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Sample records for dose-area product meter

  1. Do dose area product meter measurements reflect radiation doses ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    SA JOURNAL OF RADIOLOGY • August 2004. Abstract. This study determined the correlation between radiation doses absorbed by health care workers and dose area product meter (DAP) measurements at Universitas Hospital, Bloemfontein. The DAP is an instrument which accurately measures the radiation emitted from ...

  2. Do dose area product meter measurements reflect radiation doses ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study determined the correlation between radiation doses absorbed by health care workers and dose area product meter (DAP) measurements at Universitas Hospital, Bloemfontein. The DAP is an instrument which accurately measures the radiation emitted from the source. The study included the interventional ...

  3. Performance evaluation of domestic prototype dose area product meter SFT-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ho Sun; Han, Seong Gyu; Roh, Young Roh; Lim, Hyun Jong; Kim, Jung Min; Kim, Jong Uk; Chae, Hyun Sik; Yoon, Yong Su

    2016-01-01

    The importance of radiation dose display of medical X-ray equipment was emphasized, while third edition of IEC(International Electrotechnical Commission) 60601 started to apply. The existing medical X-ray equipment selected a method for attaching the DAP(Dose Area Product) meter when the dose display. However, because the DAP meter was dependent on all of the income, And it did not yet produced in Korea. So, we received the support of Seoul R and BD Program(Grants No. C1152055) to produce DAP meter prototype of the Domestically technology. In this study, the performance of this prototype was evaluated by comparing the German company's product. Evaluation item was an electronic capture performance, radiation dose dependence, radiation quality dependence, energy transmittance, repeatability, light transmittance of 6 entries. And IEC 60580 was based on this evaluation. Evaluation results were electronic capture performance intrinsic error 9.5%, radiation dose dependence limits of variation 1%, repeatabilit y coefficient of variation 2%, energy transmittance 91% each assessment was passed. However radiation quality dependence limits of variation 29%, light transmittance 55% was less than acceptance criteria

  4. Creation and clinical application of real-time dose monitor using dose area product meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsubara, Kosuke; Uoyama, Yoshinori; Iida, Hiroji; Mizushima, Takashi

    2004-01-01

    The management of patient dose has become more of an issue in recent years. Dose can be determined non-invasively and in real time through the use of a dose area product meter, but it is the area dose value that is obtained. Therefore, we created a program that estimates entrance skin dose (ESD) in real time from area dose values obtained during procedures. We used Microsoft Visual C++ 6.0 (Standard Edition) for the programming language and C language for the programming environment. The value was a maximum 285.4 mGy at ileus tube insertion when measuring ESD for radiography of the digestive organ and non-vascular type interventional radiology (IVR) using the created program and seeking the average according to the procedures. The program that we created can be considered valid for monitoring ESD correctly and in real time. (author)

  5. A patient dose survey for femoral arteriogram diagnostic radiographic examinations using a dose-area product meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thwaites, J.H.; Rafferty, M.W.; Gray, N.; Black, J.; Stock, B.

    1996-01-01

    A patient dose survey was carried out for femoral arteriogram procedures at the Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital. The procedure involves fluoroscopy to the pelvic region to locate a guide wire and catheter, followed by a series of radiographs extending from the pelvic area to the feet to form a collage image of the entire arterial system. Radiographs are taken whilst a bolus of contrast media is injected into the arterial system. A dose-area product meter was used to determine the dose-area product delivered to patients. Radiographic and patient details were logged with dose-area product for each part of each procedure. Mean energy imparted, mean effective dose and effective dose equivalent are calculated for the examinations. Calculated effective doses are shown to produce results consistent with those of other authors. We present a method for dealing with a complex radiographic procedure including multiple radiographs and fluoroscopy in an attempt to provide a simple way of calculating effective dose from which a general risk factor can be determined. The effective dose varies considerably from examination to examination due to the large range in the number of radiographs taken in any one procedure. A useful index can be obtained by logging the number of radiographs in each region, and fluoroscopy time, from which the effective dose may be easily calculated. These measurements extend a continuing survey of doses for common diagnostic radiographic examinations which previously included the simple examinations: lumbar spine, abdoment and pelvis. (author)

  6. The dose-area product in DSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gfirtner, H.

    1995-01-01

    In DSA, the dose-area product shows a very good correlation with the maximum incidence dose. It may therefore serve as a reliable basis for the assessment of radiation doses to patients. The dose-area product is also a useful tool for the detection pf peak shifts in the radiation curves for certain investigations. In view of the considerable scatter of the values for the dose-area product these must, however, be subjected to an additional statistical analysis. Provided that this rule is observed, the dose-area product will considerably gain in importance for the monitoring of radiation exposures of patients. A very noteworthy learning effect could be achieved, if it would be made mandatory for those statistical analyses to be carried out not only on an investigation-specific but also an investigator-specific basis. The latter is particularly true of teaching hospitals. (orig./VHE) [de

  7. Dose-area product measurement for patients in diagnostic radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alkhawad, Safaa Ibrahim Awad Elkarim

    2001-09-01

    There is a wide spread of the utilization of medical diagnostic x-ray in Sudan upon the last years, in private clinics as well as in public hospitals. The aim of this study was to measure the doses to patients from x-ray in radiography departments in Khartoum State. Use was made of ionization chamber that measures the product of dose times the exposed area of the patient in units of Gy cm 2 . The work was performed in 7 hospitals over 250 patients. 71.2% of the patients were males and 28.8% females. From this work, it appears that the chest radiography represent 42% of the total exposure of human body organs to radiography, there was also a clear variation in doses resulting from this exposure for different x-ray machines. The results of this study were compared with similar from Germany, Finland, New Zealand and Norway; which are recently available studies. The comparison showed those investigation of abdomen, spine and pelvis result in higher radiation doses. No data for limb exposure were obtained from these countries, in Sudan exposure of the limb carry radiation doses compared to the rest of the human body.(Author)

  8. Reference dosimetry of proton pencil beams based on dose-area product: a proof of concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomà, Carles; Safai, Sairos; Vörös, Sándor

    2017-06-21

    This paper describes a novel approach to the reference dosimetry of proton pencil beams based on dose-area product ([Formula: see text]). It depicts the calibration of a large-diameter plane-parallel ionization chamber in terms of dose-area product in a 60 Co beam, the Monte Carlo calculation of beam quality correction factors-in terms of dose-area product-in proton beams, the Monte Carlo calculation of nuclear halo correction factors, and the experimental determination of [Formula: see text] of a single proton pencil beam. This new approach to reference dosimetry proves to be feasible, as it yields [Formula: see text] values in agreement with the standard and well-established approach of determining the absorbed dose to water at the centre of a broad homogeneous field generated by the superposition of regularly-spaced proton pencil beams.

  9. Estimative of dose area product in interventional cardiology procedures: a literature review; Estimativa do produto dose-area em procedimentos de cardiologia intervencionista: uma revisao de literatura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Real, Jessica V.; Santos, Romulo R.; Luz, Renata M. da [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul (PUCRS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Hospital Sao Lucas. Servico de Fisica Medica; Friedrich, Barbara Q.; Silva, Ana Maria Marques da, E-mail: jessica.real@pucrs.br [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul (PUCRS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Faculdade de Fisica

    2014-08-15

    The aim of this work is to present a literature review of the values of dose area product (DAP) in coronary angiography (CA) and percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA), achieved by papers pubMaria E. D.lished in the last ten years. The results shows that the average values of DAP decreased by 22.6% and 5.78% for CA and PTCA procedures, respectively, in comparison with the studies published in the last 5 and 10 years. It was found that these values are in accordance to the recommendations published by IAEA and NCRP Although there was a reduction along the years for the average values of DAP, the data highlight the need for further studies on reference levels, as large variability are observed. (author)

  10. Proposed procedure and analysis of results to verify the indicator of the product dose-area in radiology equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Marcos, R.; Gallego Franco, P.; Sierra Diaz, F.; Gonzalez Ruiz, C.; Rodriguez Checa, M.; Brasa Estevez, M.; Gomez Calvar, R.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work is to establish a procedure to verify the value of the product dose-area showing certain teams of Radiology, with an alternative to the use of external transmission cameras. (Author)

  11. Measurement and properties of the dose-area product ratio in external small-beam radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemelä, Jarkko; Partanen, Mari; Ojala, Jarkko; Sipilä, Petri; Björkqvist, Mikko; Kapanen, Mika; Keyriläinen, Jani

    2017-06-21

    In small-beam radiation therapy (RT) the measurement of the beam quality parameter, i.e. the tissue-phantom ratio or TPR 20,10 , using a conventional point detector is a challenge. To obtain reliable results, one has to consider potential sources of error, including volume averaging and adjustment of the point detector into the narrow beam. To overcome these challenges, a different type of beam quality parameter in small beams was studied, namely the dose-area product ratio, or DAPR 20,10 . With this method, the measurement of a dose-area product (DAP) using a large-area plane-parallel chamber (LAC) eliminates the uncertainties in detector positioning and volume averaging that are present when using a point detector. In this study, the properties of the DAPR 20,10 of a cone-collimated 6 MV photon beam were investigated using Monte Carlo (MC) calculations and the obtained values were compared to measurements obtained using two LAC detectors, PTW Type 34073 and PTW Type 34070. In addition, the possibility of determining the DAP using EBT3 film and a Razor diode detector was studied. The determination of the DAPR 20,10 value was found to be feasible in external small-beam radiotherapy using cone-collimated beams with diameters from 4-40 mm, based on the results of the two LACs, the MC calculations and the Razor diode. The measurements indicated a constant DAPR 20,10 value for fields 20-40 mm in diameter, with a maximum relative change of 0.6%, but an increase of 7.0% for fields from 20-4 mm in diameter for the PTW Type 34070 chamber. Simulations and measurements showed an increase of DAPR 20,10 with increasing LAC size or dose integral area for the studied 4-40 mm cone-collimated 6 MV photon beams. This has the consequence that there should be a reference to the size of the used LAC active area or the DAP integration area with the reported DAPR 20,10 value.

  12. Measurement and properties of the dose-area product ratio in external small-beam radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemelä, Jarkko; Partanen, Mari; Ojala, Jarkko; Sipilä, Petri; Björkqvist, Mikko; Kapanen, Mika; Keyriläinen, Jani

    2017-06-01

    In small-beam radiation therapy (RT) the measurement of the beam quality parameter, i.e. the tissue-phantom ratio or TPR20,10, using a conventional point detector is a challenge. To obtain reliable results, one has to consider potential sources of error, including volume averaging and adjustment of the point detector into the narrow beam. To overcome these challenges, a different type of beam quality parameter in small beams was studied, namely the dose-area product ratio, or DAPR20,10. With this method, the measurement of a dose-area product (DAP) using a large-area plane-parallel chamber (LAC) eliminates the uncertainties in detector positioning and volume averaging that are present when using a point detector. In this study, the properties of the DAPR20,10 of a cone-collimated 6 MV photon beam were investigated using Monte Carlo (MC) calculations and the obtained values were compared to measurements obtained using two LAC detectors, PTW Type 34073 and PTW Type 34070. In addition, the possibility of determining the DAP using EBT3 film and a Razor diode detector was studied. The determination of the DAPR20,10 value was found to be feasible in external small-beam radiotherapy using cone-collimated beams with diameters from 4-40 mm, based on the results of the two LACs, the MC calculations and the Razor diode. The measurements indicated a constant DAPR20,10 value for fields 20-40 mm in diameter, with a maximum relative change of 0.6%, but an increase of 7.0% for fields from 20-4 mm in diameter for the PTW Type 34070 chamber. Simulations and measurements showed an increase of DAPR20,10 with increasing LAC size or dose integral area for the studied 4-40 mm cone-collimated 6 MV photon beams. This has the consequence that there should be a reference to the size of the used LAC active area or the DAP integration area with the reported DAPR20,10 value.

  13. Dose area product measurement for diagnostic reference levels and analysis of patient dose in dental radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, S.; Lee, B.; Shin, G.; Choi, J.; Kim, J.; Park, C.; Park, H.; Lee, K.; Kim, Y.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) were suggested and patient doses were analysed through the dose-area product value in dental radiography. In intraoral radiography, at three sites, i.e. molar, premolar and incisor on the maxilla and acquired third quartile values: 55.5, 46 and 36.5 mGy cm 2 , respectively, were measured. In panoramic, cephalo-metric and cone beam computed tomography, the values were 120.3, 146 and 3203 mGy cm 2 (16 x 18 cm), respectively. It has been shown that, in intraoral radiography, the patient dose changes proportionally to the value of mA s, but the change in extra-oral radiography in response to mA s could not be confirmed. The authors could confirm, however, the difference in dose according to the manufacturer in all dental radiography examinations, except for panoramic radiography. Depending on the size of hospital, there were some differences in patient dose in intraoral radiography, but no difference in patient dose in extra-oral radiography. (authors)

  14. Dose area product evaluations with Gafchromic XR-R films and a flat-bed scanner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampado, O; Garelli, E; Deagostini, S; Ropolo, R

    2006-12-07

    Gafchromic XR-R films are a useful tool to evaluate entrance skin dose in interventional radiology. Another dosimetric quantity of interest in diagnostic and interventional radiology is the dose area product (DAP). In this study, a method to evaluate DAP using Gafchromic XR-R films and a flat-bed scanner was developed and tested. Film samples were exposed to an x-ray beam of 80 kVp over a dose range of 0-10 Gy. DAP measurements with films were obtained from the digitalization of a film sample positioned over the x-ray beam window during the exposure. DAP values obtained with this method were compared for 23 cardiological interventional procedures with DAP values displayed by the equipment. The overall one-sigma dose measurement uncertainty depended on the absorbed dose, with values below 6% for doses above 1 Gy. A maximum discrepancy of 16% was found, which is of the order of the differences in the DAP measurements that may occur with different calibration procedures. Based on the results presented, after an accurate calibration procedure and a thorough inspection of the relationship between the actual dose and the direct measured quantity (net optical density or net pixel value variation), Gafchromic XR-R films can be used to assess the DAP.

  15. Contemporary Australian dose area product levels in the fluoroscopic investigation of paediatric congenital heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, T.; Brennan, P.C.; Mello-Thoms, C.; Ryan, E.

    2017-01-01

    This study examines radiation dose levels delivered to children from birth to 15 y of age in the investigation of congenital heart disease (CHD) at a major Sydney children's hospital. The aims are to compare values with those derived from similar studies, to provide a template for more consistent dose reporting, to establish local and national diagnostic reference levels and to contribute to the worldwide paediatric dosimetry database. A retrospective review of 1007 paediatric procedural records was undertaken. The cohort consisted of 795 patients over a period from January 2007 to December 2012 who have undergone cardiac catheterisation for the investigation of CHD. The age range included was from the day of birth to 15 y. Archived dose area product (DAP) and fluoroscopy time (FT) readings were retrieved and analysed. The mean, median, 25. and 75. percentile DAP levels were calculated for six specific age groupings. The 75. percentile DAP values for the specific age categories were as follows: 0-30 d-1.9 Gy cm 2 , 1-12 months-2.9 Gy cm 2 , 1-3 y-5.3 Gy cm 2 , 3-5 y-6.2 Gy cm 2 , 5-10 y-7.5 Gy cm 2 and 10-15 y-17.3 Gy cm 2 . These levels were found to be lower than the values reported in comparable overseas studies. Individual year-specific levels were determined, and it is proposed that these are more useful than the common grouping method. The age-specific 75. percentile DAP levels outlined in this study can be used as baseline local diagnostic reference levels. The needs for the standardisation of DAP reporting and for a greater range of age-specific diagnostic reference levels have been highlighted. For the first time, Australian dose values for paediatric cardiac catheterisation are presented. (authors)

  16. Measurement of X-ray for the dose area product and spectrum by the added filtration in Rando phantom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong-Woong; Kim, Eun-Soo; Choi, Jiwon; Kweon, Dae Cheol

    2014-02-01

    The most important point in the medical use of radiation is to minimize the patient entrance dose while maintaining the diagnostic information. Low-energy photons (long-wave X-ray) are unnecessary among diagnostic X-ray because they are mostly absorbed and increase the patient's entrance dose. The most effective method to eliminate the low-energy photon is use of a filtering plate. Using a filter appropriate for the image will maintain diagnostic value. Obtaining an effective image allows comparison of the resulting images in a logical objective way. This experiment was performed to determine the quality of image dosimeter when there is no filter, and when 2 mm Al, 0.1 mm Cu + 1 mm Al, 0.2 mm Cu + 1 mm Al filters are used. Using TORECK PD-8100 dose area products meter placed on top of an abdominal phantom, we measured the dose when the filter changes in this condition 85 kVp, 40 mAs, anode angle 13, source image distance 100 cm, 20 cm × 20 cm. We used the SRS-78 program for accurate comparison because we could not evaluate the difference in the image optically. The spectrum changed due to the emission of X-rays as the filter changed. We observed that the use of a filter eliminated the low-energy photons and revealed continuous X-ray and special X-ray. Therefore, the experiment highlighted the advantages of filters and confirmed that there are no changes in the quality of image through signal to noise ratio, peak signal to noise ratio, root mean square error comparison. We found that the use of filter did not lead to distortions in the image or drop in diagnostic value while minimizing the radiation dose. This means that it can help manage long-term patient dose. We conclude that we need to recommend the use of the filter as it reduces the area of dose.

  17. A real-time regional adaptive exposure method for saving dose-area product in x-ray fluoroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burion, Steve; Funk, Tobias; Speidel, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Reduction of radiation dose in x-ray imaging has been recognized as a high priority in the medical community. Here the authors show that a regional adaptive exposure method can reduce dose-area product (DAP) in x-ray fluoroscopy. The authors' method is particularly geared toward providing dose savings for the pediatric population. Methods: The scanning beam digital x-ray system uses a large-area x-ray source with 8000 focal spots in combination with a small photon-counting detector. An imaging frame is obtained by acquiring and reconstructing up to 8000 detector images, each viewing only a small portion of the patient. Regional adaptive exposure was implemented by varying the exposure of the detector images depending on the local opacity of the object. A family of phantoms ranging in size from infant to obese adult was imaged in anteroposterior view with and without adaptive exposure. The DAP delivered to each phantom was measured in each case, and noise performance was compared by generating noise arrays to represent regional noise in the images. These noise arrays were generated by dividing the image into regions of about 6 mm 2 , calculating the relative noise in each region, and placing the relative noise value of each region in a one-dimensional array (noise array) sorted from highest to lowest. Dose-area product savings were calculated as the difference between the ratio of DAP with adaptive exposure to DAP without adaptive exposure. The authors modified this value by a correction factor that matches the noise arrays where relative noise is the highest to report a final dose-area product savings. Results: The average dose-area product saving across the phantom family was (42 ± 8)% with the highest dose-area product saving in the child-sized phantom (50%) and the lowest in the phantom mimicking an obese adult (23%). Conclusions: Phantom measurements indicate that a regional adaptive exposure method can produce large DAP savings without compromising

  18. A phantom based method for deriving typical patient doses from measurements of dose-area product on populations of patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapple, C.-L.; Broadhead, D.A.

    1995-01-01

    One of the chief sources of uncertainty in the comparison of patient dosimetry data is the influence of patient size on dose. Dose has been shown to relate closely to the equivalent diameter of the patient. This concept has been used to derive a prospective, phantom based method for determining size correction factors for measurements of dose-area product. The derivation of the size correction factor has been demonstrated mathematically, and the appropriate factor determined for a number of different X-ray sets. The use of phantom measurements enables the effect of patient size to be isolated from other factors influencing patient dose. The derived factors agree well with those determined retrospectively from patient dose survey data. Size correction factors have been applied to the results of a large scale patient dose survey, and this approach has been compared with the method of selecting patients according to their weight. For large samples of data, mean dose-area product values are independent of the analysis method used. The chief advantage of using size correction factors is that it allows all patient data to be included in a survey, whereas patient selection has been shown to exclude approximately half of all patients. (author)

  19. Feasibility of using a dose-area product ratio as beam quality specifier for photon beams with small field sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimpinella, Maria; Caporali, Claudio; Guerra, Antonio Stefano; Silvi, Luca; De Coste, Vanessa; Petrucci, Assunta; Delaunay, Frank; Dufreneix, Stéphane; Gouriou, Jean; Ostrowsky, Aimé; Rapp, Benjamin; Bordy, Jean-Marc; Daures, Josiane; Le Roy, Maïwenn; Sommier, Line; Vermesse, Didier

    2018-01-01

    To investigate the feasibility of using the ratio of dose-area product at 20 cm and 10 cm water depths (DAPR 20,10 ) as a beam quality specifier for radiotherapy photon beams with field diameter below 2 cm. Dose-area product was determined as the integral of absorbed dose to water (D w ) over a surface larger than the beam size. 6 MV and 10 MV photon beams with field diameters from 0.75 cm to 2 cm were considered. Monte Carlo (MC) simulations were performed to calculate energy-dependent dosimetric parameters and to study the DAPR 20,10 properties. Aspects relevant to DAPR 20,10 measurement were explored using large-area plane-parallel ionization chambers with different diameters. DAPR 20,10 was nearly independent of field size in line with the small differences among the corresponding mean beam energies. Both MC and experimental results showed a dependence of DAPR 20,10 on the measurement setup and the surface over which D w is integrated. For a given setup, DAPR 20,10 values obtained using ionization chambers with different air-cavity diameters agreed with one another within 0.4%, after the application of MC correction factors accounting for effects due to the chamber size. DAPR 20,10 differences among the small field sizes were within 1% and sensitivity to the beam energy resulted similar to that of established beam quality specifiers based on the point measurement of D w . For a specific measurement setup and integration area, DAPR 20,10 proved suitable to specify the beam quality of small photon beams for the selection of energy-dependent dosimetric parameters. Copyright © 2017 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. ESTIMATION OF THE CONVERSION COEFFICIENTS FROM DOSE-AREA PRODUCT TO EFFECTIVE DOSE FOR BARIUM MEAL EXAMINATIONS FOR ADULT PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Vodovatov

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Fluoroscopic examinations of the upper gastro-intestinal tract and, especially, barium meal examinations, are commonly performed in a majority of hospitals. These examinations are associated both with substantial individual patient doses and contribution to the collective dose from medical exposure. Effective dose estimation for this type of examinations is complicated due to: 1 the necessity to simulate the moving X-ray irradiation field; 2 differences in study structure for the individual patients; 3 subjectivity of the operators; and 4 differences in the X-ray equipment. The aim of the current study was to estimate conversion coefficients from dose-area product to effective dose for barium meal examinations for the over couch and under couch exposure conditions. The study was based on data collected in the X-ray unit of the surgical department of the St-Petersburg Mariinsky hospital. A model of patient exposure during barium meal examination was developed based on the collected data on fluoroscopy protocols and adult patient irradiation geometry. Conversion coefficients were calculated using PCXMC 2.0 software. Complete examinations were converted into a set of typical fluoroscopy phases and X-ray images, specified by the examined anatomical region and the projection of patient exposure. Conversion coefficients from dose-area product to effective dose were calculated for each phase of the examination and for the complete examination. The resulting values of the conversion coefficients are comparable with published data. Variations in the absolute values of the conversion coefficients can be explained by differences in clinical protocols, models for the estimation of the effective dose and parameters of barium meal examinations. The proposed approach for estimation of effective dose considers such important features of fluoroscopic examinations as: 1 non-uniform structure of examination, 2 significant movement of the X-ray tube within a single

  1. Retrospective estimation of patient dose-area product in thoracic spine tomosynthesis performed using VolumeRAD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baath, Magnus; Svalkvist, Angelica; Soederman, Christina

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of a recently developed method of retrospectively estimating the patient dose-area product (DAP) of a chest tomosynthesis examination, performed using VolumeRAD, in thoracic spine tomosynthesis and to determine the necessary field-size correction factor. Digital imaging and communications in medicine (DICOM) data for the projection radiographs acquired during a thoracic spine tomosynthesis examination were retrieved directly from the modality for 17 patients. Using the previously developed method, an estimated DAP for the tomosynthesis examination was determined from DICOM data in the scout image. By comparing the estimated DAP with the actual DAP registered for the projection radiographs, a field-size correction factor was determined. The field-size correction factor for thoracic spine tomosynthesis was determined to 0.92. Applying this factor to the DAP estimated retrospectively, the maximum difference between the estimated DAP and the actual DAP was <3 %. In conclusion, the previously developed method of retrospectively estimating the DAP in chest tomosynthesis can be applied to thoracic spine tomosynthesis. (authors)

  2. Dose area product evaluations with Gafchromic[reg] XR-R films and a flat-bed scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rampado, O; Garelli, E; Deagostini, S; Ropolo, R

    2006-01-01

    Gafchromic[reg] XR-R films are a useful tool to evaluate entrance skin dose in interventional radiology. Another dosimetric quantity of interest in diagnostic and interventional radiology is the dose area product (DAP). In this study, a method to evaluate DAP using Gafchromic[reg] XR-R films and a flat-bed scanner was developed and tested. Film samples were exposed to an x-ray beam of 80 kVp over a dose range of 0-10 Gy. DAP measurements with films were obtained from the digitalization of a film sample positioned over the x-ray beam window during the exposure. DAP values obtained with this method were compared for 23 cardiological interventional procedures with DAP values displayed by the equipment. The overall one-sigma dose measurement uncertainty depended on the absorbed dose, with values below 6% for doses above 1 Gy. A maximum discrepancy of 16% was found, which is of the order of the differences in the DAP measurements that may occur with different calibration procedures. Based on the results presented, after an accurate calibration procedure and a thorough inspection of the relationship between the actual dose and the direct measured quantity (net optical density or net pixel value variation), Gafchromic[reg] XR-R films can be used to assess the DAP. (note)

  3. Dose area product evaluations with Gafchromic[reg] XR-R films and a flat-bed scanner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rampado, O; Garelli, E; Deagostini, S; Ropolo, R [Struttura Complessa Fisica Sanitaria, Azienda Ospedaliera San Giovanni Battista, Corso Bramante 88, 10126 Turin (Italy)

    2006-12-07

    Gafchromic[reg] XR-R films are a useful tool to evaluate entrance skin dose in interventional radiology. Another dosimetric quantity of interest in diagnostic and interventional radiology is the dose area product (DAP). In this study, a method to evaluate DAP using Gafchromic[reg] XR-R films and a flat-bed scanner was developed and tested. Film samples were exposed to an x-ray beam of 80 kVp over a dose range of 0-10 Gy. DAP measurements with films were obtained from the digitalization of a film sample positioned over the x-ray beam window during the exposure. DAP values obtained with this method were compared for 23 cardiological interventional procedures with DAP values displayed by the equipment. The overall one-sigma dose measurement uncertainty depended on the absorbed dose, with values below 6% for doses above 1 Gy. A maximum discrepancy of 16% was found, which is of the order of the differences in the DAP measurements that may occur with different calibration procedures. Based on the results presented, after an accurate calibration procedure and a thorough inspection of the relationship between the actual dose and the direct measured quantity (net optical density or net pixel value variation), Gafchromic[reg] XR-R films can be used to assess the DAP. (note)

  4. A simple method to retrospectively estimate patient dose-area product for chest tomosynthesis examinations performed using VolumeRAD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Båth, Magnus; Söderman, Christina; Svalkvist, Angelica

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of the present work was to develop and validate a method of retrospectively estimating the dose-area product (DAP) of a chest tomosynthesis examination performed using the VolumeRAD system (GE Healthcare, Chalfont St. Giles, UK) from digital imaging and communications in medicine (DICOM) data available in the scout image. DICOM data were retrieved for 20 patients undergoing chest tomosynthesis using VolumeRAD. Using information about how the exposure parameters for the tomosynthesis examination are determined by the scout image, a correction factor for the adjustment in field size with projection angle was determined. The correction factor was used to estimate the DAP for 20 additional chest tomosynthesis examinations from DICOM data available in the scout images, which was compared with the actual DAP registered for the projection radiographs acquired during the tomosynthesis examination. A field size correction factor of 0.935 was determined. Applying the developed method using this factor, the average difference between the estimated DAP and the actual DAP was 0.2%, with a standard deviation of 0.8%. However, the difference was not normally distributed and the maximum error was only 1.0%. The validity and reliability of the presented method were thus very high. A method to estimate the DAP of a chest tomosynthesis examination performed using the VolumeRAD system from DICOM data in the scout image was developed and validated. As the scout image normally is the only image connected to the tomosynthesis examination stored in the picture archiving and communication system (PACS) containing dose data, the method may be of value for retrospectively estimating patient dose in clinical use of chest tomosynthesis.

  5. A simple method to retrospectively estimate patient dose-area product for chest tomosynthesis examinations performed using VolumeRAD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Båth, Magnus, E-mail: magnus.bath@vgregion.se; Svalkvist, Angelica [Department of Radiation Physics, Institute of Clinical Sciences, The Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg SE-413 45, Sweden and Department of Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg SE-413 45 (Sweden); Söderman, Christina [Department of Radiation Physics, Institute of Clinical Sciences, The Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg SE-413 45 (Sweden)

    2014-10-15

    Purpose: The purpose of the present work was to develop and validate a method of retrospectively estimating the dose-area product (DAP) of a chest tomosynthesis examination performed using the VolumeRAD system (GE Healthcare, Chalfont St. Giles, UK) from digital imaging and communications in medicine (DICOM) data available in the scout image. Methods: DICOM data were retrieved for 20 patients undergoing chest tomosynthesis using VolumeRAD. Using information about how the exposure parameters for the tomosynthesis examination are determined by the scout image, a correction factor for the adjustment in field size with projection angle was determined. The correction factor was used to estimate the DAP for 20 additional chest tomosynthesis examinations from DICOM data available in the scout images, which was compared with the actual DAP registered for the projection radiographs acquired during the tomosynthesis examination. Results: A field size correction factor of 0.935 was determined. Applying the developed method using this factor, the average difference between the estimated DAP and the actual DAP was 0.2%, with a standard deviation of 0.8%. However, the difference was not normally distributed and the maximum error was only 1.0%. The validity and reliability of the presented method were thus very high. Conclusions: A method to estimate the DAP of a chest tomosynthesis examination performed using the VolumeRAD system from DICOM data in the scout image was developed and validated. As the scout image normally is the only image connected to the tomosynthesis examination stored in the picture archiving and communication system (PACS) containing dose data, the method may be of value for retrospectively estimating patient dose in clinical use of chest tomosynthesis.

  6. A simple method to retrospectively estimate patient dose-area product for chest tomosynthesis examinations performed using VolumeRAD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Båth, Magnus; Svalkvist, Angelica; Söderman, Christina

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the present work was to develop and validate a method of retrospectively estimating the dose-area product (DAP) of a chest tomosynthesis examination performed using the VolumeRAD system (GE Healthcare, Chalfont St. Giles, UK) from digital imaging and communications in medicine (DICOM) data available in the scout image. Methods: DICOM data were retrieved for 20 patients undergoing chest tomosynthesis using VolumeRAD. Using information about how the exposure parameters for the tomosynthesis examination are determined by the scout image, a correction factor for the adjustment in field size with projection angle was determined. The correction factor was used to estimate the DAP for 20 additional chest tomosynthesis examinations from DICOM data available in the scout images, which was compared with the actual DAP registered for the projection radiographs acquired during the tomosynthesis examination. Results: A field size correction factor of 0.935 was determined. Applying the developed method using this factor, the average difference between the estimated DAP and the actual DAP was 0.2%, with a standard deviation of 0.8%. However, the difference was not normally distributed and the maximum error was only 1.0%. The validity and reliability of the presented method were thus very high. Conclusions: A method to estimate the DAP of a chest tomosynthesis examination performed using the VolumeRAD system from DICOM data in the scout image was developed and validated. As the scout image normally is the only image connected to the tomosynthesis examination stored in the picture archiving and communication system (PACS) containing dose data, the method may be of value for retrospectively estimating patient dose in clinical use of chest tomosynthesis

  7. Preliminary results of an attempt to predict over apron occupational exposure of cardiologists from cardiac fluoroscopy procedures based on DAP (dose area product) values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toossi, Mohammad Taghi Bahreyni; Mehrpouyan, Mohammad; Nademi, Hossein; Fardid, Reza

    2015-03-01

    This study is an effort to propose a mathematical relation between the occupational exposure measured by a dosimeter worn on a lead apron in the chest region of a cardiologist and the dose area product (DAP) recorded by a meter attached to the X-ray tube. We aimed to determine factors by which DAP values attributed to patient exposure could be converted to the over-apron entrance surface air kerma incurred by cardiologists during an angiographic procedure. A Rando phantom representing a patient was exposed by an X-ray tube from 77 pre-defined directions. DAP value for each exposure angle was recorded. Cardiologist exposure was measured by a Radcal ionization chamber 10X5-180 positioned on a second phantom representing the physician. The exposure conversion factor was determined as the quotient of over apron exposure by DAP value. To verify the validity of this method, the over-apron exposure of a cardiologist was measured using the ionization chamber while performing coronary angiography procedures on 45 patients weighing on average 75 ± 5 kg. DAP values for the corresponding procedures were also obtained. Conversion factors obtained from phantom exposure were applied to the patient DAP values to calculate physician exposure. Mathematical analysis of our results leads us to conclude that a linear relationship exists between two sets of data: (a) cardiologist exposure measured directly by Radcal & DAP values recorded by the X-ray machine system (R (2) = 0.88), (b) specialist measured and estimated exposure derived from DAP values (R (2) = 0.91). The results demonstrate that cardiologist occupational exposure can be derived from patient data accurately.

  8. A patient dose survey or femoral arteriogram diagnostic radiographic examinations using a dose-area product meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thwaites, J.H.; Rafferty, M.W.; Gray, N.; Black, J.; Stock, B.

    1996-01-01

    We present a method for dealing with a complex radiographic procedure (which involves multiple radiographs and fluoroscopy) in an attempt to provide a simple way of calculating effective dose from which a general risk factor can be determined. A useful index of harm can be obtained by recording the number of radiographs in each region, and the fluoroscopy time, from which the effective dose may be easily calculated. A patient dose survey was carried out using a PTW diamentor for femoral arteriogram procedures in a large teaching hospital. The procedure involves fluoroscopy to the pelvic region to locate a guide wire and catheter, followed by a series of radiographs extending from the pelvic area to the feet to form a collage image of the entire arterial system. Radiographs are taken whilst a bolus of contrast media is injected into the arterial system. The measurements extend a continuing survey of doses for common diagnostic radiographic examinations which have previously included the simple examinations of lumbar spine, abdomen and pelvis. (Author)

  9. Practical measurement of radiation dose in pediatric radiology: use of the dose-area product on digital fluoroscopy and neonatal chest radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chateil, J.F.; Rouby, C.; Brun, M.; Labessan, C.; Diard, F.

    2004-01-01

    Purpose. Control of radiation dose in pediatric radiology requires knowledge of the reference levels for all examinations. These data are useful for daily quality assessment, but are not perfectly known for some radiographic examinations. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the dose related to voiding cysto-urethrograms (VCUG), upper GI (UGI) and intravenous urography (IVU). Neonatal chest radiographs in the intensive care unit were also evaluated. Material and methods. For examinations with contrast material (478VCUG, 220UGI, 80IVU), the children were divided in groups based on their weight, from 5 to 30 Kg. Measurements were performed using an ionization chamber and expressed with the-dose-area product (DAP). For chest radiographs, a direct measurement of the entrance-skin dose was performed, with secondary calculation of the DAP. Results. For-VCUGs, the DAP ranged between 42.89 cGy.cm 2 and 125.41 cGy.cm 2 . The range was between 76.43, and 150.62 cGy.cm 2 for UGIs and between 49.06 and 83.33 cGy.cm 2 for IVUs. For neonate chest radiographs, DAP calculations were between 0.29 and 0.99 cGy.cm 2 . Conclusion. These values represent our reference doses. They allow continuous monitoring of our radiographic technical parameters and radiographic equipment and help to correct and improve them if necessary. (author)

  10. Intellectual Production Supervision Perform based on RFID Smart Electricity Meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiangqun; Huang, Rui; Shen, Liman; chen, Hao; Xiong, Dezhi; Xiao, Xiangqi; Liu, Mouhai; Xu, Renheng

    2018-03-01

    This topic develops the RFID intelligent electricity meter production supervision project management system. The system is designed for energy meter production supervision in the management of the project schedule, quality and cost information management requirements in RFID intelligent power, and provide quantitative information more comprehensive, timely and accurate for supervision engineer and project manager management decisions, and to provide technical information for the product manufacturing stage file. From the angle of scheme analysis, design, implementation and test, the system development of production supervision project management system for RFID smart meter project is discussed. Focus on the development of the system, combined with the main business application and management mode at this stage, focuses on the energy meter to monitor progress information, quality information and cost based information on RFID intelligent power management function. The paper introduces the design scheme of the system, the overall client / server architecture, client oriented graphical user interface universal, complete the supervision of project management and interactive transaction information display, the server system of realizing the main program. The system is programmed with C# language and.NET operating environment, and the client and server platforms use Windows operating system, and the database server software uses Oracle. The overall platform supports mainstream information and standards and has good scalability.

  11. Accuracy of a dose-area product compared to an absorbed dose to water at a point in a 2 cm diameter field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dufreneix, S.; Ostrowsky, A.; Rapp, B.; Daures, J.; Bordy, J. M., E-mail: jean-marc.bordy@cea.fr [CEA, LIST, Laboratoire National Henri Becquerel (LNE-LNHB), Gif-sur-Yvette F-91191 (France)

    2016-07-15

    Purpose: Graphite calorimeters with a core diameter larger than the beam can be used to establish dosimetric references in small fields. The dose-area product (DAP) measured can theoretically be linked to an absorbed dose at a point by the determination of a profile correction. This study aims at comparing the DAP-based protocol to the usual absorbed dose at a point protocol in a 2 cm diameter field for which both references exist. Methods: Two calorimeters were used, respectively, with a sensitive volume of 0.6 cm (for the absorbed dose at a point measurement) and 3 cm diameter (for the DAP measurement). Profile correction was calculated from a 2D dose mapping using three detectors: a PinPoint chamber, a synthetic diamond, and EBT3 films. A specific protocol to read EBT3 films was implemented and the dose-rate and energy dependences were studied to assure a precise measurement, especially in the penumbra and out-of-field regions. Results: EBT3 films were found independent on dose rates over the range studied but showed a strong under-response (18%) at low energies. Depending on the dosimeter used for calculating the profile correction, a deviation of 0.8% (PinPoint chamber), 0.9% (diamond), or 1.9% (EBT3 films) was observed between the calibration coefficient derived from DAP measurements and the one directly established in terms of absorbed dose to water at a point. Conclusions: The DAP method can currently be linked to the classical dosimetric reference system based in an absorbed dose at a point only with a confidence interval of 95% (k = 2). None of the detectors studied can be used to determine an absorbed dose to water at a point from a DAP measurement with an uncertainty smaller than 1.2%.

  12. Dose levels from thoracic and pelvic examinations in two pediatric radiological departments in Norway - a comparison study of dose-area product and radiographic technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kjernlie Saether, Hilde; Traegde Martinsen, Anne Catrine; Lagesen, Bente; Platou Holsen, Eva; Oevreboe, Kirsti Marie

    2010-01-01

    Background: Pediatric doses expressed in dose-area product (DAP) can be retrieved from only a few publications; most of which correlate DAP to patient size or large age spans. In clinical practice age is often the only available parameter describing the patient, and thus, evaluation of dose levels in pediatric radiology on the basis of DAP related to age alone would be useful in optimization work. Purpose: To provide comparable data on age-related DAP from thoracic and pelvic radiological examinations of children, and evaluate the usefulness of comparing age-related DAP and radiographic technique between systems to identify areas with potential for optimization. Material and Methods: DAP, age, and radiographic technique were registered for 575 thoracic examinations and 371 pelvic examinations of children from newborn up to 14 years of age in groups with an age span of 1 year, performed with two digital flat-panel systems and one computed radiography system. Results: DAP varies from 2.2 to 54.0 mGycm2 for thoracic examinations, and from 4.6 to 532.5 mGycm2 for pelvic examinations. There are significant differences in DAP between systems and departments due to differences in technique, equipment, and staff. Conclusion: This study provides comparable data on age-related DAP from thoracic and pelvic radiological examinations of children, which could be used as an input to estimate diagnostic reference levels. The comparison between systems of DAP and radiographic technique has proven useful in identifying areas where there may be a potential for optimization.

  13. SAGD production optimization : combination of ESP and multiphase metering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinguet, B.G.; Guerra, E.; Drever, C. [Schlumberger Canada Ltd., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    Many commercial oil reservoirs in Canada are completed using electric submersible pumps (ESP) due to low reservoir pressures and extra heavy oils and bitumens. This paper presented details of an optimization process for steam-assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) wells. The process used ESP and a multiphase flow meter (MFM) based on Vx technology. The MFM was based on a Venturi and nuclear fraction meter combination that was engineered to measure the steam phases during SAGD processes. The technology was designed to measure total mass or total volumetric flow rates as well as oil, water and gas in producing wells. Length fractions of oil, water, and gas were calculated based on the attenuation of Gamma-rays as they passed through the Venturi section. Production was optimized in real time using the frequency control of the pump to improve oil flow rates. The results of field tests showed that the optimization process resulted in longer life cycles for the ESP. It was concluded that use of the meter results in changes to lift system operating parameters at the well site as well as improved monitoring during the workflow process. 3 refs., 1 tab., 11 figs.

  14. Smart Metering: Learning from telecommunication providers. Innovative customized products; Beim Smart Metering von Telekommunikationsanbietern lernen. Innovative Buendelprodukte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isbrecht, Volker; Sombrutzki, Ingo [Putz und Partner Unternehmensberatung AG, Hamburg (Germany). Strategie- und Projektmanagement - Energiewirtschaft; Hofer, Kristina [Putz und Partner Unternehmensberatung AG, Hamburg (Germany). CRM- und Telekommunikation

    2010-04-06

    Deregulation in the electricity and gas metering has raised interest in smart meters. Experts estimate that in a four-person household, smart meters may reduce electricity consumption by up to 10 percent, i.e. 50 - 90 Euros, and CO2 emissions by 8.5 million tonnes, which amounts to 4 percent of the total CO2 emissions in Germany. These are ideal conditions for utilities to develop innovative products for the mass market of private consumers and to improve their competitive standing in the market by a clearly communicated advantage to both the customers and the climate. By utilizing the experience gained in the telecommunications industry, they will be able to respond quickly to impending challenges. (orig.)

  15. Watts Up? Pro AC Power Meter for Automated Energy Recording: A Product Review

    OpenAIRE

    Hirst, Jason M.; Miller, Jonathan R.; Kaplan, Brent A.; Reed, Derek D.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present paper is to review the Watts up? Pro AC power meter. Evaluations of the meter's reliability for measuring energy consumption by consumer electronics yielded acceptable levels of reliability. Implications and limitations for the use of this product in behavior analytic research and practice are discussed.

  16. Production of plastic scintillation survey meter for clearance verification measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tachibana, Mitsuo; Shiraishi, Kunio; Ishigami, Tsutomu; Tomii, Hiroyuki

    2008-03-01

    In the Nuclear Science Research Institute, the decommissioning of various nuclear facilities is carried out according to the plan for meeting the midterm goal of the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA). An increase in the clearance verification measurement of concrete on buildings and the radiation measurement for releasing controlled areas will be expected along with the dismantlement of nuclear facilities in the future. The radiation measurement for releasing controlled areas has been carried out in small-scale nuclear facilities including the JPDR (Japan Power Demonstration Reactor). However, the radiation measurement with an existing measuring device was difficult in effects of radiation from radioactive materials that remains in buried piping. On the other hand, there is no experience that the clearance verification measurement is executed in the JAEA. The generation of a large amount of clearance object will be expected along with the decommissioning of the nuclear facilities in the future. The plastic scintillation survey meter (hereafter, 'PL measuring device') was produced to apply to the clearance verification measurement and the radiation measurement for releasing controlled areas. The basic characteristic test and the actual test were confirmed using the PL measuring device. As a result of these tests, it was found that the evaluation value of radioactivity with the PL measuring device was accuracy equal with the existing measuring device. The PL measuring device has feature of the existing measuring device with a light weight and easy operability. The PL measuring device can correct the gamma ray too. The PL measuring device is effective to the clearance verification measurement of concrete on buildings and the radiation measurement for releasing controlled areas. (author)

  17. Pharmaceutical Product Development: Intranasal Scopolamine (INSCOP) Metered Dose Spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putcha, Lakshmi; Crady, Camille; Putcha, Lakshmi

    2012-01-01

    Motion sickness (MS) has been a problem associated with space flight, the modern military and commercial air and water transportation for many years. Clinical studies have shown that scopolamine is the most effective medication for the prevention of motion sickness (Dornhoffer et al, 2004); however, the two most common methods of administration (transdermal and oral) have performance limitations that compromise its utility. Intranasal administration offers a noninvasive treatment modality, and has been shown to counter many of the problems associated with oral and transdermal administration. With the elimination of the first pass effect by the liver, intranasal delivery achieves higher and more reliable bioavailability than an equivalent oral dose. This allows for the potential of enhanced efficacy at a reduced dose, thus minimizing the occurrence of untoward side effects. An Intranasal scopolamine (INSCOP) gel formulation was prepared and tested in four ground-based clinical trials under an active Investigational New Drug (IND) application with the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Although there were early indicators that the intranasal gel formulation was effective, there were aspects of formulation viscosity and the delivery system that were less desirable. The INSCOP gel formulation has since been reformulated into an aqueous spray dosage form packaged in a precise, metered dose delivery system; thereby enhancing dose uniformity, increased user satisfaction and palatability, and a potentially more rapid onset of action. Recent reports of new therapeutic indications for scopolamine has prompted a wide spread interest in new scopolamine dosage forms. The novel dosage form and delivery system of INSCOP spray shows promise as an effective treatment for motion sickness targeted at the armed forces, spaceflight, and commercial sea, air, and space travel markets, as well as prospective psychotherapy for mental and emotional disorders.

  18. Development of a calibration methodology and tests of kerma area product meters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Nathalia Almeida

    2013-01-01

    The quantity kerma area product (PKA) is important to establish reference levels in diagnostic radiology exams. This quantity can be obtained using a PKA meter. The use of such meters is essential to evaluate the radiation dose in radiological procedures and is a good indicator to make sure that the dose limit to the patient's skin doesn't exceed. Sometimes, these meters come fixed to X radiation equipment, which makes its calibration difficult. In this work, it was developed a methodology for calibration of PKA meters. The instrument used for this purpose was the Patient Dose Calibrator (PDC). It was developed to be used as a reference to check the calibration of PKA and air kerma meters that are used for dosimetry in patients and to verify the consistency and behavior of systems of automatic exposure control. Because it is a new equipment, which, in Brazil, is not yet used as reference equipment for calibration, it was also performed the quality control of this equipment with characterization tests, the calibration and an evaluation of the energy dependence. After the tests, it was proved that the PDC can be used as a reference instrument and that the calibration must be performed in situ, so that the characteristics of each X-ray equipment, where the PKA meters are used, are considered. The calibration was then performed with portable PKA meters and in an interventional radiology equipment that has a PKA meter fixed. The results were good and it was proved the need for calibration of these meters and the importance of in situ calibration with a reference meter. (author)

  19. Calibration methodology application of kerma area product meters in situ: Preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, N. A.; Potiens, M. P. A.

    2014-11-01

    The kerma-area product (KAP) is a useful quantity to establish the reference levels of conventional X-ray examinations. It can be obtained by measurements carried out with a KAP meter on a plane parallel transmission ionization chamber mounted on the X-ray system. A KAP meter can be calibrated in laboratory or in situ, where it is used. It is important to use one reference KAP meter in order to obtain reliable quantity of doses on the patient. The Patient Dose Calibrator (PDC) is a new equipment from Radcal that measures KAP. It was manufactured following the IEC 60580 recommendations, an international standard for KAP meters. This study had the aim to calibrate KAP meters using the PDC in situ. Previous studies and the quality control program of the PDC have shown that it has good function in characterization tests of dosimeters with ionization chamber and it also has low energy dependence. Three types of KAP meters were calibrated in four different diagnostic X-ray equipments. The voltages used in the two first calibrations were 50 kV, 70 kV, 100 kV and 120 kV. The other two used 50 kV, 70 kV and 90 kV. This was related to the equipments limitations. The field sizes used for the calibration were 10 cm, 20 cm and 30 cm. The calibrations were done in three different cities with the purpose to analyze the reproducibility of the PDC. The results gave the calibration coefficient for each KAP meter and showed that the PDC can be used as a reference instrument to calibrate clinical KAP meters.

  20. Performance of combination of a Venturi and nuclear fraction meter in SAGD production operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hompoth, D.; Khun, N. [Suncor Energy, Calgary, AB (Canada); Pinguet, B.G.; Guerra, E. [Schlumberger Canada Ltd., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    This paper described a multiphase flow meter (MFM) that used a Venturi and nuclear fraction meter combination for steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) well production testing. The device was designed by re-engineering a flow model and fluid property package to measure the steam phases. The meter was designed to improve pump monitoring processes in SAGD operations. The technology combined 2 basic measurement steps. The first was a nuclear multi Gamma-ray fraction meters which measured the fraction of each constituent at the Venturi tube's throat at high frequencies. Fractions were then determined from the solution of 3 simultaneous equations related to the Gamma ray attenuation, and a fraction balance equation. Pressure and temperature measurements were used to predict the fluid properties at line conditions. Primary outputs were based on nuclear measurements, gas fractions, water liquid ratios, and mixture densities. Secondary outputs from the meter included volumetric flow rates. Stability, dynamic responses, and reproducibility rates of the MFM were also presented. 9 refs., 6 tabs., 17 figs.

  1. Investigation of quality assurance routines of DAP-meters in Swedish hospitals; Kartlaeggning av kvalitetssaekringsrutiner foer DAP-maetare i svensk sjukvaard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almen, Anja; Grindborg, Jan-Erik; Leitz, Wolfram

    2005-11-01

    The Swedish Radiation Protection Authority has investigated quality control of dose area product meters (DAP meters) used in x-ray diagnostics. A questionnaire was sent out to medical physics experts who are working with diagnostic radiology in Swedish hospitals. This report presents information about the routines practised and gives examples of measures to improve the quality of these practices.

  2. Implementing the Prepaid Smart Meter System for Irrigated Groundwater Production in Northern China: Status and Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaowei Wang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available To reduce the gap between groundwater demand and supply caused by agricultural groundwater over-exploitation, the Prepaid Smart Meter System (PSMS is being strongly implemented by the Chinese government in northern China. This study reports the analysis and results of PSMS field surveys in six typical provinces in northern China as well as domestic literature reviews. Based on the architecture and implementation policies of the system, the implementation differences between areas and the influencing factors were analyzed, particularly the acknowledgment of farmers, the installation proportion of tube wells, the social benefits. Great achievements have been gained in the implementation, and the management targets have been achieved, including accurately metering overall irrigation groundwater production, assisting in the total amount control and quota management, reducing groundwater exploitation, and improving water use efficiency. However, shortcomings remain in the implementation process, such as single initial investment channels, imperfect policy system construction, a lack of retrieving and analyzing data, and the unbalanced development between areas. Countermeasures and suggestions for these problems are discussed in this article.

  3. Automated protocols for spaceborne sub-meter resolution "Big Data" products for Earth Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neigh, C. S. R.; Carroll, M.; Montesano, P.; Slayback, D. A.; Wooten, M.; Lyapustin, A.; Shean, D. E.; Alexandrov, O.; Macander, M. J.; Tucker, C. J.

    2017-12-01

    The volume of available remotely sensed data has grown exceeding Petabytes per year and the cost for data, storage systems and compute power have both dropped exponentially. This has opened the door for "Big Data" processing systems with high-end computing (HEC) such as the Google Earth Engine, NASA Earth Exchange (NEX), and NASA Center for Climate Simulation (NCCS). At the same time, commercial very high-resolution (VHR) satellites have grown into a constellation with global repeat coverage that can support existing NASA Earth observing missions with stereo and super-spectral capabilities. Through agreements with the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency NASA-Goddard Space Flight Center is acquiring Petabytes of global sub-meter to 4 meter resolution imagery from WorldView-1,2,3 Quickbird-2, GeoEye-1 and IKONOS-2 satellites. These data are a valuable no-direct cost for the enhancement of Earth observation research that supports US government interests. We are currently developing automated protocols for generating VHR products to support NASA's Earth observing missions. These include two primary foci: 1) on demand VHR 1/2° ortho mosaics - process VHR to surface reflectance, orthorectify and co-register multi-temporal 2 m multispectral imagery compiled as user defined regional mosaics. This will provide an easy access dataset to investigate biodiversity, tree canopy closure, surface water fraction, and cropped area for smallholder agriculture; and 2) on demand VHR digital elevation models (DEMs) - process stereo VHR to extract VHR DEMs with the NASA Ames stereo pipeline. This will benefit Earth surface studies on the cryosphere (glacier mass balance, flow rates and snow depth), hydrology (lake/water body levels, landslides, subsidence) and biosphere (forest structure, canopy height/cover) among others. Recent examples of products used in NASA Earth Science projects will be provided. This HEC API could foster surmounting prior spatial-temporal limitations while

  4. Implementing the Prepaid Smart Meter System for Irrigated Groundwater Production in Northern China: Status and Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaowei Wang; Jingli Shao; Frank van Steenbergen; Qiulan Zhang

    2017-01-01

    To reduce the gap between groundwater demand and supply caused by agricultural groundwater over-exploitation, the Prepaid Smart Meter System (PSMS) is being strongly implemented by the Chinese government in northern China. This study reports the analysis and results of PSMS field surveys in six typical provinces in northern China as well as domestic literature reviews. Based on the architecture and implementation policies of the system, the implementation differences between areas and the inf...

  5. Radioisotope conveyor ash meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savelov, V.D.

    1994-01-01

    Radioisotope conveyor ash meter realizes persistent measuring of ashiness of coal and products of its enrichment on the belt conveyor without contact. The principle of ash meter acting is based on functional dependence of the gamma radiation flows backscattering intensity of radioisotope sources from the ash volume content in the controlled fuel. Facility consists from the ashiness transducer and the processing and control device

  6. A Portable Solid-State Moisture Meter For Agricultural And Food Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, C. R.; Stafford, J. V.; Weaving, G. S.

    1988-10-01

    This paper reports on the development of a small, robust, battery operated near infra-red (NIR) reflectance device, designed for rapid on-farm measurement of the moisture content of forage crops without prior sample preparation. It has potential application to other agricultural or food materials. The instrument is based on two light emitting diodes (LEDs), a germanium detector and a control CMOS single chip microcomputer. The meter has been calibrated to give a direct read out of moisture content for 4 common grass varieties at 3 stages of development. The accuracy of a single point measurement on a grass sample is approximately +/- 6% over a range of 40-80% (wet basis). However, the potential accuracy on a homogeous sample may be as goon as 0.15%.

  7. Your Glucose Meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco ... 164KB) En Español Basic Facts 7 Tips for Testing Your Blood Sugar and Caring for Your Meter ...

  8. How big was it? Systematics of 41Ca production in meter-size extraterrestial objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, J.; Dezfouly-Arjomandy, B.; Lawn, B.; Middleton, R.; Fink, D.; Albrecht, A.; Herzog, G.; Vogt, S.

    1992-01-01

    41 Ca, produced in the iron phase of meteorites by high-energy proton initiated nuclear spallation, has a saturation value of ∼24 dpm/kg-Fe and a concentration that varies only slowly with depth. In the stone phase, 41 Ca is produced by thermal neutron capture, 40 Ca(n,γ) 41 Ca, and the saturation value is expected to be ∼2,000 dpm/kg-Ca. Because neutrons are produced at high energy and must pass through about two meters of material to thermalize, 41 Ca concentrations in the stone phase depend critically on the size of the meteorite during irradiation, and vary as function of sample location. Using accelerator mass spectrometry, the authors have measured 41 Ca in the long core from the Moon collected during Apollo 15, in metallic and stone separates in Jilin, and in several mesosiderites. A framework for interpreting these results in terms of the pre-atmospheric sizes of meteorites is presented

  9. Development of a calibration methodology and tests of kerma area product meters; Desenvolvimento de uma metodologia de calibracao e testes de medidores de produto Kerma-Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Nathalia Almeida

    2013-07-01

    The quantity kerma area product (PKA) is important to establish reference levels in diagnostic radiology exams. This quantity can be obtained using a PKA meter. The use of such meters is essential to evaluate the radiation dose in radiological procedures and is a good indicator to make sure that the dose limit to the patient's skin doesn't exceed. Sometimes, these meters come fixed to X radiation equipment, which makes its calibration difficult. In this work, it was developed a methodology for calibration of PKA meters. The instrument used for this purpose was the Patient Dose Calibrator (PDC). It was developed to be used as a reference to check the calibration of PKA and air kerma meters that are used for dosimetry in patients and to verify the consistency and behavior of systems of automatic exposure control. Because it is a new equipment, which, in Brazil, is not yet used as reference equipment for calibration, it was also performed the quality control of this equipment with characterization tests, the calibration and an evaluation of the energy dependence. After the tests, it was proved that the PDC can be used as a reference instrument and that the calibration must be performed in situ, so that the characteristics of each X-ray equipment, where the PKA meters are used, are considered. The calibration was then performed with portable PKA meters and in an interventional radiology equipment that has a PKA meter fixed. The results were good and it was proved the need for calibration of these meters and the importance of in situ calibration with a reference meter. (author)

  10. Charge Meter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 19; Issue 4. Charge Meter: Easy Way to Measure Charge and Capacitance: Some Interesting Electrostatic Experiments. M K Raghavendra V Venkataraman. Classroom Volume 19 Issue 4 April 2014 pp 376-390 ...

  11. Portable wireless metering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DiPaola, L [Powtel Monitoring Systems, Inc., Ajax, ON (Canada)

    1996-12-31

    Portable meters were discussed as alternatives to standard billing meters for temporary installations. Current, voltage and power factor at a distribution station were measured to calculate kW and kVAR, using an easy to install product that communicates live readings directly to the existing billing system. A background of situations where temporary metering is a possible alternative to regular meters was presented. Use of electronic, clamp on Electronic Recording Ammeters (ERA) and their drawbacks were discussed. An improved temporary metering solution using FM radio transmission to deliver live data to a receiving device, the Eagle Series 3500, was introduced. Improvements over previous ERA systems were discussed, including accuracy, lack of batteries, immediate confirmation of functionality, current, voltage and power factor monitoring, direct feed to billing system, line crew savings, need for only a single unit at any given site, bi-directional power flow metering, independent report storage media, and a portable voltage and P.F. diagnostic tool. Details of trial applications at the Utopia distribution station west of Barrie, ON were presented. This technology was said to be still in the testing stage, but its flexibility and economy were sonsidered to be very promising for future application.

  12. Advanced Metering Infrastructure based on Smart Meters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Hiroshi

    By specifically designating penetrations rates of advanced meters and communication technologies, devices and systems, this paper introduces that the penetration of advanced metering is important for the future development of electric power system infrastructure. It examines the state of the technology and the economical benefits of advanced metering. One result of the survey is that advanced metering currently has a penetration of about six percent of total installed electric meters in the United States. Applications to the infrastructure differ by type of organization. Being integrated with emerging communication technologies, smart meters enable several kinds of features such as, not only automatic meter reading but also distribution management control, outage management, remote switching, etc.

  13. Dose reduction according to the exposure condition in intervention procedure: Focus on the change of dose area and image quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Jun Ho; Jung, Ku Min; Lee, Kyung Bae [Dept. of Radiology, Kyunghee University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyun Soo; Kang, Byung Sam [Dept. of Radiological Technology, Shingu University, Seungnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-09-15

    The purpose of this study is to suggest a method to reduce the dose by Analyzing the dose area product (DAP) and image quality according to the change of tube current using NEMA Phantom. The spatial resolution and low contrast resolution were used as evaluation criteria in addition to signal to noise ratio (SNR) and contrast to noise ratio (CNR), which are important image quality parameters of intervention. Tube voltage was fixed at 80 kVp and the amount of tube current was changed to 20, 30, 40, and 50 mAs, and the dose area product and image quality were compared and analyzed. As a result, the dose area product increased from 1066 mGycm2 to 6160 mGycm2 to 6 times as the condition increased, while the spatial resolution and low contrast resolution were higher than 20 mAs and 30 mAs, Spatial resolution and low contrast resolution were observed below the evaluation criteria. In addition, the SNR and CNR increased up to 30 mAs, slightly increased at 40 mAs, but not significantly different from the previous one, and decreased at 50 mAs. As a result, the exposure dose significantly increased due to overexposure of the test conditions and the image quality deteriorated in all areas of spatial resolution, low contrast resolution, SNR and CNR.

  14. An Algorithm for Obtaining the Distribution of 1-Meter Lightning Channel Segment Altitudes for Application in Lightning NOx Production Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Harold; Koshak, William J.

    2009-01-01

    An algorithm has been developed to estimate the altitude distribution of one-meter lightning channel segments. The algorithm is required as part of a broader objective that involves improving the lightning NOx emission inventories of both regional air quality and global chemistry/climate models. The algorithm was tested and applied to VHF signals detected by the North Alabama Lightning Mapping Array (NALMA). The accuracy of the algorithm was characterized by comparing algorithm output to the plots of individual discharges whose lengths were computed by hand; VHF source amplitude thresholding and smoothing were applied to optimize results. Several thousands of lightning flashes within 120 km of the NALMA network centroid were gathered from all four seasons, and were analyzed by the algorithm. The mean, standard deviation, and median statistics were obtained for all the flashes, the ground flashes, and the cloud flashes. One-meter channel segment altitude distributions were also obtained for the different seasons.

  15. Fundamental principles of rotary displacement meters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosen, J. [Schlumberger Industries, Owenton, KY (United States)

    1995-12-01

    The gas meter exists to continually and accurately measure the volume of gas supplied over the complete flow range of the load. In effect the gas meter serves as the {open_quotes}cash register{close_quotes} of the gas industry; its accurate and dependable performance ensures fair dealings for both the supplier and the user. An investment both in and of itself, the gas meter should be chosen as a function of its usefullness both over the short term and the long term. Thus in addition to initial cost, one must take into account various associated factors, costs and benefits, including the following: Design Characteristics Application, suitability, Meter features and options, Operation constraints, Installation, Service and maintenance, Repair and replacement, Life expectancy, Compatibility with complimentary products, Correcting devices, Remote reading capabilities, Data generation and gathering, Upgradeabilty. This paper will look at one positive displacement meter, the Rotary meter, and address the fundamentals principals of the technology as well as looking at some of the benefits derived from its application. Rotary positive displacement meters were introduced at the end of last century. Used primarily for metering transmission sized loads, the meters` measuring capabilities have extended to cover nearly all areas of distribution with exception of domestic applications. Rotary meters are available in rated capacities from 800 cfh to 102,000 cfh and operating pressures from 175 PSIG to 1440 PSIG. The use of rotary meters on load ranges in the 800 to 10,000 cfh category has increased and is replacing the use of diaphragm meters because of the smaller relative size of rotaries, and improvements in rangeabilities in the last few years. Turbine meters are usually the meter of choice on loads over 16,000 cfh unless a meter with high rangeability is required because of varying load characteristics, in which case a large foot mounted rotary might still be selected.

  16. Portable wireless metering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DiPaola, L

    1996-12-31

    Electric utilities often face situations where conventional distribution station billing meters have been removed from service. This paper presents an innovative alternative to traditional solutions to the temporary billing situation such as the use of clamp-on devices called electronic recording ammeters. It examines how Ontario Hydro is measuring current, voltage, and power factor at a distribution station to calculate kilowatts and kVAR using an easy-to-install product that communicates its live readings directly to an existing billing system. The devices used for the measurements can be easily attached to a power line with a hotstick and contain a special core which senses current flow and powers appropriate electronics, which digitizes voltage and current data and transmits it via low-power FM radio for subsequent data storage and processing. The paper includes results of field trials and outlines the advantages of using the device.

  17. 10 CFR 451.7 - Metering requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Metering requirements. 451.7 Section 451.7 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION RENEWABLE ENERGY PRODUCTION INCENTIVES § 451.7 Metering requirements. The net electric energy generated and sold (kilowatt-hours) by the owner or operator of a qualified...

  18. Digital temperature meter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glowacki, S

    1982-01-01

    Digital temperature meter for precise temperature measurements is presented. Its parts such as thermostat, voltage-frequency converter and digital frequency meter are described. Its technical parameters such as temperature range 50degC-700degC, measurement precision 1degC, measurement error +-1degC are given. (A.S.).

  19. Optical cycle power meter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    A bicycle power meter for measuring power generated when riding a bicycle, the power meter comprising a position-sensitive radiation detector (409) attachable to a component of a crank set (404) of bicycle, and a radiation source (408) attachable to the component of the crank set and configured t...

  20. Ultrasonic flow meter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lötters, Joost Conrad; Snijders, G.J.; Volker, A.W.F.

    2014-01-01

    The invention relates to an ultrasonic flow meter comprising a flow tube for the fluid whose flow rate is to be determined. The flow meter comprises a transmitting element for emitting ultrasonic waves, which is provided on the outer jacket of the flow tube. A receiving element, which is provided on

  1. NODC Standard Product: Texas-Louisiana Shelf Circulation and Transport Processes Study: Current Meter, Meteorological Buoy, XBT/XSV/XCP/CTD/IES (NODC Accession 9700319)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This package contains current direction/velocity, water temperature, air temperature, salinity, and other data which were collected using current meter, CTD casts,...

  2. Hydrogen meter prooftesting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCown, J.J.; Mettler, G.W.

    1976-04-01

    Two diffusion type hydrogen meters have been tested on the Prototype Applications Loop (PAL). The ANL designed unit was used to monitor hydrogen in sodium during FFTF startup and over a wide range of hydrogen concentrations resulting from chemical additions to the sodium and cover gas. A commercially available meter was added and its performance compared with the ANL unit. Details of the test work are described

  3. Digital reactivity meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Zongbing

    1996-02-01

    The importance and the usual methods of reactivity measurement in a nuclear reactor are presented. Emphasis is put upon the calculation principle, software and hardware components, main specifications, application, as well as the features of the digital reactivity meter. The test results of operation in various reactors shown that the meter possess the following features: high accuracy, short response time, low output noise, high resolution, wide measuring range, simple and flexible to operate, high stability and reliability. In addition, the reactivity meter can save the measuring data automatically and have a perfect capability of self-verifying. It not only meet the requirement of the reactivity measurement in nuclear power plant, but also can be applied to various types of reactors. (1 tab.)

  4. Digital reactivity meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akkus, B.; Anac, H.; Alsan, S.; Erk, S.

    1991-01-01

    Nowadays, various digital methods making use of microcomputers for neutron detector signals and determining the reactivity by numerical calculations are used in reactor control systems in place of classical reactivity meters. In this work, a calculation based on the ''The Time Dependent Transport Equation'' has been developed for determining the reactivity numerically. The reactivity values have been obtained utilizing a computer-based data acquisition and control system and compared with the analog reactivity meter values as well as the values calculated from the ''Inhour Equation''

  5. Conducted interference on smart meters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keyer, Cornelis H.A.; Leferink, Frank

    2017-01-01

    The increasing conducted interference caused by modern electronic equipment is causing more problems for electronic, or static, energy meters. These meters are called smart meters when equipped with a communication link, and are replacing the conventional electromechanical meters. It is known that

  6. Water velocity meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, C. W.; Smith, D. L.

    1970-01-01

    Simple, inexpensive drag sphere velocity meter with a zero to 6 ft/sec range measures steady-state flow. When combined with appropriate data acquisition system, it is suited to applications where large numbers of simultaneous measurements are needed for current mapping or velocity profile determination.

  7. Carbon activity meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, P.; Krankota, J.L.

    1975-01-01

    A carbon activity meter utilizing an electrochemical carbon cell with gaseous reference electrodes having particular application for measuring carbon activity in liquid sodium for the LMFBR project is described. The electrolyte container is electroplated with a thin gold film on the inside surface thereof, and a reference electrode consisting of CO/CO 2 gas is used. (U.S.)

  8. Digital Receiver Phase Meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcin, Martin; Abramovici, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    The software of a commercially available digital radio receiver has been modified to make the receiver function as a two-channel low-noise phase meter. This phase meter is a prototype in the continuing development of a phase meter for a system in which radiofrequency (RF) signals in the two channels would be outputs of a spaceborne heterodyne laser interferometer for detecting gravitational waves. The frequencies of the signals could include a common Doppler-shift component of as much as 15 MHz. The phase meter is required to measure the relative phases of the signals in the two channels at a sampling rate of 10 Hz at a root power spectral density measurements in laser metrology of moving bodies. To illustrate part of the principle of operation of the phase meter, the figure includes a simplified block diagram of a basic singlechannel digital receiver. The input RF signal is first fed to the input terminal of an analog-to-digital converter (ADC). To prevent aliasing errors in the ADC, the sampling rate must be at least twice the input signal frequency. The sampling rate of the ADC is governed by a sampling clock, which also drives a digital local oscillator (DLO), which is a direct digital frequency synthesizer. The DLO produces samples of sine and cosine signals at a programmed tuning frequency. The sine and cosine samples are mixed with (that is, multiplied by) the samples from the ADC, then low-pass filtered to obtain in-phase (I) and quadrature (Q) signal components. A digital signal processor (DSP) computes the ratio between the Q and I components, computes the phase of the RF signal (relative to that of the DLO signal) as the arctangent of this ratio, and then averages successive such phase values over a time interval specified by the user.

  9. Gamma absorption meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dincklage, R.D. von.

    1984-01-01

    The absorption meter consists of a radiation source, a trough for the absorbing liquid and a detector. It is characterized by the fact that there is a foil between the detector and the trough, made of a material whose binding energy of the K electrons is a little greater than the energy of the photons emitted by the radiation source. The source of radiation and foil are replaceable. (orig./HP) [de

  10. MULTICHANNEL DISTRIBUTION METER: A VERITABLE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    Usually, commercial home owners preferred the installation of one or few .... communication (GSM) based solution were presented. The authors ... meters. The proposed meters in their work uses .... The most probable data entry component to ...

  11. Metering Plan: Intelligent Operational Strategies Through Enhanced Metering Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pope, Jason E.

    2016-07-27

    The Sustainability Program at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has adopted a “triple-bottom-line” approach of environmental stewardship, social responsibility, and economic prosperity to its operations. Metering at PNNL works in support of all three, specifically to measure and inform building energy use and greenhouse gas emissions and minimize water use. The foundation for metering at PNNL is a core goal set, which consists of four objectives: providing accurate data without interruption, analyzing data while it is still new, providing actionable recommendations to operations management, and ensuring PNNL’s compliance with contract metering requirements. These core objectives guide the decisions that we make during annual planning and as we operate throughout the year. This 2016 edition of the Metering Plan conveys the metering practices for and vision of the Sustainability Program. Changes in this plan from the 2015 edition include updated tables and an enhanced discussion on energy tracking systems used at PNNL. This plan also discusses updated benchmarking strategies using PNNL’s graphics and analytics tool, BuildingOS by Lucid Design Group. This plan presents our progress toward the metering goals shared by all federal agencies and highlights our successful completion of metering requirements. Currently, PNNL is fully compliant with the applicable legislative and Executive Order metering requirements. PNNL’s approach to the installation of new meters will be discussed. Perhaps most importantly, this plan details the analysis techniques utilized at PNNL that rely on the endless streams of data newly available as a result of increased meter deployment over the last several years. Previous Metering Plans have documented specific meter connection schemes as PNNL focused on deploying meters in a first step toward managing energy and water use. This plan serves not only to highlight PNNL’s successful completion of agency metering goals, but

  12. Streamlining Smart Meter Data Analytics

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Xiufeng; Nielsen, Per Sieverts

    2015-01-01

    Today smart meters are increasingly used in worldwide. Smart meters are the advanced meters capable of measuring customer energy consumption at a fine-grained time interval, e.g., every 15 minutes. The data are very sizable, and might be from different sources, along with the other social-economic metrics such as the geographic information of meters, the information about users and their property, geographic location and others, which make the data management very complex. On the other hand, ...

  13. Second malignancies in high-dose areas of previous tumor radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welte, Birgitta; Suhr, Peter; Bottke, Dirk; Bartkowiak, Detlef; Wiegel, Thomas [Dept. of Radiotherapy and Radiation Oncology, Univ. of Ulm (Germany); Doerr, Wolfgang [Dept. of Radiotherapy and Radiation Oncology, Radiobiology Lab., Univ. of Technology Dresden (Germany); Trott, Klaus Ruediger [UCL Cancer Centre, Univ. Coll. London (United Kingdom)

    2010-03-15

    Purpose: To characterize second tumors that developed in or near the high-dose areas of a previous radiotherapy, regarding their frequency, entities, latency, and dose dependence. Patients and Methods: 9,995/15,449 tumor patients of the Radiation Oncology Department in Ulm, Germany, treated between 1981 and 2003, survived at least 1 year after radiotherapy. By long-term follow-up and review of treatment documentation, 100 of them were identified who developed an independent second cancer in or near the irradiated first tumor site. Results: Major primary malignancies were breast cancer (27%), lymphoma (24%), and pelvic gynecologic tumors (17%). Main second tumors were carcinomas of the upper (18%) and lower (12%) gastrointestinal tract, head and neck tumors (10%), lymphoma (10%), breast cancer (9%), sarcoma (9%), and lung cancer (8%). Overall median second tumor latency was 7.4 years (1-42 years). For colorectal cancer it was 3.5 and for leukemia 4.3 years, but for sarcoma 11.7 and for breast cancer 17.1 years. The relatively frequent second tumors of the upper gastrointestinal tract were associated with median radiation doses of 24 Gy. By contrast, second colorectal cancer and sarcoma developed after median doses of 50 Gy. Conclusion: The 5- and 15-year probability to develop a histopathologically independent second tumor in or near the irradiated first tumor site, i.e., after intermediate or high radiation doses, was 0.5% and 2.2%, respectively. To identify potentially radiogenic second malignancies, a follow-up far beyond 5 years is mandatory. The incidence and potential dose-response relationship intermediate will be analyzed by a case-case and a case-control study of the Ulm data. (orig.)

  14. Smart meter incorporating UWB technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khan, T.A.; Khan, A.B.; Babar, M.; Taj, T.A.

    2014-01-01

    Smart Meter is a key element in the evolving concept of Smart Grid, which plays an important role in interaction between the consumer and the supplier. In general, the smart meter is an intelligent digital energy meter that measures the consumption of electrical energy and provides other additional

  15. Smart metering design and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Weranga, K S K; Chandima, D P

    2013-01-01

    Taking into account the present day trends and the requirements, this Brief focuses on smart metering of electricity for next generation energy efficiency and conservation. The contents include discussions on the smart metering concepts and existing technologies and systems as well as design and implementation of smart metering schemes together with detailed examples.

  16. Net metering: zero electricity bill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangi, A.; Khan, Z.

    2011-01-01

    Worldwide move towards renewable energy sources, environmental concerns and decentralization of the power sector have made net metering an attractive option for power generation at small scale. This paper discusses the net metering, economical issues of renewable sources in Pakistan, technical aspects, installation suitability according to varying terrain, existing utility rules and formulation of legislation for net metering making it economically attractive. (author)

  17. Good standards for smart meters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoenkamp, R.A.; Huitema, G.B.

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines what lessons can be learned from the rollout of smart meters in the Netherlands to improve the European smart meter standardization. This study is based on the case of the Dutch meter rollout which preparations started in 2005 but finally was delayed until 2011 by governmental

  18. A radon meter chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsson, R.

    1990-01-01

    The meter consists of a cylindrical house with two openings, at the ends, one of which is equipped with an alpha particle detector and the other covered with a metal net. The house is manufactured in an isolating material e.g. plastic, with a metallic layer applied to all internal surfaces. The metallic layer and net are kept at a positive electric potential, compared to the alpha detector, in order to attract the radon daughters to the detector and achieve a high efficiency. (L.E.)

  19. GAS METERING PUMP

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, C.M.

    1957-12-31

    A liquid piston gas pump is described, capable of pumping minute amounts of gas in accurately measurable quantities. The pump consists of a flanged cylindrical regulating chamber and a mercury filled bellows. Sealed to the ABSTRACTS regulating chamber is a value and having a gas inlet and outlet, the inlet being connected by a helical channel to the bellows. A gravity check valve is in the gas outlet, so the gas passes through the inlet and the helical channel to the bellows where the pumping action as well as the metering is accomplished by the actuation of the mercury filled bellows. The gas then flows through the check valve and outlet to any associated apparatus.

  20. Radiation dose rate meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kronenberg, S.; Siebentritt, C.R.

    1981-01-01

    A combined dose rate meter and charger unit therefor which does not require the use of batteries but on the other hand produces a charging potential by means of a piezoelectric cylinder which is struck by a manually triggered hammer mechanism. A tubular type electrometer is mounted in a portable housing which additionally includes a geiger-muller (Gm) counter tube and electronic circuitry coupled to the electrometer for providing multi-mode operation. In one mode of operation, an rc circuit of predetermined time constant is connected to a storage capacitor which serves as a timed power source for the gm tube, providing a measurement in terms of dose rate which is indicated by the electrometer. In another mode, the electrometer indicates individual counts

  1. Household Classification Using Smart Meter Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carroll Paula

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This article describes a project conducted in conjunction with the Central Statistics Office of Ireland in response to a planned national rollout of smart electricity metering in Ireland. We investigate how this new data source might be used for the purpose of official statistics production. This study specifically looks at the question of determining household composition from electricity smart meter data using both Neural Networks (a supervised machine learning approach and Elastic Net Logistic regression. An overview of both classification techniques is given. Results for both approaches are presented with analysis. We find that the smart meter data alone is limited in its capability to distinguish between household categories but that it does provide some useful insights.

  2. Properties of cellulose triacetate dose meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamura, N.; Tanaka, R.; Mitomo, S.; Matsuda, K.; Nagai, S.

    1981-01-01

    Several clear plastics and dyed plastics are commercially available for dosimetry in intense radiation field, especially for radiation processing applications. Among these dose meters cellulose triacetate (CTA) dose meter has two advantages for routine uses; (1) it has linear response in mega-rad dose region and (2) the main product form is long tape. However, the manufacture of Numelec CTA film so far used had been discontinued, and for this reason we developed a new film for dosimetry uses. To determine the manufacturing conditions of the film, we examined the influence of additives, triphenylphosphate (TPP) and others, and film thickness on the dosimetric properties, since these two conditions remarkably influence the sensitivity of the dose meter. It is necessary for the reliability of plastic dose meters that the radiation induced colorations should be understood as radiation chemical processes. In this paper we describe the determination of the manufacturing conditions of the new film, the feature of the new dose meter, and the coloration mechanism. (author)

  3. Multiphase flow metering: 4 years on

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falcone, G.; Hewitt, G.F.; Alimonti, C.; Harrison, B.

    2005-07-01

    Since the authors' last review in 2001 [1], the use of Multiphase Flow Metering (MFM) within the oil and gas industry continues to grow apace, being more popular in some parts of the world than others. Since the early 1990's, when the first commercial meters started to appear, there have been more than 1,600 field applications of MFM for field allocation, production optimisation and mobile well testing. As the authors predicted, wet gas metering technology has improved to such an extent that its use has rapidly increased worldwide. A ''who's who'' of the MFM sector is provided, which highlights the mergers in the sector and gives an insight into the meters and measurement principles available today. Cost estimates, potential benefits and reliability in the field of the current MFM technologies are revisited and brought up to date. Several measurements technologies have resurfaced, such as passive acoustic energy patterns, infrared wavelengths, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and Electrical Capacitance Tomography (ECT), and they are becoming commercial. The concept of ''virtual metering'', integrated with ''classical MFM'', is now widely accepted. However, sometimes the principles of the MFM measurements themselves are forgotten, submerged in the sales and marketing hype. (author) (tk)

  4. Calibration of reference KAP-meters at SSDL and cross calibration of clinical KAP-meters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hetland, Per O.; Friberg, Eva G.; Oevreboe, Kirsti M.; Bjerke, Hans H.

    2009-01-01

    In the summer of 2007 the secondary standard dosimetry laboratory (SSDL) in Norway established a calibration service for reference air-kerma product meter (KAP-meter). The air-kerma area product, PKA, is a dosimetric quantity that can be directly related to the patient dose and used for risk assessment associated with different x-ray examinations. The calibration of reference KAP-meters at the SSDL gives important information on parameters influencing the calibration factor for different types of KAP-meters. The use of reference KAP-meters calibrated at the SSDL is an easy and reliable way to calibrate or verify the PKA indicated by the x-ray equipment out in the clinics. Material and methods. Twelve KAP-meters were calibrated at the SSDL by use of the substitution method at five diagnostic radiation qualities (RQRs). Results. The calibration factors varied from 0.94 to 1.18. The energy response of the individual KAP-meters varied by a total of 20% between the different RQRs and the typical chamber transmission factors ranged from 0.78 to 0.91. Discussion. It is important to use a calibrated reference KAP-meter and a harmonised calibration method in the PKA calibration in hospitals. The obtained uncertainty in the PKA readings is comparable with other calibration methods if the information in the calibration certificate is correct used, corrections are made and proper positioning of the KAP-chamber is performed. This will ensure a reliable estimate of the patient dose and a proper optimisation of conventional x-ray examinations and interventional procedures

  5. How to use your peak flow meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... meter - how to use; Asthma - peak flow meter; Reactive airway disease - peak flow meter; Bronchial asthma - peak ... 2014:chap 55. National Asthma Education and Prevention Program website. How to use a peak flow meter. ...

  6. Micro-gen metering solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elland, J.; Dickson, J.; Cranfield, P.

    2003-07-01

    This report summarises the results of a project to investigate the regulation of domestic electricity metering work and identify the most economic options for micro-generator installers to undertake work on electricity meters. A micro-generation unit is defined as an energy conversion system converting non-electrical energy into electrical energy and can include technologies such as photovoltaic systems, small-scale wind turbines, micro-hydroelectric systems, and combined heat and power systems. Details of six tasks are given and cover examination of the existing framework and legal documentation for metering work, the existing technical requirements for meter operators, meter operator personnel accreditation, appraisal of options for meter changes and for micro-generation installation, document change procedures, industry consultation, and a review of the costs implications of the options.

  7. Monitoring 2009 Forest Disturbance Across the Conterminous United States, Based on Near-Real Time and Historical MODIS 250 Meter NDVI Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruce, J.; Hargrove, W. W.; Gasser, G.; Smoot, J. C.; Kuper, P.

    2009-01-01

    This case study shows the promise of computing current season forest disturbance detection products at regional to CONUS scales. Use of the eMODIS expedited product enabled a NRT CONUS forest disturbance detection product, a requirement for an eventual, operational forest threat EWS. The 2009 classification product from this study can be used to quantify the areal extent of forest disturbance across CONUS, although a quantitative accuracy assessment still needs to be completed. However, the results would not include disturbances that occurred after July 27, such as the Station Fire. While not shown here, the project also produced maximum NDVI products for the June 10-July 27 period of each year of the 2000-2009 time frame. These products could be applied to compute forest change products on an annual basis. GIS could then be used to assess disturbance persistence. Such follow-on work could lead to attribution of year in which a disturbance occurred. These products (e.g., Figures 6 and 7) may also be useful for assessing forest change associated with climate change, such as carbon losses from bark beetle-induced forest mortality in the Western United States. Other MODIS phenological products are being assessed for aiding forest monitoring needs of the EWS, including cumulative NDVI products (Figure 10).

  8. Research on Operation Assessment Method for Energy Meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiangqun; Huang, Rui; Shen, Liman; chen, Hao; Xiong, Dezhi; Xiao, Xiangqi; Liu, Mouhai; Xu, Renheng

    2018-03-01

    The existing electric energy meter rotation maintenance strategy regularly checks the electric energy meter and evaluates the state. It only considers the influence of time factors, neglects the influence of other factors, leads to the inaccuracy of the evaluation, and causes the waste of resources. In order to evaluate the running state of the electric energy meter in time, a method of the operation evaluation of the electric energy meter is proposed. The method is based on extracting the existing data acquisition system, marketing business system and metrology production scheduling platform that affect the state of energy meters, and classified into error stability, operational reliability, potential risks and other factors according to the influencing factors, based on the above basic test score, inspecting score, monitoring score, score of family defect detection. Then, according to the evaluation model according to the scoring, we evaluate electric energy meter operating state, and finally put forward the corresponding maintenance strategy of rotation.

  9. A Method of Evaluating Operation of Electric Energy Meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiangqun; Li, Tianyang; Cao, Fei; Chu, Pengfei; Zhao, Xinwang; Huang, Rui; Liu, Liping; Zhang, Chenglin

    2018-05-01

    The existing electric energy meter rotation maintenance strategy regularly checks the electric energy meter and evaluates the state. It only considers the influence of time factors, neglects the influence of other factors, leads to the inaccuracy of the evaluation, and causes the waste of resources. In order to evaluate the running state of the electric energy meter in time, a method of the operation evaluation of the electric energy meter is proposed. The method is based on extracting the existing data acquisition system, marketing business system and metrology production scheduling platform that affect the state of energy meters, and classified into error stability, operational reliability, potential risks and other factors according to the influencing factors, based on the above basic test score, inspecting score, monitoring score, score of family defect detection. Then, according to the evaluation model according to the scoring, we evaluate electric energy meter operating state, and finally put forward the corresponding maintenance strategy of rotation.

  10. 77 FR 40586 - Draft NIST Interagency Report (NISTIR) 7823, Advanced Metering Infrastructure Smart Meter...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-10

    ...-01] Draft NIST Interagency Report (NISTIR) 7823, Advanced Metering Infrastructure Smart Meter... Technology (NIST) seeks comments on Draft NISTIR 7823, Advanced Metering Infrastructure Smart Meter... conformance test requirements for the firmware upgradeability process for the Advanced Metering Infrastructure...

  11. Evaluation of patient radiation doses using DAP meter in interventional radiology procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Byung Sam [Dept. of Radiological Technology. Shingu University, Sungnam (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Yong Su [Dept. of Health Sciences, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu Univeristy, Kyushu (Japan)

    2017-03-15

    The author investigated interventional radiology patient doses in several other countries, assessed accuracy of DAP meters embedded in intervention equipment in domestic country, conducted measurement of patient doses for 13 major interventional procedures with use of Dose Area Product(DAP) meters from 23 hospitals in Korea, and referred to 8,415 cases of domestic data related to interventional procedures by radiation exposure after evaluation the actual effective of dose reduction variables through phantom test. Finally, dose reference level for major interventional procedures was suggested. In this study, guidelines for patient doses were 237.7 Gy·cm{sup 2} in TACE, 17.3 Gy·cm{sup 2} in AVF, 114.1 Gy·cm{sup 2} in LE PTA and STENT, 188.5 Gy·cm{sup 2} in TFCA, 383.5 Gy·cm{sup 2} in Aneurysm Coil, 64.6 Gy·cm{sup 2} in PTBD, 64.6 Gy·cm{sup 2} in Biliary Stent, 22.4 Gy·cm{sup 2} in PCN, 4.3 Gy·cm{sup 2} in Hickman, 2.8 Gy·cm{sup 2} in Chemo-port, 4.4 Gy·cm{sup 2} in Perm-Cather, 17.1 Gy·cm{sup 2} in PCD, and 357.9 Gy·cm{sup 2} in Vis, EMB. Dose reference level acquired in this study is considered to be able to use as minimal guidelines for reducing patient dose in the interventional radiology procedures. For the changes and advances of materials and development of equipment and procedures in the interventional radiology procedures, further studies and monitoring are needed on dose reference level Korean DAP dose conversion factor for the domestic procedures.

  12. Metering apparatus and tariffs for electricity supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    Conference papers presented cover system economies and tariff structure with papers on pricing of electricity and new metering technologies. Other topics reviewed include metering apparatus design, electronic metering apparatus and solid phase metering technology. Meter data retrieval, bulk supply metering, test equipment and maintenance, and legal requirements and standards are discussed. (author)

  13. Digital reactivity meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copie, M.; Valantic, B.

    1978-01-01

    Digital reactivity meters (DRM) are mostly used as measuring instruments, e.g. for calibration of control rods, and there are only a few cases of their incorporation into the control systems of the reactors. To move in this direction there is more development work needed. First of all, fast algorithms are needed for inverse kinetics equations to relieve the computer for more important tasks of reactor model solving in real time. The next problem, currently under investigation, is the incorporation of the reactor thermal-hydraulic model into the DRM so that it can be used in the power range. Such an extension of DHM allows presentation not only of the instantaneous reactivity of the system, but also the inserted reactivity can be estimated from the temperature reactivity feed-backs. One of the applications of this concept is the anomalous digital reactivity monitor (ADRN) as part of the reactor protection system. As a solution of the first problem, a fast algorithm for solving the inverse kinetics equations has been implemented in the off-line program RODCAL on CDC 1700 computer and tested for its accuracy by performing different control rod calibrations on the reactor TRIGA

  14. Streamlining Smart Meter Data Analytics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiufeng; Nielsen, Per Sieverts

    2015-01-01

    of the so-called big data possible. This can improve energy management, e.g., help utilities improve the management of energy and services, and help customers save money. As this regard, the paper focuses on building an innovative software solution to streamline smart meter data analytic, aiming at dealing......Today smart meters are increasingly used in worldwide. Smart meters are the advanced meters capable of measuring customer energy consumption at a fine-grained time interval, e.g., every 15 minutes. The data are very sizable, and might be from different sources, along with the other social......-economic metrics such as the geographic information of meters, the information about users and their property, geographic location and others, which make the data management very complex. On the other hand, data-mining and the emerging cloud computing technologies make the collection, management, and analysis...

  15. Smart metering - energy data management at every meter point; Smart Metering - Energiedatenmanagement an jedem Zaehlpunkt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller-Giessbach, D.; Kiel, E. [LogicaCMG, Muenchen (Germany)

    2007-09-15

    The demise of monopolistic structures in the German energy market has also led to a change of perspective on metering. New requirements have to be met. Even in mass processing jobs such as meter reading it is no longer sufficient to simply read consumption data off a technically reliable meter or have customers do this themselves in preparation of billing. Currently used meters were not designed with a mind to demand management, environmental protection through energy conservation, changes in consumer behaviour or new service offers. This has been recognised in many European countries since the beginning of the present decade. The traditional task of metering is developing into a more comprehensive energy data management that takes account of the needs of customers, energy suppliers and regulatory requirements.

  16. Beyond revenue metering -- a new age for automatic meter reading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chebra, R. J. [RJC Consulting L.L.C., PQ (Canada)

    2002-10-01

    Advanced metering, data management, and communications possibilities of automated meter reading are explored. Applications in the area of demand side management, including load reduction, peak shaving and load shifting, new tariff structures based on the 'time of use incentive/penalty' approach, and information grade metering are emphasized. Based on trends and expectations, it is predicted that AMR will continue to experience rapid growth and deployment as new services are made available to the mass market. For example, technological advances will enable the industry to make 'time of use metering ' more attractive and beneficial to residential consumers, and embedded intelligence will make it possible to achieve more holistic energy environments.

  17. Theoretical innovation and technical progress will usher in a production period of gas fields with an annual capacity of ten billion cubic meters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenwei Gan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Challenged by the increasing complexity of targets and the tense situation of turning losses into profits during the 12th Five-Year Plan, by virtue of technological innovation, Sinopec Southwest Oil & Gas Company proposed the theories of gas exploration in continental clastic rock and marine carbonate rock, and developed the development technologies for reef, channel sandstone and tight sandstone reservoirs. Moreover, it innovatively formed a series of engineering technologies, including intelligent sliding sleeve staged fracturing, blasting–packing–fracturing stimulation, impulse fracturing, and drilling, completion and production technologies for ultra-deep horizontal wells with high sulfur contents. With these innovated theories and improved technologies, great discoveries have been made in the continental clastic rocks and marine carbonate rocks in West Sichuan Basin, the marine shale in South Sichuan Basin, and the marine carbonate rocks in Yuanba area of NE Sichuan Basin, and three 100 billion-m3 class commercial gas reserves zones were discovered. Moreover, two medium- and large-sized gas fields were proved, and three medium- and large-sized gas fields were completely constructed. Both reserves and production reached a new record in history. During the 13th Five-Year Plan, Sinopec Southwest Oil & Gas Company will focus on the exploration and development of deep marine carbonate reservoirs, commercial development of deep shale gas, safe development of gas fields with high sulfur, and enhancement of recovery in mature gas fields. By the end of the 13th Five-Year Plan, it is expected that the annual gas production of (10–12 × 109 m3 will be achieved.

  18. Standardization of 123I and 18F for providing traceability of activity meters performed in the Radiopharmaceutical Production Service of the Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear, RJ, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, E.A.L.; Delgado, J.U.; Iwahara, A.; Contic, C.C.

    2013-01-01

    The commercialization and use of radiopharmaceuticals in Brazil are regulated by Sanitary Vigilance National Agency which requiring Good Manufacturing Practices certification for all segments within the Nuclear Medicine. Quality Assurance Programmes should implement the standard requirements to ensure that radiopharmaceuticals have requirements quality to proving its efficiency. Several aspects should be controlled, and one of them is the traceability of the Radionuclides Activity Measurement in radiopharmaceuticals doses. This paper aims to provide traceability to dose calibrators (well type ionization chambers) used for 123 I and 18 F activity measurements in Radiopharmaceuticals Production Service placed in Institute of Nuclear Engineering, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil. (author)

  19. Automated borehole gravity meter system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lautzenhiser, Th.V.; Wirtz, J.D.

    1984-01-01

    An automated borehole gravity meter system for measuring gravity within a wellbore. The gravity meter includes leveling devices for leveling the borehole gravity meter, displacement devices for applying forces to a gravity sensing device within the gravity meter to bring the gravity sensing device to a predetermined or null position. Electronic sensing and control devices are provided for (i) activating the displacement devices, (ii) sensing the forces applied to the gravity sensing device, (iii) electronically converting the values of the forces into a representation of the gravity at the location in the wellbore, and (iv) outputting such representation. The system further includes electronic control devices with the capability of correcting the representation of gravity for tidal effects, as well as, calculating and outputting the formation bulk density and/or porosity

  20. BCM6: New Generation of Boron Meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirat, P.

    2010-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Rolls-Royce has developed a new generation of boron meter, based on more than 30 years of experience. The Rolls-Royce BCM6 boron meter provides Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) operators with the boron concentration of the primary circuit. The meter provides continuous and safe measurements with no manual sampling and no human contact. In this paper, technical features, advantages and customer benefits of the use of the new generation of Rolls-Royce BCM6 boron meter will be detailed. Values and associated alarms are provides over different media: 4-20 mA outputs, relays, displays in the main control room and in the chemical lab, and digital links. A special alarm avoids unexpected homogeneous dilution of the primary circuit, which is a critical operational parameter. The Rolls-Royce BCM6 boron meter is fully configurable over a set of parameters allowing adaptation to customer needs. It has a differential capability, thus eliminating neutronic noise and keeping measurements accurate, even in the case of fuel clad rupture. Measurements are accurate, reliable, and have a quick response time. Equipment meets state-of-the-art qualification requests. Designed in 2008, the BCM6 boron meter is the newest equipment of Rolls-Royce boron meters product line. It has been chosen to equip the French EPR NPP and complies with the state-of-the-art of the technology. Rolls-Royce has more than 30 years of experience in Instrumentation and Controls with more than 75 NPP units operating worldwide. All of this experience return has been put in this new generation of equipment to provide the customer with the best operation. About Rolls-Royce Rolls-Royce is a global business providing integrated power systems for use on land, at sea and in the air. The Group has a balanced business portfolio with leading market positions. Rolls-Royce has a broad range of civil nuclear expertise, including work related to licensing and safety reviews, engineering design

  1. Liquid ultrasonic flow meters for crude oil measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalivoda, Raymond J.; Lunde, Per

    2005-07-01

    Liquid ultrasonic flow meters (LUFMs) are gaining popularity for the accurate measurement of petroleum products. In North America the first edition of the API standard ''Measurement of liquid hydrocarbons by ultrasonic flow meters using transit time technology'' was issued in February 2005. It addresses both refined petroleum products and crude oil applications. Its field of application is mainly custody transfer applications but it does provide general guidelines for the installation and operation of LUFM's other applications such as allocation, check meters and leak detection. As with all new technologies performance claims are at times exaggerated or misunderstood and application knowledge is limited. Since ultrasonic meters have no moving parts they appear to have fewer limitations than other liquid flow meters. Liquids ultrasonic flow meters, like turbine meters, are sensitive to fluid properties. It is increasingly more difficult to apply on high viscosity products then on lighter hydrocarbon products. Therefore application data or experience on the measurement of refined or light crude oil may not necessarily be transferred to measuring medium to heavy crude oils. Before better and more quantitative knowledge is available on how LUFMs react on different fluids, the arguments advocating reduced need for in-situ proving and increased dependency on laboratory flow calibration (e.g. using water instead of hydrocarbons) may be questionable. The present paper explores the accurate measurement of crude oil with liquid ultrasonic meters. It defines the unique characteristics of the different API grades of crude oils and how they can affect the accuracy of the liquid ultrasonic measurement. Flow testing results using a new LUFM design are discussed. The paper is intended to provide increased insight into the potentials and limitations of crude oil measurement using ultrasonic flow meters. (author) (tk)

  2. Downhole multiphase metering in wells by means of soft-sensing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leskens, M.; Kruif, B. de; Belfroid, S.P.C.; Smeulers, J.P.M.; Gryzlov, A.

    2008-01-01

    Multiphase flow meters are indispensable tools for achieving optimal operation and control of wells as these meters deliver real-time information about their performance. For example, multiphase flow meters located downhole can improve the production of multilateral and multizone wells by timely

  3. Doses monitoring in radiology: calibration of air kerma-area product (P{sub KA}) meters; Monitoracao de doses em radiologia: a calibracao de medidores do produto kerma-area (P{sub KA})

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terini, Ricardo Andrade; Campelo, Maria Carolina de Santana; Almeida Junior, Jose Neres de, E-mail: rterini@pucsp.br [Pontificia Universidade Catolica de Sao Paulo (PUC-SP), SP (Brazil); Herdade, Silvio Bruni; Pereira, Marco Aurelio Guedes [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IEE/USP), SP (Brazil). Instituto de Energia e Ambiente

    2013-11-15

    Materials and methods: different qualities of both incident and transmitted beams were utilized in conditions similar to a clinical setting, analyzing the influence from the reference dosimeter, from the distance between meters, from the filtration and from the average beam energy. Calibrations were performed directly against a standard 30 cm{sup 3} cylindrical chamber or a parallel-plate monitor chamber, and indirectly against the PDC meter. Results: the lowest energy dependence was observed for transmitted beams. The cross calibration between the Diamentor E2 and the PDC meters, and the PDC presented the greatest propagation of uncertainties. Conclusion: the calibration coefficient of the PDC meter showed to be more stable with voltage, while the Diamentor E2 calibration coefficient was more variable. On the other hand, the PDC meter presented greater uncertainty in readings (5.0%) than with the use of the monitor chamber (3.5%) as a reference. (author)

  4. Smart metering - new possibilities for energy distribution in the mass customer sector; Smart Metering - neue Moeglichkeiten fuer den Energievertrieb im Massenkundenbereich

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haller, T. [Simon-Kucher aand Partners GmbH, Wien (Austria); Hoffmann, S.O.; Rentschler, M.D. [Simon-Kucher and Partners Strategy and Marketing Consultants GmbH, Bonn (Germany)

    2008-06-15

    As a result of the liberalisation of gas and electricity metering procedures energy suppliers are more and more turning their attention to innovative and intelligent metering techniques. Smart Metering allows energy suppliers to improve their metering processes while at the same time responding better to their customers' needs. These developments are also opening up new sales opportunities because intelligent meters facilitate the launch of new products in the mass customer sector. There is therefore much in favour of looking at this topic in greater detail.

  5. One billion cubic meters of gas produced in Kikinda area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vicicevic, M; Duric, N

    1969-10-01

    The Kikinda gas reservoir has just passed a milestone in producing one billion cubic meters of natural gas. The reservoir was discovered in 1962, and its present production amounts to 26 million cu m. One of the biggest problems was formation of hydrates, which has successfully been solved by using methanol. Four tables show production statistics by years and productive formations.

  6. Low Cost Digital Vibration Meter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, W Vance; Geist, Jon

    2007-01-01

    This report describes the development of a low cost, digital Micro Electro Mechanical System (MEMS) vibration meter that reports an approximation to the RMS acceleration of the vibration to which the vibration meter is subjected. The major mechanical element of this vibration meter is a cantilever beam, which is on the order of 500 µm in length, with a piezoresistor deposited at its base. Vibration of the device in the plane perpendicular to the cantilever beam causes it to bend, which produces a measurable change in the resistance of a piezoresistor. These changes in resistance along with a unique signal-processing scheme are used to determine an approximation to the RMS acceleration sensed by the device.

  7. Smart Metering System for Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palacios-Garcia, Emilio; Guan, Yajuan; Savaghebi, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    suppliers, but they can also play a big role in the control of the Microgrid since the recorded power and energy profiles can be integrated in energy management systems (EMS). In addition, basic power quality (PQ) disturbance can de detected and reported by some advanced metering systems. Thus, this paper...... will expose an example of Smart Meters integration in a Microgrid scenario, which is the Intelligent Microgrid Lab of Aalborg University (AAU). To do this, first the installation available in the Microgrid Lab will be introduced. Then, three different test scenarios and their respective results...... will be presented, regarding the capabilities of this system and the advantages of integration the Smart Meters information in the Microgrid control....

  8. Arduino based radiation survey meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, Nur Aira Abd; Lombigit, Lojius; Abdullah, Nor Arymaswati; Azman, Azraf; Dolah, Taufik; Jaafar, Zainudin; Mohamad, Glam Hadzir Patai; Ramli, Abd Aziz Mhd; Zain, Rasif Mohd; Said, Fazila; Khalid, Mohd Ashhar; Taat, Muhamad Zahidee; Muzakkir, Amir

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the design of new digital radiation survey meter with LND7121 Geiger Muller tube detector and Atmega328P microcontroller. Development of the survey meter prototype is carried out on Arduino Uno platform. 16-bit Timer1 on the microcontroller is utilized as external pulse counter to produce count per second or CPS measurement. Conversion from CPS to dose rate technique is also performed by Arduino to display results in micro Sievert per hour (μSvhr −1 ). Conversion factor (CF) value for conversion of CPM to μSvhr −1 determined from manufacturer data sheet is compared with CF obtained from calibration procedure. The survey meter measurement results are found to be linear for dose rates below 3500 µSv/hr

  9. Arduino based radiation survey meter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahman, Nur Aira Abd, E-mail: nur-aira@nm.gov.my; Lombigit, Lojius; Abdullah, Nor Arymaswati; Azman, Azraf; Dolah, Taufik; Jaafar, Zainudin; Mohamad, Glam Hadzir Patai; Ramli, Abd Aziz Mhd; Zain, Rasif Mohd; Said, Fazila; Khalid, Mohd Ashhar; Taat, Muhamad Zahidee [Malaysian Nuclear Agency, 43000, Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Muzakkir, Amir [Sinaran Utama Teknologi Sdn Bhd, 43650, Bandar Baru Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2016-01-22

    This paper presents the design of new digital radiation survey meter with LND7121 Geiger Muller tube detector and Atmega328P microcontroller. Development of the survey meter prototype is carried out on Arduino Uno platform. 16-bit Timer1 on the microcontroller is utilized as external pulse counter to produce count per second or CPS measurement. Conversion from CPS to dose rate technique is also performed by Arduino to display results in micro Sievert per hour (μSvhr{sup −1}). Conversion factor (CF) value for conversion of CPM to μSvhr{sup −1} determined from manufacturer data sheet is compared with CF obtained from calibration procedure. The survey meter measurement results are found to be linear for dose rates below 3500 µSv/hr.

  10. Metering in the gas supply sector; Metering in der Gasversorgung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wernekinck, U. [RWE Westfalen-Weser-Ems, Recklinghausen (Germany)

    2007-10-15

    The new conditions of competition in the gas supply sector have strongly increased the requirements on gas grid operators. Mainly an exact gas metering and -accouting will become more and more important. The systems and procedures are presented in detail in this contribution. (GL)

  11. Microprocessor controlled digital period meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keefe, D.J.; McDowell, W.P.; Rusch, G.K.

    1980-01-01

    A microprocessor controlled digital period meter has been developed and tested operationally on a reactor at Argonne National Laboratory. The principle of operation is the mathematical relationship between asymptotic periods and pulse counting circuitry. This relationship is used to calculate and display the reactor periods over a range of /plus or minus/1 second to /plus or minus/999 seconds. The time interval required to update each measurement automatically varies from 8 seconds at the lowest counting rates to 2 seconds at higher counting rates. The paper will describe hardware and software design details and show the advantages of this type of Period Meter over the conventional circuits. 1 ref

  12. Arrival metering fuel consumption analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Arrival metering is a method of time-based traffic management that is used by the Federal Aviation Administration to plan and manage streams of arrival traffic during periods of : high demand at busy airports. The Traffic Management Advisor is an aut...

  13. The Thirty-Meter Telescope

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... The Thirty-Meter Telescope international observatory will enable transformational observations over the full cosmic timeline all the way from the first luminous objects in the Universe to the planets and moons of our own solar system. To realize its full scientific potential, TMT will be equipped with a powerful ...

  14. Rate meter design and construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peon Aguirre, R.; Fonseca Araujo, W.H.

    1989-01-01

    An electric diagram is proposed to build a geiger detector Rate Meter, to count gamma radiation and X ray. This idea was made up with the prototype construction which has a five scales analogue display (100, 300, 1000, 3000 and 10000 c/s). (Author)

  15. Smart metering. Conformance tests for electricity meters; Smart Metering. Konformitaetstests an Stromzaehlern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bormann, Matthias; Pongratz, Siegfried [VDE Pruef- und Zertifizierungsinstitut, Offenbach (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    Introduction of communication technologies into today's energy network enables the interworking between the domains of smart metering, smart grid, smart home and e-mobility as well as the creation and provisioning of new innovative services such as efficient load adjustment. Due to this convergence the new energy networks are becoming increasingly complex. Ensuring the interworking between all network elements (e.g. electricity meters, gateways) in these smart energy networks is of utmost importance. To this end conformance and interoperability tests have to be defined to ensure that services work as expected. (orig.)

  16. What to look for when selecting ANSI protocol meters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    York, T.

    2001-09-01

    A large number of major manufacturers now offer American National Standards Institute (ANSI) protocol meters, with ever improving capabilities. It is now time to consider ANSI Protocol Meters (APM). One of the advantages of the industry moving toward APMs is the fact that the eventual exclusion of proprietary technology should accelerate and additional software tools should become available to fully support APMs. The emphasis on the part of suppliers and potential users must now be placed on the acquisition of metering products that provide maximum benefits. The proper evaluation of APM will provide valuable feedback to the meter manufacturers, which in turn will encourage the development of new and improved metering products to increase productivity. The customers should be mindful of the following: insist on end device language files, and look for product flexibility. Other interesting features are: billing data (so it can be presented in standard format), present values (for inclusion of instrumentation measurements for quick retrieval by the customer), interval data recording, security features, user defined tables, logging, and power quality monitoring. 1 fig.

  17. Squid based beam current meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuchnir, M.

    1983-01-01

    A SQUID based beam current meter has the capability of measuring the current of a beam with as little as 30 x 155 antiprotons (with a signal to noise ratio of 2). If low noise dc current is used to cancel most of the beam or an up-down counter is used to count auto-resets this sensitivity will be available at any time in the acumulation process. This current meter will therefore be a unique diagnostic tool for optimizing the performance of several Tev I components. Besides requiring liquid helium it seems that its only drawback is not to follow with the above sensitivity a sudden beam change larger than 16 μA, something that could be done using a second one in a less sensitive configuration

  18. Solid state semiconductor detectorized survey meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamoto, Eisuke; Nagase, Yoshiyuki; Furuhashi, Masato

    1987-01-01

    Survey meters are used for measurement of gamma ray dose rate of the space and the surface contamination dencity that the atomic energy plant and the radiation facility etc. We have recently developed semiconductor type survey meter (Commercial name: Compact Survey Meter). This survey meter is a small-sized dose rate meter with excellent function. The special features are using semiconductor type detector which we have developed by our own technique, stablar wide range than the old type, long life, and easy to carry. Now we introduce the efficiency and the function of the survey meter. (author)

  19. Federal Building Metering Guidance (per 42 U.S.C. 8253(e), Metering of Energy Use)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-11-01

    Guidance defines which federal buildings are appropriate to meter, provides metering prioritization recommendations for agencies with limited resources, and discusses the requirement for agencies to submit metering implementation plans to the U.S. Department of Energy.

  20. Understanding pressurized metered dose inhaler performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivey, James W; Vehring, Reinhard; Finlay, Warren H

    2015-06-01

    Deepening the current understanding of the factors governing the performance of the pressurized metered dose inhaler (pMDI) has the potential to benefit patients by providing improved drugs for current indications as well as by enabling new areas of therapy. Although a great deal of work has been conducted to this end, our knowledge of the physical mechanisms that drive pMDI performance remains incomplete. This review focuses on research into the influence of device and formulation variables on pMDI performance metrics. Literature in the areas of dose metering, atomization and aerosol evolution and deposition is covered, with an emphasis on studies of a more fundamental nature. Simple models which may be of use to those developing pMDI products are summarized. Although researchers have had good success utilizing an empirically developed knowledge base to predict pMDI performance, such knowledge may not be applicable when pursuing innovations in device or formulation technology. Developing a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms is a worthwhile investment for those working to enable the next generation of pMDI products.

  1. Cross-cultural differences in meter perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalender, Beste; Trehub, Sandra E; Schellenberg, E Glenn

    2013-03-01

    We examined the influence of incidental exposure to varied metrical patterns from different musical cultures on the perception of complex metrical structures from an unfamiliar musical culture. Adults who were familiar with Western music only (i.e., simple meters) and those who also had limited familiarity with non-Western music were tested on their perception of metrical organization in unfamiliar (Turkish) music with simple and complex meters. Adults who were familiar with Western music detected meter-violating changes in Turkish music with simple meter but not in Turkish music with complex meter. Adults with some exposure to non-Western music that was unmetered or metrically complex detected meter-violating changes in Turkish music with both simple and complex meters, but they performed better on patterns with a simple meter. The implication is that familiarity with varied metrical structures, including those with a non-isochronous tactus, enhances sensitivity to the metrical organization of unfamiliar music.

  2. Net metering in British Columbia : white paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, T.

    2003-01-01

    Net metering was described as being the reverse registration of an electricity customer's revenue meter when interconnected with a utility's grid. It is a provincial policy designed to encourage small-distributed renewable power generation such as micro-hydro, solar energy, fuel cells, and larger-scale wind energy. It was noted that interconnection standards for small generation is an important issue that must be addressed. The British Columbia Utilities Commission has asked BC Hydro to prepare a report on the merits of net metering in order to support consultations on a potential net metering tariff application by the utility. This report provides information on net metering with reference to experience in other jurisdictions with net metering, and the possible costs and benefits associated with net metering from both a utility and consumer perspective. Some of the barriers and policy considerations for successful implementation of net metering were also discussed. refs., tabs., figs

  3. Versatile operation meter for nuclear information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Yong; Xiao Yabin; Wang Shuyuan; Shu Jingfang; Di Shaoliang; Wu Hongbin

    1995-01-01

    This paper states a low-cost, small-volume, multi-function, reproducible and new model intelligent nuclear electronic meter. It's hardware and Software were detailed and the 137 Cs spectrum with this meter was presented

  4. Calibration of dose meters used in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    This manual is a practical guide, not a comprehensive textbook, to the instrumentation and procedures necessary to calibrate a radiation dose meter used in clinical practice against a secondary standard dose meter

  5. Hardware Design of a Smart Meter

    OpenAIRE

    Ganiyu A. Ajenikoko; Anthony A. Olaomi

    2014-01-01

    Smart meters are electronic measurement devices used by utilities to communicate information for billing customers and operating their electric systems. This paper presents the hardware design of a smart meter. Sensing and circuit protection circuits are included in the design of the smart meter in which resistors are naturally a fundamental part of the electronic design. Smart meters provides a route for energy savings, real-time pricing, automated data collection and elimina...

  6. Intelligent Metering for Urban Water: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Rodney Stewart; Stuart White; Candice Moy; Ariane Liu; Pierre Mukheibir; Damien Giurco; Thomas Boyle

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews the drivers, development and global deployment of intelligent water metering in the urban context. Recognising that intelligent metering (or smart metering) has the potential to revolutionise customer engagement and management of urban water by utilities, this paper provides a summary of the knowledge-base for researchers and industry practitioners to ensure that the technology fosters sustainable urban water management. To date, roll-outs of intelligent metering have been ...

  7. 77 FR 7586 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Bioequivalence Recommendation for Nitroglycerin Metered Spray...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2007-D-0369... metered spray/sublingual products: An in vivo fasting study, an in vitro study of unit dose and uniformity... metered aerosol/sublingual products: An in vivo fasting study, an in vitro study of unit dose and...

  8. In-Containment Signal Acquisition and Data Transmission via Power Lines within High Dose Areas of Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller Steffen; Wibbing Sascha; Weigel Robert; Koelpin Alexander; Dennerlein, Juergen; Janke, Iryna; Weber, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Signal acquisition and data transmission for innovative sensor systems and networks inside the containment of nuclear power plants (NPPs) is still a challenge with respect to safety, performance, reliability, availability, and costs. This especially applies to equipment upgrades for existing plants, special measurements, but also for new builds. This paper presents a novel method for efficient and cost-effective sensor signal acquisition and data transmission via power lines, in order to cope with the disadvantages of common system architectures that often suffer from poor signal integrity due to raw data transmissions via long cables, huge efforts and costs for installation, and low flexibility with respect to maintenance and upgrades. A transmitter-receiver architecture is proposed that allows multiplexing of multiple sensor inputs for unidirectional point-to-point transmission by superimposing information signals on existing AC or DC supply lines, but also on active and inactive sensor wires, or spare cables, using power line communication (PLC) technology. Based on commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) electronic parts, a radiation hard transmitter hardware is designed to operate in harsh environment within the containment during full plant operation. The system's modular approach allows application specific trade-offs between redundancy and throughput regarding data transmission, as well as various sensor input front-ends which are compatible with state of the art systems. PLC technology eliminates the need for costly installation of additional cables and wall penetrations, while providing a complementary and diverse communication technology for upgrades of existing systems. At the receiver side in low dose areas, signals are extracted from the power line, demodulated, and de-multiplexed, in order to regain the original sensor signal information and provide it either in analog or digital output format. Successful laboratory qualification tests, field trails

  9. In-Containment Signal Acquisition and Data Transmission via Power Lines within High Dose Areas of Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller Steffen; Wibbing Sascha; Weigel Robert; Koelpin Alexander [Institute for Electronics Engineering, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg (Germany); Dennerlein, Juergen; Janke, Iryna; Weber, Johannes [AREVA GmbH, Paul-Gossen-Str. 100, 91052 Erlangen (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    Signal acquisition and data transmission for innovative sensor systems and networks inside the containment of nuclear power plants (NPPs) is still a challenge with respect to safety, performance, reliability, availability, and costs. This especially applies to equipment upgrades for existing plants, special measurements, but also for new builds. This paper presents a novel method for efficient and cost-effective sensor signal acquisition and data transmission via power lines, in order to cope with the disadvantages of common system architectures that often suffer from poor signal integrity due to raw data transmissions via long cables, huge efforts and costs for installation, and low flexibility with respect to maintenance and upgrades. A transmitter-receiver architecture is proposed that allows multiplexing of multiple sensor inputs for unidirectional point-to-point transmission by superimposing information signals on existing AC or DC supply lines, but also on active and inactive sensor wires, or spare cables, using power line communication (PLC) technology. Based on commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) electronic parts, a radiation hard transmitter hardware is designed to operate in harsh environment within the containment during full plant operation. The system's modular approach allows application specific trade-offs between redundancy and throughput regarding data transmission, as well as various sensor input front-ends which are compatible with state of the art systems. PLC technology eliminates the need for costly installation of additional cables and wall penetrations, while providing a complementary and diverse communication technology for upgrades of existing systems. At the receiver side in low dose areas, signals are extracted from the power line, demodulated, and de-multiplexed, in order to regain the original sensor signal information and provide it either in analog or digital output format. Successful laboratory qualification tests, field trails

  10. Smart Metering. Technological, economic and legal aspects. 2. ed.; Smart Metering. Technologische, wirtschaftliche und juristische Aspekte des Smart Metering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koehler-Schute, Christiana (ed.)

    2010-07-01

    Smart metering comprises more than just meter technology, and the use of information and communication technologies is indispensable. Processes, roles and business models must be reconsidered as further challenges arise in the context of smart metering. For one, there is the operator of the metering points. Secondly, there is the end user who is in the role of an active market partner. Further, there is smart metering as a basic technology, e.g. for smart grids and smart homes. In spite of the need for action, many utilities are reluctant to introduce smart metering. Reasons for this are the cost, a lack of defined standards, and an unclear legal situation. On the other hand, smart metering offers potential for grids and distribution that should be made use of. The authors discuss all aspects of the subject. The point out the chances and limitations of smart metering and present their own experience. [German] Smart Metering geht weit ueber die Zaehlertechnologie hinaus und der Einsatz von Informations- und Kommunikationstechnologien ist unabdingbar. Damit einhergehend muessen Prozesse, Rollen und auch Geschaeftsmodelle neu durchdacht werden. Denn weitere Herausforderungen stehen im direkten Zusammenhang mit Smart Metering. Das ist zum einen die Rolle des Messstellenbetreibers / Messdienstleisters. Das ist zum anderen der Endnutzer, dem die Rolle des aktiven Marktpartners zugedacht wird. Das ist des Weiteren das Smart Metering als Basistechnologie beispielsweise fuer Smart Grid und Smart Home. Trotz des Handlungsdrucks stehen viele Unternehmen der Energiewirtschaft dem Smart Metering zurueckhaltend gegenueber. Drei gewichtige Gruende werden ins Feld gefuehrt: die Kostenfrage, nicht definierte Standards und die in vielen Bereichen ungeklaerte Gesetzeslage. Demgegenueber bietet das Smart Metering Potenziale fuer Netz und Vertrieb, die es zu nutzen gilt. Die Autoren setzen sich in ihren Beitraegen mit diesen Themen auseinander, zeigen Chancen, aber auch Grenzen des

  11. Smart meter status report from Toronto

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Brien, D.

    2006-01-01

    An update of Toronto Hydro's smart metering program was presented. Electricity demand is expected to keep increasing, and there is presently insufficient generation to match supply needs in Ontario. The smart metering program was introduced to aid in the Ontario government's energy conservation strategy, as well as to address peak supply problems that have led to power outages. It is expected that the smart metering program will reduce provincial peak supply by 5 per cent, as the meters support both time-of-use rates and critical peak pricing. Over 800,000 smart meters will be supplied to customers by 2007, and all 4.3 million homes in Toronto will have a smart meter by 2010. In order to meet targets for 2010, the utility will continue to install more 15,000 meters each month for the next 4 years. While the Ontario government has planned and coordinated the rollout and developed smart metering specifications and standards, Toronto Hydro is responsible for the purchase, installation, operation and maintenance of the meters. Advance testing of each meter is needed to ensure billing accuracy, and customer education on meter use is also. The complexity of the metering program has led the utility to establish a rigid project management process. Customer education pilot program are currently being conducted. Experience gained during the earlier phases of the program have enabled the utility to select appropriate metering systems based on density, topography and physical conditions. Project expenditures have been within budget due to improved project estimating and planning. The metering program has been conducted in tandem with the utility's peakSAVER program, a residential and small commercial load control program that has been successful in reducing summer peak demand by cycling air conditioners without causing discomfort. It was concluded that the utility will continue with its mass deployment of smart meters, and is currently preparing its call center to handled

  12. Multitasking metering enhances generation, transmission operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, E.

    2008-11-15

    The Dairyland Power Cooperative (DPC) which operates from La Crosse, Wisconsin has the capacity to generate and transmit 1000 MW of power to 25 member cooperatives and 20 municipalities who serve over 500,000 customers. When DPC was experiencing diminished service within its analog cellular-based data communications system, it was presented with an opportunity to install a new automated telecommunications system that would provide secure collection of meter readings from all of its substations. DPC decided to evaluate an advanced multifunctional digital meter from Schweitzer Engineering Laboratories (SEL). The SEL-734 Revenue Metering System offers complete instantaneous metering functions, including voltages, currents, power, energy and power factor. Other capabilities include predictive demand, time-of-use metering, automatic voltage monitoring, harmonics metering and synchrophasor measurement. From a metering perspective, DPC wanted to perform daily load profiles and interval-by-interval metering of their delivery points for billing purposes. They also wanted to provide real-time monitoring of electricity being delivered for both generation and transmission purposes and to make that information available to a distribution SCADA system for their members. The SEL-734 Revenue Meter was well suited to those needs. The SEL-734 provides very high-accuracy energy metering, load profile data collection, instantaneous power measurements, power quality monitoring, and communicates simultaneously over a modem, serial ports, and wide area networks (WAN). The meter is backed with a ten-year warranty as well as field support engineers. 5 figs.

  13. The 59 meter dash - automatic rapid meter reading in Ronneby

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ottosson, Hans [Enersearch (Sweden); Selander, Lars [Linkoeping Univ. (Sweden); Bergstroem, Ulrika [Sydkraft (Sweden)

    1999-02-01

    As a result of deregulation of the telecommunications and energy markets, the utilities in Sweden see opportunities to use power lines for additional profitable applications such as transmission of data; the technology is called Power Line Telecommunications (PLT). The potential advantages are said to be 'massive'. The potential applications include remote security, automatic meter reading, load management and 'smart' home automation. A small scale feasibility study has been carried out in Ronneby in Sweden where it was shown that load management and efficiency improvements can reduce the costs of supplying the town with heat and electricity by about 3%. The Ronneby trial is described in detail. Since Scandinavia makes use of weather-dependent renewables for much of its power generation, load management is an attractive potential application of PLT. (UK)

  14. 75 FR 43556 - Badger Meter, Inc., Including On-Site Leased Workers From Sourcepoint Staffing, Seek, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-73,666] Badger Meter, Inc... of Badger Meter, Inc., including on-site leased workers from Sourcepoint Staffing, Milwaukee... workers are engaged in the production of flow measurement devices and automatic meter reading equipment...

  15. Chlorophyll meter reading and total nitrogen content applied as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ana Mascarello

    The present study was aimed to assess the relationship between the reading of the chlorophyll meter and the total nitrogen (N) content ... devices to measure chlorophyll index (SPAD) and N content in the leaf. The nitrogen levels were found ... absorption of other nutrients and the production of carbohydrates. The methods ...

  16. Too cheap to meter what?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wedekind, Lothar

    2004-01-01

    Full text: 50 years ago, at 17:30 hours, 26 June 1954, in the town of Obninsk, near Moscow, the first nuclear power plant sent electricity to residences and businesses. Atomic energy had crossed the divide from military uses to peaceful ones, demonstrating the potential to fuel civilian electric power plants. The milestone is being marked this year at an IAEA international nuclear power conference in Obninsk. Past experience will be reviewed, but the focus is on meeting future challenges. Though it has come a long way in 50 years, nuclear energy today finds itself in a struggle of the fittest to carve a niche over the next fifty - in the marketplace and in the public eye. Cliches and sound bites tell part of the nuclear story. Visionary talk by nuclear proponents in 1954 was about future energy sources that would be 'too cheap to meter', a phrase critics pounced upon. Today in 2004 the 'too cheap to meter' phrase occasionally haunts the atom, but pops up more often than not in promotional ads for anything from wind power to web sites. Talk of nuclear energy now is of a 'renaissance' and 'second wind.' New nuclear plants are most attractive where energy demand is growing and resources are scarce, and where energy security, air pollution and greenhouse gases are priorities, IAEA Director General Mohamed ElBaradei points out. In cities, towns, and villages, reality is different, or too much the same, depending how you see and live it. Cheap or not, nuclear energy today supplies one-sixth of the world's electricity in some 30 countries. Still, it does not produce enough power. Neither does any other energy source. More than 1.5 billion people have no electricity to meter whatsoever - not from renewables, solar, nuclear, biomass, wind, coal, oil, gas, firewood, or hydrogen, the publicized promise of tomorrow. So what will it take? Maybe bigger blackouts or hotter days than the world has seen. Certainly needed are more attention, action, and money. In dollar terms

  17. Metering revisited - innovative concepts for electrical monitoring and reporting systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stebbins, W.L.

    1993-01-01

    For the first three-quarters of this century, the monitoring of electrical power and energy has been dominated by conventional electromechanical voltmeters, ammeters, and watthour meters. Only in the last decade have solid state microprocessor-based distal devices become available for application in the commercial and industrial marketplace. These new devices perform the tasks of up to 24 conventional indicating meters for about the price of three. Communication via a RS-485 data link to a PC allows monitoring of up to 70 values including times and dates, min/max history, temperature indications, and energy management alarms. Complex waveform analysis can also be carried out for harmonic problems typically associated with adjustable speed drives that have been installed on fans and pumps for energy management savings. Since metering systems are absolutely essential to a successful Energy Management Process, consideration should be given to applying the latest in metering technology. It should be noted that meters by themselves do not save money, they only cost money to install and maintain. Proper monitoring, recording, and analysis lead to corrective actions which produce the desired result of reducing energy per unit of production or per service performed. Experience has shown that a 1 to 2% reduction can be achieved after meters are installed just by letting the users know that they are being monitored. Up to a 5% reduction can occur when the users then become proactive toward better managing of their energy. Ultimately up to 10% reduction can be achieved when metering is tied directly to the process through a PLC or DCS, in a closed loop automated process control arrangement

  18. ATD-2 Surface Scheduling and Metering Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppenbarger, Richard A.; Jung, Yoon Chul; Capps, Richard Alan; Engelland, Shawn A.

    2017-01-01

    This presentation describes the concept of ATD-2 tactical surface scheduling and metering. The concept is composed of several elements, including data exchange and integration; surface modeling; surface scheduling; and surface metering. The presentation explains each of the elements. Surface metering is implemented to balance demand and capacity• When surface metering is on, target times from surface scheduler areconverted to advisories for throttling demand• Through the scheduling process, flights with CTOTs will not get addedmetering delay (avoids potential for ‘double delay’)• Carriers can designate certain flights as exempt from metering holds• Demand throttle in Phase 1 at CLT is through advisories sent to rampcontrollers for pushback instructions to the flight deck– Push now– Hold for an advised period of time (in minutes)• Principles of surface metering can be more generally applied to otherairports in the NAS to throttle demand via spot-release times (TMATs Strong focus on optimal use of airport resources• Flexibility enables stakeholders to vary the amount of delay theywould like transferred to gate• Addresses practical aspects of executing surface metering in aturbulent real world environment• Algorithms designed for both short term demand/capacityimbalances (banks) or sustained metering situations• Leverage automation to enable surface metering capability withoutrequiring additional positions• Represents first step in Tactical/Strategic fusion• Provides longer look-ahead calculations to enable analysis ofstrategic surface metering potential usage

  19. BH3105 type neutron dose equivalent meter of high sensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji Changsong; Zhang Enshan; Yang Jianfeng; Zhang Hong; Huang Jiling

    1995-10-01

    It is noted that to design a neutron dose meter of high sensitivity is almost impossible in the frame of traditional designing principle--'absorption net principle'. Based on a newly proposed principle of obtaining neutron dose equi-biological effect adjustment--' absorption stick principle', a brand-new neutron dose-equivalent meter with high neutron sensitivity BH3105 has been developed. Its sensitivity reaches 10 cps/(μSv·h -1 ), which is 18∼40 times higher than one of foreign products of the same kind and is 10 4 times higher than that of domestic FJ342 neutron rem-meter. BH3105 has a measurement range from 0.1μSv/h to 1 Sv/h which is 1 or 2 orders wider than that of the other's. It has the advanced properties of gamma-resistance, energy response, orientation, etc. (6 tabs., 5 figs.)

  20. Electricity as (Big Data: Metering, spatiotemporal granularity and value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mette Kragh-Furbo

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Electricity is hidden within wires and networks only revealing its quantity and flow when metered. The making of its properties into data is therefore particularly important to the relations that are formed around electricity as a produced and managed phenomenon. We propose approaching all metering as a situated activity, a form of quantification work in which data is made and becomes mobile in particular spatial and temporal terms, enabling its entry into data infrastructures and schemes of evaluation and value production. We interrogate the transition from the pre-digital into the making of bigger, more spatiotemporally granular electricity data, through focusing on those actors selling and materialising new metering technologies, data infrastructures and services for larger businesses and public sector organisations in the UK. We examine the claims of truth and visibility that accompany these shifts and their enrolment into management techniques that serve to more precisely apportion responsibility for, and evaluate the status of, particular patterns and instances of electricity use. We argue that whilst through becoming Big Data electricity flow is now able to be known and given identity in significantly new terms, enabling new relations to be formed with the many heterogeneous entities implicated in making and managing energy demand, it is necessary to sustain some ambivalence as to the performative consequences that follow for energy governance. We consider the wider application of our conceptualisation of metering, reflecting on comparisons with the introduction of new metering systems in domestic settings and as part of other infrastructural networks.

  1. Balanced Flow Meters without Moving Parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Anthony R.; VanBuskirk, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Balanced flow meters are recent additions to an established class of simple, rugged flow meters that contain no moving parts in contact with flow and are based on measurement of pressure drops across objects placed in flow paths. These flow meters are highly accurate, minimally intrusive, easily manufacturable, and reliable. A balanced flow meter can be easily mounted in a flow path by bolting it between conventional pipe flanges. A balanced flow meter can be used to measure the flow of any of a variety of liquids or gases, provided that it has been properly calibrated. Relative to the standard orifice-plate flow meter, the balanced flow meter introduces less turbulence and two times less permanent pressure loss and is therefore capable of offering 10 times greater accuracy and repeatability with less dissipation of energy. A secondary benefit of the reduction of turbulence is the reduction of vibration and up to 15 times less acoustic noise generation. Both the balanced flow meter and the standard orifice-plate flow meter are basically disks that contain holes and are instrumented with pressure transducers on their upstream and downstream faces. The most obvious difference between them is that the standard orifice plate contains a single, central hole while the balanced flow meter contains multiple holes. The term 'balanced' signifies that in designing the meter, the sizes and locations of the holes are determined in an optimization procedure that involves balancing of numerous factors, including volumetric flow, mass flow, dynamic pressure, kinetic energy, all in an effort to minimize such undesired effects as turbulence, pressure loss, dissipation of kinetic energy, and non-repeatability and nonlinearity of response over the anticipated range of flow conditions. Due to proper balancing of these factors, recent testing demonstrated that the balanced flow-meter performance was similar to a Venturi tube in both accuracy and pressure recovery, but featured reduced

  2. RFID-BASED Prepaid Power Meter

    OpenAIRE

    Teymourzadeh, Rozita

    2013-01-01

    An Electric power meter is an important component in electric energy service. In the past, many consumers have complained about reading inaccurate of the electric meter. This research presents the development of an electrical power meter equipped with RFID reader. The RFID reader reads a valid RFID card and activates the power meter so that it can supply electricity. When the credit is about low or before the electricity is auto cut off, an SMS message will be sent to the user’s handphone to ...

  3. Cancer-meter: measure and cure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashyap, Sunil Kumar; Sharma, Birendra Kumar; Banerjee, Amitabh

    2017-05-01

    This paper presents a theory and system on "Cancer-Meter'. This idea came through the statement that "cancer is curable if it is measurable". The Cancer-Meter proves that it is possible. This paper proposes the cancer-meter in two ways, theoretical and electronically, as per the measurement and treatment. By the mathematics, first part is defined but the second part is based on computer programming, electrical and electronics. Thus, the cancer-meter is a programmed-electrical-electronic device which measures and cures the cancer both.

  4. Using a thermoluminescent dosimeter to evaluate the location reliability of the highest–skin dose area detected by treatment planning in radiotherapy for breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Li-Min, E-mail: limin.sun@yahoo.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Zuoying Branch of Kaohsiung Armed Forces General Hospital, Kaohsiung City, Taiwan (China); Huang, Chih-Jen [Department of Radiation Oncology, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung City, Taiwan (China); Faculty of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung City, Taiwan (China); College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung City, Taiwan (China); Chen, Hsiao-Yun [Department of Radiation Oncology, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung City, Taiwan (China); Meng, Fan-Yun [Department of General Surgery, Zuoying Branch of Kaohsiung Armed Forces General Hospital, Kaohsiung City, Taiwan (China); Lu, Tsung-Hsien [Department of Radiation Oncology, Zuoying Branch of Kaohsiung Armed Forces General Hospital, Kaohsiung City, Taiwan (China); Tsao, Min-Jen [Department of General Surgery, Zuoying Branch of Kaohsiung Armed Forces General Hospital, Kaohsiung City, Taiwan (China)

    2014-01-01

    Acute skin reaction during adjuvant radiotherapy for breast cancer is an inevitable process, and its severity is related to the skin dose. A high–skin dose area can be speculated based on the isodose distribution shown on a treatment planning. To determine whether treatment planning can reflect high–skin dose location, 80 patients were collected and their skin doses in different areas were measured using a thermoluminescent dosimeter to locate the highest–skin dose area in each patient. We determined whether the skin dose is consistent with the highest-dose area estimated by the treatment planning of the same patient. The χ{sup 2} and Fisher exact tests revealed that these 2 methods yielded more consistent results when the highest-dose spots were located in the axillary and breast areas but not in the inframammary area. We suggest that skin doses shown on the treatment planning might be a reliable and simple alternative method for estimating the highest skin doses in some areas.

  5. Using a thermoluminescent dosimeter to evaluate the location reliability of the highest–skin dose area detected by treatment planning in radiotherapy for breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Li-Min; Huang, Chih-Jen; Chen, Hsiao-Yun; Meng, Fan-Yun; Lu, Tsung-Hsien; Tsao, Min-Jen

    2014-01-01

    Acute skin reaction during adjuvant radiotherapy for breast cancer is an inevitable process, and its severity is related to the skin dose. A high–skin dose area can be speculated based on the isodose distribution shown on a treatment planning. To determine whether treatment planning can reflect high–skin dose location, 80 patients were collected and their skin doses in different areas were measured using a thermoluminescent dosimeter to locate the highest–skin dose area in each patient. We determined whether the skin dose is consistent with the highest-dose area estimated by the treatment planning of the same patient. The χ 2 and Fisher exact tests revealed that these 2 methods yielded more consistent results when the highest-dose spots were located in the axillary and breast areas but not in the inframammary area. We suggest that skin doses shown on the treatment planning might be a reliable and simple alternative method for estimating the highest skin doses in some areas

  6. FLOW METERS WITH VERY GOOD PERFORMANCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mircea Dimitrie CAZACU

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available We present the theoretical calculus of a patented flow meter, concerning such the thermodynamic and aerodynamic calculus, as well as the offered precision to measure the flow of the air in any meteorological conditions. In the same time we remark that the proposed flow meter, by its positioning, has not loss of head.

  7. ORNL Pocket Meter Program: internal operating procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, C.D.; Miller, J.H.; Dunsmore, M.R.

    1984-12-01

    The ORNL Pocket Meter Program is designed for auditing the approximate photon radiation exposure of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) radiation workers. Although pocket meters are considered to be a secondary personnel dosimetry system at ORNL, they are valuable indicators of unplanned exposures if proper procedures are followed for testing, calibrating, deploying, wearing, processing, and recording data. 4 figures, 1 table

  8. Adjustment equipment for reactor radioactivity meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denisov, V.P.; Malishev, A.N.; Shebanova, L.E.; Kirilyuk, N.A.; Maksimov, Yu.N.; Bessalov, G.G.; Vikhorev, Yu.V.; Lukyanov, M.A.

    1978-01-01

    An activity meter is described movably located in a channel placed in the peripheral biological shielding of a nuclear reactor. It is connected to a weight moving in a second channel by means of a pulley. This arrangement allows locating the radioactivity meter drive on the outer side of the biological shield and vacating space above the reactor body. (Ha)

  9. Some problems in calibrating surface contamination meters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Zigen; LI Xingyuan; Shuai Xiaoping.

    1984-01-01

    It is necessary that instruments are calibrated accurately in order to obtain reliable survey data of surface contamination. Some problems in calibrating surface contamination meters are expounded in this paper. Measurement comparison for beta surface contamination meters is organized within limited scope, thus survey quality is understood, questions are discovered, significance of calibration is expounded further. (Author)

  10. The reactivity meter and core reactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siltanen, P.

    1999-01-01

    This paper discussed in depth the point kinetic equations and the characteristics of the point kinetic reactivity meter, particularly for large negative reactivities. From a given input signal representing the neutron flux seen by a detector, the meter computes a value of reactivity in dollars (ρ/β), based on inverse point kinetics. The prompt jump point of view is emphasised. (Author)

  11. Development of a contour meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrada C, F.A.; Sanz, D.E.

    2006-01-01

    The dosimetric calculation in patients that receive radiotherapy treatment it requires the one knowledge of the geometry of some anatomical portions, which differs from a patient to another. Making reference to the specific case of mammary neoplasia, one of the measurements that is carried out on the patient is the acquisition of the contour of the breast, which is determined from a point marked on the breastbone until another point marked on the lateral of the thorax, below the armpit, with the patient located in the irradiation position. This measurement is carried out with the help of a mechanical contour meter that is a device conformed by a series of wires with a polymeric coating, which support on the breast of the patient and it reproduces its form. Then it is transported in the more careful possible form on a paper and the contour is traced with a tracer one. The geometric error associated to this procedure is of ±1 cm, which is sensitive of being reduced. The present work finds its motivation in the patient's radiological protection radiotherapy. The maximum error in dose allowed in radiotherapeutic treatments is 5%. It would be increase the precision and with it to optimize the treatment received by the patient, reducing the error in the acquisition process of the mammary contour. With this objective, a digital device is designed whose operation is based in the application of a spatial transformation on a picture of the mammary contour, which corrects the geometric distortion introduced in the process of the photographic acquisition. An algorithm that allows to obtain a front image (without distortion) of the plane of the contour was developed. A software tool especially developed carries out the processing of the digital images. The maximum geometric error detected in the validation process is 2 mm located on a small portion of the contour. (Author)

  12. Ambiguity effects of rhyme and meter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallot, Sebastian; Menninghaus, Winfried

    2018-04-23

    Previous research has shown that rhyme and meter-although enhancing prosodic processing ease and memorability-also tend to make semantic processing more demanding. Using a set of rhymed and metered proverbs, as well as nonrhymed and nonmetered versions of these proverbs, the present study reveals this hitherto unspecified difficulty of comprehension to be specifically driven by perceived ambiguity. Roman Jakobson was the 1st to propose this hypothesis, in 1960. He suggested that "ambiguity is an intrinsic, inalienable feature" of "parallelistic" diction of which the combination of rhyme and meter is a pronounced example. Our results show that ambiguity indeed explains a substantial portion of the rhyme- and meter-driven difficulty of comprehension. Longer word-reading times differentially reflected ratings for ambiguity and comprehension difficulty. However, the ambiguity effect is not "inalienable." Rather, many rhymed and metered sentences turned out to be low in ambiguity. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Hydro Ottawa achieves Smart Meter milestone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2008-01-01

    As Ontario's second largest municipal electricity company, Hydro Ottawa serves more than 285,000 residential and business customers in the city of Ottawa and the village of Casselman. Since 2006, the utility has installed more than 230,000 Smart Meters throughout its service territory in an effort to provide better services to its customers. This initiative represents the largest operational advanced metering infrastructure network in Canada. This move was necessary before time-of-use rates can be implemented in Ottawa. The Smart Meters deliver data wirelessly to Hydro Ottawa's Customer Information System for billing and eliminating manual readings. The Smart Meters are designed to promote more efficient use of electricity. The Government of Ontario has passed legislation requiring the installation of Smart Meters throughout the province by the end of 2010

  14. Investigation and Comparison of Separate Meter-In Separate Meter-Out Control Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Henrik C.; Andersen, Torben Ole; Skoubo, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    In the later years, there has been an increased focus on new valve types, which yield the possibility to do Separate Meter-In Separate Meter-Out (SMISMO) control. This includes both digital valves, but proportional valves with separate metering spools and build in pressure sensors are also emerging....... The possibility to independently control the meter-in and meter-out side not only increase the functionality of the system, but also opens up for better performance and/or lowered energy consumption. The focus of the current paper is therefore on investigation and comparison of what may be obtained using...

  15. Calibration of PKA meters against ion chambers of two geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida Junior, Jose N.; Terini, Ricardo A.; Pereira, Marco A.G.; Herdade, Silvio B.

    2011-01-01

    Kerma-area product (KAP or PKA) is a quantity that is independent of the distance to the X-ray tube focal spot and that can be used in radiological exams to assess the effective dose in patients. Clinical KAP meters are generally fixed in tube output and they are usually calibrated on-site by measuring the air kerma with an ion chamber and by evaluating the irradiated area by means of a radiographic image. Recently, a device was marketed (PDC, Patient Dose Calibrator, Radcal Co.), which was designed for calibrating clinical KAP meters with traceability to a standard laboratory. This paper presents a metrological evaluation of two methods that can be used in standard laboratories for the calibration of this device, namely, against a reference 30 cc ionization chamber or a reference parallel plates monitor chamber. Lower energy dependence was also obtained when the PDC calibration was made with the monitor chamber. Results are also shown of applying the PDC in hospital environment to the cross calibration of a clinical KAP meter from a radiology equipment. Results confirm lower energy dependence of the PDC relatively to the tested clinical meter. (author)

  16. Sector smart meter audit review report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-03-31

    This paper presented the results of an electricity distributor sector smart meter audit review conducted by the Ontario Energy Board (OEB) for the period of January 1, 2006 to September 30, 2009. The review summarized the results of a questionnaire related to distributors' smart meter regulatory accounting treatment. Seventy-eight distributors responded to the survey. The review included details of: (1) total investments in smart metering initiative for capital expenditures (CAPEX) and operating maintenance and administrative expenses (OM and A), (2) funding dollars received by the distributors, (3) board-approved recoveries for CAPEX and OM and A, (4) recorded stranded meter costs, and (5) number of smart meters installed in the review period. The audit review demonstrated that some distributors incorrectly recorded carrying charges related to smart meter OM and A expenses, and that some smart meter transactions were recorded in accounts other than OEB established accounts in the general ledger. Results of the audit will be used to provide further accounting assistance to electricity distributors. 7 tabs.

  17. EnviroAtlas - Des Moines, IA - Meter-Scale Urban Land Cover (MULC) Data (2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Des Moines, IA EnviroAtlas Meter-Scale Urban Land Cover (MULC) Data were generated from the High Resolution Land Cover (HRLC) product created by the Iowa...

  18. Data acquisition and meter unit based in wifi communication protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Cázarez Ayala

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Without doubt, the competitive fast rhythm of the industries is one of the main causes helped bring to the accelerated growth of the electronic technology and the communication. The need to develop new products with a best quality, cheaper and faster as assure and increase the quality of the products in the international markets, requires of new technologies to the metering, monitoring and control of their production processes, of which finality is to improve the processes to guaranteed their products in the market in the less time possible, the best quality and low cost for the final consumer. This work is based in the design and implementation of a Wireless Data Acquisition Unit based in WiFi protocol, which is oriented to meter, monitoring and the control of processes in the industry, commercial and the home automation applications, using one of the wirelessprotocols with the biggest acceptance in the market, with the main objective of to take advantage of the installed physical infrastructure in the place of the application, like industry, company or house. The Unit is based in the RN-131G, a Roving Network company module, which is able to work in stand-alone mode with ultralow power consummation and supporting the IEEE 802.11b/g protocols, in which is possible to achieve transfer rates of up to 11 Mbps and 54 Mbps in /b & /g specifications respectively. Whit this unit is possible to meter up to 5 analogs signals with 14 bits precision and has include a temperature and relative humidity sensors. This unit can meter two digital signals and act mean two digitals outputs, and gas include an USB port for communication and programming tasks.

  19. Analysis and Prediction of Electricity Consumption Using Smart Meter Data

    OpenAIRE

    Sauhats, A; Varfolomejeva, R; Linkevičs, O; Petričenko, R; Kuņickis, M; Balodis, M

    2015-01-01

    This paper is considering application of smart meter data to predict electricity consumption of household consumers. The availability and amount of data is suitable for in- depth statistical analysis of electricity consumption profiles and the study of consumer’s behavior. Prediction of electricity consumption is very important for electricity traders to balance their electricity purchase and sales portfolio, as well as to prepare optimal price products (offers) for their clients. Electricity...

  20. Water metering in England and Wales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Zetland

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The transformation of water services that began with the privatisation of water companies in 1989 extended to households with the implementation of water metering. Meters 'privatised' water and the cost of provision by allocating to individual households costs that had previously been shared within the community. This (ongoing conversion of common pool to private good has mostly improved economic, environmental and social impacts, but the potential burden of metering on poorer households has slowed the transition. Stronger anti-poverty programmes would be better at addressing this poverty barrier than existing coping mechanisms reliant on subsidies from other water consumers.

  1. A neutron dose equivalent meter at CAEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Shihai; Lu Yan; Wang Heyi; Yuan Yonggang; Chen Xu

    2012-01-01

    The measurement of neutron dose equivalent has been a widespread need in industry and research. In this paper, aimed at improving the accuracy of neutron dose equivalent meter: a neutron dose counter is simulated with MCNP5, and the energy response curve is optimized. The results show that the energy response factor is from 0.2 to 1.8 for neutrons in the energy range of 2.53×10 -8 MeV to 10 MeV Compared with other related meters, it turns that the design of this meter is right. (authors)

  2. Hydrogen meter for service in liquid sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCown, J.J.

    1983-11-01

    This standard establishes the requirements for the design, materials, fabrication, quality assurance, examination, and acceptance testing of a hydrogen meter and auxiliary equipment for use in radioactive or nonradioactive liquid sodium service. The meter shall provide a continuous and accurate indication of the hydrogen impurity concentration over the range 0.03 to 10 ppM hydrogen in sodium at temperatures between 800 and 1000 0 F (427 and 538 0 C). The meter may also be used to rapidly monitor changes in hydrogen concentration, over the same concentration range, and, therefore can be used as a sensor for sodium-water reactions in LMFBR steam generators

  3. Net metering study of switching effects on electromechanical meters[Report prepared for the Measurement Canada Electricity Net Metering Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Overberghe, L. [Measurement Canada, London, ON (Canada)

    2006-03-03

    The feasibility of introducing net metering in the electricity sector was evaluated with particular reference to a project administered by Measurement Canada and Electro-Federation Canada (MicroPower Connect) in collaboration with Natural Resources Canada. The objective of the Measurement Canada Electricity Net Metering Project is to identify and eliminate the barriers introduced by the Electricity and Gas Inspection Act regarding the introduction of net metering. The purpose was to design a device that would allow rotation reversal in a residential electromechanical single phase meter. The device should approximate any fluctuations found in a typical net metering system. A series of tests were conducted to understand the influences, on errors, of forward-to-reverse and reverse-to-forward transitions, specifically to find evidence of error migration and mechanical stress. The project was designed to find and measure the effects of forward reverse switching on an electromechanical meter resulting from a change in energy flow. Twenty metres were calibrated in the forward direction in series from light load to high load. Power factor was not adjustable. Test points were then applied in both the forward and reverse directions. The exercise yielded individual errors which were aggregated to show average found errors after 3,000 transitions. Small shifts in errors were apparent and there was no evidence to support a disk flutter theory. refs., tabs., figs.

  4. FY1998 research report on the R and D on the production process technology of eco-tailored tribo-materials. R and D on the production process technology of materials controlled in micro-meter order; 1998 nendo eco-tailored tribo-material sosei process gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu chosa hokokusho. Micro-meter order de seigyosareta material sosei process gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Combined laser process technology was applied to development of tribo-materials for such various parts as engine cylinder and valve sheet of various outdoor industrial machinery and transport machinery. In fiscal 1998, study was made mainly on the possibility of every laser process for development of tribo-materials with specific structures and compositions controlled in micro-meter order. The obtained principal results are as follows. As for the pulsed laser deposition process to produce wear resistant coatings for small cylinders, thick films were produced efficiently by laser spattering of molten particles using high-pulse energy laser irradiation on targets. As for the cylinder bore surface modification process by spraying and lasering, basic study was made on this process. As for the process to synthesize intermetallic compounds for engine valve sheets, the effect of laser irradiation conditions on surface modification was studied through laser irradiation on Fe{sub 3}Al compounds synthesized by hot press. (NEDO)

  5. Bandwidth Analysis of Smart Meter Network Infrastructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balachandran, Kardi; Olsen, Rasmus Løvenstein; Pedersen, Jens Myrup

    2014-01-01

    Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) is a net-work infrastructure in Smart Grid, which links the electricity customers to the utility company. This network enables smart services by making it possible for the utility company to get an overview of their customers power consumption and also control...... devices in their costumers household e.g. heat pumps. With these smart services, utility companies can do load balancing on the grid by shifting load using resources the customers have. The problem investigated in this paper is what bandwidth require-ments can be expected when implementing such network...... to utilize smart meters and which existing broadband network technologies can facilitate this smart meter service. Initially, scenarios for smart meter infrastructure are identified. The paper defines abstraction models which cover the AMI scenarios. When the scenario has been identified a general overview...

  6. USGS Digital Orthophoto Quad (DOQ) - 3 meter

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — These data files are a collection of the USGS standard DOQs that have been resampled to a 3-meter cell resolution and mosaiced into quad format vs quarter quad...

  7. A simple reactivity-meter system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, P.S.B.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes a new version of a reactivity meter developed at the Institute of Nuclear Energy Research (IPEN) (Brazil). The reactivity meter computes the reactor reactivity utilizing a programmable electrometer that performs the data aquisition. The software commands the main functions of the electrometer, the data acquisition, data transfer, and reactivity calculation. The necessary hardware for this reactivity meter are a programmable electrometer, a microcomputer, and interfaces for the microcomputer to communicate with the electrometer. If it is necessary, it is possible to connect a graphic register to the microcomputer. With this conventional hardware, available in any nuclear reactor facility, one can build a powerful reactivity meter. Adding to these advantages, one can use the microcomputer on-line to analyze the data, store the data on diskettes, or create graphics

  8. New consumer services provided by smart metering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daminov Ildar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the issues of smart metering market and considers different services provided by smart metering from consumer point of view. Firstly, smart metering deployment challenges emerging and conventional tariffs, which modify a consumer behavior and thus, the entire electric energy market can be optimized since the customer is motivated to consume less energy. Secondly, the authors illustrate changes in electricity quality, which have an impact on consumer relations with utility. Additionally, two main indices of grid resilience – SAIDI and SAIFI – are exemplified to reveal the improvement potential of smart metering implementation in certain regions of Russia that also influence the consumer. Finally, in-home display and privacy problem directly reflect the consumer’s behavior, thus the private life rights should not be violated as they are guaranteed by law.

  9. EMMNet: Sensor Networking for Electricity Meter Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Ting Lin

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Smart sensors are emerging as a promising technology for a large number of application domains. This paper presents a collection of requirements and guidelines that serve as a basis for a general smart sensor architecture to monitor electricity meters. It also presents an electricity meter monitoring network, named EMMNet, comprised of data collectors, data concentrators, hand-held devices, a centralized server, and clients. EMMNet provides long-distance communication capabilities, which make it suitable suitable for complex urban environments. In addition, the operational cost of EMMNet is low, compared with other existing remote meter monitoring systems based on GPRS. A new dynamic tree protocol based on the application requirements which can significantly improve the reliability of the network is also proposed. We are currently conducting tests on five networks and investigating network problems for further improvements. Evaluation results indicate that EMMNet enhances the efficiency and accuracy in the reading, recording, and calibration of electricity meters.

  10. EMMNet: sensor networking for electricity meter monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhi-Ting; Zheng, Jie; Ji, Yu-Sheng; Zhao, Bao-Hua; Qu, Yu-Gui; Huang, Xu-Dong; Jiang, Xiu-Fang

    2010-01-01

    Smart sensors are emerging as a promising technology for a large number of application domains. This paper presents a collection of requirements and guidelines that serve as a basis for a general smart sensor architecture to monitor electricity meters. It also presents an electricity meter monitoring network, named EMMNet, comprised of data collectors, data concentrators, hand-held devices, a centralized server, and clients. EMMNet provides long-distance communication capabilities, which make it suitable suitable for complex urban environments. In addition, the operational cost of EMMNet is low, compared with other existing remote meter monitoring systems based on GPRS. A new dynamic tree protocol based on the application requirements which can significantly improve the reliability of the network is also proposed. We are currently conducting tests on five networks and investigating network problems for further improvements. Evaluation results indicate that EMMNet enhances the efficiency and accuracy in the reading, recording, and calibration of electricity meters.

  11. Opportunities for smart meters in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolff, J.

    2010-10-01

    Germany has the ambitious goal of lowering its CO2 emission with 80 percent until 2050 as compared to 1990. Sustainable energy and the deployment of smart meters are starting to play increasingly important roles. [nl

  12. [Development and test of a wheat chlorophyll, nitrogen and water content meter].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Bo; Sun, Ming; Han, Shu-Qing; Xia, Jin-Wen

    2011-08-01

    A portable meter was developed which can detect chlorophyll, nitrogen and moisture content of wheat leaf simultaneously, and can supply enough data for guiding fertilization and irrigation. This meter is composed of light path and electronic circuit. And this meter uses 660, 940 and 1450 nm LED together with narrow band filters as the active light source. The hardware circuit consists of micro-controller, LED drive circuit, detector, communication circuit, keyboard and LCD circuit. The meter was tested in the field and performed well with good repeatability and accuracy. The relative errors of chlorophyll and nitrogen test were about 10%, relative error for water content was 4%. The coefficients of variation of the three indices were all below 1.5%. All of these prove that the meter can be applied under the field condition to guide the wheat production.

  13. Comparison of five portable peak flow meters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glaucia Nency Takara

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare the measurements of spirometric peak expiratory flow (PEF from five different PEF meters and to determine if their values are in agreement. Inaccurate equipment may result in incorrect diagnoses of asthma and inappropriate treatments. METHODS: Sixty-eight healthy, sedentary and insufficiently active subjects, aged from 19 to 40 years, performed PEF measurements using Air Zone®, Assess®, Galemed®, Personal Best® and Vitalograph® peak flow meters. The highest value recorded for each subject for each device was compared to the corresponding spirometric values using Friedman's test with Dunn's post-hoc (p<0.05, Spearman's correlation test and Bland-Altman's agreement test. RESULTS: The median and interquartile ranges for the spirometric values and the Air Zone®, Assess®, Galemed®, Personal Best® and Vitalograph® meters were 428 (263-688 L/min, 450 (350-800 L/min, 420 (310-720 L/min, 380 (300-735 L/min, 400 (310-685 L/min and 415 (335-610 L/min, respectively. Significant differences were found when the spirometric values were compared to those recorded by the Air Zone® (p<0.001 and Galemed ® (p<0.01 meters. There was no agreement between the spirometric values and the five PEF meters. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that the values recorded from Galemed® meters may underestimate the actual value, which could lead to unnecessary interventions, and that Air Zone® meters overestimate spirometric values, which could obfuscate the need for intervention. These findings must be taken into account when interpreting both devices' results in younger people. These differences should also be considered when directly comparing values from different types of PEF meters.

  14. Intelligent Metering for Urban Water: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodney Stewart

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the drivers, development and global deployment of intelligent water metering in the urban context. Recognising that intelligent metering (or smart metering has the potential to revolutionise customer engagement and management of urban water by utilities, this paper provides a summary of the knowledge-base for researchers and industry practitioners to ensure that the technology fosters sustainable urban water management. To date, roll-outs of intelligent metering have been driven by the desire for increased data regarding time of use and end-use (such as use by shower, toilet, garden, etc. as well as by the ability of the technology to reduce labour costs for meter reading. Technology development in the water sector generally lags that seen in the electricity sector. In the coming decade, the deployment of intelligent water metering will transition from being predominantly “pilot or demonstration scale” with the occasional city-wide roll-out, to broader mainstream implementation. This means that issues which have hitherto received little focus must now be addressed, namely: the role of real-time data in customer engagement and demand management; data ownership, sharing and privacy; technical data management and infrastructure security, utility workforce skills; and costs and benefits of implementation.

  15. Comparison of five portable peak flow meters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takara, Glaucia Nency; Ruas, Gualberto; Pessoa, Bruna Varanda; Jamami, Luciana Kawakami; Di Lorenzo, Valéria Amorim Pires; Jamami, Mauricio

    2010-05-01

    To compare the measurements of spirometric peak expiratory flow (PEF) from five different PEF meters and to determine if their values are in agreement. Inaccurate equipment may result in incorrect diagnoses of asthma and inappropriate treatments. Sixty-eight healthy, sedentary and insufficiently active subjects, aged from 19 to 40 years, performed PEF measurements using Air Zone, Assess, Galemed, Personal Best and Vitalograph peak flow meters. The highest value recorded for each subject for each device was compared to the corresponding spirometric values using Friedman's test with Dunn's post-hoc (pmeters were 428 (263-688 L/min), 450 (350-800 L/min), 420 (310-720 L/min), 380 (300-735 L/min), 400 (310-685 L/min) and 415 (335-610 L/min), respectively. Significant differences were found when the spirometric values were compared to those recorded by the Air Zone(R) (pmeters. There was no agreement between the spirometric values and the five PEF meters. The results suggest that the values recorded from Galemed meters may underestimate the actual value, which could lead to unnecessary interventions, and that Air Zone meters overestimate spirometric values, which could obfuscate the need for intervention. These findings must be taken into account when interpreting both devices' results in younger people. These differences should also be considered when directly comparing values from different types of PEF meters.

  16. Smart meters. Smart metering. A solution module for a future-oriented energy system; Intelligente Zaehler. Smart Metering. Ein Loesungsbaustein fuer ein zukunftsfaehiges Energiesystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grimm, Nadia; Seidl, Hans [comps.

    2011-12-15

    The German Energy Agency GmbH (Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany) reports on smart metering as a solution module for a future-oriented energy system by means of the following contributions: (1) Key role for smart meters; (2) What is smart metering? (3) Implementation of smart metering in Europe; (4) The market development to date in Germany; (5) Practical experiences with smart metering in Germany; (6) Frequently asked questions; (7) Smart metering in intelligent networks; (8) Legal framework conditions; (9) Data security and data protection in the utilisation of smart meters; (10) Ongoing information; (11) Efficient energy systems.

  17. Design and Realization of a Condition Management System for the Gateway Electrical Energy Metering Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Tang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available With the construction of firm and intelligent power grid in China, it is difficult for the traditional management method of electrical energy metering device to meet the prospecting requirements. Using the computer and internet techniques to realize the information and intelligentization of the electrical energy metering management has become a necessary guarantee of improving power supply ability, marketing control, and customer service. This paper introduced a kind of large and intelligent condition management system of the gateway electrical energy metering device. The key technologies and realize process were analyzed. Moreover, a detailed description of the application modules such as the GIS smart display of metering point, the condition management of metering devices and the visual monitoring of metering point was presented. The trial operation in the selected transformer substations and the power stations of Chongqing Power Electrical Corp. indicated that, the condition management system is very open, safety and efficient. According to the data exchange with the production and scheduling platform, the system improved the efficient operation of the electrical energy metering devices. Meanwhile, combined with the real-time visual monitoring, the condition management system improved the prevention ability of electricity filching, realized the unified automatic large-scale management of electrical energy metering devices.

  18. Methodology of calibration for nucleonic multiphase meter technology for SAGD extra heavy oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinguet, B.; Pechard, P.; Guerra, E. [Schlumberger Canada Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Arendo, V.; Shaffer, M.; Contreras, J. [Total, Paris (France)

    2008-10-15

    The challenges facing bitumen metering in steam assisted gravity drainage operations were discussed with reference to high operating temperatures, steam pressure in the gas phase, foaming, emulsion and small density differences between bitumen and produced water. A metering tool that can deal with these operating constraints was presented. The multiphase meter (MFM) uses a multi-energy gamma ray (nuclear fraction) meter together with a venturi tube to provide accurate monitoring and optimization of oil, water, gas and steam production. This paper presented the specific strengths of the MFM with emphasis on its ability to correctly meter the liquid/gas phases depending on the calibration method and operating measurement range. The paper presented a study of the main parameters which could influence the measurement associated with this technology. The study was based on practical and simulated data and evaluated the impact of changes in each parameter. The purpose of the paper was to improve the understanding of this technology and how to apply it to bitumen metering and provide a guideline of the technology for future users in the oil industry. It described the combination venturi-nucleonic measurement parameters, such as mass flow rate; fraction meter; solution triangle of the fraction meter; primary and secondary output; fluid properties information; and uncertainty associated to any technology. A sensitivity analysis study to identify the dependency to some key fluid parameters was also described. It was concluded that MFM can be used in a stand-alone configuration. 7 refs., 2 tabs., 22 figs.

  19. Evaluation the consistency of location of moist desquamation and skin high dose area for breast cancer patients receiving adjuvant radiotherapy after breast conservative surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Li-Min; Huang, Eng-Yen; Liang, Ji-An; Meng, Fan-Yun; Chang, Gia-Hsin; Tsao, Min-Jen

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate whether the location of moist desquamation matches high dose area for breast cancer patients receiving adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) after breast conservative surgery. One hundred and nine breast cancer patients were enrolled to this study. Their highest skin dose area (the hot spot) was estimated from the treatment planning. We divided the irradiated field into breast; sternal/parasternal; axillary; and inframammary fold areas. The location for moist desquamation was recorded to see if it matches the hot spot. We also analyzed other possible risk factors which may be related to the moist desquamation. Forty-eight patients with 65 locations developed moist desquamation during the RT course. Patients with larger breast sizes and easy to sweat are two independent risk factors for moist desquamation. The distribution of moist desquamation occurred most in the axillary area. All nine patients with the hot spots located at the axillary area developed moist desquamation at the axillary area, and six out of seven patients with the hot spots located at the inframammary fold developed moist desquamation there. The majority of patients with moist desquamation over the breast or sternal/parasternal areas had the hot spots located at these areas. For a patient with moist desquamation, if a hot spot is located at the axillary or inframammary fold areas, it is very likely to have moist desquamation occur there. On the other hand, if moist desquamation occurs over the breast or sternal/parasternal areas, we can highly expect these two areas are also the hot spot locations

  20. Robust Meter Network for Water Distribution Pipe Burst Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Donghwi Jung; Joong Hoon Kim

    2017-01-01

    A meter network is a set of meters installed throughout a water distribution system to measure system variables, such as the pipe flow rate and pressure. In the current hyper-connected world, meter networks are being exposed to meter failure conditions, such as malfunction of the meter’s physical system and communication system failure. Therefore, a meter network’s robustness should be secured for reliable provision of informative meter data. This paper introduces a multi-objective optimal me...

  1. Privacy friendly aggregation of smart meter readings, even when meters crash

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoepman, J.H.

    2017-01-01

    A well studied privacy problem in the area of smart grids is the question of how to aggregate the sum of a set of smart meter readings in a privacy friendly manner, i.e., in such a way that individual meter readings are not revealed to the adversary. Much less well studied is how to deal with

  2. Simple meters get smart? Cost benefit analysis of smart metering infrastructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Gerwen, R.J.F.; Jaarsma, S.A.; Koenis, F.T.C.

    2005-08-01

    The Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs requested a cost-benefit analysis of the large scale introduction of a smart meter infrastructure for gas and electricity consumption by small consumers. The questions asked in the study need to be answered in order to enable a well-founded evaluation of the implementation of smart meters. [mk] [nl

  3. Implementation plan for smart meters in Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents Ontario Energy Board's implementation plan to install 800,000 smart meters by December 31, 2007. The objective is to help consumers control their electricity bills through conservation and demand response. The three conditions that will change power consumption habits are price changes in response to demand and supply forces; the ability of consumers to see and respond to the price signals; and, a measurement of the response so that consumers get credit for their actions. This paper identifies the mandatory technical requirements for smart meters and the support operations of distributors. It sets priorities, identifies barriers and regulatory mechanisms for cost recovery. It also discusses options for ownership of the meters. 18 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs

  4. IMPORTANT: Fluke is recalling Digital Clamp Meters

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    Fluke is voluntarily recalling four models of Digital Clamp Meters: Fluke 373, 374, 375 and 376. If you own one of these clamp meters, please stop using it and send it back to Fluke for repair even if you have not experienced problems.   Description of the problem: "The printed circuit assembly may not be properly fastened to the test lead input jack. This may result in inaccurate voltage readings, including a low or no-voltage reading on a circuit energised with a hazardous voltage, presenting a shock, electrocution or thermal burn hazard." To determine if your clamp meter is affected by this recall notice, and for more information, click here.

  5. Reactor Power Meter type SG-8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glowacki, S W

    1981-01-01

    The report describes the principle and electronic circuits of the Reactor Power Meter type SG-8. The gamma radiation caused by the activity of the reactor first cooling circuit affectes the ionization chamber being the detector of the instrument. The output detector signal direct current is converted into the frequency of electric pulses by means of the current-to-frequency converter. The output converter frequency is measured by the digital frequency meter: the number of measured digits in time unit is proportional to the reactor power.

  6. Liquid metal Flow Meter - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, C.; Hoogendoom, S.; Hudson, B.; Prince, J.; Teichert, K.; Wood, J.; Chase, K.

    2007-01-30

    Measuring the flow of liquid metal presents serious challenges. Current commercially-available flow meters use ultrasonic, electromagnetic, and other technologies to measure flow, but are inadequate for liquid metal flow measurement because of the high temperatures required by most liquid metals. As a result of the reactivity and high temperatures of most liquid metals, corrosion and leakage become very serious safety concerns. The purpose of this project is to develop a flow meter for Lockheed Martin that measures the flow rate of molten metal in a conduit.

  7. Simple, inexpensive computerized rodent activity meters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, R M; Karachunski, P I; Kellermann, S A; Conti-Fine, B M

    1995-10-01

    We describe two approaches for using obsolescent computers, either an IBM PC XT or an Apple Macintosh Plus, to accurately quantify spontaneous rodent activity, as revealed by continuous monitoring of the spontaneous usage of running activity wheels. Because such computers can commonly be obtained at little or no expense, and other commonly available materials and inexpensive parts can be used, these meters can be built quite economically. Construction of these meters requires no specialized electronics expertise, and their software requirements are simple. The computer interfaces are potentially of general interest, as they could also be used for monitoring a variety of events in a research setting.

  8. Portable digital reactivity meter for power reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steffen, G [Nuklear-Ingenieur Service G.m.b.H., Hanau (Germany, F.R.)

    1977-07-01

    A digital reactivity meter has been developed, which can be used for all kinds of kinetic reactivity measurements in PWR's and BWR's. The input signals may be supplied by standard neutron detectors of the reactor. The hardware configuration consists of a minicomputer with ADC and DAC, a 'Silent' terminal and a high speed paper tape reader/punch. It is easily transportable. The reactivity meter solves the inverse kinetics equations for 6 delayed neutron groups, simultaneously for up to 8 logarithmic or linear neutron flux signals. It has been successfully tested at Biblis A PWR and the KRB BWR.

  9. Development of the impedance void meter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Moon Ki; Song, Chul Hwa; Won, Soon Yeon; Kim, Bok Deuk [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-06-01

    An impedance void meter is developed to measure the area-averaged void fraction. Its basic principle is based on the difference in the electrical conductivity between phases. Several methods of measuring void fraction are briefly reviewed and the reason why this type of void meter is chosen to develop is discussed. Basic principle of the measurement is thoroughly described and several design parameters to affect the overall function are discussed in detail. As example of applications is given for vertical air-water flow. It is shown that the current design has good dynamic response as well as very fine spatial resolution. (Author) 47 refs., 37 figs.

  10. Two-channel neutron boron meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yongqing; Yin Guowei; Chai Songshan; Deng Zhaoping; Zhou Bin

    1993-09-01

    The two-channel neutron boron meter is a continuous on-line measuring device to measure boron concentration of primary cooling liquid of reactors. The neutron-leakage-compensation method is taken in the measuring mechanism. In the primary measuring configuration, the mini-boron-water annulus and two-channel and central calibration loop are adopted. The calibration ring and constant-temperature of boron-water can be remotely controlled by secondary instruments. With the microcomputer data processing system the boron concentration is automatically measured and calibrated in on-line mode. The meter has many advantages such as high accuracy, fast response, multi-applications, high reliability and convenience

  11. The role of the dose-area product in the determination of doses to patients in diagnostic radiology. Experiences and current understanding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maier, W.

    1995-01-01

    Described are systems and procedures developed to assess the radiation exposure of patients. They may at the same time be used to reduce the doses to patients undergoing radiological examinations. As the digitalization of state-of-the-art X-ray equipments permits the technical data of any radiographic procedure to be retrieved, it is requested that these are fed into appropriate data systems so that information about any inadequate strategies or technical misfunctions would be available in due course. This request implies the general requirement of an automatic documentation of data relevant to radiological protection. (orig.) [de

  12. Project and evaluation of a 2000 meter offshore horizontal well production extra-heavy oil; Projeto e avaliacao de um poco offshore com 2000 m de trecho horizontal produtor de oleo extra-pesado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueta, Eduardo M.; Kato, Edson T.; Tinoco, Francisco L.; Vieira, Paulo M.F. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The project was proposed to acquire reservoir data, for the development of the Member (Mb) Siri in the concession of Badejo in Campos Basin, having extra-heavy oil, through long and large bore horizontal well. The main objectives were: to obtain the petrophysical properties through continuous coring of the oil and water zones; water sampling for the characterization; to verify the effective length of the horizontal well through production logging; to obtain the reservoir productivity and permeability through formation test; to obtain the oil PVT properties through monophasic sampling and to know the lateral variability of the accumulation. New technologies were used as geochemical geosteering, diversionary acidification and chemical tracer production logging. The well test analysis showed permeability and productivity values better than as expected and making possible the development of pilot project in order to evaluate the aquifer behavior, the long term well productivity and performance of the elevation and behavior of the extra-heavy oil offloading for subsequent development of the reservoir. (author)

  13. In-situ calibration of clinical built-in KAP meters with traceability to a primary standard using a reference KAP meter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malusek, A; Helmrot, E; Sandborg, M; Grindborg, J-E; Carlsson, G Alm

    2014-12-07

    The air kerma-area product (KAP) is used for settings of diagnostic reference levels. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) recommends that doses in diagnostic radiology (including the KAP values) be estimated with an accuracy of at least ± 7% (k = 2). Industry standards defined by the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) specify that the uncertainty of KAP meter measurements should be less than ± 25% (k = 2). Medical physicists willing to comply with the IAEA's recommendation need to apply correction factors to KAP values reported by x-ray units. The aim of this work is to present and evaluate a calibration method for built-in KAP meters on clinical x-ray units. The method is based on (i) a tandem calibration method, which uses a reference KAP meter calibrated to measure the incident radiation, (ii) measurements using an energy-independent ionization chamber to correct for the energy dependence of the reference KAP meter, and (iii) Monte Carlo simulations of the beam quality correction factors that correct for differences between beam qualities at a standard laboratory and the clinic. The method was applied to the KAP meter in a Siemens Aristos FX plus unit. It was found that values reported by the built-in KAP meter differed from the more accurate values measured by the reference KAP meter by more than 25% for high tube voltages (more than 140 kV) and heavily filtered beams (0.3 mm Cu). Associated uncertainties were too high to claim that the IEC's limit of 25% was exceeded. Nevertheless the differences were high enough to justify the need for a more accurate calibration of built-in KAP meters.

  14. A Probabilistic Model of Meter Perception: Simulating Enculturation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Weij, B.; Pearce, M.T.; Honing, H.

    Enculturation is known to shape the perception of meter in music but this is not explicitly accounted for by current cognitive models of meter perception. We hypothesize that the induction of meter is a result of predictive coding: interpreting onsets in a rhythm relative to a periodic meter

  15. 39 CFR 501.15 - Computerized Meter Resetting System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Computerized Meter Resetting System. 501.15... AND DISTRIBUTE POSTAGE EVIDENCING SYSTEMS § 501.15 Computerized Meter Resetting System. (a) Description. The Computerized Meter Resetting System (CMRS) permits customers to reset their postage meters at...

  16. 18 CFR 367.9020 - Account 902, Meter reading expenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Account 902, Meter... GAS ACT Operation and Maintenance Expense Chart of Accounts § 367.9020 Account 902, Meter reading... customer meters, and determining consumption when performed by employees engaged in reading meters. (b...

  17. Determination of Multiphase Flow Meter Reliability and Development of Correction Charts for the Prediction of Oilfield Fluid Flow Rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel S. MOFUNLEWI

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of field testing of Multiphase Flow Meter (MPFM is to show whether its accuracy compares favourably with that of the Test Separator in accurately measuring the three production phases (oil, gas and water as well as determining meter reliability in field environment. This study evaluates field test results of the MPFM as compared to reference conventional test separators. Generally, results show that MPFM compares favourably with Test Separator within the specified range of accuracy.At the moment, there is no legislation for meter proving technique for MPFM. However, this study has developed calibration charts that can be used to correct and improve meter accuracy.

  18. Insight conference reports : Smart meters in Ontario : implementation plan and its impact on electricity pricing strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This conference was attended by major players involved in the development and implementation of smart readers. In response to the Ontario Government's plan to install smart meters for all electricity customers in Ontario by 2010, local distribution companies (LDCs) will have to develop programs to select, purchase, install and maintain these new meters. In addition, each LDC will have to develop an approach to collect, aggregate and include electricity consumption, historical data and cost on customer bills. The objective for implementing smart meters is to help consumers control their electricity bills through conservation and demand response. The mandatory technical requirements for smart meters and the support operations of distributors were discussed along with regulatory requirements, impact of legislation on LDCs, centralized versus LDC driven approaches, opportunities for private sector investors, resolving smart meters data management challenges, and new pricing policies. A review of pilot metering programs was presented along with a review of innovative technologies, products and services that can help in choosing, purchasing, installing and maintaining the new meters. tabs., figs

  19. An evaporation based digital microflow meter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nie, C; Frijns, A J H; Mandamparambil, R; Zevenbergen, M A G; den Toonder, J M J

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we present a digital microflow meter operating in the range 30-250 nl min-1 for water. The principle is based on determining the evaporation rate of the liquid via reading the number of wetted pore array structures in a microfluidic system, through which continuous evaporation takes

  20. An evaporation based digital microflow meter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nie, C.; Frijns, A.J.H.; Mandamparambil, R.; Zevenbergen, M.A.G.; Toonder, den J.M.J.

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we present a digital microflow meter operating in the range 30–250 nl min-1 for water. The principle is based on determining the evaporation rate of the liquid via reading the number of wetted pore array structures in a microfluidic system, through which continuous evaporation takes

  1. Water table and the neutron moisture meter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visvalingam, M [Hull Univ. (UK). Geography Dept.

    1975-12-01

    Measurements with a neutron moisture meter at Westlands, near Hull, showed count rates at capillary saturation to be within the error limits of count rates at full saturation. However, the saturation profiles in themselves were interesting as they indicated not only the zonation of the soil but also differences in drainable porosity when compared to count-rate profiles at the end of November.

  2. Field test of coordinated ramp metering (CRM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-15

    This project has focused on field implementation and testing of a Coordinated Ramp Metering (CRM) algorithm at California State Route 99 : Northbound corridor in Sacramento between Calvine Road and the SR50 interchange after 12th Ave. It is a 9 mile ...

  3. Smart meters and economies in energy use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zelem, Marie-Christine

    2014-01-01

    A central theme promoted by the government for the energy transition, the mastering of energy consumption features notably the setting up of intelligent electricity networks and the installation of what are known as smart meters. Yet will consumers actually be in a position to become proponents of more sober use of energy? (author)

  4. Smart wavelength meter for integrated photonics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benelajla, Meryem; Taballione, Caterina; Boller, Klaus J.

    2017-01-01

    Thermally tunable SiN waveguide microring resonators in connection with neural network readout algorithms appear promising for use as integrated optical wavelength meters. So far, we have observed long-term reliability and a temperature immunity of the readout across several degrees of ambient

  5. Weak measurements with a qubit meter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Shengjun; Mølmer, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    We derive schemes to measure the so-called weak values of quantum system observables by coupling of the system to a qubit meter system. We highlight, in particular, the meaning of the imaginary part of the weak values, and show how it can be measured directly on equal footing with the real part...

  6. Educational Electrical Appliance Power Meter and Logger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunn, John

    2013-01-01

    The principles behind two different designs of inductive power meter are presented. They both make use of the microphone input of a computer which, together with a custom-written program, can record the instantaneous power of a domestic electrical appliance. The device can be built quickly and can be calibrated with reference to a known power…

  7. Wat maakt een slimme meter echt slim?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria; Kokkeler, Andre B.J.; Bakker, Vincent; Bosman, M.G.C.; Molderink, Albert; Croes, Roel

    In de Tweede Kamer laaide in 2008 een discussie op naar aanleiding van geluiden uit de samenleving over het wel of niet verplicht installeren van slimme meters in huizen. Voor- en tegenstanders van een verplichte invoer gebruiken ondertussen alle media om de algemene opinie te beïnvloeden.

  8. Optical system for a universal luminance meter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, D.A.

    1965-01-01

    There is a need for luminance meters in various fields of photometry having these characteristics: a- objective method of measurements. b. variable shape and size of measurement area. c- absence of parallax during aiming operations. d- Possibility of observing the part of the field of view to be

  9. Meter Designs Reduce Operation Costs for Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center collaborated with Quality Monitoring and Control (QMC) of Humble, Texas, through a Space Act Agreement to design a balanced flow meter for the Space Shuttle Program. QMC founded APlus-QMC LLC to commercialize the technology, which has contributed to 100 new jobs, approximately $250,000 in yearly sales, and saved customers an estimated $10 million.

  10. KVP meter errors induced by plastic wrap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jefferies, D.; Morris, J.W.; White, V.P.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether erroneous kVp meter readings, induced by plastic wrap, affected the actual kVp (output) of a dental X-ray machine. To evaluate the effect of plastic wrap on dental X-ray machine kVp meters, a radiation output device was used to measure output in mR/ma.s. An intraoral dental X-ray unit (S.S. White Model number-sign 90W) was used to make the exposures. First, the kVp meter was not covered with plastic wrap and output readings were recorded at various kVp settings with the milliamperage and time held constant. Secondly, the same kVp settings were selected before the plastic wrap was placed. Milliamperage and time were again held to the same constant. The X-ray console was then covered with plastic wrap prior to measuring the output for each kVp. The wrap possessed a static charge. This charge induced erroneous kVp meter readings. Out-put readings at the various induced kVp settings were then recorded. A kVp of 50 with no wrap present resulted in the same output as a kVp of 50 induced to read 40 or 60 kVp by the presence of wrap. Similar results were obtained at other kVp settings. This indicates that the plastic wrap influences only the kVp meter needle and not the actual kilovoltage of the X-ray machine. Dental X-ray machine operators should select kVp meter readings prior to placing plastic wrap and should not adjust initial settings if the meter is deflected later by the presence of wrap. The use of such a procedure will result in proper exposures, fewer retakes, and less patient radiation. If plastic wrap leads to consistent exposure errors, clinicians may wish to use a 0.5% sodium hypochlorite disinfectant as an alternative to the barrier technique

  11. Assessment of the implementation regulations for smart meters; Beoordeling uitvoeringsregelingen Slimme Meter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boekema, J.

    2011-03-15

    TNO (Netherlands) assessed whether the smart meter is reliable and future proof. By request of the Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs, Agriculture and Innovation (ELI) an assessment was conducted of the requirements for smart meters and, as formulated in the Order in Council 'Decree on remotely readable metering devices', based on 48 tests regarding security, privacy and future stability. Taking into account a number of described recommendations, TNO deems the legislation and implementation schemes sufficient to allow for safe, reliable and future proof implementation of smart meters in the Netherlands. [Dutch] TNO heeft beoordeeld of de slimme meter betrouwbaar en toekomstvast is. Ten behoeve van het ministerie van Economische Zaken, Landbouw en Innovatie (ELI) zijn de eisen die aan slimme meters worden gesteld, en zoals verwoord in de AmvB 'Besluit op afstand uitleesbare meetinrichtingen', beoordeeld aan de hand van 48 toetsen over zekerheid (security), persoonlijke levenssfeer (privacy) en toekomstvastheid. Met inachtneming van een aantal omschreven aanbevelingen, vindt TNO wetgeving en uitvoeringsregelingen zodanig dat daarmee een veilige, betrouwbare en toekomstvaste slimme meter geimplementeerd kan worden in Nederland.

  12. Revealing household characteristics from smart meter data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckel, Christian; Sadamori, Leyna; Staake, Thorsten; Santini, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    Utilities are currently deploying smart electricity meters in millions of households worldwide to collect fine-grained electricity consumption data. We present an approach to automatically analyzing this data to enable personalized and scalable energy efficiency programs for private households. In particular, we develop and evaluate a system that uses supervised machine learning techniques to automatically estimate specific “characteristics” of a household from its electricity consumption. The characteristics are related to a household's socio-economic status, its dwelling, or its appliance stock. We evaluate our approach by analyzing smart meter data collected from 4232 households in Ireland at a 30-min granularity over a period of 1.5 years. Our analysis shows that revealing characteristics from smart meter data is feasible, as our method achieves an accuracy of more than 70% over all households for many of the characteristics and even exceeds 80% for some of the characteristics. The findings are applicable to all smart metering systems without making changes to the measurement infrastructure. The inferred knowledge paves the way for targeted energy efficiency programs and other services that benefit from improved customer insights. On the basis of these promising results, the paper discusses the potential for utilities as well as policy and privacy implications. - Highlights: • Many household characteristics can be automatically inferred from smart meter data. • We develop a system to infer employment status and number of occupants, for instance. • We evaluate our system analyzing data collected from 4232 households in Ireland. • The insights enable personalized and scalable efficiency campaigns for utilities. • Energy efficiency measures must be complemented by privacy protection

  13. Study of the indirect calibration of clinical air kerma-area meters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida Junior, Jose N.; Terini, Ricardo A.; Herdade, Silvio B.

    2011-01-01

    Kerma-area product (P KA ) is a quantity which is independent of the distance to the X-ray tube focal spot and that can be used to assess the effective dose in patients. Clinical P KA meters are usually calibrated on-site by measuring the air kerma with an ion chamber and evaluating the irradiated area by means of a radiographic image. This work presents a preliminary metrological evaluation of the calibration of a device marketed recently (PDC, Patient Dose Calibrator, Radcal), designed for calibrating clinical P KA meters. Results are also shown of applying the PDC to the cross calibration of a clinical P KA meter from a radiology equipment. Results confirm a lower energy dependence of the PDC relative to the tested clinical meter. (author)

  14. Metering error quantification under voltage and current waveform distortion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Wang, Jia; Xie, Zhi; Zhang, Ran

    2017-09-01

    With integration of more and more renewable energies and distortion loads into power grid, the voltage and current waveform distortion results in metering error in the smart meters. Because of the negative effects on the metering accuracy and fairness, it is an important subject to study energy metering combined error. In this paper, after the comparing between metering theoretical value and real recorded value under different meter modes for linear and nonlinear loads, a quantification method of metering mode error is proposed under waveform distortion. Based on the metering and time-division multiplier principles, a quantification method of metering accuracy error is proposed also. Analyzing the mode error and accuracy error, a comprehensive error analysis method is presented which is suitable for new energy and nonlinear loads. The proposed method has been proved by simulation.

  15. Community Net Energy Metering: How Novel Policies Expand Benefits of Net Metering to Non-Generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, James; Varnado, Laurel

    2009-04-01

    As interest in community solutions to renewable energy grows, more states are beginning to develop policies that encourage properties with more than one meter to install shared renewable energy systems. State net metering policies are evolving to allow the aggregation of multiple meters on a customer’s property and to dissolve conventional geographical boundaries. This trend means net metering is expanding out of its traditional function as an enabling incentive to offset onsite customer load at a single facility. This paper analyzes community net energy metering (CNEM) as an emerging vehicle by which farmers, neighborhoods, and municipalities may more easily finance and reap the benefits of renewable energy. Specifically, it aims to compare and contrast the definition of geographical boundaries among different CNEM models and examine the benefits and limitations of each approach. As state policies begin to stretch the geographic boundaries of net metering, they allow inventive solutions to encourage renewable energy investment. This paper attempts to initiate the conversation on this emerging policy mechanism and offers recommendations for further development of these policies.

  16. Gamin partable radiation meter with alarm threshold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payat, Rene.

    1981-10-01

    The Gamin Radiation meter is a direct reading, portable, battery-powered gamma doserate meter featuring alarm thresholds. Doserate is read on a micro-ammeter with a millirad-per-hour logarithmic scale, covering a range of 0,1 to 1000 millirads/hour. The instrument issues an audible warning signal when dose-rate level exceeds a threshold value, which can be selected. The detector tube is of the Geiger-Muller counter, energy compensated type. Because of its low battery drain, the instrument can be operated continously for 1000 hours. It is powered by four 1.5 volt alcaline batteries of the R6 type. The electronic circuitry is housed in a small lightweight case made of impact resistant plastic. Applications of the Gamin portable radiation monitor are found in health physics, safety departments, medical facilities, teaching, civil defense [fr

  17. Fuel cell membrane hydration and fluid metering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Daniel O.; Walsh, Michael M.

    1999-01-01

    A hydration system includes fuel cell fluid flow plate(s) and injection port(s). Each plate has flow channel(s) with respective inlet(s) for receiving respective portion(s) of a given stream of reactant fluid for a fuel cell. Each injection port injects a portion of liquid water directly into its respective flow channel in order to mix its respective portion of liquid water with the corresponding portion of the stream. This serves to hydrate at least corresponding part(s) of a given membrane of the corresponding fuel cell(s). The hydration system may be augmented by a metering system including flow regulator(s). Each flow regulator meters an injecting at inlet(s) of each plate of respective portions of liquid into respective portion(s) of a given stream of fluid by corresponding injection port(s).

  18. Energy Theft in the Advanced Metering Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Stephen; Podkuiko, Dmitry; McDaniel, Patrick

    Global energy generation and delivery systems are transitioning to a new computerized "smart grid". One of the principle components of the smart grid is an advanced metering infrastructure (AMI). AMI replaces the analog meters with computerized systems that report usage over digital communication interfaces, e.g., phone lines. However, with this infrastructure comes new risk. In this paper, we consider adversary means of defrauding the electrical grid by manipulating AMI systems. We document the methods adversaries will use to attempt to manipulate energy usage data, and validate the viability of these attacks by performing penetration testing on commodity devices. Through these activities, we demonstrate that not only is theft still possible in AMI systems, but that current AMI devices introduce a myriad of new vectors for achieving it.

  19. Analysis Balance Parameter of Optimal Ramp metering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y.; Duan, N.; Yang, X.

    2018-05-01

    Ramp metering is a motorway control method to avoid onset congestion through limiting the access of ramp inflows into the main road of the motorway. The optimization model of ramp metering is developed based upon cell transmission model (CTM). With the piecewise linear structure of CTM, the corresponding motorway traffic optimization problem can be formulated as a linear programming (LP) problem. It is known that LP problem can be solved by established solution algorithms such as SIMPLEX or interior-point methods for the global optimal solution. The commercial software (CPLEX) is adopted in this study to solve the LP problem within reasonable computational time. The concept is illustrated through a case study of the United Kingdom M25 Motorway. The optimal solution provides useful insights and guidances on how to manage motorway traffic in order to maximize the corresponding efficiency.

  20. Quality control of the activity meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, Marlon da Silva Brandão; Sá, Lídia Vasconcelos de

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To carry out a comparative analysis of national and international standards regarding the quality control of the activity meter used in Nuclear Medicine Services in Brazil. Material and methods: Quality control protocols from the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) and International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) were pointed out and compared with requirements from both regulatory Brazilian agencies, National Surveillance Agency (ANVISA) and National Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN). Results: The daily routine tests recommended by the regulatory agencies do not have significant differences; in contrast the tests with higher periodicities like (accuracy, linearity and precision) have differences discrepant. Conclusion: In view of the comparative analysis carried out, it is suggested that the national recommendations for the quality control tests of the activity meter should be checked and evaluated, with emphasis on the semiannual and annual periodicity tests. (author)

  1. Critical review of directional neutron survey meters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balmer, Matthew J. I.; Gamage, Kelum A. A.; Taylor, Graeme C.

    2014-01-01

    Having been overlooked for many years, research is now starting to take into account the directional distribution of the neutron work place field. The impact of not taking this into account has led to overly conservative estimates of dose in neutron workplace fields. This paper provides a critical review of this existing research into directional survey meters which could improve these estimates of dose. Instruments which could be adapted for use as directional neutron survey meters are also considered within this review. Using Monte-Carlo techniques, two of the most promising existing designs are evaluated; a boron-doped liquid scintillator and a multi-detector directional spectrometer. As an outcome of these simulations, possible adaptations to these instruments are suggested with a view to improving the portability of the instrument.

  2. Critical Review of Directional Neutron Survey Meters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balmer, M.J.I.; Gamage, K.A.A.; Taylor, G.C.

    2013-06-01

    Having been overlooked for many years, research is now starting to take into account the directional distribution of the neutron work place field. The impact of not taking this into account has led to overly conservative estimates of dose in neutron workplace fields. This paper provides a critical review of this existing research into directional survey meters which could improve these estimates of dose. Instruments which could be adapted for use as directional neutron survey meters are also considered within this review. Using Monte-Carlo techniques, two of the most promising existing designs are evaluated; a boron-doped liquid scintillator and a multi-detector directional spectrometer. As an outcome of these simulations, possible adaptations to these instruments are suggested with a view to improving the portability of the instrument. (authors)

  3. From Smart Metering to Smart Grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukuča, Peter; Chrapčiak, Igor

    2016-06-01

    The paper deals with evaluation of measurements in electrical distribution systems aimed at better use of data provided by Smart Metering systems. The influence of individual components of apparent power on the power loss is calculated and results of measurements under real conditions are presented. The significance of difference between the traditional and the complex evaluation of the electricity consumption efficiency by means of different definitions of the power factor is illustrated.

  4. Wanted: competitive metering infrastructure. Metering must be automated in a high grade; Gesucht: wettbewerbsfaehige Metering-Infrastruktur. Metering muss hochgradig automatisiert werden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller-Elschner, C. [T-Systems Enterprise Services GmbH, Bonn (Germany). Business Development und Marketing

    2008-04-21

    Accurate on-time consumption metering and data transmission are increasingly important as energy markets are being deregulated. Measuring and information systems combine measurements with intelligent modules for automatic transmission of consumption information. A meaningful cost-benefit comparision results only when the total system is considered. Telecommunication companies as ICT service systems and service sectors can do a clear contribution to the total system. (orig./GL)

  5. Device Stores and Discharges Metered Fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, S. L.; Setzer, D.

    1983-01-01

    Hand-held container accepts measured amount of liquid from pressurized supply. Supply pressure drives spring-loaded piston that stores enough mechanical energy to discharge measured liquid into another container. Original application of container was to rehydrate sterilized pre-packaged food in zerogravity environment of space vehicles. Possible terrestrial applicatios include dispensing of toxic fluids or metering of fluids for household, commercial or laboratory uses.

  6. Electricity Consumption Clustering Using Smart Meter Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Tureczek

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Electricity smart meter consumption data is enabling utilities to analyze consumption information at unprecedented granularity. Much focus has been directed towards consumption clustering for diversifying tariffs; through modern clustering methods, cluster analyses have been performed. However, the clusters developed exhibit a large variation with resulting shadow clusters, making it impossible to truly identify the individual clusters. Using clearly defined dwelling types, this paper will present methods to improve clustering by harvesting inherent structure from the smart meter data. This paper clusters domestic electricity consumption using smart meter data from the Danish city of Esbjerg. Methods from time series analysis and wavelets are applied to enable the K-Means clustering method to account for autocorrelation in data and thereby improve the clustering performance. The results show the importance of data knowledge and we identify sub-clusters of consumption within the dwelling types and enable K-Means to produce satisfactory clustering by accounting for a temporal component. Furthermore our study shows that careful preprocessing of the data to account for intrinsic structure enables better clustering performance by the K-Means method.

  7. The Gemini 8-Meter Telescopes Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boroson, Todd A.

    1995-05-01

    The Gemini 8-Meter Telescopes Project is an international partnership to build and operate two 8-meter telescopes, one on Mauna Kea, Hawaii, and one on Cerro Pachon, Chile. The telescopes will be international facilities, open to the scientific communities of the six member countries, the United States (50%), the United Kingdom (25%), Canada (15%), Chile (5%), Argentina (2.5%), and Brazil (2.5%). The telescopes are designed to exploit the best atmospheric conditions at these excellent sites. Near diffraction limited performance will be delivered at 2.2 microns and longward, with minimal degradation of the best seeing conditions at shorter wavelengths. The telescopes and facilities are designed to achieve emissivity opportunity. First light for the Mauna Kea telescope is expected in late 1998, and for the Cerro Pachon telescope in mid-2000. This talk will report on construction progress, the instrumental capabilities, and operations strategies being considered. The Gemini 8-meter Telescopes Project is managed by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA), Inc. under a cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation which serves as executive agency for the Gemini partner countries. U.S. participation in the project is through the U.S. Gemini Program, a division of the National Optical Astronomy Observatories. NOAO is operated by AURA, Inc. under cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation.

  8. Route Optimization for Offloading Congested Meter Fixes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Min; Zelinski, Shannon

    2016-01-01

    The Optimized Route Capability (ORC) concept proposed by the FAA facilitates traffic managers to identify and resolve arrival flight delays caused by bottlenecks formed at arrival meter fixes when there exists imbalance between arrival fixes and runways. ORC makes use of the prediction capability of existing automation tools, monitors the traffic delays based on these predictions, and searches the best reroutes upstream of the meter fixes based on the predictions and estimated arrival schedules when delays are over a predefined threshold. Initial implementation and evaluation of the ORC concept considered only reroutes available at the time arrival congestion was first predicted. This work extends previous work by introducing an additional dimension in reroute options such that ORC can find the best time to reroute and overcome the 'firstcome- first-reroute' phenomenon. To deal with the enlarged reroute solution space, a genetic algorithm was developed to solve this problem. Experiments were conducted using the same traffic scenario used in previous work, when an arrival rush was created for one of the four arrival meter fixes at George Bush Intercontinental Houston Airport. Results showed the new approach further improved delay savings. The suggested route changes from the new approach were on average 30 minutes later than those using other approaches, and fewer numbers of reroutes were required. Fewer numbers of reroutes reduce operational complexity and later reroutes help decision makers deal with uncertain situations.

  9. Critical review of directional neutron survey meters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balmer, Matthew J.I.; Gamage, Kelum A.A.; Taylor, Graeme C.

    2014-01-01

    Having been overlooked for many years, research is now starting to take into account the directional distribution of the neutron work place field. The impact of not taking this into account has led to overly conservative estimates of dose in neutron workplace fields. This paper provides a critical review of this existing research into directional survey meters which could improve these estimates of dose. Instruments which could be adapted for use as directional neutron survey meters are also considered within this review. Using Monte-Carlo techniques, two of the most promising existing designs are evaluated; a boron-doped liquid scintillator and a multi-detector directional spectrometer. As an outcome of these simulations, possible adaptations to these instruments are suggested with a view to improving the portability of the instrument. -- Highlights: • We critically review the existing literature into directional survey meters. • Instruments which could be adapted for this purpose are also reviewed. • Investigate the potential of much lighter portable real-time instrument. • Improvements to existing instruments are suggested to improve their design. • Boron-Doped liquid scintillator design is the most promising, but needs further work

  10. The British public’s perception of the UK smart metering initiative: Threats and opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchanan, Kathryn; Banks, Nick; Preston, Ian; Russo, Riccardo

    2016-01-01

    Consumer acceptance of smart meters remains crucial in achieving the potential carbon emission reductions offered by advanced metering infrastructures. Given this, the present research used deliberative focus groups to examine what is needed to secure acceptance and engagement from domestic consumers with services, products and ‘offers’ in smarter power systems. Our findings suggest that consumers are able to identify not just threats relating to smart metering initiatives but opportunities as well. In particular, our focus group participants responded positively to the idea of an automated system that could be used to achieve energy savings in combination with time-of-use tariffs. We conclude by outlining suggestions for policy recommendations that may help consumer acceptance of smart meter enabled services be more readily achieved. - Highlights: •We examine consumer acceptance of smart metering initiatives using focus groups. •Consumers perceive both threats and opportunities in smart metering initiatives. •Threats include; autonomy issues, privacy concerns and mistrust of suppliers. •Opportunities include: accurate billing and enablement of future ICT services. •Consumers responded positively to the idea of automated energy management.

  11. Accurate KAP meter calibration as a prerequisite for optimisation in projection radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malusek, A.; Sandborg, M.; Alm Carlsson, G.

    2016-01-01

    Modern X-ray units register the air kerma-area product, PKA, with a built-in KAP meter. Some KAP meters show an energy-dependent bias comparable with the maximum uncertainty articulated by the IEC (25 %), adversely affecting dose-optimisation processes. To correct for the bias, a reference KAP meter calibrated at a standards laboratory and two calibration methods described here can be used to achieve an uncertainty of <7 % as recommended by IAEA. A computational model of the reference KAP meter is used to calculate beam quality correction factors for transfer of the calibration coefficient at the standards laboratory, Q 0 , to any beam quality, Q, in the clinic. Alternatively, beam quality corrections are measured with an energy-independent dosemeter via a reference beam quality in the clinic, Q 1 , to beam quality, Q. Biases up to 35 % of built-in KAP meter readings were noted. Energy-dependent calibration factors are needed for unbiased PKA. Accurate KAP meter calibration as a prerequisite for optimisation in projection radiography. (authors)

  12. Powering the planet : smart meters : a practitioner's perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, W. [Siemens Canada Ltd., Burnaby, BC (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    The role of smart metering as an energy solution to increased demand was discussed from the perspective of Siemens Canada Ltd. Global megatrends such as increased urbanization, resource scarcity and a greater focus on environmental issues is changing the energy landscape, and many electricity industry leaders are now recognizing the importance of integrated energy solutions. Electric power supply will need to combine economy with security and environmental concern, particularly as utility operations plan up to 10 years in advance of current peak requirements. It is expected that smart metering can postpone capital investment through supply and demand balancing, and will also be used by utilities to remove subsidy and increase customer accountability. While smart metering may seem to respond to environmental requirements and pressures, it is not yet known whether smart metering will change customer behaviour significantly or reduce energy costs. However, the alignment between retail and distribution may create regional advantages by enabling more advanced product offerings in load management and profiling. While smart metering is a proven technology, market operation and back office processes have yet to be determined. Segmentation may prove to be a critical implementation factor which will require an in-depth evaluation of geography; technology; consumption; conservation; and payback. Data availability must be balanced with communications costs. Low cost, low functionality smart meters will enable centralized control. Low cost online communications can allow remote operation of the meter point including real time functions. It was concluded that a centralized scheme operation will enable all points to be managed within a single portfolio, and create significant cost reduction opportunities in meter operations. Rather than investing in complicated technology that may become obsolete, Siemens will rely instead on the creation of a service model that will allow

  13. Real time Aanderaa current meter data collection system

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    AshokKumar, K.; Diwan, S.G.

    Aanderaa current meters are widely used for recording the current speed and such other 4 parameters by deploying them over extended period of time. Normally data are recorded on magnetic tape and after recovery of current meters, data are read...

  14. A Study of the Meters of Bidel Dehlavi\\'s Ghazals(Sonnets and their Comparison with the Meters of Ghazals(Sonnets in Persian and Indian-Style Ghazals(Sonnets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Kamali

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract  Bidel Dehlavi ( 1644 A.D./1054 A.H.-1721 A.D./1133 A.H . was one of the most famous Persian poets of India and the greatest poet in Indian branch of a style well-known as Sabk-e Hendi (Indian Style. However, his poems have not sufficiently been studied in Iran .   Meter is one of the basic elements and most effective one in poetry. Therefore, examining the quality of its meter could be one of the basic steps in interpreting and evaluating a poem.   Most of Bidel-readers and Bidel-scholars consider his ghazals as the most valuable product of his wit. Furthermore, according to its history and lyrical nature, ghazal pattern has a closer connection with music and the function of meter in ghazal form is more prominent than that of the others. For this reason, in the present study, first the meters of this poet's ghazals have been introduced and then they are compared with current meters of Persian ghazal and those of the eleventh ( A.H . century. Finally, the metrical features of his ghazals are determined as follows:  Bidel composed 2858 ghazals in 32 different meters, six of which were the most frequent ones in all Persian ghazals and in the eleventh ( A.H . century. In this way, Bidel, whose poems are famous because of their different and unusual quality, significantly conforms four fifth of his ghazals to the standard and thus they are considered "ordinary". But one can see some creativity and experimentation in the meters which are relatively less frequent meters: among the five less frequent meters in Persian poetry, Bidel composed from 1 to 56 ghazals in those meters and 4 ghazals in one meter which, according to the current evidence, there was not such an example known in Persian classical poetry at all.

  15. IMAGE TYPE WATER METER CHARACTER RECOGNITION BASED ON EMBEDDED DSP

    OpenAIRE

    LIU Ying; HAN Yan-bin; ZHANG Yu-lin

    2015-01-01

    In the paper, we combined DSP processor with image processing algorithm and studied the method of water meter character recognition. We collected water meter image through camera at a fixed angle, and the projection method is used to recognize those digital images. The experiment results show that the method can recognize the meter characters accurately and artificial meter reading is replaced by automatic digital recognition, which improves working efficiency.

  16. 49 CFR 192.357 - Customer meters and regulators: Installation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Customer meters and regulators: Installation. 192... SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Customer Meters, Service Regulators, and Service Lines § 192.357 Customer meters and regulators: Installation. (a...

  17. 49 CFR 192.359 - Customer meter installations: Operating pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Customer meter installations: Operating pressure... SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Customer Meters, Service Regulators, and Service Lines § 192.359 Customer meter installations: Operating pressure...

  18. 24 CFR 965.401 - Individually metered utilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT PHA-OWNED OR LEASED PROJECTS-GENERAL PROVISIONS Individual Metering of Utilities for Existing PHA-Owned Projects § 965.401 Individually metered utilities. (a) All utility service shall be... supplier or through the use of checkmeters, unless: (1) Individual metering is impractical, such as in the...

  19. Integrating an embedded system in a microwave moisture meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    The conversion of a PC- or laptop-controlled microwave moisture meter to a stand-alone meter hosting its own embedded system is discussed. The moisture meter measures the attenuation and phase shift of low power microwaves traversing the sample, from which the dielectric properties are calculated. T...

  20. Integrating an Embedded System within a Microwave Moisture Meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this paper, the conversion of a PC or laptop-controlled microwave moisture meter to a stand-alone meter hosting its own embedded system is discussed. The moisture meter uses low-power microwaves to measure the attenuation and phase shift of the sample, from which the dielectric properties are cal...

  1. HJD-I record and analysis meter for nuclear information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Shaoliang; Huang Yong; Xiao Yanbin

    1992-01-01

    A low-cost, small-volume, multi-function and new model intelligent nuclear electronic meter HJD-I Record and Analysis Meter are stated for Nuclear Information. It's hardware and software were detailed and the 137 Cs spectrum with this meter was presented

  2. A Scalable Smart Meter Data Generator Using Spark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iftikhar, Nadeem; Liu, Xiufeng; Danalachi, Sergiu

    2017-01-01

    Today, smart meters are being used worldwide. As a matter of fact smart meters produce large volumes of data. Thus, it is important for smart meter data management and analytics systems to process petabytes of data. Benchmarking and testing of these systems require scalable data, however, it can ...

  3. The disc pasture meter: Possible applications in grazing management.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The disc meter is a simple inexpensive instrument which may be used to make rapid yield estimates of standing forage. Linear regression relationships between meter reading and pasture dry matter yield are usually fairly good, but these may be affected by a number of different factors. The meter should therefore be ...

  4. 21 CFR 868.1780 - Inspiratory airway pressure meter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inspiratory airway pressure meter. 868.1780 Section 868.1780 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... meter. (a) Identification. An inspiratory airway pressure meter is a device used to measure the amount...

  5. Multichannel Distribution Meter: A Veritable Solution in Power ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Partitioned apartments in commercial buildings particularly in congested environments shares energy supply meters among several users. This often leads to disputes and results to power theft in the form of unpaid bills and meter tampering. This paper described how power from a single supply meter can be adequately ...

  6. NUCLEAR MIXING METERS FOR CLASSICAL NOVAE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, Keegan J.; Iliadis, Christian; Downen, Lori; Champagne, Art [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-3255 (United States); José, Jordi [Departament de Física i Enginyeria Nuclear, EUETIB, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, E-08036 Barcelona (Spain)

    2013-11-10

    Classical novae are caused by mass transfer episodes from a main-sequence star onto a white dwarf via Roche lobe overflow. This material possesses angular momentum and forms an accretion disk around the white dwarf. Ultimately, a fraction of this material spirals in and piles up on the white dwarf surface under electron-degenerate conditions. The subsequently occurring thermonuclear runaway reaches hundreds of megakelvin and explosively ejects matter into the interstellar medium. The exact peak temperature strongly depends on the underlying white dwarf mass, the accreted mass and metallicity, and the initial white dwarf luminosity. Observations of elemental abundance enrichments in these classical nova events imply that the ejected matter consists not only of processed solar material from the main-sequence partner but also of material from the outer layers of the underlying white dwarf. This indicates that white dwarf and accreted matter mix prior to the thermonuclear runaway. The processes by which this mixing occurs require further investigation to be understood. In this work, we analyze elemental abundances ejected from hydrodynamic nova models in search of elemental abundance ratios that are useful indicators of the total amount of mixing. We identify the abundance ratios ΣCNO/H, Ne/H, Mg/H, Al/H, and Si/H as useful mixing meters in ONe novae. The impact of thermonuclear reaction rate uncertainties on the mixing meters is investigated using Monte Carlo post-processing network calculations with temperature-density evolutions of all mass zones computed by the hydrodynamic models. We find that the current uncertainties in the {sup 30}P(p, γ){sup 31}S rate influence the Si/H abundance ratio, but overall the mixing meters found here are robust against nuclear physics uncertainties. A comparison of our results with observations of ONe novae provides strong constraints for classical nova models.

  7. Digital radioisotope moisture-density meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bychvarov, N.; Vankov, I.; Dimitrov, L.

    1982-01-01

    The primary information from the detectors of a combined radioisotope moisture-density meter is obtained as pulses, their counting rate being functionally dependent on the humidity per unit volume and the wet density. However, most practical cases demand information on the moisture per unit weight and the mass density of the dry skeleton. The paper describes how the proposed electronic circuit processes the input primary information to obtain the moisture in weight % and the mass density of the dry skeleton in g/cm 3 . (authors)

  8. Ramp - Metering Algorithms Evaluated within Simplified Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janota, Aleš; Holečko, Peter; Gregor, Michal; Hruboš, Marián

    2017-12-01

    Freeway networks reach their limits, since it is usually impossible to increase traffic volumes by indefinitely extending transport infrastructure through adding new traffic lanes. One of the possible solutions is to use advanced intelligent transport systems, particularly ramp metering systems. The paper shows how two particular algorithms of local and traffic-responsive control (Zone, ALINEA) can be adapted to simplified conditions corresponding to Slovak freeways. Both control strategies are modelled and simulated using PTV Vissim software, including the module VisVAP. Presented results demonstrate the properties of both control strategies, which are compared mutually as well as with the initial situation in which no control strategy is applied

  9. Ramp - Metering Algorithms Evaluated within Simplified Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janota Aleš

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Freeway networks reach their limits, since it is usually impossible to increase traffic volumes by indefinitely extending transport infrastructure through adding new traffic lanes. One of the possible solutions is to use advanced intelligent transport systems, particularly ramp metering systems. The paper shows how two particular algorithms of local and traffic-responsive control (Zone, ALINEA can be adapted to simplified conditions corresponding to Slovak freeways. Both control strategies are modelled and simulated using PTV Vissim software, including the module VisVAP. Presented results demonstrate the properties of both control strategies, which are compared mutually as well as with the initial situation in which no control strategy is applied

  10. Victoreen panoramic 470 A survey meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgess, P.H.; Iles, W.J.

    1978-07-01

    This instrument is a portable, battery powered, survey meter covering an exposure rate range from 0 to 1000 R h -1 . and an exposure range of 0 to 1000 mR. It is designed to measure X- and γ-radiation over a wide range of energies and angular distributions, and also to detect alpha and beta radiation. The radiation detector is an unsealed ionisation chamber. The report describes the instrument under the following headings: facilities and controls; radiation characteristics; electrical characteristics; environmental characteristics; mechanical characteristics; the manual; summary of performance. (U.K.)

  11. Dynamic range meter for radiofrequency amplifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drozd S. S.

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The new measurement setup having increased on 20…30 dB the own dynamic range in comparison with the standard circuit of the dynamic range meter is offered and the rated value of an error bringing by setup in the worst case does not exceed ± 2,8 dB. The measurement setup can be applied also to determinate levels of intermodulation components average power amplifiers and powerful amplifiers of a low-frequency at replacement of the quartz filter on meeting low-frequency the LC-filter and the spectrum analyzer.

  12. EPA Region 1 - Valley Depth in Meters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raster of the Depth in meters of EPA-delimited Valleys in Region 1.Valleys (areas that are lower than their neighbors) were extracted from a Digital Elevation Model (USGS, 30m) by finding the local average elevation, subtracting the actual elevation from the average, and selecting areas where the actual elevation was below the average. The landscape was sampled at seven scales (circles of 1, 2, 4, 7, 11, 16, and 22 km radius) to take into account the diversity of valley shapes and sizes. Areas selected in at least four scales were designated as valleys.

  13. Synergisms between smart metering and smart grid; Synergien zwischen Smart Metering und Smart Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maas, Peter [IDS GmbH, Ettlingen (Germany)

    2010-04-15

    With the implementation of a smart metering solution, it is not only possible to acquire consumption data for billing but also to acquire relevant data of the distribution grid for grid operation. There is still a wide gap between the actual condition and the target condition. Synergies result from the use of a common infrastructure which takes account both of the requirements of smart metering and of grid operation. An open architecture also enables the future integration of further applications of the fields of smart grid and smart home. (orig.)

  14. Smart Metering. Synergies within medium voltage automation; Synergien durch Smart Metering. Automatisierung auf Mittelspannungsebene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maas, Peter [IDS GmbH, Ettlingen (Germany)

    2010-11-15

    Transparent interdivisional system solutions are an indispensable and decisive precondition for the optimization of business processes. The implementation of a Smart Metering solution does not only provide data for billing purposes, but also renders important data for network operation. Synergies can be achieved through the use of a common infrastructure which covers both the needs of Smart Metering and network operation. An open architecture of the solution allows for the future integration of further services of the domains Smart Grid and Smart Home. (orig.)

  15. Energy saving by smart metering with consumption feedback; Energieeinsparung durch Smart Metering mit Verbrauchs-Feedback

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, Patrick [Institut fuer ZukunftsEnergieSysteme (IZES), Saarbruecken (Germany); Friedrich, Malte [Institut fuer Soziologische Meinungsforschung (IsoMe), Berlin (Germany); Kerber-Clasen, Stefan [Institut fuer Sozialforschung und Sozialwirtschaft e.V., Saarbruecken (Germany); Frey, Guenther

    2012-08-15

    While the German legislative, e.g. in the EnWG (Power Industry Act) assumes that electricity consumption metering will contribute to energy conservation in any case, many studies have arrived at a different contribution: Only a combination of consumption metering and direct feedback methods will result in significant energy savings. A recent research project (''Moderne Energiesparsysteme fuer Haushalte'') analysed an energy conservation system of this type. The findings will provide socio-economic insight into the background of successful energy conservation, and they will show how feedback methods can be optimised.

  16. Preparing for smart grid technologies: A behavioral decision research approach to understanding consumer expectations about smart meters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnamurti, Tamar; Schwartz, Daniel; Davis, Alexander; Fischhoff, Baruch; Bruine de Bruin, Wändi; Lave, Lester; Wang, Jack

    2012-01-01

    With the enactment of the 2009 American Recovery and Reinvestment Act, U.S. President Obama made a public commitment to a new approach to energy production and transmission in the United States. It features installing smart meters and related technologies in residential homes, as part of transforming the current electrical grid into a “smart grid.” Realizing this transformation requires consumers to accept these new technologies and take advantage of the opportunities that they create. We use methods from behavioral decision research to understand consumer beliefs about smart meters, including in-depth mental models interviews and a follow-up survey with a sample of potential smart meter customers of a major U.S. mid-Atlantic electricity utility. In both the surveys and the interviews, most respondents reported wanting smart meters. However, these preferences were often based on erroneous beliefs regarding their purpose and function. Respondents confused smart meters with in-home displays and other enabling technologies, while expecting to realize immediate savings. They also perceived risks, including less control over their electricity usage, violations of their privacy, and increased costs. We discuss the policy implications of our results. - Highlights: ► We outline normative risks and benefits of smart meters from scientific literature. ► We examine consumer perceptions of smart meters via interviews and surveys. ► Smart meter desire stems from consumer misconceptions about purpose and function. ► Appropriate communications may prevent consumer protests against the smart grid.

  17. Automatic ranging circuit for a digital panel meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, T.R.; Ross, H.H.

    1976-01-01

    This invention relates to a range changing circuit that operates in conjunction with a digital panel meter of fixed sensitivity. The circuit decodes the output of the panel meter and uses that information to change the gain of an input amplifier to the panel meter in order to ensure that the maximum number of significant figures is always displayed in the meter. The circuit monitors five conditions in the meter and responds to any of four combinations of these conditions by means of logic elements to carry out the function of the circuit. The system was designed for readout of a fluorescence analyzer for uranium analysis

  18. A convenient calibrator for tritium survey meters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cutler, J.M.; Janmohamed, S.R.; Surette, R.A.; Wood, M.J.

    1993-06-01

    Staff in Ontario Hydro's CANDU nuclear power stations were having difficulty calibrating their tritium-in-air survey meters. Chalk River Laboratories suggested using a standard silica gel collector loaded with tritiated water vapour as a radiation source. The collector is a polyethylene tube with a length of rubber tubing attached to each end. The plastic tube is filled with dry silica gel, and cotton wool is stuffed into each end to retain the gel. To load the source with tritiated vapour, a bubbler containing tritiated water is connected to the collector until the gel is completely pink. The end tubes of the source are then connected to each other to seal the source. To use the source, the rubber tubes are connected to the intake and exhaust fittings of the survey meter to be calibrated. No tritium vapour is released during loading or calibration. This source not only verifies that the ion chamber and electrometer are working, but also checks whether the air sample is reaching the detector. It is more direct and credible than a gamma source, and is inexpensive and convenient to construct and calibrate at the power station. 5 figs

  19. Calibration of ionization chamber survey meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadhim, A.K.; Kadni, T.B.

    2016-01-01

    Radiation measuring devices need to process calibration which lose their sensitivity and the extent of the response and the amount of stability under a changing conditions from time to time and this period depends on the nature and use of field in which used devices. A comparison study was done toa (45 I P) ( ionization chamber survey meter) and this showed the variation factor in five different years. This study also displayed the concept of radiation instrument calibration and necessity of every year calibration of them.In this project we used the five years calibration data for ionization chamber survey meter model Inspector (1/C F). the value deviation (∆ %) of Cfs for four years of calibration in comparison of C F for the year 2007 are very high and the device under research is not good to use in field and reliable because the ionization chamber is very sensitive to humidity and must calibrate a year or less, or due ing every two years and must maintain carefully to reduce the discarded effects the measurements.

  20. Smart meter users give a thumbs up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horne, D.

    2007-01-01

    The Ontario Energy Board conducted a pilot study with the support of Hydro Ottawa to better understand how consumers change their electricity consumption behaviour with smart meters and time-of-use (TOU) prices. The project enabled consumers to learn the most cost-effective times to use energy. Results from the Ontario Smart Price Pilot reveal that consumers like to have control over how much and when they use their electricity. Although the savings were only small for some clients involved in the study, they appreciated having their metering bills in greater detail. At the end of the pilot project, participants reduced electricity consumption by 6 per cent. Nearly 90 per cent of the participants paid lower energy bills and nearly 80 per cent indicated they would recommend TOU pricing to their friends because it motivated them to shift some of their electricity use away from peak hours. The average reduction in electricity demand among the two-thirds of participants on critical pricing plans was more than 20 per cent during high demand or critical peak hours in summer. Demand reduction on winter critical peak days was much lower for all participants. 1 fig

  1. Ultrasonic flow-meter test in sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Y.; Uno, O.; Kamei, M.

    1978-01-01

    As a part of the R and D programme for the prototype fast breeder reactor MONJU, an ultrasonic flow-meter (USFM) test is being carried out in sodium in the O-Arai Engineering Center of PNC. Prior to the present test, an in-water test was done at the manufacturer's as a preliminary investigation. The results reported here are the results up to the present. Calibration tests using the actual fluid were conducted on a 12-inch ultrasonic flow-meter with guide rods fabricated for sodium flow measurement. The test conditions in sodium were a temperature of 200 approximately 400 0 C and flow-rates of 0 approximately 6m/s. The main results are: (1) The linearity of output signal was good and accuracy was within 1%; (2) The alternating type of the USFM was much better than the fixed type in temperature change; (3) 2MHz of transducer frequency was better than 3MHz in sodium; (4) The S/N ratio of the ultrasonic signal and the length/diameter effect in a wide range in sodium surpassed the in-water test. (author)

  2. Technical and governance considerations for advanced metering infrastructure/smart meters: Technology, security, uncertainty, costs, benefits, and risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McHenry, Mark P.

    2013-01-01

    The fundamental role of policymakers when considering Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI), or ‘smart meters for energy and water infrastructure is to investigate a broad range of complex interrelated issues. These include alternative technical and non-technical options and deployment needs, the cost and benefits of the infrastructure (risks and mitigation measures), and the impact of a number of stakeholders: consumers, distributors, retailers, competitive market operators, competing technology companies, etc. The scale and number of potential variables in the AMI space is an almost unprecedented challenge to policymakers, with the anticipation of new ancillary products and services, associated market contestability, related regulatory and policy amendments, and the adequacy of consumer protection, education, and safety considerations requiring utmost due-diligence. Embarking on AMI investment entails significant technical, implementation, and strategic risk for governments and administering bodies, and an active effort is required to ensure AMI governance and planning maximises the potential benefits, and minimise uncertainties, costs, and risks to stakeholders. This work seeks to clarify AMI fundamentals and discusses the technical and related governance considerations from a dispassionate perspective, yet acknowledges many stakeholders tend to dichotomise debate, and obfuscate both advantages and benefits, and the converse. - Highlights: • AMI presents an almost unprecedented technical and governance policy challenge. • AMI enables vertical integration of electricity, gas, water, IT, and telco entities • AMI investments involve major technical, implementation, and strategic decisions. • Adequacy of consumer education, safety, privacy, and protection is paramount. • Policy must maximise AMI benefits and minimise uncertainties, costs, and risks

  3. Quality assurance measures and calibration of contamination meters at FAG-Kugelfischer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schloesser, H.

    1992-01-01

    The quality assurance measures taken in connection with the production of contamination meters according to the DIN 44801 standard are explained with regard to the individual components of such instruments, which include mechanical, electronic and detector elements. After the relevant calibration procedures have been described, the author proceeds to draw the reader's attention to potentials for error in measurements of surface contamination. (orig.) [de

  4. Relationship between chlorophyll density and SPAD chlorophyll meter reading for Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chlorophyll is an indicator of crop health and productivity. Measuring chlorophyll is usually done directly and requires significant time and resources. Indirect measurement of chlorophyll density using a handheld portable chlorophyll meter can reduce time. However, this information is very limit...

  5. ANL four-meter calorimeter design and operation manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perry, R.B.; Lewis, R.N.; Youngdahl, G.A.; Jung, E.A.; Roche, C.T.

    1980-02-01

    The four-meter fuel rod calorimetric system measures the thermal power produced by radioactive decay of fuel rods containing Pu. The Pu mass is related to the measured power through the weighted average of the product of the isotopic decay energies and the decay constants of the Pu isotopes present. U content has no effect since the thermal power produced by the U nuclides is insignificant when compared to Pu. Radiations from Pu are alpha particles and low-energy photons. This calorimeter will measure samples producing power up to 1.5 watts at a rate of one sample every 120 min. The instrument consists of a data-acquisition module made up of a microprocessor, with an 8K-byte nonvolatile memory, a control cabinet and the calorimeter chamber

  6. Evaluation of different disinfectants on the performance of an on-meter dosed amperometric glucose-oxidase-based glucose meter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmaga, Don; Dubois, Jeffrey A; Lyon, Martha E

    2011-11-01

    Off-meter dosed photometric glucose-oxidase-based glucose meters have been reported to be susceptible to interference by hydrogen-peroxide-based disinfecting agents. The objective of this study was to determine if a single application of hydrogen-peroxide-containing Accel® wipe to disinfect an on-meter dosed amperometric glucose-oxidase-based glucose meter will influence its performance. The performance of five on-meter dosed amperometric glucose-oxidase-based glucose meters was determined before and after disinfecting the devices with a single application of either CaviWipes® (14.3% isopropanol and 0.23% diisobutyl-phenoxy-ethoxyethyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride) or Accel (0.5% hydrogen peroxide) wipes. Replicate glucose measurements were conducted before disinfecting the devices, immediately after disinfecting, and then 1 and 2 min postdisinfecting, with measurements in triplicate. Analysis was sequentially completed for five different meters. Results were analyzed by a two-way analysis of variance (Analyze-it software). No clinical ( .05) in glucose concentration were detected when the on-meter dosed amperometric glucose-oxidase-based glucose meters were disinfected with either CaviWipes or Accel wipes and measured immediately or 1 or 2 min postdisinfecting. No clinically significant difference in glucose concentration was detected between meters (glucose oxidase amperometric-based glucose meters are not analytically susceptible to interference by a single application of hydrogen-peroxide-containing Accel disinfectant wipes. © 2011 Diabetes Technology Society.

  7. Performance testing of Tesla NNG 601 activity meter in nuclear medicine department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Husak, V.; Kleinbauer, K.

    1980-01-01

    The results are presented of testing activity meter Tesla NNG 601 the production of which began in Czechoslovakia in 1978. The meter is provided with a shielded well-type ionization chamber, the well 42 mm in diameter and 140 mm deep. The parameters of the instrument linearity, volume dependence, accuracy and stability, correctness of calibration were compared with those of other instruments (Searle Analytic, Picker and Capinted). The volume dependence of the Czechoslovak NNG 601 instrument is higher than that in the other instruments, other parameters are the same of better

  8. Handheld Multi-Gas Meters Assessment Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Gustavious [Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (United States); Wald-Hopkins, Mark David [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Obrey, Stephen J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Akhadov, Valida Dushdurova [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-06-27

    Handheld multi-gas meters (MGMs) are equipped with sensors to monitor oxygen (O2) levels and additional sensors to detect the presence of combustible or toxic gases in the environment. This report is limited to operational response-type MGMs that include at least four different sensors. These sensors can vary by type and by the monitored chemical. In real time, the sensors report the concentration of monitored gases in the atmosphere near the MGM. In April 2016 the System Assessment and Validation for Emergency Responders (SAVER) Program conducted an operationally-oriented assessment of MGMs. Five MGMs were assessed by emergency responders. The criteria and scenarios used in this assessment were derived from the results of a focus group of emergency responders with experience in using MGMs. The assessment addressed 16 evaluation criteria in four SAVER categories: Usability, Capability, Maintainability, and Deployability.

  9. Logic elements for reactor period meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, William P.; Bobis, James P.

    1976-01-01

    Logic elements are provided for a reactor period meter trip circuit. For one element, first and second inputs are applied to first and second chopper comparators, respectively. The output of each comparator is O if the input applied to it is greater than or equal to a trip level associated with each input and each output is a square wave of frequency f if the input applied to it is less than the associated trip level. The outputs of the comparators are algebraically summed and applied to a bandpass filter tuned to f. For another element, the output of each comparator is applied to a bandpass filter which is tuned to f to give a sine wave of frequency f. The outputs of the filters are multiplied by an analog multiplier whose output is 0 if either input is 0 and a sine wave of frequency 2f if both inputs are a frequency f.

  10. Aperture meter for the Large Hadron Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, G.J.; Fuchsberger, K.; Redaelli, S.

    2012-01-01

    The control of the high intensity beams of the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is particular challenging and requires a good modeling of the machine and monitoring of various machine parameters. During operation it is crucial to ensure a minimal distance between the beam edge and the aperture of sensitive equipment, e.g. the superconducting magnets, which in all cases must be in the shadow of the collimator's that protect the machine. Possible dangerous situations must be detected as soon as possible. In order to provide the operator with information about the current machine bottlenecks an aperture meter application was developed based on the LHC online modeling tool-chain. The calculation of available free aperture takes into account the best available optics and aperture model as well as the relevant beam measurements. This paper describes the design and integration of this application into the control environment and presents results of the usage in daily operation and from validation measurements. (authors)

  11. Radiation survey meters used for environmental monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjerke, H.; Sigurdsson, T.; Meier Pedersen, K.; Grindborg, J.-E.; Persson, L.; Siiskonen, T.; Hakanen, A.; Kosunen, A.

    2012-01-01

    The Nordic dosimetry group set up the GammaRate project to investigate how its expertise could be used to assure appropriate usage of survey meters in environmental monitoring. Considerable expertise in calibrating radiation instruments exists in the Nordic radiation protection authorities. The Swedish, Finnish, Danish and Norwegian authorities operate Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratories (SSDLs) that provide users with calibration traceable to internationally recognised primary standards. These authorities together with the Icelandic authorities have formally cooperated since 2002 in the field of radiation dosimetry. Dosimetry is the base for assesment of risk from ionising radiation and calibration of instruments is an imported part in dosimetry. The Nordic dosimetry group has been focused on cancer therapy. This work extends the cooperation to the dosimetry of radiation protection and environmental monitoring. This report contains the formal, theoretical and practical background for survey meter measurements. Nordic standards dosimetry laboratories have the capability to provide traceable calibration of instruments in various types of radiation. To verify and explore this further in radiation protection applications a set of survey instruments were sent between the five Nordic countries and each of the authority asked to provide a calibration coefficient for all instruments. The measurement results were within the stated uncertainties, except for some results from NRPA for the ionchamber based instrument. The comparison was shown to be a valuable tool to harmonize the calibration of radiation protection instruments in the Nordic countries. Dosimetry plays an important role in the emergency situations, and it is clear that better traceability and harmonised common guidelines will improve the emergency preparedness and health. (Author)

  12. Radiation survey meters used for environmental monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjerke, H. (ed.) (Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, NRPA (Norway)); Sigurdsson, T. (Icelandic Radiation Safety Authority, Geislavarnir Rikisins, GR (IS)); Meier Pedersen, K. (National Board of Health, Statens Institut for Straalebeskyttelse (SIS) (Denmark)); Grindborg, J.-E.; Persson, L. (Swedish Radiation Safety Authority, Straalsaekerhetsmyndigheten (SSM) (Sweden)); Siiskonen, T.; Hakanen, A.; Kosunen, A. (Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Saeteilyturvakeskus (STUK) (Finland))

    2012-01-15

    The Nordic dosimetry group set up the GammaRate project to investigate how its expertise could be used to assure appropriate usage of survey meters in environmental monitoring. Considerable expertise in calibrating radiation instruments exists in the Nordic radiation protection authorities. The Swedish, Finnish, Danish and Norwegian authorities operate Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratories (SSDLs) that provide users with calibration traceable to internationally recognised primary standards. These authorities together with the Icelandic authorities have formally cooperated since 2002 in the field of radiation dosimetry. Dosimetry is the base for assesment of risk from ionising radiation and calibration of instruments is an imported part in dosimetry. The Nordic dosimetry group has been focused on cancer therapy. This work extends the cooperation to the dosimetry of radiation protection and environmental monitoring. This report contains the formal, theoretical and practical background for survey meter measurements. Nordic standards dosimetry laboratories have the capability to provide traceable calibration of instruments in various types of radiation. To verify and explore this further in radiation protection applications a set of survey instruments were sent between the five Nordic countries and each of the authority asked to provide a calibration coefficient for all instruments. The measurement results were within the stated uncertainties, except for some results from NRPA for the ionchamber based instrument. The comparison was shown to be a valuable tool to harmonize the calibration of radiation protection instruments in the Nordic countries. Dosimetry plays an important role in the emergency situations, and it is clear that better traceability and harmonised common guidelines will improve the emergency preparedness and health. (Author)

  13. Two laboratory methods for the calibration of GPS speed meters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, Yin; Sun, Qiao; Du, Lei; Yu, Mei; Bai, Jie

    2015-01-01

    The set-ups of two calibration systems are presented to investigate calibration methods of GPS speed meters. The GPS speed meter calibrated is a special type of high accuracy speed meter for vehicles which uses Doppler demodulation of GPS signals to calculate the measured speed of a moving target. Three experiments are performed: including simulated calibration, field-test signal replay calibration, and in-field test comparison with an optical speed meter. The experiments are conducted at specific speeds in the range of 40–180 km h −1 with the same GPS speed meter as the device under calibration. The evaluation of measurement results validates both methods for calibrating GPS speed meters. The relative deviations between the measurement results of the GPS-based high accuracy speed meter and those of the optical speed meter are analyzed, and the equivalent uncertainty of the comparison is evaluated. The comparison results justify the utilization of GPS speed meters as reference equipment if no fewer than seven satellites are available. This study contributes to the widespread use of GPS-based high accuracy speed meters as legal reference equipment in traffic speed metrology. (paper)

  14. A Probabilistic Model of Meter Perception: Simulating Enculturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bastiaan van der Weij

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Enculturation is known to shape the perception of meter in music but this is not explicitly accounted for by current cognitive models of meter perception. We hypothesize that the induction of meter is a result of predictive coding: interpreting onsets in a rhythm relative to a periodic meter facilitates prediction of future onsets. Such prediction, we hypothesize, is based on previous exposure to rhythms. As such, predictive coding provides a possible explanation for the way meter perception is shaped by the cultural environment. Based on this hypothesis, we present a probabilistic model of meter perception that uses statistical properties of the relation between rhythm and meter to infer meter from quantized rhythms. We show that our model can successfully predict annotated time signatures from quantized rhythmic patterns derived from folk melodies. Furthermore, we show that by inferring meter, our model improves prediction of the onsets of future events compared to a similar probabilistic model that does not infer meter. Finally, as a proof of concept, we demonstrate how our model can be used in a simulation of enculturation. From the results of this simulation, we derive a class of rhythms that are likely to be interpreted differently by enculturated listeners with different histories of exposure to rhythms.

  15. Proceedings of the 2006 smart metering conference and expo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    Ontario's smart metering program was launched as part of a general demand response management strategy to improve energy conservation in the province. Smart metering will help consumers to control their electricity bills through conservation and demand response, and will allow consumers to better manage their energy consumption and use it more effectively during cheaper, off-peak times of day. Smart metering systems measure how much electricity a customer uses on an hourly basis, and data is transferred daily to local electricity distributors. Toronto Hydro will have close to 200,000 smart meters installed by the end of 2006. By 2010, Toronto will be North America's largest urban centre to have made the full transition to smart metering technology across its entire base. This conference provided an update of Toronto Hydro's smart metering project, as well as details of their demand response program. Presentations were given by a variety of experts in information technology as well as electric power industry leaders North American demand and response metering strategies were reviewed, as well as various initiatives in advanced metering infrastructure (AMI). Security risks associated with smart metering environments were reviewed. An evaluation of the current regulatory environment was presented along with a discussion of smart metering standards and compatibility issues. New metering technologies were presented as well as various associated demand side management tools. Smart metering pilot programs and initiatives were discussed, and best practices in smart metering were evaluated. Twenty-nine presentations were given at the conference, 13 of which have been indexed separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs

  16. Radiofrequency energy exposure from the Trilliant smart meter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Kenneth R; Tell, Richard A

    2013-08-01

    This paper reviews radiofrequency (RF) field levels produced by electric utility meters equipped with RF transceivers (so-called Smart Meters), focusing on meters from one manufacturer (Trilliant, Redwood City, CA, USA, and Granby, QC, Canada). The RF transmission levels are summarized based on publicly available data submitted to the U.S. Federal Communications Commission supplemented by limited independent measurements. As with other Smart Meters, this meter incorporates a low powered radiofrequency transceiver used for a neighborhood mesh network, in the present case using ZigBee-compliant physical and medium access layers, operating in the 2.45 GHz unlicensed band but with a proprietary network architecture. Simple calculations based on a free space propagation model indicate that peak RF field intensities are in the range of 10 mW m or less at a distance of more than 1-2 m from the meters. However, the duty cycle of transmission from the meters is very low (meter that were consistent with data reported by the vendor to the U.S. Federal Communications Commission. Limited measurements conducted in two houses with the meters were unable to clearly distinguish emissions from the meters from the considerable electromagnetic clutter in the same frequency range from other sources, including Wi-Fi routers and, when it was activated, a microwave oven. These preliminary measurements disclosed the difficulties that would be encountered in characterizing the RF exposures from these meters in homes in the face of background signals from other household devices in the same frequency range. An appendix provides an introduction to Smart Meter technology. The RF transmitters in wireless-equipped Smart Meters operate at similar power levels and in similar frequency ranges as many other digital communications devices in common use, and their exposure levels are very far below U.S. and international exposure limits.

  17. Passive Rn dose meters - measuring methods appropriate for large measurement series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urban, M.; Kiefer, H.

    1985-01-01

    Passive integrating measuring methods can be classified in several groups by their functioning principle, e.g. spray chambers or open chambers with nuclear trace detectors or TL detectors, open detectors, activated carbon dose meters with or without TL detectors. According to the functioning principle, only radon or radon and fission products can be detected. The lecture gives a survey of the present state of development of passive Rn dose meters. By the example of the Ra dose meter developed at Karlsruhe which was used in inquiry measurements carried out in Germany, Switzerland, the Netherlands, Belgium and Austria, etching technology, estimation of measuring uncertainties, reproducibility and fading behaviour shall be discussed. (orig./HP) [de

  18. The investigation in radiation protection of γ-rays material position meter in Guizhou Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Fuxing

    1997-01-01

    The paper investigates the protective property of 38 γ-rays material position meters used in machine vertical kilns by 36 cement factories in Guizhou. Model FLW-II material position meter use the least radioactive source activity and the air absorption dose rate about one meter is equal to the natural background. For model FWJ-77A, the air absorption dose rate around one meter was 1.1-5.3 μGY/h and the average value is 2.1 +- 0.7 μGY/h; for Model LF-I, they are respectively 0.42-6.4 μGY/h and 2.4 +- 0.6 μGY/h. These value are lower than or near to the dose limit value which state stipulated. The biggest dose equivalent that maintenance workers accepted per year is only equal to 1/2∼1/3 of the dose limit value which state stipulated. Some management suggestions for the production, sellment and use of γ-rays material position meter were presented

  19. Advanced Metering Installations – A Perspective from Federal Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Earni, Shankar [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Technologies Area

    2016-05-02

    This report is intended to provide guidance to the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and other federal agencies to highlight some of the existing practices related to advanced building metering systems. This study identified some of the existing actions related to advanced meter data and proposes how advanced metered data can be employed to develop robust cost effective measurement and verification (M&V) strategies. This report proposes an integrated framework on how advanced meter data can be used to identify energy conservation opportunities and to develop proactive M&V strategies to ensure that the savings for energy projects are being realized. This information will help improve metering, feedback, and dashboard implementations for reducing energy use at DOE facilities, based on lessons learned from various advanced metering implementations.

  20. De Minimis Thresholds for Federal Building Metering Appropriateness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, Jordan W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-03-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is required by statute and Presidential Memorandum to establish guidelines for agencies to meter their Federal buildings for energy (electricity, natural gas, and steam) and water. See 42 U.S.C. § 8253(e). DOE issued guidance in February 2006 on the installation of electric meters in Federal buildings. A recent update to the 2006 guidance accounts for more current metering practices within the Federal Government. The updated metering guidance specifies that all Federal buildings shall be considered “appropriate” for energy or water metering unless identified for potential exclusion. In developing the updated guidance to carry out the statue, Congress also directed DOE to (among other things) establish exclusions from the metering requirements based on the de minimis quantity of energy use of a Federal building, industrial process, or structure. This paper discusses the method used to identify de minimis values.

  1. Turbine flow meter response in two-phase flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shim, W.J.; Dougherty, T.J.; Cheh, H.Y.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to suggest a simple method of calibrating turbine flow meters to measure the flow rates of each phase in a two-phase flow. The response of two 50.8 mm (2 inch) turbine flow meters to air-water, two-phase mixtures flowing vertically in a 57 mm I.D. (2.25 inch) polycarbonate tube has been investigated for both upflow and downflow. The flow meters were connected in series with an intervening valve to provide an adjustable pressure difference between them. Void fractions were measured by two gamma densitometers, one upstream of the flow meters and the other downstream. The output signal of the turbine flow meters was found to depend only on the actual volumetric flow rate of the gas, F G , and liquid, F L , at the location of the flow meter

  2. FUSION OF VENTURI AND ULTRASONIC FLOW METER FOR ENHANCED FLOW METER CHARACTERISTICS USING FUZZY LOGIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.V. Santhosh

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a technique for measurement of liquid flow using venturi and ultrasonic flow meter(UFM to have following objectives a to design a multi-sensor data fusion (MSDF architecture for using both the sensors, b improve sensitivity and linearity of venturi and ultrasonic flow meter, and c detect and diagnosis of faults in sensor if any. Fuzzy logic algorithm is used to fuse outputs of both the sensor and train the fuzzy block to produces output which has an improved characteristics in terms of both sensitivity and linearity. For identification of sensor faults a comparative test algorithm is designed. Once trained proposed technique is tested in real life, results show successful implementation of proposed objectives.

  3. How today's USM diagnostics solve metering problems[Ultrasonic meters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lansing, John

    2005-07-01

    This paper discusses both basic and advanced diagnostic features of gas ultrasonic meters (USM), and how capabilities built into today's electronics can identify problems that often may not have been identified in the past. It primarily discusses fiscal-quality, multi-path USMs and does not cover issues that may be different with non-fiscal meters. Although USMs basically work the same, the diagnostics for each manufacturer does vary. All brands provide basic features as discussed in AGA 9. However, some provide advanced features that can be used to help identify issues such as blocked flow conditioners and gas compositional errors. This paper is based upon the Daniel USM design and the information presented here may or may not be applicable to other manufacturers. (author) (tk)

  4. Established Designs For Advanced Ground Based Astronomical Telescopes In The 1-meter To 4-meter Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Anthony B.; Barentine, J.; Legters, S.

    2012-01-01

    The same technology and analytic approaches that led to cost-effective unmitigated successes for the spaceborne Kepler and WISE telescopes are now being applied to meter-class to 4-meter-class ground telescopes, providing affordable solutions to ground astronomy, with advanced features as needed for the application. The range of optical and mechanical performance standards and features that can be supplied for ground astronomy shall be described. Both classical RC designs, as well as unobscured designs are well represented in the IOS design library, allowing heritage designs for both night time and day time operations, the latter even in the proximity of the sun. In addition to discussing this library of mature features, we will also describe a process for working with astronomers early in the definition process to provide the best-value solution. Solutions can include remote operation and astronomical data acquisition and transmission.

  5. Activity meters: Calibration and quality assurance measures by the manufacturer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pychlau, P.

    1992-01-01

    A manufacturer of ionisation chambers gives a general idea of such quality assurance programs as may be implemented after an agreement has been reached at the EC level on a guideline for activity meters. Further issues discussed include the final controls, calibration of activity meters by the manufacturer and the advantages that the participation in cooperate tests would offer over a mandatory calibration of activity meters. (orig./DG) [de

  6. Optimization on Measurement Method for Neutron Moisture Meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong Yalin; Wu Zhiqiang; Li Yanfeng; Wang Wei; Song Qingfeng; Liu Hui; Wei Xiaoyun; Zhao Zhonghua

    2010-01-01

    When the water in the measured material is nonuniformity, the measured results of the neutron moisture meter in the field may have errors, so the measured errors of the moisture meter associated with the water nonuniformity in material were simulated by Monte Carlo method. A new measurement method of moisture meter named 'transmission plus scatter' was put forward. The experiment results show that the new measurement method can reduce the error even if the water in the material is nonuniformity. (authors)

  7. Development of a hand-held fast neutron survey meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, T.; Tsujimura, N.; Yamano, T.

    2011-01-01

    A neutron survey meter with a ZnS(Ag) scintillator to measure recoil protons was built. The detection probe weighs ∼2 kg, therefore providing us with true portability. Performance tests exhibited satisfactory neutron dosimetry characteristics in unmoderated or lightly moderated fission neutron fields and in particular work environments at a mixed oxide fuel facility. This new survey meter will augment a routine of neutron monitoring that is inconveniently being carried out by moderator-based neutron survey meters. (authors)

  8. Comprehensive evaluation of the Berthold LB1200 survey meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, M.W.

    1986-05-01

    The performance of two Berthod LB1200 survey meters was evaluated under the influence of a range of beta and photon radiation energies and environmental conditions likely to be encountered in the field. The survey meters responded satisfactorily to the range of beta particle and photon radiation energies emitted by most radioisotopes commonly used in Canada. The survey meters performed acceptably under most of the environmental conditions tested here with the exception of radiofrequency interference and electrostatic charge

  9. A Novel Smart Meter Controlling System with Dynamic IP Addresses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manembu, Pinrolinvic; Welang, Brammy; Kalua Lapu, Aditya

    2017-01-01

    Smart meters are the electronic devices for measuring energy consumption in real time. Usually, static public IP addresses are allocated to realize the point-to-point (P2P) communication and remote controlling for smart metering systems. This, however, restricts the wide deployment of smart meters......, due to the deficiency of public IP resources. This paper proposes a novel subscription-based communication architecture for the support of dynamic IP addresses and group controlling of smart meters. The paper evaluates the proposed architecture by comparing the traditional P2P architecture...

  10. Calibration of ionization chamber and GM counter survey meters, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bingo, Kazuyoshi; Kajimoto, Yoichi; Suga, Shin-ichi

    1978-01-01

    Three types of ionization chamber survey meters and a type of GM counter survey meter were calibrated for measuring the β-ray absorbed dose rate in a working area. To estimate the β-ray absorbed dose rate, a survey meter was used without and with a filter. A reading of survey meter's indicator measured with the filter was subtracted from a reading measured without the filter, and then the absorbed dose rate was obtained by multiplying this remainder by a conversion coefficient. The conversion coefficients were roughly constant with distance more than 8 cm (ionization chamber survey meters) and with distance more than 5 cm (GM counter survey meter). The conversion coefficient was dependent on β-ray energies. In order to measure the absorbed dose rate of tissue whose epidermal thickness is 40 mg/cm 2 , the constant value, 4 (mrad/h)/(mR/h), was chosen independently of β-ray energies as the conversion coefficient of three types of ionization chamber survey meters. The conversion coefficient of the GM counter survey meter was more energy dependent than that of every type of ionization chamber survey meter. (author)

  11. Status of neutron monitoring meters for radiation protection purpose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Taosheng

    2003-01-01

    The status of and trends towards the development of neutron monitoring meters, such as dose survey meter, workplace (ambient) spectrometer and individual dosimeters, are discussed in the present paper from the perspectives of workplace and individual dose monitoring. Over the past 4 decades, both neutron dose survey meter and workplace spectrometer have declined to be more reasonable in design of their probes, with more broaden applications. With the development of electronic technology, there is a trend towards being more small-compacted and smart. Although many technical difficulties in the practical measurement, some significant progresses have be made in the development and research of these kinds of meters. (authors)

  12. The relationships between common measures of glucose meter performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilmoth, Daniel R

    2012-09-01

    Glucose meter performance is commonly measured in several different ways, including the relative bias and coefficient of variation (CV), the total error, the mean absolute relative deviation (MARD), and the size of the interval around the reference value that would be necessary to contain a meter measurement at a specified probability. This fourth measure is commonly expressed as a proportion of the reference value and will be referred to as the necessary relative deviation. A deeper understanding of the relationships between these measures may aid health care providers, patients, and regulators in comparing meter performances when different measures are used. The relationships between common measures of glucose meter performance were derived mathematically. Equations are presented for calculating the total error, MARD, and necessary relative deviation using the reference value, relative bias, and CV when glucose meter measurements are normally distributed. When measurements are also unbiased, the CV, total error, MARD, and necessary relative deviation are linearly related and are therefore equivalent measures of meter performance. The relative bias and CV provide more information about meter performance than the other measures considered but may be difficult for some audiences to interpret. Reporting meter performance in multiple ways may facilitate the informed selection of blood glucose meters. © 2012 Diabetes Technology Society.

  13. From the manual meter reading to Smart Metering. Step by step migration concepts for smart technologies; Von der Handablesung zum Smart Metering. Migrationskonzepte zum schrittweisen Ausbau von smarten Technologien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imholz, Urs [GWF MessSysteme AG, Luzern (Switzerland)

    2012-07-01

    Many Utility companies are planning the modification of their grid for the future demand of decentralized power production of renewable energy. This report is giving attention to the question how to invest already today step by step in smart technologies, based on the existing infrastructure. Multi Utility companies are also asking the question, how to deal with the integration of gas, water and heat into an automated meter reading system. A number of Swiss Utility companies are testing the process of Smart Metering and Smart Grid in pilot projects and field tests. In those tests, the Utility companies will not also cover the technical feasibility but also to check the financial aspects with a business assessment for smart technologies. The Industry is creating together with the Utility companies a sustainable development for the energy landscape of tomorrow. We all know, in the sense of energy distribution, the year 2050 will be the day after tomorrow. (orig.)

  14. Reciprocity and its utilization in ultrasonic flow meters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lunde, Per; Vestrheim, Magne; Boe, Reidar; Smoergrav, Skule; Abrahamsen, Atle K.

    2005-07-01

    not being equal in performance (due to production variations). Violation of reciprocity by e.g. ''nonlinear driving'' of the transducers is demonstrated. Consequences for USMs are addressed, such as e.g. (a) simplified ''dry calibration'' and cost reduction, (b) improved linearity at low flow velocities, and (c) improved accuracy at low flow velocities (in relation to temperature, pressure, ageing drift, etc.). The paper provides insight into the significance and potentials of utilizing reciprocity in USM technology, as well as the improvements already achieved by realizing ''sufficient reciprocal operation'' in high precision flow meters for gas and liquid. (author) (tk)

  15. Survey meter using novel inorganic scintillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshikawa, Akira; Fukuda, Kentaro; Kawaguchi, Noriaki; Kamada, Kei; Fujimoto, Yutaka; Yokota, Yuui; Kurosawa, Shunsuke; Yanagida, Takayuki

    2012-01-01

    Single crystal scintillator materials are widely used for detection of high-energy photons and particles. There is continuous demand for new scintillator materials with higher performance because of increasing number of medical, industrial, security and other applications. This article presents the recent development of three novel inorganic scintillators; Pr-doped Lu 3 Al 5 O 12 (Pr:LuAG), Ce doped Gd 3 (Al, Ga) 5 O 12 (Ce:GAGG) and Ce or Eu-doped 6 LiCaAlF 6 (Ce:LiCAF, Eu:LiCAF). Pr:LuAG shows very interesting scintillation properties including very fast decay time, high light yield and excellent energy resolution. Taking the advantage of these properties, positron emission mammography (PEM) equipped with Pr:LuAG were developed. Ce:GAGG shows very high light yield, which is much higher than that of Ce:LYSO. Survey meter using Ce:GAGG is developed using this scintillator. Ce:LiCAF and Eu:LiCAF were developed for neutron detection. The advantage and disadvantage are discussed comparing with halide scintillators. Eu-doped LiCAF indicated five times higher light yield than that of existing Li-glass. It is expected to be used as the alternative of 3 He. (author)

  16. Meter-wavelength VLBI. III. Pulsars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandenberg, N.R.; Clark, T.A.; Clark, W.C.; Erickson, W.C.; Resch, G.M.; Broderick, J.J.

    1976-01-01

    The results and analysis of observations of pulsars, especially the Crab Nebula pulsar, taken during a series of meter-wavelength very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) experiments are discussed. Based on a crude 144 MHz visibility curve which is consistent with a Gaussian brightness distribution, the measured visibilities at 196, 111, and 74 MHz were interpreted to yield apparent angular diameters (at half-power) of 0 .03 +- 0 .01, 0 .07 +- 0 .01, and 0 .18 +- 0 .01, respectively. These sizes scale approximately as wavelength-squared, and the 74 MHz size agrees with recent observations using interplanetary scintillation techniques.The VLBI-measured total flux densities lie on the extrapolation from higher frequencies of the pulsing flux densities. Variations in the total flux density up to 25 percent were observed. A lack of fine structure other than the pulsar in the nebula is indicated by our simple visibility curves. The pulse shapes observed with the interferometer are similar to single-dish measurements at 196 MHz but reveal a steady, nonpulsing component at 111 MHz. The ratio of pulsing to total power was approximately equal to one-half but varied with time. No pulsing power was detected at 74 MHz. It was found that four strong, low-dispersion pulsars were only slightly resolved

  17. Two-Phase Quality/Flow Meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moerk, J. Steven (Inventor); Youngquist, Robert C. (Inventor); Werlink, Rudy J. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A quality and/or flow meter employs a capacitance probe assembly for measuring the dielectric constant of flow stream, particularly a two-phase flow stream including liquid and gas components.ne dielectric constant of the flow stream varies depending upon the volume ratios of its liquid and gas components, and capacitance measurements can therefore be employed to calculate the quality of the flow, which is defined as the volume ratio of liquid in the flow to the total volume ratio of gas and liquid in the flow. By using two spaced capacitance sensors, and cross-correlating the time varying capacitance values of each, the velocity of the flow stream can also be determined. A microcontroller-based processing circuit is employed to measure the capacitance of the probe sensors.The circuit employs high speed timer and counter circuits to provide a high resolution measurement of the time interval required to charge each capacitor in the probe assembly. In this manner, a high resolution, noise resistant, digital representation of each of capacitance value is obtained without the need for a high resolution A/D converter, or a high frequency oscillator circuit. One embodiment of the probe assembly employs a capacitor with two ground plates which provide symmetry to insure that accurate measurements are made thereby.

  18. REM meter for pulsed sources of neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorngate, J.E.; Hunt, G.F.; Rueppel, D.W.

    1980-01-01

    A rem meter was constructed specifically for measuring neutrons produced by fusion experiments for which the source pulses last 10 ms or longer. The detector is a 6 Li glass scintillator, 25.4 mm in diameter and 3.2 mm thick, surrounded by 11.5 cm of polyethylene. This detector has a sensitivity of 8.5 x 10 4 counts/mrem. The signals from this fast scintillator are shaped using a shorted delay line to produce pulses that are only 10 ns long so that dose equivalent rates up to 12 mrem/s can be measured with less than a 1% counting loss. The associated electronic circuits store detector counts only when the count rate exceeds a preset level. When the count rate returns to background, a conversion from counts to dose equivalent is made and the results are displayed. As a means of recording the number of source pulses that have occurred, a second display shows how many times the preset count rate has been exceeded. Accumulation of detector counts and readouts can also be controlled manually. The unit will display the integrated dose equilavent up to 200 mrem in 0.01 mrem steps. A pulse-height discriminator rejects gamma-ray interactions below 1 MeV, and the detector size limits the response above that energy. The instrument can be operated from an ac line or will run on rechargeable batteries for up to 12 hours

  19. On Calibration of pH Meters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da-Ming Zhu

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available The calibration of pH meters including the pH glass electrode, ISE electrodes,buffers, and the general background for calibration are reviewed. Understanding of basicconcepts of pH, pOH, and electrode mechanism is emphasized. New concepts of pH, pOH,as well as critical examination of activity, and activity coefficients are given. Theemergence of new solid state pH electrodes and replacement of the salt bridge with aconducting wire have opened up a new horizon for pH measurements. A pH buffer solutionwith a conducting wire may be used as a stable reference electrode. The misleadingunlimited linear Nernstian slope should be discarded. Calibration curves with 3 nonlinearportions for the entire 0—14 pH range due to the isoelectric point change effect areexplained. The potential measurement with stirring or unstirring and effects by double layer(DL and triple layer (TL will be discussed.

  20. Development of a CONTOUR-METER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrada Contardi, F.A.

    2004-01-01

    Dose calculation in patients undergoing radiotherapy treatments requires the knowledge of their anatomical geometry.Making reference to the specific case of breast cancer, one of the measurement that are made on the patients is the acquisition of the breast's contour, determined in an axial plane from a point marked on the breastbone until another point marked on the thorax side under the armpit.This measurement is normally made with a mechanic contour-meter: a device formed by a series of plastic-covered wires designed to be applied on the patient's skin copying the breast contour after it deformation.The geometrical error associated with this procedure is ± 1 cm. The precision of the dose calculation could be increased acquiring a breast contour more accurate.This objective was achieved developing a method based on breast images from a digital camera.The algorithms to obtain an axial-plane image of the contour from digital photographs taken from arbitrary positions were developed.A geometric transformation is applied to the photograph to correct for perspective distortions, obtaining a frontal - undistorted image (axial-plane image).A software tool to make all the image processing was developed under MatLab.The maximum geometrical error detected during the validation of the process was 2 mm [es

  1. Measuring methods in power metering 2013; Elektrizitaetsmesstechnik 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahmann, Martin; Zayer, Peter (eds.)

    2012-07-01

    The book addresses technical and economic issues of power metering, data communication and data processing. Smart metering is the key issue discussed in all 14 contributions: 1. The perspective of Smart Metering in Europe through 2020; 2. Introduction of Smart Metering in Austria; 3. Metering after the amended EnWG 2011; 4. The FNN project ''MessSystem 2020''; 5. Technological requirements of Smart Grid and Smart Market; 6. DIN Spec 33440 ''Ergonomic Aspects of Smart Grids and Electromobility''; 7. Load management as a key element of energy transition; 8. Added value in Smart Metering as a result of Smart Home applications, 9. The main cost factors of the new metering systems; 10. BSI protection profile: Smart Meter Gateway certification; 11. The influence of new boundary conditions in metering on intercompany processes; 12. Reliable time allotment via internet; 13. Recommendations of the EEG Clearing Authority on metering problems; 14. Outline quality management manual for state-authorized test services for electric power, gas, water, and heat. [German] Dieses Buch richtet seinen Blick sowohl auf technische wie auch auf energiewirtschaftliche Themen rund um das Thema Mess- und Zaehltechnik sowie die inzwischen immer bedeutsamer werdende zugehoerige Datenkommunikations- und Datenverarbeitungstechnik. Eine zunehmende Betrachtung des Smart Metering als einen Teilaspekt des grossen Themas Smart Grid bildet die gemeinsame Klammer um die Beitraege. Die Themen der 14 Beitraege sind: 1. Perspektive Smart Metering in Europa bis 2020; 2. Smart-Meter-Einfuehrung in Oesterreich; 3. Das Messwesen nach der EnWG-Novelle 2011; 4. Das FNN-Projekt ''MessSystem 2020''; 5. Anforderungen durch Smart Grid und Smart Market an die intelligente Messtechnik; 6. DIN Spec 33440 ''Ergonomie-Aspekte zu Smart Grid und Elektromobilitaet''; 7. Lastverschiebung als Baustein der Energiewende; 8. Mehrwerte beim Smart

  2. Design of an Open Smart Energy Gateway for Smart Meter Data Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Page, Janie [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); McParland, Chuck [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Piette, Mary Ann [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Czarnecki, Stephen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-03-01

    With the widespread deployment of electronic interval meters, commonly known as smart meters, came the promise of real-time data on electric energy consumption. Recognizing an opportunity to provide consumers access to their near real-time energy consumption data directly from their installed smart meter, we designed a mechanism for capturing those data for consumer use via an open smart energy gateway (OpenSEG). By design, OpenSEG provides a clearly defined boundary for equipment and data ownership. OpenSEG is an open-source data management platform to enable better data management of smart meter data. Effectively, it is an information architecture designed to work with the ZigBee Smart Energy Profile 1.x (SEP 1.x). It was specifically designed to reduce cyber-security risks and provide secure information directly from smart meters to consumers in near real time, using display devices already owned by the consumers. OpenSEG stores 48 hours of recent consumption data in a circular cache using a format consistent with commonly available archived (not real-time) consumption data such as Green Button, which is based on the Energy Services Provider Interface (ESPI) data standard. It consists of a common XML format for energy usage information and a data exchange protocol to facilitate automated data transfer upon utility customer authorization. Included in the design is an application program interface by which users can acquire data from OpenSEG for further post processing. A sample data display application is included in the initial software product. The data display application demonstrates that OpenSEG can help electricity use data to be retrieved from a smart meter and ported to a wide variety of user-owned devices such as cell phones or a user-selected database. This system can be used for homes, multi-family buildings, or small commercial buildings in California.

  3. Development of a novel vortex flow meter for downhole use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schiferli, W.; Cheng, L.K.

    2008-01-01

    Due to the increasing complexity of oil and gas wells, the demand for instrumentation to measure conditions inside well tubing below the surface is growing rapidly. A robust meter was designed to measure liquid flows at downhole conditions. The meter is based on a specially-designed bluff body to

  4. Analysis of a quantum nondemolition speed-meter interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purdue, Patricia

    2002-01-01

    In the quest to develop viable designs for third-generation optical interferometric gravitational-wave detectors (e.g. LIGO-III and EURO), one strategy is to monitor the relative momentum or speed of the test-mass mirrors rather than monitoring their relative position. This paper describes and analyzes the most straightforward design for a speed meter interferometer that accomplishes this--a design (due to Braginsky, Gorodetsky, Khalili and Thorne) that is analogous to a microwave-cavity speed meter conceived by Braginsky and Khalili. A mathematical mapping between the microwave speed meter and the optical interferometric speed meter is developed and is used to show [in accord with the speed being a quantum nondemolition observable] that in principle the interferometric speed meter can beat the gravitational-wave standard quantum limit (SQL) by an arbitrarily large amount, over an arbitrarily wide range of frequencies, and can do so without the use of squeezed vacuum or any auxiliary filter cavities at the interferometer's input or output. However, in practice, to reach or beat the SQL, this specific speed meter requires exorbitantly high input light power. The physical reason for this is explored, along with other issues such as constraints on performance due to optical dissipation. This analysis forms a foundation for ongoing attempts to develop a more practical variant of an interferometric speed meter and to combine the speed meter concept with other ideas to yield a promising LIGO-III/EURO interferometer design that entails low laser power

  5. Investigating water meter performance in developing countries: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    High levels of water losses in distribution systems are the main challenge that water utilities in developing countries currently face. The water meter is an essential tool for both the utility and the customers to measure and monitor consumption. When metering is inefficient and coupled with low tariffs, the financial ...

  6. The Solar Energy Trifecta: Solar + Storage + Net Metering | State, Local,

    Science.gov (United States)

    and Tribal Governments | NREL The Solar Energy Trifecta: Solar + Storage + Net Metering The Solar Energy Trifecta: Solar + Storage + Net Metering February 12, 2018 by Benjamin Mow Massachusetts (DPU) seeking an advisory ruling on the eligibility of pairing solar-plus-storage systems with current

  7. 40 CFR 1065.230 - Raw exhaust flow meter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the following cases, you may use a raw exhaust flow meter signal that does not give the actual value... dew and pressure, p total at the flow meter inlet. Use these values in emission calculations according... CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Measurement Instruments Flow-Related Measurements § 1065.230 Raw exhaust...

  8. Justification of the Utility of Introducing Smart Meters in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunickis M.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Automatic data reading from smart meters is being developed in many parts of the world, including Latvia. The key drivers for that are developments of smart technologies and economic benefits for consumers. Deployment of smart meters could be launched in a massive scale.

  9. Construction and calibration of high time resolution gas pressure meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi, J.O.; Santos, C.; Ueda, M.

    1989-11-01

    In this report, the construction and calibration of a gas pressure meter with a time resolution better than 20 μs are described. The meter consists basically of a sensor of the FIG (Fast Ionization Gauge) type and an adequate electronic circuit. A 6AU6A pentode vacuum tube without the glass envelope is used as the sensor head. (author) [pt

  10. A wireless mesh communication protocol for smart-metering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geelen, D.J.M.; Kempen, van G.M.P.; Hoogstraten, van F.; Liotta, A.

    2012-01-01

    Worldwide there has been increasing interest over the past few years for so-called "Smart Meters", in academia, governments and in industry. Such smart-metering systems need a way to communicate the collected data reliably and cost efficiently to the back-office for analysis. Several competing

  11. Performance of a Tilt Current Meter in the Surf Zone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Asger Bendix; Carstensen, Stefan; Christensen, Drude Fritzbøger

    2017-01-01

    Tilt Current Meters (TCM’s) are relatively simple and inexpensive instruments for measuring currents in rivers and inthe sea. Their low cost and easy deployment means that a relatively large number of TCM’s can be deployed comparedto more conventional current meters such as Acoustic Doppler...

  12. 40 CFR 92.122 - Smoke meter calibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Smoke meter calibration. 92.122 Section 92.122 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... meter calibration. The smokemeter shall be checked according to the following procedure prior to each...

  13. Designing remote web-based mechanical-volumetric flow meter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Today, in water and wastewater industry a lot of mechanical-volumetric flow meters are used for the navigation of the produced water and the data of these flow meters, due to use in a wide geographical range, is done physically and by in person presence. All this makes reading the data costly and, in some cases, due to ...

  14. The accuracy of self monitoring blood glucose meter systems in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Many patients were referred to Kololo polyclinic laboratory to have their blood glucose checked because the values obtained on the patients' glucose meter systems did not tally with familiar clinical signs and symptoms. This prompted an experimental set up to check glucose meter systems using a larger number of patients.

  15. Integration of auditory and tactile inputs in musical meter perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Juan; Gamble, Darik; Sarnlertsophon, Kristine; Wang, Xiaoqin; Hsiao, Steven

    2013-01-01

    Musicians often say that they not only hear but also "feel" music. To explore the contribution of tactile information to "feeling" music, we investigated the degree that auditory and tactile inputs are integrated in humans performing a musical meter-recognition task. Subjects discriminated between two types of sequences, "duple" (march-like rhythms) and "triple" (waltz-like rhythms), presented in three conditions: (1) unimodal inputs (auditory or tactile alone); (2) various combinations of bimodal inputs, where sequences were distributed between the auditory and tactile channels such that a single channel did not produce coherent meter percepts; and (3) bimodal inputs where the two channels contained congruent or incongruent meter cues. We first show that meter is perceived similarly well (70-85 %) when tactile or auditory cues are presented alone. We next show in the bimodal experiments that auditory and tactile cues are integrated to produce coherent meter percepts. Performance is high (70-90 %) when all of the metrically important notes are assigned to one channel and is reduced to 60 % when half of these notes are assigned to one channel. When the important notes are presented simultaneously to both channels, congruent cues enhance meter recognition (90 %). Performance dropped dramatically when subjects were presented with incongruent auditory cues (10 %), as opposed to incongruent tactile cues (60 %), demonstrating that auditory input dominates meter perception. These observations support the notion that meter perception is a cross-modal percept with tactile inputs underlying the perception of "feeling" music.

  16. Development and Testing of Infrared Water Current Meter | Ezenne ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Continuous monitoring of the river flow is essential for assessing water availability. River flow velocity is crucial to simulate discharge hydrographs of water in the hydrological system.This study developed a digital water current meter with infrared. The infrared current meter was tested using Ebonyi River at Obollo-Etiti and ...

  17. Knowledge of spacer device, peak flow meter and inhaler technique ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Metered dose inhalers are cornerstone in effective management of bronchial asthma when correctly used. Most studies hitherto have focused on assessing patient's knowledge of inhaler technique. We sought to assess the knowledge of inhaler technique, spacer device and peak flow meter among doctors and ...

  18. Attacks and their Defenses for Advanced Metering Infrastructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lighari, Sheeraz Niaz; Hussain, Dil Muhammad Akbar; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2014-01-01

    The smart grid is the digitized, modernized, updated version of archaic traditional electric grid. Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) is an imperative part of the smart grid. It has replaced legacy metering, as it reports the energy consumption to the utility automatically through communicati...

  19. 7 CFR 801.6 - Tolerances for moisture meters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tolerances for moisture meters. 801.6 Section 801.6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARD... FOR GRAIN INSPECTION EQUIPMENT § 801.6 Tolerances for moisture meters. (a) The maintenance tolerances...

  20. A micro-controller based wide range survey meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhingare, R.R.; Bajaj, K.C.; Kannan, S.

    2004-01-01

    Wide range survey meters (1μSv/h -10 Sv/h) with the detector(s) mounted at the end of a two-to-four meter-long extendable tube are widely used for radiation protection survey of difficult to reach locations and high dose rate areas, The commercially available survey meters of this type use two GM counters to cover a wide range of dose rate measurement. A new micro-controller based wide range survey meter using two Si diode detectors has been developed. The use of solid state detectors in the survey meter has a number of advantages like low power consumption, lighter battery powered detector probe, elimination of high voltage for the operation of the detectors, etc. The design uses infrared communication between the probe and the readout unit through a light-weight collapsible extension tube for high reliability. The design details and features are discussed in detail. (author)

  1. Metering instrument of quality factor Q of gravitational wave antenna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia-yan, C.; Tong-ren, G.

    1982-01-01

    The quality factor, Q, of gravitational wave antenna depends on the material property as well as external conditions, such as temperature, residual pressure in vacuum tank, support type, additional loss from transducer on antenna, etc. In order to find out the relationship between the antenna Q and external conditions automatical operating in succession is required. The authors have designed and made a metering instrument for quality factor Q. The metering instrument of Q can measure Q of the metal cylinder and other bar of higher Q. It can give data of the measurement at regular intervals as desired. It can measure accurately the longitudinal fundamental mode frequency of the cylinder with a digital frequency meter record oscillating signal from metering instrument. Because the metering instrument excites free-vibration of the cylinder with free-running type and keep up the stationary amplitude for a long time. (Auth.)

  2. How Should Blood Glucose Meter System Analytical Performance Be Assessed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, David A

    2015-08-31

    Blood glucose meter system analytical performance is assessed by comparing pairs of meter system and reference instrument blood glucose measurements measured over time and across a broad array of glucose values. Consequently, no single, complete, and ideal parameter can fully describe the difference between meter system and reference results. Instead, a number of assessment tools, both graphical (eg, regression plots, modified Bland-Altman plots, and error grid analysis) and tabular (eg, International Organization for Standardization guidelines, mean absolute difference, and mean absolute relative difference) have been developed to evaluate meter system performance. The strengths and weaknesses of these methods of presenting meter system performance data, including a new method known as Radar Plots, are described here. © 2015 Diabetes Technology Society.

  3. Combining smart metering with successful marketing; Smart Metering mit erfolgreichem Marketing verbinden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luckhardt, Sina [EVB Energie AG, Velbert (Germany)

    2009-07-15

    Smart metering can be implemented in various ways. Apart from data transmission via powerline cables, also teletransmission via GPRS may be advantageous. A current project investigates both communication strategies which can also be used in parallel, especially by major utilities with the appropriate infrastructure. In the case of concrete implementation, it has been found that the communication with users must be clear in order to give them an idea of the advantages of the new technologies, and that an appropriate marketing strategy must be developed for successful rollout. (orig.)

  4. EU data protection and smart metering. Legal boundary conditions; EU-Datenschutz und Smart Metering. Rechtliche Rahmenbedingungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hladjk, Joerg [Praxisgruppe European Data Protection and Privacy, Hunton and Williams, Bruessel (Belgium)

    2011-07-01

    With the introduction of smart metering, the problem of data protection arises. The independent Article 29 Data Protection Group of the European Commission drew up an expert opinion with the intention of explaining the applicable EU data protection regulations for the smart metering technology in the power supply sector. (orig.)

  5. Justification of the Utility of Introducing Smart Meters in Latvia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunickis, M.; Dandens, A.; Bariss, U.

    2015-12-01

    Automatic data reading from smart meters is being developed in many parts of the world, including Latvia. The key drivers for that are developments of smart technologies and economic benefits for consumers. Deployment of smart meters could be launched in a massive scale. Several pilot projects were implemented to verify the feasibility of smart meters for individual consumer groups. Preliminary calculations indicate that installation of smart meters for approximately 23 % of electricity consumers would be economically viable. Currently, the data for the last two years is available for an in-depth mathematical analysis. The continuous analysis of consumption data would be established, when more measurements from smart meters are available. The extent of introduction of smart meters should be specified during this process in order to gain the maximum benefit for the whole society (consumers, grid companies, state authorities), because there are still many uncertain and variable factors. For example, it is necessary to consider statistical load variations by hour, dependence of electricity consumption on temperature fluctuations, consumer behaviour and demand response to market signals to reduce electricity consumption in the short and long term, consumer's ambitions and capability to install home automation for regulation of electricity consumption. To develop the demand response, it is necessary to analyse the whole array of additional factors, such as expected cost reduction of smart meters, possible extension of their functionality, further development of information exchange systems, as well as standard requirements and different political and regulatory decisions regarding the reduction of electricity consumption and energy efficiency.

  6. Design and Implementation of Enhanced Smart Energy Metering System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oday A.L.A Ridha

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the design and implementation of a smart energy metering system has been developed. This system consists of two parts: billing center and a set of distributed smart energy meters. The function of smart energy meter is measuring and calculating the cost of consumed energy according to a multi-tariff scheme. This can be effectively solving the problem of stressing the electrical grid and rising consumer awareness. Moreover, smart energy meter decreases technical losses by improving power factor. The function of the billing center is to issue a consumer bill and contributes in locating the irregularities on the electrical grid (non-technical losses. Moreover, it sends the switch off command in case of the consumer bill is not paid. For implementation of smart energy meter, the microcontroller (PIC 18F45K22 is used. For communication between billing center and smart energy meters, ZigBee technology is adopted. The necessary program for smart energy meter is written in MicroC PRO, while the program for billing center is written in visual C#.

  7. Metering: EU policy and implications for fuel poor households

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darby, Sarah J.

    2012-01-01

    Fuel poverty is a function of household energy consumption, income, and the cost of delivered energy. The paper discusses ways in which current EU policy on the development of ‘smart’ metering could affect fuel poor households. The main focus is on developments in electricity metering and the development of ‘active demand’ and smart grids, so that demand can be matched closely with available supply. Advances in metering and related technologies open the way to time-of-use charging, easier switching between suppliers and between credit payment and prepayment, direct load control of some end-uses by the utility, greater scope for microgeneration, and improved consumption feedback for customers. These options open up both uncertainties and risks. The paper offers definitions and discussion of various functions of smart metering, summarizes the EU policy background, and considers some possible equity implications of rolling out a new generation of meters. There follows an assessment of potential implications to the fuel poor of changes to metering, based on a review of the literature on energy feedback, tariffing, and supplier–customer relationships. Much of the discussion is based on the UK experience, with examples from other EU member states and, where appropriate, from other parts of the world. - Highlights: ► Smart meters are part of general upgrading of electricity and gas networks. ► EU policy is to roll out the meters to 80%+ of the population by 2020. ► Improved feedback and prepayment metering may benefit the fuel poor. ► Remote disconnection and data privacy are issues for all consumers. ► We need careful assessment of potential gains and losses to the fuel poor.

  8. Smart electricity metering as an energy efficiency instrument: Comparative analyses of regulation and market conditions in Europe. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morch, Andrei Z.; Parsons, John; Kester, Josco C.P.

    2007-01-01

    The new European Directive on Energy End-use Efficiency and Energy Services (ESD) (EC 2006/32, 2006) states the importance of installing metering and billing systems allowing consumers to regulate and steer their consumption. Extra information provided by these 'Smart Meters', is proposed as an important technological innovation to improve energy efficiency. In the next few years the European energy markets will face a challenging task - implementation of Smart Metering systems for small and middle-size customers. The public policies and implementation paths of Smart Metering today vary across Europe from full-scale implementation to very limited. Implementation of Smart Metering systems provides a technological basis, which makes it possible to implement new market-based products and services encouraging the Final Customers to save energy. Electricity suppliers and Distribution System Operators play a key role in a full utilisation of the energy saving potential from Smart Metering, but need a benefit for doing this. These new market opportunities could provide this benefit

  9. Hybrid TLC-pair meter for the Sphinx Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, T.; Yamamoto, I.; Takahashi, N.; Misaki, A.

    1985-01-01

    The chief aims in THE SPHINX PROJECT are research of super lepton physics and new detector experiments. At the second phase of THE SPHINX PROJECT, a hybrid TLC-PAIR METER was designed for measuring high energy neutrino sources (E upsilon * TeV), searching high energy muon sources (E mu TeV) and measuring muon group (E mu 1 TeV). The principle of PAIR METER has been already proposed. In this TLC-PAIR METER, electromagnetic shower induced by cosmic ray muons are detected using TL (Thermoluminescence) sheets with position counters.

  10. Hybrid TLC-pair meter for the Sphinx Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wada, T.; Yamamoto, I.; Takahashi, N.; Misaki, A.

    1985-01-01

    The chief aims in the Sphinx Project are research on super lepton physics and new detector experiments. In the second phase of the Sphinx Project, a hybrid TLC-pair meter was designed for measuring for high energy neutrino sources (E upsilon * TeV), searching high energy muon sources (E mu TeV), and measuring muon groups (E mu 1 TeV). The principle of the pair meter has been already proposed. In this TLC pair meter, electromagnetic showers induced by cosmic ray muons are detected using thermoluminescene sheets with position counters

  11. Advanced digital counting rate meter for gamma ray logging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kannan, S.; Meenakshi Sundari, A.; Rai, A.K.

    2013-01-01

    A compact, hand held controller based Advanced Digital Count Rate Meter (ADCRM) as a replacement of bulky Count Rate (analog) Meters (SBL-2A) was designed, developed and fabricated to carry out Gamma-Ray borehole logging with Geiger Muller (GM) tubes and Scintillation (SC) detectors. In the hardware the functionality of analog meter simulation, digital counting of gamma events and auto reference adjustment to use different length of armour cable winches were implemented. The in-built software evaluates grade in ppm and at the end of logging, the reports are prepared automatically. ADCRM was developed in-house to assist the uranium mineral exploration in AMD. (author)

  12. A new kind high-reliability digital reactivity meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Feng; Jiang Zongbing

    2001-01-01

    The paper introduces a new kind of high-reliability Digital Reactivity Meter developed by the DRM developing group in designing department of Nuclear Power Institute of China. The meter has two independent measure channels, which can be set as either master-slave structure or working independently. This structure will ensure that the meter can continually fulfill its online measure task under the condition of single failure with it. It provides a solution for the conflict between nuclear station's extreme demand in DRM's reliability and instability of computer's business software platform. The instrument reaches both advance and reliability by covering a lot of kinds of complex functions in data process and display

  13. Topology-Based Estimation of Missing Smart Meter Readings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke Kodaira

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Smart meters often fail to measure or transmit the data they record when measuring energy consumption, known as meter readings, owing to faulty measuring equipment or unreliable communication modules. Existing studies do not address successive and non-periodical missing meter readings. This paper proposes a method whereby missing readings observed at a node are estimated by using circuit theory principles that leverage the voltage and current data from adjacent nodes. A case study is used to demonstrate the ability of the proposed method to successfully estimate the missing readings over an entire day during which outages and unpredictable perturbations occurred.

  14. Federal metering data analysis needs and existing tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, Jordan W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fowler, Kimberly M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Agencies have been working to improve their metering data collection, management, and analysis efforts over the last decade (since EPAct 2005) and will continue to address these challenges as new requirements and data needs come into place. Unfortunately there is no “one-size-fits-all” solution. As agencies continue to expand their capabilities to use metered consumption data to reducing resource use and improve operations, the hope is that shared knowledge will empower others to follow suit. This paper discusses the Federal metering data analysis needs and some existing tools.

  15. Deducing Energy Consumer Behavior from Smart Meter Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebeid, Emad Samuel Malki; Heick, Rune; Jacobsen, Rune Hylsberg

    2017-01-01

    The ongoing upgrade of electricity meters to smart ones has opened a new market of intelligent services to analyze the recorded meter data. This paper introduces an open architecture and a unified framework for deducing user behavior from its smart main electricity meter data and presenting...... the results in a natural language. The framework allows a fast exploration and integration of a variety of machine learning algorithms combined with data recovery mechanisms for improving the recognition’s accuracy. Consequently, the framework generates natural language reports of the user’s behavior from...

  16. Smart Metering Guide. Energy Saving and the Customer. Edition 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kester, J.C.P. (ed.) [Energy research Centre of the Netherlands ECN, Petten (Netherlands); Gonzalez Burgos, M.J. (ed.) [Endesa Ingenieria, Madrid (Spain); Parsons, J. (ed.) [British Electrotechnical and Allied Manufacturers Association BEAMA, London (United Kingdom)

    2010-11-15

    Smart metering can provide the foundations for a radically different approach to energy reduction schemes. However, the implementation of smart metering is a complex undertaking and its success depends on getting many factors right, from technology choice to how the information is presented to final customers. Making the expected reduction in energy consumption depends on achieving a positive reaction from final customers. Maintaining and increasing these savings will need the engagement of Energy Retailers, energy agencies and others. This Guide has been produced to bring together the lessons learnt from smart metering systems and trials, targeted on the promotion of End Use Energy Efficiency. The aim is to assist those groups who are considering implementing smart metering for this purpose and to maximise the benefits arising from those implementations. . The main target audience for the Guide are utilities, ESCO's and service providers across Europe. In most countries these are the parties investing in the smart metering systems and providing the smart metering services. In addition to these, governments, regulators, consumer bodies and energy agencies, as well as suppliers and system integrators, will also find valuable information in the Guide. As the subtitle of the Guide indicates, the focus of this Guide is on the application of smart metering for delivering energy saving. Making the expected reduction in energy consumption depends on achieving a positive reaction from final customers. In general, the successful provision of smart metering services is highly dependent on the right involvement of the energy final customer. This guide is not a ready-to-go manual for the installation of a specific type of smart metering system. Rather, the authors have tried to give the reader an insight into some of the complexities of the whole implementation process of smart metering systems. Also the guide is impartial regarding different technologies unless there is

  17. Technique of Hurdle Clearing in 400 Meters Hurdles (Study Review)

    OpenAIRE

    Jakoubek, Jiří

    2017-01-01

    Title: Technique of Hurdle Clearing in 400 Meters Hurdles (Study Review) Authors: Jiří Jakoubek Supervisor: PhDr. Aleš Kaplan, Ph.D. Aims: The aim of this thesis is to describe technique of hurdle clearing in 400 meters hurdle race using study review and to examine this technique at particular athlete during training and racing sessions in 400 meters hurdles race. Methods: Technique was compared and examined at young athlete. Two kinograms were used for analysis, one from training and one fro...

  18. Technique of Hurdle Clearing in 400 Meters Hurdles

    OpenAIRE

    Jakoubek, Jiří

    2018-01-01

    Title: Technique of Hurdle Clearing in 400 Meters Hurdles Authors: Jiří Jakoubek Supervisor: PhDr. Aleš Kaplan, Ph.D. Aims: The aim of this thesis is to describe technique of hurdle clearing in 400 meters hurdle race using study review and to examine this technique at particular athlete during training and racing sessions in 400 meters hurdles race. Methods: Technique was compared and examined at young athlete. Two kinograms were used for analysis, one from training and one from racing sessio...

  19. Electricity Submetering on the Cheap: Stick-on Electricity Meters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanzisera, Steven; Lorek, Michael; Pister, Kristofer

    2014-08-17

    We demonstrate a low-cost, 21 x 12 mm prototype Stick-on Electricity Meter (SEM) to replace traditional in-circuit-breaker-panel current and voltage sensors for building submetering. A SEM sensor is installed on the external face of a circuit breaker to generate voltage and current signals. This allows for the computation of real and apparent power as well as capturing harmonics created by non-linear loads. The prototype sensor is built using commercially available components, resulting in a production cost of under $10 per SEM. With no highvoltage install work requiring an electrician, home owners or other individuals can install the system in a few minutes with no safety implications. This leads to an installed system cost that is much lower than traditional submetering technology.. Measurement results from lab characterization as well as a real-world residential dwelling installation are presented, verifying the operation of our proposed SEM sensor. The SEM sensor can resolve breaker power levels below 10W, and it can be used to provide data for non-intrusive load monitoring systems at full sample rate.

  20. 40 CFR 1065.245 - Sample flow meter for batch sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sample flow meter for batch sampling... Sample flow meter for batch sampling. (a) Application. Use a sample flow meter to determine sample flow... difference between a diluted exhaust sample flow meter and a dilution air meter to calculate raw exhaust flow...

  1. Period meter output in response to terminated ramps of reactivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cummins, J D [Dynamics Group, Control and Instrumentation Division, Atomic Energy Establishment, Winfrith, Dorchester, Dorset (United Kingdom)

    1962-07-15

    The time behaviour of the period meter output has been determined for a range of total reactivity injections and reactivity rates. Some results which are directly applicable to graphite gas cooled reactors are given. (author)

  2. Chlorophyll meter for estimating nitrogen status of irrigated wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schepers, J.S.

    2000-01-01

    Chlorophyll-meter readings, generated from the leaves of irrigated wheat at particular growth stages, were normalized to the data obtained with locally recommended rates of fertilizer N, in Chile China, India and Mexico. Normalizing permitted comparisons of crop-N status across growth stages, locations, cultivars, and years. Relative yields and meter readings at growth-stage Z-50 are presented; they revealed similar trends for India, China, and Chile, however, for Mexico, the combination of soil, wheat cultivar, and climate resulted in much less response to N fertilization in the meter data. The implications are discussed. The SPAD meter proved to be a good tool to monitor and evaluate the N status of irrigated wheat. (author)

  3. Electric Power Substitute Meter Management via Mobile Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson C. Rodelas

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available EPSMvMA is composed of Digital Sub-Meter connected to different components namely the GSM module, Bluetooth module, Power Analyzer Module, LCD Module, Relay Module and Main Microcontroller module. The connection via Mobile is made possible by the modules mentioned. The software that the proponents will be dealing with in the study is C++ language, which will be used in programming the Main Microcontroller module and Visual Basic Language for the Android Phones. The Bluetooth module can access the Android Phones and connect to the digital sub-meter in a limited distance. The users will be at ease since a code embedded to the microcontroller will make the utility sub-meter produce the desired value of electricity (KWH and wherein the computed Sub-meter reading can be viewed through the LCD. This project is accommodating to those person that is always on the go and prudent.

  4. Smart Meter Data Analytics: Systems, Algorithms and Benchmarking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiufeng; Golab, Lukasz; Golab, Wojciech

    2016-01-01

    the proposed benchmark using five representative platforms: a traditional numeric computing platform (Matlab), a relational DBMS with a built-in machine learning toolkit (PostgreSQL/MADlib), a main-memory column store (“System C”), and two distributed data processing platforms (Hive and Spark/Spark Streaming......Smart electricity meters have been replacing conventional meters worldwide, enabling automated collection of fine-grained (e.g., every 15 minutes or hourly) consumption data. A variety of smart meter analytics algorithms and applications have been proposed, mainly in the smart grid literature......-line feature extraction and model building as well a framework for on-line anomaly detection that we propose. Second, since obtaining real smart meter data is difficult due to privacy issues, we present an algorithm for generating large realistic data sets from a small seed of real data. Third, we implement...

  5. Tweeting : Smart meters raise awareness of energy consumption in buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2009-11-15

    The University of Mississippi (UM) will monitor, analyze and report on energy consumption in its campus buildings in real-time using SmartSynch Smart Meters. The technology uses smart meter data to help identify a detailed pattern of electricity usage with the objective of finding methods to alter behaviour to reduce electricity usage and carbon emissions. SmartSynch installed 16 Smart Meters on campus with additional deployments being planned. The technology will enable the university to monitor energy consumption, track building power performance over time, compare building energy usage, and review the impact of the weather on energy use while reducing its carbon footprint. Additionally, UM will use Facebook, Twitter and an RSS feed to provide regular public updates on its buildings' energy consumption based on SmartSynch Smart Meter data. Each building will have its own profile on the social networking sites. 1 ref., 1 fig.

  6. Minnesota Digital Elevation Model - Tiled 93 Meter Resolution

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Digital Elevation Model (DEM) at a resolution of 93 meters. Original data resolution was 3 arc seconds which corresponds (approximately) to a matrix of points at a...

  7. an assessment of billing electricity consumers via analogue meters

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    ABSTRACT. This paper assesses the perception of billing consumers via analogue meter in Kano Electricity ... the successor companies of Power Holding Company ... Nassarawa computer center was established in 1991. .... The value 7.2 is.

  8. Evaluating the student activity meter : two case studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Govaerts, S.; Verbert, K.; Duval, E.

    2011-01-01

    In the Technology Enhanced Learning (TEL) domain, visualizations are attracting increased interest. In this paper, we present the Student Activity Meter that visualizes learner activities within online learning environments for learners and teachers to help increase awareness and to support

  9. Service-oriented advanced metering infrastructure for smart grids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, S.; Lukkien, J.J.; Zhang, L.

    2011-01-01

    Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) enables smart grids to involve power consumers in the business process of power generation transmission, distribution and consumption. However, the participant of consumers challenges the current power systems with system integration and cooperation and

  10. Service-oriented advanced metering infrastructure for smart grids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, S.; Lukkien, J.J.; Zhang, L.

    2010-01-01

    Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) enables smart grids to involve power consumers in the business process of power generation, transmission, distribution and consumption. However, the participant of consumers challenges the current power systems with system integration and cooperation and

  11. 49 CFR 192.353 - Customer meters and regulators: Location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Customer Meters, Service... protected from corrosion and other damage, including, if installed outside a building, vehicular damage that...

  12. A Prediction-based Smart Meter Data Generator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iftikhar, Nadeem; Liu, Xiufeng; Nordbjerg, Finn Ebertsen

    2016-01-01

    With the prevalence of cloud computing and In-ternet of Things (IoT), smart meters have become one of the main components of smart city strategy. Smart meters generate large amounts of fine-grained data that is used to provide useful information to consumers and utility companies for decision......, mainly due to privacy issues. This paper proposes a smart meter data generator that can generate realistic energy consumption data by making use of a small real-world dataset as seed. The generator generates data using a prediction-based method that depends on historical energy consumption patterns along......-making. Now-a-days, smart meter analytics systems consist of analytical algorithms that process massive amounts of data. These analytics algorithms require ample amounts of realistic data for testing and verification purposes. However, it is usually difficult to obtain adequate amounts of realistic data...

  13. Digital forensics issues in advanced metering infrastructure | Ibrahim ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Home > Vol 10, No 6S (2018) > ... the architecture of telecommunications and energy infrastructure, along with Internet networks. Various ... A core component of the smart grid is advanced metering infrastructure (AMI), in which a utility ...

  14. Radiofrequency fields associated with the Itron smart meter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tell, R A; Sias, G G; Vazquez, A; Sahl, J; Turman, J P; Kavet, R I; Mezei, G

    2012-08-01

    This study examined radiofrequency (RF) emissions from smart electric power meters deployed in two service territories in California for the purpose of evaluating potential human exposure. These meters included transmitters operating in a local area mesh network (RF LAN, ∼250 mW); a cell relay, which uses a wireless wide area network (WWAN, ∼1 W); and a transmitter serving a home area network (HAN, ∼70 mW). In all instances, RF fields were found to comply by a wide margin with the RF exposure limits established by the US Federal Communications Commission. The study included specialised measurement techniques and reported the spatial distribution of the fields near the meters and their duty cycles (typically smart meters as deployed. However, the results are restricted to a single manufacturer's emitters.

  15. Solutions For Smart Metering Under Harsh Environmental Condicions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunicina N.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The described case study concerns application of wireless sensor networks to the smart control of power supply substations. The solution proposed for metering is based on the modular principle and has been tested in the intersystem communication paradigm using selectable interface modules (IEEE 802.3, ISM radio interface, GSM/GPRS. The solution modularity gives 7 % savings of maintenance costs. The developed solution can be applied to the control of different critical infrastructure networks using adapted modules. The proposed smart metering is suitable for outdoor installation, indoor industrial installations, operation under electromagnetic pollution, temperature and humidity impact. The results of tests have shown a good electromagnetic compatibility of the prototype meter with other electronic devices. The metering procedure is exemplified by operation of a testing company's workers under harsh environmental conditions.

  16. Guanabara Bay and Pecem LNG flexible metering systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, Vinicus Roberto C.; Carvalho, Gustavo L.A.; Bruel, Edson L.; Santana, Jose P.C. de; Vidal, Lud C.C.N. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-12-19

    This work presents to the community the metering systems installed in the Liquefied Natural (LNG) Gas Flexible Terminals of the Pecem Port and Guanabara Bay. A brief description of the Terminals facilities and its operation is firstly made to provide a background of the systems discussed. Then, the LNG custody transfer metering system, the operational control metering system, the energy balance of the LNG transferring system and the Natural Gas custody transfer metering system - that are our systems of interest - are described in detail. It is intended to use the philosophy adopted in the Guanabara Bay and Pecem Flexible Terminals design as a standard to future installations, integrated with improvements brought by the operation experience that will be obtained in those terminals. (author)

  17. Radiofrequency fields associated with the Itron smart meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tell, R. A.; Sias, G. G.; Vazquez, A.; Sahl, J.; Turman, J. P.; Kavet, R. I.; Mezei, G.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined radiofrequency (RF) emissions from smart electric power meters deployed in two service territories in California for the purpose of evaluating potential human exposure. These meters included transmitters operating in a local area mesh network (RF LAN, ∼250 mW); a cell relay, which uses a wireless wide area network (WWAN, ∼1 W); and a transmitter serving a home area network (HAN, ∼70 mW). In all instances, RF fields were found to comply by a wide margin with the RF exposure limits established by the US Federal Communications Commission. The study included specialised measurement techniques and reported the spatial distribution of the fields near the meters and their duty cycles (typically <1 %) whose value is crucial to assessing time-averaged exposure levels. This study is the first to characterise smart meters as deployed. However, the results are restricted to a single manufacturer's emitters. (authors)

  18. Wireless transmission of metering data from a photovoltaic solar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The data from direct cable connection was highly reliable because data ... aggregated solar home systems instead of establishing grid connected solar farms. ... Key words: PV solar home system, DC power meter, GSM, data adaptor software ...

  19. Tweeting : Smart meters raise awareness of energy consumption in buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon,

    2009-11-15

    The University of Mississippi (UM) will monitor, analyze and report on energy consumption in its campus buildings in real-time using SmartSynch Smart Meters. The technology uses smart meter data to help identify a detailed pattern of electricity usage with the objective of finding methods to alter behaviour to reduce electricity usage and carbon emissions. SmartSynch installed 16 Smart Meters on campus with additional deployments being planned. The technology will enable the university to monitor energy consumption, track building power performance over time, compare building energy usage, and review the impact of the weather on energy use while reducing its carbon footprint. Additionally, UM will use Facebook, Twitter and an RSS feed to provide regular public updates on its buildings' energy consumption based on SmartSynch Smart Meter data. Each building will have its own profile on the social networking sites. 1 ref., 1 fig.

  20. Smarter energy from smart metering to the smart grid

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, Hongjian; Poor, H Vincent; Carpanini, Laurence; Fornié, Miguel Angel Sánchez

    2016-01-01

    This book presents cutting-edge perspectives and research results in smart energy spanning multiple disciplines across four main topics: smart metering, smart grid modeling, control and optimisation, and smart grid communications and networking.

  1. Development of an ultra-portable ride quality meter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    FRAs Office of Research and Development has funded the development of an ultra-portable ride quality meter (UPRQM) under the Small Business and Innovative Research (SBIR) program. Track inspectors can use the UPRQM to locate segments of track that...

  2. One-Meter Class Drilling for Planetary Exploration, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The purpose of the proposed effort is to understand and characterize the fundamental limitations of drilling one to three meters into challenging materials which may...

  3. Pulse counting period meter output during startup transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cummins, J.D.

    1962-12-01

    The time response of a period meter whose input signal comes from a pulse counting channel may be calculated using a Ferranti Mercury autocode programme details of which are given. The period meter considered is the type for which the logarithmic characteristic is approximated by several diode pump circuits. The input excitation is a terminated ramp of reactivity. Other reactivity inputs may be treated. In particular the step change of reactivity may be used as the input excitation. Allowance is made for the effective time constants of the diode pump circuits and the period meter. The programme may be used for instrument assessment and for safety and operations studies on reactors which use this type of period meter. An example of the use of the programme is given. (author)

  4. an assessment of billing electricity consumers via analogue meters

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    Keywords: Electricity Distribution, Consumers, Analogue Meter, Billing, Nigeria. INTRODUCTION. Electricity ... the energy usage of a typical electricity consumer in one month is several ..... improve on distribution network. In addition it should.

  5. Design and construction of a resistivity meter for shallow investigation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Design and construction of a resistivity meter for shallow investigation. ... Nigerian Journal of Physics. Journal Home ... Consequently many institutions that need this equipment for teaching and research purposes cannot afford the price.

  6. Development of an alternative reactivity meter for nuclear reactor control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, P.S.B.

    1991-01-01

    This work describes an alternative version of the IPEN-CNEN/SP reactivity-meter. This new version utilizes a programmable electrometer (to realize the data acquisition) and a IBM-PC microcomputer to process the reactivity calculation. The aim of development of this alternative reactivity-meter is to have available a equipment of measurements of reactivity in the case of the later version show any problem during an experiment. (author)

  7. Ramp metering with an objective to reduce fuel consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Vreeswijk, Jacob Dirk; Woldeab, Zeremariam; de Koning, Anne; Bie, Jing

    2011-01-01

    Ramp meters successfully decrease congestion but leave a burden on the traffic situation at on-ramps. Chaotic queuing leads to many stop-and-go movements and causes inefficiency where fuel consumption is concerned. As part of the eCoMove project, complementary strategies are being designed and evaluated to reduce fuel consumption at metered on-ramps, using vehicle-to-infrastructure communication. This paper presents the design of two strategies, as well as their effect as derived from simulat...

  8. Remote calibration system of a smart electrical energy meter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakariae Jebroni

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The need to control the power grid in real time has opened a new field of research, today researchers are trying to design electrical meters that are completely remote controlled, to create an advanced metering infrastructure. One of the most important processes in the field of measurement is the calibration of measuring instruments. The calibration process of the electrical meters was performed at laboratories. However, the new directives, now, require a regular test of accuracy. Nevertheless, moving each time on site to check the accuracy of a meter can be annoying. To solve this problem our contribution is to propose a new structure of a smart meter that integrates a calibration card, so that, this process is carried out remotely. To be able to calibrate the meter or test its accuracy, we have included an AC-AC converter powered by the electrical grid and that provides a stable voltage independent of the electrical grid in term of frequency and amplitude. The output voltage of the converter is used as the reference signal during calibration or accuracy testing. In this paper, we will present the structure of the calibration card, the study and dimensioning of the converter, as well as the control technique used to eliminate variations of the input voltage. At the end, we will present the results of simulations and experiments.

  9. Interest in smart metering project surprises utility, IBM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horne, D.

    2006-01-01

    This article provided an outline of Hydro Ottawa and IBM's smart metering pilot project, which has resulted in high approval ratings from the public. The project features 375 participants broken down into 3 separate groups to look for potential consumption differences between customers charged according to standard time-of-use pricing; time-of-use with critical peak pricing; and time-of-use with critical peak rebates. The Ontario Smart Price Pilot project will be run for 5 months, and is expected to provide detailed energy information about usage. Past projects have indicated that customers respond quickly to smart metering, as they are able to monitor their energy usage and more effectively manage their energy consumption. Ontario plans to have all homes and small businesses using smart meters by 2010, as high seasonal demand has indicated that conservation and balanced resource use are now top priorities for many utility companies. At least 10 states in the United States have conducted smart metering pilot projects. The California Public Utilities Commissions has recently approved a $1.7 billion statewide plan to replace old meters with smart meters. In Ontario, customers have ordered 10,000 electricity monitors that Hydro One is giving away. It was concluded that research results from an earlier Hydro One demonstration project with 500 Ontario homeowners showed that real time electricity monitors can help homeowners reduce their consumption of electricity by up to 15 per cent. 4 figs

  10. Characterization of radiofrequency field emissions from smart meters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tell, Richard A; Kavet, Robert; Mezei, Gabor

    2013-01-01

    This study presents measurement data that describe radiofrequency emission levels and patterns from smart meters (rated nominally at 1 W) currently deployed in Pacific Gas and Electric Company's service territory in northern California. The smart meters in our investigation could not be set to operate continuously and required a Field Service Unit to induce short periods of emitted fields. To obtain peak field data under both laboratory and ambient conditions, a spectrum analyzer scanned across the 83 transmitting channels between 902 and 928 MHz used by the smart meter on a random frequency-hopping basis. To obtain data describing temporal emission patterns, the analyzer operated in scope mode. Duty cycle was estimated using transmit data acquired by the system operator from over 88,000 m. Instantaneous peak fields at 0.3 m in front of the meters were no more than 15% of the US Federal Communications Commission (FCC) exposure limit for the general public, and 99.9% of the meters operated with a duty cycle of 1.12% or less during the sampling period. In a sample of measurements in six single-detached residences equipped with individual smart meters, no interior measurement of peak field exceeded 1% of the FCC's general public exposure limit.

  11. Smart meter data: Balancing consumer privacy concerns with legitimate applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKenna, Eoghan; Richardson, Ian; Thomson, Murray

    2012-01-01

    Smart meters are being rolled out in large numbers throughout the world, with proponents claiming they are a critical step in the transition to a low-carbon economy. Yet there are significant unresolved negative reactions to smart meters, principally based on the concern that smart meters might be used to infer the private activities that occur within a dwelling. Though smart meter data is classified as personal data, and as such protected under existing data protection frameworks in the EU, there are relevant exceptions, notably where the data is required for legitimate applications associated with the performance of 'regulated duties'. This paper contributes to this debate by examining the data requirements for some of the proposed applications of smart meter data within the electricity supply industry, and investigates whether the use of personal data can be minimized or even avoided. The discussion includes system balancing, demand reduction, demand response and distribution network operation and planning, and indicates that, for most of these applications, the requirements for personal data can indeed be minimized. 'Privacy friendly' alternatives are discussed. - Highlights: ▶ Current smart meter systems provide a strong indication of occupancy. ▶ This will have important implications for external and internal home privacy. ▶ Personal data requirements within legitimate applications are discussed. ▶ 'Privacy friendly' techniques are suggested that minimize the use of personal data. ▶ Distribution network operator has strongest claim for data from each household.

  12. Analysing Smart Metering Systems from a Consumer Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yesudas, Rani

    Many countries are deploying smart meters and Advanced Metering Infrastructure systems as part of demand management and grid modernisation efforts. Several of these projects are facing consumer resistance. The advertised benefits to the consumer appear mainly monetary but detailed analysis shows that financial benefits are hard to realise since the fixed services charges are high. Additionally, the data collected from smart meters have security and privacy implications for the consumer. These projects failed to consider end-users as an important stakeholder group during planning stages resulting in the design and roll-out of expensive systems, which do not demonstrate clear consumer benefits. The overall goal of the research reported in this thesis was to improve the smart metering system to deliver consumer benefits that increase confidence and acceptance of these projects. The smart metering system was examined from an end-user perspective for realistic insights into consumer concerns. Processes from Design Science Research methodology were utilised to conduct this research due to the utilitarian nature of the objective. Consumer segmentation was central to the proposed measures. Initially, a consumer-friendly risk analysis framework was devised, and appropriate requirement elicitation techniques were identified. Control options for smart meter data transfer and storage were explored. Various scenarios were analysed to determine consumer-friendly features in the smart metering system, including control options for smart meter data transfer and storage. Proposed functionalities (billing choices, feedback information and specific configurations to match the needs of different user segments) were studied using the Australian smart metering system. Smart meters vary in capabilities depending on the manufacturer, mode and place of deployment. The research showed that features proposed in this thesis are implementable in smart meters, by examining their applicability

  13. Investigation of Separate Meter-In Separate Meter-Out Control Strategies for Systems with Over Centre Valves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Henrik C.; Andersen, Torben Ole; Hansen, Rico Hjerm

    2010-01-01

    to overcome this problem, but it typically implies higher energy consumption and/or decreased control performance. With the development of robust sensors and new valve types with separate meter-in, separate meter-out control it is, however, possible to overcome these stability problems in a much more...... intelligent way, also adding increased functionality to the system. The focus of the current paper is therefore on investigation of different control strategies for Separate Meter-In Separate Meter-Out (SMISMO) control of general single axis hydraulic system with a differential cylinder and an over......-centre valve included. The paper first presents a general model of the system considered, which is experimentally verified. This is followed by a discussion of different control strategies and their implications. For each of the control strategies controllers are described, taking into account the dynamics...

  14. Smart metering gateway works as Smart Home Energy Manager; Smart Metering Gateway als Smart Home Energy Manager

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walter, Klaus-Dieter [SSV Software Systems GmbH, Hannover (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    The installation of smart meters together with real time consumption data visualization doesn't help to save energy CO2 emissions. With regards to refinancing options, the situation in Germany has been quite different since the middle of last year for buildings equipped with a photovoltaic system. If a heat pump system is also present, intelligent energy use in conjunction with smart meters can save considerable amounts of money. A Smart Home Energy Manager (SHEM) automates the energy saving. (orig.)

  15. A Study on Watt-hour Meter Data Acquisition Method Based on RFID Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiangqun; Huang, Rui; Shen, Liman; Chen, Hao; Xiong, Dezhi; Xiao, Xiangqi; Liu, Mouhai; Xu, Renheng

    2018-03-01

    Considering that traditional watt-hour meter data acquisition was subjected to the influence of distance and occlusion, a watt-hour meter data acquisition method based on RFID technology was proposed in this paper. In detail, RFID electronic tag was embedded in the watt-hour meter to identify the meter and record electric energy information, which made RFID based wireless data acquisition for watt-hour meter come true. Eventually, overall lifecycle management of watt-hour meter is realized.

  16. Determining ash content in flotation wastes by means of the MPOF optical ash meter. [Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikora, T; Sliwa, J

    1982-03-01

    The paper evaluates an experimental unit of the MPOF optical ash meter, developed by the EMAG Research and Production Center for Electrical Engineering and Mining Automation. The MPOF, which is being tested at the coal preparation plant of the 30 lecia PRL mine, is the first system for continuous determination of ash content in flotation tailings developed in Poland. A block scheme of the system is given. It consists of a measuring head and electronic system which processes data supplied by the measuring head and calculates ash content. System operation is based on the principle of determining ash content in a mixture of coal and mineral wastes by measuring mixture reflectivity. Determining ash content in the mixture is possible as reflectivity coefficients for coal and ash are constant. Performance of the MPOF optical ash meter is evaluated; the results are shown in a table and a scheme. Measurement accuracy is satisfactory.

  17. Reliability of 4-meter and 10-meter walk tests after lower extremity surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unver, Bayram; Baris, Refik Hilmi; Yuksel, Ertugrul; Cekmece, Senol; Kalkan, Serpil; Karatosun, Vasfi

    2017-12-01

    To investigate the test-retest reliability of the 4-meter walk test (4 MWT) and 10-meter walk test (10 MWT) in patients undergoing lower extremity surgery during inpatient rehabilitation. In all, 102 patients with total hip arthroplasty (THA), total knee arthroplasty (TKA), lower extremity fracture (LEF) and soft tissue operation were recruited. Patients performed two 4 MWT and two 10 MWT trials on the same day. The same researcher performed all the measurements to avoid inter-rater variability. The 4 MWT and 10 MWT were shown to have excellent test-retest reliability. The ICCs for the 4 MWT and 10 MWT were found as 0.94 and 0.95, respectively. The SEMs for the 4 MWT and 10 MWT were 2.0 and 5.5 seconds, respectively. The smallest real difference at the 95% confidence level (SRD95) was 5.5 seconds for the 4 MWT and 12.2 seconds for 10 MWT and SRD95 percentage was 31.2 for the 4 MWT and 28.5 for the 10 MWT. Both the 4 MWT and the 10 MWT have excellent reliability in patients undergoing lower extremity surgery such as TKA, THA, LEF and soft tissue operation during inpatient rehabilitation. Clinicians and researchers can be confident that changes above the SRD95s for the different patient groups, for both sexes and with regard to weight-bearing status, represent a real clinical change in rehabilitation process. Implications for Rehabilitation The 4 MWT and the 10 MWT are simple methods and were also shown to be reliable measurement methods in many patient groups. This study illustrates that the test-retest reliability of the 4 MWT and 10 MWT are excellent in patients undergoing lower extremity surgery during inpatient rehabilitation (ICC: 0.94 for 4 MWT, ICC: 0.95 for 10 MWT). Clinicians and researchers can be confident that changes above the SRD95s for the different patient groups, for both sexes and with regard to weight-bearing status represent a real clinical change in rehabilitation process.

  18. An assessment of the Italian smart gas metering program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Castelnuovo, Matteo; Fumagalli, Elena

    2013-01-01

    The introduction of smart metering is one of the core elements in recent European policies targeting environmental sustainability and competitiveness of energy markets. Following the roll-out of smart electricity meters, in 2008 the Italian regulator designed an ambitious deployment program also for smart gas meters, that was recently modified in both scope and timing. This paper assesses Italy's original and current deployment plans, with a specific focus on the results of its cost–benefit analysis. In light of the evidence derived from the literature, we observe that the case for the roll-out of smart gas meters in Italy was not supported by a strong emphasis on energy savings but rather focused on increasing efficiency of the Italian gas market; in this respect, we argue that options other than smart gas metering should also be considered. Moreover the Italian cost–benefit analysis, which mostly dealt with the potential cost savings for distributors and suppliers, led to ambiguous results in terms of net present values; thus, we believe that an updated assessment would be extremely useful. Finally, in terms of technological choices, our analysis positively evaluates the regulator's recent proposal to consider a dual-fuel solution for the mass market deployment. - Highlights: • This paper assesses Italy's original and current deployment plans for smart gas meters. • The plan was not supported by a strong emphasis on energy savings. • A focus on increasing efficiency of the Italian gas market appears only partly justifiable. • The business case for adopting smart gas meters should be updated. • Our analysis positively evaluates the a dual-fuel solution for the mass market

  19. The Passive Neutron Enrichment Meter for Uranium Cylinder Assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Karen A.; Menlove, Howard O.; Swinhoe, Martyn T.; Marlow, Johanna B. [Safeguards Science and Technology Group (N-1), Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos (United States)

    2011-12-15

    As fuel cycle technology becomes more prevalent around the world, international safeguards have become increasingly important in verifying that nuclear materials have not been diverted. Uranium enrichment technology is a critical pathway to nuclear weapons development, making safeguards of enrichment facilities especially important. Independently-verifiable material accountancy is a fundamental measure in detecting diversion of nuclear materials. This paper is about a new instrument for uranium cylinder assay for enrichment plant safeguards called the Passive Neutron Enrichment Meter (PNEM). The measurement objective is to simultaneously verify uranium mass and enrichment in Uf6 cylinders. It can be used with feed, product, and tails cylinders. Here, we consider the enrichment range up to 5% {sup 235}U. The concept is to use the Doubles-to-Singles count rate to give a measure of the {sup 235}U enrichment and the Singles count rate to provide a measure of the total uranium mass. The cadmium ratio is an additional signature for the enrichment that is especially useful for feed and tails cylinders. PNEM is a {sup 3}He-based system that consists of two portable detector pods. Uranium enrichment in UF{sub 6} cylinders is typically determined using a gamma-ray-based method that only samples a tiny volume of the cylinder's content and requires knowledge of the cylinder wall thickness. The PNEM approach has several advantages over gamma-ray-based methods including a deeper penetration depth into the cylinder, meaning it can be used with heterogeneous isotopic mixtures of UF{sub 6}. In this paper, we describe a Monte Carlo modelling study where we have examined the sensitivity of the system to systematic uncertainties such as the distribution of UF{sub 6} within the cylinder. We also compare characterization measurements of the PNEM prototype to the expected measurements calculated with Monte Carlo simulations.

  20. Instrument evaluation no. 33. Automess Szintomat 6134 radiation survey meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClure, D.R.

    1986-04-01

    The various radiations encountered in radiological protection cover a wide range of energies and radiation measurements have to be carried out under an equally broad spectrum of environmental conditions. This report is one of a series intended to give information on the performance characteristics of radiological protection instruments, to assist in the selection of appropriate instruments for a given purpose, to interpret the results obtained with such instruments, and, in particular, to know the likely sources and magnitude of errors that might be associated with measurements in the field. The radiation, electrical and environmental characteristics of radiation protection instruments are considered together with those aspects of the construction which make an instrument convenient for routine use. To provide consistent criteria for instrument performance, the range of tests performed on any particular class of instrument, the test methods and the criteria of acceptable performance are based broadly on the appropriate Recommendations of the International Electrotechnical Commission. The radiations in the tests are, in general, selected from the range of reference radiations for instrument calibration being drawn up by the International Standards Organisation. Normally, each report deals with the capabilities and limitations of one model of instrument and no direct comparison with other instruments intended for similar purposes is made, since the significance of particular performance characteristics largely depends on the radiations and environmental conditions in which the instrument is to be used. The results quoted here have all been obtained from tests on instruments in routine production, with the appropriate measurements being made by the NRPB. This instrument evaluation report deals with the Automess Szintomat 6134 Radiation Survey Meter

  1. Instrument evaluation no. 13. Nuclear enterprises portable meter type PDR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgess, P.H.; Iles, W.J.

    1978-06-01

    The various radiations encountered in radiological protection cover a wide range of energies and radiation measurements have to be carried out under an equally broad spectrum of environmental conditions. This report is one of a series intended to give information on the performance characteristics of radiological protection instruments, to assist in the selection of appropriate instruments for a given purpose, to interpret the results obtained with such instruments, and, in particular, to know the likely sources and magnitude of errors that might be associated with measurements in the field. The radiation, electrical and environmental characteristics of radiation protection instruments are considered together with those aspects of the construction which make an instrument convenient for routine use. To provide consistent criteria for instrument performance, the range of tests performed on any particular class of instrument, the test methods and the criteria of acceptable performance are based broadly on the appropriate Recommendations of the International Electrotechnical Commission. The radiations in the tests are, in general, selected from the range of reference radiations for instrument calibration being drawn up by the International Standards Organisation. Normally, each report deals with the capabilities and limitations of one model of instrument and no direct comparison with other instruments intended for similar purposes is made, since the significance of particular performance characteristics largely depends on the radiations and environmental conditions in which the instrument is to be used. The results quoted here have all been obtained from tests on instruments in routine production, with the appropriate measurements being made by the NRPB. This report deals with the evaluation of Nuclear Enterprises Portable Dose Rate Meter Type PDR 2

  2. Canadian consumer issues in accurate and fair electricity metering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-07-01

    The Public Interest Advocacy Centre (PIAC), located in Ottawa, participates in regulatory proceedings concerning electricity and natural gas to support public and consumer interest. PIAC provides legal representation, research and policy support and public advocacy. A study aimed toward the determination of the issues at stake for residential electricity consumers in the provision of fair and accurate electricity metering, was commissioned by Measurement Canada in consultation with Industry Canada's Consumer Affairs. The metering of electricity must be carried out in a fair and efficient manner for all residential consumers. The Electricity, Gas and Inspection Act was developed to ensure compliance with standards for measuring instrumentation. The accurate metering of electricity through the distribution systems for electricity in Canada represents the main focus of this study and report. The role played by Measurement Canada and the increased efficiencies of service delivery by Measurement Canada or the changing of electricity market conditions are of special interest. The role of Measurement Canada was explained, as were the concerns of residential consumers. A comparison was then made between the interests of residential consumers and those of commercial and industrial electricity consumers in electricity metering. Selected American and Commonwealth jurisdictions were reviewed in light of their electricity metering practices. A section on compliance and conflict resolution was included, in addition to a section on the use of voluntary codes for compliance and conflict resolution

  3. The AGS Ggamma Meter and Calibrating the Gauss Clock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahrens, Leif [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.

    2014-03-31

    During AGS Polarized Proton acceleration periods, one output from the AGS Ggamma Meter, namely the energy (or Ggamma) calculated from the magnetic field in the AGS main magnets and the beam radius- both measured in particular instant, is used to figure out the times in the AGS magnet acceleration cycle when the beam passes through a particular set of depolarizing resonances. The resonance set occur whenever a particle’s Ggamma (energy*(G/m) becomes nearly equal to n*Qx (i.e. any integer multiplied by the horizontal betatron tune). This deliverable is why the machinery is referred to as the ''Ggamma Meter'' rather than the AGS energy meter. The Ggamma Meter takes as inputs a set of measurements of frequency (F(t)), radius (r(t)), and gauss clock counts (GCC(t)). The other energy (GgammaBr) assumes the field when the gauss clock starts counting is known. The change in field to time t is given by the measured accumulated gauss clock counts multiplied by the gauss clock calibration (gauss/GCC). In order to deal with experimental data, this calibration factor gets an added ad hoc complication, namely a correction dependent on the rate of change the counting rate. The Ggamma meter takes GCC(t) and together with the past history for this cycle calculates B(t).

  4. Modelling and calibration of a ring-shaped electrostatic meter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Jianyong [University of Teesside, Middlesbrough TS1 3BA (United Kingdom); Zhou Bin; Xu Chuanlong; Wang Shimin, E-mail: zhoubinde1980@gmail.co [Southeast University, Sipailou 2, Nanjing 210096 (China)

    2009-02-01

    Ring-shaped electrostatic flow meters can provide very useful information on pneumatically transported air-solids mixture. This type of meters are popular in measuring and controlling the pulverized coal flow distribution among conveyors leading to burners in coal-fired power stations, and they have also been used for research purposes, e.g. for the investigation of electrification mechanism of air-solids two-phase flow. In this paper, finite element method (FEM) is employed to analyze the characteristics of ring-shaped electrostatic meters, and a mathematic model has been developed to express the relationship between the meter's voltage output and the motion of charged particles in the sensing volume. The theoretical analysis and the test results using a belt rig demonstrate that the output of the meter depends upon many parameters including the characteristics of conditioning circuitry, the particle velocity vector, the amount and the rate of change of the charge carried by particles, the locations of particles and etc. This paper also introduces a method to optimize the theoretical model via calibration.

  5. Strategies for Power Line Communications Smart Metering Network Deployment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Sendin

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Smart Grids are becoming a reality all over the world. Nowadays, the research efforts for the introduction and deployment of these grids are mainly focused on the development of the field of Smart Metering. This emerging application requires the use of technologies to access the significant number of points of supply (PoS existing in the grid, covering the Low Voltage (LV segment with the lowest possible costs. Power Line Communications (PLC have been extensively used in electricity grids for a variety of purposes and, of late, have been the focus of renewed interest. PLC are really well suited for quick and inexpensive pervasive deployments. However, no LV grid is the same in any electricity company (utility, and the particularities of each grid evolution, architecture, circumstances and materials, makes it a challenge to deploy Smart Metering networks with PLC technologies, with the Smart Grid as an ultimate goal. This paper covers the evolution of Smart Metering networks, together with the evolution of PLC technologies until both worlds have converged to project PLC-enabled Smart Metering networks towards Smart Grid. This paper develops guidelines over a set of strategic aspects of PLC Smart Metering network deployment based on the knowledge gathered on real field; and introduces the future challenges of these networks in their evolution towards the Smart Grid.

  6. Polarization speed meter for gravitational-wave detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Andrew R.; McKenzie, Kirk; Chen, Yanbei; Shaddock, Daniel A.; Chow, Jong H.; McClelland, David E.

    2012-09-01

    We propose a modified configuration of an advanced gravitational-wave detector that is a speed-meter-type interferometer with improved sensitivity with respect to quantum noise. With the addition of polarization-controlling components to the output of an arm cavity Michelson interferometer, an orthogonal polarization state of the interferometer can be used to store signal, returning it later with opposite phase to cancel position information below the storage bandwidth of the opposite mode. This modification provides an alternative to an external kilometer-scale Fabry-Pérot cavity, as presented in earlier work of Purdue and Chen [Phys. Rev. D 66, 122004 (2002)]. The new configuration requires significantly less physical infrastructure to achieve speed meter operation. The quantity of length and alignment degrees of freedom is also reduced. We present theoretical calculations to show that such a speed meter detector is capable of beating the strain sensitivity imposed by the standard quantum limit over a broad range of frequencies for Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory-like parameters. The benefits and possible difficulties of implementing such a scheme are outlined. We also present results for tuning of the speed meter by adjusting the degree of polarization coupling, a novel possibility that does not exist in previously proposed designs, showing that there is a smooth transition from speed meter operation to that of a signal-recycling Michelson behavior.

  7. Additional functions of remotely read kWh-meters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koponen, P. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland); Vehvilaeinen, S. [Mittrix Oy (Finland); Rantanen, J. [Helsinki Energy Board, Helsinki (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    In this presentation the possibilities to include new applications into remotely read smart kWh-meters are considered. New electronic meters can measure various electric quantities and have some extra calculating capacity. So they can be used to provide functions that distribution automation and the customer need and thus share the costs. Some applications like monitoring the state of the distribution network or locating faults are only for the utility, but many applications also need an interface to the customer or his automation system. Among those are monitoring the quality of electricity, estimating load curves, applying dynamic tariffs and selling electricity and accounting. As a special item, the continuous monitoring of the quality of electricity is discussed. This includes voltage levels, total distortion, asymmetry and so on. If such a kWh-meter indicates quality problems the situation can be detected with a suitable portable quality meter. The poor quality can be detected before it causes harm to equipment owned by the customers or the power distribution company. This presentation also presents a prototype of such a quality monitoring kWh-meter

  8. Optical position meters analyzed in the noninertial reference frames

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarabrin, Sergey P.; Seleznyov, Alexander A.

    2008-01-01

    In the framework of general relativity we develop a method for the analysis of the operation of the optical position meters in their photodetectors proper reference frames. These frames are noninertial in general due to the action of external fluctuative forces on meters test masses, including detectors. For comparison we also perform the calculations in the laboratory (globally inertial) reference frame and demonstrate that for certain optical schemes laboratory-based analysis results in unmeasurable quantities, in contrast to the detector-based analysis. We also calculate the response of the simplest optical meters to weak plane gravitational waves and fluctuative motions of their test masses. It is demonstrated that for the round-trip meter analysis in both the transverse-traceless (TT) and local Lorentz (LL) gauges produces equal results, while for the forward-trip meter corresponding results differ in accordance with different physical assumptions (e.g. procedure of clocks synchronization) implicitly underlying the construction of the TT and LL gauges.

  9. Development of PIC-based digital survey meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nor Arymaswati Abdullah; Nur Aira Abdul Rahman; Mohd Ashhar Khalid; Taiman Kadni; Glam Hadzir Patai Mohamad; Abd Aziz Mhd Ramli; Chong Foh Yong

    2006-01-01

    The need of radiation monitoring and monitoring of radioactive contamination in the workplace is very important especially when x-ray machines, linear accelerators, electron beam machines and radioactive sources are present. The appropriate use of radiation detector is significant in order to maintain a radiation and contamination free workplace. This paper reports on the development of a prototype of PIC-based digital survey meter. This prototype of digital survey meter is a hand held instrument for general-purpose radiation monitoring and surface contamination meter. Generally, the device is able to detect some or all of the three major types of ionizing radiation, namely alpha, beta and gamma. It uses a Geiger-Muller tube as a radiation detector, which converts gamma radiation quanta to electric pulses and further processed by the electronic devices. The development involved the design of the controller, counter and high voltage circuit. All these circuit are assembled and enclosed in a plastic casing together with a GM detector and LCD display to form a prototype survey meter. The number of counts of the pulses detected by the survey meter varies due to the random nature of radioactivity. By averaging the reading over a time-period, more accurate and stable reading is achieved. To test the accuracy and the linearity of the design, the prototype was calibrated using standard procedure at the Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory (SSDL) in MINT. (Author)

  10. The AGS Ggamma Meter and Calibrating the Gauss Clock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahrens, Leif

    2014-01-01

    During AGS Polarized Proton acceleration periods, one output from the AGS Ggamma Meter, namely the energy (or Ggamma) calculated from the magnetic field in the AGS main magnets and the beam radius- both measured in particular instant, is used to figure out the times in the AGS magnet acceleration cycle when the beam passes through a particular set of depolarizing resonances. The resonance set occur whenever a particle's Ggamma (energy*(G/m) becomes nearly equal to n*Qx (i.e. any integer multiplied by the horizontal betatron tune). This deliverable is why the machinery is referred to as the ''Ggamma Meter'' rather than the AGS energy meter. The Ggamma Meter takes as inputs a set of measurements of frequency (F(t)), radius (r(t)), and gauss clock counts (GCC(t)). The other energy (GgammaBr) assumes the field when the gauss clock starts counting is known. The change in field to time t is given by the measured accumulated gauss clock counts multiplied by the gauss clock calibration (gauss/GCC). In order to deal with experimental data, this calibration factor gets an added ad hoc complication, namely a correction dependent on the rate of change the counting rate. The Ggamma meter takes GCC(t) and together with the past history for this cycle calculates B(t).

  11. Aesthetic and emotional effects of meter and rhyme in poetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obermeier, Christian; Menninghaus, Winfried; von Koppenfels, Martin; Raettig, Tim; Schmidt-Kassow, Maren; Otterbein, Sascha; Kotz, Sonja A

    2013-01-01

    Metrical patterning and rhyme are frequently employed in poetry but also in infant-directed speech, play, rites, and festive events. Drawing on four line-stanzas from nineteenth and twentieth German poetry that feature end rhyme and regular meter, the present study tested the hypothesis that meter and rhyme have an impact on aesthetic liking, emotional involvement, and affective valence attributions. Hypotheses that postulate such effects have been advocated ever since ancient rhetoric and poetics, yet they have barely been empirically tested. More recently, in the field of cognitive poetics, these traditional assumptions have been readopted into a general cognitive framework. In the present experiment, we tested the influence of meter and rhyme as well as their interaction with lexicality in the aesthetic and emotional perception of poetry. Participants listened to stanzas that were systematically modified with regard to meter and rhyme and rated them. Both rhyme and regular meter led to enhanced aesthetic appreciation, higher intensity in processing, and more positively perceived and felt emotions, with the latter finding being mediated by lexicality. Together these findings clearly show that both features significantly contribute to the aesthetic and emotional perception of poetry and thus confirm assumptions about their impact put forward by cognitive poetics. The present results are explained within the theoretical framework of cognitive fluency, which links structural features of poetry with aesthetic and emotional appraisal.

  12. Additional functions of remotely read kWh-meters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koponen, P [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland); Vehvilaeinen, S [Mittrix Oy (Finland); Rantanen, J [Helsinki Energy Board, Helsinki (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    In this presentation the possibilities to include new applications into remotely read smart kWh-meters are considered. New electronic meters can measure various electric quantities and have some extra calculating capacity. So they can be used to provide functions that distribution automation and the customer need and thus share the costs. Some applications like monitoring the state of the distribution network or locating faults are only for the utility, but many applications also need an interface to the customer or his automation system. Among those are monitoring the quality of electricity, estimating load curves, applying dynamic tariffs and selling electricity and accounting. As a special item, the continuous monitoring of the quality of electricity is discussed. This includes voltage levels, total distortion, asymmetry and so on. If such a kWh-meter indicates quality problems the situation can be detected with a suitable portable quality meter. The poor quality can be detected before it causes harm to equipment owned by the customers or the power distribution company. This presentation also presents a prototype of such a quality monitoring kWh-meter

  13. Boronline, a new generation of boron meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirat, P.

    2011-01-01

    Rolls-Royce is a global business providing integrated power systems for use on land, at sea and in the air. The Group has a balanced business portfolio with leading market positions - civil aerospace, defence aerospace, marine and energy Rolls-Royce understands the challenges of design, procurement, manufacture, operation and in-service support of nuclear reactor plants, with over 50 years of experience through the Royal Navy submarine programme. Rolls-Royce can therefore offer full product life-cycle management for new civil nuclear installations, as well as support to existing installations, including plant lifetime extensions. Rolls-Royce produced for 40 years, Instrumentation and Control (I and C) systems of and associated services for nuclear reactors in Europe, including 58 French reactors and others situated in the United States and in others countries, such as China. Rolls-Royce equipped in this domain 200 nuclear reactors in 20 countries. Among all of its nuclear systems, Rolls Royce is presenting to the conference its new generation of on-line boron measurement system, so called Boronline. (authors)

  14. Notes on the Harwell Carbon Meter (HCM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asher, R.C.; Kirstein, T.B.A.

    1980-01-01

    The sensor of the HCM is an iron membrane, generally in the form of a helically wound tube, the inner surface of which has been oxidised to form an iron oxide film. When immersed in the liquid sodium, preferably in the temperature range 500-650 deg. C, the outer surface of the membrane will rapidly achieve the same carbon activity (α C ) as the sodium and carbon will diffuse through the iron. When the carbon reaches the inner surface it reacts with the iron oxide to form CO and CO 2 which are swept away by a flow of inert carrier gas. Thus, at the inner surface of the membrane is maintained close to zero. In this way there is produced across the membrane a carbon activity gradient. The rate of diffusion of carbon through the membrane and the resulting flux of CO+CO 2 are directly proportional to α C the membrane outer surface and, by the same token, directly proportional to α C in the sodium. The rate of production of CO+CO 2 is measured continuously by passing the carrier gas through an analytical unit

  15. Notes on the Harwell Carbon Meter (HCM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asher, R C; Kirstein, T B.A. [AERE, Harwell, Oxon (United Kingdom)

    1980-05-01

    The sensor of the HCM is an iron membrane, generally in the form of a helically wound tube, the inner surface of which has been oxidised to form an iron oxide film. When immersed in the liquid sodium, preferably in the temperature range 500-650 deg. C, the outer surface of the membrane will rapidly achieve the same carbon activity ({alpha}{sub C}) as the sodium and carbon will diffuse through the iron. When the carbon reaches the inner surface it reacts with the iron oxide to form CO and CO{sub 2} which are swept away by a flow of inert carrier gas. Thus, at the inner surface of the membrane is maintained close to zero. In this way there is produced across the membrane a carbon activity gradient. The rate of diffusion of carbon through the membrane and the resulting flux of CO+CO{sub 2} are directly proportional to {alpha}{sub C} the membrane outer surface and, by the same token, directly proportional to {alpha}{sub C} in the sodium. The rate of production of CO+CO{sub 2} is measured continuously by passing the carrier gas through an analytical unit.

  16. Wide Range Portable Radiation Survey Meter for Emergency Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gangadharan, P.; Bhave, D. G.; Gokarn, R. S.; Khadake, R. G. [Directorate Of Radiation Protection, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Bombay (India)

    1969-05-15

    The paper describes a portable battery-operated radiation survey meter for monitoring a wide range of X- and gamma-ray exposure rates from 1 mR/h to 100 R/h. The instrument Incorporates a halogen GM tube as the detector and a count-rate meter for indication. A transistorized d.c. -d.c. converter supplies the necessary high voltage to the GM counter. The instrument response has been made energy independent in the energy range 80 keV to 1.25 MeV. Further, the response is linear over the entire range of exposure rates. Suitable extension rods have been designed to provide sufficient separation between the probe and the meter in cases where remote monitoring is necessary because of high fields. (author)

  17. Net Metering and Interconnection Procedures-- Incorporating Best Practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jason Keyes, Kevin Fox, Joseph Wiedman, Staff at North Carolina Solar Center

    2009-04-01

    State utility commissions and utilities themselves are actively developing and revising their procedures for the interconnection and net metering of distributed generation. However, the procedures most often used by regulators and utilities as models have not been updated in the past three years, in which time most of the distributed solar facilities in the United States have been installed. In that period, the Interstate Renewable Energy Council (IREC) has been a participant in more than thirty state utility commission rulemakings regarding interconnection and net metering of distributed generation. With the knowledge gained from this experience, IREC has updated its model procedures to incorporate current best practices. This paper presents the most significant changes made to IREC’s model interconnection and net metering procedures.

  18. Metering management at the plutonium research and development facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirata, Masaru; Miyamoto, Fujio; Kurosawa, Makoto; Abe, Jiro; Sakai, Haruyuki; Suzuki, Tsuneo.

    1996-01-01

    Nuclear fuel research laboratory of the Oarai Research Laboratory of the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute is an R and D facility to treat with plutonium and processes various and versatile type samples in chemical and physical form for use of various experimental researches even though on much small amount. Furthermore, wasted and plutonium samples are often transported to other KMP and MBA such as radioactive waste management facility, nuclear reactor facility and so forth. As this facility is a place to treat plutonium important on the safeguards, it is a facility necessary for detection and allowance actions and for detail managements on the metering management data to report to government and IAEA in each small amount sample and different configuration. In this paper, metering management of internationally regulated matters and metering management system using a work station newly produced in such small scale facility were introduced. (G.K.)

  19. A Randomized Response Model For Privacy Preserving Smart Metering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Lijuan; Que, Jialan; Choi, Dae-Hyun; Jiang, Xiaoqian; Cheng, Samuel; Xie, Le

    2012-01-01

    The adoption of smart meters may bring new privacy concerns to the general public. Given the fact that metering data of individual homes/factories is accumulated every 15 minutes, it is possible to infer the pattern of electricity consumption of individual users. In order to protect the privacy of users in a completely de-centralized setting (i.e., individuals do not communicate with one another), we propose a novel protocol, which allows individual meters to report the true electricity consumption reading with a pre-determinted probability. Load serving entities (LSE) can reconstruct the total electricity consumption of a region or a district through inference algorithm, but their ability of identifying individual users’ energy consumption pattern is significantly reduced. Using simulated data, we verify the feasibility of the proposed method and demonstrate performance advantages over existing approaches. PMID:23243488

  20. Advanced Metering Implementations - A Perspective from Federal Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eaarni, Shankar

    2014-08-11

    Federal mandate (EPACT 2005) requires that federal buildings install advanced electrical meters-meters capable of providing data at least daily and measuring the consumption of electricity at least hourly. This work presents selected advanced metering implementations to understand some of the existing practices related to data capture and to understand how the data is being translated into information and knowledge that can be used to improve building energy and operational performance to meet federal energy reduction mandates. This study highlights case studies to represent some of the various actions that are being taken based on the data that are being collected to improve overall energy performance of these buildings. Some of these actions include- individualized tenant billing and energy forecasting, benchmarking, identifying energy conservation measures, measurement and verification.

  1. Current meter observations near the Sellafield pipeline, 1984-1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, S.R.; Norris, S.

    1988-01-01

    Low-level liquid radioactive wastes are discharged into the north-east Irish Sea, under authorization, from the Sellafield reprocessing plant run by British Nuclear Fuels (BNFL). The effluent contains a range of radionuclides including caesium-137. The discharges are monitored and assessed by the Aquatic Environment Protection Division which is part of the Ministry of agriculture, Food and Fisheries. The results from the Sellafield current meter mooring in the Irish Sea from December 1983 to December 1986 are presented. The aim was to assess long-term tidal and residual current conditions under a variety of wind and current combinations as part of the assessment of the distribution of discharged radionuclides. The instrumentation is described briefly. Periods of data loss (due to meter failure or loss) and the data processing are explained. The results of the current metering are presented. (U.K.)

  2. Effect of Smart Meter Measurements Data On Distribution State Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pokhrel, Basanta Raj; Nainar, Karthikeyan; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2018-01-01

    Smart distribution grids with renewable energy based generators and demand response resources (DRR) requires accurate state estimators for real time control. Distribution grid state estimators are normally based on accumulated smart meter measurements. However, increase of measurements in the phy......Smart distribution grids with renewable energy based generators and demand response resources (DRR) requires accurate state estimators for real time control. Distribution grid state estimators are normally based on accumulated smart meter measurements. However, increase of measurements...... in the physical grid can enforce significant stress not only on the communication infrastructure but also in the control algorithms. This paper aims to propose a methodology to analyze needed real time smart meter data from low voltage distribution grids and their applicability in distribution state estimation...

  3. Privacy, technology, and norms: the case of Smart Meters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horne, Christine; Darras, Brice; Bean, Elyse; Srivastava, Anurag; Frickel, Scott

    2015-05-01

    Norms shift and emerge in response to technological innovation. One such innovation is Smart Meters - components of Smart Grid energy systems capable of minute-to-minute transmission of consumer electricity use information. We integrate theory from sociological research on social norms and privacy to examine how privacy threats affect the demand for and expectations of norms that emerge in response to new technologies, using Smart Meters as a test case. Results from three vignette experiments suggest that increased threats to privacy created by Smart Meters are likely to provoke strong demand for and expectations of norms opposing the technology and that the strength of these normative rules is at least partly conditional on the context. Privacy concerns vary little with actors' demographic characteristics. These findings contribute to theoretical understanding of norm emergence and have practical implications for implementing privacy protections that effectively address concerns of electricity users. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Evaluation of uncertainties in the calibration of radiation survey meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potiens, M.P.A.; Santos, G.P.

    2006-01-01

    In order to meet the requirements of ISO 17025, the quantification of the expanded uncertainties of experimental data in the calibration of survey meters must be carried out using well defined concepts, like those expressed in the 'ISO-Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement'. The calibration procedure of gamma ray survey meters involves two values that have to get their uncertainties clearly known: measurements of the instrument under calibration and the conventional true values of a quantity. Considering the continuous improvement of the calibration methods and set-ups, it is necessary to evaluate periodically the involved uncertainties in the procedures. In this work it is shown how the measurement uncertainties of an individual calibration can be estimated and how it can be generalized to be valid for others radiation survey meters. (authors)

  5. Optimal leaf positions for chlorophyll meter measurement in rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaofeng eYuan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The Soil Plant Analysis Development (SPAD chlorophyll meter is one of the most commonly used diagnostic tools to measure crop nitrogen status. However, the measurement method of the meter could significantly affect the accuracy of the final estimation. Thus, this research was undertaken to develop a new methodology to optimize SPAD meter measurements in rice (Oryza sativa L.. A flatbed color scanner was used to map the dynamic chlorophyll distribution and irregular leaf shapes. Calculus algorithm was adopted to estimate the potential positions for SPAD meter measurement along the leaf blade. Data generated by the flatbed color scanner and SPAD meter were analysed simultaneously. The results suggested that a position 2/3 of the distance from the leaf base to the apex (2/3 position could represent the chlorophyll content of the entire leaf blade, as indicated by the relatively low variance of measurements at that positon. SPAD values based on di-positional leaves and the extracted chlorophyll a and b contents were compared. This comparison showed that the 2/3 position on the lower leaves tended to be more sensitive to changes in chlorophyll content. Finally, the 2/3 position and average SPAD values of the fourth fully expanded leaf from the top were compared with leaf nitrogen concentration. The results showed the 2/3 position on that leaf was most suitable for predicting the nitrogen status of rice. Based on these results, we recommend making SPAD measurements at the 2/3 position on the fourth fully expanded leaf from the top. The coupling of dynamic chlorophyll distribution and irregular leaf shapes information can provide a promising approach for the calibration of SPAD meter measurement, which can further benefit the in situ nitrogen management by providing reliable estimation of crops nitrogen nutrition status.

  6. Conditions for industrial production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten Ingerslev; Schultz, Jørgen Munthe; Brauer, H.

    1996-01-01

    The possibility of an industrial aerogel glazing production is discussed with respect to sample size, sales volume and prices. Different ways of an industrial assembling line is outlined and the total costs of a 1 square meter aerogel glazing is calculated.......The possibility of an industrial aerogel glazing production is discussed with respect to sample size, sales volume and prices. Different ways of an industrial assembling line is outlined and the total costs of a 1 square meter aerogel glazing is calculated....

  7. Nine steps towards a better water meter management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arregui, F J; Soriano, J; Cabrera, E; Cobacho, R

    2012-01-01

    The paper provides a comprehensive perspective of the critical aspects to be taken into account when planning the long-term management of water meters in a utility. In order to facilitate their quick understanding and practical implementation, they have been structured into nine steps. Ranging from an initial audit up to the final periodic meter replacement planning, these steps cover three aspects of the problem - field work, laboratory work and management tasks; and each one is developed in detail paying attention to the particular data needed and noting the practical outcome it will yield.

  8. Evaluation of methods to calibrate radiation survey meters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, R.C.; Arbeau, N.D.

    1987-04-01

    Calibration requirements for radiation survey meters used in industrial radiography have been reviewed. Information obtained from a literature search, discussions with CSLD inspectors and firms performing calibrations has been considered. Based on this review a set of minimum calibration requirements was generated which, when met, will determine that the survey meter is suited for measurements described in the current AEC Regulations that apply to industrial radiography equipment. These requirements are presented in this report and may be used as guidelines for evaluating calibration methods proposed or in use in industry. 39 refs

  9. Application research of improved 235U enrichment meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Daming; Wu Xin; Lu Zhao; Tang Peijia; Lu Feng; Wang Yunmei

    1998-01-01

    A prototype 235 U enrichment meter based on NaI(Tl) γ spectroscopy is improved and it works under the principle of that the enrichment of 235 U is proportional to the radioactivity of 185 keV γ-ray when the sample is thick infinitely. The data of radioactivity from 235 U can be collected by a notebook computer and the interface control software is written using C++ language. The meter was tested and calibrated using standard fuel rods in fuel fabrication plant. For single fuel rod, the measured value of 235 U enrichment is agreeable with declared value within-1.0%-2.8%

  10. Setting a price for solar net-metering in California

    OpenAIRE

    Knezevic, Laura M

    2014-01-01

    Net-metering programs are an effective policy tool for promoting investment in solar photovoltaics, yet little attention has been paid to the rate at which excess energy generation is credited until recently. Like most States, California customers who participate in net-metering receive a credit for excess generation at the current retail rate for electricity. This buy-back rate does not take into account the value of solar energy to the utility or the costs to the customer of purchasing an...

  11. Thermal emissivity analysis of a GEMINI 8-meter telescopes design

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. Clair Dinger, Ann

    1993-01-01

    The GEMINI 8-meter Telescopes Project is designing twin 8-meter telescopes to be located in Hawaii and Chile. The GEMINI telescopes will have interchangeable secondary mirrors for use in the visible and IR. The APART/PADE program is being used to evaluate the effective IR emissivity of the IR configuration plus enclosure as a function of mirror contamination at three IR wavelengths. The goal is to design a telescope whose effective IR emissivity is no more than 2 percent when the mirrors are clean.

  12. Additional functions of remotely read kWh-meters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koponen, P [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland); Vehvilaeinen, S [Mittrix Oy (Finland); Rantanen, J [Helsinki Energy Board (Finland)

    1998-08-01

    In this chapter the possibilities to include new applications into remotely read smart kWh-meters are considered. New electronic meters can measure various electric quantities and have some extra calculating capacity. So they can be used to provide functions that distribution automation and the customer need and thus share the costs. Some applications like monitoring the state of the distribution network or locating faults are only for the utility, but many applications also need an interface to the customers or their automation systems. Among those are monitoring the quality of electricity, estimating load curves, applying dynamic tariffs and selling electricity and accounting. As a special item, the continuous monitoring of the quality of electricity is discussed. This includes voltage levels, total distortion, asymmetry and so on. If such a kWh-meter indicates quality problems it is possible to go there with a portable quality meter that is suitable for the case and inspect the situation. The poor quality can be detected before it causes harm to equipment owned by the customers or the power distribution company. This article also presents a prototype of such a quality monitoring kWh-meter. Dynamic tariffs and free electricity markets require two way communication with the utility and the customer and measurement of the time variations of the energy consumption. The customers or their energy management system must receive the energy prices from the utility and calculate the energy costs and decide upon the energy consumption control actions. Some alternative ways to meet these customer interface requirements are compared. Remote reading of kWh-meters requires a certain investment in meters and their data communication with the utility. Because smart meters can have some additional memory and calculating capacity and are capable of measuring various electric quantities, it is possible to share the costs with other applications that use the same hardware and data

  13. Determination for energy response and directionality of neutron survey meters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Changmao; Liu Jinhua; Xie Jianlun; Su Jingling

    1992-01-01

    The energy response and directionality of neutron survey meter type MK7 and 2202D are determined. The reactor thermal column beam, reactor filtered beams (6 eV, 24.4 keV and 144 keV), 226 Ra-Be, 241 Am-Be, 252 Cf and its moderated sources are used for the measurement. The results shows: the survey meters are influenced obviously by the direction; the response of middle-energy region is large, the energy response of 2202D is better than MK7

  14. Microfluidic diffusivity meter: a tool to optimize CO2 driven enhanced oil recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puneeth, S. B.; Kim, Young Ho; Goel, Sanket

    2017-02-01

    As the energy demands continue to swell with growing population and there persists a lack of unexploited oilfields, the prime focus of any nation would be to maximize the oil recovery factor from existing oil fields. CO2-Enhanced oil recovery is a process to improve the recovery of crude oil from an oil field and works at high pressure and in very deep conditions. CO2 and oil are miscible at high pressure, resulting in low viscosity and oil swells. This swelling can be measured based on mathematical calculations in real time and correlated with the CO2 concentration. This process has myriad advantages over its counterparts which include being able to harness oil trapped in reservoirs besides being cheaper and more efficient. A Diffusivity meter is inevitable in the measurement of the diffusion co-efficient of two samples. Diffusivity meters currently available in the market are weighed down by disadvantages like the requirement of large samples for testing, high cost and complexity. This elicits the need for a Microfluidic based diffusivity meter capable of analyzing Nano-liter sample volumes besides being more precise and affordable. The scope of this work involves the design and development of a Microfluidic robust and inexpensive prototype diffusivity meter using a capillary tube and endorsing its performance by comparison of results with known diffusivity range and supervision of the results with an electronic microscope coupled to PC and Data Acquisition System. The prototype produced at the end of the work is expected to outweigh disadvantages in existing products in terms of sample size, efficiency and time saving.

  15. Development of simple band-spectral pyranometer and quantum meter using photovoltaic cells and bandpass filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bilguun, Amarsaikhan, E-mail: bilguun@pes.ee.tut.ac.jp; Nakaso, Tetsushi; Harigai, Toru; Suda, Yoshiyuki; Takikawa, Hirofumi, E-mail: takikawa@ee.tut.ac.jp [Toyohashi University of Technology, 1-1 Habarigaoka, Tempaku, Toyohashi 441-8580 (Japan); Tanoue, Hideto [Kitakyushu National College of Technology, 5-20-1, Kokuraminami, Kitakyushu, Fukuoka 802-0985 (Japan)

    2016-02-01

    In recent years, greenhouse automatic-control, based on the measurement of solar irradiance, has been attracting attention. This control is an effective method for improving crop production. In the agricultural field, it is necessary to measure Photon Flux Density (PFD), which is an important parameter in the promotion of plant growth. In particular, the PFD of Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR, 400-700 nm) and Plant Biologically Active Radiation (PBAR, 300-800 nm) have been discussed in agricultural plant science. The commercial quantum meter (QM, PAR meter) can only measure Photosynthetically Photon Flux Density (PPFD) which is the integrated PFD quantity on the PAR wavelength. In this research, a band-spectral pyranometer or quantum meter using PVs with optical bandpass filters for dividing the PBAR wavelength into 100 nm bands (five independent channels) was developed. Before field testing, calibration of the instruments was carried out using a solar simulator. Next, a field test was conducted in three differing weather conditions such as clear, partly cloudy and cloudy skies. As a result, it was found that the response rate of the developed pyranometer was faster by four seconds compared with the response rate of the commercial pyranometer. Moreover, the outputs of each channel in the developed pyranometer were very similar to the integrated outputs of the commercial spectroradiometer. It was confirmed that the solar irradiance could be measured in each band separately using the developed band-spectral pyranometer. It was indicated that the developed band-spectral pyranometer could also be used as a PV band-spectral quantum meter which is obtained by converting the band irradiance into band PFD.

  16. Development of simple band-spectral pyranometer and quantum meter using photovoltaic cells and bandpass filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilguun, Amarsaikhan; Nakaso, Tetsushi; Harigai, Toru; Suda, Yoshiyuki; Takikawa, Hirofumi; Tanoue, Hideto

    2016-02-01

    In recent years, greenhouse automatic-control, based on the measurement of solar irradiance, has been attracting attention. This control is an effective method for improving crop production. In the agricultural field, it is necessary to measure Photon Flux Density (PFD), which is an important parameter in the promotion of plant growth. In particular, the PFD of Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR, 400-700 nm) and Plant Biologically Active Radiation (PBAR, 300-800 nm) have been discussed in agricultural plant science. The commercial quantum meter (QM, PAR meter) can only measure Photosynthetically Photon Flux Density (PPFD) which is the integrated PFD quantity on the PAR wavelength. In this research, a band-spectral pyranometer or quantum meter using PVs with optical bandpass filters for dividing the PBAR wavelength into 100 nm bands (five independent channels) was developed. Before field testing, calibration of the instruments was carried out using a solar simulator. Next, a field test was conducted in three differing weather conditions such as clear, partly cloudy and cloudy skies. As a result, it was found that the response rate of the developed pyranometer was faster by four seconds compared with the response rate of the commercial pyranometer. Moreover, the outputs of each channel in the developed pyranometer were very similar to the integrated outputs of the commercial spectroradiometer. It was confirmed that the solar irradiance could be measured in each band separately using the developed band-spectral pyranometer. It was indicated that the developed band-spectral pyranometer could also be used as a PV band-spectral quantum meter which is obtained by converting the band irradiance into band PFD.

  17. Development of simple band-spectral pyranometer and quantum meter using photovoltaic cells and bandpass filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilguun, Amarsaikhan; Nakaso, Tetsushi; Harigai, Toru; Suda, Yoshiyuki; Takikawa, Hirofumi; Tanoue, Hideto

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, greenhouse automatic-control, based on the measurement of solar irradiance, has been attracting attention. This control is an effective method for improving crop production. In the agricultural field, it is necessary to measure Photon Flux Density (PFD), which is an important parameter in the promotion of plant growth. In particular, the PFD of Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR, 400-700 nm) and Plant Biologically Active Radiation (PBAR, 300-800 nm) have been discussed in agricultural plant science. The commercial quantum meter (QM, PAR meter) can only measure Photosynthetically Photon Flux Density (PPFD) which is the integrated PFD quantity on the PAR wavelength. In this research, a band-spectral pyranometer or quantum meter using PVs with optical bandpass filters for dividing the PBAR wavelength into 100 nm bands (five independent channels) was developed. Before field testing, calibration of the instruments was carried out using a solar simulator. Next, a field test was conducted in three differing weather conditions such as clear, partly cloudy and cloudy skies. As a result, it was found that the response rate of the developed pyranometer was faster by four seconds compared with the response rate of the commercial pyranometer. Moreover, the outputs of each channel in the developed pyranometer were very similar to the integrated outputs of the commercial spectroradiometer. It was confirmed that the solar irradiance could be measured in each band separately using the developed band-spectral pyranometer. It was indicated that the developed band-spectral pyranometer could also be used as a PV band-spectral quantum meter which is obtained by converting the band irradiance into band PFD

  18. Current meter and temperature profile data from moored current meter casts in the TOGA area - Atlantic Ocean from 10 September 1970 - 27 October 1980 (NODC Accession 8600320)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter and temperature profile data were collected using moored current meter - PCM casts in the TOGA area - Atlantic Ocean from September 10, 1970 to October...

  19. Comparative Analysis of Smart Meters Deployment Business Models on the Example of the Russian Federation Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daminov, Ildar; Tarasova, Ekaterina; Andreeva, Tatyana; Avazov, Artur

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents the comparison of smart meter deployment business models to determine the most suitable option providing smart meters deployment. Authors consider 3 main business model of companies: distribution grid company, energy supplier (energosbyt) and metering company. The goal of the article is to compare the business models of power companies from massive smart metering roll out in power system of Russian Federation.

  20. Apparent losses due to domestic water meter under-registration in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    By combining these results with the average age of meters in South Africa, estimated from the National Water Demand Archive, it was possible to estimate the average meter under-registration due to meter aging. The study concluded that apparent losses due to water meter under-registration are around 5% of consumption ...

  1. Effects of the leakage magnetic field from an analog meter on the response of scintillation survey meters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Toshiaki; Yamamoto, Hisao; Norimura, Toshiyuki; Katase, Akira

    2003-01-01

    Effects of the weak leakage magnetic field are studied on the response of two kinds of scintillation survey meters: an ordinary type for γ-rays and that optimized for the detection of low-energy photons from 125 I. In the presence of the magnetic field, the response of the optimized survey meter decreases to the photons from 125 I, and increases considerably to the background radiations. On the other hand, the response of the ordinary survey meter decreases slightly to both the γ-rays from 131 I and the background radiations. From analysis of the pulse-height spectra for the radiations, such variations of the response are ascribed to the reduction of the amplification factor of photomultiplier tubes by the magnetic field. (author)

  2. Look at the Beat, Feel the Meter: Top-Down Effects of Meter Induction on Auditory and Visual Modalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celma-Miralles, Alexandre; de Menezes, Robert F; Toro, Juan M

    2016-01-01

    Recent research has demonstrated top-down effects on meter induction in the auditory modality. However, little is known about these effects in the visual domain, especially without the involvement of motor acts such as tapping. In the present study, we aim to assess whether the projection of meter on auditory beats is also present in the visual domain. We asked 16 musicians to internally project binary (i.e., a strong-weak pattern) and ternary (i.e., a strong-weak-weak pattern) meter onto separate, but analog, visual and auditory isochronous stimuli. Participants were presented with sequences of tones or blinking circular shapes (i.e., flashes) at 2.4 Hz while their electrophysiological responses were recorded. A frequency analysis of the elicited steady-state evoked potentials allowed us to compare the frequencies of the beat (2.4 Hz), its first harmonic (4.8 Hz), the binary subharmonic (1.2 Hz), and the ternary subharmonic (0.8 Hz) within and across modalities. Taking the amplitude spectra into account, we observed an enhancement of the amplitude at 0.8 Hz in the ternary condition for both modalities, suggesting meter induction across modalities. There was an interaction between modality and voltage at 2.4 and 4.8 Hz. Looking at the power spectra, we also observed significant differences from zero in the auditory, but not in the visual, binary condition at 1.2 Hz. These findings suggest that meter processing is modulated by top-down mechanisms that interact with our perception of rhythmic events and that such modulation can also be found in the visual domain. The reported cross-modal effects of meter may shed light on the origins of our timing mechanisms, partially developed in primates and allowing humans to synchronize across modalities accurately.

  3. Look at the Beat, Feel the Meter: Top–Down Effects of Meter Induction on Auditory and Visual Modalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celma-Miralles, Alexandre; de Menezes, Robert F.; Toro, Juan M.

    2016-01-01

    Recent research has demonstrated top–down effects on meter induction in the auditory modality. However, little is known about these effects in the visual domain, especially without the involvement of motor acts such as tapping. In the present study, we aim to assess whether the projection of meter on auditory beats is also present in the visual domain. We asked 16 musicians to internally project binary (i.e., a strong-weak pattern) and ternary (i.e., a strong-weak-weak pattern) meter onto separate, but analog, visual and auditory isochronous stimuli. Participants were presented with sequences of tones or blinking circular shapes (i.e., flashes) at 2.4 Hz while their electrophysiological responses were recorded. A frequency analysis of the elicited steady-state evoked potentials allowed us to compare the frequencies of the beat (2.4 Hz), its first harmonic (4.8 Hz), the binary subharmonic (1.2 Hz), and the ternary subharmonic (0.8 Hz) within and across modalities. Taking the amplitude spectra into account, we observed an enhancement of the amplitude at 0.8 Hz in the ternary condition for both modalities, suggesting meter induction across modalities. There was an interaction between modality and voltage at 2.4 and 4.8 Hz. Looking at the power spectra, we also observed significant differences from zero in the auditory, but not in the visual, binary condition at 1.2 Hz. These findings suggest that meter processing is modulated by top–down mechanisms that interact with our perception of rhythmic events and that such modulation can also be found in the visual domain. The reported cross-modal effects of meter may shed light on the origins of our timing mechanisms, partially developed in primates and allowing humans to synchronize across modalities accurately. PMID:27047358

  4. Look at the Beat, Feel the Meter:Top-down Effects of Meter Induction on Auditory and Visual Modalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre eCelma-Miralles

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent research has demonstrated top-down effects on meter induction in the auditory modality. However, little is known about these effects in the visual domain, especially without the involvement of motor acts such as tapping. In the present study, we aim to assess whether the projection of meter on auditory beats is also present in the visual domain. We asked sixteen musicians to internally project binary (i.e. a strong-weak pattern and ternary (i.e. a strong-weak-weak pattern meter onto separate, but analogue, visual and auditory isochronous stimuli. Participants were presented with sequences of tones or blinking circular shapes (i.e. flashes at 2.4 Hz while their electrophysiological responses were recorded. A frequency analysis of the elicited steady-state evoked potentials allowed us to compare the frequencies of the beat (2.4 Hz, its first harmonic (4.8 Hz, the binary subharmonic (1.2 Hz, and ternary subharmonic (0.8 Hz within and across modalities. Taking the amplitude spectra into account, we observed an enhancement of the amplitude at 0.8 Hz in the ternary condition for both modalities, suggesting meter induction across modalities. There was an interaction between modality and voltage at 2.4 and 4.8 Hz. Looking at the power spectra, we also observed significant differences from zero in the auditory, but not in the visual, binary condition at 1.2 Hz. These findings suggest that meter processing is modulated by top-down mechanisms that interact with our perception of rhythmic events and that such modulation can also be found in the visual domain. The reported cross-modal effects of meter may shed light on the origins of our timing mechanisms, partially developed in primates and allowing humans to synchronize across modalities accurately.

  5. Mobile metering. Efficient charging infrastructure. Charging stations in the public, semi-public and private room; Mobile Metering. Effiziente Ladeinfrastruktur. Ladepunkte im oeffentlichen, halboeffentlichen und privaten Raum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoerhammer, Marcus; Zayer, Peter [Voltaris GmbH, Merzig (Germany); Hechtfischer, Knut; Pawlitschek, Frank [Ubitricity Gesellschaft fuer Verteilte Energiesysteme mbH, Berlin (Germany)

    2013-01-28

    Mobile metering shifts the power metering and data communication from the stationary charging stationary into the charger cable or into the vehicle - and thus creates a mobile metering point. Thus, the charging stations are reduced to technically simple system sockets. These system sockets do not cause current expenses and make the charging infrastructure affordable and economically viable.

  6. Case study in Venezuela : performance of multiphase meter in extra heavy oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marin, A. [Petroleos de Venezuela SA, Caracas (Venezuela); Bornia, O.; Pinguet, B. [Schlumberger Canada Ltd., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2008-10-15

    The performance of a multiphase meter that combines Venturi and multi energy gamma rays was investigated during operation in an extra heavy oil field in Venezuela. The Orocual field in Monagas is one of the most diverse oilfields in Venezuela. It produces gas condensate, light and medium oil and has recently started to produce from a heavy and extra-heavy oil reservoir, with a gravity between 8.6 and 11 API and a viscosity range from 6 Pa.s to more than 20 Pa.s at line conditions. Petroleos de Venezuela SA (PDVSA) is currently using cold production systems in this field. PDVSA attempted to estimate the liquid flow rate using conventional storage tanks but was unable to evaluate the gas production in such an environment of low GOR with emulsion, large amounts of foam and high viscosity. Since the density of heavy oil is close to the density of water, gravity separation cannot be applied. Also, since heavy oil is very viscous, proper separation requires a long retention time, which is not feasible in terms of space or economy. In addition, gas bubbles could not flow freely and remained as a gas phase trapped inside the liquid, resulting in an overestimation of some of the liquid flow rate. In order to measure the field's oil, water and gas flow rates, PDVSA tried several multiphase meters but found that a Venturi and multi energy gamma ray combination was the only solution able to accurately measure multiphase flow in its extra heavy oil. A test demonstrated that, compared to a tank system, the overall uncertainty of the Venturi combination was better than 2 per cent. This extended the operating envelope for PDVSA for using this multiphase metering technology, providing the capability to monitor and optimize in real-time the production in this extra heavy oil field. 15 refs., 10 figs.

  7. Accuracy of Handheld Blood Glucose Meters at High Altitude

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Mol, Pieter; Krabbe, Hans G.; de Vries, Suzanna T.; Fokkert, Marion J.; Dikkeschei, Bert D.; Rienks, Rienk; Bilo, Karin M.; Bilo, Henk J. G.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Due to increasing numbers of people with diabetes taking part in extreme sports (e. g., high-altitude trekking), reliable handheld blood glucose meters (BGMs) are necessary. Accurate blood glucose measurement under extreme conditions is paramount for safe recreation at altitude. Prior

  8. Optimal water meter selection system | Johnson | Water SA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Economic/financial analysis based on an income statement together with capital budgeting techniques assist with the determination of the financial suitability of investing in a new replacement water meter. This financial analysis includes various potential income and expenditure components that will result from the ...

  9. Performance evaluation of cognitive radio in advanced metering infrastructure communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiew, Yik-Kuan; Mohd Aripin, Norazizah; Din, Norashidah Md

    2016-03-01

    Smart grid is an intelligent electricity grid system. A reliable two-way communication system is required to transmit both critical and non-critical smart grid data. However, it is difficult to locate a huge chunk of dedicated spectrum for smart grid communications. Hence, cognitive radio based communication is applied. Cognitive radio allows smart grid users to access licensed spectrums opportunistically with the constraint of not causing harmful interference to licensed users. In this paper, a cognitive radio based smart grid communication framework is proposed. Smart grid framework consists of Home Area Network (HAN) and Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI), while AMI is made up of Neighborhood Area Network (NAN) and Wide Area Network (WAN). In this paper, the authors only report the findings for AMI communication. AMI is smart grid domain that comprises smart meters, data aggregator unit, and billing center. Meter data are collected by smart meters and transmitted to data aggregator unit by using cognitive 802.11 technique; data aggregator unit then relays the data to billing center using cognitive WiMAX and TV white space. The performance of cognitive radio in AMI communication is investigated using Network Simulator 2. Simulation results show that cognitive radio improves the latency and throughput performances of AMI. Besides, cognitive radio also improves spectrum utilization efficiency of WiMAX band from 5.92% to 9.24% and duty cycle of TV band from 6.6% to 10.77%.

  10. How to Make the 20-cent Fallout Meter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meade, Roger Allen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Rodriguez, Serena R. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Alvarez, Luis [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-05-17

    Nobel Prize winner Luis Alvarez published an article on how to build a homemade fallout meter in the November 12, 1961, issue of the Sunday supplement This Week Magazine. A yellowed copy of the article was recently found in the files of the Radiochemistry Group, C-NR, and is reproduced below in its original form.

  11. Data system for multiplexed water-current meters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, C. R.

    1977-01-01

    Flow rates at 32 flood plain locations are measured simultaneously by single digital logic unit with high noise immunity. Water flowing through pygmy current meters rotates element that closes electrical contact once every resolution, so flow rate is measured by counting number of closures in time interval.

  12. Development and evaluation of an ultrasonic ground water seepage meter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulsen, R J; Smith, C F; O'Rourke, D; Wong, T F

    2001-01-01

    Submarine ground water discharge can influence significantly the near-shore transport and flux of chemicals into the oceans. Quantification of the sources and rates of such discharge requires a ground water seepage meter that provides continuous measurements at high resolution over an extended period of time. An ultrasonic flowmeter has been adapted for such measurements in the submarine environment. Connected to a steel collection funnel, the meter houses two piezoelectric transducers mounted at opposite ends of a cylindrical flow tube. By monitoring the perturbations of fluid flow on the propagation of sound waves inside the flow tube, the ultrasonic meter can measure both forward and reverse fluid flows in real time. Laboratory and field calibrations show that the ultrasonic meter can resolve ground water discharges on the order of 0.1 microm/sec, and it is sufficiently robust for deployment in the field for several days. Data from West Neck Bay, Shelter Island, New York, elucidate the temporal and spatial heterogeneity of submarine ground water discharge and its interplay with tidal loading. A negative correlation between the discharge and tidal elevation was generally observed. A methodology was also developed whereby data for the sound velocity as a function of temperature can be used to infer the salinity and source of the submarine discharge. Independent measurements of electrical conductance were performed to validate this methodology.

  13. Ipratropium bromide delivered by metered-dose aerosol to infant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1990-08-21

    Aug 21, 1990 ... Two methods of administration of ipratropium bromide. (Atrovent; Boehringer Ingelheim) to wheezing children'< 25 months of age were compared: (I) the conventional nebulisa- tion (15 children); and (iI) a metered-dose aerosol plus spacer and mask (MDA group, 17 children). The drug induced a significant ...

  14. Ipratropium bromide delivered by metered-dose aerosol to infant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two methods of administration of ipratropium bromide (Atrovent; Boehringer Ingelheim) to wheezing children'< 25 months of age were compared: (i) the conventional nebulisation (15 children); and (ii) a metered-dose aerosol plus spacer and mask (MDA group, 17 children). The drug induced a significant and similar fall in ...

  15. Instrument evaluation no.14: Wallac laboratory contamination meter RD 11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgess, P.H.; Iles, W.J.

    1979-01-01

    An instrument for measuring low level contamination and consisting of a detachable Geiger-Muller tube probe, connected to a rate meter by a coiled extensible tube is described. Facilities and controls, performance, electrical, environmental and mechanical characteristics are included. (UK)

  16. A 4 Tesla/1 meter superferric MRI magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, W.M.; Huson, F.R.; Mackay, W.W.; Rocha, R.M.

    1991-01-01

    Superferric technology was first applied to Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) magnets by the Texas Accelerator Center (TAC) in 1986 with the design and construction of a 4 Tesla/30 cm magnet. In an evolutionary step, this technology is now being applied to the development of a whole body 4 Tesla/1 meter superconducting magnet. The design of such a magnetis presented in this paper

  17. Investigating water meter performance in developing countries: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-10-07

    Oct 7, 2011 ... ing world water utility in Kampala city, Uganda. The influence .... network and make up about 76% of all the small meters of size. 15 mm ..... Medium (ℓ/h) ..... ARREGUI F, CABRERA Jr. E and COBACHO R (2006b) Integrated.

  18. 40 CFR 1065.225 - Intake-air flow meter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... as described in § 1065.650, as follows: (1) Use the actual value of calculated raw exhaust in the..., you may use an intake-air flow meter signal that does not give the actual value of raw exhaust, as... CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Measurement Instruments Flow-Related Measurements § 1065.225 Intake-air...

  19. 40 CFR 1065.220 - Fuel flow meter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... follows: (1) Use the actual value of calculated raw exhaust flow rate in the following cases: (i) For... ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Measurement Instruments Flow-Related Measurements § 1065.220 Fuel flow meter. (a) Application. You may use fuel flow in combination with a chemical balance of carbon (or oxygen...

  20. Five training sessions improves 3000 meter running performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riiser, A; Ripe, S; Aadland, E

    2015-12-01

    The primary aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of two weeks of endurance training on 3000-meter running performance. Secondary we wanted to assess the relationship between baseline running performance and change in running performance over the intervention period. We assigned 36 military recruits to a training group (N.=28) and a control group. The training group was randomly allocated to one of three sub-groups: 1) a 3000 meter group (test race); 2) a 4x4-minutes high-intensity interval group; 3) a continuous training group. The training group exercised five times over a two-week period. The training group improved its 3000 meter running performance with 50 seconds (6%) compared to the control group (P=0.003). Moreover, all sub-groups improved their performance by 37 to 73 seconds (4-8%) compared to the control group (Ptraining group. We conclude that five endurance training sessions improved 3000 meter running performance and the slowest runners achieved the greatest improvement in running performance.

  1. Vibration isolation for Coriolis Mass-Flow meters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Ridder, Bert

    2015-01-01

    A Coriolis Mass-Flow Meter (CMFM) is an active device based on the Coriolis force principle for direct mass-flow measurements, with high accuracy, range-ability and repeatability. The working principle of a CMFM is as follows: a fluid conveying tube is actuated to oscillate at a low amplitude. A

  2. Meter Detection in Symbolic Music Using Inner Metric Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haas, W.B.; Volk, A.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present PRIMA: a new model tailored to symbolic music that detects the meter and the first downbeat position of a piece. Given onset data, the metrical structure of a piece is interpreted using the Inner Metric Analysis (IMA) model. IMA identifies the strong and weak metrical

  3. A Surface Relief Meter Based on Trinocular Vision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ernst, V.G.S.; Sablik, P.W.; Balendonck, J.; Houkes, Z.; Regtien, Paulus P.L.

    1995-01-01

    The concept for the relief meter being developed, appears to function well, when used with the artificial images. The described matching criterion leads to high matching percentages, and accurate results. The percentage of mismatches is reduced to practically zero for the tested scenes. Future work

  4. Density meters utilizing ionizing radiation: definitions and test methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    This standard is applicable to density meters utilizing ionizing radiation, designed for the measurement of the density of liquids, slurries or fluidized solids. The standard applies to transmission-type instruments only. Reference to compliance with this standard shall identify any deviations and the reasons for such deviations. Safety aspects are not included but should fulfill the requirements of all relevant internationally accepted standards

  5. Wet gas flow modeling for a vertically mounted Venturi meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Lijun; Zhou, Wanlu; Li, Xiaomin

    2012-01-01

    Venturi meters are playing an increasingly important role in wet gas metering in natural gas and oil industries. Due to the effect of liquid in a wet gas, the differential pressure over the converging section of a Venturi meter is higher than that when a pure gas flows through with the same flow rate. This phenomenon is referred to as over-reading. Thus, a correction for the over-reading is required. Most of the existing wet gas models are more suitable for higher pressure (>2 MPa) than lower pressure ( 0.5) than lower quality (<0.5) in recent years. However, conditions of lower pressure and lower quality also widely exist in the gas and oil industries. By comparing the performances of eight existing wet gas models in low-pressure range of 0.26–0.86 MPa and low-quality range of 0.07–0.36 with a vertically mounted Venturi meter of diameter ratio 0.45, de Leeuw's model was proven to perform best. Derived from de Leeuw's model, a modified model with better performance for the low-pressure and low-quality ranges was obtained. Experimental data showed that the root mean square of the relative errors of the over-reading was 2.30%. (paper)

  6. Chlorophyll meter reading and total nitrogen content applied as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was aimed to assess the relationship between the reading of the chlorophyll meter and the total nitrogen (N) content in the leaf in different parts of the crambe plant, depending on the doses of nitrogen applied to the canopy. Randomized block design in a split plot experimental design was used. The plots ...

  7. A Status Report on the Thirty Meter Telescope Adaptive Optics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... We provide an update on the recent development of the adaptive optics (AO) systems for the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) since mid-2011. The first light AO facility for TMT consists of the Narrow Field Infra-Red AO System (NFIRAOS) and the associated Laser Guide Star Facility (LGSF). This order 60 × 60 ...

  8. Comparison of Dextrostix/Reflectance Meter and Auto-Analyser ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was undertaken to assess the accuracy of a new. Dextrostix/Reflectance Meter system for rapid blood glu- cose determinations over a wide range of values, in 390 consecutive patients attending a busy diabetic clinic. In each case a simultaneous comparison with the ferricyanide reduction method on the ...

  9. VLBI observations with the Kunming 40-meter radio telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao Longfei; Wang Min; Yang Jun

    2010-01-01

    The Kunming 40-meter radio telescope is situated in the yard of the Yunnan Astronomical Observatory (Longitude: 102.8 0 East, Latitude: 25.0 0 North) and saw its first light in 2006 May. The Kunming station successfully joined the VLBI tracking of China's first lunar probe 'Chang'E-1 together with the other Chinese telescopes: the Beijing Miyun 50-meter radio telescope, Urumqi Nanshan 25-meter radio telescope, and Shanghai Sheshan 25-meter radio telescope, and received the downlinked scientific data together with the Miyun station from October of 2007 to March of 2009. We give an introduction to the new Chinese VLBI facility and investigate its potential applications. Due to its location, the Kunming station can significantly improve the u - v coverage of the European VLBI Network (EVN), in particular, in long baseline observations. We also report the results of the first EVN fringe-test experiment of N09SX1 with the Kunming station. The first fringes in the European telescopes were successfully detected at 2.3 GHz with the ftp-transferred data on 2009 June 17. From scheduling the observations to performing the post correlations, the Kunming station shows its good compatibility to work with the EVN. The imaging result of the extended source 1156+295 further demonstrates that the Kunming station greatly enhances the EVN performance. (research papers)

  10. Index of Refraction Measurements Using a Laser Distance Meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa, Romulo; Fiorillo, Richard; Ochoa, Cris

    2014-01-01

    We present a simple method to determine the refractive indices of transparent media using a laser distance meter. Indices of refraction have been obtained by measuring the speed of light in materials. Some speed of light techniques use time-of-flight measurements in which pulses are emitted by lasers and the time interval is measured for the pulse…

  11. Comparison of magnetic field meters used for Elf exposure measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magne, I.; Azoulay, A.; Lambrozo, J.; Souques, M.

    2006-01-01

    Objective The question of the biological effects of E.L.F. electromagnetic fields (50/60 Hz) has lead to many experimental and epidemiological works, in occupational exposure and in residential exposure. One of the main difficulties is to integrate the maximum of information about the environmental exposures during the everyday life without limitation to the exposure of the home. The objective of this study is to analyse experimentally the metrology associated with human exposure to 50 Hz magnetic field, in the optic of a study of the French population exposure. Method 4 meters were tested: the E.M.D.E.X. II, currently used in epidemiological studies, the E.M.D.E.X. L.I.T.E., which is more recent, the H.T.300, an Italian meter, and the F.D.3, which is made by Combinova A calibration was performed with an Helmoltz coil. The immunity of these meters to GSM signal was also tested. The influence of the sample rate was evaluated. Results and conclusion The meter chosen for performing the measurements of the exposure study will be selected in function of the following criteria: - easiness of use - precision - low sample rate - memory size and reliability of data stocking - immunity to GSM perturbations. (authors)

  12. INFLUENCE OF FUNCTIONAL ABILITY IN RUNNING 400 AND 800 METERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulla Elezi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Goal of the research was to assess on the grounds of data collected that were used to assess the functional ability of the cardio-respiratory system and the results of running to determine the relation of these sum of variables. Basic statistical indicators of the physiological variables and results of running were calculated. For determining the relation, the regression analysis was used in the manifested space. Criterion variable (running for 100 meters did not demonstrate statistically significant coefficient of multiple variation with predictor variables. The time span in running 400 meters is short in order to engage mechanisms that supply and transform the energy for oxidative processes. Criterion variable (of running 800 meters has demonstrated statistically significant coefficient of multiple correlations with predictor variable and its value was 0.377 tested through F-test. This is understandable given that the time effect of engagement of systems responsible for transfer and transformation of energy compared to time needed for running 400 meters.

  13. Implementation of a reactivity meter for the RA-6 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herzovich, P.F.

    1991-06-01

    An 'on line' and 'off line' digital reactivity meter was developed and implemented for the RA-6 research reactor. Safety and control rod calibration will be permitted by means of this system with the same precision and faster than the period method, becoming a helpful tool to the operator in critical approach and in experimental design. (Author) [es

  14. Completely contained and remotely operated digital density meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goergen, C.R.

    1979-10-01

    A completely contained and remotely operated density determination system having unique features was designed, fabricated, and installed at the Savannah River Plant. The system, based on a Mettler calculating digital density meter, provides more precise and accurate results than the falling drop technique for measuring densities. The system is fast, simple, easy to operate, and has demonstrated both reliability and durability

  15. Effect of Smart Meter Measurements Data On Distribution State Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pokhrel, Basanta Raj; Nainar, Karthikeyan; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2018-01-01

    in the physical grid can enforce significant stress not only on the communication infrastructure but also in the control algorithms. This paper aims to propose a methodology to analyze needed real time smart meter data from low voltage distribution grids and their applicability in distribution state estimation...

  16. Exploring the energy benefits of advanced water metering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, Michael A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hans, Liesel [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Piscopo, Kate [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Sohn, Michael D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Recent improvements to advanced water metering and communications technologies have the potential to improve the management of water resources and utility infrastructure, benefiting both utilities and ratepayers. The highly granular, near-real-time data and opportunity for automated control provided by these advanced systems may yield operational benefits similar to those afforded by similar technologies in the energy sector. While significant progress has been made in quantifying the water-related benefits of these technologies, the research on quantifying the energy benefits of improved water metering is underdeveloped. Some studies have quantified the embedded energy in water in California, however these findings are based on data more than a decade old, and unanimously assert that more research is needed to further explore how topography, climate, water source, and other factors impact their findings. In this report, we show how water-related advanced metering systems may present a broader and more significant set of energy-related benefits. We review the open literature of water-related advanced metering technologies and their applications, discuss common themes with a series of water and energy experts, and perform a preliminary scoping analysis of advanced water metering deployment and use in California. We find that the open literature provides very little discussion of the energy savings potential of advanced water metering, despite the substantial energy necessary for water’s extraction, conveyance, treatment, distribution, and eventual end use. We also find that water AMI has the potential to provide water-energy co-efficiencies through improved water systems management, with benefits including improved customer education, automated leak detection, water measurement and verification, optimized system operation, and inherent water and energy conservation. Our findings also suggest that the adoption of these technologies in the water sector has been slow

  17. A risk analysis approach applied to field surveillance in utility meters in legal metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues Filho, B. A.; Nonato, N. S.; Carvalho, A. D.

    2018-03-01

    Field surveillance represents the level of control in metrological supervision responsible for checking the conformity of measuring instruments in-service. Utility meters represent the majority of measuring instruments produced by notified bodies due to self-verification in Brazil. They play a major role in the economy once electricity, gas and water are the main inputs to industries in their production processes. Then, to optimize the resources allocated to control these devices, the present study applied a risk analysis in order to identify among the 11 manufacturers notified to self-verification, the instruments that demand field surveillance.

  18. Calibration and verification of surface contamination meters --- Procedures and techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuler, C; Butterweck, G.; Wernli, C.; Bochud, F.; Valley, J.-F.

    2007-03-01

    A standardised measurement procedure for surface contamination meters (SCM) is presented. The procedure aims at rendering surface contamination measurements to be simply and safely interpretable. Essential for the approach is the introduction and common use of the radionuclide specific quantity 'guideline value' specified in the Swiss Radiation Protection Ordinance as unit for the measurement of surface activity. The according radionuclide specific 'guideline value count rate' can be summarized as verification reference value for a group of radionuclides ('basis guideline value count rate'). The concept can be generalized for SCM of the same type or for SCM of different types using he same principle of detection. A SCM multi source calibration technique is applied for the determination of the instrument efficiency. Four different electron radiation energy regions, four different photon radiation energy regions and an alpha radiation energy region are represented by a set of calibration sources built according to ISO standard 8769-2. A guideline value count rate representing the activity per unit area of a surface contamination of one guideline value can be calculated for any radionuclide using instrument efficiency, radionuclide decay data, contamination source efficiency, guideline value averaging area (100 cm 2 ), and radionuclide specific guideline value. n this way, instrument responses for the evaluation of surface contaminations are obtained for radionuclides without available calibration sources as well as for short-Iived radionuclides, for which the continuous replacement of certified calibration sources can lead to unreasonable costs. SCM verification is based on surface emission rates of reference sources with an active area of 100 cm 2 . The verification for a given list of radionuclides is based on the radionuclide specific quantity guideline value count rate. Guideline value count rates for groups of radionuclides can be represented within the maximum

  19. The NASA Meter Class Autonomous Telescope: Ascension Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederer, S. M.; Stansbery, E. G.; Cowardin, H. M.; Hickson, P.; Pace, L. F.; Abercromby, K. J.; Kervin, P. W.

    2013-01-01

    The Meter Class Autonomous Telescope (MCAT) is the newest optical sensor dedicated to NASA's mission to characterize the space debris environment. It is the successor to a series of optical telescopes developed and operated by the JSC Orbital Debris Program Office (ODPO) to monitor and assess the debris environment in (1) Low Earth Orbit (LEO), (2) Medium Earth Orbit (MEO), and (3) Geosynchronous Orbit (GEO), with emphasis on LEO and GEO altitudes. A joint NASA - Air Force Research Labs project, MCAT is a 1.3m optical telescope dedicated to debris research. Its optical path and sensor yield a large survey fence at the cutting edge of current detector performance. It has four primary operational observing modes, two of which were not computationally feasible a decade ago. Operations are supported by a sophisticated software suite that monitors clouds and weather conditions, and controls everything from data collection to dome rotation to processing tens of gigabytes of image data nightly. With fainter detection limits, precision detection, acquisition and tracking of targets, multi-color photometry, precision astrometry, automated re-acquisition capability, and the ability to process all data at the acquisition rate, MCAT is capable of producing and processing a volume and quality of data far in excess of any current (or prior) ODPO operations. This means higher fidelity population inputs and eliminating the multi-year backlog from acquisition-to-product typical of optical campaigns. All of this is possible given a suitable observing location. Ascension Island offers numerous advantages. As a British overseas territory with a US Air Force base presence, the necessary infrastructure and support already exists. It is located mid-way between Brazil and Africa at 7.93S latitude and 14.37 W longitude. With the Ground-based Electro-Optical Deep Space Surveillance (GEODSS) asset in Moron, Spain shutting down, this presents access to the sky from a unique latitude

  20. Numerical Evaluation of Averaging BDFT(bidirectional flow tube) Flow Meter on Applicability in the Fouling Condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J. P.; Jeong, J. H.; Yuna, B. J.; Jerng, D. W.

    2013-01-01

    The results show that the averaging BDFT is a promising flow meter for the accurate measurement of flow rates in the fouling condition of the NPPs. A new instrumentation, an averaging BDFT, was proposed to measure the accurate flow rate under corrosion environment. In this study, to validate the applicability of the averaging BDFT on the fouling conditions, flow analyses using the CFD code were performed. Analyses results show that this averaging BDFT does not lose the measuring performance even under the corrosion environment. Therefore, it is expected that the averaging BDFT can replace the type flow meters for the feedwater pipe of steam generator of NPPs. Most of the NPPs adopt pressure difference type flow meters such as venturi and orifice meters for the measurement of feedwater flow rates to calculate reactor thermal power. However, corrosion products in the feedwater deposits on the flow meter as operating time goes. These effects lead to severe errors in the flow indication and then determination of reactor thermal power. The averaging BDFT has a potentiality to minimize this problem. Therefore, it is expected that the averaging BDFT can replace the type venturi meters for the feedwater pipe of steam generator of NPPs. The present work compares the amplification factor, K, based on CFD calculation against the K obtained from experiments in order to confirm whether a CFD code can be applicable to the evaluation of characteristic for the averaging BDFT. In addition to this, the simulations to take into account of fouling effect are also carried out by rough wall option

  1. Productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spring, Martin; Johnes, Geraint; Hald, Kim Sundtoft

    Productivity is increasingly critical for developed economies. It has always been important: as Paul Krugman puts it, “Productivity isn’t everything, but in the long run it is almost everything. A country’s ability to improve its standard of living over time depends almost entirely on its ability...... to raise its output per worker”(Krugman, 1994). Analyses of productivity have, by and large, been the preserve of economists. Operations Management (OM) is rooted in a similar concern for the efficient use of scarce resources; Management Accounting (MA) is concerned with the institutionalised measurement...... and management of productivity. Yet the three perspectives are rarely connected. This paper is a sketch of a literature review seeking to identify, contrast and reconcile these three perspectives. In so doing, it aims to strengthen the connections between policy and managerial analyses of productivity....

  2. Digital reactor period meter type of NSSG-7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glowacki, S W

    1981-01-01

    The paper presents the idea and electronic circuits of the Digital Reactor Period Meter. The instrument consists of a neutron ionisation chamber, the amplifier logarithming the output chamber current, the circuit taking two samples of the log amplifier output signal and subtracting them, the analog -to -digital dividing circuit and the scaler providing the final information of the reactor period value in seconds and in the digital form. Besides it, the instrument produces the acoustic signal in the case, when the rise-time of neutron flux exceeds the permitted value. The untypical construction of the reactor period meter has been developed to obtain both good measurement accuracy and the resistance against the electromagnetic background pulses interfering with the measuring process. The applied measuring system has been patented.

  3. Development of on-board fuel metering and sensing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemanth, Y.; Manikanta, B. S. S.; Thangaraja, J.; Bharanidaran, R.

    2017-11-01

    Usage of biodiesel fuels and their blends with diesel fuel has a potential to reduce the tailpipe emissions and reduce the dependence on crude oil imports. Further, biodiesel fuels exhibit favourable greenhouse gas emission and energy balance characteristics. While fossil fuel technology is well established, the technological implications of biofuels particularly biodiesel is not clearly laid out. Hence, the objective is to provide an on-board metering control in selecting the different proportions of diesel and bio-diesel blends. An on-board fuel metering system is being developed using PID controller, stepper motors and a capacitance sensor. The accuracy was tested with the blends of propanol-1, diesel and are found to be within 1.3% error. The developed unit was tested in a twin cylinder diesel engine with biodiesel blended diesel fuel. There was a marginal increase (5%) in nitric oxide and 14% increase in smoke emission with 10% biodiesel blended diesel at part load conditions.

  4. Information security of remote-reading energy meters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobson, J.

    1994-01-01

    This report presents basic concepts within the field of IT security. The ITSEC security and the ITSEM methods given by the European Community are used as a base. The EC INFOSEC research programme has included the project 'PER DOMUM' which focuses on remote reading of energy meters. The project is a co-operation between TACS (U.K.), GPP (Germany), CESI (Italy) and ENEL (Italy). SP has during the spring and summer of 1994 participated in the concluding of the project. Threats, security functions and security mechanisms are given for remote reading of energy meters. All of the listed functions and mechanisms do not origin from the 'PER DOMUM' project, but are the experiences of SP. The security evaluation is explained in two ways. One description of the required by ITSEM is given. Another description is given of which deliverables are required to perform the evaluation

  5. Analysis of nano-meter structure in Ti implanted polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Gu; Wu Yuguang; Zhang Tonghe; Zhao Xinrong

    2001-01-01

    Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) is modified with Ti ion implantation to a dose of 1x10 17 to 2 x 10 17 cm -2 by using a metal vapor vacuum arc(MEVVA)source. Nano-meter structures in the implanted sample are observed by means of transmission electron microscope (TEM). The influence of ion dose on the structure is indicated. The results show that dense nano-meter phases are dispersed uniformly in the implanted layer. TEM cross section indicates that there is a three-layer structure in the implanted PET. It is found that a metallurgical surface is formed. Therefore the hardness, wear resistance and conductive properties of PET are improved after metal ion implantation. The mechanism of electrical conduction will be discussed

  6. Mobile metering. Enabling cost-efficient smart charging for EVs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hechtfischer, Knut; Pawlitschek, Frank [ubitricity GmbH, Berlin (Germany); Berg, Andreas [VOLTARIS, Merzig (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    Users of electric vehicles want to and should be mobile with the least possible limitations. A fundamental requirement is an affordable and easy to use charging infrastructure that allows charging of the vehicle, if achievable wherever the EV is parked. ubitricity and VOLTARIS are developing and testing the On-Board Metering system and the underlying business and security concepts for such an ubiquitous charging infrastructure for electric mobility. Further leading partners are supporting the project that is being co-funded by research grants of the German Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology. The basic idea is to install metering and communication technology inside the car to generate the information required for billing processes. (orig.)

  7. Handheld Multi-Gas Meters Market Survey Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Gustavious [Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (United States); Wald-Hopkins, Mark David [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Obrey, Stephen J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Akhadov, Valida Dushdurova [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-06-23

    Handheld multi-gas meters (MGMs) are equipped with sensors to monitor oxygen (O2) levels and additional sensors to detect the presence of combustible or toxic gases in the environment. This report is limited to operational response-type MGMs that include at least four different sensors. These sensors can vary by type and by the chemical monitored. In real time, the sensors report the concentration of monitored gases in the atmosphere near the MGM. To provide emergency responders with information on handheld multi-gas meters, the System Assessment and Validation for Emergency Responders (SAVER) Program conducted a market survey. This market survey report is based on information gathered between November 2015 and February 2016 from vendors, Internet research, industry publications, an emergency responder focus group, and a government issued Request for Information (RFI) that was posted on the Federal Business Opportunities website.

  8. Uncertainty analysis of power monitoring transit time ultrasonic flow meters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orosz, A.; Miller, D. W.; Christensen, R. N.; Arndt, S.

    2006-01-01

    A general uncertainty analysis is applied to chordal, transit time ultrasonic flow meters that are used in nuclear power plant feedwater loops. This investigation focuses on relationships between the major parameters of the flow measurement. For this study, mass flow rate is divided into three components, profile factor, density, and a form of volumetric flow rate. All system parameters are used to calculate values for these three components. Uncertainty is analyzed using a perturbation method. Sensitivity coefficients for major system parameters are shown, and these coefficients are applicable to a range of ultrasonic flow meters used in similar applications. Also shown is the uncertainty to be expected for density along with its relationship to other system uncertainties. One other conclusion is that pipe diameter sensitivity coefficients may be a function of the calibration technique used. (authors)

  9. Dance, Music, Meter and Groove: A Forgotten Partnership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Tecumseh eFitch

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available I argue that core aspects of musical rhythm, especially groove and syncopation, can only be fully understood in the context of their origins in the participatory social experience of dance. Musical meter is first considered in the context of bodily movement. I then offer an interpretation of the pervasive but somewhat puzzling phenomenon of syncopation in terms of acoustic emphasis on certain offbeat components of the accompanying dance style. The reasons for the historical tendency of many musical styles to divorce themselves from their dance-based roots are also briefly considered. To the extent that musical rhythms only make sense in the context of bodily movement, researchers interested in ecologically valid approaches to music cognition should make a more concerted effort to extend their analyses to dance, particularly if we hope to understand the cognitive constraints underlying rhythmic aspects of music like meter and groove.

  10. Dance, Music, Meter and Groove: A Forgotten Partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitch, W Tecumseh

    2016-01-01

    I argue that core aspects of musical rhythm, especially "groove" and syncopation, can only be fully understood in the context of their origins in the participatory social experience of dance. Musical meter is first considered in the context of bodily movement. I then offer an interpretation of the pervasive but somewhat puzzling phenomenon of syncopation in terms of acoustic emphasis on certain offbeat components of the accompanying dance style. The reasons for the historical tendency of many musical styles to divorce themselves from their dance-based roots are also briefly considered. To the extent that musical rhythms only make sense in the context of bodily movement, researchers interested in ecologically valid approaches to music cognition should make a more concerted effort to extend their analyses to dance, particularly if we hope to understand the cognitive constraints underlying rhythmic aspects of music like meter and groove.

  11. Calibration of the BASS acoustic current meter with carrageenan agar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, A.T.; Williams, A.J.; Martini, M.

    1993-01-01

    The BASS current meter can measure currents down to the millimeter per second range. Due to the dependence of zero offset on pressure, determining a sensor referenced velocity requires accurate in situ zeroing of the meter. Previously, flow was restricted during calibration by placing plastic bags around the acoustic volume. In this paper, bacterial grade and carrageenan agars are used in the laboratory to create a zero flow condition during calibration and are shown to be acoustically transparent. Additionally, the results of open ocean and dockside carrageenan and plastic bag comparisons are presented. Carrageenan is shown to reliably provide a low noise, zero mean flow environment that is largely independent of ambient conditions. The improved zeros make millimeter per second accuracy possible under field conditions.

  12. Whole-body dose meters. Measurements of total activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koeppe, P.; Klinikum Steglitz, Berlin

    1990-01-01

    By means of measurements using a whole-body dose meter, the course of the incorporation of radionuclides was established between April 1986 and May 1989 for unchanged conditions of alimentation, activity-conscious alimentation, and uniquely increased incorporation. Monitoring covered persons from the most different spheres of life. The incorporation is compared with the one resulting from nuclear weapons explosions in the atmosphere. (DG) [de

  13. Applications of Advanced Metering Infrastructure in Electricity Distribution

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2011-01-01

    In the second half of the 1980s, several electricity companies in developed countries incorporated the automation of the reads of the consumption meters installed in their customers' premises. Adoption of that approach was driven in all the cases by the need to lower the significant costs of in-site reading, reflecting high labor costs in rich countries. There are several AMI options poten...

  14. The Instrumentation Program for the Thirty Meter Telescope

    OpenAIRE

    Simard, Luc; Crampton, David; Ellerbroek, Brent; Boyer, Corinne

    2012-01-01

    An overview of the current status of the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) instrumentation program is presented. Science cases and operational concepts as well as their links to the instruments are continually revisited and updated through a series of workshops and conferences. Work on the three first-light instruments (WFOS IRIS, and IRMS) has made significant progress, and many groups in TMT partner communities are developing future instrument concepts. Other instrument-related subsystems are al...

  15. Portable radiation meters developed in Boris Kidric Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobajic, V.; Smelcerovic, M.

    1989-01-01

    Portable meters designed for X and gamma radiation measurements and beta detection are described. An instrument using ionization chamber is developed with new type of electrometer amplifier. It is designed for precise and reliable exposure and exposure rate measurements. Another instrument with GM counters covers 8 linear ranges: from background up to 10 Sv/h. Some specific solutions and basic measurement characteristics of these instruments are presented (author)

  16. A Scalable Communication Architecture for Advanced Metering Infrastructure

    OpenAIRE

    Ngo Hoang , Giang; Liquori , Luigi; Nguyen Chan , Hung

    2013-01-01

    Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI), seen as foundation for overall grid modernization, is an integration of many technologies that provides an intelligent connection between consumers and system operators [ami 2008]. One of the biggest challenge that AMI faces is to scalable collect and manage a huge amount of data from a large number of customers. In our paper, we address this challenge by introducing a mixed peer-to-peer (P2P) and client-server communication architecture for AMI in whic...

  17. Scalable Multi-group Key Management for Advanced Metering Infrastructure

    OpenAIRE

    Benmalek , Mourad; Challal , Yacine; Bouabdallah , Abdelmadjid

    2015-01-01

    International audience; Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) is composed of systems and networks to incorporate changes for modernizing the electricity grid, reduce peak loads, and meet energy efficiency targets. AMI is a privileged target for security attacks with potentially great damage against infrastructures and privacy. For this reason, Key Management has been identified as one of the most challenging topics in AMI development. In this paper, we propose a new Scalable multi-group key ...

  18. Analyzing China Smart Water Meter Industry Cluster Competitiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, Parker

    2013-01-01

    Sustainable development has always been a top issue nowadays. The smart water management is one of the methods to achieve the sustainable development. This paper aims to focus on analyzing the competitiveness of industrial clusters (Guangzhou, Ningbo and Shanghai) in China specifically to the smart water meter industry. It is part of the CEMIS sourcing work package under the KVTELIOS project with Mr. Al Natsheh Anas, and is supervised by Ms. Komulainen Ruey. Porter Diamond Theory is used ...

  19. Determination of moisture content in hard coals using microwave meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chrusciel, E.; Kopec, M.; Turek, B.

    1989-01-01

    The results of hard-coal moisture-content measurements, performed with the aid of the ZAM-WILMER microwave meter are presented. Over 80 ground coal samples, weighing 1.5 kg (approx.) each, were examined. The moisture content values ranged from 0 to 15 wt%, with the mean standard error being equal to 0.8 wt%. 5 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab. (author)

  20. An Integrated IoT Architecture for Smart Metering

    OpenAIRE

    Lloret, Jaime; Tomás Gironés, Jesús; Canovas Solbes, Alejandro; Parra-Boronat, Lorena

    2016-01-01

    (c) 2016 IEEE. Personal use of this material is permitted. Permission from IEEE must be obtained for all other users, including reprinting/ republishing this material for advertising or promotional purposes, creating new collective works for resale or redistribution to servers or lists, or reuse of any copyrighted components of this work in other works. Advanced meter infrastructures (AMIs) are systems that measure, collect, and analyze utilities distribution and consumption, and communica...

  1. POWER THEFT PREVENTION USING SMART METER WITH GSM TECHNIQUE

    OpenAIRE

    S.L.Narnaware#1, P.R.Mandape#2, L.R.Sarate#3 ,A.C.Lokhande#4

    2018-01-01

    Electricity theft is a major concern for the utilities. With the advent of smart meters, the frequency of collecting household energy consumption data has increased, making it possible for advanced data analysis, which was not possible earlier. In developing countries like India, power theft is one of the most prevalent issues which not only cause economic losses but also irregular supply of electricity. It hampers functioning of industries and factories, due to shortage of power supplied to...

  2. Characteristics and use of the transient reactivity meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yarbrough, W.M.

    1982-10-01

    At EG and G Idaho reactor facilities, reactivity measurements - an essential part of experimental reactor physics - are performed on line using an analog device known as the transient reactivity meter (TRM). The TRM has certain features that set it apart from most other instruments of its kind. This document describes these features and presents procedural information valuable to those who set up and use the TRM in a reactor measurement system

  3. Smart Meter Tariff Design to Minimise Wholesale Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Rogers, William; Carroll, Paula

    2016-01-01

    Smart metering in electricity markets offers an opportunity to explore more diversetariff structures. In this article a Genetic Algorithm (GA) is used to design Time ofUse tariffs that minimise the wholesale risk to the supplier in residential markets.Residential demand and the System Marginal Price of Ireland's Single ElectricityMarket are simulated to estimate the wholesale risk associated with each tariff.

  4. An alternative arrangement of metered dosing fluid using centrifugal pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md. Arafat; Ehsan, Md.

    2017-06-01

    Positive displacement dosing pumps are extensively used in various types of process industries. They are widely used for metering small flow rates of a dosing fluid into a main flow. High head and low controllable flow rates make these pumps suitable for industrial flow metering applications. However their pulsating flow is not very suitable for proper mixing of fluids and they are relatively more expensive to buy and maintain. Considering such problems, alternative techniques to control the fluid flow from a low cost centrifugal pump is practiced. These include - throttling, variable speed drive, impeller geometry control and bypass control. Variable speed drive and impeller geometry control are comparatively costly and the flow control by throttling is not an energy efficient process. In this study an arrangement of metered dosing flow was developed using a typical low cost centrifugal pump using bypass flow technique. Using bypass flow control technique a wide range of metered dosing flows under a range of heads were attained using fixed pump geometry and drive speed. The bulk flow returning from the system into the main tank ensures better mixing which may eliminate the need of separate agitators. Comparative performance study was made between the bypass flow control arrangement of centrifugal pump and a diaphragm type dosing pump. Similar heads and flow rates were attainable using the bypass control system compared to the diaphragm dosing pump, but using relatively more energy. Geometrical optimization of the centrifugal pump impeller was further carried out to make the bypass flow arrangement more energy efficient. Although both the systems run at low overall efficiencies but the capital cost could be reduced by about 87% compared to the dosing pump. The savings in capital investment and lower maintenance cost very significantly exceeds the relatively higher energy cost of the bypass system. This technique can be used as a cost effective solution for

  5. INFLUENCE OF FUNCTIONAL ABILITY IN RUNNING 400 AND 800 METERS

    OpenAIRE

    Abdulla Elezi; Hasim Rushiti; Afrim Koca

    2013-01-01

    Goal of the research was to assess on the grounds of data collected that were used to assess the functional ability of the cardio-respiratory system and the results of running to determine the relation of these sum of variables. Basic statistical indicators of the physiological variables and results of running were calculated. For determining the relation, the regression analysis was used in the manifested space. Criterion variable (running for 100 meters) did not demonstrate statistically si...

  6. The functionality of canoeists specializing in competitive distance 200 meters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Penchen

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The article shows the importance of reactive properties to realize the potential of canoeist of south-east Asia specializing in the 200 meters established on a specialized focus of the training process sprinter. The parameters of functionality of athletes based on integrated aerobic and anaerobic ensure competitive distance of 200 m. They are based on assessing level of aerobic power and capacity of energy supply and properties of the cardiorespiratory system in actively increasing metabolic acidosis.

  7. The practical equity implications of advanced metering infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felder, Frank A.

    2010-07-15

    Reductions in advanced metering costs and the efficiency benefits of dynamic pricing make a compelling case to adopt both, particularly for industrial and commercial facilities. Regulators should seriously consider such policies for residential households as well. Regulators can take meaningful steps to mitigate, if not entirely offset, the possibility that some low-income ratepayers may have higher electricity bills with AM and DP. (author)

  8. GARUSO - Version 1.0. Uncertainty model for multipath ultrasonic transit time gas flow meters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lunde, Per; Froeysa, Kjell-Eivind; Vestrheim, Magne

    1997-09-01

    This report describes an uncertainty model for ultrasonic transit time gas flow meters configured with parallel chords, and a PC program, GARUSO Version 1.0, implemented for calculation of the meter`s relative expanded uncertainty. The program, which is based on the theoretical uncertainty model, is used to carry out a simplified and limited uncertainty analysis for a 12`` 4-path meter, where examples of input and output uncertainties are given. The model predicts a relative expanded uncertainty for the meter at a level which further justifies today`s increasing tendency to use this type of instruments for fiscal metering of natural gas. 52 refs., 15 figs., 11 tabs.

  9. Naval Undersea Warfare Center Division Newport utilities metering, Phase 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carroll, D.M.

    1992-11-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory developed this report for the US Navy`s Naval Undersea Warfare Center Division Newport, Rhode Island (NUWC). The purpose of the report was to review options for metering electricity and steam used in the NUWC compound, and to make recommendations to NUWC for implementation under a follow-on project. An additional NUWC concern is a proposed rate change by the servicing utility, Newport Electric, which would make a significant shift from consumption to demand billing, and what effect that rate change would have on the NUWC utility budget. Automated, remote reading meters are available which would allow NUWC to monitor its actual utility consumption and demand for both the entire NUWC compound and by end-use in individual buildings. Technology is available to perform the meter reads and manipulate the data using a personal computer with minimal staff requirement. This is not meant to mislead the reader into assuming that there is no requirement for routine preventive maintenance. All equipment requires routine maintenance to maintain its accuracy. While PNL reviewed the data collected during the site visit, however, it became obvious that significant opportunities exist for reducing the utility costs other than accounting for actual consumption and demand. Unit costs for both steam and electricity are unnecessarily high, and options are presented in this report for reducing them. Additionally, NUWC has an opportunity to undertake a comprehensive energy resource management program to significantly reduce its energy demand, consumption, and costs.

  10. Naval Undersea Warfare Center Division Newport utilities metering, Phase 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carroll, D.M.

    1992-11-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory developed this report for the US Navy's Naval Undersea Warfare Center Division Newport, Rhode Island (NUWC). The purpose of the report was to review options for metering electricity and steam used in the NUWC compound, and to make recommendations to NUWC for implementation under a follow-on project. An additional NUWC concern is a proposed rate change by the servicing utility, Newport Electric, which would make a significant shift from consumption to demand billing, and what effect that rate change would have on the NUWC utility budget. Automated, remote reading meters are available which would allow NUWC to monitor its actual utility consumption and demand for both the entire NUWC compound and by end-use in individual buildings. Technology is available to perform the meter reads and manipulate the data using a personal computer with minimal staff requirement. This is not meant to mislead the reader into assuming that there is no requirement for routine preventive maintenance. All equipment requires routine maintenance to maintain its accuracy. While PNL reviewed the data collected during the site visit, however, it became obvious that significant opportunities exist for reducing the utility costs other than accounting for actual consumption and demand. Unit costs for both steam and electricity are unnecessarily high, and options are presented in this report for reducing them. Additionally, NUWC has an opportunity to undertake a comprehensive energy resource management program to significantly reduce its energy demand, consumption, and costs.

  11. Air Compressibility Effect on Bouwer and Rice Seepage Meter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xin; Zhan, Hongbin

    2017-11-01

    Measuring a disconnected streambed seepage flux using a seepage meter can give important streambed information and help understanding groundwater-surface water interaction. In this study, we provide a correction for calculating the seepage flux rate with the consideration of air compressibility inside the manometer of the Bouwer and Rice seepage meter. We notice that the effect of air compressibility in the manometer is considerably larger when more air is included in the manometer. We find that the relative error from neglecting air compressibility can be constrained within 5% if the manometer of the Bouwer and Rice seepage meter is shorter than 0.8 m and the experiment is done in a suction mode in which air is pumped out from the manometer before the start of measurement. For manometers longer than 0.8 m, the relative error will be larger than 5%. It may be over 10% if the manometer height is longer than 1.5 m and the experiment is done in a no-suction mode, in which air is not pumped out from the manometer before the start of measurement. © 2017, National Ground Water Association.

  12. Variable classifications of glycemic index determined by glucose meters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Meng-Hsueh Amanda; Wu, Ming-Chang; Lin, Jenshinn

    2010-07-01

    THE STUDY EVALUATED AND COMPARED THE DIFFERENCES OF GLUCOSE RESPONSES, INCREMENTAL AREA UNDER CURVE (IAUC), GLYCEMIC INDEX (GI) AND THE CLASSIFICATION OF GI VALUES BETWEEN MEASURED BY BIOCHEMICAL ANALYZER (FUJI AUTOMATIC BIOCHEMISTRY ANALYZER (FAA)) AND THREE GLUCOSE METERS: Accue Chek Advantage (AGM), BREEZE 2 (BGM), and Optimum Xceed (OGM). Ten healthy subjects were recruited for the study. The results showed OGM yield highest postprandial glucose responses of 119.6 +/- 1.5, followed by FAA, 118.4 +/- 1.2, BGM, 117.4 +/- 1.4 and AGM, 112.6 +/- 1.3 mg/dl respectively. FAA reached highest mean IAUC of 4156 +/- 208 mg x min/dl, followed by OGM (3835 +/- 270 mg x min/dl), BGM (3730 +/- 241 mg x min/dl) and AGM (3394 +/- 253 mg x min/dl). Among four methods, OGM produced highest mean GI value than FAA (87 +/- 5) than FAA, followed by BGM and AGM (77 +/- 1, 68 +/- 4 and 63 +/- 5, pOGM are more variable methods to determine IAUC, GI and rank GI value of food than FAA. The present result does not necessarily apply to other glucose meters. The performance of glucose meter to determine GI value of food should be evaluated and calibrated before use.

  13. Unlocking the potential for efficiency and demand response throughadvanced metering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levy, Roger; Herter, Karen; Wilson, John

    2004-06-30

    Reliance on the standard cumulative kilowatt-hour meter substantially compromises energy efficiency and demand response programs. Without advanced metering, utilities cannot support time-differentiated rates or collect the detailed customer usage information necessary to (1)educate the customer to the economic value of efficiency and demand response options, or (2) distribute load management incentives proportional to customer contribution. These deficiencies prevent the customer feedback mechanisms that would otherwise encourage economically sound demand-side investments and behaviors. Thus, the inability to collect or properly price electricity usage handicaps the success of almost all efficiency and demand response options. Historically, implementation of the advanced metering infrastructure (AMI) necessary for the successful efficiency and demand response programs has been prevented by inadequate cost-benefit analyses. A recent California effort has produced an expanded cost-effectiveness methodology for AMI that introduces previously excluded benefits. In addition to utility-centric costs and benefits, the new model includes qualitative and quantitative costs and benefits that accrue to both customers and society.

  14. A seepage meter designed for use in flowing water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberry, D.O.

    2008-01-01

    Seepage meters provide one of the most direct means to measure exchange of water across the sediment-water interface, but they generally have been unsuitable for use in fluvial settings. Although the seepage bag can be placed inside a rigid container to minimize velocity head concerns, the seepage cylinder installed in the sediment bed projects into and disrupts the flow field, altering both the local-scale fluid exchange as well as measurement of that exchange. A low-profile seepage meter designed for use in moving water was tested in a seepage meter flux tank where both current velocity and seepage velocity could be controlled. The conical seepage cylinder protrudes only slightly above the sediment bed and is connected via tubing to a seepage bag or flowmeter positioned inside a rigid shelter that is located nearby where current velocity is much slower. Laboratory and field tests indicate that the net effect of the small protrusion of the seepage cylinder into the surface water flow field is inconsequentially small for surface water currents up to 65 cm s-1. Current velocity affects the variability of seepage measurements; seepage standard deviation increased from ???2 to ???6 cm d-1 as current velocity increased from 9 to 65 cm s-1. Substantial bias can result if the shelter is not placed to minimize hydraulic gradient between the bag and the seepage cylinder.

  15. Broadband PLC for Clustered Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augustine Ikpehai

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Advanced metering infrastructure (AMI subsystems monitor and control energy distribution through exchange of information between smart meters and utility networks. A key challenge is how to select a cost-effective communication system without compromising the performance of the applications. Current communication technologies were developed for conventional data networks with different requirements. It is therefore necessary to investigate how much of existing communication technologies can be retrofitted into the new energy infrastructure to cost-effectively deliver acceptable level of service. This paper investigates broadband power line communications (BPLC as a backhaul solution in AMI. By applying the disparate traffic characteristics of selected AMI applications, the network performance is evaluated. This study also examines the communication network response to changes in application configurations in terms of packet sizes. In each case, the network is stress-tested and performance is assessed against acceptable thresholds documented in the literature. Results show that, like every other communication technology, BPLC has certain limitations; however, with some modifications in the network topology, it indeed can fulfill most AMI traffic requirements for flexible and time-bounded applications. These opportunities, if tapped, can significantly improve fiscal and operational efficiencies in AMI services. Simulation results also reveal that BPLC as a backhaul can support flat and clustered AMI structures with cluster size ranging from 1 to 150 smart meters.

  16. Portable radiation meters evaluation in high rates of air kerma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damatto, Willian B.; Potiens, Maria da Penha A.; Vivolo, Vitor

    2015-01-01

    A set of portable meters of ionizing radiation high rates of air kerma (teletectors) commonly used in emergencies in Brazil and sent to the Calibration Laboratory of IPEN were under several tests and analyst is parameters for the detectors behavior were established, specifying their sensitivities and operating characteristics. Applied tests were: reading equipment variation with battery voltage, geotropism effect, energy dependence, the angular dependence and overload. Thus it was possible to determine the most common characteristic found in these equipment (quality control programs). The behavior of 17 portable meters was analyzed and in this study, 10 of them have been tested. It was performed to characterize the gamma irradiating system (radiation dosimetry field) that possesses higher activity in teletectors for testing of larger measuring range. New calibration criteria were established following international recommendations. Therefore, it was made the improvement of the quality control programme of portable meters of ionizing radiation high rates of air kerma calibration laboratory, benefiting the users of such equipment with better consistent calibration measurements. (author)

  17. Accidental Cutaneous Burns Secondary to Salbutamol Metered Dose Inhaler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashutosh Kale

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of accidental cutaneous burns caused by salbutamol metered dose inhaler. A 9-year-old boy underwent dental extraction at a children's hospital and was incidentally noted to have burn injuries on dorsum of both hands. On questioning, the boy revealed that a few days ago his 14-year-old brother, who is an asthmatic, playfully sprayed his salbutamol metered dose inhaler on the back of both his hands with the inhaler's mouth piece being in direct contact with the patient's skin. On examination, there was a rectangular area of erythema with superficial peeling on the dorsum of both hands, the dimensions of which exactly matched those of the inhaler's mouthpiece. It is possible that the injury could have been a chemical burn from the pharmaceutical/preservative/propellant aerosol or due to the physical effect of severe cooling of the skin or mechanical abrasive effect of the aerosol blasts or a combination of some or all the above mechanisms. This case highlights the importance of informing children and parents of the potentially hazardous consequences of misusing a metered dose inhaler.

  18. The Use of a Chlorophyll Meter (SPAD-502) for Field Determinations of Red Mangrove (Rhizophora Mangle L.) Leaf Chlorophyll Amount

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connelly, Xana M.

    1997-01-01

    The red mangrove Rhizophora mangle L., is a halophytic woody spermatophyte common to the land-sea interface of tropical and subtropical intertidal zones. It has been reported that 60 to 75% of the coastline of the earth's tropical regions are lined with mangroves. Mangroves help prevent shoreline erosion, provide breeding, nesting and feeding areas for many marine animals and birds. Mangroves are important contributors of primary production in the coastal environment, and this is largely proportional to the standing crop of leaf chlorophylls. Higher intensities of ultraviolet radiation, resulting from stratospheric ozone depletion, can lead to a reduction of chlorophyll in terrestrial plants. Since the most common method for determining chlorophyll concentration is by extraction and this is labor intensive and time consuming, few studies on photosynthetic pigments of mangroves have been reported. Chlorophyll meter readings have been related to leaf chlorophyll content in apples and maples. It has also been correlated to nitrogen status in corn and cotton. Peterson et al., (1993) used a chlorophyll meter to detect nitrogen deficiency in crops and in determining the need for additional nitrogen fertilizer. Efforts to correlate chlorophyll meter measurements to chlorophyll content of mangroves have not been reported. This paper describes the use of a hand-held chlorophyll meter (Minolta SPAD-502) to determine the amount of red mangrove foliar chlorophyll present in the field.

  19. Meeting current requirements. Data security in the smart metering; Den heutigen Anforderungen gerecht werden. Datensicherheit im Smart Metering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zayer, Peter [VOLTARIS GmbH, Maxdorf (Germany); Wolf, Frank [VOLTARIS GmbH, Merzig (Germany)

    2012-09-15

    The requirements for the smart metering are extremely complex. On the one hand, the network operators and the suppliers need unadulterated data on consumption or supply. On the other hand, consumers see their privacy jeopardized because the individual user behavior can be read from the specific energy profile. Furthermore, according to the will of the legislator the smart meter or the measuring system is an active component of a smart grid and smart-market system. Right here it is important to eliminate the threat of hacker attacks. For the industry this results in the task of guaranteeing both the maximum data security as well as to provide a maximum nutritive value to the customer.

  20. The smart meter and a smarter consumer: quantifying the benefits of smart meter implementation in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Brendan; Gazzano, Jerrome; Gunay, Zeynep; Hiller, Lucas; Mahajan, Sakshi; Taskan, Aynur; Vilogorac, Samra

    2012-04-23

    The electric grid in the United States has been suffering from underinvestment for years, and now faces pressing challenges from rising demand and deteriorating infrastructure. High congestion levels in transmission lines are greatly reducing the efficiency of electricity generation and distribution. In this paper, we assess the faults of the current electric grid and quantify the costs of maintaining the current system into the future. While the proposed "smart grid" contains many proposals to upgrade the ailing infrastructure of the electric grid, we argue that smart meter installation in each U.S. household will offer a significant reduction in peak demand on the current system. A smart meter is a device which monitors a household's electricity consumption in real-time, and has the ability to display real-time pricing in each household. We conclude that these devices will provide short-term and long-term benefits to utilities and consumers. The smart meter will enable utilities to closely monitor electricity consumption in real-time, while also allowing households to adjust electricity consumption in response to real-time price adjustments.