WorldWideScience

Sample records for double cubanes oxygen-ligated

  1. Synthesis and characterization of Mg-Al-layered double hydroxides intercalated with cubane-1,4-dicarboxylate anions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezvani, Zolfaghar; Arjomandi Rad, Farzad; Khodam, Fatemeh

    2015-01-21

    In the present work, Mg2Al-layered double hydroxide (LDH) intercalated with cubane-1,4-dicarboxylate anions was prepared from the reaction of solutions of Mg(ii) and Al(iii) nitrate salts with an alkaline solution of cubane-1,4-dicarboxylic acid by using the coprecipitation method. The successful preparation of a nanohybrid of cubane-1,4-dicarboxylate(cubane-dc) anions with LDH was confirmed by powder X-ray diffraction, FTIR spectroscopy and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). The increase in the basal spacing of LDHs from 8.67 Å to 13.40 Å shows that cubane-dc anions were successfully incorporated into the interlayer space. Thermogravimetric analyses confirm that the thermal stability of the intercalated cubane-dc anions is greater than that of the pure form before intercalation because of host-guest interactions involving hydrogen bonds. The interlayer structure, hydrogen bonding, and subsequent distension of LDH compounds containing cubane-dc anions were shown by molecular simulation. The RDF (radial distribution function), mean square displacement (MSD), and self-diffusion coefficient were calculated using the trajectory files on the basis of molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, and the results indicated that the cubane-dc anions were more stable when intercalated into the LDH layers. A good agreement was obtained between calculated and measured X-ray diffraction patterns and between experimental and calculated basal spacings.

  2. Stabilization of Reduced Molybdenum-Iron-Sulfur Single and Double Cubane Clusters by Cyanide Ligation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesavento, Russell P.; Berlinguette, Curtis P.; Holm, R. H.

    2008-01-01

    Recent work has shown that cyanide ligation increases the redox potentials of Fe4S4 clusters, enabling the isolation of [Fe4S4(CN)4]4−, the first synthetic Fe4S4 cluster obtained in the all-ferrous oxidation state (Scott, T. A.; Berlinguette, C. P.; Holm, R. H.; Zhou, H.-C., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 2005, 102, 9741). The generality of reduced cluster stabilization has been examined with MoFe3S4 clusters. Reaction of single cubane [(Tp)MoFe3S4(PEt3)3]1+ and edge-bridged double cubane [(Tp)2Mo2Fe6S8(PEt3)4] with cyanide in acetonitrile affords [(Tp)MoFe3S4(CN)3]2− (2) and [(Tp)2Mo2Fe6S8(CN)4]4− (5), respectively. Reduction of 2 with KC14H10 yields [(Tp)MoFe3S4(CN)3]3− (3). Clusters were isolated in ca. 70–90% yields as Et4N+ or Bu4N+ salts; Clusters 3 and 5 contain all-ferrous cores; 3 is the first [MoFe3S4]1+ cluster isolated in substance. The structures of 2 and 3 are very similar; the volume of the reduced cluster core is slightly larger (2.5%), a usual effect upon reduction of cubane-type Fe4S4 and MFe3S4 clusters. Redox potentials and 57Fe isomer shifts of [(Tp)MoFe3S4L3]2−,3 and [(Tp)2Mo2Fe6S8L4]4−,3− clusters with L = CN, PhS, halide, and PEt3 are compared. Clusters with π-donor ligands (L = halide, PhS) exhibit larger isomer shifts and lower (more negative) redox potentials while π-acceptor ligands (L = CN, PEt3) induce smaller isomer shifts and higher (less negative) redox potentials. When potentials of 3/2 and [(Tp)MoFe3S4(SPh)3]3−/2− are compared, cyanide stabilizes 3 by 270 mV vs. the reduced thiolate cluster, commensurate with the 310 mV stabilization of [Fe4S4(CN)4]4− vs. [Fe4S4(SPh)4]4− where four ligands differ. These results demonstrate the efficacy of cyanide stabilization of lower cluster oxidation states. (Tp = hydrotris(pyrazolyl)borate(1−)). PMID:17279830

  3. Stabilization of reduced molybdenum-iron-sulfur single- and double-cubane clusters by cyanide ligation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesavento, Russell P; Berlinguette, Curtis P; Holm, R H

    2007-01-22

    Recent work has shown that cyanide ligation increases the redox potentials of Fe(4)S(4) clusters, enabling the isolation of [Fe(4)S(4)(CN)4]4-, the first synthetic Fe(4)S(4) cluster obtained in the all-ferrous oxidation state (Scott, T. A.; Berlinguette, C. P.; Holm, R. H.; Zhou, H.-C. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2005, 102, 9741). The generality of reduced cluster stabilization has been examined with MoFe(3)S(4) clusters. Reaction of single-cubane [(Tp)MoFe(3)S(4)(PEt(3))3]1+ and edge-bridged double-cubane [(Tp)2Mo(2)Fe(6)S(8)(PEt(3))4] with cyanide in acetonitrile affords [(Tp)MoFe(3)S(4)(CN)3]2- (2) and [(Tp)2Mo(2)Fe(6)S(8)(CN)4]4- (5), respectively. Reduction of 2 with KC(14)H(10) yields [(Tp)MoFe(3)S(4)(CN)3]3- (3). Clusters were isolated in approximately 70-90% yields as Et(4)N+ or Bu(4)N+ salts; clusters 3 and 5 contain all-ferrous cores, and 3 is the first [MoFe(3)S(4)]1+ cluster isolated in substance. The structures of 2 and 3 are very similar; the volume of the reduced cluster core is slightly larger (2.5%), a usual effect upon reduction of cubane-type Fe(4)S(4) and MFe(3)S(4) clusters. Redox potentials and 57Fe isomer shifts of [(Tp)MoFe(3)S(4)L3]2-,3- and [(Tp)2Mo(2)Fe(6)S(8)L(4)]4-,3- clusters with L = CN-, PhS-, halide, and PEt3 are compared. Clusters with pi-donor ligands (L = halide, PhS) exhibit larger isomer shifts and lower (more negative) redox potentials, while pi-acceptor ligands (L = CN, PEt3) induce smaller isomer shifts and higher (less-negative) redox potentials. When the potentials of 3/2 and [(Tp)MoFe(3)S(4)(SPh)3]3-/2- are compared, cyanide stabilizes 3 by 270 mV versus the reduced thiolate cluster, commensurate with the 310 mV stabilization of [Fe(4)S(4)(CN)4]4- versus [Fe(4)S(4)(SPh)4]4- where four ligands differ. These results demonstrate the efficacy of cyanide stabilization of lower cluster oxidation states. (Tp = hydrotris(pyrazolyl)borate(1-)).

  4. Cuban Roosters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henn, Cynthia

    2004-01-01

    The rooster is an important symbol in Cuban culture. It represents strength and power. It is considered a compliment for a male to be called a rooster. Jesus Rivera, a folk artist, who is best known for using Cuban symbolism in his ceramics and illustrations, visited the class described in this article. Senor Rivera described the culture of Cuba…

  5. 3+ and [Sb13Se16Br2] 5+ - Double and quadruple spiro cubanes from ionic liquids

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmed, Ejaz

    2014-01-08

    The reaction of antimony and selenium in the bromine-rich Lewis acidic ionic liquid [BMIm]Br·4.7AlBr3 (BMIm: 1-butyl-3- methylimidazolium) in the presence of a small amount of NbCl5 at 160 °C yielded dark-red crystals of [Sb7Se8Br 2][AlX4]3. For X = Cl0.15(1)Br 0.85(1), the compound is isostructural to [Sb7S 8Br2][AlCl4]3 [P212 121, a = 12.5132(5) Å, b = 17.7394(6) Å, c = 18.3013(6) Å]. For a higher chlorine content, X = Cl 0.58(1)Br0.42(1), a slightly disordered variant with a bisected unit cell is found [P21212, a = 12.3757(3) Å, b = 17.4116(5) Å, c = 9.0420(2) Å]. The [Sb 7Se8Br2]3+ heteropolycation (C 2 symmetry) is a spiro double-cubane with an antimony atom on the shared corner. From this distorted octahedrally coordinated central atom, tricoordinate selenium and antimony atoms alternate in the bonding sequence. The terminal antimony atoms each bind to a bromine atom. Quantum chemical calculations confirm polar covalent Sb-Se bonding within the cubes and indicate three-center, four-electron bonds for the six-coordinate spiro atoms. The calculated charge distribution reflects the electron-donor role of the antimony atoms. The use of a chlorine-rich ionic liquid resulted in the formation of triclinic [Sb13Se16Br2][AlX4] 5 with X = Cl0.80(1)Br0.20(1) [P$\\\\bar {1}$, a = 9.0842(5) Å, b = 19.607(1) Å, c = 21.511(1) Å, α = 64.116(6), β = 79.768(7), γ = 88.499(7)]. The cationic cluster [Sb13Se16Br2]5+ is a bromine-terminated spiro quadruple-cubane. This 31 atom concatenation of four cubes is assumed to be the largest known discrete main group polycation. A similar reaction in a chloride-free system yielded [Sb7Se 8Br2][Sb13Se16Br2] [AlBr4]8. In its monoclinic structure [P2/c, a = 27.214(5) Å, b = 9.383(2) Å, c = 22.917(4) Å, β = 101.68(1)], the two types of polycations alternate in layers along the a axis. In the series [Sb4+3nSe4+4nBr2](2+n)+, these cations are the members with n = 1 and 3. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGa

  6. Structural and magnetic characterization of three tetranuclear Cu(II) complexes with face-sharing-dicubane/double-open-cubane like core framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, Aparup; Bertolasi, Valerio; Figuerola, Albert; Manna, Subal Chandra

    2017-01-01

    Three novel tetranuclear copper(II) complexes namely [Cu 4 (L 1 ) 4 ]∙2(dmf) (1), [Cu 4 (L 1 ) 4 ] (2) and [Cu 4 (L 2 ) 2 (HL 2 ) 2 (H 2 O) 2 ]∙2(ClO 4 )·6(H 2 O) (3) (H 2 L 1 , (E)−2-((1-hydroxybutan-2-ylimino)methyl)phenol; H 2 L 2 , (E)−2-((1-hydroxybutan-2-ylimino)methyl)−6-methoxyphenol)) were synthesized from the self-assembly of copper(II) perchlorate and the tridentate Schiff base ligands. The structural determination reveals that crystallizes in the monoclinic system with space group C2/c, whereas both the and crystallize in the triclinic system with space group P-1. and possess face-sharing dicubane core, on the other hand complex 3 has double open cubane core structure. The copper(II) ions in the cubane core are in distorted square planar geometries, and weak π…π and C–H…π interactions lead to formation of a 2D supramolecular architecture for and . At room temperature and , exhibit fluorescence with a quantum yield (Φ s ) of 0.47, 0.49 and 0.38, respectively. Variable temperature magnetic susceptibility measurements in the range 2–300 K indicate an overall weak antiferromagnetic exchange coupling in all complexes. The PHI program was used to study their magnetic behaviour. In agreement with their face-sharing dicubane structure, a Hamiltonian of the type H =– J 1 (S 1 S 2 +S 1 S 2’ +S 1' S 2 +S 1' S 2’ ) – J 2 S 1 S 1’ , where S 1 = S 1’ = S 2 = S 2’ = S Cu =1/2, was used for studying and . Simulations performed suggest magnetic exchange constants with values close to J 1 =−20 cm −1 and J 2 =0 cm -1 for these complexes. On the other hand, the spin Hamiltonian H =– J 1 (S 1 S 4 +S 2 S 3 ) – J 2 (S 1 S 3 +S 2 S 4 ) – J 3 S 1 S 2 , where S 1 = S 2 = S 3 = S 4 = S Cu =1/2, was used to study the magnetic behaviour of the double open cubane core of and a good agreement between the experimental and simulated results was found by using the parameters g 1 = g 2 =2.20, g 3 = g 4 =2.18, J 1 =−36 cm -1 , J 2

  7. Structural and magnetic characterization of three tetranuclear Cu(II) complexes with face-sharing-dicubane/double-open-cubane like core framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Aparup; Bertolasi, Valerio; Figuerola, Albert; Manna, Subal Chandra

    2017-05-01

    Three novel tetranuclear copper(II) complexes namely [Cu4(L1)4]•2(dmf) (1), [Cu4(L1)4] (2) and [Cu4(L2)2(HL2)2(H2O)2]•2(ClO4)·6(H2O) (3) (H2L1, (E)-2-((1-hydroxybutan-2-ylimino)methyl)phenol; H2L2, (E)-2-((1-hydroxybutan-2-ylimino)methyl)-6-methoxyphenol)) were synthesized from the self-assembly of copper(II) perchlorate and the tridentate Schiff base ligands. The structural determination reveals that complex 1 crystallizes in the monoclinic system with space group C2/c, whereas both the complexes 2 and 3 crystallize in the triclinic system with space group P-1. Complexes 1 and 2 possess face-sharing dicubane core, on the other hand complex 3 has double open cubane core structure. The copper(II) ions in the cubane core are in distorted square planar geometries, and weak π…π and C-H…π interactions lead to formation of a 2D supramolecular architecture for complexes 1 and 2. At room temperature complexes 1, 2 and 3, exhibit fluorescence with a quantum yield (Φs) of 0.47, 0.49 and 0.38, respectively. Variable temperature magnetic susceptibility measurements in the range 2-300 K indicate an overall weak antiferromagnetic exchange coupling in all complexes. The PHI program was used to study their magnetic behaviour. In agreement with their face-sharing dicubane structure, a Hamiltonian of the type H =- J1(S1S2+S1S2'+S1'S2+S1'S2') - J2S1S1', where S1 = S1' = S2 = S2' = SCu =1/2, was used for studying complexes 1 and 2. Simulations performed suggest magnetic exchange constants with values close to J1 =-20 cm-1 and J2 =0 cm-1 for these complexes. On the other hand, the spin Hamiltonian H =- J1(S1S4+S2S3) - J2(S1S3+S2S4) - J3S1S2, where S1 = S2 = S3 = S4 = SCu =1/2, was used to study the magnetic behaviour of the double open cubane core of complex 3 and a good agreement between the experimental and simulated results was found by using the parameters g1 = g2 =2.20, g3 = g4 =2.18, J1 =-36 cm-1, J2 =-44 cm-1 and J3 =0 cm-1.

  8. Cuban Landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scarpaci, Joseph L.; Portela, Armando

    This accessible book offers a vivid geographic portrait of Cuba, exploring the island’s streetscapes, sugar cane fields, beaches, and rural settlements; its billboards, government buildings, and national landmarks. The authors illuminate how natural and built landscapes have shaped Cuban identity...... (cubanidad), and vice versa. They provide a unique perspective on Cuba’s distinct historical periods and political economies, from the colonial period through republicanism and today’s socialist era. Compelling topics include the legacies of slavery and the sugar industry, the past and future of urban...

  9. Structural and magnetic characterization of three tetranuclear Cu(II) complexes with face-sharing-dicubane/double-open-cubane like core framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, Aparup [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, Vidyasagar University, Midnapore 721102, West Bengal (India); Bertolasi, Valerio [Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche e Farmaceutiche, Centro di Strutturistica Diffrattometrica, Università di Ferrara, Via L. Borsari, 46, 44100 Ferrara (Italy); Figuerola, Albert [Departament de Química Inorgànica i Orgànica (Secció de Química Inorgànica) and Institut de Nanociència i Nanotecnologia (IN2UB), Universitat de Barcelona, Martí i Franquès 1-11, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Manna, Subal Chandra, E-mail: scmanna@mail.vidyasagar.ac.in [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, Vidyasagar University, Midnapore 721102, West Bengal (India)

    2017-05-15

    Three novel tetranuclear copper(II) complexes namely [Cu{sub 4}(L{sup 1}){sub 4}]∙2(dmf) (1), [Cu{sub 4}(L{sup 1}){sub 4}] (2) and [Cu{sub 4}(L{sup 2}){sub 2}(HL{sup 2}){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}]∙2(ClO{sub 4})·6(H{sub 2}O) (3) (H{sub 2}L{sup 1}, (E)−2-((1-hydroxybutan-2-ylimino)methyl)phenol; H{sub 2}L{sup 2}, (E)−2-((1-hydroxybutan-2-ylimino)methyl)−6-methoxyphenol)) were synthesized from the self-assembly of copper(II) perchlorate and the tridentate Schiff base ligands. The structural determination reveals that crystallizes in the monoclinic system with space group C2/c, whereas both the and crystallize in the triclinic system with space group P-1. and possess face-sharing dicubane core, on the other hand complex 3 has double open cubane core structure. The copper(II) ions in the cubane core are in distorted square planar geometries, and weak π…π and C–H…π interactions lead to formation of a 2D supramolecular architecture for and . At room temperature and , exhibit fluorescence with a quantum yield (Φ{sub s}) of 0.47, 0.49 and 0.38, respectively. Variable temperature magnetic susceptibility measurements in the range 2–300 K indicate an overall weak antiferromagnetic exchange coupling in all complexes. The PHI program was used to study their magnetic behaviour. In agreement with their face-sharing dicubane structure, a Hamiltonian of the type H =– J{sub 1}(S{sub 1}S{sub 2}+S{sub 1}S{sub 2’}+S{sub 1'}S{sub 2}+S{sub 1'}S{sub 2’}) – J{sub 2}S{sub 1}S{sub 1’}, where S{sub 1} = S{sub 1’} = S{sub 2} = S{sub 2’} = S{sub Cu} =1/2, was used for studying and . Simulations performed suggest magnetic exchange constants with values close to J{sub 1} =−20 cm{sup −1} and J{sub 2} =0 cm{sup -1} for these complexes. On the other hand, the spin Hamiltonian H =– J{sub 1}(S{sub 1}S{sub 4}+S{sub 2}S{sub 3}) – J{sub 2}(S{sub 1}S{sub 3}+S{sub 2}S{sub 4}) – J{sub 3}S{sub 1}S{sub 2}, where S{sub 1} = S{sub 2} = S{sub 3} = S{sub 4

  10. Demand for cuban tobacco as seen through cuban exports

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández de Pinedo Echevarría, Nadia

    2013-01-01

    During the nineteenth century Spain did not import the majority of Cuban tobacco, nor was most of it consumed in Spain. Spain neither consumed nor re-exported Cuban tobacco. Cuban tobacco, due to its high quality, was too expensive to be able to compete with tobacco of lesser quality which was, therefore, cheaper. The Spanish tax office preferred to take in huge amounts of money by taxing consumption in general rather than promoting Cuban tobacco. For this reason, Spain imported tobacco of me...

  11. Osteopilus septentrionalis (Cuban treefrog)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glorioso, Brad M.; Steece, Aaron; Lemann, Zachary K.; Lazare, Remy; Beck, James W.

    2016-01-01

    USA: LOUISIANA: St. Tammany Parish: on private property on Allen Road in Slidell (ca. 30.262°N, 89.741°W; WGS 84). 2 April 2013. Aaron Steece. Verified by Hardin Waddle. Florida Museum of Natural History (UF 177727, photo voucher). New parish record. This adult was found ca. 2 m high on a branch at the edge of a wooded area behind a house. It was photographed and released, as the species identity and significance was unknown. The origin of this individual is unknown. The homeowner stated that he bought nursery plants often, but checked them thoroughly as he put them indoors. Since this initial finding, the homeowner learned more about Cuban Treefrogs and searched for them on many occasions at this location for two years, but detected no additional Cuban Treefrogs.

  12. KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT IN CUBAN ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Yoel La Fé Jiménez

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In Cuba the intensive use of knowledge has focused on some sectors more than others, despite the high level of training of human resources and the need to boost the Cuban economy with efficiency. This is the reason why the objective of this article is to propose a procedure for the implementation and improvement of knowledge management in Cuban companies. For this purpose, it was created a series of phases that follows a logical sequence for the implementation and improvement of knowledge management in any type of company.

  13. Cuban internationalism - an alternative form of globalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Maria; Melluish, Steve; Lorenzo, Alexis

    2014-10-01

    This paper looks at how the principles of internationalism have been integral to the Cuban healthcare system and to Cuba's cooperation and medical support in other countries around the world. The paper details the range and scope of Cuban health internationalism and the principles that underpin the Cuban approach of long-term collaboration, humane care, contextualization, trans-disciplinarity, respect for collective/historical memory and an ethical stance. The paper details the role of Cuban psychologists who have contributed to disaster relief work and gives an example of the Cuban approach in relation to Haiti following the earthquake in 2010.

  14. PLANNING AND MODEL CUBAN ECONOMIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenilia Mariela Villalón-Madrazo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the Revolution´s Triumph the country assumes that the planning is the axis, as instrument for the economic acting and of the constant development of the socialist relationships of production and it traces the rules required for the best operation in the Cuban economy, and it implants with these concepts the centralized economic pattern that responded to the existent outline in the Soviet Union and the European socialist countries, of centralized planning based on the material balances. In the current situation of the Cuban economy it is thought about bringing up to date the economic pattern in which will stay as priority the planning and not the market. Leaving what it is mentioned above, presently in this work is carried out the analysis of the economic models in Cuba and its linking with the planning, with the objective of giving to know how the pattern economic Cuban is implanted from the first years of the revolution and it has always been the planning its fundamental axis, and as the same one it has left modernizing during the 53 years of the Revolution. It has been carried out an analysis framed approximately in 10 year-old periods pointing out the internal and external factors that have impacted in the Cuban pattern, their adjustments and the role of planning. 

  15. Santería grand slam: Afro-Cuban religious studies and the study of Afro-Cuban religion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Palmié

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] Living Santería: Rituals and Experiences in an Afro-Cuban Religion. MICHAEL ATWOOD MASON. Washington DC: Smithsonian Institution Press, 2002. ix + 165 pp. (Paper US$ 16.95 Divine Utterances: The Performance of Afro-Cuban Santería. KATHERINE J. HAGEDORN. Washington DC: Smithsonian Institution Press, 2001. xvi + 296 pp. (Cloth US$ 40.00 The Light Inside: Abakuá Society Arts and Cuban Cultural History. DAVID H. BROWN. Washington DC: Smithsonian Institution Press, 2003. xix + 286 pp. (Cloth US$ 44.23 Santería Enthroned: Art, Ritual, and Innovation in an Afro-Cuban Religion. DAVID H. BROWN. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 2003. xx + 413 pp. (Paper US$ 38.00 Ethnographic objects behave in curious ways. Although they clearly are “our constructions,” field sites and even topically circumscribed (rather than spatially delimited ethnographic problems lead double lives: places and problems change not merely because they factually undergo historical changes, but because researchers come to them from historically no less changeable epistemic vantage points. One can imagine generational cohorts of ethnographers marching across the same geographically or thematically defined terrain and seeing different things – not just because of substantial changes that have factually occurred, but because they have come to ask different questions. The process obviously has its dialectical moments. The figures we inscribe in writing from fleeting observations (based on changing theoretical conceptions are no less subject to history than the empirical grounds from which our discursive efforts call them forth. The result is a curious imbrication of partially autonomous, but also partly overlapping, historicities of lives and texts which, at times, are more difficult to keep apart than it would seem at first glance. At least in the study of Afro-Cuban religious culture, the two practical and discursive fields – one circumscribed

  16. Stories of Cuban-Americans Living and Learning Bilingually

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Natasha

    2017-01-01

    This study explores the interplay of bilingualism, identity, literacy and culture for CubanAmerican students in the Cuban diaspora. I contextualize their experiences within the social, historical, and political background of Cuban immigration, situating their stories within the conflicting narratives of Cuban-American imagination in the U.S., to…

  17. Lifestyle Risk Factors and Cardiovascular Disease in Cubans and Cuban Americans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa S. Burroughs Peña

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality in Cuba. Lifestyle risk factors for coronary heart disease (CHD in Cubans have not been compared to risk factors in Cuban Americans. Articles spanning the last 20 years were reviewed. The data on Cuban Americans are largely based on the Hispanic Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (HHANES, 1982–1984, while more recent data on epidemiological trends in Cuba are available. The prevalence of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus remains greater in Cuban Americans than in Cubans. However, dietary preferences, low physical activity, and tobacco use are contributing to the rising rates of obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and CHD in Cuba, putting Cubans at increased cardiovascular risk. Comprehensive national strategies for cardiovascular prevention that address these modifiable lifestyle risk factors are necessary to address the increasing threat to public health in Cuba.

  18. The 1980 Cuban Crisis: Some Observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, Ronald

    1981-01-01

    Reviews the history of the 1980 Cuban migration to the United States. Examines policy questions concerning unexpected mass migrations and the way the U.S. government responds. The Haitian immigration is discussed similarly. (Author/APM)

  19. Ser Cubano (To Be Cuban): The Evolution of Cuban-American Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueredo, Danilo H.

    1997-01-01

    Describes the generations of Cuban and Cuban American writers who have borne witness, in Spanish and now in English, to the oppression of Castro's regime, the pain of leaving Cuba, and the family conflicts occurring in the new land. Highlights the tragic figure of Reinaldo Arenas, a homosexual writer, anti-Castro activist, and immigrant. (GR)

  20. 31 CFR 515.574 - Support for the Cuban People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Support for the Cuban People. 515.574..., Authorizations, and Statements of Licensing Policy § 515.574 Support for the Cuban People. (a) Specific licenses....560(c) and other transactions that are intended to provide support for the Cuban people including, but...

  1. Cuban Science and the Open Access Alternative

    CERN Document Server

    Arencibia Jorge, Ricardo; Torricella-Morales, Raúl G

    2004-01-01

    Science in Cuba has experienced extraordinary development since the triumph of the Cuban Revolution, in spite of the blockade to which Cuba has been subjected by the United States Government, and thanks to the support and cooperation of the countries that were part of the former Socialist Block. However, after the destruction of the Socialist Block, the Cuban economy suffered through a restructuring process that included the reorganization of the traditional systems for spreading scientific information. At that moment, it was necessary to use alternative means to effectively publicise, to the international scientific community, the information generated by Cuban scientists and scholars. This paper briefly reviews this new era, the institutions that led the process of change, and the future projections based on knowledge of the digital environment and the creation of electronic and open access information sources.

  2. Nuclear analytical techniques in Cuban Sugar Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz Riso, O.; Griffith Martinez, J.

    1996-01-01

    This paper is a review concerning the applications of Nuclear Analytical Techniques in the Cuban sugar industry. The most complete elemental composition of final molasses (34 elements ) and natural zeolites (38) this last one employed as an auxiliary agent in sugar technological processes has been performed by means of Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis (XRFA). The trace elements sugar cane soil plant relationship and elemental composition of different types of Cuban sugar (rawr, blanco directo and refine) were also studied. As a result, valuable information referred to the possibilities of using these products in animal and human foodstuff so as in other applications are given

  3. Where is the Cuban economy heading ?

    OpenAIRE

    Herrera , Rémy

    2006-01-01

    URL des Cahiers : http://mse.univ-paris1.fr/MSEFramCahier2006.htm; Cahiers de la Maison des Sciences Economiques 2006.32 - ISSN 1624-0340; This article is the introduction of an issue (to be published) of the U.S. review International Journal of Political Economy on the Cuban economy, and coordinated by Rémy Herrera. It deals with the progresses, but also with the deficiencies, of the Cuban revolution in the economic field, until the recent de-dollarization. It underlines its economic challen...

  4. Ethnobotany of pru, a traditional Cuban refreshment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Volpato, G.; Godínez, D.

    2004-01-01

    Gouania polygama (Jacq.) Urban, Smilax domingensis Willd., and Pimenta dioica Merr., are three species widely used within Cuban ethnobotanical traditions and practices. Pru is a traditional refreshment and medicinal drink produced by their decoction and fermentation with sugar. It is claimed to have

  5. [The beginning of the Cuban demographic revolution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez Castellon, R

    1981-01-01

    The characteristics of the Cuban demographic revolution associated with the main economic, political, and social changes in the country are analyzed. The authors begin with a brief historical outline of the political-economic situation in the country in the middle of the 19th century. There is emphasis on the dependency of the Cuban economy and its monoproducer nature (with sugar being the major export). This was due to the Spanish colonization and to the subsequent American neocolonization. The discovery of the cause for yellow fever by a Cuban physician and the sanitation campaign conducted by the Americans contributed to a diminishing of mortality. A great migratory flow occurred due to the price of sugar in the world market. This must have influenced Cuban demographic patterns which are a major factor linked to the demographic revolution. The influence on proliferation of urbanization and educational trends is emphasized. The low participation in economic activities of women during the early part of the century did affect fertility levels. The trends in mortality throughout the period 1907-43 are pointed out. It was found that 1 major aspect which had a bearing on Cuban demographic patterns was the 2 large migratory flows. An analysis of growth rates in the population--which also confirms the demographic changes in Cuba--is presented. It is concluded that the 4th decade of this century witnessed Cuba's entry in a new stage of the demographic revolution, a stage in which decreased fertility and mortality go together to create a new period. (author's)

  6. Nuclear analytical techniques in Cuban sugar industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz R, O.; Griffith M, J.

    1997-01-01

    This paper is a review concerning the application of Nuclear Analytical Techniques in the Cuban sugar industry. The most complete elemental composition of final molasses (34 elements) and natural zeolites (38) this last one employed as an auxiliary agent in sugar technological processe4s has been performed by means of instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis (XRFA). The trace elemental sugar cane soill-plant relationship and elemental composition of different types of Cuban sugar (raw, blanco-directo and refine) were also studied. As a result, valuable information referred to the possibilities of using these products in animal and human foodstuff so as in the other applications are given. (author). 34 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  7. Human motivation by some Cuban theorists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Alfredo González Collera

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The current article offers a summary of the theories of three outstanding Cuban psychologists, whic h have contributed with important knowledge to the motivational sphere of personality. These theoretical approaches constitute the epistemology of base to new studies about motivation in any area of knowledge, although they have a special emphasis on the educative and pedagogic area as well as on the personal development.

  8. State of malnutrition in Cuban hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreto Penié, Jesús

    2005-04-01

    We assessed the current state of undernutrition as observed in 1905 patients hospitalized in 12 Cuban health care institutions, as part of a Latin American, multinational survey similar in design and goals. We surveyed 1905 randomly selected patients from 12 Cuban hospitals in a two-phase study. Patients' clinical charts were audited in phase 1, the Subjective Global Assessment was used to assess patients' nutritional status in phase 2. The study was locally conducted by a properly trained team. The frequency of undernutrition in Cuban hospitals was 41.2% (95% confidence interval = 38.9 to 43.4), and 11.1% of patients were considered severely undernourished. Statistically significant (P hospital services/specialties were identified: geriatrics (56.3%), critical care (54.8%), nephrology (54.3%), internal medicine (48.6%), gastroenterology (46.5%), and cardiovascular surgery (44.8%). Malnutrition rates increased progressively with prolonged length of stay. A high malnutrition rate was observed among participating hospitals. The design and inception of policies that foster intervention programs focusing on early identification of hospital malnutrition and its timely management is suggested to decrease its deleterious effects on outcomes of health care in the participating hospitals.

  9. Cubans abroad: a gendered case study on international migrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez-Sarmiento, Marta

    2010-01-01

    Cubans who have migrated since the 1990s after living for two decades or more in their country of origin left with an embedded gender ideology that they acquired in a society where gender relations were undergoing radical transformations. As a result, Cuban feminization of migrations has its peculiarities. In this context, there are three issues to consider: explaining how gender relations attained in Cuba, as part of the overall attitudes gained since childhood, influenced Cuban migrants who have left the island permanently since 1990, introduced uniqueness in their migration processes, and made up a different feminization of migration; identifying the features of Cuban social structure that shaped the gender ideology of Cuban migrants; and producing new knowledge about Cuban international migration processes by using a gender perspective and by analyzing the gender relations prevailing in the years before the crisis of the 1990s, as well as since the beginning of the twenty-first century. The first part of this article focuses on gender distinctiveness of recent Cuban migrants, and the second summarizes some traits of the Cuban social structure—mainly referred to female employment—that could explain the gender training of the migrants.

  10. The nuclear issue in the cuban press. Challenges and realities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contreras Izquierdo, Marta; Rodriguez Guerra, Ingrids; Gonzalez Montoto, Iosbel; Fernandez Rondon, Manuel

    2005-01-01

    The work presents an analysis of the impact of nuclear issue on the Cuban press from 1990 to 2005 that was carried out by a group of communications specialists from nuclear area. An analysis of main challenges and actions of this group, aimed at informing the public the present situation of the Cuban nuclear programme and its perspectives, was also included

  11. The Cuban nuclear program and its Scientific and Technical Infrastructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gandarias Cruz, D.; Codorniu Pujals, D.

    1995-01-01

    The present paper shows the aspects including the Cuban Nuclear Program and underlines its close connection with the strategy of economic, social and scientific technical development in the country, the organizing structure of the Cuban nuclear activity is explained. The application of nuclear techniques and research development activity in the nuclear field are also expressed in detailed in this paper

  12. Pedagogical professional training in Cuban educative context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayre Acosta Calderón

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The conception of the pedagogical professional training has evolved alongside with the educative changes that have taken place in the history of Cuban education. This research was intended to examine the evolution of professional training from the foundation of colleges of Education to the present. The study takes into account the relation of the instructive, educative and developing aspects; the development of the professional needs and their influence on cognitive and formative activity of learners and their professional performance; the components of contents included in the evaluation of the professional competence; and the comprehensive disciplinary approach of the formation process. Thus, this investigation is aimed at providing a historical analysis of the development of the pedagogical professional training, illustrating the continuity of the formative process in Cuban context. This study revealed the main trends of the pedagogical professional training for the General Senior High Education, It shows the movement from a former segmentation of instructive and educative components and emotional and intellectual educations to a and interconnected approach of both processes.

  13. Sugarcane energy use: The Cuban case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso-Pippo, Walfrido; Luengo, Carlos A. [Grupo Combustiveis Alternativos, DFA/IFGW/UNICAMP, CP 6165, CEP 13083-970 Campinas, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Koehlinger, John [Energy Consultant. 1322 Hepburn Ave 1, Louisville, KY 40204 (United States); Garzone, Pietro; Cornacchia, Giacinto [ENEA Trisaia Research Centre. Prot-STP. SS106 Jonica, Rotondella (Italy)

    2008-06-15

    This paper examines the history, methods, costs, and future prospects of Cuba's attempts to develop the energy potential of sugarcane. An overview of the main factors affecting the current sugarcane agro-industry in Cuba is provided, along with an analysis of why, despite attempts by the Cuban government to revive the country's sugarcane agro-industry, the industry continues to decline. The prevailing conditions and degree of modernization in Cuban sugar factories are evaluated. The sugar-agro industry's main production bottlenecks are studied. The fall in sugarcane yield from 57.5 ton/ha in 1991 to 22.4 ton/ha in 2005 and its relation to land use is explained. The socio-economic impact of the sugarcane agro-industry's downsizing is assessed. The governmental and quasi-governmental entities in charge of sugarcane energy use development and the country's legal framework are analyzed. The Cuban sugarcane agro-industry's opportunities in the growing international biofuels and bioenergy market are evaluated. To situate Cuba within the global bioenergy market, international best practices relating to the production and commercialization of biofuels are examined to determine the degree to which these experiences can be transferred to Cuba. The analysis of the Cuba sugar industry's biofuel potential is based on a comparative technical-economic assessment of three possible production scenarios: (1) the current situation, where only sugar is produced; (2) simultaneous production of sugar-anhydrous ethanol; and (3) production of sugar-ethanol and simultaneous generation of surplus electricity exported to a public grid. Some of the key assumptions underlying these analyses are as follows: Ethanol production and operation costs for a 7000 ton/day-sugar mill are estimated to be 0.25 and 0.23 USD/l, respectively. The influence of gasoline prices on sugar-ethanol production is also assessed. The kWh production and operation costs starting from

  14. Sugarcane energy use: The Cuban case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso-Pippo, Walfrido; Luengo, Carlos A.; Koehlinger, John; Garzone, Pietro; Cornacchia, Giacinto

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the history, methods, costs, and future prospects of Cuba's attempts to develop the energy potential of sugarcane. An overview of the main factors affecting the current sugarcane agro-industry in Cuba is provided, along with an analysis of why, despite attempts by the Cuban government to revive the country's sugarcane agro-industry, the industry continues to decline. The prevailing conditions and degree of modernization in Cuban sugar factories are evaluated. The sugar-agro industry's main production bottlenecks are studied. The fall in sugarcane yield from 57.5 ton/ha in 1991 to 22.4 ton/ha in 2005 and its relation to land use is explained. The socio-economic impact of the sugarcane agro-industry's downsizing is assessed. The governmental and quasi-governmental entities in charge of sugarcane energy use development and the country's legal framework are analyzed. The Cuban sugarcane agro-industry's opportunities in the growing international biofuels and bioenergy market are evaluated. To situate Cuba within the global bioenergy market, international best practices relating to the production and commercialization of biofuels are examined to determine the degree to which these experiences can be transferred to Cuba. The analysis of the Cuba sugar industry's biofuel potential is based on a comparative technical-economic assessment of three possible production scenarios: (1) the current situation, where only sugar is produced; (2) simultaneous production of sugar-anhydrous ethanol; and (3) production of sugar-ethanol and simultaneous generation of surplus electricity exported to a public grid. Some of the key assumptions underlying these analyses are as follows: Ethanol production and operation costs for a 7000 ton/day-sugar mill are estimated to be 0.25 and 0.23 USD/l, respectively. The influence of gasoline prices on sugar-ethanol production is also assessed. The kWh production and operation costs starting from sugarcane bagasse are estimated at 0

  15. Soil hydraulic properties of Cuban soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz, M.E.; Medina, H.

    2004-01-01

    Because soil hydraulic properties are indispensable for determining soil water retention and soil water movement, their input for deterministic crop simulation models is essential. From these models is possible to access the effect of the weather changes, soil type or different irrigation schedules on crop yields. With these models, possibilities are provided to answer questions regarding virtual 'what happen if' experiments with a minimum of fieldwork. Nevertheless, determining soil hydraulic properties can be very difficult owing to unavailability of necessary equipment or the lack of personal with the proper knowledge for those tasks. These deficiencies are a real problem in developing countries, and even more so when there is not enough financial possibilities for research work. This paper briefly presents the way these properties have been accessed for Cuban soils, which methods have been used and the work now in progress. (author)

  16. The enthalpy of sublimation of cubane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashir-Hashemi, A.; Chickos, James S.; Hanshaw, William; Zhao Hui; Farivar, Behzad S.; Liebman, Joel F.

    2004-01-01

    The sublimation enthalpy of cubane, a key reference material for force field and quantum mechanical computations, was measured by combining the vaporization enthalpy at T = 298.15 K to the sum of the fusion enthalpy measured at T = 405 K and a solid-solid phase transition that occurs at T 394 K. The fusion and solid-solid phase transitions were measured previously. A sublimation enthalpy value of (55.2 ± 2.0) kJ mol -1 at T = 298.15 K was obtained. This value compares quite favorably the value obtained by comparing the sublimation enthalpy of similar substances as a function of their molar masses but is at odds with earlier measurements

  17. The enthalpy of sublimation of cubane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bashir-Hashemi, A.; Chickos, James S.; Hanshaw, William; Zhao Hui; Farivar, Behzad S.; Liebman, Joel F

    2004-12-15

    The sublimation enthalpy of cubane, a key reference material for force field and quantum mechanical computations, was measured by combining the vaporization enthalpy at T = 298.15 K to the sum of the fusion enthalpy measured at T = 405 K and a solid-solid phase transition that occurs at T 394 K. The fusion and solid-solid phase transitions were measured previously. A sublimation enthalpy value of (55.2 {+-} 2.0) kJ mol{sup -1} at T = 298.15 K was obtained. This value compares quite favorably the value obtained by comparing the sublimation enthalpy of similar substances as a function of their molar masses but is at odds with earlier measurements.

  18. Customization and the Common Good: A Conversation with Larry Cuban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Scott

    2002-01-01

    A conversation with Larry Cuban, Professor Emeritus of Education at Stanford University, about two contradictory trends in education: customization and standardization and their effect on the public schools' responsibilities to provide both individual and social benefits. (PKP)

  19. Acute liver failure in Cuban children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverio, César E; Smithen-Romany, Chleo Y; Hondal, Norma I; Díaz, Hetzel O; Castellanos, Marlen I; Sosa, Oramis

    2015-01-01

    Acute liver failure is rare in pediatric patients and is one of the most challenging medical emergencies due to its prognostic and therapeutic implications. The best scientific evidence worldwide comes from multicenter studies in developed countries. In Cuba, there are no prior studies of this disorder in children. Describe the main clinical features of Cuban children treated at a national referral center for acute liver failure, as defined by recognized diagnostic criteria for pediatric patients. A case series study was conducted comprising patients diagnosed with acute liver failure treated from 2005 to 2011 in the hepatology and liver transplant service at Havana's William Soler University Children's Hospital. Variables were age group, etiology of acute liver failure, grade of hepatic encephalopathy, blood chemistry variables, and clinical outcome (whether or not spontaneous recovery of liver function occurred). Associations between variables were assessed using contingency tables, and case fatality was calculated, as well as relative risk with its 95% confidence interval. The Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare means of laboratory test results. Median age of the 31 patients studied (14 boys and 17 girls) was 24 months (range 1-180). Time between symptom onset and diagnosis of acute liver failure was 25.1 days (SD 16.8). Infection was the most common etiology, present in 61.3% of cases (19/31); nonhepatotropic viruses, especially cytomegalovirus, predominated in infants. Spontaneous recovery occurred in 15 patients (48.4%), 3 (9.7%) received transplants, and 13 died, for a case fatality of 41.9%. Outcome was not associated with etiology (p = 0.106), but was statistically associated with degree of hepatic encephalopathy (p failure in Cuban children calls for further epidemiologic study and identification of local underlying determinants of this phenomenon.

  20. Multi-elemental characterization of Cuban natural zeolites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizo, O.D.; Peraza, E.F.H.

    1997-01-01

    Concentration of 38 elements in samples from four important Cuban zeolite beds have been obtained by Instrumental Neutron Activation (INAA) and X-ray Fluorescence analyses (XRFA). In comparison with other analytical techniques good agreement was reached. The concentration values of minor element Ba, Sr, Zn and Mn and 25 trace element (including 9 REE) are at the first time reported in Cuban zeolite. It is important for the zeolite evaluation in different industrial uses. (author)

  1. The U.S. Navy and the Cuban Missile Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-05-22

    telephone industries . However, the CIA 10 underestimated the hatred for Batista, even among the influential Cuban middle class, although Washington...for collective defense should Castro attempt to export his revolucion . Only days later, Kennedy slapped a trade embargo on Cuba, forbidding all exchange...and bribing foreign industrial firms to sabotage their Cuban 30 exports. Far from inspiring revolt, however, these sabotage activities actually had

  2. Researching in education findings visibility: How Cubans are doing?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torres, Paúl A.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an analysis of Cuban educational research visibility by considering international ranking positioning of intellectual production in the field of education. A case study is conducted with outstanding Cuban educational researchers comparing their results with other prestigious professionals in the continent. Finally, new basic resources are proposed and explained for improving Bibliometric indicators by taking advantage of Google Scholar potentials in favoring international ranking positioning.

  3. Multi-elemental characterization of Cuban natural zeolites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz Rizo, O.; Herrera Peraza, E.F.

    1996-01-01

    Concentrations of 38 elements in samples from four important Cuban zeolite bed have beam obtained by Instrumental Neutron Activation (INAA) and X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis (XRFA). In comparison with other analytical techniques good agreement was achieved. The concentration values of minor element Ba, Sr, Zn, and Mn, and 25 trace element (including 9 REE) are at the first time reported in Cuban zeolite. It is important for the zeolite evaluation in different industrial uses

  4. The Cuban health care system and factors currently undermining it.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayeri, K

    1995-08-01

    This paper explores the dynamics of health and health care in Cuba during a period of severe crisis by placing it within its economic, social, and political context using a comparative historical approach. It outlines Cuban achievements in health care as a consequence of the socialist transformations since 1959, noting the full commitment by the Cuban state, the planned economy, mass participation, and a self-critical, working class perspective as crucial factors. The roles of two external factors, the U.S. economic embargo and the Council of Mutual Economic Cooperation (CMEA), are explored in shaping the Cuban society and economy, including its health care system. It is argued that the former has hindered health efforts in Cuba. The role of the latter is more complex. While the CMEA was an important source for economic growth, Cuban relations with the Soviet bloc had a damaging effect on the development of socialism in Cuba. The adoption of the Soviet model of economic development fostered bureaucracy and demoralization of Cuban workers. As such, it contributed to two internal factors that have undermined further social progress including in health care: low productivity of labor and the growth of bureaucracy. While the health care system is still consistently supported by public policy and its structure is sound, economic crisis undermines its material and moral foundations and threatens its achievements. The future of the current Cuban health care system is intertwined with the potentials for its socialist development.

  5. Sex and sentiment in Cuban tourism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babb, Florence E

    2010-01-01

    Helen Safa has been a leading program builder and pioneer in research that examines the complex intersections of gender, race, class, and nation in Latin America and the Caribbean. Her comparative research culminated in her influential book, The Myth of the Male Breadwinner: Women and Industrialization in the Caribbean (1995), which examined gender, family, and employment across three Caribbean societies. Over several decades Safa has inspired scholarship throughout the Caribbean and the Americas and her work is exemplary of engaged anthropology in the region. Here I present work I conducted in Cuba that was guided, like my work in Peru, Nicaragua, and southern Mexico by the writings of Safa and others who saw the critical need to bring gender into meaningful discussion in the field of Latin American and Caribbean studies. In what follows, drawn from my broader research on tourism in four nations, I explore and reflect on the contemporary dynamics of sex and romance tourism in Cuba. I suggest that the allure of this domain of tourism may be enhanced by Cuba's global political identity, and that Cuban women participating in commodified and intimate exchanges reveal an ability to get along in a market economy that generally excludes them.

  6. Decontamination of Cuban oysters using irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cisneros Despaigne, E; Leyva Castillo, V; Martinez, L L; Lara Ortiz, C [Instituto de Nutricion e Higiene de los Alimentos (Cuba); Castillo Rodriguez, E [Centro Nacional de Salud Animal (Cuba)

    2001-04-01

    Oysters (Crassostrea virginica) collected on the Cuban coast near Havana were examined for contamination with Vibrio cholerae and other potentially pathogenic Vibrio species. The strains thus isolated were characterized and identified to species following standard methods, and their radiation resistance (D{sub 10}) was determined in pure culture. The Vibrio species most often isolated were V. cholerae, V. parahaemolyticus and V. Alginolyticus. Representative cultures from each species were later used to inoculate shucked oysters to determine the optimal radiation dose that would ensure elimination of 10{sup 8} colony forming units (CFU)/g. The highest proportion of isolates were identified as Vibrio parahaemolyticus and V. algynoliticus. Non-O1 strains of Vibrio cholerae were isolated from 50% of samples, but no V. cholerae O1 was identified. D{sub 10} values calculated for the various strains were low in relation to those in the literature. The radiation dose for decontaminating heavily inoculated (10{sup 8} CFU/g) oysters was 1.2 kGy. (author)

  7. Decontamination of Cuban oysters using irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cisneros Despaigne, E.; Leyva Castillo, V.; Martinez, L.L.; Lara Ortiz, C.; Castillo Rodriguez, E.

    2001-01-01

    Oysters (Crassostrea virginica) collected on the Cuban coast near Havana were examined for contamination with Vibrio cholerae and other potentially pathogenic Vibrio species. The strains thus isolated were characterized and identified to species following standard methods, and their radiation resistance (D 10 ) was determined in pure culture. The Vibrio species most often isolated were V. cholerae, V. parahaemolyticus and V. Alginolyticus. Representative cultures from each species were later used to inoculate shucked oysters to determine the optimal radiation dose that would ensure elimination of 10 8 colony forming units (CFU)/g. The highest proportion of isolates were identified as Vibrio parahaemolyticus and V. algynoliticus. Non-O1 strains of Vibrio cholerae were isolated from 50% of samples, but no V. cholerae O1 was identified. D 10 values calculated for the various strains were low in relation to those in the literature. The radiation dose for decontaminating heavily inoculated (10 8 CFU/g) oysters was 1.2 kGy. (author)

  8. 45 CFR 401.12 - Cuban and Haitian entrant cash and medical assistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... cash and medical assistance (and related administrative costs) to Cuban and Haitian entrants according... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cuban and Haitian entrant cash and medical... ENTRANT PROGRAM § 401.12 Cuban and Haitian entrant cash and medical assistance. Except as may be otherwise...

  9. Nostalgia, Shame and the Transplanted Cuban: "la cubana arrepentida"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Lorenzo

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Literature can illuminate and extend our understanding of the affect of shame. In this paper, I will use extracts from my fictional works, published and in progress, and other fictional work and poetry by Cuban and Cuban-American exile writers to illustrate some aspects of shaming in relation to the experience of being a Cuban-American migrant in the United States, particularly relative to the sense of exilic nostalgia for the lost homeland. I will also look at how shame is used by the minority culture to control, erode or slow the process of assimilation and to try to maintain the illusion of the superiority of the minority culture.

  10. 31 CFR 515.546 - Accounts of Cuban sole proprietorships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... proprietorships. Specific licenses are issued unblocking sole proprietorships established under the laws of Cuba... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Accounts of Cuban sole proprietorships. 515.546 Section 515.546 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance...

  11. Cuban Voices: A Case Study of English Language Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Steven John

    2016-01-01

    This case study uses qualitative research methods and a postcolonial paradigm to listen to the voices of Cuban teacher educators describing how they educate and prepare English language teachers in Cuba. English language teacher education in Cuba includes features that are considered innovative, contemporary and good practice in the Western world.…

  12. THE CUBAN ENTERPRISE, COMPETITIVENESS, IMPROVEMENT BUSINESS AND QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Fernández-Companioni

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article offers some reflections on the Cuban enterprise, its business process improvement and competitiveness that firms must have in entering the world market. It analyzes the economic policies of the last two Congresses of the Communist Party of Cuba that give importance to the role of the Cuban socialist state enterprise system. It conceptualizes the category: business. Knowledge of the categories: effectiveness, efficiency, effectiveness, competitiveness, quality and productivity must for Cuban entrepreneurs. To increase export capacity, we must address a number of factors such as quality and product innovation, the price level depends on the productivity of the inflation differential between countries and other factors with indirect effects on competitiveness, and service quality or corporate image. Are some of the mistakes made in business development in the country. Relate some of the quality awards granted in the world and which should aim to achieve the necessary visibility in international business. Relate some of the quality awards that are granted in the world and which should aim for Cuban entrepreneurs to achieve the necessary visibility in international business. It provides a table that lists the entities Award Winning Quality in Cuba until 2008. It shows a country ranking of the indicators of global competitiveness generated annually by The Global Competitiveness Report. Reasoning about the causes that led to the business improvement process (SPE (Legislative Decree 252 and Decree 281. 

  13. 1rst Congress of the Cuban Society of Soil Sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    Abstracts from different works presented at the 1st Congress of the Cuban Society of Soil Sciences (Havana, December 1988) are contained in this book. Works have been performed on soil genesis, classification and cartography; soil erosion, conservation and improvement; agrochemicstry; soil physics and technology, and biology of soils

  14. (Re) framing the nation : the Afro -Cuban challenge to Black and Latino struggles for American identity

    OpenAIRE

    Gosin, Monika

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation interrogates the complexity of late 20th and early 21st century racial projects, focusing on conflict and convergence among African Americans, Cuban exiles, and Afro-Cubans in the United States. A textual analysis of the African American Miami Times and the Spanish language El Herald/El Nuevo Herald during the 1980 Mariel exodus and 1994 Balsero crisis, reveals the concerns of Miami African Americans and Cubans related to issues of race, immigration, and national belonging. ...

  15. Management of nuclear information and knowledge in Cuban institutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, A.G.; Rondon, C.F.; Aldama, C.L.; Aruca, L.A.; Labrada, C.

    2004-01-01

    In the framework of the management of information and the knowledge, the Cuban Agency of Nuclear Energy and Advanced Technologies recognizes as needful the establishment of the nuclear knowledge management system. In the rank of the Nuclear Ramal Program are executed projects, with the participation of all the Cuban nuclear institutions, focused to develop the web site and the intranet of the proper agency as support to the process of taking decisions, to develop the networking education system for human resources of these institutions and others that belong to the energy sector in Cuba, to introduce the data warehousing process for all institutions on corporate levels, to develop technology watching system for all the scientific and technical activities linked to the use and application of the peaceful use of nuclear energy, based on the information and knowledge contained in the databases of INIS, WIPO and RRIAN, between other purposes. (author)

  16. The cooperative identity in the cuban constitution. Currents challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orestes Rodríguez Musa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The work contribute with some valuations about the conception of the cooperative in the Cuban constitutionalism, with the purpose that the constitution can guide -like it corresponds- the legal implementation of the figure toward an integral perspective. To accomplish this goal, this article offers a characterization of the institution that illustrates about its identity. Then it analyzed the juridical dimension of the cooperative, pondering the different doctrinal postures that have tried to define its nature. Lastly, it argue that the current laws of the Cuban Constitution, influenced by a reduced conception of the institution, suffers some limitations that block the good use of the figure in a socioeconomic context in which it is called to transcend.

  17. Gamma radiation effects on the cuban antimeningococcic BC vaccine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padron Soler, E.; Romay Penabad, Z.; Le Riveran Morales, E.; Campa Huergo, C.; Sierra Gonzalez, G.; Alfalla Valdes, L.; Prieto Miranda, E.

    1994-01-01

    The effects of gamma rays on the Cuban antimeningococcic BC vaccine properties were studied. These were performanced by simulation with different bio burden of microbial pollutants. The isolated spores of the pollutants of non- aseptic areas were used. Its D10 was determined as 2.045 Gy. On that basis, the sterilization dose setting was performed. The quality of the irradiated vaccine was performed according to the Cuban standards: sterility, protein and polysaccharide concentration, immunogenicity, per cent of protein adsorption, nonspecific innocuousness. There were observed non negative effects on the vaccine of the radiation process in the dose range of 0-25 Gy. It was also studied the preservation of the properties of the irradiated vaccine, by storing it during one year at four celsius grade. The results were satisfactory

  18. Determination of rare earth elements in sea sediments from the Cuban northwestern coast by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capote Rodriguez, G.; Perez Zayas, G.; Pena Fortes, B.; Diaz Riso, O.; Hernandez Rivero, A.T.

    1998-01-01

    The multielemental characterization of sea sediments from an important Cuban coast was performed using instrumental Neutron activation analysis. The obtained results shown an impoverishment of in the studied zone, in comparison with the data taken from other Cuban coaster zones

  19. Co-occurrence of invasive Cuban Treefrogs and native treefrogs in PVC pipe refugia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elston, Laura M.; Waddle, J. Hardin; Rice, Kenneth G.; Percival, H. Franklin

    2013-01-01

    The Cuban Treefrog (Osteopilus septentrionalis) was first introduced to Florida at Key West. Since this introduction, Cuban Treefrogs have spread to Miami and are now established throughout most of peninsular Florida. Cuban Treefrogs can become very abundant in areas they colonize. Several reasons contribute to their success, including a generalist diet, high fecundity and the ability to reproduce year-round, and use of disturbed or human-modified habitats. Scientists and managers are concerned that Cuban Treefrogs may contribute to the decline of native treefrogs. Cuban Treefrogs may exclude native treefrogs through both competition and predation. Because the evidence from our study and others suggests that Green and Squirrel Treefrogs do not alter their behavior to avoid Cuban Treefrogs, there is cause for concern that sampling with PVC pipes may increase the vulnerability of the native species to predation. This possibility needs further research, including whether other species of native treefrogs sympatric to where Cuban Treefrogs have invaded are also naïve to the possible threat posed by these frogs, and also if native treefrogs eventually learn to avoid Cuban Treefrogs.

  20. The Cuban Vocational Education and Training System and Its Current Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Stefan; Penton, Felipe A. Hernandez; Marin, Anna Lidia Beltran; Romero, Osvaldo

    2011-01-01

    The main purpose of the article is to inform about the Cuban Vocational Education and Training System. Based on the analyse of different studies, on expert interviews and on field experiences the authors give a clear overview of the Cuban VET-System. This description is embedded in the presentation of the general education system in Cuba and in a…

  1. 45 CFR 400.62 - Treatment of eligible secondary migrants, asylees, and Cuban/Haitian entrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Treatment of eligible secondary migrants, asylees... secondary migrants, asylees, and Cuban/Haitian entrants. The State and local resettlement agencies must establish procedures to ensure that eligible secondary migrant refugees, asylees, and Cuban/Haitian entrants...

  2. US and Cuban Scientists Forge Collaboration on Arbovirus Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Ávila, Jorge; Guzmán-Tirado, Maria G; Fraga-Nodarse, Jorge; Handley, Gray; Meegan, James; Pelegrino-Martínez de la Cotera, Jose L; Fauci, Anthony S

    2018-04-01

    After December 17, 2014, when the US and Cuban governments announced their intent to restore relations, the two countries participated in various exchange activities in an effort to encourage cooperation in public health, health research and biomedical sciences. The conference entitled Exploring Opportunities for Arbovirus Research Collaboration, hosted at Havana's Hotel Nacional, was part of these efforts and was the first major US-Cuban scientific conference in over 50 years. Its purpose was to share information about current arbovirus research and recent findings, and to explore opportunities for future joint research. The nearly 100 participants included leading arbovirus and vector transmission experts from ten US academic institutions, NIH, CDC, FDA and the US Department of Defense. Cuban participants included researchers, clinicians and students from Cuba's Ministry of Public Health, Pedro Kourí Tropical Medicine Institute, Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Center for State Control of Medicines and Medical Devices and other health research and regulatory organizations. Topics highlighted at the three-day meeting included surveillance, research and epidemiology; pathogenesis, immunology and virology; treatment and diagnosis; vector biology and control; vaccine development and clinical trials; and regulatory matters. Concurrent breakout discussions focused on novel vector control, nonvector transmission, community engagement, Zika in pregnancy, and workforce development. Following the conference, the Pedro Kourí Tropical Medicine Institute and the US National Institute of Allergic and Infectious Diseases have continued to explore ways to encourage and support scientists in Cuba and the USA who wish to pursue arbovirus research cooperation to advance scientific discovery to improve disease prevention and control. KEYWORDS Arboviruses, flavivirus, Zika virus, chikungunya virus, dengue virus, research, disease vectors, Cuba, USA.

  3. Neutron activation analysis of final molasses from cuban sugar industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffith, J.; Gonzalez, E.; Rosenberg, R.J.; Diaz-Rizo, O.

    1996-01-01

    Thermal and epithermal non-destructive activation analyses have been performed on samples of final molasses from 14 different sugar factories , covering the most important regions in Cuba. From the first measurement after irradiation at the Triga Mark reactor (VTT), the concentration of more than 15 elements is reported. The almost constant elemental composition shows that they can be used equally for different purposes as animal foodstuff and for the manufacture of biotechnological products. This work is part of a research project developed in order to establish a complete characterization of Cuban sugar molasses. (author). 7 refs., 2 tabs

  4. Kinanthropometric profile of Cuban women Olympic volleyball champions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvajal, Wiliam; Betancourt, Hamlet; León, Sofia; Deturnel, Yanel; Martínez, Miriam; Echevarría, Ivis; Castillo, María Eugenia; Serviat, Noemí

    2012-04-01

    Athletes' kinanthropometric profiles are widely addressed in the scientific literature. Such profiles are particularly important in volleyball because absolute size contributes a significant percentage of total variance associated with athletic success. As in other team sports, volleyball players' kinanthropometric attributes correlate with the game's tactical demands. From 1992 through 2000, the Cuban women's volleyball team achieved top global performance, winning first place in three successive Summer Olympic Games. Describe the kinanthropometric profiles of Cuban women Olympic volleyball champions during 1992-2000 and compare these by position played. Measurements were taken of body composition, somatotype, proportionality and several anthropometric indicators in 41 Cuban women volleyball players, grouped by playing position. All were members of the national team that participated in the Summer Olympic Games in Barcelona (1992), Atlanta (1996) and Sydney (2000). Mean and standard deviations were calculated for all study variables. Analysis of variance was used to compare means for different positions for the variables weight; height; percent adipose, muscle and bone mass; body mass index; and muscle-to-bone ratio. Discriminant analysis was performed to identify anthropometric dimensions differentiating playing positions (center, spiker and setter), using pvolleyball players was balanced mesomorphic (2.7-3.6-2.9). Classified by position, centers (2.9-3.4-3.4) and spikers (2.8-3.6-2.9) presented an average mesomorphic-ectomorphic somatotype, and setters (2.6-3.7-2.6) were balanced mesomorphic. On assessing Somatotype Attitudinal Mean (SAM), centers and spikers showed more intrapositional homogeneity than that of setters. Centers were significantly taller (187.1±2.5 cm) than players in other positions. Centers' percent adipose tissue mass (28.9±2.7%) was significantly higher than that of setters (24.3±2.7%), who were leanest of all positions. The

  5. Feasible conditions for converting Cuban cane molasses into alcohol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luchev, S

    1968-01-01

    Conditions for fermentation of Cuban cane molasses were found: 0.5 to 1.0% yeast, addition of 100g. H/sub 3/PO/sub 4/, 1 to 2 kg urea or (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ to 1 ton molasses, and fermentation at high molasses concentrations. During the process, solid residue formed containing mainly CaSO/sub 4/; this was limited when the molasses was clarified before the fermentation, or when it was distilled without the use of acids (particularly H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/), or when fermented molasses with a low alcohol content was distilled.

  6. MEDICAL TOURISM : Demand for Cuban Medical Tourism by Russian Consumers

    OpenAIRE

    Ulanova, Anastasia

    2015-01-01

    Medical tourism, often addressed as health tourism, is a new concept in terms of tourism industry in general, and it is also one of the rapidly developing and growing ones. This thesis gives information on the medical tourism in general and its history. It also revises the development stages of the medical tourism in the world. Cuban medical tourism is analyzed on its own, as well as Russian medical tourism and the demand for it. Medical tourism is rather popular among Russians due to various...

  7. Cuban and antinjerencismo in the Government of the Hundred Days

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes María Rodríguez Rodríguez

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available This article in essence expresses the characteristics of a government of the Neocolonial Republic, known by its heterogeneous distinction, and for its revolutionary projection in correspondence with the moment they lived, not only in its internal projection, but also in its foreign policy, in the international relationships area as a common expression of a Latin American feeling, that for the decade of the 30', it was an irrevocable reality: the anti colonial feeling; therefore it allows a better understanding of the process of formation of the nationality and of the Cuban nation, main objective of the study programs of the subject History of Cuba.

  8. Heterometal cubane-type MFe(3)S(4) clusters (M = Mo, V) trigonally symmetrized with hydrotris(pyrazolyl)borate(1-) and tris(pyrazolyl)methanesulfonate(1-) capping ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fomitchev, Dmitry V; McLauchlan, Craig C; Holm, R H

    2002-02-25

    A series of heterometal cubane-type clusters containing [VFe(3)S(4)](2+) and [MoFe(3)S(4)](3+,2+) cores has been prepared. Ligand substitution of [(DMF)(3)VFe(3)S(4)Cl(3)](-) affords [(Tpms)VFe(3)S(4)L(3)](2)(-) (L = Cl(-) (8), EtS(-) (9), p-MeC(6)H(4)S(-), p-MeC(6)H(4)O(-)). A new procedure for the preparation of molybdenum single cubanes is introduced by the reaction of recently reported [(Tp)MoS(S(4))](-) with FeCl(2)/NaSEt to afford [(Tp)MoFe(3)S(4)Cl(3)](-) (1, 75% yield). This procedure is more efficient that the existing multistep synthesis of single cubanes, which generally affords clusters of mirror symmetry. Also prepared were [(Tp)MoFe(3)S(4)L(3)](-) (L = EtS(-) (2), p-MeC(6)H(4)S(-)). Reduction of 1 with borohydride gives [(Tp)MoFe(3)S(4)Cl(3)](2-) (5, 67%). Owing to the nature of the heterometal ligand, all clusters have idealized trigonal symmetry, reflected in their (1)H NMR spectra. Trigonal structures are demonstrated by crystallography of (Bu(4)N)[1,2], (Bu(4)N)(2)[5] x MeCN, and (Me(4)N)(2)[8,9]. The availability of 1 and 5 allows the first comparison of structures and (57)Fe isomer shifts of [MoFe(3)S(4)](3+,2+) in a constant ligand environment. Small increases in most bond distances indicate that an antibonding electron is added in the reduction of 1. Collective synthetic and electrochemical results from this and other studies demonstrate the existence of the series of oxidation states [VFe(3)S(4)](3+,2+,1+) and [MoFe(3)S(4)](4+,3+,2+) whose relative stabilities within a given series are strongly ligand dependent. Isomer shifts indicate that the reduction of 1 largely affects the Fe(3) subcluster and are consistent with the formal descriptions [MoFe(3+)(2)Fe(2+)S(4)](3+) (1) and [MoFe(3+)Fe(2+)(2)S(4)](2+) (5). Reaction of 1 with excess Li(2)S in acetonitrile affords the double cubane [[(Tp)MoFe(3)S(4)Cl(2)](2)(mu(2)(-)S)](2)(-), whose sulfide-bridged structure is supported by two sequential reductions separated by 290 mV, in analogy with

  9. [The reactogenicity and immunogenicity of the first Cuban vaccine against human leptospirosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Sánchez, R; Obregón Fuentes, A M; Pérez Sierra, A; Baly Gil, A; Díaz González, M; Baró Suárez, M; Menéndez Capote, R; Ruiz Pérez, A; Sierra González, G; López Chávez, A U

    1998-01-01

    A controlled double-blind trial was conducted with the participation of 80 adult volunteers of both sexes, who were randomly divided into groups of 40 individuals each one. The case-base study received the vaccine and the control group was administered placebo to know the safety, the behaviour of reactogenicity, and to star the immunogenicity studies of the first Cuban vaccine against human leptospirosis. The vaccine used in the case-base study was an inactivated and trivalent vaccine containing strains of Leptospira canicola, icterohaemorrhagiae and pomona, since they have the highest circulation in the country. The results obtained showed the inocuity of the vaccine as no adverse severe reactions were detected. The general symptomatology observed was low, where as febricula was the most common general symptom. It appeared during the first 3 days of observation and there were no significant differences between the 2 group. Only a mild pain at the site of the injection was reported as a local symptom, which was more frequent in the vaccinated group than in the control group (7.8 against 1.5%, respectively). The seroconversion obtained was of 29% by microagglutination, and of 34.2% by ELISA. The final results allowed to conclude that this vaccine is safe for human adults at the ages under study, and give the possibility to continue other studies in more advanced stages to complete the requirements for obtaining its license.

  10. The Cuban National Healthcare System: Characterization of primary healthcare services.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keli Regina DAL PRÁ

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a report on the experience of healthcare professionals in Florianópolis, who took the course La Atención Primaria de Salud y la Medicina Familiar en Cuba [Primary Healthcare and Family Medicine in Cuba], in 2014. The purpose of the study is to characterize the healthcare units and services provided by the Cuban National Healthcare System (SNS and to reflect on this experience/immersion, particularly on Cuba’s Primary Healthcare Service. The results found that in comparison with Brazil’s Single Healthcare System (SUS Cuba’s SNS Family Healthcare (SF service is the central organizing element of the Primary Healthcare Service. The number of SF teams per inhabitant is different than in Brazil; the programs given priority in the APS are similar to those in Brazil and the intersectorial nature and scope of the services prove to be effective in the resolution of healthcare problems.

  11. Revolutionizing Cuban Psychiatry: The Freud Wars, 1955-1970.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambe, Jennifer Lynn

    2017-01-01

    This article traces the battle over Freud within Cuban psychiatry from its pre-1959 origins through the "disappearance" of Freud by the early 1970s. It devotes particular attention to the visit of two Soviet psychiatrists to Cuba in the early 1960s as part of a broader campaign to promote Pavlov. The decade-long controversy over Freud responded to both theoretical and political concerns. If for some Freud represented political conservatism and theoretical mystification, Pavlov held out the promise of a dialectical materialist future. Meanwhile, other psychiatrists clung to psychodynamic perspectives, or at least the possibility of heterogeneity. The Freudians would end up on the losing side of this battle, with many departing Cuba over the course of the 1960s. But banishing Freud did not necessarily make for stalwart Pavlovians-or vanguard revolutionaries. Psychiatry would find itself relegated to a handmaiden position in the work of revolutionary mental engineering, with the government itself occupying the vanguard.

  12. Historical personalities of the Cuban education. A reflection necesary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yordan Nápoles-Ramírez

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Along the History of the Cuban education, the teaching and the learning of the life and work of the historical personalities has constituted a priority. However, the tendency has prevailed to alone to approach in the different teaching levels the historical personalities from a political-military focus, without conceiving an integrative treatment that embraces other spheres of the social activity. Equal limitations exist in reconstructing the historical context where the same ones were developed and to analyze their narrow one with the diverse social sectors that accompanied her. The present article seeks to demonstrate the necessity to transform the treatment of the historical personalities at the present time. 

  13. Cuban entities management. Cedrux just around the corner.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Rodríguez Sánchez

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The direction of the country as part of strengthening entities management and the informatization of Cuban society, presented the need to create a System of Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP, which would be able to computerize management processes of business and budgeted entities on national scale. It is in this way that since July 2008 CEDRUX product was developed composed by 15 subsystems. It will constitute the core on which new solutions will be developed that will extend its functionalities in a constantly way, including new entities management processes and allowing constant updating. In its first operational phase that will be in this very year 2011, Cedrux will only integrate 9 subsystems that will answer the economic needs of any organization.

  14. The Cuban Scenario 25 Years after the Fall of the Berlin Wall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onesimo Julian Moreira Seijos

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the situation in Cuba after 25 years of the fall of the Berlin Wall. The Cuban political system has prevailed despite predictions foresaw its imminent end since the soviet-like socialism crumbled in East Europe and then in the USSR itself. Although the end of the cold war led to profound adjustments in the international system, the Cuban model remained almost unchanged; however, a Cuban repaired communism emerged in the nineties. Dollarization of the economy and permission for foreign investment affected the ideological purity as the main basis of the system persisted untouched. Nevertheless, since Raul Castro took over power from his brother Fidel in 2006 expectations for reform have increased. In fact, in 2011 the Sixth Congress of the Communist Party was held and some reforms have been implemented ever since. The paper focuses on the scope of those reforms as there are still many open questions about the future of the Cuban society.

  15. Methodology of Competences Management Assuming the Cuban Norm about Management of Human Capital

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Armando Cuesta

    2011-01-01

    An applied research conducted in eight Cuban companies which follow the approach of skills in strategic management of human resources according to the standard Cuban CN: 3000-3002:2007 on human capital management, seeking a superior performance to higher productivity. It sought to manage the connection of individual work with the responsibilities for the strategic organizational performance. As a result we have obtained a metodology to manage the various skill levels expressed in this compani...

  16. Evolving Cuban-CARICOM relations : a comparative cost/benefit analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Erisman

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Survey of the basic developmental dynamics involved in the evolving Cuban-CARICOM relationship. On the basis of a cost-risk/benefit analysis, the author provides some projections regarding the future of this relationship. He concludes that there appear sufficient potential benefits for both sides to deepen the relationship. Cuban-CARICOM integration, however, has no top priority for either partner.

  17. Preparation of high temperature superconductor ceramics using cuban reactives. Optimization of the synthesis method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leyva Fabelo, A.; Cruz, C.; Aragon, B.; Suarez, J.C.; Mora, M.

    1991-01-01

    Results of the crystallographic characterization of a group of Cuban Products, which are evaluated to be employed in HTSC fabrication are presented in this paper. The first results on the synthesis of HTSC (RBa 2 Cu 3 0 7δ , R= Y, La, Nd) using Cuban reactives, are presented. The so called 'solid state reaction method of synthesis' was optimized, obtaining a critical temperature of more than 93 k

  18. Navigating hybridity: investigating the dance between culture and values within the cuban national education system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Byker

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Hybridity is the dynamic relationship between local and global factors that push and pull on people and nations. Hybridity is deeply situated in socio-contextual factors, like cultural beliefs, education, and political systems, that aid and hinder a people’s navigation of globalized phenomena. Simply put, hybridity is how people and societies adapt to a changing world. This article examines the case of Cuba in response to hybridity. Specifically, the article’s purpose is to examine ways that the Cuban National Education System impacts how Cubans navigate the global march towards hybridity. The article reports on a focused ethnographic study of a week long education trip to Cuba during February 2013. The ethnography includes over 100 hours of data collection, including semi-structured interviews with 26 Cuban participants. The study uses Freire’s (1970 notion of “humanizing pedagogy” to analyze how the impact of the Cuban National Education System values in the context of Cuba and larger global context. The study found that three values in particular, amor, solidaridad, and conciencia de derechos y response, were deeply embedded in the Cuban National Education System and effect the way that Cubans navigate the complex hybridity that situates their island nation.

  19. Cuban experience in dosimetry quality audit program in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso-Samper, J.L.; Dominguez, L.; Yip, F.G.; Laguardia, R.A.; Morales, J.L.; Larrinaga, E.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Five years ago we started a National Program of Quality Assurance in Radiotherapy. This program was possible thanks to the cooperation between the Cuban Ministry of Health and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in the Projects ARCAL XXX and CUB/6/011. In the framework of these projects a total of ten complete dosimetry set were acquired and a large number of medical physicists were trained. At the same time, the Cuban side signed a contract for nine cobalt units, which have been gradually installed and all of them are running at the moment. During more than 20 years Cuba has taken part in the IAEA/WHO TLD postal dose audit programs and our results have been inside the (+/-)5 % acceptance limit. Cuba also joined the IAEA Coordinated Research Program E2 40 07, to extend at a national level the experience of the TLD based audits, using the capability of our SSDL to measure TLD. At the same time the work of the already existing External Audit Group was consolidated. The National Program of Quality Assurance in Radiotherapy works on base of external on-site visits. The main objective is to avoid any accident and to improve the quality of the RT treatments. Every year each Radiotherapy service is visited by a qualified team of physicists with the objective to check the physical aspects of the quality of the RT treatment, it includes: Documents and Records, safety, mechanical and dosimetric aspects, treatment planning, also we use the fixed depth phantom to simulate and verify several techniques. Although the TLD postal audit results are acceptable, in our QA audits we have detected some problems that may deviate the dose delivery to patients in more than 5%, examples of which are: Not all the clinical plans are redundantly checked by an independent person; Not all the controls (daily, monthly and annual) are performed according to the protocols approved by the National QA Committee. In some cases the controls are not well recorded; Clinical

  20. Identification of protein binding in pictorial art Cuban

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendoza, Ariadna; Correa, Maurin; Maqueira, Isis

    2011-01-01

    In this paper were implemented microanalysis methodologies by histochemical analysis, and infrared spectroscopy to determine the nature of the binder in paintings and Gas Chromatography (GC) coupled to Mass Spectrometry (MS) for identification of protein binders of common use in tempera technique with the aim of having these methods as part of the identification of artistic materials in Cuban cultural heritage carried out by Archaeometry Laboratory of Havana city's Historian Cabinet. The methodologies implemented were evaluated using model samples of traditional painting techniques with variable protein binder: yolk, egg white, casein, nut oil and animal glue; ageing for 5 years. The models samples were correctly identified. It was determined the interference of pigments with the presence of nitrogen by histochemical analysis with Amido Black dye. IR spectroscopy technique allowed to differentiate between oily and mixed (oil plus protein) techniques and tempera with yolk. Oily technique was identified in wall paintings of the New San Francisco church (XIX century) and the Obrapia House (XVII century) and the technique of tempera with animal glue in the polychrome of the XVIII century which represents St. John the Evangelist belonging to the San Juan de Letran church

  1. Facebook social uses by young Cubans on the island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliam Marrero Santana

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available It proposes an approach to the social uses of the social networking site (SNS Facebook made by a group of young Cubans residents in the country, as a result of a qualitative research of an empirical-descriptive nature. The virtual ethnography is the main methodological strategy and it is complemented with the application of different techniques like the documentary and literature review, the semi-structured interview and the discussion group. As a part of the analysis’ results, are referred some of the determinant factors of the social uses of Facebook and are described the practices of the young associated with the better use of the techno-communicatives codes of the computing platform, the content production and the collective construction of meaning in this particular network environment. Among the main conclusions of the study, the relevance of the category social uses for the analysis of socio-historical and cultural processes mediated by and mediators of ICT is reaffirmed.

  2. Magic and reality in the literature of the Cuban revolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Jesús Martín Sastre

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available There is no innocent literature. Literature is made by love, by hate, by a woman, by an idea, by an injustice, by a hope, to praise or to criticize, but I think literature has never been isolated, pure, detached. [...] Literature cannot escape life and history (Manuel Cofiño Lopez, 1985: 9697. Cofiño Lopezs own literature is no exception. The clear contrast that he presents in The Last Woman and the upcoming battle between magic and reality, ignorance and culture, past and present has a purpose. The author raises the need to end with the old beliefs in order to progress.This inextricable link between magic and reality of the Revolution is present in several novels of the Cuban Revolution. It shows how the two interact, as well as how past and present intermingle. Moreover, we find that magic is present throughout, and is fully compatible with the Revolution. This does not make it erroneous to believe in the stories of Magic Realism. It is a mistake on the part of the revolution and those who write about it for attempting to deny people the magic of their superstitions and beliefs, since magic is not the enemy of progress. They are part of their lives and their culture, and are something that should be respected.

  3. In vitro antimicrobial assessment of Cuban propolis extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lianet Monzote

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Propolis is a resinous mixture of different plant exudates collected by honeybees. Currently, propolis is widely used as a food supplement and in folk medicine. We have evaluated 20 Cuban propolis extracts of different chemical types, brown (BCP, red and yellow (YCP, with respect to their in vitro antibacterial, antifungal and antiprotozoal properties. The extracts inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus and Trichophyton rubrum at low µg/mL concentrations, whereas they were not active against Escherichia coli and Candida albicans. The major activity of the extracts was found against the protozoa Leishmania, Trypanosoma and Plasmodium, although cytotoxicity against MRC-5 cells was also observed. The BCP-3, YCP-39 and YCP-60 extracts showed the highest activity against P. falciparum, with 50% of microbial growth (IC50 values of 0.2 µg/mL. A positive correlation between the biological activity and the chemical composition was observed for YCP extracts. The most promising antimicrobial activity corresponds to YCP subtype B, which contains acetyl triterpenes as the main constituents. The present in vitro study highlights the potential of propolis against protozoa, but further research is needed to increase selectivity towards the parasite. The observed chemical composition-activity relationship of propolis can contribute to the identification of the active principles and standardisation of this bee product.

  4. Validation of the Cuban Version of Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination-Revised for Screening Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broche-Pérez, Yunier; López-Pujol, Héctor Alejandro

    2017-01-01

    The diagnostic accuracy of the Cuban version of the revised Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination (ACE-R) in identifying mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in comparison with the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) was assessed. The Cuban ACE-R was administered to a group of 129 elderly subjects (92 cognitively healthy and 37 subjects with MCI). The t tests for independent samples were used to compare scores of different psychometric scales between groups, and effect sizes (Cohen's d) were calculated. Cronbach's coefficient α was used to evaluate the reliability of psychometric scales. The validity of ACE-R to screen for MCI was assessed by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. The Cuban ACE-R had reliable internal consistency (Cronbach's coefficient α = 0. 879). The optimal cut-off score for ACE-R for detecting MCI was 84/85. The sensitivity and specificity of ACE-R to screen for MCI was superior to those of MMSE. The area under the ROC curve of the Cuban ACE-R was much larger than that of MMSE (0.93 and 0.63) for detecting MCI. The Cuban ACE-R is a valid screening tool for detecting cognitive impairment. It is more sensitive and accurate in screening for MCI than MMSE. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. What is the Role of the Cuban Revolutionary Armed Forces (FAR) in a Post-Castro Cuba? What Role will the U.S. Military Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-04-01

    through his brother Raul for the past 30 years. The Spanish heritage and machismo tradition of the Cuban male is strong: the long struggle the Cubans...himself on the air in an attempt to change the course of Cuban history. " (Oppenheimer 132). None of this machismo tradition has been lost on Fidel Castro

  6. 31 CFR 515.549 - Bank accounts and other property of non-Cuban citizens who were in Cuba on or after July 8, 1963.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... non-Cuban citizens who were in Cuba on or after July 8, 1963. 515.549 Section 515.549 Money and... Licensing Policy § 515.549 Bank accounts and other property of non-Cuban citizens who were in Cuba on or... accounts and other property of non-Cuban citizens who have left Cuba, provided that they submit evidence...

  7. Establishment of the exotic invasive Cuban treefrog (Osteopilus septentrionalis) in Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glorioso, Brad M.; Waddle, J. Hardin; Muse, Lindy J.; Jennings, Nicole D.; Litton, Melanie; Hamilton, Joel; Gergen, Steven; Heckard, David

    2018-01-01

    The Cuban treefrog, Osteopilus septentrionalis, is native to Cuba, the Bahamas, and the Cayman Islands, and is invasive in areas where it has been introduced and established in the Caribbean as well as Florida. Despite repeated occurrences in several states over many years, it was not believed that Cuban treefrogs had successfully established outside of Florida in the mainland United States. From mid-September to mid-November 2017, we captured and removed 367 Cuban treefrogs in just four surveys in New Orleans, Louisiana. The impacts of this population on native treefrogs in this area is unknown but possibly severe as indicated by the paucity of observations of native treefrogs during our surveys. Eradication of this seemingly established population is improbable, but continued surveys will facilitate learning about the ecology and genetics of this novel population.

  8. Taxonomic status and biology of the Cuban blackhawk, Buteogallus anthracinus gundlachii (AVES: Accipitridae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, J.W.; Garrido, O.H.

    2005-01-01

    We reevaluate the taxonomic status of the Cuban population of the Common Black-Hawk (Buteogallus anthracinus) based on our examination of additional specimens, nests, eggs, and voice data. Buteogallus a. gundlachii is smaller than mainland populations of anthracinus and differs from mainland birds in plumage coloration and pattern. The common (alarm) call of gundlachii is a series of three or four notes, differing from that of mainland anthracinus, whose call consists of 9-24 notes. In the Isla de Pinos, Cuba, we observed gundlachii eating two species of land crabs (71.4%), centipedes (7.1%), lizards (10.7%), mammals (7.1%), and a bird (3.6%). We consider Buteogallus gundlachii Cabanis 1854 (1855), the Cuban Black-Hawk, to be a full species, endemic to Cuba, Isla de Pinos, and many of the cays of the Cuban Archipelago. ?? 2005 The Raptor Research Foundation, Inc.

  9. Mexican and Cuban Composers in New York City circa 1880-1920

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Koegel

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Cuban musicians active in New  York in the 1860s through the 1890s such as Ignacio Cervantes, Emilio Agramonte, and Rosalia Chalia assisted in the struggle for Cuban independence from Spain from the vantage point of New York's Cuban émigré community, and they also established  a strong  presence in the city's musical life.  Important Mexican musicians such as Miguel Lerdo  de Tejada and Carlos Curti intermittently visited New York or were long-term residents there. This was especially true during the late- nineteenth century, when the forced political stability during the Porfiriato made possible the extended visits of Mexican musicians and ensembles to North American cities such as New York. The Mexican Revolution also sent Mexican musicians to the United States in search of political freedom as well as economic and artistic opportunities that were temporarily closed to them in Mexico.

  10. The Dynamics of Cuba Anticyclones (CubANs) and Interaction With the Loop Current/Florida Current System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourafalou, Vassiliki; Androulidakis, Yannis; Le Hénaff, Matthieu; Kang, HeeSook

    2017-10-01

    Mesoscale anticyclonic eddies along the northern Cuban coast (CubANs) have been identified in the Straits of Florida, associated with the northward shift of the Florida Current (FC) and the anticyclonic curvature of the Loop Current (LC) at the western entrance of the Straits. The dynamics of CubAN eddies and their interaction with the LC/FC system are described for the first time using satellite, drifter and buoy data, and a high-resolution model. It is shown that the evolution of CubANs to the south of the FC front complements the evolution of cyclonic eddies to the north of the FC, advancing previous studies on synergy between FC meandering and eddy activity. Two types of CubAN eddies are characterized: (a) a main anticyclonic cell (type "A") within the core of the LC during retracted phase conditions, associated with the process of LC Eddy (LCE) shedding from an extended LC, and (b) an individual, distinct anticyclonic eddy that is released from the main LC core and is advected eastward, along the northern Cuban coast (type "B"). There are also mixed cases, when the process of LCE shedding has started, so a type "A" CubAN is being formed, in the presence of one or more eastward progressing type "B" eddies. CubAN evolution is associated with an increased mixed layer and weaker stratification of the upper ocean along the eddy's track. The cyclonic activity along the Cuban coast and wind-induced upwelling events also contribute to the evolution and fate of the CubAN eddies.

  11. Economic Benefit for Cuban Laurel Thrips Biological Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shogren, C; Paine, T D

    2016-02-01

    The Cuban laurel thrips, Gynaikothrips ficorum Marchal (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae), is a critical insect pest of Ficus microcarpa in California urban landscapes and production nurseries. Female thrips feed and oviposit on young Ficus leaves, causing the expanding leaves to fold or curl into a discolored leaf gall. There have been attempts to establish specialist predator natural enemies of the thrips, but no success has been reported. We resampled the same areas in 2013-2014 where we had released Montandoniola confusa (= morguesi) Streito and Matocq (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) in southern California in 1995 but had been unable to recover individuals in 1997-1998. Thrips galls were significantly reduced in all three of the locations in the recent samples compared with the earlier samples. M. confusa was present in all locations and appears to be providing successful biological control. The value of the biological control, the difference between street trees in good foliage condition and trees with poor foliage, was $58,766,166. If thrips damage reduced the foliage to very poor condition, the value of biological control was $73,402,683. Total cost for the project was $61,830. The benefit accrued for every dollar spent on the biological control of the thrips ranged from $950, if the foliage was in poor condition, to $1,187, if the foliage was in very poor condition. The value of urban forest is often underappreciated. Economic analyses that clearly demonstrate the very substantial rates of return on investment in successful biological control in urban forests provide compelling arguments for supporting future efforts. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Cuban experience with the therapeutic use of adult stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez Ramirez, Porfirio; Alfonso Simon, Amel; Aparicio Suarez, Jose L

    2011-01-01

    The basic and clinical researches carried out during past years on the stem cells and its therapeutic possibilities are at present times, one of the most interesting subjects of the contemporaneous medicine. There are advances in the study and application of adult stem cells showing remarkable advantages on the embryonic ones, since its handling is more simple, economic and they are obtained from the own subject to be treated. For the introduction in Cuba of the regenerative cellular therapy in the Institute of Hematology and Immunology the cellular sources selected were the adult stem cells derived from bone marrow and the mobilized ones to the peripheral blood. To make easy the expansion of treatment to other hospital centers, authors standardized a technique for the mobilization of the hematopoietic stem cells to peripheral blood using a granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (Filgrastim, of national production) developing a simple, economic and more tolerable method for patients. In this way, the cellular therapy has been expanded to 6 Cuban provinces and until April, 2009 562 cases with autologous adult stem cells transplant have been treated, from which the 81.7% to correspond to patients presenting with Angiology diseases with a significant reduction of major amputations. Also, the results have been very promising in the bone lesions and periodontal processes among other diseases treated. The results obtained until now may be considered as a new achievement of revolutionary science and of our national health systems and of science and technique. The method used is an economic and feasible procedure for the institutions with scarce resources

  13. Trump And Obama’s “Cuban Legacy”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kh. Sh. Ulugova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available After the triumph of revolution in Cuba in 1959 Washington and Havana have been hostile to each other for more than half a century. Even the end of the Cold War and disintegration of the bipolar international system left intact the antagonism between the two. Only after Barack Obama came to power did normalization become possible. He admitted the failure of the policy of sanctions and declared a “new beginning” in US-Cuba relations. There is a risk now that under the new administration of Donald Trump the efforts made before can be neutralized if the US president keeps his recent pre-election promise and cancels all the previous agreements on normalization. The question remains open – whether Obama’s achievements in this regard will be preserved or Trump will manage to reverse the normalization policy of his predecessor. There will be either pragmatic Trump the businessman who understands the benefits of continuing Obama’s policy, or Trump the politician who will stand firm on his pre-election pledge to roll back on once promising initiative. The article analyzes the process of normalization initiated by Obama and Castro in 2014, explains its background motivations and builds various scenarios of further development of Cuban-American relations, as well as Trump’s policy towards Cuba. It is unlikely that the Trump administration will abandon what has already been achieved. It may entail significant political and economic costs, which is unacceptable for Trump the businessman. However, any new progressive steps towards the normalization should not be expected in the short term.

  14. Final results of the Cuban program for children from areas affected by the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina, Julio; García, Omar

    2016-01-01

    From 1990 till 2011, a free health care program for children from areas affected by the Chernobyl accident was organized and implemented by the Cuban Government. A significant number of qualified personal in medicine and science collaborated with this program. The information gathered for more than 21 years and the conclusive results obtained in the program are presented here. During this time, 26 114 patients, 84 % children, mostly from Ukraine, Russia and Belarus were treated in the mentioned program. Other aspects of the Cuban medical assistance in Ukraine and the main results obtained in the radiological impact evaluation of the accident on the children treated in Cuba are also included. (author)

  15. Management of nuclear information and knowledge in Cuban institutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, A.G.; Rondon, C.F.; Aldama, C.L.; Aruca, L.A.; Labrada, C.

    2004-01-01

    , to evaluate a perception on Cuban population about the use of nuclear energy; To develop a methodology to evaluate the impact of applied projects of Nuclear Ramal Program; To develop National Information System on Energy in Cuba. The annual celebration of events like the National Workshop of Knowledge Management in Energy and the National Seminar of Information on Energy, with an important and a decisive support of the OIEA, allow to create spaces for discussion on these topics and to share the experiences of the institutions in the implementation of processes of information and knowledge management, starting from the design and implementation of own strategies. The most relevant results are presented in this paper, obtained after the execution of these projects that allow the acquisition, development, generalization and application of information and nuclear knowledge generated in Cuba and abroad. (author)

  16. Safety and preliminary immunogenicity of Cuban pneumococcal conjugate vaccine candidate in healthy children: a randomized phase I clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotres, Carlos P; Puga, Rinaldo; Ricardo, Yariset; Broño, Carmen R; Paredes, Beatriz; Echemendía, Vladimir; Rosell, Sandra; González, Nadezhda; García-Rivera, Dagmar; Valdés, Yury; Goldblatt, David; Vérez-Bencomo, Vicente

    2014-09-15

    A new heptavalent conjugate vaccine (PCV7-TT) is under development in Cuba. PCV7-TT contains 2 μg of serotypes 1, 5, 14, 18C, 19F, 23F and 4 μg of 6B, each one conjugated to tetanus toxoid (TT). This vaccine was designed with the serotypes that cause most invasive pneumococcal diseases (IPD) worldwide. In the present study, we investigated the safety and explored the immunogenicity of PCV7-TT during a controlled, randomized and double blind clinical trial phase I in 4-5-year-old children. PCV7-TT was well tolerated and as safe as Synflorix used as control vaccine. Following a single-dose vaccination, all individual serotypes included in PCV7-TT induced statistically significant increase of IgG GMC and OPA GMT. These are the first clinical results of PCV7-TT in children and they pave the way toward next clinical trials in children and infants. This clinical trial was published in the Cuban Public Register of Clinical Trials with code RPCEC00000173. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. soirées Rock - Cuban salsa, bachata and Kizomba workshops

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Dancing Club

    2015-01-01

    The CERN Dancing Club organizes a Cuban salsa, bachata and Kizomba workshop open to everyone on Saturday 9 May in its B566 ballroom (See the poster). Furthermore, the club invites you to its Rock party. Club parties are free and open to everyone. You bring something to eat and the club offers the drinks (non alcoholic)    

  18. Hydrogen Evolution on Supported Incomplete Cubane-type [Mo3S4](4+) Electrocatalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaramillo, Thomas; Bonde, Jacob Lindner; Zhang, Jingdong

    2008-01-01

    Electrocatalytic properties of biomimetic supported incomplete cubane-type [Mo3S4](4+) clusters are investigated. The activity toward the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) is evaluated on both a high surface area gas diffusion electrode in a membrane electrode assembly and on highly orientated...

  19. The education in values on professionals´ formation from a cuban perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara del C. Roba Lazo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The education in values has been a topic broadly approached in the last decades by authors of different latitudes. In the social development, this constitutes a great problem in the formation of the individuals to who, the social relationships allow them to value, to transform the reality and to be educated, what leads to the formation of the personality. The Cuban universities, as entities open to the society, win more and more partisans in the conception that their purpose is not only to transmit knowledge in its closed environment, but on the contrary, they represent a main socialized agent of education in values aware of the social mission that has given to it by the society that is built, like a formative institution able to solve the necessities of the society. For that reason, it is demanded the integral formation of the professionals. In the work it is approached the education in values from the perspective o the current Cuban society necessities that demands the development of a humanist pedagogy sustained in axiological bases that defend a new pedagogic ethics. It is carried out an analysis of the socialized agencies and the agents in charge of this process, as well as the historical antecedents of the education in values from the Cuban point of view in the different contexts the topic has been studied, as well as the contributions from the Cuban pedagogy to the development of it, indispensable from the integral formation of the Physical Culture professionals.

  20. ADASIR system: a Cuban learning experience from accidents and promotion of radiation safety culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferro Fernandez, Ruben; Ilizastigui Perez, Fidel; Fuente Puch, Andres de la

    2010-01-01

    The Cuban Regulatory Authority is carrying out a National Program for fostering and development of Safety Culture taking into account the wide recognition of the Human factors contribution to radiological events. The program includes the introduction of new regulatory practices and initiatives in order to increase the safety culture in Cuban facilities. The most recent of those initiatives is the System for Radiological Event Analysis, Dissemination and Learning, called ADASIR (Initials of the System's name in Spanish). The main purpose of this system is to provide a better understanding and knowledge of any radiological event reported both in the country and abroad reducing, this way, the possibility of a new occurrence of a similar event in our facilities. A team of regulatory and external experts make together a detailed review of all available information about the event and identify possible root causes, failed barriers and other important data of national interest. The results of such review are documented and sent to any Cuban facility or organization with potential for similar occurrence according to the equipment and practices they have. The document includes an specific checklist which could be used by the facilities to make a self-assessment and evaluate theirs strength and weakness in regards to a similar event. This paper presents the main characteristics and results of this new experience of Cuban Regulatory Authority. (author)

  1. Mapping the Cuban Condition in Fernando Ortiz's Un catauro de cubanismos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Fay

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Explores the idiom-identity complex in Cuba in the first three decades of the twentieth century, concentrating on an emblematic catalog of the idiomatic raw material of the Cuban language community: Fernando Ortiz's vernacular dictionary, 'Un Catauro de cubanismos' from 1923. Author considers the critical complex of history, geography, and identity within Ortiz's dictionary.

  2. Cuban Education in Neo-liberal Times: Socialist Revolutionaries and State Capitalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malott, Curry

    2007-01-01

    This article outlines the events that have led to Cuba's current engagement with global capitalism and the implications for Cuban education. The author looks at what Noam Chomsky (1999) has repeatedly referred to as "Cuba's trouble making in the hemisphere," such as it is. The author answers the question, "Why does the US government…

  3. “Latin-African” Solidarity – The Cuban Civilian Mission in Angola, 1975-1991

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Hatzky

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available From 1975 to 1991, almost 500,000 Cubans were actively involved in the Angolan independence struggle and in building up Angola as an independent nation. Most of them were soldiers, but they also included doctors, teachers, building workers, and technicians.

  4. 31 CFR 515.415 - Travel to Cuba; transportation of certain Cuban nationals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Travel to Cuba; transportation of... CONTROL REGULATIONS Interpretations § 515.415 Travel to Cuba; transportation of certain Cuban nationals... or a returning resident of the United States, from Cuba to the United States, unless otherwise...

  5. Distinguishing Features of Cuban Children Referred for Professional Help Because of ADHD: Looking beyond the Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Barry H.; Normand, Sebastien; Sotares deToro, Maria del Pilar; Santana Gonzalez, Yorkys; Guilarte Tellez, Jorge Antonio; Carbonell Naranjo, Migdalia; Musle, Miriam; Diaz Socarras, Felix Javier; Robaey, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To distinguish Cuban children clinically referred because of ADHD from an at-risk community sample and a community control group in terms of symptoms, associated difficulties and impairment of family and peer relations. Method: Parents and teachers of 1,036 children (6-8 years old) completed an established ADHD rating scale and a…

  6. [The migration crisis of the summer of 1994. Balance and perspectives of Cuban emigration flows: 1984-1996].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez Chavez, E

    1996-01-01

    "The article argues that the rafters crisis of 1994 and the resulting migration agreements between the United States and Cuba in 1994 and 1995 were a radical turn in policies and migration flows between the two countries. The article also describes the general evolution of Cuban migration flows towards the U.S. from the 1984 bilateral agreement up to 1996. As a context, it describes the structural elements of recent Cuban emigration and the place Cubans occupy in the general immigration from Latin America and the Caribbean." (EXCERPT)

  7. 78 FR 9573 - Delegation of Authority To Suspend the Provisions of Title III of the Cuban Liberty and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-08

    ... Authority To Suspend the Provisions of Title III of the Cuban Liberty and Democratic Solidarity (LIBERTAD... Liberty and Democratic Solidarity (LIBERTAD) Act of 1996 (Public Law 104-114; 22 U.S.C. 6021-6091), as...

  8. The Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962: A Case Study of the Tailored Use of Instruments of National Power

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Charney, Sean S

    2008-01-01

    President Kennedy and the EXCOM were able to achieve foreign policy success during the Cuban Missile Crisis because of their ability to tailor the pertinent IOPs and implement them to reach a desired...

  9. Results of HBsAg examination with immunoelectrophoresis and radioimmunoassay in VPR, Laotian PDR and Cuban R

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michal, L; Szilagyiova, M; Zahradny, V; Holan, J; Krajnak, V [Komenskeho Univ., Martin (Czechoslovakia). Lekarska Fakulta; Padurova, J [Okresna Hygienicka Stanica, Zilina (Czechoslovakia)

    1984-06-21

    The results are compared of examining 112 Vietnamese, 30 Laotian and 50 Cuban citizens for HBsAg using IEP and RIA methods. Of the examined persons with no liver disorders HBsAg was found in 23 (31.5%) of the Vietnamese and 1 (2.5%) of the Cubans using the RIA method and only in 4 (5.5%) of the Vietnamese using the IEP method. Of the examined persons with liver disorders RIA found HBsAg in 12 (30.8%) of the Vietnamese, 5 (71.4%) of the Laotians and 2 (20.0%) of the Cubans while with IEP only in 3 (7.7%) Vietnamese 2 (28.6%) Laotians and 1 (10.0%) of the Cubans examined.

  10. Contribution gives the cosmic radiation to the doses for exhibition to the natural radiation in the Cuban population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomas Zerquera, J.; Peres Sanchez, D.; Prendes Alonso, M

    1998-01-01

    With the objective to specify the preponderant contribution the cosmic component the radiation in the dose that the Cuban population receives you carries out a program she gives mensurations she gives this component in the whole country

  11. Results of HBsAg examination with immunoelectrophoresis a radioimmunoassay in VPR, Laotian PDR and Cuban R

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michal, L.; Szilagyiova, M.; Zahradny, V.; Holan, J.; Krajnak, V.

    1984-01-01

    The results are compared of examining 112 Vietnamese, 30 Laotian and 50 Cuban citizens for HBsAg using IEP and RIA methods. Of the examined persons with no liver disorders HBsAg was found in 23 (31.5%) of the Vietnamese and 1 (2.5%) of the Cubans using the RIA method and only in 4 (5.5%) of the Vietnamese using the IEP method. Of the examined persons with liver disorders RIA found HBsAg in 12 (30.8%) of the Vietnamese, 5 (71.4%) of the Laotians and 2 (20.0%) of the Cubans while with IEP only in 3 (7.7%) Vietnamese 2 (28.6%) Laotians and 1 (10.0%) of the Cubans examined. (author)

  12. People on the Edge See More. A Conversation with the Cuban-American Writer Cristina García

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Àngels Carabí

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available L'entrevista amb l'escriptora cubano-americana Cristina Garciacute;a explora el tema de la identitat cubanoamericana i desvetlla la riquesa literagrave;ria que sorgeix de la fusioacute; de dues cultures, la cubana i la nord-americana, i com aquesta fusioacute; innova la literatura nord-americana tradicional. En la seva novelmiddot;la, emDreaming in Cuban/em (1992, l'escriptora explora els efectes de la Revolucioacute; castrista des de la perspectiva de les dones cubanes que van quedar-se a l'illa, aixiacute; com de les dones que emigraren als Estats Units. The conversation with Cuban-American writer Cristina Garciacute;a explores what it means to be Cuban-American, and reveals how to grow bicultural enriches mainstream American literature. In her novel emDreaming in Cuban/em (1992, the writer explores the effects of the Castro Revolution from the perspective of Cuban women who remained in Cuba, as well as from the experience of women who emigrated to the United States.

  13. Pb-210 behaviour in environmental samples from the Cuban east in 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez Tamayo, L.; Suarez Pina, W.

    1996-01-01

    A method based in alpha and beta gross counting, is applied to research behaviour, during 1993, of Pb-210 in atmospheric depositional samples of six sites of the Cuban east. In five of these points, located distant from Cuban centers, the average Pb-210 aport to measured beta activity is predominant (80 +- 20 %) and maximum (> 50 % annual) is observed in coincidence with the first rain full peak. Such regularity may be explained, if assumption is made that principal source of Pb-210 are the continental air masses penetrating the insular atmosphere in winter and that mentioned radionuclide is deposit later with the spring rainfalls. In the sixth point, located at industrial zone, the alpha-beta activities rates are abnormally high, with maximums of 1.5 and 2.4 faced with peak raining and wet months respectively and probably originated by the input atmosphere of rich s in alpha emisors particles from industrial processes

  14. Evaluation of gas emissions and environmental impact of a Cuban thermal power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colas Aroche, Juan Alberto; Alvarez Hernandez, Orlando H; Fuentes Quevedo, Eduardo; Teutelo Nunnez, Raisa

    2006-01-01

    The present work shows the results obtained in the characterization of gas emissions and the impact of two fire-tube boilers in a Cuban thermal power plant. The results of the SO 2 and NO X sampling were collected in specific solutions for each pollutant. The sampling of suspended particulates in chimneys/pipes/stacks was made by collecting them in a filterholder for their analysis by means of the gravimetric method. Flow measurements were also made by using pressure sensors of Pilot tube-type speedometers. The dispersion modelling of pollutants poured out of the chimneys was developed running the program for the concentration calculation from continuous industrial sources and following the methodology approved by the Cuban standard according to Berliand model. The authors conclude that when burning national crude oil in the studied boilers, sulphur dioxide concentrations and suspended particulates are higher than the internationally standardized level

  15. Morphological measurements and body indices for Cuban Creole goats and their crossbreds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edilberto Chacón

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work, linear body measures were taken and production indices calculated for 100 Cuban Creole goats and 100 crossbred goats in order to aid in the characterization of animal genetic resources in Cuba. Low variation was found for all indices of the Creole goats, showing homogeneity between the groups of animals studied. Most of the functional indices are related to the milk biotype which is in agreement the possible origin of the breed from animals of the Iberian Peninsula and Canary Islands. The crossbreds were more varied, mostly due to undesigned disorganized crossing. These data may help in identifying a commercial niche for the breed and contribute to in situ conservation of the Cuban Creole goat.

  16. Photovoltaic Solar Energy as a Chance and a Need for the Development of the Cuban Economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casal Rivera, Yanet; Parúas Cuza, Rafael

    2017-01-01

    The photovoltaic systems connected to the electric network as a great opportunity and a need for the Cuban economy. This works intends to present an analysis of a lot of aspects related to the economic feasibility of using solar energy generated by roof-mounted small photovoltaic systems such as some aspects related to the economic and environmental analysis and their contribution to the National and Township development as well as a study of the costs behaviors and its comparison concerning prices in reference to the normal electric power and the new investments for the minor sells of these systems to common people. Finally there is a proposition of actions to encourage the use of this kind of energy in the different sectors of the Cuban economy. (author)

  17. Environmental Management in the Process of Purification of Cuban Furfural in the Chemical Bioactive Center Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ing. Liset Rodríguez-Machín

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available It is necessary to establish in the installed equipment, operating conditions and quality specifications in the purification of furfural produced in Cuba. To do this some literature review and experiments are carried out. The approved batches by the quality control are quantified as well as the heat and evaporation losses and the impact on workers health. Energy management is performed by identifying electricity as the energy source of higher consumption. Some measures are applied like coating the evaporator portions that are required together with condenser modification and improvement of the room ventilation. As a result it was shown that it is possible to purify the Cuban furfural in the installed equipment, the process efficiency increases in 5,5 %, the evaporation losses decrease and non-acceptance by quality control drops. If the imported furfural is replaced by the Cuban are saved about 39 000 • per year production.

  18. "Nation or death": the Cuban Revolution and the 1990’s crisis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Araujo Brito

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to analyze the survival conditions of the cuban political regime from the end of the cold war, during the “Special Period”. The breakdown of the socialist bloc between 1989 and 1991 certainly represented an important change of direction for the Cuban Revolution and generated an economic crisis of great proportions, which put at risk the very permanence of the revolutionary regime. However, it was allowed to survive - despite the diffi cult inner and outer conditions and the frequent contrary predictions – to its most delicate moment since the origin in 1959. Although there was a plan for economic reforms and policies to a lesser extent, the survival of the regime was bounded to its nationalistic appeal, what was the political legitimacy before the socialism crisis, as well as the defense of the social achievements of the 30 years of the revolutionary regime.

  19. Creating a safety culture in the regulatory authority: The Cuban experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferro Fernandez, R.; Guillen Campos, A.

    2002-01-01

    The Cuban regulatory authority has been working during several years for the fostering and development of a high Safety Culture level in nuclear activities in the country. As starting point to achieve this objective the assessment of the Safety Culture level in the regulatory authority performance was considered an important issue. For this purpose a preliminary diagnosis was carried out by means of a national survey that allowed identifying some areas of the regulatory activity that required improvements in order to achieve a higher Safety Culture and to immediately implement appropriate actions. Two of the most important actions undertaken were: the statement of the regulatory authority Safety Policy which governs and determines the performance of this organization and its staff and also the implementation of a new interaction practice at top level between the regulatory authority and the utilities of the nuclear sector through the Annual Regulatory Conference. The present paper summarizes these two introduced practices into the Cuban regulatory activity. (author)

  20. Normalization of US-Cuban Relations: Obama Doctrine and International Security in the Western Hemisphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Łaciński

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Strained relations between the US and Cuba after the victory of the Cuban revolution were a permanent element of the destabilization of international security in the Western Hemisphere. During the Cold War, this destabilization was a function of the East-West confrontation. Since the end of Cold War the importance of Cuba as a Western Hemisphere entity hostile to the United States has diminished radically. Definite steps to normalize relations with Cuba have been taken only in 2014. The media named the change of policies of the US towards Cuba (and Iran as the Obama Doctrine. This article will try to prove that the continuation of the confron-tational and hostile US-Cuban relations after the collapse of the Eastern bloc was an exceptional and "unnatural" phenomenon from the perspective of realistic school of international relations, both for Washington and Havana.

  1. Castro’s Ploy-America’s Dilemma: The 1980 Cuban Boatlift

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-12-01

    Even the music in Cuba had become politicized- few romantic songs were played. Mercedes and her family liked to go to the beach for recreation. Because...of religious beliefs through scientific materialistic propaganda."’ 2-5 The government employed such harassing tech- niques as blaring loud music from...dollars, two blue-topped Cuban government turismo boats quickly appeared in the harbor to sell goods to the woaters. Ham sandwiches cost $i one day, $3

  2. Corporate Social Responsibility: a proposal for its assessment in Cuban hotel facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusmelys Ferrales-Arias

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The present article, after addressing the fundamental elements that characterize the corporate social responsibility approach, proposes a procedure for its evaluation in Cuban hotel facilities through the use of instruments based on indicators developed for this purpose. The study focuses on measuring the degree of social responsibility and the level of responsible performance that allows the installation management to properly align the practices of social responsibility with the installation strategy.

  3. Industrial property for science’s management, technology and innovation in Cuban State companies

    OpenAIRE

    Contreras Villavicencio, Dulce María; Suárez Gutiérrez, Evelio; Moreno Cruz, Marta Milagros; Correa Álvarez, Pascual

    2017-01-01

    The paper synthesizes some research on industrial property aspects from the socio-legal perspective and financial accounting. Its focus to the socialist state enterprise adaptation in his economic fact, social and environmental responsibility as a fundamental Cuban model reach, competitiveness and high performance in socialist state enterprise. It outlines criteria on the ordering and implementation of industrial property through the management of science and technology, protection and dissem...

  4. Analysis of the Socio-Educational Dimension of the Cuban Woman in Negra of Wendy Guerra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Navarro Galiano

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This job is based on the novel written by the author Wendy Guerra, Negra. Firstly, a study about social and education situation of the cuban woman since the colonial phase to the present day is accomplished as well. Finally, the main topics in her novel Negra such as racism, sex, witchcraft, music, magic and religion will be analysed.

  5. Making sense of Santería: three books on Afro-Cuban religion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Palmié

    1996-07-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] Santeria from Africa to the New World: The Dead Sell Memories. GEORGE BRANDON. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1993. x + 206 pp. (Cloth US$31.50 Working the Spirit: Ceremonies of the African Diaspora. JOSEPH M. MURPHY. Boston: Beacon, 1994. xiii + 263 pp. (Cloth US$ 25.00 Walking with the Night: The Afro-Cuban World of Santeria. RAUL CANIZARES. Rochester VT: Destiny Books, 1993. xii + 148 pp. (Paper US$ 12.95 Since 1959, the steady exodus from revolutionary Cuba has led to the gradual emergence of an Afro-Cuban religious diaspora in the United States. While this phenomenon has attracted scholarly attention for some time, the literature has grown particularly rapidly in recent years. It is, perhaps, not entirely fortuitous that a spate of current academic publications on the subject coincided with a scramble by the popular media to exploit its exotic potential in the context of the 1993 U.S. Supreme Court case on animal sacrifice. Clearly, what has come to be called an Afro-Cuban "cultic renaissance" in exile holds promise both for sensationalist journalism and certain kinds of theoretical projects. Partly articulating with older, but politically reinvigorated debates about the relations between African and African-American cultures, partly addressing fundamental questions about conventional models of cultural boundedness and coherence, and, finally, calling into question both popular and academic notions of "modernity" (and its inevitable counterpart "tradition", the 292 New West Indian Guide/Nieuwe West-Indische Gids vol. 70 no. 3 &4 (1996problems posed by the emergence of an Afro-Cuban religious diaspora in the United States present a timely challenge.

  6. Soil-plant relation in Cuban sugar cane by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz Riso, O.; Griffith Martinez, J.

    1996-01-01

    This paper shows the result of soil-plant relation in samples from Cuban sugar canes of different soil types and cane varieties, using the INAA from thermal reactor. The behaviour of minor and trace elements in sugar cane leaves is uniform and independent of sugar cane variety or type of soil. The soil-plant relation shows four principal groups of micro elements, according to their absorption by the plant

  7. Evaluation and distribution of doses received by Cuban population due to environmental sources of radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zerquera, Juan T.; Prendes Alonso, Miguel; Fernandez Gomez, Isis M.; Lopez Bejerano, Gladys

    2008-01-01

    Full text: In the frame of a national research project supported by the Nuclear Energy Agency of the Ministry of Science, Technology and Environment of the Republic of Cuba doses received by Cuban population due to the exposure to existing in the environment sources of radiation were assessed. Direct measurements of sources representing 90% of average total doses to world population according to UNSCEAR data were made and estimations of doses were obtained for the different components of the total dose: doses due to the exposure to cosmic radiation, external terrestrial radiation, potassium contained in human body and inhalation and ingestion of radionuclides present in the environment. Using the obtained results it was made an estimation of total doses to Cuban population due to environmental radiation sources and the contributions of different dose components were assessed. This was carried out through a Monte Carlo simulation of the total doses using the parameter of dose distributions obtained for the different contributors (components) to total dose. On the basis of the estimations the average total effective dose to Cuban population due to the exposure to environmental sources was estimated as 1.1 ± 0.3 mSv per year. This low dose value is in the range of doses estimated by UNSCEAR for world population due to natural background and can be explained by the specific of Cuban environment: a majority of the population living at the sea level or at low altitudes, relative low content of primordial radionuclides in soils and high ventilation rates in dwellings. All the instructions specified in the Call for Abstracts should be taken into account. e/ 41 and 457. (author)

  8. Social workers’ construction of “family” in Cuban context: Ideas for a debate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Isabel Peña Farias

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents preliminary research about the process of the construction of concepts in social work. In this case, it is referred to as a social worker’s construction of “family” as a concept and as a field of practice in a current Cuban context. Based on an exploratory and qualitative research design, the paper presents an analysis that also opens to the discussion about social work with families in Cuba. The findings shows that Cuban social workers think of family as a group with cohabitation and affinity, which is more important than consanguinity, as a dimension for family definitions. They also point at structures of family, special bonds in family network and the social internal and external functions of family in their definitions. Among these functions, the transmission of cultural values, as well as the emotional support and shelter for members, seems relevant.Regarding family as a field of practice, they all share the criteria that is necessary for practice to develop a contextual analysis of each situation that goes from macro-contextual aspects to the micro-reality of family. The importance of structural matters and their impact on family functions is also a common idea, which is nucleated around a multigenerational reality of Cuban families and evaluated as a positive or negative impact depending on the case in question.They consider social work with families, and social work in general, to be in a critical situation in relation to losing professionalization and social recognition. The reasons explaining these ideas have to do with the instability of social work institutionalization and the recent retraction of social services. These variations have obeyed the changes in a Cuban context that affects the entire welfare system and social work’s position in it.

  9. Environment education for taking of decision. One challenge for the sector cuban cooperative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miladys Garrido Cervera

    2015-12-01

    The present work have like purpose demonstrate the importance that reviewer include the environment theme in the process of taking of decisions in the farming cooperative to make up the aspect 133 of the economic politic and social in the new Cuban economic model. To do that one analysis about the environment education and the relationship tighten what have with the cooperative development for the guarantee of good practice, guarantee real one development sustainable.

  10. The Soviet-Cuban Connection in Central America and the Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-04-01

    bly for civilian use, was built primarily by armed clandestinely ferrying a cargo of military supplies to Cubans, despite the high unemployment on the...reorm an deocraic lecion. Th sucesive population now either own their land outright or par- governments of El Salvador have worked to follow ticipate as...launcher, airstrips and unloading their cargo of arms and am-munition. Air drops are also used. .’.. subsequently captured by communist forces after

  11. Immobilization of radioactive waste through cementation using Cuban zeolitic rock as additive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chales Suarez, G.; Castillo Gomez, R.

    1997-01-01

    The cementation of both simulated and real low level aqueous wastes using Cuban zeolite as additive is described. Mechanical characteristics and leach testing of the cemented waste forms has been studied. The results obtained have shown that the presence of zeolite in the cemented waste for reduces considerably the leach rates of Cs and Co and moreover, mechanical characteristics (set time and compressive strength) are better when compared with direct cementation of aqueous wastes. (author). 13 refs, 8 tabs

  12. Energetic and economic evaluation of solar thermal and photovoltaic cooling system in Cuban hotel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Díaz Torres, Yamile; Valdivia Nodal, Yarelis; Castellanos Molina, Luis Miguel; Torres del Toro, Migdalia; Monteagudo Llanes, José

    2015-01-01

    The present paper discusses the energetic and economic feasibility of using two configurations of solar cooling in a Cuban Hotel. The air conditioning hybrid system schemes are: conventional system (Chiller) interconnected in parallel with a solar- powered absorption cooling system (SACS); and a photovoltaic cooling system (PCS). There were analyzed by methodologies and thermodynamic principles governing these technologies. The results show that their uses are alternatives for reducing energy consumption and environmental impact. (full text)

  13. New safety performance indicators for safety assessment of radioactive waste disposal facilities. Cuban experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peralta Vital, J.L.; Castillo, R.G.; Olivera, J.

    2002-01-01

    The paper shows the Cuban experience on implementing geological disposal of radioactive waste and the necessity for identifying new safety performance indicators for the safety assessment (SA) of radioactive waste disposal facilities. The selected indicator was the concentration of natural radioactive elements (U, Ra, Th, K) in the Cuban geologic environment. We have carried out a group of investigations, which have allowed characterising the concentration for the whole Country, creating a wide database where this indicator is associated with the lithology. The main lithologies in Cuba are: the sedimentary rocks (70 percent of national occurrence), which are present in the three regions (limestone and lutite), and finally the igneous and metamorphic rocks. The results show the concentrations ranges of the natural radionuclides associated fundamentally to the variation in the lithology and geographical area of the Country. In Cuba, the higher concentration (ppm) of Uranium and Radium are referenced to the Central region associated to Skarn, while for Thorium (ppm) and Potassium (%), in the East region the concentration peaks in Tuffs have been found. The concentrations ranges obtained are preliminary, they characterise the behaviour of this parameter for the Cuban geology, but they do not represent limits for safety assessment purposes yet. Also other factors should be taken into account as the assessment context, time scales and others assumptions before establishing the final concentration limits for the natural radionuclides as a radiological and nuclear safety performance indicator complementary to dose and risk for safety assessment for radiological and nuclear facilities. (author)

  14. A scenario analysis of investment options for the Cuban power sector using the MARKAL model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, Evelyn L.; Belt, Juan A.B.; Chambers, Adam; Delaquil, Pat; Goldstein, Gary

    2010-01-01

    The Cuban power sector faces a need for extensive investment in new generating capacity, under a large number of uncertainties regarding future conditions, including: rate of demand growth, fluctuations in fuel prices, access to imported fuel, and access to investment capital for construction of new power plants and development of fuel import infrastructure. To identify cost effective investment strategies under these uncertainties, a supply and power sector MARKAL model was assembled, following an extensive review of available data on the Cuban power system and resource potentials. Two scenarios were assessed, a business-as-usual (BAU) scenario assuming continued moderate electricity load growth and domestic fuel production growth, and a high growth (HI) scenario assuming rapid electricity demand growth, rapid increase in domestic fuel production, and a transition to market pricing of electricity. Within these two scenarios sets, sensitivity analyses were conducted on a number of variables. The implications of least-cost investment strategies for new capacity builds, investment spending requirements, electricity prices, fuel expenditures, and carbon dioxide emissions for each scenario were assessed. Natural gas was found to be the cost effective fuel for new generation across both scenarios and most sensitivity cases, suggesting that access to natural gas, through increased domestic production and LNG import, is a clear priority for further analysis in the Cuban context.

  15. A scenario analysis of investment options for the Cuban power sector using the MARKAL model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, Evelyn L.; Chambers, Adam; Delaquil, Pat; Goldstein, Gary [International Resources Group, 1211 Connecticut Avenue, NW, Suite 700, Washington, DC 20036 (United States); Belt, Juan A.B. [US Agency for International Development, 1300 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20523-3800 (United States)

    2010-07-15

    The Cuban power sector faces a need for extensive investment in new generating capacity, under a large number of uncertainties regarding future conditions, including: rate of demand growth, fluctuations in fuel prices, access to imported fuel, and access to investment capital for construction of new power plants and development of fuel import infrastructure. To identify cost effective investment strategies under these uncertainties, a supply and power sector MARKAL model was assembled, following an extensive review of available data on the Cuban power system and resource potentials. Two scenarios were assessed, a business-as-usual (BAU) scenario assuming continued moderate electricity load growth and domestic fuel production growth, and a high growth (HI) scenario assuming rapid electricity demand growth, rapid increase in domestic fuel production, and a transition to market pricing of electricity. Within these two scenarios sets, sensitivity analyses were conducted on a number of variables. The implications of least-cost investment strategies for new capacity builds, investment spending requirements, electricity prices, fuel expenditures, and carbon dioxide emissions for each scenario were assessed. Natural gas was found to be the cost effective fuel for new generation across both scenarios and most sensitivity cases, suggesting that access to natural gas, through increased domestic production and LNG import, is a clear priority for further analysis in the Cuban context. (author)

  16. Structure, thermodynamic and electronic properties of carbon-nitrogen cubanes and protonated polynitrogen cations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaban, Vitaly V.; Andreeva, Nadezhda A.

    2017-12-01

    Energy generation and storage are at the center of modern civilization. Energetic materials constitute quite a large class of compounds with a high amount of stored chemical energy that can be released. We hereby use a combination of quantum chemistry methods to investigate feasibility and properties of carbon-nitrogen cubanes and multi-charged polynitrogen cations in the context of their synthesis and application as unprecedented energetic materials. We show that the stored energy increases gradually with the nitrogen content increase. Nitrogen-poor cubanes retain their stabilities in vacuum, even at elevated temperatures. Such molecules will be probably synthesized at some point. In turn, polynitrogen cations are highly unstable, except N8H+, despite they are isoelectronic to all-carbon cubane. Kinetic stability of the cation decays drastically as its total charge increases. High-level thermodynamic calculations revealed that large amounts of energy are liberated upon decompositions of polynitrogen cations, which produce molecular nitrogen, acetylene, and protons. The present results bring a substantial insights to the design of novel high-energy compounds.

  17. Application of cubane-type structures to hydro-treatment catalysis; Application des structures d'architecture cubane a la catalyse d'hydrotraitement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchand, K.

    2003-11-01

    [Mo{sub 3}S{sub 4}(H{sub 2}O){sub 9}]{sup 4+} has been prepared and supported on zeolites H-USY and NaY. Using this cluster as a precursor for HDT catalysts has many advantages: it is cationic, already in a sulfided form, and a promoter such as a second metal M' such as Cu, Ni or Pd can be incorporated to form Mo{sub 3}M'S{sub 4}{sup 4+}. The cubane structure was found unchanged after loading in the case of NaY (EXAFS, XPS) and although TEM showed that Mo was mainly on the outer surface of the zeolite crystals, DRX confirmed that a modification of the counter ion also occurred, and an isotherm was obtained with NaY zeolite. A thermal stability study was led under N{sub 2} and a mixture of H{sub 2}/H{sub 2}S to optimize the pretreatment of the catalysts. Those were subsequently pre-sulfided and tested in toluene hydrogenation and their activities with both types of zeolites turned out to be the same or even better than that of catalysts prepared by the classical route. An application to mixed cubane-type structures is also reported. (author)

  18. Prendas-Ngangas-Enquisos: turbulence and the influence of the dead in Cuban-Kongo material culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa, Todd Ramón

    2010-01-01

    Cuban-Kongo praise of the dead in Havana turns insistently around complex agglomerations of materials called "prendas,"ngangas," and "enquisos." This article addresses the ontological status of "prendas-ngangas-enquisos," which practitioners of Cuban-Kongo affliction practices care for as entities that determine the very possibility of their healing and harming craft. Cuban-Kongo societies of affliction, in Havana collectively referred to as "Palo," stake their claim to influence others in and through these entities. In this essay I seek to position the influence generated in prendas-ngangas-enquisos as a problem for Euro-American materialism, to be addressed not through symbolic or representational solutions but, rather, by refocusing the problem itself via alternate distributions of its epistemological, historical, and ethnographic elements. Contextualized within ethnographic description, I first propose that prendas-ngangas-enquisos do not conform to dialectical logic, and should thus be positioned conceptually as something other than "objects" or "fetishes." From there, I consider Creole turns on the term prenda and explore scholarly accounts of 19th-century Cuban slavery and manumission, which I place alongside what is known about pawn slavery among BaKongo people prior to and during the Atlantic slave trade. Having established a basic series of conceptual and historiographic coordinates, I then suggest ethnographically how prendas-ngangas-enquisos come to command others, thereby guaranteeing Cuban-Kongo healing and harming sovereignty in Cuba today.

  19. Litter assessment on 99 Cuban beaches: A baseline to identify sources of pollution and impacts for tourism and recreation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botero, C M; Anfuso, G; Milanes, C; Cabrera, A; Casas, G; Pranzini, E; Williams, A T

    2017-05-15

    Litter presence was assessed on the entire Cuban coastline, and includes 99 beaches from all Cuban regions, during field work carried out in 2012 and 2015. A standard method verified in several countries was applied, which classified beaches for nine types of litter into four grades (A-excellent to D-poor). Almost half of the Cuban beaches obtained excellent cleanliness scores, although many needed to be better managed. In this baseline, the most common types of residue were general litter (8% grade D and 35% grades B/C) and potentially harmful litter (Tourism Impacts seems to be related to visitor origin therefore choices to develop sustainable tourism in rural and village beaches (64%) appears low, if beach cleaning gross investment is focused on resort beaches (24%). Finally, this paper highlights geographical distribution and types of litter patterns. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Present scenery of cuban legislation in the field of legal verification of dosimetric instruments used in radiological protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salas G, Walwyn; Morales Monzon, J.A.; Hernandez Blanche, E.

    2001-01-01

    The main objective of legal metrology is to ensure the public guaranty from the point of view of safety, and the suitable accuracy of the measurements that are made on health, environmental applications, and trade. The International Organization of Legal Metrology included the ionizing radiation field on those for which the use of the verified measuring instruments are suggested. . The paper presents the advances of Cuban legislation in this field, promoted by issue of the Decree-Law 183 of Metrology. As part of such advances, the Cuban standards for verification NC 44:1999 'X and Gamma Radiation Measuring Instruments. Verification methods' is discussed. This standard was elaborated in the Cuban Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory, and it is based on the available relevant international standards. Results from verification service during the year 2000 are also provided.(author)

  1. Requirements to cuban reinforcing steel under seismic demand; Exigencias al acero de refuerzo cubano ante la demanda sismica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frometa Salas, Z. P.; Villalonga Vianez, J. A.

    2009-07-01

    The behaviour of steel manufactured according to the Cuban standard NC 7:02 is studied, in order to evaluate about the conformance to requirements of the seismic design. Steel bars of Grade G-40 and G-60, of all commercial diameters between 10 and 32 mm, were test with this purpose. An experimental program was developed, that include dimensional verifications, tensile testing, ben and rebend, hardness testing and chemical composition tests. The results showed that steel bars satisfy geometric and tensile requirements of Cuban standard, however, some tested samples fulfill the demands that establish some codes about the required ductility to adequate perform of building of reinforced concrete where prevalence the earthquake. Conclusions about the necessity to consider in the future Cuban standard, special requirements to steel that assist the necessities of the earthquake engineering. Proposals are suggested to guarantee the ductile behaviour of the steel of national production. (Author)

  2. Endemics under threat: an assessment of the conservation status of Cuban bats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Mancina

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Reviewing available information from published literature, museum database, personal communications and from the authors own field data, the conservation status of Cuban bats has been assessed using six qualitative parameters: abundance, distribution, roosting habits, aggregation level, forest dependence, and degree of endemism. The resulting Red List is analogous to that of the IUCN, species having been included in four categories of risk. Four out of the 26 extant bats of Cuba should be considered endangered, four vulnerable to extinction, twelve potentially threatened, and six in a stable situation. Most of the species of bats endemic to Cuba are under some form of threat. The major threats to the survival of Cuban bats are the destruction of forests and the modification of caves, the latter being critical habitats for the mostly cave-dwelling Cuban bat fauna. We argue that its conservation should be the result of a cooperative effort promoting research and habitat management. Riassunto Endemismi minacciati: una valutazione dello stato di conservazione dei chirotteri cubani. Lo stato di conservazione dei chirotteri cubani è stato valutato a partire da sei parametri qualitativi: abbondanza, distribuzione, roost utilizzati, livello di aggregazione, dipendenza da ambienti forestali e grado di endemismo. A questo scopo sono state esaminate le informazioni bibliografiche, i database dei musei e dati non pubblicati, in parte raccolti dagli stessi autori. La Lista Rossa risultante è analoga a quella dell’IUCN, comprendendo quattro categorie di rischio crescente. Delle 26 specie attualmente presenti a Cuba, 4 sono da considerarsi in pericolo di estinzione, 4 "vulnerabili", 12 "potenzialmente minacciate" e 6 "stabili". La maggior parte delle specie endemiche è in qualche misura minacciata. La deforestazione e l’alterazione delle cavità carsiche, che costituiscono un habitat

  3. Knowing the Place for the First Time: A Cuban Exile’s Story

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Morena

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Playa Abierta is a modern beach-side resort, one hundred kilometres west of Havana. Developed as a private resort in the 1950s, it was seized by the new revolutionary Cuban government in 1959 after its owner fled precipitately to Miami. This autobiographically centred and personally narrated paper reviews the history of Playa Abierta 1956 – 2006 through the eyes of a Cuban New Zealander ‘Marta’ whose uncle first developed the estate. In 1956 her holidays spent at Playa Abierta as a little girl were her most treasured Cuban moments. ‘At this altar’, she says, ‘my uncle was the high priest.’ In 1996 - after a 36-year absence from her native land - she returned for a visit, the only member of her extended family to have done so. Boldly and unannounced she walked through her uncle’s house – by then converted into a military recreational camp. On a subsequent visit, she met with members of her uncle’s domestic staff whose relationship to that same loved beach was by then of many decades. Whose Playa Abierta was she re-visiting now? Who were the true claimants to that family sacred site? Today as she reflects on the private and public meaning of Playa Abierta, her exultation has given way to more complex feelings. The wonder at re-discovering the beach’s beauty was overladen with the guilt of returning to Cuba while still under Castro’s communist rule. Her sense of belonging was later undermined by a sad realisation that those who had stayed behind were also Playa Abierta’s claimants. Above all, she is torn between family loyalties and the promise of a Revolution betrayed.

  4. The cooperative a road for the economic and social development in the Cuban pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Alberto Rivera Rodríguez

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The present work has as purpose, to evaluate the antecedents, development, current situation and perspectives of the cooperative in the Cuban economic pattern. In the article, they are studied, from the antecedents of the emergence of the agricultural cooperative, until their stages, making emphasis in the problems that affect the normal development in these ways of property and administration in the objective and subjective order. Finally he/she is carried out a brief analysis of the emergence of the cooperatives in other sectors of the economy, evaluating the premises and importance of this transformation in the economic, productive and social order.

  5. Mechanistic Studies of Metal-Oxo Cubane Catalysts for Lightweight Solar Fuels Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    13692. 4 “ Single - crystal growth, crystal and electronic structure of NaCoO2.” Takahashi, Y.; Gotoh, Y.; Akimoto, J. J. Sol. State Chem. 2003, 172, 22...bond formation by the Co–OEC catalysts. 2. A penetrating study of Co3 +|Co4+ self-exchange kinetics of Co4O4 cubanes and a detailed understanding of...construct the artificial leaf described in (7). 4. The examination of Co2+| Co3 + self-exchange in a faithful structural molecular analog of the 7

  6. The treatment process of understanding scientific texts: A necessity in the current Cuban university

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanet María Guerra Santana

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This work has as main purpose to emphasize the need for treatment of the process of understanding scientific texts in the university today, for the development of science and technology has placed at the forefront in every race the problem of processing scientific information. The ability to produce scientific texts has been somewhat spontaneity in the curriculum of professional training in Cuban university, which has resulted in some professionals do not yet have linguistic, discursive and strategic " tools " best to communicate the style of science, hence the study of the process of understanding of scientific texts in undergraduate currently constitute a need in our universities.

  7. A Witness to French-Cuban Cooperation in Physics in the 1970s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cernogora, Jacqueline

    In France in 1968 many lively discussions and debates took place at several universities and laboratories in which official authority was questioned. Very often in such debates someone would stand up and ask the previous speaker: "Who are you to assert such a thing?" or "From where are you speaking?" Forty years later, to avoid such questions, I will say right away "from where" I am writing this text, which is by no means an exhaustive study of French-Cuban collaboration in physics at that time, but rather a personal recollection.

  8. Modificaciones en las calderas igneotubulares cubanas // Modifications in the Cuban boilers of fire tube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Pérez Mallea

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es optimizar y diseñar las calderas igneotubulares nacionales, incluyendo las de inversión de llama yagua caliente. Con este fin se creo un software como soporte científico técnico que permite realizar los diferentes cálculosverificativos a través de los cuales se optimiza._________________________________________________________________________Abstract .The objective of this work is the optimizing and designing of the Cuban boilers of fire tube, including those of inverting offlame and hot water. A software have been developed as technical scientific supper for different calculations and optimizingprocess.

  9. Each Sheep with Its Mate: Marking Race and Legitimacy in Cuban Catholic Parish Archives, 1890-1940

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enid Lynette Logan

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Examines the politics of racialization in Cuba from the period after full emancipation to the restrictive immigration policy of the 1930s, through an analysis of the record-keeping practices of the Cuban Catholic Church. The study uses baptismal and marital records to record information on the intimate, racialized, and gendered domains of Cuban social life. Author points out that certain policies adopted by religious authoritites gestured towards inclusivism and egalitarianism, others served to reinforce hierarchies based upon race and rank.

  10. Double Trouble

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsaesser, Thomas; Kievit, Robert; Simons, Jan

    1994-01-01

    Double Trouble highlights the career of Dutch scriptwriter and television producer Chiem van Houweninge, well-known for his long-running TV comedy series and as author of episodes for TV detective series. Double Trouble gives Van Houweninge's own views on writing and filming in television prime

  11. Enhanced biodegradation of Pina Cuban crude oil by a culture of mixed marine bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph, I.N.; Perigo, E. [Ministry of Science. Inst. of Oceanography, La Habana (Cuba); Bergueiro, J.R.; Pita, A.; Mayol, M.A. [Balearic Island Univ., Palma de Mallorca, Islas Baleares (Spain); Navarro, A. [Ministry of Industry, Oil Research Center, La Habana (Cuba)

    1998-09-01

    The ability of a mixed marine bacteria culture to degrade Pina Cuban crude oil in the presence of nutrients and sea water was studied. Laboratory experiments were conducted in flasks with 100 ml of saline liquid containing 1 per cent crude. The flasks were inoculated with marine bacteria (IDO-225, IDO-226, and IDO-229) at a final concentration of 10{sup 6} cell/ml. The cultures were grown at 29 degrees C for 21 days. Bacterial growth, and surface and interfacial tension were measured after 5, 13 and 21 days. Results showed that the marine bacteria were effective in accelerating the biodegradation process of Pina Cuban oil. The efficiency of the process increased when nutrients were added to the system. This biopreparation also accelerated emulsification of the oil without any negative effects to the natural microbiota. The biological oxygen demand at five days and at the end of the experiment was determined. The biodegradation constant and the biochemical stabilization constant were also measured. 14 refs., 5 tabs., 4 figs.

  12. Comparison of Major Immunoglobulins Intrathecal Synthesis Patterns in Ecuadorian and Cuban Patients with Angiostrongyliasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla-Docal, Bárbara; Dorta-Contreras, Alberto J.; Moreira, Juan M.; Martini-Robles, Luiggi; Muzzio-Aroca, Jenny; Alarcón, Fernando; Magraner-Tarrau, María Esther; Bu-Coifiu-Fanego, Raisa

    2011-01-01

    Angiostrongylus cantonensis meningitis was first reported in Cuba in 1981, and it was recently reported in South America. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the intrathecal immunoglobulin synthesis patterns from Cuba's and Ecuador's patients with angiostrongyliasis; 8 Ecuadorian patients from two different outbreaks and 28 Cuban patients were studied. Simultaneous blood and cerebrospinal fluid simples were taken. Immunoglobulin (Ig) A, IgM, IgG, and albumin were quantified by radial immunodiffusion. Corresponding Reibergrams were applied. A three-Ig pattern was the most frequent in the two groups, but IgM was presented in all Ecuadorian young mature patients; however, in the Cuban children, only 12 of 28 patients had intrathecal IgM, but about 90% had an IgA and IgG synthesis at time of later puncture. This indicates that, with a larger amount of parasites ingested, clinical symptoms are more severe, and a higher frequency of intrathecal IgM synthesis could be observed. This is discussed as a similarity with the intrathecal IgM synthesis in African trypanosomiasis. PMID:21363978

  13. Digitizing dissent: cyborg politics and fluid networks in contemporary Cuban activism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Kellogg

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Communication technologies shape how political activist networks are produced and maintain themselves. In Cuba, despite ideologically and physically oppressive practices by the state, a severe lack of Internet access, and extensive government surveillance, a small network of bloggers and cyberactivists has achieved international visibility and recognition for its critiques of the Cuban government. This qualitative study examines the blogger collective known as Voces Cubanas in Havana, Cuba in 2012, advancing a new approach to the study of transnational activism and the role of technology in the construction of political narrative. Voces Cubanas is analyzed as a network of connections between human and non-human actors that produces and sustains powerful political alliances. Voces Cubanas and its allies work collectively to co-produce contentious political discourses, confronting the dominant ideologies and knowledges produced by the Cuban state. Transnational alliances, the act of translation, and a host of unexpected and improvised technologies play central roles in the production of these narratives, indicating new breed of cyborg sociopolitical action reliant upon fluid and flexible networks and the act of writing. 

  14. Enhanced biodegradation of Pina Cuban crude oil by a culture of mixed marine bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joseph, I.N.; Perigo, E.; Bergueiro, J.R.; Pita, A.; Mayol, M.A.; Navarro, A.

    1998-01-01

    The ability of a mixed marine bacteria culture to degrade Pina Cuban crude oil in the presence of nutrients and sea water was studied. Laboratory experiments were conducted in flasks with 100 ml of saline liquid containing 1 per cent crude. The flasks were inoculated with marine bacteria (IDO-225, IDO-226, and IDO-229) at a final concentration of 10 6 cell/ml. The cultures were grown at 29 degrees C for 21 days. Bacterial growth, and surface and interfacial tension were measured after 5, 13 and 21 days. Results showed that the marine bacteria were effective in accelerating the biodegradation process of Pina Cuban oil. The efficiency of the process increased when nutrients were added to the system. This biopreparation also accelerated emulsification of the oil without any negative effects to the natural microbiota. The biological oxygen demand at five days and at the end of the experiment was determined. The biodegradation constant and the biochemical stabilization constant were also measured. 14 refs., 5 tabs., 4 figs

  15. Response of booster dose of cuban recombinant hepatitis-B vaccine in nonresponder and hyporesponder children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahifar, H.; Mousavi, F.; Ghorbani, A.

    2007-01-01

    Acute hepatitis B infection can debilitate a patient for weeks and occasionally has a fatal outcome, while chronic infection is a major threat to the individual. To assess response of nonresponder and hyporesponder children to booster dose of Cuban recombinant hepatitis B vaccine. An interventional, descriptive study has been conducted on children who had been immunized with Cuban recombinant Hepatitis B vaccine and their antibody titers were <10mIU/ml (nonresponder) and 10-100mIU/ml (hyporesponder) administered booster dose of the same vaccine in their Deltoid muscles. The response of 141 children with the mean age of 1.9 years to booster dose of vaccine were 94.3% and 100% vaccines with the first and second booster dose of vaccination respectively. The anti-HBs titer in nonresponders and hyporesponders were 468+-346 and 783+-346mIU/ml respectively with significant differences between two groups (P=0.001). This study demonstrate moderately increase antibody production in the majority of vaccines with single supplementary vaccine. (author)

  16. ‘La Comida Mambisa’: food, farming, and Cuban identity, 1839-1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon Lee Dawdy

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Describes how Cuba developed a countrywide system of food meaning and production in the mid-19th c. that became a national, and eventually "nationalist", cuisine during Cuba's revolutionary moments. Author explains how the centrality of food within Cuban national identity was strongly related with the valency associated with the subsistence farming on small family farms ("sitios", producing these native foods and Caribbean ingredients, e.g. cassava, guava, and sweet potatoes. The self-sufficiency of these small farmers was in emerging nationalist discourses opposed to the large-scale, export-oriented, colonial plantations and to slavery. Many small family farmers, of which many were ex-slaves, participated in the armed struggles in part to defend their right of independent, subsistence agriculture. Author outlines how since the early, mid-19th-c. Creole nationalism, Creole food and the small farms remained associated with authentic Cuban folk culture and with national identity, and related to independence struggles, and self-sufficiency, including during and after the 1959 Revolution.

  17. In situ characterization of cofacial Co(IV) centers in Co4O4 cubane: Modeling the high-valent active site in oxygen-evolving catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodsky, Casey N; Hadt, Ryan G; Hayes, Dugan; Reinhart, Benjamin J; Li, Nancy; Chen, Lin X; Nocera, Daniel G

    2017-04-11

    The Co 4 O 4 cubane is a representative structural model of oxidic cobalt oxygen-evolving catalysts (Co-OECs). The Co-OECs are active when residing at two oxidation levels above an all-Co(III) resting state. This doubly oxidized Co(IV) 2 state may be captured in a Co(III) 2 (IV) 2 cubane. We demonstrate that the Co(III) 2 (IV) 2 cubane may be electrochemically generated and the electronic properties of this unique high-valent state may be probed by in situ spectroscopy. Intervalence charge-transfer (IVCT) bands in the near-IR are observed for the Co(III) 2 (IV) 2 cubane, and spectroscopic analysis together with electrochemical kinetics measurements reveal a larger reorganization energy and a smaller electron transfer rate constant for the doubly versus singly oxidized cubane. Spectroelectrochemical X-ray absorption data further reveal systematic spectral changes with successive oxidations from the cubane resting state. Electronic structure calculations correlated to experimental data suggest that this state is best represented as a localized, antiferromagnetically coupled Co(IV) 2 dimer. The exchange coupling in the cofacial Co(IV) 2 site allows for parallels to be drawn between the electronic structure of the Co 4 O 4 cubane model system and the high-valent active site of the Co-OEC, with specific emphasis on the manifestation of a doubly oxidized Co(IV) 2 center on O-O bond formation.

  18. Analysis of controversial items in the theoretical design of the undergraduate's thesis at the Cuban University of Informatics Sciences (UIS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolando Quintana Aput

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The present paper encloses the analysis of some troubles related to the development of theoretical design concerning the undergraduate thesis at the Cuban University of Informatics Sciences (UIS. This analysis proves to be decisive due to the existing demand for improving professionals training in the fields of investigation related to computing world.

  19. A technique for ecological studies of the cuban fly, 'Lixophaga diatraea' TOWNS., com o uso de tracador radioativo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sgrillo, R.B.; Wiendl, F.M; Walder, J.M.M; Arthur, V.

    1977-01-01

    The specific activity of 32 P required to label Cuban Fly (lixophaga diatraca) is determined. Results show that the radioisotope can be detected inside the bodies of G. mellonella host for at least 6 days, with effective half-life for the raioisotope of 2.8 days [pt

  20. Comparison of Childrearing Practices of Anglos, Cuban-Americans, and Latin Americans. Occasional Papers Series, Dialogues #5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escovar, Luis; Escovar, Peggy L.

    In this report perceived childrearing practices among three cultural groups (American Anglos, Cuban Americans, and Latin Americans) were compared. Subjects were 445 college students (168 males and females from universities in Colombia and Venezuela, and 154 from a university in South Florida). A multivariate analysis of covariance was used to…

  1. Insularity in “el sueño de las formas”: Divination of Cubanness in the poetic of Gaston Baquero

    OpenAIRE

    Águila Ajón, Marta

    2012-01-01

    This study explores the markers of Cuban identity in the poem Brandeburgo 1526 written by Gaston Baquero (La Habana 1914 - Madrid, 1997). The poet is one of the most powerful voices of the Origenes group and of Cuban Literaturel. The exploration I propose does not stem from a previous conceptualization of what constitutes Cubanness, but rather follows Cintio Vitier’s proposal from Lo cubano en la poesía. My study aims for a sensitive intuition of national identity  markers. “Brandeburgo 1526”...

  2. 3+ and [Sb13Se16Br2] 5+ - Double and quadruple spiro cubanes from ionic liquids

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmed, Ejaz; Breternitz, Joachim; Groh, Matthias Friedrich; Isaeva, Anna A.; Ruck, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    The reaction of antimony and selenium in the bromine-rich Lewis acidic ionic liquid [BMIm]Br·4.7AlBr3 (BMIm: 1-butyl-3- methylimidazolium) in the presence of a small amount of NbCl5 at 160 °C yielded dark-red crystals of [Sb7Se8Br 2][AlX4]3. For X

  3. The Financial Structure and its Impact on Financial -Economic Results in Cuban Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Esperanza González-del-Foyo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The financial structure refers to the way a company finances its assets through a combination of equity, debtor hybrid securities. Financial decisions are important in business management, on which heavily rely the viability and rentability of business. Hence the need for managers to know and analyze the financing structure in order to evaluate the impact on its results from the point of view of risk, cost and performance. In the article the main theories of financial structure are based, and the different approaches for its study. Considerations are made on this issue in the Cuban economy, and techniques are applied to evaluate the impact of financing in the form of risk and performance against the company on the “Cecilio Sanchez Valiente” in Santiago de Cuba.

  4. Feasibility evaluation of two solar cooling systems applied to a cuban hotel. Comparative analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Díaz Torres, Yamile; Valdivia Nodal, Yarelis; Monteagudo Yanes, José Pedro; Miranda Torres, Yudit

    2016-01-01

    The article presents an analysis of technical and economic feasibility of using two configurations of solar cooling in a Cuban hotel. HVAC hybrid schemes are: a cooler of ice water vapor compression (chiller) interconnected in parallel with a smaller capacity chiller, first with a solar-powered absorption cooling system (SACS), and then with a photovoltaic cooling system(PSC). Both were simulated taking into account the weather conditions in the region, thermodynamic calculation methodologies and principles that govern these technologies. The results show that the use of these alternatives contributes to reducing energy consumption and the environmental impact of heating, ventilation and air conditioning systems (HVAC). Economic analysis highlights that PCS is more favorable than the SACS taking into account the cooling cost generation (CCG) but energy assessment indicates that SACS has higher thermal performance for the case study to which it is applied. (author)

  5. Effect of H2O2 on the in vitro growth of Mycosphaerella fijiensis Cuban isolate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María I. Oloriz

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Black leaf streak disease (Mycosphaerella fijiensis Morelet is the main foliar disease of bananas and plantain. One of the possible mechanisms of resistance is the hypersensitive response observed in ‘Calcutta 4’ (Musa AA that involves the formation of reactive oxygen species. In order to determine the effect of H2O2 on the in vitro growth of M. fijiensis Cuban isolate CCIBP-Pf-83, several concentrations added to a culture medium PDB were tested. After seven days of incubation the mycelial dry weight was determined. It was found that with 30 mmol l-1 H2O2 in the culture medium, mycelial growth was stimulated and with 50 up to 100 mmol l-1 it decreased. The results provide elements for understanding plantpathogen interactions in this pathosystem. Key words: black leaf streak disease, in vitro culture, ROS

  6. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance skull in Cuban families first diagnosed with Friedreich's ataxia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz Marinno, Tania; Alvarez Cuesta, Jose Alberto; Aguilera Rodriguez, Raul; Velazquez Perez, Luis

    2011-01-01

    Friedreich's ataxia is characterized by age of onset before 25 years, progressive ataxia, dysarthria, absent deep tendon reflexes and impaired vibration sense. This research was conducted in order to describe the imaging features of central nervous system structures in the early Cuban families diagnosed with the disease. A team of 0.23 Tesla-PANORAMA-Phylips Medical Systems, with a standard head coil, axial slices were obtained using 5mm thick FLAIR sequences, T1 and T2, and sagittal T1 and T2 in three individuals with confirmatory molecular diagnosis of Friedreich's ataxia and six healthy controls matched by age and sex. The morphological structures most affected are the cervical spinal cord, cerebellum and pons, which provides in vivo evidence that the disease leads to atrophy of these structures

  7. Industrial property for science’s management, technology and innovation in Cuban State companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dulce María Contreras Villavicencio

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper synthesizes some research on industrial property aspects from the socio-legal perspective and financial accounting. Its focus to the socialist state enterprise adaptation in his economic fact, social and environmental responsibility as a fundamental Cuban model reach, competitiveness and high performance in socialist state enterprise. It outlines criteria on the ordering and implementation of industrial property through the management of science and technology, protection and dissemination of knowledge results as alternatives of regulation in chain of value to full cycle of innovation, dynamics of intangible heritage and relationships, exchange with marketing as business philosophy of business application. Strategies are proposed regarding the rights of this institution in the economic-organization management state.

  8. Ecological approach of macrolide-lincosamides-streptogramin producing actinomyces from Cuban soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, I; Niebla, A; Lemus, M; González, L; Iznaga, I O; Pérez, M E; Vallin, C

    1999-09-01

    We report in this study the frequency of Streptomyces strains to produce macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin (MLS) antibiotics isolated from Cuban soils. The screening assay is based on the induction of MLS-resistance phenotype in a clinical isolated strain of Staphylococcus aureus S-18. Our results suggest that of 800 Streptomyces strains isolated from different soil samples, 6% were positives in the screening test used. The ferralitic red soil from Pinar del Río (north) provided the major percentage (3.6%) of MLS producing strains. The other soil samples tested belonging to Guira de Melena and Bauta in Havana, Matanzas City, Topes De Collantes (Villa Clara), and Soroa Mountains (Pinar del Rio) hill reached very low percentages.

  9. Resistance patterns to beta-lactams and quinolones in clinical isolates of bacteria from Cuban hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzáles, I; Niebla, A; Vallin, C

    1995-01-01

    The resistance patterns to 26 beta-lactams and 8 quinolones of clinical isolates from Cuban hospitals were evaluated using the disk susceptibility test, according to the NCCLS guidelines (1992). The genera studied were Escherichia sp (320), Enterobacter sp (10), Klebsiella sp (90), Proteus sp (10), Pseudomonas sp (90), Serratia sp (20), and Staphylococcus sp (80). Higher resistance to beta-lactams was observed in the genera Pseudomonas, Escherichia and Klebsiella. For fluoroquinolones we found no significant resistance, with the exception of the genus Klebsiella. The most effective antibiotics were cephalosporins of the second and third generations, fluoroquinolones, and non-classical beta-lactams (cephamycins, moxalactam and monobactams). On the contrary, a pronounced resistance was found to penicillin, oxacillin, ticarcillin, ampicillin, methicillin, nalidixic acid and cinoxacin. These resistance patterns correspond to the high consumption of these antibiotics throughout the country.

  10. Management system for the control of the Educative Project in the Higher Cuban Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lionel Rodolfo Baquero Hernández

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available As part of the training of Cuban university students involved educational project that requires proper control of compliance. At the University of Information Science, is done through a digital model developed by the professor of the group which generates poor control and directly undermines the quality of the process. In this work the solution to the problem as basis of computerization, using OpenUP development methodology, programming language Java Script on the NetBeans platform version 8.0 as Integrated Development Environment, with ExtJS 3.4 framework is detailed, with version 8.0 of the Software Engineering tools Computer Assisted Visual Paradigm for modeling and PostgreSQL 9.3 as a management system database. The system also generates the associated compliance status of the activities that make up the educational project of a group, which facilitates the control and decision making reports.

  11. Multielement determination in Cuban red mangrove samples using nuclear and related analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estevez Alvarez, J.R.; Aguiar Lambert, D.; Montero Alvarez, A.; Pupo Gonzalez, I.; Padilla Alvarez, R.; Gonzalez Garcia, H.; Ramirez Sasco, M.

    1998-01-01

    In the present work the contents of Al; K; Ca; Mn; Fe; Ni; Cu; Zn; Sr; Cd and Pb in red mangroves (Rhizophora mangle) from different Cuban regions are determined, using Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (Emission-Transmission (Et) and I/C methods), Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (AAS), and Polarography (Anodic Stripping Voltametry method). Biological Certified Reference Materials (CRM) are employed for the tracing of the tracing of the curves of the relative I/C method and for the evaluation of the analytical results accuracy. The reliability of the results is also checked by statistical means. Standard deviations and the detection limits of each method are reported. Finally, the obtained values for the concentration of the different elements in each studied ecosystem are presented; a detailed discussion about their significance will be performed in a further paper

  12. Improving the family orientation process in Cuban Special Schools trough Nearest Prototype classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caballero-Mota, Y.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Cuban Schools for children with Affective – Behavioral Maladies (SABM have as goal to accomplish a major change in children behavior, to insert them effectively into society. One of the key elements in this objective is to give an adequate orientation to the children’s families; due to the family is one of the most important educational contexts in which the children will develop their personality. The family orientation process in SABM involves clustering and classification of mixed type data with non-symmetric similarity functions. To improve this process, this paper includes some novel characteristics in clustering and prototype selection. The proposed approach uses a hierarchical clustering based on compact sets, making it suitable for dealing with non-symmetric similarity functions, as well as with mixed and incomplete data. The proposal obtains very good results on the SABM data, and over repository databases.

  13. Cuban regulatory politics with relationship to the Radioactive lightning rod employment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez Forteza; Yamil; Jerez Vegueria, Pablo F.; Quevedo Garcia, Jose R.; Diaz Guerra, Pedro; Dumenigo Gonzalez, Cruz

    2003-01-01

    The radioactive lightning rod employment for the protection of facilities against atmospheric discharges reached its maximum splendor in the years 80. It was in fact at the end of this decade when the technical considerations arose, with relationship to the justification of this practice that finally took to that the production of such teams was abolished. For the regulatory authorities, however, it continues having validity the question related with the control of those lightning rod that you/they stay in use, as well as the relative one to the establishment of a coherent national politics with the international practice. Presently work the results of the last 10 years of control of the radioactive lightning rod use are presented in Cuba and the radiological evaluation carried out on the base of this experience. Lastly, it exposes the Cuban regulatory politics established with relationship to the employment of this teams in the country

  14. Quality of life in a group of Cuban women with breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izquierdo-Gonzalez, Marlen

    2009-01-01

    Was studied a group of 16 Cuban patients, undergoing surgery and treatment for breast cancer oncospecific with survival greater than anno to assess the impact of the diagnosis, surgery and concomitant treatment on quality of life. The quality of life in the study group is similar to that of reference groups and other breast cancer patients with more than one year of survival, with better physical functioning. The evaluation of the exponents of emotional state, such as nervousness, worry, irritability and depression, showed that the evaluation of the quality of the emotional scale offers significantly lower values of other country groups, but corresponds with that reported for women with breast cancer survival time with the same and equal to the value obtained for cancer patients in treatment and less than a year survival. (Author)

  15. Expanding the classroom with educational technology: A case study of a Cuban polytechnic high school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Leftwich

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Polytechnic instruction has a common place in the Cuban education system (Gasperini, 2000. In polytechnic institutions, teachers leverage technological tools to prepare students for labor market competences. This case study examined a polytechnic institution in Cuba to consider how teachers defined educational technology. Based on teacher questionnaire responses, site-based teacher interviews, and field observations, technology was primarily viewed as a method for student preparation. In other words, teachers used technology to prepare students for their future careers and the technology they will need to be successful in that career. The study found that teachers highly valued their technical pedagogical training, believed that the growing spaces were an integral part of their technology based instruction, and claimed that the limited resources was their greatest barrier to integrating ICT in the classroom.

  16. For a Critique of Transatlantic Mestiza Territoriality: Challenging the Angolan-Cuban Revolutionary Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena López

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This essay presents the transatlantic confluence of two hegemonic cultural traditions; the ideology of mestizaje and lusotropicalismo in the discourses of the Angolan and Cuban socialist regimes. The shared political utopia during the Angolan Civil War envisioned a South-South community, racially homogeneous. In the last part of the essay I review the works Dulces guerreros cubanos (1999 by Norberto Fuentes, Desconfiemos de los amaneceres apacibles (2011 by Emilio Comas Paret, Geração da Utopía (1992 by Pepetela, and Estação das Chuvas (1996 by José Eduardo Agualusa, in order to demonstrate socio-racial conflicts embedded in the leftist armed struggle. These narratives challenge the homogeneity of official discourses about identity that sustained the transatlantic mestiza territoriality. In doing so, they note a historical continuity of inequality and authoritarianism between colonial and postcolonial, between pre-national and revolutionary nation.

  17. Prevalence and Genotype Distribution of Pneumocystis jirovecii in Cuban Infants and Toddlers with Whooping Cough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroy-Vaca, Ernesto X.; de Armas, Yaxsier; Illnait-Zaragozí, María T.; Toraño, Gilda; Diaz, Raúl; Vega, Dania; Alvarez-Lam, Ileana; Calderón, Enrique J.

    2014-01-01

    This study describes the prevalence and genotype distribution of Pneumocystis jirovecii obtained from nasopharyngeal (NP) swabs from immunocompetent Cuban infants and toddlers with whooping cough (WC). A total of 163 NP swabs from 163 young Cuban children with WC who were admitted to the respiratory care units at two pediatric centers were studied. The prevalence of the organism was determined by a quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay targeting the P. jirovecii mitochondrial large subunit (mtLSU) rRNA gene. Genotypes were identified by direct sequencing of mtLSU ribosomal DNA (rDNA) and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of the dihydropteroate synthase (DHPS) gene amplicons. qPCR detected P. jirovecii DNA in 48/163 (29.4%) samples. mtLSU rDNA sequence analysis revealed the presence of three different genotypes in the population. Genotype 2 was most common (48%), followed in prevalence by genotypes 1 (23%) and 3 (19%); mixed-genotype infections were seen in 10% of the cases. RFLP analysis of DHPS PCR products revealed four genotypes, 18% of which were associated with resistance to sulfa drugs. Only contact with coughers (prevalence ratio [PR], 3.51 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 1.79 to 6.87]; P = 0.000) and exposure to tobacco smoke (PR, 1.82 [95% CI, 1.14 to 2.92]; P = 0.009) were statistically associated with being colonized by P. jirovecii. The prevalence of P. jirovecii in infants and toddlers with WC and the genotyping results provide evidence that this population represents a potential reservoir and transmission source of P. jirovecii. PMID:24131683

  18. Effects of Cuban Crude Oil on the Process of Leach, Sedimentation and Distillation in Nicaro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ing. María Elena Magaña-Haynes

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available ine"> Cuban crude in the process of leaching, sedimentation and distillation ofthe processed minerals at “René Ramos Latour” Company was evaluated. Two periods of testswere performed; one when oil was introduced into the furnace by spear and the other when itwas introduced by spear and chamber. The results demonstrated the feasibility of using theCuban crude in reduction and leaching process of mineral by the use of spear and chamber aswell. Nickel and cobalt extractions achieved by stepwise exceed values found in the relatedliterature. Deposition of mineral was good reaching values of 1,736 -1,745 kg/m3 at the bottomof the sedimentation stage leach and 1,774 -1,807 kg/m3 in the washing stage. The thickenerswere maintained with high clear liquor level throughout the test with values between 28,0-30,0ppm. The sedimentation rate achieved low values both in the first and in the second leachingstage. Sedimentation unit area was 0,23 m2 /T day, so that no sedimentation problems werepresented. It was observed an increase in the sulfur content up to values of 6,52 g/L for a nickelcontent of 12,0g/L, which caused that the dissolved nickel in downloading stills were of 0,392 g/L and 2,58 g/L of ammonia. The sulfur content in the nickel carbonate was increased upto 6,30 %, which is 2,5 % higher than conventional.

  19. Perspectives for Distributed Observations of Near-Earth Space Using a Russian-Cuban Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisikalo, D. V.; Savanov, I. S.; Naroenkov, S. A.; Nalivkin, M. A.; Shugarov, A. S.; Bakhtigaraev, N. S.; Levkina, P. A.; Ibragimov, M. A.; Kil'pio, E. Yu.; Sachkov, M. E.; Kartashova, A. P.; Fateeva, A. M.; Uratsuka, Marta R. Rodriguez; Estrada, Ramses Zaldivar; Diaz, Antonio Alonsa; Rodríguez, Omar Pons; Figuera, Fidel Hernandes; Garcia, Maritza Garcia

    2018-06-01

    The creation of a specialized network of large, wide-angle telescopes for distributed observations of near-Earth space using a Russian-Cuban Observatory is considered. An extremely important goal of routine monitoring of near-Earth and near-Sun space is warding off threats with both natural and technogenic origins. Natural threats are associated with asteroids or comets, and technogenic threats with man-made debris in near-Earth space. A modern network of ground-based optical instruments designed to ward off such threats must: (a) have a global and, if possible, uniform geographic distribution, (b) be suitable for wide-angle, high-accuracy precision survey observations, and (c) be created and operated within a single network-oriented framework. Experience at the Institute of Astronomy on the development of one-meter-class wide-angle telescopes and elements of a super-wide-angle telescope cluster is applied to determine preferences for the composition of each node of such a network. The efficiency of distributed observations in attaining maximally accurate predictions of the motions of potentially dangerous celestial bodies as they approach the Earth and in observations of space debris and man-made satellites is estimated. The first estimates of astroclimatic conditions at the proposed site of the future Russian-Cuban Observatory in the mountains of the Sierra del Rosario Biosphere Reserve are obtained. Special attention is given to the possible use of the network to carry out a wide range of astrophysical studies, including optical support for the localization of gravitational waves and other transient events.

  20. Helicobacter pylori cagA and vacA genotypes in Cuban and Venezuelan populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Ortiz-Princz

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the presence of Helicobacter pylori cytotoxin-associated gene (cagA/vacuolating cytotoxin gene (vacA among patients with chronic gastritis in Cuba and Venezuela. Gastric antrum biopsies were taken for culture, DNA extraction and PCR analysis. Amplification of vacA and cagA segments was performed using two regions of cagA: 349 bp were amplified with the F1/B1 primers and the remaining 335 bp were amplified with the B7629/B7628 primers. The VA1-F/VA1-R set of primers was used to amplify the 259-bp (s1 or 286-bp (s2 product and the VAG-R/VAG-F set of primers was used to amplify the 567-bp (m1 or 642-bp (m2 regions of vacA. cagA was detected in 87% of the antral samples from Cuban patients and 80.3% of those from Venezuelan patients. All possible combinations of vacA regions were found, with the exception of s2/m1. The predominant combination found in both countries was s1/m1. The percentage of cagA+ strains was increased by the use of a second set of primers and a greater number of strains was amplified with the B7629/B7628 primers in the Cuban patients (p = 0.0001. There was no significant difference between the presence of the allelic variants of vacA and cagA in both populations. The predominant genotype was cagA+/s1m1 in both countries. The results support the necessary investigation of isolates circulating among the human population in each region.

  1. Requirements for a text that integrates the oncological pharmacy into the Cuban national health care system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arbesú Michelena, Ma Antonieta; Sedeño Argilagos, C. Caridad; Fernández Argüelles, Rogelio Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: oncological patients are cared for at all health care system levels. The pharmaceutical professional requires unifying instructions for his/her work in order to be part of the health team. Currently, there is no domestic literature for the pharmaceutical services, mainly that one devoted to oncological area, which comprises in just one text all the functional requirements and directs his/her professional daily work. Objective: to verify the requirement for national integral literature for the development of the oncological pharmaceutical service work. Methods: one two-question questionnaire was designed to assess the knowledge of experts and another with eight questions to learn about the requirement for literature on oncological pharmaceutical service adapted to the conditions of the Cuban health system. The questionnaires were e-mailed to 15 pharmacists who had an outstanding experience in several activities of the oncological pharmacy. Results: ten university experts, with 14.5 years of work experience as average in assistance activities from three provinces, responded. Two were excluded because their low level of information on oncological activity; poor incorporation of the pharmacist involved in services to activities inherent to his/her formation. All the experts believed that it was necessary to have a comprehensive text on the tasks, functions and activities linked to the oncological patient care, and to use the formal learning pathways for updating. A positive association with the favorable answers (1.40) was noticed. Conclusions: there exists a need for a text as a guide of the oncological pharmaceutical services according to the demands of the Cuban health care system. (author) 1

  2. Cuban Ocular Toxoplasmosis Epidemiology Study (COTES): incidence and prevalence of ocular toxoplasmosis in Central Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustillo, Jorge L; Diaz, Jose D; Pacheco, Idarmes C; Gritz, David C

    2015-03-01

    Serological studies indicate that rates of ocular toxoplasmosis (OT) vary geographically, with higher rates in tropical regions. Little is known about population-based rates of active OT. We aimed to describe the epidemiology of OT in Central Cuba. This large-population, cross-sectional cohort study used a prospective database at a large regional referral centre in Central Cuba. The patient database was searched for all patients who presented with OT during the 12-month study period from 1 April 2011 to 31 March 2012. Inclusion criteria were the clinical diagnosis of OT, characterised by focal retinochoroidal inflammation and a response to therapy as expected. Gender-stratified and age-stratified study population data from the 2012 Cuban Census were used to calculate incidence rates and prevalence ratios. Among 279 identified patients with OT, 158 presented with active OT. Of these, 122 new-onset and 36 prior-onset cases were confirmed. Based on the total population in the Sancti Spiritus province (466,106 persons), the overall incidence of active OT was 26.2 per 100,000 person-years (95% CI 21.7 to 31.3) with an annual prevalence ratio of 33.9 per 100,000 persons (95% CI 28.8 to 39.6). The incidence of active OT was lowest in the oldest age group and highest in patients aged 25-44 years (4.5 and 42.1 per 100,000 person-years, respectively). This first report describing population-based rates of OT in the Cuban population highlights the importance of patient age as a likely risk factor for OT. Disease rates were found to be highest in females and young to middle-aged adults. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  3. Analysis of the potentiality for implementing of the cleaner production and adopting a sustainable consumption in the Cuban entrepreneurial system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tortosa Ferrer, Barbara Ivette; Orue Valdes, Sonia; Mena Ulecia, Karel

    2007-01-01

    The world economic development has conduced to increase the worsening of the environment as result of the natural resources pollution. The tendency has been toward the unsustainable exploitation of natural resources, to increasing of the goods and services production, as well as, to elevated consumption. In this sense, many countries have planed environmental policies addressed to reducing of pollution introducing cleaner production practices and promoting the adoption of responsible consumption. This article shows the existing potentiality in a selected Cuban companies group for introducing and applying of the cleaner production, as well as, the adoption of a sustainable consumption start from analysis of the obtained results in short-term assessments (quick scans) carried out by the Cuban Environment Agency Focal Point of the National Cleaner Production Network in the period between 2004 and 2007

  4. The Cooperatives of Second Degree in the Cuban Agricultural System and the paper of the Marketing of Relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Prego Regalado

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The cooperative movement in Cuba extends quickly to diverse sectors of the national economy and he/she consolidates in the agricultural sector with a great impact in the society, it will demand it the constitution of cooperative of second degree, with the purpose of elevating the integration of the productive chains of the agricultural system. The present work has for objective to deepen in the paper of the cooperatives of second degree in the Cuban agricultural system, as well as in the relationship marketing like a tool that it stimulates the articulation of the bond among the cooperatives of first and second degree with attachment to the principles of the cooperativism and moderated to the characteristics, conditions and peculiarities in the context of the process of Bring up to date of the Cuban Economic Pattern.

  5. A two-dimensional hydrogen-bonded water layer in the structure of a cobalt(III) cubane complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Ji; Zhai, Xiang-Sheng; Zhu, Hong-Lin; Lin, Jian-Li

    2014-02-01

    A tetranuclear Co(III) oxide complex with cubane topology, tetrakis(2,2'-bipyridine-κ(2)N,N')di-μ2-carbonato-κ(4)O:O'-tetra-μ3-oxido-tetracobalt(III) pentadecahydrate, [Co4(CO3)2O4(C10H8N2)4]·15H2O, with an unbounded hydrogen-bonded water layer, has been synthesized by reaction of CoCO3 and 2,2'-bipyridine. The solvent water molecules form a hydrogen-bonded net with tetrameric and pentameric water clusters as subunits. The Co4O4 cubane-like cores are sandwiched between the water layers, which are further stacked into a three-dimensional metallo-supramolecular network.

  6. Some historical tendencies of the methodological work direction in the education municipal level at the cuban context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Ramos-Álvarez

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This work leaves from the theoretical and empiric systematizing that shows the necessity to investigate how it has evolved and what factors they have conditioned the behavior of the methodological work direction in the education municipal level. The basic budgets of the educational are approached that serve of referents for the analysis of the relationships of the organizational functional levels of the methodological work. The study is carried out in the period 1959-2017, starting in 1959 as an important milestone in the conception of the Cuban educational system. When the Revolution triumphed there were two conceptions of Education, in Cuban educational practice, on the one hand the abandoned national education system, essentially pragmatic, totally incongruous and on the other the aspirations of the Revolutionary Government, which had been forged in the revolutionary struggle between 1953 and 1959.

  7. Immune Response Induction and New Effector Mechanisms Possibly Involved in Protection Conferred by the Cuban Anti-Meningococcal BC Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Oliver; Lastre, Miriam; Lapinet, José; Bracho, Gustavo; Díaz, Miriam; Zayas, Caridad; Taboada, Carlos; Sierra, Gustavo

    2001-01-01

    This report explores the participation of some afferent mechanisms in the immune response induced by the Cuban anti-meningococcal vaccine VA-MENGOC-BC. The induction of delayed-type hypersensitivity in nursing babies and lymphocyte proliferation after immunization is demonstrated. The presence of gamma interferon IFN-γ and interleukin-2 (IL-2) mRNAs but absence of IL-4, IL-5, and IL-10 mRNAs were observed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from immunized subjects after in vitro challenge with outer membrane vesicles. In addition, some effector functions were also explored. The presence of opsonic activity was demonstrated in sera from vaccinees. The role of neutrophils as essential effector cells was shown. In conclusion, we have shown that, at least in the Cuban adult population, VA-MENGOC-BC induces mechanisms with a T-helper 1 pattern in the afferent and effector branches of the immune response. PMID:11401992

  8. Founded: Genetic Reconstruction of Lineage Diversity and Kinship Informs Ex situ Conservation of Cuban Amazon Parrots (Amazona leucocephala).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milián-García, Yoamel; Jensen, Evelyn L; Madsen, Jeanette; Álvarez Alonso, Suleiky; Serrano Rodríguez, Aryamne; Espinosa López, Georgina; Russello, Michael A

    2015-01-01

    Captive breeding is a widespread conservation strategy, yet such programs rarely include empirical genetic data for assessing management assumptions and meeting conservation goals. Cuban Amazon parrots (Amazona leucocephala) are considered vulnerable, and multiple on-island captive populations have been established from wild-caught and confiscated individuals of unknown ancestry. Here, we used mitochondrial haplotypic and nuclear genotypic data at 9 microsatellite loci to quantify the extent and distribution of genetic variation within and among captive populations in Zapata Swamp and Managua, Cuba, and to estimate kinship among breeders (n = 88). Using Bayesian clustering analysis, we detected 2 distinct clusters within the Zapata population, one of which was shared with Managua. Individuals from the cluster unique to Zapata possessed mitochondrial haplotypes with affinities to Cuban subspecies (A. l. leucocephala, A. l. palmarum); the shared cluster was similar, but also included haplotypes closely related to the subspecies restricted to Cayman Brac (A. l. hesterna). Overall mean kinship was low within each captive population (-0.026 to -0.012), with 19 and 11 recommended breeding pairs in Zapata and Managua, respectively, ranked according to mean kinship and informed by molecular sexing. Our results highlight the importance of understanding population history within ex situ management programs, while providing genetic information to directly inform Cuban parrot conservation. © The American Genetic Association 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Double Chooz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buck, Christian [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2006-05-15

    The goal of the Double Chooz reactor neutrino experiment is to search for the neutrino mixing parameter {theta}{sub 13}. Double Chooz will use two identical detectors at 150 m and 1.05 km distance from the reactor cores. The near detector is used to monitor the reactor {nu}-bar {sub e} flux while the second is dedicated to the search for a deviation from the expected (1/distance){sup 2} behavior. This two detector concept will allow a relative normalization systematic error of ca. 0.6 %. The expected sensitivity for sin{sup 2}2{theta}{sub 13} is then in the range 0.02 - 0.03 after three years of data taking. The antineutrinos will be detected in a liquid scintillator through the capture on protons followed by a gamma cascade, produced by the neutron capture on Gd.

  10. Double supergeometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cederwall, Martin [Division for Theoretical Physics, Department of Physics, Chalmers University of Technology,SE 412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden)

    2016-06-27

    A geometry of superspace corresponding to double field theory is developed, with type I I supergravity in D=10 as the main example. The formalism is based on an orthosymplectic extension OSp(d,d|2s) of the continuous T-duality group. Covariance under generalised super-diffeomorphisms is manifest. Ordinary superspace is obtained as a solution of the orthosymplectic section condition. A systematic study of curved superspace Bianchi identities is performed, and a relation to a double pure spinor superfield cohomology is established. A Ramond-Ramond superfield is constructed as an infinite-dimensional orthosymplectic spinor. Such objects in minimal orbits under the OSp supergroup (“pure spinors”) define super-sections.

  11. Double ambidexterity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaulio, Matti; Thorén, Kent; Rohrbeck, René

    2017-01-01

    We leverage the business model innovation and ambidexterity literature to investigate a contradictory case, the Swedish-Finnish Telecom operator TeliaSonera. Despite being challenged by three major disruptions, the company not only still exists but also enjoys remarkably good financial performance....... Building on extant archival data and interviews, we carefully identify and map 26 organizational responses during 1992–2016. We find that the firm has overcome three critical phases by experimenting and pioneering with portfolios of business models and/or technological innovations. We describe...... this behaviour as double ambidexterity. We use an in-depth case study to conceptualize double ambidexterity and discuss its impact on the business's survival and enduring success....

  12. The solar energy photovoltaic one option to the Cuban rural electrification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alabart, J. A. [Centro de Investigaciones de Energia Solar (CIES), (Cuba); Friedman, D. [ECOSOL (COPEXTELL S. A.), (Cuba); Ramos, R.; Moreira, J.; Batista, I.; Garcia, R.; Rodriguez, M. [Centro de Investigaciones de Energia Solar (CIES), (Cuba)

    1995-12-31

    This paper analyzes the work done in Cuba over the last years in the field of photovoltaic, from its R and D and Industrial capacities to the Rural Electrification Program. Based on this work a Development Program for the PV industry is proposed, which is defected towards the integration of all necessary factors that will ensure a sustainable Rural Electrification Program. This program is divided in 5 main stages: 1. Import of solar cells and other elements for the assembly in Cuba of modules and diverse system components (1995-2005). 2. Production of solar cells from imported wafers (1997-2005). 3. Production of monocrystalline silicon wafers from imported plycrystalline silicon (1998-2005). 4. Production of polycrystalline silicon from Cuban silica sand (2000-2005). 5. Development and introduction of new technologies for the production of solar cells (2000-2005). The combination of the PV Development program and the Rural Electrification program will guarantee the supply of electricity to 100% of the Cuban population, and at same time accelerate the technological, industrial and research infrastructure on which a large scale national PV industry would be supported. The implementation of such a program would also make cost on the National Electrical Grid (NEG), avoiding the need for new generation facilities based on fossil fuels. [Espanol] Este articulo analiza el trabajo hecho en Cuba durante los ultimos anos en el campo de los fotovoltaicos, desde su Investigacion y Desarrollo y capacidades Industriales, hasta el Programa de Electrificacion Rural. Basado en este trabajo se propone un Programa de Desarrollo para la industria de PV que esta dirigido hacia la integracion de todos los factores necesarios que aseguraran un Programa de Electrificacion sostenido. Este programa esta dividido en 5 principales etapas: 1. Importacion de celdas solares y otros elementos para el ensamblado en Cuba de modulos y diversos componentes del sistema (1995-2005); 2. Produccion de

  13. The solar energy photovoltaic one option to the Cuban rural electrification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alabart, J A [Centro de Investigaciones de Energia Solar (CIES), (Cuba); Friedman, D [ECOSOL (COPEXTELL S. A.), (Cuba); Ramos, R; Moreira, J; Batista, I; Garcia, R; Rodriguez, M [Centro de Investigaciones de Energia Solar (CIES), (Cuba)

    1996-12-31

    This paper analyzes the work done in Cuba over the last years in the field of photovoltaic, from its R and D and Industrial capacities to the Rural Electrification Program. Based on this work a Development Program for the PV industry is proposed, which is defected towards the integration of all necessary factors that will ensure a sustainable Rural Electrification Program. This program is divided in 5 main stages: 1. Import of solar cells and other elements for the assembly in Cuba of modules and diverse system components (1995-2005). 2. Production of solar cells from imported wafers (1997-2005). 3. Production of monocrystalline silicon wafers from imported plycrystalline silicon (1998-2005). 4. Production of polycrystalline silicon from Cuban silica sand (2000-2005). 5. Development and introduction of new technologies for the production of solar cells (2000-2005). The combination of the PV Development program and the Rural Electrification program will guarantee the supply of electricity to 100% of the Cuban population, and at same time accelerate the technological, industrial and research infrastructure on which a large scale national PV industry would be supported. The implementation of such a program would also make cost on the National Electrical Grid (NEG), avoiding the need for new generation facilities based on fossil fuels. [Espanol] Este articulo analiza el trabajo hecho en Cuba durante los ultimos anos en el campo de los fotovoltaicos, desde su Investigacion y Desarrollo y capacidades Industriales, hasta el Programa de Electrificacion Rural. Basado en este trabajo se propone un Programa de Desarrollo para la industria de PV que esta dirigido hacia la integracion de todos los factores necesarios que aseguraran un Programa de Electrificacion sostenido. Este programa esta dividido en 5 principales etapas: 1. Importacion de celdas solares y otros elementos para el ensamblado en Cuba de modulos y diversos componentes del sistema (1995-2005); 2. Produccion de

  14. On the pursuit of a nuclear development capability: The case of the Cuban nuclear program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin-Alvarado, Jonathan Calvert

    1998-09-01

    While there have been many excellent descriptive accounts of modernization schemes in developing states, energy development studies based on prevalent modernization theory have been rare. Moreover, heretofore there have been very few analyses of efforts to develop a nuclear energy capability by developing states. Rarely have these analyses employed social science research methodologies. The purpose of this study was to develop a general analytical framework, based on such a methodology to analyze nuclear energy development and to utilize this framework for the study of the specific case of Cuba's decision to develop nuclear energy. The analytical framework developed focuses on a qualitative tracing of the process of Cuban policy objectives and implementation to develop a nuclear energy capability, and analyzes the policy in response to three models of modernization offered to explain the trajectory of policy development. These different approaches are the politically motivated modernization model, the economic and technological modernization model and the economic and energy security model. Each model provides distinct and functionally differentiated expectations for the path of development toward this objective. Each model provides expected behaviors to external stimuli that would result in specific policy responses. In the study, Cuba's nuclear policy responses to stimuli from domestic constraints and intensities, institutional development, and external influences are analyzed. The analysis revealed that in pursuing the nuclear energy capability, Cuba primarily responded by filtering most of the stimuli through the twin objectives of economic rationality and technological advancement. Based upon the Cuban policy responses to the domestic and international stimuli, the study concluded that the economic and technological modernization model of nuclear energy development offered a more complete explanation of the trajectory of policy development than either the

  15. Preparation and response in case of natural disasters: Cuban programs and experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mas Bermejo, Pedro

    2006-01-01

    Inadequate preparation for national disasters is frequently particularly devastating in lower income countries. The Cuba's location has a diversity of potential natural disasters, including hurricanes, non-tropical depressions, tropical storms, tropical cyclones, and severe local storms, all with intense rains and winds, earthquakes and droughts. Cuban preparation, at all levels, is geared to these predominant threats. Planning for natural disasters is integral to the political and economic life of Cuba, nationally and locally. On several occasions, United Nations (UN) officials have pointed to Cuba as a model for developing countries preparing for hurricanes and other natural disasters. A global policy for managing the risks of natural disasters could improve continuity of assistance for development and reduce the necessity of humanitarian aid. Planning in advance of disasters is a feasible way of helping people, by reducing expenses of emergencies, recuperation, and reconstruction. As climate changes accelerate, many researchers fear a period of irreversible and uncontrollable change. While the atmosphere continues to warm, it generates more intense rains, more frequent heat waves, and more ferocious storms. Thus, achieving better protection of developing countries from an increasing onslaught of natural disasters will only grow in importance. Even though Cuba's contribution to know-how has been recognized by United Nations' officials, progress toward more adequate preparation worldwide has been slow. To support other countries beyond conveying the lessons, Cuba now offers specially trained personnel to cooperate immediately with any country suffering a natural disaster.

  16. Burnout syndrome in nurses of Cuban cancer hospitals. Effectiveness of an intervention program. 2004-2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chacón Roger, Margarita

    2009-01-01

    Studies on Professional Burnout Syndrome (SDP) Nursing identify factors that interact in its development. The objective of this research was to identify the magnitude of the SDP in the nursing staff of Cuban cancer hospitals, identify professional and personal factors involved in the wear process and validate the effectiveness of an intervention program. Three studies using descriptive, analytical and experimental designs were performed. The main results showed that this syndrome is present in 44.0% of subjects; factors were more associated risk: work overload, rotating shift, the 'task characteristics' and 'organization' as well as the excessive time interaction with patients. These factors interacted with academic training, 'extra work' for family care, personal characteristics and overload: high levels of state anxiety, avoidance and escape confrontations and orientations of the least Salutogenic personality. The consequences for the health were associated muscle pain, headaches and colds. The intervention focused on increasing knowledge on job stress and control, their effectiveness was demonstrated by decreased levels of the SDP and its consequences. (author)

  17. Asymbiotic germination in vitro in seeds of four species of Cuban orchids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loexis Rodríguez

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available About the most of 300 species of Cuban native orchids is have few reference of the micropropagation in the science literature. However, the biotechnical techniques fulfill an important acting in the rescue of threatened species. By that in the laboratory of Vegetable Biotechnology of the Mountain Development Center in Guantanamo, aspects related with the germination were studied in vitro of Campylocentrum micrantrum, Encyclia cochleata, Epidendrum difforme and Oceoclade maculata using the salts of the culture medium Murashige and Skoog (1962 and Knudson (1946, increasing with activate charcoal (0; 1; 2 g.l-1, Agar tachnical No. 3 6 g.l-1 and the adjusted pH at 5.6. The seeds was incubated under conditions of 16 hours light to intensity of 27 uMol.m².s-¹ and 24 ± 1 °C. The reached results showed that the germination of the studied species was obtained under different times and conditions of the medium of cultivation where it stood out for the smallest time used for the germination Encyclia cochleata to the eight weeks in the salts of Murashige and Skoog (1962 and without the addition of activated charcoal, as long as Oceoclade maculata needed 24 weeks to germinate. Key words: antioxidante, biotechnology, flowers, micropropagación, native species

  18. The Flowering and Bee-like Insurance, Economic Standards for the Cuban Apian’s Productions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remigio Eusebio Pérez Morejón

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This work grasped Cuban archipelago with the purpose of promoting the financial protection in agricultural sector, giving options of security to the country Apian’s producers against incontrollable natural risks. A study of the hurricanes in Cuba was carried out, so as evaluation of danger, vulnerability and sensitivity of the Apian’s echo-systems (AE; the analysis of occurrence frequency (OF demonstrate that in Cuba doesn’t exist low dangerous zones for the hurricanes impact. Recovery of heavy losses has delayed very variable time intervals which oscillate between 3 to 34 months. Considerable damages could be confirmed in arboreous covering of the (AE. As final results were presented the apian insurance as an economical necessity standard to transfer risks before whips of climatic changes, expressed in the increase of number and intensity of the hurricanes and long drought. It is proved that the losses in this lapse of time are assumed by the insurance enterprise in a 70 %, which economically justify the fact of protecting the apian productions to guarantees of itself and it was demonstrated that it is necessary and feasible the application of the proposal of apian insure. To the development of this work were used analysis methods statistical and survey.

  19. Levels of lead-210 (210Pb) and polonium 210 (210Po) in Cuban Tobacco products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brigido, F.O.; Barrerras Caballero, A.; Alvarez Rodriguez, D.; Montalvan Estrada, A.

    1999-01-01

    The release of 210Po in tobacco smoke and the radiation dose for man have been studied because of the high incidence of lung cancer among smoker. The electroplating of polonium at two different times onto copper disks and further measurement of alpha activity was the meted used for 210 Po determination in tobacco products. The Polonium daughter is used to determine both the 210Pb and 210Po using the Baseman equations for radioactive growth and decay. A cigarette contains between 10.6 and 14.7 mBq of 210Pb with an average activity of 13.0 mBq and between 8.5 and 12.3 mBq of 210Po with an average activity of 10.4 mBq for different Cuban cigarette brands. For a person smoking a pack of 20 cigarettes a day, the values of intakes estimated range from 32 to 44 mBq for 210Pb and from 34 to 49 mBq for 210 Po with an average daily intake of 39 mBq for 210 Pb and 42 mBq for 210Po. The annual effective dose estimated due to inhalation of these nuclides contained in cigarette smoke shows a value of 66[Sv and was in correspondence with world-wide range dose, 46 - 90 mSv.year 1 - for tobacco product consumption

  20. Diagnosis to Evaluate the Degree of the Customer’s Orientation in Cuban Enterprises.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirya Valdivia Hernández

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In the enterprise world of today, the organizations that occupy privileged places in the market, offer their products in the proper place and moment, with competitive prices and the appropriate quality at minimum possible cost. The use of quality as a strategic weapon implies the development of an organizational culture through out the enterprise parts, guided to obtain a final product or service that not only satisfies the customers´ expectations, but enhances them. The customers´ orientation and quality management has been object of different theories and enterprises focuses, which through their evolution have converged to the costumer. In this work it is proposed the implementation of a Procedure, scientifically validated, to evaluate the costumer’s orientation, to contribute to improve the Quality Management in the Cuban enterprises. In the diagnosis procedure the customers´ criteria are identified, the degree of the costumer’s orientation is evaluated and the incidences that influence on the quality management are analyzed. Some actions were proposed based on the diagnosis´ results to the possible causes solution.

  1. Ten years of work in Cuban Program to children from areas affected of Chernobyl accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, Omar; Medina J, Julio

    2001-01-01

    In April of 2000 the Cuban program for specialised medical attention to children from areas affected by the radioactive contamination from the Chernobyl accident completed 10 years of work. In the program had been assisted more than 18 000 children and adults, among them 50 Brazilians related with the Goiania accident. A group of medical procedures and dosimetric, biomedical and psychological investigations have been carried out in the program. The main significant medical attention activities are the treatment of haematological disorders, among them, 120 leukaemia, the realisation of bone marrow transplants and the treatment of endocrinological and neoplasic illnesses. The dosimetric studies has allowed to create a database that accumulates information about internal contamination for 137Cs, internal, external, and total doses, of 7000 children. The analysis of the behaviour of all the medical information that is generated in the program in function of the contamination of the land and of the internal contamination of the children is also performed. The program has accumulated an experience of interest for physicians, psychologists and radiological emergencies experts.(author)

  2. Fifteen years of the cuban program, with children from areas affected by the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, Omar; Medina, Julio

    2005-01-01

    The Cuban Chernobyl Program arrived to the 15th anniversary in March 2005. This program was designed to offers specialised medical attention and to develop a rehabilitation plan with children from areas affected by the Chernobyl accident. More than 21 500 children and adults had been assisted in the program up to the moment, with a significant set of medical procedures done. Dosimetric and biomedic research had been also carried out as part of the program. The most significant medical attention activities include the treatment of children with haematological disorders, including 120 leukaemia, bone marrow transplants, and the treatment of endocrine and cancer diseases. The dosimetric studies allow made a data base with information on internal 137Cs contamination, internal, external and total doses, children living location, and its contamination by 137Cs, and other significant information for radiological impact evaluation in more than 8000 children. The behaviour of all the medical information of the program in relation to the contamination of the land and the internal contamination of the children was analysed using this database. The program has accumulated an experience of interest for physicians, psychologists and in general persons interested in Chernobyl consequences. This paper present a summary of the main results obtained in the program

  3. Prevalence of incidental findings on magnetic resonance imaging: Cuban project to map the human brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez Gonzalez, Gertrudis de los Angeles; Alvarez Sanchez, Marilet; Jordan Gonzalez, Jose

    2010-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of incidental findings in healthy subjects of the Cuban Human Brain Mapping Project sample, it was performed a retrospective descriptive study of the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) obtained from 394 healthy subjects that make up the sample of the project, between 2006-2007, with an age range of 18 to 68 years (mean 33,12), of which 269 (68,27 %) are male and 125 (31,73 %) are women. It was shown that 40,36 % had one or more anomaly in the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In total, the number of incidental findings was 188, 23,6 % of which were brain findings and 24,11 % were non-brain findings, among the latter, were the sinusopathy with 20,81 % and maxillary polyps with 3,30 %. The most prevalent brain findings were: intrasellar arachnoidocele, 11,93 %, followed by the prominence of the pituitary gland, 5,84 %, ventricular asymmetry, 1,77 % and bone defects, 1,02 %. Other brain abnormalities found with very low prevalence had no pathological significance, except for two cases with brain tumor, which were immediately sent to a specialist. Incidental findings in MRI are common in the general population (40,36 %), being the sinusopathy, and intrasellar arachnoidocele the most common findings. Asymptomatic individuals who have any type of structural abnormality provide invaluable information on the prevalence of these abnormalities in a presumably healthy population, which may be used as references for epidemiological studies

  4. Sexual Dimorphisms of Appendicular Musculoskeletal Morphology Related to Social Display in Cuban Anolis Lizards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzai, Wataru; Cádiz, Antonio; Endo, Hideki

    2015-10-01

    In Anolis lizards, sexual dimorphism has been reported in morphological and ecological traits. Males show larger body size and longer limbs related to territorial combat and courtship display with the dewlap. Although functional-anatomical traits are closely related to locomotor behaviors, differences between sexes in musculoskeletal traits on limbs remain unclear. We explored the relationships among sexual dimorphisms in musculoskeletal morphology, habitat, and locomotor traits in Anolis lizards. Specifically, we examined appendicular musculoskeletal morphology in three species of Cuban Anolis by measuring muscle mass and lengths of moment arms. Through comparisons of crossing locomotion, we found that the runner species possessed larger extensors in hindlimbs, which are advantageous for running, whereas the masses of the humeral and femoral retractors were larger in climber species, allowing these lizards to hold up their bodies and occupy tree substrates. Comparisons between the sexes showed different trends among the three species. Males of A. porcatus, which inhabit narrow branches or leaves, had stronger elbow extensors that maintain the display posture. In contrast, males of A. sagrei, which occupy broad surfaces, did not show sexual differences that affected social display. Moreover, A. bartschi indicated sexual differences despite the absence of dewlapping behavior. Our findings suggest that both sexes show fundamentally similar relationships between muscular morphology and locomotor habits to adapt arboreal or terrestrial substrates, and yet sexual dimorphism in forelimb muscles may additionally affected by male specific display with the dewlap.

  5. Neutron activation analysis methodology of marine sediments of the Cuban shelf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, G.

    1988-01-01

    It is described the methodology followed for the neutron activation analysis of marine sediments of the Cuban shelf. A total of 35 elements were determined by means of the employment of thermal and epithermal fluxes of a nuclear reactor as well as from the flux of a generator of 14 MeV neutrons. It is signaled the particularities of detection and measurement of some elements and their interferences, with and special mention of the correction over 153 Sm, 113m In(Sn), 65 Zn, 160 Th, 169 Yb, 75 Sc and 177 Lu. It is concluded that 82% of elements may be determined with epithermal neutrons and 41%, with thermal neutrons. Only Si is determined with 14 MeV neutrons. Moreover, it is recommended the optimal periods of decaying (''cooling'') by groups of elements. The determined elements were: Ag, As, Au, Ba, Br, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Lu, Mo, Na, Nd, Ni, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Si, Sm, Sn, Sr, Ta, Tb, Th, U, W, Yb, Zn and Zr. The accuracy varied between 1% and 5% to 19 elements, between 6% and 10% to 5 elements, between 11% and 30% to 6 elements and it was greater than 30% to 5 elements

  6. The Cuban experience in public health: does political will have a role?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagliccia, Nino; Alvarez Pérez, Adolfo

    2012-01-01

    The role of political will in public health has been largely ignored. In Cuba, however, for the past 50 years, political will has been the ultimate, encompassing intersectoral action in public health. The excellent achievements in population health in Cuba during these 50 years have been widely recognized. Researchers have sought to explain this "Cuban paradox" by focusing on a large array of public health factors, including health promotion, primary care activities, and intersectoral action on health determinants. These factors constitute necessary but not sufficient conditions to achieve good health outcomes. This article defines political will and uses the experience of Cuba to illustrate the potential role of political will in public health. The authors suggest a framework for the evaluation of political will aimed at achieving good health, examining the "Five R's of political will," five observable features that may provide systematic information on the direction and realization of political will: (1) renewal of commitment, (2) reform of the system, (3) resource development, (4) review of performance, and (5) responsible management. These five features focus the spotlight on the consistency between health goals and public discourse and action.

  7. The more frequent types of human papillomavirus in Cuban samples of cervix cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rios Hernandez, Maria de los Angeles; Hernandez Menendez, Maite; Aguilar Vela de Oro, Francisco Orlando

    2010-01-01

    Cervix cancer (UCC) is considered a sexually transmitted disease due to factors involved in its appearance and development and this infection is recognized as the main etiological agent of this entity. In Cuba this type of tumor is placed in 2nd category in incidence and in 4th place in mortality among the malignant disease affecting the female sex. The objective of present study is to determine the types of human virus papilloma (HVP) present in samples of cervix tumors in Cuban women, as well as to describe the behavior of different risk factors associated with this disease. Forty five samples of cervix cancer were analyzed and the presence of 20 types of HVP was determined by polymerase chain reaction with specific primers founding in them a 91,1% of positivity. Genotype 16 was the more prevalent, followed by the 18, 45, 31, 39, 51, 56, 59, PAP23A. The low risk type 6 and 11 weren't founded in samples. Promiscuity was the more interesting risk factor in our study. Knowledge of the viral types present in cervix cancer in our patients is very important when we approach the development and the use of prophylactic and therapeutical vaccines

  8. Economic feasibility study of an electric generation project from bagasse gasification in a cuban sugar mill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres Fernández, Alfredo; Almazán del Olmo, Oscar; Hernández, Bárbara

    2015-01-01

    Some solid fuels which are very pollutant and with low value could be transformed into a clean gas that could be used in many industrial applications for its physical properties and for being easy transported. Then, electricity generation is one of the most important applications. In this case, electricity could be generated, cleanly and efficiently, through the use of synthesis gas that replaces the natural gas in a combined cycle (Biomass Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (BIGCC)).In this paper, we carry out an economic feasibility study of the project about the implementation of Biomass Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (BIGCC) in a 10000 tc/d sugar mill from bagasse gasification in order to demonstrate, from the economic point of view, the possibility of investment in this kind of technology considering the current conditions of Cuban sugar industry.Later, a sensitivity analysis is presented to show first, the break-even point associated to the project and second, the variations of financial indicators due to changes on the total amount of investments, which is a very helpful element for making right decisions in the project investment process. (author)

  9. Quantitative analysis of phases by x-ray diffraction and thermogravimetry in Cuban phosphorite ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casanova Gomez, Abdel; Martinez Montalvo, Asor; Cilano Campos, Guillermo; Arostegui Aguirre, Miladys; Ferreiro Fernandez, Adalyz; Alonso Perez, Jose A.

    2016-01-01

    Phases analysis is performed by instrumental techniques X - ray diffraction and Thermal Analysis in two groups of samples of Cuban minerals carriers'phosphorus, candidates to reference materials. To this end, the variant of structural refinement of the diffraction pattern in the form of adjustment profile is applied, using the Full prof program of Juan Rodriguez-Carvajal. This analysis is the first step to develop the standard specification of these resources and classify them as phosphate rock and / or phospharite from their mass content. The statistical evaluation of the uncertainty of the quantitative analysis (standard deviation) was carried out in ten replicate samples of phosphate rock and eight of phosphate from the field Trinidad de Guedes. The qualitative phase analysis reflected the following phase composition: carbonate fluoroapatite (CFA), Calcite, Quartz and Halloysite (present only in the clayey granular phosphorite ore; FGA). By the method of setting pattern powder diffraction profile, the quantitative phase composition is reported in the sample FGA: 87 (2) % of CFA, 4 (1) % of Calcite, 1% Quartz, and 8 (3) % Halloysite. For granular limestone ore (FGC), the following contents were obtained: 87 (3) % Calcite, 8 (3) % of CFA and 5 (1) % Quartz: The obtained values are corroborated by Thermogravimetric Analysis (TG) through the calculation of the mass content of the thermally active phases (Calcite and CFA) in the range (27-10000 0 C), confirming the validity of the results of XRD. (Author)

  10. Reduced innate immunity of Cuban Treefrogs at leading edge of range expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, Scott M; Romagosa, Christina M; Appel, Arthur G; Guyer, Craig; Mendonça, Mary T

    2017-12-01

    During geographic range expansion, populations of non-indigenous species at the invasion front may benefit from directing resources away from immune defense. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the strength of two innate immune components in populations of invasive Cuban Treefrogs (Osteopilus septentrionalis) in a long-colonized area (core region) and at the invasion front (leading-edge region). First, we compared the region-specific metabolic response of frogs injected with an endotoxin that induces systemic inflammation (lipopolysaccharide, LPS) to sham-injected control frogs pooled from both regions. Males and females were analyzed independently because we detected a sex-related difference in mass-independent metabolism of control frogs, with males exhibiting a significantly higher metabolic rate (F 1, 21  = 29.02, P leading-edge populations, there was no significant difference in the metabolic rate of LPS-injected and control frogs (males, P  = 0.195; females, P  = 0.132). Second, we directly compared bacterial killing ability of frog blood plasma between regions. Bactericidal ability of plasma was significantly greater in frogs from the core region in comparison with those at the leading edge (F 1, 26   = 28.67, P < 0.001). For both immune components that we examined, populations from the core exhibited stronger immune responses. Our findings support hypotheses predicting an inverse relationship between immunity and range expansion. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Structure, magnetic properties, polarized neutron diffraction, and theoretical study of a copper(II) cubane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronica, Christophe; Chumakov, Yurii; Jeanneau, Erwann; Luneau, Dominique; Neugebauer, Petr; Barra, Anne-Laure; Gillon, Béatrice; Goujon, Antoine; Cousson, Alain; Tercero, Javier; Ruiz, Eliseo

    2008-01-01

    The paper reports the synthesis, X-ray and neutron diffraction crystal structures, magnetic properties, high field-high frequency EPR (HF-EPR), spin density and theoretical description of the tetranuclear CuII complex [Cu4L4] with cubane-like structure (LH2=1,1,1-trifluoro-7-hydroxy-4-methyl-5-aza-hept-3-en-2-one). The simulation of the magnetic behavior gives a predominant ferromagnetic interaction J1 (+30.5 cm(-1)) and a weak antiferromagnetic interaction J2 (-5.5 cm(-1)), which correspond to short and long Cu-Cu distances, respectively, as evidence from the crystal structure [see formulate in text]. It is in agreement with DFT calculations and with the saturation magnetization value of an S=2 ground spin state. HF-EPR measurements at low temperatures (5 to 30 K) provide evidence for a negative axial zero-field splitting parameter D (-0.25+/-0.01 cm(-1)) plus a small rhombic term E (0.025+/-0.001 cm(-1), E/D = 0.1). The experimental spin distribution from polarized neutron diffraction is mainly located in the basal plane of the CuII ion with a distortion of yz-type for one CuII ion. Delocalization on the ligand (L) is observed but to a smaller extent than expected from DFT calculations.

  12. O rastro do dragão em quatro narradores cubanos The trail of the dragon in four cuban writers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogelio Rodríguez Coronel

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Seguindo o rastro da cultura chinesa na cultura e literatura cubanas, este trabalho revela-se como um espaço para a discussão de um tema pouco tratado pela crítica, a presença chinesa na constituição da literatura cubana. O "rastro do dragão" é acompanhado desde o século XVII até a contemporaneidade, passando pela obra de autores como Severo Sarduy, Ramón Meza, José Martí e José Lezama Lima, máximos expoentes da modernidade nas letras em Cuba.Siguiendo las huellas de la cultura china en la cultura y la literatura cubanas, este trabajo se revela como un espacio para la discusión de un tema escasamente tratado por la crítica, la presencia china en la constitución de la literatura cubana. La "huella del dragón" es seguida en este estudio, desde el siglo XVII hasta la contemporaneidad, pasando por la obra de autores como Severo Sarduy, Ramón Meza, José Martí e José Lezama Lima, máximos exponentes de la modernidad de las letras en Cuba.Following the trail of Chinese culture in Cuban culture and literature, the paper discusses the Chinese presence in Cuban literature, a subject seldom covered by literary criticism, "The Trail of the...Dragon" is traced in this study from the XVII Century to the present, covering the work of such writers as Severo Sarduy, Ramón Meza, José Martí and José Lezama Lima, outstanding exponents of modernism in Cuban letters.

  13. OSBPL10, RXRA and lipid metabolism confer African-ancestry protection against dengue haemorrhagic fever in admixed Cubans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Sierra

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Ethnic groups can display differential genetic susceptibility to infectious diseases. The arthropod-born viral dengue disease is one such disease, with empirical and limited genetic evidence showing that African ancestry may be protective against the haemorrhagic phenotype. Global ancestry analysis based on high-throughput genotyping in admixed populations can be used to test this hypothesis, while admixture mapping can map candidate protective genes. A Cuban dengue fever cohort was genotyped using a 2.5 million SNP chip. Global ancestry was ascertained through ADMIXTURE and used in a fine-matched corrected association study, while local ancestry was inferred by the RFMix algorithm. The expression of candidate genes was evaluated by RT-PCR in a Cuban dengue patient cohort and gene set enrichment analysis was performed in a Thai dengue transcriptome. OSBPL10 and RXRA candidate genes were identified, with most significant SNPs placed in inferred weak enhancers, promoters and lncRNAs. OSBPL10 had significantly lower expression in Africans than Europeans, while for RXRA several SNPs may differentially regulate its transcription between Africans and Europeans. Their expression was confirmed to change through dengue disease progression in Cuban patients and to vary with disease severity in a Thai transcriptome dataset. These genes interact in the LXR/RXR activation pathway that integrates lipid metabolism and immune functions, being a key player in dengue virus entrance into cells, its replication therein and in cytokine production. Knockdown of OSBPL10 expression in THP-1 cells by two shRNAs followed by DENV2 infection tests led to a significant reduction in DENV replication, being a direct functional proof that the lower OSBPL10 expression profile in Africans protects this ancestry against dengue disease.

  14. Acquired and introduced macroparasites of the invasive Cuban treefrog, Osteopilus septentrionalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Ortega

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Because shifts in host–parasite relationships can alter host populations, attention should be given to the parasites that introduced species take with them or acquire in their introduced range. The Cuban treefrog, Osteopilus septentrionalis, is a successful invasive species in Florida with its parasites in the native range being well-documented, but there is a void in the literature regarding what parasites were lost or introduced in its expansion. We necropsied 330 O. septentrionalis from Tampa, FL and compared their macroparasites to those of O. septentrionalis in their native range and to the parasites of anurans native to the Tampa, FL area to determine the species O. septentrionalis likely introduced or acquired in Florida. At least nine parasite species (Aplectana sp., Oswaldocruzia lenteixeirai, Cylindrotaenia americana, Physaloptera sp., Rhabdias sp., Centrorhynchus sp., unidentified trematode metacercariae, unidentified larval acuariids, and unidentified pentastomids were isolated. We found no differences in parasite communities of adult male and female frogs, which averaged 19.36 parasite individuals and 1.39 parasite species per adult frog, and had an overall prevalence of 77.52%. Acuariid larvae were likely acquired by O. septentrionalis in FL because they are not found in their native range. O. lenteixeirai was likely introduced because it is commonly reported in O. septentrionalis' native range but has never been reported in FL-native anurans. Aplectana sp. is also likely introduced because it has been reported in several anurans in Cuba but only reported once in Florida. O. septentrionalis tended to harbor fewer of its native parasites in the introduced range, which is consistent with the enemy release hypothesis and potentially creates an immunological advantage for this invasive host. Because native populations can be threatened by introduced parasites, there is a need to further explore the frequency and rate at which

  15. Phylogeography of Cuban Rivulus: evidence for allopatric speciation and secondary dispersal across a marine barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce de León, José Luis; León, Gunnary; Rodríguez, Rodet; Metcalfe, Cushla J; Hernández, Damir; Casane, Didier; García-Machado, Erik

    2014-10-01

    The genus Rivulus is currently comprised of two species, R. cylindraceus and R. insulaepinorum, which are endemic to Cuba. However, the taxonomic status of the latter species remains dubious because of the poor quality of the original description. In addition, a recent barcoding survey suggests that the two species may be conspecific. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that the two species represent a single evolutionary clade. To delimit the species and their evolutionary history, we used a combination of molecular phylogenetic analyses, with both mitochondrial and nuclear sequences, tests of phylogeographic hypotheses, combined with morphological measurements and information on known dispersal barriers and species distribution. None of the data sets support R. insulaepinorum and R. cylindraceus as separate taxa. However, a new species, restricted to the northwestern part of the main island, was identified by phylogenetic analyses, body colour pattern and geographical distribution. The evolutionary distance between the two lineages (cytb, d=15%; CAM-4, d=2.5%) indicates a long period of divergence. Phylogeographic analyses shed light on the dispersal history of R. cylindraceus, which probably originated on the Isla de la Juventud. They also suggest that each lineage had contrasting histories; Rivulus sp. is restricted to a relatively small geographic area whereas R. cylindraceus has dispersed considerably and more than once from its centre of origin, probably facilitated by sea level fluctuations. These results strengthen previous findings, i.e. that the diversity of Cuban freshwater fishes is far from well-known and deserves more in-depth studies, and that vicariance and dispersal events have resulted in a complex biogeographical landscape which has had a significant impact on the freshwater fishes of the Caribbean islands. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Force Projection, the 5th Marine Expeditionary Brigade, and the Planned Amphibious Assault during the 1962 Cuban Missile Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-10

    was a threat to the peace and safety of the United States.15 Essentially, Monroe had just drawn a line in the sand that the United States intended to...toward Cuba would fluctuate between heavy-handed coercion to a hands-off approach.16 To manage and control Cuba (and protect U.S. interests) while...M. Beer , “The U.S. Navy and the Cuban Missile Crisis” (A Trident Scholar Project, U.S. Naval Academy, Annapolis, MD, 1990), 12. 32 Falcon, 22

  17. Radiological Characterization of cuban coffee and estimation of the doses received by the population due to coffee consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez Gomez, I.M.; Rodriguez Castro, G.; Perez Sanchez, D.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to study the radioactivity levels in the coffee produced and consumed in our country and to estimate the doses received by the Cuban people due to its consumption. As a results of this study the most relevant radionuclide was K 40 , due to the concentration levels found only considering it when estimating the annual committed dose that is received thought this via. The K 40 concentration value present in the infusion represented a dose for the consumer of 15.6 u Sv/year

  18. Cuban experience in verification of the execution of the safety requirements during the transport of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quevedo Garcia, J.R.; Lopez Forteza, Y.

    2001-01-01

    The Cuban Regulatory Authority has paid special attention to the verification of the execution of the safety requirements during the transport of radioactive material in the country. With this purpose, the Authority has followed a consequent policy based on supplementary demands to those collections in the juridical mark settled down in 1987 in the sphere of transport of radioactive substances. In the work the technical approaches are exposed kept in mind when establishing the one referred politics, the current situation is characterized, the results are evaluated obtained in correspondence with the pursued objectives and the essential aspects are exposed to keep in mind for the adopted politics ulterior development. (author)

  19. Decadal variability in growth of the Caribbean spiny lobster Panulirus argus (Decapoda: Paniluridae in Cuban waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Estela de León

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Annual von Bertalanffy growth parameters of the Caribbean spiny lobster (Panulirus argus in Cuban waters were estimated from a long term study (40 years by length-based methods ELEFAN and the new version of SLCA. Data of around 800 000 lobsters (with carapace length ranging 14 to 199mm were randomly sampled in artificial shelters (a non selective fishing gear very common in the lobster fishery, through the field monitory program established for this species since 1963 in 14 localities of southwestern Cuban shelf. The software ELEFAN showed problems to converge in an optimal combination of the instantaneous growth coefficient (K and the asymptotic length (L8 of the von Bertalanffy equation, whereas the new SLCA software produced value estimates of K between 0.20 and 0.27 year-1 and values of L8 between 177 and 190 mm carapace length, all within the range reported in the literature. The standardized anomalies of both parameters showed the presence of cycles along the analyzed time series. Decadal variability in growth parameters was revealed through the spectral analysis indicating cycles of 16 and 20 years for K and of 16 years for L8. The incidence of some factors such as biomass and temperature that modulate growth in this crustacean was explored, using a nonlinear multiple regression model. These combined factors explained 33% and 69% of the variability of K and L8 respectively. The growth coefficient appeared to be maximum with annual mean sea surface temperature of 28.1º C and the largest L 8is reached at a annual men biomass level of 23 000 t. These results should be the basis to understand the Cuban lobster population dynamics. Rev. Biol. Trop. 53(3-4: 475-486. Epub 2005 Oct 3.Los parámetros de crecimiento anuales para la langosta espinosa del Caribe (Panulirus argus en aguas cubanas se estimaron para una serie de 40 años de datos de composición por longitud, a través de los métodos indirectos basados en la talla ELEFAN y el nuevo

  20. Management of radioactive wastes from non-power applications. The Cuban experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benitez, J.C.; Salgado, M.; Jova, L.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Origin of Radioactive Wastes. The wastes arisen from the applications of radioisotopes in medicine are mainly liquids and solid materials contaminated with short lived radionuclides and sealed sources used in radiotherapy and for sterilization of medical materials. Radioactive wastes from industrial applications are generally disused sealed sources used in level detection, quality control, smoke detection and non-destructive testing. The principal forms of wastes generated by research institutes are miscellaneous liquids, trash, biological wastes, and scintillation vials, sealed sources and targets. Solid radioactive wastes are mainly produced during research works, cleaning and decontamination activities and they consist of rags, paper, cellulose, plastics, gloves, clothing, overshoes, etc. Laboratory materials such as cans, polyethylene bags and glass bottles also contribute to the solid waste inventory. Small quantities of non-compactable wastes are also collected and received for treatment. They include wood pieces, metal scrap, defective components and tools. Radioactive Waste Management Policy and Infrastructure. Since 1994 the Cuban integral policy of nuclear development is entrusted to the Nuclear Energy Agency of the Ministry of Science, Technology and Environment (CITMA). The National Center for Nuclear Safety (CNSN) is responsible for the licensing and supervision of radioactive and nuclear installations. The CPHR is in charge of waste management policy and therefore is responsible for centralized collection, transportation, treatment, conditioning, long term storage, and disposal of radioactive waste, as well as for developing new waste conditioning and containment methods. Radioactive Waste Management Facilities. Waste Treatment and Conditioning Plant (WTCP). The present facility is a building that includes a technological area of 100 m 2 and a laboratory area with a surface of around 30 m 2 . Other areas to be distinguished inside the

  1. Double inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silk, J.; Turner, M.S.

    1986-04-01

    The Zel'dovich spectrum of adiabatic density perturbations is a generic prediction of inflation. There is increasing evidence that when the spectrum is normalized by observational data on small scales, there is not enough power on large scales to account for the observed large-scale structure in the Universe. Decoupling the spectrum on large and small scales could solve this problem. As a means of decoupling the large and small scales we propose double inflation (i.e., two episodes of inflation). In this scenario the spectrum on large scales is determined by the first episode of inflation and those on small scales by a second episode of inflation. We present three models for such a scenario. By nearly saturating the large angular-scale cosmic microwave anisotropy bound, we can easily account for the observed large-scale structure. We take the perturbations on small scales to be very large, deltarho/rho approx. = 0.1 to 0.01, which results in the production of primordial black holes (PBHs), early formation of structure, reionization of the Universe, and a rich array of astrophysical events. The Ω-problem is also addressed by our scenario. Allowing the density perturbations produced by the second episode of inflation to be large also lessens the fine-tuning required in the scalar potential and makes reheating much easier. We briefly speculate on the possibility that the second episode of inflation proceeds through the nucleation of bubbles, which today manifest themselves as empty bubbles whose surfaces are covered with galaxies. 37 refs., 1 fig

  2. Double Outlet Right Ventricle

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Right Ventricle Menu Topics Topics FAQs Double Outlet Right Ventricle Double outlet right ventricle (DORV) is a rare form of congenital heart disease. En español Double outlet right ventricle (DORV) is a rare form of congenital ...

  3. Structural and magnetic characterization of a tetranuclear copper(II) cubane stabilized by intramolecular metal cation-π interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadakis, Raffaello; Rivière, Eric; Giorgi, Michel; Jamet, Hélène; Rousselot-Pailley, Pierre; Réglier, Marius; Simaan, A Jalila; Tron, Thierry

    2013-05-20

    A novel tetranuclear copper(II) complex (1) was synthesized from the self-assembly of copper(II) perchlorate and the ligand N-benzyl-1-(2-pyridyl)methaneimine (L(1)). Single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies revealed that complex 1 consists of a Cu4(OH)4 cubane core, where the four copper(II) centers are linked by μ3-hydroxo bridges. Each copper(II) ion is in a distorted square-pyramidal geometry. X-ray analysis also evidenced an unusual metal cation-π interaction between the copper ions and phenyl substituents of the ligand. Calculations based on the density functional theory method were used to quantify the strength of this metal-π interaction, which appears as an important stabilizing parameter of the cubane core, possibly acting as a driving parameter in the self-aggregation process. In contrast, using the ligand N-phenethyl-1-(2-pyridyl)methaneimine (L(2)), which only differs from L(1) by one methylene group, the same synthetic procedure led to a binuclear bis(μ-hydroxo)copper(II) complex (2) displaying intermolecular π-π interactions or, by a slight variation of the experimental conditions, to a mononuclear complex (3). These complexes were studied by X-ray diffraction techniques. The magnetic properties of complexes 1 and 2 are reported and discussed.

  4. 3d-4f {Co(II)3Ln(OR)4} Cubanes as Bio-Inspired Water Oxidation Catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelisti, Fabio; Moré, René; Hodel, Florian; Luber, Sandra; Patzke, Greta Ricarda

    2015-09-02

    Although the {CaMn4O5} oxygen evolving complex (OEC) of photosystem II is a major paradigm for water oxidation catalyst (WOC) development, the comprehensive translation of its key features into active molecular WOCs remains challenging. The [Co(II)3Ln(hmp)4(OAc)5H2O] ({Co(II)3Ln(OR)4}; Ln = Ho-Yb, hmp = 2-(hydroxymethyl)pyridine) cubane WOC series is introduced as a new springboard to address crucial design parameters, ranging from nuclearity and redox-inactive promoters to operational stability and ligand exchange properties. The {Co(II)3Ln(OR)4} cubanes promote bioinspired WOC design by newly combining Ln(3+) centers as redox-inactive Ca(2+) analogues with flexible aqua-/acetate ligands into active and stable WOCs (max. TON/TOF values of 211/9 s(-1)). Furthermore, they open up the important family of 3d-4f complexes for photocatalytic applications. The stability of the {Co(II)3Ln(OR)4} WOCs under photocatalytic conditions is demonstrated with a comprehensive analytical strategy including trace metal analyses and solution-based X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) investigations. The productive influence of the Ln(3+) centers is linked to favorable ligand mobility, and the experimental trends are substantiated with Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics studies.

  5. Oxygen-atom transfer chemistry and thermolytic properties of a di-tert-butylphosphate-ligated Mn4O4 cubane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Allsburg, Kurt M; Anzenberg, Eitan; Drisdell, Walter S; Yano, Junko; Tilley, T Don

    2015-03-16

    [Mn4O4{O2P(OtBu)2}6] (1), an Mn4O4 cubane complex combining the structural inspiration of the photosystem II oxygen-evolving complex with thermolytic precursor ligands, was synthesized and fully characterized. Core oxygen atoms within complex 1 are transferred upon reaction with an oxygen-atom acceptor (PEt3), to give the butterfly complex [Mn4O2{O2P(OtBu)2}6(OPEt3)2]. The cubane structure is restored by reaction of the latter complex with the O-atom donor PhIO. Complex 1 was investigated as a precursor to inorganic Mn metaphosphate/pyrophosphate materials, which were studied by X-ray absorption spectroscopy to determine the fate of the Mn4O4 unit. Under the conditions employed, thermolyses of 1 result in reduction of the manganese to Mn(II) species. Finally, the related butterfly complex [Mn4O2{O2P(pin)}6(bpy)2] (pin = pinacolate) is described. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Macrosomia Predictors in Infants Born to Cuban Mothers with Gestational Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Jeddú; Grandía, Raiden; Padilla, Liset; Rodríguez, Suilbert; Hernández García, Pilar; Lang Prieto, Jacinto; Márquez-Guillén, Antonio

    2015-07-01

    INTRODUCTION Fetal macrosomia is the most important complication in infants of women with diabetes, whether preconceptional or gestational. Its occurrence is related to certain maternal and fetal conditions and negatively affects maternal and perinatal outcomes. The definitive diagnosis is made at birth if a newborn weighs >4000 g. OBJECTIVE Identify which maternal and fetal conditions could be macrosomia predictors in infants born to Cuban mothers with gestational diabetes. METHODS A case-control study comprising 236 women with gestational diabetes who bore live infants (118 with macrosomia and 118 without) was conducted in the América Arias University Maternity Hospital, Havana, Cuba, during 2002-2012. The dependent variable was macrosomia (birth weight >4000 g). Independent maternal variables included body mass index at pregnancy onset, overweight or obesity at pregnancy onset, gestational age at diabetes diagnosis, pregnancy weight gain, glycemic control, triglycerides and cholesterol. Fetal variables examined included third-semester fetal abdominal circumference, estimated fetal weight at ≥28 weeks (absolute and percentilized by Campbell and Wilkin, and Usher and McLean curves). Chi square was used to compare continuous variables (proportions) and the student t test (X ± SD) for categorical variables, with significance threshold set at p gestational diabetes diagnosis, total fasting cholesterol and hypercholesterolemia. The highest OR for macrosomia were for maternal hypertriglyceridemia (OR 4.80, CI 2.34-9.84), third-trimester fetal abdominal circumference >75th percentile (OR 7.54, CI 4.04-14.06), and estimated fetal weight >90th percentile by Campbell and Wilkin curves (OR 4.75, CI 1.42-15.84) and by Usher and McLean curves (OR 8.81, CI 4.25-18.26). CONCLUSIONS Most variables assessed were predictors of macrosomia in infants of mothers with gestational diabetes. They should therefore be taken into account for future studies and for patient management

  7. Assessment of an ELISA for serodiagnosis of active pulmonary tuberculosis in a Cuban population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Cesar Ayala

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore the serodiagnostic potential of the five recombinant Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigens CFP-10 (Rv3874, ESAT-6 (Rv3875, APA (Rv1860, PstS-1 (Rv0934, Ag85A (Rv3804c and their combination in a Cuban population with active pulmonary tuberculosis. Methods: The serodiagnostic potential of the recombinant antigens rESAT-6, rCFP-10, rAPA, rPstS-1 produced in Escherichia coli, rAg85A produced in Streptomyces lividans and the combination of the five proteins was evaluated by an indirect ELISA. Humoral immune response was analysed in a group of 140 patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis (smear-, Mantoux- and culture-positive and in a control group consisting of 34 bacillus CalmetteGuerin vaccinated, Mantoux-negative, healthy subjects. Results: With the exception of CFP-10, the use of the separate recombinant antigens or the antigenic cocktail in ELISA-based serodiagnosis resulted in a significant difference in the mean optical densitiy values between sera of patients and healthy subjects. The highest sensitivity of the assay using single antigens, being 58.57%, was achieved with rPstS-1 compared to 27.14% with rCFP-10, 31.65% with Ag85A, 42.86% with rAPA and 44.29% with rESAT-6. Single antigen ELISAs provided high specificity values ranging from 94.12% to 97.06%. A cocktail of the aforementioned antigens increased the sensitivity to 87.14% and the specificity to 97.06%. Conclusions: An ELISA using a multi-antigen mix containing recombinant immuno-dominant antigens of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, namely, rCFP-10, rESAT-6, rAPA, rPstS-1 and rAg85, increases the sensitivity and specificity compared with that using the single antigens and shows potential as a complementary tool for the diagnosis of active pulmonary tuberculosis in Cuba.

  8. "A minimum of urbanism and a maximum of ruralism": the Cuban experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gugler, J

    1980-01-01

    The case of Cuba provides social scientists with reasonably good information on urbanization policies and their implementation in 1 developing country committed to socialism. The demographic context is considered, and Cuban efforts to eliminate the rural-urban contradiction and to redefine the role of Havana are described. The impact of these policies is analyzed in terms of available data on urbanization patterns since January 1959 when the revolutionaries marched into Havana. Prerevolutionary urbanization trends are considered. Fertility in Cuba has declined simultaneously with mortality and even more rapidly. Projections assume a 1.85% annual growth rate, resulting in a population of nearly 15 million by the year 2000. Any estimate regarding the future trend in population growth must depend on prognosis of general living conditions and of specific government policies regarding contraception, abortion, female labor force participation, and child care facilities. If population growth in Cuba has been substantial, but less dramatic than that of many other developing countries, urban growth presents a similar picture. Cuba's highest rate of growth of the population living in urban centers with a population over 20,000, in any intercensal period during the 20th century, was 4.1%/year for 1943-1953. It dropped to 3.0% in the 1953-1970 period. Government policies achieved a measure of success in stemming the tide of rural-urban migration, but the aims of the revolutionary leadership went further. The objective was for urban dwellers to be involved in agriculture, and the living standards of the rural population were to be raised to approximate those of city dwellers. The goal of "urbanizing" the countryside found expression in a program designed to construct new small towns which could more easily be provided with services. A slowdown in the growth of Havana, and the concomitant weakening of its dominant position, was intended by the revolutionary leadership. Offical

  9. Internal Dosimetry and the pharmacokinetic of the Cuban Kit of Methoxy-Isobutyl-Isonitrile (MIBI) marked with 99mTc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, L.A.; Pereztol, O.; Rodriguez, J.L.; Alvarez, I.; Fraxedas, R.; Mesa, G.; Rodriguez, R.

    1998-01-01

    The objective of the present work consisted on evaluating the Internal Dosimetry and the pharmacokinetic of the Cuban Kit of Methoxy-Isobutyl-Isonitrile (MIBI) marked with 99mTc. In the dosimetry studies and biodistribution five healthy volunteers were included and in the pharmacokinetic studies five patients were included with less than 5% of probability of suffering illness of artery coronary

  10. The provincial archive as a place of memory: confronting oral and written sources on the role of former slaves in the Cuban war of independence (1895-98

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca J. Scott

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Focuses on the study of the role of former slaves in the Cuban War of Independence, in light of the avoidance of the theme of race within this war in Cuban historiography. Author discusses reasons for the silence on race issues, and for the historic construction of the "myth" of racial equality in this era. Then, she points at the difficulties in the studying of the presence of former slaves among the Cuban soldiers in the War of Independence, due to the absence of racial labels for the registered soldiers. She describes how the research on the theme became more local, and focused on the Cienfuegos region, in part because of Cienfuegos' extensive local archive. Then, she outlines the different approaches to research on the matter by the archives' director Orlando García Martínez, by Michael Zeuske, and by the author herself. The latter explains how she extended her archival research with oral testimonies of descendants in Cienfuegos of black soldiers, and how through examining life histories, collective biographies, and genealogies, she ascertained that the number of former slaves in the rebellious Cuban army was relatively small, but the number of free-born blacks and mulattoes was high.

  11. Double hard scattering without double counting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diehl, Markus [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Gaunt, Jonathan R. [VU Univ. Amsterdam (Netherlands). NIKHEF Theory Group; Schoenwald, Kay [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany)

    2017-02-15

    Double parton scattering in proton-proton collisions includes kinematic regions in which two partons inside a proton originate from the perturbative splitting of a single parton. This leads to a double counting problem between single and double hard scattering. We present a solution to this problem, which allows for the definition of double parton distributions as operator matrix elements in a proton, and which can be used at higher orders in perturbation theory. We show how the evaluation of double hard scattering in this framework can provide a rough estimate for the size of the higher-order contributions to single hard scattering that are affected by double counting. In a numeric study, we identify situations in which these higher-order contributions must be explicitly calculated and included if one wants to attain an accuracy at which double hard scattering becomes relevant, and other situations where such contributions may be neglected.

  12. Double hard scattering without double counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diehl, Markus; Gaunt, Jonathan R.

    2017-02-01

    Double parton scattering in proton-proton collisions includes kinematic regions in which two partons inside a proton originate from the perturbative splitting of a single parton. This leads to a double counting problem between single and double hard scattering. We present a solution to this problem, which allows for the definition of double parton distributions as operator matrix elements in a proton, and which can be used at higher orders in perturbation theory. We show how the evaluation of double hard scattering in this framework can provide a rough estimate for the size of the higher-order contributions to single hard scattering that are affected by double counting. In a numeric study, we identify situations in which these higher-order contributions must be explicitly calculated and included if one wants to attain an accuracy at which double hard scattering becomes relevant, and other situations where such contributions may be neglected.

  13. Analysis of policy implications and challenges of the Cuban health assistance program related to human resources for health in the Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asante Augustine D

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cuba has extended its medical cooperation to Pacific Island Countries (PICs by supplying doctors to boost service delivery and offering scholarships for Pacific Islanders to study medicine in Cuba. Given the small populations of PICs, the Cuban engagement could prove particularly significant for health systems development in the region. This paper reviews the magnitude and form of Cuban medical cooperation in the Pacific and analyses its implications for health policy, human resource capacity and overall development assistance for health in the region. Methods We reviewed both published and grey literature on health workforce in the Pacific including health workforce plans and human resource policy documents. Further information was gathered through discussions with key stakeholders involved in health workforce development in the region. Results Cuba formalised its relationship with PICs in September 2008 following the first Cuba-Pacific Islands ministerial meeting. Some 33 Cuban health personnel work in Pacific Island Countries and 177 Pacific island students are studying medicine in Cuba in 2010 with the most extensive engagement in Kiribati, the Solomon Islands, Tuvalu and Vanuatu. The cost of the Cuban medical cooperation to PICs comes in the form of countries providing benefits and paying allowances to in-country Cuban health workers and return airfares for their students in Cuba. This has been seen by some PICs as a cheaper alternative to training doctors in other countries. Conclusions The Cuban engagement with PICs, while smaller than engagement with other countries, presents several opportunities and challenges for health system strengthening in the region. In particular, it allows PICs to increase their health workforce numbers at relatively low cost and extends delivery of health services to remote areas. A key challenge is that with the potential increase in the number of medical doctors, once the local students

  14. Scaling cigars in the Cuban tourism economy Configurar a escala dos charutos na economia do turismo em Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerio Simoni

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Taking scale as an object of analysis (Tsing 2000, this article examines how competing scale-making projects emerge in different layers of the Cuban tourism economy. I consider how tourists and Cubans interact along contested chains of production and distribution of cigars, and therefore become entangled in bundles of ideas, discourses, practices and materialities. These constitute different scaling propositions on which tourists and Cubans converge or diverge, and which inform the success of encounters within the tourism economy. Highlighted is the importance of understanding how scaling propositions are enacted and negotiated within tourism. I conclude that the realm of tourism is a particularly fruitful platform to investigate how competing scale-making projects and notions of scale are played out in the contemporary world.Tomando a escala (Tsing 2000 como objecto de análise, este artigo aborda a forma como emergem projectos concorrentes de configuração de escala a diferentes níveis da economia turística cubana. É examinada a interacção de turistas e cubanos no âmbito de cadeias de produção e distribuição controversas, e as formas como, assim, uns e outros se envolvem em conjuntos de ideias, discursos, práticas e materialidades. Estes constituem diferentes propostas de configuração de escala em que turistas e cubanos convergem ou divergem e que determinam o sucesso dos encontros no seio da economia turística. É aqui sublinhada a importância de compreendermos como as propostas de configuração de escala são apresentadas e negociadas no âmbito do turismo. Conclui-se que o campo do turismo constitui uma plataforma particularmente fértil para o estudo de como noções de escala e projectos de configuração de escala concorrentes se desenvolvem no mundo contemporâneo.

  15. Abundance, distribution and size structure of Diadema antillarum (Echinodermata: Diadematidae in South Eastern Cuban coral reefs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Martín Blanco

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The 1983-1984 mass mortality event of Diadema antillarum affected more than 93% of the total Caribbean population. Although there are no records about the status of Diadema populations before and after die-off on Cuban reefs, anecdotal information suggests that populations were struck. We analyzed spatial variation in the abundance and size structure of D. antillarum in 22 reefs sites in Jardines de la Reina, from June 2004 to September 2005. Counts of Diadema were performed in five 30x2m transects at each sampling site and sampling time, and test diameters were measured in September 2005 at the same fore reefs. Abundances were higher at reef crests (mean densities 0.08-2.18 ind./m², while reef slope populations reached a maximum site level of 0.13 ind./m² at only one site and showed values up to three orders of magnitude lower than those from reef crests. Highest abundance occurred at the west margin of major channels between keys where larval recruitment seems to be favored by local oceanographic features and facilitated by the abundance of Echinometra lucunter. The size frequency distribution of D. antillarum indicates that recruitment began to be noticeable three years before September 2005, suggesting these populations were depleted in the past and they are recovering now. Rev. Biol. Trop. 58 (2: 663-676. Epub 2010 June 02.La mortalidad de Diadema antillarum en 1983-1984 afectó más del 93% de la población del Caribe. Aunque no existen datos publicados sobre el estado de sus poblaciones en arrecifes cubanos antes y después de la mortalidad, se conoce anecdóticamente que fueron afectadas. En el presente trabajo se analizan las variaciones espaciales de la abundancia y estructura de tallas de D. antillarum en 22 arrecifes frontales en Jardines de la Reina, para lo cual se realizaron cinco recorridos de 30x2m en cada sitio entre Junio de 2004 y Septiembre de 2005. Las densidades de Diadema fueron mayores en las crestas arrecifales (0

  16. International Comparability of 131I, 201TI and 99mTc Activity Measurements performed in Cuban Nuclear Medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oropesa, P; Serra, R; Hernandez, A.T.; Varela, C

    2006-01-01

    This paper refers about the International Comparability of 131 I, 201 TI and 99m Tc Activity Measurements performed in Cuban Nuclear Medicine. Traceability of activity measurements in nuclear medicine based in two aspects: Comparability of clinic results and the safe and effective use of drugs. A bilateral international comparison for activity measurements CIEMAT CENTIS DMR was done. 2000-2004 National Program for 99m Tc 201 TI, 131 I vial and syringe measurements in radionuclide calibrators including a simulated test for activity administration. It is employed the Cause Effect Diagram for the activity measurement result of a source in the calibrator and the statistical methods for comparing several characteristics of the obtained data. The result of the comparisons demonstrates that the measurement quality has increased from one year to another

  17. DNA polymorphisms in cuban varieties of avocado (persea americana mill.) as detected by inverse sequence tagged repeat (ISTR) analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez, M; Fuentes, J L [Centro de Estudios Aplicados al Desarrollo Nuclear, La Habana (Cuba); Rodriguez, N N; Cueto, J [Max Planck Institut fur Zuchtungsforschung (MPIZ), Koln (Germany); Becker, D; Rohde, W [Instituto de Investigaciones en Fruticultura Tropical (IIFT). C. Habana (Cuba)

    2001-07-01

    A survey of the genetic diversity among commercial Cuban avocado varieties was initiated using ISTR analysis. ISTR markers were efficient in detecting polymorphisms among the genotypes. The obtained dissimilarities values ranged from 0.24 between var. Suardia and Hass to 1.00 between Lula and Los Moros or CHI-3 with an average dissimilarity of 0.78. A cluster analysis was performed based on dissimilarity using UPGMA as the clustering method. The efficiency of UPGMA in estimating genetic relationships between varieties was corroborated by the cophenetic correlation coefficients, which indicated that the distortion degree in the relationship of the estimated dissimilarities was minimal. Ecological groups were not adequately represented in the dendrogram. Thus, West Indians, Guatemalan and Mexican genotypes were positioned across the dendrogram. The utility of ISTR for genotype identification and assessment of genetic diversity in commercial avocado varieties is discussed.

  18. DNA polymorphisms in cuban varieties of avocado (persea americana mill.) as detected by inverse sequence tagged repeat (ISTR) analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, M; Fuentes, J. L.; Rodriguez, N.N.; Cueto, J.; Becker, D.; Rohde, W.

    2001-01-01

    A survey of the genetic diversity among commercial Cuban avocado varieties was initiated using ISTR analysis. ISTR markers were efficient in detecting polymorphisms among the genotypes. The obtained dissimilarities values ranged from 0.24 between var. Suardia and Hass to 1.00 between Lula and Los Moros or CHI-3 with an average dissimilarity of 0.78. A cluster analysis was performed based on dissimilarity using UPGMA as the clustering method. The efficiency of UPGMA in estimating genetic relationships between varieties was corroborated by the cophenetic correlation coefficients, which indicated that the distortion degree in the relationship of the estimated dissimilarities was minimal. Ecological groups were not adequately represented in the dendrogram. Thus, West Indians, Guatemalan and Mexican genotypes were positioned across the dendrogram. The utility of ISTR for genotype identification and assessment of genetic diversity in commercial avocado varieties is discussed

  19. From individual to herd protection with pneumococcal vaccines: the contribution of the Cuban pneumococcal conjugate vaccine implementation strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nivaldo Linares-Pérez

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A new pneumococcal conjugate vaccine is currently undergoing advanced clinical evaluation prior to its planned introduction in Cuba. The implementation of the pneumococcal vaccination strategy has been designed with consideration of the need to maximize both its direct and indirect effects. A novel approach is suggested, which addresses preschool children as the first-line target group to generate herd immunity in infants and to have an impact on transmission at the community level. The clinical evaluation pipeline is described herein, including evaluations of effectiveness, cost-effectiveness, and impact. The scientific contribution of the Cuban strategy could support a paradigm shift from individual protection to a population effect based on a rigorous body of scientific evidence.

  20. Seismic and geological interpretation on petroleum exploration in the Cuban economic area in the Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sora Monroy, America; Lopez, Sofia; Dominguez, Rene; Socorro, Rafael; Sanchez, Jorge; Toucet, Sonia [Cupet -Companhia Cubana de Petroleo, Havana (Cuba)

    2004-07-01

    From the decade of the 50'up to now, many seismic survey were acquired in the Cuban Economic area in the Gulf of Mexico, both, deep water and near short along the littoral, which have contribute to prepare the structural model as well the evolutional one. During the period comprise from June to December 2000, 7330 Km. of seismic lines were acquired over 70 lines in an area of 110000 square Km. that covers the Exclusive Economic area of Cuba. In this area the water depth varies from 500 m to 3500 m. The biggest depth is located at the central part of the whole area. The depth decreases toward the shell and the island's littoral (up to less than 1000 m). Seismic data were processed at CGG' processing in France. Geovector Plus was used as seismic processing software. All the information was calibrate by the wells in the area. The principal wells were DP535 and DP540. The general featuring of seismic image let us to get the map from the main geological elements in this area. In the area we were following two principal horizons: the green one associated to the Middle Cretaceous and the blue one associated to the top of Jurassic. We made the structural maps from the Middle Cretaceous and the Top of Jurassic, and did the seism stratigraphic analysis. We found 16 sequences. We did the chronograph table in this area and we made six maps from different seismic sequences. This analysis let us to define the most important area to continue studying in the Cuban economic area in the Gulf of Mexico on the petroleum exploration. (author)

  1. Definition of Specific Functions and Procedural Skills Required by Cuban Specialists in Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Véliz, Pedro L; Berra, Esperanza M; Jorna, Ana R

    2015-07-01

    INTRODUCTION Medical specialties' core curricula should take into account functions to be carried out, positions to be filled and populations to be served. The functions in the professional profile for specialty training of Cuban intensive care and emergency medicine specialists do not include all the activities that they actually perform in professional practice. OBJECTIVE Define the specific functions and procedural skills required of Cuban specialists in intensive care and emergency medicine. METHODS The study was conducted from April 2011 to September 2013. A three-stage methodological strategy was designed using qualitative techniques. By purposive maximum variation sampling, 82 professionals were selected. Documentary analysis and key informant criteria were used in the first stage. Two expert groups were formed in the second stage: one used various group techniques (focus group, oral and written brainstorming) and the second used a three-round Delphi method. In the final stage, a third group of experts was questioned in semistructured in-depth interviews, and a two-round Delphi method was employed to assess priorities. RESULTS Ultimately, 78 specific functions were defined: 47 (60.3%) patient care, 16 (20.5%) managerial, 6 (7.7%) teaching, and 9 (11.5%) research. Thirty-one procedural skills were identified. The specific functions and procedural skills defined relate to the profession's requirements in clinical care of the critically ill, management of patient services, teaching and research at the specialist's different occupational levels. CONCLUSIONS The specific functions and procedural skills required of intensive care and emergency medicine specialists were precisely identified by a scientific method. This product is key to improving the quality of teaching, research, administration and patient care in this specialty in Cuba. The specific functions and procedural skills identified are theoretical, practical, methodological and social contributions to

  2. Anti-HBs in immunized children with cuban hepatitis B vaccine and impact of booster dose after five years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahifar, H.; Mousavi, F.; Ghorbani, A.

    2008-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus infection and associated diseases are a major public health problem. This study was planned to find out the persistence of antibody against hepatitis B surface antigen in Iranian vaccinated children after five years. Anti-HBs titers in a group of healthy good - responder children who were vaccinated with Cuban hepatitis B vaccine in infancy were measured after five years. Children with antibody titers <100 mlU/ml were revaccinated and retested after four weeks. Mean anti-HBs titers in 68 children (29 females, 39 males) were 482.1 mlU/ml at six months after the third dose of primary vaccination and 153 mlU/ml at five years later. Total mean anti-HBs titers in 36 (52.9%) children out of 68 (17 females, 19 males) were 38.3 mlU/ml and 4(5.8%) of 68 children (two of each sexes) had no detectable antibody after five years. Total mean anti-HBs titers in these hypo- responder and non- responder were 774.3 mlU/ml and 625.5 mlU/ml respectively after booster dose. In a group of children, who were immunized with Cuban hepatitis B vaccine from birth, anti-HBS titers fell at 6.5 years of age and almost half of children became hypo responder or no responder and their anti-HBs titers developed secondary rise after booster vaccination. All children showed immunologic memory to a booster dose. (author)

  3. International double taxation

    OpenAIRE

    Körbl, Hugo

    2012-01-01

    1 Summary This thesis deals with the issue of international double taxation of income and capital and methods for its solution. International double taxation is an issue which states began to deal with in the late 19th century. This interest intensified after the First World War when also the League of Nations (predecessor of the United Nations) began to deal with international double taxation. Most attention the phenomenon of double taxation of income and capital with an international elemen...

  4. Population size of Cuban Parrots Amazona leucocephala and Sandhill Cranes Grus canadensis and community involvement in their conservation in northern Isla de la Juventud, Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera, X.G.; Alvarez, V.B.; Wiley, J.W.; Rosales, J.R.

    1999-01-01

    The Cuban Sandhill Crane Grus canadensis nesiotes and Cuban Parrot Amazona leucocephala palmarum are considered endangered species in Cuba and the Isla de la Juventud (formerly Isla de Pinos). Coincident with a public education campaign, a population survey for these species was conducted in the northern part of the Isla de la Juventud on 17 December 1995, from 06hoo to 10hoo. Residents from throughout the island participated, manning 98 stations, with 1-4 observers per station. Parrots were observed at 60 (61.2%) of the stations with a total of 1320, maximum (without correction for duplicate observations), and 1100, minimum (corrected), individuals counted. Sandhill cranes were sighted at 38 (38.8%) of the stations, with a total of 115 individuals. Cranes and parrots co-occurred at 20 (20.4%) of the stations.

  5. Examining the influence of family environments on youth violence: a comparison of Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban, non-Latino Black, and non-Latino White adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada-Martínez, Lorena M; Padilla, Mark B; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard; Schulz, Amy Jo

    2011-08-01

    Existing research rarely considers important ethnic subgroup variations in violent behaviors among Latino youth. Thus, their risk for severe violent behaviors is not well understood in light of the immense ethnic and generational diversity of the Latino population in the United States. Grounded in social control theory and cultural analyses of familism, we examine differences in the risk for severe youth violence, as well its associations with family cohesion, parental engagement, adolescent autonomy, household composition, and immigrant generation among Mexican (n = 1,594), Puerto Rican (n = 586), Cuban (n = 488), and non-Latino Black (n = 4,053), and White (n = 9,921) adolescents with data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Results indicate a gradient of risk; White youth had the lowest risk for severe violence and Puerto Rican youth had the highest risk compared to all other racial/ethnic subgroups. Within-group analysis indicates that family factors are not universally protective or risk-inducing. While family cohesion decreased the risk of severe violence among all groups, parental engagement was associated with increased risk among Blacks and Whites, and adolescent autonomy was associated with increased risk among Puerto Ricans and Cubans. In addition, Cuban and White adolescents who lived in single parent households or who did not live with their parents, had higher risk for severe violent behaviors than their counterparts who lived in two parent households. Among Latinos, the association of immigrant generation was in opposite directions among Mexicans and Cubans. We conclude that family and immigration factors differentially influence risk for violence among Latino subgroups and highlight the significance of examining subgroup differences and developing intervention strategies that are tailored to the needs of each ethnic subgroup.

  6. Nitrogen Fertilization for Optimizing the Quality and Yield of Shade Grown Cuban Cigar Tobacco: Required Nitrogen Amounts, Application Schedules, Adequate Leaf Nitrogen Levels, and Early Season Diagnostic Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borges A

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen (N fertilizers have a decisive influence on the yield and quality of tobacco. Yield, percentage of plant N, wrapper leaf quality, and nicotine content are all important quality characteristics in tobacco growing. This work is an attempt to provide a tool for optimizing mineral N nutrition for Cuban cigar tobacco, using a strategy that links N supply with leaf N concentration and wrapper yield. Similar approaches developed worldwide have mainly involved Virginia and Burley tobacco types but not Cuban cigar tobacco. The objective of the current work is to identify the effects of fertilizer N levels and timing of application on each of the mentioned quality factors for shade grown Cuban cigar tobacco. Another purpose is to explore the usefulness of a quick method of assessing the N status of plants based on measuring leaf transmission at two different wavelengths (650 and 940 nm. The experiments were done in the main tobacco growing area of Cuba (Vueltabajo. In each experiment, nine separate treatments were used covering different levels and times of fertilizer N application. The same experiment was carried out in three different years (2005-2006, 2006-2007, 2007-2008 but as the results were similar only one set of data is described (2006-2007. The patterns of response to N fertilizer of all four quality measurements, including yield and wrapper leaf quality, were similar in the different replications of the experiments. The optimal fertilizer level was 140-190 kg N/ha (40% applied on days 8-10 after transplanting and 60% on days 18-20 after transplanting. The optimal N concentration of leaves taken at the central foliar level of the middle stalk position was 4.3-4.7% at harvest time. Leaf transmission measurements by means of the SPAD-502 Chlorophyll Meter in the early stages of growth were correlated with leaf chlorophyll and N concentration and provide an excellent guide for predicting Cuban cigar tobacco wrapper leaf yield.

  7. Double layers in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlqvist, P.

    1982-07-01

    For more than a decade it has been realised that electrostatic double layers are likely to occur in space. We briefly discuss the theoretical background of such double layers. Most of the paper is devoted to an account of the observational evidence for double layers in the ionosphere and magnetosphere of the Earth. Several different experiments are reviewed including rocket and satellite measurements and ground based observations. It is concluded that the observational evidence for double layers in space is very strong. The experimental results indicate that double layers with widely different properties may exist in space. (Author)

  8. Double layers in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlqvist, P.

    1982-01-01

    For more than a decade it has been realised that electrostatic double layers are likely to occur in space. The author briefly discusses the theoretical background of such double layers. Most of the paper is devoted to an account of the observational evidence for double layers in the ionosphere and magnetosphere of the Earth. Several different experiments are reviewed including rocket and satellite measurements and ground based observations. It is concluded that the observational evidence for double layers in space is very strong. The experimental results indicate that double layers with widely different properties may exist in space. (Auth.)

  9. Use of neuronal networks in the modeling of the doses that receives the Cuban population by potassium-40 contained in their organism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zerquera, Juan Tomas; Prendes Alonso, Miguel; Lopez Bejerano, Gladys M.; Acosta Rodriguez, Nancy

    2001-01-01

    The potassium 40 constitutes the main source natural present in the organism that influences in the effective dose that people receive. With the objective of evaluating the contribution from this component to the doses received by the Cuban population, a study was developed in order to evaluate the doses for this cause. A representative sample was selected based on the distribution of Cuban population by sex and ages. The measurements were carried out in the Whole Body Counter of the Center for Radiation Protection and Hygiene. For the estimate of the doses an uniform distribution of potassium was assumed in the whole body and the methodology was used recommended by the ICRP. The values of annual effective dose varies between 93 and 209 mSv for the feminine sex and 102 and 212 mSv for the masculine sex. With the obtained values they were the adjustment coefficients for the functions dose-age for each one of the sexes. At the same time it was possible to model the estimate of the doses by means of a neural network that, trained with the obtained experimental data, it allows to estimate the due doses directly to the potassium 40 starting from the sex data, age, height and corporal weight. The effective dose mediates yearly for the public's members it was estimated in 149 ± 6 mSv, starting from the experimental data and the Cuban population's specific characteristics. (author)

  10. Double-double effect and coordination number

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mioduski, T.

    1992-01-01

    The original method of interpretation together with its theoretical foundations is developed, making it possible to use location and direction of the double-double (tetrad) effect within the Ln and An series to determine the coordination number (CN) complexes of the f-block elements. The method is applied for potentiometric and radiometric equilibrium studies. It has been pointed and that the decisive factor for the direction of the double-double effect in the case of the Gibbs energy variations is a difference in the CN of the f-element ion between the reaction product complex and that for the reaction substrate the ''regular'' effect for a given tetrad is accompanied by decrease in the CN while the ''reverse'' effect by increase in the CN. (author). 122 refs, 5 tabs, 8 figs

  11. Policy and strategy of the Cuban Regulatory Organization for the establishment of the legal and regulation frame

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnau F, A.; Alonso G, I.; Sarabia M, I.

    2006-01-01

    The National Center of Nuclear Security, Cuban entity authorized to exercise the regulation functions and control of the security of the use of the nuclear energy and the accounting and control of the nuclear materials, has among its functions, to elaborate and to propose for its approval to the corresponding instances, the juridical, technical dispositions and of procedure in its competition sphere, what demands that in this sense clear guidelines exist to carry out this social mission. The fact of assuming this function demands the necessity of a Politics for the establishment of the legal and regulation frame that expresses in a coherent way the general lines on those that it behaves the elaboration of the standards that govern this activity, to reach the end in an efficient and effective way and consequently the adoption of a Strategy that frames the necessary actions that assure the one execution and development of the politics and the pursuit of the precise rules for an optimal result. The Politics for the establishment of the legal and regulation frame of the National Center of Nuclear Security is based on a group of general principles that mark the guidelines so that this activity is chord to the national juridical system, to the good ones international practices and the recommendations of the International Atomic Energy Agency appropriated to the national experience and the daily reality, being this a transparent and reconciled process in such a way that the addressee of these standards can contribute their recommendations to the ends of achieving an effective applicability of the legal and regulation frame that governs this activity in the country. The development and pursuit of these principles is sustained in a group of actions to the help of the strategy for the establishment of the legal and regulation frame, embracing the actions so much during the process of elaboration of the legal frame, its systematic revision, the publication and distribution

  12. Effect of ligand substitution on the SMM properties of three isostructural families of double-cubane Mn4Ln2 coordination clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Muhammad Nadeem; Lan, Yanhua; AlDamen, Murad A; Zheng, Yan-Zhen; Anson, Christopher E; Powell, Annie K

    2018-03-06

    Three isostructural lanthanide series with a core of MnMnLn 2 are reported. These three families have the formulae of [MnMnLn 2 (μ 4 -O) 2 (H 2 edte) 2 (piv) 6 (NO 3 ) 2 ] {no crystallization solvent, Ln = La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Eu (1-4, 6); solv = 3MeCN, Ln = Sm, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Y (5, 7-13)}, where H 2 edte = N,N,N',N'-tetrakis(2-hydroxyethyl)ethylenediamine and piv = pivalate; [MnMnLn 2 (μ 4 -O) 2 (H 2 edte) 2 (benz) 6 (NO 3 ) 2 ], where benz = benzoate, or [MnMnLn 2 (μ 4 -O) 2 (edteH 2 ) 2 (benz) 6 (NO 3 ) 2 ]·2MeCN {Ln = Gd, Tb, Dy (14-16); and [MnMnLn 2 (μ 4 -O) 2 (edteH 2 ) 2 (piv) 8 ].solv {solv = 4MeCN, Ln = La (17); solv = 2MeCN·tol·H 2 O, Ln = Pr, Nd, Sm, Tb (18-20, 22); solv = 2MeCN·H 2 O, Ln = Gd (21). These compounds crystallize in two different systems, namely, monoclinic in the space groups P2 1 /n for 1-4, 6, and 14-16 and C2/c for 5, 7-13, 18-20, and 22 and triclinic in the space group P1[combining macron] for 17 and 21. The crystal structures of these compounds display a face-fused dicubane structure connected by different types of bridged oxygen atoms. Solid-state dc magnetic susceptibility characterization was carried out for 1-22, and fitting showed that Mn III Mn III is antiferromagnetically (AF) coupled and Mn II Mn III , Mn II Ln and Mn III Ln are weakly ferromagnetically coupled. In addition, ac measurements were carried out and showed that only 7, 15, and 22 for Tb, 8 and 16 for Dy, and 20 for Sm exhibited slow magnetization relaxation. In the case of 15, it was possible to determine the energy barrier of the slow-relaxation behavior by fitting peak temperatures to the Arrhenius law, which gave a value of U eff = 21.2 K and a pre-exponential factor of τ 0 = 4.0 × 10 -9 s.

  13. Natural history and morphometry of the Cuban iguana (Cyclura nubila Gray, 1831 in Cayo Sijú, Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beovides-Casas, K.

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The report presents data about the Cuban iguana population (Cyclura nubila nubila inhabiting Cayo Sijú, an 88 ha island off the southwest coast of Cuba. Population densities estimated using strip transects were higher in xerophytic coastal scrub (6.72 ± 6.25 iguanas/ha than in typical sand vegetation (3.63 ± 2.71 iguanas/ha and mangrove forests (2.9 ± 2.9 iguanas/ha. The total population for the cay was estimated at 350 individuals with an adult biomass of approximately 11.67 kg/ha. Densities varied minimally between three habitat types and between the wet and dry seasons. No significant density fluctuations were found one month after Hurricane Ivan affected the cay. Iguana burrows were encountered most frequently in beach dunes. Analysis of 30 scat samples revealed eight species of plants, with the fruits of Chrysobalanum icaco and the leaves of Batis maritima being the most frequently identified items. The remains of crab (Cardisoma guandhumi and insects of the order Hemiptera were also present in scat samples. Sexual dimorphism was evident in this population, with males being significantly larger in eight morphological variables. The snout-vent length measurements were larger in this population than in those reported in two cays off the south coast of Cuba.

  14. Bufadienolides from parotoid gland secretions of Cuban toad Peltophryne fustiger (Bufonidae): Inhibition of human kidney Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera Córdova, Wilmer H; Leitão, Suzana Guimarães; Cunha-Filho, Geraldino; Bosch, Roberto Alonso; Alonso, Isel Pascual; Pereda-Miranda, Rogelio; Gervou, Rodrigo; Touza, Natália Araújo; Quintas, Luis Eduardo M; Noël, François

    2016-02-01

    Parotoid gland secretions of toad species are a vast reservoir of bioactive molecules with a wide range of biological properties. Herein, for the first time, it is described the isolation by preparative reversed-phase HPLC and the structure elucidation by NMR spectroscopy and/or mass spectrometry of nine major bufadienolides from parotoid gland secretions of the Cuban endemic toad Peltophryne fustiger: ψ-bufarenogin, gamabufotalin, bufarenogin, arenobufagin, 3-(N-suberoylargininyl) marinobufagin, bufotalinin, telocinobufagin, marinobufagin and bufalin. In addition, the secretion was analyzed by UPLC-MS/MS which also allowed the identification of azelayl arginine. The effect of arenobufagin, bufalin and ψ-bufarenogin on Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity in a human kidney preparation was evaluated. These bufadienolides fully inhibited the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase in a concentration-dependent manner, although arenobufagin (IC50 = 28.3 nM) and bufalin (IC50 = 28.7 nM) were 100 times more potent than ψ-bufarenogin (IC50 = 3020 nM). These results provided evidence about the importance of the hydroxylation at position C-14 in the bufadienolide skeleton for the inhibitory activity on the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Relation between serum lipoperoxide concentrations and iron or copper status over one year in Cuban adult men

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnaud, J.; Renversez, J.C.; Favier, A.E. [Dept. de Biologie Integree, CHUG, Grenoble (France); Fleites, P.; Perez-Cristia, R. [Centro national de Toxicologia (CENATOX), La Habana (Cuba); Chassagne, M.; Barnouin, J. [INRA, Unite d' Ecopathologie, Saint Genes Champanelle (France); Verdura, T. [Inst. Finlay, La Lisa, La Habana (Cuba); Garcia, I.G. [Inst. de Farmacia y Alimentos, La Coronela, La Lisa, Ciudad de la Habana (Cuba); Tressol, J.C. [INRA, Unite maladies metaboliques et micronutriments, Saint Genes Champanelle (France)

    2001-07-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the relations between iron and copper status and lipid peroxidation at different periods over one year in low-income and low-energy intake healthy subjects. The study was conducted in 199 middle-aged healthy Cuban men from March 1995 to February 1996. Iron status was assessed by the determination of serum ferritin, transferrin saturation, whole blood hemoglobin and iron intakes. Copper status was evaluated by the determination of serum copper and copper intakes. Serum thiobarbituric acid substances (TBARS) determination was used as an index of lipid peroxidation. Rank correlations were observed between serum TBARS concentrations and iron or copper status indices at different periods. In period 3 (end of the rainy season), serum TBARS and ferritin concentrations were maximum whereas blood hemoglobin levels and iron intake were minimum. Serum TBARS concentrations were significantly higher than the reference values of the laboratory whereas, iron and copper status were within the reference ranges. These results suggested that iron and copper status may be associated with lipid peroxidation in subjects without metal overloads and that variations over the year needed to be taken in account. (orig.)

  16. Germination of somatic embryos of Psidium guajava L. cv. Cuban Red Dwarf EEA 18-40 in temporary immersion systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Vilchez Perozo

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Somatic embryo germination of Psidium guajava L. cv. Cuban Red Dwarf EEA 18-40 in temporary immersion systems (TIS, in which somatic embryos were cultured in the heart-torpedo stage in MS mediun at mayor half strength salt and suplemented with: 0.25 mg.l-1 of 6-bencilaminopurine (6-BAP, 10 mg.l-1 of Biobras-6 (analogous of brasinoesteriode and 20 g.l-1 of sucrose. As control was used solid cultivation medium (2.5 g.l-1 Gellan gum, Spectrum® of same composition to the one used in the TIS. The variables germination percentage and fresh weight were evaluated statistically. After ten weeks of cultivation the largest values in germination percentage (91.04% and fresh weight (1.22 g were obtained in the TIS, being statistically different to those obtained in solid medium (9.79% and 1.03 g, respectively. Key words: in vitro plant, guayaba, regeneration, RITA®,somatic embryogenesis

  17. Observing Double Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genet, Russell M.; Fulton, B. J.; Bianco, Federica B.; Martinez, John; Baxter, John; Brewer, Mark; Carro, Joseph; Collins, Sarah; Estrada, Chris; Johnson, Jolyon; Salam, Akash; Wallen, Vera; Warren, Naomi; Smith, Thomas C.; Armstrong, James D.; McGaughey, Steve; Pye, John; Mohanan, Kakkala; Church, Rebecca

    2012-05-01

    Double stars have been systematically observed since William Herschel initiated his program in 1779. In 1803 he reported that, to his surprise, many of the systems he had been observing for a quarter century were gravitationally bound binary stars. In 1830 the first binary orbital solution was obtained, leading eventually to the determination of stellar masses. Double star observations have been a prolific field, with observations and discoveries - often made by students and amateurs - routinely published in a number of specialized journals such as the Journal of Double Star Observations. All published double star observations from Herschel's to the present have been incorporated in the Washington Double Star Catalog. In addition to reviewing the history of visual double stars, we discuss four observational technologies and illustrate these with our own observational results from both California and Hawaii on telescopes ranging from small SCTs to the 2-meter Faulkes Telescope North on Haleakala. Two of these technologies are visual observations aimed primarily at published "hands-on" student science education, and CCD observations of both bright and very faint doubles. The other two are recent technologies that have launched a double star renaissance. These are lucky imaging and speckle interferometry, both of which can use electron-multiplying CCD cameras to allow short (30 ms or less) exposures that are read out at high speed with very low noise. Analysis of thousands of high speed exposures allows normal seeing limitations to be overcome so very close doubles can be accurately measured.

  18. Formation of double layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leung, P.; Wong, A.Y.; Quon, B.H.

    1981-01-01

    Experiments on both stationary and propagating double layers and a related analytical model are described. Stationary double layers were produced in a multiple plasma device, in which an electron drift current was present. An investigation of the plasma parameters for the stable double layer condition is described. The particle distribution in the stable double layer establishes a potential profile, which creates electron and ion beams that excite plasma instabilities. The measured characteristics of the instabilities are consistent with the existence of the double layer. Propagating double layers are formed when the initial electron drift current is large. Ths slopes of the transition region increase as they propagate. A physical model for the formation of a double layer in the experimental device is described. This model explains the formation of the low potential region on the basis of the space charge. This space charge is created by the electron drift current. The model also accounts for the role of ions in double layer formation and explains the formation of moving double layers. (Auth.)

  19. Double deflation and aggregation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dietzenbacher, Erik; Hoen, A.R.

    Published input-output tables in constant prices are relatively scarce. Therefore, input-output tables often have to be deflated by the practitioners themselves. The method of double deflation is used predominantly for this purpose. The present paper shows that the double-deflation method is subject

  20. Assessment and promotion of safety culture in medical practices using sources of ionizing radiation. The Cuban experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferro Fernandez, Ruben; Guillen Campos, Alba; Arnau Fernandez, Alma

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The lessons learned from several radiological accidents in medical and industrial practices using sources of ionization radiation show that a fragile safety culture in the organizations and the human error were the most important contributors to such events. The high contribution of human factors to safety of radiotherapy treatment process have been also revealed by the results of a recent study on Probabilistic Safety Assessment to this process conducted in the framework of the Extra budgetary Programme on Nuclear and Radiological Safety in Iberian-America. Nevertheless non considerable efforts are appreciated around the world to investigate and develop methods and techniques to assess and promote a strong safety culture in those practices as it has been happening in other sectors like nuclear power, chemical, commercial aviation and oil industry. The Cuban Nuclear Regulatory Authority has in course a National Program for Promoting and Assessment of Safety Culture in organizations using sources of ionizing radiation. As part of this program, during the 2007 year, a pilot study with this purpose was carried out Two Radiotherapy and Nuclear Medicine Units were selected for this pilot study, where managers and specialists were interviewed, a safety culture survey was executed and a final report was prepared with several recommendations to be taking account by Regulator for designing its regulatory strategy on safety culture for medical practices and by users to increase their safety culture level. This paper describes the methodology used to organize, prepare, execute and report the results, findings and recommendations of this kind of review, the benefits and main difficulties encountered during this effort and the perspective and suggestions that, in opinion of the authors of this paper, are important to take into account in the field of radiological safety culture in the near future. (author)

  1. Cuban typical doses for 99mTc-DMSA renal gammagraphy studies: a methodology for the establishment of reference levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz Barreto, M.; Varela Corona, C.; Lopez Bejerano, G.M.; Perea Diaz, M.; Paz Viera, J.E.

    2008-01-01

    Since a handful of years ago, international rules on Radiological Protection include the principle of optimization of given dose to patients, if this procedure doesn't lessen diagnosis quality, and the establishment of reference levels of activity. For these reasons, the Radiological Protection staff of Cuban Institute of Nephrology's Nuclear Medicine Service, where morpho functional renal studies are carried out, 70% on infants and young children, started a research on that way. Thus, because their biggest incidence, 99m Tc -DMSA renal gammagraphy studies were chosen, using a General Electric 400 AT Planar Gamma Camera. Studied sample was randomly selected, including adults (12 peoples) and children (23); divided into 4 groups, lessen given dose step by step. Other items were kept in mind in the research, such age, weight, time delayed between administrations and image getting, getting time of each view and total time of the study, as well as radiopharmaceuticals quality and Gamma Camera performance. Image quality was evaluated for each case, using both, objective and subjective criteria. Objective evaluation was done by using contrast/noise ratios and variance of the random noise. They were used to develop clustering and discriminant analysis over the independent variables to detect groups with differentiated image quality from the physical and mathematical point of view. Subjective evaluation was performed using the criteria of two expert observers who had no information about the activity levels used. They evaluated image quality separately, giving a good, regular or bad evaluation for each image. As a conclusion, we found that it is possible to reduce the given activities in 50% and thus, indirectly, to reduce doses for workers and for the public. Additionally, we propose a methodology for the establishment of reference levels for 99m Tc -DMSA renal gammagraphy studies in Cuba, both, for adults and paediatric patients. (author)

  2. The elementary concentration and the behavior of the iron in Cuban agricultural soils by means of the Neutron activation Analysis and Moessbauer Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furet, N. R.; Oddone, M.; Orihuela, D.L.

    1999-01-01

    Representative samples from Cuban agricultural soils, which have been benefited with industrial waste are studied by means of the methods of the Analysis for Instrumental Neutronic Activation and Moessbauer Spectroscopy. The elemental contents of Na, K, Ca, Fe, Cr, etc. are determined, and the influence of the industrial waste in the elemental concentrations is valued. The behavior of the iron is studied, like one of the important elements in several processes of development of the plants. The oxidation and coordination states of the Fe in soils are studied

  3. Caracterización y clasificación geoquímica de asfaltitas cubanas Geochemical characterization and classification of Cuban asphaltites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulema Dominguez

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional biomarker parameters and aromatic compounds were applied to characterize and classify ten Cuban asphaltites (asphaltene-rich petroleum occurring as seeps or filling veins, joints, cavities and fissures. Genetic molecular parameters were compared in order to establish oil-oil correlations between samples. Thermal evolution was investigated using saturated biomarker and aromatic maturity parameters. All samples seem to represent petroleum in the early catagenetic stage. Statistical procedures used as auxiliary techniques show that they represent oils of Family II (marine anoxic carbonate sourced oils, except for 2 samples interpreted as belonging to Family III oils (normal marine siliciclastic suboxic sourced oils.

  4. Assessing the 2D Models of Geo-technological Variables in a Block of a Cuban Laterite Ore Body. Part IV Local Polynomial Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arístides Alejandro Legrá-Lobaina

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The local polynomial method is based on assuming that is possible to estimate the value of a U variable in any of the P coordinate through local polynomials estimated based on approximate data. This investigation analyzes the probability of modeling in two dimensions the thickness and nickel, iron and cobalt concentrations in a block of Cuban laterite ores by using the mentioned method. It was also analyzed if the results of modeling these variables depend on the estimation method that is used.

  5. Fundamentación Científica de la Psiquiatría Cubana Actual Current Cuban Psychiatry: Its scientific foundation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liuba Y Peña Galbán

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Se realiza un análisis metodológico conceptual de la Psiquiatría como ciencia partiendo de los criterios de los psiquiatras cubanos, coincidiendo en que es una rama de las Ciencias Médicas, en la cual el objeto de estudio es la enfermedad mental o el proceso salud enfermedad mental y sus acciones es el diagnóstico, tratamiento, etiopatogenia, rehabilitación y prevención de las mismas, así como su estudio epidemiológico y que incluye el carácter social e interdisciplinario. A partir de la reorientación de la Psiquiatría hacia la comunidad se hace una reflexión del significado e implicaciones de la misma. Se argumenta como en Cuba se aplica el Modelo de la Atención Comunitaria de Salud Mental a través de los Centros comunitarios de Salud Mental que constituyen la piedra angular del modelo cubano de atención comunitaria, con los que constituye la Psiquiatría comunitaria el nuevo paradigma de la Psiquiatría cubana actual. Se reconoce que el fundamento filosófico que sustenta a la Psiquiatría cubana actual es la teoría Marxista LeninistaA conceptual and methodological analysis of Psychiatry as a science is made, taking the Cuban psychiatrists' criteria as a starting point, referring to it as a branch of the Medical Sciences, in which the object of study is the mental illness or the process health-mental illness, being its actions the diagnosis, treatment, ethiology and pathogenesis, rehabilitation and prevention, as well as its epidemiological study that is related to the social and interdisciplinary levels. Starting with redirecting Psychiatry towards the community, a reflection is made of the meaning and implications of this science. It is documented the application of the Community Mental Health Attention Model that is applied through the community Centers of Mental Health, which constitute the cornerstone of the Cuban model of community attention. Thus, community Psychiatry represents the new paradigm of current Cuban

  6. El enfoque epidemiologico del sistema de salud de Cuba The epidemiologic approach of the Cuban health system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Martínez Calvo

    1999-08-01

    mensurar la distancia entre lo ideal y lo real. En conclusión, se reconoce cierto vacío entre la argumentación teórica y la práctica epidemiológica en el Sistema Nacional de Salud, aunque sean inobjetables los avances en el ámbito sanitario en estas casi cuatro décadas. Resulta ineludible el desafío que esto representa para alcanzar el liderazgo epidemiológico que en el discurso se promueve, para lo cual la reforma del sector salud emerge como un excelente y oportuno espacio.The international recognition of the achievements of the Cuban health system, the stability -questioned on some occasions - of health indicators, and the enormous human resources and materials invested to develop the policies and national sanitary strategies comprise an excellent field to analyze the epidemiological contribution to those positive results in the health area. Among those outstanding results, the longer life expectancy, the low mortality rates, infant mortality, and mortality due to infectious and parasitic diseases partly due to the elimination or eradication of a group of diseases preventable by immunization. Were these results reached by an epidemiologically oriented health system? Do the procedures carried out allow for the proposal of a Cuban School of Epidemiology? The objective of this paper is to offer answers to these queries through a critical appraisal on the presumable epidemiological orientation of the health system, and the incorporation of epidemiological thinking in the sanitary strategies that have been designed and developed in Cuba. An arbitrary, but notorious dichotomy, the Seminar on the "Uses and Perspectives of Epidemiology", held in Buenos Aires in 1983, has traced rules for the epidemiological performance in the Region as a whole and contributed to the analysis above. The dichotomy -before and after the Seminar - created the national scenarios for practicing epidemiology at the academic, investigative and health services levels, supported on 4 basic

  7. Congenital maxillary double lip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Singh Chauhan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Double lip, also referred to as "macrocheilia," is a rare anomaly which affects the upper lip more commonly than the lower lip. It consists of a fold of excess or redundant hypertrophic tissue on the mucosal side of the lip. The congenital double lip is believed to be present at birth and becomes more prominent after eruption of teeth. It affects esthetics and also interferes with speech and mastication. Simple surgical excision produces good functional and cosmetic results. We report a case of a non-syndromic congenital maxillary double lip in a 21-year-old male patient.

  8. Synthesis, structure and properties of tellurium cubane clusters of niobium and tantalum [M4(μ4-O)(μ3-Te)4(CN)12]6- (M=Nb, Ta)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedin, V.P.; Kalinina, I.V.; Virovets, A.V.; Fenske, D.

    2001-01-01

    A new cubane cluster complex K 6 [Ta 4 (μ 4 -O)(μ 3 -Te) 4 (CN) 12 ] · KOH · 4H 2 O was prepared by high-temperature synthesis from a mixture of TaTe 4 and KCN with subsequent crystallization from aqueous solutions. The compound was characterized by the methods of cyclic voltammetry, X-ray diffraction analysis, IR, Raman and absorption spectroscopies. Comparative study of clusters [M 4 OTe 4 (CN) 12 ] 6- (M=Nb, Ta) containing μ 4 -O-ligands and being the first examples of molecular chalcogenide cubane complexes for group 5 metals of the Periodic System, was made [ru

  9. Study of external exposure doses received by Cuban population due to terrestrial component of the environmental radiation sources; Estudio de las dosis por exposicion externa que recibe la poblacion cubana debidas a la componente terrestre de la radiacion ambiental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zerquera, Juan Tomas; Prendes Alonso, Miguel [Centro de Proteccion y Higiene de las Radiaciones, La Habana (Cuba); Brigido Flores, Osvaldo [Laboratorio de Vigilancia Radiologica Ambiental de Camaguey (Cuba); Hernandez Perez, Alberto [Laboratorio de Vigilancia Radiologica Ambiental de Oriente, Holguin (Cuba)

    2001-07-01

    The work presents the results of the study carried out to evaluate the doses that the Cuban population receives for the external exposition to the terrestrial component of the environmental sources of radiation. Starting from the carried out measurements it was possible to estimate the doses effective representative annual stockings that the Cuban population receives for external exposition to the terrestrial radiation, considering the permanency in indoors and outdoors. The dose received due to this component was 180{+-}14 mSv/year. These values are in the range of those reported internationally. (author)

  10. An antecedent of the new teacher’s training school: an approach to a behavioral model and a school model from the perspective of the history of Cuban education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González, E. A.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper is intended to portray the most important qualities and attitudes that distinguish the model of a teacher’s training school, a project for educating would-be teachers for Kindergarten, Primary School and Special Education. The idea that Cuban Pedagogy is a natural source of ideas for sustaining such model as well as characterizing social agents’ attitudes and the institution’s features is argued. A logical-historic analysis is carried out, starting by considering some of the most important Cuban school teachers’ criteria, from which the author infers the qualities and ethical attitudes that characterize the social participants and the whole institution.

  11. Pion double charge exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, M.D.

    1978-01-01

    The pion double charge exchange data on the oxygen isotopes is reviewed and new data on 9 Be, 12 C, 24 Mg, and 28 Si are presented. Where theoretical calculations exist, they are compared to the data. 9 references

  12. Neutrinoless double beta decay

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-10-06

    Oct 6, 2012 ... Anyhow, the 'multi-isotope' ansatz is needed to compensate for matrix element ... The neccessary half-life requirement to touch this ... site energy depositions (like double beta decay) and multiple site interactions (most of.

  13. Project Half Double

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svejvig, Per; Ehlers, Michael; Adland, Karoline Thorp

    activities carried out within the framework of the projects. The formal part of Project Half Double was initiated in June 2015. We started out by developing, refining and testing the Half Double methodology on seven pilot projects in the first phase of the project, which will end June 2016. The current......Project Half Double has a clear mission to succeed in finding a project methodology that can increase the success rate of our projects while increasing the speed at which we generate new ideas and develop new products and services. Chaos and complexity should be seen as a basic condition...... and as an opportunity rather than a threat and a risk. We are convinced that by doing so, we can strengthen Denmark’s competitiveness and play an important role in the battle for jobs and future welfare. The overall goal is to deliver “projects in half the time with double the impact”, where projects in half the time...

  14. Project Half Double

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svejvig, Per; Gerstrøm, Anna; Frederiksen, Signe Hedeboe

    The Half Double mission: Project Half Double has a clear mission. We want to succeed in finding a project methodology that can increase the success rate of our projects while increasing the development speed of new products and services. We are convinced that by doing so we can strengthen...... the competitiveness of Denmark and play an important role in the battle for jobs and future welfare. The overall goal is to deliver “Projects in half the time with double the impact” where projects in half the time should be understood as half the time to impact (benefit realization, effect is achieved......) and not as half the time for project execution. The Half Double project journey: It all began in May 2013 when we asked ourselves: How do we create a new and radical project paradigm that can create successful projects? Today we are a movement of hundreds of passionate project people, and it grows larger...

  15. Double beta decay: experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiorini, Ettore

    2006-01-01

    The results obtained so far and those of the running experiments on neutrinoless double beta decay are reviewed. The plans for second generation experiments, the techniques to be adopted and the expected sensitivities are compared and discussed

  16. A double layer review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Block, L.P.

    1977-06-01

    A review of the main results on electrostatic double layers (sometimes called space charge layers or sheaths) obtained from theory, and laboratory and space experiments up to the spring of 1977 is given. By means of barium jets and satellite probes, double layers have now been found at the altitudes, earlier predicted theoretically. The general potential distribution above the auroral zone, suggested by inverted V-events and electric field reversals, is corroborated. (author)

  17. Vitamin A values of wild-caught Cuban tree frogs (Osteopilus septentrionalis) and marine toads (Rhinella marina) in whole body, liver, and serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Kathleen E; Fleming, Greg; Terrell, Scott; Smith, Dustin; Ridgley, Frank; Valdes, Eduardo V

    2014-12-01

    Recent issues surrounding captive amphibians are often nutritionally related problems, such as hypovitaminosis A. Although supplementation of frogs with vitamin A is a topic of investigation, the underlying issue is understanding vitamin A metabolism in amphibian species. To develop a range of "normal" vitamin A concentrations for captive amphibians, baseline vitamin A concentrations must be established in wild amphibian species. In this study, two species, Cuban tree frogs (Osteopilus septentrionalis; n = 59) and marine toads (Rhinella marina; n = 20) were collected from the wild as part of an invasive species control program at Zoo Miami, Miami, Florida. Serum, liver, and whole body samples were analyzed for vitamin A content. The Cuban tree frogs showed higher concentrations on average of vitamin A in serum (82.8 ppb), liver (248.3 IU/g), and whole body (5474.7 IU/kg) samples compared with marine toads (60.1 ppb; 105.3 IU/g; 940.7 IU/kg, respectively), but differences were not significant (P = 0.22). What can be considered "normal" values of vitamin A concentrations across different amphibian species requires further investigation. Although all amphibians collected in this study appeared healthy, a larger sample size of animals, with known health histories and diets, may provide stronger evidence of normal expectations.

  18. La mujer como sujeto social ante el problema ambiental desde la realidad cubana./The woman as a social subject to the environmental problem from the Cuban reality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Carrión Cabrera

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN El análisis de la mujer como sujeto social ante el problema ambiental en el contexto cubano, se convierte en una necesidad para alcanzar el desarrollo sostenible, para dicho análisis se discuten acerca de los cuatro ejes que facilitan la valoración de los procesos sociales en su vínculo con el medio ambiente (lo ambiental como problemática en la producción filosófica en el contexto cubano y su relación con la mujer como sujeto social; el desequilibrio en las condiciones de existencia en los espacios privados (familiar; los problemas ambientales y su impacto en la mujer y el papel creciente de la actividad social del sujeto, a partir de sus tipos y proyecciones sociales para el logro del desarrollo sostenible. ABSTRACT The analysis of women as social subject to the environmental problem in the Cuban context, it becomes a necessity for sustainable development, for this analysis are discussed on the four axes that facilitate the assessment of social processes in its link with the environment (environmental and philosophical problems in production in the Cuban context and its relationship with the woman as a social subject, the imbalance in living conditions in the private sphere (family environmental problems and their impact on women and the increasing role of the social activity of the subject, based on their types and social implications for the achievement of sustainable development.

  19. La terapia láser de baja potencia en la medicina cubana Low potency laser therapy in Cuban medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel Hernández Díaz

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available El surgimiento y desarrollo del láser fue posible gracias a los avances previamente logrados en otras disciplinas científicas en el pasado siglo. Desde el punto de vista práctico puede ser considerado como un haz estrecho de luz monocromática y coherente que puede encontrarse en el rango visible, infrarrojo o ultravioleta del espectro de las radiaciones electromagnéticas. Motivados por la incorporación de los equipos láser de producción nacional en las salas de rehabilitación de los policlínicos universitarios de la atención primaria y otros centros de salud del país, nos dimos a la tarea de realizar este trabajo, cuyo objetivo fundamental es presentar las distintas aplicaciones del láser de baja potencia en la medicina, y los equipos láser cubanos disponibles en la red nacional de salud pública. Además se muestran los efectos terapéuticos de la radiación láser y los mecanismos internos para lograrlos, y se detallan ampliamente las contraindicaciones de la terapia. Este tipo de tratamiento ofrece muchas posibilidades de ayuda terapéutica y permite ser utilizado con éxito en patologías de diversas especialidades. La terapia láser constituye un tratamiento de primera línea para muchas de las afecciones con que acuden los pacientes a consulta médica.The appearance and development of laser was possible thanks to the advances previously attained in other scientific disciplines in the last century. From the practical point of view, it may be considered as a narrow monochromatic and coherent beam of light that may be found in the visible infrared or ultraviolet range of the spectrum of electromagnetic radiations. Motivated by the introduction of the laser equipment of national production into the rehabilitation wards of the teaching polyclinics and other health centres of the country, we made this paper aimed at presenting the different applications of low potency laser in the medical sphere, as well as the Cuban laser

  20. La Naturaleza del Estado Cubano y el Llamado a La Inversion Extranjera: Crisis o Invitacion al Cambio (The Nature of the Cuban State and the Call for Foreign Investment: Crisis or Invitation to Change).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Luis E. Hartly

    1995-01-01

    Presents a study of the period of crisis in modern Cuba dating back to 1991. An overview of the Cuban character is given in order to promote understanding of the environment that has permitted the present socialist government to remain in power since 1959. It is concluded that Cuba requires massive foreign investment in every sector for its…

  1. Aristotle and Double Effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Nucci, Ezio

    2014-01-01

    There are some interesting similarities between Aristotle’s ‘mixed actions’ in Book III of the Nicomachean Ethics and the actions often thought to be justifiable with the Doctrine of Double Effect. Here I analyse these similarities by comparing Aristotle’s examples of mixed actions with standard...... cases from the literature on double effect such as, amongst others, strategic bombing, the trolley problem, and craniotomy. I find that, despite some common features such as the dilemmatic structure and the inevitability of a bad effect, Aristotle’s mixed actions do not count as cases justifiable...... through application of the Doctrine of Double Effect because they fail to meet the crucial necessary condition of the Doctrine according to which the bad effect can only be a merely foreseen side- effect and not an intended means....

  2. Coulomb double helical structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamimura, Tetsuo; Ishihara, Osamu

    2012-01-01

    Structures of Coulomb clusters formed by dust particles in a plasma are studied by numerical simulation. Our study reveals the presence of various types of self-organized structures of a cluster confined in a prolate spheroidal electrostatic potential. The stable configurations depend on a prolateness parameter for the confining potential as well as on the number of dust particles in a cluster. One-dimensional string, two-dimensional zigzag structure and three-dimensional double helical structure are found as a result of the transition controlled by the prolateness parameter. The formation of stable double helical structures resulted from the transition associated with the instability of angular perturbations on double strings. Analytical perturbation study supports the findings of numerical simulations.

  3. John Deakin: Double Exposures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Rousseau

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this series of short films made by Jonathan Law, the art historian James Boaden, and the curator of The John Deakin Archive, Paul Rousseau, discuss the double-exposure images made by the photographer John Deakin (1912-1972 in the 1950s and 1960s. The films ask you, firstly, to look closely at the images being discussed. Each one begins with a sustained and intense shot of a single image before opening up to a wide-ranging discussion about Deakin, double exposures, and photography.

  4. Double Photoionization Near Threshold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehlitz, Ralf

    2007-01-01

    The threshold region of the double-photoionization cross section is of particular interest because both ejected electrons move slowly in the Coulomb field of the residual ion. Near threshold both electrons have time to interact with each other and with the residual ion. Also, different theoretical models compete to describe the double-photoionization cross section in the threshold region. We have investigated that cross section for lithium and beryllium and have analyzed our data with respect to the latest results in the Coulomb-dipole theory. We find that our data support the idea of a Coulomb-dipole interaction.

  5. Double Chooz experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palomares, C.

    2009-01-01

    Double Chooz will use two identical detectors at different distances from the Chooz nuclear power station to search for a non-vanishing value of θ 13 , and, hopefully, to open the way to experiments aspiring to discover CP violation in the leptonic sector. The far detector is expected to be operative by the end of 2009. Installation of the near detector will occur in 2010. Double Chooz has the capacity to exclude sin 2 (2θ 13 ) 31 2 = 2.5 x 10 -3 eV 2 with three years of data running both near and far detectors. (author)

  6. Double-helix stellarator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moroz, P.E.

    1997-09-01

    A new stellarator configuration, the Double-Helix Stellarator (DHS), is introduced. This novel configuration features a double-helix center post as the only helical element of the stellarator coil system. The DHS configuration has many unique characteristics. One of them is the extreme low plasma aspect ratio, A ∼ 1--1.2. Other advantages include a high enclosed volume, appreciable rotational transform, and a possibility of extreme-high-β MHD equilibria. Moreover, the DHS features improved transport characteristics caused by the absence of the magnetic field ripple on the outboard of the torus. Compactness, simplicity and modularity of the coil system add to the DHS advantages for fusion applications

  7. Double aortic arch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surgery can be done to fix double aortic arch. The surgeon ties off the smaller branch and separates it from the larger branch. Then the surgeon closes the ends of the aorta with stitches. This relieves pressure on the esophagus and windpipe.

  8. Singapore's double festival

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraser, Gordon

    1990-09-15

    Coinciding with celebrations for the nation's 25th anniversary, the 25th International Conference on High Energy Physics, held in Singapore from 2-8 August, was itself a double festival, with the Standard Model of contemporary physics and CERN's new LEP electron-positron collider providing the twin themes.

  9. Layered double hydroxides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    López Rayo, Sandra; Imran, Ahmad; Hansen, Hans Chr. Bruun

    2017-01-01

    A novel zinc (Zn) fertilizer concept based on Zn doped layered double hydroxides (Zn-doped Mg-Fe-LDHs) has been investigated. Zn-doped Mg-Fe-LDHs were synthetized, their chemical composition was analyzed and their nutrient release was studied in buffered solutions with different pH values. Uptake...

  10. Double Beta Decay Experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piepke, A.

    2005-01-01

    The experimental observation of neutrino oscillations and thus neutrino mass and mixing gives a first hint at new particle physics. The absolute values of the neutrino mass and the properties of neutrinos under CP-conjugation remain unknown. The experimental investigation of the nuclear double beta decay is one of the key techniques for solving these open problems

  11. Cuban energy development perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berdellans Escobar, Ilse; Perez Martin, David; Lopez Lopez, Ileana; Ricardo Mora, Henry; Gomez De la Torre, Yoandys

    2005-01-01

    In this paper from energy demand scenario calculated for the country until 2025, energy supply options were assessed. Three energy development scenarios considering economic and social development projections and different energy options were evaluated: a reference scenario which includes the nowadays energy development projections; a second scenario basing the development on intensive use of domestic fossil fuels; and a third scenario, where the development is based on the maximum use of domestic renewable energy potential. The results are analyzed and recommendations are formulated

  12. Estabilidad de una formulación cubana de albendazol tabletas Stability study of a Cuban formulation of Albendazole tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Enrique Rodríguez Chanfrau

    2012-12-01

    -spectrum anti-helminthic. As part of the process of the Cuban pharmaceutical industry development, a new technology for the production of 200 mg Albendazole tablets was researched and implemented. Objective: to evaluate the chemical and microbiological stability of the drug. Methods: three batches of 5 kg each were prepared according to the previously developed technological process. They were divided into two parts. One half was packed in high density plastic polyethylene reservoirs (format number 8 containing 10 tablets, with threaded cap and tamper-proof seal, whereas the other half was placed in 10-tablet thermoformed PVC and aluminum packets. Chemical stability and shelf-life studies were conducted on the basis of the high performance liquid chromatography method described in the US Pharmacopea, the specificity of which was previously determined. The samples were collected at 0, 1, 2, 3 and 6 months for the accelerated stability study whereas they were gathered at 0, 6, 12, 18 and 24 months for the shelf-life stability study. Results: it was confirmed that the batches met at the beginning the set quality parameters for the product as per the analysis technique. The studies of accelerated stability at 40° and of the product's behavior on light and on humidity showed that Albendazole did not suffer sizeable variations under these conditions. Conclusions: the stability studies proved that the technology developed in Cuba for Albendazole tablet manufacture is optimal, which assures the chemical and microbiological quality of the drug for 24 months.

  13. Lobster (Panulirus argus captures and their relation with environmental variables obtained by orbital sensors for Cuban waters (1997-2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regla Duthit Somoza

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Chlorophyll concentrations (Chl a data obtained from the Sea Viewing Wide Field of View Sensor (SeaWIFS ocean color monthly images, Sea Surface Temperature (SST pathfinder data obtained from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR sensors, and lobster (Panulirus argus captures at the Cuban shelf were examined in order to analyze their spatial and temporal variability. A cross-correlation analysis was made between the standardized anomalies of the environmental variables (Chl a and SST and the standardized anomalies of lobster captures for each fishery zones for the period between 1997 and 2005. For the deep waters adjacent to the fishing zones it was not observed a clear Chl a seasonality and on average the lowest values occurred south of the Island. It is with the three years lag that Chl a had the greatest numbers of significant correlation coefficients for almost all fishing zones. However, the cross-correlation coefficients with SST showed higher values with 1,5 year lag at all zones. Since the two environmental variables obtained by satellite sensors (SST and Chl a influence the lobsters mainly during the planktonic life cycle, the cross-correlation with lobster captures begin to show significant indexes with lags of 1.5 years or more.Dados de captura da lagosta Panulirus argus na plataforma cubana foram comparados com concentrações de clorofila (Chl a e valores de Temperatura de Superfície do Mar (TSM obtidos pelos sensores Sea Viewing Wide Field of view Sensor (SeaWIFS e Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR, respectivamente. Uma análise de correlação cruzada foi realizada entre as anomalias padronizadas das variáveis ambientais (Chl a e TSM e as anomalias padronizadas de capturas da lagosta para cada zona de pesca no período 1997-2005. Para as águas profundas adjacentes às zonas de pesca não foi observada uma sazonalidade evidente da Chl a. De forma geral, os menores valores de Chl a ocorreram ao sul da

  14. Tuberculosis notificada en cuatro municipios de la capital cubana Tuberculosis reported in four municipalities of the Cuban capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamine Jordán Severo

    2011-09-01

    Cotorro municipalities. METHODS: A descriptive study of cases of tuberculosis reported in 2008 was conducted in four municipalities of the southern of Cuban capital. These persons were visited in their homes and interviewed using a previously validated additional questionnaire. A database was created processed in Epi Info 2002. RESULTS: In this four municipalities fifty nine cases of tuberculoses were reported with a disease incidence rate between 6.2 and 10.1/100 00 inhabitants. The 72.9 % of cases aged between 15 and 19 and the 78 % was of male sex; the 86.4 % had pulmonary tuberculosis and the 13.6 % deceased. The 91.5 % was of a risk group mainly the elderly, alcoholics and ex-imprisoneds. The 100 % of deceased were of risk group. CONCLUSIONS: The four municipalities showed incidence rates > 5/100 000 inhabitants and all except the Arroyo Naranjo municipality were over the national rate; with predominance of ages from 15 to 59 years, male sex and pulmonary tuberculosis with a positive bacilloscopy most of them from important vulnerable groups in which are included most of deceased.

  15. Double quick, double click reversible peptide "stapling".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grison, Claire M; Burslem, George M; Miles, Jennifer A; Pilsl, Ludwig K A; Yeo, David J; Imani, Zeynab; Warriner, Stuart L; Webb, Michael E; Wilson, Andrew J

    2017-07-01

    The development of constrained peptides for inhibition of protein-protein interactions is an emerging strategy in chemical biology and drug discovery. This manuscript introduces a versatile, rapid and reversible approach to constrain peptides in a bioactive helical conformation using BID and RNase S peptides as models. Dibromomaleimide is used to constrain BID and RNase S peptide sequence variants bearing cysteine (Cys) or homocysteine ( h Cys) amino acids spaced at i and i + 4 positions by double substitution. The constraint can be readily removed by displacement of the maleimide using excess thiol. This new constraining methodology results in enhanced α-helical conformation (BID and RNase S peptide) as demonstrated by circular dichroism and molecular dynamics simulations, resistance to proteolysis (BID) as demonstrated by trypsin proteolysis experiments and retained or enhanced potency of inhibition for Bcl-2 family protein-protein interactions (BID), or greater capability to restore the hydrolytic activity of the RNAse S protein (RNase S peptide). Finally, use of a dibromomaleimide functionalized with an alkyne permits further divergent functionalization through alkyne-azide cycloaddition chemistry on the constrained peptide with fluorescein, oligoethylene glycol or biotin groups to facilitate biophysical and cellular analyses. Hence this methodology may extend the scope and accessibility of peptide stapling.

  16. ‘We feel stupid and we shouldn’t.’ Towards developing a communication support system for Cuban-trained medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gasiorek, Jessica

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a case study of a small group of South African medical students who have returned to South Africa after six years of medical education in Cuba, where they were trained in a different language (Spanish and medical system (Cuban from what they will ultimately practice in as South African doctors. This study sought to better understand the linguistic, cultural, and communicative challenges that this group faced upon returning to South Africa, with the ultimate goal of creating materials to support the students’ language learning in the clinical domain. The researchers found that students reported considerable difficulties with (re-integrating into South African culture and clinical contexts; specific issues included encountering different types of medical issues in South Africa compared to Cuba and difficulty in understanding and using medical terminology in English and Afrikaans. This case study concludes with specific recommendations for developing learning materials that address these students’ unique linguistic and communicative needs.

  17. Multielement determination in Cuban red mangrove samples using nuclear and related analytical techniques; Determinacion multielemental en muestras de mangles cubanos utilizando tecnicas analiticas nucleares y conexas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estevez Alvarez, J R; Aguiar Lambert, D; Montero Alvarez, A; Pupo Gonzalez, I; Padilla Alvarez, R [Centro de Estudios Aplicados al Desarrollo Nuclear, La Habana (Cuba); Gonzalez Garcia, H; Ramirez Sasco, M [Centro de Ingenieria y Manejo Ambiental de Bahias y Costas, La Habana (Cuba)

    1999-12-31

    In the present work the contents of Al; K; Ca; Mn; Fe; Ni; Cu; Zn; Sr; Cd and Pb in red mangroves (Rhizophora mangle) from different Cuban regions are determined, using Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (Emission-Transmission (Et) and I/C methods), Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (AAS), and Polarography (Anodic Stripping Voltametry method). Biological Certified Reference Materials (CRM) are employed for the tracing of the tracing of the curves of the relative I/C method and for the evaluation of the analytical results accuracy. The reliability of the results is also checked by statistical means. Standard deviations and the detection limits of each method are reported. Finally, the obtained values for the concentration of the different elements in each studied ecosystem are presented; a detailed discussion about their significance will be performed in a further paper.

  18. Confirmation of the correct application of the gamma spectrometric method carried out in the Cuban Center for Radiation Protection and Hygiene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez Gomez, Isis M.; Carrazana Gonzalez, Jorge A.; Capote Ferrera, Eduardo

    2008-01-01

    One of the technical requirements of the standard ISO/IEC 17025:2006 is that the laboratories that use standard methods shall confirm that they can properly operate these before introducing the tests or calibrations. Among the testing activities that execute the Environmental Radiological Surveillance Laboratory of the Cuban Center for Radiation Protection and Hygiene, is the determination of gamma radionuclides by gamma spectrometry with HPGe detectors. This test has been accredited by the Cuban Accreditation Body, according to the standard ISO/IEC 17025:2005. Fulfilling the requirements of this standard, regarding the selection of methods, the laboratory uses internationally standard method for its gamma spectrometry determinations. For this reason it was necessary to confirm the correct application of the selected method before incorporating it as scientific-technical service that the institution offers. With this purpose the method confirmation using certified reference materials of different matrixes and for the different geometries used in the laboratory were carried out. The obtained results of this study were processed statistically to check the precision and trueness of the same ones. In this sense, the laboratory participates periodically in interlaboratory comparison programs that include the radionuclides analysis by gamma spectrometry, as another form of accuracy confirmation of the results that the laboratory reports. In this paper the design of the realized intralaboratory study, as well as the results of it are presented. From the obtained results in the realized study, as well as from the interlaboratory comparison programs, it is possible to conclude that the method used in the laboratory is executed appropriately and it is under control. (author)

  19. Antecedentes de la formación investigativa del psicólogo en Cuba / Antecedents of Cuban psychologist research training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parra, Yanet

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available El artículo presenta resultados parciales de una investigación sobre la formación de la competencia investigativa desde el dominio de recursos metodológicos cualitativos. El objetivo fue hacer un acercamiento a la comprensión del proceso de atención al componente investigativo en la formación del profesional de la psicología en Cuba. A partir del empleo de métodos teóricos se realiza un análisis del componente investigativo del proceso de formación del profesional que tomó como indicadores fundamentales el nivel de relevancia de la formación científica en el proceso de formación, la metodología que prevalece y el manejo de enfoques metodológicos de investigación. Los resultados principalesdescriben la significación otorgada al componente investigativo y los principales enfoques metodológicos asumidos. Palabras clave: , , . ABSTRACT The paper is an account of partial results of a research on the training of inquiring competence from the perspective of qualitative methodological resources. The research was aimed at making an initial approach to the understanding the education of Cuban psychologist as researchers. Several theoretical methods were used to reveal the main trends on the basis of the following indicators: relevance of scientific training in Cuban psychologist, prevailing methodology and research approach. The findings account for the significance given to the research component and the main approach they have been followed at different stages.

  20. Healthy Eating Index scores associated with symptoms of depression in Cuban-Americans with and without type 2 diabetes: a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Exebio Joel C

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low diet quality and depression symptoms are independently associated with poor glycemic control in subjects with type 2 diabetes (T2D; however, the relationship between them is unclear. The aim of this study was to determine the association between diet quality and symptoms of depression among Cuban-Americans with and without T2D living in South Florida. Methods Subjects (n = 356 were recruited from randomly selected mailing list. Diet quality was determined using the Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI-05 score. Symptoms of depression were assessed using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI. Both linear and logistic regression analyses were run to determine whether or not these two variables were related. Symptoms of depression was the dependent variable and independent variables included HEI-05, gender, age, marital status, BMI, education level, A1C, employment status, depression medication, duration of diabetes, and diabetes status. Analysis of covariance was used to test for interactions among variables. Results An interaction between diabetes status, gender and HEI-05 was found (P = 0.011. Among males with a HEI-05 score ≤ 55.6, those with T2D had a higher mean BDI score than those without T2D (11.6 vs. 6.6 respectively, P = 0.028. Among males and females with a HEI-05 score ≤ 55.6, females without T2D had a higher mean BDI score compared to males without T2D (11.0 vs. 6.6 respectively, P = 0.012 Conclusions Differences in symptoms of depression according to diabetes status and gender are found in Cuban-Americans with low diet quality.

  1. Subatmospheric double containment system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gans, D. Jr.; Noble, J.H.

    1978-01-01

    A reinforced concrete double wall nuclear containment structure with each wall including an essentially impervious membrane or liner and porous concrete filling the annulus between the two walls is described. The interior of the structure is maintained at subatmospheric pressure, and the annulus between the two walls is maintained at a subatmospheric pressure intermediate between that of the interior and the surrounding atmospheric pressure, during normal operation. In the event of an accident within the containment structure the interior pressure may exceed atmospheric pressure, but leakage from the interior to the annulus between the double walls will not result in the pressure of the annulus exceeding atmospheric pressure so that there is no net outleakage from the containment structure

  2. Double rupture disc experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    Result of these observations, comparisons and evaluations can be summarized in the following list of concerns regarding the use of double rupture discs coupled to the liquid space of a steam generator that is subjected to a large leak sodium water reaction event. Single rupture disc show delayed collapse characteristics in LLTR Series I and double disc assemblies are presumed to be more complex with additional delay before opening to give pressure relief. Delayed failure increases pressures in the IHTS and must be adequately covered by design requirements. With CRBR design, the first disc may fail only partially reducing the loading on the second disc with the result that relief performance may not meet requirements

  3. Gravitational double layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senovilla, José M M

    2014-01-01

    I analyze the properties of thin shells through which the scalar curvature R is discontinuous in gravity theories with Lagrangian F(R) = R − 2Λ + αR 2 on the bulk. These shells/domain walls are of a new kind because they possess, in addition to the standard energy–momentum tensor, an external energy flux vector, an external scalar pressure/tension and, most exotic of all, another energy–momentum contribution resembling classical dipole distributions on a shell: a double layer. I prove that all these contributions are necessary to make the entire energy–momentum tensor divergence-free. This is the first known occurrence of such a type of double layer in a gravity theory. I present explicit examples in constant-curvature five-dimensional bulks, with a brief study of their properties: new physical behaviors arise. (fast track communications)

  4. The double Laplacian growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loutsenko, I.; Yermolayeva, O.

    2008-06-01

    The dynamics of the idealized Laplacian growth (or the Hele-Shaw problem) can be approximated by the Poiselle flow which in appropriate units takes the form of the Darcy law. In this paper we account for the liquid inertia in the Hele-Shaw problem at zero surface tension limit. The Laplace dynamics for the pressure is extended here with one more for the velocity potential for which we call this growth process the Double Laplacian. The application of the conformal mappings technique leads to doubled dynamics for both the conformal map and the complex potential, which is presented in the paper for the radial and the planar growth. We apply the stability analysis and discuss the integrability for the stated problem. (author)

  5. Algebra of Majorana doubling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jaehoon; Wilczek, Frank

    2013-11-27

    Motivated by the problem of identifying Majorana mode operators at junctions, we analyze a basic algebraic structure leading to a doubled spectrum. For general (nonlinear) interactions the emergent mode creation operator is highly nonlinear in the original effective mode operators, and therefore also in the underlying electron creation and destruction operators. This phenomenon could open up new possibilities for controlled dynamical manipulation of the modes. We briefly compare and contrast related issues in the Pfaffian quantum Hall state.

  6. Twisted quantum doubles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daijiro Fukuda

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Using diagrammatic pictures of tensor contractions, we consider a Hopf algebra (Aop⊗ℛλA** twisted by an element ℛλ∈A*⊗Aop corresponding to a Hopf algebra morphism λ:A→A. We show that this Hopf algebra is quasitriangular with the universal R-matrix coming from ℛλ when λ2=idA, generalizing the quantum double construction which corresponds to the case λ=idA.

  7. Ac-induced disruption of the doubleDs structure in tomato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rommens, Caius M.T.; Biezen, Erik A. van der; Ouwerkerk, Pieter B.F.; Nijkamp, H. John J.; Hille, Jacques

    1991-01-01

    The maize doubleDs element is stably maintained in the tomato genome. Upon the subsequent introduction of Ac into a plant containing doubleDs, disruption of the doubleDs structure and DNA rearrangements at the site of the doubleDs element were observed. No indications were obtained for excision of

  8. The Double Star mission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The Double Star Programme (DSP was first proposed by China in March, 1997 at the Fragrant Hill Workshop on Space Science, Beijing, organized by the Chinese Academy of Science. It is the first mission in collaboration between China and ESA. The mission is made of two spacecraft to investigate the magnetospheric global processes and their response to the interplanetary disturbances in conjunction with the Cluster mission. The first spacecraft, TC-1 (Tan Ce means "Explorer", was launched on 29 December 2003, and the second one, TC-2, on 25 July 2004 on board two Chinese Long March 2C rockets. TC-1 was injected in an equatorial orbit of 570x79000 km altitude with a 28° inclination and TC-2 in a polar orbit of 560x38000 km altitude. The orbits have been designed to complement the Cluster mission by maximizing the time when both Cluster and Double Star are in the same scientific regions. The two missions allow simultaneous observations of the Earth magnetosphere from six points in space. To facilitate the comparison of data, half of the Double Star payload is made of spare or duplicates of the Cluster instruments; the other half is made of Chinese instruments. The science operations are coordinated by the Chinese DSP Scientific Operations Centre (DSOC in Beijing and the European Payload Operations Service (EPOS at RAL, UK. The spacecraft and ground segment operations are performed by the DSP Operations and Management Centre (DOMC and DSOC in China, using three ground station, in Beijing, Shanghai and Villafranca.

  9. Double your money

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moxon, Suzanne

    1998-01-01

    The government-owned Hydro-Quebec was instructed to take certain actions, one of which was to increase profits. The company has published a report describing its plans for 1998-2002. The company expects to increase sales and double its income over the five years. Hydro-Quebec (which produces or purchases 97% of the electricity consumed in the province) will freeze prices until April 2002. Environmental considerations and liaison with local communities are included in the 5-year plan. The company expects to invest c$1.2B in international markets over the five years and C$20M per year are earmarked for research. (UK)

  10. Layered double hydroxides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    López Rayo, Sandra; Imran, Ahmad; Hansen, Hans Chr. Bruun

    2017-01-01

    A novel zinc (Zn) fertilizer concept based on Zn doped layered double hydroxides (Zn-doped Mg-Fe-LDHs) has been investigated. Zn-doped Mg-Fe-LDHs were synthetized, their chemical composition was analyzed and their nutrient release was studied in buffered solutions with different pH values. Uptake...... equation showing maximum release at pH 5.2, reaching approximately 45% of the total Zn content. The Zn concentrations in the plants receiving the LDHs were between 2- and 9.5-fold higher than those in plants without Zn addition. A positive effect of the LDHs was also found in soil. This work documents...

  11. Double sodium rubidium molybdates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mokhoseev, M.V.; Khal'baeva, K.M.; Khajkina, E.G.; Ogurtsov, A.M.

    1990-01-01

    According to ceramic technique double sodium-rubidium molybdates of the compositions Rb 2-x Na x MoO 4 (0.5≤x≤0.67) and Na 3 Rb(MoO 4 ) 2 have been prepared. It is ascertained that Rb 2-x Na x MoO 4 is crystallized in glaserite structural type (trigonal crystal system, sp.gr. P3m1, Z=2) and melts incongruently at 640 deg C. Na 3 Rb(MoO 4 ) 2 at room temperature is unstable and gradually decomposes into Na 2 MoO 4 and Rb 2-x Na x MoO 4

  12. Double profunda brachii artery

    OpenAIRE

    Gavishiddappa A Hadimani; Jyoti V Hadimani; Ishwar B Bagoji; Shardha Bai Rathod; Balappa M Bannur

    2016-01-01

    Brachial artery (BA) is a continuation of the axillary artery at the lower border of teres major. In the cubital fossa, BA divides into radial artery and ulnar artery as terminal branches. Large branch given from the BA in the upper part is profunda brachii artery. In the present case, we noticed double profunda brachii that arises from the BA. They are profunda brachii artery 1 and profunda brachii artery 2. Profunda brachii artery 1 arises in the proximal part of the BA and profunda brachii...

  13. Firewalls from double purity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousso, Raphael

    2013-10-01

    The firewall paradox is often presented as arising from double entanglement, but I argue that more generally the paradox is double purity. Near-horizon modes are purified by the interior, in the infalling vacuum. Hence, they cannot also be pure alone, or in combination with any third system, as demanded by unitarity. This conflict arises independently of the Page time, for entangled and for pure states. It implies that identifications of Hilbert spaces cannot resolve the paradox. Traditional complementarity requires the unitary identification of infalling matter with a scrambled subsystem of the Hawking radiation. Extending this map to the infalling vacuum overdetermines the out-state. More general complementarity maps (“A=RB,” “ER=EPR”) necessarily fail when the near-horizon zone is pure. I argue that pure-zone states span the microcanonical ensemble, and that this suffices to make the horizon a special place. I advocate that the ability to detect the horizon locally, rather than the degree or probability of violence, is what makes firewalls problematic. Conversely, if the production of matter at the horizon can be dynamically understood and shown to be consistent, then firewalls do not constitute a violation of the equivalence principle.

  14. Profilaxis perioperatoria en cirugía urológica en hospitales cubanos Perioperative prophylaxis in urological surgery at Cuban hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Guanche Garcell

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: describir las prácticas de profilaxis perioperatoria con antibióticos en procederes urológicos en hospitales cubanos. Métodos: estudio descriptivo de corte transversal realizado en el período mayo-diciembre de 2009, mediante la aplicación de cuestionario auto administrado, en el cual se evaluó la existencia de política (documento escrito de uso profiláctico, y de recomendaciones para la profilaxis en procederes seleccionados, el momento para administrar la dosis inicial y la duración probable del régimen profiláctico y los antimicrobianos utilizados. Resultados: se obtuvo información de 24 hospitales (36,6 % de los servicios de urología cubanos, incluyendo instituciones de 11 de las provincias (84,6 %. Poseen políticas escritas en 17 de los servicios (70,8 %. La mayoría de ellos tienen indicaciones de profilaxis para los procederes evaluados, y en el 100 % de los servicios para la resección transuretral de próstata, cirugía abierta o laparoscópica que incluye intestino, cistoscopia terapéutica y uretrotomia interna endoscópica. El 29,2 % de los servicios recomiendan el momento de inicio de la profilaxis la noche antes, el 41,7 % 60 minutos antes del proceder y el 29,2 % en la inducción anestésica. Esquemas superiores a 24 horas se recomiendan en la mayoría de los procederes, con excepción de la cistoscopia diagnóstica o terapéutica. Variedad de antimicrobianos o combinaciones de estos son utilizados, con predominio de la ciprofloxacina y cefazolina. Conclusión: variabilidad en las prácticas de prescripción de antimicrobianos en la profilaxis perioperatoria en los servicios de urología cubanos se ha identificado, para lo que se requiere un consenso nacional que contribuya a mejorar la calidad en el cumplimiento de está práctica de prevención.Objective: to describe the practices of perioperative prophylaxis using antibiotics in urologic procedures at Cuban hospitals. Method: a cross-sectional and

  15. Double Degenerate Stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xin-Lian, Luo; Hua, Bai; Lei, Zhao

    2008-01-01

    Regardless of the formation mechanism, an exotic object, the double degenerate star (DDS), is introduced and investigated, which is composed of baryonic matter and some unknown fermion dark matter. Different from the simple white dwarfs (WDs), there is additional gravitational force provided by the unknown fermion component inside DDSs, which may strongly affect the structure and the stability of such kind of objects. Many possible and strange observational phenomena connecting with them are concisely discussed. Similar to the normal WD, this object can also experience thermonuclear explosion as type Ia supernova explosion when DDS's mass exceeds the maximum mass that can be supported by electron degeneracy pressure. However, since the total mass of baryonic matter can be much lower than that of WD at Chandrasekhar mass limit, the peak luminosity should be much dimmer than what we expect before, which may throw a slight shadow on the standard candle of SN Ia in the research of cosmology. (general)

  16. Double photoionization of strontium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sokell, Emma; Grimm, Michael; Sheridan, Paul, E-mail: emma.sokell@ucd.i [School of Physics, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland)

    2010-02-01

    Resonant triple-differential cross-section (TDCS) measurements have been used to study the double photoionization process in strontium. Two sets of measurements were made at the photon energy of the 4p {yields} 4d resonance. The coplanar geometry was used and the fixed analyser, positioned at -90{sup 0} to the main axis of polarization of the photons, detected electrons with {approx}65% of the available excess energy. The mutual angle between the two electrons had a range just short of 90 {yields} 270{sup 0}. The TDCS exhibit unexpected lobes at a mutual angle of 180{sup 0}. Comparison with other measurements made with the same geometry but with different sharings of the available energy indicate that these TDCS all show the unexpected lobe. Some possible explanations for the lobe are considered.

  17. Double-Skin Facade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalyanova, Olena

    favored by companies and their employees. To bring the reduction of energy use in these buildings application of suitable tools and methods is necessary to achieve successful design solutions. Earlier work on the topic of DSF modelling was examined from various publications. As a result, the main...... IEA Annex 34/43, subtask E "Double-Skin Facade". The results of empirical validation are discussed in this work. Discussion and analysis of experimental results is carried out. It has lead to hypothesis of recirculation flow phenomenon in the DSF cavity. Finally, a suggestion of a new numerical model...... is developed to account for recirculation flow appearance in the DSF cavity. The model is based on a simple mass balance between the boundary layer flow and the main flow in the cavity....

  18. Deconvoluting double Doppler spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, K.F.; Beling, C.D.; Fung, S.; Chan, K.L.; Tang, H.W.

    2001-01-01

    The successful deconvolution of data from double Doppler broadening of annihilation radiation (D-DBAR) spectroscopy is a promising area of endeavour aimed at producing momentum distributions of a quality comparable to those of the angular correlation technique. The deconvolution procedure we test in the present study is the constrained generalized least square method. Trials with computer simulated DDBAR spectra are generated and deconvoluted in order to find the best form of regularizer and the regularization parameter. For these trials the Neumann (reflective) boundary condition is used to give a single matrix operation in Fourier space. Experimental D-DBAR spectra are also subject to the same type of deconvolution after having carried out a background subtraction and using a symmetrize resolution function obtained from an 85 Sr source with wide coincidence windows. (orig.)

  19. Beyond the double banana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenzweig, Ivana; Fogarasi, András; Johnsen, Birger

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate whether extending the 10-20 array with 6 electrodes in the inferior temporal chain and constructing computed montages increases the diagnostic value of ictal EEG activity originating in the temporal lobe. In addition, the accuracy of computer-assisted spectral source......). Spectral source analysis used source montage to calculate density spectral array, defining the earliest oscillatory onset. From this, phase maps were calculated for localization. The reference standard was the decision of the multidisciplinary epilepsy surgery team on the seizure onset zone. Clinical...... performance was compared with the double banana (longitudinal bipolar montage, 10-20 array). RESULTS: Adding the inferior temporal electrode chain, computed montages (reference free, common average, and source derivation), and voltage maps significantly increased the sensitivity. Phase maps had the highest...

  20. Double-mode pulsation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, A.N.

    1982-01-01

    Double mode pulsation is a very pervasive phenomenon in stars all over the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram. In order of increasing radius, examples are: ZZ Ceti stars, the sun, the delta Scuti stars, RR Lyrae variables, the β Cephei variables and those related to them, Cepheids, and maybe even the Mira stars. These many modes have been interpreted as both radial and nonradial modes, but in many cases the actual mode has not been clearly identified. Yellow giants seem to be the most simple pulsators with a large majority of the RR Lyrae variables and Cepheids showing only one pulsation period. We limit this review to those very few cases for classical Cepheids and RR Lyrae variables which display two modes. For these we know many facts about these stars, but the actual cause of the pulsation in two modes simultaneously remains unknown

  1. Dual double field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergshoeff, Eric A. [Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Groningen,Nijenborgh 4, 9747 AG Groningen (Netherlands); Hohm, Olaf [Simons Center for Geometry and Physics, Stony Brook University,Stony Brook, NY 11794-3636 (United States); Penas, Victor A. [Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Groningen,Nijenborgh 4, 9747 AG Groningen (Netherlands); Riccioni, Fabio [INFN - Sezione di Roma, Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Roma “La Sapienza”,Piazzale Aldo Moro 2, 00185 Roma (Italy)

    2016-06-06

    We present the dual formulation of double field theory at the linearized level. This is a classically equivalent theory describing the duals of the dilaton, the Kalb-Ramond field and the graviton in a T-duality or O(D,D) covariant way. In agreement with previous proposals, the resulting theory encodes fields in mixed Young-tableau representations, combining them into an antisymmetric 4-tensor under O(D,D). In contrast to previous proposals, the theory also requires an antisymmetric 2-tensor and a singlet, which are not all pure gauge. The need for these additional fields is analogous to a similar phenomenon for “exotic' dualizations, and we clarify this by comparing with the dualizations of the component fields. We close with some speculative remarks on the significance of these observations for the full non-linear theory yet to be constructed.

  2. Double profunda brachii artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavishiddappa A Hadimani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Brachial artery (BA is a continuation of the axillary artery at the lower border of teres major. In the cubital fossa, BA divides into radial artery and ulnar artery as terminal branches. Large branch given from the BA in the upper part is profunda brachii artery. In the present case, we noticed double profunda brachii that arises from the BA. They are profunda brachii artery 1 and profunda brachii artery 2. Profunda brachii artery 1 arises in the proximal part of the BA and profunda brachii artery 2 arises distal to the profunda brachii artery 1. Both the arteries run inferolaterally in the spiral groove along with radial nerve. Variations of profunda brachii artery are important during harvesting of the lateral arm flaps and may lead to inadvertent injury during percutaneous arterial catheterization or injection of drugs.

  3. GENERALIZED DOUBLE PARETO SHRINKAGE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armagan, Artin; Dunson, David B; Lee, Jaeyong

    2013-01-01

    We propose a generalized double Pareto prior for Bayesian shrinkage estimation and inferences in linear models. The prior can be obtained via a scale mixture of Laplace or normal distributions, forming a bridge between the Laplace and Normal-Jeffreys' priors. While it has a spike at zero like the Laplace density, it also has a Student's t -like tail behavior. Bayesian computation is straightforward via a simple Gibbs sampling algorithm. We investigate the properties of the maximum a posteriori estimator, as sparse estimation plays an important role in many problems, reveal connections with some well-established regularization procedures, and show some asymptotic results. The performance of the prior is tested through simulations and an application.

  4. Development and evaluation of an instrument to measure health-related quality of life in Cuban breast cancer patients receiving radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugo, Josefina; Nápoles, Misleidy; Pérez, Inés; Ordaz, Niurka; Luzardo, Mario; Fernández, Leticia

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Although modern technology has extended the survival of breast cancer patients, treatment's adverse effects impact their health-related quality of life. Currently, no instrument exists capable of identifying the range of problems affecting breast cancer patients receiving radiotherapy in Cuba's socioeconomic and cultural context. OBJECTIVES Construct and validate an instrument to measure the effects of breast cancer and radiotherapy on health-related quality of life in Cuban patients. METHODS The study was conducted at the Oncology and Radiobiology Institute, Havana, Cuba, from January 2010 through December 2011. Inclusion criteria were: adult female, histological diagnosis of breast cancer, treated with ambulatory radiotherapy, and written informed consent; patients unable to communicate orally or in writing, or who had neurologic or psychiatric conditions were excluded. Development phase: focus groups guided by a list of questions were carried out with 50 women. The patients reported 61 problems affecting their health-related quality-of-life. A nominal group (six oncologists and two nurses) identified the same problems. A syntactic analysis of the information was performed to create items for study and measurement scales. Content validity was determined by a nominal group of seven experts using professional judgment. Another 20 patients were selected to evaluate face validity. Validation phase: the instrument was applied to 230 patients at three different points: before radiotherapy, at the end of radiotherapy and four weeks after radiotherapy was concluded. Reliability, construct validity, discriminant validity, predictive validity, interpretability and response burden were evaluated. RESULTS The final instrument developed had 33 items distributed in 4 domains: physical functioning, psychological functioning, social and family relationships, and physical and emotional adverse effects of disease and treatment. There were two discrete items: perceived

  5. Double optical gating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbertson, Steve

    The observation and control of dynamics in atomic and molecular targets requires the use of laser pulses with duration less than the characteristic timescale of the process which is to be manipulated. For electron dynamics, this time scale is on the order of attoseconds where 1 attosecond = 10 -18 seconds. In order to generate pulses on this time scale, different gating methods have been proposed. The idea is to extract or "gate" a single pulse from an attosecond pulse train and switch off all the other pulses. While previous methods have had some success, they are very difficult to implement and so far very few labs have access to these unique light sources. The purpose of this work is to introduce a new method, called double optical gating (DOG), and to demonstrate its effectiveness at generating high contrast single isolated attosecond pulses from multi-cycle lasers. First, the method is described in detail and is investigated in the spectral domain. The resulting attosecond pulses produced are then temporally characterized through attosecond streaking. A second method of gating, called generalized double optical gating (GDOG), is also introduced. This method allows attosecond pulse generation directly from a carrier-envelope phase un-stabilized laser system for the first time. Next the methods of DOG and GDOG are implemented in attosecond applications like high flux pulses and extreme broadband spectrum generation. Finally, the attosecond pulses themselves are used in experiments. First, an attosecond/femtosecond cross correlation is used for characterization of spatial and temporal properties of femtosecond pulses. Then, an attosecond pump, femtosecond probe experiment is conducted to observe and control electron dynamics in helium for the first time.

  6. Etiological aspects of double monsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaschevatzky, O E; Goldman, B; Kampf, D; Wexler, H; Grünstein, S

    1980-06-01

    Four cases of double monsters are reported, including a rare case of craniofacial duplication (diprosopus). Based on the findings observed, etiological factors of these malformations are discussed. We suggest that exogenous (environmental) factors such as habits, way of life or religious practices of certain populations can influence the development of double monsters.

  7. Strengthening the Radiation Protection System in Cuba (SRPS - Cuba). A co-operation project between Cuban and Swedish institutions, February 2001 - June 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avila, Rodolfo; Larsson, Carl-Magnus; Prendes, Miguel; Zerquera, Juan Tomas

    2004-02-01

    This project results from the co-operation between a number of Cuban and Swedish institutions. It started in February 2001 and ended in June 2003 and was made possible thanks to the contributions of the Swedish International Development Co-operation Agency (SIDA), the Centro de Proteccion e Higiene de las Radiaciones, Cuba (CPHR), and the Swedish Radiation Protection Authority (SSI). The overall objective was to strengthen the radiation protection system in Cuba, and in this way contribute with the control and reduction of risks to man and the environment from exposures to ionizing radiation. The project focused on four priority areas: 1) Protection of workers and patients exposed to radiation in radiation practices; 2) Preparedness for response to an emergency situation; 3) Environmental radiological protection; and, 4) Exposure to radiation in areas with high levels of natural radioactivity. The present report summarizes the findings of the whole project period, providing an overview of the overall achievements, as well as listing its deliverables. The results of an evaluation of the project, conducted during the final workshop, are also included. The report ends with a list of generic and specific conclusions and recommendations for implementation of the project's achievements and for further development of co-operation.

  8. Evaluation of the tolerance to Finale® in the germination and regeneration of Cuban rice varieties (IACuba-17 and IACuba-19

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daymí Abreu

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Selection agent used during the shoot selection has an important role on the transgenic plant generation efficiency. In this work, the tolerance to the herbicide Finale® in two Cuban rice cultivars, IACuba17 and IACuba-19 was evaluated, and determined that 10 days exposure to 5 and 10 mg.l-1 of Finale® were enough to avoid seedlings of IAC-17 and IAC-19, respectively. Cultivated calluses (0, 2, 4 and 6 days in the absence of Finale®in the regeneration medium were used to evaluate the minimal concentration of Finale®that totally inhibits shoot regeneration. Pre-induced calluses cultured during two days and 3 mg.l-1 of Finale® in the regeneration medium was the most efficient combination to select shoots during the generation of transgenic plants resistant to the herbicide. Our shoot selection procedure reduces to 3 weeks the time to obtain shoots during the generation of transgenic rice plants. Key words: germination, mature seeds, Oryza, phosphinothricin, regeneration, selection markers

  9. Sex allocation and secondary sex ratio in Cuban boa ( Chilabothrus angulifer): mother's body size affects the ratio between sons and daughters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frynta, Daniel; Vejvodová, Tereza; Šimková, Olga

    2016-06-01

    Secondary sex ratios of animals with genetically determined sex may considerably deviate from equality. These deviations may be attributed to several proximate and ultimate factors. Sex ratio theory explains some of them as strategic decisions of mothers improving their fitness by selective investment in sons or daughters, e.g. local resource competition hypothesis (LRC) suggests that philopatric females tend to produce litters with male-biased sex ratios to avoid future competition with their daughters. Until now, only little attention has been paid to examine predictions of sex ratio theory in snakes possessing genetic sex determination and exhibiting large variance in allocation of maternal investment. Cuban boa is an endemic viviparous snake producing large-bodied newborns (˜200 g). Extremely high maternal investment in each offspring increases importance of sex allocation. In a captive colony, we collected breeding records of 42 mothers, 62 litters and 306 newborns and examined secondary sex ratios (SR) and sexual size dimorphism (SSD) of newborns. None of the examined morphometric traits of neonates appeared sexually dimorphic. The sex ratio was slightly male biased (174 males versus 132 females) and litter sex ratio significantly decreased with female snout-vent length. We interpret this relationship as an additional support for LRC as competition between mothers and daughters increases with similarity of body sizes between competing snakes.

  10. Strengthening the Radiation Protection System in Cuba (SRPS - Cuba). A co-operation project between Cuban and Swedish institutions, February 2001 - June 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avila, Rodolfo; Larsson, Carl-Magnus; Prendes, Miguel; Zerquera, Juan Tomas

    2004-02-01

    This project results from the co-operation between a number of Cuban and Swedish institutions. It started in February 2001 and ended in June 2003 and was made possible thanks to the contributions of the Swedish International Development Co-operation Agency (SIDA), the Centro de Proteccion e Higiene de las Radiaciones, Cuba (CPHR), and the Swedish Radiation Protection Authority (SSI). The overall objective was to strengthen the radiation protection system in Cuba, and in this way contribute with the control and reduction of risks to man and the environment from exposures to ionizing radiation. The project focused on four priority areas: 1) Protection of workers and patients exposed to radiation in radiation practices; 2) Preparedness for response to an emergency situation; 3) Environmental radiological protection; and, 4) Exposure to radiation in areas with high levels of natural radioactivity. The present report summarizes the findings of the whole project period, providing an overview of the overall achievements, as well as listing its deliverables. The results of an evaluation of the project, conducted during the final workshop, are also included. The report ends with a list of generic and specific conclusions and recommendations for implementation of the project's achievements and for further development of co-operation

  11. Designing and Implementing an Assay for the Detection of Rare and Divergent NRPS and PKS Clones in European, Antarctic and Cuban Soils.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory C A Amos

    Full Text Available The ever increasing microbial resistome means there is an urgent need for new antibiotics. Metagenomics is an underexploited tool in the field of drug discovery. In this study we aimed to produce a new updated assay for the discovery of biosynthetic gene clusters encoding bioactive secondary metabolites. PCR assays targeting the polyketide synthases (PKS and non-ribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPS were developed. A range of European soils were tested for their biosynthetic potential using clone libraries developed from metagenomic DNA. Results revealed a surprising number of NRPS and PKS clones with similarity to rare Actinomycetes. Many of the clones tested were phylogenetically divergent suggesting they were fragments from novel NRPS and PKS gene clusters. Soils did not appear to cluster by location but did represent NRPS and PKS clones of diverse taxonomic origin. Fosmid libraries were constructed from Cuban and Antarctic soil samples; 17 fosmids were positive for NRPS domains suggesting a hit rate of less than 1 in 10 genomes. NRPS hits had low similarities to both rare Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria; they also clustered with known antibiotic producers suggesting they may encode for pathways producing novel bioactive compounds. In conclusion we designed an assay capable of detecting divergent NRPS and PKS gene clusters from the rare biosphere; when tested on soil samples results suggest the majority of NRPS and PKS pathways and hence bioactive metabolites are yet to be discovered.

  12. Double Charge Exchange Reactions and Double Beta Decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auerbach, N.

    2018-05-01

    The subject of this presentation is at the forefront of nuclear physics, namely double beta decay. In particular one is most interested in the neutrinoless process of double beta decay, when the decay proceeds without the emission of two neutrinos. The observation of such decay would mean that the lepton conservation symmetry is violated and that the neutrinos are of Majorana type, meaning that they are their own anti-particles. The life time of this process has two unknowns, the mass of the neutrino and the nuclear matrix element. Determining the nuclear matrix element and knowing the cross-section well will set limits on the neutrino mass. There is a concentrated effort among the nuclear physics community to calculate this matrix element. Usually these matrix elements are a very small part of the total strength of the transition operators involved in the process. There is no simple way to “calibrate” the nuclear double beta decay matrix element. The double beta decay is a double charge exchange process, therefore it is proposed that double charge exchange reactions using ion projectiles on nuclei that are candidates for double beta decay, will provide additional necessary information about the nuclear matrix elements.

  13. Double chambered right ventricle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Chul Koo; Yu, Yun Jeong; Yeon, Kyung Mo; Han, Man Chung

    1983-01-01

    Fourteen cases of double chambered right ventricle were diagnosed angiographically and of these nine cases were confirmed after operation and autopsy at Seoul National University Hospital in recent four years since 1979. The clinical and radiological findings with the emphasis on the cinecardiographic findings were analysed. The summaries of the analysis are as follows: 1. Among 14 cases, 6 cases were male and 8 cases were female. Age distribution was from 4 years to 36 years. 2. In chest x-ray findings, pulmonary vascularity was increased in 8 cases, decreased in 4 cases, and normal in 2 cases. Cardiomegaly was observed in 8 cases and other showed normal heart size. 3. In cinecardiography, 11 cases had interventricular septal defect. Among these 11 cases, VSD located in proximal high pressure chamber was in 2 cases and located in distal low pressure chamber was in 9 cases. 4. The location of aberrant muscle bundle in sinus portion of right ventricle was in 8 cases. In the rest 6 cases, the aberrant muscle bundle was located below the infundibulum of right ventricle. 5. For accurate diagnosis and differential diagnosis with other congenital cardiac anomalies such as Tetralogy of Fallot or isolated pulmonic stenosis, biplane cineangiography and catheterization is an essential procedure

  14. Double chambered right ventricle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Chul Koo; Yu, Yun Jeong; Yeon, Kyung Mo; Han, Man Chung [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1983-12-15

    Fourteen cases of double chambered right ventricle were diagnosed angiographically and of these nine cases were confirmed after operation and autopsy at Seoul National University Hospital in recent four years since 1979. The clinical and radiological findings with the emphasis on the cinecardiographic findings were analysed. The summaries of the analysis are as follows: 1. Among 14 cases, 6 cases were male and 8 cases were female. Age distribution was from 4 years to 36 years. 2. In chest x-ray findings, pulmonary vascularity was increased in 8 cases, decreased in 4 cases, and normal in 2 cases. Cardiomegaly was observed in 8 cases and other showed normal heart size. 3. In cinecardiography, 11 cases had interventricular septal defect. Among these 11 cases, VSD located in proximal high pressure chamber was in 2 cases and located in distal low pressure chamber was in 9 cases. 4. The location of aberrant muscle bundle in sinus portion of right ventricle was in 8 cases. In the rest 6 cases, the aberrant muscle bundle was located below the infundibulum of right ventricle. 5. For accurate diagnosis and differential diagnosis with other congenital cardiac anomalies such as Tetralogy of Fallot or isolated pulmonic stenosis, biplane cineangiography and catheterization is an essential procedure.

  15. Double Tracks closure report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-06-01

    This report describes the remediation activities performed and the results of postremediation radiation surveys conducted at the Double Tracks site, located on Range 71 North, of the Nellis Air Force Range (NAFR) in southern Nevada. This remediation was conducted from June to August 1996 in accordance with the Interim Corrective Action Plan (ICAP) to remediate the site to an acceptable risk to human health and the environment. Soil with a total transuranic activity greater than 200 picoCuries per gram (pCi/g) was excavated, shipped to the Nevada Test Site (NTS), and disposed at the Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS). A total of 52.3 grams of plutonium (Pu) with an activity of 5.12 Curies was disposed. The concrete pad at ground zero (GZ) was broken up, placed in a Sealand reg-sign container, and shipped to the NTS Area 6 decontamination pad. Additionally, approximately 10 m 3 (350 ft 3 ) of soil containing small chips of concrete was shipped to the NTS Area 6 decontamination pad. The concrete and soil/concrete mixture will be further characterized prior to disposal. At the time this report was written, characterization samples were being collected, with analytical results expected in January 1997. It is anticipated that the material will be disposed in mid-1997. This remediation is an interim action because final cleanup levels have not been established

  16. Double Beta Decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiorini, Ettore

    2008-01-01

    The importance of neutrinoless Double Beta Decay (DBD) is stressed in view of the recent results of experiments on neutrino oscillations which indicate that the difference between the squared masses of two neutrinos of different flavours is finite [For a recent review including neutrino properties and recent results see: Review of Particle Physics, J. of Phys. G: Nuclear and Particle Physics 33, 1]. As a consequence the mass of at least one neutrino has to be different from zero and it becomes imperative to determine its absolute value. The various experimental techniques to search for DBD are discussed together with the difficult problems of the evaluation of the corresponding nuclear matrix elements. The upper limits on neutrino mass coming from the results of the various experiments are reported together with the indication for a non zero value by one of them not confirmed so far. The two presently running experiments on neutrinoless DBD are briefly described together with the already approved or designed second generation searches aiming to reach the values on the absolute neutrino mass indicated by the results on neutrino oscillations

  17. Analyzing Double Image Illusion through Double Indiscernibility and Lattice Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohei Sonoda

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The figure-ground division plays a fundamental role in all image perceptions. Although there are a lot of studies about extraction of a figure such as detection of edges or grouping of texture, there are few discussions about a relationship between obtained figure and ground. We focused on double image illusions having two complementary relationships be- tween figure and ground and analyzed them. We divided the double image illusions according to two different interpretations and using these divisions we extracted and analyzed their logical structures by lattices derived from rough sets that we had developed. As a result we discovered unusual logical structures in double image illusions.

  18. Z₂-double cyclic codes

    OpenAIRE

    Borges, J.

    2014-01-01

    A binary linear code C is a Z2-double cyclic code if the set of coordinates can be partitioned into two subsets such that any cyclic shift of the coordinates of both subsets leaves invariant the code. These codes can be identified as submodules of the Z2[x]-module Z2[x]/(x^r − 1) × Z2[x]/(x^s − 1). We determine the structure of Z2-double cyclic codes giving the generator polynomials of these codes. The related polynomial representation of Z2-double cyclic codes and its duals, and the relation...

  19. Aspects of the doubled worldsheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Driezen, Sibylle; Sevrin, Alexander; Thompson, Daniel C. [Theoretische Natuurkunde, Vrije Universiteit Brussel and The International Solvay Institutes,Pleinlaan 2, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium)

    2016-12-16

    We clarify the relation between various approaches to the manifestly T-duality symmetric string. We explain in detail how the PST covariant doubled string arises from an unusual gauge fixing. We pay careful attention to the role of “spectator” fields in this process and also show how the T-duality invariant doubled dilaton emerges naturally. We extend these ideas to non-Abelian T-duality and show they give rise to the duality invariant formalism based on the semi-Abelian Drinfeld Double. We then develop the N=(0,1) supersymmetric duality invariant formalism.

  20. Alignment in double capture processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moretto-Capelle, P.; Benhenni, M.; Bordenave-Montesquieu, A.; Benoit-Cattin, P.; Gleizes, A.

    1993-01-01

    The electron spectra emitted when a double capture occurs in N 7+ +He and Ne 8+ +He systems at 10 qkeV collisional energy, allow us to determine the angular distributions of the 3 ell 3 ell ' lines through a special spectra fitting procedure which includes interferences between neighbouring states. It is found that the doubly excited states populated in double capture processes are generally aligned

  1. Alignment in double capture processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moretto-Capelle, P.; Benhenni, M.; Bordenave-Montesquieu, A.; Benoit-Cattin, P.; Gleizes, A. (IRSAMC, URA CNRS 770, Univ. Paul Sabatier, 118 rte de Narbonne, 31062 Toulouse Cedex (France))

    1993-06-05

    The electron spectra emitted when a double capture occurs in N[sup 7+]+He and Ne[sup 8+]+He systems at 10 qkeV collisional energy, allow us to determine the angular distributions of the 3[ell]3[ell] [prime] lines through a special spectra fitting procedure which includes interferences between neighbouring states. It is found that the doubly excited states populated in double capture processes are generally aligned.

  2. Methods of Mitigating Double Taxation

    OpenAIRE

    Lindhe, Tobias

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive overview of existing methods of mitigating double taxation of corporate income within a standard cost of capital model. Two of the most well-known and most utilized methods, the imputation and the split rate systems, do not mitigate double taxation in corporations where the marginal investment is financed with retained earnings. However, all methods are effective when the marginal investment is financed with new share issues. The corporate tax rate, fiscal ...

  3. Decades with four double triodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahl, R.

    1952-01-01

    Decades with four double triodes The described decade consists of four double triodes and four crystals germanium; which has the following characteristics: - Attack in negative impulses. - Sensitivity 12 volts ± 40 % for signals of 1 μs about. - Time of resolution 2,5 μs. - Voltage 250 v ± 40 %. - heating 6,3 v ± 40 %. - Tolerance on the values of the elements of installation 10%. (author) [fr

  4. Double layers above the aurora

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Temerin, M.; Mozer, F.S.

    1987-01-01

    Two different kinds of double layers were found in association with auroral precipitation. One of these is the so-called electrostatic shock, which is oriented at an oblique angle to the magnetic field in such a way that the perpendicular electric field is much larger than the parallel electric field. This type of double layer is often found at the edges of regions of upflowing ion beams and the direction of the electric fields in the shock points toward the ion beam. The potential drop through the shock can be several kV and is comparable to the total potential needed to produce auroral acceleration. Instabilities associated with the shock may generate obliquely propagating Alfven waves, which may accelerate electrons to produce flickering auroras. The flickering aurora provides evidence that the electrostatic shock may have large temporal fluctuations. The other kind of double layer is the small-amplitude double layer found in regions of upward flowing in beams, often in association with electrostatic ion cyclotron waves. The parallel and perpendicular electric fields in these structures are comparable in magnitude. The associated potentials are a few eV. Since many such double layers are found in regions of upward flowing ion beams, the combined potential drop through a set of these double layers can be substantial

  5. Global effects of double layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raad, M.A.

    1984-12-01

    Locally the formation of an electrostatic double layer in a current carrying plasma leads to a direct acceleration of particles which may penetrate far into the surrounding medium. The potential across the double layer, giving this acceleration, must be maintained by the external system and is a basic parameter for the local to global coupling. The double layer potential is associated with an electric field parallel to the magnetic field. In general this leads to a magnetohydrodynamic relaxation of the surrounding medium providing the influx of energy which is dissipated by the double layer. The double layer potential is limited as is the maximum possible rate of energy influx. If the global response of the external medium can be represented by an external circuit and if an equivalent circuit element can be found to represent the double layer, for example a negative resistance for intermediate time scales, it is possible to give a description of the dynamics and stability of the whole system. (Author)

  6. Principales resultados del sistema cubano de Farmacovigilancia en el año 2004 Main results of the Cuban system of pharmacological surveillance system in 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Debesa García

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Se describen los principales resultados alcanzados por el sistema cubano de Farmacovigilancia en el 2004. Durante 12 meses, los casos se identificaron mediante el sistema de notificación voluntaria de sospecha de reacciones adversas a medicamentos. Se recibieron en la Unidad Nacional Coordinadora de Farmacovigilancia 7 063 notificaciones de reacciones adversas medicamentosas (RAM que contenían 13 500 a razón de 1,9 RAM por notificación, de ellas 3 185 fueron “importantes” para el 35,1 % (según criterios para determinar RAM importantes de la UCNFv , en las Normas y procedimientos de trabajo del sistema cubano de Farmacovigilancia. La tasa de notificación anual fue de 628 notificaciones por millón de habitantes. El 64,6 % de las RAM correspondió al sexo femenino y el 35,4 % al masculino. En cuanto al nivel de asistencia, la atención primaria fue la que más notificó con 85 %. La relación de reacciones leves con respecto a las moderadas y graves fue de 48,3/51,4 %, que continúa con un balance muy bueno en relación con el reporte por severidad. Se reportaron 23 reacciones con desenlace fatal, para el 0,3 %. A pesar de la disminución en cuanto al número de notificaciones recibidas en nuestro unidad, con respecto al año anterior, aún se encuentra entre las tasas de notificación más altas de los países miembros del sistema internacional de monitoreo de RAM; por otra parte, dada la calidad de estas permitieron cuantificar y caracterizar las RAM, teniendo además un gran valor para generar alertas y vigilar la seguridad de los medicamentos que circulan en nuestro país.The main results achieved by the Cuban Pharmacological Surveillance System in the year 2004 were described. During these 12 months, the cases were identified by the voluntary notification system of suspected adverse reactions to drugs. The National Coordinating Unit of Pharmacological Surveillance (NCUPs received 7 063 notifications that included 13 500 adverse drug

  7. The experience of medical training and expectations regarding future medical practice of medical students in the Cuban-supported Medical School in Timor-Leste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrinho, Paulo; Valdes, Ana C; Cabral, Jorge

    2015-03-28

    The purpose of this paper is to describe and analyse the professional expectations and profile of medical students at the Cuban-supported School of General Medicine, in the Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences of the National University of Timor-Leste. A piloted, standardized questionnaire, with closed- and open-ended questions, was distributed to registered medical students attending classes on the day of the survey. All data were analysed using SPSS. The statistical analysis is mostly descriptive. Students decide to study medicine at an early age. Relatives and friends seem to have an especially important influence in encouraging, reinforcing and promoting the desire to be a doctor. The degree of feminization of the student population is high. Medical students are in general satisfied with the training received, though demanding improvements in terms of systems to support their studies and training (e.g. libraries, laboratories, access to computers and the Internet). Medical students know that they will be needed in the public sector and that it would represent their opportunity to contribute to the public's welfare. Nonetheless, they report that they expect to combine public sector practice with private work, probably, in order to improve their earnings. This may be explained by their expectations for salaries, which are much higher than the current level of public sector salaries. A significant proportion of students are unsure about their future area of specialization. Of those that have determined their desired specialization, most intend to train as hospital specialists and to follow a hospital-based career. For many, specialization is equated with migration to study abroad. There are important differences between students at the start of their training compared with more advanced students. This paper gives an overview of student expectations for alignment with stated national human resources for health priorities for Timor-Leste.

  8. LO CIRCUNSTANCIAL EN LOS DELITOS IMPRUDENTES: UNA VISIÓN DESDE EL ORDENAMIENTO PUNITIVO CUBANO The circumstances in the recklees crimes: a sight from the penal cuban system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayan López Rojas

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available La investigación se orienta a un análisis dogmático en torno a la compatibilidad entre algunas circunstancias modificativas de la responsabilidad penal y los delitos imprudentes desde una perspectiva sistemática, a partir de los postulados que ofrece la teoría general de las circunstancias modificativas de la responsabilidad penal. El estudio doctrinal que se lleva a cabo, cuyo propósito es analizar las bases jurídicas esenciales que permitan la justa interpretación y apreciación de lo circunstancial en el delito imprudente, afronta el tratamiento que tradicionalmente ha ofrecido la práctica judicial cubana a la cuestión examinada; y con apoyo en las razones que fundamentan las circunstancias modificativas de la responsabilidad penal, se sustenta la compatibilidad entre los delitos cometidos por imprudencia y aquellas atenuantes que obedezcan a razones de política criminal.The article it finds one's bearings to a dogmatic analysis about compatibility between modifying circumstances of criminal responsibility and reckless crimes from a systematic perspective, as of the postulates that offers the general theory of the modifying circumstances of criminal responsibility. The doctrinal study that it takes to end, faces the treatment that traditionally has offered the judicial Cuban practice to the examined question, and with support in the reasons that lay the foundations of the modifying circumstances of the penal responsibility sustains to him the compatibility between the crimes committed for imprudence and those attenuating that obey reasons of criminal politics.

  9. Rentabilidad de la gestión del mantenimiento en los centrales azucareros cubanos. // Profitability of maintenance management in Cuban sugar cane factories.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Batista Rodríguez

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Para evaluar de forma acertada la eficiencia de la gestión de mantenimiento en un central azucarero y a su personaldirectivo es necesario disponer de indicadores cuantitativos que reflejen los resultados y la evolución integral del trabajotécnico-organizativo y económico de la actividad. Actualmente existen gran cantidad de indicadores, pero se adolece de lano existencia de un indicador generalizador de la eficiencia de la gestión del mantenimiento, por lo cual es difícil valorarcorrectamente los resultados y la evolución integral de la actividad.En este trabajo se muestra la posibilidad de evaluar de forma integral la eficiencia de la gestión del mantenimiento en loscentrales azucareros cubanos, con el calculo del indicador Rentabilidad de la gestión del mantenimiento (Rgm.Palabras claves: Rentabilidad, gestión de mantenimiento, centrales azucareros, indicador de rentabilid__________________________________________________________________AbstractIn order to evaluate in a proper manner the efficiency of maintenance management in sugar cane factories and its directivepersonnel, it is necessary to have quantitative indicators that reflect the results and integral evolution of the technicalorganizationaland economic work of the activity. At the present a great amount of indicators exists, but it is sympathizedfrom the non-existence of a generalizing indicator of the maintenance management efficiency, thus it is difficult tocorrectly validate the results and integral evolution of the activity. In this paper is expose the possibility of integralevaluation of the maintenance management efficiency in Cuban sugar cane factories, with the computation of the indicatorof maintenance management profitability (Rgm.Key words: Profitability, maintenance management, sugar cane factories, profitability indicator.

  10. "Socialismo, Cooperativismo y Derecho. Dialéctica necesaria para la actualización del modelo económico cubano" (Socialism, Cooperativism and Law. Dialectics necessary to update the Cuban economic model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orestes Rodríguez Musa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to assess the legal perspectives of the cooperative in the restructuring of the Cuban socialist economic model. For this purpose it will start with analyzing the thought of the classics of Marxism around cooperatives, to ponder lessons that have full effect. In a second part it will value the common features of the relation State-law-and cooperative in the models attached —as the Cuban— to socialism real or classic. It concludes with constructive comments to the political Guidelines that will guide the expansion and legal renewal of the cooperative sector in Cuba.

  11. Metal–organic frameworks assembled from lanthanide and 2,5-pyridinedicaboxylate with cubane-like [Ln{sub 4}(OH){sub 4}] building units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdelbaky, Mohammed S.M. [Departamentos de Química Física y Analítica y Química Orgánica e Inorgánica, University of Oviedo—CINN, Oviedo 33006 (Spain); Amghouz, Zakariae, E-mail: amghouz.uo@uniovi.es [Departamentos de Química Física y Analítica y Química Orgánica e Inorgánica, University of Oviedo—CINN, Oviedo 33006 (Spain); Servicios Científico-Técnicos, University of Oviedo—CINN, Oviedo 33006 (Spain); Fernández-Zapico, Eva; García-Granda, Santiago; García, José R. [Departamentos de Química Física y Analítica y Química Orgánica e Inorgánica, University of Oviedo—CINN, Oviedo 33006 (Spain)

    2015-09-15

    Lanthanide–organic frameworks based on 2,5-pyridinedicaboxylate (25p) ligand, formulated as [Yb{sub 4}(OH){sub 4}(25p){sub 4}(H{sub 2}O){sub 3}]·H{sub 2}O (25pYb), [Y{sub 4}(OH){sub 4}(25p){sub 4}(H{sub 2}O){sub 3}]·H{sub 2}O (25pY-1) and [Y{sub 6}(OH){sub 8}(25p){sub 5}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}] (25pY-2), have been obtained as single phases under hydrothermal conditions. 25pYb and 25pY-1 are isostructural, and crystallize in the triclinic space group, P-1, with a=8.6075(5) Å, b=14.8478(7) Å, c=15.9164(9) Å, α=86.277(4)°, β=80.196(5)°, γ=81.785(4)°, and a=8.7166(6) Å, b=14.966(1) Å, c=15.966(1) Å, α=86.260(6)°, β=80.036(6)°, γ=81.599(6)°, respectively. 25pY-2 crystallizes in the monoclinic space group, P2{sub 1}/c, with a=24.9117(17) Å, b=13.7340(8) Å, c=14.3385(10) Å, β=100.551(7)°. 25pYb and 25pY-2 have been structurally characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The 25pYb structure is based on tetranuclear cubane-like [Yb{sub 4}(OH){sub 4}]{sup 8+} clusters, which are interconnected to eight neighbouring clusters through teen surrounding 25p ligands leading to neutral 3D framework, while the structure of 25pY-2 is based on two independent cuban-like [Y{sub 4}(OH){sub 4}]{sup 8+} clusters, which are joined together through Y1 cation leading to the formation of hexanuclear [Y{sub 6}(OH){sub 8}]{sup 10+} clusters, which in turn are joined via Y2 cation resulting in infinite inorganic chain extending along c-axis, and each chain is interconnected to six adjacent chains through 25p ligands leading finally to 3D framework. The luminescence properties of Eu{sup 3+} and Tb{sup 3+} doped 25pY-1 and 25pY-2 compounds have also been investigated. All materials has been characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, thermal analyses (TG–SDTA–MS), FTIR spectroscopy, C–H–N elemental analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM-EDX), and powder X-ray thermodiffraction. - Graphical abstract: Nowadays, lanthanide–organic frameworks (LOFs) attract

  12. Congenital double-double lip: A rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swati Phore

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A double lip is a rare anomaly characterized by a horizontal fold of redundant mucosal tissue that is situated proximal to the vermilion border. It may be either congenital or acquired and has no gender or race predilection. It occurs most often in the upper lip, although both upper and lower lips are occasionally involved. Surgical intervention (simple excision produces good functional and cosmetic results. In this report, a case of a nonsyndromic congenital maxillary double upper lip and lower lip, both are described. Double lip is of special interest in dental profession as a dental surgeon is normally the first one to diagnose this rare and uncommon condition. Authors hereby discuss a very rare condition in which both upper and lower lips are involved.

  13. Decades with four double triodes; Decades a quatre doubles triodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahl, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Lab. du Fort de Chatillon, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1952-07-01

    Decades with four double triodes The described decade consists of four double triodes and four crystals germanium; which has the following characteristics: - Attack in negative impulses. - Sensitivity 12 volts {+-} 40 % for signals of 1 {mu}s about. - Time of resolution 2,5 {mu}s. - Voltage 250 v {+-} 40 %. - heating 6,3 v {+-} 40 %. - Tolerance on the values of the elements of installation 10%. (author) [French] La decade decrite comprend quatre doubles triodes et quatre cristaux germanium; elle a les caracteristiques suivantes: - Attaque en impulsions negatives. - Sensiblite 12 volts {+-} 40 % pour des signaux de 1 {mu}s environ. - Temps de resolution 2,5 {mu}s. - Alimentation 250 v {+-} 40 %. - Chauffage 6,3 v {+-} 40 %. - Tolerance sur les valeurs des elements de montage l0 %. (auteur)

  14. Reliability Modeling of Double Beam Bridge Crane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zhu; Tong, Yifei; Luan, Jiahui; Xiangdong, Li

    2018-05-01

    This paper briefly described the structure of double beam bridge crane and the basic parameters of double beam bridge crane are defined. According to the structure and system division of double beam bridge crane, the reliability architecture of double beam bridge crane system is proposed, and the reliability mathematical model is constructed.

  15. Alternate Double Single Track Lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moraga Contreras, P.; Grande Andrade, Z.; Castillo Ron, E.

    2016-07-01

    The paper discusses the advantages and shortcomings of alternate double single track (ADST) lines with respect to double track lines for high speed lines. ADST lines consists of sequences of double and single track segments optimally selected in order to reduce the construction and maintenance costs of railway lines and to optimize the timetables used to satisfy a given demand. The single tracks are selected to coincide with expensive segments (tunnels and viaducts) and the double tracks are chosen to coincide with flat areas and only where they are necessary. At the same time, departure times are adjusted for trains to cross at the cheap double track segments. This alternative can be used for new lines and also for existing conventional lines where some new tracks are to be constructed to reduce travel time (increase speed). The ADST proposal is illustrated with some examples of both types (new lines and where conventional lines exist), including the Palencia-Santander, the Santiago-Valparaíso-Viña del Mar and the Dublin-Belfast lines, where very important reductions (90 %) are obtained, especially where a railway infrastructure already exist. (Author)

  16. On the physics of relativistic double layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlqvist, P.

    1982-06-01

    A model of a strong, time-independent, and relativistic double layer is studied. Besides double layers having the electric field parallel to the current the model also describes a certain type of oblique double layers. The 'Langmuir condition' (ratio of ion current density to electron current density) as well as an expression for the potential drop of the double layer are derived. Furthermore, the distribution of charged particles, electric field, and potential within the double layer are clarified and discussed. It is found that the properties of relativistic double layers differ substantially from the properties of corresponding non-relativistic double layers. (Author)

  17. The double Brewster angle effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirion-Lefevre, Laetitia; Guinvarc'h, Régis

    2018-01-01

    The Double Brewster angle effect (DBE) is an extension of the Brewster angle to double reflection on two orthogonal dielectric surfaces. It results from the combination of two pseudo-Brewster angles occurring in complementary incidence angles domains. It can be observed for a large range of incidence angles provided that double bounces mechanism is present. As a consequence of this effect, we show that the reflection coefficient at VV polarization can be at least 10 dB lower than the reflection coefficient at HH polarization over a wide range of incidence angle - typically from 20 to 70∘. It is experimentally demonstrated using a Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) image that this effect can be seen on buildings and forests. For large buildings, the difference can reach more than 20 dB. xml:lang="fr"

  18. Double photoionisation spectra of molecules

    CERN Document Server

    Eland, John

    2017-01-01

    This book contains spectra of the doubly charged positive ions (dications) of some 75 molecules, including the major constituents of terrestrial and planetary atmospheres and prototypes of major chemical groups. It is intended to be a new resource for research in all areas of molecular spectroscopy involving high energy environments, both terrestrial and extra-terrestrial. All the spectra have been produced by photoionisation using laboratory lamps or synchrotron radiation and have been measured using the magnetic bottle time-of-flight technique by coincidence detection of correlated electron pairs. Full references to published work on the same species are given, though for several molecules these are the first published spectra. Double ionisation energies are listed and discussed in relation to the molecular electronic structure of the molecules. A full introduction to the field of molecular double ionisation is included and the mechanisms by which double photoionisation can occur are examined in detail. A p...

  19. Double-polarizating scanning radiometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishev, D.N.; Nazyrski, T.G.

    1986-01-01

    The double-polarizating single-channel scanning radiometer comprises the following serial connected parts: a scanning double-polarizating aerial, a block for polarization separation, a radiometer receiver, an analog-to-digit converter and an information flow forming block. The low frequency input of the radiometer receiver is connected with a control block, which is also connected with a first bus of a microprocessor, the second bus of which is connected with the A-D converter. The control input of the scanning double-polarizating aerial is connected with the first microprocessor bus. The control inputs of the block for polarization separation are linked by an electronic switch with the output of the forming block, the input of which is connected to the first input of the control block. The control inputs of the block for polarization separation are connected with the second and the third input of the information flow forming block. 2 cls

  20. Double-plug seismic connector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annoot, I.R.

    1984-01-01

    The double-plug seismic electric connector comprises an elongated insulating body. A male connector plug is at one end of the body and a female connector plug is at the opposite end of the body. Each plug has a pair of male and female contacts. A pair of spaced axial conductors is embedded within the insulating body for interconnecting the opposite male and female contacts. The inner end of a double-wire cable is embedded within the insulating body and each wire inner end is connected to one of the conductors

  1. Approaches to Climate Change & Health in Cuba: Guillermo Mesa MD MPhil, Director, Disasters & Health, National School of Public Health. Paulo Ortiz MS PhD, Senior Researcher, Climate Center, Cuban Meteorology Institute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesa, Guillermo; Ortiz, Paulo; Gorry, Conner

    2015-04-01

    The US National Institutes of Health predict climate change will cause an additional 250,000 deaths between 2030 and 2050, with damages to health costing US$2-$4 billion by 2030. Although much debate still surrounds climate change, island ecosystems-such as Cuba's-in the developing world are arguably among the most vulnerable contexts in which to confront climate variability. Beginning in the 1990s, Cuba launched research to develop the evidence base, set policy priorities, and design mitigation and adaptation actions specifically to address climate change and its effects on health. Two researchers at the forefront of this interdisciplinary, intersectoral effort are epidemiologist Dr Guillermo Mesa, who directed design and implementation of the nationwide strategy for disaster risk reduction in the Cuban public health system as founding director of the Latin American Center for Disaster Medicine (CLAMED) and now heads the Disasters and Health department at the National School of Public Health; and Dr Paulo Ortiz, a biostatistician and economist at the Cuban Meteorology Institute's Climate Center (CENCLIM), who leads the research on Cuba's Climate and Health project and is advisor on climate change and health for the UN Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC).

  2. Origen y composición genética de la población cubana Origin and genetic composition of the Cuban population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalino R Ustáriz García

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Se hace una revisión a partir de la aparición del Homo sapiens en el continente africano y el comienzo de las migraciones hacia diferentes regiones geográficas, que condujeron después a la llegada del hombre primitivo a América y su desplazamiento a través de América del Norte hasta llegar a Sudamérica, y desde aquí a las islas del Caribe. Se comenta cómo influyó la llegada de los españoles sobre las poblaciones indígenas caribeñas y su contribución a la introducción de negros provenientes de las colonias africanas en esta región del mundo. Se analizan diversos trabajos científicos realizados fundamentalmente en Cuba, que demuestran, mediante diferentes marcadores bioquímicos y moleculares, la gran mezcla étnica de la población cubana, constituida sobre todo por blancos caucasoides, negros africanos y mulatos resultantes de la mezcla de ambas poblaciones y, en menor proporción y sin significación evidente, de otras poblaciones como son la china y la indoamericana.A literature review was made on the emergence of Homo sapiens in the African continent and the beginning of migration towards different geographic regions; this led to the arrival of the primitive man to the America and his movement through the North America to South America, and from this place to the Caribbean Islands. The impact of the arrival of Spaniards on the Caribbean native populations and their contribution to the introduction of Black people from the Arican colonies located in this region of the world were also commented on. Likewise, several scientific works mainly carried out in Cuba were analyzed, since they prove the great ethnic admixture of the Cuban population basically made up of Caucasians, African blacks and mulattos; being the latter the result of the mixture of the first two population groups and to a lesser extent of other populations like Chinese and IndoAmerican, but without evident significance.

  3. Estudio del polimorfismo de debrisoquina en una muestra de la población cubana Study of debrisoquine polymorphism in a sample of the Cuban population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayra Álvarez Corredera

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Las diferencias en la capacidad con que cada individuo metaboliza una droga por una vía determinada tiene relevancia clínica para medicamentos de amplio uso, de estrecho margen de seguridad, si esa es la principal vía en la eliminación de la droga, o si el número de alternativas terapéuticas es limitada; por tanto, la información farmacogenética es esencial en la terapéutica individualizada y contribuye a un uso racional de medicamentos. Como el citocromo P4502D6 (CYP2D6 cataliza más del 65 % de los fármacos comúnmente empleados en la práctica habitual, se propusó identificar la presencia de diferentes fenotipos metabolizadores del CYP2D6 en una muestra de 104 sujetos de la población cubana. Se determinó la razón metabólica entre las concentraciones urinarias de debrisoquina y su metabolito 4OH-debrisoquina, cuantificados mediante cromatografía líquida de alta resolución. Se encontró que el 3,84 % de los individuos estudiados son metabolizadores lentos.The differences in the capacity with which every individual metabolises a drug by a specific route has a clinical relevance for widely used drugs of a narrow safety range if that is the main route in the elimination of the drug, or if the number of therapeutic alternatives is limited; therefore, the pharmacogenetic information is essential in the personalized therapeutics and it contributes to a rational use of drugs. As the cytochrome P4502D6 (CYP2D6 catalyzes more than 65% of the commonly used drugs, the aim of this paper was to identify different CYP2D6 metabolising phenotypes in a sample of 104 subjects of the Cuban population by determining the metabolic ratio between urinary concentrations of debrisoquine and its metabolite 4OH-debrisoquine, quantified by high performance liquid chromatography. We found that 3.84% of the individuals studied were slow metabolisers.

  4. La Gestión Documental y su Impacto en el Sector Empresarial Cubano (Document Management and its Impact on Cuban Enterprise Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María de los Ángeles Ruiz González

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Resumen En el presente artículo se aborda la tendencia actual de los sistemas de gestión documental como nuevos paradigmas de gestión organizacional. Se realiza un énfasis en el sector empresarial cubano y el impacto de la gestión de información, documental y del conocimiento en los nuevos escenarios del sector empresarial cubano en las actuales condiciones de actualización del Modelo Económico. Se destaca a su vez el trabajo por proyectos que se establece entre las universidades y el sector empresarial. Se exponen algunos resultados derivados del diagnóstico de los subsistemas de información, documentación y conocimiento, aplicadas en las Unidades Docentes pertenecientes al Grupo Empresarial en Perfeccionamiento, aportando sugerencias y buenas prácticas, que permitan retroalimentar a las organizaciones en el uso de metodologías, herramientas y tecnologías basadas en el acceso abierto que permita apoyar a las empresas en el cumplimiento de las resoluciones y decretos ley vigentes en el país; así como identificar los problemas que afectan al subsistema de gestión de información y documentación, elementos claves que constituyen factores dinamizadores en el éxito empresarial. Abstract This paper studies current trend in document management systems as new paradigms of organizational management. Special emphasis is placed on the impact of information, document and knowledge management in the new scenarios of Cuban business given the current process of updating the economic model. The importance of working on projects between universities and business is also emphasized. This paper exposes some results from the diagnostic of the following subsystems: information, documentation and knowledge. This analysis was applied to teaching units belonging to the Business Group under Improvement. Suggestions and good practices were providing to organizations for feedback organizations in the use of methodologies and tools based on open access

  5. Principales resultados del sistema cubano de Farmacovigilancia en el año 2003 Main results of the Cuban System of Drug Surveillance in 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Debesa García

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Se describe el funcionamiento y principales resultados del sistema cubano de Farmacovigilancia durante el 2003 en todos los niveles de salud de Cuba. Durante 12 meses, los casos se identificaron mediante el sistema de notificación voluntaria de sospecha de reacciones adversas a medicamentos. Se recibieron en la Unidad Nacional Coordinadora de Farmacovilancia 12 601 notificaciones de reacciones adversas medicamentosas (RAM que contenían 25 348 sospechas de RAM, para una tasa de notificación de 1 119 reportes x 1 000 000 de habitantes. El 66 % de las RAM correspondió al sexo femenino y el 34 % al masculino. En cuanto al nivel de asistencia, la atención primaria es la que más notifica con 83,5 %. Fueron resultados alentadores que en este año la relación de reacciones leves con respecto a las moderadas y graves resultó del 55,3/44,7 %, que continúa con un balance bastante bueno en relación con el reporte por severidad. Se reportaron 54 reacciones con desenlace fatal, para el 0,2 %. Las notificaciones recibidas en nuestro unidad permitieron cuantificar y caracterizar las RAM, teniendo además un gran valor para generar alertas y vigilar la seguridad de los medicamentos que circulan en nuestro país.The functioning and the main results of the Cuban Drug Surveillance System at all the health levels, in 2003, are described. During 12 months, the cases were identified by the volunteer notification system of suspicion of adverse drug reactions. 12 601 notifications of adverse drug reactions (DAR containing 25 348 DAR suspicions were received at the National Coordinating Unit of Drug Surveillance for a notification rate of 1 119 reports x 1 000 000 inhabitants. 66 % of the ADRs corresponded to females and 34 % to males. As regards the assistance level, the primary care level notifies the most with 83.5 %. It was considered as encouraging the fact that the relation of mild adverse reactions with respect to the moderate and severe was 55.3 %/44

  6. Magnetoresistance stories of double perovskites

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    grain surfaces have also been proposed to act as tunnel barriers in Sr2FeMoO6. ... these double perovskites, a gradual decrease in the low-field MR and saturation ... simultaneously, and therefore serious material engineering was needed.

  7. Double Coffee opens in China

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2009-01-01

    Läti suursaadik Ingrida Levrence avas esimese Double Coffee kohviku Hiina pealinnas Pekingi südames. Rahvusvaheline kohvikukett kavatseb laieneda mõne kohviku võrra igal aastal. Seni tegutsetakse Lätis, Eestis, Leedus, Ukrainas ja Valgevenes

  8. Eight Arguments against Double Effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Nucci, Ezio

    I offer eight arguments against the Doctrine of Double Effect, a normative principle according to which in pursuing the good it is sometimes morally permissible to bring about some evil as a side-effect or merely foreseen consequence: the same evil would not be morally justified as an intended...

  9. A Double-Minded Fractal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoson, Andrew J.

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a fun activity of generating a double-minded fractal image for a linear algebra class once the idea of rotation and scaling matrices are introduced. In particular the fractal flip-flops between two words, depending on the level at which the image is viewed. (Contains 5 figures.)

  10. Double standards with radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parkinson, A.

    2002-01-01

    The author claims that whether it is short-lived waste from Commonwealth facilities, long-lived plutonium waste from an atomic bomb test site on Aboriginal land, or reactor waste from Lucas Heights, the Australian government applies double standards to suit its own agenda

  11. Constraining neutrinoless double beta decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorame, L.; Meloni, D.; Morisi, S.; Peinado, E.; Valle, J.W.F.

    2012-01-01

    A class of discrete flavor-symmetry-based models predicts constrained neutrino mass matrix schemes that lead to specific neutrino mass sum-rules (MSR). We show how these theories may constrain the absolute scale of neutrino mass, leading in most of the cases to a lower bound on the neutrinoless double beta decay effective amplitude.

  12. Magnetoresistance stories of double perovskites

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-05-28

    May 28, 2015 ... Tunnelling magnetoresistance (TMR) in polycrystalline double perovskites has been an important research topic for more than a decade now, where the nature of the insulating tunnel barrier is the core issue of debate. Other than the nonmagnetic grain boundaries as conventional tunnel barriers, intragrain ...

  13. Doubled-ended ceramic thyratron

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    The double-ended ceramic thyratron CX 1171 B, with its coaxial voltage divider for the SPS. Such a switch, paralleled by three ignitrons in series forms the "thyragnitron" arrangement, and can switch 10 kA, 25 ms pulses, with very fast rise times.

  14. Some theoretical aspects of electrostatic double layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlqvist, P.

    1978-11-01

    A review is presented of the main results of the theoretical work on electrostatic double layers. The general properties of double layers are first considered. Then the time-independent double layer is discussed. The discussion deals with the potential drop, the thickness, and some necessary criteria for the existence and stability of the layer. As a complement to the study of the timeindependent double layer a few remarks are also made upon the timedependent double layer. Finally the question of how double layers are formed and maintained is treated. Several possible formation mechanisms are considered. (author)

  15. Lightweight Double Neutron Star Found

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2018-02-01

    More than forty years after the first discovery of a double neutron star, we still havent found many others but a new survey is working to change that.The Hunt for PairsThe observed shift in the Hulse-Taylor binarys orbital period over time as it loses energy to gravitational-wave emission. [Weisberg Taylor, 2004]In 1974, Russell Hulse and Joseph Taylor discovered the first double neutron star: two compact objects locked in a close orbit about each other. Hulse and Taylors measurements of this binarys decaying orbit over subsequent years led to a Nobel prize and the first clear evidence of gravitational waves carrying energy and angular momentum away from massive binaries.Forty years later, we have since confirmed the existence of gravitational waves directly with the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO). Nonetheless, finding and studying pre-merger neutron-star binaries remains a top priority. Observing such systems before they merge reveals crucial information about late-stage stellar evolution, binary interactions, and the types of gravitational-wave signals we expect to find with current and future observatories.Since the Hulse-Taylor binary, weve found a total of 16 additional double neutron-star systems which represents only a tiny fraction of the more than 2,600 pulsars currently known. Recently, however, a large number of pulsar surveys are turning their eyes toward the sky, with a focus on finding more double neutron stars and at least one of them has had success.The pulse profile for PSR J1411+2551 at 327 MHz. [Martinez et al. 2017]A Low-Mass DoubleConducted with the 1,000-foot Arecibo radio telescope in Puerto Rico, the Arecibo 327 MHz Drift Pulsar Survey has enabled the recent discovery of dozens of pulsars and transients. Among them, as reported by Jose Martinez (Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy) and coauthors in a recent publication, is PSR J1411+2551: a new double neutron star with one of the lowest masses ever measured

  16. Monocular Elevation Deficiency - Double Elevator Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Monocular Elevation Deficiency/ Double Elevator Palsy En Español Read in Chinese What is monocular elevation deficiency (Double Elevator Palsy)? Monocular Elevation Deficiency, also known by the ...

  17. Transition from single to multiple double layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, C.; Hershkowitz, N.

    1982-01-01

    It is shown that laboratory double layers become multiple double layers when the ratio of Debye length to system length is decreased. This result exhibits characteristics described by boundary layer theory

  18. The Double R Theory of Language Comprehension

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ball, Jerry

    2004-01-01

    ... (also known as Cognitive Semantics). This technical report explicates the basic principles and assumptions of Double R Grammar and compares Double R Grammar to Chomsky's X-Bar Theory as well as Langacker's Cognitive Linguistic...

  19. Bifurcation structure of successive torus doubling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekikawa, Munehisa; Inaba, Naohiko; Yoshinaga, Tetsuya; Tsubouchi, Takashi

    2006-01-01

    The authors discuss the 'embryology' of successive torus doubling via the bifurcation theory, and assert that the coupled map of a logistic map and a circle map has a structure capable of generating infinite number of torus doublings

  20. Double-compartment wrist arthrography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinn, S.F.; Pittman, C.; Belsole, R.; Greene, T.L.; Rayhack, J.; Clark, R.A.; King, P.S.

    1987-01-01

    Seventy patients with clinical wrist problems were studied with double-compartment wrist arthrography. Midcarpal and radiocarpal compartment arthrograms were obtained in all patients. Digital subtraction technique was used to subtract out contrast from the first compartmental injection. Digital technique also allowed a dynamic record of each injection, which helped determine sites of intercompartmental communication. Postarthrography exercises recorded on videotape were performed after each injection. There were 34 normal studies. Abnormalities in the other 36 patients included: scapholunate communication (n = 9), lunatotriquetral communication (n = 6), communication with tendon sheaths (n = 4), communication with distal radioulnar compartment (n = 14), abnormal synovium process (n = 9), and communication through the radial or ulnar collateral ligament (n = 3). Double-compartment wrist arthrography may provide additional information for complex problems of the wrist

  1. International and domestic aspects of double taxation

    OpenAIRE

    Murgáčová, Miroslava

    2010-01-01

    International and local aspects of double taxation Abstract The purpose of my thesis is to analyze international double taxation taking into account both local legislation and international aspects. Double taxation is the situation, where the same income (or capital) is subject to the same tax more than once. Mostly, the international double taxation appears when the state of the source of income implies taxes on the income of the non-residents and the state of residence of the income receive...

  2. Cubane Derivatives for Propellant Applicationsxb

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-07-03

    cycloperitanone ketal containing 2-3% cyclopentanone and trace amounts of toluene. Approximately 4 liters of purified cyclopentanone ketal per day could be...such as reaction with trimethyl phosphite , also gave inconsistent results. In reactions involving 45 moles of ketal in a 20 gallon Pfaudler reactor...Dioxane treated with trimethyl phosphite Dehydrohalogenation and Dimerization of the Tribromo Ketal to the Bisketal. In-0 0 stop 3 0 Gr r or [to"t

  3. Cuban agriculture and nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labrada Remon, A.; Perez Talavera, S.

    1997-01-01

    The application of nuclear techniques to agriculture emerged in Cuba at the end of the 60s. At the beginning only few researchers used these techniques for stimulating or mutational purposes. At the end of the 80 s systematic research began for its possible application to existing agricultural problems among which we can highlight radiomutable genesis and the determination of diagnostic damage of seeds by x-rays, plant nutrition and soil fertility, efficient water use, animal nutrition, reproduction and health as well as pest control

  4. Rural energetic development: cuban experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilera Barciela, M.

    1994-01-01

    The development of electro energetic national system in Cuba has been directed to the following objectives: to brake the rural population's exodus toward the cities, electrification of dairy farm, interconnection to the system electro energetic of all the sugar central production, these improves the rural population's conditions life

  5. The Cuban and Other Revolutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Kruijt

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Memorias al viento, by Ramiro Abreu. Ruth Casa Editorial and Estrella Publicidad S.A., 2014.Revolutionary Cuba: A History, by Luis Martínez-Fernández. University Press of Florida, 2014.El estudio de las luchas revolucionarias en América Latina (1959-1996: Estado de la cuestión, edited by Verónica Oikión Solano, Eduardo Rey Tris-tán and Martín López Ávalos. El Colegio de Michoacán and Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, 2014.De la confrontación a los intentos de ‘normalización’: La política de los Estados Unidos hacia Cuba, by Elier Ramírez Cañedo and Esteban Morales Domínguez. Editorial de Ciencias Sociales, 2014 (2nd and enlarged edition.Cuba: What Everyone Needs to Know, by Julia E. Sweig. Oxford University Press, 2012 (2nd edition.Historia mínima de Cuba, by Oscar Zanetti. Turner Publicaciones and El Colegio de México, 2013.

  6. The Cuban and Other Revolutions

    OpenAIRE

    Dirk Kruijt

    2015-01-01

    Memorias al viento, by Ramiro Abreu. Ruth Casa Editorial and Estrella Publicidad S.A., 2014.Revolutionary Cuba: A History, by Luis Martínez-Fernández. University Press of Florida, 2014.El estudio de las luchas revolucionarias en América Latina (1959-1996): Estado de la cuestión, edited by Verónica Oikión Solano, Eduardo Rey Tris-tán and Martín López Ávalos. El Colegio de Michoacán and Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, 2014.De la confrontación a los intentos de ‘normalización’: La polític...

  7. Aprendizaje basado en la solución de problemas: experiencias de profesores cubanos con estudiantes de medicina ghanenses Learning based on the solution to problems: Cuban professors' experiences with medical students from Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dora Lidia Arce Gómez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El aprendizaje basado en la solución de problemas en las nuevas universidades de ciencias médicas marca un paso progresivo en la enseñanza, puesto que permite desarrollar y perfeccionar destrezas didácticas en los estudiantes; experiencia esta aplicada por profesores cubanos en la Escuela de Medicina y Ciencias de la Salud en Tamale (Ghana durante el período 2008-2010 y comentada en el presente artículo.Learning based on the solution to problems in the new universities of medical sciences constitutes a progressive step in teaching, since it allows to develop and to improve didactic abilities in the students; an experience which was applied by Cuban professors in the School of Medicine and Health Sciences in Tamale (Ghana during the period 2008-2010 and discussed in this paper.

  8. Who is entitled to double effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, J

    1991-10-01

    The doctrine of double effect continues to be an important tool in bioethical casuistry. Its role within the Catholic moral tradition continues, and there is considerable interest in it by contemporary moral philosophers. But problems of justification and correct application remain. I argue that if the traditional Catholic conviction that there are exceptionless norms prohibiting inflicting some kinds of harms on people is correct, then double effect is justified and necessary. The objection that double effect is superfluous is a rejection of that normative conviction, not a refutation of double effect itself. This justification suggests the correct way of applying double effect to controversial cases. But versions of double effect which dispense with the absolutism of the Catholic tradition lack justification and fall to the objection that double effect is an unnecessary complication.

  9. Diabetes-related mortality among Mexican Americans, Puerto Ricans, and Cuban Americans in the United States La mortalidad relacionada con la diabetes en mexicanoestadounidenses, puertorriqueños y cubanoestadounidenses en los Estados Unidos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chrystal A. S. Smith

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Hispanics are the most rapidly growing minority group in the United States, and Mexican Americans, Puerto Ricans and Cuban Americans are the three largest Hispanic subgroups. Among Hispanics, type 2 diabetes is the fifth leading cause of death. This paper examines diabetes-related mortality in Mexican Americans, Puerto Ricans, and Cuban Americans over 35 years of age in the United States during 1996 and 1997. METHODS: Using data from the National Vital Statistics System and the 1990 and 2000 censuses, we calculated age-adjusted and age-specific diabetes-related death rates for Mexican Americans, Puerto Ricans, and Cuban Americans over 35 years of age. Diabetes-related deaths were determined to be any death for which diabetes was coded as either the underlying or contributing cause of death. RESULTS: The diabetes-related mortality rate for Mexican Americans (251 per 100 000 and Puerto Ricans (204 deaths per 100 000 was twice as high as the diabetes-related mortality rate for Cuban Americans (101 deaths per 100 000. Cuban American decedents had the highest proportion of deaths with diabetes coded as the underlying cause of death (44%. After diabetes, heart disease (31% followed by cancer (8% and stroke (6% were the most frequent primary underlying causes of diabetes-related deaths in all three ethnic groups. CONCLUSION: Our analyses of these data demonstrate that diabetes-related mortality differed among Mexican Americans, Puerto Ricans and Cuban Americans more than 35 years of age in the United States in 1996 and 1997. Socioeconomic factors such as low educational attainment and low income may be factors that contributed to the disparities in these mortality rates for different subgroups. Further research is needed to update these findings and to investigate explanatory risk factors. Diversity among Hispanic subgroups has persisted in recent years and should be considered when health policies and services targeted at these populations

  10. A vacuum with double structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Kudo, Kiyoshi

    1975-01-01

    For the purpose of proving the conservation of norm in the field theory of complex mass proposed by one of the present authors, a new space is introduced where the state vectors have a double structure and the norms are complex numbers in general. The new space contains the Hilbert space as a subspace where the norms are real and positive. It is shown that the S-matrix transforms a vector of the Hilbert space into a vector of the same space. Other states in the new space may appear as intermediate virtual states. In this way the field theory of complex mass is formally proved to be physically interpretable. (auth.)

  11. Double wall steam generator tubing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padden, T.R.; Uber, C.F.

    1983-01-01

    Double-walled steam generator tubing for the steam generators of a liquid metal cooled fast breeder reactor prevents sliding between the surfaces due to a mechanical interlock. Forces resulting from differential thermal expansion between the outer tube and the inner tube are insufficient in magnitude to cause shearing of base metal. The interlock is formed by jointly drawing the tubing, with the inside wall of the outer tube being already formed with grooves. The drawing causes the outer wall of the inner tube to form corrugations locking with the grooves. (author)

  12. Double beam neutron radiography facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domanus, J.C.

    1977-09-01

    The DR1 reactor at Risoe is used as a neutron source for neutron radiography. In the double-beam neutron radiography facility a neutron flux of an intensity of 1.4 and 1.8 x 10 6 n. cm -2 . s -1 reaches the object to be radiographed. The transport and exposure container used for neutron radiography of irradiated nuclear fuel rods is described, and the exposure technique and procedure are reviewed. The mode by which single neutron radiographs are assembled and assessed is described. This report will be published in the ''Neutron Radiography Newsletter''. (author)

  13. Experiments on double beta decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busto, J [Neuchatel Univ. (Switzerland). Inst. de Physique

    1996-11-01

    The Double Beta Decay, and especially ({beta}{beta}){sub 0{nu}} mode, is an excellent test of Standard Model as well as of neutrino physics. From experimental point of view, a very large number of different techniques are or have been used increasing the sensitivity of this experiments quite a lot (the factor of 10{sup 4} in the last 20 years). In future, in spite of several difficulties, the sensitivity would be increased further, keeping the interest of this very important process. (author) 4 figs., 5 tabs., 21 refs.

  14. Magnetogasdynamics of double radio sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nepveu, M.

    1979-01-01

    The magnetogasdynamical behaviour of plasmoids moving through an ambient gas is investigated numerically with a two-dimensional code, based on the SHASTA scheme. The astrophysical importance of this study lies in the observed extended extragalactic radio sources. It is assumed that plasma clouds with cylinder symmetry are ejected from the nucleus of a galaxy. Their large-scale evolution in the intergalactic medium (IGM) is followed. The gas dynamics of an ejected cloud, the magnetogasdynamics of ejected clouds, the Christiansen-Pacholczyk-Scott picture for radio galaxies and the shear layers in double radio sources are studied. (Auth.)

  15. Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay Experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garfagnini, A.

    2014-08-01

    Neutrinoless double beta decay is the only process known so far able to test the neutrino intrinsic nature: its experimental observation would imply that the lepton number is violated by two units and prove that neutrinos have a Majorana mass components, being their own anti-particle. While several experiments searching for such a rare decay have been per- formed in the past, a new generation of experiments using different isotopes and techniques have recently released their results or are taking data and will provide new limits, should no signal be observed, in the next few years to come. The present contribution reviews the latest public results on double beta decay searches and gives an overview on the expected sensitivities of the experiments in construction which will be able to set stronger limits in the near future. EXO and KamLAND-Zen experiments are based on the decay of Xe 136 , GERDA and MAJORANA experiments are based on the decay of Ge 76 , and the CUORE experiment is based on the decay of Te 130

  16. The theory of double layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schamel, H.

    1982-01-01

    Numerical and in some degree laboratory experiments suggest the existence of at least two different kinds of time-independent double layers: a strictly monotonic transition of the electrostatic potential and a transition accompanied by a negative spike at the low potential side (ion acoustic DL). An interpretation of both is presented in terms of analytic BGK modes. The first class of DLs commonly observed in voltage- or beam-driven plasmas needs for its existence beam-type distributions satisfying a Bohm criterion. The potential drop is at least of the order of Tsub(e), and stability arguments favour currents which satisfy the Langmuir condition. The second class found in current-driven plasma simulations is correlated with ion holes. This latter kind of nonlinear wave-solutions is linearly based on the slow ion-acoustic mode and exists due to a vortex-like distortion of the ion distribution in the thermal range. During the growth of an ion hole which is triggered by ion-acoustic fluctuations, the partial reflection of streaming electrons causes different plasma states on both sides of the potential dip and makes the ion hole asymmetric giving rise to an effective potential drop. This implies that the amplitude of this second type of double layers has an upper limit of 1-2 Tsub(e) and presumes a temperature ratio of Tsub(e)/Tsub(i) > or approximately 3 in coincidence with the numerical results. (Auth.)

  17. Double Chooz: Results and Perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franke, A.J., E-mail: ajfranke@nevis.columbia.edu [Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States)

    2013-04-15

    The Double Chooz experiment has been observing ν{sup ¯}{sub e} from two reactor cores at the Chooz nuclear power station in Ardennes, France, with a single 10.3 m{sup 3} fiducial volume Gd-doped liquid scintillator detector at a flux-weighted average baseline of ∼1050 m. This article reviews results achieved with a detector live time of 227.93 days and exposure of 33.71 GW-ton-years. A total of 8,249 candidate ν{sup ¯}{sub e} events have been observed, compared to an expected 8,937 events in the null-oscillation case: this deficit is interpreted as evidence for ν{sup ¯}{sub e} disappearance. A fit to the observed neutrino rate and spectral shape gives a best-fit value of sin{sup 2}(2θ{sub 13})=0.109±0.030(stat.)±0.025(syst.) at a mass-squared splitting of Δm{sub 31}{sup 2}=2.32×10{sup −3} eV{sup 2}. The null-oscillation hypothesis is excluded by the data at 99.8% CL (2.9σ). The Double Chooz Near Detector is under construction, and analysis efforts to measure neutrino directionality, test Lorentz violation, and measure backgrounds in situ are underway.

  18. Double Chooz: Results and Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, A. J.

    2013-04-01

    The Double Chooz experiment has been observing ν from two reactor cores at the Chooz nuclear power station in Ardennes, France, with a single 10.3 m fiducial volume Gd-doped liquid scintillator detector at a flux-weighted average baseline of ˜1050 m. This article reviews results achieved with a detector live time of 227.93 days and exposure of 33.71 GW-ton-years. A total of 8,249 candidate ν events have been observed, compared to an expected 8,937 events in the null-oscillation case: this deficit is interpreted as evidence for ν disappearance. A fit to the observed neutrino rate and spectral shape gives a best-fit value of sin2(2θ13)=0.109±0.030 (stat.)±0.025 (syst.) at a mass-squared splitting of Δm312=2.32×10-3 eV. The null-oscillation hypothesis is excluded by the data at 99.8% CL (2.9σ). The Double Chooz Near Detector is under construction, and analysis efforts to measure neutrino directionality, test Lorentz violation, and measure backgrounds in situ are underway.

  19. Challenges in Double Beta Decay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliviero Cremonesi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the past ten years, neutrino oscillation experiments have provided the incontrovertible evidence that neutrinos mix and have finite masses. These results represent the strongest demonstration that the electroweak Standard Model is incomplete and that new Physics beyond it must exist. In this scenario, a unique role is played by the Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay searches which can probe lepton number conservation and investigate the Dirac/Majorana nature of the neutrinos and their absolute mass scale (hierarchy problem with unprecedented sensitivity. Today Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay faces a new era where large-scale experiments with a sensitivity approaching the so-called degenerate-hierarchy region are nearly ready to start and where the challenge for the next future is the construction of detectors characterized by a tonne-scale size and an incredibly low background. A number of new proposed projects took up this challenge. These are based either on large expansions of the present experiments or on new ideas to improve the technical performance and/or reduce the background contributions. In this paper, a review of the most relevant ongoing experiments is given. The most relevant parameters contributing to the experimental sensitivity are discussed and a critical comparison of the future projects is proposed.

  20. Double Dirac cones in phononic crystals

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Yan

    2014-07-07

    A double Dirac cone is realized at the center of the Brillouin zone of a two-dimensional phononic crystal (PC) consisting of a triangular array of core-shell-structure cylinders in water. The double Dirac cone is induced by the accidental degeneracy of two double-degenerate Bloch states. Using a perturbation method, we demonstrate that the double Dirac cone is composed of two identical and overlapping Dirac cones whose linear slopes can also be accurately predicted from the method. Because the double Dirac cone occurs at a relatively low frequency, a slab of the PC can be mapped onto a slab of zero refractive index material by using a standard retrieval method. Total transmission without phase change and energy tunneling at the double Dirac point frequency are unambiguously demonstrated by two examples. Potential applications can be expected in diverse fields such as acoustic wave manipulations and energy flow control.

  1. Double Layer Dynamics in a Collisionless Magnetoplasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iizuka, S.; Michelsen, Poul; Juul Rasmussen, Jens

    and propagation of a double layer. The period of the oscillations is determined by the propagation length of the double layer. The current is limited during the propagation of the double layer by a growing negative potential barrier formed on the low potential tail. Similar phenomena appear when a potential......An experimental investigation of the dynamics of double layers is presented. The experiments are performed in a Q-machine plasma and the double layers are generated by applying a positive step potential to a cold collector plate terminating the plasma column. The double layer is created...... at the grounded plasma source just after the pulse is applied and it propagates towards the collector with a speed around the ion acoustic speed. When the collector is biased positively, large oscillations are obserced in the plasma current. These oscillations are found to be related to a recurring formation...

  2. Double Dirac cones in phononic crystals

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Yan; Wu, Ying; Mei, Jun

    2014-01-01

    A double Dirac cone is realized at the center of the Brillouin zone of a two-dimensional phononic crystal (PC) consisting of a triangular array of core-shell-structure cylinders in water. The double Dirac cone is induced by the accidental degeneracy of two double-degenerate Bloch states. Using a perturbation method, we demonstrate that the double Dirac cone is composed of two identical and overlapping Dirac cones whose linear slopes can also be accurately predicted from the method. Because the double Dirac cone occurs at a relatively low frequency, a slab of the PC can be mapped onto a slab of zero refractive index material by using a standard retrieval method. Total transmission without phase change and energy tunneling at the double Dirac point frequency are unambiguously demonstrated by two examples. Potential applications can be expected in diverse fields such as acoustic wave manipulations and energy flow control.

  3. Theoretical aspects of double beta decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haxton, W.C.

    1984-01-01

    Considerable effort has been expended recently in theoretical studies of double beta decay. Much of this work has focussed on the constraints this process places on gauge theories of the weak interaction, in general, and on the neutrino mass matrix, in particular. In addition, interesting nuclear structure questions have arisen in studies of double beta decay matrix elements. After briefly reviewing the theory of double beta decay, some of the progress that has been made in these areas is summarized. 25 references

  4. Fully double-logarithm-resummed cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albino, S.; Bolzoni, P.; Kniehl, B.A.; Kotikov, A.

    2011-01-01

    We calculate the complete double logarithmic contribution to cross sections for semi-inclusive hadron production in the modified minimal-subtraction (MS-bar) scheme by applying dimensional regularization to the double logarithm approximation. The full double logarithmic contribution to the coefficient functions for inclusive hadron production in e + e - annihilation is obtained in this scheme for the first time. Our result agrees with all fixed order results in the literature, which extend to next-to-next-to-leading order.

  5. The International Double Taxation – Avoiding Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Nicoleta Barbuta-Misu

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents the main causes that determine double taxation, its forms, i.e. the economicdouble taxation and the international legal double taxation, the need for eliminating the double taxation andavoiding methods. In the presentation of the avoidance methods have been used practical examples forcomparison of the tax advantages for income beneficiary between: the total exemption method andprogressive exemption method, on the one hand, and total crediting method and ordinary crediting m...

  6. Three Dimensional Double Layers in Magnetized Plasmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jovanovic, D.; Lynov, Jens-Peter; Michelsen, Poul

    1982-01-01

    Experimental results are presented which demonstrate the formation of fully three dimensional double layers in a magnetized plasma. The measurements are performed in a magnetized stationary plasma column with radius 1.5 cm. Double layers are produced by introducing an electron beam with radius 0.......4 cm along the magnetic field from one end of the column. The voltage drop across the double layer is found to be determined by the energy of the incoming electron beam. In general we find that the width of the double layer along the external magnetic field is determined by plasma density and beam...

  7. Double-yoke balanced compressor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durenec, P.

    1981-01-01

    A double-yoke balanced compressor for a cryogenic cooler that has only linear motion imparted to balanced piston and cylinder masses. A piston yoke is driven in the linear stroke direction by a piston axially offset crankshaft cam and a cylinder yoke is driven linearly by a cylinder axially offset crankshaft cam that is exactly offset 180 0 from the other cam. A large circular bushing in the compressor housing covers the entire outer cylinder head during linear operation to prevent blow by and to guide the cylinder linearly. The lower portion of the piston and cylinder connecting rods fit into linear guides that are further comprised of low molecular weight gas filled cavities to provide additional air bearing smoothness to the linear motion of the piston and cylinder

  8. Double trouble at high density:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gergs, André; Palmqvist, Annemette; Preuss, Thomas G

    2014-01-01

    Population size is often regulated by negative feedback between population density and individual fitness. At high population densities, animals run into double trouble: they might concurrently suffer from overexploitation of resources and also from negative interference among individuals...... regardless of resource availability, referred to as crowding. Animals are able to adapt to resource shortages by exhibiting a repertoire of life history and physiological plasticities. In addition to resource-related plasticity, crowding might lead to reduced fitness, with consequences for individual life...... history. We explored how different mechanisms behind resource-related plasticity and crowding-related fitness act independently or together, using the water flea Daphnia magna as a case study. For testing hypotheses related to mechanisms of plasticity and crowding stress across different biological levels...

  9. [Double second branchial cleft anomaly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Fernández, Noelia; Mallea-Cañizares, Ismael; Fernández-Julián, Enrique; De La Fuente-Arjona, Luís; Marco-Algarra, Jaime

    2011-01-01

    Second branchial cleft anomalies are the most common of this type of neck masses. They can be classified in four types (Bailey/Proctor classification) according to their location. Type II is the most common, and related to vital neck structures such as the carotid artery and jugular vein. Cysts are the most frequent among them. Management consists of surgical excision of the cyst and tract by cervicotomy to avoid recurrence. We present an extremely rare case of a 32-year-old male who presented a sudden appearance of a right lateral neck mass that was identified by an image study as a double branchial cleft cyst. A review of simultaneous branchial cleft cyst in the literature is also made. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  10. The double-diffusive modon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radko, Timour

    Fully developed two-dimensional salt-finger convection is characterized by the appearance of coherent dipolar eddies which carry relatively fresh and cold fluid upward and salty and warm fluid downward. Such structures are prevalent in the regime in which density stratification is close to neutral and the salt-finger instability is extremely vigorous. The structure and translation velocities of modons are discussed in terms of the asymptotic expansion in which the background density ratio approaches unity. It is argued that the vertical salt flux is driven primarily by double-diffusive modons, which makes it possible to derive explicit expressions for the mixing rates of temperature and salinity as a function of their background gradients. Predictions of the proposed mixing model are successfully tested by direct numerical simulations.

  11. Indirect double photoionization of water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resccigno, T. N.; Sann, H.; Orel, A. E.; Dörner, R.

    2011-05-01

    The vertical double ionization thresholds of small molecules generally lie above the dissociation limits corresponding to formation of two singly charged fragments. This gives the possibility of populating singly charged molecular ions by photoionization in the Franck-Condon region at energies below the lowest dication state, but above the dissociation limit into two singly charged fragment ions. This process can produce a superexcited neutral fragment that autoionizes at large internuclear separation. We study this process in water, where absorption of a photon produces an inner-shell excited state of H2O+ that fragments to H++OH*. The angular distribution of secondary electrons produced by OH* when it autoionizes produces a characteristic asymmetric pattern that reveals the distance, and therefore the time, at which the decay takes place. LBNL, Berkeley, CA, J. W. Goethe Universität, Frankfurt, Germany. Work performed under auspices of US DOE and supported by OBES, Div. of Chemical Sciences.

  12. Double layers and circuits in astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfven, H.

    1986-05-01

    As the rate of energy release in a double layer with voltage DeltaV is P corresponding to IDeltaV, a double layer must be treated part of a circuit which delivers the current I. As neither double layer nor circuit can be derived from magnetofluid models of a plasma, such models are useless for treating energy transfer by menas of double layers. They must be replaced by particle models and circuit theory. A simple circuit is suggested which is applied to the energizing of auroroal particles, to solar flares, and to intergalactic double radio sources. Application to the heliospheric current systems leads to the prediction of two double layers on the sun's axis which may give radiations detectable from earth. Double layers in space should be classified as a new type of celestial object (one example is the double radio sources). It is tentatively suggested in X-ray and gamma-ray bursts may be due to exploding double layers (although annihilation is an alternative energy source). A study of how a number of the most used textbooks in astrophysics treat important concepts like double layers, critical velocity, pinch effects and circuits is made. It is found that students using these textbooks remain essentially ignorant of even the existence of these, in spite of the fact that some of them have been well known for half a centry (e.g., double layers, Langmuir, 1929: pinch effect, Bennet, 1934). The conclusion is that astrophysics is too important to be left in the hands of the astrophysicist. Earth bound and space telescope data must be treated by scientists who are familiar with laboratory and magnetospheric physics and circuit theory, and of course with modern plasma theory. At least by volume the universe consists to more than 99 percent of plasma, and electromagnetic forces are 10/sup39/ time stronger than gravitation

  13. Use of neuronal networks in the modeling of the doses that receives the Cuban population by potassium-40 contained in their organism; Utilizacion de redes neuronales en la modelacion de las dosis que recibe la poblacion cubana por el potasio-40 contenido en su organismo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zerquera, Juan Tomas; Prendes Alonso, Miguel; Lopez Bejerano, Gladys M.; Acosta Rodriguez, Nancy [Centro de Proteccion y Higiene de las Radiaciones, La Habana (Cuba)

    2001-07-01

    The potassium 40 constitutes the main source natural present in the organism that influences in the effective dose that people receive. With the objective of evaluating the contribution from this component to the doses received by the Cuban population, a study was developed in order to evaluate the doses for this cause. A representative sample was selected based on the distribution of Cuban population by sex and ages. The measurements were carried out in the Whole Body Counter of the Center for Radiation Protection and Hygiene. For the estimate of the doses an uniform distribution of potassium was assumed in the whole body and the methodology was used recommended by the ICRP. The values of annual effective dose varies between 93 and 209 mSv for the feminine sex and 102 and 212 mSv for the masculine sex. With the obtained values they were the adjustment coefficients for the functions dose-age for each one of the sexes. At the same time it was possible to model the estimate of the doses by means of a neural network that, trained with the obtained experimental data, it allows to estimate the due doses directly to the potassium 40 starting from the sex data, age, height and corporal weight. The effective dose mediates yearly for the public's members it was estimated in 149 {+-} 6 mSv, starting from the experimental data and the Cuban population's specific characteristics. (author)

  14. Double meanings will not save the principle of double effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Charles D; Kerridge, Ian H; Ankeny, Rachel A

    2014-06-01

    In an article somewhat ironically entitled "Disambiguating Clinical Intentions," Lynn Jansen promotes an idea that should be bewildering to anyone familiar with the literature on the intention/foresight distinction. According to Jansen, "intention" has two commonsense meanings, one of which is equivalent to "foresight." Consequently, questions about intention are "infected" with ambiguity-people cannot tell what they mean and do not know how to answer them. This hypothesis is unsupported by evidence, but Jansen states it as if it were accepted fact. In this reply, we make explicit the multiple misrepresentations she has employed to make her hypothesis seem plausible. We also point out the ways in which it defies common sense. In particular, Jansen applies her thesis only to recent empirical research on the intentions of doctors, totally ignoring the widespread confusion that her assertion would imply in everyday life, in law, and indeed in religious and philosophical writings concerning the intention/foresight distinction and the Principle of Double Effect. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press, on behalf of the Journal of Medicine and Philosophy Inc. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Finite difference order doubling in two dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Killingbeck, John P; Jolicard, Georges

    2008-01-01

    An order doubling process previously used to obtain eighth-order eigenvalues from the fourth-order Numerov method is applied to the perturbed oscillator in two dimensions. A simple method of obtaining high order finite difference operators is reported and an odd parity boundary condition is found to be effective in facilitating the smooth operation of the order doubling process

  16. Speeded Recognition of Ungrammaticality: Double Violations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Timothy E.; Biederman, Irving

    1979-01-01

    The speed at which sentences with various kinds of violations could be rejected was studied. Compatible with the sequential model was the finding that noun-verb and adjective-noun double violations did not result in shorter reaction times than noun-verb single violations, although double violations were judged less acceptable. (Author/RD)

  17. Double γ decay in 90Zr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mucciolo, E.R.

    1988-01-01

    The double γ decay between θ + n - θ + i of 90 Zr was observed. The θ + n level was fed through the decay of 90 Sr. The experimental arrangement consisted of a double coincidence system between the two semiconductor detectors. (A.C.A.S.) [pt

  18. Dynamical Aspects of Electrostatic Double Layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raadu, M.A.; Juul Rasmussen, J.

    1988-01-01

    Electrostatic double layers have been proposed as an acceleration mechanism in solar flares and other astrophysical objects. They have been extensively studied in the laboratory and by means of computer simulations. The theory of steady-state double layers implies several existence criteria...

  19. Pion double charge exchange and nuclear structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginocchio, J.N.

    1987-01-01

    Pion double charge exchange to both the double-analog state and the ground state is studied for medium weight nuclei. The relative cross section of these two transitions and the importance of nuclear structure as a function of pion kinetic energy is examined. 16 figs., 5 tabs

  20. Double charge exchange and generalized seniority

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginocchio, J.N.

    1993-01-01

    The double charge exchange transition matrix elements from an even-even target to the double isobaric analog state and the ground state are derived in the generalized seniority model as a function of the number of valence nucleons. Crucial differences with the seniority model are found and their consequences are discussed. (orig.)

  1. Intrateam Communication and Performance in Doubles Tennis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lausic, Domagoj; Tennebaum, Gershon; Eccles, David; Jeong, Allan; Johnson, Tristan

    2009-01-01

    Verbal and nonverbal communication is a critical mediator of performance in team sports and yet there is little extant research in sports that involves direct measures of communication. Our study explored communication within NCAA Division I female tennis doubles teams. Video and audio recordings of players during doubles tennis matches captured…

  2. Caracterización de los estudios de utilización de medicamentos publicados en revistas médicas cubanas, 1990-2003 Characterization of the studies of drug use published in Cuban medical journals, 1990-2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Antonio Furones Mourelle

    2006-04-01

    and characterize the studies of drug use that have been published in Cuban medical journals from 1990 to 2003. The universe of study was all those studies published in Cuban medical journals from the Editorial de Ciencias Médicas . The main variables characterizing these studies such as specialization of the main author, province and level of care where the study was conducted, type of study, pharmacological group and data source were described. Numbers and percents were the summary measures used. Results: 785 numbers of medical journals were reviewed in which only 31 related articles were found, and an increased publication was observed from the year 2000 on. Physicians were the main researchers (80,6% and the primary healthcare (67,7% represented the most used medical care level. Surveys (58,1% were the most used information source. Most of them were prescription-indication studies (48,4% and the most studied pharmacological group was the anti-infection drugs (29%. Conclusions: The publication of studies of drug use is poor in the Cuban medical journals, which may reflect a lower production of this kind of research

  3. Evaluación de extractos de fique, coquito, sorgo y ruda como posibles bio-herbicidas Evaluation of cuban hemp, nut sedge, johnson grass and herb of grace extracts in weed control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Osorio Salazar

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available En experimentos completamente al azar en condiciones de laboratorio y campo, en Palmira, Valle del Cauca, se evaluó el efecto de extractos de Macrophylla furcraea Baker (fique, Cyperus rotundus L (coquito, Sorghum bicolor L (sorgo, y Ruta graveolens L (ruda sobre la germinación de semillas de las arvenses Bidens pilosa L (papunga y Amaranthus dubius Mart (bledo y del cilantro Coriandrum sativum L. Se obtuvieron los extractos por el método Soxhlet, utilizando agua, etanol y cloroformo como solventes. Los extractos obtenidos se evaluaron en tres diluciones (0, 5 y 10 % en pruebas de germinación de semillas de las arvenses y del cultivo. Se emplearon tres repeticiones de 50 semillas cada una y el testigo se regó con agua destilada. Los extractos etanólicos y clorofórmicos de coquito y fique en las diluciones al 5 y 10 % presentaron el mayor efecto inhibitorio en la germinación a los 21 días. El ensayo de campo demostró el efecto inhibitorio de los extractos etanólicos de fique y coquito en la emergencia de las semillas del cilantro. El análisis de metabolitos secundarios comprobó la presencia de compuestos reportados como altamente tóxicos en fique y en menor cantidad en coquito, aunque los extractos de éste fueron los que más inhibieron la germinación.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of the extracts of the species Macrophylla furcraea Baker (cuban hemp, Cyperus rotundus L (nut sedge, Sorghum bicolor L (johnson grass and Ruta graveolens L (herb of grace on seed germination of two weeds and one crop. The extracts were obtained by the Soxhlet method, using water, ethanol and chloroform as solvents. Each extract was evaluated in three dilutions (0, 5 and 10 % v/v and was applied to Bidens pilosa L (spanish needle, Amaranthus dubius Mart (spleen amaranth and Coriandrum sativum L (coriander seeds. Three replications of 50 seeds each one were used and the control was watered only with destilled water. The results

  4. Laser alignment measurement model with double beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Changtao; Zhang, Lili; Hou, Xianglin; Wang, Ming; Lv, Jia; Du, Xin; He, Ping

    2012-10-01

    Double LD-Double PSD schedule.employ a symmetric structure and there are a laser and a PSD receiver on each axis. The Double LD-Double PSD is used, and the rectangular coordinate system is set up by use of the relationship of arbitrary two points coordinates, and then the parameter formula is deduced by the knowledge of solid geometry. Using the data acquisition system and the data processing model of laser alignment meter with double laser beam and two detector , basing on the installation parameter of the computer, we can have the state parameter between the two shafts by more complicated calculation and correction. The correcting data of the four under chassis of the adjusted apparatus moving on the level and the vertical plane can be calculated using the computer. This will instruct us to move the apparatus to align the shafts.

  5. Greenhouse effect in double-skin facade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gratia, E.; Herde, A. de [Universite Catholique de Louvain, Architecture et Climat, Louvain-La-Neuve (Belgium)

    2007-02-15

    In these last years, a great deal of interest has been devoted to double-skin facades due to the advantages claimed by this technology (in terms of energy saving in the cold season, high-tech image, protection from external noise and wind loads). One of the great characteristics of the double-skin facade is the greenhouse effect. We identify the factors that influence the greenhouse effect. The identified parameters are solar radiation level, orientation and shading devices use, opaque wall/window proportion of the interior facade, wind speed, colour of shading devices and of interior facade, depth of the cavity of the double-skin, glazing type in the interior facade and openings in the double-skin. We analyze the impact of these parameters on the mean air temperature evolution in the cavity. After that analyse, the article answers the question: is greenhouse effect favourable? The answer is moderate according to the double-skin orientation. (author)

  6. Double-trace deformations of conformal correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giombi, Simone; Kirilin, Vladimir; Perlmutter, Eric

    2018-02-01

    Large N conformal field theories often admit unitary renormalization group flows triggered by double-trace deformations. We compute the change in scalar four-point functions under double-trace flow, to leading order in 1/ N. This has a simple dual in AdS, where the flow is implemented by a change of boundary conditions, and provides a physical interpretation of single-valued conformal partial waves. We extract the change in the conformal dimensions and three-point coefficients of infinite families of double-trace composite operators. Some of these quantities are found to be sign-definite under double-trace flow. As an application, we derive anomalous dimensions of spinning double-trace operators comprised of non-singlet constituents in the O( N) vector model.

  7. Instability limits for spontaneous double layer formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, J. Jr.; Galante, M. E.; McCarren, D.; Scime, E. E.; Sears, S.; VanDervort, R. W.; Magee, R. M.; Reynolds, E.

    2013-01-01

    We present time-resolved measurements that demonstrate that large amplitude electrostatic instabilities appear in pulsed, expanding helicon plasmas at the same time as particularly strong double layers appear in the expansion region. A significant cross-correlation between the electrostatic fluctuations and fluctuations in the number of ions accelerated by the double layer electric field is observed. No correlation is observed between the electrostatic fluctuations and ions that have not passed through the double layer. These measurements confirm that the simultaneous appearance of the electrostatic fluctuations and the double layer is not simple coincidence. In fact, the accelerated ion population is responsible for the growth of the instability. The double layer strength, and therefore, the velocity of the accelerated ions, is limited by the appearance of the electrostatic instability

  8. Policy and strategy of the Cuban Regulatory Organization for the establishment of the legal and regulation frame; Politica y estrategia del Organo Regulador Cubano para el establecimiento del marco legal y reglamentario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnau F, A.; Alonso G, I.; Sarabia M, I. [Centro Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear (Cuba)

    2006-07-01

    The National Center of Nuclear Security, Cuban entity authorized to exercise the regulation functions and control of the security of the use of the nuclear energy and the accounting and control of the nuclear materials, has among its functions, to elaborate and to propose for its approval to the corresponding instances, the juridical, technical dispositions and of procedure in its competition sphere, what demands that in this sense clear guidelines exist to carry out this social mission. The fact of assuming this function demands the necessity of a Politics for the establishment of the legal and regulation frame that expresses in a coherent way the general lines on those that it behaves the elaboration of the standards that govern this activity, to reach the end in an efficient and effective way and consequently the adoption of a Strategy that frames the necessary actions that assure the one execution and development of the politics and the pursuit of the precise rules for an optimal result. The Politics for the establishment of the legal and regulation frame of the National Center of Nuclear Security is based on a group of general principles that mark the guidelines so that this activity is chord to the national juridical system, to the good ones international practices and the recommendations of the International Atomic Energy Agency appropriated to the national experience and the daily reality, being this a transparent and reconciled process in such a way that the addressee of these standards can contribute their recommendations to the ends of achieving an effective applicability of the legal and regulation frame that governs this activity in the country. The development and pursuit of these principles is sustained in a group of actions to the help of the strategy for the establishment of the legal and regulation frame, embracing the actions so much during the process of elaboration of the legal frame, its systematic revision, the publication and distribution

  9. Double-disc gate valve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheatley, S.J.

    1979-01-01

    The invention relates to an improvement in a conventional double-disc gate valve having a vertically movable gate assembly including a wedge, spreaders slidably engaged therewith, a valve disc carried by the spreaders. When the gate assembly is lowered to a selected point in the valve casing, the valve discs are moved transversely outward to close inlet and outlet ports in the casing. The valve includes hold-down means for guiding the disc-and-spreader assemblies as they are moved transversely outward and inward. If such valves are operated at relatively high differential pressures, they sometimes jam during opening. Such jamming has been a problem for many years in gate valves used in gaseous diffusion plants for the separation of uranium isotopes. The invention is based on the finding that the above-mentioned jamming results when the outlet disc tilts about its horizontal axis in a certain way during opening of the valve. In accordance with the invention, tilting of the outlet disc is maintained at a tolerable value by providing the disc with a rigid downwardly extending member and by providing the casing with a stop for limiting inward arcuate movement of the member to a preselected value during opening of the valve

  10. New double-cation borohydrides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindemann, Inge; Domenech Ferrer, Roger; Schultz, Ludwig; Gutfleisch, Oliver [IFW Dresden, Institute for Metallic Materials, P.O. Box 270016, 01171 Dresden (Germany); Filinchuk, Yaroslav [Swiss-Norwegian Beam Lines at ESRF, BP-220, 38043 Grenoble (France); Hagemann, Hans; Cerny, Radovan [Department of Physical Chemistry and Crystallography, University of Geneva, 1211 Geneva (Switzerland)

    2011-07-01

    Complex hydrides are under consideration for on-board hydrogen storage due to their high hydrogen density. However, up to now conventional borohydrides are either too stable or unstable for applications as in PEM fuel cells (60-120 C). Recently, double-cation borohydride systems have attracted great interest. The desorption temperature of the borohydrides decreases with increasing electronegativity of the cation. Consequently, it is possible to tailor a feasible on-board hydrogen storage material by the combination of appropriate cations. The stability was found to be intermediate between the single-cation borohydride systems. Two combinations were sucessfully synthesised by metathesis reaction via high energy ball milling. Al-Li-borohydride shows desorption at about 70 C combined with a very high hydrogen density (17.2 wt.%) and the Na-Al-borohydride (14.2 wt.%) decomposes around 90 C. Both desorption temperatures are in the target range for applications. The decomposition pathways were observed by in-situ-Raman spectroscopy, DSC (Differential Scanning Calorimetry), TG (Thermogravimetry) and thermal desorption measurements.

  11. Simulation of plasma double-layer structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borovsky, J.E.; Joyce, G.

    1982-01-01

    Electrostatic plasma double layers are numerically simulated by means of a magnetized 2 1/2-dimensional particle-in-cell method. The investigation of planar double layers indicates that these one-dimensional potential structures are susceptible to periodic disruption by instabilities in the low-potential plasmas. Only a slight increase in the double-layer thickness with an increase in its obliqueness to the magnetic field is observed. Weak magnetization results in the double-layer electric-field alignment of accelerated particles and strong magnetization results in their magnetic-field alignment. The numerial simulations of spatially periodic two-dimensional double layers also exhibit cyclical instability. A morphological invariance in two-dimensional double layers with respect to the degree of magnetization implies that the potential structures scale with Debye lengths rather than with gyroradii. Electron-beam excited electrostatic electron-cyclotron waves and (ion-beam driven) solitary waves are present in the plasmas adjacent to the double layers

  12. Single Photon Double Ionization of Atomic Oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickramarathna, Madhushani; Gorczyca, Thomas; Ballance, Connor; Stolte, Wayne

    2017-04-01

    Single photon double ionization cross sections are calculated using an R-matrix with pseudostates (RMPS) method which was recently applied by Gorczyca et al. for the double photoionization of helium. With the convergence of these theoretical calculations for the simple case of helium, we extend this methodology to consider the more complex case of oxygen double photoionization. We compare our calculated results with recent measurements at the Advanced Light Source, as well as earlier experimental measurements. Our RMPS results agree well, qualitatively, with the experimental measurements, but there exist outstanding discrepancies to be addressed. This project is supported by NASA APRA award NNX17AD41G.

  13. Double-reed exhaust valve engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Charles L.

    2015-06-30

    An engine based on a reciprocating piston engine that extracts work from pressurized working fluid. The engine includes a double reed outlet valve for controlling the flow of low-pressure working fluid out of the engine. The double reed provides a stronger force resisting closure of the outlet valve than the force tending to open the outlet valve. The double reed valve enables engine operation at relatively higher torque and lower efficiency at low speed, with lower torque, but higher efficiency at high speed.

  14. The Maui International Double Star Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genet, Russell

    2013-04-01

    A three-day double star conference in February, 2013, covered double star observations from simple eyepiece astrometry of wide binaries, with orbital periods of centuries, to amplitude interferometry of binaries with periods measured in days or even hours. A wide range of participants, from students and amateurs to professionals shared their perspectives in panel discussions. This was the first conference of the newly-formed International Association of Double Star Observers (IADSO). PDFs of 22 of the talks and YouTube links to 23 of the talks and panels are available at www.IADSO.org.

  15. A rare anomaly: Double right coronary artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dursun Çayan Akkoyun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Coronary artery anomalies are rare anomalies. Theseare usually asymptomatic and are discovered incidentally.Double right coronary artery (RCA is a rare coronaryartery anomaly. Although there is controversy aboutidentification and classification of double RCA, it is oftena benign condition, but it can be complicated by atherosclerosisand can lead to serious conditions such asmyocardial infarction (MI and may be accompanied byother anomalies. In our case, double RCA were detectedin coronary angiography for acute anterior MI, and in thenext session successful percutaneous coronary interventionwas performed.Key words: Coronary anomaly, coronary angiography,coronary stenosis

  16. Review of modern double beta decay experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barabash, A. S.

    2015-10-01

    The review of modern experiments on search and studying of double beta decay processes is done. Results of the most sensitive current experiments are discussed. The main attention is paid to EXO-200, KamLAND-Zen, GERDA-I and CUORE-0 experiments. Modern values of T1/2(2ν) and best present limits on neutrinoless double beta decay and double beta decay with Majoron emission are presented. Conservative limits on effective mass of a Majorana neutrino ( at the level of ˜ 0.01-0.1 eV are discussed.

  17. International and national aspects of double taxation

    OpenAIRE

    Doležalová, Veronika

    2007-01-01

    Veronika Doležalová Mezinárodní a vnitrostátní aspekty dvojího zdan ní 160 International and national aspects of double taxation - Resumé This thesis pays attention to the area of double taxation and its related national as well as international aspects. The reason for discussing this subject was its importance for removing the obstacles that double taxation presents to the development of economic relations between countries. The thesis is divided into five chapters. There are six annexes att...

  18. The International Double Taxation – Avoiding Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta Barbuta-Misu

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the main causes that determine double taxation, its forms, i.e. the economicdouble taxation and the international legal double taxation, the need for eliminating the double taxation andavoiding methods. In the presentation of the avoidance methods have been used practical examples forcomparison of the tax advantages for income beneficiary between: the total exemption method andprogressive exemption method, on the one hand, and total crediting method and ordinary crediting method,on the other hand, but the comparing of tax reduction between methods of exemption and crediting.

  19. Positivity bounds on double parton distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diehl, Markus; Kasemets, Tomas

    2013-03-01

    Double hard scattering in proton-proton collisions is described in terms of double parton distributions. We derive bounds on these distributions that follow from their interpretation as probability densities, taking into account all possible spin correlations between two partons in an unpolarized proton. These bounds constrain the size of the polarized distributions and can for instance be used to set upper limits on the effects of spin correlations in double hard scattering. We show that the bounds are stable under leading-order DGLAP evolution to higher scales.

  20. Framework for evolution in double parton scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buffing, Maarten G.A.

    2017-07-15

    Double parton scattering (DPS) describes two colliding hadrons having interactions in the form of two hard processes, each initiated by a separate pair of partons. Just as for single parton scattering, the resummation of soft gluon exchange gives rise to a soft function, which is a necessary ingredient for obtaining rapidity evolution equations. For various regions of phase space, we derive the rapidity evolution and the scale evolution of double transverse momentum dependent parton distribution functions (DTMDs) as well as of the p{sub T}-resummed cross section for double Drell-Yan like processes. This contributes to a framework that can be used for phenomenological DPS studies including resummation.

  1. Double contrast barium meal and acetylcysteine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinnunen, J.; Pietilae, J.; Ahovuo, J.; Mankinen, P.; Tervahartiala, P.

    1989-01-01

    In a prospective double blind study, acetylcysteine, a local and systemic respiratory tract mucolytic agent, or a placebo, were given to 100 patients prior to a double contrast barium meal to decrease the gastric mucus viscosity and to make the mucus layer thinner, in order to permit barium to outline the furrows surrounding the areae gastricae instead of the overlying thick mucus. However, acetylcysteine failed to improve either visualization of the areae gastricae or the general quality of the double contrast barium meal. (orig.)

  2. Majorana neutrinos and double beta-decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shchepkin, M.G.

    1986-01-01

    Problem, related to neutrino mass and lepton charge L conservation is briefly discussed. A possibility to experimentally test L conservation in different processes and to produce limitations for neutrino mass in double beta-decay processes is considered. Planned experiments on studying the double neutrinoless (2β) beta-decays and searching 2β(2ν)-decays, permitted by the conservation laws, are discussed. It is stressed, that comparison of the existing theoretical predictions of 2β(2ν)-decay probability with experimental results will make it possible to choose the most adequate approach to the calculation of double β-transition nuclear amplitudes

  3. Stationary Double Layers in a Collisionless Magnetoplasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noriyoshi, Sato; Mieno, Tetsu; Hatakeyama, Rikizo

    1983-01-01

    of the plate on the low-potential side, being accompanied with current limitation. This localized potential drop moves along the plasma column, but finally stops and results in the formation of the stationary double layer in the presence of sufficient plasma supply from the plate on the high-potential side.......Stationary double layers are generated in a magnetoplasma by applying potential differences between two heated plates on which the plasma is produced by surface ionization. By measuring the double-layer formation process, a localized potential drop is found to be formed initially in front...

  4. Energy-efficient adjustable speed double inverter-fed woundrotor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Energy-efficient adjustable speed double inverter-fed woundrotor induction motor ... at speeds up to double rated without the magnetic flux reducing is presented. ... Keywords: power, double-fed wound-rotor induction motor drive, steel and ...

  5. A data símbolo de 1898: o impacto da independência de Cuba na Espanha e Hispanoamérica The 1898’s symbol date: the Cuban Independence impact in Spain and Spanish America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Helena Rolim Capelato

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available O artigo tem como objetivo analisar o impacto da Independência de Cuba nos intelectuais espanhóis e hispanoamericanos e as razões da aproximação entre eles após o evento. 1898 tornou-se uma data-símbolo pelas mudanças significativas que produziu nas concepções de escritores hispânicos sobre o papel dos Estados Unidos na América Latina e sobre o destino da Espanha após a perda de sua última colônia.The article aims to analyze the Cuban Independence impact in Spanish and Spanish American intellectuals and the approximation reasons between them after the event. 1898 became a symbol date through the significatives changes that produced in Spanish American writers about the United State’s role in Latin America and about the Spain’s destiny after the loss of the last Spanish colony in America.

  6. Local IgG synthesis in three pediatric patients with cuban epidemic neuropathy Sintesis local de IgG en tres pacientes pediátricos com neuropatía epidêmica cubana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Dorta-Contreras

    1996-03-01

    Full Text Available Three pediatric patients with Cuban epidemic neuropathy were studied. Cerebrospinal fluid and sera were simultaneously obtained. Albumin and IgG were quantified by immunodifusion. Albumin quotient and local synthesis of IgG were calculated by Reiber/Felgenhauer formula. A patient with optic neuritis had a dysfunction of the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier. All the group had local synthesis of IgG.Se estudiaron tres pacientes pediátricos con neuropatia epidêmica cubana. Se obtuvieron suero y liquido cefalorraquídeo simultaneamente. Se cuantificaran los niveles de albúmina e IgG por inmunodifusion radial. Se calculo la razón albúmina y la fórmula de Reiber/Felgenhauer. Un paciente con neuritis óptica tuvo una disfunción de la barrera sangre-líquido cefaloraquídeo. Todo el grupo tuvo síntesis local de IgG.

  7. Utilización de la zeolita para disminuir los gases tóxicos de los motores de combustión interna. // The utilization of Cuban zeolites in the decrease of toxic gases emissions of internal combustion engines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Reyes González

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available En el trabajo se presentan los resultados obtenidos al utilizar la zeolita natural cubana para la disminución de los gasestóxicos que los motores de combustión interna MCI. envían a la atmósfera. Los experimentos fueron realizados en bancosde pruebas de MCI. tanto para motores de carburación como para motores diesel. Obteniéndose eficiencias de disminucióndel CO del 80 %, del CnHm del 50% y el humo negro en un 90%. Se demuestra la importancia de la granulometría de lazeolita para esta eliminación y para mantener la potencia del motor dentro de rangos aceptables.Palabras claves: Toxicidad, zeolita, medio ambiente, filtros, gases de escape._______________________________________________________________________________Abstract.In this paper are presented the results of the utilization of Cuban zeolites in the decrease of toxic gas emissions toatmosphere of internal combustion engines, (MCI. The experiments were carried out in test bank for gasoline and dieselengines. The efficiency in the decrement of CO was of 80%, CnHm in 50%, and 90 % in soot. The size of the zeolitesparticle importance in the efficiency is demonstrated.Key words: Toxicity, zeolite, enviroment, filters, gas emissions.

  8. Dry Eyes and Glaucoma: Double Trouble

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Involved News About Us Donate In This Section Dry Eyes and Glaucoma: Double Trouble email Send this article ... eye disease bothers the patient more. What Causes Dry Eye Syndrome? Dry eye can be caused by many ...

  9. Review of modern double beta decay experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barabash, A. S., E-mail: barabash@itep.ru [Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics (NRC ”Kurchatov Institute”), B. Cheremushkinskaya 25, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2015-10-28

    The review of modern experiments on search and studying of double beta decay processes is done. Results of the most sensitive current experiments are discussed. The main attention is paid to EXO-200, KamLAND-Zen, GERDA-I and CUORE-0 experiments. Modern values of T{sub 1/2}(2ν) and best present limits on neutrinoless double beta decay and double beta decay with Majoron emission are presented. Conservative limits on effective mass of a Majorana neutrino (〈m{sub ν}〉 < 0.46 eV) and a coupling constant of Majoron to neutrino (〈g{sub ee}〉 < 1.3 · 10{sup −5}) are obtained. Prospects of search for neutrinoless double beta decay in new experiments with sensitivity to 〈m{sub ν}〉 at the level of ∼ 0.01-0.1 eV are discussed.

  10. Frequency Doubling Broadband Light in Multiple Crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alford, William J.; Smith, Arlee V.

    2000-01-01

    The authors compare frequency doubling of broadband light in a single nonlinear crystal with doubling in five crystals with intercrystal temporal walk off compensation, and with doubling in five crystals adjusted for offset phase matching frequencies. Using a plane-wave, dispersive numerical model of frequency doubling they study the bandwidth of the second harmonic and the conversion efficiency as functions of crystal length and fundamental irradiance. For low irradiance the offset phase matching arrangement has lower efficiency than a single crystal of the same total length but gives a broader second harmonic bandwidth. The walk off compensated arrangement gives both higher conversion efficiency and broader bandwidth than a single crystal. At high irradiance, both multicrystal arrangements improve on the single crystal efficiency while maintaining broad bandwidth

  11. The topology of Double Field Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassler, Falk

    2018-04-01

    We describe the doubled space of Double Field Theory as a group manifold G with an arbitrary generalized metric. Local information from the latter is not relevant to our discussion and so G only captures the topology of the doubled space. Strong Constraint solutions are maximal isotropic submanifold M in G. We construct them and their Generalized Geometry in Double Field Theory on Group Manifolds. In general, G admits different physical subspace M which are Poisson-Lie T-dual to each other. By studying two examples, we reproduce the topology changes induced by T-duality with non-trivial H-flux which were discussed by Bouwknegt, Evslin and Mathai [1].

  12. Preparation of uranium ingots from double fluorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Boulbin, E.

    1967-05-01

    A simple method has been developed for the preparation of uranium double fluorides and has given a new impetus to the study of the reduction of these compounds with a view to obtaining very pure uranium ingots. This reduction can be carried out using calcium or magnesium as the reducing agent, this latter metal being very interesting from the practical point of view. A comparative study of the heat balances of the reduction processes for the double fluorides and for uranium tetrafluoride has shown that reduction of the double fluorides is possible. The exact experimental conditions for these reductions have been determined. Our study has shown in particular that the reduction of the double salt UF 4 , CaF 2 by magnesium leads to the production of small (20 to 500 g) samples of high-purity uranium with a yield of 99 per cent. (author) [fr

  13. Double layer dynamics in a collisionless magnetoplasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iizuka, Satoru; Michelsen, P.; Rasmussen, J.J.; Schrittwieser, R.; Hatakeyama, Rikizo; Saeki, Koichi; Sato, Noriyoshi.

    1985-01-01

    Investigations of double layer dynamics are performed in a Q-machine plasma by applying a positive step potential to a cold end-plate collector. The double layer created at the grounded plasma source just after the pulse is applied propagates towards the collector with the plasma flow speed. Large oscillations occur in the plasma current which is related to a recurring formation and propagation of the double layer. The current is limited during the propagation by a growing negative potential dip formed on the low-potential tail. Similar phenomena appear on the low-potential tail of the stationary double layer formed by applying a potential difference between two plasma sources. (author)

  14. Double layer dynamics in a collisionless magnetoplasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iizuka, S.; Michelsen, Poul; Juul Rasmussen, Jens

    1985-01-01

    Investigations of double layer dynamics are performed in a Q-machine plasma by applying a positive step potential to a cold end-plate collector. The double layer created at the grounded plasma source just after the pulse is applied propagates towards the collector with the plasma flow speed. Large...... oscillations occur in the plasma current which is related to a recurring formation and propagation of the double layer. The current is limited during the propagation by a growing negative potential dip formed on the low-potential tail. Similar phenomena appear on the low-potential tail of the stationary double...... layer formed by applying a potential difference between two plasma sources...

  15. Mitigating Double Taxation in an Open Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Lindhe, Tobias

    2001-01-01

    The interaction of various methods of mitigating economic and international double taxation of corporate source income is studied within a standard neoclassical model of firm behavior. The main purpose is to determine to what extent methods effective in mitigating economic double taxation in a closed economy remain useful in an open economy where the firm's marginal investor is a foreigner. While a cut in the statutory corporate tax rate invariably reduces the cost of capital, the impact of t...

  16. Double beta decay of 82Se

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, S.R.; Hahn, A.A.; Moe, M.K.; Nelson, M.A.; Vient, M.A.

    1992-01-01

    The two-neutrino double beta decay of 82 Se has been measured during a 20 244 h run resulting in a half-life of 1.08 -0.06 +0.26 x10 20 years (68% C.L.). No candidate events for the zero-neutrino double beta decay during 21 924 h results in a half-life limit of 2.7x10 22 years at the 68% confidence level

  17. Double shell tank waste analysis plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulkey, C.H.; Jones, J.M.

    1994-01-01

    Waste analysis plan for the double shell tanks. SD-WM-EV-053 is Superseding SD-WM-EV-057.This document provides the plan for obtaining information needed for the safe waste handling and storage of waste in the Double Shell Tank Systems. In Particular it addresses analysis necessary to manage waste according to Washington Administrative Code 173-303 and Title 40, parts 264 and 265 of the Code of Federal Regulations

  18. On statistical acceleration convergence of double sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bipan Hazarika

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article the notion of statistical acceleration convergence of double sequences in Pringsheim's sense has been introduced. We prove the decompostion theorems for  statistical acceleration convergence of double sequences and some theorems related to that concept have been established using the four dimensional matrix transformations. We provided some examples, where the results of acceleration convergence fails to hold for the statistical cases.

  19. Double Marginalisation Effect Within Logistics Chain

    OpenAIRE

    Drago Pupavac

    2008-01-01

    Double marginalization occurs in vertical industries when both the upstream and downstream firms have monopoly power. Each firm reduces output from the competitive level to the monopoly level,creating two deadweight losses. This market myopia creates a "vertical externality" that vertical integration would internalize. In order to prove the hypothesis about building strategic partnership and collaboration as a way to remove the effect of double marginalization we have been focused on the rese...

  20. Numerical simulations on ion acoustic double layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, T.; Okuda, H.

    1980-07-01

    A comprehensive numerical study of ion acoustic double layers has been performed for both periodic as well as for nonperiodic systems by means of one-dimensional particle simulations. For a nonperiodic system, an external battery and a resistance are used to model the magnetospheric convection potential and the ionospheric Pedersen resistance. It is found that the number of double layers and the associated potential buildup across the system increases with the system length

  1. Double soft theorem for perturbative gravity

    OpenAIRE

    Saha, Arnab

    2016-01-01

    Following up on the recent work of Cachazo, He and Yuan \\cite{arXiv:1503.04816 [hep-th]}, we derive the double soft graviton theorem in perturbative gravity. We show that the double soft theorem derived using CHY formula precisely matches with the perturbative computation involving Feynman diagrams. In particular, we find how certain delicate limits of Feynman diagrams play an important role in obtaining this equivalence.

  2. THE EFFICIENCY OF TENNIS DOUBLES SCORING SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoff Pollard

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a family of scoring systems for tennis doubles for testing the hypothesis that pair A is better than pair B versus the alternative hypothesis that pair B is better than A, is established. This family or benchmark of scoring systems can be used as a benchmark against which the efficiency of any doubles scoring system can be assessed. Thus, the formula for the efficiency of any doubles scoring system is derived. As in tennis singles, one scoring system based on the play-the-loser structure is shown to be more efficient than the benchmark systems. An expression for the relative efficiency of two doubles scoring systems is derived. Thus, the relative efficiency of the various scoring systems presently used in doubles can be assessed. The methods of this paper can be extended to a match between two teams of 2, 4, 8, …doubles pairs, so that it is possible to establish a measure for the relative efficiency of the various systems used for tennis contests between teams of players.

  3. Overlay metrology for double patterning processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leray, Philippe; Cheng, Shaunee; Laidler, David; Kandel, Daniel; Adel, Mike; Dinu, Berta; Polli, Marco; Vasconi, Mauro; Salski, Bartlomiej

    2009-03-01

    The double patterning (DPT) process is foreseen by the industry to be the main solution for the 32 nm technology node and even beyond. Meanwhile process compatibility has to be maintained and the performance of overlay metrology has to improve. To achieve this for Image Based Overlay (IBO), usually the optics of overlay tools are improved. It was also demonstrated that these requirements are achievable with a Diffraction Based Overlay (DBO) technique named SCOLTM [1]. In addition, we believe that overlay measurements with respect to a reference grid are required to achieve the required overlay control [2]. This induces at least a three-fold increase in the number of measurements (2 for double patterned layers to the reference grid and 1 between the double patterned layers). The requirements of process compatibility, enhanced performance and large number of measurements make the choice of overlay metrology for DPT very challenging. In this work we use different flavors of the standard overlay metrology technique (IBO) as well as the new technique (SCOL) to address these three requirements. The compatibility of the corresponding overlay targets with double patterning processes (Litho-Etch-Litho-Etch (LELE); Litho-Freeze-Litho-Etch (LFLE), Spacer defined) is tested. The process impact on different target types is discussed (CD bias LELE, Contrast for LFLE). We compare the standard imaging overlay metrology with non-standard imaging techniques dedicated to double patterning processes (multilayer imaging targets allowing one overlay target instead of three, very small imaging targets). In addition to standard designs already discussed [1], we investigate SCOL target designs specific to double patterning processes. The feedback to the scanner is determined using the different techniques. The final overlay results obtained are compared accordingly. We conclude with the pros and cons of each technique and suggest the optimal metrology strategy for overlay control in double

  4. ITER PF6 double pancakes winding line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Shuangsong [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Hefei (China); University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei (China); Wen, Wei, E-mail: wenwei@ipp.ac.cn [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Hefei (China); Chen, Jin; Wu, Weiyue; Song, Yuntao; Shen, Guang [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Hefei (China)

    2017-03-15

    Highlights: • ITER PF6 double pancakes “two-in-hand” winding line layout and main parameters were introduced, main winding sequences were also included. • Main features of each winding unit include de-spooling unit, straightening unit, sandblasting and cleaning unit, bending unit, turn insulation wrapping head, rotary table and automatic control system were depicted. • PF6 double pancake winding line was commissioned with PF5 empty jacket conductor after the installation and testing of each unit, ±0.5 mm turn positioning and ±2 turn to turn deviations were achieved. - Abstract: The Poloidal Field (PF) coils are one of the main sub-systems of the ITER magnets. The PF6 coil is being manufactured by the Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (ASIPP) as per the Poloidal Field coils cooperation agreement signed between ASIPP and Fusion for Energy (F4E).The ITER PF6 winding pack is composed by stacking of 9 double pancakes. Each double pancake is wound with a “two-in-hand” configuration. This paper describes the ITER PF6 double pancakes winding line, including layout and main parameters of the winding line, features of main units and the commissioning trial with PF5 empty jacket conductor.

  5. How I treat double-hit lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedberg, Jonathan W

    2017-08-03

    The 2016 revision of the World Health Organization (WHO) classification for lymphoma has included a new category of lymphoma, separate from diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, termed high-grade B-cell lymphoma with translocations involving myc and bcl-2 or bcl-6 . These lymphomas, which occur in hit lymphomas (or triple-hit lymphomas if all 3 rearrangements are present). It is important to differentiate these lymphomas from the larger group of double-expressor lymphomas, which have increased expression of MYC and BCL-2 and/or BCL-6 by immunohistochemistry, by using variable cutoff percentages to define positivity. Patients with double-hit lymphomas have a poor prognosis when treated with standard chemoimmunotherapy and have increased risk of central nervous system involvement and progression. Double-hit lymphomas may arise as a consequence of the transformation of the underlying indolent lymphoma. There are no published prospective trials in double-hit lymphoma, however retrospective studies strongly suggest that aggressive induction regimens may confer a superior outcome. In this article, I review my approach to the evaluation and treatment of double-hit lymphoma, with an eye toward future clinical trials incorporating rational targeted agents into the therapeutic armamentarium. © 2017 by The American Society of Hematology.

  6. The doubling of stellar black hole nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazandjian, Mher V.; Touma, J. R.

    2013-04-01

    It is strongly believed that Andromeda's double nucleus signals a disc of stars revolving around its central supermassive black hole on eccentric Keplerian orbits with nearly aligned apsides. A self-consistent stellar dynamical origin for such apparently long-lived alignment has so far been lacking, with indications that cluster self-gravity is capable of sustaining such lopsided configurations if and when stimulated by external perturbations. Here, we present results of N-body simulations which show unstable counter-rotating stellar clusters around supermassive black holes saturating into uniformly precessing lopsided nuclei. The double nucleus in our featured experiment decomposes naturally into a thick eccentric disc of apo-apse aligned stars which is embedded in a lighter triaxial cluster. The eccentric disc reproduces key features of Keplerian disc models of Andromeda's double nucleus; the triaxial cluster has a distinctive kinematic signature which is evident in Hubble Space Telescope observations of Andromeda's double nucleus, and has been difficult to reproduce with Keplerian discs alone. Our simulations demonstrate how the combination of an eccentric disc and a triaxial cluster arises naturally when a star cluster accreted over a preexisting and counter-rotating disc of stars drives disc and cluster into a mutually destabilizing dance. Such accretion events are inherent to standard galaxy formation scenarios. They are here shown to double stellar black hole nuclei as they feed them.

  7. Observing and Measuring Visual Double Stars

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    In these days of high-precision astrometric satellites, tremendous contributions to the science of astrometry are being made by amateur astronomers around the globe. This second edition of Observing and Measuring Visual Double Stars contains a significant amount of completely new material inspired by the work done by observers - particularly in the USA - since the first edition was published. Fifteen skilled and experienced astronomers have contributed chapters on their own specialization in the various fields. These include how to use the Internet to carry out precise astronomical measurement, an excellent guide to sketching double stars, and information on how to image double stars of unequal brightness. This new edition is the definitive book for those who are serious about this fascinating aspect of astronomy! Author Bob Argyle has been observing visual double stars for more than 40 years, some with the help of the world's biggest refractors, and has been director of the Webb Society Double Star Se...

  8. CespIH®, una Organización Socialista de Base Tecnológica incubada en la Educación Superior cubana CespIH®, a Socialist Technology-Based Organization incubated in Cuban Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A Hernández

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available El nuevo modelo universitario cubano debe poseer una capacidad para producir, difundir y aplicar conocimientos, la cual puede ser fomentada mediante la creación y desarrollo de organizaciones socialistas de base tecnológica (OSBT, por lo que es necesaria la sistematización de experiencias en este proceso. En este artículo se ofrece la definición de las OSBT, así como las premisas, principios y características que deben cumplir. Una de estas OSBT es el Programa de Servicios de Encespado CespIH®, creada a partir del año 2000 en la EEPF «Indio Hatuey» con el objetivo de brindar servicios de encespado de alta calidad, un ejemplo exitoso de cómo hacer ciencia, tecnología e innovación en nuestras condiciones. Se describen las características de CespIH®, su proceso de creación y desarrollo mediante un modelo y sus procedimientos asociados, la producción académica y de innovaciones, la formación del capital humano, la articulación nacional e internacional, los obstáculos vencidos y los resultados tangibles e intangibles obtenidos. Se concluye que la creación y el desarrollo de OSBT constituye una vía alternativa para que la nueva universidad cubana pueda desarrollar su capacidad de producir, difundir y aplicar los conocimientos, lo cual contribuye al desarrollo socioeconómico del país.The new Cuban university model must have capacity for producing, disseminating and applying knowledge, which should be enhanced by the creation and development of socialist technology-based organizations (STBO, for which the systematization of experiences in this process is necessary. This work provides a definition of STBOs, as well as the premises, principles and characteristics they must fulfill. One of these STBOs is the Program of Turfing Services CespIH®, created since 2000 at the EEPF «Indio Hatuey», with the objective of offering high quality turfing services, a successful example on how to make science, technology and innovate under

  9. Conocimientos sobre el maltrato infantil en los escenarios asistenciales de la brigada médica cubana en Oruro, Bolivia Knowledge of child abuse in the health care settings of the Cuban Medical Brigade in Oruro, Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivette Iglesias Pescoso

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: el maltrato infantil ha sido históricamente un problema social que ha afectado sobre todo, a los países en vías de desarrollo. Este se ha convertido en un fenómeno alarmante, con raíces socioculturales y psicológicas que aparecen en cualquier nivel económico, social y educativo. Objetivo: identificar los conocimientos que sobre maltrato infantil tienen los padres o tutores que acuden a las consultas de pediatría de la brigada médica cubana en Oruro. Métodos: se realizó un estudio observacional descriptivo y transversal, donde se aplicó un cuestionario validado por expertos a 185 padres o tutores de niños atendidos en la(s consulta(s de Pediatría de la brigada médica cubana, en el Departamento de Oruro, Bolivia, durante el periodo de marzo a mayo del año 2008. Resultados: no existe una adecuada información acerca del maltrato infantil y la televisión fue la vía principal de adquisición. El tipo de maltrato más identificado lo constituyó el poco afecto y cariño y como causa fundamental los problemas económicos. El criterio de identificación más predominante fue el niño con moretones y la conducta más difundida fue avisar a la policía. Solo un reducido número de las personas alegaron haber recibido algún tipo de capacitación con respecto al tema. Conclusiones: los conocimientos que tienen los padres o tutores sobre los temas relacionados con el maltrato infantil son escasos, así como la capacitación de los mismos, lo cual ofrece pautas para trazar estrategias de salud en el trabajo comunitario.Background: child abuse has historically been considered a social problem that has mainly affected the developing countries. It has become an alarming phenomenon having sociocultural and psychological roots at any levels such as economic, social and educative ones. Objective: to identify the knowledge that parents or tutors that present to the paediatric consultations of the Cuban Medical Brigade in Oruro have

  10. Estudio de bioequivalencia: formulaciones genéricas y comerciales de estaduvine, lamiduvine, zidovudine e indinavir en pacientes cubanos infectados con VIH Bioequivalence study: generic and trade formulations of stavudine, lamivudine, zidovudine and indinavir in Cuban HIV-infected subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Tarinas Reyes

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: El presente estudio describe los estudios de bioequivalencia de los genéricos cubanos antirretrovirales estavudina, lamivudina, zidovudina e indinavir con respecto a sus productos innovadores. Diseño: Los estudios de bioequivalencia de cada antirretroviral estudiado (formulación de prueba, P y referencia, R, se realizaron en 13 ó 14 sujetos, según el caso con la utilización de las medias en un estudio aleatorio, cruzado y a dosis única con un período de lavado de 10 días. Métodos: Las concentración de los antirretrovirales en plasma se monitorearon durante un período de 12 h después de la administración de estos, mediante el uso de métodos validados de cromatografía líquida de alta resolución (HPLC. Los parámetros farmacocinéticos se determinaron con el uso el software profesional WinNolin, versión 2.1. La comparación de los parámetros farmacocinéticos se realizó con un intervalo de confianza del 95 % con la utilización del software NCSS 2000 PASS 2000 (hipótesis nula. Para el estudio de bioequivalencia se usó el software Equiv Test de soluciones estadísticas, empleando ANOVA con el 90 % de intervalo de confianza. Resultados: El presente estudio mostró que no se observaron diferencias significativas en las medias de AUC0-12, AUC0-¥, Cmax y Tmax de ambas formulaciones de estavudina, lamivudina, zidovudina e indinavir. Se concluye que los parámetros farmacocinéticos estudiados se encuentran dentro de los rangos establecidos siendo 80-125 % para Cmax, AUC0-12, y AUC0-¥. En el caso de Cmax de la zidovudina el rango fue 70-143 %. Conclusión: Estos resultados avalan que los genéricos antirretrovirales cubanos son bioequivalentes con sus respectivos productos innovadores en términos de velocidad y magnitud de la absorciónObjective: The present study describes the determination of the bioequivalence of the Cuban generic and trade formulations of stavudine, lamivudine, zidovudine, and indinavir. Design: The

  11. Doctor Guillermo García López (1905-1956, gran diabetólogo cubano Doctor Guillermo García López (1905-1956, a great cuban diabetologist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagoberto Álvarez Aldana

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Con esta breve semblanza pretendemos esbozar algunos datos biográficos del profesor Guillermo García López (1905-1956 notable, pero casi desconocido galeno, y resaltar su labor profesional en el campo asistencial, docente y científico en nuestro país, que lo avalan como uno de los más importantes diabetólogos cubanos. Consultamos la bibliografía médica de la época, archivos, expedientes y otras fuentes para la realización de esta investigación. El doctor Guillermo García López aportó más de 50 contribuciones médicas, las cuales se publicaron en prestigiosas revistas dentro y fuera de Cuba. Sobresalió por sus estudios sobre la diabetes infantil, como se le llamaba en aquellos años, las mejores combinaciones de insulinitas, el uso de insulina NPH, las hormonas adrenocorticotrópicas (ACTH y la cortisona, entre otros.With this brief biographical profile we intend to outline some data on professor Guillermo García López (1905-1956, an outstanding but almost unknown doctor, and to highlight his professional work in the assistance, teaching and scientific field in our country, that makes him one of the most important Cuban diabetologists. We consulted the medical bibliography of that time, archives, records and other sources as part of this research. Doctor Guillermo García López made more than 50 medical contributions that were published in prestigious journals in Cuba and abroad. He stood out for his studies on infantile diabetes, as it was called in those years, the best insulin combinations, the use of NPH insulin, adrenocorticotropic hormones (ACTH and cortisone, among others.

  12. Valoraciones sobre estudios éticos publicados en la Revista Cubana de Enfermería desde el 2004 al 2007 Valuations about ethical studies published in the Cuban Magazine of Nursery from 2004 to 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayra Betty Lino Luis

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Fueron analizados quince artículos que publicó la Revista Cubana de Enfermería en direrentes números en el período que va del 2004 al 2007. El estudio descriptivo y retrospectivo permitió identificar que el tratamiento de categorías que pertenecen a la Historia, a la Filosofía, a la Epistemología, a la Sociología y a la Etica de la Enfermería no aparece relacionado con el campo de los estudios sociales sobre la ciencia y la tecnología en salud. La mayor dificultad que se ha detectado en la mayoría de los artículos es la tendencia de pensar y de aplicar la Bioética sin detenerse en las peculiaridades históricas y sociopolíticas de esta propuesta de normatividad.They were analyzed fifteen articles that were published by the Cuban Magazine of Nursery in different numbers in the period going from 2004 to 2007. The descriptive and retrospective study allowed identifying that the treatment of categories that belong to the History, to the Philosophy, to the Epistemology, to the Sociology and the Ethics of Nursery doesn't appear related with the field of the social studies on the science and the technology in health. The biggest difficulty that it has been detected in most of the articles is the tendency of thinking and of applying the Bio-ethics without stopping in the historical and sociopolitical peculiarities of normatively proposal.

  13. El mantenimiento a los transformadores de potencia; su análisis en el caso de una Central termoeléctrica cubana;Maintenance of power transformers; its analysis in the case of a Cuban thermal power station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Juan Montané - García,et al.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo está dirigido a la exposición del proceso de mantenimiento a los transformadores de potencia, el mantenimiento preventivo, las normativas de mantenimiento y las pruebas a transformadores de potencia, el mantenimiento predictivo, el análisis de gases disueltos en el aceite de transformadores, las condiciones de los transformadores según este análisis, las más importantes características del aislamiento de celulosa de los transformadores de potencia y la necesidad de complementar el análisis de gases disueltos con el análisis de derivados furánicos en el aceite para evaluar la disminución del grado de polimerización del aislamiento de celulosa, los índices de clase mundial del proceso de mantenimiento a transformadores de potencia y su cálculo para el caso de una central termoeléctrica cubana y el análisis del proceso utilizando la Distribución de Weibull, ofreciéndose recomendaciones para mejorar este proceso de mantenimiento.The authors write about the process of power transformers maintenance, the preventive maintenance, the maintenance standards and the tests of power transformers, the predicative maintenance, the analysis of dissolved gas in the transformers oil, the conditions of transformers in accordance with this analysis, the most important characteristics of the cellulose insulation of power transformers and the necessity to complement the dissolved gas analysis with the analysis of furan byproducts in the transformers oil in order to assess the reduction of the degree of polymerization of the cellulose insulation, the world class indicators of the process of power transformers maintenance and its calculation in the case of one of the Cuban steam power plants and the assess of this process using the Weibull distribution; at the end, authors give recommendations to improve the process of power transformers maintenance.

  14. Impacto de la Farmacocinética en el desarrollo de la industria biotecnológica de Cuba Impacto of Pharmacokinetics on the development of the Cuban biotechnological industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Fernández Sánchez

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available La Biotecnología en Cuba ha devenido un fenómeno científico, pero a la vez social por su repercusión en la Salud Pública y la economía del país. Junto a otras disciplinas que han coadyuvado al desarrollo de la Biotecnología en la nación, la Farmacocinética ha desempeñado una función importante, tanto para el registro de nuevas moléculas como para la comercialización de biogenéricos. La interrelación de la demanda social, la función de las universidades, el desarrollo de la industria y las corrientes disciplinarias son analizadas a partir de establecerse un enfoque sistémico, que comprueba cómo ha sido el cumplimiento de los nexos entre los subsistemas implantados por la sociedad cubana. Todo ello ha contribuido al aporte de bienes científicos, sociales y económicos.Biotechnology has become not only a scientific but a social phenomenon in Cuba due to its impact on the public health and domestic economy. Along with other disciplines that have supported the development of this science in the nation, pharmacokinetics has played an important role in both the registration of new molecules and the marketing of biogenerics. The interrelationship among the social demands, the role of universities, the development of the industry and the disciplinary trends were analyzed, taking as a basis a systemic approach that verifies how the links among the subsystems set by the Cuban society have worked. All this has led to the contribution of scientific, social and economic goods.

  15. Double Fano resonances in plasmon coupling nanorods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Fei; Jin, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Fano resonances are investigated in nanorods with symmetric lengths and side-by-side assembly. Single Fano resonance can be obtained by a nanorod dimer, and double Fano resonances are shown in nanorod trimers with side-by-side assembly. With transverse plasmon excitation, Fano resonances are caused by the destructive interference between a bright superradiant mode and dark subradiant modes. The bright mode originates from the electric plasmon resonance, and the dark modes originate from the magnetic resonances induced by near-field inter-rod coupling. Double Fano resonances result from double dark modes at different wavelengths, which are induced and tuned by the asymmetric gaps between the adjacent nanorods. Fano resonances show a high figure of merit and large light extinction in the periodic array of assembled nanorods, which can potentially be used in multiwavelength sensing in the visible and near-infrared regions. (paper)

  16. Stochastic cooling with a double rf system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Jie.

    1992-01-01

    Stochastic cooling for a bunched beam of hadrons stored in an accelerator with a double rf system of two different frequencies has been investigated. The double rf system broadens the spread in synchrotron-oscillation frequency of the particles when they mostly oscillate near the center of the rf bucket. Compared with the ease of a single rf system, the reduction rates of the bunch dimensions are significantly increased. When the rf voltage is raised, the reduction rate, instead of decreasing linearly, now is independent of the ratio of the bunch area to the bucket area. On the other hand, the spread in synchrotron-oscillation frequency becomes small with the double rf system, if the longitudinal oscillation amplitudes of the particles are comparable to the dimension of the rf bucket. Consequently, stochastic cooling is less effective when the bunch area is close to the bucket area

  17. Double shell tanks emergency pumping plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tangen, M.J.

    1994-01-01

    At the request of the Department of Energy (DOE), a formal plan for the emergency transfer of waste from a leaking double shell tank to a designated receiver tank has been developed. This plan is in response to the priority 2 safety issue ''Response to a leaking double-shell tank'' in the DOE Report to Congress, 1991. The plan includes the tanks in four of the east tank farms and one of the west farms. The background information and supporting calculations used for the creation of the emergency plan are discussed in this document. The scope of this document is all of the double shell tanks in the AN, AP, AW, AY, and SY farms. The transfer lines, flush pits, and valve pits involved in the transfer of waste between these farms are also included in the scope. Due to the storage of high heat waste, AZ farm is excluded at this time

  18. The Dissolution of Double Holliday Junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bizard, Anna H; Hickson, Ian D

    2014-01-01

    as "double Holliday junction dissolution." This reaction requires the cooperative action of a so-called "dissolvasome" comprising a Holliday junction branch migration enzyme (Sgs1/BLM RecQ helicase) and a type IA topoisomerase (Top3/TopoIIIα) in complex with its OB (oligonucleotide/oligosaccharide binding......Double Holliday junctions (dHJS) are important intermediates of homologous recombination. The separate junctions can each be cleaved by DNA structure-selective endonucleases known as Holliday junction resolvases. Alternatively, double Holliday junctions can be processed by a reaction known......) fold containing accessory factor (Rmi1). This review details our current knowledge of the dissolution process and the players involved in catalyzing this mechanistically complex means of completing homologous recombination reactions....

  19. CAD/CAM for Double Woven Fabric

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moussa Alali

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available To bond the two layers in double fabrics, various types of stitching can be distinguished such as self-stitching, double stitching, center warp stitching, center weft stitching, and so on. In this article, a mathematic model based on a software program has been developed to automatically generate a double fabric stitched by additional warp called center warp. Each layer has been represented in a 2D binary matrix, and a new matrix called warps order matrix has been defined to demonstrate the modality of position of the center warps in relating to the top and bottom fabrics’ warps. After insertion of all warps in the extended weave matrix, the lifter conditions has been discussed and the stitching points have been determined.

  20. Experiments on ion acoustic typed double layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, C.; Cho, M.H.; Intrator, T.; Hershkowitz, N.

    1984-01-01

    The formation of small amplitude double layers with potential drops the order of the electron temperature, was examined experimentally by pulsing a grid and thereby changing the electron drift across the target chamber of a triple plasma device. The rarefactive part of a long wavelength, low frequency ion wave grew in amplitude due to the presence of slowly drifting electrons. The corresponding current limitation led to the formation of the double layers. Depending on the plasma conditions, the asymmetric double layers either transform into a weak monotonic layer, a propagating shock, or a series of rarefactive solitary pulses. The rarefactive pulses propagate with Mach number less than one and resemble solitary plasma holes with density cavities in both the electron and the ion density profiles

  1. Limiting effects in double EEX beamline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, G.; Power, J. G.; Conde, M.; Doran, D. S.; Gai, W.

    2017-07-01

    The double emittance exchange (EEX) beamline is suggested to overcome the large horizontal emittance and transverse jitter issues associated with the single EEX beamline while preserving its powerful phase-space manipulation capability. However, the double EEX beamline also has potential limitations due to coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) and transverse jitter. The former limitation arises because double EEX uses twice as many bending magnets as single EEX which means stronger CSR effects degrading the beam quality. The latter limitation arises because a longitudinal jitter in front of the first EEX beamline is converted into a transverse jitter in the middle section (between the EEX beamlines) which can cause beam loss or beam degradation. In this paper, we numerically explore the effects of these two limitations on the emittance and beam transport.

  2. Limiting effects in double EEX beamline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha, G; Power, J G; Conde, M; Doran, D S; Gai, W

    2017-01-01

    The double emittance exchange (EEX) beamline is suggested to overcome the large horizontal emittance and transverse jitter issues associated with the single EEX beamline while preserving its powerful phase-space manipulation capability. However, the double EEX beamline also has potential limitations due to coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) and transverse jitter. The former limitation arises because double EEX uses twice as many bending magnets as single EEX which means stronger CSR effects degrading the beam quality. The latter limitation arises because a longitudinal jitter in front of the first EEX beamline is converted into a transverse jitter in the middle section (between the EEX beamlines) which can cause beam loss or beam degradation. In this paper, we numerically explore the effects of these two limitations on the emittance and beam transport. (paper)

  3. Farmacovigilancia de la sertralina en pacientes cubanos con episodio de depresión mayor Pharmaceutical surveillance of sertraline in Cuban patients affected by major depression episode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie Pérez Ruiz

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available En la depresión predominan síntomas como: desinterés, fatiga, sentimientos de inutilidad, desconcentración, deseos de muerte e insomnio. Entre los medicamentos para tratarla se encuentra la sertralina. Con el objetivo de evaluar su seguridad, se revisaron 40 historias clínicas y cuadernos de recogida de datos de los pacientes incluidos en ensayo clínico fase III, aletatorizado, controlado y a doble ciegas: "Uso de sertralina en pacientes con episodio de depresión mayor", pertenecientes al Hospital "Dr. Gustavo Aldereguía Lima". Se obtuvieron datos demográficos, clínicos y eventos adversos, con los cuales se realizó un estudio descriptivo, observacional y transversal que clasifica como un estudio de utilización de medicamentos sobre consecuencias prácticas. La información fue analizada mediante SPSS, versión 13.0 para Windows. De los 40 pacientes incluidos, 24 presentaron eventos adversos para un 60 %; de ellos, 16 (67 % en el grupo tratado con sertralina y 8 (33 % en los tratados con placebo. Los eventos adversos más frecuentes fueron: disminución de peso, sequedad bucal, cefalea, diarreas y náuseas. En su mayoría resultaron de intensidad ligera, causalidad probable y sin necesidad de tratamiento. El uso del fármaco se consideró seguro en el tratamiento de estos pacientes.Some predominant symptoms in depression are lack of interest, fatigue, feeling of uselessness, lack of concentration, desire of being dead and insomnia. One of the drugs to treat this illness is Sertraline. For the purpose of evaluating its safety, 40 medical histories and data collection logs with information on patients included in a double-blind, controlled, randomized phase III clinical trial "Use of Sertraline in patients suffering episodes of great depression" were reviewed. These patients were seen at "Gustavo Aldereguía Lima" hospital. Demographic, clinical and adverse event data were obtained to undertake a descriptive, observational and cross

  4. Factores de éxito y fracaso en el comportamiento innovador de las empresas ganaderas cubanas Success and failure factors in the innovating performance of the Cuban livestock production enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Suárez

    2007-09-01

    de éxito y fracaso de la innovación en el sector ganadero cubano son muy similares a los obtenidos en el sector industrial y referidos en la literatura internacionalWith the objective of learning the factors that favor the success of innovation and those that cause its failure, in the Cuban livestock production sector, a questionnaire was applied to the directors of a non probabilistic sample of 34 livestock production enterprises (36% of the sector, which comprised the different geographical zones of the country, all the types of production systems existing in Cuban livestock production, organizations in the different stages of the Enterprise Improvement process and the different enterprise sizes. The internal factors with the highest incidence on the success of innovation in the enterprises were considered to be: A Top Management opened to new ideas and inclined to assuming risks, the decentralization in decision-making and a participatory management, motivation and commitment to innovation in the managers, constant training of the personnel and execution of team work; while the external factors were the dynamics and turbulence of the surroundings, which demand changes in the enterprise, the establishment of cooperation links and networks in the country, the existence of state policies of support to innovation, having facility of access to international funding sources and possibilities of national financing for the development of innovation. Regarding the obstacles that constrain to a higher extent innovation in the enterprises, they are: scarcity of financial resources, external pressures on the enterprise, which have incidence on the productive and management processes, the possession of insufficient scientific and technological information, problems of availability and utilization of computing equipment, lack of efficient financing mechanisms for innovation, as well as insufficient mechanisms of incentives that encourage to innovate and establish links with

  5. Probabilistic double guarantee kidnapping detection in SLAM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yang; Ma, Shugen

    2016-01-01

    For determining whether kidnapping has happened and which type of kidnapping it is while a robot performs autonomous tasks in an unknown environment, a double guarantee kidnapping detection (DGKD) method has been proposed. The good performance of DGKD in a relative small environment is shown. However, a limitation of DGKD is found in a large-scale environment by our recent work. In order to increase the adaptability of DGKD in a large-scale environment, an improved method called probabilistic double guarantee kidnapping detection is proposed in this paper to combine probability of features' positions and the robot's posture. Simulation results demonstrate the validity and accuracy of the proposed method.

  6. Double Harmonic Transmission (D.H.T.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sava Ianici

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the construction and functioning of a new type of harmonic drive named double harmonic transmission (D.H.T.. In the second part of this paper is presented the dynamic analysis of the double harmonic transmission, which is based on the results of the experimental researches on the D.H.T. This study of the stress status and the forces distribution is necessary for to determine the durability on the portant elements of the D.H.T.

  7. Double-partition Quantum Cluster Algebras

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Hans Plesner; Zhang, Hechun

    2012-01-01

    A family of quantum cluster algebras is introduced and studied. In general, these algebras are new, but sub-classes have been studied previously by other authors. The algebras are indexed by double parti- tions or double flag varieties. Equivalently, they are indexed by broken lines L. By grouping...... together neighboring mutations into quantum line mutations we can mutate from the cluster algebra of one broken line to another. Compatible pairs can be written down. The algebras are equal to their upper cluster algebras. The variables of the quantum seeds are given by elements of the dual canonical basis....

  8. Bilateral double level tibial lengthening in dwarfism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burghardt, Rolf D; Yoshino, Koichi; Kashiwagi, Naoya; Yoshino, Shigeo; Bhave, Anil; Paley, Dror; Herzenberg, John E

    2015-12-01

    Outcome assessment after double level tibial lengthening in patients with dwarfism. Fourteen patients with dwarfism were analyzed after bilateral simultaneous double level tibial lengthening. Average age was 15.1 years. Average lengthening was 13.5 cm. The two levels were lengthened by an average of 7.5 cm proximally and 6.0 cm distally. Concomitant deformities were also addressed during lengthening. External fixation treatment time averaged 8.8 months. Healing index averaged 0.7 months/cm. Bilateral tibial lengthening for dwarfism is difficult, but the results are usually quite gratifying.

  9. Dividends Provisions in Croatian Double Taxation Agreements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjeta Tomulić Vehovec

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the provisions concerning dividends in the double taxation avoidance agreements concluded by the Republic of Croatia. Since the base for taxation is necessarily laid down in domestic law, Croatian legislation is examined as well. The author primarily discusses dividends provisions in four agreements signed with Germany, Austria, Switzerland and Slovenia, in addition to analyzing the differences from and similarities with the OECD Model Convention. Second, the paper briefly explains the methods for eliminating double taxation on income from dividends. Finally, it addresses the changes necessary for accession to the European Union.

  10. The Double Star Orbit Initial Value Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensley, Hagan

    2018-04-01

    Many precise algorithms exist to find a best-fit orbital solution for a double star system given a good enough initial value. Desmos is an online graphing calculator tool with extensive capabilities to support animations and defining functions. It can provide a useful visual means of analyzing double star data to arrive at a best guess approximation of the orbital solution. This is a necessary requirement before using a gradient-descent algorithm to find the best-fit orbital solution for a binary system.

  11. Double optomechanical transparency with direct mechanical interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Ling-Chao; Shi Rao; Xu Jun; Hu Xiang-Ming

    2015-01-01

    We present a mechanism for double transparency in an optomechanical system. This mechanism is based on the coupling of a moving cavity mirror to a second mechanical oscillator. Due to the purely mechanical coupling and the radiation pressure, three pathways are established for excitations of the probe photons into the cavity photons. Destructive interference occurs at two different frequencies, leading to double transparency to the probe field. It is the coupling strength between the mechanical oscillators that determines the locations of the transparency windows. Moreover, the normal splitting appears for the generated Stokes field and the four-wave mixing process is inhibited on resonance. (paper)

  12. Irradiation of parametria by double-wedge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weisz, Csaba; Katona, Ernoe; Zarand, Pal; Polgar, Istvan; Nemeth, Gyoergy

    1984-01-01

    The dose distribution of a cobalt unit modified with a double-wedge as well as its combination with intracavitary radiotherapy was investigated. The measurements were made in both Alderson-Rando and wather phantom by using film densitometry, thermoluminescence dosimetry and ionization chambers. The dose distribution calculated on the basis of the Van de Geij program was in good agreement with the measurements. A homogeneous irradiation of the parametria can be obtained by using a combination of intracavitary and external double-wedge irradiation. (author)

  13. Double Hopf bifurcation in delay differential equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redouane Qesmi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper addresses the computation of elements of double Hopf bifurcation for retarded functional differential equations (FDEs with parameters. We present an efficient method for computing, simultaneously, the coefficients of center manifolds and normal forms, in terms of the original FDEs, associated with the double Hopf singularity up to an arbitrary order. Finally, we apply our results to a nonlinear model with periodic delay. This shows the applicability of the methodology in the study of delay models arising in either natural or technological problems.

  14. Double-Stranded Peptide Nucleic Acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2001-01-01

    A novel class of compounds, known as peptide nucleic acids, form double-stranded structures with one another and with ssDNA. The peptide nucleic acids generally comprise ligands such as naturally occurring DNA bases attached to a peptide backbone through a suitable linker.......A novel class of compounds, known as peptide nucleic acids, form double-stranded structures with one another and with ssDNA. The peptide nucleic acids generally comprise ligands such as naturally occurring DNA bases attached to a peptide backbone through a suitable linker....

  15. Why search for double beta decay?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kayser, B.

    1988-01-01

    Searching for neutrinoless double beta decay is the only known practical method for trying to determine whether neutrinos are their own antiparticles. The theoretical motivation for supposing that they may indeed be their own antiparticles is described. The reason that it is so difficult to ascertain experimentally whether they are or are not is explained, as is the special sensitivity of neutrinoless double beta decay. The potential implications of the observation of this reaction for neutrino mass and for the physics of neutrinos is discussed

  16. Radiosurgery and the double logistic product formula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flickinger, J.C.; Steiner, L.

    1990-01-01

    The double logistic product formula is proposed as a method for predicting the probability of developing brain necrosis after high dose irradiation of small target volumes as used in stereotactic radiosurgery. Dose-response data observed for the production of localized radiation necreosis for treating intractable pain with the original Leksell gamma unit were used to choose the best fitting parameters for the double logistic product formula. This model can be used with either exponential or linear quadratic formulas to account for the effects of dose, fractionation and time in addition to volume. Dose-response predictions for stereotactic radiosurgery with different sized collimators are presented. (author). 41 refs.; 5 figs.; 1 tab

  17. Fermionic formula for double Kostka polynomials

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Shiyuan

    2016-01-01

    The $X=M$ conjecture asserts that the $1D$ sum and the fermionic formula coincide up to some constant power. In the case of type $A,$ both the $1D$ sum and the fermionic formula are closely related to Kostka polynomials. Double Kostka polynomials $K_{\\Bla,\\Bmu}(t),$ indexed by two double partitions $\\Bla,\\Bmu,$ are polynomials in $t$ introduced as a generalization of Kostka polynomials. In the present paper, we consider $K_{\\Bla,\\Bmu}(t)$ in the special case where $\\Bmu=(-,\\mu'').$ We formula...

  18. Search for Neutrinoless Double-Beta Decay

    OpenAIRE

    Tornow, Werner

    2014-01-01

    After the pioneering work of the Heidelberg-Moscow (HDM) and International Germanium Experiment (IGEX) groups, the second round of neutrinoless double-$\\beta$ decay searches currently underway has or will improve the life-time limits of double-$\\beta$ decay candidates by a factor of two to three, reaching in the near future the $T_{1/2} = 3 \\times 10^{25}$ yr level. This talk will focus on the large-scale experiments GERDA, EXO-200, and KamLAND-Zen, which have reported already lower half-life...

  19. The double contrast examination of the colon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welin, S.; Welin, G.

    1980-01-01

    The double contrast method has been modified in order to get a more detailed picture of the mucous membrane of the colon. The method has been employed at Malmoe hospital since 1953. The method and its diagnostic application in cases of adenoids, villiferous tumours, diverticula, Crohn's disease, ulcerating colitis, and deformation of the rectum/sigma junction due to external endometriosis and peritoneal carcinosis are described. The diagnostic values of the double contrast method and colposcopy/biopsy of the colon are compared. The two methods are found to be complementary. (MG) [de

  20. Simulation Results of Double Forward Converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Vijaya KUMAR

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to find a better forward converter for DC to DC conversion.Simulation of double forward converter in SMPS system is discussed in this paper. Aforward converter with RCD snubber to synchronous rectifier and/or to current doubleris also discussed. The evolution of the forward converter is first reviewed in a tutorialfashion. Performance parameters are discussed including operating principle, voltageconversion ratio, efficiency, device stress, small-signal dynamics, noise and EMI. Itscircuit operation and its performance characteristics of the forward converter with RCDsnubber and double forward converter are described and the simulation results arepresented.