J; Katsas, P; Kim, V; Klyukhin, V; Kundrát, V; Kurvinen, K; Kuznetsov, A; Lami, S; Lamsa, J; Latino, G; Lauhakanga, R; Lippmaa, E; Lippmaa, J; Liu, Y; Loginov, A; Lokajícek, M; Lo Vetere, M; Lucas Rodriguez, F; Macri, M; Mäki, T; Meucci, M; Minutoli, S; Mnich, J; Moussienko, I; Murray, M; Niewiadomski, H; Noschis, E; Notarnicola, G; Ochesanu, S; Österberg, K; Oliveri, E; Oljemark, F; Orava, R; Oriunno, M; Ottela, M; Ovyn, S; Palazzi, P; Panagiotou, A D; Paoletti, R; Popov, V; Petrov, V; Pierzchala, T; Piotrzkowski, K; Radermacher, E; Radicioni, E; Rella, G; Reucroft, S; Ropelewski, Leszek; Rouby, X; Ruggiero, G; Rummel, A; Ruspa, M; Ryutin, R; Saarikko, H; Sanguinetti, G; Santoro, A F S; Santroni, A; Sarkisyan-Grinbaum, E; Sarycheva, L; Schilling, F P; Schlein, P E; Scribano Memoria, A; Sette, G; Snoeys, W; Snow, G R; Sobol, A; Solano, A; Spinella, F; Squillacioti, P; Swain, J; Sznajder, A; Tasevsky, M; Taylor, C C; Torp, F; Trummal, A; Turini, N; Van Der Donckt, M; Van Mechelen, P; Van Remortel, N; Vilela-Pereira, A; Whitmore, J; Zaborov, D

    2006-01-01

    The CMS and TOTEM experiments intend to carry out a joint diffractive/forward physics program with an unprecedented rapidity coverage. The present document outlines some aspects of such a physics program, which spans from the investigation of the low-x structure of the proton to the diffractive production of a SM or MSSM Higgs boson.

  13. Double Higgs production from $HH\\to(b\\bar{b})(b\\bar{b})$ at a 100 TeV hadron collider

    CERN Document Server

    Hartland, Nathan P

    2016-01-01

    In this contribution we study the prospects of measuring double Higgs production at a potential 100 TeV future circular collider. We apply an analysis procedure that utilises reconstructed Higgs pairs from multiple final state event topologies in order to maintain high selection efficiencies. Signal purity is then further improved by means of a artificial neural network classifier. The results of this analysis for the high luminosity LHC show significant potential, however when applied to a 100 TeV hadron collider we find that such a measurement is likely to suffer from a very poor signal to background ratio. Such a measurement at the FCC is therefore likely to be significantly more challenging than at the high luminosity phase of the LHC.

  14. Measurement of the cross section and longitudinal double-spin asymmetry for di-jet production in polarized $pp$ collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 200 GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Adamczyk, L; Agakishiev, G; Aggarwal, M M; Ahammed, Z; Alekseev, I; Anderson, D M; Aoyama, R; Aparin, A; Arkhipkin, D; Aschenauer, E C; Ashraf, M U; Attri, A; Averichev, G S; Bai, X; Bairathi, V; Bellwied, R; Bhasin, A; Bhati, A K; Bhattarai, P; Bielcik, J; Bielcikova, J; Bland, L C; Bordyuzhin, I G; Bouchet, J; Brandenburg, J D; Brandin, A V; Brown, D; Bunzarov, I; Butterworth, J; Caines, H; Sánchez, M Calderón de la Barca; Campbell, J M; Cebra, D; Chakaberia, I; Chaloupka, P; Chang, Z; Chatterjee, A; Chattopadhyay, S; Chen, X; Chen, J H; Cheng, J; Cherney, M; Christie, W; Contin, G; Crawford, H J; Das, S; De Silva, L C; Debbe, R R; Dedovich, T G; Deng, J; Derevschikov, A A; Didenko, L; Dilks, C; Dong, X; Drachenberg, J L; Draper, J E; Du, C M; Dunkelberger, L E; Dunlop, J C; Efimov, L G; Elsey, N; Engelage, J; Eppley, G; Esha, R; Esumi, S; Evdokimov, O; Ewigleben, J; Eyser, O; Fatemi, R; Fazio, S; Federic, P; Federicova, P; Fedorisin, J; Feng, Z; Filip, P; Fisyak, Y; Flores, C E; Fulek, L; Gagliardi, C A; Garand, D; Geurts, F; Gibson, A; Girard, M; Greiner, L; Grosnick, D; Gunarathne, D S; Guo, Y; Gupta, S; Gupta, A; Guryn, W; Hamad, A I; Hamed, A; Haque, R; Harris, J W; He, L; Heppelmann, S; Heppelmann, S; Hirsch, A; Hoffmann, G W; Horvat, S; Huang, X; Huang, B; Huang, T; Huang, H Z; Huck, P; Humanic, T J; Igo, G; Jacobs, W W; Jentsch, A; Jia, J; Jiang, K; Jowzaee, S; Judd, E G; Kabana, S; Kalinkin, D; Kang, K; Kauder, K; Ke, H W; Keane, D; Kechechyan, A; Khan, Z; Kikoła, D P; Kisel, I; Kisiel, A; Kochenda, L; Koetke, D D; Kosarzewski, L K; Kraishan, A F; Kravtsov, P; Krueger, K; Kulathunga, N; Kumar, L; Lacey, R; Lamont, M A C; Landgraf, J M; Landry, K D; Lauret, J; Lebedev, A; Lednicky, R; Lee, J H; Li, W; Li, C; Li, X; Li, Y; Li, X; Lin, T; Lisa, M A; Liu, F; Liu, Y; Ljubicic, T; Llope, W J; Lomnitz, M; Longacre, R S; Luo, X; Luo, S; Ma, Y G; Ma, G L; Ma, R; Ma, L; Magdy, N; Majka, R; Manion, A; Margetis, S; Markert, C; Matis, H S; McDonald, D; McKinzie, S; Meehan, K; Mei, J C; Miller, Z W; Minaev, N G; Mioduszewski, S; Mishra, D; Mohanty, B; Mondal, M M; Morozov, D A; Mustafa, M K; Nasim, Md; Nayak, T K; Nigmatkulov, G; Niida, T; Nogach, L V; Nonaka, T; Novak, J; Nurushev, S B; Odyniec, G; Ogawa, A; Oh, K; Okorokov, V A; Olvitt, D; Page, B S; Pak, R; Pan, Y X; Pandit, Y; Panebratsev, Y; Pawlik, B; Pei, H; Perkins, C; Pile, P; Pluta, J; Poniatowska, K; Porter, J; Posik, M; Poskanzer, A M; Pruthi, N K; Przybycien, M; Putschke, J; Qiu, H; Quintero, A; Ramachandran, S; Ray, R L; Reed, R; Rehbein, M J; Ritter, H G; Roberts, J B; Rogachevskiy, O V; Romero, J L; Roth, J D; Ruan, L; Rusnak, J; Rusnakova, O; Sahoo, N R; Sahu, P K; Sakrejda, I; Salur, S; Sandweiss, J; Schambach, J; Scharenberg, R P; Schmah, A M; Schmidke, W B; Schmitz, N; Seger, J; Seyboth, P; Shah, N; Shahaliev, E; Shanmuganathan, P V; Shao, M; Sharma, B; Sharma, A; Sharma, M K; Shen, W Q; Shi, Z; Shi, S S; Shou, Q Y; Sichtermann, E P; Sikora, R; Simko, M; Singha, S; Skoby, M J; Smirnov, N; Smirnov, D; Solyst, W; Song, L; Sorensen, P; Spinka, H M; Srivastava, B; Stanislaus, T D S; Stepanov, M; Stock, R; Strikhanov, M; Stringfellow, B; Sugiura, T; Sumbera, M; Summa, B; Sun, Z; Sun, X M; Sun, Y; Surrow, B; Svirida, D N; Tang, A H; Tang, Z; Taranenko, A; Tarnowsky, T; Tawfik, A; Thäder, J; Thomas, J H; Timmins, A R; Tlusty, D; Todoroki, T; Tokarev, M; Trentalange, S; Tribble, R E; Tribedy, P; Tripathy, S K; Tsai, O D; Ullrich, T; Underwood, D G; Upsal, I; Van Buren, G; van Nieuwenhuizen, G; Vasiliev, A N; Vertesi, R; Videbæk, F; Vokal, S; Voloshin, S A; Vossen, A; Wang, G; Wang, J S; Wang, F; Wang, Y; Wang, Y; Webb, G; Webb, J C; Wen, L; Westfall, G D; Wieman, H; Wissink, S W; Witt, R; Wu, Y; Xiao, Z G; Xie, W; Xie, G; Xin, K; Xu, H; Xu, Q H; Xu, Y F; Xu, N; Xu, Z; Xu, J; Yang, Y; Yang, S; Yang, Y; Yang, Y; Yang, C; Yang, Q; Ye, Z; Ye, Z; Yi, L; Yip, K; Yoo, I -K; Yu, N; Zbroszczyk, H; Zha, W; Zhang, Y; Zhang, J; Zhang, X P; Zhang, J B; Zhang, Z; Zhang, S; Zhang, J; Zhang, S; Zhao, J; Zhong, C; Zhou, L; Zhu, X; Zoulkarneeva, Y; Zyzak, M

    2016-01-01

    We report the first measurement of the longitudinal double-spin asymmetry $A_{LL}$ for mid-rapidity di-jet production in polarized $pp$ collisions at a center-of-mass energy of $\\sqrt{s} = 200$ GeV. The di-jet cross section was measured and is shown to be consistent with next-to-leading order (NLO) perturbative QCD predictions. $A_{LL}$ results are presented for two distinct topologies, defined by the jet pseudorapidities, and are compared to predictions from several recent NLO global analyses. The measured asymmetries, the first such correlation measurements, support those analyses that find positive gluon polarization at the level of roughly 0.2 over the region of Bjorken-$x > 0.05$.

  15. Reasons and countermeasures for “marking problem”during the production of double-walled copper-brazed steel tubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Yuanyuan,LIANG Gaofei; WANG Guodong; LIAN Fuliang

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the reasons underlying the frequent appearance of “marking problem”during the production of double-walled copper-brazed steel tubes.To this end,we compared two types of copper-coated steel strips,of which one has almost no problem during production,whereas the other has higher number of incidences of“marking problem”.We analyzed the chemical composition,mechanical properties,the cross-sectional metallographs, and surface quality of the trimmed edge in both types of specimen.After the roll forming process,the bonding condition between the steel layers of the tubes before and after brazing process has also been examined.Results indicate that the chemical composition and mechanical properties of the two kinds of strips are similar;however,the edge quality of the trimmed strips is significantly different.It is believed that the irregular shape of the edge portions in the strips will be more pronounced during the bevel treatment.Consequently,smooth and tight seams cannot be guaranteed by such uneven beveled edges,which lead to higher number of incidences of “marking problem”during production.

  16. The production of alpha/beta and gamma/delta double negative (DN) T-cells and their role in the maintenance of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, John C; Chapman, Fae M; Michael, Sandra D

    2015-07-12

    The ability of the thymus gland to convert bone marrow-derived progenitor cells into single positive (SP) T-cells is well known. In this review we present evidence that the thymus, in addition to producing SP T-cells, also has a pathway for the production of double negative (DN) T-cells. The existence of this pathway was noted during our examination of relevant literature to determine the cause of sex steroid-induced thymocyte loss. In conducting this search our objective was to answer the question of whether thymocyte loss is the end product of a typical interaction between the reproductive and immune systems, or evidence that the two systems are incompatible. We can now report that "thymocyte loss" is a normal process that occurs during the production of DN T-cells. The DN T-cell pathway is unique in that it is mediated by thymic mast cells, and becomes functional following puberty. Sex steroids initiate the development of the pathway by binding to an estrogen receptor alpha located in the outer membrane of the mast cells, causing their activation. This results in their uptake of extracellular calcium, and the production and subsequent release of histamine and serotonin. Lymphatic vessels, located in the subcapsular region of the thymus, respond to the two vasodilators by undergoing a substantial and preferential uptake of gamma/delta and alpha/beta DN T- cells. These T- cells exit the thymus via efferent lymphatic vessels and enter the lymphatic system.The DN pathway is responsible for the production of three subsets of gamma/delta DN T-cells and one subset of alpha/beta DN T-cells. In postpubertal animals approximately 35 % of total thymocytes exit the thymus as DN T-cells, regardless of sex. In pregnant females, their levels undergo a dramatic increase. Gamma/delta DN T-cells produce cytokines that are essential for the maintenance of pregnancy.

  17. Reducing N2O and NO emissions while sustaining crop productivity in a Chinese vegetable-cereal double cropping system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Zhisheng; Yan, Guangxuan; Zheng, Xunhua; Wang, Rui; Liu, Chunyan; Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus

    2017-09-06

    High nitrogen (N) inputs in Chinese vegetable and cereal productions played key roles in increasing crop yields. However, emissions of the potent greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O) and atmospheric pollutant nitric oxide (NO) increased too. For lowering the environmental costs of crop production, it is essential to optimize N strategies to maintain high crop productivity, while reducing the associated N losses. We performed a 2 year-round field study regarding the effect of different combinations of poultry manure and chemical N fertilizers on crop yields, N use efficiency (NUE) and N2O and NO fluxes from a Welsh onion-winter wheat system in the North China Plain. Annual N2O and NO emissions averaged 1.14-3.82 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1) (or 5.54-13.06 g N kg(-1) N uptake) and 0.57-1.87 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1) (or 2.78-6.38 g N kg(-1) N uptake) over all treatments, respectively. Both N2O and NO emissions increased linearly with increasing total N inputs, and the mean annual direct emission factors (EFd) were 0.39% for N2O and 0.19% for NO. Interestingly, the EFd for chemical N fertilizers (N2O: 0.42-0.48%; NO: 0.07-0.11%) was significantly lower than for manure N (N2O: 1.35%; NO: 0.76%). Besides, a negative power relationship between yield-scaled N2O, NO or N2O + NO emissions and NUE was observed, suggesting that improving NUE in crop production is crucial for increasing crop yields while decreasing nitrogenous gas release. Compared to the current farmers' fertilization rate, alternative practices with reduced chemical N fertilizers increased NUE and decreased annual N2O + NO emissions substantially, while crop yields remained unaffected. As a result, annual yield-scaled N2O + NO emissions were reduced by > 20%. Our study shows that a reduction of current application rates of chemical N fertilizers by 30-50% does not affect crop productivity, while at the same time N2O and NO emissions would be reduced significantly. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Momentum exchange in the electron double-slit experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batelaan, Herman; Jones, Eric; Cheng-Wei Huang, Wayne; Bach, Roger

    2016-03-01

    We provide support for the claim that momentum is conserved for individual events in the electron double slit experiment. The natural consequence is that a physical mechanism is responsible for this momentum exchange, but that even if the fundamental mechanism is known for electron crystal diffraction and the Kapitza-Dirac effect, it is unknown for electron diffraction from nano-fabricated double slits. Work towards a proposed explanation in terms of particle trajectories affected by a vacuum field is discussed. The contentious use of trajectories is discussed within the context of oil droplet analogues of double slit diffraction.

  19. Characterization of double face adhesive sheets for ceramic tile installation; Caracterizacao de sistema de colagem dupla-face para assentamento de revestimento ceramico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nascimento, Otavio L.; Mansur, Alexandra A.P.; Mansur, Herman S., E-mail: hmansur@demet.ufmg.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais. UFMG, Departamento de Engenharia Metalurgica e de Materiais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The main goal of this work was the characterization of an innovative ceramic tile installation product based on double face adhesive sheets. Density, hardness, tensile strength, x-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy coupled with spectroscopy of dispersive energy assays were conducted. The results are in agreement with some manufacture specifications and the obtained information will be crucial in the analysis of durability and stability of the ceramic tile system installed with this new product. (author)

  20. Single and double pion production in np collisions at 1.25 GeV with HADES

    CERN Document Server

    Kurilkin, A K; Balanda, A; Belver, D; Belyaev, A; Blanco, A; Böhmer, M; Boyard, J L; Cabanelas, P; Castro, E; Chernenko, S; D\\'\\iaz, J; Dybczak, A; Epple, E; Fabbietti, L; Fateev, O; Finocchiaro, P; Fonte, P; Friese, J; Fröhlich, I; Galatyuk, T; Garzón, J A; Gil, A; Golubeva, M; González-D\\'\\iaz, D; Guber, F; Hennino, T; Holzmann, R; Huck, P; Ierusalimov, A; Iori, I; Ivashkin, A; Jurkovic, M; Kämpfer, B; Karavicheva, T; Koenig, I; Koenig, W; Kolb, B W; Kopp, A; Korcyl, G; Kornakov, GK; Kotte, R; Kozuch, A; Krása, A; Krizek, F; Krücken, R; Kuc, H; Kühn, W; Kugler, A; Kurepin, A; Kurilkin, P; Khlitz, P; Ladygin, V; Lamas-Valverde, J; Lang, S; Lapidus, K; Liu, T; Lopes, L; Lorenz, M; Maier, L; Mangiarotti, A; Markert, J; Metag, V; Michalska, B; Michel, J; Müntz, C; Naumann, L; Pachmayer, Y C; Palka, M; Parpottas, Y; Pechenov, V; Pechenova, O; Pietraszko, J; Przygoda, W; Ramstein, B; Reshetin, A; Roskoss, J; Rustamov, A; Sadovsky, A; Salabura, P; Schmah, A; Siebenson, J; Sobolev, Yu G; Spataro, S; Ströbele, H; Stroth, J; Sturm, C; Sudol, M; Tarantola, A; Teilab, K; Tlusty, P; Traxler, M; Trebacz, R; Tsertos, H; Vasiliev, T; Wagner, V; Weber, M; Wüstenfeld, J; Yurevich, S; Zanevsky, Y

    2011-01-01

    The preliminary results on charged pion production in np collisions at an incident beam energy of 1.25 GeV measured with HADES are presented. The np reactions were isolated in dp collisions at 1.25 GeV/u using the Forward Wall hodoscope, which allowed to register spectator protons. The results for np -> pppi-, np -> nppi+pi- and np -> dpi+pi- channels are compared with OPE calculations. A reasonable agreement between experimental results and the predictions of the OPE+OBE model is observed.

  1. Observation of double charm production involving open charm in pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$=7 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, R; Adeva, B; Adinolfi, M; Adrover, C; Affolder, A; Ajaltouni, Z; Albrecht, J; Alessio, F; Alexander, M; Ali, S; Alkhazov, G; Alvarez Cartelle, P; Alves Jr, A A; Amato, S; Amhis, Y; Anderson, J; Appleby, R B; Aquines Gutierrez, O; Archilli, F; Artamonov, A; Artuso, M; Aslanides, E; Auriemma, G; Bachmann, S; Back, J J; Balagura, V; Baldini, W; Barlow, R J; Barschel, C; Barsuk, S; Barter, W; Bates, A; Bauer, C; Bauer, Th; Bay, A; Bediaga, I; Belogurov, S; Belous, K; Belyaev, I; Ben-Haim, E; Benayoun, M; Bencivenni, G; Benson, S; Benton, J; Bernet, R; Bettler, M -O; van Beuzekom, M; Bien, A; Bifani, S; Bird, T; Bizzeti, A; Bjørnstad, P M; Blake, T; Blanc, F; Blanks, C; Blouw, J; Blusk, S; Bobrov, A; Bocci, V; Bondar, A; Bondar, N; Bonivento, W; Borghi, S; Borgia, A; Bowcock, T J V; Bozzi, C; Brambach, T; van den Brand, J; Bressieux, J; Brett, D; Britsch, M; Britton, T; Brook, N H; Brown, H; Büchler-Germann, A; Burducea, I; Bursche, A; Buytaert, J; Cadeddu, S; Callot, O; Calvi, M; Calvo Gomez, M; Camboni, A; Campana, P; Carbone, A; Carboni, G; Cardinale, R; Cardini, A; Carson, L; Carvalho Akiba, K; Casse, G; Cattaneo, M; Cauet, Ch; Charles, M; Charpentier, Ph; Chiapolini, N; Ciba, K; Cid Vidal, X; Ciezarek, G; Clarke, P E L; Clemencic, M; Cliff, H V; Closier, J; Coca, C; Coco, V; Cogan, J; Collins, P; Comerma-Montells, A; Contu, A; Cook, A; Coombes, M; Corti, G; Couturier, B; Cowan, G A; Currie, R; D'Ambrosio, C; David, P; David, P N Y; De Bonis, I; De Bruyn, K; De Capua, S; De Cian, M; De Miranda, J M; De Paula, L; De Simone, P; Decamp, D; Deckenhoff, M; Degaudenzi, H; Del Buono, L; Deplano, C; Derkach, D; Deschamps, O; Dettori, F; Dickens, J; Dijkstra, H; Diniz Batista, P; Domingo Bonal, F; Donleavy, S; Dordei, F; Dosil Suárez, A; Dossett, D; Dovbnya, A; Dupertuis, F; Dzhelyadin, R; Dziurda, A; Easo, S; Egede, U; Egorychev, V; Eidelman, S; van Eijk, D; Eisele, F; Eisenhardt, S; Ekelhof, R; Eklund, L; Elsasser, Ch; Elsby, D; Esperante Pereira, D; Falabella, A; Färber, C; Fardell, G; Farinelli, C; Farry, S; Fave, V; Fernandez Albor, V; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Filippov, S; Fitzpatrick, C; Fontana, M; Fontanelli, F; Forty, R; Francisco, O; Frank, M; Frei, C; Frosini, M; Furcas, S; Gallas Torreira, A; Galli, D; Gandelman, M; Gandini, P; Gao, Y; Garnier, J-C; Garofoli, J; Garra Tico, J; Garrido, L; Gascon, D; Gaspar, C; Gauld, R; Gauvin, N; Gersabeck, M; Gershon, T; Ghez, Ph; Gibson, V; Gligorov, V V; Göbel, C; Golubkov, D; Golutvin, A; Gomes, A; Gordon, H; Grabalosa Gándara, M; Graciani Diaz, R; Granado Cardoso, L A; Graugés, E; Graziani, G; Grecu, A; Greening, E; Gregson, S; Gui, B; Gushchin, E; Guz, Yu; Gys, T; Hadjivasiliou, C; Haefeli, G; Haen, C; Haines, S C; Hampson, T; Hansmann-Menzemer, S; Harji, R; Harnew, N; Harrison, J; Harrison, P F; Hartmann, T; He, J; Heijne, V; Hennessy, K; Henrard, P; Hernando Morata, J A; van Herwijnen, E; Hicks, E; Holubyev, K; Hopchev, P; Hulsbergen, W; Hunt, P; Huse, T; Huston, R S; Hutchcroft, D; Hynds, D; Iakovenko, V; Ilten, P; Imong, J; Jacobsson, R; Jaeger, A; Jahjah Hussein, M; Jans, E; Jansen, F; Jaton, P; Jean-Marie, B; Jing, F; John, M; Johnson, D; Jones, C R; Jost, B; Kaballo, M; Kandybei, S; Karacson, M; Karbach, T M; Keaveney, J; Kenyon, I R; Kerzel, U; Ketel, T; Keune, A; Khanji, B; Kim, Y M; Knecht, M; Koopman, R F; Koppenburg, P; Korolev, M; Kozlinskiy, A; Kravchuk, L; Kreplin, K; Kreps, M; Krocker, G; Krokovny, P; Kruse, F; Kruzelecki, K; Kucharczyk, M; Kudryavtsev, V; Kvaratskheliya, T; La Thi, V N; Lacarrere, D; Lafferty, G; Lai, A; Lambert, D; Lambert, R W; Lanciotti, E; Lanfranchi, G; Langenbruch, C; Latham, T; Lazzeroni, C; Le Gac, R; van Leerdam, J; Lees, J -P; Lefèvre, R; Leflat, A; Lefrançois, J; Leroy, O; Lesiak, T; Li, L; Li Gioi, L; Lieng, M; Liles, M; Lindner, R; Linn, C; Liu, B; Liu, G; von Loeben, J; Lopes, J H; Lopez Asamar, E; Lopez-March, N; Lu, H; Luisier, J; Mac Raighne, A; Machefert, F; Machikhiliyan, I V; Maciuc, F; Maev, O; Magnin, J; Malde, S; Mamunur, R M D; Manca, G; Mancinelli, G; Mangiafave, N; Marconi, U; Märki, R; Marks, J; Martellotti, G; Martens, A; Martin, L; Martín Sánchez, A; Martinelli, M; Martinez Santos, D; Massafferri, A; Mathe, Z; Matteuzzi, C; Matveev, M; Maurice, E; Maynard, B; Mazurov, A; McGregor, G; McNulty, R; Meissner, M; Merk, M; Merkel, J; Miglioranzi, S; Milanes, D A; Minard, M -N; Molina Rodriguez, J; Monteil, S; Moran, D; Morawski, P; Mountain, R; Mous, I; Muheim, F; Müller, K; Muresan, R; Muryn, B; Muster, B; Mylroie-Smith, J; Naik, P; Nakada, T; Nandakumar, R; Nasteva, I; Needham, M; Neufeld, N; Nguyen, A D; Nguyen-Mau, C; Nicol, M; Niess, V; Nikitin, N; Nikodem, T; Nomerotski, A; Novoselov, A; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V; Oggero, S; Ogilvy, S; Okhrimenko, O; Oldeman, R; Orlandea, M; Otalora Goicochea, J M; Owen, P; Pal, B K; Palacios, J; Palano, A; Palutan, M; Panman, J; Papanestis, A; Pappagallo, M; Parkes, C; Parkinson, C J; Passaleva, G; Patel, G D; Patel, M; Paterson, S K; Patrick, G N; Patrignani, C; Pavel-Nicorescu, C; Pazos Alvarez, A; Pellegrino, A; Penso, G; Pepe Altarelli, M; Perazzini, S; Perego, D L; Perez Trigo, E; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, A; Perret, P; Perrin-Terrin, M; Pessina, G; Petrolini, A; Phan, A; Picatoste Olloqui, E; Pie Valls, B; Pietrzyk, B; Pilař, T; Pinci, D; Plackett, R; Playfer, S; Plo Casasus, M; Polok, G; Poluektov, A; Polycarpo, E; Popov, D; Popovici, B; Potterat, C; Powell, A; Prisciandaro, J; Pugatch, V; Puig Navarro, A; Qian, W; Rademacker, J H; Rakotomiaramanana, B; Rangel, M S; Raniuk, I; Raven, G; Redford, S; Reid, M M; dos Reis, A C; Ricciardi, S; Richards, A; Rinnert, K; Roa Romero, D A; Robbe, P; Rodrigues, E; Rodrigues, F; Rodriguez Perez, P; Rogers, G J; Roiser, S; Romanovsky, V; Rosello, M; Rouvinet, J; Ruf, T; Ruiz, H; Sabatino, G; Saborido Silva, J J; Sagidova, N; Sail, P; Saitta, B; Salzmann, C; Sannino, M; Santacesaria, R; Santamarina Rios, C; Santinelli, R; Santovetti, E; Sapunov, M; Sarti, A; Satriano, C; Satta, A; Savrie, M; Savrina, D; Schaack, P; Schiller, M; Schindler, H; Schleich, S; Schlupp, M; Schmelling, M; Schmidt, B; Schneider, O; Schopper, A; Schune, M -H; Schwemmer, R; Sciascia, B; Sciubba, A; Seco, M; Semennikov, A; Senderowska, K; Sepp, I; Serra, N; Serrano, J; Seyfert, P; Shapkin, M; Shapoval, I; Shatalov, P; Shcheglov, Y; Shears, T; Shekhtman, L; Shevchenko, O; Shevchenko, V; Shires, A; Silva Coutinho, R; Skwarnicki, T; Smith, N A; Smith, E; Sobczak, K; Soler, F J P; Solomin, A; Soomro, F; Souza De Paula, B; Spaan, B; Sparkes, A; Spradlin, P; Stagni, F; Stahl, S; Steinkamp, O; Stoica, S; Stone, S; Storaci, B; Straticiuc, M; Straumann, U; Subbiah, V K; Swientek, S; Szczekowski, M; Szczypka, P; Szumlak, T; T'Jampens, S; Teodorescu, E; Teubert, F; Thomas, C; Thomas, E; van Tilburg, J; Tisserand, V; Tobin, M; Tolk, S; Topp-Joergensen, S; Torr, N; Tournefier, E; Tourneur, S; Tran, M T; Tsaregorodtsev, A; Tuning, N; Ubeda Garcia, M; Ukleja, A; Uwer, U; Vagnoni, V; Valenti, G; Vazquez Gomez, R; Vazquez Regueiro, P; Vecchi, S; Velthuis, J J; Veltri, M; Viaud, B; Videau, I; Vieira, D; Vilasis-Cardona, X; Visniakov, J; Vollhardt, A; Volyanskyy, D; Voong, D; Vorobyev, A; Vorobyev, V; Voss, H; Waldi, R; Wandernoth, S; Wang, J; Ward, D R; Watson, N K; Webber, A D; Websdale, D; Whitehead, M; Wiedner, D; Wiggers, L; Wilkinson, G; Williams, M P; Williams, M; Wilson, F F; Wishahi, J; Witek, M; Witzeling, W; Wotton, S A; Wyllie, K; Xie, Y; Xing, F; Xing, Z; Yang, Z; Young, R; Yushchenko, O; Zangoli, M; Zavertyaev, M; Zhang, F; Zhang, L; Zhang, W C; Zhang, Y; Zhelezov, A; Zhong, L; Zvyagin, A

    2012-01-01

    The production of $J/\\psi$ mesons accompanied by open charm, and of pairs of open charm hadrons are observed in pp collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV using an integrated luminosity of $355pb^{-1}$ collected with the LHCb detector. Model independent measurements of absolute cross-sections are given together with ratios to the measured $J/\\psi$ and open charm cross-sections. The properties of these events are studied and compared to theoretical predictions.

  2. Study of optical Laue diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakravarthy, Giridhar, E-mail: cgiridhar84@gmail.com, E-mail: aloksharan@email.com; Allam, Srinivasa Rao, E-mail: cgiridhar84@gmail.com, E-mail: aloksharan@email.com; Satyanarayana, S. V. M., E-mail: cgiridhar84@gmail.com, E-mail: aloksharan@email.com; Sharan, Alok, E-mail: cgiridhar84@gmail.com, E-mail: aloksharan@email.com [Department of Physics, Pondicherry University, Puducherry-605014 (India)

    2014-10-15

    We present the study of the optical diffraction pattern of one and two-dimensional gratings with defects, designed using desktop pc and printed on OHP sheet using laser printer. Gratings so prepared, using novel low cost technique provides good visual aid in teaching. Diffraction pattern of the monochromatic light (632.8nm) from the grating so designed is similar to that of x-ray diffraction pattern of crystal lattice with point defects in one and two-dimensions. Here both optical and x-ray diffractions are Fraunhofer. The information about the crystalline lattice structure and the defect size can be known.

  3. Cross section and double helicity asymmetry for eta mesons and their comparison to neutral pion production in p+p collisions at sqrt(s)=200 GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Adare, A; Aidala, C; Ajitanand, N N; Akiba, Y; Al-Bataineh, H; Alexander, J; Aoki, K; Aphecetche, L; Armendariz, R; Aronson, S H; Asai, J; Atomssa, E T; Averbeck, R; Awes, T C; Azmoun, B; Babintsev, V; Bai, M; Baksay, G; Baksay, L; Baldisseri, A; Barish, K N; Barnes, P D; Bassalleck, B; Basye, A T; Bathe, S; Batsouli, S; Baublis, V; Baumann, C; Bazilevsky, A; Belikov, S; Bennett, R; Berdnikov, A; Berdnikov, Y; Bickley, A A; Boissevain, J G; Borel, H; Boyle, K; Brooks, M L; Buesching, H; Bumazhnov, V; Bunce, G; Butsyk, S; Camacho, C M; Campbell, S; Chang, B S; Chang, W C; Charvet, J -L; Chernichenko, S; Chiba, J; Chi, C Y; Chiu, M; Choi, I J; Choudhury, R K; Chujo, T; Chung, P; Churyn, A; Cianciolo, V; Citron, Z; Cleven, C R; Cole, B A; Comets, M P; Constantin, P; Csanád, M; Csörgő, T; Dahms, T; Dairaku, S; Das, K; David, G; Deaton, M B; Dehmelt, K; Delagrange, H; Denisov, A; d'Enterria, D; Deshpande, A; Desmond, E J; Dietzsch, O; Dion, A; Donadelli, M; Drapier, O; Drees, A; Drees, K A; Dubey, A K; Durum, A; Dutta, D; Dzhordzhadze, V; Efremenko, Y V; Egdemir, J; Ellinghaus, F; Emam, W S; Engelmore, T; Enokizono, A; En'yo, H; Esumi, S; Eyser, K O; Fadem, B; Fields, D E; Finger, M; \\,; Jr.,; Finger, M; Fleuret, F; Fokin, S L; Fraenkel, Z; Frantz, J E; Franz, A; Frawley, A D; Fujiwara, K; Fukao, Y; Fusayasu, T; Gadrat, S; Garishvili, I; Glenn, A; Gong, H; Gonin, M; Gosset, J; Goto, Y; de Cassagnac, R Granier; Grau, N; Greene, S V; Perdekamp, M Grosse; Gunji, T; Gustafsson, H -Å; Hachiya, T; Henni, A Hadj; Haegemann, C; Haggerty, J S; Hamagaki, H; Han, R; Harada, H; Hartouni, E P; Haruna, K; Haslum, E; Hayano, R; Heffner, M; Hemmick, T K; Hester, T; He, X; Hiejima, H; Hill, J C; Hobbs, R; Hohlmann, M; Holzmann, W; Homma, K; Hong, B; Horaguchi, T; Hornback, D; Huang, S; Ichihara, T; Ichimiya, R; Iinuma, H; Ikeda, Y; Imai, K; Imrek, J; Inaba, M; Inoue, Y; Isenhower, D; Isenhower, L; Ishihara, M; Isobe, T; Issah, M; Isupov, A; Ivanischev, D; Jacak, B V; Jia, J; Jin, J; Jinnouchi, O; Johnson, B M; Joo, K S; Jouan, D; Kajihara, F; Kametani, S; Kamihara, N; Kamin, J; Kaneta, M; Kang, J H; Kanou, H; Kapustinsky, J; Kawall, D; Kazantsev, A V; Kempel, T; Khanzadeev, A; Kijima, K M; Kikuchi, J; Kim, B I; Kim, D H; Kim, D J; Kim, E; Kim, S H; Kinney, E; Kiriluk, K; Kiss, Á; Kistenev, E; Kiyomichi, A; Klay, J; Klein-Boesing, C; Kochenda, L; Kochetkov, V; Komkov, B; Konno, M; Koster, J; Kotchetkov, D; Kozlov, A; Král, A; Kravitz, A; Kubart, J; Kunde, G J; Kurihara, N; Kurita, K; Kurosawa, M; Kweon, M J; Kwon, Y; Kyle, G S; Lacey, R; Lai, Y S; Lajoie, J G; Layton, D; Lebedev, A; Lee, D M; Lee, K B; Lee, M K; Lee, T; Leitch, M J; Leite, M A L; Lenzi, B; Liebing, P; Liška, T; Litvinenko, A; Liu, H; Liu, M X; Li, X; Love, B; Lynch, D; Maguire, C F; Makdisi, Y I; Malakhov, A; Malik, M D; Manko, V I; Mannel, E; Mao, Y; Mašek, L; Masui, H; Matathias, F; McCumber, M; McGaughey, P L; Means, N; Meredith, B; Miake, Y; Mikeš, P; Miki, K; Miller, T E; Milov, A; Mioduszewski, S; Mishra, M; Mitchell, J T; Mitrovski, M; Mohanty, A K; Morino, Y; Morreale, A; Morrison, D P; Moukhanova, T V; Mukhopadhyay, D; Murata, J; Nagamiya, S; Nagata, Y; Nagle, J L; Naglis, M; Nagy, M I; Nakagawa, I; Nakamiya, Y; Nakamura, T; Nakano, K; Newby, J; Nguyen, M; Niita, T; Norman, B E; Nouicer, R; Nyanin, A S; O'Brien, E; Oda, S X; Ogilvie, C A; Ohnishi, H; Okada, K; Oka, M; Omiwade, O O; Onuki, Y; Oskarsson, A; Ouchida, M; Ozawa, K; Pak, R; Pal, D; Palounek, A P T; Pantuev, V; Papavassiliou, V; Park, J; Park, W J; Pate, S F; Pei, H; Peng, J -C; Pereira, H; Peresedov, V; Peressounko, D Yu; Pinkenburg, C; Purschke, M L; Purwar, A K; Qu, H; Rak, J; Rakotozafindrabe, A; Ravinovich, I; Read, K F; Rembeczki, S; Reuter, M; Reygers, K; Riabov, V; Riabov, Y; Roach, D; Roche, G; Rolnick, S D; Romana, A; Rosati, M; Rosendahl, S S E; Rosnet, P; Rukoyatkin, P; Ružička, P; Rykov, V L; Sahlmueller, B; Saito, N; Sakaguchi, T; Sakai, S; Sakashita, K; Sakata, H; Samsonov, V; Sato, S; Sato, T; Sawada, S; Sedgwick, K; Seele, J; Seidl, R; Semenov, A Yu; Semenov, V; Seto, R; Sharma, D; Shein, I; Shevel, A; Shibata, T -A; Shigaki, K; Shimomura, M; Shoji, K; Shukla, P; Sickles, A; Silva, C L; Silvermyr, D; Silvestre, C; Sim, K S; Singh, B K; Singh, C P; Singh, V; Skutnik, S; Slunečka, M; Soldatov, A; Soltz, R A; Sondheim, W E; Sorensen, S P; Sourikova, I V; Staley, F; Stankus, P W; Stenlund, E; Stepanov, M; Ster, A; Stoll, S P; Sugitate, T; Suire, C; Sukhanov, A; Sziklai, J; Tabaru, T; Takagi, S; Takagui, E M; Taketani, A; Tanabe, R; Tanaka, Y; Taneja, S; Tanida, K; Tannenbaum, M J; Taranenko, A; Tarján, P; Themann, H; Thomas, T L; Togawa, M; Toia, A; Tojo, J; Tomášek, L; Tomita, Y; Torii, H; Towell, R S; Tram, V-N; Tserruya, I; Tsuchimoto, Y; Vale, C; Valle, H; van Hecke, H W; Veicht, A; Velkovska, J; Vértesi, R; Vinogradov, A A; Virius, M; Vrba, V; Vznuzdaev, E; Wagner, M

    2010-01-01

    Measurements of double-helicity asymmetries for inclusive hadron production in polarized p+p collisions are sensitive to helicity--dependent parton distribution functions, in particular to the gluon helicity distribution, Delta(g). This study focuses on the extraction of the double-helicity asymmetry in eta production: polarized p+p --> eta + X, the eta cross section, and the eta/pi^0 cross section ratio. The cross section and ratio measurements provide essential input for the extraction of fragmentation functions that are needed to access the helicity-dependent parton distribution functions.

  4. Spectral and angular dependences of the efficiency of relief-phase diffractive lenses with two- and three-layer microstructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greisukh, G. I.; Danilov, V. A.; Ezhov, E. G.; Stepanov, S. A.; Usievich, B. A.

    2015-06-01

    The efficiency of diffractive lenses with two-layer single-relief and three-layer double-relief microstructures is studied. Studies are carried out using the scalar and electromagnetic diffraction theories. Depending on the requirements for the diffractive lens, the theories permit one to justifiably choose the configuration, optical materials, and constructive parameters of the microstructure, as well as to determine the real maximum allowable angle of radiation incidence on the diffractive lens with the microstructure of a particular type.

  5. Diffractive optics and nanophotonics resolution below the diffraction limit

    CERN Document Server

    Minin, Igor

    2016-01-01

    In this book the authors present several examples of techniques used to overcome the Abby diffraction limit using flat and 3D diffractive optical elements, photonic crystal lenses, photonic jets, and surface plasmon diffractive optics. The structures discussed can be used in the microwave and THz range and also as scaled models for optical frequencies. Such nano-optical microlenses can be integrated, for example, into existing semiconductor heterostructure platforms for next-generation optoelectronic applications. Chapter 1 considers flat diffractive lenses and innovative 3D radiating structures including a conical millimeter-wave Fresnel zone plate (FZP) lens proposed for subwavelength focusing. In chapter 2 the subwavelength focusing properties of diffractive photonic crystal lenses are considered and it is shown that at least three different types of photonic crystal lens are possible.  With the aim of achieving subwavelength focusing, in chapter 3 an alternative mechanism to produce photonic jets at Tera...

  6. Inclusive Glueball Production in High-Energy p+p(p-) Collisions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭宏安; 段春贵; 何祯民

    2001-01-01

    Using the factorizable character of amplitudes for the double diffractive process in the Landshoff-Nachtmann model, we have discussed the inclusive glueball production in high-energy pp collisions via the fusion process of two non-perturbative gluons, and have compared it with the double diffractive alike process. We found that, as the c.m. energy Ecms increases from 20 to 20 000 GeV, the cross sections of the latter process are about one to two orders larger than the former. Such an outcome could be explained from the hypothesis of duality between glueballs and pomeron.

  7. Double Higgs production at the 14 TeV LHC and the 100 TeV pp-collider

    CERN Document Server

    Cao, Qing-Hong; Yan, Bin; Zhang, Dong-Ming; Zhang, Hao

    2016-01-01

    We consider effective Higgs boson couplings, including both the CP-even and CP-odd couplings, that affect Higgs boson pair production in this study. Through the partial wave analysis, we find that the process $gg\\to hh$ is dominated by the $s$-wave component even at a 100~TeV $pp$-collider. Making use of the $s$-wave kinematics, we propose a cut efficiency function to mimic the collider simulation and obtain the potential of measuring Higgs effective couplings at the 14~TeV LHC with an integrated luminosity of $3000~{\\rm fb}^{-1}$ and at a 100 TeV $pp$-collider. Analytical expressions of the $2\\sigma$ exclusion limits at the LHC and the $5\\sigma$ discovery bands at the 100 TeV machine are given.

  8. Tetraplex PCR assay involving double gene-sites discriminates beef and buffalo in Malaysian meat curry and burger products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, M A Motalib; Ali, Md Eaqub; Hamid, Sharifah Bee Abd; Hossain, S M Azad; Asing; Nizar, Nina Naquiah Ahmad; Uddin, Mohammad Nasir; Ali, Lokman; Asaduzzaman, Md; Akanda, Md Jahurul Haque

    2017-06-01

    Replacement of beef by buffalo and vice versa is frequent in global markets, but their authentication is challenging in processed foods due to the fragmentation of most biomarkers including DNA. The shortening of target sequences through use of two target sites might ameliorate assay reliability because it is highly unlikely that both targets will be lost during food processing. For the first time, we report a tetraplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay targeting two different DNA regions in beef (106 and 120-bp) and buffalo (90 and 138-bp) mitochondrial genes to discriminate beef and buffalo in processed foods. All targets were stable under boiling, autoclaving and microwave cooking conditions. A survey in Malaysian markets revealed 71% beef curries contained buffalo but there was no buffalo in beef burgers. The assay detected down to 0.01ng DNA and 1% meat in admixed and burger products.

  9. Excitation of the Roper resonance in single- and double-pion production in nucleon-nucleon collisions⋆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skorodko, T.; Bashkanov, M.; Bogoslawsky, D.; Calen, H.; Cappellaro, F.; Clement, H.; Demiroers, L.; Doroshkevich, E.; Duniec, D.; Ekström, C.; Franssen, K.; Gustafsson, L.; Höistad, B.; Ivanov, G.; Jacewicz, M.; Jiganov, E.; Johansson, T.; Khakimova, O.; Kaskulov, M.; Keleta, S.; Koch, I.; Kren, F.; Kullander, S.; Kupść, A.; Kuznetsov, A.; Marciniewski, P.; Meier, R.; Morosov, B.; Pauly, C.; Petterson, H.; Petukhov, Y.; Povtorejko, A.; Schönning, K.; Scobel, W.; Shwartz, B.; Sopov, V.; Stepeniak, J.; Thörngren-Engblom, P.; Tikhomirov, V.; Wagner, G. J.; Wolke, M.; Yamamoto, A.; Zabierowski, J.; Złomanczuk, J.

    2008-03-01

    In most investigations the Roper resonance is sensed only very indirectly via complex partial-wave analyses. We find indications for its excitation in the invariant nπ+ mass spectrum of the pp → npπ+ reaction at M ≈ 1360 MeV with a width of ≈ 150 MeV . The values fit very favorably to the most recent phase shift results as well as to the observations at BES. In the near-threshold two-pion production pp → ppπ0π0 , where the Roper excitation and its subsequent decays via the routes N * → Δπ → Nππ and N * → Nσ are the only dominant processes, we find its direct decay into the Nσ channel to be the by far dominating decay process --in favor of a monopole excitation of the Roper resonance.

  10. Excitation of the Roper resonance in single- and double-pion production in nucleon-nucleon collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skorodko, T.; Bashkanov, M.; Bogoslawsky, D.; Calen, H.; Cappellaro, F.; Clement, H.; Demiroers, L.; Doroshkevich, E.; Duniec, D.; Ekström, C.; Franssen, K.; Gustafsson, L.; Höistad, B.; Ivanov, G.; Jacewicz, M.; Jiganov, E.; Johansson, T.; Khakimova, O.; Kaskulov, M.; Keleta, S.; Koch, I.; Kren, F.; Kullander, S.; Kupść, A.; Kuznetsov, A.; Marciniewski, P.; Meier, R.; Morosov, B.; Pauly, C.; Petterson, H.; Petukhov, Y.; Povtorejko, A.; Schönning, K.; Scobel, W.; Shwartz, B.; Sopov, V.; Stepeniak, J.; Thörngren-Engblom, P.; Tikhomirov, V.; Wagner, G. J.; Wolke, M.; Yamamoto, A.; Zabierowski, J.; Złomanczuk, J.

    In most investigations the Roper resonance is sensed only very indirectly via complex partial-wave analyses. We find indications for its excitation in the invariant nπ + mass spectrum of the pp → npπ + reaction at M ≈ 1360MeV with a width of ≈ 150 MeV. The values fit very favorably to the most recent phase shift results as well as to the observations at BES. In the near-threshold two-pion production pp → ppπ 0 π 0, where the Roper excitation and its subsequent decays via the routes N* → Δπ → Nππ and N* → Nσ are the only dominant processes, we find its direct decay into the Nσ channel to be the by far dominating decay process —in favor of a monopole excitation of the Roper resonance.

  11. Production of anti-double-stranded DNA antibodies in activated lymphocyte derived DNA induced lupus model was dependent on CD4+ T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Z; Xu, L; Xu, W; Xiong, S

    2012-04-01

    Our previous study demonstrated that activated lymphocyte derived DNA (ALD-DNA) could function as an autoantigen to induce production of anti-double-stranded DNA (anti-dsDNA) antibodies in syngeneic BALB/c mice. Here we carefully evaluated the potential role of T cells in the induction of anti-dsDNA antibody. We demonstrated that ALD-DNA could effectively induce production of anti-dsDNA antibodies in vivo and in vitro. In contrast, ALD-DNA could not induce the generation of anti-dsDNA antibodies in nude mice. We further showed that in vivo depletion of CD3(+) T cells blocked the induction of anti-dsDNA antibodies in BALB/c mice. Notably, we demonstrated that CD4(+) but not CD8(+) T cells conferred ALD-DNA to induce anti-dsDNA antibodies. Finally, we demonstrated that adoptive transfer of CD4(+) T cells could rescue ALD-DNA induced anti-dsDNA antibodies in nude mice. Our results suggested that T helper cells were required for ALD-DNA to induce anti-dsDNA antibodies. These findings could further our understanding about the immunogenic properties of DNA and throw new light on SLE pathogenesis.

  12. Evidence of $\\Upsilon(1S) \\to J/\\psi+\\chi_{c1}$ and search for double-charmonium production in $\\Upsilon(1S)$ and $\\Upsilon(2S)$ decays

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, S D; Ban, Y; Abdesselam, A; Adachi, I; Aihara, H; Said, S Al; Arinstein, K; Asner, D M; Aulchenko, V; Aushev, T; Ayad, R; Bakich, A M; Bansal, V; Behera, P; Bhuyan, B; Bobrov, A; Bozek, A; Bračko, M; Browder, T E; Červenkov, D; Chekelian, V; Chen, A; Cheon, B G; Chilikin, K; Chistov, R; Cho, K; Chobanova, V; Choi, S -K; Choi, Y; Cinabro, D; Dalseno, J; Danilov, M; Dingfelder, J; Doležal, Z; Drásal, Z; Drutskoy, A; Dutta, K; Eidelman, S; Farhat, H; Fast, J E; Ferber, T; Gaur, V; Gabyshev, N; Ganguly, S; Garmash, A; Gillard, R; Goh, Y M; Golob, B; Haba, J; Hara, T; Hayashii, H; He, X H; Hou, W -S; Huschle, M; Iijima, T; Inami, K; Ishikawa, A; Itoh, R; Jaegle, I; Joffe, D; Joo, K K; Julius, T; Kawasaki, T; Kim, D Y; Kim, H J; Kim, J B; Kim, J H; Kim, K T; Kinoshita, K; Ko, B R; Kodyš, P; Korpar, S; Križan, P; Krokovny, P; Kuzmin, A; Kwon, Y -J; Lange, J S; Li, J; Li, Y; Gioi, L Li; Libby, J; Liventsev, D; Lukin, P; Miyabayashi, K; Miyata, H; Moll, A; Mussa, R; Nakano, E; Nakao, M; Nanut, T; Nisar, N K; Nishida, S; Okuno, S; Ostrowicz, W; Park, C W; Park, H; Pedlar, T K; Pestotnik, R; Petrič, M; Piilonen, L E; Ribežl, E; Ritter, M; Rostomyan, A; Sakai, Y; Sandilya, S; Santelj, L; Sanuki, T; Schneider, O; Schnell, G; Schwanda, C; Semmler, D; Senyo, K; Shebalin, V; Shibata, T -A; Shiu, J -G; Shwartz, B; Sibidanov, A; Simon, F; Sohn, Y -S; Sokolov, A; Starič, M; Steder, M; Sumiyoshi, T; Tamponi, U; Tanida, K; Tatishvili, G; Teramoto, Y; Uchida, M; Uehara, S; Uglov, T; Unno, Y; Uno, S; Urquijo, P; Usov, Y; Vahsen, S E; Van Hulse, C; Vanhoefer, P; Varner, G; Vinokurova, A; Vorobyev, V; Vossen, A; Wagner, M N; Wang, C H; Wang, M -Z; Wang, P; Wang, X L; Watanabe, M; Watanabe, Y; Won, E; Yamaoka, J; Yashchenko, S; Yook, Y; Yuan, C Z; Zhang, Z P; Zhilich, V; Zhulanov, V

    2014-01-01

    Using data samples of $102\\times10^6$ $\\Upsilon(1S)$ and $158\\times10^6$ $\\Upsilon(2S)$ events collected with the Belle detector, a first experimental search has been made for double-charmonium production in the exclusive decays $\\Upsilon(1S,2S)\\rightarrow J/\\psi(\\psi')+X$, where $X=\\eta_c$, $\\chi_{cJ} (J=~0,~1,~2)$, $\\eta_c(2S)$, and $X(3940)$. No significant signal is observed in the spectra of the mass recoiling against the reconstructed $J/\\psi$ or $\\psi'$ except for the evidence of $\\chi_{c1}$ production with a significance of $4.6\\sigma$ for $\\Upsilon(1S)\\rightarrow J/\\psi+\\chi_{c1}$. The measured branching fraction $\\BR(\\Upsilon(1S)\\rightarrow J/\\psi+\\chi_{c1})$ is $(3.98\\pm1.24(\\rm stat.)\\pm0.22 (\\rm syst.))\\times10^{-6}$. The $90\\%$ confidence level upper limits on the branching fractions of the other modes having a significance of less than $3\\sigma$ are determined. These results are consistent with theoretical calculations using the nonrelativistic QCD factorization approach.

  13. Multiphoton Ca{sup 2+} production occurring before the onset of Ca{sup +} saturation: is it a fingerprint of direct double ionization?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liontos, I; Cohen, S [LENS Institute, University of Florence, via Nello Carrara 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Firenze) (Italy); Lyras, A, E-mail: scohen@uoi.g [Atomic and Molecular Physics Laboratory, Physics Department, University of Ioannina, 45110 Ioannina (Greece)

    2010-05-14

    Singly and doubly charged Ca ions have been produced by multiphoton excitation of Ca vapour with 5 ns, low intensity ({<=}3 x 10{sup 11} W cm{sup -2}) dye-laser pulses in the 675-685 nm wavelength range, including the four-photon 4s{sup 2} {sup 1}S{sub 0} {yields} 4p{sup 2} {sup 1}S{sub 0} excitation. The intensity and wavelength dependence of the ion yields was recorded as well as the fluorescence emission from excited states of the Ca ion in an effort to identify the excitation pathways leading to single and double ionization. Unambiguous evidence for the absorption of at least two photons above the first ionization threshold was recorded, in agreement with earlier results for Mg and Sr obtained under similar conditions. However, certain characteristics of the process differ significantly from those of the earlier results, despite the apparent similarity in both the atomic structure and the excitation scheme. The most striking and unexpected finding is that for a certain wavelength, the Ca{sup 2+} yield is observable well before the saturation intensity of Ca{sup +} and, moreover, it grows with intensity and saturates in parallel with the Ca{sup +} yield. Possible mechanisms behind this outcome are discussed in detail as well as their implications for the multiphoton multiple ionization of complex atoms. Our tentative conclusion is that the occurrence of doubly charged ion production before the singly charged ion saturation should not be considered as 'synonymous' with direct (or non-sequential) multiphoton double ionization.

  14. Excitation of the Roper resonance in single- and double-pion production in nucleon-nucleon collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skorodko, T.; Bashkanov, M.; Clement, H.; Doroshkevich, E.; Khakimova, O.; Kaskulov, M.; Keleta, S.; Kren, F.; Meier, R.; Wagner, G.J. [Physikalisches Institut der Universitaet Tuebingen, Tuebingen (Germany); Bogoslawsky, D.; Ivanov, G.; Jiganov, E.; Kuznetsov, A.; Morosov, B.; Petukhov, Y.; Povtorejko, A.; Tikhomirov, V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Calen, H.; Ekstroem, C.; Franssen, K.; Kupsc, A.; Marciniewski, P. [The Svedberg Laboratory, Uppsala (Sweden); Cappellaro, F.; Duniec, D.; Gustafsson, L.; Hoeistad, B.; Jacewicz, M.; Johansson, T.; Koch, I.; Kullander, S.; Petterson, H.; Schoenning, K.; Thoerngren-Engblom, P.; Zlomanczuk, J. [Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden); Demiroers, L.; Pauly, C.; Scobel, W. [Hamburg University, Hamburg (Germany); Shwartz, B. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Sopov, V. [Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Stepeniak, J. [Soltan Institute of Nuclear Studies, Warsaw (Poland); Wolke, M. [Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany); Yamamoto, A. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Tsukuba (Japan); Zabierowski, J. [Soltan Institute of Nuclear Studies, Lodz (Poland)

    2008-03-15

    In most investigations the Roper resonance is sensed only very indirectly via complex partial-wave analyses. We find indications for its excitation in the invariant n{pi}{sup +} mass spectrum of the pp{yields}np{pi}{sup +} reaction at M{approx}1360 MeV with a width of {approx} 150 MeV. The values fit very favorably to the most recent phase shift results as well as to the observations at BES. In the near-threshold two-pion production pp{yields}pp{pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}, where the Roper excitation and its subsequent decays via the routes N{sup *}{yields}{delta}{pi}{yields} N{pi}{pi} and N{sup *}{yields}N{sigma} are the only dominant processes, we find its direct decay into the N{sigma} channel to be the by far dominating decay process -in favor of a monopole excitation of the Roper resonance. (orig.)

  15. Project Half Double

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svejvig, Per; Gerstrøm, Anna; Frederiksen, Signe Hedeboe

    The Half Double mission: Project Half Double has a clear mission. We want to succeed in finding a project methodology that can increase the success rate of our projects while increasing the development speed of new products and services. We are convinced that by doing so we can strengthen...... projects and to document their development. The purpose of this addendum is thus to document the development in the pilot projects from June 2016 to January 2017 with particular focus on the impact they have created. This Addendum is a supplement and should be read in conjunction with the Phase 1 report...

  16. Grazing incidence diffraction : A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilles, B. [LTPCM, ENSEEG. St. Martin d`Heres. (France)

    1996-09-01

    Different Grazing Incidence Diffraction (GID) methods for the analysis of thin films and multilayer structures are reviewed in three sections: the reflectivity is developed in the first one, which includes the non-specular diffuse scattering. The second one is devoted to the extremely asymmetric Bragg diffraction and the third one to the in-plane Bragg diffraction. Analytical formulations of the scattered intensities are developed for each geometry, in the framework of the kinetical analysis as well as the dynamical theory. Experimental examples are given to illustrate the quantitative possibility of the GID techniques.

  17. The diffractive achromat full spectrum computational imaging with diffractive optics

    KAUST Repository

    Peng, Yifan

    2016-07-11

    Diffractive optical elements (DOEs) have recently drawn great attention in computational imaging because they can drastically reduce the size and weight of imaging devices compared to their refractive counterparts. However, the inherent strong dispersion is a tremendous obstacle that limits the use of DOEs in full spectrum imaging, causing unacceptable loss of color fidelity in the images. In particular, metamerism introduces a data dependency in the image blur, which has been neglected in computational imaging methods so far. We introduce both a diffractive achromat based on computational optimization, as well as a corresponding algorithm for correction of residual aberrations. Using this approach, we demonstrate high fidelity color diffractive-only imaging over the full visible spectrum. In the optical design, the height profile of a diffractive lens is optimized to balance the focusing contributions of different wavelengths for a specific focal length. The spectral point spread functions (PSFs) become nearly identical to each other, creating approximately spectrally invariant blur kernels. This property guarantees good color preservation in the captured image and facilitates the correction of residual aberrations in our fast two-step deconvolution without additional color priors. We demonstrate our design of diffractive achromat on a 0.5mm ultrathin substrate by photolithography techniques. Experimental results show that our achromatic diffractive lens produces high color fidelity and better image quality in the full visible spectrum. © 2016 ACM.

  18. Project Half Double

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ehlers, Michael; Adland, Karoline Thorp; Boston, Nicolai Elborough

    Project Half Double has a clear mission to succeed in finding a project methodology that can increase the success rate of our projects while increasing the speed at which we generate new ideas and develop new products and services. Chaos and complexity should be seen as a basic condition...... and as an opportunity rather than a threat and a risk. We are convinced that by doing so, we can strengthen Denmark’s competitiveness and play an important role in the battle for jobs and future welfare. The overall goal is to deliver “projects in half the time with double the impact”, where projects in half the time...... should be understood as half the time to impact (benefit realisation, effect is achieved) and not as half the time for project execution. The purpose of Project Half Double is to improve Danish industrial competitiveness by radically increasing the pace and impact of the development and innovation...

  19. Inclusive double-helicity asymmetries in neutral pion and eta meson production in $\\vec{p}+\\vec{p}$ collisions at $\\sqrt{s}=200$ GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Adare, A; Ajitanand, N N; Akiba, Y; Akimoto, R; Al-Ta'ani, H; Alexander, J; Andrews, K R; Angerami, A; Aoki, K; Apadula, N; Appelt, E; Aramaki, Y; Armendariz, R; Aschenauer, E C; Awes, T C; Azmoun, B; Babintsev, V; Bai, M; Bannier, B; Barish, K N; Bassalleck, B; Basye, A T; Bathe, S; Baublis, V; Baumann, C; Bazilevsky, A; Belmont, R; Ben-Benjamin, J; Bennett, R; Blau, D S; Bok, J S; Boyle, K; Brooks, M L; Broxmeyer, D; Buesching, H; Bumazhnov, V; Bunce, G; Butsyk, S; Campbell, S; Castera, P; Chen, C -H; Chi, C Y; Chiu, M; Choi, I J; Choi, J B; Choudhury, R K; Christiansen, P; Chujo, T; Chvala, O; Cianciolo, V; Citron, Z; Cole, B A; del Valle, Z Conesa; Connors, M; Csanád, M; Csörgő, T; Dairaku, S; Datta, A; David, G; Dayananda, M K; Denisov, A; Deshpande, A; Desmond, E J; Dharmawardane, K V; Dietzsch, O; Dion, A; Donadelli, M; Drapier, O; Drees, A; Drees, K A; Durham, J M; Durum, A; D'Orazio, L; Efremenko, Y V; Engelmore, T; Enokizono, A; En'yo, H; Esumi, S; Fadem, B; Fields, D E; Finger, M; Jr., \\,; Fleuret, F; Fokin, S L; Frantz, J E; Franz, A; Frawley, A D; Fukao, Y; Fusayasu, T; Gal, C; Garishvili, I; Giordano, F; Glenn, A; Gong, X; Gonin, M; Goto, Y; de Cassagnac, R Granier; Grau, N; Greene, S V; Perdekamp, M Grosse; Gunji, T; Guo, L; Gustafsson, H -Å; Haggerty, J S; Hahn, K I; Hamagaki, H; Hamblen, J; Han, R; Hanks, J; Harper, C; Hashimoto, K; Haslum, E; Hayano, R; He, X; Hemmick, T K; Hester, T; Hill, J C; Hollis, R S; Holzmann, W; Homma, K; Hong, B; Horaguchi, T; Hori, Y; Hornback, D; Huang, J; Huang, S; Ichihara, T; Ichimiya, R; Iinuma, H; Ikeda, Y; Imai, K; Inaba, M; Iordanova, A; Isenhower, D; Ishihara, M; Issah, M; Ivanischev, D; Iwanaga, Y; Jacak, B V; Jia, J; Jiang, X; John, D; Johnson, B M; Jones, T; Joo, K S; Jouan, D; Kamin, J; Kaneti, S; Kang, B H; Kang, J H; Kang, J S; Kapustinsky, J; Karatsu, K; Kasai, M; Kawall, D; Kazantsev, A V; Kempel, T; Khanzadeev, A; Kijima, K M; Kim, B I; Kim, D J; Kim, E -J; Kim, Y -J; Kim, Y K; Kinney, E; Kiss, Á; Kistenev, E; Kleinjan, D; Kline, P; Kochenda, L; Komkov, B; Konno, M; Koster, J; Kotov, D; Král, A; Kunde, G J; Kurita, K; Kurosawa, M; Kwon, Y; Kyle, G S; Lacey, R; Lai, Y S; Lajoie, J G; Lebedev, A; Lee, D M; Lee, J; Lee, K B; Lee, K S; Lee, S H; Lee, S R; Leitch, M J; Leite, M A L; Li, X; Lim, S H; Levy, L A Linden; Liu, H; Liu, M X; Love, B; Lynch, D; Maguire, C F; Makdisi, Y I; Manion, A; Manko, V I; Mannel, E; Mao, Y; Masui, H; McCumber, M; McGaughey, P L; McGlinchey, D; McKinney, C; Means, N; Mendoza, M; Meredith, B; Miake, Y; Mibe, T; Mignerey, A C; Miki, K; Milov, A; Mitchell, J T; Miyachi, Y; Mohanty, A K; Moon, H J; Morino, Y; Morreale, A; Morrison, D P; Motschwiller, S; Moukhanova, T V; Murakami, T; Murata, J; Nagamiya, S; Nagle, J L; Naglis, M; Nagy, M I; Nakagawa, I; Nakamiya, Y; Nakamura, K R; Nakamura, T; Nakano, K; Newby, J; Nguyen, M; Nihashi, M; Nouicer, R; Nyanin, A S; Oakley, C; O'Brien, E; Ogilvie, C A; Oka, M; Okada, K; Oskarsson, A; Ouchida, M; Ozawa, K; Pak, R; Pantuev, V; Papavassiliou, V; Park, B H; Park, I H; Park, S K; Pate, S F; Patel, L; Pei, H; Peng, J -C; Pereira, H; Peressounko, D Yu; Petti, R; Pinkenburg, C; Pisani, R P; Proissl, M; Purschke, M L; Qu, H; Rak, J; Ravinovich, I; Read, K F; Reygers, K; Riabov, V; Riabov, Y; Richardson, E; Roach, D; Roche, G; Rolnick, S D; Rosati, M; Rosendahl, S S E; Sahlmueller, B; Saito, N; Sakaguchi, T; Samsonov, V; Sano, S; Sarsour, M; Sato, T; Savastio, M; Sawada, S; Sedgwick, K; Seidl, R; Seto, R; Sharma, D; Shein, I; Shibata, T -A; Shigaki, K; Shim, H H; Shimomura, M; Shoji, K; Shukla, P; Sickles, A; Silva, C L; Silvermyr, D; Silvestre, C; Sim, K S; Singh, B K; Singh, C P; Singh, V; Slunečka, M; Sodre, T; Soltz, R A; Sondheim, W E; Sorensen, S P; Sourikova, I V; Stankus, P W; Stenlund, E; Stoll, S P; Sugitate, T; Sukhanov, A; Sun, J; Sziklai, J; Takagui, E M; Takahara, A; Taketani, A; Tanabe, R; Tanaka, Y; Taneja, S; Tanida, K; Tannenbaum, M J; Tarafdar, S; Taranenko, A; Tennant, E; Themann, H; Thomas, D; Togawa, M; Tomášek, L; Tomášek, M; Torii, H; Towell, R S; Tserruya, I; Tsuchimoto, Y; Utsunomiya, K; Vale, C; van Hecke, H W; Vazquez-Zambrano, E; Veicht, A; Velkovska, J; Vértesi, R; Virius, M; Vossen, A; Vrba, V; Vznuzdaev, E; Wang, X R; Watanabe, D; Watanabe, K; Watanabe, Y; Watanabe, Y S; Wei, F; Wei, R; Wessels, J; White, S N; Winter, D; Woody, C L; Wright, R M; Wysocki, M; Yamaguchi, Y L; Yang, R; Yanovich, A; Ying, J; Yokkaichi, S; Yoo, J S; You, Z; Young, G R; Younus, I; Yushmanov, I E; Zajc, W A; Zelenski, A; Zhou, S

    2014-01-01

    Results are presented from data recorded in 2009 by the PHENIX experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider for the double-longitudinal spin asymmetry, $A_{LL}$, for $\\pi^0$ and $\\eta$ production in $\\sqrt{s} = 200$ GeV polarized $p$$+$$p$ collisions. Comparison of the $\\pi^0$ results with different theory expectations based on fits of other published data showed a preference for small positive values of gluon polarization, $\\Delta G$, in the proton in the probed Bjorken $x$ range. The effect of adding the new 2009 \\pz data to a recent global analysis of polarized scattering data is also shown, resulting in a best fit value $\\Delta G^{[0.05,0.2]}_{\\mbox{DSSV}} = 0.06^{+0.11}_{-0.15}$ in the range $0.05

  20. Inclusive cross section and double-helicity asymmetry for $\\pi^{0}$ production at midrapidity in $p$$+$$p$ collisions at $\\sqrt{s}=510$ GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Adare, A; Ajitanand, N N; Akiba, Y; Akimoto, R; Alexander, J; Alfred, M; Aoki, K; Apadula, N; Aramaki, Y; Asano, H; Atomssa, E T; Awes, T C; Azmoun, B; Babintsev, V; Bai, M; Bai, X; Bandara, N S; Bannier, B; Barish, K N; Bathe, S; Baublis, V; Baumann, C; Baumgart, S; Bazilevsky, A; Beaumier, M; Beckman, S; Belmont, R; Berdnikov, A; Berdnikov, Y; Black, D; Blau, D S; Bok, J S; Boyle, K; Brooks, M L; Bryslawskyj, J; Buesching, H; Bumazhnov, V; Butsyk, S; Campbell, S; Chen, C -H; Chi, C Y; Chiu, M; Choi, I J; Choi, J B; Choi, S; Christiansen, P; Chujo, T; Cianciolo, V; Citron, Z; Cole, B A; Cronin, N; Crossette, N; Csanád, M; Csörgő, T; Danley, D; Datta, A; Daugherity, M S; David, G; DeBlasio, K; Dehmelt, K; Denisov, A; Deshpande, A; Desmond, E J; Ding, L; Dion, A; Diss, P B; Do, J H; D'Orazio, L; Drapier, O; Drees, A; Drees, K A; Durham, J M; Durum, A; Engelmore, T; Enokizono, A; En'yo, H; Esumi, S; Eyser, K O; Fadem, B; Feege, N; Fields, D E; Finger, M; Jr., \\,; Fleuret, F; Fokin, S L; Frantz, J E; Franz, A; Frawley, A D; Fukao, Y; Fusayasu, T; Gainey, K; Gal, C; Gallus, P; Garg, P; Garishvili, A; Garishvili, I; Ge, H; Giordano, F; Glenn, A; Gong, X; Gonin, M; Goto, Y; de Cassagnac, R Granier; Grau, N; Greene, S V; Perdekamp, M Grosse; Gu, Y; Gunji, T; Guragain, H; Hachiya, T; Haggerty, J S; Hahn, K I; Hamagaki, H; Hamilton, H F; Han, S Y; Hanks, J; Hasegawa, S; Haseler, T O S; Hashimoto, K; Hayano, R; He, X; Hemmick, T K; Hester, T; Hill, J C; Hollis, R S; Homma, K; Hong, B; Hoshino, T; Hotvedt, N; Huang, J; Huang, S; Ichihara, T; Ikeda, Y; Imai, K; Imazu, Y; Inaba, M; Iordanova, A; Isenhower, D; Isinhue, A; Ivanishchev, D; Jacak, B V; Jeon, S J; Jezghani, M; Jia, J; Jiang, X; Johnson, B M; Joo, E; Joo, K S; Jouan, D; Jumper, D S; Kamin, J; Kanda, S; Kang, B H; Kang, J H; Kang, J S; Kapustinsky, J; Kawall, D; Kazantsev, A V; Key, J A; Khachatryan, V; Khandai, P K; Khanzadeev, A; Kihara, K; Kijima, K M; Kim, C; Kim, D H; Kim, D J; Kim, E -J; Kim, G W; Kim, H -J; Kim, M; Kim, Y -J; Kim, Y K; Kimelman, B; Kistenev, E; Kitamura, R; Klatsky, J; Kleinjan, D; Kline, P; Koblesky, T; Kofarago, M; Komkov, B; Koster, J; Kotchetkov, D; Kotov, D; Krizek, F; Kurita, K; Kurosawa, M; Kwon, Y; Lacey, R; Lai, Y S; Lajoie, J G; Lebedev, A; Lee, D M; Lee, G H; Lee, J; Lee, K B; Lee, K S; Lee, S; Lee, S H; Leitch, M J; Leitgab, M; Lewis, B; Li, X; Lim, S H; Liu, M X; Lynch, D; Maguire, C F; Makdisi, Y I; Makek, M; Manion, A; Manko, V I; Mannel, E; Maruyama, T; McCumber, M; McGaughey, P L; McGlinchey, D; McKinney, C; Meles, A; Mendoza, M; Meredith, B; Miake, Y; Mibe, T; Mignerey, A C; Miller, A J; Milov, A; Mishra, D K; Mitchell, J T; Miyasaka, S; Mizuno, S; Mohanty, A K; Mohapatra, S; Montuenga, P; Moon, T; Morrison, D P; Moskowitz, M; Moukhanova, T V; Murakami, T; Murata, J; Mwai, A; Nagae, T; Nagamiya, S; Nagashima, K; Nagle, J L; Nagy, M I; Nakagawa, I; Nakagomi, H; Nakamiya, Y; Nakamura, K R; Nakamura, T; Nakano, K; Nattrass, C; Netrakanti, P K; Nihashi, M; Niida, T; Nishimura, S; Nouicer, R; Novak, T; Novitzky, N; Nyanin, A S; O'Brien, E; Ogilvie, C A; Oide, H; Okada, K; Koop, J D Orjuela; Osborn, J D; Oskarsson, A; Ozaki, H; Ozawa, K; Pak, R; Pantuev, V; Papavassiliou, V; Park, I H; Park, J S; Park, S; Park, S K; Pate, S F; Patel, L; Patel, M; Peng, J -C; Perepelitsa, D V; Perera, G D N; Peressounko, D Yu; Perry, J; Petti, R; Pinkenburg, C; Pinson, R; Pisani, R P; Purschke, M L; Qu, H; Rak, J; Ramson, B J; Ravinovich, I; Read, K F; Reynolds, D; Riabov, V; Riabov, Y; Richardson, E; Rinn, T; Riveli, N; Roach, D; Rolnick, S D; Rosati, M; Rowan, Z; Rubin, J G; Ryu, M S; Sahlmueller, B; Saito, N; Sakaguchi, T; Sako, H; Samsonov, V; Sarsour, M; Sato, S; Sawada, S; Schaefer, B; Schmoll, B K; Sedgwick, K; Seele, J; Seidl, R; Sekiguchi, Y; Sen, A; Seto, R; Sett, P; Sexton, A; Sharma, D; Shaver, A; Shein, I; Shibata, T -A; Shigaki, K; Shimomura, M; Shoji, K; Shukla, P; Sickles, A; Silva, C L; Silvermyr, D; Singh, B K; Singh, C P; Singh, V; Skolnik, M; Slunečka, M; Snowball, M; Solano, S; Soltz, R A; Sondheim, W E; Sorensen, S P; Sourikova, I V; Stankus, P W; Steinberg, P; Stenlund, E; Stepanov, M; Ster, A; Stoll, S P; Stone, M R; Sugitate, T; Sukhanov, A; Sumita, T; Sun, J; Sziklai, J; Takahara, A; Taketani, A; Tanaka, Y; Tanida, K; Tannenbaum, M J; Tarafdar, S; Taranenko, A; Tennant, E; Tieulent, R; Timilsina, A; Todoroki, T; Tomášek, M; Torii, H; Towell, C L; Towell, M; Towell, R; Towell, R S; Tserruya, I; van Hecke, H W; Vargyas, M; Vazquez-Zambrano, E; Veicht, A; Velkovska, J; Vértesi, R; Virius, M; Vrba, V; Vznuzdaev, E; Wang, X R; Watanabe, D; Watanabe, K; Watanabe, Y; Watanabe, Y S; Wei, F; Whitaker, S; White, A S; Wolin, S; Woody, C L; Wysocki, M; Xia, B; Xue, L; Yalcin, S; Yamaguchi, Y L; Yanovich, A; Yokkaichi, S; Yoo, J H; Yoon, I; You, Z; Younus, I; Yu, H; Yushmanov, I E; Zajc, W A; Zelenski, A; Zhou, S; Zou, L

    2016-01-01

    PHENIX measurements are presented for the cross section and double-helicity asymmetry ($A_{LL}$) in inclusive $\\pi^0$ production at midrapidity from $p$$+$$p$ collisions at $\\sqrt{s}=510$~GeV from data taken in 2012 and 2013 at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. The next-to-leading-order perturbative-quantum-chromodynamics theory calculation is in excellent agreement with the presented cross section results. The calculation utilized parton-to-pion fragmentation functions from the recent DSS14 global analysis, which prefer a smaller gluon-to-pion fragmentation function. The $\\pi^{0}A_{LL}$ results follow an increasingly positive asymmetry trend with $p_T$ and $\\sqrt{s}$ with respect to the predictions and are in excellent agreement with the latest global analysis results. This analysis incorporated earlier results on $\\pi^0$ and jet $A_{LL}$, and suggested a positive contribution of gluon polarization to the spin of the proton $\\Delta G$ for the gluon momentum fraction range $x>0.05$. The data presented here...

  1. A Double-Blind, Randomised Study Comparing the Skin Hydration and Acceptability of Two Emollient Products in Atopic Eczema Patients with Dry Skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djokic-Gallagher, Jasmina; Rosher, Phil; Oliveira, Gabriela; Walker, Jennine

    2017-07-04

    Healthcare professionals tend to recommend emollients based primarily on patient/consumer preference and cost, with cheaper options assumed to be therapeutically equivalent. The aim of this study was therefore to compare the effects on skin hydration of two emollients prescribed in the UK, Doublebase Dayleve™ gel (DELP) and a cheaper alternative, Zerobase Emollient™ cream (ZBC). This was a single-centre, randomised, double-blind, concurrent bi-lateral (within-patient) comparison in 18 females with atopic eczema and dry skin on their lower legs. DELP gel and ZBC cream were each applied to one lower leg twice daily for 4 days and on the morning only on day 5. The efficacy of both products was assessed by hydration measurements using a Corneometer CM825 probe (Courage-Khazaka Electronic). The measurements were made three times daily on days 1 to 5. The primary efficacy variable was the area under the curve (AUC) of the change from baseline corneometer readings over the 5 days. Skin hydration using DELP gel was significantly higher than using ZBC cream (p emollients can perform differently. Dermal Laboratories Ltd. EudraCT number:2014-001026-16.

  2. Measurements of double-helicity asymmetries in inclusive J /ψ production in longitudinally polarized p +p collisions at √{s }=510 GeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adare, A.; Aidala, C.; Ajitanand, N. N.; Akiba, Y.; Akimoto, R.; Alfred, M.; Apadula, N.; Aramaki, Y.; Asano, H.; Atomssa, E. T.; Awes, T. C.; Azmoun, B.; Babintsev, V.; Bai, M.; Bandara, N. S.; Bannier, B.; Barish, K. N.; Bathe, S.; Bazilevsky, A.; Beaumier, M.; Beckman, S.; Belmont, R.; Berdnikov, A.; Berdnikov, Y.; Black, D.; Blau, D. S.; Bok, J. S.; Boyle, K.; Brooks, M. L.; Bryslawskyj, J.; Buesching, H.; Bumazhnov, V.; Campbell, S.; Chen, C.-H.; Chi, C. Y.; Chiu, M.; Choi, I. J.; Choi, J. B.; Chujo, T.; Citron, Z.; Csanád, M.; Csörgő, T.; Danley, T. W.; Datta, A.; Daugherity, M. S.; David, G.; Deblasio, K.; Dehmelt, K.; Denisov, A.; Deshpande, A.; Desmond, E. J.; Ding, L.; Dion, A.; Diss, P. B.; Do, J. H.; Drees, A.; Drees, K. A.; Durham, J. M.; Durum, A.; Enokizono, A.; En'yo, H.; Esumi, S.; Fadem, B.; Feege, N.; Fields, D. E.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; Fokin, S. L.; Frantz, J. E.; Franz, A.; Frawley, A. D.; Gal, C.; Gallus, P.; Garg, P.; Ge, H.; Giordano, F.; Glenn, A.; Goto, Y.; Grau, N.; Greene, S. V.; Grosse Perdekamp, M.; Gu, Y.; Gunji, T.; Guragain, H.; Hachiya, T.; Haggerty, J. S.; Hahn, K. I.; Hamagaki, H.; Hamilton, H. F.; Han, S. Y.; Hanks, J.; Hasegawa, S.; Haseler, T. O. S.; Hashimoto, K.; He, X.; Hemmick, T. K.; Hill, J. C.; Hollis, R. S.; Homma, K.; Hong, B.; Hoshino, T.; Hotvedt, N.; Huang, J.; Huang, S.; Ikeda, Y.; Imai, K.; Imazu, Y.; Inaba, M.; Iordanova, A.; Isenhower, D.; Ivanishchev, D.; Jacak, B. V.; Jeon, S. J.; Jezghani, M.; Jia, J.; Jiang, X.; Johnson, B. M.; Joo, E.; Joo, K. S.; Jouan, D.; Jumper, D. S.; Kanda, S.; Kang, J. H.; Kang, J. S.; Kawall, D.; Kazantsev, A. V.; Key, J. A.; Khachatryan, V.; Khanzadeev, A.; Kihara, K.; Kim, C.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, D. J.; Kim, E.-J.; Kim, G. W.; Kim, H.-J.; Kim, M.; Kim, Y. K.; Kimelman, B.; Kistenev, E.; Kitamura, R.; Klatsky, J.; Kleinjan, D.; Kline, P.; Koblesky, T.; Kofarago, M.; Komkov, B.; Koster, J.; Kotov, D.; Kurita, K.; Kurosawa, M.; Kwon, Y.; Lacey, R.; Lajoie, J. G.; Lebedev, A.; Lee, K. B.; Lee, S.; Lee, S. H.; Leitch, M. J.; Leitgab, M.; Li, X.; Lim, S. H.; Liu, M. X.; Lynch, D.; Makdisi, Y. I.; Makek, M.; Manion, A.; Manko, V. I.; Mannel, E.; McCumber, M.; McGaughey, P. L.; McGlinchey, D.; McKinney, C.; Meles, A.; Mendoza, M.; Meredith, B.; Miake, Y.; Mignerey, A. C.; Miller, A. J.; Milov, A.; Mishra, D. K.; Mitchell, J. T.; Miyasaka, S.; Mizuno, S.; Mohanty, A. K.; Montuenga, P.; Moon, T.; Morrison, D. P.; Moukhanova, T. V.; Murakami, T.; Murata, J.; Mwai, A.; Nagamiya, S.; Nagashima, K.; Nagle, J. L.; Nagy, M. I.; Nakagawa, I.; Nakagomi, H.; Nakano, K.; Nattrass, C.; Netrakanti, P. K.; Nihashi, M.; Niida, T.; Nishimura, S.; Nouicer, R.; Novák, T.; Novitzky, N.; Nyanin, A. S.; O'Brien, E.; Ogilvie, C. A.; Orjuela Koop, J. D.; Osborn, J. D.; Oskarsson, A.; Ozawa, K.; Pak, R.; Pantuev, V.; Papavassiliou, V.; Park, J. S.; Park, S.; Pate, S. F.; Patel, L.; Patel, M.; Peng, J.-C.; Perepelitsa, D. V.; Perera, G. D. N.; Peressounko, D. Yu.; Perry, J.; Petti, R.; Pinkenburg, C.; Pinson, R.; Pisani, R. P.; Purschke, M. L.; Rak, J.; Ramson, B. J.; Ravinovich, I.; Read, K. F.; Reynolds, D.; Riabov, V.; Riabov, Y.; Rinn, T.; Riveli, N.; Roach, D.; Rolnick, S. D.; Rosati, M.; Rowan, Z.; Rubin, J. G.; Sahlmueller, B.; Saito, N.; Sakaguchi, T.; Sako, H.; Samsonov, V.; Sarsour, M.; Sato, S.; Sawada, S.; Schaefer, B.; Schmoll, B. K.; Sedgwick, K.; Seele, J.; Seidl, R.; Sen, A.; Seto, R.; Sett, P.; Sexton, A.; Sharma, D.; Shein, I.; Shibata, T.-A.; Shigaki, K.; Shimomura, M.; Shukla, P.; Sickles, A.; Silva, C. L.; Silvermyr, D.; Singh, B. K.; Singh, C. P.; Singh, V.; Slunečka, M.; Snowball, M.; Soltz, R. A.; Sondheim, W. E.; Sorensen, S. P.; Sourikova, I. V.; Stankus, P. W.; Stepanov, M.; Stoll, S. P.; Sugitate, T.; Sukhanov, A.; Sumita, T.; Sun, J.; Sziklai, J.; Takahara, A.; Taketani, A.; Tanida, K.; Tannenbaum, M. J.; Tarafdar, S.; Taranenko, A.; Tieulent, R.; Timilsina, A.; Todoroki, T.; Tomášek, M.; Torii, H.; Towell, C. L.; Towell, M.; Towell, R.; Towell, R. S.; Tserruya, I.; van Hecke, H. W.; Vargyas, M.; Velkovska, J.; Virius, M.; Vrba, V.; Vznuzdaev, E.; Wang, X. R.; Watanabe, D.; Watanabe, Y.; Watanabe, Y. S.; Wei, F.; Whitaker, S.; White, A. S.; Wolin, S.; Woody, C. L.; Wysocki, M.; Xia, B.; Xue, L.; Yalcin, S.; Yamaguchi, Y. L.; Yanovich, A.; Yoo, J. H.; Yoon, I.; Younus, I.; Yu, H.; Yushmanov, I. E.; Zajc, W. A.; Zelenski, A.; Zhou, S.; Zou, L.; Phenix Collaboration

    2016-12-01

    We report the double-helicity asymmetry, ALL J /ψ, in inclusive J /ψ production at forward rapidity as a function of transverse momentum pT and rapidity |y |. The data analyzed were taken during √{s }=510 GeV longitudinally polarized p +p collisions at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider in the 2013 run using the PHENIX detector. At this collision energy, J /ψ particles are predominantly produced through gluon-gluon scatterings, thus ALL J /ψ is sensitive to the gluon polarization inside the proton. We measured ALL J /ψ by detecting the decay daughter muon pairs μ+μ- within the PHENIX muon spectrometers in the rapidity range 1.2 helicity spin asymmetries have shown evidence for significant gluon polarization, and the other one covering the poorly known small-x region x ≈2 ×10-3. Thus our new results could be used to further constrain the gluon polarization for x <5 ×10-2.

  3. Double-Edged Roles of Nitric Oxide Signaling on APP Processing and Amyloid-β Production In Vitro: Preliminary Evidence from Sodium Nitroprusside.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Zheng-Xu; Guo, Hui-Shu; Wang, Che; Wei, Min; Cheng, Cheng; Yang, Zhao-Fei; Chen, Yin-Wang; Le, Wei-Dong; Li, Song

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that is thought to be caused in part by the age-related accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ) in the brain. Recent findings have revealed that nitric oxide (NO) modulates the processing of amyloid-β precursor protein (APP) and alters Aβ production; however, the previously presented data are contradictory and the underlying molecular mechanisms are still incomplete. Here, using human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells stably transfected with wild-type APPwt695, we found that NO, derived from NO donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP), bi-directionally modulates APP processing in vitro. The data from ELISA and Western blot (WB) tests indicated that SNP at lower concentrations (0.01 and 0.1 μM) inhibits BACE1 expression, thus consequently suppresses APP β-cleavage and decreases Aβ production. In contrast, SNP at higher concentrations (10 and 20 μM) biases the APP processing toward the amyloidogenic pathway as evidenced by an increased BACE1 but a decreased ADAM10 expression, together with an elevated Aβ secretion. This bi-directional modulating activity of SNP on APP processing was completely blocked by specific NO scavenger c-PTIO, indicating NO-dependent mechanisms. Moreover, the anti-amyloidogenic activity of SNP is sGC/cGMP/PKG-dependent as evidenced by its reversal by sGC/PKG inhibitions, whereas the amyloidogenic activity of SNP is peroxynitrite-related and can be reversed by peroxynitrite scavenger uric acid. In summary, these present findings predict a double-edged role of NO in APP processing in vitro. Low (physiological) levels of NO inhibit the amyloidogenic processing of APP, whereas extra-high (pathological) concentrations of NO favor the amyloidogenic pathway of APP processing. This preliminary study may provide further evidence to clarify the molecular roles of NO and NO-related signaling in AD and supply potential molecular targets for AD treatment.

  4. Multiple annular linear diffractive axicons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialic, Emilie; de la Tocnaye, Jean-Louis de Bougrenet

    2011-04-01

    We propose a chromatic analysis of multiple annular linear diffractive axicons. Large aperture axicons are optical devices providing achromatic nondiffracting beams, with an extended depth of focus, when illuminated by a white light source, due to chromatic foci superimposition. Annular apertures introduce chromatic foci separation, and because chromatic aberrations result in focal segment axial shifts, polychromatic imaging properties are partially lost. We investigate here various design parameters that can be used to achieve color splitting, filtering, and combining using these properties. In order to improve the low-power efficiency of a single annular axicon, we suggest a spatial multiplexing of concentric annular axicons with different sizes and periods we call multiple annular aperture diffractive axicons (MALDAs). These are chosen to maintain focal depths while enabling color imaging with sufficient diffraction efficiency. Illustrations are given for binary phase diffractive axicons, considering technical aspects such as grating design wavelength and phase dependence due to the grating thickness.

  5. Unified approach to hard diffraction

    CERN Document Server

    Peschanski, R

    2001-01-01

    Using a combination of S-Matrix and perturbative QCD properties in the small x_{Bj} regime, we propose a formulation of hard diffraction unifying the partonic (Ingelman-Schlein) Pomeron, Soft Colour Interaction and QCD dipole descriptions.

  6. X-Ray Diffraction Apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, David F. (Inventor); Bryson, Charles (Inventor); Freund, Friedmann (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    An x-ray diffraction apparatus for use in analyzing the x-ray diffraction pattern of a sample is introduced. The apparatus includes a beam source for generating a collimated x-ray beam having one or more discrete x-ray energies, a holder for holding the sample to be analyzed in the path of the beam, and a charge-coupled device having an array of pixels for detecting, in one or more selected photon energy ranges, x-ray diffraction photons produced by irradiating such a sample with said beam. The CCD is coupled to an output unit which receives input information relating to the energies of photons striking each pixel in the CCD, and constructs the diffraction pattern of photons within a selected energy range striking the CCD.

  7. Diffractive and exclusive measurements at CDF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallinaro, Michele; /Rockefeller U.

    2006-06-01

    Experimental results from the CDF experiment at the Tevatron in p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV are presented on the diffractive structure function at different values of the exchanged momentum transfer squared in the range 0 < Q{sup 2} < 10,000 GeV{sup 2}, on the four-momentum transfer |t| distribution in the region 0 < |t| < 1 GeV{sup 2} for both soft and hard diffractive events up to Q{sup 2} {approx} 4,500 GeV{sup 2}, and on the first experimental evidence of exclusive production in both dijet and diphoton events. A novel technique to align the Roman Pot detectors is also presented.

  8. Hydrothermal Synthesis of Ni/Al Layered Double Hydroxide Nanorods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Zhao

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ni/Al layered double hydroxide (LDH nanorods were successfully synthesized by the hydrothermal reaction. The crystal structure of the products was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD. The morphology of the products was observed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM and field emission scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The influences of reaction time and pH value on the morphology of the Ni/Al LDHs were investigated. The result showed that the well-crystallized nanorods of Ni/Al LDHs could be obtained when the pH value was about 10.0 with a long reaction time (12–18 h at 180°C.

  9. Double supergeometry

    CERN Document Server

    Cederwall, Martin

    2016-01-01

    A geometry of superspace corresponding to double field theory is developed, with type II supergravity in D=10 as the main example. The formalism is based on an orthosymplectic extension OSp(d,d|2s) of the continuous T-duality group. Covariance under generalised super-diffeomorphisms is manifest. Ordinary superspace is obtained as a solution of the orthosymplectic section condition. A systematic study of curved superspace Bianchi identities is performed, and a relation to a double pure spinor superfield cohomology is established. A Ramond-Ramond superfield is constructed as an infinite-dimensional orthosymplectic spinor. Such objects in minimal orbits under the OSp supergroup ("pure spinors") define super-sections.

  10. Double screening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gratia, Pierre [Department of Physics, University of Chicago,South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Hu, Wayne [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago,South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Enrico Fermi Institute and Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, University of Chicago,South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Joyce, Austin [Enrico Fermi Institute and Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, University of Chicago,South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Ribeiro, Raquel H. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Queen Mary University of London,Mile End Road, London, E1 4NS (United Kingdom)

    2016-06-15

    Attempts to modify gravity in the infrared typically require a screening mechanism to ensure consistency with local tests of gravity. These screening mechanisms fit into three broad classes; we investigate theories which are capable of exhibiting more than one type of screening. Specifically, we focus on a simple model which exhibits both Vainshtein and kinetic screening. We point out that due to the two characteristic length scales in the problem, the type of screening that dominates depends on the mass of the sourcing object, allowing for different phenomenology at different scales. We consider embedding this double screening phenomenology in a broader cosmological scenario and show that the simplest examples that exhibit double screening are radiatively stable.

  11. 双胶子交换模型中J/ψ的衍射产生%Diffractive ψ Production through Double Gluon Exchange Model in π and p Collision

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阎占元; 段春贵; 厉光烈

    2003-01-01

    利用双胶子交换模型并结合重夸克偶素的色八重态产生机制,计算了π与p碰撞过程中J/ψ的衍射产生总截面. 结果发现:随着质心系能量的增加,J/ψ衍射产生的总截面逐渐增大;并且,不同的π介子中的胶子分布函数给出的总截面偏离也逐渐加大. 计算结果与未来的实验数据比较,可以检验π介子中的胶子分布函数及双胶子交换模型.

  12. Application of Double Elbow-bar Upsetting and Shape-forming Technique to Production of High-voltage Electrical Product%双肘杆镦锻成形工艺的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武泾元; 高励学

    2013-01-01

    高压电气产品中,活塞杆和接头类零件属于关键零件,且应用较多,这类零件属于长轴类带法兰件,目前,采用的加工方式是用棒料直接加工成形,材料利用率低,工艺性差.笔者分析了活塞杆和接头类零件的形状特点,认为采用双肘杆镦锻工艺制坯,解决了材料浪费问题,降低了零件制造成本,提高了零件抗拉强度.阐述了双肘杆镦锻模具设计、成形工艺、热处理工艺等方面的内容.%Piston rods and connector-type parts are critical parts in high-voltage electrical products. These parts belong to' long axis with flange' class, and the existing shape-forming process is of directly machining bar with low material utilization and efficiency. In this paper, shape features of the piston rods and connector-type parts are analyzed, and double elbow-bar upsetting technique is suggested to save material, shorten processing time, reduce manufacturing costs and increase tensile intensity of the parts. Moreover, the design of double elbow-bar upsetting mold, the molding process, and the heat treatment are discussed.

  13. Latest Development of Double Needle Bar Warp-knitting Technology and Related Products in China%我国双针床经编技术及产品最新进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    缪旭红; 李筱一

    2015-01-01

    The paper first points out the developments of double needle bar warp knitting technology in China in terms of advanced precise machine technology, digital production technology, fashioned processing and three-dimensional fabric structure. Then it introduces ten categories of the latest double-needle bar knitted products for three application ifelds: clothing, decoration and industry. It elaborates the product innovation brought by the development of double needle bar warp-knitting technology. After that it puts forward the future development direction of intelligent and green double needle bar production and personalized, functional and intelligent double needle bar products. Finally it points out that double needle bar warp-knitting technology needs to further discover its potential, integrate with other modern technologies and provide future-oriented innovative products.%双针床经编技术是一项产品范围广、变化能力大、织物结构可塑性强的针织技术。本文首先指出了我国双针床经编在机器技术高精化、生产技术数字化、产品加工成形化和织物结构立体化4个方面的技术发展;接着通过服装、装饰和产业三大应用领域的十大类最新双针床产品的介绍,阐述了双针床经编技术发展带来的产品创新;随后提出了双针床生产的智能化和绿色化以及双针床产品的个性化、功能化和智能化的未来发展方向;最后指出双针床经编技术有待进一步发挥潜力,与其他现代技术融合,提供面向未来的创新产品。

  14. A phase III randomised, double-blind, parallel-group study comparing SB4 with etanercept reference product in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis despite methotrexate therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, Paul; Vencovský, Jiří; Sylwestrzak, Anna; Leszczyński, Piotr; Porawska, Wieslawa; Baranauskaite, Asta; Tseluyko, Vira; Zhdan, Vyacheslav M; Stasiuk, Barbara; Milasiene, Roma; Barrera Rodriguez, Aaron Alejandro; Cheong, Soo Yeon; Ghil, Jeehoon

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To compare the efficacy and safety of SB4 (an etanercept biosimilar) with reference product etanercept (ETN) in patients with moderate to severe rheumatoid arthritis (RA) despite methotrexate (MTX) therapy. Methods This is a phase III, randomised, double-blind, parallel-group, multicentre study with a 24-week primary endpoint. Patients with moderate to severe RA despite MTX treatment were randomised to receive weekly dose of 50 mg of subcutaneous SB4 or ETN. The primary endpoint was the American College of Rheumatology 20% (ACR20) response at week 24. Other efficacy endpoints as well as safety, immunogenicity and pharmacokinetic parameters were also measured. Results 596 patients were randomised to either SB4 (N=299) or ETN (N=297). The ACR20 response rate at week 24 in the per-protocol set was 78.1% for SB4 and 80.3% for ETN. The 95% CI of the adjusted treatment difference was −9.41% to 4.98%, which is completely contained within the predefined equivalence margin of −15% to 15%, indicating therapeutic equivalence between SB4 and ETN. Other efficacy endpoints and pharmacokinetic endpoints were comparable. The incidence of treatment-emergent adverse events was comparable (55.2% vs 58.2%), and the incidence of antidrug antibody development up to week 24 was lower in SB4 compared with ETN (0.7% vs 13.1%). Conclusions SB4 was shown to be equivalent with ETN in terms of efficacy at week 24. SB4 was well tolerated with a lower immunogenicity profile. The safety profile of SB4 was comparable with that of ETN. Trial registration numbers NCT01895309, EudraCT 2012-005026-30. PMID:26150601

  15. Measurements of the negative refractive index of sub-diffraction waves propagating in an indefinite permittivity medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korobkin, Dmitriy; Neuner, Burton; Fietz, Chris; Jegenyes, Nikoletta; Ferro, Gabriel; Shvets, Gennady

    2010-10-25

    An indefinite permittivity medium (IPM) has been fabricated and optically characterized in mid-infrared spectral range (10.7 µm-11.3 µm). Phase and amplitude transmission measurements reveal two remarkable properties of IPMs: (i) transmission of sub-diffraction waves (as short as λ/4) can exceed those of diffraction-limited ones, and (ii) sub-diffraction waves can propagate with negative refractive index. We describe a novel double-detector optical technique relying on the interference between sub-diffraction and diffraction-limited waves for accurate measurement of the transmission amplitude and phase of the former.

  16. Enhancing electron diffraction through precession

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavia, Giuseppe; Benner, Gerd; Niebel, Harald [Carl Zeiss NTS, Oberkochen (Germany); Patout, Loic [ONERA, Paris (France)

    2011-07-01

    Nanostructures are often investigated in Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), and electron diffraction (ED) can be used to solve nanocrystals. Electrons interact very strongly with matter, and the diffracted intensities are highly dynamical. Precession Electron Diffraction (PED) is a recent technique delivering more kinematical diffraction patterns. We have used an in column energy filtered TEM equipped with precession electron diffraction hardware, which allows working up to 3 precession angle, and energy filtering of the precession patterns. High Order Laue Zones, useful for space group symmetry determination and to enhance fine structure details, appear more clearly. We have compared a microdiffraction pattern and a precession microdiffraction pattern performed along the orientation [010] of a sample TiSi{sub 2} with a space group Fddd. For cubic systems, this orientation allows to distinguish the Bravais lattice and the presence of glide mirrors. We show that with precession, we conserve the distinction of the gap and the difference of periodicity between the ZOLZ and the FOLZ is improved.

  17. New approaches in diffraction based optical metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebert, M.; Vanoppen, P.; Jak, M.; v. d. Zouw, G.; Cramer, H.; Nooitgedagt, T.; v. d. Laan, H.

    2016-03-01

    Requirements for on-product overlay, focus and CD uniformity continue to tighten in order to support the demands of 10nm and 7nm nodes. This results in the need for simultaneously accurate, robust and dense metrology data as input for closed-loop control solutions thereby enabling wafer-level control and high order corrections. In addition the use of opaque materials and stringent design rules drive the need for expansion of the available measurement wavelengths and metrology target design space. Diffraction based optical metrology has been established as the leading methodology for integrated as well as standalone optical metrology for overlay, focus and CD monitoring and control in state of the art chip manufacturing. We are presenting the new approaches to diffraction based optical metrology designed to meet the processing diffraction based metrology signals. In this paper we will present the new detection principle and its impact on key performance characteristics of overlay and focus measurements. We will also describe the wide range of applications of a newly introduced increased measurement spot size, enabling significant improvements to accuracy and process robustness of overlay and focus measurements. With the YS350E the optical CD measurement capability is also extended, to 10x10μm2 targets. We will discuss the performance and value of small targets in after-develop and after-etch applications.

  18. Workshop on industrial application of neutron diffraction. Stress measurement by neutron diffraction

    CERN Document Server

    Minakawa, N; Morii, Y; Oyama, Y

    2002-01-01

    This workshop was planned to make use of the neutron from the reactor and the pulse neutron source JSNS for the industrial world. Especially, this workshop focused on the stress measurement by the neutron diffraction and it was held on the Tokai JAERI from October 15 to 16, 2001. The participant total was 93 and 40 participated from the industrial world. The introduction of the residual stress development of measurement technique by the neutron diffraction method and a research of the measurement of the residual stress such as the nuclear reactor material, the ordinary structure material, the composite material, the quenching steel, the high strength material were presented and discussed in this workshop. Moreover, it was introduced for the industrial world that an internal stress measurement is important for development of new product or an improvement of a manufacturing process. The question from the industrial world about which can be measured the product form, the size, the measurement precision, the reso...

  19. Double Imbalance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The government has been introducing a string of policies to stabilize the economy and cushion the impact of the global eco-nomic slowdown since October.These policies are generally deemed"timely"and"necessary,"but not a long-term cure for problems in China’s economy.Renowned economist Wu Jinglian says the country must address its"double imbalance"and further reform its economic growth mode.He made his comments at the First Annual Global Management Forum on December 6 in Shanghai.Excerptsf ollow:

  20. Diffraction past, present and future

    CERN Document Server

    Predazzi, Enrico

    1998-01-01

    Hadronic diffraction has become a hot and fashionable subject in recent years due to the great interest triggered by the HERA and Tevatron data. These data have helped to put the field in a different perspective paving the road to a hopefully more complete understanding than hitherto achieved. The forthcoming data in the next few years from even higher energies (LHC) promise to sustain this interest for a long time. It is, therefore, necessary to provide the younger generations with as complete as possible discussion of the main developments that have marked the growth of high energy diffractive physics in the past and to assess the present state of the art. For this reason, this part will be by far the largest. The analysis of the relationship between conventional diffractive physics and the low-x physics from deep inelastic scattering will allow us also to review the instruments which could help to understand the developments we can expect from the future.

  1. Automatic control unit for A neutron diffraction crystal spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adib, M.; Abbas, Y.; Mostafa, M.; Hamouda, I.

    1982-01-01

    An automatic transistorized unit has been designed and constructed to control the operation of the double axis crystal spectrometer installed in front of one of the horizontal channels of the ET-RR-1 reactor. The function of the automatic unit is to store the diffracted neutrons at a certain angle with respect to the direction of the incident neutron beam in a selected channel of a 1024-multichannel analyzer for a certain preadjusted time period. AT the end of this time period the unit rotates the spectrometer's arm to another angle, selects the next channel of the MCA and provides the measurement of the diffracted neutron for the same time period. Such a sequence is repeated automatically over all angles required for the neutron diffraction pattern of the sample under investigation. As a result, the stored information at the MCA provides the neutron diffraction pattern as a function of channel number, where each channel corresponds to a certain scattering angle. The stored distribution at MCA can be obtained through the analyzer read out unit. The designed automatic unit has the possibility of providing the neutron diffraction pattern using a 6-digit scaler and a printer.

  2. Acoustooptic Diffraction in Borate Crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Martynyuk-Lototska, I; Krupych, O; Adamiv, V; Smirnov, Ye; Vlokh, R

    2004-01-01

    The efficiency of acoustooptic (AO) diffraction in a-BaB2O4 and Li2B4O7 crystals is studied experimentally. The crystals are shown to be quite good AO materials. The efficiency of AO diffraction in a-BaB2O4 reaches h=30% at the electric signal power of P=0.7W for the transverse acoustic wave and 15% at the power of P=0.56W for the longitudinal wave. The same parameter for Li2B4O7 reaches h=21% at P=0,81W for the longitudinal acoustic wave.

  3. High-pressure neutron diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Hongwu [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2011-01-10

    This lecture will cover progress and prospect of applications of high-pressure neutron diffraction techniques to Earth and materials sciences. I will first introduce general high-pressure research topics and available in-situ high-pressure techniques. Then I'll talk about high-pressure neutron diffraction techniques using two types of pressure cells: fluid-driven and anvil-type cells. Lastly, I will give several case studies using these techniques, particularly, those on hydrogen-bearing materials and magnetic transitions.

  4. Laboratory tests in the detection of extended spectrum beta-lactamase production: National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS screening test, the E-test, the double disk confirmatory test, and cefoxitin susceptibility testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro A. d'Azevedo

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL production by Klebsiella sp. and E. coli is an emerging problem. In this study, 107 clinical isolates (53 E. coli, 47 K. pneumoniae and 7 K. oxytoca screened as ESBL producers by the NCCLS disk diffusion procedure were submitted to a double disk confirmatory test (DDT and to the E-test double strip for confirmation of ESBL production by demonstration of clavulanic acid inhibition effect (CAIE. Only 72/107 (67% of the isolates were confirmed as ESBL producers by DDT, with diverse results among species. By the E-test, 58/107 (54% isolates were confirmed as ESBL producers, and 18/107 (17% were not determinable. Susceptibility to cefoxitin was found in 57/68 (83% of strains that did not show CAIE. ESBL detection remains a controversial issue and clinical laboratories are in need of a simple and effective way to recognize strains with this kind of resistance.

  5. Observation and studies of double J/ψ production at the Tevatron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abazov, V. M.; Abbott, B.; Acharya, B. S.; Adams, M.; Adams, T.; Agnew, J. P.; Alexeev, G. D.; Alkhazov, G.; Alton, A.; Askew, A.; Atkins, S.; Augsten, K.; Avila, C.; Badaud, F.; Bagby, L.; Baldin, B.; Bandurin, D. V.; Banerjee, S.; Barberis, E.; Baringer, P.; Bartlett, J. F.; Bassler, U.; Bazterra, V.; Bean, A.; Begalli, M.; Bellantoni, L.; Beri, S. B.; Bernardi, G.; Bernhard, R.; Bertram, I.; Besançon, M.; Beuselinck, R.; Bhat, P. C.; Bhatia, S.; Bhatnagar, V.; Blazey, G.; Blessing, S.; Bloom, K.; Boehnlein, A.; Boline, D.; Boos, E. E.; Borissov, G.; Borysova, M.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, O.; Brock, R.; Bross, A.; Brown, D.; Bu, X. B.; Buehler, M.; Buescher, V.; Bunichev, V.; Burdin, S.; Buszello, C. P.; Camacho-Pérez, E.; Casey, B. C. K.; Castilla-Valdez, H.; Caughron, S.; Chakrabarti, S.; Chan, K. M.; Chandra, A.; Chapon, E.; Chen, G.; Cho, S. W.; Choi, S.; Choudhary, B.; Cihangir, S.; Claes, D.; Clutter, J.; Cooke, M.; Cooper, W. E.; Corcoran, M.; Couderc, F.; Cousinou, M. -C.; Cutts, D.; Das, A.; Davies, G.; de Jong, S. J.; De La Cruz-Burelo, E.; Déliot, F.; Demina, R.; Denisov, D.; Denisov, S. P.; Desai, S.; Deterre, C.; DeVaughan, K.; Diehl, H. T.; Diesburg, M.; Ding, P. F.; Dominguez, A.; Dubey, A.; Dudko, L. V.; Duperrin, A.; Dutt, S.; Eads, M.; Edmunds, D.; Ellison, J.; Elvira, V. D.; Enari, Y.; Evans, H.; Evdokimov, V. N.; Fauré, A.; Feng, L.; Ferbel, T.; Fiedler, F.; Filthaut, F.; Fisher, W.; Fisk, H. E.; Fortner, M.; Fox, H.; Fuess, S.; Garbincius, P. H.; Garcia-Bellido, A.; García-González, J. A.; Gavrilov, V.; Geng, W.; Gerber, C. E.; Gershtein, Y.; Ginther, G.; Gogota, O.; Golovanov, G.; Grannis, P. D.; Greder, S.; Greenlee, H.; Grenier, G.; Gris, Ph.; Grivaz, J. -F.; Grohsjean, A.; Grünendahl, S.; Grünewald, M. W.; Guillemin, T.; Gutierrez, G.; Gutierrez, P.; Haley, J.; Han, L.; Harder, K.; Harel, A.; Hauptman, J. M.; Hays, J.; Head, T.; Hebbeker, T.; Hedin, D.; Hegab, H.; Heinson, A. P.; Heintz, U.; Hensel, C.; Heredia-De La Cruz, I.; Herner, K.; Hesketh, G.; Hildreth, M. D.; Hirosky, R.; Hoang, T.; Hobbs, J. D.; Hoeneisen, B.; Hogan, J.; Hohlfeld, M.; Holzbauer, J. L.; Howley, I.; Hubacek, Z.; Hynek, V.; Iashvili, I.; Ilchenko, Y.; Illingworth, R.; Ito, A. S.; Jabeen, S.; Jaffré, M.; Jayasinghe, A.; Jeong, M. S.; Jesik, R.; Jiang, P.; Johns, K.; Johnson, E.; Johnson, M.; Jonckheere, A.; Jonsson, P.; Joshi, J.; Jung, A. W.; Juste, A.; Kajfasz, E.; Karmanov, D.; Katsanos, I.; Kaur, M.; Kehoe, R.; Kermiche, S.; Khalatyan, N.; Khanov, A.; Kharchilava, A.; Kharzheev, Y. N.; Kiselevich, I.; Kohli, J. M.; Kozelov, A. V.; Kraus, J.; Kumar, A.; Kupco, A.; Kurča, T.; Kuzmin, V. A.; Lammers, S.; Lebrun, P.; Lee, H. S.; Lee, S. W.; Lee, W. M.; Lei, X.; Lellouch, J.; Li, D.; Li, H.; Li, L.; Li, Q. Z.; Lim, J. K.; Lincoln, D.; Linnemann, J.; Lipaev, V. V.; Lipton, R.; Liu, H.; Liu, Y.; Lobodenko, A.; Lokajicek, M.; Lopes de Sa, R.; Luna-Garcia, R.; Lyon, A. L.; Maciel, A. K. A.; Madar, R.; Magaña-Villalba, R.; Malik, S.; Malyshev, V. L.; Mansour, J.; Martínez-Ortega, J.; McCarthy, R.; McGivern, C. L.; Meijer, M. M.; Melnitchouk, A.; Menezes, D.; Mercadante, P. G.; Merkin, M.; Meyer, A.; Meyer, J.; Miconi, F.; Mondal, N. K.; Mulhearn, M.; Nagy, E.; Narain, M.; Nayyar, R.; Neal, H. A.; Negret, J. P.; Neustroev, P.; Nguyen, H. T.; Nunnemann, T.; Orduna, J.; Osman, N.; Osta, J.; Pal, A.; Parashar, N.; Parihar, V.; Park, S. K.; Partridge, R.; Parua, N.; Patwa, A.; Penning, B.; Perfilov, M.; Peters, Y.; Petridis, K.; Petrillo, G.; Pétroff, P.; Pleier, M. -A.; Podstavkov, V. M.; Popov, A. V.; Prewitt, M.; Price, D.; Prokopenko, N.; Qian, J.; Quadt, A.; Quinn, B.; Ratoff, P. N.; Razumov, I.; Ripp-Baudot, I.; Rizatdinova, F.; Rominsky, M.; Ross, A.; Royon, C.; Rubinov, P.; Ruchti, R.; Sajot, G.; Sánchez-Hernández, A.; Sanders, M. P.; Santos, A. S.; Savage, G.; Savitskyi, M.; Sawyer, L.; Scanlon, T.; Schamberger, R. D.; Scheglov, Y.; Schellman, H.; Schwanenberger, C.; Schwienhorst, R.; Sekaric, J.; Severini, H.; Shabalina, E.; Shary, V.; Shaw, S.; Shchukin, A. A.; Simak, V.; Skubic, P.; Slattery, P.; Smirnov, D.; Snow, G. R.; Snow, J.; Snyder, S.; Söldner-Rembold, S.; Sonnenschein, L.; Soustruznik, K.; Stark, J.; Stoyanova, D. A.; Strauss, M.; Suter, L.; Svoisky, P.; Titov, M.; Tokmenin, V. V.; Tsai, Y. -T.; Tsybychev, D.; Tuchming, B.; Tully, C.; Uvarov, L.; Uvarov, S.; Uzunyan, S.; Van Kooten, R.; van Leeuwen, W. M.; Varelas, N.; Varnes, E. W.; Vasilyev, I. A.; Verkheev, A. Y.; Vertogradov, L. S.; Verzocchi, M.; Vesterinen, M.; Vilanova, D.; Vokac, P.; Wahl, H. D.; Wang, M. H. L. S.; Warchol, J.; Watts, G.; Wayne, M.; Weichert, J.; Welty-Rieger, L.; Williams, M. R. J.; Wilson, G. W.; Wobisch, M.; Wood, D. R.; Wyatt, T. R.; Xie, Y.; Yamada, R.; Yang, S.; Yasuda, T.; Yatsunenko, Y. A.; Ye, W.; Ye, Z.; Yin, H.; Yip, K.; Youn, S. W.; Yu, J. M.; Zennamo, J.; Zhao, T. G.; Zhou, B.; Zhu, J.; Zielinski, M.; Zieminska, D.; Zivkovic, L.

    2014-12-01

    We present the observation of doubly-produced $J/\\psi$ mesons with the D0 detector at Fermilab in $p\\bar{p}$ collisions at $\\sqrt{s}=1.96$ TeV. The production cross section for both singly and doubly-produced $J/\\psi$ mesons is measured using a sample with an integrated luminosity of 8.1fb$^{-1}$. For the first time, the double $J/\\psi$ production cross section is separated into contributions due to single and double parton scatterings. Using these measurements, we determine the effective cross section $\\sigma_{eff}$, a parameter characterizing an effective spatial area of the parton-parton interactions and related to the parton spatial density inside the nucleon.

  6. Pomegranate (Punicagranatum) juice decreases lipid peroxidation, but has no effect on plasma advanced glycated end-products in adults with type 2 diabetes: a randomized double-blind clinical trial

    OpenAIRE

    Nasrollahzadeh, Javad; Sohrab, Golbon; Angoorani, Pooneh; Tohidi, Maryam; Tabibi, Hadi; Kimiagar, Masoud

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Diabetes mellitus characterized by hyperglycemia could increase oxidative stress and formation of advanced glycated end-products (AGEs), which contribute to diabetic complications. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of pomegranate juice (PJ) containing natural antioxidant on lipid peroxidation and plasma AGEs in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D).Materials and methods: In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 44 patients (age range 56±6.8 years),...

  7. Phase-diffractive coating for daylight control on smart window

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perennes, Frederic; Twardowski, Patrice J.; Gesbert, D.; Meyrueis, Patrick

    1992-11-01

    Daylight can be processed by a smart window in a transmission, reflective, refractive, and diffractive mode. In the future an optimization will be realized by a mixing of these approaches depending on the applied cases. Non-imaging diffractive optics has its roots in the work done in holographic diffractive coating for head up displays (HUD) and helmet mounted displays. For having globally good results on smart window with diffractive coating, a very high diffraction efficiency must be reached close to 100% without having a too important lowering of the control of other parameters of the light processed by a smart window (direction and frequency control essentially). We propose a method for designing, realizing, and using diffractive coating for a smart window that is based on a new organic material and diffractive model that were already validated in HUD. Potential low cost is possible for mass production on a large surface with an adapted investment. We describe the present technology and its limits and the ones that can be reached in the future. In this work, we present a holographic way to modify the slant of sun rays through a window, and to filter infrared radiations by using dichromated gelatin material. In this way it would be able to ensure a more uniform lighting and a more pleasant temperature inside buildings or vehicles, without using dye or photochromics glasses.

  8. Fully double-logarithm-resummed cross sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albino, S.; Bolzoni, P.; Kniehl, B.A. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Kotikov, A. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Joint Inst. of Nuclear Research, Moscow (Russian Federation). Bogoliubov Lab. of Theoretical Physics

    2011-04-15

    We calculate the complete double logarithmic contribution to cross sections for semi-inclusive hadron production in the modified minimal-subtraction (MS) scheme by applying dimensional regularization to the double logarithm approximation. The full double logarithmic contribution to the coefficient functions for inclusive hadron production in electron-positron annihilation is obtained in this scheme for the first time. Our result agrees with all fixed order results in the literature, which extend to next-next-to-leading order. (orig.)

  9. Large Rapidity Gap Method to Select Soft Diffraction Dissociation at the LHC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Nurse

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In proton-proton (pp collisions, any process involves exchanging the vacuum quantum numbers is known as diffractive process. A diffractive process with no large Q2 is called soft diffractive process. The diffractive processes are important for understanding nonperturbative QCD effects and they also constitute a significant fraction of the total pp cross section. The diffractive events are typically characterized by a region of the detector without particles, known as a rapidity gap. In order to observe diffractive events in this way, we consider the pseudorapidity acceptance in the forward region of the ATLAS and CMS detectors at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC and discuss the methods to select soft diffractive dissociation for pp collisions at s=7 TeV. It is shown that, in the limited detector rapidity acceptance, it is possible to select diffractive dissociation events by requiring a rapidity gap in the event; however, without using forward detectors, it seems not possible to fully separate single and double diffractive dissociation events. The Zero Degree Calorimeters can be used to distinguish the type of the diffractive processes up to a certain extent.

  10. 3D -Ray Diffraction Microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Henning Friis; Schmidt, Søren; Juul Jensen, Dorte

    2014-01-01

    Three-dimensional X-ray diffraction (3DXRD) microscopy is a fast and non-destructive structural characterization technique aimed at the study of individual crystalline elements (grains or subgrains) within mm-sized polycrystalline specimens. It is based on two principles: the use of highly penetr...

  11. Stretchable diffraction gratings for spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simonov, A.N.; Grabarnik, S.; Vdovine, G.V

    2007-01-01

    We have investigated the possibility of using transparent stretchable diffraction gratings for spectrometric applications. The gratings were fabricated by replication of a triangular-groove master into a transparent viscoelastic. The sample length, and hence the spatial period, can be reversibly cha

  12. Unifying approach to hard diffraction

    CERN Document Server

    Navelet, H

    2001-01-01

    We find a formulation of hard diffraction unifying the partonic (Ingelman-Schlein) Pomeron, Soft Colour Interaction and QCD dipole descriptions. A theoretical interpretation in terms of S-Matrix and perturbative QCD properties in the small x_{Bj} regime is proposed.

  13. Progress in Diffraction Enhanced Imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ In cooperation with the Topography Station of Beijing Synchrotron Radiation under CAS Institute of High Energy Physics, a research group from the CAS Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics (SIOM) has made encouraging progress in the diffraction enhanced imaging technology through phase-contrast microscope by hard X-rays.

  14. Low-Mass Diffraction at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Jenkovszky, Laszlo; Lämsä, Jerry; Orava, Risto

    2011-01-01

    The expected resonance structure for the low-mass single diffractive states from a Regge-dual model elaborated paper by the present authors in a previous is predicted. Estimates for the observable low-mass single diffraction dissociation (SDD) cross sections and efficiencies for single diffractive events simulated by PYTHIA 6.2 as a function of the diffractive mass are given.

  15. How the Method of Synthesis Governs the Local and Global Structure of Zinc Aluminum Layered Double Hydroxides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puschparaj, Suraj S. C.; Forano, Claude; Prevot, Vanessa

    2015-01-01

    Seven zinc aluminum layered double hydroxides (ZnAl LDHs), [Zn1-xAlx (OH)2Ax,nH2O] A = NO3-, Cl- or CO32-, prepared by the urea and co-precipitation synthesis methods were investigated to determine how synthesis parameters (pH, metal ion concentration and post synthesis treatment) affect the local...... (atomic) and long (global) range structure of the LDH product. Sample composition, purity, crystal defects and other structural aspects of the LDH products were obtained from powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Micro-Raman, elemental analysis, and solid state 1H, 27Al...

  16. A small deployable infrared diffractive membrane imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yue; Jin, Jiangao; Wang, Baohua; Wu, Peng; Jiao, Jianchao; Su, Yun

    2016-10-01

    Diffractive membrane imaging can be widely used in infrared band due to its longer minimum linewidth and loose requirement of RMS to fabricate more easily and reduce production period and manufacturing cost than used in visible band. A deployable infrared diffractive membrane imaging system was designed, consisting of Φ200mm imaging aperture (actual aperture is Φ500mm) and deployable structure that supports the infrared membrane under tension. Its spectral band width is >1.2μm, field of view is >1°, and diffractive efficiency can be >60%. Stowed size is 150mm×150mm×400mm. Research result of this project can promote the application of diffractive membrane imaging in infrared band and provide an effective and feasible means for achieving extremely large optical primary mirror from compact, lightweight payload.

  17. Diffractive processes in pp collisions at 7 TeV measured with the CMS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Brona, Grzegorz Konrad

    2015-01-01

    The differential diffractive cross section is measured as a function of $\\xi= M_X^2/s$ in the region dominated by single dissociation (SD) and double dissociation (DD), where $M_X$ is the mass of one of the two final-state hadronic systems separated by the largest rapidity gap in the event. The cross section is also measured as a function of the width of the central rapidity gap in the region dominated by DD, as well as for events with a forward gap over 8.4 units of pseudorapidity. The total SD and DD cross sections are extracted. Single diffraction is one of the main uncertainties both, experimentally and in theoretical calculations, of the particle-production cross section in proton-lead collisions as measured at the centre-of-mass energy per nucleon pair of 5.02 TeV. Furthermore, the observation of a hard color-singlet exchange process in events with a large rapidity gap between two leading jets (jet-gap-jet) is reported. The fraction of jet-gap-jet to all dijet events is measured as a function of the sec...

  18. Efficacy and safety of a vaginal medicinal product containing three strains of probiotic bacteria: a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomusiak A

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Anna Tomusiak,1 Magdalena Strus,1 Piotr B Heczko,1 Paweł Adamski,2 Grzegorz Stefański,3 Aleksandra Mikołajczyk-Cichońska,3 Magdalena Suda-Szczurek3 1Department of Microbiology, Jagiellonian University Medical College, 2Institute of Nature Conservation, Polish Academy of Sciences, 3IBSS BIOMED SA, Kraków, Poland Objective: The main objective of this study was to evaluate whether vaginal administration of probiotic Lactobacillus results in their colonization and persistence in the vagina and whether Lactobacillus colonization promotes normalization and maintenance of pH and Nugent score. Patients and methods: The study was a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled trial. Altogether, 376 women were assessed for eligibility, and signed informed consent. One hundred and sixty eligible women with abnormal, also called intermediate, vaginal microflora, as indicated by a Nugent score of 4–6 and pH >4.5 and zero or low Lactobacillus count, were randomized. Each participant was examined four times during the study. Women were randomly allocated to receive either the probiotic preparation inVag®, or a placebo (one capsule for seven consecutive days vaginally. The product inVag includes the probiotic strains Lactobacillus fermentum 57A, Lactobacillus plantarum 57B, and Lactobacillus gasseri 57C. We took vaginal swabs during visits I, III, and IV to determine the presence and abundance of bacteria from the Lactobacillus genus, measure the pH, and estimate the Nugent score. Drug safety evaluation was based on analysis of the types and occurrence of adverse events. Results: Administration of inVag contributed to a significant decrease (between visits in both vaginal pH (P<0.05 and Nugent score (P<0.05, and a significant increase in the abundance of Lactobacillus between visit I and visits III and IV (P<0.05. Molecular typing revealed the presence of Lactobacillus strains originating from inVag in 82% of women taking the drug at

  19. Application of double faced pressure hydraulic molding press in the production of automobile interiors%双面对压成形液压机在汽车生产中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾玉红

    2012-01-01

    The status of traditional hydraulic molding press in the production of automobile interiors has been introduced. The advantages and development trend of double faced pressure hydraulic molding press in the production of same domain have been put forward.%介绍了普通成形液压机在汽车内饰件生产中的应用现状.在此基础上介绍了双面对压成形液压机在该领域中的优势及其发展趋势.

  20. 双供介无压给料三产品旋流器的介绍及应用%The introduction and application of three products cyclone with double medium feed without pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付银香

    2013-01-01

      针对传统的动力煤分选工艺存在产品单一、分选精度不高以及精煤损失量大等缺点,天地科技唐山分公司自主创新双供介无压给料三产品旋流器。本文重点介绍了双供介无压给料三产品旋流器的结构特点和分选原理,并对传统分选工艺和双供介无压给料三产品旋流器分选工艺进行了对比分析。此产品在重庆松藻煤电公司白岩选煤厂的应用证明其具有处理能力大、精煤回收率高、产品灵活等优点;另外由于双供介大大降低了入介压力,从而降低设备整体磨损,具有节省投资和运行成本的优势。此产品的研发及应用成功为动力煤选煤厂末煤分选开辟了一条新的途径。%  Aiming at the problems such as single product ,low separation precision and large clean coal losing of the traditional thermal coal separation process ,National Science & Technology Tangshan Branch invented three products cyclone with double medium feed without pressure .This paper introduce the structure and the separation principle ,and compared the traditional thermal coal separation process and the double medium feed without pressure three products cyclone separation process .The product's application in Baiyan Coal Preparation Plant of Chongqing Songzao Coal‐fired Power Limited Company prove that the product has some advantages such as large processing power ,high clean coal recovery rate and flexible products .On the other hand for the double medium feed lowing feeding pressure ,and reducing the wear and tear of the whole equipment ,the product has a superiority of saving investment and operating costs .The R&D and application success of three products cyclone with double medium feed without pressure find a new method for the fine coal separation of power coal preparation plant .

  1. Double layer electric fields aiding the production of energetic flat-top distributions and superthermal electrons within the exhausts from magnetic reconnection

    CERN Document Server

    Egedal, Jan; Le, Ari; Borg, Anette L

    2015-01-01

    Using a kinetic simulation of magnetic reconnection it was recently shown that magnetic-field-aligned electric fields (E||) can be present over large spatial scales in reconnection exhausts. The largest values of E|| are observed within double layers. The existence of double layers in the Earth's magnetosphere is well documented. In our simulation their formation is triggered by large parallel streaming of electrons into the reconnection region. These parallel electron fluxes are required for maintaining quasi-neutrality of the reconnection region and increase with decreasing values of the normalized electron pressure upstream of the reconnection region. A threshold normalized pressure is derived for strong double layers to develop. We also document how the electron confinement, provided in part by the structure in E||, allows sustained energization by perpendicular electric fields. The energization is a consequence of the confined electrons' chaotic orbital motion that includes drifts aligned with the reconn...

  2. Virtual input device with diffractive optical element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ching Chin; Chu, Chang Sheng

    2005-02-01

    As a portable device, such as PDA and cell phone, a small size build in virtual input device is more convenient for complex input demand. A few years ago, a creative idea called 'virtual keyboard' is announced, but up to now there's still no mass production method for this idea. In this paper we'll show the whole procedure of making a virtual keyboard. First of all is the HOE (Holographic Optical Element) design of keyboard image which yields a fan angle about 30 degrees, and then use the electron forming method to copy this pattern in high precision. And finally we can product this element by inject molding. With an adaptive lens design we can get a well correct keyboard image in distortion and a wilder fan angle about 70 degrees. With a batter alignment of HOE pattern lithography, we"re sure to get higher diffraction efficiency.

  3. Anomalous diffraction in hyperbolic materials

    CERN Document Server

    Alberucci, Alessandro; Boardman, Allan D; Assanto, Gaetano

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate that light is subject to anomalous (i.e., negative) diffraction when propagating in the presence of hyperbolic dispersion. We show that light propagation in hyperbolic media resembles the dynamics of a quantum particle of negative mass moving in a two-dimensional potential. The negative effective mass implies time reversal if the medium is homogeneous. Such property paves the way to diffraction compensation, spatial analogue of dispersion compensating fibers in the temporal domain. At variance with materials exhibiting standard elliptic dispersion, in inhomogeneous hyperbolic materials light waves are pulled towards regions with a lower refractive index. In the presence of a Kerr-like optical response, bright (dark) solitons are supported by a negative (positive) nonlinearity.

  4. Phase Aberrations in Diffraction Microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchesini, S; Chapman, H N; Barty, A; Howells, M R; Spence, J H; Cui, C; Weierstall, U; Minor, A M

    2005-09-29

    In coherent X-ray diffraction microscopy the diffraction pattern generated by a sample illuminated with coherent x-rays is recorded, and a computer algorithm recovers the unmeasured phases to synthesize an image. By avoiding the use of a lens the resolution is limited, in principle, only by the largest scattering angles recorded. However, the imaging task is shifted from the experiment to the computer, and the algorithm's ability to recover meaningful images in the presence of noise and limited prior knowledge may produce aberrations in the reconstructed image. We analyze the low order aberrations produced by our phase retrieval algorithms. We present two methods to improve the accuracy and stability of reconstructions.

  5. Anomalous diffraction in hyperbolic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberucci, Alessandro; Jisha, Chandroth P.; Boardman, Allan D.; Assanto, Gaetano

    2016-09-01

    We demonstrate that light is subject to anomalous (i.e., negative) diffraction when propagating in the presence of hyperbolic dispersion. We show that light propagation in hyperbolic media resembles the dynamics of a quantum particle of negative mass moving in a two-dimensional potential. The negative effective mass implies time reversal if the medium is homogeneous. Such property paves the way to diffraction compensation, i.e., spatial analog of dispersion compensating fibers in the temporal domain. At variance with materials exhibiting standard elliptic dispersion, in inhomogeneous hyperbolic materials light waves are pulled towards regions with a lower refractive index. In the presence of a Kerr-like optical response, bright (dark) solitons are supported by a negative (positive) nonlinearity.

  6. Diffraction operators in paraxial approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasso, William; Navas, Marianela; Añez, Liz; Urdaneta, Romer; Díaz, Leonardo; Torres, César O.

    2014-07-01

    Nowadays, research in the field of science education points to the creation of alternative ways of teaching contents encouraging the development of more elaborate reasoning, where a high degree of abstraction and generalization of scientific knowledge prevails. On that subject, this research shows a didactic alternative proposal for the construction of Fresnel and Fraunhoffer diffraction concepts applying the Fourier transform technique in the study of electromagnetic waves propagation in free space. Curvature transparency and Fourier sphere operators in paraxial approximation are used in order to make the usual laborious mathematical approach easier. The main result shows that the composition of optic metaxial operators results in the discovery of a simpler way out of the standard electromagnetic wave propagation in free space between a transmitter and a receptor separated from a given distance. This allows to state that the didactic proposal shown encourages the construction of Fresnel and Fraunhoffer diffraction concepts in a more effective and easier way than the traditional teaching.

  7. Polarimetry by classical ghost diffraction

    CERN Document Server

    Kellock, Henri; Friberg, Ari T; Shirai, Tomohiro

    2014-01-01

    We present a technique for studying the polarimetric properties of a birefringent object by means of classical ghost diffraction. The standard ghost diffraction setup is modified to include polarizers for controlling the state of polarization of the beam in various places. The object is characterized by a Jones matrix and the absolute values of the Fourier transforms of its individual elements are measured. From these measurements the original complex-valued functions can be retrieved through iterative methods resulting in the full Jones matrix of the object. We present two different placements of the polarizers and show that one of them leads to better polarimetric quality, while the other placement offers the possibility to perform polarimetry without controlling the source's state of polarization. The concept of an effective source is introduced to simplify the calculations. Ghost polarimetry enables the assessment of polarization properties as a function of position within the object through simple intens...

  8. Confinement, Turbulence and Diffraction Catastrophes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaizot, J.-P.; Nowak, M. A.

    2009-08-01

    Many features of the large N transition that occurs in the spectral density of Wilson loops as a function of loop area (observed recently in numerical simulations of Yang-Mills theory by Narayanan and Neuberger) can be captured by a simple Burgers equation used to model turbulence. Spectral shock waves that precede this asymptotic limit exhibit universal scaling with N, with indices that can be related to Berry indices for diffraction catastrophes.

  9. Comparative study of different Schlieren diffracting elements

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Raj Kumar; Sushil K Kaura; D P Chhachhia; D Mohan; A K Aggarwal

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of diffraction effects taking place at different Schlieren diffracting elements. Two types of diffraction effects are prominent in the Schlieren schemes. One is diffraction of direct light (source image) at the Schlieren element, which limits the sensitivity and resolution of Schlieren systems. The second type is the diffraction of light deflected from the test object at the Schlieren-diffracting element. This second type of diffraction degrades the quality of Schlieren results. Experimental results showing the effect of diffraction of light deflected from the test object at a phase knife-edge, corner of a square phase aperture and an optical fiber tip as Schlieren diffracting elements have been presented and discussed.

  10. Improvements in the analysis of diffraction phenomena by means of digital images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramil, A.; López, A. J.; Vincitorio, F.

    2007-11-01

    We introduce a simple methodology employing digital photography and image processing techniques to do a quantitative study of diffraction. To enhance the range of intensities recorded by a CCD camera without saturation, digital images of the diffraction patterns taken at different exposure times are combined pixel by pixel, and the measured values of the light intensity are fitted to theoretical curves. Diffraction by a single slit, a double slit, and a circular hole were analyzed to obtain quantitative results and demonstrate that the methodology is suitable for student laboratories.

  11. Stretchable diffraction gratings for spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonov, Aleksey N; Grabarnik, Semen; Vdovin, Gleb

    2007-07-23

    We have investigated the possibility of using transparent stretchable diffraction gratings for spectrometric applications. The gratings were fabricated by replication of a triangular-groove master into a transparent viscoelastic. The sample length, and hence the spatial period, can be reversibly changed by mechanical stretching. When used in a monochromator with two slits, the stretchable grating permits scanning the spectral components over the output slit, converting the monochromator into a scanning spectrometer. The spectral resolution of such a spectrometer was found to be limited mainly by the wave-front aberrations due to the grating deformation. A model relating the deformation-induced aberrations in different diffraction orders is presented. In the experiments, a 12-mm long viscoelastic grating with a spatial frequency of 600 line pairs/mm provided a full-width at half-maximum resolution of up to ~1.2 nm in the 580-680 nm spectral range when slowly stretched by a micrometer screw and ~3 nm when repeatedly stretched by a voice coil at 15 Hz. Comparison of aberrations in transmitted and diffracted beams measured by a Shack- Hartmann wave-front sensor showed that astigmatisms caused by stretch-dependent wedge deformation are the main factors limiting the resolution of the viscoelastic-grating-based spectrometer.

  12. Measurement of double parton scattering in same-sign WW production in p-p collisions at $\\sqrt{s}=13~\\mathrm{TeV}$ with the CMS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    CMS Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Same-sign W$^{\\pm}$W$^{\\pm}$ production in which the bosons originate from two distinct parton-parton interactions within the same proton-proton collision is studied in the $\\mu^{\\pm}\\mu^{\\pm}$ and $e^{\\pm}\\mu^{\\pm}$ final states. A data set of 35.9 fb$^{-1}$ of proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s}=13\\, \\mathrm{TeV}$, recorded with the CMS detector at the LHC in 2016, is used. A multivariate classifier is trained to distinguish the signal process from the main background components. A measurement of the double-parton scattering process WW is performed on these data. A cross section of 1.09$^{+0.50}_{-0.49}$ pb is extracted for the inclusive WW double parton scattering process, which is compatible with the Monte-Carlo prediction of 1.64 pb.

  13. Diffractive $\\rho^0$ photoproduction at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Weber, Ronald M

    2006-01-01

    From a sample of over 989'000 events taken at the experiment H1 using the new Fast Track Trigger (Ftt), a new measurement of the differential cross section for diffractive p" photoproduction is performed in the kinematic range 20 < W-m < 90 GeV and |r| < 3 GcV2. The large data sample allows for a measurement of the cross section double differentially in W1[, and t and thus the energy dependence of this process for eight / values in a single experiment. From this data, the pomeron trajec