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Sample records for dosemeters leaves cards

  1. Mensuration of equivalent dose with personal dosemeters and instruments of radiological protection in the new operative magnitudes ICRU, for external fields of beta radiation. Part I. Study of the homogeneity of the response personal dosemeters leaves (cards G-1, TLD-100), in radiation fields of Co60

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez R, J.T.

    1994-01-01

    A sample of 40 composed personal dosemeters by cards model: G-l, (each card is made up of two TLD-100 crystals encapsulated in teflon), Harshaw trademark; those personal dosemeters present a free window and another with a filter of A1 of 171.7 mg cm -2 of mass thickness.The objective of the work is to select of this sample of 40 personal dosemeters a population with the same stocking and standard deviation. The technique used is that of comparison of stockings, (ANOVA; Variance Analysis, when samples of the same one were had size; and/or GLM, Widespread Lineal Models, when the samples were of different size), by means of the use of those Duncan statistics, SNK, Tukey, Gabriel; the results are validated proving the kindness of adjustment of the experimental data to a Normal distribution by means of the Shapiro-Wilks statistics.The experimental design used consists on a test of two vias: a via is the variable card with two levels, (crystal 1 and 2), the other via is the variable irradiation position with four levels, (LS=left superior, SR= right superior, LI= left Inferior, IR = right inferior). The irradiations carried out in blocks of four personal dosemeters in a gamma radiation beam range of Cobalt 60; carrying out three repetitions of the design. With object of proving the homogeneity of the filter of A1 in those personal dosemeters the experimental design was executed for those cards without personal dosemeters.They were also carried out tests of stockings to the readings of bottom and sensibility of the reader equipment, (Harshaw, model marks 2271), certain that doesn t exist differences for sequence of reading, but if in the stockings of the sensibility, (they were 4 different populations). The responses of the dosemeters were corrected subtracting him the reading correspondence of bottom and by sensibility of the reader equipment before subjecting them to the tests of stockings mentioned. Of the results of the tests of stockings for the cards with and

  2. Individual TL detector characteristics in automated processing of personnel dosemeters: correction factors as extension to identity codes of dosemeter cards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toivonen, Matti.

    1979-07-01

    One, two and three-component dosemeter cards and their associated processing equipment were developed for personnel monitoring. A novel feature of the TLD system is that the individual sensitivity correction factors of TL detectors for β/γ radiation dosimetry and special timing factors for the readout of neutron detectors are stored on dosemeter cards as an extension of the identity codes. These data are utilized in the automatic TL reading process with the aim of cancelling out the influence of the individual detector characteristics on the measuring results. Stimulation of TL is done with hot nitrogen without removing the detectors from their cards and without any metal contact. Changes in detector characteristics are thus improbable. The reading process can be adjusted in a variety of ways. For example, each detector in the same card can be processed with optimal heating and the specific 250 deg C glow peak of neutron radiation can be roughly separated from the main LiF glow peaks. (author)

  3. Mensuration of equivalent dose with personal dosemeters and instruments of radiological protection in the new operative magnitudes ICRU, for external fields of beta radiation. Part I. Study of the homogeneity of the response personal dosemeters leaves (cards G-1, TLD-100), in radiation fields of Co{sub 60}; Medicion de dosis equivalente con dosimetros personales e instrumentos de proteccion radiologica en las nuevas magnitudes operativas ICRU, para campos de radiacion beta externos. Parte I. Estudio de la homogeneidad de la respuesta dosimetros personales (tarjetas G-1, TLD-100), en campos de radiacion de Co{sub 60}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez R, J.T. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    1994-01-15

    A sample of 40 composed personal dosemeters by cards model: G-l, (each card is made up of two TLD-100 crystals encapsulated in teflon), Harshaw trademark; those personal dosemeters present a free window and another with a filter of A1 of 171.7 mg cm{sup -2} of mass thickness.The objective of the work is to select of this sample of 40 personal dosemeters a population with the same stocking and standard deviation. The technique used is that of comparison of stockings, (ANOVA; Variance Analysis, when samples of the same one were had size; and/or GLM, Widespread Lineal Models, when the samples were of different size), by means of the use of those Duncan statistics, SNK, Tukey, Gabriel; the results are validated proving the kindness of adjustment of the experimental data to a Normal distribution by means of the Shapiro-Wilks statistics.The experimental design used consists on a test of two vias: a via is the variable card with two levels, (crystal 1 and 2), the other via is the variable irradiation position with four levels, (LS=left superior, SR= right superior, LI= left Inferior, IR = right inferior). The irradiations carried out in blocks of four personal dosemeters in a gamma radiation beam range of Cobalt 60; carrying out three repetitions of the design. With object of proving the homogeneity of the filter of A1 in those personal dosemeters the experimental design was executed for those cards without personal dosemeters.They were also carried out tests of stockings to the readings of bottom and sensibility of the reader equipment, (Harshaw, model marks 2271), certain that doesn{sup t} exist differences for sequence of reading, but if in the stockings of the sensibility, (they were 4 different populations). The responses of the dosemeters were corrected subtracting him the reading correspondence of bottom and by sensibility of the reader equipment before subjecting them to the tests of stockings mentioned. Of the results of the tests of stockings for the cards with

  4. Electronic personal dosemeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, T.O.; Bartlett, D.T.; Burgess, P.H.; Cranston, C.S.; Higginbottom, D.J.; Sutton, K.W.

    1990-01-01

    Personal dosimetry services approved by their national authorities for category A workers, invariably use passive dosemeters incorporating photographic film or thermoluminescent detectors. However, the performance characteristics of electronic dosemeters has improved substantially over the past decade to such an extent that in the opening lecture of the Solid State Dosimetry Conference at Oxford in 1986 the development of an electronic 'smart card' based on a silicon detector was briefly discussed. This idea has been taken up and at least one development programme is in progress aimed at the production of an electronic dosemeter suitable for use as a legal device. The more important performance requirements of personal dosemeters for this purpose are discussed and the earlier electronic dosemeter designs and the latest devices under development to meet this specification are compared. (author)

  5. Personal neutron diode dosemeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barthe, J.; Lahaye, T.; Moiseev, T.; Portal, G.

    1993-01-01

    The control and management of neutron doses, received by workers in nuclear power or research facilities, requires a knowledge of cumulated dose equivalent or dose equivalent rate in real time. Individual dosemeters so far developed for this purpose are scarce and not very satisfactory. Passive dosemeters such as TLD systems based on the albedo effect, nuclear emulsions or solid track detectors, do not give sufficiently accurate measurements. Furthermore, the increase in the quality factor and the more restrictive new ICRP recommendations diminish the maximum admissible threshold making currently used systems obsolete. Other than bubble dosemeter systems, based on thermodynamic effects of a superheated gel, no simple electronic device is available at the present time. The development of diode based dosimetric gamma badges, having a size similar to that of credit cards, has stimulated us to design and develop a personal neutron dosemeter based on a double diode system. The results obtained are very encouraging and practical models should become available in the near future. (author)

  6. Passive dosemeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassib, G.; Piesch, E.

    1981-01-01

    The dosemeter will be used for the detection of radon and thoron as well as their daughter products. It consists of two chambers with nuclear trace or alpha detectors. Both chambers are connected with one another at their front sides with a filter arranged in between. One of the chambers has got lateral openings, it is used as a diffusion chamber. In the other chamber exclusively radon and thoron are detected. (DG) [de

  7. Self-indicating radiation alert dosemeter (SIRAD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riel, G. K.; Winters, P.; Patel, G.; Patel, P.

    2006-01-01

    In an event of a nuclear or dirty bomb explosion and a radiological accident, there is a need for self-indicating instant radiation dosemeter for monitoring radiation exposure. The self-indicating instant radiation alert dosemeter (SIRAD) is a credit card size radiation dosemeter for monitoring ionising radiation from a few hundredths of a Gray to a few Gray. It is always active and is ready to use. It needs no battery. The dosemeter develops colour instantly upon exposure, and the colour intensifies with dose. It has a colour chart so that the dose on the active element may be read by matching its colour with the chart that is printed next to it on the card. However, in this work, the dose is measured by the optical density of the element. The dosemeter cannot be reset. The response changes by 3 y at room temperature. It contains no hazardous materials. The dosemeter would meet the requirements of instantly monitoring high dose in an event of a nuclear or dirty bomb explosion or a radiation accident. (authors)

  8. Self-indicating radiation alert dosemeter (SIRAD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riel, Gordon K; Winters, Patrick; Patel, Gordhan; Patel, Paresh

    2006-01-01

    In an event of a nuclear or dirty bomb explosion and a radiological accident, there is a need for self-indicating instant radiation dosemeter for monitoring radiation exposure. The self-indicating instant radiation alert dosemeter (SIRAD) is a credit card size radiation dosemeter for monitoring ionising radiation from a few hundredths of a Gray to a few Gray. It is always active and is ready to use. It needs no battery. The dosemeter develops colour instantly upon exposure, and the colour intensifies with dose. It has a colour chart so that the dose on the active element may be read by matching its colour with the chart that is printed next to it on the card. However, in this work, the dose is measured by the optical density of the element. The dosemeter cannot be reset. The response changes by 3 y at room temperature. It contains no hazardous materials. The dosemeter would meet the requirements of instantly monitoring high dose in an event of a nuclear or dirty bomb explosion or a radiation accident.

  9. Two miniature electronic dosemeters Yperwatch - Gamcard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clavel, B.; Jaillon, J.

    1993-01-01

    Yperwatch and Gamcard were miniature electronic gamma personal dose and dose rate monitors. The Yperwatch is mounted in a wristwatch and the Gamcard in a case of the size of a standard credit card. The technology provides users with all the performance of a standard professional electronic dosemeter (integrated dose, dose rate, audible alarms, time in use). Yperwatch and Gamcard are based on well-proven electronic dosimetry technology, but with a greater ease of use. (author)

  10. PURCHASE CARDS. Continued Control Weaknesses Leave Two Navy Units Vulnerable to Fraud and Abuse

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2002-01-01

    .... Key improvements included reductions in the number of cardholders, an increase in the number of approving officials, an overall decrease in the aggregate monthly credit limits, and a decrease in purchase card usage...

  11. Quality control for dosemeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Prinzio, R.

    1988-01-01

    Several tests and intercomparison of the secondary standard dosemeter calibration in Rio de Janeiro are described. Periodical tests, such as leakage current and the comparison between the secondary standard dosemeter in Rio de Janeiro e Sao Paulo are shown. (E.G.) [pt

  12. Acid dip for dosemeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, J.C.; McWhan, A.F.

    1982-01-01

    Background signal in a PTFE based dosemeter caused by impurities in the PTFE and in the active component such as lithium fluoride is substantially reduced by treating the dosemeter with acid. The optimum treatment involves use of hydrofluoric acid at room temperature for approximately one minute, followed by thorough washing with methanol, and finally drying. This treatment is best applied after the original manufacture of the dosemeters. It may also be applied to existing dosemeters after they have been in use for some time. The treatment produces a permanent effect in reducing both the light induced signal and the non-light induced signal. The process may be applied to all types of dosemeter manufactured from PTFE or other plastics or resins which are able to resist brief exposure to acid. The treatment works particularly well with dosemeters based on PTFE and lithium fluoride. It is also applicable to dosemeters based on calcium sulphate, lithium borate and magnesium borate. Acids which may be used include hydrofluoric, hydrochloric, nitric, phosphoric and sulphuric. (author)

  13. Alarm personal dosemeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunomiya, Tomoya; Yamauchi, Hideshi; Shibata, Tetsuo

    2007-01-01

    Fuji Electric advanced the development of the conventional alarm personal dosemeter (APD) by adopting JIS Z 4312 (2002), which reflects IEC61526 (1998), and by improving the radiation performance characteristics, electromagnetic performance characteristics and mechanical performance characteristics of the APD (acquiring a CE marking). This new dosemeter will target overseas market in the future. The APD is a suitable dosemeter for detecting and monitoring radiation exposure to personnel working in the controlled areas of nuclear facilities, such as nuclear power stations. The APD product line includes 'gamma ray', 'gamma ray + beta ray' and 'gamma ray + neutron' models. (author)

  14. Comparison test of electronic dosemeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butterweck, G.; Zimmerli, H.P.; Wernli, C.

    2001-01-01

    To assist with a planned purchase of electronic dosemeters by the Swiss Federal Office for Civil Protection, the calibration laboratory of the Paul Scherrer Institute performed tests on 11 types of electronic dosemeters manufactured by 10 European and American companies. The technical specifications for the World Trade Organisation (WTO) tendering procedure were largely in accord with the specifications of the international standard IEC 61526. First tests were performed with samples from each type of dosemeter. The reproducibility of a dose of 0.1 mSv generated with 137 Cs radiation at a dose rate of 2.1 mSv.h -1 was found adequate for all tested dosemeter types. The response for environmental levels of radiation showed a large variation, indicating insufficient background correction of some dosemeters. A very high dose rate of 10 Sv.h -1 provoked faulty dose readings for more than half of the tested dosemeters. Dosemeter response for low-energy photon radiation was satisfactory for two of the tested dosemeter types. Four dosemeter types were selected for extended technical tests. Three samples of each of these dosemeter types were purchased. For drop and temperature tests the specifications of the WTO tendering procedure outranged the specification of the IEC standard. Whereas even at a temperature of -25 deg. C the tested dosemeters functioned normally, drops from a height of 2 m onto a wooden surface rendered the samples of two dosemeter types inoperative. (author)

  15. Calibration of farmer dosemeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, S.S.; Anwar, K.; Arshed, W.; Mubarak, M.A.; Orfi, S.D.

    1984-08-01

    The Farmer Dosemeters of Atomic Energy Medical Centre (AEMC) Jamshoro were calibrated in the Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory (SSDL) at PINSTECH, using the NPL Secondary Standard Therapy level X-ray exposure meter. The results are presented in this report. (authors)

  16. Development and testing of a thermoluminescent dosemeter for mixed neutron-photon-beta radiation fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zummo, J.J.; Liu, J.C.

    1998-08-01

    A new four-element thermoluminescent (TL) dosemeter and dose evaluation algorithm have been developed and tested to better characterize personnel exposure in mixed neutron-photon-beta radiation fields. The prototype dosemeter is based on a commercially available TL card (with three LiF-7 chips and one LiF-6 chip) and modified filtration elements. The new algorithm takes advantage of the high temperature peak characteristics of the LiF-6 element to better quantify the neutron dose component. The dosemeter was tested in various radiation fields, consisting of mixtures of two radiation types typically used for dosemeter performance testing, as well as mixtures of three radiation types to simulate possible exposure conditions. The new dosemeter gave superior performance, based on the tolerance levels, when using the new algorithm as compared to a conventional algorithm that did not use the high temperature peak methodology. The limitations and further improvements are discussed

  17. Principle and use of dosemeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genet, S.; Ribaud, I.

    1997-01-01

    The institute of nuclear physics of Orsay is accepted by the Ministry of Labour to insure the surveillance of workers individual external exposure against the danger of ionizing radiations and to execute monitoring of radiation protection. The dosemeters studied in this report are the photographic film dosemeters ( for x rays, gamma rays and beta - rays), the trace detectors (fast neutrons) and the radio thermo luminescent dosemeters. For each type, the principle and how to use it are given. (N.C.)

  18. A personal radon dosemeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oberstedt, S.; Vanmarcke, H.

    1994-03-01

    In the last decade the radon issue has become one of the major problems of radiation protection. Animal studies as well as epidemiological studies showed an increased lung cancer risk. A new personal radon-dosemeter on the basis of a CR-39 (poly-allyl diglycol carbonate) track-etch detector has been developed. The read-out of the detectors is based on the image- processing technique. The actual efficiency of the new dosemeter, obtained with a semi-automatic personal-computer based image-analysis system, is 1.43 +/- 0.15 tracks/cm 2 /(kBq/m 3 h), which is about three times that of the widely used Karlsruhe-type detector based on polycarbonate detectors

  19. Electret dosemeter for beta radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos, L.L.; Caldas, L.V.E.; Mascarenhas, S.

    The response characteristics of an electret dosemeter for beta radiation are studied. Experiments were performed using different geometries and walls, and it was verified for which geometry the dosemeter sensitivity is greater. Sources of 90 Sr - 90 Y, 204 Tl and 85 Kr were used in the experiments. (I.C.R.) [pt

  20. Australian participation in international intercomparisons of environmental dosemeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boas, J.F.; David, R.C.; Jones, J.

    2002-01-01

    The Environmental Measurements Laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy has conducted international intercomparisons of environmental dosemeters at regular intervals since 1974. This paper reports the results obtained in the 10th and 11th intercomparisons by JFB and JGY at the Australian Radiation Laboratory (in 1992 and 1996 respectively) and in the 12th intercomparison by JFB and DRCT at the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency and by JGY and JJ at Australian Radiation Serviceces during 2000 and 2001. The ARL/ARPANSA measurements used a simple dosemeter holder containing two CaSO 4 :Dy impregnated Teflon discs, one unshielded and the other shielded by approximately 2.4 mm of Cu. The ARS measurements used a commercially available TLD badge case containing a CaSO 4 :Dy impregnated Teflon card. The commercial badge case was not symmetrical in design. The filtration in the front and rear sections of the commercial badge case varied from an open area to an area shielded by copper, tin and cadmium. The results obtained were generally within ±15% of the reference values measured by EML using high-pressure ionisation chambers for dosemeters exposed hi the field to environmental radiation and for dosemeters given a single exposure to 137 Cs or 241 Am at EML or an associated laboratory. Similar agreement was obtained for dosemeters exposed in the field and also given a single exposure to 137 Cs radiation. In order to obtain this measure of agreement, the dosemeters were individually calibrated and the readouts corrected for fading. Copyright (2002) Australasian Radiation Protection Society Inc

  1. Performance tests on the NRPB thermoluminescent dosemeter

    CERN Document Server

    Shaw, K B

    1977-01-01

    Performance tests on the thermoluminescent dosemeter, designed at NRPB for use in the automated personal dosimetry system, are described. An ultra-thin lithium borate dosemeter has been developed for skin absorbed dose measurement. The X-ray, gamma-ray and beta-ray energy response of the dosemeter has been investigated and the angular response for the dosemeter has been examined. The annealing, read-out and stabilisation procedures for the dosemeter are described.

  2. The NRPB nuclear emission dosemeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartlett, D.T.; Bird, T.V.; Miles, J.C.H.

    1980-03-01

    The NRPB nuclear emulsion dosemeter is designed such that the thermal neutron response is similar to the fast neutron response. This report gives details of the dependence of response on incident neutron energy and on neutron angle of incidence. (author)

  3. New ISO standard - personnel photographic film dosemeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brabec, D.

    1980-01-01

    The ISO Standard 1757 ''Personnel Photographic Film Dosemeters'', issued in June 1980, is briefly described. UVVVR's own dosemeter developed for use in the national film dosimetry service in Czechoslovakia is evaluated in relation to this ISO Standard. (author)

  4. Response of electret dosemeter to slow neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghilardi, A.J.P.; Pela, C.A.; Zimmerman, R.L.

    1987-01-01

    The response of electret dosemeter to slow neutrons exposure is cited, mentioning the preparation and the irradiation of dosemeter with Am-Be source. Some theory considerations about the response of electret dosemeter to slow and fast neutrons are also presented. (C.G.C.) [pt

  5. Specification for personal photographic dosemeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The 1981 British/International Standard Specification, prepared under the direction of the Nuclear Engineering Standards Committee and TC85 of the International Organization for Standardization, is described for personal photographic dosemeters. The Standard specifies classification, characteristics and test procedures to determine absorbed doses due to X or gamma radiations (energy less than 3 MeV) and absorbed doses due to beta radiation (max. energy 0.6 to 3 MeV), whether or not accompanied by X, gamma or bremsstrahlung photon radiation. The Standard is particularly applicable to dosemeters intended to be carried on the chest or wrist. (U.K.)

  6. A new electret dosemeter for radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, L.N.

    1985-01-01

    The results obtained with a new plane electret dosemeter for use in Radiotherapy are presented. The working principle of the electret dosemeter in based on the use of the electret field the ion collecting field, similarly to an ionization chamber, and as charge integrator detector. The dosemeter had, initialy, a cylindrical geometry. The results attained with it's calibration curve concerning the sensitivity, the stability and the reproducibility lead to changes in the dosemeter geometry. A plane geometry dosemeter was built in order to increase the useful exposure range. The plane dosemeter sensitivity dependence was measured versus the electret charging conditions, the chamber volume and wall material (aluminium, brass and stainless steel). The stainless steel dosemeter showed the best results. This dosemeter has the following characteristics: sensitivity 10 -13 C/R, volume 0.20 cm 3 . Compared to the Baldwin-Farmer dosemeter, this results are fairly good. A multiple electret dosemeter was developed to monitor the uniformity of the radiation beam for a Cobalt Teletherapy unit. The intercomparasion with the Baldwin-Farmer unit presented a maximum variation of 3%. (author) [pt

  7. Technical specification of the NRPB Nuclear Emulsion Dosemeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartlett, D.T.; Bird, T.V.

    1978-08-01

    This document is a formal specification of the NRPB Nuclear Emulsion Dosemeter. The dosemeter specified in this report replaces the NRPB Fast Neutron Personal Dosemeter specified in NRPB-R50. (author)

  8. Selected references on thermoluminescent dosemeters for personnel monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawson, Helen

    1976-08-01

    This bibliography contains references on: specific thermoluminescent dosemeters used for personnel dosimetry; comparisons of thermoluminescent and other dosemeters for personnel monitoring and read-out apparatus for thermoluminescent dosemeters. An appendix contains selected foreign language references. (author)

  9. Individual monitoring and its quality assurance using thermoluminescent CaSO[sub 4]:Dy Teflon tape dosemeters in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagpal, J.S.; Popli, K.L.; Varadharajan, G.; Kher, R.K.; Venkataraman, G. (Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India). Div. of Radiological Protection)

    1994-01-01

    CaSO[sub 4]:Dy Teflon thermoluminscence dosemeters have been fabricated indigenously in continuous tape form. TL response of the tape dosemeters to [beta] and [gamma] radiations has been studied as a function of the dosemeter thickness to arrive at its optimum value. A single 80 mg.cm[sup -2] thick tape dosemeter (51 mm x 17 mm) along with a mica strip replaces the earlier use of three 200 mg.cm[sup -2] thick disc dosemeters for routine individual monitoring. The tape cards have been in field use for two and half years. The performance characteristics of the cards under laboratory and field conditions are discussed. Dose computation algorithms have been developed to give whole-body dose (mGy) and skin dose (mGy)for photons and [beta] radiation respectively from the TL outputs of three dosimetric elements under 1000 mg.cm[sup -2] Cu + Al composite filter, 180 mg.cm[sup -2] Perspex and an open region in a cardholder. Results of the Quality Assurance Programme, covering various TL monitoring stations in India, are also presented. Based on ANSI criteria, only one outlier was observed over the past seven years. (Author).

  10. Response of electret dosemeter to slow neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghilardi, A.J.P.; Pela, C.A.; Zimmerman, R.L.

    1987-01-01

    The response of the electret dosemeter to exposition of slow neutrons is studied. Different external coatings are used on the dosemeter (polyethylene, alminium, polyethylene + boron, aluminium + boron) and exposure curves (with and without water) are compared. (M.A.C.) [pt

  11. Development trends of radiophotoluminescent glass dosemeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikegami, T.

    2004-01-01

    RPL glass dosemeter has been recently recognized to have a good performance as accumulation dosemeter and has been routinely used for personal dosimetry and environmental radiation monitoring. Furthermore, its applicable field is being extending to medical radiation measurement. The history of RPL glass dosemeter is very long. It was born in USA in 1950s and after that it was improved in Japan. And it was used as personal dosemeter in 1970s. But, in those days, RPL glass dosemeter was not suitable to low dose measurement due to some handling problems. So, its use had been reduced gradually. The author has broken through any past problems, by mainly realizing the pulsed UV excitation method. In this paper, the development history, principle and features, and the development good results of the pulsed UV excitation method are summarized, including the introduction of recent RPL glass dosimetry products. (author)

  12. Fast neutron sensitivity of polymer dosemeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harper, M.W.; Pearson, D.W.; Moran, P.R.

    1975-01-01

    The responses of polymer thermocurrent dosemeters to fission spectrum and 14 MeV neutrons were measured. The dosemeters are in the form of disks 1 cm diam by 0.5 mm thick. Relative to Cobalt 60 gamma responses, teflon PTFE dosemeters show a 6 percent response to 14 MeV neutrons and a 5 percent response to fission neutrons on a tissue rad basis. Polymethylpentene dosemeters show a 49 percent response to 14 MeV neutrons and a 40 percent response to fission neutrons on a tissue rad basis when provided with adequate recoil proton buildup. The sensitivity of these dosemeters is limited to neutron doses greater than 10 rads by spurious background currents

  13. EDEL: ENEA dosemeter for eye lens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrari, Paolo; Mariotti, Francesca; Campani, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    Since the publication of International Commission on Radiological Protection statement in 2011 on tissue reaction, eye lens radiation protection played an important role in exposed personnel dosimetry. For this reason, the Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development (ENEA) Individual Monitoring Service decided to study a prototype to fulfil specific requests (e.g. for survey in interventional department and intercomparisons). On the basis of such preliminary investigation, a new eye lens dosemeter was developed. The new dosemeter, named EDEL (ENEA Dosemeter for Eye Lens), was characterised in terms of H p (3), the operational quantity related to eye lens monitoring. The investigation was performed experimentally and optimised using the Monte Carlo MCNP6 code. The new prototype was thought to fulfil two main requests: the reliability of the dosimetric data and the portability of the dosemeter itself. The new dosemeter will soon be supplied to the collaborating hospitals for workplace test measurements. (authors)

  14. New generation of ''legal'' dosemeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fletcher, R.

    1991-01-01

    In the early 1980s research at the National Radiological Protection Board in the UK proved the feasibility of using solid state electronics in an entirely new dosimetry technology - capable of reaching right down into the low energy photon ranges, and able to detect beta radiation. In 1988 the NRPB undertook a joint venture with Siemens Plessey Controls to develop a marketable personal dosemeter meeting full Health and Safety Executive approval as a ''legal'' instrument. The Electronic Personal Dosemeter (EPD) was thus conceived, and will reach the pre-production stage early this year. The EPD makes use of state-of-the-art silicon integrated circuit technology, with a custom amplifier and microprocessor system. The liquid crystal display continuously shows the accumulated short-term penetrating dose in terms of the Hp (10) unit, and can also show superficial dose and dose rates. Because the EPD must be continuously powered, the custom lithium battery was commissioned to ensure a minimum service interval of 12 months. The EPD is the size and weight of a small pocket pager. Although dose data can be read directly from the EPD, a comprehensive data management system is needed to effect real-life use in industry. The EPD thus communicates by infra-red link to a reader unit which interfaces an IBM-compatible PC, allowing authorized personnel to read the dose memories and perform dose alarm threshold settings. (author)

  15. Passive neutron dosemeter with activation detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valero L, C.; Banuelos F, A.; Guzman G, K. A.; Borja H, C. G.; Hernandez D, V. M.; Vega C, H. R., E-mail: fermineutron@yahoo.com [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Calle Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas (Mexico)

    2011-10-15

    A passive neutron dosemeter with {sup 197}Au activation detector has been developed. The area dosemeter was made as a 20.5 {phi} x 20.5 cm{sup 2} polyethylene moderator, with a polyethylene pug where a {sup 197}Au foil can be located either parallel or perpendicular to moderator axis. Using Monte Carlo methods, with the MCNP5 code. With the fluence response and the fluence-to-equivalent dose conversion coefficients from ICRP-74, responses to H*(10) were also calculated, these were compared against responses of commercially available neutron area monitors and dosemeters. (Author)

  16. Application of radiophotoluminescence dosemeters for environmental monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihara, A.; Tamura, T.; Mochizuki, T.; Numakunai, T.; Yoshida, Y.; Ohi, Y.

    1993-01-01

    Feasibility study has been made on the radiofluorescence glass (RPL) dosemeters for environmental radiation monitoring. Main items in the laboratory tests are batch uniformities of pre-dose and sensitivity, build-up characteristics of RPL intensity, energy and angular responses, stabilities for RPL reading, anneal cycling and climatic conditional changes. We have determined self-irradiation dose and cosmic ray contribution. Radiation monitoring field test for the RPL dosemeters has been conducted in comparison with the present TLD systems. A procedure manual for the environmental monitoring by the use of RPL dosemeters is in preparation

  17. Colour dosemeters for high level radiation dosimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schönbacher, H.; Coninckx, F.; Miller, A.

    1990-01-01

    interpretation or a dose measurement with a simple instrument such as a portable reflecting densitometer in the range of 10(3) to 10(6) Gy. Two projects were investigated: (1) a thin plastic film with a self adhesive tape containing a radiochromic dye which induces a colour change when exposed to ionising...... of paint and film dosemeters were installed in the 450 GeV Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) at CERN and irradiated during operation for more than two years. Within the useful range of the dosemeters, dose comparisons with other dosemeter types gave satisfactory results. Application in other fields...

  18. Study about the feasibility of using an electret dosemeter as a personal dosemeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leitao, I.P.

    1983-01-01

    A feasibility study of the electret dosemeters as a personnel dosemeter was carried out. Preliminary tests were applied, in order to assess the dosemeter response to radiation, linearity, stability, reproductibility, direcional dependence and energy dependence in energy range from 33 to 1250 KeV. In general the results are in agreement with the recommendations of the Commision of the European Communities (CEC) for the use of this device as a personnel dosemeter with the exception of the energy dependence and the stability at medium term. (Author) [pt

  19. The need for comparison of diagnostic dosemeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, H.M.

    1989-01-01

    One precondition for successfully implementing quality control in diagnostic radiology is that the measuring instruments used are of adequate quality. Among the measuring instruments used for quality control, dosemeters play a predominant role. Therefore it is essential to know the performance characteristics of a suitable dosemeter and to have information on the uncertainties and measurement errors found during acceptance testing. An outline will be given of the requirements on the accuracy of dosemeters. Such requirements have to address the task of the dosemeter and also take into account their technical feasibility. In order to gather information on the performance characteristics of field instruments, a programme for a European intercomparison has been developed which was carried out in 1988. The programme, together with its underlying ideas and its objectives, is presented in this paper. (author)

  20. Glass as a gamma ray dosemeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutrisno Puspodikoro.

    1978-01-01

    The advantages of glass as a γ-rays dosemeter are studied. Experiments have shown that ordinary microscope object glass can be used as a dosemeter, which dose range for linear response extends from about 10 4 -10 6 rads. Heat treatment of the irradiated samples accelerates the initial fading of coloration and stabilizes the residual optical density. On the other side cooling of them retards the initial fading. (author)

  1. Evaluation of film dosemeters by linear programming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kragh, P.; Nitschke, J.

    1992-01-01

    An evaluation method for multi-component dosemeters is described which uses linear programming in order to decrease the dependence on energy and direction. The results of this method are more accurate than those obtained with the evaluation methods so far applied in film dosimetry. In addition, systematic errors can be given when evaluating individual measurements. Combined linear programming, as a special case of the presented method, is described taking a film dosemeter of particular type as an example. (orig.) [de

  2. Needle-type differential thermoluminescent dosemeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubu, M.

    1988-01-01

    The dosemeter serves to measure the depth distribution of absorbed dose in a phantom in mixed neutron and gamma radiation fields. It consists of a stratified cylindrical absorber in which alternate moderator and cadmium layers. Inside are two bores along the longitudinal axis for tubes filled with 6 LiF and 7 LiF powder thermoluminescent dosemeters. The device is easily portable and allows to carry out measurements with a high level of reproducibility. (J.B.). 4 figs

  3. Personnel monitoring of radiations with thermoluminescent dosemeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miano, S.C.

    1987-01-01

    The basics of personnel dosimetry technics, used by the Radiologic Protetion and Assessorie Service (SAPRA) are presented, consisting on use of thermoluminescent and CaSO 4 :Dy monitors in aggregated pellets by Teflon. The characteristics of this dosemeters, relating to the sensitivity, energetic dependence, spike temperature, characteristic emission curve, decay and light effect are shown. The thermoluminescent dosemeter measure system and the personnel monitoring system are also described. (C.G.C.) [pt

  4. Payment Cards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kantnerová Liběna

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze the use of payment cards in retail in the Czech Republic from the side of clients (buyers and the side of sellers. Questionnaires for clients examine satisfaction with cards and the service connected with them. Sellers’ satisfaction with the profit and function of cards is analyzed. The data indicated that 92% of the 352 respondents in South Bohemia had a payment card and more than 35% had more than one card. In retail, 70% of sellers had a payment terminal.

  5. Results of the EURATOM programme for comparison of individual dosemeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Julius, H.W.

    1976-01-01

    The results of the EURATOM dosemeter comparison-program for dosemeters used in the member states are given. Especially the results obtained in the Netherlands are examined and evaluated. The design and characteristics of the badge developed by the TNO-RD which are based on a thermoluminescent dosemeter are given

  6. Photon energy dependence of three fortuitous dosemeters from personal electronic devices, measured by optically stimulated luminescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beerten, K.; Vanhavere, F.

    2010-01-01

    New data are presented with regard to the relative OSL sensitivity of three different emergency dosemeters irradiated to various photon energies approximately between 48 and 1250 keV using blue excitation light. Investigated components extracted from commonly worn objects include those from USB flash drives (alumina substrate), mobile phones (Ba-rich silicate) and credit cards (chip card module). Several basic properties have been investigated such as the overall radiation sensitivity, the shape of the decay curve and fading of the OSL signal. An increase of the sensitivity for low energies relative to 60 Co gamma rays can be observed for the three dosemeters, the increase being very pronounced for the Ba-rich component (factor of 10) and less pronounced for the chip card module (factor of 2). It is concluded that proper dose correction factors for photon energy have to be applied in order to accurately determine the absorbed dose to tissue. The OSL sensitivity to neutron irradiation was investigated as well, but this was found to be less than the gamma sensitivity. (authors)

  7. Photon energy dependence of three fortuitous dosemeters from personal electronic devices, measured by optically stimulated luminescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beerten, Koen; Vanhavere, Filip

    2010-08-01

    New data are presented with regard to the relative OSL sensitivity of three different emergency dosemeters irradiated to various photon energies approximately between 48 and 1250 keV using blue excitation light. Investigated components extracted from commonly worn objects include those from USB flash drives (alumina substrate), mobile phones (Ba-rich silicate) and credit cards (chip card module). Several basic properties have been investigated such as the overall radiation sensitivity, the shape of the decay curve and fading of the OSL signal. An increase of the sensitivity for low energies relative to (60)Co gamma rays can be observed for the three dosemeters, the increase being very pronounced for the Ba-rich component (factor of 10) and less pronounced for the chip card module (factor of 2). It is concluded that proper dose correction factors for photon energy have to be applied in order to accurately determine the absorbed dose to tissue. The OSL sensitivity to neutron irradiation was investigated as well, but this was found to be less than the gamma sensitivity.

  8. Calibrations of pocket dosemeters using a comparison method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somarriba V, I.

    1996-01-01

    This monograph is dedicated mainly to the calibration of pocket dosemeters. Various types of radiation sources used in hospitals and different radiation detectors with emphasis on ionization chambers are briefly presented. Calibration methods based on the use of a reference dosemeter were developed to calibrate all pocket dosemeters existing at the Radiation Physics and Metrology Laboratory. Some of these dosemeters were used in personnel dosimetry at hospitals. Moreover, a study was realized about factors that affect the measurements with pocket dosemeters in the long term, such as discharges due to cosmic radiation. A DBASE IV program was developed to store the information included in the hospital's registry

  9. A new extremity dosemeter for beta and gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinzelmann, M.; Pagenkamper, M.

    1988-01-01

    An extremity dosemeter developed at the Juelich Nuclear Research Centre is very well suited for the precise and energy-independent measurement of the skin dose generated by beta or gamma radiation. This is also confirmed by the results of this intercomparison programme. The dosemeter contains three TLDs of LiF in Teflon mounted behind a window of 0.9 mg/cm 2 . The great advantage of this dosemeter is three TLD's enabling statements about the radiation quality. However, the dosemeter has two disadvantages The dosemeter is complicated to manufacture. A very thin plastic foil of 0.9 mg/cm 2 must be attached to a support. This work is difficult and time-consuming and cannot be automated. The window in front of the TLD is not sturdy enough and is occasionally destroyed when the dosemeter is being worn. These two disadvantages prevent this extremity dosemeter from being used more frequently. For this reason, work was begun on developing a new extremity dosemeter without these two disadvantages. The great advantage of the previous dosemeter of obtaining statements about the type of radiation with the aid of readings from three TLD's was to be retained. The improved extremity dosemeter has a more sturdy and thicker window with a similar response as the previous dosemeter with a thinner window

  10. Unbiased metal oxide semiconductor ionising radiation dosemeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumurdjian, N.; Sarrabayrouse, G.J.

    1995-01-01

    To assess the application of MOS devices as low dose rate dosemeters, the sensitivity is the major factor although little studies have been performed on that subject. It is studied here, as well as thermal stability and linearity of the response curve. Other advantages are specified such as large measurable dose range, low cost, small size, possibility of integration. (D.L.)

  11. Using operational equipment to read accident dosemeters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devine, R T; Vigil, M M; Martinez, W A

    2004-01-01

    Analysis of accident dosemeters usually involves the use of laboratory-based counting equipment. Gamma spectrometers are used for indium, copper and gold, and alpha-beta detectors for sulphur. This equipment is usually not easily transported due to the shielding required and the weight and delicacy of the counters. For intercomparison studies that require reading the dosemeters on site, a transportable system is required unless the site operating the study can count samples for all the participants. In the case of an actual accident these systems would have a difficulty in counting a large number of accident dosemeters. In an accident, personnel are usually subdivided according to their level of exposure. Those exposed to higher doses are treated immediately. An alternate system should be made available to handle the dosemeters worn by those personnel are likely to receive lower doses. Improvements in portable operational equipment for gamma and beta monitoring allow their use as spectrometers. Such a system was used for the SILENE intercomparison conducted at IRSN Valduc on 12 June and 19, 2002, and the preliminary results compared well with the other participants.

  12. Playing the Smart Card.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuzack, Christine A.

    1997-01-01

    Enhanced magnetic strip cards and "smart cards" offer varied service options to college students. Enhanced magnetic strip cards serve as cash cards and provide access to services. Smart cards, which resemble credit cards but contain a microchip, can be used as phone cards, bus passes, library cards, admission tickets, point-of-sale debit…

  13. Wallet Card

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The CMS Office of Information Products and Data Analysis, OIPDA, produces the CMS Wallet Card as a quick reference statistical summary on annual CMS program and...

  14. The NRPB automated thermoluminescent dosemeter and dose record keeping system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dennis, J.A.; Marshall, T.O.; Shaw, K.B.

    1975-03-01

    This report describes the thermoluminescent personal radiation dosemeter and its associated automated processing equipment, which are being developed by the National Radiological Protection Board, together with the operation of a computerised dosemeter issue and record keeping system. The main justifications for introducing these systems are improvements in the organizational efficiency of the maintenance of individual dose records, a more flexible and accurate dosimetry system, and economics in operational costs. The dosemeter is based on a numbered aluminium plate containing two lithium fluoride in polytetrafluorethylene disks for the measurement of surface and body dose. This dosemeter is wrapped in thin plastic and labelled with the wearer's name and address. On return, the dosemeter is checked automatically for radioactive contamination; it is unwrapped and evaluated; the dose readings are included in the wearer's stored dose record; the dosemeter is annealed and is then available for re-issue to another wearer. Dose reports and warnings are automatically issued to the wearer or his employer. (author)

  15. Factors affecting polyamide prototypes design of Albedo dosemeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, M.M.; Mauricio, C.L.P.; Fonseca, E.S.

    1996-01-01

    This work studies the most important factors which affect the response of albedo neutron dosemeters containing LiF TLDs with the aim to improve their sensitivity. It includes tests of thickness and shape of the polyamide moderator body prototypes, albedo window diameter and TLD position inside the moderator. Analyzing the results, an albedo neutron dosemeter prototype, B 4 C covered, was developed. The prototype has a response three times higher than the albedo dosemeter now in use in Brazil. (author)

  16. The MCNP-4C2 design of a two element photon/electron dosemeter that uses magnesium/copper/phosphorus doped lithium fluoride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eakins, J S; Bartlett, D T; Hager, L G; Molinos-Solsona, C; Tanner, R J

    2008-01-01

    The Health Protection Agency is changing from using detectors made from 7LiF:Mg,Ti in its photon/electron personal dosemeters, to 7LiF:Mg,Cu,P. Specifically, the Harshaw TLD-700H card is to be adopted. As a consequence of this change, the dosemeter holder is also being modified not only to accommodate the shape of the new card, but also to optimize the photon and electron response characteristics of the device. This redesign process was achieved using MCNP-4C2 and the kerma approximation, electron range/energy tables with additional electron transport calculations, and experimental validation, with different potential filters compared; the optimum filter studied was a polytetrafluoroethylene disc of diameter 18 mm and thickness 4.3 mm. Calculated relative response characteristics at different angles of incidence and energies between 16 and 6174 keV are presented for this new dosemeter configuration and compared with measured type-test results. A new estimate for the energy-dependent relative light conversion efficiency appropriate to the 7LiF:Mg,Cu,P was also derived for determining the correct dosemeter response.

  17. Thermoluminescence dosemeter for personal dose equivalent assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, T.A. da; Rosa, L.A.R. da; Campos, L.L.

    1995-01-01

    The possibility was investigated of utilising a Brazilian thermoluminescence individual dosemeter, usually calibrated in terms of photon dose equivalent, for the assessment of the personal dose equivalent, H p (d), at depths of 0.07 and 10 mm. The dosemeter uses four CaSO 4 :Dy thermoluminescent detectors, between different filters, as the sensitive materials. It was calibrated in gamma and X radiation fields in the energy range from 17 to 1250 keV. Linear combinations of the responses of three detectors, in this energy range, allow the evaluation of H p (0.07) and H p (10), for radiation incidence angles varying from 0 to 60 degrees, with an accuracy better than 35%. The method is not applicable to mixed photon-beta fields. (author)

  18. Energy dependence of pMOS dosemeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savic, Z.; Stankovic, S.; Kovacevic, M.; Petrovic, M.

    1996-01-01

    The results are presented of experimental work and numerical simulations of the energy response for pMOS dosimetric transistors in their custom packages. Specially produced radiation soft pMOS transistors were used in this experimental work. The irradiation of pMOS dosemeters was done using 60 Co and 137 Cs sources, a dosimetric X ray unit, and a radiotherapeutic linear accelerator in the range of photon energies from 21 keV to 8 MeV. The results show that package geometry and materials can significantly affect and smooth the energy dependence of pMOS transistors and that in custom transistor packages they are not tissue-equivalent dosemeters. Their response in the photon energy range of 45 to 250 keV is significantly larger than it should be (maximum dose enhancement factor can be as high as 8) and some energy compensation techniques must be used in order to fulfill the requirements of corresponding standards. (Author)

  19. Personal radiation monitoring with thermoluminescent dosemeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miano, S.C.

    1987-01-01

    The technique of personal dosimetry used by SAPRA (Servico de Assessoria e Protecao Radiologica S/C Ltda., Brazil) is presented. Thermoluminescent monitors and CaSO 4 : Dy are used in pastilles united by teflon. Characteristics of the dosemeters are briefly reported. The system of thermoluminescent measurement, designed and constructed by SAPRA, and the system of personal monitoring are described. (M.A.C.) [pt

  20. A personal dosemeter of radon daughter products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burian, I.; Richter, M.; Ochec, J.; Dohnal, J.

    1990-01-01

    The OD 88 personal dosemeter for radon daughter products uses an alpha particle track detector and is of active type, with forced air aspiration through the detecting system. The pumping device consists of a miniature membrane pump and an electronic speed controller. The air flow rate is little affected by normal changes in supply voltage and/or pneumatic resistance of the pump circuit. The dosemeter is embedded in a miner's lamp and is fed from its accumulator battery. The pumping device is activated as the lamp is taken out of the charger and deactivated as it is slid into the charger again. The dosemeter head accommodates an AFPC filter on which the radon daughter products deposit. The energy of the alpha particles is reduced by an air layer and a Makrofol decelerating foil. The particles hitting the detector give rise to defects with an intensity proportional to the total linear stopping power at the moment of incidence; ideal tracks 10 μm in size require incident energy of 1.1 to 1.3 MeV. The detector is replaced in a month and worked up in an etching vessel, making use of the higher solubility of the detecting layer of the foil in NaOH at the spot of the alpha particle incidence. (P.A.). 4 figs., 17 refs

  1. Fingerprint matching on smart card: A review

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Baruni, Kedimotse P

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Fingerprint Match-on-Card (MoC) offers the highest degree of privacy and security to cardholders as the fingerprint never leaves the secure environment of a smart card. The level of security of a biometric system is evaluated by the location where...

  2. EURADOS intercomparison 2012 for neutron dosemeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fantuzzi, E.; Chevallier, M.A.; Cruz-Suarez, R.; Luszik-Bhadra, M.; Mayer, S.; Thomas, D.J.; Tanner, R.; Vanhavere, F.

    2014-11-01

    EURADOS, within the work performed by Working Group 2 - Harmonization of Individual Monitoring in Europe, has started a self-sustained programme of regular intercomparisons and has successfully executed three intercomparisons for whole body photon dosemeters (IC2008, IC2010, IC2012) and one intercomparison for extremity dosemeters for photon and beta fields (IC2009). In 2012, the EURADOS intercomparison IC2012n was launched for personal neutron dosemeters routinely used to measure personal dose equivalent, Hp(10), in individual monitoring. No systems under development were allowed to participate. IC2012n was carried out by a EURADOS nominated Organization Group (OG) consisting of: Marie- Anne Chevallier (IRSN, F), Rodolfo Cruz-Suarez (IAEA, UN-Vienna), Marlies Luszik-Bhadra (PTB, D), Sabine Mayer (PSI, CH), David J. Thomas (NPL, UK), Rick Tanner (PHE, UK), Filip Vanhavere (SCK-CEN, B) led by a Coordinator, Elena Fantuzzi (ENEA, I). 31 participants registered for the comparison, with 34 dosimetry systems. In total 816 dosemeters were irradiated in selected neutron fields on an ISO slab phantom. The irradiations were performed at 2 European accredited laboratories which are both National Primary Metrology Laboratories for ionizing radiation: NPL (National Physical Laboratory, UK) and PTB (Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, D). All irradiations were carried out according to the irradiation plan developed by the OG. The overall results show that most, although not all, dosimetric systems perform acceptably well (within a factor of 2) for irradiations with a bare radionuclide source ( 252 Cf at 0 ), whilst more than half of the systems underestimate the reference value for irradiations from non-normal angles of incidence irradiations ( 252 Cf at 45 ) or for simulated workplace fields ( 252 Cf(D 2 O) or 252 Cf source behind a shadow cone). The performance for 250 keV mono-energetic neutron irradiations varies mainly reflecting the detection principle on which the

  3. EURADOS intercomparison 2012 for neutron dosemeters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fantuzzi, E. [ENEA-Radiation Protection Institute, Bologna (Italy); Chevallier, M.A. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Cruz-Suarez, R. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria); Luszik-Bhadra, M. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig (Germany); Mayer, S. [Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Thomas, D.J. [National Physical Laboratory (NPL), Teddington (United Kingdom); Tanner, R. [Public Health England, Oxon (United Kingdom); Vanhavere, F. [SCK-CEN, Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, Mol (Belgium)

    2014-11-15

    EURADOS, within the work performed by Working Group 2 - Harmonization of Individual Monitoring in Europe, has started a self-sustained programme of regular intercomparisons and has successfully executed three intercomparisons for whole body photon dosemeters (IC2008, IC2010, IC2012) and one intercomparison for extremity dosemeters for photon and beta fields (IC2009). In 2012, the EURADOS intercomparison IC2012n was launched for personal neutron dosemeters routinely used to measure personal dose equivalent, Hp(10), in individual monitoring. No systems under development were allowed to participate. IC2012n was carried out by a EURADOS nominated Organization Group (OG) consisting of: Marie- Anne Chevallier (IRSN, F), Rodolfo Cruz-Suarez (IAEA, UN-Vienna), Marlies Luszik-Bhadra (PTB, D), Sabine Mayer (PSI, CH), David J. Thomas (NPL, UK), Rick Tanner (PHE, UK), Filip Vanhavere (SCK-CEN, B) led by a Coordinator, Elena Fantuzzi (ENEA, I). 31 participants registered for the comparison, with 34 dosimetry systems. In total 816 dosemeters were irradiated in selected neutron fields on an ISO slab phantom. The irradiations were performed at 2 European accredited laboratories which are both National Primary Metrology Laboratories for ionizing radiation: NPL (National Physical Laboratory, UK) and PTB (Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, D). All irradiations were carried out according to the irradiation plan developed by the OG. The overall results show that most, although not all, dosimetric systems perform acceptably well (within a factor of 2) for irradiations with a bare radionuclide source ({sup 252}Cf at 0 ), whilst more than half of the systems underestimate the reference value for irradiations from non-normal angles of incidence irradiations ({sup 252}Cf at 45 ) or for simulated workplace fields ({sup 252}Cf(D{sub 2}O) or {sup 252}Cf source behind a shadow cone). The performance for 250 keV mono-energetic neutron irradiations varies mainly reflecting the detection

  4. Smart Card

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Floarea NASTASE

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Reforms in electronic business have presented new opportunities to use smart card technology as an enabling tool. The network-centric applications, where resources are located throughout the Internet and access to them is possible from any location, require authenticated access and secured transactions. Smart cards represent an ideal solution: they offers an additional layer of electronic security and information assurance for user authentication, confidentiality, non-repudiation, information integrity, physical access control to facilities, and logical access control to an computer systems.

  5. Dosemeter calibration in X-ray and in cobalt-60

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, T.A. da

    1988-01-01

    Some tests about quality security for clinical dosemeter calibration in secondary standard dosimetry laboratory are described. The tests in gama calibration system, in X-ray calibration, in secondary standard dosimeter, in the dosemeter that will be calibrated, during the calibration and after the calibration are shown. (C.G.C.) [pt

  6. A smart card based student card system

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    M.Sc. A Smart Card looks like a normal plastic card that we use every day, but its capabilities and advantages are huge. Inside the card there is a small microprocessor capable of doing operations on data. With memory available on the card, data can be stored in a safe and secure location. This card can be used for various applications and is a big improvement on all of its predecessors. These applications can be anything from SIM cards in a cell phone to credit cards and cards used for ac...

  7. A new, passive dosemeter for gamma, beta and neutron radiations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, L A; Stokes, R P, E-mail: rpstokes@dstl.gov.uk [Defence Science and Technology Laboratory, Environmental Sciences Department, Alverstoke, Gosport, Hants, PO12 2DL (United Kingdom)

    2011-03-01

    The Defence Science and Technology Laboratory (Dstl) provides personal radiation dosimetry to the UK Ministry of Defence. Dstl has recently developed a dosemeter that is based on a combination of thermoluminescent and etched-track detectors. The Dstl Combined Dosemeter is capable of assessing doses due to photons, beta particles and neutrons. This paper presents the laboratory type testing results for the Combined Dosemeter, and also describes the procedure for calibrating the dosemeter for use in workplace neutron fields. The Combined Dosemeter meets the type test requirements that are relevant to its intended applications, and gives neutron doses that are within 50% of the true dose in the workplaces in which it is used, even when the wearer has the potential to be exposed to a variety of neutron spectra (e.g. on board nuclear-powered submarines).

  8. A new, passive dosemeter for gamma, beta and neutron radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, L A; Stokes, R P

    2011-01-01

    The Defence Science and Technology Laboratory (Dstl) provides personal radiation dosimetry to the UK Ministry of Defence. Dstl has recently developed a dosemeter that is based on a combination of thermoluminescent and etched-track detectors. The Dstl Combined Dosemeter is capable of assessing doses due to photons, beta particles and neutrons. This paper presents the laboratory type testing results for the Combined Dosemeter, and also describes the procedure for calibrating the dosemeter for use in workplace neutron fields. The Combined Dosemeter meets the type test requirements that are relevant to its intended applications, and gives neutron doses that are within 50% of the true dose in the workplaces in which it is used, even when the wearer has the potential to be exposed to a variety of neutron spectra (e.g. on board nuclear-powered submarines).

  9. Calibration procedures for mammography dosemeters in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gwiazdowska, B.; Ulkowski, P.; Tolwinski, J.; Bulski, W.

    2002-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequent tumour in women and the effectiveness of the treatment depends dramatically on the early detection of the disease. That is the reason why in Poland the mammography control examinations are strongly supported by the Centre of Oncology. In Poland there are over 400 mammography units which account for about 300,000 examinations per year. An investigation performed by the Medical Physics Department of the Centre of Oncology in Warsaw at about 100 mammography facilities proved that in most cases the doses absorbed by the patients could be reduced without decrease of image quality. This is one of the reasons why the Polish Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory (SSDL) dealing mainly with calibration of radiotherapy dosemeters is extending its activities and therefore new facilities and equipment adapted for calibration of mammographic dosemeters have been installed. The mammography dosimetry calibration equipment is permanently installed in the same laboratory room where the radiotherapy dosemeters are calibrated. A base of a mammography unit no longer in clinical use, together with its movable system has been adapted to handle ionization chamber holders. An X-ray tube with a 50 kV high frequency generator was also installed. The tube, a Varian type OEG-50-2, (designed for laboratory applications) with molybdenum anode of an anode angle 23,7 deg. and with a large focus, effective size approximately 5 mm 2 , has an inherent filtration of 0,25 mm beryllium. It is installed in a housing with 2mm lead shielding; a cone shaped beam is formed by a system of three collimators

  10. Comparing different error-conditions in film dosemeter evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roed, H.; Figel, M.

    2007-01-01

    In the evaluation of a film used as a personal dosemeter it may be necessary to mark the dosemeters when possible error-conditions are recognised, such as errors that have an influence on the ability to make a correct evaluation of the dose value. In this project a comparison has been carried out to examine how two individual monitoring services, IMS [National Inst. of Radiation Hygiene (Denmark) (NIRH) and National Research Centre for Environment and Health (Germany) (GSF)], from two different EU countries mark their dosemeters. The IMS are different in size, type of customers and issuing period, but both use films as their primary dosemeters. The error-conditions examined are dosemeters exposed to moisture or light, contaminated dosemeters, films exposed outside the badge, missing filters in the badge, films inserted incorrectly in the badge and dosemeters not returned or returned too late to the IMS. The data are collected for the year 2003 where NIRH evaluated ∼50,000 and GSF ∼1.4 million film dosemeters. The percentage of film dosemeters is calculated for each error-condition as well as the distribution among eight different employee categories, i.e. medicine, nuclear medicine, nuclear industry, industry, radiography, laboratories, veterinary and others. It turned out, that incorrect insertion of the film in the badge was the most common error-condition observed at both IMS and that veterinarians, as the employee category, generally have the highest number of errors. NIRH has a significantly higher relative number of dosemeters in most error-conditions than GSF, which perhaps reflects that a comparison is difficult due to different systemic and methodical differences between the IMS and countries, e.g. regulations and monitoring programs etc. Also the non-existence of a common categorisation method for employee categories contributes to make a comparison like this difficult. (authors)

  11. Characteristics and performances of electronic personal dosemeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aubert, B.

    2002-01-01

    The regulations have made obligation for 2 years to measure and analyse the amounts of radiations actually received during an operation. The whole of these measurements taken uninterrupted for an immediate reading is indicated like the operational dosimetry, which is carried out with the means of personal electronic dosemeters. This study analyses the legislation relating to this type of dosimetry as well as the requirements in medical environment, and presents an assessment of the characteristics and performances of the devices available on the French market at the beginning of 2002 starting from the information provided by the various manufacturers. (author)

  12. Individual dosemeter with ionization chamber for intervention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prigent, M.

    1982-01-01

    The altogether intervention ratemeter-dosemeter is a device for work condition control and for dosimetry of intervention gang in hostile medium. A portable irradiation marker with ionization chamber either carried by staff, either put at the work post, delivers an information function of the surrounding irradiation field in which moves the intervention staff. The information is processed so as the absorbed dose rate and the absorbed dose are given simultaneously. The connection between the marker and the process device is made by a cable (up to 100m) or by radio link [fr

  13. Smart Cards and Card Operating Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartel, Pieter H.; Bartlett, J.; de Jong, Eduard K.

    The operating system of an IC card should provide an appropriate interface to applications using IC cards. An incorrect choice of operations and data renders the card inefficient and cumbersome. The design principles of the UNIX operating system are most appropriate for IC card operating system

  14. Improvement of personal dosimetry - Digital pocket dosemeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radalj, Z.; Cerovac, Z.; Cerovac, H.; Brumen, V.; Prlic, I.

    1996-01-01

    Physical dosimetric surveillance of professional groups working with various radiation sources is a regular procedure in Croatia, established almost 40 years ago. Data available point out that the majority of professionals under surveillance are those employed in medical facilities, most of them working with X-ray sources. Depending on the nature of professional activities, personnel occupationally exposed to radiation sources are obliged to wear either film badge, TLD or film+TLD badge. Unfortunately, due to the line of data processing, all standard dosemeters have the same disadvantage i.e. up to 40 days delay in dose reporting, regarding the time of actual exposure. The significance of such a delay raises in cases when radiation dose was received within the short time or when technical failure on the operating unit(s) is suspected. Bearing this in mind, the additional dosimetric monitoring becomes an imperative. Therefore, we decided to introduce a palette of digital pocket dosemeters, meant to be used in different workplaces in the radiation zone, each of them being adjusted to the specificities of a particular workplace

  15. A neutron dosemeter for nuclear criticality accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Errico, F; Curzio, G; Ciolini, R; Del Gratta, A; Nath, R

    2004-01-01

    A neutron dosemeter which offers instant read-out has been developed for nuclear criticality accidents. The system is based on gels containing emulsions of superheated dichlorodifluoromethane droplets, which vaporise into bubbles upon neutron irradiation. The expansion of these bubbles displaces an equivalent volume of gel into a graduated pipette, providing an immediate measure of the dose. Instant read-out is achieved using an array of transmissive optical sensors which consist of coupled LED emitters and phototransistor receivers. When the gel displaced in the pipette crosses the sensing region of the photomicrosensors, it generates a signal collected on a computer through a dedicated acquisition board. The performance of the device was tested during the 2002 International Accident Dosimetry Intercomparison in Valduc, France. The dosemeter was able to follow the initial dose gradient of a simulated accident, providing accurate values of neutron kerma; however, the emulsion was rapidly depleted of all its drops. A model of the depletion effects was developed and it indicates that an adequate dynamic range of the dose response can be achieved by using emulsions of smaller droplets.

  16. Energy dependence of pMOS dosemeters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savic, Z. [Military Technical Institute, Belgrade (Yugoslavia); Stankovic, S.; Kovacevic, M.; Petrovic, M. [Institute of Nuclear Sciences, Belgrade (Yugoslavia). Radiation Protection Dept.

    1996-10-01

    The results are presented of experimental work and numerical simulations of the energy response for pMOS dosimetric transistors in their custom packages. Specially produced radiation soft pMOS transistors were used in this experimental work. The irradiation of pMOS dosemeters was done using {sup 60}Co and {sup 137}Cs sources, a dosimetric X ray unit, and a radiotherapeutic linear accelerator in the range of photon energies from 21 keV to 8 MeV. The results show that package geometry and materials can significantly affect and smooth the energy dependence of pMOS transistors and that in custom transistor packages they are not tissue-equivalent dosemeters. Their response in the photon energy range of 45 to 250 keV is significantly larger than it should be (maximum dose enhancement factor can be as high as 8) and some energy compensation techniques must be used in order to fulfill the requirements of corresponding standards. (Author).

  17. A neutron dosemeter for nuclear criticality accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Errico, F.; Curzio, G.; Ciolini, R.; Del Gratta, A.; Nath, R.

    2004-01-01

    A neutron dosemeter which offers instant read-out has been developed for nuclear criticality accidents. The system is based on gels containing emulsions of superheated dichlorodifluoromethane droplets, which vaporise into bubbles upon neutron irradiation. The expansion of these bubbles displaces an equivalent volume of gel into a graduated pipette, providing an immediate measure of the dose. Instant read-out is achieved using an array of transmissive optical sensors which consist of coupled LED emitters and phototransistor receivers. When the gel displaced in the pipette crosses the sensing region of the photo microsensors, it generates a signal collected on a computer through a dedicated acquisition board. The performance of the device was tested during the 2002 International Accident Dosimetry Intercomparison in Valduc (France)). The dosemeter was able to follow the initial dose gradient of a simulated accident, providing accurate values of neutron kerma; however, the emulsion was rapidly depleted of all its drops. A model of the depletion effects was developed and it indicates that an adequate dynamic range of the dose response can be achieved by using emulsions of smaller droplets. (authors)

  18. The new IRSN passive dosemeter using the RPL technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraboulet, P.; Cale, E.; Itie, C.; Bottollier-Depois, Jean-Francois

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN) is the French public organisation in charge of research and expertise into nuclear safety and radiation protection. IRSN provides also services in these areas like dosimetric survey for 150,000 workers liable to be exposed to ionising radiation. At present whole-body dosemeters provided by the IRSN laboratory for photons and beta-particles are based on photographic films. In order to anticipate likely supplying decrease and to improve the service, IRSN has decided to replace photographic films by dosemeters based on the radio-photoluminescence (RPL) technology, supplied by the Japanese Company Chiyoda Technol. RPL was chosen after a thorough comparison with other available passive techniques (thermoluminescent dosemeters: TLD, and optically stimulated luminescence: OSL). Constraints due to large-scale production of dosemeters (packaging, shipping, etc.) were taken into account as well. Irradiation tests for five different dosemeters, based on the 3 available techniques (TLD, OSL, RPL) were performed. The main results of these tests are presented (energy, dose and angular response, detection threshold, etc.) together with main technical characteristics of the new RPL dosemeter (range in energy and dose, homogeneity, reproducibility, re-reading, information about radiation type from reading, etc.). This dosemeter is expected to give significative improvements in the IRSN laboratory's provision of service thanks to better dosimetric performances and because it offers the possibility to get information to analyse over-exposure circumstances. (author)

  19. Dosimetric characteristics of a TLD dosemeter with extremities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molina P, D.; Diaz B, E.; Lien V, R.

    1999-01-01

    It was designed a TLD dosemeter for the monitoring of the extremities. This one consists in a metallic ring with a circular orifice where is arranged a T L detector of LiF: Mg,Ti (Model JR1152C) 5 x 5 x 0.8 mm 3 covered by a polyethylene fine layer. In this work were studied the dosimetric properties of the dosemeter for its application in the dosimetry of extremities for photonic radiation. the results obtained allow conclude that the designed dosemeter can be used for the extremities monitoring. (Author)

  20. Characteristics of dosemeter types for skin dose measurements in practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van, D. J.; Bosmans, H.; Marchal, G.; Wambersie, A.

    2005-01-01

    A growing number of papers report deterministic effects in the skin of patients who have undergone interventional radiological procedures. Dose measurements, and especially skin dose measurements, are therefore increasingly important. Methods and acceptable dosemeters are, however, not clearly defined. This paper is the result of a literature overview with regard to assessing the entrance skin dose during radiological examinations by putting a dosemeter on the patient's skin. The relevant intrinsic characteristics, as well as some examples of clinical use of the different detector types, are presented. In this respect, thermoluminescence, scintillation, semiconductor and film dosemeters are discussed and compared with respect to their practical use. (authors)

  1. Environmental radiation measurements using lithium fluoride thermoluminescence dosemeters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Driscoll, C.M.H.; Green, B.M.R.; McKinlay, A.F.; Richards, D.J. (National Radiological Protection Board, Harwell (UK))

    1984-01-01

    The National Radiological Protection Board is involved in a large scale environmental survey of radiation levels in homes throughout the United Kingdom. Passive radon and gamma ray dosemeters are posted to a representative sample of households. Lithium fluoride thermoluminescence dosemeters are used to assess natural gamma radiation and are left in the measurement location for a period of six months before being returned to the Board for processing. As a preliminary to the national survey, the Board has been engaged on several limited surveys in regions of igneous and sedimentary geology. Experience gained in these limited surveys and from standardisation studies using environmental dosemeters are reported.

  2. Dosimertry characteristics and performance comparisons: Environmental radiophotoluminescent glass dosemeters versus thermoluminescent dosemeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.H.; Lin, M.S.; Hsu, S.M.; Chen, I.J.; Chen, W.L.; Wang, C.F.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the dosimetry characteristic comparison of environmental radiophotoluminescent glass dosemeter (RPLGD) and thermoluminescent dosemeter (TLD) systems employed at the Institute of Nuclear Energy Research (INER, Taiwan). The luminescence centers of TLD disappeared by reading process, and repetition of measurement is impossible. RPLGDs can be repeatedly read and keep the luminescence centers for a long time. The RPLGD fading is about 1% within 30 days after being exposed to ionizing radiation. Environmental cumulative doses measured by a RPLGD and a TLD were compared at the same monitoring points of INER during two years. The sensitivity of TLD decreased with gradual loss due to fading at higher temperatures. The difference between results obtained by RPLGD and TLD is discussed mainly with respect to the dependence on the ambient temperature. In addition, this research also refers to the American National Standard Institute (ANSI) Draft Standard N13.29 (1996) to organize the environmental dosimetry performance tests of the INER's RPLGDs and the TLDs. The results mean that both kinds of dosemeters can meet the performance test criteria. An accreditation procedure for the institutes which provide the environmental dosimetry services in Taiwan was suggested based on the comparison results of these two dosimetry systems

  3. Active electronic personal dosemeter in interventional radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prlic, I.; Suric Mihic, M.; Vucic, Z.

    2008-01-01

    A recently developed active electronic personal dosemeter (AEPD) was utilised in order to measure the levels and the structure of occupational exposure to scattered X-ray radiation of medical staff who performed percutaneous revascularisation therapy that involves interventional radiology (IR) on the pelvis and upper leg arteries. The AEPDs, placed on the operators' and assistants' chests, that is, above the protective apron, continuously measured and recorded the received doses and, as a novelty, dose rates as a function of time, thus yielding a unique record of occupational doses and dose rates pattern at the working place. This paper presents and discusses one typical daily pattern in which seven percutaneous interventions were performed. (authors)

  4. International images: business cards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaston, S; Pucci, J

    1991-01-01

    Nursing specialists engage in a variety of international professional activities. Business cards are an important aspect of establishing a professional image. This article presents recommended business card contents, international etiquette, card design and production, and cared innovations.

  5. Calibration of Far West Technology (FWT-60) radiachromic dye dosemeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mincher, B.J.; Zaidi, M.K.

    1992-01-01

    Radiachromic dye dosimetry was used to measure kilogray doses absorbed by various liquid samples during gamma-ray exposure in a spent nuclear fuel pool. The source of nuclear fuel was the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Calibrations were performed using a 60 Co source and were run on bare dosemeters, as well as on dosemeters which mocked to simulate the samples. These dosemeters were prepared as a dye-impregnated nylon film and are commercially available. When exposed to gamma-ray doses of 0.5 to 200 kGy, a color change occurs which has an optical density proportional to absorbed dose. The difference in the calibration curves demonstrated the importance of irradiation of dosemeters under conditions as close to the actual samples as possible. Since these dosemeters could not be immersed directly in the organic solutions of interest, they were sandwiched between layers of lucite and stainless steel. This simulated the conditions inside an irradiated sample and provides a practical method of measuring absorbed doses. The reproducibility of measurements using the radiachromic dye dosemeters is also shown. 10 refs

  6. A CR-39 track dosemeter for routine individual neutron monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luszik-Bhadra, M.; Alberts, W.G.; Dietz, E.; Guldbakke, S.; Matzke, M.; d'Errico, F.

    1994-01-01

    A personal neutron dosemeter for routine individual monitoring is proposed. It is based on a CR-39 track detector covered on three separate areas by converters with different boron contents and inserted into a commercial TLD albedo dosemeter capsule. The dose readings from three areas of the electrochemically etched CR-39 detector are combined to yield a dose equivalent response which is almost independent of the incident neutron energy in the range from thermal neutrons up to 20 MeV. In addition, the dose contributions of thermal, intermediate and fast neutrons can be determined separately. Unlike the TLD albedo dosemeter, which in general requires prior in-field calibration and whose use is then restricted to that field, this dosemeter can be used in neutron fields without any knowledge of the spectral distribution with the same calibration factor. The angular dependence of the dosemeter's response has been measured and compared with that of the directional dose equivalent H'(10). The lower limit of detection is 0.15 mSv. It is possible to obtain an independent, second dose reading from the same Cr-39 detector for neutron energies above 100 keV. The dosemeter has also been successfully tested for use in accident dosimetry applying chemical etching and an optical density reading of the CR-39 detector. (author)

  7. Optical readout method for solid-state dosemeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, J.C.; Eichner, F.N.; Stahl, K.A.; Miller, S.D.

    1986-07-01

    The readout of solid-state dosemeters is usually accomplished by heating to produce thermoluminescence. This technique has several disadvantages including stressing the dosemeter crystals, melting Teflon enclosures, and destroying the thin dosemeters designed for beta particle measurements. An optical readout method is being developed to avoid these difficulties. Standard dosemeters were irradiated to a dose of approximately 0.02 Sv with 137 Cs gamma rays. The dosemeters were then irradiated with light produced by a high-intensity xenon lamp. Various wavelength bands, from the ultraviolet through the visible and to the near-infrared, were used. The degree of trap emptying was found to be proportional to the total optical power incident. With the intensities used in the preliminary experiments, over 90% trap emptying was achieved. This new technique will prove useful for dosemeters that are encased in plastic for automatic processing. The details of this optical readout method, along with some possible applications in neutron and beta dosimetry are described. 7 refs., 3 figs

  8. Calibration of clinical dosemeters in the IAEA water phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldas, L.V.E.; Albuquerque, M.P.P.

    1994-01-01

    The procedures recommended by the IAEA Code of Practice were applied at the Calibration Laboratory of Sao Paulo in order to provide in the future the clinical dosemeters users with absorbed dose to water calibration factors for Cobalt 60 radiation beams. In this work the clinical dosemeters were calibrated free in air and in water, and the results were compared, using conversion factors. The several tested clinical dosemeters of different manufacturers and models belong to the laboratory and to hospitals. For the measurements in water the IAEA cubic water phantom was used. The dosemeters were all calibrated free in air in terms of air kerma, and the calibration factors in terms of absorbed dose to water were obtained through conversion factors. the same dosemeters were also calibrated into the water phantom. Good agreement was found between the two methods, the differences were always less than 0.5%. The data obtained during this work show that when the dosemeters are used only in Cobalt 60 radiation and the users apply in the hospital routine work the IAEA Code of Practice, the calibration can be performed directly in the water phantom. This procedure provides the useful calibration factors in terms of absorbed dose to water

  9. Prediction analysis of dose equivalent responses of neutron dosemeters used at a MOX fuel facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsujimura, N.; Yoshida, T.; Takada, C.

    2011-01-01

    To predict how accurately neutron dosemeters can measure the neutron dose equivalent (rate) in MOX fuel fabrication facility work environments, the dose equivalent responses of neutron dosemeters were calculated by the spectral folding method. The dosemeters selected included two types of personal dosemeter, namely a thermoluminescent albedo neutron dosemeter and an electronic neutron dosemeter, three moderator-based neutron survey meters, and one special instrument called an H p (10) monitor. The calculations revealed the energy dependences of the responses expected within the entire range of neutron spectral variations observed in neutron fields at workplaces. (authors)

  10. Evaluation of personal dosemeters and comparative measurements performed by PTB in the years 1979 through 1984. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehm, J.; Buchholz, G.

    1986-01-01

    Comparison measurements of the official individual dosemeters performed in the PTB from 1979 to 1984 are described. Also a number of other, unofficial individual dosemeters participated. The performance of the comparison measurements and the types of the individual dosemeters are described. Tables show the values measured with the film dosemeters, with film and TLD dosemeters, and TLD dosemeters as well as dosimetric probes for whole-body and partial body dose measurement. (DG) [de

  11. Development of radiophotometric dosemeters of high sensitivity using plastic scintillators as light intensifiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mesquita, C.H. de; Hamada, M.M.

    1987-01-01

    The use of rectangular plates of plastic scintillators as film holders in conventional photographic dosemeters is reported. The efficiency of their use as light converters for increase the sensitivity of these dosemeters are studied. (M.A.C.) [pt

  12. A passive radon dosemeter suitable for workplaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orlando, C.; Orlando, P.; Patrizii, L.; Tommasino, L.; Tonnarini, S.; Trevisi, R.; Viola, P.

    2002-01-01

    The results obtained in different international intercomparisons on passive radon monitors have been analysed with the aim of identifying a suitable radon monitoring device for workplaces. From this analysis, the passive radon device, first developed for personal dosimetry in mines by the National Radiation Protection Board, UK (NRPB), has shown the most suitable set of characteristics. This radon monitor consists of a diffusion chamber, made of conductive plastic with less than 2 cm height, containing a CR-39 film (Columbia Resin 1939), as track detector. Radon detectors in workplaces may be exposed only during the working hours, thus requiring the storage of the detectors in low-radon zones when not exposed. This paper describes how this problem can be solved. Since track detectors are also efficient neutron dosemeters, care should be taken when radon monitors are used in workplaces, where they may be exposed to neutrons, such as on high altitude mountains, in the surroundings of high energy X ray facilities (where neutrons are produced by (gamma, n) reactions) or around high energy particle accelerators. To this end, the response of these passive radon monitors to high energy neutron fields has been investigated. (author)

  13. Radiofrequency detection by bubble dosemeter technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, R.G.

    1990-01-01

    In an initial attempt to utilise solid state dosimetric technology for non-ionizing radiation, planar bubble type detectors were irradiated with microwave energy at 2.38 GHz. Individual devices were produced as thin discs (8 cm diam. x 0.6 cm) rather than in the normal test-tube configuration. Both aqueous and non-aqueous-based devices were exposed to plane-wave irradiation inside a microwave anechoic chamber at power densities ranging from 40 to 80 mW.cm -2 . Specific absorption rate (SAR) in the disc shaped devices was thermometrically determined with the aid of a non-perturbing temperature probe and was approximately 0.3 (W.kg -1 )(mW.cm -2 ). Results showed the irradiation-induced bubble response to be relatively uniform in both types of devices, but the sensitivity was lower than that needed in a practical microwave dosemeter. We believe that improved sensitivity will be obtained by adding materials with a high microwave absorption cross section. (author)

  14. Credit Card Security

    OpenAIRE

    G.C., Anup

    2013-01-01

    Author: Anup G.C. Year: 2013 Subject of thesis: Credit Card Security Number of pages: 36+2 Credit Card is a widely used electronic chip for easy transactions. The main purpose of the report was to show the security measures of transaction by credit cards. The purpose was to give information about credit cards and how they were introduced. The thesis reportcontained the types of card theft with examples and sited the various protocols used for online ...

  15. Improvement of the calibration technique of clinical dosemeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehlin Caldas, L.V.

    1988-08-01

    Clinical dosemeters constituted of ionization chambers connected to electrometers are usually calibrated as whole systems in appropriate radiation fields against secondary standard dosemeters in calibration laboratories. This work reports on a technique of component calibration procedures separately for chambers and electrometers applied in the calibration laboratory of IPEN-CNEN, Brazil. For electrometer calibration, redundancy was established by using a standard capacitor of 1000pF (General Radio, USA) and a standard current source based on air ionization with Sr 90 (PTW, Germany). The results from both methods applied to several electrometers of clinical dosemeters agreed within 0.4%. The calibration factors for the respective chambers were determined by intercomparing their response to the response of a certified calibrated chamber in a Co 60 calibration beam using a Keithley electrometer type 617. Overall calibration factors compared with the product of the respective component calibration factors for the tested dosemeters showed an agreement better than 0.7%. This deviation has to be considered with regard to an uncertainty of 2.5% in routine calibration of clinical dosemeters. Calibration by components permits to calibrate ionization chambers one at a time for those hospitals who have several ionization chambers but only one electrometer (small hospitals, hospitals in developing countries). 6 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs

  16. Characterization of the personal thermoluminescent dosemeter of LiF: Mg, Ti + Ptfe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azorin N, J.; Gutierrez C, A.; Gonzalez M, P.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of this work is to characterize the thermoluminescent dosemeters taken place in the laboratory in form of pellets of LiF: Mg, Ti + Ptfe like personal dosemeters, subjecting them to the operation tests proposed by the international standards and comparing them with the TLD-100, the Tl dosemeter more used at the moment for personal dosimetry

  17. Application of chemical dosemeters during the irradiation of agricultural products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovacs, A; Stenger, V; Foeldiak, G [Magyar Tudomanyos Akademia, Budapest. Izotopintezete

    1983-09-01

    The joint recommedation by the FAO, WHO and IAEA in 1981 proposed the unrestricted permission of food irradiation under the dose value of 10 kGy (1 Mrd). The chemical dosemeters presented in the paper cover the dose range of 30 Gy to 1 MGy for use to food irradiation safety measurements. The Fricke dosemeter was used in the 50-400 Gy range at radappertization operations of onion, poppy and potato. The alcoholic chlorobenzene dosemeter with oscillometric analysis was applied successfully at low (0.4-4 kGy) ranges, primarily for irradiation dose monitoring of fruits, vegetables, refrigerated poultry etc. The conductometry could be used for dosimetry in the range of 60 Gy to 1 MGy.

  18. Dosimetric of extremities with Dosemeters thermoluminescent in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molina Perez, D.; Diaz Bernal, E.; Vera Alonso, L.

    1998-01-01

    From final of the year 1995 in the CPHR implement the service of monitoring of the extremities using Dosemeter thermoluminescent (TL). The dosemeter consists on a metallic ring with a circular hole where a detector of LiF:Mg,Ti is placed (model JR1152C) of 5x5x0.9 mm 3 , covered by a fine layer of polyethylene. In the work the characteristic dosimetric as of the dosemeter is studied it satisfies the main requirements for their use in the monitoring from the exhibition to radiation photonic of the extremities. The doses are also presented registered during the first two years of operation of the service. The results obtained until the moment point out to you practice them of nuclear medicine, radiotherapy and production of substances radioactive how as of more contribution

  19. Elaboration And Study Of Transfer Alanine/ESR Dosemeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres G, Luz A.

    1996-01-01

    The dosimetry is the dose measure imparted by the energy from the ionizing radiation to the matter. The dosemeters is the means used for the determination of such a dose. Diverse dosimetric classes exist, this classification depends in essence of the energy involved in the irradiation process and of its application necessity. It is as well as in radiological protection movie dosemeter is used, and TLD, in the calibration of units, as those of cobalt, the ionization cameras are used, in the detection of superficial contamination the accountants Geiger Muller and proportional etc. The transfer dosimeter Alanine/ESR is used, object of the present work, is characterized because after reading the registered dose, the information is conserved and it can be transferred and read in any team of ESR. Likewise the following dose that is imparted will be added to the previous one registered, this indicates that the dosemeters is of integral character. In the spectra taken ESR, it is determined that the integral double or area under the curve of the spectrum ESR is proportional to the concentration of free radicals generated by the radiation ionization and in turn this concentration is proportional to the dose received by the pills; in last, these proportionality relationships take to that the area under the curve of the spectrum main ESR is proportional to the radiation dose received by the alanine dosemeters. This dosemeter seeks to be an economic alternative that it will lend the calibration service that today offers the ionization Cameras or the acrylic red industrial dosemeters

  20. Maxed out: The Relationship between Credit Card Debt, Credit Card Distress and Grade Point Averages for College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Temple Day

    2011-01-01

    Few students leave college with a plan for paying off their debt. Starting a career inundated with student loans and credit card debt burdens is a reality many college students face today. In the wake of graduation coming to terms with the consequences of credit card debt is stressful for many students. This dissertation observes the relationship…

  1. FRENCH PROTOCOL CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    Division du Personnel

    1999-01-01

    Senior officials, holders of FRENCH PROTOCOL cards (blue cards) due to expire on 31.12.1999, are requested to return these cards and those of family members, for extension to:Bureau des cartes, bâtiment 33.1-025Should the 3 spaces for authentication on the back of the card be full, please enclose 2 passport photographs for a new card.In the case of children aged 14 and over, an attestation of dependency and a school certificate should be returned with the card.Personnel DivisionTel. 79494/74683

  2. FRENCH PROTOCOL CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2000-01-01

    Senior officials, holders of FRENCH PROTOCOL cards (blue cards) due to expire on 31.12.2000, are requested to return these cards and those of family members, for extension to: Bureau des cartes, Bât 33.1-009/1-015 Should the three spaces for authentication on the back of the card be full, please enclose two passport photographs for a new card. In the case of children aged 14 and over, an attestation of dependency and a school certificate should be returned with the card.

  3. Validation of response simulation methodology of Albedo dosemeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freitas, B.M.; Silva, A.X. da

    2016-01-01

    The Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria developed and runs a neutron TLD albedo individual monitoring service. To optimize the dose calculation algorithm and to infer new calibration factors, the response of this dosemeter was simulated. In order to validate this employed methodology, it was applied in the simulation of the problem of the QUADOS (Quality Assurance of Computational Tools for Dosimetry) intercomparison, aimed to evaluate dosimetric problems, one being to calculate the response of a generic albedo dosemeter. The obtained results were compared with those of other modeling and the reference one, with good agreements. (author)

  4. Using signal ''KVANT-1'' direct-reading dosemeter for the purposes of personnel monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glinskij, G.A.; Karasev, V.S.; Mukhin, I.E.; Chumak, V.K.

    1977-01-01

    Presented is the description of ''KVANT-1'' dosemeter for monitoring personnel doses of gamma and X radiation. The dosemeter permits to judge on the radiation intensity, to control directly the dose being accumulated, to store the reading of the dose accumulated for a necessary period of time, to obtain sound signal in case of reaching the limit of a pre-set dose. Presented are a general view, block diagram, and the discription of the dosemeter desing and operation. Advantages of the ''KVANT-1'' dosemeter are shown as compared with the conventional personnel monitoring IFK-2,3 and KID-2 dosemeters [ru

  5. The influence of the energy distribution of workplace fields on neutron personal dosemeter reading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanner, R.J.; Thomas, D.J.; Bartlett, D.T.; Hager, L.G.; Horwood, N.A.

    2002-01-01

    Variations in the energy dependence of response of neutron personal dosemeters cause systematic errors in the readings obtained in workplace fields. The magnitude of these errors has been determined theoretically by folding measured and calculated workplace energy distributions with dosemeter response functions, to determine the response of a given personal dosemeter in that field. These results have been analysed with consideration of the dosemeter response to various calibration spectra, and with reference to different workplaces. The dosemeters in the study are discussed in terms of the workplaces for which they can be suitably calibrated. Deficiencies in the published neutron energy distributions are identified

  6. The evaluation of multi-element personal dosemeters using the linear programming method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kragh, P.; Ambrosi, P.; Boehm, J.; Hilgers, G.

    1996-01-01

    Multi-element dosemeters are frequently used in individual monitoring. Each element can be regarded as an individual dosemeter with its own individual dose measurement value. In general, the individual dose values of one dosemeter vary according to the exposure conditions, i. e. the energy and angle of incidence of the radiation. The (final) dose measurement value of the personal dosemeter is calculated from the individual dose values by means of an evaluation algorithm. The best possible dose value, i.e. that of the smallest systematic (type B) uncertainty if the exposure conditions are changed in the dosemeter's rated range of use, is obtained by the method of linear programming. (author)

  7. EURADOS intercomparisons on whole body and extremity dosemeters (2008–2009) – Results and comparison of different dosemeter designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stadtmann, H.; Grimbergen, T.W.M.; Figel, M.; Romero, A.M.; Mcwhan, A.F.

    2011-01-01

    The EURADOS (European Radiation Dosimetry Group) working group (WG2) on Harmonisation of Individual Monitoring in Europe has shown that intercomparisons are fundamental for harmonisation of individual monitoring. As a result of these considerations, EURADOS started to prepare a series of continuous intercomparisons for individual monitoring services (IMS) in Europe. EURADOS has now successfully executed two intercomparison exercises, one for whole body dosemeters (2008) and one for extremity dosemeters (2009). Both exercises were performed without external funding, all costs being covered by the participants’ fees. More than 120 (!) different – mainly passive – dosimetry systems were tested from all over Europe until now and the results were analysed and compared. Although scientific studies were not the primary objective of these exercises specific additional information about the tested systems supplied by the participants for statistical analysis allows a detailed analysis of these results with respect to different parameters like dosemeter type, detector material, filter thickness or others design parameters. The influence of such parameters on the response values of the dosemeters is analysed and discussed in this paper. Both energy response as well as directional response for beta and photon radiation are considered. The influence of different design parameters e.g. detector material, is analysed by comparing the frequency distribution of the response values for different dosemeter groups. Pronounced differences for different detector materials (LiF:Mg,Ti, LiF:Mg,Cu,P and Li 2 B 4 O 7 /CaSO 4 ) were found. The paper gives a comprehensive overview on the performance of various European dosimetry services and the influence of the dosemeter design on the resulting response values.

  8. Print a Bed Bug Card - (Single Cards)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two sets of business-card-sized lists of tips for recognizing bed bugs and the signs of an infestation, including a photo of bed bugs to assist identification. One card is for general use around home or office, the other for travelers.

  9. CMS Wallet Card

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The CMS Wallet Card is a quick reference statistical summary on annual CMS program and financial data. The CMS Wallet Card is available for each year from 2004...

  10. CERNET Interface Card

    CERN Multimedia

    1978-01-01

    Homegrown networking technology pre-dating the internet. This is a CERNnet card developed and built at CERN. There was a lot of space on the card between the components, so the engineers decided to put their portraits on it.

  11. Unraveling a Card Trick

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoare, Tony; Shankar, Natarajan

    In one version of Gilbreath's card trick, a deck of cards is arranged as a series of quartets, where each quartet contains a card from each suit and all the quartets feature the same ordering of the suits. For example, the deck could be a repeating sequence of spades, hearts, clubs, and diamonds, in that order, as in the deck below.

  12. Radiological environmental monitoring with LiF-700-H dosemeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scarnichia, E.; Levanon, I.; Andres, P.; Miani, C.; Ramirez, S.

    2011-10-01

    Since 2008 a radiological environmental monitoring with LiF-700-H has been carried out as a result of increasing the Ra-6 research reactor core power. The information obtained is used to evaluate and to quantify analytically the air kerma rate, the fading and the associated uncertainty by developing software tools (deconvolution and uncertainty algorithms). LiF-700-H dosemeters were chosen because of their high sensitivity to low air kerma rates. They show a very good stability and a negligible fading for two-month working periods. The air kerma rate detection limit (based on the 3σ criterion) during these working periods is about 0.4 n Gy/h. Air kerma rates of about 70 n Gy/h are measured with this detection limit. Following the Nist guidelines, an algorithm was developed in order to find the associated uncertainty. It considers several aspects, such as the source activity decay, distance source-dosemeter during the calibration procedure, irradiation time, calibration factor, dosemeter readout, dosemeter sensitivity, TLD reader stability and fading. The associated uncertainty is found to be about 25% for a 95% confidence interval (k = 2.025), which can be considered acceptable when taking into account the very low air kerma rates estimated. The LiF-700-H response to different energies and its relationship with climate changes over the calendar year are planned as future tasks. (Author)

  13. Graphite mixed magnesium borate TL dosemeters for beta ray dosimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prokic, M; Christensen, Poul

    1984-01-01

    Sintered MgB4O7:Dy dosemeters with graphite contents from 1 to 10% were investigated for application for personnel dosimetry. Data are given on dose response, dose threshold, reproducibility, beta energy response and fading. Furthermore, results from practical field experiments are presented...

  14. Viability of the Fricke dosemeter doped with methylene blue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, V.L.B.; Santos, C.D.A.; Rodrigues, K.R.G.; Cunha, M.S.; Figueiredo, M.D.C.; Melo, R.T.

    2009-01-01

    This work aims to find the possible utilization of the Fricke dosemeter doped with methylene blue (FMB) for the dosimetry of photodynamic therapy. The FMB was irradiated wit X rays and light emitted diodes demonstrating positive answers to the stimulus, being probably to be used for dosimetric objectives

  15. About the measurements systems with pen and thermoluminescent dosemeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortes I, M.E.; Ramirez G, F.P.

    1998-01-01

    In this work it is presented dosimetric data obtained with pen and thermoluminescent dosemeters, which are used by the Occupational Exposure Personnel (OEP) of the Mexican Petroleum Institute (IMP)(1). It was marked several great characteristics as for example, the differences among units which use one and another dosemeter type. Likewise, it is given to know diverse problems that were had in the IMP at relating the data obtained with these dosemeters (which utilizes OEP) and the ICRP 60 recommendations 1990. One of the most important difficulties is to satisfy the recommended limits by ICRP, particularly those that are referring to the units and their complex calculations. With respect to the unities, the ICRP makes reference at the concepts 'dose equivalent' and 'effective dose' with the sievert unit, that the General Regulations for Radiological Safety associates with 'dose equivalent' and 'effective dose equivalent'. It was illustrated the type of dosimetric statistics which are obtained with the TLD lectures and a OEP pen dosemeter during 1997. (Author)

  16. Computer Data Punch Cards

    CERN Multimedia

    Those card are printed with minimal layout aids for the formatting of FORTRAN programs, plus extra guidelines every ten columns suggesting a generic tabular data layout. A punch card is a piece of stiff paper that can be used to contain digital information represented by the presence or absence of holes in predefined positions. Punched cards were used for specialized unit record machines, organized into semiautomatic data processing systems, used punched cards for data input, output, and storage. Furthermore many new digital computers started to used punched cards.

  17. Laminated dosimetric card

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, F.M.; Chamberlain, J.D.; Shrader, E.F.; Shoffner, B.M.; Szalanczy, A.

    1975-01-01

    A laminated card with one or more apertures, each adapted to peripherally seal an encapsulated dosimeter, is formed by bonding a foraminous, code-adaptable, rigid sheet of low-Z material with a codedly transparent sheet of low-Z material in light-transmitting registry with particular code-holes of the rigid sheet. The laminated card may be coded to identify the person carrying it, and/or the location or circumstances related to its exposure to radiation. This card is particularly adapted for use in an instrument capable of evaluating a multiplicity of cards, substantially continuously. The coded identification from the card may be displayed by an appropriate machine, and if desired an evaluation may be recorded because of a ''parity checking'' system incorporated in each card, which permits ''auto-correction.'' Alternatively, where means for effecting the correction automatically are available, the operation of the machine may be interrupted to permit visual examination of a rejected card. The card of this invention is also coded for identifying the type of card with respect to its specific function, and whether or not a card is correctly positioned at any predetermined location during its sequential progress through the instrument in which it is evaluated. Dosimeters are evaluated and the card identified in one pass through the instrument. (auth)

  18. The right choice: extremity dosemeter for different radiation fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brasik, N.; Stadtmann, H.; Kindl, P.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Measurements of weakly penetrating radiation in personal dosimetry present problems in the design of suitable detectors and in the interpretation of their readings. For the measurement of the individual beta radiation dose, personal dosemeter for the fingers/tips are required. In general, the dosemeters currently used for personal monitoring of beta and low energy photon doses suffer from an energy threshold problem because the detector and/or the filter are too thick. TLDs of a standard thickness can seriously underestimate personal skin doses, especially in external fields of weakly penetrating radiation fields. LiF:Mg, Cu, P is a promising TL material which allows the production of thin detectors with sufficient sensitivity. Dosimetric properties of two different types of extremity dosemeters, designed to measure the personal dose equivalent Hp(0.07), have been compared: LiF:Mg, Ti (TLD100) and LiF:Mg, Cu, P (TLD700H). The first one consists of 100 mg.cm -2 LiF:Mg, Ti (TLD 100) chip and a 35mg. cm -2 cap, the other consists of a 7mg. cm -2 layer of LiF:Mg, Cu, P (TLD-700H) powder and a 5mg. cm -2 cap. The evaluation was done in two steps: performance tests (ISO-12794) and measurements in real workplaces. In the first step type test results for beta calibration were compared. In addition calibration for low energy photon radiation according to ISO 4037-3 was carried out. In the second step, simultaneous measurements with both types of dosemeters were performed at workplaces, where radiopharmaceuticals containing different radioisotopes are prepared and applied. Practices in these fields are characterized by handling of high activities at very small distances between source and skin. The results from the comparison of the two dosemeter types are presented and analyzed with respect to different radiation fields. Experiments showed a satisfactory sensitivity for the thinner dosemeter (TLD 700H) for detecting beta radiation at protection levels and a good

  19. Evaluation of BICRON NE MCP DXT-RAD passive extremity dosemeter

    CERN Document Server

    Yuen, P S; Frketich, G; Rotunda, J

    1999-01-01

    Passive extremity dosemeters currently used in dosimetry communities worldwide have shortcomings. In general, an extremity dosemeter has too thick a detector element, and the dosemeter response is highly energy dependent for beta rays with energies ranging from 200 keV to 2 MeV. It often does not have dosemeter identification, causing problems in the chain of custody. It is often read manually, rendering reading/packing operations very labour intensive. As a result of collaboration between AECL and BICRON NE, a new extremity dosemeter, incorporating a highly sensitive LiF:Mg,Cu,P TLD and tentatively code named MCP DXT-RAD, was developed. It has been evaluated for radiological performance against an ISO draft standard for extremity dosemeters in twelve categories: homogeneity, detection threshold, beta ray energy response, beta angular response, photon energy response, photon angular response, reproducibility, stability under various climatic conditions, linearity, residue, self irradiation, and effect of ligh...

  20. Calibration of a scintillation dosemeter for beta rays using an extrapolation ionization chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakanen, A.T.; Sipilae, P.M.; Kosunen, A.

    2004-01-01

    A scintillation dosemeter is calibrated for 90 Sr/ 90 Y beta rays from an ophthalmic applicator, using an extrapolation ionization chamber as a reference instrument. The calibration factor for the scintillation dosemeter agrees with that given by the manufacturer of the dosemeter within ca. 2%. The estimated overall uncertainty of the present calibration is ca. 6% (2 sd). A calibrated beta-ray ophthalmic applicator can be used as a reference source for further calibrations performed in the laboratory or in the hospital

  1. Characteristic of the dosemeter used by the service of film dosimetry in the CPHR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capote Ferrera, E.A.; Diaz Bernal, E.; Manzano de Armas, J.F.

    1998-01-01

    Characteristic of the dosemeter used by the service of dosimetria filmica of the CPHR.The use of film dosemeter brings I get the aquisition first it gives data that it includes its evaluation regarding the calibration magnitude and second the interpretation of these data in terms of the magnitude of personal dose, such as the equivalent dose (ICRU 47) or to the effective dose (ICRP 60). presently work the results of the study of the characteristics of the dosemeters are picked up

  2. Thermoluminescence sensitivity variations in LiF PTFE dosemeters incurred by improper handling procedures

    CERN Document Server

    Mason, E W; MacKinlay, Alistair F; Saunders, D

    1975-01-01

    A systematic study of some anomalous darkening effects and thermoluminescence sensitivity variations observed in LiF:PTFE thermoluminescent dosemeters is described. Various likely causes of such effects have been investigated. The manufacturer's recommended cleaning procedures have been found to be inadequate and, in some cases, have been found to actually promote discolouration of the dosemeters. Recommendations are given for the successful use of LiF:PTFE thermoluminescent dosemeters in personal dosimetry.

  3. C-program LINOP for the evaluation of film dosemeters by linear optimization. User manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kragh, P.

    1995-11-01

    Linear programming results in an optimal measuring value for film dosemeters. The Linop program was developed to be used for linear programming. The program permits the evaluation and control of film dosemeters and of all other multi-component dosemeters. This user manual for the Linop program contains the source program, a description of the program and installation and use instructions. The data sets with programs and examples are available upon request. (orig.) [de

  4. Solid thermoluminescent dosemeter of sodium tetraborate and brazilian fluorite sensible to thermic neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fratin, L.; Cruz, M.T. da

    1987-01-01

    The production of solid thermoluminescent dosemeters sensible to thermic neutrons is described. The stages of the production are described: vitrification of sodium tetraborate, mixture and cold pressing, syntherization. The obtention of a CaF 2 : natural dosemeter with NaCl which presents sensibility to gamma radiation similar to CaF 2 : natural dosemeter with Na 2 B 4 O 7 is studied. (M.A.C.) [pt

  5. CERN access cards

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2007-01-01

    Holders of CERN access cards are reminded that the card is an official document. It is important to carry it with you at all times when you are on the site. This applies also to those on standby duty who are called out for emergency interventions. As announced in Weekly Bulletin 13/2006, any loss or theft of access cards must be declared to the competent external authorities.

  6. Thermoluminescent dosemeters of CaSO4: Dy + Teflon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos, L.L.

    1989-01-01

    The development of a pellet dosemeter of CaSO 4 : Dy + Teflon at the Dosimetric Materials Production Laboratory - IPEN/Brazilian CNEN-SP is presented. The pellets were produced by cold pressing and sintering a mixture of CaSO 4 : Dy and Teflon powders. The pellet characteristics from the point of view of dosimetry. A filter combination providing an energy independent response from 20 KeV to 1,25 MeV was obtained. The dosemeter consists of three pellets sealed between two thin plastic sheets and placed under plastic and lead filters. The combination of these three filters allows to determine the energy of an unknown source. (author) [pt

  7. CaSO4: Dy + Teflon thermoluminescent dosemeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos, L.L.

    1986-01-01

    A pellet dosemeter of CaSO 4 : Dy + Teflon was developed at IPEN. CaSO 4 : Dy thermoluminescent phosphor, grown in the Dosimetric Materials Production Laboratory was chosen, due to its high sensitivity, ease of preparation and comparatively low cost. Pellets were produced by cold pressing and sintering a mixture of CaSO 4 : Dy and Teflon powders. Extensive work was done to study in detail all CaSO 4 : Dy pellets characteristics from the point of view of dosimetry with the purpose of introducing it in the routine use. A filter combination providing an energy independent response from 20 KeV to 1,25 MeV was obtained. The dosemeter consists of three pellets sealed between two thin plastic sheets and placed under plastic and lead filters. The combination of these tree filters allows the exposure as well as the energy determination of an unknown source. (Author) [pt

  8. Markets: Gift Cards

    OpenAIRE

    Jennifer Pate Offenberg

    2007-01-01

    The Mobil Oil Company introduced the first retail gift card that recorded value on a magnetic strip in 1995. In under a decade, such gift cards replaced apparel as the number one item sold during the Christmas season. This study will discuss the reasons for the strong surge in the gift card market. It will then consider the value of gift cards as an intermediate option between two alternatives: purchasing a physical gift, which could possibly be returned or exchanged, versus giving cash. Empi...

  9. Re-assessment of dose from the Vinten extremity dosemeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Hagan, J.B.; Pearson, A.J.; Dutt, J.C.

    1989-01-01

    A procedure is described for re-assessing the dose from the Vinten extremity dosemeter using phototransferred thermoluminescence. The technique produces a linear response up to 50 Sv. The re-assessment efficiency is approximately 10% for the first re-assessment and 3-5% for the second re-assessment. The detection threshold values (at the 95% confidence level) are 3 mSv and 9 mSv respectively. (author)

  10. Automated read-out of thermoluminescence dosemeters in a centralized individual monitoring service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toivonen, M.

    The organizational problems in maintaining centralized individual monitoring service with erasable and re-usable dosemeters are evaluated. Design criteria for an automated thermoluminescence reader are laid down. It is characteristic for the planning of the monitoring system that the issuing of dosemeters can be arranged without having two dosemeters for each worker. A home made reader designed to fullfil these criteria is presented. The use of a standard barcode and a standard optical barcode reader in identification of dosemeters is described. A method of using a minicomputer in preparing the self-fastening identification labels, in printing mailing lists and in printing results is described

  11. Application of beta transmission for quality assurance of TLD tape dosemeters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagpal, J.S.; Gupta, S.K.; Supe, S.J. (Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India). Div. of Radiological Protection)

    1993-03-01

    Transmission of [sup 204]Tl [beta] radiation enables measurement of differences of [+-] 2 mg/cm[sup 2] in thermoluminescent tape dosemeter thickness. This thickness variation gives rise to a maximum variation of [+-] 5% in the TL output per unit area of the dosemeters. Measurements of [beta] transmission on dosemeter samples drawn from several batches of skived tape as well as those prepared by compressing technique have given consistent results. The [beta] transmission method itself can be used for quality assurance and selection of a uniform set of dosemeters over thickness range 30-150 mg/cm[sup 2]. (author).

  12. Official dosimetry with individual electronic dosemeters - the concept in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czarwinski, R.; Kaulard, J.; Pfeffer, W.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Presently, in Germany passive dosemeters (film batches, RPL, TLD) are used for the official individual monitoring of occupational exposed personal. The application of electronic individual dosemeters (EPD) is carried out mainly for the operative radiation protection control particularly in nuclear power engineering companies, big hospitals und research centres. This means in such institutions double monitoring exists - legally and operatively. A crucial advantage of EPD compared to passive dosemeter is the possibility to adapt the monitoring period to the working time in the control area, e.g. a job related monitoring is available. Germany started a project for an optimized implementation of EPD into the official dosimetry. Objective of the project whose results will be described in the paper is the harmonization of radiation protection of companies workers and outside workers concerning the record of individual and job related exposures. The approval of the EPD by the Federal and Laender authorities as an official dosimetric system demands the implementation of special requirements concerning the data acquisition, data transfer and data evaluation. These issues are focuses of the Federal research project, supervised by the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS) and performed by the Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS), Cologne to develop a concept in the first stage. (author)

  13. Micro-dosemeter instrument (MIDN) for assessing risk in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pisacane, V. L.; Dolecek, Q. E.; Malak, H.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Zaider, M.; Rosenfeld, A. B.; Rusek, A.; Sivertz, M.; Dicello, J. F.

    2011-01-01

    Radiation in space generally produces higher dose rates than that on the Earth's surface, and contributions from primary galactic and solar events increase with altitude within the magnetosphere. Presently, no personnel monitor is available to astronauts for real-time monitoring of dose, radiation quality and regulatory risk. This group is developing a prototypic instrument for use in an unknown, time-varying radiation field. This micro-dosemeter-dosemeter nucleon instrument is for use in a space-suit, spacecraft, remote rover and other applications. It provides absorbed dose, dose rate and dose equivalent in real time so that action can be taken to reduce exposure. Such a system has applications in health physics, anti-terrorism and radiation-hardening of electronics as well. The space system is described and results of ground-based studies are presented and compared with predictions of transport codes. An early prototype in 2007 was successfully launched, the only solid-state micro-dosemeter to have flown in space. Published by Oxford Univ. Press on behalf of the US Government 2011. (authors)

  14. The Future of Smart Cards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fickes, Michael

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the evolution of smart cards from digital signatures and other innovations into the realm of magnetic-stripe cards to expand their applications. Examples of magnetic-strip smart card usage are examined. (GR)

  15. On the calibration of radiotherapy dosemeters in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huntley, R.; Kotler, L.; Webb, D.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: Dosemeters for external beam radiotherapy are calibrated in Australia by ARPANSA, against the national primary standards of exposure and absorbed dose. The primary standards are free air chambers for exposure at low and medium energy X-rays, a graphite cavity chamber for exposure at 60 Co, and a graphite calorimeter for absorbed dose at 60 Co and high energy (MV) X -rays. Radiotherapy dosemeters are calibrated against these standards using a well documented formalism to provide calibration factors suitable for use with dosimetry protocols. A dosemeter usually comprises an ionization chamber connected to an independent electrometer. These are calibrated separately if possible. A combined calibration factor is reported together with the electrometer calibration factor (sensitivity). The dosimetry protocol used in radiotherapy centres in Australia and New Zealand is currently the simplified version of the IAEA TRS277 protocol, published by the New Zealand NRL and recommended by the ACPSEM. This protocol requires the use of an exposure or air kerma calibration factor at 60 Co (Nx or Nk) to evaluate the absorbed dose to air calibration factor N D . The chamber is then placed in a water phantom with its centre displaced from the reference point by p eff . ARPANSA can also supply calibration factors in absorbed dose to water (N D,w ), as required as input to the new IAEA CoP. If an absorbed dose to water calibration factor is used by the radiotherapy centre, the chamber should be placed with its centre at the reference point in the water phantom. ARPANSA has for some years coordinated the participation of Australian radiotherapy centres in the IAEA TLD Quality Audit service. Note that this service does not represent a calibration and should not be referred to as such. The only calibration is that provided by ARPANSA for a reference dosemeter at each radiotherapy centre. As soon as the ANSTO SSDL is operational, calibrations of reference dosemeters will also be

  16. An acuity cards cookbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vital-Durand, F

    1996-01-01

    Acuity cards are being more commonly used in clinical and screening practice. The author describes his experience from over 6000 infants tested with the method, using two commercially available sets of cards to provide users with comprehensive guidelines to allow them to get the most out of this useful test.

  17. A House of Cards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Mike

    2000-01-01

    Reviews how technologically enhanced ID cards are helping colleges and universities keep their students and staff safe. The benefits of a one-card system for identification, building access, and financial transactions are highlighted as are the liberal use of security phones and security cameras. (GR)

  18. Method card design dimensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wölfel, Christiane; Merritt, T.

    2013-01-01

    There are many examples of cards used to assist or provide structure to the design process, yet there has not been a thorough articulation of the strengths and weaknesses of the various examples. We review eighteen card-based design tools in order to understand how they might benefit designers....... The card-based tools are explained in terms of five design dimensions including the intended purpose and scope of use, duration of use, methodology, customization, and formal/material qualities. Our analysis suggests three design patterns or archetypes for existing card-based design method tools...... and highlights unexplored areas in the design space. The paper concludes with recommendations for the future development of card-based methods for the field of interaction design....

  19. Systematic processing of the external individual monitoring data obtained by photographic film and capacitor dosemeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krueger, F.; Shtuk, D.

    1983-01-01

    Individual radiation load measurements have been carried out both with photographic film and capacitor type dosemeters (CD). Systematic statistics methods were applied for the obtained data processing. The CD data were shown to exceed those measured with the film dosemeters. Specific features of the CD application are revealed that should be taken into account in practice [ru

  20. Development of radiophotometric dosemeters with high sensitivity using plastic scintillators as a light intensifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mesquita, C.H. de; Hamada, M.M.

    1987-01-01

    Rectangular plates of plastic scintillators are developed and their effect as light converter evaluated, when used as film-holder in conventional photography dosemeters. In this dosemeter, the radiation that not interacts in the photographic film can be detected by light photons generation in the plastic scintillators, sensitizing the film. (C.G.C.) [pt

  1. Verification of Ca F2:Mn type of dosemeters for personal dosimetry purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misovic, M.; Boskovic, Z.; Spasic-Jokic, V.

    1995-01-01

    Verification results of CaF2:Mn type of dosemeters for personal dosimetry purposes are presented in this paper. Tree types of irradiations are proceeded due to verification of relevant features of TLD. It is concluded that mentioned type of dosemeter can be used for purpose of personal dosimetry. (author)

  2. REPLACEMENT OF FRENCH CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2001-01-01

    The French Ministry of Foreign Affairs has informed the Organization that it is shortly to replace all diplomatic cards, special cards and employment permits ('attestations de fonctions') now held by members of the personnel and their families. Between 2 July and 31 December 2001, these cards are to be replaced by secure, computerized equivalents. A 'personnel office' stamped photocopy of the old cards may continue to be used until 31 December 2001. For the purposes of the handover, members of the personnel must go personally to the cards office (33/1-015), between 8:30 and 12:30, in order to fill a 'fiche individuelle' form (in black ink only), which has to be personally signed by themselves and another separately signed by members of their family, taking the following documents for themselves and members of their families already in possession of a French card : A recent identity photograph in 4.5 cm x 3.5 cm format (signed on the back) The French card in their possession an A4 photocopy of the same Fre...

  3. Electron scattering effects on absorbed dose measurements with LiF-dosemeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertilsson, G.

    1975-10-01

    The investigation deals with absorbed dose measurements with solid wall-less dosemeters. Electron scattering complicates both measurement of absorbed dose and its theoretical interpretation. The introduction of the dosemeter in a medium causes perturbations of the radiation field. This perturbation and its effect on the distribution of the absorbed dose inside the dosemeter is studied. Plane-parallel LiF-teflon dosemeters (0.005 - 0.1 g.cm -2 ) are irradiated by a photon beam ( 137 Cs) in different media. The investigation shows that corrections must be made for perturbations caused by electron scattering phenomena. Correction factors are given for use in accurate absorbed dose determinations with thermoluminescent dosemeters. (Auth.)

  4. Dose equivalent response of personal neutron dosemeters as a function of angle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanner, J.E.; McDonald, J.C.; Stewart, R.D.; Wernli, C.

    1997-01-01

    The measured and calculated dose equivalent response as a function of angle has been examined for an albedo-type thermoluminescence dosemeter (TLD) that was exposed to unmoderated and D 2 O-moderated 252 Cf neutron sources while mounted on a 40 x 40 15 cm 3 polymethylmethacrylate phantom. The dosemeter used in this study is similar to many neutron personal dosemeters currently in use. The detailed construction of the dosemeter was modelled, and the dose equivalent response was calculated, using the MCNP code. Good agreement was found between the measured and calculated values of the relative dose equivalent angular response for the TLD albedo dosemeter. The relative dose equivalent angular response was also compared with the values of directional and personal dose equivalent as a function of angle published by Siebert and Schuhmacher. (author)

  5. Neutron dosemeter responses in workplace fields and the implications of using realistic neutron calibration fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, D.J.; Horwood, N.; Taylor, G.C.

    1999-01-01

    The use of realistic neutron calibration fields to overcome some of the problems associated with the response functions of presently available dosemeters, both area survey instruments and personal dosemeters, has been investigated. Realistic calibration fields have spectra which, compared to conventional radionuclide source based calibration fields, more closely match those of the workplace fields in which dosemeters are used. Monte Carlo simulations were performed to identify laboratory systems which would produce appropriate workplace-like calibration fields. A detailed analysis was then undertaken of the predicted under- and over-responses of dosemeters in a wide selection of measured workplace field spectra assuming calibration in a selection of calibration fields. These included both conventional radionuclide source calibration fields, and also several proposed realistic calibration fields. The present state of the art for dosemeter performance, and the possibilities of improving accuracy by using realistic calibration fields are both presented. (author)

  6. Method of making isodose curve using thermoluminescence dosemeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakar Ramain, A.

    1975-01-01

    Line source of 60 Co in the form of needles and tubes are extensively used in radiotherapy in moulds, implants, and intracavitary techniques for the treatment of malignant lesions. It is important to have isodose distributions in tissue for those source for purposes of treatment planning. The isodose distributions have been obtained experimentally by using tinny lithium-fluoride (Lsub(i)F) thermoluminescent dosemeters (TLD) and they are compared to the theoretical results. The distinct advantages of Lsub(i)F (TLD) in such measurements are briefly discussed. (author)

  7. Aluminium nitrate ceramics: A potential UV dosemeter material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trinkler, L.; Bøtter-Jensen, L.; Berzina, B.

    2002-01-01

    The ceramic material AIN-Y2O3 is proposed as a potential ultraviolet radiation (UVR) dosemeter using optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and thermally stimulated luminescence (TL). Experimental studies have shown that AIN ceramics exhibit attractive characteristics suitable for practical UV...... dosimetry applications. The features are: (1) the spectral sensitivity covers the 200-350 nm range, in the UV-B region it is similar to that of human skin: (2) the angular dependence of the incident radiation follows the cosine law; (3) high yields of both UVR-induced OSL and TL signals compared to those...

  8. Results of the IAEA/RCA personal dosemeter intercomparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsujimura, Norio; Momose, Takumaro; Hayashi, Naomi [Environment and Safety Division, Tokai Works, Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2000-06-01

    The intercomparison of personal dosemeters for photon was carried out between 1990 and 1996 as part of the IAEA/RCA 'strengthening of radiation protection infrastructure' project. Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute participated in the intercomparison as one of the in-house personal dosimetry service organizations in Japan and also served the host irradiating laboratory. This report summarizes the dose evaluation results obtained from the JNC-TLD badges in the past four intercomparison programs. In the latest intercomparison the evaluated doses agreed to the reference doses with an accuracy of 10%. (author)

  9. New KID dosemeter for measurement of cosmic dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peksova, D.; Kakona, M.; Krist, P.; Kocur, Z.; Larina, K. V.; Ploc, O.

    2018-01-01

    The KID dosemeter is a small semiconductor low-power detector developed for common use. The current design is special designed after measuring cosmic rays on aircraft decks. The design concept is the same world-class devices Internet of Things (IoT). As a detection element detector were tested three variants a) PIN HAMAMATSU S2744-09 photodiode, b) 9 parallel Vishay photodiodes TEMD5080X01, c) 16 Vishay photodiode TEMD5080X01 again in parallel connection. All variants are silicon PIN photodiode. (authors)

  10. Study of teflon pads as high doses dosemeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teixeira, Maria Ines; Caldas, Linda V.E.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work is to study the Teflon, which is used as a binder in the manufacture of dosimetric tablets, for the feasibility of this material as high dose dosemeter. In this paper we used the technique of thermally stimulated luminescence (OSL) to characterize the dosimetric properties of Teflon. Teflon samples were exposed to different doses of radiation, using a source of gamma radiation ( 60 Co). It was obtained dose-response curve between 100 Gy to 50 kGy and reproducibility of OSL response. The preliminary results show that Teflon is a useful material to high dose dosimetry

  11. Credit Card Quiz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Jeff

    2000-01-01

    Describes an activity in which students design credit cards and discover for themselves the mathematical realities of buying on credit. Employs multiple-intelligence theory to increase the chance that all students will be reached. (YDS)

  12. Dynamic Virtual Credit Card Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molloy, Ian; Li, Jiangtao; Li, Ninghui

    Theft of stored credit card information is an increasing threat to e-commerce. We propose a dynamic virtual credit card number scheme that reduces the damage caused by stolen credit card numbers. A user can use an existing credit card account to generate multiple virtual credit card numbers that are either usable for a single transaction or are tied with a particular merchant. We call the scheme dynamic because the virtual credit card numbers can be generated without online contact with the credit card issuers. These numbers can be processed without changing any of the infrastructure currently in place; the only changes will be at the end points, namely, the card users and the card issuers. We analyze the security requirements for dynamic virtual credit card numbers, discuss the design space, propose a scheme using HMAC, and prove its security under the assumption the underlying function is a PRF.

  13. Imaging standards for smart cards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellson, Richard N.; Ray, Lawrence A.

    1996-02-01

    "Smart cards" are plastic cards the size of credit cards which contain integrated circuits for the storage of digital information. The applications of these cards for image storage has been growing as card data capacities have moved from tens of bytes to thousands of bytes. This has prompted the recommendation of standards by the X3B10 committee of ANSI for inclusion in ISO standards for card image storage of a variety of image data types including digitized signatures and color portrait images. This paper will review imaging requirements of the smart card industry, challenges of image storage for small memory devices, card image communications, and the present status of standards. The paper will conclude with recommendations for the evolution of smart card image standards towards image formats customized to the image content and more optimized for smart card memory constraints.

  14. Type testing of the Siemens Plessey electronic personal dosemeter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirning, C R; Yuen, P S

    1995-07-01

    This paper presents the results of a laboratory assessment of the performance of a new type of personal dosimeter, the Electronic Personal Dosemeter made by Siemens Plessey Controls Limited. Twenty pre-production dosimeters and a reader were purchased by Ontario Hydro for the assessment. Tests were performed on radiological performance, including reproducibility, accuracy, linearity, detection threshold, energy response, angular response, neutron response, and response time. There were also tests on the effects of a variety of environmental factors, such as temperature, humidity, pulsed magnetic and electric fields, low- and high-frequency electromagnetic fields, light exposure, drop impact, vibration, and splashing. Other characteristics that were tested were alarm volume, clip force, and battery life. The test results were compared with the relevant requirements of three standards: an Ontario Hydro standard for personal alarming dosimeters, an International Electrotechnical Commission draft standard for direct reading personal dose monitors, and an International Electrotechnical Commission standard for thermoluminescence dosimetry systems for personal monitoring. In general, the performance of the Electronic Personal Dosemeter was found to be quite acceptable: it met most of the relevant requirements of the three standards. However, the following deficiencies were found: slow response time; sensitivity to high-frequency electromagnetic fields; poor resistance to dropping; and an alarm that was not loud enough. In addition, the response of the electronic personal dosimeter to low-energy beta rays may be too low for some applications. Problems were experienced with the reliability of operation of the pre-production dosimeters used in these tests.

  15. A study of the irradiation temperature coefficient for L-alanine and DL-alanine dosemeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desrosiers, M. F.; Lin, M.; Cooper, S. L.; Cui, Y.; Chen, K.

    2006-01-01

    Alanine dosimetry is now well established both as a reference and routine dosemeter for industrial irradiation processing. Accurate dosimetry under the relatively harsh conditions of industrial processing requires a characterisation of the parameters that influence the dosemeter response. The temperature of the dosemeter during irradiation is a difficult quantity to measure so that the accuracy of the temperature coefficient that governs the dosemeter response becomes a critical factor. Numerous publications have reported temperature coefficients for several types of alanine dosemeters. The observed differences in the measured values were commonly attributed to the differences in the polymer binder or the experimental design of the measurement. However, the data demonstrated a consistent difference in the temperature coefficients between L-alanine and DL-alanine. Since there were no commonalities in the dosemeter composition or the measurement methods applied, a clear conclusion is not possible. To resolve this issue, the two isomeric forms of alanine dosemeters were prepared and irradiated in an identical manner. The results indicated that the DL-alanine temperature coefficient is more than 50% higher than the L-alanine temperature coefficient. (authors)

  16. Understanding differences in dose-equivalents reported by passive and electronic personal dosemeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perks, Christopher A.; Burgess, Peter; Smith, David; Salasky, Mark; Yahnke, Cliff

    2008-01-01

    Full text: In a number of challenging environments, clients occasionally double badge with electronic personal dosemeters (EPDs) to ensure day-to-day management of their employees personal dose-equivalent while using passive (in our case Luxel or InLight) dosemeters for monthly monitoring for approved results for dose record keeping. In some cases there have been significant differences in the cumulative doses recorded by the EPDs and the passive dosemeters. In these circumstances the passive dosemeters usually report a higher dose than the EPD by up to a factor of two, though more commonly 1.3. In this paper we describe the differences seen between EPD and passive dosemeters (in a number of countries). We then examine the possible causes for such discrepancies by comparison with published response function data available for the EPDs and Landauer dosemeters. We have undertaken a number of experiments comparing directly a number of EPDs and passive dosemeter response to a variety of energy and complex angular geometries where the two types of dosimeter have been exposed at the same time. Recommendations will be made on the appropriate use of double badging in difficult environments and interpretation of the results. (author)

  17. Adequacy of annealing duration in reducing the background counts of personnel monitoring TLD cards - a study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, Kshama; Varadharajan, Geetha; Punekar, M.P.; Chougaokar, M.P.; Ayappan, P.

    2010-01-01

    In India, the personnel monitoring service of ∼ 70,000 radiation workers is being provided using indigenously developed TLD system comprising three CaSO 4 :Dy embedded Teflon discs. In order to remove TL and reset the distribution of defects/trapping centres, all TLD cards are subjected to an annealing treatment at elevated temperature prior to their next use. As per the standardized protocol annealing is carried out in a hot air circulating oven at 230 deg C for 4 hr, which is sufficient to reset the TL dosemeters for dose levels upto 100 mSv. In order to verify the appropriateness of annealing procedures adopted by the Laboratory, a detailed study was conducted using four sets of cards namely A, B, C and D series, exposed to various dose levels

  18. Measurements of environmental gamma-ray spectra using a multi-element TL dosemeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuta, Sadaaki; Boetter-Jensen, L.; Nielsen, S.P.

    1986-12-01

    A method to estimate the energy distribution and dose of environmental gamma radiation was developed using a multielement TL dosemeter. Experimentally obtained energy responses from a multi-element TL dosemeter with different kinds of filters were used to calculate the energy distribution and related dose by the SAND-II computer code. The code was originally developed to estimate the neutron flux using a multiple foil activation method. Measurements were made at several locations with the multi-element TL dosemeter and comparisons were made with results from a NaI(Tl) scintillation detector and a high-pressure ionization chamber. (author)

  19. The use of active personal dosemeters as a personal monitoring device: Comparison with TL dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boziari, A.; Koukorava, C.; Carinou, E.; Hourdakis, C. J.; Kamenopoulou, V.

    2011-01-01

    The use of active personal dosemeters (APDs) not only as a warning device but also, in some cases, as an official and hence stand-alone dosemeter is rapidly increasing. A comparison in terms of dose, energy and angle dependence, among different types of APD and a routinely used whole-body thermoluminescence dosemeter (TLD) has been performed. Significant differences were found between the TLD readings and mainly some not commonly used APDs. The importance of choosing the best adapted APD according to the radiation field characteristics is pointed out. (authors)

  20. A gamma/neutron-discriminating, Cooled, Optically Stimulated Luminescence (COSL) dosemeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eschbach, P.A.; Miller, S.D.

    1992-07-01

    The Cooled Optically Stimulated Luminescence (COSL) of CaF 2 :Mn (grain sizes from 0.1 to 100 microns) powder embedded in a hydrogenous matrix is reported as a function of fast-neutron dose. When all the CaF 2 :Mn grains are interrogated at once, the COSL plastic dosemeters have a minimum detectable limit of 1 cSv fast neutrons; the gamma component from the bare 252 cf exposure was determined with a separate dosemeter. We report here on a proton-recoil-based dosemeter that generates pulse height spectra, much like the scintillator of Hornyak, (2) to provide information on both the neutron and gamma dose

  1. Dosimetric characteristics of a TLD dosemeter with extremities; Caracteristicas dosimetricas de un dosimetro TLD de extremidades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molina P, D.; Diaz B, E.; Lien V, R. [Centro de Proteccion e Higiene de las Radiaciones, CPHR, Apdo.Postal 6195, Habana 6, CP 10600, Ciudad Habana (Cuba)

    1999-07-01

    It was designed a TLD dosemeter for the monitoring of the extremities. This one consists in a metallic ring with a circular orifice where is arranged a T L detector of LiF: Mg,Ti (Model JR1152C) 5 x 5 x 0.8 mm{sup 3} covered by a polyethylene fine layer. In this work were studied the dosimetric properties of the dosemeter for its application in the dosimetry of extremities for photonic radiation. the results obtained allow conclude that the designed dosemeter can be used for the extremities monitoring. (Author)

  2. 26 CFR 301.6311-2 - Payment by credit card and debit card.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Payment by credit card and debit card. 301.6311....6311-2 Payment by credit card and debit card. (a) Authority to receive—(1) Payments by credit card and debit card. Internal revenue taxes may be paid by credit card or debit card as authorized by this...

  3. Taking Leave?

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    Planning a holiday? Then if you're a member of the personnel, you'll need to use the Laboratory's new leave system that will be put in place on 1 October. Leave allocations don't change - you are entitled to just as much holiday as before - but instead of being credited annually, your leave will be credited on a monthly basis, and this information will be communicated on your salary slip. The reason for the change is that with the various new leave schemes such as Recruitment by Saved Leave (RSL) and the Progressive Retirement Programme (PRP), a streamlined procedure was required for dealing with all kinds of leave. In the new system, each member of the personnel will have leave accounts to which leave will be credited monthly from the payroll and debited each time an absence is registered in the CERN Electronic Document Handling system (EDH). Leave balances will appear on monthly pay slips, and full details of leave transactions and balances will be available through EDH at all times. As the leave will be c...

  4. Research on the SIM card implementing functions of transport card

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi; Wang, Lin

    2015-12-01

    This paper is based on the analysis for theory and key technologies of contact communication, contactless communication card and STK menu, and proposes complete software and hardware solution for achieving convenience and secure mobile payment system on SIM card.

  5. Disruption - Access cards service

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    We would like to inform you that between 10 November and 15 December 2014, the access cards service in Building 55 will be disrupted, as the GS Department has decided to improve the facilities for users of this building. During the work, you will find the registration, biometric registration and dosimeter exchange services on the second floor of Building 55 and the vehicle sticker service on the ground floor along with the access cards service. We thank you for your understanding and apologise for any inconvenience caused.

  6. Thermoluminescent dosemeter in a X-ray diffractometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendoza A, D.; Gonzalez M, P.; Falcon B, T.; Castano, V.M.

    1999-01-01

    In this work it was presented the results obtained of the dosimetry which was realized in a X-ray diffractometer for powders, trademark Siemens D5000, using the thermoluminescent signal generated by the X-rays in the commercial dosemeter TLD-100 of Harshaw, US. In according to the results obtained, the radiation quantity received by an analysed material in the diffractometer, will be proportional to exposure time and it can vary from unities until tenths of grays. These results are very outstanding when are analysed crystalline materials in a diffractometer, for knowing the present crystalline phases, mainly if these are highly sensitive to the ionizing radiation, as it is the case of the thermoluminescent materials. (Author)

  7. Use of active dosemeters as a optimization tool in hemodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunes, Rafael; Pereira, Dirceu D.; Rodrigues, Barbara B.D.; Ferreira, Esmeralci

    2016-01-01

    Interventional cardiology procedures are, in general, associated with high doses in patients and professionals. The objective of this study is to measure the radiation levels received by professionals .The professional dosimetry was performed in a department of Hemodynamics of University Hospital in Rio de Janeiro. were followed 331 coronary angiography (CA) and 26 percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) procedures. For this, were used active dosemeters to measure the radiation levels at the chest of interventional professionals. The results show that average personal equivalent dose of doctors, per procedure was 100 e 154 μSv. On average, nursing technicians and radiologist receive 12 and 10% of doses of physicians, respectively, during CA procedures. From the results, it appears that the doses of hemodynamics exceed the annual dose limit of the standards. The use of lead shielding is presented as an effective action to reduce doses in these workers. (author)

  8. War of the Credit Cards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicklin, Julie L.

    1993-01-01

    Increasingly, colleges are offering affinity credit cards with attractive incentives as a marketing tool. Some in academe feel the trend may compromise educational objectives. Institutions may also face taxation on unrelated-business income generated through the cards. (MSE)

  9. NCDC Punched Card Reference Manuals

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Documentation for using and reading punched cards kept at the National Weather Records Center (NWRC, previous name for NCDC and NCEI). Many of these punched card...

  10. The role of phantom parameters on the response of the AEOI Neutriran Albedo Neutron Personnel Dosemeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohrabi, M.; Katouzi, M.

    1992-01-01

    The response of the AEOI Neutriran Albedo Neutron Personnel Dosemeter (NANPD) which can also be used for other albedo dosemeter types was determined on 18 different phantom configurations. The effects of type, geometry, material, thickness, dosemeter-to-phantom angle in particular with the presence of legs were investigated using a Pu-Be neutron source. It was concluded that the slab phantoms (single or double) and circular and elliptical cylinder phantoms seemed to provide a better response, whereas the ICRU sphere geometry does not seem to be appropriate for the calibration of albedo dosemeters. It is interesting to note that the presence of legs maintains the constancy of the response in a situation when a radiation worker bends down during work. (author)

  11. TL response of LiF: Mg, Cu, P dosemeters in function of the photon energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, P.R.; Azorin, J.; Furetta, C.

    2005-01-01

    In this work the obtained results of studying the response of dosemeters of LiF: Mg, Cu, P + Ptfe, developed in the ININ, commercial dosemeters GR200A (LiF: Mg, Cu, P) of chinese manufacture and TLD-100 (LiF: Mg, Ti) US are presented, when irradiating them with X rays 16, 24, 34.5, 42, 100 and 145 keV of effective energy, with gamma rays of 662 keV ( 137 Cs) and 1252 keV ( 60 Co). The results are presented in function of the sensitivity that the dosemeters showed normalized to gamma radiation of 60 Co. It was appreciated that the dosemeters more equivalent to the tissue, they were those of LiF: Mg, Cu, P + Ptfe, while the less equivalent ones were the TLD-100. (Author)

  12. Calibration of thermoluminescence skin dosemeter response to beta emitters found in Ontario Hydro nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walsh, M.L.; Agnew, D.A.; Donnelly, K.E.

    1984-01-01

    The response of the Ontario Hydro Thermoluminescence Dosimetry System to beta radiation in nuclear power station environments was evaluated. Synthetic beta spectra were constructed, based on activity samples from heat transport systems and fuelling machine contamination smears at nuclear power stations. Using these spectra and dosemeter energy response functions, an overall response factor for the skin dosemeter relative to skin dose at 7 mg.cm -2 was calculated. This calculation was done assuming three specific geometries: (1) an infinite uniformly contaminated plane source at a distance of 33 cm (50 mg.cm -2 total shielding) from the receptor; (2) an infinite cloud surrounding the receptor; (3) a point source at 33 cm. Based on these calculations, a conservative response factor of 0.7 has been chosen. This provides an equation for skin dose assignment, i.e. Skin Dose = 1.4 x Skin Dosemeter Reading when the skin dosemeter is directly calibrated in mGy(gamma). (author)

  13. Personal neutron dosemeter of the Czech Republic: Review of basic properties, results of recent tests

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Trousil, J.; Spurný, František; Plichta, J.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 14, 7/8 (2006), s. 246-253 ISSN 1210-7085 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : detectors * dosemeters * personal dosimetry Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality

  14. Conversion factors for the ICRU dose equivalent quantities for calibrating radiation dosemeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosswendt, B.; Hohlfeld, K.; Kramer, H.M.; Selbach, H.J.

    1985-02-01

    Report describing the application of conversion factors for monoenergetic photon radiation and for X and gamma reference radiation used for dosemeter calibration with the aid of spherical or rectangular phantoms (environmental and individual monitoring). (DG) [de

  15. Solid thermoluminescent dosemeter of sodium tetraborate and brazilian fluorite sensible to thermal neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fratin, L.; Cruz, M.T. da

    1987-01-01

    A solid termoluminescent dosemeter of sodium tetraborate and brazilian fluorite sensible to thermal neutrons is described. The nuclears reactions 1) 10 B + n → 7 Li + He + Q1 (6,1%) where: Q1=2,79 MeV and Eα1 = 1,758 MeV and 2) 10 B + n → 7 Li* + 4 He + Q2 (93,9%) where: Q2 = 2,316 MeV and E2α 2 = 1,474 MeV are responsible by the thermoluminescent response of the thermal neutrons dosemeters. The stages in the fabrication process of this dosemeter of which are:1) sodium tetraborate vitrification, 2) mixture and pressing 3) sintering are cited. The obtainment of a natural fluorite dosemeter with sodium chloride is also shown. (C.G.C.) [pt

  16. Basic requirements of dosemeter systems for individual monitoring of external radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehm, J.; Ambrosi, P.

    1985-01-01

    A plea is made for detailed detector independent requirements for dosemeter systems for individual monitoring of external radiation. These requirements should have their origin in the fundamental aspects and concepts of radiation protection for workers, and should be something like a translation of the general principles of individual monitoring into a language easily understandable by producers and users. This work comprises a summary of the general objectives of individual monitoring and discussion of some relevant requirements for dosemeter systems. (orig.) [de

  17. Eurados trial performance test for personal dosemeters for external beta radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, P.; Bordy, J.M.; Ambrosi, P.

    2001-01-01

    On the initiative of the European Dosimetry Group (EURADOS) action group 'Harmonisation and Dosimetric Quality Assurance in Individual Monitoring for External Radiation' a trial performance test for whole-body and extremity personal dosemeters broadly representative of those in use in the EU...... the results obtained from the exercise. In particular, based on the replies to a questionnaire issued to each participant, the results are analysed in relation to important design characteristics of the dosemeters taking part in the test....

  18. Smart Icon Cards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Icons are frequently used in the music classroom to depict concepts in a developmentally appropriate way for students. SmartBoards provide music educators yet another way to share these manipulatives with students. This article provides a step-by-step tutorial to create Smart Icon Cards using the folk song "Lucy Locket."

  19. Follow Up: Credit Card Caution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, Timothy P.

    2007-01-01

    In "Pushing Plastic," ("The New England Journal of Higher Education", Summer 2007), John Humphrey notes that many college administrators justify their credit card solicitations by suggesting that credit card access will help students learn to manage their own finances. Instead, credit card debt will teach thousands of students…

  20. Store Security. Credit Card Fraud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockway, Jerry

    The manual, intended for use by adults and not in the high school classroom situation, presents material directed toward assisting in the reduction of credit card crime. This teaching guide is organized in three sections which deal with the nature of and major reasons for credit card fraud, the types of hot card runners, and methods of reducing…

  1. Determination of isodose curves in Radiotherapy using an Alanine/ESR dosemeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, F.; Baffa, O.; Graeff, C.F.O.

    1998-01-01

    It was studied the possible use of an Alanine/ESR dosemeter in the isodose curves mapping in normal treatments of Radiotherapy. It was manufactured a lot of 150 dosemeters with base in a mixture of D-L Alanine dust (80 %) and paraffin (20 %). Each dosemeter has 4.7 mm diameter and 12 mm length. A group of 100 dosemeters of the lot were arranged inside 50 holes of the slice 25 of the phantom Rando Man. The phantom irradiation was realized in two opposed projections (AP and PA) in Co-60 equipment. A group of 15 dosemeters was take of the same lot for obtaining the calibration curve in a 1-20 Gy range. After irradiation the signal of each dosemeter was measured in an ESR spectrometer operating in the X-band (∼ 9.5 GHz) and the wideness of Alanine ESR spectra central line was correlated with the radiation dose. The wideness dose calibration curve resulted linear with a correlation coefficient 0.9996. The isodose curves obtained show a profile enough similar at comparing with the theoretical curves. (Author)

  2. Feasibility study of extremity dosemeter based on polyallyl-diglycol-carbonate (CR-39) for neutron exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chau, Q.; Bruguier, P.

    2007-01-01

    In nuclear facilities, some activities such as reprocessing, recycling and production of bare fuel rods expose the workers to mixed neutron-photon fields. For several workplaces, particularly in glove boxes, some workers expose their hands to mixed fields. The mastery of the photon extremity dosimetry is relatively good, whereas the neutron dosimetry still raises difficulties. In this context, the Inst. for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN) has proposed a study on a passive neutron extremity dosemeter based on chemically etched CR-39 (PADC: polyallyl-diglycol-carbonate), named PN-3, already used in routine practice for whole body dosimetry. This dosemeter is a chip of plastic sensitive to recoil protons. The chemical etching process amplifies the size of the impact. The reading system for tracks counting is composed of a microscope, a video camera and an image analyser. This system is combined with the dose evaluation algorithm. The performance of the dosemeter PN-3 has been largely studied and proved by several laboratories in terms of passive individual neutron dosemeter which is used in routine production by different companies. This study focuses on the sensitivity of the extremity dosemeter, as well as its performance in the function of the level of the neutron energy. The dosemeter was exposed to monoenergetic neutron fields in laboratory conditions and to mixed fields in glove boxes at workplaces. (authors)

  3. Measurement of gamma radiation doses at the RA reactor by thermoluminescent dosemeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prokic, M.

    1974-01-01

    This paper presents the procedures and gamma radiation doses measured at the exit from the horizontal experimental channel HK-5, vertical experimental channel VK-5 and in the thermal column of the RA reactor in Vinca. Measurement of gamma radiation dose in the mixed intense gamma and neutron radiation field was done by two types of thermoluminescent dosemeters, LiF (TLD-700) and CaF 2 (TLD-08). Gamma dose in the VK-5 was measured in the air and on the bottle filled with tissue-equivalent solution. Increase of the dose on the surface of the bottle was 2.3 compared to the gamma dose value in the air. Correction for the influence of neutrons having different energies was done by using the known sensitivity values of both TL dosemeter types for thermal, intermediate and fast neutrons. Results showed that the TLD-700 dosemeter contains 5 time more Li-6 isotopes (0.035%) than the declared value causing increased neutron sensitivity of this dosemeter. This paper includes numerical sensitivity data for neutrons of different energies for both types of TL dosemeters. Neutron sensitivity values for TLD-700 are related to LiF with 0.035% of Li-6 isotope. Result of measurement have also shown that the CaF 2 :Mn (TLD-08) thermoluminescent dosemeter is more suitable for gamma radiation dose measurements in mixed n-gamma fields with intensive neutron fluxes due to lower neutron sensitivity compared to TLD-700 [sr

  4. Individual monitoring with official electronic dosemeters in Germany - concepts and reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martini, E.; Wahl, W.; Huebner, S.; Freynhagen, D.; Staemmler, M.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Active (electronic) personal dosemeters (APD) are radiometers, which are equipped as active or passive dosimeters. They can directly indicate a dose rate and/or the dose integrated during a certain period (direct-indicating, active electronic personal dosemeters mentioned) or only over a separate reader (direct-selectable, passive electronic personal dosemeters mentioned). A concept is presented for the use of passive or active electronic personal dosemeters in Germany as official dosemeters, e.g. in hospitals. The concept features a net-based approach for secure data communication between readers for passive and active electronic personal dosemeters und the official personal dosimetry monitoring service(s), taking the German policies (StrISchV und RoeV in hospitals) into account. The net-based solution includes a processor controlled interface via TCP/IP connected to the dosimetry reader(s), und reader interfaces, an official interim data bank and all the necessary equipment such as PC, Raid-configuration, USV support, network connection and further details. Investigations have been started to achieve highest-level data manipulation security, data completeness und data correctness. (author)

  5. Ladybugs and Lettuce Leaves. Teachers' Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Tracy; And Others

    This is a guide for use with "Ladybugs and Lettuce Leaves" activity cards which are activities for elementary school students (grades 4 to 6) focusing on gardening. It includes educational objectives for each topic as well as lists of vocabulary words, comments, questions for discussion, additional activities, and resources. An interdisciplinary…

  6. Port Card Module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utes, M.

    1994-01-01

    The Port Card will be one link in the data acquisition system for the D0 Silicon Vertex Detector. This system consists of the following parts, starting at the detector: Silicon strip detectors are mounted in a spaceframe and wire-bonded to custom bare-die integrated circuits (SVX-II chips) that digitize the charge collected by the strips. The 128-channel chips are mounted on a High-Density Interconnect (HDI) that consists of a small flex circuit that routes control signals and eight data bits for each of three to ten chips onto a common data bus. A cable then routes this bus approximately thirty feet out from the detector to the Port Card. The Port Card houses a commercial chipset that serializes the data in real time and converts the signal into laser light impulses that are then transmitted through a multi-mode optical fiber about 150 feet to a Silicon Acquisition and Readout board (SAR). Here, the data is transformed back to parallel electrical signals that are stored in one of several banks of FIFO memories. The FIFOs place their data onto the VME backplane to a VME Buffer Driver (VBD) which stores the event data in buffers for eventual readout over a thirty-two signal ribbon cable to the Level Two Computers and subsequent tape storage. Control and sequencing of the whole operation starts with the Silicon Acquisition/Readout Controller (SARC) working in tandem with the D0 Clock System. The SARC resides in the same VME crate as the SARs, and transforms signals from the Trigger System into control codes distributed to the various Port Cards via optical fibers operating at 53 Mb/s. It is through these control codes that data taking operations such as data-acquisition, digitization, readout, and various resets can be carried out. The Port Card receives the control codes and manipulates the SVX-II chips in the proper way to effect proper data taking. There will be a total of about 700,000 channels, which translates into about 5580 SVX-II chips, 66 to 100 Port Cards

  7. How do hospital sterilisation procedures affect the response of personal extremity rings and of eye lens TL dosemeters?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopec, Renata; Bubak, Anna; Budzanowski, Maciej; Sas-Bieniarz, Anna; Szumska, Agnieszka

    2016-01-01

    Stringent standards of hygiene must be applied in medical institutions, especially at operating blocks or during interventional radiology procedures. Medical equipment, including personal dosemeters that have to be worn by medical staff during such procedures, needs therefore to be sterilised. In this study, the effect of various sterilisation procedures has been tested on the dose response of extremity rings and of eye lens dosemeters in which thermoluminescent (TL) detectors (of types MTS-N and MCP-N, respectively) are used. The effects of medical sterilisation procedures were studied: by chemicals, by steam or by ultraviolet (UV), on the dose assessment by extremity rings and by eye lens dosemeters. Since it often happens that a dosemeter is accidentally machine-washed together with protective clothing, the effect of laundering on dose assessment by these dosemeters was also tested. The sterilisation by chemicals is mostly safe for TL detectors assuming that the dosemeters are waterproofed. Following sterilisation by water vapour, the response of these dosemeters diminished by some 30 %, irrespectively of the period of sterilisation; therefore, this method is not recommended. UV sterilisation can be applied to EYE-D TM eye lens dosemeters if their encapsulation is in black. The accidental dosemeter laundry in a washing machine has no impact on measured dose. (authors)

  8. HOW DO HOSPITAL STERILISATION PROCEDURES AFFECT THE RESPONSE OF PERSONAL EXTREMITY RINGS AND OF EYE LENS TL DOSEMETERS?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopeć, Renata; Bubak, Anna; Budzanowski, Maciej; Sas-Bieniarz, Anna; Szumska, Agnieszka

    2016-09-01

    Stringent standards of hygiene must be applied in medical institutions, especially at operating blocks or during interventional radiology procedures. Medical equipment, including personal dosemeters that have to be worn by medical staff during such procedures, needs therefore to be sterilised. In this study, the effect of various sterilisation procedures has been tested on the dose response of extremity rings and of eye lens dosemeters in which thermoluminescent (TL) detectors (of types MTS-N and MCP-N, respectively) are used. The effects of medical sterilisation procedures were studied: by chemicals, by steam or by ultraviolet (UV), on the dose assessment by extremity rings and by eye lens dosemeters. Since it often happens that a dosemeter is accidentally machine-washed together with protective clothing, the effect of laundering on dose assessment by these dosemeters was also tested. The sterilisation by chemicals is mostly safe for TL detectors assuming that the dosemeters are waterproofed. Following sterilisation by water vapour, the response of these dosemeters diminished by some 30 %, irrespectively of the period of sterilisation; therefore, this method is not recommended. UV sterilisation can be applied to EYE-D™ eye lens dosemeters if their encapsulation is in black. The accidental dosemeter laundry in a washing machine has no impact on measured dose. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Summary of personal neutron dosemeter results obtained within the EVIDOS project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luszik-Bhadra, M.; Reginatto, M.; Schuhmacher, H.; Bolognese-Milsztajn, T.; Lacoste, V.; Boschung, M.; Fiechtner, A.; Coeck, M.; Vanhavere, F.; Curzio, G.; Errico d', F.; Kylloenen, J.-E.; Lindborg, L.; Bartlett, D.; Tanner, R.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Within the EC project EVIDOS ('Evaluation of Individual Dosimetry in Mixed Neutron and Photon Radiation Fields'), different types of neutron personal dosemeters were irradiated in workplace fields in nuclear installations in Europe. Mostly electronic personal neutron dosemeters were tested, among them commercial devices (Thermo Electron EPD-N, Aloka PDM-313), devices from first industrial prototype series (Thermo Electron EPD-N2, Saphydose-n) and laboratory prototypes which were already in the stage of lightweight battery-operated instruments (PTB DOS-2002). In addition, dosemeters with (almost) immediate readout (BTI bubble detectors, Rados DIS-N) and passive dosemeters which needed no fielddependent calibration factors (PADC track detectors from PSI and NRPB) were used, as well as those TLD albedo dosemeters which are routinely used in the facilities visited. The results of measurements obtained within the EVIDOS project in workplace fields in nuclear installations in Europe, i.e. at Kruemmel (boiling water reactor, transport cask), at Mol (Venus research reactor, fuel facility Belgonucleaire) and at Ringhals (pressurized water reactor, transport cask) are presented and compared to reference values of personal dose equivalent H p (10) determined by means of Bonner spheres and novel directional spectrometers. In fields with strong back-scatter and moderation of neutrons, several dosemeters showed overreadings by more than a factor of two. In strongly directed fields with neutron dose equivalent peaked at about 1 MeV (MOX fuel), the same dosemeters showed under-readings of about a factor of two. These under- and over-readings in the workplace fields can be explained in terms of the dosemeter response functions for mono-energetic neutrons, which show over-responses in the thermal and intermediate neutron energy region and under-responses at about 1 MeV neutron energy. The dosemeter readings obtained in the workplace fields were checked for consistency by

  10. Japanese Tarot Cards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Miller

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This essay looks at selected images from tarot decks designed in Japan. Tarot decks reflect a deliberate adaptation process across both cultural and temporal borders, with visual components created and customized for a Japanese viewer. My aim is to consider the nature of these changes in imagery and to focus attention on an under-analyzed and mostly female-gendered domain. In particular, I look at the way the medieval European people and elements originally found on the cards are replaced with images from the world of Japanese art, history, and popular culture. These substitutions either gloss over the gaps between Western and Japanese world views or meld them into a new form, allowing the tarot entry into a different or hybrid metaphysical culture. Attention to tarot cards is important because of their great economic and cultural impact in contemporary Japan. A widespread love of tarot in Japan provides insight into domains of pleasure, spiritual exploration, and fandom.

  11. Japanese Tarot Cards

    OpenAIRE

    Laura Miller

    2017-01-01

    This essay looks at selected images from tarot decks designed in Japan. Tarot decks reflect a deliberate adaptation process across both cultural and temporal borders, with visual components created and customized for a Japanese viewer. My aim is to consider the nature of these changes in imagery and to focus attention on an under-analyzed and mostly female-gendered domain. In particular, I look at the way the medieval European people and elements originally found on the cards are replaced wit...

  12. RANCANG BANGUN APLIKASI SMART CARD INTERFACE

    OpenAIRE

    I Putu Agus Swastika; Siti Saibah Pua Luka; Yanno Dwi Ananda

    2012-01-01

    Opportunity to development smart card -based application is quite large as the need for smart card technology in various fields of both business and government agencies and BUMN. One brand that is widely used smart card is a smart card type from a vendor production NFC ACR122U ACS (Advanced Card System Limited) because prices are relatively affordable, but fairly tough. At the Thesis is done, the ACS (Advanced Card System Limited) as a manufacturer of smart card vendor type ...

  13. Intercomparison of active personal dosemeters in interventional radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clairand, I.; Struelens, L.; Bordy, J. M.; Daures, J.; Debroas, J.; Denozieres, M.; Donadille, L.; Gouriou, J.; Itie, C.; Vaz, P.; D'Errico, F.

    2008-01-01

    The use of active personal dosemeters (APD) in interventional radiology was evaluated by Working Group 9 (Radiation protection dosimetry of medical staff) of the CONRAD project, which is a Coordination Action supported by the European Commission within its sixth Framework Programme. Interventional radiology procedures can be very complex and they can lead to relatively high doses to personnel who stand close to the primary radiation field and are mostly exposed to radiation scattered by the patient. For the adequate dosimetry of the scattered photons, APDs must be able to respond to low-energy [10-100 keV] and pulsed radiation with relatively high instantaneous dose rates. An intercomparison of five APD models deemed suitable for application in interventional radiology was organised in March 2007. The intercomparison used pulsed and continuous radiation beams, at CEA-LIST (Saclay (France)) and IRSN (Fontenay-aux-Roses (France)), respectively. A specific configuration, close to the clinical practice, was considered. The reference dose, in terms of Hp(10), was derived from air kerma measurements and from the measured and calculated energy distributions of the scattered radiation field. Additional Monte Carlo calculations were performed to investigate the energy spectra for different experimental conditions of the intercomparison. The results of this intercomparison are presented in this work and indicate which APDs are able to provide a correct response when used in the specific low-energy spectra and dose rates of pulsed X-rays encountered in interventional radiology. (authors)

  14. Proposal of a dosemeter for skin beta radiation dose assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosa, L.A.R. da; Caldas, L.V.E.

    1987-08-01

    Beta radiation is, undoubtedly, less penetrating than X or gamma radiation. Thus, beta radiation sources external to the human body do not cause a significant irradiation of its deeper tissues. However, in some cases, they may contribute in a very important way to the irradiation of the lens of the eyes and, mainly, of the skin. Specially, the hands and finger tips may receive a high dose. In this work some relevant aspects of the individual monitoring in beta radiation fields are discussed and the importance of monitoring this kind of radiation in some activities where the skin absorbed dose may be a limiting factor is evidenced. The main characteristics of the thermoluminescent (TL) response of ultra-thin CaSO 4 : Dy detectors (UT-CaSO 4 : Dy) in the detection of this kind of radiation are also studied. The irradiation are performed with 90 Sr 90 Y, 204 TI and 147 Pm sources. The reproducibility, linearity, dependence on the absorbed dose rate, optical fading, energy and angular dependences of the detector TL responce are investigated. Transmission factors for different thicknesses of tissue equivalent material are obtained for the TL detectors using the three available beta sources. Based on the results obtained, a dosemeter for skin beta radiation absorbed dose assessment with an energy dependence better than 12% is proposed. (Author) [pt

  15. Calibration of extremity dosemeters for gamma radiation fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papadopulos, S.B.; Gregori, B.N.; Cruzate, J.A.

    1998-01-01

    In this work the kerma conversion factor are free in air, dose equivalent H(d,0 ) are presented, they were obtained theoretical and experimentally in finger and arm for gamma radiation fields. Extremity dosemeters put on surface finger and arm phantom have been irradiated. The finger phantom is a solid cylinder of PMMA polymethylmethacrylate 19 mm diameter and 300 mm height. The arm phantom is a 73 mm external diameter cylinder with PMMA walls 2.5 mm thick fill with water and 300 mm height. The radiation sources were cobalt 60 and cesium 137 from the Regional Center of Reference (CRR) of the National Commission of Atomic Energy (CNEA) and the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN). Also in ISO wide X ray spectra W60, W110 and W200 have been irradiated. The results obtained show a good correlation with those published, they have a difference less than 7%. The factors will be applied to the evaluation of the equivalent doses coming from workers whose main irradiated zone is in the hands. (author)

  16. Intercomparison program of personal dosemeters in the Argentine Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregori, B.N.; Papadopulos, S.B.; Kunst, J.J.

    1998-01-01

    During 1997, under the auspices of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN), its was held the third exercise of intercomparison of laboratories of personal dosimetry. The dosemeters were irradiated in X-ray beams ISO quality W60, W110, W200 and gamma sources cesium 137 and cobalt 60. The irradiation were performed kerma free in air and in phantom in order to study the capacity to evaluate both conditions. An extent range of doses (low-high) have been given 0.3 mSv- 20mSv in order to determine the operative performance o each laboratory. Over 19 laboratories of Argentina, participated 13 (65%) and finished the intercomparison 12 (60%) of them. The systems of dosimetry detection were based on film and TLD. During this intercomparison as inquiry about several items related with the laboratories have been made. In this work are shown the individual laboratory results of the intercomparison related with the acceptance curve criteria ICRP 60 and 55. (author)

  17. Measurement of doses to aviator pilots using thermoluminescent dosemeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azorin N, J.; Cruz C, D.; Rivera M, T.

    2004-01-01

    During the development of their work, the aviator pilots are exposed at high levels of natural radiation of bottom caused mainly by the cosmic radiation of galactic origin and lot. For such reason, the Metropolitan Autonomous University (UAM) and the Union Association of Aviator Pilots (ASPA), subscribed an agreement with the purpose of to measure the doses of ionizing radiation received by the aviator pilots of diverse air companies that man different types of airships and to determine if these doses surpass the one limit of 0.11 mSv/h settled down by the IAEA for the public in general; and if therefore, these workers should be considered as personnel occupationally exposed. In this work the obtained results when measuring the absorbed dose received by Mexican civil aviator pilots during the development of their work, using thermoluminescent dosemeters of LiF:Mg,Cu,P + Ptfe of national production are presented. The obtained results during the years of 2001 and 2002 show that the monthly doses received by the pilots surpass the one it limits established for the public in general, for what they should be considered as personnel occupationally exposed. (Author)

  18. Numerical and experimental results of the operational neutron dosemeter 'Saphydose-N'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahaye, T.; Chau, Q.; Menard, S.; Ndontcheung-Moyo, M.; Bolognese-Milsztajn, T.; Rannou, A.

    2004-01-01

    Since 1993, the Inst. for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN) has lead, in association with Electricite de France (EDF), a R and D study of a neutron personal electronic dosemeter. This dosemeter, called 'Saphydose-N', is manufactured by the SAPHYMO company. This paper presents first the optimisation of some detector components using Monte Carlo calculations, and second the test of the manufactured Saphydose-N under radiation following the IEC 1323 standard's recommendations for active personal neutron dosemeters. The measurements with the manufactured dosemeter were performed on the one hand at PTB (Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt) in mono-energetic neutron fields and, on the other hand at IRSN in neutron fields generated by a thermal facility (SIGMA), radionuclide ISO sources and a realistic spectrum (CANEL/T400). The manufactured dosemeter Saphydose-N was also tested during measurement campaigns of the European programme EVIDOS ('Evaluation of Individual Dosimetry in Mixed Neutron and Photon Radiation Fields') at different nuclear workplaces. The study showed that Saphydose-N complies with the recommendations of standard IEC 1323 and can be used at any workplace with no previous knowledge of the neutron field characteristics. (authors)

  19. Energy and angular dependence of the personal dosemeter in use at ITN-DPRSN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Joao G. [Departamento de Proteccao Radiologica e Seguranca Nuclear, Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, EN 10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal)], E-mail: jgalves@itn.pt; Calado, Ana M.; Cardoso, Joao V.; Santos, Luis M. [Departamento de Proteccao Radiologica e Seguranca Nuclear, Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, EN 10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal)

    2008-02-15

    In this paper the characterization of the dosimetry system and of the personal dosemeter in terms of the stability of the reader calibration factors and of the linearity of the response for the 137Cs reference radiation is presented. The energy and angular dependence of the whole body dosemeter are also shown. The energy dependence was determined performing irradiations with the X-ray narrow series beams N30, N40, N60, N80, N100, N120 and with the gamma reference radiations of 137Cs and 60Co [ISO 4037-1, 1996. X and Gamma Reference Radiation for Calibrating Dosemeters and Doserate Meters and for Determining Their Response as a Function of Photon Energy-Part 1: Radiation Characteristics and Production Methods. International Organization for Standardization, Geneva] in terms of Hp(10) incident on the ISO water slab phantom. The angular dependence of the dosemeter was determined for the angles 0 deg., {+-}20 deg., {+-}40 deg. and {+-}60 deg. with normal using the above mentioned radiation fields. All irradiations were performed at the Laboratorio de Metrologia das Radiacoes lonizantes of ITN-DPRSN. The experiments presented in this paper show the thermoluminescence dosimetry (TLD) system is stable and presents a linear behaviour over and extended dose range. The measurements allowed the determination of the energy dependence at normal incidence and of the angular dependence of the dosemeter currently in use. Further studies are being carried out in order to implement correction factors for supralinearity and low energy measurements.

  20. A Mechanism for Anonymous Credit Card Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Shinsuke; Yanase, Tatsuro

    This paper proposes a mechanism for anonymous credit card systems, in which each credit card holder can conceal individual transactions from the credit card company, while enabling the credit card company to calculate the total expenditures of transactions of individual card holders during specified periods, and to identify card holders who executed dishonest transactions. Based on three existing mechanisms, i.e. anonymous authentication, blind signature and secure statistical data gathering, together with implicit transaction links proposed here, the proposed mechanism enables development of anonymous credit card systems without assuming any absolutely trustworthy entity like tamper resistant devices or organizations faithful both to the credit card company and card holders.

  1. Stream processing health card application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polat, Seda; Gündem, Taflan Imre

    2012-10-01

    In this paper, we propose a data stream management system embedded to a smart card for handling and storing user specific summaries of streaming data coming from medical sensor measurements and/or other medical measurements. The data stream management system that we propose for a health card can handle the stream data rates of commonly known medical devices and sensors. It incorporates a type of context awareness feature that acts according to user specific information. The proposed system is cheap and provides security for private data by enhancing the capabilities of smart health cards. The stream data management system is tested on a real smart card using both synthetic and real data.

  2. Mensuration of equivalent dose with personal dosemeters and instruments of radiological protection in the new operative quantities ICRU, for external fields of beta radiation. Part II. I study of the angular response of personal dosemeters TLD-100 in secondary patron fields of beta radiation (90Sr / 90Y)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez R, J.T.

    1994-01-01

    The objective of this work is to carry out one of the possible ones test type for personal dosemeters TLD, under the recomendations of the ICRU 39, ICRU 43 and the draft of the norm ISO 6980,(1992), with the purpose of verifying the capacity of these detectors to carry out the operative unit: H' (0.07;α). Since H' (O. 07;α) this defined one in an expanded field, one of these tests type consist on determining the angular response of these detectors. 20 personal dosemeters TLD-100 was used, (card marks: Harshaw, Model: G-1, with two glasses of TLD-100 absorbed in teflon; the portadosemeters has two windows, a free one and another with a filter of Pb of 171.0 mg cm -2 ); these dosemeters they were previously selected, [to see, S tudy of the Homogeneity of the response of Personal Dosemeters (Cards G-l, TLD-100) in Radiation of Countrysides of 60 Co , J.T. Alvarez R. Technician Report GSR/IT/0001/94].The irradiations to effectued in secondary countryside of radiation beta of 90 Sr/ 90 Y. The study was undertaken by means of an experimental design of blocks random that contemplate the following variables: intensity of the radiation source, (1850 MBq and 74 MBq); position of irradiation, (four positions); incidence of angle of the radiation (0, 15, 30, 45, 60 and 75 grades) and the absorbed dose in air, (0.005, 0.010, 0.020, 0.050 and 0.100 Gy). Then null hypothesis it was to suppose that there was not difference among the stockings of each treatment, to used the statistical of Duncan to carry out tests of stockings at a level of significance of 5%.These tests of stockings throw the following results in those variables of the experimental design: The irradiations carried out so much with the source pattern secondary of 90 Sr/ 90 Y of 1850 MBq and of 74 MBq, they are equivalent reason why they can be used indistinctly. The responses of each one of the glasses of the card are strongly anisotropic for each glass; four positions of irradiation is used: glass 1 (window of

  3. Investigation into Plastic Cards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neringa Stašelytė

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the strength of laminating plastic cards at different lamination temperatures. For investigation purposes, two types of plastic substrate and films have been used. Laminate strength has been tested (CMYK to establish the impact of colours on the strength of laminate. The paper compares inks supplied by two different producers. The colour characteristics of CIE L*a*b* space before and after the lamination process have been found. According to lamination strength and characteristics of the colours, the most suitable inks, temperature and films have been chosen.

  4. Probabilities in the Card Game of Three Cards

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 9; Issue 3. Probabilities in the Card Game of Three Cards. A W Joshi M W Joshi. Classroom Volume 9 Issue 3 March 2004 pp 76-77. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/009/03/0076-0077 ...

  5. Use of digital dosemeters for supporting staff radiation safety in paediatric interventional radiology suites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeil, Sarah M; Lai, Priscilla; Connolly, Bairbre L; Gordon, Christopher L

    2013-12-01

    Modern-day interventional radiology (IR) procedures impart a wide range of occupational radiation doses to team members. Unlike thermoluminescent badges, digital dosemeters provide real-time dose readings, making them ideal for identifying different components during IR procedures, which influence staff radiation safety. This study focused solely on paediatric IR (PIR) cases. Digital dosemeters measured the impact of imaging modality, shielding, patient and operator specific factors, on the radiation dose received during various simulated and real live PIR procedures. They recorded potential dose reductions of 10- to 100-fold to each staff member with appropriate use of shielding, choice of imaging method, staff position in the room and complex interplay of other factors. The digital dosemeters were well tolerated by staff. Results highlight some unique radiation safety challenges in PIR that arise from dose increases with magnification use and close proximity of staff to the X-ray beam.

  6. Use of digital dosemeters for supporting staff radiation safety in paediatric interventional radiology suites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNeil, S. M.; Lai, P.; Connolly, B. L.; Gordon, C. L.

    2013-01-01

    Modern-day interventional radiology (IR) procedures impart a wide range of occupational radiation doses to team members. Unlike thermoluminescent badges, digital dosemeters provide real-time dose readings, making them ideal for identifying different components during IR procedures, which influence staff radiation safety. This study focused solely on paediatric IR (PIR) cases. Digital dosemeters measured the impact of imaging modality, shielding, patient and operator specific factors, on the radiation dose received during various simulated and real live PIR procedures. They recorded potential dose reductions of 10-to 100-fold to each staff member with appropriate use of shielding, choice of imaging method, staff position in the room and complex interplay of other factors. The digital dosemeters were well tolerated by staff. Results highlight some unique radiation safety challenges in PIR that arise from dose increases with magnification use and close proximity of staff to the X-ray beam. (authors)

  7. The former tests realized to a personal neutron dosemeter based on solid nuclear tracks detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camacho, M.E.; Tavera, L.; Balcazar, M.

    1997-01-01

    Due to the increase in the use of neutron radiation a personal neutron dosemeter based on solid nuclear tracks detector (DSTN) was designed and constructed. The personal dosemeter design consists of three arrangements. The first one consists of a plastic nuclear tracks detector (LR115 or CR39) in contact with a LiF pellet. The second one is the same that above but it placed among two cadmium pellets and, the third one is formed by the alone detector without converter neither neutron absorber. The three arrangements are placed inside a plastic porta detector hermetically closed to avoid the bottom produced by environmental radon whichever both detectors (LR115 and CR39) are sensitive. In this work the former tests realized to that dosemeter are presented. (Author)

  8. Measurements of eye lens doses in interventional cardiology using OSL and electronic dosemeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, R.M.; Vano, E.; Fernandez, J.M.; Ginjaume, M.; Duch, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to test the appropriateness of OSL and electronic dosemeters to estimate eye lens doses at interventional cardiology environment. Using TLD as reference detectors, personal dose equivalent was measured in phantoms and during clinical procedures. For phantom measurements, OSL dose values resulted in an average difference of 215 % vs. TLD. Tests carried out with other electronic dosemeters revealed differences up to ±20 % versus TLD. With dosemeters positioned outside the goggles and when TLD doses were >20 μSv, the average difference OSL vs. TLD was 29 %. Eye lens doses of almost 700 μSv per procedure were measured in two cases out of a sample of 33 measurements in individual clinical procedures, thus showing the risk of high exposure to the lenses of the eye when protection rules are not followed. The differences found between OSL and TLD are acceptable for the purpose and range of doses measured in the survey (authors)

  9. Calibration of personal dosemeters in terms of the ICRU operational quantities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, J.C.; Hertel, N.E.

    1992-05-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Units and Measurements (ICRU) has defined several new operational quantities for radiation protection purposes. The quantities to be used for personal monitoring are defined at depths in the human body. Because these quantities are impossible to measure directly, the ICRU has recommended that personal dosemeters should be calibrated under simplified conditions on an appropriate phantom, such as the ICRU sphere. The US personal dosimetry accreditation programs make use of a 30 x 30 x 15 cm polymethymethacrylate (PMMA) phantom, therefore it is necessary to relate the response of dosemeters calibrated on this phantom to the ICRU operational quantities. Calculations of the conversion factors to compute dosemeter response in terms of the operational quantities have been performed using the code MCNP. These calculations have also been compared to experimental measurements using thermoluminescent (TLD) detectors

  10. British and American attitudes toward credit cards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bijou; James, Simon; Lester, David

    2006-04-01

    American university students owned more than twice as many credit cards as British university students. However, scores on a credit card attitude scale predicted the number of cards owned by respondents in both countries.

  11. One year of a thermoluminescent dosemeter and dose record keeping service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dennis, J.A.

    1979-01-01

    A brief description is given of the National Radiological Protection Board's (NRPB) thermoluminescent dosemeter. The automated processing of these dosemeters is linked to a computer-based system of dose records. The postal system is currently used by about 10% of the establishments for which the NRPB provides a personnel monitoring service, but it will soon be extended to other establishments. The distributions of individual whole body doses in 1977 are tabulated. The significant advantage of this new system lies in the improvements in accuracy, completeness, and convenience to the employers of record keeping. (U.K.)

  12. Determination of the dose rapidity of a 90 Sr beta radiation source using thermoluminescent dosemeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez M, P.R.; Azorin N, J.; Rivera M, T.

    2000-01-01

    The thermoluminescent dosemeters developed in Mexico, have been used efficiently in environmental and personal dosimetry. When the dose rate of some source is not known can be estimated with the use of thermoluminescent dosemeters taking in account the geometrical array used in the irradiations for reproducibility of the results in posterior irradiations. In this work it was estimated the dose rate of a 90 Sr- 90 Y beta radiation source which is property of the Nuclear Sciences Institute, UNAM, therefore it was l ended to the Metropolitan Autonomous University- Iztapalapa Unit for the characterization of new Tl materials, taking account of the institutional collaboration agreements. (Author)

  13. Use of bubbles dosemeters to measure the neutrons leakage radiations around a medical accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourgois, L.

    1999-01-01

    In this study, the neutron component has been determined on a medical accelerator (Saturne 43F type accelerator) with the help of bubbles detectors marketed by the Bubble Technology Industry society. BD-PND type dosemeters with sensitivities from 0.1 to 0.23 bubbles/micro sievert have been used. These dosemeters have important advantages: they are small enough and then, homogeneously irradiated, they are insensitive to intense electromagnetic fields and to photons and electrons, they can used several times by compression, the reading of the device does not need expensive means and it is possible to multiply the measure points. (N.C.)

  14. Authentication techniques for smart cards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, R.A.

    1994-02-01

    Smart card systems are most cost efficient when implemented as a distributed system, which is a system without central host interaction or a local database of card numbers for verifying transaction approval. A distributed system, as such, presents special card and user authentication problems. Fortunately, smart cards offer processing capabilities that provide solutions to authentication problems, provided the system is designed with proper data integrity measures. Smart card systems maintain data integrity through a security design that controls data sources and limits data changes. A good security design is usually a result of a system analysis that provides a thorough understanding of the application needs. Once designers understand the application, they may specify authentication techniques that mitigate the risk of system compromise or failure. Current authentication techniques include cryptography, passwords, challenge/response protocols, and biometrics. The security design includes these techniques to help prevent counterfeit cards, unauthorized use, or information compromise. This paper discusses card authentication and user identity techniques that enhance security for microprocessor card systems. It also describes the analysis process used for determining proper authentication techniques for a system

  15. It's All in the Cards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Jim

    2002-01-01

    Describes how the author learned by watching low-achieving students play intricate card games such as "Magic" that they can learn, can remember, and certainly can master information. Realizes that these cards were advanced learning tools, multifaceted texts using color, symbols, images, texts, and metaphor to help create a world of…

  16. Smart Cards and remote entrusting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aussel, Jean-Daniel; D'Annoville, Jerome; Castillo, Laurent; Durand, Stephane; Fabre, Thierry; Lu, Karen; Ali, Asad

    Smart cards are widely used to provide security in end-to-end communication involving servers and a variety of terminals, including mobile handsets or payment terminals. Sometime, end-to-end server to smart card security is not applicable, and smart cards must communicate directly with an application executing on a terminal, like a personal computer, without communicating with a server. In this case, the smart card must somehow trust the terminal application before performing some secure operation it was designed for. This paper presents a novel method to remotely trust a terminal application from the smart card. For terminals such as personal computers, this method is based on an advanced secure device connected through the USB and consisting of a smart card bundled with flash memory. This device, or USB dongle, can be used in the context of remote untrusting to secure portable applications conveyed in the dongle flash memory. White-box cryptography is used to set the secure channel and a mechanism based on thumbprint is described to provide external authentication when session keys need to be renewed. Although not as secure as end-to-end server to smart card security, remote entrusting with smart cards is easy to deploy for mass-market applications and can provide a reasonable level of security.

  17. Implementing Smart Cards into the Air Force Reserve

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McClannan, Keith

    2002-01-01

    Smart card technology is essentially about a credit card with a brain, Smart cards have an embedded microchip that allows the card to hold digital data up to the available memory installed on the card...

  18. Implementing Smart Cards into the Air Force Reserve

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McClannan, Keith

    2001-01-01

    Smart card technology is essentially about a credit card with a brain. Smart cards have an embedded microchip that allows the card to hold digital data up to the available memory installed on the card...

  19. Digitizing Olin Eggen's Card Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crast, J.; Silvis, G.

    2017-06-01

    The goal of the Eggen Card Database Project is to recover as many of the photometric observations from Olin Eggen's Card Database as possible and preserve these observations, in digital forms that are accessible by anyone. Any observations of interest to the AAVSO will be added to the AAVSO International Database (AID). Given to the AAVSO on long-term loan by the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, the database is a collection of over 78,000 index cards holding all Eggen's observations made between 1960 and 1990. The cards were electronically scanned and the resulting 108,000 card images have been published as a series of 2,216 PDF files, which are available from the AAVSO web site. The same images are also stored in an AAVSO online database where they are indexed by star name and card content. These images can be viewed using the eggen card portal online tool. Eggen made observations using filter bands from five different photometric systems. He documented these observations using 15 different data recording formats. Each format represents a combination of filter magnitudes and color indexes. These observations are being transcribed onto spreadsheets, from which observations of value to the AAVSO are added to the AID. A total of 506 U, B, V, R, and I observations were added to the AID for the variable stars S Car and l Car. We would like the reader to search through the card database using the eggen card portal for stars of particular interest. If such stars are found and retrieval of the observations is desired, e-mail the authors, and we will be happy to help retrieve those data for the reader.

  20. Fourth intercomparison of personal dosemeters used in US Department of Energy accelerator facilities

    CERN Document Server

    Stewart, R D; Otto, T; Loesch, R M

    2000-01-01

    Personal neutron dosemeters from seven US Department of Energy (DOE) laboratories were mailed to the European Laboratory for Particle Physics (CERN) and irradiated using the well-characterised CERN reference radiation facility (CERF). Neutron dose equivalents determined using the DOE personal dosemeters have been compared to the reference dose equivalent as determined using a tissue-equivalent proportional counter (TEPC). In the 0.5 to 5 mSv dose equivalent range, the comparison of results suggests that the neutron personal dosemeters in use at DOE facilities are capable of estimating dose equivalents for high energy neutrons to within a factor of at least 2 or 3. If a field-specific calibration factor is used to correct the dose equivalent responses, the agreement with the reference dose equivalent for these dosemeters can be improved to better than about 25 to 65at is decoupled from the core in /sup 183,185/Au, becomes the 3/2[532] state (h9/2 parentage) strongly coupled in the doubly-odd /sup 184/Au nucleu...

  1. Field calibration of a TLD albedo dosemeter in the high-energy neutron field of CERF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haninger, T.; Kleinau, P.; Haninger, S.

    2017-01-01

    The new albedo dosemeter-type AWST-TL-GD 04 has been calibrated in the CERF neutron field (CERN-EU high-energy Reference Field). This type of albedo dosemeter is based on thermoluminescent detectors (TLDs) and used by the individual monitoring service of the Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen (AWST) since 2015 for monitoring persons, who are exposed occupationally against photon and neutron radiation. The motivation for this experiment was to gain a field specific neutron correction factor N n for workplaces at high-energy particle accelerators. N n is a dimensionless factor relative to a basic detector calibration with 137 Cs and is used to calculate the personal neutron dose in terms of H p (10) from the neutron albedo signal. The results show that the sensitivity of the albedo dosemeter for this specific neutron field is not significantly lower as for fast neutrons of a radionuclide source like 252 Cf. The neutron correction factor varies between 0.73 and 1.16 with a midrange value of 0.94. The albedo dosemeter is therefore appropriate to monitor persons, which are exposed at high-energy particle accelerators. (authors)

  2. Dose profile measurement in computerized axial tomography equipment using thermoluminescent dosemeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azorin V, J.C.; Falcony, C.; Azorin N, J.

    2000-01-01

    In this work are presented the results about measuring the radiation dose profile in two equipment of computerized axial tomography (Tac). Thermoluminescent dosemeters (Dtl) of LiF, Mg, Cu, P + Ptfe in form of disks were used which were developed and made in Mexico. The results showed that Dtl are appropriated for these type of studies. (Author)

  3. The development of a personal dosemeter for use by aircraft crew

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stokes, R.P.; Talbot, L.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes preliminary work to develop a cosmic-radiation dosemeter for use by military aircraft crew. The dosemeter is based on a combination of CR-39 etched-track detectors and TLD-700 thermoluminescent detectors. It is intended that the CR-39 be used to assess the neutron dose, while the TLD-700 is used to assess the photon and charged particle dose. The sensitivity of CR-39 to the neutron component of cosmic radiation was estimated by irradiating samples of the plastic at the CERN-CEC High Energy Reference Field Facility. This facility produced a radiation field with a neutron spectrum resembling that of the neutron component of cosmic radiation a typical airflight altitudes. The response of the CR-39 was linear over the range of doses studied (0.2-6.0 mSv) and there was no significant fading in the six-month period after irradiation. The TLD-700 component of the dosemeter was calibrated using 137 Cs gamma rays. The response of the TLD-700 was linear over the range of doses studied (0-1.1 mSv) with no significant fade in the six-month period after irradiation. It was concluded that a combination of CR-39 and TLD-700 detectors would provide an effective cosmic-radiation dosemeter for use by military aircraft crew. (author)

  4. Effect of some parameters in the response of the Perspex 3042, Lot L amber dosemeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prieto M, E.F.; Barrera G, G.

    2004-01-01

    The answer of the dosimetric systems is affected by several factors, for what should know as these factors they influence in each one of the different dosimetric systems and by this way to minimize its effect in the value of the absorbed dose and to obtain exact dose values. One of the dosimetric systems more used in the high dose dosimetry like routine dosemeter for the control of the irradiation process are the Perspex dosemeters, for their speed in the obtaining the information, their easy manipulation and the precision that they present. To this dosemeters group they belong the same as the Red and Clear the Amber, which are adequate for the measurement of the radiation dose in the range of high doses. The objective of the present work is to obtain the calibration curves of the dosemeters Amber Perspex 3042, Lot L under our work conditions, like they are the irradiation temperatures and of storage and to know the influence of the rate dose in the value of the absorbed dose for different measurement wavelengths, as well as, the relationship among the one post-irradiation time and the specific absorbance value induced in function of the absorbed dose. (Author)

  5. Calibration of personal dosemeters for extremities of fields of radiation gamma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papadopulos, S.; Gregori, S.; Moreno, B.; Guillen, J.

    1998-01-01

    In this work the conversion factors are presented obtained experimentally of kerma in free air in equivalent dose H(d,O o ) in finger and in arm for fields of radiation gamma of normal incidence dosemeters of extremities was irradiated, based on detecting TL of LIF 7 (TLD-700, Harshaw), placed on the surface of the finger phantom and arm

  6. A measurement of the response to fast neutrons of several materials dosemeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, L.T.; Kitching, S.J.; Lewis, T.A.; Playle, T.S.

    1986-07-01

    The response to fast neutrons was measured for three types of materials testing dosemeters: fast neutron dosimetry silicon diodes; beryllia, alumina and calcium fluoride TLDs; graphite walled ionisation chambers. The calibrations were made using a 3MW positive ion accelerator. The arrangement of the target, beam monitor and devices is described, and the measured fast neutron sensitivities are presented. (UK)

  7. Determination of the parameters of traps in thermoluminescent dosemeters of ZrO2: Eu + Ptfe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieto H, B.; Azorin N, J.; Rivera M, T.

    2002-01-01

    In this work the manufacture of dosemeters in pellets form of ZrO 2 : Eu + Ptfe is described; which after were exposed to UV radiation (260 nm) were generated the corresponding thermoluminescent curves and in the basis to the properties of symmetry of the curves it was determined the kinetic order using the Chen and the Balarin criteria. (Author)

  8. Development of an improved dosemeter for assessments of risk to the eye

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eakins, J.S.; Gilvin, P.J.; Hager, L.G.; Tanner, R.J.

    2014-01-01

    To develop an improved dosemeter to assess photon and beta exposures of the eye lens, and in response to issues surrounding the preferred values of H lens to be used for guiding operational radiation protection, a programme of re-optimization of the current PHE thermoluminescence dosemeter has been performed. In particular, refinements of the filter located in front of the sensitive 7 LiF:Mg,Cu,P element have been considered, so that the dose response characteristics of the device provide a better and more conservative estimate of risk. The investigation was performed using the Monte Carlo modelling software MCNP5, to produce a final design that featured a filter containing a 9.5 mm diameter polypropylene hemisphere truncated to a maximum thickness of 3.0 mm. The responses of this design in photon and electron fields are presented here, contrasted against those of the existing PHE eye dosemeter, with respect to the operational quantity H p (3,E,θ) and both current and suggested values for the absorbed dose per fluence risk profile for the lens of the eye. - Highlights: • A programme of re-optimization of the current PHE eye dosemeter has been performed. • A design featuring a truncated hemispherical filter was found to be optimal. • The shape of the filter better resembles the rotational profile of the eye. • Response characteristics depend on the calibration conditions taken to provide the best risk estimate

  9. Thermoluminescent dosemeters (TLD) exposed to high fluxes of gamma radiation, thermal neutrons and protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gambarini, G.; Martini, M.; Meinardi, F.; Raffaglio, C.; Salvadori, P.; Scacco, A.; Sichirollo, A.E.

    1996-01-01

    Thermoluminescent dosemeters (TLD), widely experimented and utilized in personal dosimetry, have some advantageous characteristics which induce one to employ them also in radiotherapy. The new radiotherapy techniques are aimed at selectively depositing a high dose in cancerous tissues. This goal is reached by utilising both conventional and other more recently proposed radiation, such as thermal neutrons and heavy charged particles. In these inhomogeneous radiation fields a reliable mapping of the spatial distribution of absorbed dose is desirable, and the utilized dosemeters have to give such a possibility without notably perturbing the radiation field with the materials of the dosemeters themselves. TLDs, for their small dimension and their tissue equivalence for most radiation, give good support in the mapping of radiation fields. After exposure to the high fluxes of therapeutic beams, some commercial TL dosemeters have shown a loss of reliability. An investigation has therefore be performed, both on commercial and on laboratory made phosphors, in order to investigate their behaviour in such radiation fields. In particular the thermal neutron and gamma ray mixed field of the thermal column of a nuclear reactor, of interest for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (B.N.C.T.) and a proton beam, of interest for proton therapy, were considered. Here some results obtained with new TL phosphors exposed in such radiation fields are presented, after a short description of some radiation damage effect on commercial LiF TLDs exposed in the (n th ,γ) field of the thermal column of a reactor. (author)

  10. The c-cards game

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valente, Andrea

    2005-01-01

    C-cards are an easy-to-reify, graphical formalism capable of expressing computational systems, discrete both in time and in space. The main goal of the project aims at scaling-down the learning complexity of Computer Science core contents. We argue that our cards present many dimensions...... of flexibility, resulting in a highly customizable learning object, that gives teachers and pedagogues freedom with respect to reification and deployment strategies. The correlation between the c-cards game and children's soft skills is also discussed....

  11. Analysis of Transaction Authorization for Credit Card Master Card Holders

    OpenAIRE

    Alam Surawijaya; Elly Agustina. Skom, Elly Agustina. Skom

    1998-01-01

    The credit card is a kind of payment in lieu of cash has a bright prospect in the future,because with the risk of carrying cash large enough in terms of both security and theamount of cash required at certain moments.With so many banks are Mastercard credit card issuer, then Mastercard create acommunication network that is designed to serve all requests authorization from eachmember. Some of the benefits gained from the existence of this system are rapidlyincreasing the authorization process ...

  12. Calibration of a special neutron dosemeter based on solid-state track detectors and fission radiators in various neutron fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doerschel, B.; Krusche, M.; Schuricht, V.

    1980-01-01

    The calibration of a personnel neutron dosemeter in different neutron fields is described. The badge-like dosemeter contains 5 detectors: polycarbonate foil (10 μm, Makrofol KG), 232 Th, natural uranium, natural uranium with boron, and natural uranium with cadmium. Detector sensitivity and calibration factors have been calculated and measured in radiation fields of 252 Cf fission neutrons, WWR-S reactor neutrons with and without Cd and Fe shielding, 3-MeV (d,t) generator neutrons, and 238 PuBe neutrons. Measurement range and achievable accuracy are discussed from the point of view of applying the dosemeter in routine and emergency uses

  13. From EuCARD to EuCARD-2

    CERN Multimedia

    Chaudron, M

    2013-01-01

    The one word that best describes the spirit of the EuCARD ’13 event (see here) that took place from 10 to 14 June at CERN is "collaboration". The event brought together more than 180 accelerator specialists from all over the world to celebrate the conclusion of the EuCARD project and to kick off its successor, EuCARD-2.   EuCARD-2 brings a global view to particle accelerator research in order to address challenges for future generations of accelerators. The project officially began on 1 May 2013 and will run for four years. With a total budget of €23.4 million, including an €8 million EU contribution, it will build upon the success of EuCARD and push it into an even more innovative regime. EuCARD-2 aims to significantly enhance multidisciplinary R&D for European accelerators and will actively contribute to the development of a European Research Area in accelerator science. This will be accomplished by promoting complementary expertise, cross-d...

  14. Credit Cards. Bulletin No. 721. (Revised.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Linda Kirk

    This cooperative extension bulletin provides basic information about credit cards and their use. It covers the following topics: types of credit cards (revolving credit, travel and entertainment, and debit); factors to consider when evaluating a credit card (interest rates, grace period, and annual membership fee); other credit card costs (late…

  15. 75 FR 10414 - Researcher Identification Card

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-08

    ... capturing administrative information on the characteristics of our users. Other forms of identification are... use bar-codes on researcher identification cards in the Washington, DC, area. The plastic cards we... plastic researcher identification cards as part of their security systems, we issue a plastic card to...

  16. RENEWAL OF SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    Division des Ressources Humaines; Human Resources Division; Tel. 79494-74683

    2000-01-01

    Members of the personnel, holders of SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDS due to expire during the year 2000, need to change them. Those concerned should bring: - a recent passport photo (with NAME and first name on the back) - the expired (or due to expire) card and a recto-verso photocopy on A4 size paper (for certified authentication) to: Bureau des cartes, bldg 33.1-009/1-011. HR Division will notify members of personnel as soon as the new cards are available.Be careful: if you are in possession of expired cards (Swiss or French), or if you present non-certified copies, the Organisation will not take any responsibility in case of difficulties with the customs authorities or the police.

  17. RENEWAL OF SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    Division des Ressources Humaines; Human Resources Division; Tel. 79494-74683

    2000-01-01

    Members of the personnel, holders of SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDS due to expire during the year 2000, need to change them. Those concerned should bring : a recent passport photo (with NAME and first name on the back) the expired (or due to expire) card and a recto-verso photocopy on A4 size paper (for certified authentication)to: Bureau des cartes, Bât 33.1-009/1-011. Members of personnel will be notified by HR Division as soon as the new cards are available. Be careful: if you are in possession of expired cards (Swiss or French), or if you present non-certified copies, the Organization will not take any responsibility in case of difficulties with the customs authorities or the police.

  18. RENEWAL OF SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division; Human Resources Division; Tel. 79494-74683

    2000-01-01

    Members of the personnel, holders of SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDS due to expire during the year 2000, need to change them. Those concerned should bring: ­ a recent passport photo (with NAME and first name on the back) ­ the expired (or due to expire) card and a recto-verso photocopy on A4 size paper (for certified authentication) to: Bureau des cartes, Bât 33.1-009/1-011 Members of the personnel will be notified by HR Division as soon as the new cards are available. Be careful: if you are in possession of expired cards (Swiss or French), or if you present non-certified copies, the Organization will not take any responsability in case of difficulties with the customs authorities or the police.

  19. RENEWAL OF SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Division

    2001-01-01

    Members of the personnel and their families, holders of SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDS due to expire during the year 2001, need to change them. Those concerned should bring : a recent passport photo (with NAME and first name on the back) the expired (or due to expire) card and a recto-verso photocopy on A4 size paper (for certified authentication) to Bureau des cartes, building 33/1-009/1-015. Members of the personnel will be notified by the Social and Statutary Conditions Group, HR Division as soon as the new cards are available. Be careful: If you are in possession of expired cards (Swiss or French), or if you present non-certified copies, the Organization will not take any responsibility in case of difficulties with the customs authorities or the police.

  20. RENEWAL OF SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    Division des Ressources Humaines; Human Resources Division; Tel. 79494-74683

    2000-01-01

    Members of the personnel, holders of SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDS due to expire during the year 2000, need to change them. Those concerned should bring : - a recent passport photo (with NAME and first name on the back) - the expired (or due to expire) card and a recto-verso photocopy on A4 size paper (for certified authentication) to: Bureau des cartes, bât 33.1-009/1-011. HR Division will notify members of personnel as soon as the new cards are available. Be careful: if you are in possession of expired cards (Swiss or French), or if you present non-certified copies, the Organization will not take any responsibility in case of difficulties with the customs authorities or the police.

  1. [Smart cards in health services].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rienhoff, O

    2001-10-01

    Since the early 1980-ties it has been tried to utilise smart cards in health care. All industrialised countries participated in those efforts. The most sustainable analyses took place in Europe--specifically in the United Kingdom, France, and Germany. The first systems installed (the service access cards in F and G, the Health Professional Card in F) are already conceptionally outdated today. The senior understanding of the great importance of smart cards for security of electronic communication in health care does contrast to a hesitating behaviour of the key players in health care and health politics in Germany. There are clear hints that this may relate to the low informatics knowledge of current senior management.

  2. Turning a Private Label Bank Card into a Multi-function Campus ID Card.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Thomas G.; Norwood, Bill R.

    1991-01-01

    This article describes the development at Florida State University of the Seminole ACCESS card, which functions simultaneously as a bank automated teller machine card, a student identification card, and a debit card. Explained are the partnership between the university and the bank charge card center, funding system, technologies involved, and…

  3. OPENING HOURS FOR CARDS OFFICE

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2001-01-01

    Due to the extra workload generated by the global renewal of French cards and in order to preserve the level of service offered by the cards office, please note that this office will in future be open every morning from 8.30 a.m. to 12.30 p.m. until further notice. The service can be contacted by telephone during the same hours. Thank you for your understanding.

  4. Card counting in continuous time

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson, Patrik

    2012-01-01

    We consider the problem of finding an optimal betting strategy for a house-banked casino card game that is played for several coups before reshuffling. The sampling without replacement makes it possible to take advantage of the changes in the expected value as the deck is depleted, making large bets when the game is advantageous. Using such a strategy, which is easy to implement, is known as card counting. We consider the case of a large number of decks, making an approximat...

  5. Play the European card

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majewski, O.

    1999-01-01

    Dr. Otto Majewski, Chief Executive Officer of the Bayernwerk AG utility, in his capacity as Chairman of the European Nuclear Council pointed out at ENC 98 in Nice that national energy policies constituted a major danger to the use of nuclear power. At the same time, he indicated ways and means by which to evade that danger. The decisions taken in Sweden and in the Federal Republic of Germany to opt out of the use of nuclear power show that national energy policies can seriously jeopardize the use of nuclear power. Bayernwerk CEO Dr. Majewski urged nuclear power plant operators to counteract these tendencies by playing the European card. Nuclear power anyway was a classical topic of European cooperation which, in the past, had resulted in higher safety standards and in the development of the EPR. It should also be attempted, by working on European institutions, to strengthen the use of nuclear power, even on a national level. He invoked economic arguments against nuclear opponents, especially the preservation of competitiveness by means of lower electricity prices, and arguments of climate protection. (orig.) [de

  6. Development of CaSO4:Dy based ring dosemeter for extremity monitoring of radiation workers in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, Kshama; Meenal, P.; Bhagat, R.V.; Singh, R.; Kolambe, D.H.; Chougaonkar, M.P.; Sapra, B.K.

    2014-01-01

    Extremity dosemeters are required to be worn in cases where the dose to extremities is expected to be significantly greater than the dose to the whole body. In India, CaSO 4 :Dy based three element personnel monitoring TLD badge worn at chest and wrist level are used for whole body and extremity monitoring, respectively. Presently no official/legal finger dosemeter is available for extremity monitoring for radiation workers in the country. To cater to the long standing requirement of finger dosimeter, a new compact three-element Extremity Ring Badge Dosemeter (ERBD) has been developed for measurement of the equivalent doses received by the extremities of radiation workers in terms of operational quantity Hp(0.07). It was aimed to meet the performance requirement of IEC/ISO standards. This paper gives the design detail and result of experimental studies of ERB dosemeter

  7. Energy dependence of ulrathin LiF-dosemeters for high energy electrons and high energy X-radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupfer, T.

    1977-02-01

    The energy dependence of ultrathin LiF-dosemeters for high energy electrons (5-40 MeV) and high energy X-radiation (6 MV, 42 MV) is experimentally determined. The experimental values are compared to values calculted earlier by other authors. The influence of the thickness of the dosemeters have been considered by comparison of experimental values for 0.03 mm thick dosemeters and theoretical values for 0.13 mm and 0.38 mm thick ones. Also different commersially available dosemeters have been compared by experiments. It is difficult to draw any other conclutions about the energy dependence than that the variation of the relative responce is within +- 3 percent (2S). However the results seems to be sulficient for clinical applications

  8. Performance of a PADC personal neutron dosemeter at simulated and real workplace fields of the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiechtner, A.; Boschung, M.; Wernli, C.

    2007-01-01

    In the framework of the EVIDOS (Evaluation of Individual Dosimetry in Mixed Neutron and Photon Radiation Fields) project, funded by the EC, measurements with PADC personal neutron dosemeters were carried out at several workplace fields of the nuclear industry and at simulated workplace fields. The measured personal neutron dose equivalents of the PADC personal neutron dosemeter are compared with values that were assessed within the EVIDOS project by other partners. The detection limits for different spectra types are given. In cases were the neutron dose was too low to be measured by the PADC personal neutron dosemeter, the response is estimated by convoluting the responses to monoenergetic neutrons with the dose energy distribution measured within EVIDOS. The advantages and limitations of the PADC personal neutron dosemeter are discussed. (authors)

  9. Systematic errors in the readings of track etch neutron dosemeters caused by the energy dependence of response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanner, R.J.; Thomas, D.J.; Bartlett, D.T.; Horwood, N.

    1999-01-01

    A study has been performed to assess the extent to which variations in the energy dependence of response of neutron personal dosemeters can cause systematic errors in readings obtained in workplace fields. This involved a detailed determination of the response functions of personal dosemeters used in the UK. These response functions were folded with workplace spectra to ascertain the under- or over-response in workplace fields

  10. Systematic errors in the readings of track etch neutron dosemeters caused by the energy dependence of response

    CERN Document Server

    Tanner, R J; Bartlett, D T; Horwood, N

    1999-01-01

    A study has been performed to assess the extent to which variations in the energy dependence of response of neutron personal dosemeters can cause systematic errors in readings obtained in workplace fields. This involved a detailed determination of the response functions of personal dosemeters used in the UK. These response functions were folded with workplace spectra to ascertain the under- or over-response in workplace fields.

  11. Use of a robotic manipulator in the simulation of the automation of a calibration process of dosemeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benitez R, J.S.; Najera H, M.C.

    2002-01-01

    The development of a system based in a manipulative robot which simulates the operative sequence in a calibration process of dosemeters is presented. In this process it is performed the monitoring of the dosemeter positions and the calibrator by mean of an arm of articulated robot which develops the movement sequences and the taking a decision based on the information coming from the external sensors. (Author)

  12. Comparative measurements of external radiation exposure using mobile phones, dental ceramic, household salt and conventional personal dosemeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekendahl, Daniela; Bulánek, Boris; Judas, Libor

    2015-01-01

    Because retrospective dosimetry utilises commonly occurring materials and objects, it is particularly useful in cases of large-scale radiation accidents or malevolent acts with radioactive materials where casualties are inflicted on the general public and first emergency responders. The aim of this study was to investigate whether retrospective dosemeters can provide dose estimates with comparable accuracy like conventional personal dosemeters. Using an external source of radiation 137 Cs and an anthropomorphic phantom, we simulated serious irradiation of a human body in anterior-posterior and rotational geometries. Retrospective luminescence dosimetry objects, such as mobile phones, dental ceramic and household salt, and conventional personal dosemeters (thermoluminescent and electronic) were fixed to the anthropomorphic phantom. The doses obtained were compared with specific reference values. In most cases, relative deviations between the measured doses and the reference values did not exceed 20%. As the retrospective and conventional dosemeters show no significant differences in laboratory conditions, the retrospective luminescence dosimetry objects represent a very promising tool if handled properly. - Highlights: • A serious external exposure of human body was simulated. • Doses were measured using both retrospective and conventional dosemeters. • Utilised retrospective dosimetry materials were alumina resistors from mobile phones, household salt and dental ceramic. • Doses obtained were compared with reference values. • Both retrospective and conventional dosemeters gave similar results

  13. Credit Card Debt Hardship Letter Samples

    OpenAIRE

    lissa coffey

    2016-01-01

    Having trouble with your credit card debt? Below you will find examples of hardship letters. There are several things to consider when writing a credit card hardship letter. A hardship letter is the first step to letting the credit card company know that things are bad. This free credit card hardship letter sample is only a guide in order to start the negotiation. Credit card debt hardship letter example, hardship letter to credit card. If you are having trouble paying off your debt and need ...

  14. Passive microfluidic array card and reader

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugan, Lawrence Christopher [Modesto, CA; Coleman, Matthew A [Oakland, CA

    2011-08-09

    A microfluidic array card and reader system for analyzing a sample. The microfluidic array card includes a sample loading section for loading the sample onto the microfluidic array card, a multiplicity of array windows, and a transport section or sections for transporting the sample from the sample loading section to the array windows. The microfluidic array card reader includes a housing, a receiving section for receiving the microfluidic array card, a viewing section, and a light source that directs light to the array window of the microfluidic array card and to the viewing section.

  15. Java Card for PayTv Application

    OpenAIRE

    Dutta, Pallab

    2013-01-01

    Smart cards are widely used along with PayTV receivers to store secret user keys and to perform security functions to prevent any unauthorized viewing of PayTV channels. Java Card technology enables programs written in the Java programming language to run on smart cards. Smart cards represent one of the smallest computing platforms in use today. The memory configuration of a smart card are of the order of 4K of RAM, 72K of EEPROM, and 24K of ROM. Using Java card provides advantages to the ind...

  16. Characterization of a two-component thermoluminescent albedo dosemeter according to ISO 21909

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, M.M., E-mail: marcelo@ird.gov.b [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN), Av. Salvador Allende s/n, CEP 22780-160, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Mauricio, C.L.P., E-mail: claudia@ird.gov.b [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN), Av. Salvador Allende s/n, CEP 22780-160, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Pereira, W.W., E-mail: walsan@ird.gov.b [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN), Av. Salvador Allende s/n, CEP 22780-160, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Silva, A.X. da, E-mail: ademir@con.ufrj.b [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia, COPPE/PEN Caixa Postal 68509, CEP 21941-972, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-05-15

    A two-component thermoluminescent albedo neutron monitoring system was developed at Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria, Brazil. As there is no Brazilian regulation for neutron individual monitoring service, the system was tested according to the ISO 21909 standard. This standard provides performance and test requirements for determining the acceptability of personal neutron dosemeters to be used for the measurement of personal dose equivalent, H{sub p}(10), in neutron fields with energies ranging from thermal to 20 MeV. Up to 40 dosemeters were used in order to accomplish satisfactorily the requirements of some tests. Despite operational difficulties, this albedo system passed all ISO 21909 performance requirements. The results and problems throughout this characterization are discussed in this paper.

  17. Dissolution behaviour of 238U, 234U and 230Th deposited on filters from personal dosemeters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becková, Vera; Malátová, Irena

    2008-01-01

    Kinetics of dissolution of (238)U, (234)U and (230)Th dust deposited on filters from personal alpha dosemeters was studied by means of a 26-d in vitro dissolution test with a serum ultrafiltrate simulant. Dosemeters had been used by miners at the uranium mine 'Dolní Rozínka' at Rozná, Czech Republic. The sampling flow-rate as declared by the producer is 4 l h(-1) and the sampling period is typically 1 month. Studied filters contained 125 +/- 6 mBq (238)U in equilibrium with (234)U and (230)Th; no (232)Th series nuclides were found. Half-time of rapid dissolution of 1.4 d for (238)U and (234)U and slow dissolution half-times of 173 and 116 d were found for (238)U and (234)U, respectively. No detectable dissolution of (230)Th was found.

  18. Influence of different types of phantoms on the calibration of dosemeters for eye lens dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshitomi, H.; Kowatari, M.

    2016-01-01

    Both a cylinder and a slab phantom have been recommended to be used as calibration phantoms for eye lens dosimetry in the International Atomic Energy Agency TECDOC. This study describes investigations on the influence of the type of phantom on the calibration of dosemeters. In order to fulfil the purpose, backscatter radiation from practically used water-filled phantoms was evaluated by calculations and experiments. For photons, the calculations showed that the cylinder phantom had 10 % lower backscattered effect at maximum than a slab phantom, and simulated well the backscattered effect of the human head or neck to within ±10 %. The irradiation results of non-filtered optically stimulated luminescence and radio-photoluminescence glass dosemeters indicated that the differences of the calibration factors between the two types of phantoms were up to 20 and 10 %, respectively, reflecting the response to backscattered photons. For electrons, no difference was found between the two types of phantoms. (authors)

  19. Dissolution behaviour of 238U, 234U and 230Th deposited on filters from personal dosemeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckova, V.; Malatova, I.

    2008-01-01

    Kinetics of dissolution of 238 U, 234 U and 230 Th dust deposited on filters from personal alpha dosemeters was studied by means of a 26-d in vitro dissolution test with a serum ultra-filtrate simulant. Dosemeters had been used by miners at the uranium mine 'Dolni Rozinka' at Rozna, Czech Republic. The sampling flow-rate as declared by the producer is 4 l h -1 and the sampling period is typically 1 month. Studied filters contained 125 ± 6 mBq 238 U in equilibrium with 234 U and 230 Th; no 232 Th series nuclides were found. Half-time of rapid dissolution of 1.4 d for 238 U and 234 U and slow dissolution half-times of 173 and 116 d were found for 238 U and 234 U, respectively. No detectable dissolution of 230 Th was found. (authors)

  20. Measuring radiation exposure during percutaneous drainages: can shoulder dosemeters be used to estimate finger doses?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vehmas, Tapio; Tikkanen, Heikki

    1992-01-01

    To assess the need for extra finger dosemeters, radiologists' and assistants' radiation exposure at both shoulders and at the third fingers of both hands were recorded using thermoluminescent dosemeters during 27 interventional drainage procedures. Under couch screening was used. Mean dose rates were calculated by dividing dose by screening time. The radiologists' bilateral finger dose rates did not correlate with each other; nor did dose rates between the left shoulder and the right hand. The radiologists' dose rates at both shoulders, correlated with each other, as did shoulder dose rates with dose rates at the ispilateral hand. The right shoulder dose rates correlated with the left hand dose rates. The assistants' dose rates at places of measurement showed significant correlations with each other. (Author)

  1. RENEWAL OF SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Division

    2000-01-01

    Members of the personnel, holders ofSWISS LEGITIMATION CARDSdue to expire during the year 2000, need to change them.Those concerned should bring:a recent passport photo (with NAME and first name on the back)the expired (or due to expire) card and a recto-verso photocopy on A4 size paper (for certified authentication) to:Bureau des cartes, Bât 33.1-009/1-011.HR Division will notify members of personnel as soon as the new cards are available.Be careful: if you are in possession of expired cards (Swiss or French), or if you present non-certified copies, the Organisation will not take any responsibility in case of difficulties with the customs authorities or the police.Human Resources DivisionTel. 79494-74683

  2. RENEWAL OF SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    HR DIVISION

    2000-01-01

    Members of the personnel, holders of SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDSdue to expire during the year 2000, need to change them.Those concerned should bring:a recent passport photo (with NAME and first name on the back)the expired (or due to expire) card and a photocopy (for certified authentication)to: Bureau des cartes, building 33/1-025Members of personnel will be notified by HR Division as soon as the new cards are available.Be careful: if you are in possession of expired cards (Swiss or French), or if you present non-certified copies, the Organization will not take any responsibility in case of difficulties with the customs authorities or the police.Human Resources DivisionTel. 79494-74683

  3. RENEWAL OF SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    Division des Ressources Humaines

    2000-01-01

    Members of the personnel, holders of SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDSdue to expire during the year 2000, need to change them.Those concerned should bring:-\ta recent passport photo (with NAME and first name on the back)-\tthe expired (or due to expire) card and a recto-verso photocopy on A4 size paper (for certified authentication) to:Bureau des cartes, bât 33.1-009/1-011.HR Division will notify members of personnel as soon as the new cards are available.Be careful: if you are in possession of expired cards (Swiss or French), or if you present non-certified copies, the Organisation will not take any responsibility in case of difficulties with the customs authorities or the police.Human Resources DivisionTel. 79494-74683

  4. Reminder: Swiss and French cards

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    Communication from the HR Department to members of personnel holding an employment or association contract, above 50% and for more than 3 months, with the Organization. The HR Department would like to remind all members of personnel concerned that they are obliged to: • hold a valid Swiss  Légitimation card AND a valid French card (“Titre de séjour spécial” or “attestation de fonctions”) at all times during the exercise of their functions in the Organization; • return these documents as soon as their functions in the Organization cease. Not following these rules could be prejudicial to the Organization and appropriate measures may be taken towards the member of personnel concerned. Information and procedures concerning Swiss and French cards (first application, renewal, theft/loss, etc.) are available in the Admin e-guide. Users and Unpaid Associates must contact the Users Office HR Department Tel.: 729...

  5. Swiss and French cards - Reminder

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2011-01-01

    Communication from the HR Department to members of personnel holding an employment or association contract, above 50% and for more than 3 months, with the Organization. The HR Department would like to remind all members of the personnel concerned that they are obliged to: hold a valid Swiss Légitimation card AND a valid French card (“Titre de séjour spécial” or “attestation de fonctions”) at all times during the exercise of their functions in the Organization; return these documents as soon as their functions in the Organization cease. Not following these rules could be prejudicial to the Organization and appropriate measures may be taken with respect to the member of the personnel concerned. Information and procedures concerning Swiss and French cards (first application, renewal, theft/loss, etc.) are available in the Admin e-guide: https://cern.ch/admin-eguide/cartes/proc_cartes_home.asp Users and Unpaid Associates must ...

  6. Contribution to the development study of a personal fast neutron dosemeter using nuclear emulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ott, C.

    1985-02-01

    This work deals with the response of a personal neutron dosemeter using nuclear emulsion. The main characteristics of the detector are studied with the help of a computer programme simulating the conditions of the formation of recoil protons tracks recorded by nuclear emulsions. The lecture limits of nuclear emulsions with light microscope and the validity of our computer code are checked by comparing our theoretical values with experimental results [fr

  7. Exposure levels to radiation in a nuclear medicine laboratory: measurements with thermoluminescence dosemeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz J, A.

    2000-01-01

    Since 1996 in the Nuclear medicine Department and another routine and research departments of the National Institute of Medical and Nutrition Sciences (INCMNSZ) are working at least with 12 radioactive sources opened and sealed. However, it was unknown if with the Tl personal dosemeters with lithium fluoride crystals (LiF), could be possible to receive information about the equivalent dose for each radionuclide or if there was some radionuclide that by being low energy emissor or beta energy emissor, it did not represent an ionization power sufficient to excite the crystals of the thermoluminescent dosemeters (DTL). In this work the obtained results with control dosemeters of diverse source opened or sealed are shown, which were put at 1 cm of the LiF crystals during a time exposure 18 hours. Therefore the objective of this work is to verify which sources excite or not to DTL crystals and taking the pertinent safety measures for each radionuclide. The conclusion is that the majority of dosemeters were excited by beta or gamma radiation of the radionuclides and that LiF crystals are able to receive equivalent doses until 1200 mSv, being this a guarantee for the staff, that in an any moment could be exposed to high dose in his working day. Also it was corroborated that the radionuclides more energizer are: iodine-131, iodine-125 and sodium-22 while the phosphorus-32 must be managed with careful, since the exposure to hands can result significant, just like the technetium-99m ( 99m Tc). (Author)

  8. Possibility of the use of PVC plastics as a ray dosemeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amri Ayat; Sutrisno Puspodikoro.

    1978-01-01

    The use of plastics as a radiation dosemeter for measurement of γ-rays is very attractive to be studied. In the work presented here commercial PVC film with the trade-mark ''Takiron'' is used for Co-60 radiation dosimetry. According to the experiments the useful dose range extends over 0.15-1.2 Mrads. Fading of the coloration with time after radiation exposure can be stabilised by heat treatment (60 deg C for 30 minutes). (author)

  9. Determination of the dose index in computerized tomography using thermoluminescent dosemeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azorin, J.C.; Calderon, A.; Azorin, J.

    2004-01-01

    In this work the obtained results of the determination of the dose index are presented in thorax studies in computed tomography and helical tomography carried out in Mexico using thermoluminescent dosemeters of LiF: Mg,Cu,P + Ptfe developed and manufactured in our country. The results showed that under similar conditions of irradiation and operation (pitch = 1), significant differences don't exist among the doses absorbed measures in the phantom due to the two types of used tomographs. (Author)

  10. Dose estimation by simultaneous measurement of the radon/thoron concentration and the equilibrium factors in air using a passive dosemeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urban, M.

    1984-03-01

    Responsible for an increased radiation exposure is the inhalation of radon and its short lived daughters. A time integrating passive dosemeter was developed to determine the concentrations of the radon isotopes as well as their equilibrium factors. The α energy spectrum inside a dosemeter is measured by means of a nuclear track detector. The concentrations in air and the equilibrium factors are calculated by using a new mathematical dosemeter model. A small pilot study in houses was done to test the dosemeter. (orig.) [de

  11. Operational trials of single- and multi-element CR-39 dosemeters for the DIDO and PLUTO reactors at the Harwell Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallacher, G.G.; Perks, C.A.

    1993-01-01

    Single- and multi-element CR-39 dosemeters, developed at the Harwell Laboratory, and a commercially available multi-element CR-39 dosemeter (obtained from Track Analysis Systems Ltd), were evaluated for their potential as neutron dosemeters for personnel working at Harwell Laboratory's research reactors. Owing to the angular dependence of the CR-39 (processed using electrochemical etching), the single-element dosemeter was found to be impractical. Consequently, a multi-element dosemeter was developed, which consisted of a cube of side 36 mm with CR-39 elements (also processed using electrochemical etching) attached to each of the sides. Although this dosemeter was technically suitable for this type of dosimetry, it was considered to be unacceptably bulky in personnel trials. The commercially available CR-39 dosemeter tested was much smaller (the CR-39 was only chemically etched) and this was considered to be acceptable as a personnel dosemeter. In addition, trials with personnel working at active handling glove boxes indicated that single-element dosemeters might be adequate, but further work would be needed to verify this. (author)

  12. The SMile Card: a computerised data card for multiple sclerosis patients. SMile Card Scientific Board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancardi, G L; Uccelli, M M; Sonnati, M; Comi, G; Milanese, C; De Vincentiis, A; Battaglia, M A

    2000-04-01

    The SMile Card was developed as a means for computerising clinical information for the purpose of transferability, accessibility, standardisation and compilation of a national database of demographic and clinical information about multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. In many European countries, centres for MS are organised independently from one another making collaboration, consultation and patient referral complicated. Only the more highly advanced clinical centres, generally located in large urban areas, have had the possibility to utilise technical possibilities for improving the organisation of patient clinical and research information, although independently from other centres. The information system, developed utilising the Visual Basic language for Microsoft Windows 95, stores information via a 'smart card' in a database which is initiated and updated utilising a microprocessor, located at each neurological clinic. The SMile Card, currently being tested in Italy, permits patients to carry with them all relevant medical information without limitations. Neurologists are able to access and update, via the microprocessor, the patient's entire medical history and MS-related information, including the complete neurological examination and laboratory test results. The SMile Card provides MS patients and neurologists with a complete computerised archive of clinical information which is accessible throughout the country. In addition, data from the SMile Card system can be exported to other database programs.

  13. Performance testing of personal dosemeters from eleven dosimetry services in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, E.; Kylloenen, J.-E.; Grindborg, J.-E.; Lindborg, L.

    2001-01-01

    The Swedish regulation, SSI FS 98:5, requires that radiological workers of category A use dosemeters from an approved personal dosimetry service. The 11 services operating in Sweden at the moment use five different types of dosemeter. All have been tested for their ability to determine H p (10) and some of them to determine H p (0.07) according to the European Commission report Radiation Protection 73, EUR 14852, of 1994. The five unique systems have been tested regarding the angular and energy dependence of the response of the dosemeters. The test points for the determination of H p (10) are all, except one, within the trumpet curve and for the unique systems it is shown that the uncertainty related to angular response at three different energies is within the required ±40% except for the lowest X ray quality 40 kV. The energy dependence dominates over the directional dependence and the choice of radiation quality for calibration is of great importance for the system performance. (author)

  14. Performance tests of a CaSO4:Dy based thermoluminescence personal dosemeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azorin, J.; Gutierrez, A.; Niewiadomski, T.

    1986-01-01

    In order to replace LiF commercial thermoluminescence dosemeters (TLDs) now used in personnel monitoring, we developed a TLD personnel monitoring badge based on pellets of CaSO 4 :Dy bound in pure KBr placed in plastic holders provided with 0.8 mm Pb filters to compensate for the energy dependence of CaSO 4 :Dy. Performance tests, based on the proposals of international standards for TLDs intended to be used as general deep tissue personal dosemeters, were done by developing the detailed test methods both for the tests required by the International Atomic Energy Agency (fading, linearity, effect of fluorescent light and sunlight and stability under standard climatic conditions) and to meet the requirements of the International Electrotechnical Commission (batch homogeneity, detection threshold, stability of zero point repeatibility and residual). Initial tests showed a high residual and an increase of inhomogeneity. However, these drawbacks were overcome by changing the annealing procedure and the readout conditions. Using these new conditions TLDs met all the requirements for personal dosemeters. (author)

  15. Evaluation of two personal dosemeters in polyenergetic mono- and multi-directional neutron fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunes, J. C.; Surette, R. A.

    2005-01-01

    The neutron dose-equivalent response of two commercially available electronic personal neutron dosemeters was studied in several laboratory-produced broad-spectrum neutron fields. Fluence-weighted mean energies ranged from 200 keV to 4 MeV; personal dose-equivalent rates ranged from 75 to 10 mSv h -1 ; and angles of incidence were multidirectional, 0 deg., 30 deg. and 60 deg.. Three of these fields have been shown previously to resemble ones found in CANDU (Canadian Deuterium Uranium is a registered trademark of the Atomic Energy of Canada Limited) power plant workplaces. Both dosemeters were found to perform reasonably well across the range of energy spectra and angles of incidence. One type of dosemeter displayed values of the personal dose equivalent that were, at worst, within a factor of ∼2 of the reference values and, at best, within a few per cent of the reference values. The other type displayed values of the personal dose equivalent that were consistently within unity and 20% of the reference values. Although the radiological performance of one was found to be more accurate, this device was also found to be the less rugged of the two. Some of the data acquired in this work were compared with results previously published by others. There was consistency between these sets of data. (authors)

  16. A portable versatile x-and γ-ray dosemeter with digital display for medical use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sankaran, A.; Gangadharan, P.

    1980-01-01

    A multipurpose dosemeter based on analogue-to-digital (A-D) conversion has been developed using solid state devices, micropower integrated circuits and displays. The A-D converter combines the features of a MOSFET electrometer, a voltage-to-frequency converter, the automatic Townsend balance, LED(LCD) display for exposure, analogue output and has a voltage-measuring accuracy of +-O.1% FS+-1 digit. The dosemeter which is designed to measure a wide range of X- and γ-ray exposure rates (1 mRh -1 to 1000 R min -1 ) and exposures (1 mR to 1000 R) with a variety of air-equivalent ionisation chambers, is compact, rugged and battery or AC mains powered. It is designed to provide trouble-free performance, easy operation and maintenance and to be independent of climatic conditions. Combining the features of a survey meter, dosemeter and a radioisotope calibrator, it can be fabricated using the facilities locally available in hospitals or universities. (author)

  17. An Anonymous Credit Card System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Androulaki, Elli; Bellovin, Steven

    Credit cards have many important benefits; however, these same benefits often carry with them many privacy concerns. In particular, the need for users to be able to monitor their own transactions, as well as bank’s need to justify its payment requests from cardholders, entitle the latter to maintain a detailed log of all transactions its credit card customers were involved in. A bank can thus build a profile of each cardholder even without the latter’s consent. In this paper, we present a practical and accountable anonymous credit system based on ecash, with a privacy preserving mechanism for error correction and expense-reporting.

  18. Calibration of TOB+ Thermometer's Cards

    CERN Document Server

    Banitt, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Motivation - Under the new upgrade of the CMS detector the working temperature of the trackers had been reduced to -27 Celsius degrees. Though the thermal sensors themselves (Murata and Fenwal thermistors) are effective at these temperatures, the max1542 PLC (programmable logic controller) cards, interpreting the resistance of the thermal sensors into DC counts usable by the DCS (detector control system), are not designed for these temperatures in which the counts exceed their saturation and therefor had to be replaced. In my project I was in charge of handling the emplacement and calibration of the new PLC cards to the TOB (tracker outer barrel) control system.

  19. NCDC Punched Card Inventory - 1950s

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Index of foreign weather data available on punched cards held at the Joint Punched Card Library in Asheville NC, produced in the late 1950s, and also station/data...

  20. One-Card Programs Boast Endless Options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearcey, Kevin

    2003-01-01

    Discusses how all-campus ID cards are easy to manage, enhance overall campus security, lower operating expenses, and provide a chance to build lasting relationships with the community by taking the card to off-campus businesses. (EV)

  1. Data transfer based on intelligent ethernet card

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Haitao; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing; Chu Yuanping; Zhao Jingwei

    2007-01-01

    Intelligent Ethernet Cards are widely used in systems where the network throughout is very large, such as the DAQ systems for modern high energy physics experiments, web service. With the example of a commercial intelligent Ethernet card, this paper introduces the architecture, the principle and the process of intelligent Ethernet cards. In addition, the results of several experiments showing the differences between intelligent Ethernet cards and general ones are also presented. (authors)

  2. Main components of business cards design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ю. В. Романенкова

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available The essay is dedicated to the urgent problem of necessity of creation of professional design of business cards, that are important part of the image of modem businessman. There are classification of cards by functional principle, the functions of cards of each type were analyzed. All components of business card, variants of its composition schemes, color characteristics, principles of use of trade marks and other design elements have been allocated

  3. Thermoluminescent response of dosemeters TLD-100 exposed to distinct baker protocols, irradiation and reading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estrada E, D.

    2002-01-01

    The interest that motivated the realization of this work is the opposing discrepancy among the values of the efficiency thermoluminescent of heavy charged particles (PCP) regarding gamma radiation (η PCP , γ) reported in different works and gathered recently for Horowitz (Ho 01). The measures of relative thermoluminescent efficiency have importance in relation to the dosimetry associated to medical therapy with heavy charged particle. The measurement of η PCP , γ depends of multiple experimental factors. To understand this dependence it was quantified the effect of using different procedures experimental in the estimate of the relative thermoluminescent efficiency of dosemeters TLD-100 (LiF: Ti; Mg) for protons of 3 MeV regarding gamma rays of 60 Co (η PCP , γ), varying the lot, the presentation, the one baked and the team reader. When was used the same global procedure values they were obtained for (η PCP , γ) inside the interval [0.30, 0.58] for the peak 5 and [0.35, 0.76] for the total thermoluminescent signal (Tl). At the use different equipment, baked and lot are obtained maximum differences of 30%, 12% and 6% respectively in the values of (η PCP , γ) for the peak 5, and 25%, 28% and 7% for the total Tl signal. The changes more significant of 36% and 44% for peak 5 and total signal respectively are obtained when changing the presentation of the dosemeter. As a complementary investigation it was studied the distribution of the Tl signal of each peak in the deconvolution of the curve of brightness with regard to the total signal in exposed dosemeters to high fluence of protons (1x10 10 p/cm 2 ) varying the experimental protocol. It was found that the distribution of the Tl signal has a difference of the order of 5% when changing the used reading team. It was observed that the contribution of the peak 5 regarding the total signal are preserved when changing baked and that it results to be 8% greater for the presentation in dosemeters of 1 x 1 x 1 mm 3

  4. Palmistry, tarot cards, and psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pejic, Nicholas G

    2008-01-01

    The author summarizes his experience with palm and Tarot card readers in New Orleans. The history, practice, and psychodynamics of palmistry and Tarot are explored. It's postulated that these practices are forms of archaic psychotherapy, which employ supportive treatment and placebo. These tactics are used to elicit hope for its clients.

  5. Towards an open sound card

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimitrov, Smilen; Serafin, Stefania

    2011-01-01

    The architecture of a sound card can, in simple terms, be described as an electronic board containing a digital bus interface hardware, and analog-to-digital (A/D) and digital-to-analog (D/A) converters; then, a soundcard driver software on a personal computer's (PC) operating system (OS) can con...

  6. Comparing Candidate Hospital Report Cards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burr, T.L.; Rivenburgh, R.D.; Scovel, J.C.; White, J.M.

    1997-12-31

    We present graphical and analytical methods that focus on multivariate outlier detection applied to the hospital report cards data. No two methods agree which hospitals are unusually good or bad, so we also present ways to compare the agreement between two methods. We identify factors that have a significant impact on the scoring.

  7. Citizen empowerment using healthcare and welfare cards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheshire, Paul

    2006-01-01

    Cards are used in health and welfare to establish the identity of the person presenting the card; to prove their entitlement to a welfare or healthcare service; to store data needed within the care process; and to store data to use in the administration process. There is a desire to empower citizens - to give them greater control over their lives, their health and wellbeing. How can a healthcare and welfare card support this aim? Does having a card empower the citizen? What can a citizen do more easily, reliably, securely or cost-effectively because they have a card? A number of possibilities include: Choice of service provider; Mobility across regional and national boundaries; Privacy; and Anonymity. But in all of these possibilities a card is just one component of a total system and process, and there may be other solutions--technological and manual. There are risks and problems from relying on a card; and issues of Inclusion for people who are unable use a card. The article concludes that: cards need to be viewed in the context of the whole solution; cards are not the only technological mechanism; cards are not the best mechanism in all circumstances; but cards are very convenient method in very many situations.

  8. Engineering software development with HyperCard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darko, Robert J.

    1990-01-01

    The successful and unsuccessful techniques used in the development of software using HyperCard are described. The viability of the HyperCard for engineering is evaluated and the future use of HyperCard by this particular group of developers is discussed.

  9. Helping Students Design HyperCard Stacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, Ken

    1995-01-01

    Discusses how to teach students to design HyperCard stacks. Highlights include introducing HyperCard, developing storyboards, introducing design concepts and scripts, presenting stacks, evaluating storyboards, and continuing projects. A sidebar presents a HyperCard stack evaluation form. (AEF)

  10. Evaluations of absorbed dose ratio factor of Al2O3 dosemeter in radiotherapy photon beams using cavity theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, J.; Chen, S.; Chen, L.; Liu, X.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the work was to evaluate the absorbed dose ratio factor f md of an Al 2 O 3 dosemeter to water in photon radiotherapy beams using cavity theory. Burlin theory was used for calculating of this ratio. The effective mass attenuation coefficient β was obtained by comparing Monte Carlo simulations in monoenergetic photon beams. The evaluations of the absorbed dose ratio factor f md were studied for Al 2 O 3 dosemeters of different sizes, which were placed at various depths of the water phantom in different radiation field sizes of Mohan's 6, 10 and 15-MV X-rays. Beyond the build-up region, the variation of f md increases by 0.25 % as the depth increases from 4 to 10 cm. The maximum variation due to different dosemeter sizes is 8.3 %. The difference in the f md due to different radiation field sizes is 1.5 %. The effect of the dosemeter size cannot be neglected. The difference in the f md due to the radiation field sizes of different beams would increase as the dosemeter size increases. (authors)

  11. Validation of a MOSFET dosemeter system for determining the absorbed and effective radiation doses in diagnostic radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manninen, A-L; Kotiaho, A; Nikkinen, J; Nieminen, M T

    2015-04-01

    This study aimed to validate a MOSFET dosemeter system for determining absorbed and effective doses (EDs) in the dose and energy range used in diagnostic radiology. Energy dependence, dose linearity and repeatability of the dosemeter were examined. The absorbed doses (ADs) were compared at anterior-posterior projection and the EDs were determined at posterior-anterior, anterior-posterior and lateral projections of thoracic imaging using an anthropomorphic phantom. The radiation exposures were made using digital radiography systems. This study revealed that the MOSFET system with high sensitivity bias supply set-up is sufficiently accurate for AD and ED determination. The dosemeter is recommended to be calibrated for energies 80 kVp. The entrance skin dose level should be at least 5 mGy to minimise the deviation of the individual dosemeter dose. For ED determination, dosemeters should be implanted perpendicular to the surface of the phantom to prevent the angular dependence error. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Tl response of LiF: Mg, Cu, P + PTFE (Mexico) and GR200A (China) dosemeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez M, P.R.; Azorin N, J.; Furetta, C.

    2003-01-01

    TLD-100 was the commercial dosemeter more known since some decades ago. This dosemeter was considered for many research groups as the reference material for developing new Tl materials for ionizing radiation dosimetry. Actually it seems that TLD-100 is going to be replaced by the Chinese material GR200A, as reference material due that this material in addition to be considered as a tissue equivalent material, is 30 to 35 times more sensitive that TLD- 100. Results of the study of the Tl response of LiF: Mg, Cu, P + Ptfe developed at ININ-Mexico, comparing them with those of GR200A are presented. These results showed that the sensitivity (s = Tl intensity/weight x dose) to gamma radiation of the LiF: Mg, Cu, P + Ptfe dosimeters was 4.34 meanwhile that of the commercial dosemeter was 3.41. Detection threshold of the dosemeters studied was 2.22 and 0.52 μGy respectively Repeatability after 10 cycles Irradiation-reading-annealing was ±1.39% and ±1.86% respectively. Both types of dosemeters presented a linear response as a function of gamma radiation in the range from 0.02 mGy and 100 Gy. (Author)

  13. Circuit card failures and industry mitigation strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mondal, U. [Candu Owners Group, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2012-07-01

    In recent years the nuclear industry has experienced an increase in circuit card failures due to ageing of components, inadequate Preventive Maintenance (PM), lack of effective circuit card health monitoring, etc. Circuit card failures have caused loss of critical equipment, e.g., electro hydraulic governors, Safety Systems, resulting in loss of function and in some cases loss of generation. INPO completed a root cause analysis of 40 Reactor Trips/Scrams in US reactors and has recommended several actions to mitigate Circuit Card failures. Obsolescence of discrete components has posed many challenges in conducting effective preventative maintenance on circuit cards. In many cases, repairs have resulted in installation of components that compromise performance of the circuit cards. Improper termination and worn edge connectors have caused intermittent contacts contributing to circuit card failures. Traditionally, little attention is paid to relay functions and preventative maintenance of relay. Relays contribute significantly to circuit card failures and have dominated loss of generation across the power industry. The INPO study recommended a number of actions to mitigate circuit card failures, such as; identification of critical components and single point vulnerabilities; strategic preventative maintenance; protection of circuit boards against electrostatic discharge; limiting power cycles; performing an effective burn-in prior to commissioning of the circuit cards; monitoring performance of DC power supplies; limiting cabinet temperatures; managing of component aging/degradation mechanism, etc. A subcommittee has been set up under INPO sponsorship to understand the causes of circuit card failure and to develop an effective mitigation strategy. (author)

  14. Signal processing for smart cards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quisquater, Jean-Jacques; Samyde, David

    2003-06-01

    In 1998, Paul Kocher showed that when a smart card computes cryptographic algorithms, for signatures or encryption, its consumption or its radiations leak information. The keys or the secrets hidden in the card can then be recovered using a differential measurement based on the intercorrelation function. A lot of silicon manufacturers use desynchronization countermeasures to defeat power analysis. In this article we detail a new resynchronization technic. This method can be used to facilitate the use of a neural network to do the code recognition. It becomes possible to reverse engineer a software code automatically. Using data and clock separation methods, we show how to optimize the synchronization using signal processing. Then we compare these methods with watermarking methods for 1D and 2D signal. The very last watermarking detection improvements can be applied to signal processing for smart cards with very few modifications. Bayesian processing is one of the best ways to do Differential Power Analysis, and it is possible to extract a PIN code from a smart card in very few samples. So this article shows the need to continue to set up effective countermeasures for cryptographic processors. Although the idea to use advanced signal processing operators has been commonly known for a long time, no publication explains that results can be obtained. The main idea of differential measurement is to use the cross-correlation of two random variables and to repeat consumption measurements on the processor to be analyzed. We use two processors clocked at the same external frequency and computing the same data. The applications of our design are numerous. Two measurements provide the inputs of a central operator. With the most accurate operator we can improve the signal noise ratio, re-synchronize the acquisition clock with the internal one, or remove jitter. The analysis based on consumption or electromagnetic measurements can be improved using our structure. At first sight

  15. Effective dose assessment in the maxillofacial region using thermoluminescent (TLD) and metal oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) dosemeters: a comparative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koivisto, J.; Schulze, D.; Wolff, J.E.H.; Rottke, D.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this study was to compare the performance of metal oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) technology dosemeters with thermoluminescent dosemeters (TLDs) (TLD 100; Thermo Fisher Scientific, Waltham, MA) in the maxillofacial area. Methods: Organ and effective

  16. Analysis of personnel monitoring control card data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ande, C.D.; Sneha, C.; Madhumita, B.; Bakshi, A.K.; Datta, D.

    2018-01-01

    In India, personnel monitoring of radiation workers for X-, beta- and gamma- radiation is carried out using a thermoluminescence dosemeter (TLD) system based on CaSO 4 :Dy Teflon TLD disc. A large number of radiation workers get very low occupational doses and their doses are reported as zero since it is not above detectable limits. Therefore, the detection of low levels of occupational dose over and above the natural background assumes great importance. In the present system, the estimation of the background dose is achieved by use of control dosemeters. An analysis of the readings of the control dosimeters sent to various institutions was carried out to arrive at conclusions regarding the validity of the use of control dosimeter

  17. Sustainability Cards: Design for Longevity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasling, Karen Marie; Ræbild, Ulla

    2017-01-01

    Product longevity is considered widely as a relevant strategic approach, amongst many, within the field of sustainability. Yet, how to design for increased product lifetime may not be so obvious for practitioners. The complexity of the surrounding issues can constitute a barrier for designers...... for designers and other stakeholders in the design process. The paper is based on a developmental project carried out in the Autumn 2017, within a larger research and collaboration project between raw fur manufacturer Kopenhagen Fur and Design School Kolding investigating sustainability perspectives. The paper...... describes the development of a deck of sustainability cards aiming for product longevity and presents the final deck. Furthermore, the paper contributes with insights on how designers may apply design cards in the design process and how this practice can further sustainable considerations and strategies...

  18. Review of sound card photogates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gingl, Zoltan; Mingesz, Robert; Mellar, Janos; Makra, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Photogates are probably the most commonly used electronic instruments to aid experiments in the field of mechanics. Although they are offered by many manufacturers, they can be too expensive to be widely used in all classrooms, in multiple experiments or even at home experimentation. Today all computers have a sound card - an interface for analogue signals. It is possible to make very simple yet highly accurate photogates for cents, while much more sophisticated solutions are also available at a still very low cost. In our paper we show several experimentally tested ways of implementing sound card photogates in detail, and we also provide full-featured, free, open-source photogate software as a much more efficient experimentation tool than the usually used sound recording programs. Further information is provided on a dedicated web page, www.noise.physx.u-szeged.hu/edudev.

  19. Photon and fast neutron dosimetry using aluminium oxide thermoluminescence dosemeters in a pool-type research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, J.P.; Marques, J.G.; Fernandes, A.C.; Osvay, M.

    2007-01-01

    Al 2 O 3 :Mg,Y thermoluminescence (TL) dosemeters were used to measure photon and fast neutron doses in the mixed radiation field of the Portuguese Research Reactor. The dosemeters were irradiated in core positions under a photon dose rate of the order of 10 4 Gy/h and a fast neutron flux in the range of 10 9 -10 11 n/cm 2 /s. In order to evaluate the ability of the TL dosemeters for mixed field dosimetry at the research reactor, the measurements were compared with results obtained via conventional methods. The agreement between the different methods is better than 13% for the determination of photon doses and within 5% for the determination of neutron fluxes in mixed fields

  20. Characteristics and performance of the Sunna high dose dosemeter using green photoluminescence and UV absorption readout methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, S.D.; Murphy, M.K.; Tinker, M.R.; Kovacs, A.; McLaughlin, W

    2002-07-01

    Growth in the use of ionising radiation for medical sterilisation and the potential for wide-scale international food irradiation have created the need for robust, mass-producible, inexpensive, and highly accurate radiation dosemeters. The Sunna dosemeter, lithium fluoride injection-moulded in a polyethylene matrix, can be read out using either green photoluminescence or ultraviolet (UV) absorption. The Sunna dosemeter can be mass-produced inexpensively with high precision. Both the photoluminescent and the UV absorption reader are simple and inexpensive. Both methods of analysis display negligible humidity effects, minimal dose rate dependence, acceptable post-irradiation effects, and permit measurements with a precision of nearly 1% 1s. The UV method shows negligible irradiation temperature effects from -30 deg. C to +60 deg. C. The photoluminescence method shows negligible irradiation temperature effects above room temperature for sterilisation dose levels and above. The dosimetry characteristics of these two readout methods are presented along with performance data in commercial sterilisation facilities. (author)

  1. Influence of the PMMA and the ISO slab phantom for calibrating personal dosemeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginjaume, M.; Ortega, X.; Barbosa, A.

    2000-01-01

    Wide agreement has been achieved among the main Bodies and Organisations involved in standardisation of radiation protection, related to the operational quantities for personal dosimetry. Since their definition in 1985, several reports have been published to clarify and define the experimental set up to be used for the calibration of dosemeters in terms of the above-mentioned quantities. Among these lines, ICRU 47 has listed five different phantoms that are used for calibration and whose results were accurate, within accepted uncertainties. However, to achieve uniformity in calibration procedures, the 30 cm x 30 cm x 15 cm PMMA slab phantom was recommended. The secondary calibration Laboratory from the Institut de Techniques Energetiques at the Technical University of Catalonia (UPC) agreed with the Spanish Nacional Laboratory to adopt the recommended PMMA phantom but to improve the accuracy of the calibration procedure, by introducing a correction factor for backscatter differences in a PMMA and an ICRU slab phantom. Such corrections were of the order of 8% for the low-energy X-ray qualities. Recently, ISO in ISO 4037-3, has proposed the ISO water slab phantom which consists of a 30 cm x 30 cm x 15 cm water phantom with PMMA walls (front wall 2.5 mm thick). This new phantom could be substituted by the above mentioned PMMA phantom for radiation qualities with mean energy equal or above that of 137 Cs. The aim of this work is to compare the influence of both phantoms when calibrating personal dosemeters with photons. A set of four TL personal dosemeters that are used in the UPC personal dosimetry Service and an electronic personal dosemeter (SIEMENS EPD-2) were calibrated in terms of H p (10) and H p (0.07) using the two proposed phantoms. Calibration factors for ISO X-ray narrow spectra, 137 Cs and 60 Co were experimentally obtained for each phantom and compared. In the TL measurements, differences were found to be within TL statistical uncertainty, provided that a

  2. Valutazione economica dello studio CARDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona de Portu

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: cardiovascular diseases (CVD are the major component of premature mortality, generate disability and are a relevant source of cost. The growing incidence of CVD is associated with lifestyle and other modifiable risk factors. Prevention and preclinical detection of CVD reduce morbidity and mortality. Type 2 diabetes is associated with a substantially increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Objective: the aim of the study was to evaluate the health economic consequence of medical therapy with atorvastatin for primary prevention of major cardiovascular events in patients with type 2 diabetes in Italy. Materials and method: in order to reach our objective we drew clinical information from the CARDS study. This economic evaluation was carried out conducting a cost/effectiveness analysis from the perspective of National Health Service (NHS. The analysis was applied to a time horizon in conformity with the observational period adopted in the CARDS study (3.9 years. An incremental cost/effectiveness ratio (ICER was calculated and is expressed as cost per life years gained (LYG. In order to test the robustness of the results, a one-way sensitivity analysis was performed. Results: the total cost of atorvastatin therapy over 3.9 years amounts to around 1.5 million of euros per 1,000 patients. The total cost of adding atorvastatin to standard care in people treated for primary prevention of major cardiovascular events in type 2 diabetes as those involved in the CARDS study would entail an additional cost of about 1,2 million of euros per 1,000 patients treated per 3.9 years, with an incremental cost/effectiveness ratio (ICER equivalent to 36,566 euros per patient per LYG. Discussion: the current study is the first economic evaluation of CARDS study to the Italian situation. The results of the current study show that hypolipemic therapy with atorvastatin 10 mg in diabetic individuals is to be considered cost effective.

  3. [Application of patient card technology to health care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayag, E; Danon, Y L

    1995-03-15

    The potential benefits of patient card technology in improving management and delivery of health services have been explored. Patient cards can be used for numerous applications and functions: as a means of identification, as a key for an insurance payment system, and as a communication medium. Advanced card technologies allow for the storage of data on the card, creating the possibility of a comprehensive and portable patient record. There are many types of patient cards: paper or plastic cards, microfilm cards, bar-code cards, magnetic-strip cards and integrated circuit smart-cards. Choosing the right card depends on the amount of information to be stored, the degree of security required and the cost of the cards and their supporting infrastructure. Problems with patient cards are related to storage capacity, backup and data consistency, access authorization and ownership and compatibility. We think it is worth evaluating the place of patient card technology in the delivery of health services in Israel.

  4. Rh-flash acquisition card

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourrion, O.

    2003-01-01

    The rh-flash card main purpose is to convert and store the image of the analog data present at input into an output buffer, namely in a given timing window besides a stop signal (like a digital oscilloscope). It is conceived in VME format 1U wide with an additional connector. Novelty of this card is its ability to sample at a high frequency, due to flash coders, and this at a high repetition rate. To do that the card allows the storage of the data considered 'useful' and that is done by storing only the data exceeding a certain threshold. This can be useful for instance for viewing peaks in a spectrum, and obtaining their relative location. The goal is to stock and process the data sampled before and after the arrival of a stop signal (what entails a storage depth). A threshold is defined and any peak exceeding its level will really be stored in the output buffer which is readable through the VME bus. The peak values will be stored as well as m preceding and n subsequent values (both programmable). Obviously, if the threshold is zero the system of data processing is off and all data will be stored. The document is structured on six sections titled: 1. Description; 2. Specifications; 3. Explaining the design of channels; 4. Explaining the shared part of the design; 5. Addressing (→ user guide); 6. Software precautions. (author)

  5. Feocromocitoma cardíaco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo L. Knop

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Los feocromocitomas cardíacos primarios (FCP son sumamente infrecuentes. Hasta el presente son menos de 50 los casos comunicados en el mundo. Presentamos el caso de un tumor intrapericárdico, que resultó ser un feocromocitoma primario, en una mujer de mediana edad, cuyo signo principal fue hipertensión arterial severa (HTAs. Los estudios diagnósticos por imágenes corroboraron la presencia de un tumor intrapericárdico como único hallazgo y los estudios bioquímicos de catecolaminas y sus metabolitos excretados por orina reafirmaron el diagnóstico etiológico. El tumor fue resecado quirúrgicamente sin complicaciones mediante cirugía cardíaca convencional con circulación extracorpórea (CEC y paro cardíaco con cardioplejía. Siete meses después de la operación, la paciente se encuentra asintomática y normotensa.

  6. Intercomparison of Environmental Dosemeters Using Various TL Materials and Dosimetry Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crnic, B.; Gobec, S.; Zorko, B.; Knezevic, Z.; Majer, M.; Ranogajec-Komor, M.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to compare the ambient dose equivalent (H*(10)) values determined at 20 sites around NPP Krško, using different thermoluminescence (TL) materials and various dosimetry systems. The H*(10) was measured by the CaF 2 :Mn (TLD-400) provided by the Jozef Stefan Institute (JSI) Ljubljana, Slovenia. These dosemeters were deployed in the environment in plastic bags and suspended inside the plastic bottles. On the other hand the Ruder Boskovic Institute (RBI), Zagreb, Croatia applied LiF:Mg,Cu,P (TLD-100H), CaF 2 :Mn, Al 2 O 3 :C TL detectors and radiophotoluminescence (RPL) glass dosemeters type SG1. They were placed at the same locations in as much as possible same conditions as JSI detectors. According to the protocol established for this intercomparison, the control and transport detectors (not deployed in the environment) were held in dark storage containers and used to determine the background radiation. The TL responses were corrected for individual sensitivity of the TL detectors which is an important factor after the calibration irradiations. The calibration irradiations were performed by 137Cs sources provided in Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory facilities at the JSI and RBI. The results obtained by different TL materials and different dosimetry systems show interesting features especially concerning local environmental peculiarities. The H*(10) obtained by the dosemeters of various types deployed in the countryside fluctuate less than 10 %. The outcome should emphasize also in the manner that the results obtained and reported in the intercomparison are traceable to the primary standards.(author)

  7. A filter technique for optimising the photon energy response of a silicon pin diode dosemeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsher, R.H.; Eisen, Y.

    1996-01-01

    Unless they are energy compensated, silicon PIN diodes used in electronic pocket dosemeters, have significant over-response below 200 keV. Siemens is using three diodes in parallel with individual filters to produce excellent energy and angular response. An algorithm based on the photon spectrum of a single diode could be used to flatten the energy response. The commercial practice is to use a single diode with a simple filter to flatten the energy response, despite the mediocre low energy photon. The filter technique with an opening has been used for energy compensating GM detectors and proportional counters and a new variation of it has been investigated which compensates the energy response of a silicon PIN diode and maintains an extended low energy response. It uses a composite filter of two or more materials with several openings whose individual area is in the range of 15% to 25% of the diode's active area. One opening is centred over the diode's active area and others are located at the periphery of the active area to preserve a good polar response to ±45 o . Monte Carlo radiation transport methods were used to simulate the coupled electron-photon transport through a Hamamatsu S2506-01 diode and to determine the energy response of the diode for a variety of filters. In current mode, the resultant dosemeter energy response relative to air dose was within -15% and +30% for 0 o incidence over the energy range from 15 keV to 1 MeV. In pulse mode, the resultant dosemeter energy response was within -25% and +50% for 0 o incidence over the energy range from 30 keV to 10 MeV. For ±45 o incidence, the energy response was within -25% and +40% from 40 keV to 10 MeV. Theoretical viability of the filter technique has been shown in this work (Author)

  8. Eye lens monitoring for interventional radiology personnel: dosemeters, calibration and practical aspects of Hp(3) monitoring. A 2015 review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carinou, Eleftheria; Ferrari, Paolo; Bjelac, Olivera Ciraj; Gingaume, Merce; Merce, Marta Sans; O’Connor, Una

    2015-01-01

    A thorough literature review about the current situation on the implementation of eye lens monitoring has been performed in order to provide recommendations regarding dosemeter types, calibration procedures and practical aspects of eye lens monitoring for interventional radiology personnel. Most relevant data and recommendations from about 100 papers have been analysed and classified in the following topics: challenges of today in eye lens monitoring; conversion coefficients, phantoms and calibration procedures for eye lens dose evaluation; correction factors and dosemeters for eye lens dose measurements; dosemeter position and influence of protective devices. The major findings of the review can be summarised as follows: the recommended operational quantity for the eye lens monitoring is H p (3). At present, several dosemeters are available for eye lens monitoring and calibration procedures are being developed. However, in practice, very often, alternative methods are used to assess the dose to the eye lens. A summary of correction factors found in the literature for the assessment of the eye lens dose is provided. These factors can give an estimation of the eye lens dose when alternative methods, such as the use of a whole body dosemeter, are used. A wide range of values is found, thus indicating the large uncertainty associated with these simplified methods. Reduction factors from most common protective devices obtained experimentally and using Monte Carlo calculations are presented. The paper concludes that the use of a dosemeter placed at collar level outside the lead apron can provide a useful first estimate of the eye lens exposure. However, for workplaces with estimated annual equivalent dose to the eye lens close to the dose limit, specific eye lens monitoring should be performed. Finally, training of the involved medical staff on the risks of ionising radiation for the eye lens and on the correct use of protective systems is strongly recommended. (review)

  9. A review of environmental monitoring using solid state dosemeters, and guidelines for technical procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piesch, E.; Burgkhardt, B.

    1983-01-01

    The practical aspects of environmental programmes using thermoluminescence and photoluminescence dosemeter systems are reviewed. The review discusses developments in national and international standards, and discusses the optimisation of the read-out technique, routine calibration procedures and the treatment of random and systematic errors. The paper discusses the problems of measuring man-made dose contributions with low random errors, the estimation of this contribution being based on the interpretation of field results, taking into account the contribution of natural background radiation and of transit exposures. (author)

  10. Cr-39 fast neutron dosemeter based on A (n, α) converter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widayati, S.; Budiantari, T.

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this experiment is to obtained the response of Cr-39 as fast neutron dosemeter based on an (n, α) converter. Cr-39 was irradiated to AmBe fast neutron flux from 0.10 mSv to 2.5 mSv. Cr-39 processed by chemical etching with NaOH 20 % at temperature of 60 oC in six hours. The results of experiment showed that the response of Cr-39 based on an (n, α) converter is 6 times bigger than the response of Cr-39 without (n, α) converter. (author)

  11. A contribution to thermoluminescence dosemeter system optimisation applied to environmental monitoring around nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dies, X.; Ortega, X.; Rosell, J.

    1990-01-01

    The factors that constitute a thermoluminescence dosimetric system have been studied and optimised, with the intention of defining strategies for improving precision and accuracy of TL dosimetry systems for environmental monitoring. An optimisation technique based on fractional factorial designs permitted a reduction in the number of necessary experiments and clarified interactions between various factors. The model for fading over time showed that TL response in LiF:Mg,Ti dosemeters was independent of time between irradiation and readout, and this was applied to fading corrections in nuclear power plant environmental monitoring. (author)

  12. A new lease of life for the Farmer-Baldwin dosemeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vojnovic, B.

    1984-01-01

    Replacement batteries for the widely used 'Farmer-Baldwin Sub-standard x-ray Dosemeter' (Farmer 1955), manufactured by Baldwin Industrial Controls, of Dartford, Kent, have become expensive and difficult to obtain, resulting in a number of such units being unnecessarily taken out of service. This note describes how the relatively simple addition of a DC-DC inverter can drastically reduce the maintenance costs of the instrument (MK2 version) by powering it from three commonly available 1.5 V cells, type U2 (IEC type R20). The function of the various controls on the instrument is not affected in any way. (author)

  13. Results of the European Community's beta intercomparison programme of individual dosemeters in 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigard, T.; Sequin, H.; Chartier, J.L.; Christensen, P.; Francis, T.M.; Lembo, L.

    1988-01-01

    For over 20 years, the Commission of the European Communities, in collaboration with competent laboratories in the member states, has been conducting intercomparisons of individual dosemeters with the objective of improving technique for monitoring ionizing radiation and establishing a common basis for dose assessment within the Community. These programmes not only serve the participants with an opportunity to validate their calibration and measuring procedures but also help to create a forum in which to exchange information and discuss experience with other participants. The performance and results of such an intercomparison exercise conducted in 1986 are reported here

  14. Al2 O3:Cr,Ni: a possible thermoluminescent dosemeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mariani R, Francisco; Roman B, Alvaro; Saavedra S, Renato; Ibarra S, Angel

    1996-01-01

    Results from a study on the thermoluminescent (Tl) emission from Al 2 O 3 :Cr,Ni are presented. The measurements were obtained for evaluation of the Al 2 O 3 :Cr,Ni dosimetric properties. Different crystal batches were exposed to two kind of ionizing radiation (X-ray and β - ). The Tl spectrum has a main peak with high thermal and optical stability, deviating from linearity for doses lower than 3.6 Gy. Furthermore, this material shows advantages (thermal resistance, reusability, multiple heating cycles) compared to TLD-100. Measured Al 2 O 3 :Cr,Ni properties indicate that it could be used as a dosemeter. (author)

  15. Standard X ray beams for calibration of dosemeters used in radiation protection practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pernicka, F.; Michalik, V.

    1992-01-01

    Kerma in air is a widely used reference quantity specified by different calibration laboratories. Calibration of dosemeters used for individual and environmental monitoring requires a knowledge of conversion coefficients between the air kerma and an appropriate protection quantity. These were determined for sets of standard X ray beams using measured spectral distributions, calculated mean energies and effective energies obtained from HVLs measured by an ionisation chamber. There is a good agreement among these three approaches for energies down to 60-70 keV. For lower energies one can expect differences up to 10% if the coefficients are determined from the mean or effective energy instead from the spectral distribution. (author)

  16. Dose evaluation in criticality accidents using response of panasonic TL personal dosemeters (UD-809/UD-802)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeyrek, C. T.; Guenduez, H.

    2012-01-01

    This study gives the results of dosimetry measurements carried out in the Silene reactor at Valduc (France) with neutron and photon personal thermoluminescence dosemeters (TLDs) in mixed neutron and gamma radiation fields, in the frame of the international accident dosimetry intercomparison programme in 2002. The intercomparison consisted of a series of three irradiation scenarios. The scenarios took place at the Valduc site (France) by using the Silene experimental reactor. For neutron and photon dosimetry, Panasonic model UD-809 and UD-802 personal TLDs were used together. (authors)

  17. Dose evaluation in criticality accidents using response of Panasonic TL personal dosemeters (UD-809/UD-802).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeyrek, C T; Gündüz, H

    2012-09-01

    This study gives the results of dosimetry measurements carried out in the Silène reactor at Valduc (France) with neutron and photon personal thermoluminescence dosemeters (TLDs) in mixed neutron and gamma radiation fields, in the frame of the international accident dosimetry intercomparison programme in 2002. The intercomparison consisted of a series of three irradiation scenarios. The scenarios took place at the Valduc site (France) by using the Silène experimental reactor. For neutron and photon dosimetry, Panasonic model UD-809 and UD-802 personal TLDs were used together.

  18. WHAT INFLUENCE CREDIT CARD DEBTS IN YOUNG CONSUMERS IN MALAYSIA

    OpenAIRE

    Syed Shah ALAM; Ruzita Abdul RAHIM; Ridhwanul HAQ; Atiqur Rahman KHAN

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines empirically antecedents of the credit card debts in young consumers in Malaysia. We examine whether easy access to credit card, credit card related knowledge, aggressive promotion by credit card industry, low minimum payment requirement and attitude towards credit cards influence credit card debts in the younger generation. Regression model was used to meet the objectives. These findings based on a sample of 240 young credit card holders, show that the factors that affect ...

  19. Market structure and credit card pricing: what drives the interchange?

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu Wang

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a model for the credit card industry, where oligopolistic card networks price their products in a complex marketplace with competing payment instruments, rational consumers/merchants, and competitive card issuers/acquirers. The analysis suggests that card networks demand higher interchange fees to maximize card issuers' profits as card payments become more efficient. At equilibrium, consumer rewards and card transaction volume also increase, while consumer surplus and merc...

  20. Study of some characteristic dosimetric of the LIF:Mg, You (JR1152C) for their employment as environmental dosemeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molina Perez, D.; Diaz Bernal, E.; Prendes Alonso, M.

    1998-01-01

    As the interest grows in knowing the effects on the health of the drops dose of natural or artificial radiation, it is made but necessary a system dosimetric able to measure those dose levels accurately. P but of twenty years the dosemeters thermoluminescent (TL) they have constituted a simple and beautiful method for such mensurations. In the work the rehearsals of homogeneity, reproducibility, line lay, detection threshold, auto irradiation, residual, fading and angular dependence are described. The results demonstrate that the dosemeter satisfies the main requirements to be an employee in the environmental monitoring

  1. Validation of response simulation methodology of Albedo dosemeter; Validacao da metodologia de simulacao de resposta de dosimetro de Albedo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitas, B.M.; Silva, A.X. da, E-mail: bfreitas@nuclear.ufrj.br [Coordenacao do Programas de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear; Mauricio, C.L.P. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    The Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria developed and runs a neutron TLD albedo individual monitoring service. To optimize the dose calculation algorithm and to infer new calibration factors, the response of this dosemeter was simulated. In order to validate this employed methodology, it was applied in the simulation of the problem of the QUADOS (Quality Assurance of Computational Tools for Dosimetry) intercomparison, aimed to evaluate dosimetric problems, one being to calculate the response of a generic albedo dosemeter. The obtained results were compared with those of other modeling and the reference one, with good agreements. (author)

  2. Parental Leave in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostgaard, Tine; Christoffersen, Mogens; Weise, Hanne

    This artcle considders the political aims for different leave schemes and reviews studies af these schemes. The use of parental leave is sensitive to the financial loss involved in taking leave: a decrease in the benefit payments has had a significant influence on take-up, while, in general, fami......, families'' loss of income is less if leave is taken up by the mothers. Only few fathers participate in parental leave....

  3. Card Product Use and Perception of Marketing Communication by Card Issuers among Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurđana Ozretić Došen

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Student population is a very interesting and important segment of the market to the marketing practitioners involved in card business. The services and products offered by card issuers to students are created with a view to attracting the kind of users who will grow accustomed to a long-term, loyal use of a chosen card brand, i.e. beyond the point at which they complete their academic education. This paper describes the exploratory research on card products designed for the student population which was conducted in the Republic of Croatia. Student awareness of card products and their habits associated with card use were also examined. Additional areas of research were student attitudes and perceptions with regard to card products and to the appeal of the marketing communications which target this specific market segment. Results showed that the majority of students hold debit cards of the banks in which they have their current accounts. Students use cards actively, most of all for the purpose of withdrawing cash at automated teller machines (ATMs and least of all for Internet purchases. They assess card use as being simple, and card holders are also aware of the various benefits provided through it. However, the recall of advertisements for card products point to the conclusion that card issuers do not communicate with students in a manner which the latter would find appealing.

  4. Augmenting C-cards with music actions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karl Kristoffer; Valente, Andrea; Lyon, Kirstin Catherine

    2006-01-01

    The paper proposes a new way of introducing music to classes of 8 to 10 years old pupils, by adopting a recent educational tool for teaching Computer Science. Our proposal builds in fact on computational cards (or c-cards), a playful and intuitive mind-tool, that has been applied to a variety...... of Computer Science concepts. Here a simple extension to c-cards is presented, that enables pupils to build and play with tangible musical machine....

  5. C-cards in Music Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valente, Andrea; Lyon, Kirstin Catherine

    2005-01-01

    Music and Computer Science share a dual nature: theory and practice relate in complex ways, and seem to be equally central for learners; for this no standard teaching approach for children has yet emerged in either of these two areas. Computational cards is a tabletop game, where cards act...... of the card; if the action is to generate a sound, then the circuit will effectively became a music machine....

  6. Why do card issuers charge proportional fees?

    OpenAIRE

    Oz Shy; Zhu Wang

    2008-01-01

    This paper explains why payment card companies charge consumers and merchants fees which are proportional to the transaction values instead of charging a fixed per-transaction fee. Our theory shows that, even in the absence of any cost considerations, card companies earn much higher profit when they charge proportional fees. It is also shown that competition among merchants reduces card companies' gains from using proportional fees relative to a fixed per-transaction fee. Merchants are found ...

  7. Credit Card Selection Criteria: Singapore Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Lydia L. Gan; Ramin Cooper Maysami

    2006-01-01

    This study used factor analysis to examine credit card selection criteria among Singaporeans. The results showed that convenience of use and protection, economics, and flexibility were the main drivers, while the reputation of card was the least important in determining credit card selection in Singapore. Demographic results showed that high-income earners, the better educated, the elderly, married and the professional preferred the convenience-protection factor to the economic-promotional fa...

  8. Optical smart card using semipassive communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, I; Green, Shlomo; Dimkov, Ilan

    2006-03-15

    An optical secure short-range communication system is presented. The mobile unit (optical smart card) of this system utilizes a retroreflector with an optical modulator, using light from the stationary unit; this mobile unit has very low power consumption and can be as small as a credit card. Such optical smart cards offer better security than RF-based solutions, yet do not require physical contact. Results from a feasibility study model are included.

  9. Prepaid cards: vulnerable to money laundering?

    OpenAIRE

    Stanley J. Sienkiewicz

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses the potential money laundering threat that prepaid cards face as they enter the mainstream of consumer payments. Over the past year, several government agencies have issued reports describing the threat to the U.S. financial system, including the use of prepaid cards by money launderers. Also, this paper incorporates the presentations made at a workshop hosted by the Payment Cards Center at which Patrice Motz, executive vice president, Premier Compliance Solutions, and Pa...

  10. Falla cardíaca (primera parte)

    OpenAIRE

    Flórez Alarcón, Noel Alberto; Fundación Valle de Lili

    2006-01-01

    Anatomía y función del corazón/¿Qué es la falla cardíaca?/Causas de falla cardíaca/¿Cómo prevenir la falla cardíaca?/¿Qué es un factor de riesgo?/¿Cuáles son los síntomas y signos de la falla cardiaca?/¿Cómo se diagnostica la falla cardiaca?

  11. Neutron dosimetry inside the containment building of Spanish nuclear power plants with PADC based dosemeters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Fuste, M.J. [Grup de Fisica de les Radiacions. Departament de Fisica. Edifici C. Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, E-08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Domingo, C., E-mail: carles.domingo@uab.ca [Grup de Fisica de les Radiacions. Departament de Fisica. Edifici C. Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, E-08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Amgarou, K.; Bouassoule, T.; Castelo, J. [Grup de Fisica de les Radiacions. Departament de Fisica. Edifici C. Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, E-08193 Bellaterra (Spain)

    2009-10-15

    The Spanish Nuclear Safety Council (Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear, CSN) recommends performing neutron individual dose assignments at workplaces based on ambient dose equivalent measurements using area monitors and by estimating the amount of time that workers spend in the different monitored environments. In addition, some Spanish nuclear power plants estimate the neutron dose equivalent using albedo thermoluminescence dosemeters (TLD). In the period 2004-2006, our group, together with other research centers, participated in a project, funded by the CSN, with the support of the Spanish Nuclear Power Plants Association (UNESA), to investigate in situ which could be the best practical procedure for individual neutron dose monitoring in nuclear power plants. As part of this survey, several units of the UAB PADC based neutron dosemeter were exposed, on a methacrylate phantom simulating a human body, at four different places inside the containment building of the Asco I nuclear power plant. The influence of different types of calibration neutron fields is analysed and the dose equivalent for each point is estimated.

  12. Three-dimensional absorbed dose determinations by N.M.R. analysis of phantom-dosemeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gambarini, G.; Birattari, C.; Fumagalli, M.L.; Vai, A.; Monti, D.; Salvadori, P.; Facchielli, L.; Sichirollo, A.E.

    1996-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging of a tissue-equivalent phantom is a promising technique for three-dimensional determination of absorbed dose from ionizing radiation. A reliable method of determining the spatial distribution of absorbed dose is indispensable for the planning of treatment in the presently developed radiotherapy techniques aimed at obtaining high energy selectively delivered to cancerous tissues, with low dose delivered to the surrounding healthy tissue. Aqueous gels infused with the Fricke dosemeter (i.e. with a ferrous sulphate solution), as proposed in 1984 by Gore et al., have shown interesting characteristics and, in spite of some drawbacks that cause a few limitations to their utilisation, they have shown the feasibility of three-dimensional dose determinations by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging. Fricke-infused agarose gels with various compositions have been analysed, considering the requirements of the new radiotherapy techniques, in particular Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (B.N.C.T.) and proton therapy. Special attention was paid to obtain good tissue equivalence for every radiation type of interest. In particular, the tissue equivalence for thermal neutrons, which is a not simple problem, has also been satisfactorily attained. The responses of gel-dosemeters having the various chosen compositions have been analysed, by mean of NMR instrumentation. Spectrophotometric measurements have also been performed, to verify the consistence of the results. (author)

  13. State of the art in thermoluminescent dosimetry using dosemeters with automated read-out

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regulla, D.F.

    1979-01-01

    In the beginning, the results obtained with automated read-out TLD have been quite disappointing, both for manufacturers and users. In response to this, industry then seeked advice and assistance from those experienced in the practical use of dosemeters, and the development of the second generation of automated TLD has been a common task of manufacturers and purchosers. As a preliminary achievement of development work along this line, a dosemeter has been presented by a Japanese manufacturer, meeting the requirements in quite a satisfactory way. The device is characterized by a frequency of disturbance of -5 , a microprocessor for controlling the measuring and control functions, possibility of active input of device parameters and boundary conditions, extensive self-control of operating functions, complete data protection, and thin-film detector technique. Pursuing this line of development, and taking into account future recommentations, automated thermoluminescent dosimetry does seem to be a promising alternative to current measuring techniques in personnel monitoring. (orig./RW) [de

  14. Spectral correction factors for conventional neutron dosemeters used in high-energy neutron environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, K.W.; Sheu, R.J.

    2015-01-01

    High-energy neutrons (>10 MeV) contribute substantially to the dose fraction but result in only a small or negligible response in most conventional moderated-type neutron detectors. Neutron dosemeters used for radiation protection purpose are commonly calibrated with 252 Cf neutron sources and are used in various workplace. A workplace-specific correction factor is suggested. In this study, the effect of the neutron spectrum on the accuracy of dose measurements was investigated. A set of neutron spectra representing various neutron environments was selected to study the dose responses of a series of Bonner spheres, including standard and extended-range spheres. By comparing 252 Cf-calibrated dose responses with reference values based on fluence-to-dose conversion coefficients, this paper presents recommendations for neutron field characterisation and appropriate correction factors for responses of conventional neutron dosemeters used in environments with high-energy neutrons. The correction depends on the estimated percentage of high-energy neutrons in the spectrum or the ratio between the measured responses of two Bonner spheres (the 4P6-8 extended-range sphere versus the 6'' standard sphere). (authors)

  15. Re-Establishment of Standard Radiation Qualities for Calibration of Dosemeter in Diagnostic Radiology - RQR Series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asmaliza Hashim; Norhayati Abdullah; Mohd Firdaus Abd Rahman

    2016-01-01

    After repairing the high voltage (HV) generator for Philips MG165 X-Ray Machine, the reestablishment of the standard radiation qualities has been done at Medical Physics Calibration Laboratory to meet the IEC and IAEA standard. Standard radiation qualities are the important criteria for calibration of dosemeter in diagnostic radiology. Standard radiation qualities are defined as the added filtration needed to produce and the half value layer (HVL) of the beam for specifies x-ray tube kilo voltage (kV). For calibration of dosemeter in diagnostic radiology, standard radiation qualities RQR represent the beam incident on the patient in general radiography, fluoroscopy and dental application. The HVL were measured using PTW ion chamber of volume 1 cm"3 with PTW electrometer and aluminium filter with 99.9 % purity was used as additional filter for RQR and filter for HVL. The first establishment of standard radiation qualities was made in 2009 for the radiation qualities of RQR. The results of additional filter and 1st HVL from 2009 to 2016 will be discussed further in paper. The ratios of the measured HVL to the standard IEC HVL value for the RQR series also described in this paper. The details of the measurement and the results are described in this paper. (author)

  16. Characterization of workplaces in interventional radiology using active dosemeters ALARA OD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prlic, I.; Milkovic-Kraus, S.; Mestrovic, T.; Suric-Mihic, M.; Vrtar, M.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Because of progressive development and extended use of interventional radiology procedures it is highly recommended that all individuals involved in the process should be aware of the potential for both stochastic and deterministic effects due to occupational exposure. Interventional radiology procedures are essentially therapeutic and are performed by various medical specialists, not only by properly educated radiologists. As the procedures are performed in such a manner that certain number of medical staff are always needed near the patient, near the x- ray unit, ensuring 'safe' working environment in such radiation x-ray field geometry is a new challenge to regular radiation protection. In this work we are not primary concerned in relatively high doses delivered to patients undergoing interventional procedures. The patient is rather regarded as a secondary radiation source which emits scattered x-rays. The working staff, moving in mixed, primary and scattered x-ray field, is expected to be exposed to higher occupational doses due to combination of extended fluoroscopy times, elevated fluoroscopy currents and larger amount of radiographic images required. The protection of both patients and staff is to be upgraded. As passive dosemetes will give us clear knowledge only about the monthly integrated occupational dose, a reasonable doubt exists about the frequency and duration, of receiving the dose. Measuring dose rate is not a part of regular passive dosemeters monitoring systems. This is why we have developed active - electronic dosemeter device which provides us with additional dosimetry data about the frequency and duration of professional exposure burden. Digital dosemeter ALARA OD will record and integrate any occupational dose including the normal radiation background in the working area. It will record the time and duration of any fluoroscopic exposure done. This gives us the data about the dose rate of occupational radiation and frequency of

  17. Toronto Smog Summit Report Card

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This 'report card' provides a summary of actions taken, and progress achieved by the federal government, the provincial government and the City of Toronto, respectively, in response to various previous commitments regarding air quality, sustainable transportation, climate and atmospheric research, investing in green infrastructure (federal government), environmental assessment regulations, transboundary air pollution, improved monitoring and reporting regulations. Ratings also cover efforts in imposing emissions caps on the electric industry, emissions reduction trading system, toll-free public air pollution hotline, regulation of ozone depleting substances (provincial government), public education campaign on smog reduction, energy efficiency initiatives, corporate smog alert response plan, and a number of other environmental issues (City of Toronto)

  18. The "Negative" Credit Card Effect: Credit Cards as Spending-Limiting Stimuli in New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lie, Celia; Hunt, Maree; Peters, Heather L.; Veliu, Bahrie; Harper, David

    2010-01-01

    The "credit card effect" describes a finding where greater value is given to consumer items if credit card logos are present. One explanation for the effect is that credit cards elicit spending behavior through associative learning. If this is true, social, economic and historical contexts should alter this effect. In Experiment 1, Year…

  19. Java Card: An analysis of the most successful smart card operating system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Eduard; Hartel, Pieter H.; Peyret, Patrice; Cattaneo, Peter

    2005-01-01

    To explain why the Java Card operating system has become the most successful smart card operating system to date, we analyze the realized features of the current Java Card version, we argue it could be enhanced by adding a number of intended features and we discuss a set of complementary features

  20. Feasibility of a neutron detector-dosemeter based on single-event upsets in dynamic random-access memories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, G.W.; August, R.A.; Campbell, A.B.; Nelson, M.E.; Guardala, N.A.; Price, J.L.; Moscovitch, M.

    2002-01-01

    The feasibility was investigated of a solid-state neutron detector/dosemeter based on single-event upset (SEU) effects in dynamic random-access memories (DRAMs), commonly used in computer memories. Such a device, which uses a neutron converter material to produce a charged particle capable of causing an upset, would be light-weight, low-power, and could be read simply by polling the memory for bit flips. It would have significant advantages over standard solid-state neutron dosemeters which require off-line processing for track etching and analysis. Previous efforts at developing an SEU neutron detector/dosemeter have suffered from poor response, which can be greatly enhanced by selecting a modern high-density DRAM chip for SEU sensitivity and by using a thin 10 B film as a converter. Past attempts to use 10 B were not successful because the average alpha particle energy was insufficient to penetrate to the sensitive region of the memory. This can be overcome by removing the surface passivation layer before depositing the 10 B film or by implanting 10B directly into the chip. Previous experimental data show a 10 3 increase in neutron sensitivity by chips containing borosilicate glass, which could be used in an SEU detector. The results are presented of simulations showing that the absolute efficiency of an SEU neutron dosemeter can be increased by at least a factor of 1000 over earlier designs. (author)

  1. Viability of the Fricke dosemeter doped with methylene blue; Viabilidade do dosimetro Fricke dopado com azul de metileno

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, V.L.B.; Santos, C.D.A.; Rodrigues, K.R.G.; Cunha, M.S.; Figueiredo, M.D.C.; Melo, R.T. [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    This work aims to find the possible utilization of the Fricke dosemeter doped with methylene blue (FMB) for the dosimetry of photodynamic therapy. The FMB was irradiated wit X rays and light emitted diodes demonstrating positive answers to the stimulus, being probably to be used for dosimetric objectives

  2. In-vivo dosimetry in radiotherapy: a comparison of the response of semiconductor and thermoluminescence (TLD700) dosemeters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vynckier, S [Universite Catholique de Louvain, Brussels (Belgium). Cliniques Universitaires St. Luc; Greffe, J L; Loncol, T; Vanneste, F; Octave-Prignot, M; Denis, J M; De Patoul, N

    1995-12-01

    Semiconductor dosemeters and thermoluminescence dosemeters were calibrated in view of in-vivo dosimetry. Their response in a 8 MV photon beam and the respective correction factors for the treatment conditions were systematically studied. A total of 249 entrance and exit measurements with this dual detector combination were performed, mainly for treatments of the head and neck region. The resulting entrance and exit doses were compared with the expected doses at these positions, calculated on basis of the treatment and patient parameters. The results at the entrance showed a value of 1.010 (2.8% for the ratio of the measured to the calculated dose by diodes, 1.013) 4.9% for the ratio of the measured to the calculated dose by TLD and 1.003 (3.6% for the ratio of the measured dose by TLD to diodes. With respect the exit dose, the results were 0.998) 4.9%, 1.016 (7.7% and 1.019) 7.0% respectively after correction for the heterogeneity`s. Although the standard deviation for the TLD dosemeters is systematically larger than the standard deviation for the diodes, it is concluded that both dosemeters will yield similar results for-in-vivo dosimetry, if utilized under the same conditions.

  3. Technical specification of the NRPB thermoluminescent dosemeter used for the measurement of body dose and skin dose

    CERN Document Server

    Shaw, K B

    1977-01-01

    This report specifies the NRPB thermoluminescent dosemeter used for the measurement of radiation dose in tissue at a depth of 700 mg cm sup - sup 2 (body dose) and at a depth of 5-10 mg cm sup - sup 2 (skin dose).

  4. Goodbye, Mandatory Maternity Leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nation's Schools, 1972

    1972-01-01

    In precedent-setting decrees, courts and federal and State authorities have branded compulsory maternity leaves either unconstitutional or illegal. School administrators are urged to prod boards of education to adopt more lenient maternity leave policies -- now. (Author)

  5. Leaving home in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rikke Skovgaard

    2015-01-01

    The paper focuses on ethnic differences in the timing and patterns of leaving the parental home. Leaving home is a key transition in the life course of the individual, and extensive research has been conducted on the timing and patterns of leaving it. However, ethnic differences in these patterns...... of leaving home. Results showed that while some differences disappeared when controlling for covariates, others persisted, thus indicating ethnic differences in home-leaving patterns. A strong link between leaving home and marriage was substantiated for Turks, but not for Somalis. The home-leaving patterns...... of Somalis were much more similar to those of Danes. Overall, Turkish descendants were similar to Turkish immigrants but with some differentiation. The analyses identified the existence of ethnic differences in home-leaving patterns but also found evidence of a shift towards less traditional patterns, i...

  6. Wire Scanner Motion Control Card

    CERN Document Server

    Forde, S E

    2006-01-01

    Scientists require a certain beam quality produced by the accelerator rings at CERN. The discovery potential of LHC is given by the reachable luminosity at its interaction points. The luminosity is maximized by minimizing the beam size. Therefore an accurate beam size measurement is required for optimizing the luminosity. The wire scanner performs very accurate profile measurements, but as it can not be used at full intensity in the LHC ring, it is used for calibrating other profile monitors. As the current wire scanner system, which is used in the present CERN accelerators, has not been made for the required specification of the LHC, a new design of a wire scanner motion control card is part of the LHC wire scanner project. The main functions of this card are to control the wire scanner motion and to acquire the position of the wire. In case of further upgrades at a later stage, it is required to allow an easy update of the firmware, hence the programmable features of FPGAs will be used for this purpose. The...

  7. Study on routines and procedures of calibration of clinical dosemeter on gamma radiation beams at the IPEN-CNEN/SP, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damatto, Willian B.; Potiens, Maria da Penha A.; Santos, Gelson P.; Vivolo, Vitor

    2009-01-01

    The calibration consists in the comparison of the equipment to be calibrated with other equipment already calibrated by another standard, which means the equipment that will accomplish shall be considered secondary or tertiary, depending on the calibration that will be accomplished. As the clinical dosemeters are used for quality control services in the hospitals, these dosemeters need a reliable measurement precision. Therefore, this work intends to demonstrate the importance of the clinical dosemeter and the calibration, requiring special care face to all clinical set

  8. Smart Cards 101: Everything a Beginner Needs To Get Started.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiens, Janet

    2001-01-01

    Discusses how to implement a smart card system at a college or university, and explains what smart cards are, their potential applications, benefits, and costs. Provides a resource for obtaining additional information about smart cards. (GR)

  9. A low-cost personal dosemeter based on optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) of common household salt (NaCl)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekendahl, Daniela; Bulánek, Boris; Judas, Libor

    2016-01-01

    Salt represents a radiation sensitive material that can be used for dosimetry. The objective of this experimental study was to test a low-cost salt dosemeter that was designed for personnel that are not radiation workers, but can operate in low probability events resulting in a serious external radiation exposure. The dosemeter is based on use of optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) of a common household salt. Attention was concentrated on its energy and angular responses. The dosemeter was fixed to the ICRU slab phantom and irradiated by photons of reference radiation qualities (ISO 4037-1) with mean energies between 33 and 1250 keV. Angular response was investigated for angles of incidence from 0° to 80° for radiation qualities of N-150 (∼118 keV) and S-Cs (∼662 keV). Single-Aliquot Regenerative-dose analytical protocol was employed for dose reconstruction. The results were evaluated with respect to H_p(10) measurement. The salt dosemeter can provide reliable or reasonably conservative H_p(10) estimates in radiation fields where photon energies > 100 keV predominate, radiation incidence angles are from 0° to 80° and also for rotational geometry. Furthermore, a personal dose reconstruction trial was demonstrated. Relative deviation between the measured and reference H_p(10) values was 5.5%. A practical disadvantage of the method is the more demanding analytical protocol. - Highlights: • Common salt has a considerable potential for dosimetry based on use of OSL. • A simple salt personal dosemeter was designed and tested. • Photon energy and angular responses were satisfactory for purposes of accidental dosimetry. • Dose reconstruction trial proved the potential for reliable estimate of personal doses.

  10. Mensuration of equivalent dose with personal dosemeters and instruments of radiological protection in the new operative quantities ICRU, for external fields of beta radiation. Part II. I study of the angular response of personal dosemeters TLD-100 in secondary patron fields of beta radiation ({sup 90}Sr / {sup 90}Y); Medicion de dosis equivalente con dosimetros personales e instrumentos de proteccion radiologica en las nuevas magnitudes operativas ICRU, para campos de radiacion beta externos. Parte II. Estudio de la respuesta angular de dosimetros personales TLD-100 en campos patrones secundarios de radiacion beta ({sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez R, J.T. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    1994-01-15

    The objective of this work is to carry out one of the possible ones test type for personal dosemeters TLD, under the recomendations of the ICRU 39, ICRU 43 and the draft of the norm ISO 6980,(1992), with the purpose of verifying the capacity of these detectors to carry out the operative unit: H' (0.07;{alpha}). Since H' (O. 07;{alpha}) this defined one in an expanded field, one of these tests type consist on determining the angular response of these detectors. 20 personal dosemeters TLD-100 was used, (card marks: Harshaw, Model: G-1, with two glasses of TLD-100 absorbed in teflon; the portadosemeters has two windows, a free one and another with a filter of Pb of 171.0 mg cm{sup -2}); these dosemeters they were previously selected, [to see, {sup S}tudy of the Homogeneity of the response of Personal Dosemeters (Cards G-l, TLD-100) in Radiation of Countrysides of {sup 60}Co{sup ,} J.T. Alvarez R. Technician Report GSR/IT/0001/94].The irradiations to effectued in secondary countryside of radiation beta of {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y. The study was undertaken by means of an experimental design of blocks random that contemplate the following variables: intensity of the radiation source, (1850 MBq and 74 MBq); position of irradiation, (four positions); incidence of angle of the radiation (0, 15, 30, 45, 60 and 75 grades) and the absorbed dose in air, (0.005, 0.010, 0.020, 0.050 and 0.100 Gy). Then null hypothesis it was to suppose that there was not difference among the stockings of each treatment, to used the statistical of Duncan to carry out tests of stockings at a level of significance of 5%.These tests of stockings throw the following results in those variables of the experimental design: The irradiations carried out so much with the source pattern secondary of {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y of 1850 MBq and of 74 MBq, they are equivalent reason why they can be used indistinctly. The responses of each one of the glasses of the card are strongly anisotropic for each glass

  11. Real Communication through Interview and Conversation Cards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonin, Therese M.; Birckbichler, Diane W.

    1975-01-01

    A method for use in foreign language teaching which involves the use of conversation cards and interview cards is described. The method is intended to improve the ability of the student to communicate in the language and allow for greater individualization of instruction. (RM)

  12. College Student Performance and Credit Card Usage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Mary Beth; Parente, Diane H.; Palmer, Todd Starr

    2001-01-01

    Examines the relationship between credit card usage, employment, and academic performance among a group of college students with credit cards. Results reveal that the students differed significantly in the level of anxiety felt from carrying debt, perceived need to work, and perceived impact of employment on academic performance. (Contains 57…

  13. Mammography screening credit card and compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schapira, D V; Kumar, N B; Clark, R A; Yag, C

    1992-07-15

    Screening for breast cancer using mammography has been shown to be effective in reducing mortality from breast cancer. The authors attempted to determine if use of a wallet-size plastic screening "credit" card would increase participants' compliance for subsequent mammograms when compared with traditional methods of increasing compliance. Two hundred and twenty consecutive women, ages 40-70 years, undergoing their first screening mammography were recruited and assigned randomly to four groups receiving (1) a reminder plastic credit card (2) reminder credit card with written reminder; (3) appointment card; and (4) verbal recommendation. Return rates of the four groups were determined after 15 months. The return rate for subsequent mammograms was significantly higher for participants (72.4%) using the credit card than for participants (39.8%) exposed to traditional encouragement/reminders (P less than 0.0001). The credit card was designed to show the participant's screening anniversary, and the durability of the card may have been a factor in increasing the return rate. The use of reminder credit cards may increase compliance for periodic screening examinations for other cancers and other chronic diseases.

  14. BHI Purchase Card System user's guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehden, P. von der.

    1996-04-01

    The purpose of the purchase card system (P-Card System) is to apply enhanced acquisition tools for increased return on ERC internal resources, and to reduce the cost of off-the-shelf commercial items through the use of credit cards by authorized personnel. The P-Card may be used to make transactions either over the counter, by mail, or via telephone. For Project employees, the P-Card provides and easier, direct method of acquisition that requires less process time than requisitioning. The P-C eliminates the involvement of the procurement organization in low value-added acquisitions and low-risk transactions. Controller reduces the expenditure of resources in the support of low dollar value products and services acquisition. The P- Card System has been initiated in agreement with American Express Travel Related Services, Inc.; the credit card is and American Express Corporate Purchasing Card. The integrated network application for cardholder reconciliation and reallocation of costs was originally government furnished software developed by the U.S. DOE. Currently, the software application (version 3.0 and beyond) is copyrighted by a Bechtel Hanford, Inc. subcontractor

  15. Establishing a Successful Smart Card Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiens, Janet

    2001-01-01

    Discusses how to run a successful smart card program through a comprehensive approach that includes a detailed plan for the present and future, high level support from school administration, and extensive user input. Florida State University is used to illustrate a successfully implemented smart card program. (GR)

  16. Enhancing Students' Learning: Instant Feedback Cards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohrweis, Lawrence C.; Shinham, Kathe M.

    2015-01-01

    This study illustrates an active learning approach using instant feedback cards in the first course in accounting. The objectives of this study are to (1) describe instant feedback cards and (2) show how this tool, when used in an active learning environment, can enhance learning. We examined whether students exposed to immediate feedback…

  17. Overcoming credit card fraud in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A credit card is a convenient method of payment, but it does carry risks. The enormous ... Identity theft and the exponential ... Unique Security Features of a Credit Card with the Aim of Identifying ..... technology in an attempt to try and curb the.

  18. Re-Designing Business Card Advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaub, Laura

    2001-01-01

    Discusses ways to turn information from a business card into an advertisement to be placed in a student publication. Addresses visual interest, typography, and other design issues. Includes several sample advertisements and a classroom activity involving redesigning a business card into an advertisement. (RS)

  19. Comparative Study of the New Colorimetric VITEK 2 Yeast Identification Card versus the Older Fluorometric Card and of CHROMagar Candida as a Source Medium with the New Card

    OpenAIRE

    Aubertine, C. L.; Rivera, M.; Rohan, S. M.; Larone, D. H.

    2006-01-01

    The new VITEK 2 colorimetric card was compared to the previous fluorometric card for identification of yeast. API 20C was considered the “gold standard.” The new card consistently performed better than the older card. Isolates from CHROMagar Candida plates were identified equally as well as those from Sabouraud dextrose agar.

  20. Payment card rewards programs and consumer payment choice

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew Ching; Fumiko Hayashi

    2006-01-01

    Card payments have been growing very rapidly. To continue the growth, payment card networks keep adding new merchants and card issuers try to stimulate their existing customers’ card usage by providing rewards. This paper seeks to analyze the effects of payment card rewards programs on consumer payment choice, by using consumer survey data. Specifically, we examine whether credit/debit reward receivers use credit/debit cards relatively more often than other consumers, if so how much more ofte...

  1. Prepaid cards: how do they function? how are they regulated?

    OpenAIRE

    Mark Furletti

    2004-01-01

    This conference, sponsored by the Payment Cards Center, brought together prepaid card industry leaders and regulators to discuss how various prepaid-card systems work and the ways in which different state and federal laws can affect them. The conference featured sessions on bank- and merchant-issued gift cards, payroll cards, and flexible spending account cards. It also featured presentations by experts on Regulation E, the Federal Deposit Insurance Act, state money transmitter laws, and stat...

  2. Point card compatible automatic vending machine for canned drink; Point card taio kan jido hanbaiki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-01-10

    A point card compatible automatic vending machine for canned drinks is developed, which provides drink manufacturers with a powerful tool to acquire selling sites and attract consumers. Since the machine is equipped with a device to handle point cards, regular customers have increased and sales have picked up. A point card issuing device is also installed, and the new machine issues a point card whenever a customer wants. The drink manufacturers are evaluating high of the vending machine because it will contribute to the diffusion of the point card system and because a sales promotion campaign may be conducted through the vending machine for instance by exchanging a fully marked card with a giveaway on the spot. In the future, a bill validator (paper money identifier) will be integrated even with small size machines for the diffusion of point card compatible machines. (translated by NEDO)

  3. Governance, Issuance Restrictions, And Competition In Payment Card Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Robert S. Pindyck

    2007-01-01

    I discuss the antitrust suit brought by the U.S. Department of Justice against Visa and MasterCard in 1998. Banks that issue Visa cards are free to also issue MasterCard cards, and vice versa, and many banks issue the cards of both networks. However, both Visa and MasterCard had rules prohibiting member banks from also issuing the cards of other networks, in particular American Express and Discover. In addition, most banks are members of both the Visa and MasterCard networks, so governance is...

  4. Reducing the Threat of Nuclear Terrorism- A Report Card on the Obama Administration’s Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    using methods that did not require HEU and the recovery of roughly 750 radioisotope thermoelectric...Office of Management and Budget, Paperwork Reduction Project (0704-0188) Washington, DC 20503. 1. AGENCY USE ONLY (Leave blank) 2. REPORT DATE ...December 2016 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE REDUCING THE THREAT OF NUCLEAR TERRORISM—A REPORT CARD ON

  5. Insider protection: A report card

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Ayat, R.A.; Judd, B.R.

    1986-01-01

    Enhanced security measures against external threats (e.g., terrorists, criminals) have been implemented at most facilities that handle special nuclear material, classified information, or other assets critical to national security. Attention is now focusing on insider protection, and safeguards managers are attempting to provide balanced protection against insider and outsider threats. Potential insider threats include attempts by facility employees to steal special nuclear material (SNM), to cause a radiological hazard to the public, to sabotage critical facilities, or to steal property or classified information. This paper presents a report card on the status of insider protection at Department of Energy and Nuclear Regulatory Commission-licensed facilities, with emphasis on SNM theft. The authors discuss the general trends in insider protection and the limitations of protection measures currently in use. They also discuss the most critical needs for improved procedures, technology, analytical tools, and education for safeguards personnel

  6. Insider protection: a report card

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Ayat, R.A.; Judd, B.R.

    1986-01-01

    Enhanced security measures against external threats (e.g., terrorists, criminals) have been implemented at most facilities that handle special nuclear material, classified information, or other assets critical to national security. Attention is not focussing on insider protection, and safeguards managers are attempting to provide balanced protection against insider and outsider threats. Potential insider threats include attempts by facility employees to steal special nuclear material (SNM), to cause a radiological hazard to the public, to sabotage critical facilities, or to steal property or classified information. This paper presents a report card on the status of insider protection at Department of Energy and Nuclear Regulatory Commission-licensed facilities, with emphasis on SNM theft. We discuss the general trends in insider protection and the limitations of protection measures currently in use. We also discuss the most critical needs for improved procedures, technology, analytical tools, and education for safeguards personnel

  7. Card - Electronic Money. Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Rodica TIRLEA

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This type of coin and appeared as a result of the needs for a proper management of the financial resources available in the market, but also to improve the payments system in our country. The card is an alternative to the conventional instruments of payment is a payment instrument with and without cash by means of which the holder disposes of the current account. It is a standardized, secure information and individualized, through which you can perform operations of cash withdrawal, payment for the goods or services purchased, payment obligations by the public administration authorities and funds transfers between accounts, other than those ordered and executed by financial institutions, carried out through the electronic payment instrument.

  8. Development of confocal laser microscope system for examination of microscopic characteristics of radiophotoluminescence glass dosemeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maki, D.; Ishii, T.; Sato, F.; Kato, Y.; Yamamoto, T.; Iida, T.

    2011-01-01

    A confocal laser microscope system was developed for the measurement of radiophotoluminescence (RPL) photons emitted from a minute alpha-ray-irradiated area in an RPL glass dosemeter. The system was composed mainly of an inverted-type microscope, an ultraviolet laser, an XY movable stage and photon-counting circuits. The photon-counting circuits were effective in the reduction of the background noise level in the measurement of RPL photons. The performance of this microscope system was examined by the observation of standard RPL glass samples irradiated using 241 Am alpha rays. The spatial resolution of this system was ∼3 μm, and with regard to the sensitivity of this system, a hit of more than four to five alpha rays in unit area produced enough amount of RPL photons to construct the image. (authors)

  9. Development of confocal laser microscope system for examination of microscopic characteristics of radiophotoluminescence glass dosemeters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maki, Daisuke; Ishii, Tetsuya; Sato, Fuminobu; Kato, Yushi; Yamamoto, Takayoshi; Iida, Toshiyuki

    2011-03-01

    A confocal laser microscope system was developed for the measurement of radiophotoluminescence (RPL) photons emitted from a minute alpha-ray-irradiated area in an RPL glass dosemeter. The system was composed mainly of an inverted-type microscope, an ultraviolet laser, an XY movable stage and photon-counting circuits. The photon-counting circuits were effective in the reduction of the background noise level in the measurement of RPL photons. The performance of this microscope system was examined by the observation of standard RPL glass samples irradiated using (241)Am alpha rays. The spatial resolution of this system was ∼ 3 μm, and with regard to the sensitivity of this system, a hit of more than four to five alpha rays in unit area produced enough amount of RPL photons to construct the image.

  10. Results of film dosemeter control irradiations of German dose measurements services, 1969-1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gummi, V.; Taubert, R.

    1976-01-01

    The dose measurement services of the FRG have been controlling themselves since 1961 by evaluating film dosimeters irradiated in the PTB under standard conditions. This control method is now embodied in a law by the second decree about the standardization of measuring instruments dt. 6th August 1975. During the time 1969-74 the PTB carried out more than 800 annual control irradiations of film dosimeters. In 30% of the cases the evaluation by the measuring services showed an errory higher than +50%/-30%. The dose measuring services partially diverge considerably concerning the distribution of evaluation errors. Particular difficulties seem to exist in the soft x-ray radiation with effective energies less than 30 keV, in the energy range about 100 keV, and in the evaluation of dosemeter irradiated with two different qualities of radiation (double irradiation). (orig.) [de

  11. Absorbed dose measurements in mammography using Monte Carlo method and ZrO2+PTFE dosemeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duran M, H. A.; Hernandez O, M.; Salas L, M. A.; Hernandez D, V. M.; Vega C, H. R.; Pinedo S, A.; Ventura M, J.; Chacon, F.; Rivera M, T.

    2009-10-01

    Mammography test is a central tool for breast cancer diagnostic. In addition, programs are conducted periodically to detect the asymptomatic women in certain age groups; these programs have shown a reduction on breast cancer mortality. Early detection of breast cancer is achieved through a mammography, which contrasts the glandular and adipose tissue with a probable calcification. The parameters used for mammography are based on the thickness and density of the breast, their values depend on the voltage, current, focal spot and anode-filter combination. To achieve an image clear and a minimum dose must be chosen appropriate irradiation conditions. Risk associated with mammography should not be ignored. This study was performed in the General Hospital No. 1 IMSS in Zacatecas. Was used a glucose phantom and measured air Kerma at the entrance of the breast that was calculated using Monte Carlo methods and ZrO 2 +PTFE thermoluminescent dosemeters, this calculation was completed with calculating the absorbed dose. (author)

  12. Personal Dosemeter of Thermal Neutron Using A Cr-39 Detector with Filter Natural LiF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sofyan, Hasnel; Thamrin, M.Thoyib

    1996-01-01

    The research of personal dosemeter for thermal neutron using Cr-39 detector with different thicknesses of natural LiF filter was carried out. The irradiation of Cr-39 detector with neutron source from reactor research TRIGA mark II of Rikkyo University Tokyo, Japan. Nuclear track was counted by automatic method with ASPECT ver.4.22 Series A4T124 software and manual method for correction. The result of research, the maximum of nuclear tracks was obtained at 8 mm of LiF filter was 10 mm with 11,630x10E-5 track/neutron for air radiation. And on phantom radiation, the thickness of filter was 10 mm with 11,630x10E-5 track/neutron. Its values were 3.6 and 7.5 bigger than the response of Cr-39 non filter in air and on phantom radiation, respectively

  13. Automation of radiation dosimetry using PTW dosemeter and LabVIEWTM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, C.; Al-Frouh, K.; Anjak, O.

    2011-01-01

    Automation of UNIDOS 'Dosemeter' using personal computer (PC) is discussed in this paper. In order to save time and eliminate human operation errors during the radiation dosimetry, suitable software, using LabVIEW TM graphical programming language, was written to automate and facilitate the processes of measurements, analysis and data storage. The software calculates the calibration factor of the ionization chamber in terms of air kerma or absorbed dose to water according to IAEA dosimetry protocols. It also has the ability to print a calibration certificate. The obtained results using this software are found to be more reliable and flexible than those obtained by manual methods previously employed. Using LabVIEW TM as a development tool is extremely convenient to make things easier when software modifications and improvements are needed.

  14. Characterization of an active dosemeter according to IEC 61526:2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardoso, J.; Santos, L.; Santos, J.A.M.; Alves, J.G.; Oliveira, C.

    2016-01-01

    The active personal dosemeter, RaySafe i2, allows the measurement and record of Hp(10) in real time, every second, via wireless technology for real-time display on a portable computer and/or a local network. The system seems particularly attractive for individual monitoring at clinical facilities where high intensity and varying radiation fields may occur, as it enables the user to acknowledge and optimize the dose and dose rate values in real time for each procedure. Prior to its use, the system was characterized at the Metrology Laboratory of Ionizing Radiation of IST-LPSR aiming at the metrological characterization of the system in accordance with IEC 61526:2010 for metrological control purposes and to verify the technical specifications stated by the manufacturer. (authors)

  15. Contribution to the development of a fast neutron dosemeter SAD 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, M.; Francois, H.; Heilmann, C.; Demoulin, R.; Kappler, A.; Oppel, R.

    1983-01-01

    The dosemeter response to various neutron fluxes from known monoenergetic sources has been calibrated in order to optimize this response, especially as regards the conversion factor for the hydrogeneous material used. Alongside these microscopic measurements, an automatic measuring system has been developed, based on detecting the amount of silver left along the tracks of recoil protons formed in (n,p) reactions. It is necessary to have a complete calibration of the converter response xsub(D), which is related directly to the energy loss in the emulsion. For this purpose we have designed an X-ray fluorescence apparatus which determines the residual silver by exciting the 22.5 and 25 keV lines of silver [fr

  16. Track-etch dosemeter response to neutrons up to 300 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devine, R.T.; Walker, S.; Staples, P.; Duran, M.; Mundis, R.; Miller, J.

    1996-01-01

    Electro-chemical and chemical track-etch dosemeters were obtained from commercial suppliers and exposed to neutrons produced at the LANTF WNR white neutron source at 15 degree with no shielding and filtered by polyethylene blocks of 2.5, 5.1, 10.2, 20.3 and 40.6 cin thickness. The neutron spectrum was determined using calculations. Mean energies from 28 to 300 MeV were produced. Dose was calculated from the NCRP-38 flux-to-dose conversion. The results are compared with NTA film which was exposed in the same configuration. The response of track etch dosimeters was found to reach a minimum and then rise as the average neutron energy increased. The response of the NTA film increased as the neutron energy increased

  17. Measurement analysis using the Fricke dosemeter; Analise de medicoes com o dosimetro Fricke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedrosa, G A.C. , [Instituto Nacional de Metrologia (INMETRO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Dantas, C.C. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear], e-mail: ccd@ufpe.br; Campos, C.A. [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil)], e-mail: auster@elogica.com.br

    2003-07-01

    The Fricke dosemeter has been used for absolute determination of the radiation dose between 40 and 350 Gy for X-rays, Gamma rays and fast electrons energies. The great inconvenient of that dosimetric system is the impossibility of using for measurements of exposure or low dose rates. A Fricke dosimetry system was implanted at the Nuclear Sciences Regional Center (CRCN), in Recife, Pernambuco state, Brazil, for the determination of radiation doses for spectrometry and mass dosimetry with plasma source. The statistical analysis of the obtained results have shown that using the spectrometric method that system cna be used for maintenance of factors of CRCN standard calibrations and the dose assessment thru mail system of radiotherapy centers of the country.

  18. Photon beam audits for radiation therapy clinics: A pilot mailed dosemeter study in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yegingil, Z.; DeWerd, L. A.; Davis, S. D.; Hammer, C.; Kunugi, K.

    2012-01-01

    A thermoluminescent dosemeter (TLD) mailed dose audit programme was performed at five radiotherapy clinics in Turkey. The intercomparison was organised by the Univ. of Wisconsin Radiation Calibration Laboratory (UWRCL), which was responsible for the technical aspects of the study including reference irradiations, distribution, collection and evaluation. The purpose of these audits was to perform an independent dosimetry check of the radiation beams using TLDs sent by mail. Acrylic holders, each with five TLD chips inside and instructions for their irradiation to specified absorbed dose to water of 2 Gy, were mailed to all participating clinics. TLD irradiations were performed with a 6 MV linear accelerator and 60 Co photon beams. The deviations from the TL readings of UWRCL were calculated. Discrepancies inside the limits of ±5 % between the participant-stated dose, and the TLD-measured dose were considered acceptable. One out of 10 beams checked was outside this limit, with a difference of 5.8 %. (authors)

  19. Neutron spectrometry and dosimetry measurement at workplaces for calibration of individual PGP-DIN dosemeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itie, C.; Muller, H.; Asselineau, B.; Medioni, R.; Crovisier, P.; Valier-Bradier, P.; Groetz, J.E.; Piot, J.

    2003-01-01

    Measurements to determine new coefficients for individual neutron dosimeters PGP-DIN complying with the ICRP 60 recommendations were performed at two workplaces at the CEA of Valduc: a storage room and a plutonium reprocessing plant. Two spectrometry campaigns were performed allowing a better assessment of doses received by operators working at these workplaces. Neutron energy fluence and ambient dose equivalent rate H * (10) distributions were measured as function of neutron energy by using the ROSPEC device and BONNER spheres spectrometer. The radiation field being mixed neutron and gamma, the gamma component was also evaluated: neutron and photon dose-rate meters were used to evaluate the ambient dose rate equivalent. Individual dosemeters were positioned on an ISO water slab phantom. In addition, calculations were performed using the MCNP simulation code for different configurations. (authors)

  20. Thermoluminescent dosemeter in a X-ray diffractometer; Dosimetria termoluminiscente en un difractometro de rayos X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendoza A, D.; Gonzalez M, P.; Falcon B, T. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Castano, V.M. [Instituto de Fisica, UNAM, Laboratorio Juriquilla, A.P. 1-1010, C.P. 76001, Queretaro (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    In this work it was presented the results obtained of the dosimetry which was realized in a X-ray diffractometer for powders, trademark Siemens D5000, using the thermoluminescent signal generated by the X-rays in the commercial dosemeter TLD-100 of Harshaw, US. In according to the results obtained, the radiation quantity received by an analysed material in the diffractometer, will be proportional to exposure time and it can vary from unities until tenths of grays. These results are very outstanding when are analysed crystalline materials in a diffractometer, for knowing the present crystalline phases, mainly if these are highly sensitive to the ionizing radiation, as it is the case of the thermoluminescent materials. (Author)

  1. Evaluation of the kinetic parameters of CaF2:Tm (TLD-300) thermoluminescence dosemeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azorin, Juan; Gutierrez, Alicia; Furetta, Claudio

    1989-01-01

    The kinetic parameters of the first, third and fifth peaks of CaF 2 :Tm (TLD-300) dosemeters were determined experimentally using methods based on initial rise, peak shape, different heating rates, isothermal decay and numerical fitting method and a comparison was made between the results obtained. The average activation energy values determined by the methods used here were 0.72, 1.16 and 1.77 eV, with mean values for the frequency factor of 2.58 x 10 8 , 2.89 x 10 13 and 6.16 x 10 16 s -1 for the first, third and fifth peaks respectively. The values of activation energy obtained for each peak using the different methods covered a spread of about 4%. However, the spread for each of the frequency factors was very high. (author)

  2. Performance of Panasonic ZP-1460 Electronic Personal Dosemeter under Exposure Conditions Likely to be Found at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujimura, Norio; Yoshida, Tadayoshi; Hoshi, Katsuya; Momose, Takumaro

    A study on the performance of the Panasonic ZP-1460 electronic personal dosemeter, the model used in the aftermath of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident in March 2011, was conducted under actual exposure situations likely encountered in the plant. The tests pertained to (1) the dose rate response over dose rates >100 mSv/h and (2) the angular response on an anthropomorphic phantom exposed to the rotational and isotropic irradiation geometries. The test results confirmed that the dosemeter provides Hp(10) as a reasonably close estimate of the effective dose for any exposure geometries. The dosemeter response data evaluated in this study can be utilized for converting dosemeter readings to the absorbed dose to any organs and tissues for epidemiologic purposes.

  3. Negative leave balances

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Department

    2005-01-01

    Members of the personnel entitled to annual leave and, where appropriate, saved leave and/or compensatory leave are requested to take note of the new arrangements described below, which were recommended by the Standing Concertation Committee (SCC) at its meeting on 1Â September 2005 and subsequently approved by the Director-General. The changes do not apply to members of the personnel participating in the Progressive Retirement Programme (PRP) or the Part-time Work as a pre-retirement measure, for whom the specific provisions communicated at the time of joining will continue to apply. Â Negative balances in annual leave, saved leave and/or compensatory leave accounts at the end of the leave year (30th September) and on the date on which bonuses are credited to the saved leave account (31st December): Where members of the personnel have a leave account with a negative balance on 30Â September and/or 31Â December, leave will automatically be transferred from one account to another on the relevant dates i...

  4. Negative leave balances

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Department

    2005-01-01

    Members of the personnel entitled to annual leave and, where appropriate, saved leave and/or compensatory leave are requested to take note of the new arrangements described below, which were recommended by the Standing Concertation Committee (SCC) at its meeting on 1 September 2005 and subsequently approved by the Director-General. The changes do not apply to members of the personnel participating in the Progressive Retirement Programme (PRP) or the Part-time Work as a pre-retirement measure, for whom the specific provisions communicated at the time of joining will continue to apply.  Negative balances in annual leave, saved leave and/or compensatory leave accounts at the end of the leave year (30th September) and on the date on which bonuses are credited to the saved leave account (31st December): Where members of the personnel have a leave account with a negative balance on 30 September and/or 31 December, leave will automatically be transferred from one account to another on the relevant dates in or...

  5. A microprocessor card software server to support the Quebec health microprocessor card project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durant, P; Bérubé, J; Lavoie, G; Gamache, A; Ardouin, P; Papillon, M J; Fortin, J P

    1995-01-01

    The Quebec Health Smart Card Project is advocating the use of a memory card software server[1] (SCAM) to implement a portable medical record (PMR) on a smart card. The PMR is viewed as an object that can be manipulated by SCAM's services. In fact, we can talk about a pseudo-object-oriented approach. This software architecture provides a flexible and evolutive way to manage and optimize the PMR. SCAM is a generic software server; it can manage smart cards as well as optical (laser) cards or other types of memory cards. But, in the specific case of the Quebec Health Card Project, SCAM is used to provide services between physicians' or pharmacists' software and IBM smart card technology. We propose to expose the concepts and techniques used to provide a generic environment to deal with smart cards (and more generally with memory cards), to obtain a dynamic an evolutive PMR, to raise the system global security level and the data integrity, to optimize significantly the management of the PMR, and to provide statistic information about the use of the PMR.

  6. EURADOS intercomparisons in external radiation dosimetry: similarities and differences among exercises for whole-body photon, whole-body neutron, extremity, eye-lens and passive area dosemeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero, Ana M.; Grimbergen, Tom; McWhan, Andrew; Stadtmann, Hannes; Fantuzzi, Elena; Clairand, Isabelle; Neumaier, Stefan; Dombrowski, Harald; Figel, Markus

    2016-01-01

    The European Radiation Dosimetry Group (EURADOS) has been organising dosimetry intercomparisons for many years in response to an identified requirement from individual monitoring services (IMS) for independent performance tests for dosimetry systems. The participation in intercomparisons gives IMS the opportunity to show compliance with their own quality management system, compare results with other participants and develop plans for improving their dosimetry systems. In response to growing demand, EURADOS has increased the number of intercomparisons for external radiation dosimetry. Most of these fit into the programme of self-financing intercomparisons for dosemeters routinely used by IMS. This programme is being coordinated by EURADOS working group 2 (WG2). Up to now, this programme has included four intercomparisons for whole-body dosemeters in photon fields, one for extremity dosemeters in photon and beta fields, and one for whole-body dosemeters in neutron fields. Other EURADOS working groups have organised additional intercomparisons including events in 2014 for eye-lens dosemeters and passive area dosemeters for environmental monitoring. In this paper, the organisation and achievements of these intercomparisons are compared in detail focusing on the similarities and differences in their execution. (authors)

  7. Determination of isodose curves in Radiotherapy using an Alanine/ESR dosemeter; Determinacion de curvas de isodosis en Radioterapia usando un dosimetro de Alanina/ESR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, F.; Baffa, O.; Graeff, C.F.O. [Departamento de Fisica e Matematica. Universidade de Sao Paulo FFCLRP. 14040-901 Ribeirao Preto-SP (Brazil)

    1998-12-31

    It was studied the possible use of an Alanine/ESR dosemeter in the isodose curves mapping in normal treatments of Radiotherapy. It was manufactured a lot of 150 dosemeters with base in a mixture of D-L Alanine dust (80 %) and paraffin (20 %). Each dosemeter has 4.7 mm diameter and 12 mm length. A group of 100 dosemeters of the lot were arranged inside 50 holes of the slice 25 of the phantom Rando Man. The phantom irradiation was realized in two opposed projections (AP and PA) in Co-60 equipment. A group of 15 dosemeters was take of the same lot for obtaining the calibration curve in a 1-20 Gy range. After irradiation the signal of each dosemeter was measured in an ESR spectrometer operating in the X-band ({approx} 9.5 GHz) and the wideness of Alanine ESR spectra central line was correlated with the radiation dose. The wideness dose calibration curve resulted linear with a correlation coefficient 0.9996. The isodose curves obtained show a profile enough similar at comparing with the theoretical curves. (Author)

  8. Study of a selection of 10 historical types of dosemeter: variation of the response to Hp(10) with photon energy and geometry of exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thierry-Chef, I; Pernicka, F; Marshall, M; Cardis, E; Andreo, P

    2002-01-01

    An international collaborative study of cancer risk among workers in the nuclear industry is tinder way to estimate direetly the cancer risk following protracted low-dose exposure to ionising radiation. An essential aspect of this study is the characterisation and quantification of errors in available dose estimates. One major source of errors is dosemeter response in workplace exposure conditions. Little information is available on energy and geometry response for most of the 124 different dosemeters used historically in participating facilities. Experiments were therefore set up to assess this. using 10 dosemeter types representative of those used over time. Results show that the largest errors were associated with the response of early dosemeters to low-energy photon radiation. Good response was found with modern dosemeters. even at low energy. These results are being used to estimate errors in the response for each dosemeter type, used in the participating facilities, so that these can be taken into account in the estimates of cancer risk.

  9. The Temporary Leave Dilemma -

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amilon, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Lone mothers have to take care of a sick child with little or no help from the child’s other parent and have to carry all costs connected to leave-taking. This paper empirically tests whether lone mothers take more temporary parental leave to care for sick children than partnered mothers...... and whether parental leave is associated with a signaling cost. The results from this study of Swedish mothers show that lone mothers use more temporary parental leave than partnered mothers. Further, within the group of lone mothers, those with higher socioeconomic status take less temporary parental leave...... than those with lower socioeconomic status, whereas no such differences are found within the group of partnered mothers. One possible interpretation is that signaling costs negatively influence the utilization of temporary parental leave for lone mothers....

  10. SD card projects using the PIC microcontroller

    CERN Document Server

    Ibrahim, Dogan

    2010-01-01

    PIC Microcontrollers are a favorite in industry and with hobbyists. These microcontrollers are versatile, simple, and low cost making them perfect for many different applications. The 8-bit PIC is widely used in consumer electronic goods, office automation, and personal projects. Author, Dogan Ibrahim, author of several PIC books has now written a book using the PIC18 family of microcontrollers to create projects with SD cards. This book is ideal for those practicing engineers, advanced students, and PIC enthusiasts that want to incorporate SD Cards into their devices. SD cards are che

  11. Insuficiencia cardíaca y diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Thierer

    2006-01-01

    La prevalencia de la insuficiencia cardíaca y la diabetes continúa creciendo. Ambas están fuertemente asociadas. La diabetes es un fuerte predictor de aparición de insuficiencia cardíaca. Las razones son la presencia de enfermedad coronaria y los trastornos metabólicos vinculados con la resistencia a la insulina que generan disfunción contráctil. Los pacientes con insuficiencia cardíaca que son diabéticos tienen peor evolución. Los Betabloqueantes, vasodilatadores y los inhibidores de la en...

  12. Insuficiencia cardíaca y diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Thierer, Jorge

    2006-01-01

    La prevalencia de la insuficiencia cardíaca y la diabetes continúa creciendo. Ambas están fuertemente asociadas. La diabetes es un fuerte predictor de aparición de insuficiencia cardíaca. Las razones son la presencia de enfermedad coronaria y los trastornos metabólicos vinculados con la resistencia a la insulina que generan disfunción contráctil. Los pacientes con insuficiencia cardíaca que son diabéticos tienen peor evolución. Los betabloqueantes vasodilatadores y los inhibidores de la enzim...

  13. 'Smart card' speeds triage, boosts safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-01

    An internally developed 'smart card' and a kiosk equipped with an electronic reader have helped Wellington (FL) Regional Medical Center speed up its triage process considerably. The new technology is extremely popular with the staff, as well as with the patients. Here are some of its benefits: Patients who have the card don't need to provide a detailed history every time they visit the ED. Nurses don't have to type in the patient's medical information. It automatically "populates" their computer screen. Security is maintained, because the information is stored in a database, and not on the card.

  14. Loyalty Card Promotional Activity in Budget Hotel

    OpenAIRE

    Teng, Fei

    2010-01-01

    Loyalty card is one of the most commonly used promotional activities in business. Thus far, there are some research has been done on luxury hotel, but very few researches are on budget hotel. So, the purpose of the thesis is finding out the Swedish customers’ attitude and behavior towards budget hotel’s loyalty card; getting to know what factors influence Swedish customers’ response towards the loyalty card and budget hotels. In the thesis, the main research problem is “How do Swedish custome...

  15. 12 CFR 226.12 - Special credit card provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Special credit card provisions. 226.12 Section... SYSTEM TRUTH IN LENDING (REGULATION Z) Open-End Credit § 226.12 Special credit card provisions. (a) Issuance of credit cards. Regardless of the purpose for which a credit card is to be used, including...

  16. Fingerprint match-on-card: review and outlook

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Shabalala, MB

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available the statistics on identity theft. This has been achieved by predominantly implementing biometrics matching algorithms inside smart card technology. The biometric matching inside a smart card is known as Match-on-Card/On-Card comparison. However compared...

  17. 75 FR 81721 - Debit Card Interchange Fees and Routing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-28

    ... cards not marketed or labeled as a gift card or certificate. EFTA Section 920 provides, however, that... cardholder initiates a purchase by providing his or her card or card information to a merchant. In the case... purchases at retailers in the early 1980s. It was not until the mid-1990s, however, that PIN debit became a...

  18. Student ID Cards: What You Should Know About Them

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Jonathan; McGuire, Agnes C.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the usefulness of photo ID cards for school security purposes, library control, student activities, and bus transportation control. Examines ways in which card costs can be reduced and the pros and cons of producing the cards at the school or of letting the work out. Problems involving card abuse and student rights are also considered.…

  19. X and gamma reference radiation for calibrating dosemeters and doserate meters and for determining their response as a function of photon energy - Part 4: Calibration of area and personal dosemeters in low energy X reference radiation fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    ISO 4037 consists of the following parts, under the general title X and gamma reference radiation for calibrating dosemeters and doserate meters and for determining their response as a function of photon energy: Part 1: Radiation characteristics and production methods; Part 2: Dosimetry for radiation protection over the energy ranges from 8 keV to 1,3 MeV and 4 MeV to 9 MeV; Part 3: Calibration of area and personal dosemeters and the measurement of their response as a function of energy and angle of incidence; Part 4: Calibration of area and personal dosemeters in low energy X reference radiation fields. This part 4. of ISO 4037 gives guidelines on additional aspects of the characterization of low energy photon radiations. This part of ISO 4037 also describes procedures for calibration and determination of the response of area and personal dose(rate)meters as a function of photon energy and angle of incidence. This part of ISO 4037 concentrates on the accurate determination of conversion coefficients from air kerma to Hp(10) and H*(10) for the spectra of low energy photon radiations. As an alternative to the use of conversion coefficients, the direct calibration in terms of these quantities by means of appropriate reference instruments is described

  20. Notification: Purchase Card and Convenience Check Audit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Project #OA-FY13-0116, April 11, 2013. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Inspector General, is beginning the fieldwork phase of its audit of the agency’s purchase card and convenience check programs.

  1. Prefrontal system dysfunction and credit card debt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinella, Marcello; Yang, Bijou; Lester, David

    2004-10-01

    Credit card use often involves a disadvantageous allocation of finances because they allow for spending beyond means and buying on impulse. Accordingly they are associated with increased bankruptcy, anxiety, stress, and health problems. Mounting evidence from functional neuroimaging and clinical studies implicates prefrontal-subcortical systems in processing financial information. This study examined the relationship of credit card debt and executive functions using the Frontal System Behavior Scale (FRSBE). After removing the influences of demographic variables (age, sex, education, and income), credit card debt was associated with the Executive Dysfunction scale, but not the Apathy or Disinhibition scales. This suggests that processes of conceptualizing and organizing finances are most relevant to credit card debt, and implicates dorsolateral prefrontal dysfunction.

  2. College Student Credit Card Usage and Debt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybka, Kathryn M.

    2001-01-01

    Provides an overview of the concerns related to credit card usage by college students. Offers information student affairs professionals can use to help college students make responsible choices. (Contains 26 references.) (GCP)

  3. 25 CFR 249.3 - Identification cards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the issuance of an appropriate identification card to any Indian entitled thereto as prima facie... any Federal, State, or tribal enforcement officer shall be prima facie evidence that the person is not...

  4. FRENCH CARDS - NEW PROCEDURE FOR INITIAL APPLICATION

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2002-01-01

    The Human Resources Division would like to remind members of personnel that they are obliged to submit an application form for a French card as soon as they have a permanent address in either Switzerland or in France and they are actually living there. Following the rationalization of our administrative procedures, as of October 1st, 2002, the initial application procedure for a French card will now be as follows: The member of personnel should complete an application form. If necessary, an application form must also be completed for family members. These forms must then be transferred via e-mail to the appropriate Divisional Administrative Officer (DAO) who will forward them to the Cards Service. In parallel, the member of personnel should submit the necessary supporting documents to the Cards Service. The application form (Word format only), the procedural details, the necessary supporting documents as well as the conditions of issue are available here.   Human Resources Division Tel. 74469

  5. EuCARD final project report

    CERN Document Server

    Koutchouk, J P

    2014-01-01

    After four years of activity, EuCARD has most of its objectives fulfilled, with some new objectives added and a few others on excellent tracks while requiring additional time. The management has been active in reinforcing the collaborative links between partners and projects, contributing to the preparation of FP7-EuCARD2, initiating FP7-HiLumi-LHC Design Study, to favour sustained collaborations beyond EuCARD. An out-of-contract network has been successfully launched on laser plasma acceleration, to combine forces between accelerator, laser and plasma communities. Communication and dissemination activities have led to two highlights: Accelerating News, an accelerator R&D newsletter initiated by EuCARD and now common to all FP7 accelerator projects (over 1000 subscribers) and a series of monographs on accelerator sciences that is progressively finding its public. The scientific networks have more than fulfilled their initial objectives: roadmaps are defined for neutrino facilities, submitted to the Europe...

  6. Software for a multichannel acquisition card

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arista Romeu, E. J.; Diaz Garcia, A.; Vela Morales, O.

    2013-01-01

    A software developed in C++ for a multichannel acquisition card is presented. The use of an acquisition add-on card with multiple channels is a suitable solution to substitute several instruments, allowing simultaneous acquisition with each channel. In this work, the limitations of a concrete hardware are discussed and also several different approaches have been suggested. Some preliminary results obtained in laboratory conditions are shown. (Author)

  7. Smart Card Security; Technology and Adoption

    OpenAIRE

    Hamed Taherdoost; Shamsul Sahibuddin; Neda Jalaliyoon

    2011-01-01

    Newly, smart card technology are being used in a number of ways around the world, on the otherhand, security has become significant in information technology, especially in those applicationinvolving data sharing and transactions through the internet. Furthermore, researches ininformation technology acceptance have identified the security as one of the factor that caninfluence on smart card adoption. This research is chiefly to study the security principals of smartcard and assess the securit...

  8. Pc Card Sony Ericsson: Semiotik Dan Iklan

    OpenAIRE

    Mutmainnah, Yulia

    2014-01-01

    Through advertisement, producers send messages for their product strength to consumers. Those messages are conveyed through various kinds of signs either in the form of language, picture, caption, icon, index, or symbol. There is communicative exchange on GC79 PC Card Sony Ericsson advertisement between sender and receiver. Sender (advertisement maker) of this advertisement makes good use of reward polluter style, which is, persuading comsumers to use PC Card Sony Ericsson product.

  9. Prototype ALICE front-end card

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2004-01-01

    This circuit board is a prototype 48-channel front end digitizer card for the ALICE time projection chamber (TPC), which takes electrical signals from the wire sensors in the TPC and shapes the data before converting the analogue signal to digital data. A total of 4356 cards will be required to process the data from the ALICE TPC, the largest of this type of detector in the world.

  10. The use of TLD-700H dosemeters in the assessment of external doses at the former Semipalatinsk nuclear test site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, P; Dederichs, H; Pillath, J; Schlecht, W; Hille, R; Artemev, O; Ptitskaya, L; Akhmetov, M

    2002-01-01

    The joint projects performed since 1995 by the Jülich Research Centre in co-operation with the Kazakh National Nuclear Centre in the area of the former nuclear test site near Semipalatinsk, in eastern Kazakhstan, have assessed the current dose rate of the population at and around the test site, as well as determining retrospectively the dose rate of persons affected by the atmospheric tests. Measurements of the population by personal dosemeters depend on reliably wearing these dosemeters over prolonged periods of time, and of a sufficient dosemeter return. In the past, such measurements have been particularly successful whenever short wearing times were possible. This requires high sensitivity of the dosemeters. The suitability of the highly sensitive TLD material of the BICRON TLD 700H type for such personal dosimetry measurements was investigated. It was tested in practical field application at the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site in September 2000. Initial results are available from individual doses received by a group of geologists and a group of herdsmen at the test site. For the first time, the individual dose was measured directly in these population groups. Detection limits below 1 microSv permit informative measurements for wearing times of less than two weeks. Most individual doses did not arise significantly out of local fluctuations of natural background. A conservative assessment from the aspect of practical health physics yielded a mean personal dose of 0.55 microSv per day for the herdsmen, whereas the geologists received a mean personal dose of 0.45 microSv per day. For an annual exposure period of typically, about three months, the radiation dose received by the persons investigated, in addition to the natural radiation exposure, is thus well below the international limit value of 1 mSv x a(-1) for the population dose.

  11. New ICRU quantities for the environmental and individual monitoring. Standardization of individual dosemeters by using external beams of photon radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brosed, A.; Delgado, A.; Granados, C. E.

    1987-01-01

    The quantities introduced by ICRU for the radiological monitoring are commented, specially those implied in individual protection against external photons. A procedure is proposed in order to standardize the individual dosemeters by using the kerma in air references of CIEMAT-JEN. The reference radiation beams are described in connection with ISO standards. Provisional values are selected for the appropriate conversion and correction factors. (Author) 23 refs

  12. Preparation of the FXG gel dosemeter and studying its response for low and medium energy X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bero, M.; Kharita, M. H.

    2008-02-01

    Gel dosimetry method was found to be capable of addressing complicated issues related to dose measurements particularly in modern sophisticated radiotherapy applications. Ferrous-sulphate Xylenol-orange and Gelatin (FXG) radiochromic gel dosemeter is one of the systems used for such applications. Some chemical dosemeters show different response for low and medium energies X-rays in comparison with high energy-photons. The energy and dose rate dependence of the FXG dose response was examined. In addition to the detector response other important dosimetric properties of the system were investigated for different X-ray beam qualities with tube voltages in the range 100 - 300 kv. An orthovoltage X-ray therapy unit was used to irradiate standard sized samples of FXG from different batches for radiation doses in the range 0 - 8 Gy. This work includes in the first stage the preparation of the radiochromic gel dosemeter (FXG) as well as its calibration in gamma radiation field. Furthermore, the stability and reproducibility of measurements were tested. The obtained results were found to be suitable as a basis to carry on the next stage of this study. The second phase was centred about the delivery of radiation doses from X-ray source that has increasing energy and evaluating the gel material properties as a dosemeter in this case, with concentration on finding the changes of the gel material response with the changes in the applied X-ray energy. Therefore establishing the response radiation energy dependence and comparing the measurement results with other results taken from other known dosimetry system such as ion chambers. Experiments shows that the FXG gel detector has a dynamic rage suitable for the dose delivered in radiotherapy treatment; its response as a function of the dose rate is also stable in the range of radiation energies applied.(Author)

  13. Study of radioactive sources accumulation with application of thermoluminescence dosemeters on the base of alkaline earth metals sulfates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokbergenov, I.; Sadykov, T.

    2001-01-01

    Methodic for study of accumulation and distribution of radioactive sources in a nature objects is developed. An essence of the method consists of in that quantity of accumulated radioactive sources in a nature objects is defining by absorption dose measured with help of thermoluminescent dosemeters on the base of alkaline earth metals sulfates such as CaSO 4 :Dy and SrSO 4 :Eu

  14. Relative thermoluminescent efficiencies proton/gamma and helium/gamma of high temperature peaks in TLD-100 dosemeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flores M, E.; Avila, O.; Rodriguez V, M.; Massillon, J.L.G.; Buenfil A, E.; Ruiz T, C.; Brandan, M.E.; Gamboa De Buen, I.

    2007-01-01

    This work presents measures of relative thermoluminescent efficiency of those high temperature peaks of TLD-100 dosemeters exposed to protons of 1.5 MeV and to helium nuclei of 3 and 7.5 MeV. A rigorous reading and of deconvolution protocol was used for the calculation of the TL efficiencies. Additionally an Excel program that facilitated the deconvolution adjustment process of the glow curves was elaborated. (Author)

  15. Correlates of credit card ownership in men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bijou; Lester, David

    2005-06-01

    In a sample of 352 students, correlates of credit card ownership differed by sex. For both men and women, credit card ownership was predicted by their affective attitude toward credit cards. However, whereas for men concern with money as a tactic for gaining power predicted credit card ownership, for women feelings of insecurity about having sufficient money and having a conservative approach to money predicted credit card ownership.

  16. The Regulation of the Credit Card Market in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmet Faruk Aysan; L. Yildiz

    2006-01-01

    The rapid growth in Turkish credit card market brought together new issues. Card holders and consumer unions complain about the high interest rates, economists complain about the default rates and banks complain about the amnesties. After all of these complaints coinciding with the accelerating suicide incidences due to credit card debts, regulation has been enacted in the credit card market in Turkey. In 2003, credit cards had been taken into the scope of the Consumer Protection Law. This wa...

  17. Firewall Mechanism in a User Centric Smart Card Ownership Model

    OpenAIRE

    Akram , Raja Naeem; Markantonakis , Konstantinos; Mayes , Keith

    2010-01-01

    International audience; Multi-application smart card technology facilitates applications to securely share their data and functionality. The security enforcement and assurance in application sharing is provided by the smart card firewall. The firewall mechanism is well defined and studied in the Issuer Centric Smart Card Ownership Model (ICOM), in which a smart card is under total control of its issuer. However, it is not analysed in the User Centric Smart Card Ownership Model (UCOM) that del...

  18. Health smart cards: merging technology and medical information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Sherry R

    2003-01-01

    Smart cards are credit card-sized plastic cards, with an embedded dime-sized Integrated Circuit microprocessor chip. Smart cards can be used for keyless entry, electronic medical records, etc. Health smart cards have been in limited use since 1982 in Europe and the United States, and several barriers including lack of infrastructure, low consumer confidence, competing standards, and cost continue to be addressed.

  19. An overview of smart card technology and markets

    OpenAIRE

    Mark Furletti

    2002-01-01

    As part of the Payment Cards Center's series of discussion papers, this paper provides an overview of smart card technology and its potential for significantly increasing payment card functionality. In addition to reviewing the current market for smart cards in the U.S., this paper examines the costs and barriers associated with their wide spread adoption. European and US smart card acceptance is compared. In addition, this paper provides background on the technological and infrastructure dev...

  20. Benefits of Using Vocabulary Flash Cards in an EFL Classroom

    OpenAIRE

    Jonathan, Aliponga; Christopher C, Johnston

    2013-01-01

    This paper was written to research and advocate the use of English word cards withregard to vocabulary acquisition and English productive and receptive competency. Also,student perceptions of using and making word cards will be examined to show theimportance of including a word card policy in an EFL classroom. Despite all the positiveresearch done on word cards, it is surprising how many Japanese EFL students do notutilize word cards in their English studies. For this research, 108 students f...

  1. Problem and solution of tally segment card in MCNP code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Jiachun; Zhao Shouzhi; Sun Zheng; Jia Baoshan

    2010-01-01

    Wrong results may be given when FS card (tally segment card) was used for tally with other tally cards in Monte Carlo code MCNP. According to the comparison of segment tally results which were obtained by FS card of three different models of the same geometry, the tally results of fuel regions were found to be wrong in fill pattern. The reason is that the fuel cells were described by Universe card and FILL card, and the filled cells were always considered at Universe card definition place. A proposed solution was that the segment tally for filled cells was done at Universe card definition place. Radial flux distribution of one example was calculated in this way. The results show that the fault of segment tally with FS card in fill pattern could be solved by this method. (authors)

  2. Falling for Clay Leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kernan, Christine

    2002-01-01

    Describes an art project that integrated science and art education. Explains that students create ceramic bowls by using real leaves. Discusses the process of creating the ceramic bowls, including how to glaze the bowls. Includes a list of materials. (CMK)

  3. The fast neutron response of 7LiF thermoluminescent dosemeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knipe, A.D.

    1990-02-01

    A series of experiments was performed in 1982 to determine the neutron energy response of the 7 LiF thermoluminescent dosemeter (TLD) employed in European zero power fast reactor gamma-ray energy deposition studies. Preliminary results of this work were included in a 1985 International experimental data-base of TLD neutron sensitivities and provided the most consistent set of data within the 7 LiF compilation. A more detailed interpretation of these data has improved the results still further, giving a mean relative neutron to gamma efficiency of 0.118±0.005. The main objective of this re-evaluation was to establish recommended neutron energy response values to replace a 1974 data set for the analysis of in-core fast reactor measurements. This was achieved by combining the mean experimental relative efficiency of 0.118 with calculated energy dependent kerma factors. The kerma factors for the TLD were based on US National Bureau of Standards values and a composition determined by chemical analysis. Adoption of the revised neutron energy response data set produces a small increase in the measured gamma-ray energy deposition of typically 2% relative to the 1974 data. However, more importantly, the detailed analysis of the experimental response data has significantly improved confidence in the neutron corrections applied to in-core TLD gamma-ray energy deposition measurements. (author)

  4. Evaluation of the directional dose equivalent H,(0.07) for ring dosemeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez R, J.T.; Tovar M, V.M.

    2006-01-01

    The personnel dosimetry laboratory (LDP) of the Metrology department received an user's of radiation beta application that incidentally had irradiated 14 couples of ring dosemeters for extremities of the type TLD-100 given by the LDP. This sample of 14 couples of rings tentatively it was irradiated in the months of July-August of the year 2004, and he requested in an expedite way the evaluation of the received dose equivalent. The LSCD builds two calibration curves in terms of the directional dose equivalent H'(0.07) using two sources patterns of 90 Sr- 90 Y for beta radiation: one of 74 MBq and another of 1850 MBq with traceability to the PTB. The first curve in the interval of 0 to 5 mSv, the second in the range of 5 to 50 mSv, taking into account effects by positioned of the rings in the phantom. Both calibration curves were validated by adjustment lack, symmetry of residuals and normality of the same ones. It is evaluated and analyzing the H'(0.007) for these 14 couples of rings using the Tukey test of media of a single road. It was found that the H , its could be classified in 4 groups, and that the probability that its has irradiated in a random way it was smaller to the level at α = 0.05. (Author)

  5. Examination of the long-term stability of radiation survey meters and electronic pocket dosemeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chida, K.; Nishimura, Y.; Sato, Y.; Endo, A.; Sakamoto, M.; Hoshi, C.; Zuguchi, M.

    2008-01-01

    To describe the stability of radiation survey meters (RSMs) and electronic pocket dosemeters (EPDs), we examined 28 EPDs and 24 RSMs: 12 used NaI(Tl) scintillation RSMs and 12 used Geiger-Muller (GM) RSMs. We used simple methods for the relative calibration of the 24 RSMs and 28 EPDs. The RSM and EPD measurements were compared with a calibrated RSM and EPD (reference: traceable from the national standard of exposure) using a homemade measurement device to maintain the reproducibility of the measurements with reference radiation sources (i.e. 137 Cs, 90 Sr and 67 Ga). The response of RSMs and EPDs, especially after prolonged use, should be checked periodically. In particular, GMRSMs that have been in use for many years have very low sensitivity and poor reproducibility. Our simple method for the relative calibration of RSMs and EPDs was shown to be effective for quality assurance purposes in checking RSMs and EPDs. We recommend regular checks and calibration for sustained performance of RSMs and EPDs. (authors)

  6. The effect of radiation on bioluminescent bacteria: possible use of luminescent bacteria as a biological dosemeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mantel, J.; Freidin, M.; Perry, H.

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the response of the bioluminescent Photobacterium phosphoreum to radiation, and the possible use of the bacteria as a biological radiation dosemeter, i.e. a water-equivalent biological system that will compare beams not merely on the basis of absorbed dose, but also have intrinsic RBE values for different radiation beams. Samples were irradiated by a 12 MeV electron beam at a dose rate of 3.0 Gy min -1 , by 60 Co gamma rays at 2.85 Gy min -1 , and by 100 kVsub(p) x-rays at a dose rate of 2.13 Gy min -1 . To study dose-rate dependence, the survival fraction was obtained for a 12 MeV electron beam at 0.50 and 12 Gy min -1 for 20.0 Gy. The survival fraction proved to be independent of dose rate in this range. The results presented in this work indicate that by using bioluminescent bacteria, RBE measurements can be markedly simplified and the results interpreted unequivocally. (U.K.)

  7. CHARACTERIZATION OF A THIN SILICON SENSOR FOR ACTIVE NEUTRON PERSONAL DOSEMETERS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, M; Nunomiya, T; Nakamura, T; Matsumoto, T; Masuda, A

    2016-09-01

    A thin silicon sensor has been developed for active neutron personal dosemeters for use by aircrews and first responders. This thin silicon sensor is not affected by the funneling effect, which causes detection of cosmic protons and over-response to cosmic neutrons. There are several advantages to the thin silicon sensor: a decrease in sensitivity to gamma rays, an improvement of the energy detection limit for neutrons down to 0.8 MeV and an increase in the sensitivity to fast neutrons. Neutron response functions were experimentally obtained using 2.5 and 5 MeV monoenergy neutron beams and a (252)Cf neutron source. Simulation results using the Monte Carlo N-Particle transport code agree quite well with the experimental ones when an energy deposition region shaped like a circular truncated cone is used in place of a cylindrical region. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Investigations of the luminescence of phosphate glasses with respect to their application as solid dosemeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regulla, D.F.

    1977-03-01

    A comprehensive presentation of the luminescent properties of phosphate glass is worked out. The extensive investigations show an essential enlargement of the knowledge on the luminescence of phosphate glass existing hitherto. These results form the basis for a detailed discussion of the luminescence mechanism. By applying additional results of measurements concerning optical and paramagnetic absorption, enabling the access to the atomic effect, propositions were developed for models of absorption, excitation and luminous centers relevant for dosimetry for which Ag ++ was found to be the constituent determining the centers. The interpretation of the luminescence phenomena within the frame of these models leads to considerable corrections on the existing concepts. At the same time the comparability of Ag-doped phosphate glasses and alkali halogenides is shown with respect to their luminescence behaviour, and with it an argument for the existence of crystal-like short-order regions in the amorphous glass is provided. This result serves as a basis for a discussion of the centers in the band model. Further investigations dealt with the quantities of influence for the practical application of the dosemeter. By interpretation of these results explanations are given for the effect of irradiation and evaluation temperatures, of LET, the dose, and UV light on the measuring signal. The phenomenon of 'pre-dose', for which especially surface effects have been detected as cause, is discussed under the aspect of a boundary layer theory. (orig./HP) [de

  9. Environmental gamma-ray dose measurements with thermoluminescence dosemeters (TLD) and environmental radiation characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanematsu, Seiko

    1999-01-01

    It is important to evaluate environmental gamma-ray exposure both at work and home in order to assess people's collective dosages. Environmental gamma radiation was measured for air-absorbed dose with a thermoluminescence dosemeter at various points in the workplace and Ningyotoge, and workplace radiation characteristics were analyzed. From the results, the public dose due to gamma rays generated artificially was assessed to be sufficiently lower than the annual limit. For indoor environments of the workplace, the maximum dosage rate among measured values was 97 nGy/h and the minimum value was 70 nGy/h, the average over one year was 83 nGy/h. The average annual outdoor dosage for a year was 82 nGy/ h. In Ningyotoge, the maximum was 103 nGy/h, minimum 60 nGy/h, and average 88 nGy/h. These values depend on the nature of the soil and weather factors, showing higher values in the summer than in the winter in the workplace. There was no significant difference in the dosage rate in houses and the workplace. (author)

  10. Kinetics of light sum collection in solid dosemeters with several trapping levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlasov, V.K.; Tarasov, M.Yu.

    1983-01-01

    On the basis of a stochastic model of filling up the electron-hole capture centres following irradiation, the kinetics of light sum accumulation in crystallophosphors with any number of capture levels has been considered. Using as an example a crystallophosphor with two hole- and two electron capture centres, solution of equations for the kinetics of light sum accumulation in solid dosemeters is presented. It is shown that in the presence of two competing capture centres the filling-up of one of the traps is always described by the function with a bent and superlinear section, whereas the filling-up of the competing trap is described by the function without a bent. The dose-effect functional relationship for competing traps does not depend either on the energetic depth of the trap or absolute values of capture micro cross-sections, but depends solely on relative values of macro- and micro cross-sections for competing traps. The theoretical model has been checked when studying radiothermoluminescence of synthetic quartz. The experimental results are shown to agree well with the model suggested

  11. Measurement of indoor radon Concentrations in Osaka, Nara, Wakayama and Hyogo with passive dosemeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Toshiaki; Hori, Yasuharu; Takeda, Atsuhiko; Iwasaki, Tamiko; Uchiyama, Masahumi; Fujimoto, Kenzo; Kankura, Takako; Kobayashi, Sadayosi.

    1989-01-01

    Indoor radon concentrations of 792 houses in Osaka, Nara, Wakayama and Hyogo were measured by the passive dosemeter which was developed in Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center in West Germany. Each house was measured at two places for successive two periods of six months to obtain annual average exposure due to radon daughters. The arithmetic mean concentration of all houses was 45.2 Bq/m 3 with a standard deviation of 27.2; the geometric mean, 40.7 Bq/m 3 and the median, 39 Bq/m 3 . The distribution of the radon levels was approximately log-normal with 80% of houses having radon concentrations less than 60 Bq/m 3 . The seasonal variation of the mean radon concentration was evident between the former period including winter value of 45 Bq/m 3 and the latter including summer value of 32 Bq/m 3 . The indoor radon concentrations of wooden houses were found to have the widest distribution with the highest value of 371 Bq/m 3 . The highest value obtained in the ferro-concrete house was 118 Bq/m 3 . Twelve houses having indoor radon concentrations higher than 120 Bq/m 3 were all Japanese traditional wooden houses with walls made of soil. (author)

  12. Performance of CVD diamond as an optically and thermally stimulated luminescence dosemeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preciado-Flores, S.; Schreck, M.; Melendrez, R.; Chernov, V.; Bernal, R.; Cruz-Vazquez, C.; Cruz-Zaragoza, E.; Barboza-Flores, M.

    2006-01-01

    Diamond is a material with extreme physical properties. Its radiation hardness, chemical inertness and tissue equivalence qualify it as an ideal material for radiation dosimetry. In the present work, the optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and thermoluminescence (TL) characteristics of a 10 μm thick CVD diamond (polycrystalline diamond films prepared by chemical vapor deposition) film were studied in order to test its performance as a beta radiation dosemeter. The TL response is composed of four main TL glow peaks; two of these are in the range of 150-200 deg. C and two additional peaks in the 250-400 deg. C temperature range. The integrated TL as a function of radiation dose is linear up to 100 Gy and increases with increasing dose exposure. The dose dependence of the integrated OSL exhibits a similar behavior. The observed OSL/TL behavior for the CVD diamond film clearly demonstrate its capability for applications in radiation dosimetry with special relevance in medical dosimetry owing to the diamond's intrinsic material properties. (authors)

  13. On optically stimulated luminescence properties of household salt as a retrospective dosemeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timar-Gabor, A.; Trandafir, O.

    2013-01-01

    Thermoluminescence (TL) and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) in the UV (270-370 nm) spectral region have been investigated for five types of table salt (NaCl) available in Romanian supermarkets with a view to applying them in retrospective dosimetry. The salt samples gave bright TL signals with two main peaks at ∼ 100 deg. C and at 300 or 260 deg. C, depending on the origin of the salt and bright OSL signals under continuous stimulation with blue light. The OSL signal (stimulated at 100 deg. C after a pre-heat of 10 s at 150 deg. C) was used for investigations in a standard multiple aliquot procedure. The dose- response was found to be linear in the dose range investigated (up to ∼ 100 mGy) and the lower limit of detection for the samples varied from ∼ 0.01 to 14 mGy. These characteristics, along with the widespread abundance and low cost of household salt, confirm its potential as a retrospective dosemeter. (authors)

  14. Thermoluminescent and optical processes in alkaline halogenides dosemeters contaminated with Europium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barboza F, M.; Melendrez, R.; Castaneda, B.; Pedroza M, M.; Chernov, V.; Perez S, R.; Aceves, R.

    2000-01-01

    Recent research results are presented about the properties of the optical processes of photo transferred thermoluminescence (TLFT), optical whitening (BO), thermoluminescence induced by light (TLL) and its effect in the thermoluminescent curve (Tl) produced by ionizing and non-ionizing radiation. The systematic analysis of all these processes, acquires a singular importance due that actually the alkaline halogenide crystals are object of intense investigations which analyse their potential applications as detectors and radiation dosemeters through stimulated optical luminescence techniques or thermoluminescence. The obtained data show that the Tl curve of material with this nature can be enormously affected by exposure of phosphorus to the environmental light or UV. This is in part due to liberation processes of charge bearers are shouted and makes a subsequent trapping in less temperature traps; at the same time that induce changes in the intensity of determined Tl bands. Additionally, also it is observed that mentioned phenomena are related as with wavelength of incident light as of the illumination time. Finally, the obtained information allows to conclude that although the illumination effect is extremely complex, it is associated and can be explained mainly with phenomena that implicate the electrons excitation trapped in form of F centers and trapping mechanisms or radioactive and non-radioactive recombination. (Author)

  15. Assessment of diagnostic multileaf collimator for cephalometric exposure reduction using optically stimulated luminescent dosemeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Su Chul; Kim, Kum Bae; Jung, Haijo; Ji, YoungHoon; Park, Seungwoo

    2017-01-01

    A diagnostic multileaf collimator (MLC) was developed for diagnostic radiography dose reduction. Optically stimulated luminescent dosemeters (OSLDs) were used to evaluate the efficacy of this device for dental radiography cephalometric exposure reduction. The OSLD dosimetric characteristics for 80 kVp cephalometric exposure were first obtained. The batch homogeneity and reproducibility were 1.67 % and 0.18-1.58, respectively. Good linearity was obtained between the OSLD dose and response, and the angular dependence was within ±4 %. The equivalent organ doses for the left eye, right eye and thyroid were 41.20±6.58, 178.86±1.71 and 171.12±8.78 mSv and 36.80±0.33, 156.63±0.22 and 22.04±0.13 mSv for the open and MLC fields, respectively. The MLC-induced dose reductions for the left and right eyes of in field were 10.67±16.78 and 12.42±8.84 %, respectively, and that of the thyroid gland of out of field was 87±8.82 %, considering combined uncertainty. Therefore, use of diagnostic MLC for dose reduction during dental radiography cephalometric exposure is both feasible and effective. (authors)

  16. GENERALISATION OF RADIATOR DESIGN TECHNIQUES FOR PERSONAL NEUTRON DOSEMETERS BY UNFOLDING METHOD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, K; Nakayama, T; Umetani, K; Kajihara, M; Yamauchi, T

    2016-09-01

    A novel technique for designing a radiator suitable for personal neutron dosemeter based on plastic track detector was discussed. A multi-layer structure has been proposed in the previous report, where the thicknesses of plural polyethylene (PE) layers and insensitive ones were determined by iterative calculations of double integral. In order to arrange this procedure and make it more systematic, unfolding calculation has been employed to estimate an ideal radiator containing an arbitrary hydrogen concentration. In the second step, realistic materials replaced it with consideration of minimisation of the layer number and commercial availability. A radiator consisting of three layers of PE, Upilex and Kapton sheets was finally designed, for which a deviation in the energy dependence between 0.1 and 20 MeV could be controlled within 18 %. An applicability of fluorescent nuclear track detector element has also been discussed. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Thermoluminescent dosemeters for determining the energy absorbed during X-ray radiography of the vertebral column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liebl, R.

    1983-01-01

    The dose and absorbed energy during normal diagnostic X-ray of various sections of the vertebral column were determined with LiF-dosemeters in a phantom. The paper describes a method to be used to determine integral doses from the dose measurements. The energy absorbed for one X-ray picture of the vertebral column is between 5 and 30 mJ. Compared to other diagnostical X-rays the quantity of the energy absorbed during X-ray of the vertebral column is rather high and is only reached by X-rays in the pelvic region. The speculations on the rate of incidence of malignent neoplasms on the basis of diagnostical X-ray of the vertebral column reveal a value of 50 per 60 x 10 6 persons. This value is likely to overestimate the risk, seems, however, to be low in comparison to other risks of every day life (traffic accident, mountainering, etc). (orig./HP) [de

  18. Patient health record on a smart card.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naszlady, A; Naszlady, J

    1998-02-01

    A validated health questionnaire has been used for the documentation of a patient's history (826 items) and of the findings from physical examination (591 items) in our clinical ward for 25 years. This computerized patient record has been completed in EUCLIDES code (CEN TC/251) for laboratory tests and an ATC and EAN code listing for the names of the drugs permanently required by the patient. In addition, emergency data were also included on an EEPROM chipcard with a 24 kb capacity. The program is written in FOX-PRO language. A group of 5000 chronically ill in-patients received these cards which contain their health data. For security reasons the contents of the smart card is only accessible by a doctor's PIN coded key card. The personalization of each card was carried out in our health center and the depersonalized alphanumeric data were collected for further statistical evaluation. This information served as a basis for a real need assessment of health care and for the calculation of its cost. Code-combined with an optical card, a completely paperless electronic patient record system has been developed containing all three information carriers in medicine: Texts, Curves and Pictures.

  19. Maternity Leave Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strang, Lucy; Broeks, Miriam

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Over recent years many European Union countries have made changes to the design of the maternity leave provision. These policy developments reflect calls for greater gender equality in the workforce and more equal share of childcare responsibilities. However, while research shows that long period of leave can have negative effects on women's labour market attachment and career advancements, early return to work can be seen as a factor preventing exclusive breastfeeding, and therefore, potentially having negative health impacts for babies. Indeed, the World Health Organisation recommends exclusive breastfeeding up to 6 months of age to provide babies with the nutrition for healthy growth and brain development, protection from life-threatening ailments, obesity and non-communicable diseases such as asthma and diabetes. Therefore, labour market demands on women may be at odds with the health benefits for children gained by longer periods of maternity leave. The aim of this article is to examine the relationship between leave provision and health benefits for children. We examine maternity and parental leave provision across European countries and its potential impact on the breastfeeding of very young babies (up to 6-months of age). We also consider economic factors of potential extension of maternity leave provision to 6 months, such as costs to businesses, effects on the female labour market attachment, and wider consequences (benefits and costs) for individuals, families, employers and the wider society. PMID:28983432

  20. Neural fraud detection in credit card operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorronsoro, J R; Ginel, F; Sgnchez, C; Cruz, C S

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents an online system for fraud detection of credit card operations based on a neural classifier. Since it is installed in a transactional hub for operation distribution, and not on a card-issuing institution, it acts solely on the information of the operation to be rated and of its immediate previous history, and not on historic databases of past cardholder activities. Among the main characteristics of credit card traffic are the great imbalance between proper and fraudulent operations, and a great degree of mixing between both. To ensure proper model construction, a nonlinear version of Fisher's discriminant analysis, which adequately separates a good proportion of fraudulent operations away from other closer to normal traffic, has been used. The system is fully operational and currently handles more than 12 million operations per year with very satisfactory results.

  1. Data card system for filmless radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siedband, M.P.

    1987-01-01

    Data cards using the sample principles as music compact discs can store 4 MB of digital data. This is sufficient for 4 uncompressed radiographic images or 16 images with 4:1 average compression. Radiograph memory screens (stimulable phosphors) can be scanned at 1023 lines to provide the input signals. A filmless radiographic x-ray system is described which uses digital data cards of the size of common credit cards. These can be used in the same way as films are now used: placed in patient folders, copied, mailed, seen on view boxes, etc. The techniques of data acquisition, processing, compression, storage and display are described. The advantages of the system are explained in terms of economies, elimination of film (chemicals and processing), and compatibility with other data transmission methods. Suggestions are made for standardization of data storage and control so that this method may be used for other medical imaging applications, such as CT and ultrasound

  2. CRC-cards for Product Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvam, Lars; Riis, Jesper; Hansen, Benjamin Loer

    2003-01-01

    , transportation, service and decommissioning. A main challenge when building product models is to collect and document the product related data, information and knowledge in a structured way. CRC cards are index cards (or computerized versions of these) which are used to record proposed classes, the behavior......This paper describes the CRC (class, responsibility, collaboration) modelling process for building product models. A product model is normally represented in an IT system which contains data, information and knowledge on industrial products and their life cycle properties e.g. manufacturing...... of the classes, their responsibilities, and their relationship to other classes (collaboration). CRC modelling gives an effective, low-tech method for domain-experts, programmers and users to work closely together to identify, structure, understand and document a product model. CRC cards were originally...

  3. Authoring of digital games via card games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valente, Andrea; Marchetti, Emanuela

    2014-01-01

    Literature and previous studies show that creative play is easy to emerge when children interact with tangible, low-tech toys and games than with digital games. This paradoxical situation is linked to the long-standing problem of end-users (or players) authoring of digital contents and systems. We...... are to show how card games can represent digital games, how playful play can emerge in card games and digital games, and to begin defining a new way to express game behavior without the use of universal programming languages....... propose a new scenario in which trading card games help making sense and re-design computer games, to support players express themselves aesthetically and in a highly creative way. Our aim is to look for a middle ground between players becoming programmers and simply editing levels. The main contributions...

  4. Early clinical experience with CardioCard - a credit card-sized electronic patient record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernheim, Alain M; Schaer, Beat A; Kaufmann, Christoph; Brunner-La Rocca, Hanspeter; Moulay-Lakhdar, Nadir; Buser, Peter T; Pfisterer, Matthias E; Osswald, Stefan

    2006-08-19

    CardioCard is a CDROM of credit card size containing medical information on cardiac patients. Patient data acquired during hospital stay are stored in PDF format and secured by a password known to patients only. In a consecutive series of patients, we assessed acceptance and utility of this new information medium. A questionnaire was sent to all patients who had received CardioCard over a one-year period. The questionnaire was returned by 392 patients (73%). 44% of patients had the card with them all the time. The majority of patients (73%) considered the CardioCard useful (8% not useful, 19% no statement) and most (78%) would even agree to bear additional costs. Only 5% worried about data security. In contrast, 44% would be concerned of data transmission via internet. During an observation period of 6 (SD 3) months, data were accessed by 27% of patients and 12% of their physicians. The proportion of card users was lower among older patients: 70 y, 16% and particularly among older women: 61.70 y, 9%; >70 y, 5%. Technical problems during data access occurred in 34%, mostly due to incorrect handling. A majority of patients considered CardioCard as useful and safe. Lack of hardware equipment or insufficient computer knowledge, but not safety issues were the most important limitations. As patients expressed concerns regarding protection of privacy if data were accessible via internet, this would remain a strong limiting factor for online use.

  5. UTILIZAÇÃO DE JAVA CARD COMO PLATAFORMA PARA O DESENVOLVIMENTO DE APLICAÇÕES EM SMART CARD.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Plis Dolce

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available With the growth of Java Card technology and the increased use of smart cards in the market, demand for the development of applications that run on the cards has risen. These applications need to offerbesides portability, convenience and safety, service quality and high availability for users. This article examines the main concepts of Smart Card technology and use these to develop small applicationsusing the Java Card focusing on the use for control systems where the card would serve as a repository of some data and query tool for larger systems.

  6. FBCT fast intensity measurement using TRIC cards

    CERN Document Server

    Allica, J C; Belohrad, D; Jensen, L; Lenardon, F; SØby, L

    2015-01-01

    At the CERN PS complex, precise fast intensity measurements are very important in order to optimize the transfer efficiencies between the different accelerators. Over the last two years a complete renovation has been ongoing, where the old electronics, based on analogue integrators, have been replaced by a fully digital system enclosed in a single VME based card. This new system called TRIC (Transformer Integration Card) is based on a 12 bit, 212 MS/s ADC and an FPGA for the signal processing. Also located on the same board one finds a 250 V/1.5 W DCDC converter used to generate precise calibration pulses.

  7. Card controlled beta backscatter thickness measuring instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlesinger, J.

    1978-01-01

    An improved beta backscatter instrument for the nondestructive measurement of the thickness of thin coatings on a substrate is described. Included therein is the utilization of a bank of memory stored data representative of isotope, substrate, coating material and thickness range characteristics in association with a control card having predetermined indicia thereon selectively representative of a particular isotope, substrate material, coating material and thickness range for conditioning electronic circuit means by memory stored data selected in accord with the predetermined indicia on a control card for converting backscattered beta particle counts into indicia of coating thickness

  8. Utilization of thermoluminescent dosemeters for determination of exposure or absorbed dose in a radiation gamma or X radiation field with unknown spectral distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosa, L.A.R. da.

    1981-06-01

    Having in view the choice of the best pair of dosemeters to be used in the 'Tandem' method, the main response characteristics of LiF:Mg, Ti, Li 2 B 4 O 7 :Mn, CaSO 4 Dy, CaF 2 :Mn and CaF 2 :Dy thermoluminescent dosemeters and also some critical parameters in their calibration and evaluation processes were studied. Three different physical forms of TLD's were investigated: hot pressed chips, disc teflon dosemeters and glass mini TLD's. Their calibration factors were obtained for the energy of Cobalt-60 gamma rays. Their energy dependences normalized to 60 Co radiation were determined using spectral width as parameter. 'Tandens' formed by all TLD's evaluated were compaired. (E.G.) [pt

  9. Effect of the energy dependence of response of neutron personal dosemeters routinely used in the UK on the accuracy of dose estimation

    CERN Document Server

    Tanner, R J; Thomas, D J

    2002-01-01

    A large set of neutron energy distributions have been classified by workplace to provide a guide to the neutron fields to which workers in particular industries are likely to be exposed. These have been combined (folded) with the results of a major programme of neutron personal dosemeter response function measurements, to provide results for the systematic errors that those dosemeters would give in workplaces. Data for neutron doses recorded for UK classified workers have been taken from the CIDI tables, and related to the results from the folding process. It has hence been possible to draw conclusions about the probable systematic errors that result from the use of the currently available neutron personal dosemeters, which have inherent problems associated with their energy dependence of response.

  10. Effect of the energy dependence of response of neutron personal dosemeters routinely used in the UK on the accuracy of dose estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanner, R.J.; Thomas, D.J.; Bartlett, D.T.

    2002-01-01

    A large set of neutron energy distributions have been classified by workplace to provide a guide to the neutron fields to which workers in particular industries are likely to be exposed. These have been combined (folded) with the results of a major programme of neutron personal dosemeter response function measurements, to provide results for the systematic errors that those dosemeters would give in workplaces. Data for neutron doses recorded for UK classified workers have been taken from the CIDI tables, and related to the results from the folding process. It has hence been possible to draw conclusions about the probable systematic errors that result from the use of the currently available neutron personal dosemeters, which have inherent problems associated with their energy dependence of response. (author)

  11. RENEWAL OF CRIMINAL LAW AGAINST ABUSE OF CREDIT CARDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eka Nugraha

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The use of credit cards for payment in lieu of cash since the introduction of the first credit card ever more widely known and used by people.   On the early introduction of this credit card, the wearer is limited to certain circles. However, a few decades later the credit card industry primarily enter the end of the Decade of the 1970s, has penetrated almost throughout all parts of the world, including Indonesia.   A credit card is issued by most commonly used by the public and apply the current International consists of a range of brands, among others, a very popular one is Visa and Master Card are each issued by the credit card company international and Master Card International.In practice many found the works in banking that may be subject to sanctions as set forth in the book of the law of criminal law (Criminal Code.

  12. Barber's Point, Oahu, Hawaii Drift Card Study 2002-2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Drift cards were be released from Barber's Point, Oahu, approximately once a month during the two year span to get an idea of the distribution of card drift under...

  13. Increasing Opportunities for Student Responding: Response Cards in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helf, Shawnna

    2015-01-01

    Response cards are designed to encourage active student engagement during instruction. In this article, the use of response cards is described, along with ways teachers can use the information to inform their work and considerations for implementation.

  14. Credit and Debit Card Usage and Cash Flow Management Control ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    First Lady

    2012-10-27

    Oct 27, 2012 ... Simiyu, Justo Simiyu - Department of Business Management, Chuka. University College ... Key words: Debit cards, credit cards, commercial banks, Kenya. Introduction ..... saving at once convenience without proper planning.

  15. Puppet Visual Adaptation on Playing Cards as Educational Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joko Wiyoso

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at presenting an effective media in a form of puppet picture playing cards as a means to introduce traditional puppet to the society. Research and Development (R&D was chosen as the method to develop the playing cards. Results were presented in a form of the design of puppet picture playing cards as many as 54 cards as well as 54 puppet characters as the background pictures. The design of the playing cards is adjusted to the common playing cards which are distributed widely in the society, including both the sizes and symbols, like the pictures of spade, heart, diamond, and club. In detail, the design comprises: (1 the size of playing cards which is 6 cm width of the upper and lower sides and 9 cm length for the left and right sides. (2 The playing cards’ background is in a bright color so does the puppet picture on the card can be seen clearly.

  16. Calibration of PADC-based neutron area dosemeters in the neutron field produced in the treatment room of a medical LINAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bedogni, R.; Domingo, C.; Esposito, A.; Gentile, A.; García-Fusté, M.J.; San-Pedro, M. de; Tana, L.; D’Errico, F.; Ciolini, R.; Di Fulvio, A.

    2013-01-01

    PADC-based nuclear track detectors have been widely used as convenient ambient dosemeters in many working places. However, due to the large energy dependence of their response in terms of ambient dose equivalent (H ∗ (10)) and to the diversity of workplace fields in terms of energy distribution, the appropriate calibration of these dosemeters is a delicate task. These are among the reasons why ISO has introduced the 12789 Series of Standards, where the simulated workplace neutron fields are introduced and their use to calibrate neutron dosemeters is recommended. This approach was applied in the present work to the UAB PADC-based nuclear track detectors. As a suitable workplace, the treatment room of a 15 MV Varian CLINAC DHX medical accelerator, located in the Ospedale S. Chiara (Pisa), was chosen. Here the neutron spectra in two points of tests (1.5 m and 2 m from the isocenter) were determined with the INFN-LNF Bonner Sphere Spectrometer equipped with Dysprosium activation foils (Dy-BSS), and the values of H ∗ (10) were derived on this basis. The PADC dosemeters were exposed in these points. Their workplace specific H*(10) responses were determined and compared with those previously obtained in different simulated workplace or reference (ISO 8529) neutron fields. - Highlights: ► The neutron field of a medical LINAC was used to calibrate PADC neutron dosemeters. ► The neutron spectra were derived with a Dy-foil based Bonner Sphere Spectrometer. ► Workplace specific calibration factor were derived for the PADC dosemeters. ► These factors were compared with those obtained in reference neutron fields

  17. Operational comparison of TLD albedo dosemeters and etched-track detectors in the PuO2-UO2 mixed oxide fuel fabrication facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsujimura, N.; Takada, C.; Yoshida, T.; Momose, T.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: The authors carried out an operational study that compared the use of TLD albedo dosemeters with etched-track detector in plutonium environments of Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute, Tokai Works. A selected group of workers engaged in the fabrication process of MOX (PuO 2 -UO 2 mixed oxide) fuel wore both TLD albedo dosemeters and etched-track detectors over a period from 1991 to 1993. The TLD albedo dosemeter is the Panasonic model UD-809P and the etched-track detector is the NEUTRAK (polyallyl diglycol carbonate + 1mm-t polyethylene radiator) commercially available from Nagase-Landauer Ltd. Both dosemeters were issued and read monthly. It was found that the TL readings were generally proportional to the counted etch-pits, and thus the dose equivalent results obtained from TLD albedo dosemeter agreed with those from etched-track detector within a factor of 1.5. This result indicates that, in the workplaces of the MOX plants, the neutron spectrum remained almost constant in terms of time and space, and the appropriate range of field-specific correction with spectrum variations could be small in albedo dosimetry. In addition, the calibrations of both dosemeters in the workplaces and in a bare and moderated 252 Cf calibration field were performed for quantitative validation for the results from the operational comparison. In the former experiments, locations were selected that were representative of typical neutron measurements according to the prior neutron spectra measurements with the multi-sphere spectrometer. In the latter experiments, the workplace environments were simulated by using a 252 Cf source surrounded with cylindrical steel/PMMA moderators. From both experiments, the relationship between TL readings and counted etch-pits with neutron spectrum variation was determined. As expected, the relationship obtained from the simulated workplace field calibration reproduced that from the operational comparison. (author)

  18. TRAVEL AND HOME LEAVE

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2002-01-01

    Administrative procedures for : Travel to the home station and home leave (hl) Additional travel to the home station (at) Travel to the home station and home leave for family reasons (hlf) As part of the process of simplifying administrative procedures, HR and AS Divisions have devised a new, virtually automatic procedure for payment of travel expenses to the home station. The changes are aimed at rationalising administrative procedures and not at reducing benefits. The conditions of eligibility are unchanged. The new procedure, which will be operational with effect from 1st June 2002, will greatly simplify the administrative processing of claims for travel expenses and the recording of home leaves. Currently, requests for payment are introduced manually into the Advances and Claims system (AVCL) by divisional secretariats. All travel to the home station starting prior to 1st June 2002 will be processed according to the existing system whereas that starting on 1st June and after will be processed accordi...

  19. Sample Development on Java Smart-Card Electronic Wallet Application

    OpenAIRE

    Toma Cristian

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, are highlighted concepts as: complete Java card application, life cycle of an applet, and a practical electronic wallet sample implemented in Java card technology. As a practical approach it would be interesting building applets for ID, Driving License, Health-Insurance smart cards, for encrypt and digitally sign documents, for E-Commerce and for accessing critical resources in government and military field. The end of this article it is presented a java card electronic wallet ...

  20. Application of smart cards in physical and information security systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreifus, H.N.

    1988-01-01

    Smart Cards, integrated circuits embedded into credit cards, have been proposed for many computer and physical security applications. The cards have shown promise in improving both the security and monitoring of systems ranging from computer network identification through physical protection and access control. With the increasing computational power embedded within these cards, advanced encryption techniques such as public key cryptography can now be realized, enabling more sophisticated uses

  1. Studi Perkembangan Pasar Smart Card Indonesia Pada Sektor Perbankan

    OpenAIRE

    Onny Rafizan

    2017-01-01

    Smart card merupakan salah satu teknologi yang sudah banyak digunakan di Indonesia di berbagai sektor. Dari sisi teknologi, industri dalam negeri sebenarnya sudah mampu memproduksi smart card, sehingga industri ini sangat potensial untuk dikembangkan menuju kemandirian. Penelitian ini dilakukan sebagai bagian dalam USAha pemerintah untuk mendorong perkembangan industri smart card dalam negeri, dengan tujuan memberikan gambaran kondisi pasar smart card di Indonesia saat ini. Pengumpulan data p...

  2. Smart Card sebagai Pengaman Sepeda Motor Berbasis Mikrokontroler

    OpenAIRE

    Yohanes Chrisostomus Purba; Antonius Wibowo

    2010-01-01

    Pengaman sepeda motor yang berbentuk smart card terdiri dari bagian yang memuat chip EEPROM dan bagian pengaman smart card. Pembacaan smart card didesain dan ditempatkan pada sepeda motor. Untuk pembacaan data chip SLE 4442, dan pembacaan data pengaman smart card digunakan mikrokontroler AT89S51. Untuk pengaturan aktif maupun tidak aktifnya CDI, dan starter juga digunakan mikrokontroler AT89S51. Sistem pengaman sepeda motor akan menjadi aktif bila sepeda motor dalam keadaan mati. Smart car...

  3. Dosimetric studies of the eye lens using a new dosemeter – Surveys in interventional radiology departments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirchio, R.; Sánchez, H.; Domazet, W.

    2014-01-01

    During interventional radiology (IR) and cardiology (IC) procedures, medical staff can receive high doses to their eye lenses. The Retrospective Evaluation of Lens Injuries and Dose study organized in Argentina in 2010 found incipient opacity in 50% of IC physicians and 41% of IC technicians/nurses. These results, added to the recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection, which lowered their former occupational equivalent dose limit for the lens, led us to assess the eye lens dose, Hp(3), during interventional procedures. To this end, a new dosemeter was designed and calibrated at the National Atomic Energy Commission of Argentina to evaluate Hp(3). Personal dose equivalent (Hp(10)), and Hp(3) were assessed for 3 months in two IC and IR departments. An Alderson phantom was used to simulate monthly exposures of five occupational staff members. Hp(3) and Hp(10) were obtained monthly for 14 occupational staff members exposed to 121 IR and IC procedures. We concluded that the annual effective dose and Hp(3) were lower than 0.3 and 10 mSv, respectively and the average cumulative Hp(3) for working life was lower than 400 and 200 mSv for physicians and technicians/scrub nurse, respectively. An occupational annual dose constraint of 0.3 mSv was calculated. - Highlights: • An eye lens dosimeters was designed at the Personal Dosimetry Laboratory of CNEA. • A successful dosimetric survey in two interventional departments was done. • The annual effective dose and the annual eye lens dose are lower than the ICRP dose thresholds. • In order to reduce doses actions should be promoted to maximize radiation protection

  4. Fiber-optic-coupled dosemeter for remote optical sensing of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Justus, B.L.; Huston, A.L.

    1996-01-01

    Remote sensing technologies for the detection and measurement of ionizing radiation exposure are of current interest for applications such as patient dose verification during radiotherapy and the monitoring of environmental contaminants. Fiberoptic-based sensing is attractive due to the advantages of small size, low cost, long life and freedom from electromagnetic interference. Several fiberoptic-based radiation sensing systems have been described that utilize radiation induced changes in the optical characteristics of the fiber such as reduced transmission as a result of darkening of the glass, optical phase shifts due to heating, or changes in the birefringence of a polarization-maintaining fiber. The measurement of radiation induced darkening is limited in both sensitivity and dynamic range and requires long fiber lengths. Phase shift measurements require the use of single-mode lasers, phase sensitive interferometric detection, long fiber lengths and complex signal processing techniques. Alternatively, thermoluminescent (TL) phosphor powders have been coated onto fiberoptic cables and remote dosimetry measurements performed using traditional laser heating techniques. The sensitivity is limited by the requirement for a very thin layer of phosphor material, due to problems associated with light scattering and efficient heating by thermal diffusion. In this paper we report the development of an all-optical, fiber-optic-coupled, thermoluminescence dosemeter for remote radiation sensing that offers significant advantages compared to previous technologies. We recently reported the development of an optically transparent, TL glass material having exceptionally good characteristics for traditional dosimetry applications. We also reported a modified TL glass incorporating a rare earth ion dopant in order to absorb light from a semiconductor laser and utilize the absorbed light energy to internally heat the glass and release the trapped electrons. (author)

  5. Practical low dose limits for passive personal dosemeters and the implications for uncertainties close to the limit of detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilvin, P. J.; Perks, C. A.

    2011-01-01

    Recent years have seen the increasing use of passive dosemeters that have high sensitivities and, in laboratory conditions, detection limits of <10 μSv. However, in real operational use the detection limits will be markedly higher, because a large fraction of the accrued dose will be due to natural background, and this must be subtracted in order to obtain the desired occupational dose. No matter how well known the natural background is, the measurement uncertainty on doses of a few tens of microsieverts will be large. Individual monitoring services need to recognise this and manage the expectations of their clients by providing sufficient information. (authors)

  6. Obtention of thermoluminescent efficiencies by means of irradiation of TLD-100 dosemeters with proton beams helium and carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avila, O.; Rodriguez V, M.; Aviles, P.; Gamboa de Buen, I.; Buenfil, A.E.; Ruiz T, C.; Brandan, M.E.

    2002-01-01

    In this work, the advances of a serial of measurements of relative efficiency thermoluminescent of heavy charged particles (PCP) with respect to gamma radiation for TLD-100, dosemeters of LiF: Mg,Ti manufactured by the Harshaw-Bicron company are reported. The PCP are essentials in the implementation of dosimetry associated with medical applications. The measurements before gamma radiation were carrying out using the Vickrad irradiator of the National Institute of Nuclear Research at dose of 1.663 Gy. The measures which are reported about protons, helium and carbon were realized using the Pelletron accelerator of the Physics Institute of the UNAM. (Author)

  7. Development of quality assurance procedures for thermoluminescent CaSO sub 4 :Dy-teflon skived tape dosemeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagpal, J.S.; Popli, K.L.; Kher, R.K.; Varadharajan, G. (Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India). Div. of Radiological Protection)

    1992-01-01

    CaSO{sub 4}:Dy-Teflon TLD dosemeter material has been manufactured locally in a 0.4 mm thick continuous tape form. Fourteen batches have been examined for physical thickness, density, spectral transmission, diffuse optical density, beta transmission and TL output per unit area for evolving a procedure for quality assurance of the TLD element for large scale production. With the exception of two batches, the TL output per unit area of the tape for a number of batches lies within {+-}7% of that for a standard batch. (author).

  8. Determination of kinetic parameters in Tl dosemeters of LiF: Mg, Cu, P + PTFE developed in the ININ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basurto G, B.S.

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this work, is the one of determining the kinetic parameters of the dosemeter of LiF: Mg, Cu, P + Ptfe; starting from the curves Tl obtained at being irradiated with alpha radiation (α), beta (β) and gamma (γ). As like to compare its sensitivity with each radiation type, considering the sensitivity of the TLD-100 as the unit. In the Chapter 1, the fundamental structure of the matter is described, making emphasis in the different radiation types, and their interaction with this. In the Chapter 2, the units are described but used in the dosimetry of the radiation. In the Chapter 3, the basic concepts of the phenomenon of Tl are described and those are explained characteristic of the deconvolution method to determine the kinetics of the one phenomenon. In the Chapter 4, the methodology is detailed that was used in the elaboration of this thesis work, describing the material Tl that were considered like reference, as well as the sources of ionizing radiation, with those that the dosemeters were irradiated and the equipment in the one that the curves Tl was obtained. Reference is made to the software used to carry out the deconvolution of the curves Tl that were obtained in the one experimental development. In the Chapter 5, the obtained results of this study are presented, showing the tables of homogenization of dosemeters and the reading of the same one; they are observed the curves Tl obtained to different radiation doses (alpha, beta and gamma), the intensity Tl in function of the dose. Also they are tabulated, the obtained results in the kinetic parameters of the three different study materials (TLD-100H, USA; TLD-100, USA and LiF: Mg, Cu, P + Ptfe developed in the l.N.l.N). They are analyzed shortly for each material Tl their sensitivity to the ionizing radiation as well as their kinetic parameters. The obtained results showed that the Tl dosemeters of LiF: Mg,Cu,P + Ptfe, they presented a bigger sensitivity that the TLD-100 when being

  9. Responses of commercially available neutron electronic personal dosemeters in neutron fields simulating workplaces at MOX fuel fabrication facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsujimura, N.; Yoshida, T.; Takada, C.

    2011-01-01

    The authors investigated the performance of three commercially available electronic personal dosemeters (EPDs) in evaluating neutron dose equivalents and discussed their suitability to work environments in MOX fuel fabrication facilities. The EPDs selected for this study were NRY21 (Fuji Electric Systems), PDM-313 (Aloka) and DMC 2000 GN (MGP Instruments). All tests were conducted in moderated 252 Cf neutron fields with neutron spectral and dosimetric characteristics similar to those found in MOX fuel facilities. The test results revealed trends and the magnitude of response variations in relation to neutron spectral changes expected in work environments.

  10. 75 FR 55392 - Employment Network Report Card

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-10

    ... SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION [Docket No. SSA-2010-0046] Employment Network Report Card AGENCY: Social Security Administration (SSA). ACTION: Notice of Webinar and National Teleconference Call listening sessions--announcing two opportunities for SSA to hear public comments on Employment Network...

  11. Looking at Debit and Credit Card Fraud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porkess, Roger; Mason, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    This article, written jointly by a mathematician and a barrister, looks at some of the statistical issues raised by court cases based on fraud involving chip and PIN cards. It provides examples and insights that statistics teachers should find helpful. (Contains 4 tables and 1 figure.)

  12. Artist Trading Cards: Connecting with Other Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovio, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    Creating and exchanging Artist Trading Cards (ATCs) has been a rapidly growing trend. These miniature works of art are fun to make--and even more fun to share. The intrigue of developing these handmade treasures begins with the intent of creating art simply for the love of art. In this article, the author describes how her students made their…

  13. Melting Metal on a Playing Card

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    2016-01-01

    Many of us are familiar with the demonstration of boiling water in a paper cup held over a candle or a Bunsen burner; the ignition temperature of paper is above the temperature of 100°C at which water boils under standard conditions. A more dramatic demonstration is melting tin held in a playing card. This illustration is from Tissandier's book on…

  14. Integration through a Card-Sort Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Kris; Ricca, Bernard P.

    2015-01-01

    Learning to compute integrals via the various techniques of integration (e.g., integration by parts, partial fractions, etc.) is difficult for many students. Here, we look at how students in a college level Calculus II course develop the ability to categorize integrals and the difficulties they encounter using a card sort-resort activity. Analysis…

  15. Tumores cardíacos primarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Eugenia Díaz Garriga

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: los tumores cardíacos primarios son aquellos que se originan en Miocardio o Pericardio. El 90% son benignos, no son invasivos, pero debido a su localización pueden provocar alteraciones hemodinámicas graves y arrítmias. Presentación del caso: dos casos portadores de tumores cardíacos diagnosticados en la etapa prenatal, una gestante de 32 años, portadora de una Neurofribromatosis que en la ecocardiografía fetal de su hijo, se identifican dos tipos de tumores cardíacos, un mixoma auricular y un fibroma, y un niño que desde la etapa prenatal se diagnosticó un rabdomioma, lo cual se confirmó al nacimiento y que regresó espontáneamente. Conclusiones: a ecocardiografía fetal permite cada vez con más frecuencia, el diagnóstico intraútero de tumores cardíacos. Los rabdomiomas regresan en más del 50% de los casos, pero pueden ser un marcador de Esclerosis Tuberosa. Los tumores cardiacos se asocian a otras afecciones congénitas y requieren de tratamiento quirúrgico. Aspectos todos a tener en consideración para realizar el asesoramiento genético a la familia.

  16. Optical security features for plastic card documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossick Schott, Joachim

    1998-04-01

    Print-on-demand is currently a major trend in the production of paper based documents. This fully digital production philosophy will likely have ramifications also for the secure identification document market. Here, plastic cards increasingly replace traditionally paper based security sensitive documents such as drivers licenses and passports. The information content of plastic cards can be made highly secure by using chip cards. However, printed and other optical security features will continue to play an important role, both for machine readable and visual inspection. Therefore, on-demand high resolution print technologies, laser engraving, luminescent pigments and laminated features such as holograms, kinegrams or phase gratings will have to be considered for the production of secure identification documents. Very important are also basic optical, surface and material durability properties of the laminates as well as the strength and nature of the adhesion between the layers. This presentation will address some of the specific problems encountered when optical security features such as high resolution printing and laser engraving are to be integrated in the on-demand production of secure plastic card identification documents.

  17. Insuficiencia cardíaca y diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Thierer

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available La prevalencia de la insuficiencia cardíaca y la diabetes continúa creciendo. Ambas están fuertemente asociadas. La diabetes es un fuerte predictor de aparición de insuficiencia cardíaca. Las razones son la presencia de enfermedad coronaria y los trastornos metabólicos vinculados con la resistencia a la insulina que generan disfunción contráctil. Los pacientes con insuficiencia cardíaca que son diabéticos tienen peor evolución. Los Betabloqueantes, vasodilatadores y los inhibidores de la enzima convertidora ejercen una influencia favorable, en tanto que el uso de glitazonas todavía es controversial. La insuficiencia cardíaca puede a su vez generar diabetes, debido a la activación del sistema nervioso simpático y al efecto del tratamiento. La comprensión adecuada de estos hechos es fundamental para tomar decisiones correctas y mejorar la suerte de los pacientes.

  18. INTERFACE ELECTRONIC MEDICAL CARD ON MOBILE DEVICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. L. Nechyporenko

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The concept designed by electronic medical card for heterogeneous environment of medical information systems at various levels. Appropriate model and technical solution. Done evaluating operating systems for mobile devices. Designed and produced by the project mobile application on Android OS as an electronic medical record on a Tablet PC Acer.

  19. One ID Card for the Entire Campus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridenour, David P.; Ferguson, Linda M.

    1986-01-01

    The implementation by Indiana State University of a machine-readable photo ID system for their food services prompted an investigation into the available alternatives and requirements for a more efficient all-University ID card system. The new ID system is described. (AUTHOR/MLW)

  20. FT 3 Flight Test Cards for Export

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marston, Michael L.

    2015-01-01

    These flight test cards will be made available to stakeholders who participated in FT3. NASA entered into the relationship with our stakeholders, including the FAA, to develop requirements that will lead to routine flights of unmanned aircraft systems flying in the national airspace system.

  1. Design and validation of a single sphere multi-detector neutron spectrometer based on LiF: Mg,Cu,P thermoluminescent dosemeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez-Ros, Jose Maria; Bedogni, Roberto; Moraleda, Montserrat; Romero, Ana; Delgado, Antonio; Esposito, Adolfo

    2010-01-01

    This communication describes a new neutron spectrometer consisting of pairs of 7 Li and 6 Li based thermoluminescent dosemeters (MCP-6, MCP-7) located at selected positions within a single moderating polyethylene sphere. The spatial arrangement of the dosemeters has been designed using the MCNPX Monte Carlo code to calculate the response matrix in order to obtain a nearly isotropic response for neutrons in the energy range up to 20 MeV. A partial validation of the calculated response matrix has been performed with the calibrated 241 Am-Be neutron source at the INFN-LNF Laboratory, using the shadow cone technique.

  2. Optical fibre dosemeter systems for clinical applications based on radioluminescence and optically stimulated luminescence from Al2O3:C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marckmann, C.J.; Andersen, C.E.; Aznar, M.C.

    2006-01-01

    Optical fibre dosemeter systems based on radioluminescence and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) from carbon-doped aluminium oxide (Al2O3:C) crystals were developed for in vivo real-time dose rate and absorbed dose measurements in radiotherapy and mammography. A technique was also developed...... for making ultra-small dosemeter probes that can easily be placed inside patients in radiation treatment. These probes have shown excellent properties in both head and neck intensity-modulated radiation therapy treatment and in mammography. The dose-response of the OSL signal for the new optical fibre...

  3. "It's in the Cards": The Contribution of Illustrated Metaphor Cards to Exploring Values Within Narratives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnieli-Miller, Orit; Nissim, Geffen; Goldberg, Miriam

    2017-01-01

    In this article, we present the use of illustrated metaphorical cards as a technique to enrich the qualitative narrative interview. We examine the advantages of incorporating a projective tool to assist in constructing and understanding personal narratives of people living with severe mental illness. We interviewed 25 participants-staff and members of a clubhouse in Israel (an international community model of rehabilitation in mental health)-and sought to understand their stories focused on personal and organizational values. The findings revealed that, in most cases, the cards contributed to data collection by enhancing the interviewees' ability for expression and by facilitating richer, more comprehensive stories and descriptions. This in turn enhanced the researcher's ability to understand the messages and stories presented. The research conclusions discuss the cards' potential contribution to improving data collection and analysis. The cards became an additional channel for expressing participants' experiences, emotions, and unique voice. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. 8 CFR 1212.6 - Border crossing identification cards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... combined B-1/B-2 visitor visa and non-biometric border crossing identification card or (a similar stamp in... non-biometric border crossing identification card (or similar stamp in a passport), issued by the DOS... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Border crossing identification cards. 1212...

  5. 25 CFR 11.422 - Unauthorized use of credit cards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Unauthorized use of credit cards. 11.422 Section 11.422... LAW AND ORDER CODE Criminal Offenses § 11.422 Unauthorized use of credit cards. (a) A person commits a misdemeanor if he or she uses a credit card for the purpose of obtaining property or services with knowledge...

  6. 77 FR 37558 - Disclosure of Certain Credit Card Complaint Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-22

    ... Certain Credit Card Complaint Data AGENCY: Bureau of Consumer Financial Protection. ACTION: Notice of... Bureau plans to exercise its discretion to publicly disclose certain credit card complaint data that do not include personally identifiable information. The Bureau receives credit card complaints from...

  7. 77 FR 75410 - Request for Information Regarding Credit Card Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-20

    ... Regarding Credit Card Market AGENCY: Bureau of Consumer Financial Protection. ACTION: Notice and request for information. SUMMARY: Section 502(a) of the Credit Card Accountability Responsibility and Disclosure Act of... review (Review) of the consumer credit card market, within the limits of its existing resources available...

  8. Credit Card Attitudes and Behaviors of College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, S.-H.; Grable, J. E.; Bagwell, D. C.

    2005-01-01

    At a southwestern public university, 242 students responded to a questionnaire about their credit-card use and attitudes. The results revealed that about 70 percent of the students held one or more credit cards, and about 10 percent had five or more credit cards. Twenty-two percent never kept copies of their charge slips, and only 49 percent paid…

  9. Clinicians completion rate of radiology request card in a Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The importance of adequately completing the radiology request card by the clinicians, in management of patient cannot be overemphasized. Omission of information on the request card may lead to reporting error. This study investigated the compliance rate of filling the radiology request card by clinicians received in a ...

  10. 46 CFR 154.1814 - Cargo information cards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo information cards. 154.1814 Section 154.1814... cards. (a) No person may operate a vessel unless a cargo information card for each cargo being... accessible to the person in charge of the watch. (b) When a vessel is moored at a terminal, the master shall...

  11. 22 CFR 50.9 - Card of identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Card of identity. 50.9 Section 50.9 Foreign... of United States Nationality of a Person Abroad § 50.9 Card of identity. When authorized by the Department, consular offices or designated nationality examiners may issue a card of identity for travel to...

  12. 76 FR 43393 - Debit Card Interchange Fees and Routing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-20

    ... programs and certain reloadable, general-use prepaid cards not marketed or labeled as a gift card or gift... evolved to support payments made by consumers for the purchase of goods or services at merchants... of the purchase transaction. Debit cards are generally issued by depository institutions to their...

  13. 76 FR 3180 - Market Test of Gift Cards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-19

    ... are very similar to money orders. Id. at 7. The Postal Service asserts that gift cards purchased from... POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket No. MT2011-2; Order No. 647] Market Test of Gift Cards AGENCY... Service proposal to conduct a 2-year market test involving the sale of gift cards. This document describes...

  14. On Cyclic Plans for Scheduling a Smart Card Personalisation System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieberg, T.

    An industrial case study for scheduling the personalisation of smart cards is presented and analysed. Smart cards are personalised in several machines that are served by an underlying conveyor belt connecting these. As there are usually a very high number of smart cards to be personalised, the focus

  15. 78 FR 39020 - Market Test on Gift Cards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-28

    ... POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket No. MT2011-2; Order No. 1755] Market Test on Gift Cards... Service filing requesting a temporary extension of a market test on gift cards. This notice informs the... INFORMATION: On June 18, 2013, the United States Postal Service moved to temporarily extend its Gift Card...

  16. Clearing and settlement of interbank card transactions: a MasterCard tutorial for Federal Reserve payments analysts

    OpenAIRE

    Susan Herbst-Murphy

    2013-01-01

    The Payment Cards Center organized a meeting at which senior officials from MasterCard shared information with Federal Reserve System payments analysts about the clearing and settlement functions that MasterCard performs for its client banks. These functions involve the transfer of information pertaining to card-based transactions (clearing) and the exchange of monetary value (settlement) that takes place between the banks whose customers are cardholders and those banks whose customers are ca...

  17. Digitizing Villanova University's Eclipsing Binary Card Catalogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman, Giannina; Dalton, Briana; Conroy, Kyle; Prsa, Andrej

    2018-01-01

    Villanova University’s Department of Astrophysics and Planetary Science has years of hand-written archival data on Eclipsing Binaries at its disposal. This card catalog began at Princeton in the 1930’s with notable contributions from scientists such as Henry Norris Russel. During World War II, the archive was moved to the University of Pennsylvania, which was one of the world centers for Eclipsing Binary research, consequently, the contributions to the catalog during this time were immense. It was then moved to University of Florida at Gainesville before being accepted by Villanova in the 1990’s. The catalog has been kept in storage since then. The objective of this project is to digitize this archive and create a fully functional online catalog that contains the information available on the cards, along with the scan of the actual cards. Our group has built a database using a python-powered infrastructure to contain the collected data. The team also built a prototype web-based searchable interface as a front-end to the catalog. Following the data-entry process, information like the Right Ascension and Declination will be run against SIMBAD and any differences between values will be noted as part of the catalog. Information published online from the card catalog and even discrepancies in information for a star, could be a catalyst for new studies on these Eclipsing Binaries. Once completed, the database-driven interface will be made available to astronomers worldwide. The group will also acquire, from the database, a list of referenced articles that have yet to be found online in order to further pursue their digitization. This list will be comprised of references in the cards that were neither found on ADS nor online during the data-entry process. Pursuing the integration of these references to online queries such as ADS will be an ongoing process that will contribute and further facilitate studies on Eclipsing Binaries.

  18. Thermorewritable card by using dyes; Senryo wo mochiita kakikae kanona card

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muto, Y.

    1998-06-01

    Described herein are thermorewritable cards which use dyes. Rewritable cards, mainly used for membership and point cards, are themselves used repeatedly and required to be rewritable repeatedly for information they carry. The dyes and developers used for the conventional heat- and pressure-sensitive papers are colorless, leuco-dye precursors and acidic compounds with a phenolic hydroxyl group or the like. They transfer electrons to each other, opening the lactone ring of the dye precursor to develop the color. Developing and erasing the color are reversible chemical reactions, where the color is developed under heat and maintained by quenching. For erasing the color, it is heated and then slowly cooled to separate the precursor and developer phases from each other. A printer (thermal head) is required for developing and erasing a color. Durability under various conditions is another requirement of the card; it must be adaptable to weather conditions and resistant to sweat. The new thermorewritable card is protected from various adverse effects on its chemical reactions, and made as durable as the conventional cards. 3 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Does Leave Work?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heleen van Luijn; Saskia Keuzenkamp

    2004-01-01

    More and more people have to combine work and care responsibilities, and work part-time or use daycare and after-school care facilities to help them do so. The Work and Care Act, which came into force on 1 December 2001, combined all the existing schemes - such as parental and maternity leave -

  20. Maternity Leave in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Joyce Yen; Han, Wen-Jui

    2010-01-01

    Using the first nationally representative birth cohort study in Taiwan, this paper examines the role that maternity leave policy in Taiwan plays in the timing of mothers returning to work after giving birth, as well as the extent to which this timing is linked to the amount of time mothers spend with their children and their use of breast milk…