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Sample records for dosage regulates allocation

  1. Regulating nutrient allocation in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udvardi, Michael; Yang, Jiading; Worley, Eric

    2014-12-09

    The invention provides coding and promoter sequences for a VS-1 and AP-2 gene, which affects the developmental process of senescence in plants. Vectors, transgenic plants, seeds, and host cells comprising heterologous VS-1 and AP-2 genes are also provided. Additionally provided are methods of altering nutrient allocation and composition in a plant using the VS-1 and AP-2 genes.

  2. Capital Allocation Effects of Financial Reporting Regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koenigsgruber, R.

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyses the effects of stricter financial reporting enforcement on capital allocation and reporting quality in a game-theoretic model and derives conclusions about optimal enforcement strictness. Analysis of the model shows that reporting quality strictly increases with tighter

  3. Identification of chromatin-associated regulators of MSL complex targeting in Drosophila dosage compensation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica Larschan

    Full Text Available Sex chromosome dosage compensation in Drosophila provides a model for understanding how chromatin organization can modulate coordinate gene regulation. Male Drosophila increase the transcript levels of genes on the single male X approximately two-fold to equal the gene expression in females, which have two X-chromosomes. Dosage compensation is mediated by the Male-Specific Lethal (MSL histone acetyltransferase complex. Five core components of the MSL complex were identified by genetic screens for genes that are specifically required for male viability and are dispensable for females. However, because dosage compensation must interface with the general transcriptional machinery, it is likely that identifying additional regulators that are not strictly male-specific will be key to understanding the process at a mechanistic level. Such regulators would not have been recovered from previous male-specific lethal screening strategies. Therefore, we have performed a cell culture-based, genome-wide RNAi screen to search for factors required for MSL targeting or function. Here we focus on the discovery of proteins that function to promote MSL complex recruitment to "chromatin entry sites," which are proposed to be the initial sites of MSL targeting. We find that components of the NSL (Non-specific lethal complex, and a previously unstudied zinc-finger protein, facilitate MSL targeting and display a striking enrichment at MSL entry sites. Identification of these factors provides new insight into how MSL complex establishes the specialized hyperactive chromatin required for dosage compensation in Drosophila.

  4. The transcriptional corepressor MTGR1 regulates intestinal secretory lineage allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parang, Bobak; Rosenblatt, Daniel; Williams, Amanda D; Washington, Mary K; Revetta, Frank; Short, Sarah P; Reddy, Vishruth K; Hunt, Aubrey; Shroyer, Noah F; Engel, Michael E; Hiebert, Scott W; Williams, Christopher S

    2015-03-01

    Notch signaling largely determines intestinal epithelial cell fate. High Notch activity drives progenitors toward absorptive enterocytes by repressing secretory differentiation programs, whereas low Notch permits secretory cell assignment. Myeloid translocation gene-related 1 (MTGR1) is a transcriptional corepressor in the myeloid translocation gene/Eight-Twenty-One family. Given that Mtgr1(-/-) mice have a dramatic reduction of intestinal epithelial secretory cells, we hypothesized that MTGR1 is a key repressor of Notch signaling. In support of this, transcriptome analysis of laser capture microdissected Mtgr1(-/-) intestinal crypts revealed Notch activation, and secretory markers Mucin2, Chromogranin A, and Growth factor-independent 1 (Gfi1) were down-regulated in Mtgr1(-/-) whole intestines and Mtgr1(-/-) enteroids. We demonstrate that MTGR1 is in a complex with Suppressor of Hairless Homolog, a key Notch effector, and represses Notch-induced Hairy/Enhancer of Split 1 activity. Moreover, pharmacologic Notch inhibition using a γ-secretase inhibitor (GSI) rescued the hyperproliferative baseline phenotype in the Mtgr1(-/-) intestine and increased production of goblet and enteroendocrine lineages in Mtgr1(-/-) mice. GSI increased Paneth cell production in wild-type mice but failed to do so in Mtgr1(-/-) mice. We determined that MTGR1 can interact with GFI1, a transcriptional corepressor required for Paneth cell differentiation, and repress GFI1 targets. Overall, the data suggest that MTGR1, a transcriptional corepressor well characterized in hematopoiesis, plays a critical role in intestinal lineage allocation. © FASEB.

  5. Towards an understanding of the molecular regulation of carbon allocation in diatoms: the interaction of energy and carbon allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Heiko; Jakob, Torsten; Fanesi, Andrea; Wilhelm, Christian

    2017-09-05

    In microalgae, the photosynthesis-driven CO 2 assimilation delivers cell building blocks that are used in different biosynthetic pathways. Little is known about how the cell regulates the subsequent carbon allocation to, for example, cell growth or for storage. However, knowledge about these regulatory mechanisms is of high biotechnological and ecological importance. In diatoms, the situation becomes even more complex because, as a consequence of their secondary endosymbiotic origin, the compartmentation of the pathways for the primary metabolic routes is different from green algae. Therefore, the mechanisms to manipulate the carbon allocation pattern cannot be adopted from the green lineage. This review describes the general pathways of cellular energy distribution from light absorption towards the final allocation of carbon into macromolecules and summarizes the current knowledge of diatom-specific allocation patterns. We further describe the (limited) knowledge of regulatory mechanisms of carbon partitioning between lipids, carbohydrates and proteins in diatoms. We present solutions to overcome the problems that hinder the identification of regulatory elements of carbon metabolism.This article is part of the themed issue 'The peculiar carbon metabolism in diatoms'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  6. Histone dosage regulates DNA damage sensitivity in a checkpoint-independent manner by the homologous recombination pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Dun; Burkhart, Sarah Lyn; Singh, Rakesh Kumar; Kabbaj, Marie-Helene Miquel; Gunjan, Akash

    2012-01-01

    In eukaryotes, multiple genes encode histone proteins that package genomic deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and regulate its accessibility. Because of their positive charge, ‘free’ (non-chromatin associated) histones can bind non-specifically to the negatively charged DNA and affect its metabolism, including DNA repair. We have investigated the effect of altering histone dosage on DNA repair in budding yeast. An increase in histone gene dosage resulted in enhanced DNA damage sensitivity, whereas deletion of a H3–H4 gene pair resulted in reduced levels of free H3 and H4 concomitant with resistance to DNA damaging agents, even in mutants defective in the DNA damage checkpoint. Studies involving the repair of a HO endonuclease-mediated DNA double-strand break (DSB) at the MAT locus show enhanced repair efficiency by the homologous recombination (HR) pathway on a reduction in histone dosage. Cells with reduced histone dosage experience greater histone loss around a DSB, whereas the recruitment of HR factors is concomitantly enhanced. Further, free histones compete with the HR machinery for binding to DNA and associate with certain HR factors, potentially interfering with HR-mediated repair. Our findings may have important implications for DNA repair, genomic stability, carcinogenesis and aging in human cells that have dozens of histone genes. PMID:22850743

  7. Sex chromosome-specific regulation in the Drosophila male germline but little evidence for chromosomal dosage compensation or meiotic inactivation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin D Meiklejohn

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of heteromorphic sex chromosomes (e.g., XY in males or ZW in females has repeatedly elicited the evolution of two kinds of chromosome-specific regulation: dosage compensation--the equalization of X chromosome gene expression in males and females--and meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI--the transcriptional silencing and heterochromatinization of the X during meiosis in the male (or Z in the female germline. How the X chromosome is regulated in the Drosophila melanogaster male germline is unclear. Here we report three new findings concerning gene expression from the X in Drosophila testes. First, X chromosome-wide dosage compensation appears to be absent from most of the Drosophila male germline. Second, microarray analysis provides no evidence for X chromosome-specific inactivation during meiosis. Third, we confirm the previous discovery that the expression of transgene reporters driven by autosomal spermatogenesis-specific promoters is strongly reduced when inserted on the X chromosome versus the autosomes; but we show that this chromosomal difference in expression is established in premeiotic cells and persists in meiotic cells. The magnitude of the X-autosome difference in transgene expression cannot be explained by the absence of dosage compensation, suggesting that a previously unrecognized mechanism limits expression from the X during spermatogenesis in Drosophila. These findings help to resolve several previously conflicting reports and have implications for patterns of genome evolution and speciation in Drosophila.

  8. Energy abatement in Chinese industry: Cost evaluation of regulation strategies and allocation alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia, X.H.; Chen, G.Q.

    2012-01-01

    For Chinese industry, the costs of different energy consumption abatement scenarios are evaluated by the method of directional distance function. These scenarios are based on the combinations of regulation strategies and allocation alternatives—the former are sectors and provinces, and the latter include the five principles of average, intensity share, absolute share, discriminatory absolute and discriminatory intensity. For all the scenarios, the quantitative impacts in terms of output potential loss are calculated and compared. Due to less output potential loss for all the allocation alternatives, the sector regulation strategy is shown to be more effective than the province regulation strategy. It is also demonstrated that, among all the scenarios considered, the sector regulation based on the intensity share principle and the province regulation based on the absolute share principle are the two optimal. The performances of energy abatement allocation of the 11th and 12th Five Year Plans of China are assessed against the simulated scenarios. - Highlights: ► The costs of different energy consumption abatement scenarios are evaluated for Chinese industry. ► The impacts on all entities under all allocation alternatives are calculated and compared. ► The optimal scenarios for the different strategies are identified. ► The performances of the 11th and 12th Five Year Plans are assessed.

  9. Pancreas lineage allocation and specification are regulated by sphingosine-1-phosphate signalling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafimidis, Ioannis; Rodriguez-Aznar, Eva; Lesche, Mathias; Yoshioka, Kazuaki; Takuwa, Yoh; Dahl, Andreas; Pan, Duojia; Gavalas, Anthony

    2017-01-01

    During development, progenitor expansion, lineage allocation, and implementation of differentiation programs need to be tightly coordinated so that different cell types are generated in the correct numbers for appropriate tissue size and function. Pancreatic dysfunction results in some of the most debilitating and fatal diseases, including pancreatic cancer and diabetes. Several transcription factors regulating pancreas lineage specification have been identified, and Notch signalling has been implicated in lineage allocation, but it remains unclear how these processes are coordinated. Using a combination of genetic approaches, organotypic cultures of embryonic pancreata, and genomics, we found that sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1p), signalling through the G protein coupled receptor (GPCR) S1pr2, plays a key role in pancreas development linking lineage allocation and specification. S1pr2 signalling promotes progenitor survival as well as acinar and endocrine specification. S1pr2-mediated stabilisation of the yes-associated protein (YAP) is essential for endocrine specification, thus linking a regulator of progenitor growth with specification. YAP stabilisation and endocrine cell specification rely on Gαi subunits, revealing an unexpected specificity of selected GPCR intracellular signalling components. Finally, we found that S1pr2 signalling posttranscriptionally attenuates Notch signalling levels, thus regulating lineage allocation. Both S1pr2-mediated YAP stabilisation and Notch attenuation are necessary for the specification of the endocrine lineage. These findings identify S1p signalling as a novel key pathway coordinating cell survival, lineage allocation, and specification and linking these processes by regulating YAP levels and Notch signalling. Understanding lineage allocation and specification in the pancreas will shed light in the origins of pancreatic diseases and may suggest novel therapeutic approaches. PMID:28248965

  10. Untangling the Contributions of Sex-Specific Gene Regulation and X-Chromosome Dosage to Sex-Biased Gene Expression in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Maxwell; Rao, Prashant; Ercan, Sevinc

    2016-01-01

    Dosage compensation mechanisms equalize the level of X chromosome expression between sexes. Yet the X chromosome is often enriched for genes exhibiting sex-biased, i.e., imbalanced expression. The relationship between X chromosome dosage compensation and sex-biased gene expression remains largely unexplored. Most studies determine sex-biased gene expression without distinguishing between contributions from X chromosome copy number (dose) and the animal’s sex. Here, we uncoupled X chromosome dose from sex-specific gene regulation in Caenorhabditis elegans to determine the effect of each on X expression. In early embryogenesis, when dosage compensation is not yet fully active, X chromosome dose drives the hermaphrodite-biased expression of many X-linked genes, including several genes that were shown to be responsible for hermaphrodite fate. A similar effect is seen in the C. elegans germline, where X chromosome dose contributes to higher hermaphrodite X expression, suggesting that lack of dosage compensation in the germline may have a role in supporting higher expression of X chromosomal genes with female-biased functions in the gonad. In the soma, dosage compensation effectively balances X expression between the sexes. As a result, somatic sex-biased expression is almost entirely due to sex-specific gene regulation. These results suggest that lack of dosage compensation in different tissues and developmental stages allow X chromosome copy number to contribute to sex-biased gene expression and function. PMID:27356611

  11. Equity, tariffing, regulation: analysis of the cost allocation policies of an electric utility industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezzina, J.

    1998-01-01

    In this work, an analysis in terms of equity of policies of tariffing regulation and cost allocation of a multi-products electric company (organized as a natural monopoly) is proposed. The goal is double. In a standard point of view, the first goal is to show that today's literature in the domains of public economy, industrial organization and regulation (traditionally based on efficiency considerations) is able to supply reading keys for the analysis of moral philosophy problems. In a positive point of view, the second goal is to demonstrate that the equity criterion is operational enough to judge tariffing management practices in a particular industrial environment and can be used as a regulatory instrument by an ethics-concerned authority. The document is organized in two parts. An ethical and economical analysis of the equity concepts between allocation efficiency, production efficiency and tariffing practices of companies is proposed first. A particular equity concept is considered which is ready to be implemented for the regulation of a public utility, and the ins and outs expected with an equity theory of tariffing practices are evoked. In a second part, an analysis of goal conflicts between the authority and the regulated company is made in a point of view of equity regulation and cost allocation. An improved equity criterion is defined first, from which a measure is built and becomes a tool for the regulatory authority. Then, its use by a regulatory authority fully informed or encountering information asymmetry problems are analyzed in order to show its stakes on the cost allocation and tariffing policies of the company. (J.S.)

  12. The dosage of the neuroD2 transcription factor regulates amygdala development and emotional learning

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Chin-Hsing; Hansen, Stacey; Wang, Zhenshan; Storm, Daniel R.; Tapscott, Stephen J.; Olson, James M.

    2005-01-01

    The amygdala is centrally involved in formation of emotional memory and response to fear or risk. We have demonstrated that the lateral and basolateral amygdala nuclei fail to form in neuroD2 null mice and neuroD2 heterozygotes have fewer neurons in this region. NeuroD2 heterozygous mice show profound deficits in emotional learning as assessed by fear conditioning. Unconditioned fear was also diminished in neuroD2 heterozygotes compared to wild-type controls. Several key molecular regulators ...

  13. Regulations on allocating the sums of money regarding of development of radiation exposure reduction technology for nuclear power facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The regulations provide for the sums of money regarding research and development of radiation exposure reduction technology for nuclear power facilities and evaluation of the results. Expenses cover the purchase of equipment, personnel expenditures, travelling expenses, communication, etc. The contents are as follows: the application for subsidy allocations, determination of subsidy allocations, withdrawal of applications, a report on the work proceedings, a report on the results, approval of alterations in the plans, withdrawal of the decision for a subsidy allocation, patent rights, utilization etc. of the results, management of the properties, etc. (Mori, K.)

  14. Sugar Allocation to Metabolic Pathways is Tightly Regulated and Affects the Virulence of Streptococcus mutans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miki Kawada-Matsuo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria take up and metabolize sugar as a carbohydrate source for survival. Most bacteria can utilize many sugars, including glucose, sucrose, and galactose, as well as amino sugars, such as glucosamine and N-acetylglucosamine. After entering the cytoplasm, the sugars are mainly allocated to the glycolysis pathway (energy production and to various bacterial component biosynthesis pathways, including the cell wall, nucleic acids and amino acids. Sugars are also utilized to produce several virulence factors, such as capsule and lipoteichoic acid. Glutamine-fructose-6-phosphate aminotransferase (GlmS and glucosamine-6-phosphate deaminase (NagB have crucial roles in sugar distribution to the glycolysis pathway and to cell wall biosynthesis. In Streptococcus mutans, a cariogenic pathogen, the expression levels of glmS and nagB are coordinately regulated in response to the presence or absence of amino sugars. In addition, the disruption of this regulation affects the virulence of S. mutans. The expression of nagB and glmS is regulated by NagR in S. mutans, but the precise mechanism underlying glmS regulation is not clear. In Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis, the mRNA of glmS has ribozyme activity and undergoes self-degradation at the mRNA level. However, there is no ribozyme activity region on glmS mRNA in S. mutans. In this review article, we summarize the sugar distribution, particularly the coordinated regulation of GlmS and NagB expression, and its relationship with the virulence of S. mutans.

  15. Radiation dosage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finston, Roland [Health Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States)

    1986-07-01

    Radiation dosage at Bikini Atoll is the result of current soil contamination, a relic of the nuclear weapons testing program of some 30 years ago. The principal contaminants today and some of their physical properties are listed: cesium-137, strontium-90, plutonium -239, 240 and americium-241. Cobalt-60 contributes less than 1 to the dose and is not considered significant. A resident of the atoll would accumulate radiation dose (rem) in two ways -- by exposure to radiation emanating from the ground and vegetation, and by exposure to radiation released in the spontaneous decay of radionuclides that have entered his body during the ingestion of locally grown foods. The latter process would account for some 90% of the dose; cesium-137 would be responsible for 0 90% of it. Since BARC's method of estimating dosage differs in some respects from that employed by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), (Ref.1, LLNL 1982) we are presenting our method in detail. The differences have two sources. First, the numbers used by BARC for the daily ingestion of radionuclides via the diet are higher than LLNL's. Second, BARC's calculation of dose from radionuclide intake utilizes the ICRP system. The net result is that BARC doses are consistently higher than LLNL doses, and in this respect are more conservative.

  16. Radiation dosage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finston, Roland

    1986-01-01

    Radiation dosage at Bikini Atoll is the result of current soil contamination, a relic of the nuclear weapons testing program of some 30 years ago. The principal contaminants today and some of their physical properties are listed: cesium-137, strontium-90, plutonium -239, 240 and americium-241. Cobalt-60 contributes less than 1 to the dose and is not considered significant. A resident of the atoll would accumulate radiation dose (rem) in two ways -- by exposure to radiation emanating from the ground and vegetation, and by exposure to radiation released in the spontaneous decay of radionuclides that have entered his body during the ingestion of locally grown foods. The latter process would account for some 90% of the dose; cesium-137 would be responsible for 0 90% of it. Since BARC's method of estimating dosage differs in some respects from that employed by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), (Ref.1, LLNL 1982) we are presenting our method in detail. The differences have two sources. First, the numbers used by BARC for the daily ingestion of radionuclides via the diet are higher than LLNL's. Second, BARC's calculation of dose from radionuclide intake utilizes the ICRP system. The net result is that BARC doses are consistently higher than LLNL doses, and in this respect are more conservative

  17. Allocation of Heme is Differentially Regulated by Ferrochelatase Isoforms in Arabidopsis Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nino Asuela Espinas

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Heme is involved in various biological processes as a cofactor of hemoproteins located in various organelles. In plant cells, heme is synthesized by two isoforms of plastid-localized ferrochelatase, FC1 and FC2. In this study, by characterizing Arabidopsis T-DNA insertional mutants, we showed that the allocation of heme is differentially regulated by ferrochelatase isoforms in plant cells. Analyses of weak (fc1-1 and null (fc1-2 mutants suggest that FC1-producing heme is required for initial growth of seedling development. In contrast, weak (fc2-1 and null (fc2-2 mutants of FC2 showed pale green leaves and retarded growth, indicating that FC2-producing heme is necessary for chloroplast development. During the initial growth stage, FC2 deficiency caused reduction of plastid cytochromes. In addition, although FC2 deficiency marginally affected the assembly of photosynthetic reaction center complexes, it caused relatively larger but insufficient light-harvesting antenna to reaction centers, resulting in lower efficiency of photosynthesis. In the later vegetative growth, however, fc2-2 recovered photosynthetic growth, showing that FC1-producing heme may complement the FC2 deficiency. On the other hand, reduced level of cytochromes in microsomal fraction was discovered in fc1-1, suggesting that FC1-producing heme is mainly allocated to extraplastidic organelles. Furthermore, the expression of FC1 is induced by the treatment of an elicitor flg22 while that of FC2 was reduced, and fc1-1 abolished the flg22-dependent induction of FC1 expression and peroxidase activity. Consequently, our results clarified that FC2 produces heme for the photosynthetic machinery in the chloroplast, while FC1 is the housekeeping enzyme providing heme cofactor to the entire cell. In addition, FC1 can partly complement FC2 deficiency and is also involved in defense against stressful conditions.

  18. 75 FR 32122 - Revisions to Defense Priorities and Allocations System Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-07

    ... INFORMATION CONTACT: John Isbell, Director (Acting), Defense Programs Division, Office of Strategic Industries.... 700.15 would reflect the time period in which the Office of Strategic Industries and Economic Security... allocation action; (c) The written signature on a manually placed order, or the digital signature or name on...

  19. Phytohormonal regulation of biomass allocation and morphological and physiological traits of leaves in response to environmental changes in Polygonum cuspidatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke Sugiura

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Plants plastically change their morphological and physiological traits in response to environmental changes, which are accompanied by changes in endogenous levels of phytohormones. Although roles of phytohormones in various aspects of plant growth and development were elucidated, their importance in the regulation of biomass allocation was not fully investigated. This study aimed to determine causal relationships among changes in biomass allocation, morphological and physiological traits, and endogenous levels of phytohormones such as gibberellins (GAs and cytokinins (CKs in response to environmental changes in Polygonum cuspidatum. Seedlings of P. cuspidatum were grown under two light intensities, each at three nitrogen availabilities. The seedlings grown in high light intensity and high nitrogen availability (HH were subjected to three additional treatments: defoliating half of the leaves (Def, transferral to low nitrogen availability (LowN or low light intensity (LowL. Biomass allocation at the whole-plant level, morphological and physiological traits of each leaf, and endogenous levels of phytohormones in each leaf and shoot apex were measured. Age-dependent changes in leaf traits were also investigated. After the treatments, endogenous levels of GAs in the shoot apex and leaves significantly increased in Def, decreased in LowN, and did not change in LowL compared with HH seedlings. Among all of the seedlings, the levels of GAs in the shoot apex and leaves were strongly correlated with biomass allocation ratio between leaves and roots. The levels of GAs in the youngest leaves were highest, while the levels of CKs were almost consistent in each leaf. The levels of CKs were positively correlated with leaf nitrogen content in each leaf, whereas the levels of GAs were negatively correlated with the total non-structural carbohydrate content in each leaf. These results support our hypothesis that GAs and CKs are key regulatory factors that control

  20. CREB regulates spine density of lateral amygdala neurons: implications for memory allocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derya eSargin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Neurons may compete against one another for integration into a memory trace. Specifically, neurons in the lateral nucleus of the amygdala with relatively higher levels of CREB seem to be preferentially allocated to a fear memory trace, while neurons with relatively decreased CREB function seem to be excluded from a fear memory trace. CREB is a ubiquitous transcription factor that modulates many diverse cellular processes, raising the question as to which of these CREB-mediated processes underlie memory allocation. CREB is implicated in modulating dendritic spine number and morphology. As dendritic spines are intimately involved in memory formation, we investigated whether manipulations of CREB function alter spine number or morphology of neurons at the time of fear conditioning. We used viral vectors to manipulate CREB function in the lateral amygdala principal neurons in mice maintained in their homecages. At the time that fear conditioning normally occurs, we observed that neurons with high levels of CREB had more dendritic spines, while neurons with low CREB function had relatively fewer spines compared to control neurons. These results suggest that the modulation of spine density provides a potential mechanism for preferential allocation of a subset of neurons to the memory trace.

  1. Application of Physiological Self-Regulation and Adaptive Task Allocation Techniques for Controlling Operator Hazardous States of Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Pope, Alan T.; Freeman, Frederick G.

    2001-01-01

    Prinzel, Hadley, Freeman, and Mikulka found that adaptive task allocation significantly enhanced performance only when used at the endpoints of the task workload continuum (i.e., very low or high workload), but that the technique degraded performance if invoked during other levels of task demand. These researchers suggested that other techniques should be used in conjunction with adaptive automation to help minimize the onset of hazardous states of awareness (HSA) and keep the operator 'in-the-loop.' The paper reports on such a technique that uses psychophysiological self-regulation to modulate the level of task engagement. Eighteen participants were assigned to three groups (self-regulation, false feedback, and control) and performed a compensatory tracking task that was cycled between three levels of task difficulty on the basis of the electroencephalogram (EEG) record. Those participants who had received self-regulation training performed significantly better and reported lower NASA-TLX scores than participants in the false feedback and control groups. Furthermore, the false feedback and control groups had significantly more task allocations resulting in return-to-manual performance decrements and higher EEG difference scores. Theoretical and practical implications of these results for adaptive automation are discussed.

  2. Preliminary report. Preliminary findings and views concerning the exemption of aviation gasoline from the Mandatory Petroleum Allocation and Price Regulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-01-01

    Preliminary findings indicate that: the fuel is not in short supply; exemption will not have an adverse impact on supply of any other petroleum product subject to the Emergency Petroleum allocation Act of 1973; competition and market force are adequate; exemption will not result in inequitable prices; and exemption will not have adverse state or regional impacts or any other adverse impacts. Chapter II provides background information on the use, production, and distribution of aviation gasoline. Chapter III analyzes the historical interaction of supply, demand, and price, and explores the market structure for aviation gasoline during 1968 to 1976, prior to and during imposition of allocation and price controls. Chapter IV examines aviation gasoline supply, demand, price, and market structure impacts of exempting aviation gasoline from controls. In Chapter V, the potential economic impacts of exemption are evaluated. Chapter VI provides a final summary of the DOE's findings and views in support of its preliminary judgment that aviation gasoline should be exempted from allocation and price regulations. (MCW)

  3. Preliminary report. Preliminary findings and views concerning the exemption of kerojet fuels from the Mandatory Petroleum Allocation and Price Regulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-01-01

    Preliminary findings indicate the following: kerojet fuel is not in short supply; it will not adversely impact on the supply of other petroleum products subject to the Emergency Petroleum Allocation Act; competition and market forces are adequate; and it will not result in inequitable prices for kerojet or other products. Chapter II provides background information on the use, production, and distribution of kerojet. Chapter III analyzes the historical interaction of supply, demand, and price, and explores the market structure for kerojet during 1968 to 1976, prior to and during imposition of allocation and price controls. Chapter IV examines the effect upon kerojet supply, demand, price, and market structure of exempting kerojet from controls and indicates the benefits to be derived from such exemption. In Chapter V, the potential economic impacts of exemption are evaluated. Chapter VI provides a final summary of the DOE's findings and views in support of its preliminary judgment that kerojet should be exempted from allocation and price regulations. (MCW)

  4. Regulations on the allocating of subsidies to promote the development of radiation exposure reduction technology for nuclear power facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The regulations provide for subsidies for the research and development of radiation exposure reduction technology for nuclear power facilities and evaluation of the results. The subsidies are for purchase of equipment, materials, etc. and other expendures approved. The contents are as follows: applications for subsidies, determination of subsidy allocations, withdrawal of applications, a report on the work proceedings, a report on the results, confirmation on the sum of the subsidies, payment of subsidies, approval of alterations in the plans, withdrawal of the decision for subsidies, patent rights, payment of the earnings, management of the properties, etc. (Mori, K.)

  5. Effect of regulated deficit irrigation on the morphology, physiology, carbon allocation and nonstructural carbohydrates of three Kentucky bluegrasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, J. R.; Ma, L.; Liu, Y. K.; Liu, T. J.; Lu, J. N.; Wang, D. N.

    2015-01-01

    Regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) has been assessed in a wide number of field and fruit crops. However, few are the studies dealing with turfgrass. This study was conducted to investigate the morphology, physiology and carbon metabolic responses to regulated deficit irrigation for three Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.) cultivars. Three Kentucky bluegrass cultivars were grown in PVC (polyvinyl chloride) tubes in a greenhouse and subjected to three soil water treatments in a growth chamber: 1) full irrigation; 2) drought stress, 21 days without water after full irrigation; and 3) drought recovery, stressed plants were re-watered for an additional 21 d. The present study indicated that drought resulted in a decline in turf quality (TQ), leaf relative water content (RWC), and photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm) and an increase in electrolyte leakage (EL) for the cultivars. The turf quality, RWC, and Fv/Fm of the three Kentucky bluegrass cultivars increased with re-watering. The allocation of /sup 14/ C increased in the roots of these cultivars during the initial phase of drought stress, where a /sup 14/ C distribution shift from the roots to the stem and leaves appeared with further drought stress. Moreover, there was a significant accumulation of total nonstructural carbohydrates (TNC) in the leaves and stem. The TNC content in the leaves, stem, and roots did not completely return to the control levels following 21 d of re-watering, which was consistent with the recovery of TQ, RWC, Fv/Fm, and EL. In addition, during the re-watering treatment, the reduction in the TNC content may be due to increases in the demand or usage as a result of a rapid recovery in the growth and physiological activities as shown by increased TQ, RWC, and Fv/Fm and decreased EL. Our results suggested that the changes in the carbon allocation model and the accumulation and storage of TNC, as well as the changes in TQ, RWC, Fv/Fm, and EL, for the three cultivars are an adaptive reaction to

  6. Intercavitary implants dosage calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehder, B.P.

    The use of spacial geometry peculiar to each treatment for the attainment of intercavitary and intersticial implants dosage calculation is presented. The study is made in patients with intercavitary implants by applying a modified Manchester technique [pt

  7. ESG Allocations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — This report displays the Emergency Solutions Grants (ESG), formerly Emergency Shelter Grants, allocation by jurisdiction. The website allows users to look at...

  8. Endotoxin dosage in sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Rondinelli

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Endotoxin, a component of the cell wall of Gram-negative bacteria is a major contributor to the pathogenesis of septic shock and multiple organ failure (MOF. Its entry into the bloodstream stimulates monocytes/macrophages which once activated produce and release cytokines, nitric oxide and other mediators that induce systemic inflammation, endothelial damage, organ dysfunction, hypotension (shock and MOF.The aim of this study is to evaluate the usefulness of a quantitative test for the dosage of endotoxin to determine the risk of severe Gram-negative sepsis. Materials and methods. In the period January 2009 - June 2011 we performed 897 tests for 765 patients, mostly coming from the emergency room and intensive care, of which 328 (43% women (mean age 53 and 437 (57% male (mean age 49. Fifty-nine patients, no statistically significant difference in sex, were monitored by an average of two determinations of EA.All patients had procalcitonin values significantly altered.The kit used was EAA (Endotoxin Activity Assay Estor Company, Milan, which has three ranges of endotoxin activity (EA: low risk of sepsis if <0.40 units, medium if between 0.40 and 0.59; high if 0.60. Results. 78 out of 765 patients (10% had a low risk, 447 (58% a medium risk and 240 (32% a high risk.The dosage of EA, combined with that of procalcitonin, has allowed a more targeted antibiotic therapy. Six patients in serious clinical conditions were treated by direct hemoperfusion with Toraymyxin, a device comprising a housing containing a fiber polypropylene and polystyrene with surface-bound polymyxin B, an antibiotic that removes bacterial endotoxins from the blood. Conclusions.The test is useful in risk stratification as well as Gram negative sepsis, to set and monitor targeted therapies, also based on the neutralization of endotoxin.

  9. DYRK1A (Dual-Specificity Tyrosine-Phosphorylated and -Regulated Kinase 1A: A Gene with Dosage Effect During Development and Neurogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Dierssen

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available DYRKs (dual-specificity tyrosine-regulated kinases are an emerging family of evolutionarily conserved dual-specificity kinases that play key roles in cell proliferation, survival, and development. The research in the last years suggests a relevant conserved function during neuronal development, related to proliferation and/or differentiation for DYRK1A. It is expressed in neural progenitor cells and has been proposed to participate in the signaling mechanisms that regulate dendrite differentiation. In Drosophila, disruption of the homolog minibrain gene results in flies with reduced neuroblast proliferation, decreased numbers of central brain neurons, and learning/memory deficits. Knockout DYRK1A mice are embryonic lethal, and heterozygotes show decreased viability and region-specific reductions in brain size. In humans, DYRK1A has been proposed to be involved in the neurodevelopmental alterations associated with Down syndrome. The large number of protein interaction and putative substrates described for DYRK1A suggest multiple pathways and functions to be involved in its developmental function. This review focuses on the functional role that DYRK1A plays in brain development.

  10. Maintainability allocation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guyot, Christian.

    1980-06-01

    The author gives the general lines of a method for the allocation and for the evaluation of maintainability of complex systems which is to be developed during the conference. The maintainability objective is supposed to be formulated under the form of a mean time to repair (M.T.T.R.) [fr

  11. Agreement between Autorita per l'energia elettrica e il gas and commission de regulation de l'electricite on transfer capacity allocation over the grid interconnecting Italy and France for the year 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    The present document contains the general outlines adopted by the Autorita per l'energia elettrica e il gas (hereafter AEEG) and the Commission de Regulation de l'Electricite (hereafter CRE) with respect to terms and conditions for allocating the transfer capacity over the interconnected grid between Italy, France and, with reference to a technically-coupled portion of the interconnection, Switzerland for the year 2002. Same conditions will be applied by AEEG, to a possible extent, to the transfer capacity allocation over the interconnected grid between Italy. Austria and Slovenia for the year 2002.

  12. Parental genome dosage imbalance deregulates imprinting in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline E Jullien

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In mammals and in plants, parental genome dosage imbalance deregulates embryo growth and might be involved in reproductive isolation between emerging new species. Increased dosage of maternal genomes represses growth while an increased dosage of paternal genomes has the opposite effect. These observations led to the discovery of imprinted genes, which are expressed by a single parental allele. It was further proposed in the frame of the parental conflict theory that parental genome imbalances are directly mirrored by antagonistic regulations of imprinted genes encoding maternal growth inhibitors and paternal growth enhancers. However these hypotheses were never tested directly. Here, we investigated the effect of parental genome imbalance on the expression of Arabidopsis imprinted genes FERTILIZATION INDEPENDENT SEED2 (FIS2 and FLOWERING WAGENINGEN (FWA controlled by DNA methylation, and MEDEA (MEA and PHERES1 (PHE1 controlled by histone methylation. Genome dosage imbalance deregulated the expression of FIS2 and PHE1 in an antagonistic manner. In addition increased dosage of inactive alleles caused a loss of imprinting of FIS2 and MEA. Although FIS2 controls histone methylation, which represses MEA and PHE1 expression, the changes of PHE1 and MEA expression could not be fully accounted for by the corresponding fluctuations of FIS2 expression. Our results show that parental genome dosage imbalance deregulates imprinting using mechanisms, which are independent from known regulators of imprinting. The complexity of the network of regulations between expressed and silenced alleles of imprinted genes activated in response to parental dosage imbalance does not support simple models derived from the parental conflict hypothesis.

  13. Residency Allocation Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Residency Allocation Database is used to determine allocation of funds for residency programs offered by Veterans Affairs Medical Centers (VAMCs). Information...

  14. Cost allocation review : staff discussion paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-09-01

    This report addressed the need for updated cost allocation studies filed by local electricity distribution companies because they ensure that distribution rates for each customer class remain just and reasonable. According to the 2001 Electricity Distribution Rate Handbook, the Ontario Energy Board requires new cost allocation studies before implementing any future incentive regulation plans. A review of cost allocations allows the Board to consider the need for adjustments to the current share of distribution costs paid by different classes of ratepayers. This report included 14 sections to facilitate consultations with stakeholders on financial information requirements for cost allocation; directly assignable costs; functionalization; categorization; allocation methods; allocation of other costs; load data requirements; cost allocation implementation issues; addition of new rate class and rate design for scattered unmetered loads; addition of new rate class for larger users; rates to charge embedded distributors; treatment of the rate sub-classification identified as time-of-use; and, rate design implementation issues. 1 fig., 7 appendices

  15. Transport Infrastructure Slot Allocation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koolstra, K.

    2005-01-01

    In this thesis, transport infrastructure slot allocation has been studied, focusing on selection slot allocation, i.e. on longer-term slot allocation decisions determining the traffic patterns served by infrastructure bottlenecks, rather than timetable-related slot allocation problems. The

  16. Deliberation of the commission of electricity regulation relative to the definition of the modalities of allocation, for the year 2002, of the transfrontier transit capacities between France and Italy; Deliberation de la Commission de Regulation de l'Electricite relative a la definition des modalites d'attribution pour l'annee 2002 des capacites de transit transfrontalier entre la France et l'Italie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This regulatory text from the French commission of electricity regulation (CRE) defines the annual and secondary allocation of electricity transit capacity between France and Italy. Transit capacity allocations are jointly implemented by the French and Italian public network management authorities (RTE and GRTN, respectively). (J.S.)

  17. 77 FR 2240 - Allocation and Apportionment of Interest Expense

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-17

    ... allocation and apportionment of interest expense using the fair market value asset method. The temporary regulations also update the interest allocation regulations to conform to the changes made to the applicable... using the fair market value method. The text of those regulations also serves as the text of these...

  18. 48 CFR 8.705-3 - Allocation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allocation process. 8.705-3 Section 8.705-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION ACQUISITION... Are Blind or Severely Disabled 8.705-3 Allocation process. (a) When the direct order process has not...

  19. X chromosome dosage compensation via enhanced transcriptional elongation in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larschan, Erica; Bishop, Eric P; Kharchenko, Peter V; Core, Leighton J; Lis, John T; Park, Peter J; Kuroda, Mitzi I

    2011-03-03

    The evolution of sex chromosomes has resulted in numerous species in which females inherit two X chromosomes but males have a single X, thus requiring dosage compensation. MSL (Male-specific lethal) complex increases transcription on the single X chromosome of Drosophila males to equalize expression of X-linked genes between the sexes. The biochemical mechanisms used for dosage compensation must function over a wide dynamic range of transcription levels and differential expression patterns. It has been proposed that the MSL complex regulates transcriptional elongation to control dosage compensation, a model subsequently supported by mapping of the MSL complex and MSL-dependent histone 4 lysine 16 acetylation to the bodies of X-linked genes in males, with a bias towards 3' ends. However, experimental analysis of MSL function at the mechanistic level has been challenging owing to the small magnitude of the chromosome-wide effect and the lack of an in vitro system for biochemical analysis. Here we use global run-on sequencing (GRO-seq) to examine the specific effect of the MSL complex on RNA Polymerase II (RNAP II) on a genome-wide level. Results indicate that the MSL complex enhances transcription by facilitating the progression of RNAP II across the bodies of active X-linked genes. Improving transcriptional output downstream of typical gene-specific controls may explain how dosage compensation can be imposed on the diverse set of genes along an entire chromosome.

  20. Hydraulic Modular Dosaging Systems for Machine Drives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Kotlobai

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The justified principle of making modular dosaging systems for positive-displacement multimotor hydraulic drives used in running gear and technological equipment of mobile construction, road and agricultural machines makes it possible to synchronize motion of running parts. The examples of the realization of modular dosaging systems and an algorithm of their operation are given in the paper.

  1. [Pharmaceutical advice concerning different pharmaceutical dosage forms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szakonyi, Gergely; Zelkó, Romána

    2010-01-01

    The present paper summarizes the commonly applied types of drug uptake and the pharmacists' advice concerning a certain dosage form. The manuscript also deals with the modified release dosage forms and their abbreviations in the name of the marketing authorized products.

  2. Cost Allocation and Overpricing of Spare Parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-09-01

    traditional cost allocation process as reported in accounting literature. Horngren reported there are essen- tially three facets of cost allocation as...is for more than one unit of a product. Horngren reports cost accounting systems commonly have two major cost objectives: departments and products (8...Standards Board: Standards, Rules, and Regulations. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1985. 8. Horngren , Charles T. Cost Accounting : A Managerial

  3. Oral Solid Dosage Form Disintegration Testing - The Forgotten Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Gousous, Jozef; Langguth, Peter

    2015-09-01

    Since its inception in the 1930s, disintegration testing has become an important quality control (QC) test in pharmaceutical industry, and disintegration test procedures for various dosage forms have been described by the different pharmacopoeias, with harmonization among them still not quite complete. However, because of the fact that complete disintegration does not necessarily imply complete dissolution, much more research has been focused on dissolution rather than on disintegration testing. Nevertheless, owing to its simplicity, disintegration testing seems to be an attractive replacement to dissolution testing as recognized by the International Conference on Harmonization guidelines, in some cases. Therefore, with proper research being carried out to overcome the associated challenges, the full potential of disintegration testing could be tapped saving considerable efforts allocated to QC testing and quality assurance. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  4. Advances in solid dosage form manufacturing technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Gavin P

    2007-12-15

    Currently, the pharmaceutical and healthcare industries are moving through a period of unparalleled change. Major multinational pharmaceutical companies are restructuring, consolidating, merging and more importantly critically assessing their competitiveness to ensure constant growth in an ever-more demanding market where the cost of developing novel products is continuously increasing. The pharmaceutical manufacturing processes currently in existence for the production of solid oral dosage forms are associated with significant disadvantages and in many instances provide many processing problems. Therefore, it is well accepted that there is an increasing need for alternative processes to dramatically improve powder processing, and more importantly to ensure that acceptable, reproducible solid dosage forms can be manufactured. Consequently, pharmaceutical companies are beginning to invest in innovative processes capable of producing solid dosage forms that better meet the needs of the patient while providing efficient manufacturing operations. This article discusses two emerging solid dosage form manufacturing technologies, namely hot-melt extrusion and fluidized hot-melt granulation.

  5. Switch between life history strategies due to changes in glycolytic enzyme gene dosage in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shaoxiao; Spor, Aymé; Nidelet, Thibault; Montalent, Pierre; Dillmann, Christine; de Vienne, Dominique; Sicard, Delphine

    2011-01-01

    Adaptation is the process whereby a population or species becomes better fitted to its habitat through modifications of various life history traits which can be positively or negatively correlated. The molecular factors underlying these covariations remain to be elucidated. Using Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model system, we have investigated the effects on life history traits of varying the dosage of genes involved in the transformation of resources into energy. Changing gene dosage for each of three glycolytic enzyme genes (hexokinase 2, phosphoglucose isomerase, and fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase) resulted in variation in enzyme activities, glucose consumption rate, and life history traits (growth rate, carrying capacity, and cell size). However, the range of effects depended on which enzyme was expressed differently. Most interestingly, these changes revealed a genetic trade-off between carrying capacity and cell size, supporting the discovery of two extreme life history strategies already described in yeast populations: the "ants," which have lower glycolytic gene dosage, take up glucose slowly, and have a small cell size but reach a high carrying capacity, and the "grasshoppers," which have higher glycolytic gene dosage, consume glucose more rapidly, and allocate it to a larger cell size but reach a lower carrying capacity. These results demonstrate antagonist pleiotropy for glycolytic genes and show that altered dosage of a single gene drives a switch between two life history strategies in yeast.

  6. Risk capital allocation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Smilgins, Aleksandrs

    Risk capital allocation problems have been widely discussed in the academic literature. We consider a company with multiple subunits having individual portfolios. Hence, when portfolios of subunits are merged, a diversification benefit arises: the risk of the company as a whole is smaller than...... the sum of the risks of the individual sub-units. The question is how to allocate the risk capital of the company among the subunits in a fair way. In this paper we propose to use the Lorenz set as an allocation method. We show that the Lorenz set is operational and coherent. Moreover, we propose a set...... of new axioms related directly to the problem of risk capital allocation and show that the Lorenz set satisfies these new axioms in contrast to other well-known coherent methods. Finally, we discuss how to deal with non-uniqueness of the Lorenz set....

  7. CPD Allocations and Awards

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The CPD Allocation and Award database provides filterable on-screen and exportable reports on select programs, such as the Community Development Block Grant Program,...

  8. beta. -Amyloid gene dosage in Alzheimer's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murdoch, G H; Manuelidis, L; Kim, J H; Manuelidis, E E

    1988-01-11

    The 4-5 kd amyloid ..beta..-peptide is a major constituent of the characteristic amyloid plaque of Alzheimer's disease. It has been reported that some cases of sporatic Alzheimer's disease are associated with at least a partial duplication of chromosome 21 containing the gene corresponding to the 695 residue precursor of this peptide. To contribute to an understanding of the frequency to such a duplication event in the overall Alzheimer's population, the authors have determined the gene dosage of the ..beta..-amyloid gene in this collection of cases. All cases had a clinical diagnosis of Alzheimer's confirmed neuropathologically. Each Alzheimer's case had an apparent normal diploid ..beta..-amyloid gene dosage, while control Down's cases had the expected triploid dosage. Thus partial duplication of chromosome 21 may be a rare finding in Alzheimer's disease. Similar conclusions were just reported in several studies of the Harvard Alzheimer collection.

  9. Allocation of authority in European health policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adolph, Christopher; Greer, Scott L; Massard da Fonseca, Elize

    2012-11-01

    Although many study the effects of different allocations of health policy authority, few ask why countries assign responsibility over different policies as they do. We test two broad theories: fiscal federalism, which predicts rational governments will concentrate information-intensive operations at lower levels, and redistributive and regulatory functions at higher levels; and "politicized federalism", which suggests a combination of systematic and historically idiosyncratic political variables interfere with efficient allocation of authority. Drawing on the WHO Health in Transition country profiles, we present new data on the allocation of responsibility for key health care policy tasks (implementation, provision, finance, regulation, and framework legislation) and policy areas (primary, secondary and tertiary care, public health and pharmaceuticals) in the 27 EU member states and Switzerland. We use a Bayesian multinomial mixed logit model to analyze how different countries arrive at different allocations of authority over each task and area of health policy, and find the allocation of powers broadly follows fiscal federalism. Responsibility for pharmaceuticals, framework legislation, and most finance lodges at the highest levels of government, acute and primary care in the regions, and provision at the local and regional levels. Where allocation does not follow fiscal federalism, it appears to reflect ethnic divisions, the population of states and regions, the presence of mountainous terrain, and the timing of region creation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Allocating multiple units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tranæs, Torben; Krishna, Kala

    2002-01-01

    This paper studies the allocation and rent distribution in multi-unit, combinatorial-bid auctions under complete information. We focus on the natural multi-unit analogue of the first-price auction, where buyers bid total payments, pay their bids, and where the seller allocates goods to maximize his...... auction, which is the multi unit analogue of a second-price auction. Furthermore, we characterize these equilibria when valuations take a number of different forms: diminishing marginal valuations, increasing average valuations, and marginal valuations with single turning points...

  11. Intelligent system for improving dosage control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Cosme Rodrigues dos Santos

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Coagulation is one of the most important processes in a drinking-water treatment plant, and it is applied to destabilize impurities in water for the subsequent flocculation stage. Several techniques are currently used in the water industry to determine the best dosage of the coagulant, such as the jar-test method, zeta potential measurements, artificial intelligence methods, comprising neural networks, fuzzy and expert systems, and the combination of the above-mentioned techniques to help operators and engineers in the water treatment process. Current paper presents an artificial neural network approach to evaluate optimum coagulant dosage for various scenarios in raw water quality, using parameters such as raw water color, raw water turbidity, clarified and filtered water turbidity and a calculated Dose Rate to provide the best performance in the filtration process. Another feature in current approach is the use of a backpropagation neural network method to estimate the best coagulant dosage simultaneously at two points of the water treatment plant. Simulation results were compared to the current dosage rate and showed that the proposed system may reduce costs of raw material in water treatment plant.

  12. Spectrophotometric Determination of Trimipramine in Tablet Dosage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To develop and validate simple, rapid and sensitive spectrophotometric procedures for determination of trimipramine in tablet dosage form. Methods: The methods were based on the interaction of trimipramine as n-electron donor with the ο-acceptor, iodine and various π-acceptors, namely: chloranil (CH), ...

  13. A brief history of dosage compensation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    depression of X-linked gene activity in the female, as well as by hyperexpression of the ... to the Harvey lecture, Muller had presented important ideas relative to dosage ... at Columbia. I do recall a talk by the popular physical anthro- pologist ...

  14. 48 CFR 1631.203-70 - Allocation techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... shall consistently apply the methods and techniques established to classify direct and indirect costs... meant to be exhaustive, but rather are examples of allocation methods that may be acceptable under... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Allocation techniques. 1631...

  15. 77 FR 26698 - Allocation of Mortgage Insurance Premiums

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-07

    ... Allocation of Mortgage Insurance Premiums AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Final... explain how to allocate prepaid qualified mortgage insurance premiums to determine the amount of the... Act of 2010. The regulations affect taxpayers who pay prepaid qualified mortgage insurance premiums...

  16. Optimizing the dosage of stabilizing chemical

    OpenAIRE

    Harjula, Tomi

    2013-01-01

    A chemical company provides chemical treatment at customer mill in paper industry. This thesis work was done to determine the optimum dosage of stabilizing chemical. The theoretical framework explains the basics of paper brightness and bleaching and how these topics are connected to each other. The knowledge gained is very valuable and can possibly be used in the future in other similar applications as well. This thesis work contains confidential back ground information. Key ...

  17. Applied cost allocation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogetoft, Peter; Hougaard, Jens Leth; Smilgins, Aleksandrs

    2016-01-01

    This paper deals with empirical computation of Aumann–Shapley cost shares for joint production. We show that if one uses a mathematical programing approach with its non-parametric estimation of the cost function there may be observations in the data set for which we have multiple Aumann–Shapley p...... of assumptions concerning firm behavior. These assumptions enable us to connect inefficient with efficient production and thereby provide consistent ways of allocating the costs arising from inefficiency....

  18. Microbial quality of some herbal solid dosage forms

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-03-15

    Mar 15, 2010 ... Key words: Microbial quality, herbal, contamination, solid dosage form ... The type of dosage form, packaging, manufacturing and expiration dates of subject solid herbal .... According to WHO report (2002), Salmonella food.

  19. Output-based allocation and investment in clean technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosendahl, Knut Einar; Storroesten, Halvor Briseid

    2011-07-01

    Allocation of emission allowances may affect firms' incentives to invest in clean technologies. In this paper we show that so-called output-based allocation tends to stimulate such investments as long as individual firms do not assume the regulator to tighten the allocation rule as a consequence of their investments. The explanation is that output-based allocation creates an implicit subsidy to the firms' output, which increases production, leads to a higher price of allowances, and thus increases the incentives to invest in clean technologies. On the other hand, if the firms expect the regulator to tighten the allocation rule after observing their clean technology investment, the firms' incentives to invest are moderated. If strong, this last effect may outweigh the enhanced investment incentives induced by increased output and higher allowance price. (Author)

  20. Pollution permits allocation and imperfect competition; Allocation de permis de pollution et concurrence imparfaite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, S.

    2004-12-15

    The aim of this thesis is to highlight the imperfections on the permits markets and to analyze their consequences on markets' efficiency. More precisely, we try to identify the implications of the initial allocation of permits when such imperfections are present. We try to draw some conclusions for the regulator concerning the different forms of the permits' allocation. After having described and compared these forms, we define in which circumstances the initial allocation matters in terms of efficiency. Then, we study different forms of imperfections. First, we take into account the information asymmetry between firms and the regulator and we define an optimal mechanism to sell pollution permits. Then, we analyze a market power on a differentiated pollution permits market. At last, we study the exclusionary manipulation of pollution permits market. (author)

  1. Emissions allocation in transportation routes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenders, B.P.J.; Velázquez Martínez, J.; Fransoo, J.C.

    2017-01-01

    This article studies the allocation of CO2 emissions to a specific shipment in routing transportation. The authors show that this problem differs from a cost allocation problem specifically because the concavity condition does not hold necessarily in the CO2 allocation problem. This implies that a

  2. 29 CFR 4211.4 - Contributions for purposes of the numerator and denominator of the allocation fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of the allocation fractions. 4211.4 Section 4211.4 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued... denominator of the allocation fractions. Each of the allocation fractions used in the presumptive, modified... five-year period. (a) The numerator of the allocation fraction, with respect to a withdrawing employer...

  3. Cost allocation with limited information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Tind, Jørgen

    This article investigates progressive development of Aumann-Shapley cost allocation in a multilevel organizational or production structure. In particular, we study a linear parametric programming setup utilizing the Dantzig-Wolfe decomposition procedure. Typically cost allocation takes place after...... all activities have been performed, for example by finishing all outputs. Here the allocation is made progressively with suggestions for activities. I other words cost allocation is performed in parallel for example with a production planning process. This development does not require detailed...... information about some technical constraints in order to make the cost allocation....

  4. 34 CFR 200.78 - Allocation of funds to school attendance areas and schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allocation of funds to school attendance areas and schools. 200.78 Section 200.78 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE... for the Within-District Allocation of Lea Program Funds § 200.78 Allocation of funds to school...

  5. Dosage of DTPA administration by inhalation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koizumi, Akira; Fukuda, Satoshi; Yamada, Yuji; Iida, Haruzo; Shimo, Michikuni

    2000-01-01

    The administration of DTPA by inhalation was examined as an emergency medical treatment. In order to estimate the practical dosage to the human, an accurate model of the human air way was connected to a anesthetizer and respiration was simulated. Ca-DTPA, aerosolized by an ultra-sonic nebulizer, was administered by inhalation to the model. For the experiments, the respiratory volume (tidal volume) and the respiration rate was 12 per minute. Irrigation water from the model of larynx and mouth, and the air filter were collected and measured by chelate titration in order to determine the quantity of aerosolized DTPA and the amount deposited on the trachea and lang. The results indicated that the quantity of aerosolized DTPA varied with dilution of the DTPA solution in a ample. It was found that a 3 time dilution was the most practical and that 73 mg of DTPA per minute could be aerosolized. Furthermore, the results indicated that 46% of the aerosolized DTPA was taken in through inhalation and that 26% of DTPA was deposited in the trachea and lung. These results suggest that in practical application in the emergency medical treatment, 15 minutes of inhalation could delivered to approximately 500 mg of DTPA, and 130 mg could be delivered to the trachea and lung. It is considered that these quantity are enough amount to increase the effects of radioactive nuclides from the body, comparing with the recommended dosage for injection administration. (author)

  6. The characteristics of novel dosage forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milić-Aškrabić Jela

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of pharmaceutical-technological development is to find a procedure of transforming an active substance (a drug into a drug dosage form which is not only acceptable for application, but also enables the active substance to be released following administration, pursuant to therapy objectives. The aim is that the concentration of the active substance in the action location rapidly reaches a therapeutic level and maintains an approximately constant level in the course of a particular time, according to the established therapeutic goal. The primary objective is to present the active ingredient (drug in the form and concentration/quantity that enables the corresponding therapeutic response, i.e. to control the site and rate of medicinal substance release from the drug, as well as the rate at which it reaches the membranes and surfaces to which it is absorbed, while applying a common method of administration. The procedures used to achieve this goal are becoming highly complex and demanding and are aiming at sophisticated drug delivery systems and functional packaging material. Development from the existing drug molecule, through the conventional drug dosage form, to a new system of drug "delivery" (novel delivery system, can improve the drug (active substance characteristics significantly in view of compliance (acceptability by the patient, safety and efficiency. The paper presents an overview of the most important examples of pharmaceutical forms with controlled release and advanced drug "carriers".

  7. Clinical efficacy of dexmedetomidine in the diminution of fentanyl dosage in pediatric cardiac surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yingying; Ye, Hongwu; Xia, Yin; Li, Yuanhai; Yuan, Xianren; Wang, Xing

    2017-06-01

    This study aims to explore the clinical efficacy of dexmedetomidine (DEX) in the diminution of fentanyl dosage in pediatric cardiac surgery based on some clinical and biochemical parameters. Fifty pediatric patients (American Society of Anesthesiologists II), 1-6 years old, were randomly allocated into two groups: group F (control group), in which patients received normal saline and high dosage of fentanyl (30 μg/kg), and group D, in which patients were given DEX and low dosage of fentanyl (15 μg/kg). Some hemodynamic and clinical parameters of the two groups were recorded. Furthermore, stress hormone (serum cortisol, norepinephrine, blood glucose) levels and cytokine (interleukin 6, tumor necrosis factor alpha) levels in the two groups were compared with each other. Stress hormone levels, cytokine levels, hemodynamic parameters and the consumption of sevoflurane did not differ between the two groups. Meanwhile, the extubation time was significantly shorter in Group D than F (Pfentanyl supplemented with DEX almost had the same anesthesia effects and inflammation extent compared with high dose of fentanyl, which suggested that infusion DEX might decrease fentanyl consumption in pediatric cardiac surgery.

  8. Theory of stable allocations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantelić Svetlana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Swedish Royal Academy awarded the 2012 Nobel Prize in Economics to Lloyd Shapley and Alvin Roth, for the theory of stable allocations and the practice of market design. These two American researchers worked independently from each other, combining basic theory and empirical investigations. Through their experiments and practical design they generated a flourishing field of research and improved the performance of many markets. Born in 1923 in Cambridge, Massachusetts, Shapley defended his doctoral thesis at Princeton University in 1953. For many years he worked at RAND, and for more than thirty years he was a professor at UCLA University. He published numerous scientific papers, either by himself or in cooperation with other economists.

  9. SSC accelerator availability allocation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, K.T.; Franciscovich, J.

    1991-03-01

    Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) operational availability is an area of major concern, judged by the Central Design Group to present such risk that use of modern engineering tools would be essential to program success. Experience has shown that as accelerator beam availability falls below about 80%, efficiency of physics experiments degrades rapidly due to inability to maintain adequate coincident accelerator and detector operation. For this reason, the SSC availability goal has been set at 80%, even though the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory accelerator, with a fraction of the SSC's complexity, has only recently approached that level. This paper describes the allocation of the top-level goal to part-level reliability and maintainability requirements, and it gives the results of parameter sensitivity studies designed to help identify the best approach to achieve the needed system availability within funding and schedule constraints. 1 ref., 12 figs., 4 tabs

  10. Importance measures and resource allocation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guey, C.N.; Morgan, T.; Hughes, E.A.

    1987-01-01

    This paper discusses various importance measures and their practical relevance to allocating resources. The characteristics of importance measures are illustrated through simple examples. Important factors associated with effectively allocating resources to improve plant system performance or to prevent system degradation are discussed. It is concluded that importance measures are only indicative of and not equal to the risk significance of a component, system, or event. A decision framework is suggested to provide a comprehensive basis for resource allocation

  11. IPO Allocations: Discriminatory or Discretionary?

    OpenAIRE

    William Wilhelm; Alexander Ljungqvist

    2001-01-01

    We estimate the structural links between IPO allocations, pre-market information production, and initial underpricing returns, within the context of theories of bookbuilding. Using a sample of both US and international IPOs we find evidence of the following: ? IPO allocation policies favour institutional investors, both in the US and worldwide. ? Increasing institutional allocations results in offer prices that deviate more from the indicative price range established prior to bankers’ efforts...

  12. [Oral films as perspective dosage form].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walicová, Veronika; Gajdziok, Jan

    Oral films, namely buccal mucoadhesive films and orodispersible films represent innovative formulations for administration of a wide range of drugs. Oral films show many advantageous properties and are intended for systemic drug delivery or for local treatment of the oral mucosa. In both cases, the film represents a thin layer, which could be intended to adhere to the oral mucosa by means of mucoadhesion; or to rapid dissolution and subsequent swallowing without the need of liquid intake, in the case of orodispersible films. Main constitutive excipients are film-forming polymers, which must in the case of mucoadhesive forms remain on the mucosa within the required time interval. Oral films are currently available on the pharmaceutical market and could compete with conventional oral dosage forms in the future. oral cavity oral films buccal mucoadhesive films orodispersible films film-forming polymers.

  13. Enalapril dosage in progressive chronic nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elung-Jensen, Thomas; Heisterberg, Jens; Sonne, Jesper

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In chronic renal failure, clearance of enalapril is reduced. Hence, a renoprotective effect may be achieved with lower doses than conventionally used. Since marked inter-patient variation in concentrations of enalaprilat has been shown in patients with renal failure despite equivalent...... dosage of enalapril, a direct comparison of the effect of high versus low plasma concentrations of enalaprilat on the progression of renal failure was undertaken. METHODS: Forty patients with a median glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of 17 (6-35) ml/min/1.73 m2 were studied in an open-label, randomised...... intervals by the plasma clearance of 51Cr-EDTA, and the individual rates of progression of renal failure were calculated as the slope of GFR versus time plot. RESULTS: In the high-concentration group, the median enalaprilat trough concentration was 92.9 ng/ml (21.8-371.0 ng/ml) and in the low...

  14. Zinc allocation and re-allocation in rice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stomph, T.J.; Jiang, W.; Putten, van der P.E.L.; Struik, P.C.

    2014-01-01

    Aims: Agronomy and breeding actively search for options to enhance cereal grain Zn density. Quantifying internal (re-)allocation of Zn as affected by soil and crop management or genotype is crucial. We present experiments supporting the development of a conceptual model of whole plant Zn allocation

  15. Research on allocation efficiency of the daisy chain allocation algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jingping; Zhang, Weiguo

    2013-03-01

    With the improvement of the aircraft performance in reliability, maneuverability and survivability, the number of the control effectors increases a lot. How to distribute the three-axis moments into the control surfaces reasonably becomes an important problem. Daisy chain method is simple and easy to be carried out in the design of the allocation system. But it can not solve the allocation problem for entire attainable moment subset. For the lateral-directional allocation problem, the allocation efficiency of the daisy chain can be directly measured by the area of its subset of attainable moments. Because of the non-linear allocation characteristic, the subset of attainable moments of daisy-chain method is a complex non-convex polygon, and it is difficult to solve directly. By analyzing the two-dimensional allocation problems with a "micro-element" idea, a numerical calculation algorithm is proposed to compute the area of the non-convex polygon. In order to improve the allocation efficiency of the algorithm, a genetic algorithm with the allocation efficiency chosen as the fitness function is proposed to find the best pseudo-inverse matrix.

  16. Efficient Metropolitan Resource Allocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Arnott

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Over the past 30 years Calgary has doubled in size, from a population of 640,645 in 1985 to 1,230,915 in 2015. During that time the City has had five different mayors, hosted the Winter Olympics, and expanded the C-Train from 25 platforms to 45. Calgary’s Metropolitan Area has grown too, with Airdrie, Chestermere, Okotoks and Cochrane growing into full-fledged cities, ripe with inter-urban commuters.* And with changes to provincial legislation in the mid-’90s, rural Rocky View County and the Municipal District of Foothills are now real competitors for residential, commercial and industrial development that in the past would have been considered urban. In this metropolitan system, where people live, their household structure, and their place of work informs the services they need to conduct their daily lives, and directly impacts the spatial character of the City and the broader region. In sum, Metropolitan Calgary is increasingly complex. Calgary and the broader metropolitan area will continue to grow, even with the current economic slowdown. Frictions within Calgary, between the various municipalities in the metropolitan area, and the priorities of other local authorities (such as the School Boards and Alberta Health Services will continue to impact the agendas of local politicians and their ability to answer to the needs of their residents. How resources – whether it is hard infrastructure, affordable housing, classrooms, or hospital beds – are allocated over space and how these resources are funded, directly impacts these relationships. This technical paper provides my perspective as an urban economist on the efficient allocation of resources within a metropolitan system in general, with reference to Calgary where appropriate, and serves as a companion to the previously released “Reflections on Calgary’s Spatial Structure: An Urban Economists Critique of Municipal Planning in Calgary.” It is hoped that the concepts reviewed

  17. Using dynamic input allocation for elongation control at FTU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boncagni, L.; Galeani, S.; Granucci, G.; Varano, G.; Vitale, V.; Zaccarian, L.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we exploit the dynamic allocation scheme for input redundant control systems proposed in to achieve elongation control on FTU (Frascati Tokamak Upgrade). The scheme first serves as a means for regulating the current in the F coils. Then, due to the quasi-static relationship between the plasma elongation and the F coils current, elongation control is achieved by suitably generalizing the allocation scheme. Both simulation and experimental results are reported.

  18. The dynamics of farm land allocation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnberg, Søren; Hansen, Lars Gårn

    This study develops a dynamic multi-output model of farmers’ crop allocation decisions that allows estimation of both short-run and long-run adjustments to a wide array of economic incentives. The method can be used to inform decision-makers about a number of issues including agricultural policy...... reform and environmental regulation. The model allows estimation of dynamic effects relating to price expectations adjustment, investment lags and crop rotation constraints. Estimation is based on micro-panel data from Danish farmers that includes acreage, output and variable input utilisation...... at the crop level. Results indicate that there are substantial differences between the shortrun and long-run land allocation behaviour of Danish farmers and that there are substantial differences in the time lags associated with different crops. Since similar farming conditions are found in northern Europe...

  19. Endogeneously arising network allocation rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slikker, M.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we study endogenously arising network allocation rules. We focus on three allocation rules: the Myerson value, the position value and the component-wise egalitarian solution. For any of these three rules we provide a characterization based on component efficiency and some balanced

  20. Carbon allocation in forest ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creighton M. Litton; James W. Raich; Michael G. Ryan

    2007-01-01

    Carbon allocation plays a critical role in forest ecosystem carbon cycling. We reviewed existing literature and compiled annual carbon budgets for forest ecosystems to test a series of hypotheses addressing the patterns, plasticity, and limits of three components of allocation: biomass, the amount of material present; flux, the flow of carbon to a component per unit...

  1. Risk allocation under liquidity constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Csóka, P.; Herings, P.J.J.

    2013-01-01

    Risk allocation games are cooperative games that are used to attribute the risk of a financial entity to its divisions. In this paper, we extend the literature on risk allocation games by incorporating liquidity considerations. A liquidity policy specifies state-dependent liquidity requirements that

  2. 48 CFR 9904.413 - Adjustment and allocation of pension cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Adjustment and allocation of pension cost. 9904.413 Section 9904.413 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING... AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.413 Adjustment and allocation of pension...

  3. 21 CFR 522.1222 - Ketamine hydrochloride injectable dosage forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ketamine hydrochloride injectable dosage forms. 522.1222 Section 522.1222 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.1222 Ketamine hydrochloride injectable dosage forms. ...

  4. 21 CFR 520.1696 - Penicillin oral dosage forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Penicillin oral dosage forms. 520.1696 Section 520.1696 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1696 Penicillin oral...

  5. 21 CFR 526.1696 - Penicillin intramammary dosage forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Penicillin intramammary dosage forms. 526.1696 Section 526.1696 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS INTRAMAMMARY DOSAGE FORMS § 526.1696 Penicillin...

  6. 21 CFR 522.1660 - Oxytetracycline injectable dosage forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Oxytetracycline injectable dosage forms. 522.1660 Section 522.1660 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... § 522.1660 Oxytetracycline injectable dosage forms. ...

  7. 21 CFR 520.905 - Fenbendazole oral dosage forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fenbendazole oral dosage forms. 520.905 Section 520.905 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Fenbendazole oral dosage forms. ...

  8. 21 CFR 520.45 - Albendazole oral dosage forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Albendazole oral dosage forms. 520.45 Section 520.45 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.45 Albendazole oral...

  9. Volcanic ash dosage calculator: A proof-of-concept tool to support aviation stakeholders during ash events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dacre, H.; Prata, A.; Shine, K. P.; Irvine, E.

    2017-12-01

    The volcanic ash clouds produced by Icelandic volcano Eyjafjallajökull in April/May 2010 resulted in `no fly zones' which paralysed European aircraft activity and cost the airline industry an estimated £1.1 billion. In response to the crisis, the Civil Aviation Authority (CAA), in collaboration with Rolls Royce, produced the `safe-to-fly' chart. As ash concentrations are the primary output of dispersion model forecasts, the chart was designed to illustrate how engine damage progresses as a function of ash concentration. Concentration thresholds were subsequently derived based on previous ash encounters. Research scientists and aircraft manufactures have since recognised the importance of volcanic ash dosages; the accumulated concentration over time. Dosages are an improvement to concentrations as they can be used to identify pernicious situations where ash concentrations are acceptably low but the exposure time is long enough to cause damage to aircraft engines. Here we present a proof-of-concept volcanic ash dosage calculator; an innovative, web-based research tool, developed in close collaboration with operators and regulators, which utilises interactive data visualisation to communicate the uncertainty inherent in dispersion model simulations and subsequent dosage calculations. To calculate dosages, we use NAME (Numerical Atmospheric-dispersion Modelling Environment) to simulate several Icelandic eruption scenarios, which result in tephra dispersal across the North Atlantic, UK and Europe. Ash encounters are simulated based on flight-optimal routes derived from aircraft routing software. Key outputs of the calculator include: the along-flight dosage, exposure time and peak concentration. The design of the tool allows users to explore the key areas of uncertainty in the dosage calculation and to visualise how this changes as the planned flight path is varied. We expect that this research will result in better informed decisions from key stakeholders during

  10. Zinc allocation and re-allocation in rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stomph, Tjeerd Jan; Jiang, Wen; Van Der Putten, Peter E. L.; Struik, Paul C.

    2014-01-01

    Aims: Agronomy and breeding actively search for options to enhance cereal grain Zn density. Quantifying internal (re-)allocation of Zn as affected by soil and crop management or genotype is crucial. We present experiments supporting the development of a conceptual model of whole plant Zn allocation and re-allocation in rice. Methods: Two solution culture experiments using 70Zn applications at different times during crop development and an experiment on within-grain distribution of Zn are reported. In addition, results from two earlier published experiments are re-analyzed and re-interpreted. Results: A budget analysis showed that plant zinc accumulation during grain filling was larger than zinc allocation to the grains. Isotope data showed that zinc taken up during grain filling was only partly transported directly to the grains and partly allocated to the leaves. Zinc taken up during grain filling and allocated to the leaves replaced zinc re-allocated from leaves to grains. Within the grains, no major transport barrier was observed between vascular tissue and endosperm. At low tissue Zn concentrations, rice plants maintained concentrations of about 20 mg Zn kg−1 dry matter in leaf blades and reproductive tissues, but let Zn concentrations in stems, sheath, and roots drop below this level. When plant zinc concentrations increased, Zn levels in leaf blades and reproductive tissues only showed a moderate increase while Zn levels in stems, roots, and sheaths increased much more and in that order. Conclusions: In rice, the major barrier to enhanced zinc allocation towards grains is between stem and reproductive tissues. Enhancing root to shoot transfer will not contribute proportionally to grain zinc enhancement. PMID:24478788

  11. Radiation dosage of various CT-methods in lung diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinz-Peer, G.; Weninger, F.; Nowotny, R.; Herold, C.J.

    1996-01-01

    Introduction of the computed tomography index CTDI and the multiple scan average dose (MSAD) has led to standardization of the dose description in CT examinations. Despite the use of these dose parameters, many different dosages are reported in the literature for different CT methods. In addition, there is still a wide range of radiation dosimetry results reported for conventional CT, helical CT, and HRCT used in chest examinations. The variations in dosage are mainly due to difference in factors affecting the dose, i.e. beam geometry, beam quality, scanner geometry ('generation'), and operating parameters. In addition, CT dosimetry instrumentation and methodology make a contribution to dosages. Recent studies calculating differences in factors affecting dosage and CT dosimetry and using similar operating parameters, show similar results in CT dosimetry for conventional and helical CT. On the other hand, dosages for HRCT were greatly reduced. This was mainly caused by narrow beam collimation and increasing section spacing. (orig.) [de

  12. Fumigant dosages below maximum label rate control some soilborne pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shachaf Triky-Dotan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The activity of commercial soil fumigants on some key soilborne pathogens was assessed in sandy loam soil under controlled conditions. Seven soil fumigants that are registered in California or are being or have been considered for registration were used in this study: dimethyl disulfide (DMDS mixed with chloropicrin (Pic (79% DMDS and 21% Pic, Tri-Con (50% methyl bromide and 50% Pic, Midas Gold (33% methyl iodide [MI] and 67% Pic, Midas Bronze (50% MI and 50% Pic, Midas (MI, active ingredient [a.i.] 97.8%, Pic (a.i. 99% trichloronitromethane and Pic-Clor 60 (57% Pic and 37% 1,3-dichloropropene [1–3,D]. Dose-response models were calculated for pathogen mortality after 24 hours of exposure to fumigants. Overall, the tested fumigants achieved good efficacy with dosages below the maximum label rate against the tested pathogens. In this study, Pythium ultimum and citrus nematode were sensitive to all the fumigants and Verticillium dahliae was resistant. For most fumigants, California regulations restrict application rates to less than the maximum (federal label rate, meaning that it is possible that the fumigants may not control major plant pathogens. This research provides information on the effectiveness of these alternatives at these lower application rates. The results from this study will help growers optimize application rates for registered fumigants (such as Pic and 1,3-D and will help accelerate the adoption of new fumigants (such as DMDS if they are registered in California.

  13. International Development Aid Allocation Determinants

    OpenAIRE

    Tapas Mishra; Bazoumana Ouattara; Mamata Parhi

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the factors explaining aid allocation by bilateral and multilateral donors. We use data for 146 aid recipient countries over the period 1990-2007 and employ Bayesian Averaging of Classical Estimates Approach (BACE) approach and find that both the recipient need and donor interest motives are `significant' determinants of bilateral and multilateral aid allocation process. Our results also indicate that the measures for recipient need and donor interests vary from bilate...

  14. Application of an allocation methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youngblood, R.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents a method for allocating resources to elements of a system for the purpose of achieving prescribed levels of defense-in-depth at minimal cost. The method makes extensive use of logic modelling. An analysis of a simplified high-level waste repository is used as an illustrative application of the method. It is shown that it is possible to allocate quality control costs (or demonstrate performance) in an optimal way over elements of a conceptual design

  15. How should INGOs allocate resources?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Wisor

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available International Non-governmental Organizations (INGOs face difficult choices when choosing to allocate resources. Given that the resources made available to INGOs fall far short of what is needed to reduce massive human rights deficits, any chosen scheme of resource allocation requires failing to reach other individuals in great need. Facing these moral opportunity costs, what moral reasons should guide INGO resource allocation? Two reasons that clearly matter, and are recognized by philosophers and development practitioners, are the consequences (or benefit or harm reduction of any given resource allocation and the need (or priority of individual beneficiaries. If accepted, these reasons should lead INGOs to allocate resources to a limited number of countries where the most prioritarian weighted harm reduction will be achieved. I make three critiques against this view. First, on grounds the consequentialist accepts, I argue that INGOs ought to maintain a reasonably wide distribution of resources. Second, I argue that even if one is a consequentialist, consequentialism ought not act as an action guiding principle for INGOs. Third, I argue that additional moral reasons should influence decision making about INGO resource allocation. Namely, INGO decision making should attend to relational reasons, desert, respect for agency, concern for equity, and the importance of expressing a view of moral wrongs.

  16. Determining S-1 dosage at hospitals prioritizing cancer chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morimoto, Shigefumi; Kitada, Noriaki; Anami, Setsuko

    2008-01-01

    Although it is recommended that the standard S-1 dosage should be based on how large the body surface area is, an on-site setting of the appropriate dosage is often lower than the standard one, depending on the individual's condition and considering possible side effects and so, on. Here, we investigated usage conditions for S-1 as a part of field training for expert pharmacists at our hospital that performs total clinical treatments. Decreases in dosage per day for elderly patients were although the standard dosage is generally determined according to the amount of a patient's body surface. We conducted a retrospective survey with a total 90 patients by creating a tree-diagram to identify a reduction standard. It was found that the S-1 dosage was decreased when there were side effects, aggravation in performance status, decrease in kidney function, old age, combined injection chemotherapy, and a decrease in radiation therapy performance. The dosage decreases without such medical reasons were seen in only 4 of the 90 patients. At hospitals giving priority to chemotherapy, it became clear that appropriate treatment was promoted by decreasing. The individual target dosage on the basis of daily medical examination. (author)

  17. Regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballereau, P.

    1999-01-01

    The different regulations relative to nuclear energy since the first of January 1999 are given here. Two points deserve to be noticed: the decree of the third august 1999 authorizing the national Agency for the radioactive waste management to install and exploit on the commune of Bures (Meuse) an underground laboratory destined to study the deep geological formations where could be stored the radioactive waste. The second point is about the uranium residues and the waste notion. The judgment of the administrative tribunal of Limoges ( 9. july 1998) forbidding the exploitation of a storage installation of depleted uranium considered as final waste and qualifying it as an industrial waste storage facility has been annulled bu the Court of Appeal. It stipulated that, according to the law number 75663 of the 15. july 1965, no criteria below can be applied to depleted uranium: production residue (possibility of an ulterior enrichment), abandonment of a personal property or simple intention to do it ( future use aimed in the authorization request made in the Prefecture). This judgment has devoted the primacy of the waste notion on this one of final waste. (N.C.)

  18. Resource allocation to reproduction in animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooijman, Sebastiaan A L M; Lika, Konstadia

    2014-11-01

    The standard Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) model assumes that a fraction κ of mobilised reserve is allocated to somatic maintenance plus growth, while the rest is allocated to maturity maintenance plus maturation (in embryos and juveniles) or reproduction (in adults). All DEB parameters have been estimated for 276 animal species from most large phyla and all chordate classes. The goodness of fit is generally excellent. We compared the estimated values of κ with those that would maximise reproduction in fully grown adults with abundant food. Only 13% of these species show a reproduction rate close to the maximum possible (assuming that κ can be controlled), another 4% have κ lower than the optimal value, and 83% have κ higher than the optimal value. Strong empirical support hence exists for the conclusion that reproduction is generally not maximised. We also compared the parameters of the wild chicken with those of races selected for meat and egg production and found that the latter indeed maximise reproduction in terms of κ, while surface-specific assimilation was not affected by selection. We suggest that small values of κ relate to the down-regulation of maximum body size, and large values to the down-regulation of reproduction. We briefly discuss the ecological context for these findings. © 2014 The Authors. Biological Reviews © 2014 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  19. Cost allocation in distribution planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engevall, S

    1997-12-31

    This thesis concerns cost allocation problems in distribution planning. The cost allocation problems we study are illustrated using the distribution planning situation at the Logistics department of Norsk Hydro Olje AB. The planning situation is modeled as a Traveling Salesman Problem and a Vehicle Routing Problem with an inhomogeneous fleet. The cost allocation problems are the problems of how to divide the transportation costs among the customers served in each problem. The cost allocation problems are formulated as cooperative games, in characteristic function form, where the customers are defined to be the players. The games contain five and 21 players respectively. Game theoretical solution concepts such as the core, the nucleolus, the Shapley value and the {tau}-value are discussed. From the empirical results we can, among other things, conclude that the core of the Traveling Salesman Game is large, and that the core of the Vehicle Routing Game is empty. In the accounting of Norsk Hydro the cost per m{sup 3} can be found for each tour. We conclude that for a certain definition of the characteristic function, a cost allocation according to this principle will not be included in the core of the Traveling Salesman Game. The models and methods presented in this thesis can be applied to transportation problems similar to that of Norsk Hydro, independent of the type of products that are delivered. 96 refs, 11 figs, 26 tabs

  20. Cost allocation in distribution planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engevall, S.

    1996-12-31

    This thesis concerns cost allocation problems in distribution planning. The cost allocation problems we study are illustrated using the distribution planning situation at the Logistics department of Norsk Hydro Olje AB. The planning situation is modeled as a Traveling Salesman Problem and a Vehicle Routing Problem with an inhomogeneous fleet. The cost allocation problems are the problems of how to divide the transportation costs among the customers served in each problem. The cost allocation problems are formulated as cooperative games, in characteristic function form, where the customers are defined to be the players. The games contain five and 21 players respectively. Game theoretical solution concepts such as the core, the nucleolus, the Shapley value and the {tau}-value are discussed. From the empirical results we can, among other things, conclude that the core of the Traveling Salesman Game is large, and that the core of the Vehicle Routing Game is empty. In the accounting of Norsk Hydro the cost per m{sup 3} can be found for each tour. We conclude that for a certain definition of the characteristic function, a cost allocation according to this principle will not be included in the core of the Traveling Salesman Game. The models and methods presented in this thesis can be applied to transportation problems similar to that of Norsk Hydro, independent of the type of products that are delivered. 96 refs, 11 figs, 26 tabs

  1. Cost allocation in distribution planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engevall, S.

    1996-01-01

    This thesis concerns cost allocation problems in distribution planning. The cost allocation problems we study are illustrated using the distribution planning situation at the Logistics department of Norsk Hydro Olje AB. The planning situation is modeled as a Traveling Salesman Problem and a Vehicle Routing Problem with an inhomogeneous fleet. The cost allocation problems are the problems of how to divide the transportation costs among the customers served in each problem. The cost allocation problems are formulated as cooperative games, in characteristic function form, where the customers are defined to be the players. The games contain five and 21 players respectively. Game theoretical solution concepts such as the core, the nucleolus, the Shapley value and the τ-value are discussed. From the empirical results we can, among other things, conclude that the core of the Traveling Salesman Game is large, and that the core of the Vehicle Routing Game is empty. In the accounting of Norsk Hydro the cost per m 3 can be found for each tour. We conclude that for a certain definition of the characteristic function, a cost allocation according to this principle will not be included in the core of the Traveling Salesman Game. The models and methods presented in this thesis can be applied to transportation problems similar to that of Norsk Hydro, independent of the type of products that are delivered. 96 refs, 11 figs, 26 tabs

  2. Automatic identification and normalization of dosage forms in drug monographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Each day, millions of health consumers seek drug-related information on the Web. Despite some efforts in linking related resources, drug information is largely scattered in a wide variety of websites of different quality and credibility. Methods As a step toward providing users with integrated access to multiple trustworthy drug resources, we aim to develop a method capable of identifying drug's dosage form information in addition to drug name recognition. We developed rules and patterns for identifying dosage forms from different sections of full-text drug monographs, and subsequently normalized them to standardized RxNorm dosage forms. Results Our method represents a significant improvement compared with a baseline lookup approach, achieving overall macro-averaged Precision of 80%, Recall of 98%, and F-Measure of 85%. Conclusions We successfully developed an automatic approach for drug dosage form identification, which is critical for building links between different drug-related resources. PMID:22336431

  3. Fourteen days oral administration of therapeutic dosage of some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fourteen days oral administration of therapeutic dosage of some antibiotics reduced serum testosterone in male rats. FO Awobajo, Y Raji, II Olatunji-Bello, FT Kunle-Alabi, AO Adesanya, TO Awobajo ...

  4. Buccal Dosage Forms: General Considerations for Pediatric Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero-Padilla, Soledad; Velaga, Sitaram; Morales, Javier O

    2017-02-01

    The development of an appropriate dosage form for pediatric patients needs to take into account several aspects, since adult drug biodistribution differs from that of pediatrics. In recent years, buccal administration has become an attractive route, having different dosage forms under development including tablets, lozenges, films, and solutions among others. Furthermore, the buccal epithelium can allow quick access to systemic circulation, which could be used for a rapid onset of action. For pediatric patients, dosage forms to be placed in the oral cavity have higher requirements for palatability to increase acceptance and therapy compliance. Therefore, an understanding of the excipients required and their functions and properties needs to be particularly addressed. This review is focused on the differences and requirements relevant to buccal administration for pediatric patients (compared to adults) and how novel dosage forms can be less invasive and more acceptable alternatives.

  5. Dosage compensation of serine-4 transfer RNA in Drosophila melanogaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birchler, J.A.; Owenby, R.K.; Jacobson, K.B.

    1982-01-01

    A dosage series of the X chromosome site for serine-4 transfer RNA consisting of one of three copies in females and one to two in males was constructed to test whether transfer RNA expression is governed by dosage compensation. A dosage effect on the level of the serine-4 isoacceptor was observed in both females and males when the structural locus was varied. However, in males, each dose had a relatively greater expression so the normal one dose was slightly greater than the total female value and the duplicated male had the highest relative expression of all the types examined. Serine-4 levels in males and females from an isogenic Oregon-R stock were similar. Thus the transfer RNA levels conform to the expectations of dosage compensation

  6. 7 CFR 1780.18 - Allocation of program funds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., expressed as a percentage, gives a relative value to the importance of each of the criteria. (3) Basic... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... current year's basic formula allocation is within the transition range (plus or minus 20 percentage points...

  7. Cellular energy allocation of pistachio green stink bug, Brachynema ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study is to determine the effects of pyriproxyfen (an insect growth regulator compound) on cellular energy allocation of a heterometabolous insect, Brachynema germari Kol. The fifth instar of this insect was treated with 0, 20, 60, 100, 200 and 500 mg l-1 formulation of pyriproxyfen (Admiral 10EC) and the ...

  8. Dosage of trace carbon in sodium (1963); Dosage de traces de carbone dans le sodium (1963)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sannier, J; Vasseur, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1963-07-01

    A wet method for dosing carbon in sodium has been developed. The carbon is oxidised in a vacuum using Van SLYKE'S solution. The carbonic acid formed is measured volumetrically; its purity can be controlled by chromatographic analysis. The results obtained show that this method makes it possible to measure carbon in concentrations of about 10 ppm. (authors) [French] Une methode de dosage par voie humide du carbone dans le sodium a ete mise au point. L'oxydation du carbone par la solution de Van SLYKE est realisee sous vide. Le gaz carbonique forme est dose volumetriquement; sa purete peut etre controlee par analyse chromatographique. Les resultats obtenus montrent que cette methode permet de doser des teneurs en carbone de l'ordre de 10 ppm. (auteurs)

  9. Application of an allocation methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youngblood, R.; de Oliveira, L.F.S.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents a method for allocating resources to elements of a system for the purpose of achieving prescribed levels of defense-in-depth at minimal cost. The method makes extensive use of logic modelling. An analysis of a simplified high-level waste repository is used as an illustrative application of the method. It is shown that it is possible to allocate quality control costs (or demonstrated performance) in an optimal way over elements of a conceptual design. 6 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  10. Allocation Problems and Market Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smilgins, Aleksandrs

    The thesis contains six independent papers with a common theme: Allocation problems and market design. The first paper is concerned with fair allocation of risk capital where independent autonomous subunits have risky activities and together constitute the entity's total risk, whose associated risk...... at a certain point in time involves countries that have excess demand and countries that have surplus of green energy. The problem addressed here is how the gains from trade ought to influence the way that members of the grid share common costs. The fifth paper extends the classical two-sided one...

  11. Speaking truth to power: the effect of candid feedback on how individuals with power allocate resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oc, Burak; Bashshur, Michael R; Moore, Celia

    2015-03-01

    Subordinates are often seen as impotent, able to react to but not affect how powerholders treat them. Instead, we conceptualize subordinate feedback as an important trigger of powerholders' behavioral self-regulation and explore subordinates' reciprocal influence on how powerholders allocate resources to them over time. In 2 experiments using a multiparty, multiround dictator game paradigm, we found that when subordinates provided candid feedback about whether they found prior allocations to be fair or unfair, powerholders regulated how self-interested their allocations were over time. However, when subordinates provided compliant feedback about powerholders' prior allocation decisions (offered consistently positive feedback, regardless of the powerholders' prior allocation), those powerholders made increasingly self-interested allocations over time. In addition, we showed that guilt partially mediates this relationship: powerholders feel more guilty after receiving negative feedback about an allocation, subsequently leading to a less self-interested allocation, whereas they feel less guilty after receiving positive feedback about an allocation, subsequently taking more for themselves. Our findings integrate the literature on upward feedback with theory about moral self-regulation to support the idea that subordinates are an important source of influence over those who hold power over them. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  12. Evaluation of students' knowledge about paediatric dosage calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özyazıcıoğlu, Nurcan; Aydın, Ayla İrem; Sürenler, Semra; Çinar, Hava Gökdere; Yılmaz, Dilek; Arkan, Burcu; Tunç, Gülseren Çıtak

    2018-01-01

    Medication errors are common and may jeopardize the patient safety. As paediatric dosages are calculated based on the child's age and weight, risk of error in dosage calculations is increasing. In paediatric patients, overdose drug prescribed regardless of the child's weight, age and clinical picture may lead to excessive toxicity and mortalities while low doses may delay the treatment. This study was carried out to evaluate the knowledge of nursing students about paediatric dosage calculations. This research, which is of retrospective type, covers a population consisting of all the 3rd grade students at the bachelor's degree in May, 2015 (148 students). Drug dose calculation questions in exam papers including 3 open ended questions on dosage calculation problems, addressing 5 variables were distributed to the students and their responses were evaluated by the researchers. In the evaluation of the data, figures and percentage distribution were calculated and Spearman correlation analysis was applied. Exam question on the dosage calculation based on child's age, which is the most common method in paediatrics, and which ensures right dosages and drug dilution was answered correctly by 87.1% of the students while 9.5% answered it wrong and 3.4% left it blank. 69.6% of the students was successful in finding the safe dose range, and 79.1% in finding the right ratio/proportion. 65.5% of the answers with regard to Ml/dzy calculation were correct. Moreover, student's four operation skills were assessed and 68.2% of the students were determined to have found the correct answer. When the relation among the questions on medication was examined, a significant relation (correlation) was determined between them. It is seen that in dosage calculations, the students failed mostly in calculating ml/dzy (decimal). This result means that as dosage calculations are based on decimal values, calculations may be ten times erroneous when the decimal point is placed wrongly. Moreover, it

  13. A benefit/risk approach towards selecting appropriate pharmaceutical dosage forms - an application for paediatric dosage form selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sam, Tom; Ernest, Terry B; Walsh, Jennifer; Williams, Julie L

    2012-10-05

    The design and selection of new pharmaceutical dosage forms involves the careful consideration and balancing of a quality target product profile against technical challenges and development feasibility. Paediatric dosage forms present particular complexity due to the diverse patient population, patient compliance challenges and safety considerations of this vulnerable population. This paper presents a structured framework for assessing the comparative benefits and risks of different pharmaceutical design options against pre-determined criteria relating to (1) efficacy, (2) safety and (3) patient access. This benefit/risk framework has then been applied to three hypothetical, but realistic, scenarios for paediatric dosage forms in order to explore its utility in guiding dosage form design and formulation selection. The approach allows a rigorous, systematic and qualitative assessment of the merits and disadvantages of each dosage form option and helps identify mitigating strategies to modify risk. The application of a weighting and scoring system to the criteria depending on the specific case could further refine the analysis and aid decision-making. In this paper, one case study is scored for illustrative purposes. However, it is acknowledged that in real development scenarios, the generation of actual data considering the very specific situation for the patient/product/developer would come into play to drive decisions on the most appropriate dosage form strategy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Gene dosage compensation calibrates four regulatory RNAs to control Vibrio cholerae quorum sensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenningsen, Sine L; Tu, Kimberly C; Bassler, Bonnie L

    2009-01-01

    the quorum regulatory RNAs 1-4 (Qrr1-4). The four Qrr sRNAs are functionally redundant. That is, expression of any one of them is sufficient for wild-type quorum-sensing behaviour. Here, we show that the combined action of two feedback loops, one involving the sRNA-activator LuxO and one involving the sRNA......Quorum sensing is a mechanism of cell-to-cell communication that allows bacteria to coordinately regulate gene expression in response to changes in cell-population density. At the core of the Vibrio cholerae quorum-sensing signal transduction pathway reside four homologous small RNAs (sRNAs), named......-target HapR, promotes gene dosage compensation between the four qrr genes. Gene dosage compensation adjusts the total Qrr1-4 sRNA pool and provides the molecular mechanism underlying sRNA redundancy. The dosage compensation mechanism is exquisitely sensitive to small perturbations in Qrr levels. Precisely...

  15. Centralized Allocation in Multiple Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monte, Daniel; Tumennasan, Norovsambuu

    The problem of allocating indivisible objects to different agents, where each indi vidual is assigned at most one object, has been widely studied. Pápai (2000) shows that the set of strategy-proof, nonbossy, Pareto optimal and reallocation-proof rules are hierarchical exchange rules | generalizat...... and nonbossy rules are sequential dictatorships, a special case of Pápai's hierarchical exchange rules....

  16. Designing for dynamic task allocation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dongen, van K.; Maanen, van P.P.

    2005-01-01

    Future platforms are envisioned in which human-machine teams are able to share and trade tasks as demands in situations change. It seems that human-machine coordination has not received the attention it deserves by past and present approaches to task allocation. In this paper a simple way to make

  17. Planning and Resource Allocation Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Jack W.

    1986-01-01

    Modern scientific management techniques provide college administrators with valuable planning and resource allocation insights and enhances the decision process. The planning model should incorporate assessment, strategic planning, dynamic and long-term budgeting, operational planning, and feedback and control for actual operations. (MSE)

  18. 75 FR 12173 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Defense Priorities and Allocations System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-15

    ... Allocations System regulation (15 CFR part 700) must retain the records for at least 3 years. II. Method of... Request; Defense Priorities and Allocations System AGENCY: Bureau of Industry and Security, Commerce...: Direct all written comments to Diana Hynek, Departmental Paperwork Clearance Officer, Department of...

  19. Investigation of contrast agent dosage for perfusion-weighted MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erb, G.; Benner, T.; Heiland, S.; Reith, W.; Sartor, K.; Forsting, M.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: In this study we investigated, whether increasing the dosage of a paramagnetic contrast agent results in a stronger signal decrease in T 2 *-weighted perfusion sequences and therefore more meaningful parameter maps. Material and methods: In a prospective study bolus injection of gadolinium-DTPA was performed at dosages of 0.1, 0.2, and 0.3 mmol/kg body weight (BW) in 10 patients each. Before, during and after bolus injection 40 T 2 *-weighted images of a reference brain slice were acquired within 65.6 seconds on a 1.0 T clinical scanner and perfusion parameters were calculated. Results: Due to the limited signal decrease during bolus passage and the resulting low signal-difference-to-noise ratio (ΔS/N) no reliable differentiation of gray and white matter was possible at a contrast agent dosage of 0.1 mmol/kg BW. Only at higher dosages, both, signal decrease and ΔS/N were strong enough to allow differentiation of gray and white matter and to yield reliable parameter maps. Conclusion: For meaningful MR perfusion imaging at 1.0 T and with the given sequence a contrast agent dosage of at least 0.2 mmol/kg BW is necessary, if a 0.5-molar contrast agent is used. (orig.) [de

  20. Doubled dosage of sofosbuviris expected for inhibiting Zika virus infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Somsri Wiwanitkit; Viroj Wiwanitkit

    2017-01-01

    Sofosbuvir is a new antiviral drug that has been recommended for management of hepatitis C virus (HCV) for a few years. New researches support that sofosbuvir might be useful for the management of Zika virus infection. Based on the pharmacological activity, inhibiting the HCV RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp or NS5 protein), sofosbuvir is proposed for its effectiveness against Zika virus infection. Here, the authors used a mathematical modelling theoretical approach to predict the expected dosage of sofosbuvir for inhibiting Zika virus infection. Based on the modeling study, if sofosbuvir is assigned for management of Zika virus infection, doubled dosage of the present dosage for hepatitis C management is recommended.

  1. Dosage of boron traces in graphite, uranium and beryllium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coursier, J.; Hure, J.; Platzer, R.

    1955-01-01

    The problem of the dosage of the boron in the materials serving to the construction of nuclear reactors arises of the following way: to determine to about 0,1 ppm close to the quantities of boron of the order of tenth ppm. We have chosen the colorimetric analysis with curcumin as method of dosage. To reach the indicated contents, it is necessary to do a previous separation of the boron and the materials of basis, either by extraction of tetraphenylarsonium fluoborate in the case of the boron dosage in uranium and the beryllium oxide, either by the use of a cations exchanger resin of in the case of graphite. (M.B.) [fr

  2. Evolution of vertebrate sex chromosomes and dosage compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Jennifer A Marshall

    2016-01-01

    Differentiated sex chromosomes in mammals and other vertebrates evolved independently but in strikingly similar ways. Vertebrates with differentiated sex chromosomes share the problems of the unequal expression of the genes borne on sex chromosomes, both between the sexes and with respect to autosomes. Dosage compensation of genes on sex chromosomes is surprisingly variable - and can even be absent - in different vertebrate groups. Systems that compensate for different gene dosages include a wide range of global, regional and gene-by-gene processes that differ in their extent and their molecular mechanisms. However, many elements of these control systems are similar across distant phylogenetic divisions and show parallels to other gene silencing systems. These dosage systems cannot be identical by descent but were probably constructed from elements of ancient silencing mechanisms that are ubiquitous among vertebrates and shared throughout eukaryotes.

  3. Evaluation of the effect of torsemide on warfarin dosage requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Sophia; Momper, Jeremiah D; Yam, Felix K

    2017-08-01

    Background According to drug interaction databases, torsemide may potentiate the effects of warfarin. Evidence for this drug-drug interaction, however, is conflicting and the clinical significance is unknown. Objective The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of torsemide initiation on warfarin dosage requirements. Setting This study was conducted at the Veterans Affairs Healthcare System in San Diego, California. Method A retrospective cohort study was conducted using Veterans Affairs data from patients who were converted from bumetanide to torsemide between March 2014 and July 2014. Patients were also prescribed and taking warfarin during the observation period. Warfarin dosage requirements were evaluated to determine if any changes occurred within the first 3 months of starting torsemide. Main outcome measure The primary outcome was the average weekly warfarin dose before and after torsemide initiation. Results Eighteen patients met study inclusion criteria. The weekly warfarin dose before and after initiation of torsemide was not significantly different (34 ± 15 and 34 ± 13 mg, p > 0.05). Of those eighteen patients, only two experienced elevations in INR that required a decrease in warfarin dosage after torsemide initiation. Between those two patients, dosage reductions ranged from 5.3 to 18%. Conclusion These results indicated that most patients did not require any warfarin dosage adjustments after torsemide was initiated. The potential for interaction, however, still exists. While empiric warfarin dosage adjustments are not recommended when initiating torsemide, increased monitoring is warranted to minimize the risk of adverse effects.

  4. Learning and strategic asset allocation

    OpenAIRE

    Kearns, Michael

    2016-01-01

    This thesis investigates whether or not models that portray the relationship between what an investor learns and how he allocates his portfolio can explain phenomena related to household behaviour in the stock market. Endogenous modelling of household learning is utilised, which builds on a growing literature called bounded rationality with increasing explanatory power, offering an alternative to the classical rational expectations theory. Such phenomena include firstly why households often h...

  5. Dosage-based parameters for characterization of puff dispersion results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berbekar, Eva; Harms, Frank; Leitl, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    A set of parameters is introduced to characterize the dispersion of puff releases based on the measured dosage. These parameters are the dosage, peak concentration, arrival time, peak time, leaving time, ascent time, descent time and duration. Dimensionless numbers for the scaling of the parameters are derived from dimensional analysis. The dimensionless numbers are tested and confirmed based on a statistically representative wind tunnel dataset. The measurements were carried out in a 1:300 scale model of the Central Business District in Oklahoma City. Additionally, the effect of the release duration on the puff parameters is investigated. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Resource allocation in networks via coalitional games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shams, F.

    2016-01-01

    The main goal of this dissertation is to manage resource allocation in network engineering problems and to introduce efficient cooperative algorithms to obtain high performance, ensuring fairness and stability. Specifically, this dissertation introduces new approaches for resource allocation in

  7. Asset Allocation of Mutual Fund Investors

    OpenAIRE

    Dengpan Luo

    2003-01-01

    This paper studies mutual fund investors' asset allocation decisions using monthly flow data of U.S mutual fund industry from 1984 to 1998. We find that mutual fund investors change their asset allocations between stocks and bonds in reaction to business conditions tracked by changes in expected stock market returns. They tend to allocate less into stock funds during the trough of a business cycle when expected stock market returns are higher and to allocate more into stock funds during the p...

  8. Optimal resource allocation for distributed video communication

    CERN Document Server

    He, Yifeng

    2013-01-01

    While most books on the subject focus on resource allocation in just one type of network, this book is the first to examine the common characteristics of multiple distributed video communication systems. Comprehensive and systematic, Optimal Resource Allocation for Distributed Video Communication presents a unified optimization framework for resource allocation across these systems. The book examines the techniques required for optimal resource allocation over Internet, wireless cellular networks, wireless ad hoc networks, and wireless sensor networks. It provides you with the required foundat

  9. Intelligent tactical asset allocation support system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiemstra, Y.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents an advanced support system for Tactical Asset Allocation. Asset allocation explains over 90% of portfolio performance (Brinson, Hood and Beebower, 1988). Tactical asset allocation adjusts a strategic portfolio on the basis of short term market outlooks. The system includes

  10. Genomics Mechanisms of Carbon Allocation and Partitioning in Poplar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirst, Matias; Peter, Gary; Martin, Timothy

    2009-07-30

    The genetic control of carbon allocation and partitioning in woody perennial plants is poorly understood despite its importance for carbon sequestration. It is also unclear how environmental cues such as nitrogen availability impact the genes that regulate growth, and biomass allocation and wood composition in trees. To address these questions we phenotyped 396 clonally replicated genotypes of an interspecific pseudo-backcross pedigree of Populus for wood composition and biomass traits in above and below ground organs. The loci that regulate growth, carbon allocation and partitioning under two nitrogen conditions were identified, defining the contribution of environmental cues to their genetic control. Fifty-seven quantitative trait loci (QTL) were identified for twenty traits analyzed. The majority of QTL are specific to one of the two nitrogen treatments, demonstrating significant nitrogen-dependent genetic control. A highly significant genetic correlation was observed between plant growth and lignin/cellulose composition, and QTL co-localization identified the genomic position of potential pleiotropic regulators. Gene expression analysis of all poplar genes was also characterized in differentiating xylem, whole-roots and developing leaves of 192 of the segregating population. By integrating the QTL and gene expression information we identified genes that regulate carbon partitioning and several biomass growth related properties. The work developed in this project resulted in the publication of three book chapters, four scientific articles (three others currently in preparation), 17 presentations in international conferences and two provisional patent applications.

  11. “Jump Start and Gain” Model for Dosage Compensation in Drosophila Based on Direct Sequencing of Nascent Transcripts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Ferrari

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Dosage compensation in Drosophila is mediated by the MSL complex, which increases male X-linked gene expression approximately 2-fold. The MSL complex preferentially binds the bodies of active genes on the male X, depositing H4K16ac with a 3′ bias. Two models have been proposed for the influence of the MSL complex on transcription: one based on promoter recruitment of RNA polymerase II (Pol II, and a second featuring enhanced transcriptional elongation. Here, we utilize nascent RNA sequencing to document dosage compensation during transcriptional elongation. We also compare X and autosomes from published data on paused and elongating polymerase in order to assess the role of Pol II recruitment. Our results support a model for differentially regulated elongation, starting with release from 5′ pausing and increasing through X-linked gene bodies. Our results highlight facilitated transcriptional elongation as a key mechanism for the coordinated regulation of a diverse set of genes.

  12. 76 FR 59023 - Oral Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Tylosin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 520 [Docket No. FDA-2011-N-0003] Oral Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Tylosin AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending the animal drug...

  13. 77 FR 3927 - Oral Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Deracoxib

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 520 [Docket No. FDA-2011-N-0003] Oral Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Deracoxib AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending the animal drug...

  14. 76 FR 18648 - Oral Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Robenacoxib

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 520 [Docket No. FDA-2011-N-0003] Oral Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Robenacoxib AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending the animal drug...

  15. 76 FR 40808 - Oral Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Amprolium

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 520 [Docket No. FDA-2011-N-0003] Oral Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Amprolium AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending the animal drug...

  16. 77 FR 15960 - Oral Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Pergolide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 520 [Docket No. FDA-2011-N-0003] Oral Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Pergolide AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending the animal drug...

  17. 75 FR 67031 - Oral Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Domperidone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 520 [Docket No. FDA-2010-N-0002] Oral Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Domperidone AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending the animal drug...

  18. 76 FR 78149 - Oral Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Estriol

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 520 [Docket No. FDA-2011-N-0003] Oral Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Estriol AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending the animal drug...

  19. Pharmaceutical development of an intravenous dosage form of diacetylmorphine hydrochloride

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klous, Marjolein G.; Nuijen, Bastiaan; van den Brink, Wim; van Ree, Jan M.; Beijnen, Jos H.

    2004-01-01

    A solid dosage form for multiple use was developed for parenteral administration of diacetylmorphine in a clinical trial on co-prescription of heroin to heroin addicts. A 300-mg/mL diacetylmorphine hydrochloride solution was lyophilised as 10-mL aliquots in 30-mL glass vials, to be reconstituted to

  20. Effect of lead acetate administered orally at different dosage levels ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The project was conducted to evaluate the effect of lead administered as lead acetate at different dosage levels via drinking water in broiler chicks. Thirty-five healthy chicks were divided into seven groups (five chicks each) and one group was kept as un-medicated control. Groups A, B, C, D, E and F were medicated with ...

  1. Quality of 'Climax' blueberries after low dosage electron beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, W.R.; McDonald, R.E.; McCollum, T.G.; Smittle, B.J.

    1994-01-01

    Fruit of 'Climax' rabbiteye blueberries (Vaccinium ashei Reade) were irradiated by a linear accelerator at 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0, and 1.25 kGy and evaluated for various quality attributes after storage for 1, 3, 7, or 14 days at 1C plus 2 days at 15C, respectively. Weight loss increased during storage and averaged 4.2% after the final inspection and was not affected by irradiation dosage. About 5% of total berries were decayed after 14 days at 1C, about 6% after the final inspection at 15C, but decay was not affected by the level of irradiation. Electrolyte leakage, skin color, total soluble solids, acidity, and pH were also not affected by irradiation dosage. There was a significant decline in berry firmness, flavor, and texture as dosage increased. Berries treated at 1.0 kGy or above were softer and had lower flavor and texture preference scores than berries treated at lower dosages or nontreated berries

  2. Dosage plasmatique et globulaire du magnesium dans l'exploration ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: The allergic rhinitis represents a real public health problem. The goal of this survey is to value the interest of the dosage plasmatical and globular of magnesium in the diagnosis of the allergic rhinitis. Materials and methods : Analytic and prospective survey of 80 files, on one period of 4 years and 5 months (from ...

  3. Determination of methadone hydrochloride in a maintenance dosage formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, T J; Thompson, R D

    1975-07-01

    A colorimetric method for direct quantitative assay of methadone hydrochloride in liquid oral dosage forms is presented. The procedure involves the formation of a dye complex with bromothymol blue buffer solution. The resultant complex is extracted with benzene and measured spectrophotometrically. Duplicate tests on the formulation showed 99.2% of the labeled amount of methadone.

  4. 21 CFR 520.1448 - Monensin oral dosage forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Monensin oral dosage forms. 520.1448 Section 520.1448 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... distance the spots travel from the starting line divided by the distance the solvent front travels from the...

  5. Dosage Compensation of an Aneuploid Genome in Mouse Spermatogenic Cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jansa, Petr; Homolka, David; Blatný, Radek; Mistrik, M.; Bartek, Jiří; Forejt, Jiří

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 90, č. 6 (2014), 124/1-124/9 ISSN 0006-3363 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-08078S Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : gene dosage * male sterility * segmental trisomy * meiotic silencing of unsynapsed chromatin * DOWN-SYNDROME * MAMMALIAN MEIOSIS Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.318, year: 2014

  6. Gonadal dosage during hip dysplasia radiography in the dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, A K; Reynolds, K M; Leith, I S; Burns, P A

    1977-01-01

    Thermoluminescent dosemeters were used to estimate gonadal dosage during hip dysplasia radiography of labrador retriever dogs. The mean radiation dose to the unshielded testes was 100 millirad (mrad) and the estimated dose to the shielded testes was 9 mrad. It was considered unnecessary to shield the ovaries.

  7. Fuzzy-based dosage model of aqueous decoction of Adansonia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, in the area of traditional medicine, no much attention has been given to its enhancement with the use of information technology especially in the area of herbal prescription. ... The mass of herb and volume of solvent were used as input parameters to design the dosage model, and simulated using MATLAB.

  8. Formulation of Croton penduliflorus seed into tablet dosage form ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Formulation of Croton penduliflorus seed into tablet dosage form. GC Onunkwo. Abstract. No Abstract. Global Journal of Medical Sciences Vol. 5(1) 2006: 29-33. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/gjms.v5i1.10145.

  9. Formulation and evaluation of tablet dosage form of Hunteria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was aimed at formulating and evaluating tablet dosage form of Hunteria umbellata (HU) seed aqueous and purified extracts. HU seeds were dried, pulverized and the powder macerated in water to obtain aqueous extract, while alkaloidal extraction process was used to obtain purified extract. Extracts ...

  10. Biowaiver monographs for immediate release solid oral dosage forms: cimetidine.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jantratid, E; Prakongpan, S; Dressman, J B; Amidon, G L; Junginger, H E; Midha, K K; Barends, D M

    2006-01-01

    Literature data relevant to the decision to allow a waiver of in vivo bioequivalence (BE) testing for the approval of immediate release (IR) solid oral dosage forms containing cimetidine are reviewed. According to the current Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS), cimetidine would be assigned

  11. Dosage Compensation of an Aneuploid Genome in Mouse Spermatogenic Cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jansa, Petr; Homolka, David; Blatný, Radek; Mistrik, M.; Bartek, Jiří; Forejt, Jiří

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 90, č. 6 (2014), 124/1-124/9 ISSN 0006-3363 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-08078S Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : gene dosage * male sterility * segmental trisomy * meiotic silencing of unsynapsed chromatin * DOWN - SYNDROME * MAMMALIAN MEIOSIS Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.318, year: 2014

  12. Dosage compensation and demasculinization of X chromosomes in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachtrog, Doris; Toda, Nicholas R T; Lockton, Steven

    2010-08-24

    The X chromosome of Drosophila shows a deficiency of genes with male-biased expression, whereas mammalian X chromosomes are enriched for spermatogenesis genes expressed premeiosis and multicopy testis genes. Meiotic X-inactivation and sexual antagonism can only partly account for these patterns. Here, we show that dosage compensation (DC) in Drosophila may contribute substantially to the depletion of male genes on the X. To equalize expression between X-linked and autosomal genes in the two sexes, male Drosophila hypertranscribe their single X, whereas female mammals silence one of their two X chromosomes. We combine fine-scale mapping data of dosage compensated regions with genome-wide expression profiles and show that most male-biased genes on the D. melanogaster X are located outside dosage compensated regions. Additionally, X-linked genes that have newly acquired male-biased expression in D. melanogaster are less likely to be dosage compensated, and parental X-linked genes that gave rise to an autosomal male-biased retrocopy are more likely located within compensated regions. This suggests that DC contributes to the observed demasculinization of X chromosomes in Drosophila, both by limiting the emergence of male-biased expression patterns of existing X genes, and by contributing to gene trafficking of male genes off the X. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Spectrophotometric Determination of Cilostazol in Tablet Dosage Form

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To develop simple, rapid and selective spectrophotometric methods for the determination of cilostazol in tablet dosage form. Methods: Cilostazol was dissolved in 50 % methanol and its absorbance was scanned by ultraviolet (UV) spectrophotometry. Both linear regression equation and standard absorptivity were ...

  14. A fuzzy logic urea dosage controller design for two-cell selective catalytic reduction systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Kun; Wei, Lijiang; Jiang, Kai

    2017-12-22

    Diesel engines have dominated in the heavy-duty vehicular and marine power source. However, the induced air pollution is a big problem. As people's awareness of environmental protection increasing, the emission regulations of diesel-engine are becoming more stringent. In order to achieve the emission regulations, the after-treatment system is a necessary choice. Specifically, the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system has been widely applied to reduce the NO X emissions of diesel engine. Different from single-cell SCR systems, the two-cell systems have various benefits from the modeling and control perspective. In this paper, the urea dosage controller design for two-cell SCR systems was investigated. Firstly, the two-cell SCR modeling was introduced. Based on the developed model, the design procedure for the fuzzy logic urea dosage controller was well addressed. Secondly, simulations and comparisons were employed via an experimental verification of the whole vehicle simulator. And the results showed that the designed controller simultaneously achieved high NO X reduction rate and low tail-pipe ammonia slip. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Tradable permit allocations and sequential choice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacKenzie, Ian A. [Centre for Economic Research, ETH Zuerich, Zurichbergstrasse 18, 8092 Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2011-01-15

    This paper investigates initial allocation choices in an international tradable pollution permit market. For two sovereign governments, we compare allocation choices that are either simultaneously or sequentially announced. We show sequential allocation announcements result in higher (lower) aggregate emissions when announcements are strategic substitutes (complements). Whether allocation announcements are strategic substitutes or complements depends on the relationship between the follower's damage function and governments' abatement costs. When the marginal damage function is relatively steep (flat), allocation announcements are strategic substitutes (complements). For quadratic abatement costs and damages, sequential announcements provide a higher level of aggregate emissions. (author)

  16. Maths anxiety and medication dosage calculation errors: A scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Brett; Davis, Samantha

    2016-09-01

    A student's accuracy on drug calculation tests may be influenced by maths anxiety, which can impede one's ability to understand and complete mathematic problems. It is important for healthcare students to overcome this barrier when calculating drug dosages in order to avoid administering the incorrect dose to a patient when in the clinical setting. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of maths anxiety on healthcare students' ability to accurately calculate drug dosages by performing a scoping review of the existing literature. This review utilised a six-stage methodology using the following databases; CINAHL, Embase, Medline, Scopus, PsycINFO, Google Scholar, Trip database (http://www.tripdatabase.com/) and Grey Literature report (http://www.greylit.org/). After an initial title/abstract review of relevant papers, and then full text review of the remaining papers, six articles were selected for inclusion in this study. Of the six articles included, there were three experimental studies, two quantitative studies and one mixed method study. All studies addressed nursing students and the presence of maths anxiety. No relevant studies from other disciplines were identified in the existing literature. Three studies took place in the U.S, the remainder in Canada, Australia and United Kingdom. Upon analysis of these studies, four factors including maths anxiety were identified as having an influence on a student's drug dosage calculation abilities. Ultimately, the results from this review suggest more research is required in nursing and other relevant healthcare disciplines regarding the effects of maths anxiety on drug dosage calculations. This additional knowledge will be important to further inform development of strategies to decrease the potentially serious effects of errors in drug dosage calculation to patient safety. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Allocation decisions in network industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolle, Friedel [Europa-Universitaet Viadrina Frankfurt, Lehrstuhl Volkswirtschaftslehre, insbesondere Wirtschaftstheorie (Mikrooekonomie), Postfach 1786 15207 Frankfurt (Germany)

    2008-01-15

    In this paper, I want to propagate a new analytical tool: The usage of Menu Auctions for modelling complicated auctions, negotiations, rent seeking, etc. is advocated, because, contrary to 'normal' auctions and bargaining models, an arbitrary number of additional aspects can be taken into account. After concentrating on 'Truthful Equilibria' [Bernheim, B.D., Whinston, M.D., 1986. Menu auctions, resource allocation, and economic influence, Quarterly Journal of Economics, 1-31.] a certain broad class of Menu Auctions show unique and efficient allocations. Under an additional concavity condition even the equilibrium bids are unique. Two examples are discussed: the privatisation of a state-owned industry and the buying of wholesale electricity (concluding contracts with a number of producers) by a utility. These examples also serve to trace the sources of 'non-concavities' which can prevent the uniqueness of bids and can provide the auctioneer with incentives to exclude bidders from the competition. (author)

  18. Allocation - the Howe measurement challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tierney, Jim; Moksnes, Paul Ove

    2005-07-01

    The Howe Field is located in the Central North Sea Block 22/12a approximately 160 km east of Aberdeen in a water depth of 85 m. The reservoir lies some 12 km east of the Shell operated Nelson Platform, which is situated in adjacent Block 22/11. The Howe project was initiated by Shell Exploration and Production to augment the operating life and production capacity of the Nelson platform, involving the development of an additional subset infrastructure and the installation of topside facilities. The owners of the Howe Field are Enterprise Oil PLC , Intrepid Energy and OMV. The Howe well fluids are commingled with Nelson fluids. Therefore, it is required to measure the Howe well fluids to differentiate between the fields and to determine how much money each partner is allocated. The commercial agreements have stipulated that the measurements of Howe fluids are required to be measured within an accuracy of +- 5% of reading. In addition to accuracy constraints, it was important to minimise capex to ensure the development was economically viable. Given this, multiphase metering was considered to be a solution for allocation between the different ownerships, as opposed to traditional separator metering. This paper will present the journey of the project activity through the selection criteria, flow loop test, installation, commissioning and the first 3 months of operation of the MPFM including verification with the Nelson test separator. Detailing with careful management and engineering support how to succeed with this type of application. (author) (tk)

  19. Factors of Selection of the Stock Allocation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohov Heorhii K.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article describes results of the author’s study of factors of making strategic decisions on selection of methods of stock allocation by public joint stock companies in Ukraine. The author used the Random forest mathematical apparatus of classification trees building and also informal methods. The article analyses the reasons that restrain public allocation of stock. It shows significant influence upon selection of a method of stock allocation of such factors as capital concentration, balance rate of corporate rights, sector of economy and significant participation of the institutes of common investment or the state in the authorised capital. The built hierarchical model of classification of factors of the issuing policy of joint stock companies finds logical justification in specific features of the institutional environment, however, it does not fit into the framework of the classical concept of the market economy. The model could be used both for formation of goals of corporate financial strategies and in the process of improvement of state regulation of activity of securities issuers. The prospect of further studies in this direction is identification of transformation of factors of selection of the stock allocation method under conditions of revival of the stock market.

  20. Transmission usage cost allocation schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abou El Ela, A.A.; El-Sehiemy, R.A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents different suggested transmission usage cost allocation (TCA) schemes to the system individuals. Different independent system operator (ISO) visions are presented using the proportional rata and flow-based TCA methods. There are two proposed flow-based TCA schemes (FTCA). The first FTCA scheme generalizes the equivalent bilateral exchanges (EBE) concepts for lossy networks through two-stage procedure. The second FTCA scheme is based on the modified sensitivity factors (MSF). These factors are developed from the actual measurements of power flows in transmission lines and the power injections at different buses. The proposed schemes exhibit desirable apportioning properties and are easy to implement and understand. Case studies for different loading conditions are carried out to show the capability of the proposed schemes for solving the TCA problem. (author)

  1. Digital and conventional radiology techniques: comparison of dosage and costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arranza, L.; Albornoz, C. de

    1996-01-01

    To compare the radiation dosage and costs in conventional and digital technologies. The study dealt with transverse sections. The dosage applied with conventional technology was measured in 254 patients who intertwined 402 explorations of 6 anatomic regions in 4 Radiodiagnostic Services. The dosage applied with digital technology was measured in 57 patients who underwent 95 explorations of the same anatomic region in one Radiodiagnostic Service. The costs of the 6 types of conventional and digital explorations performed were calculated for two Radiodiagnostic Service. The doses administered (mGy) using convectional/digital technology were as follows: chest PA 0.2/0.1; chest LAT 0.7/0.3; breast CC 7.0/8.4; breast LAT 7.0/7.8; breast OB 7.0/10.5; cervical spine AP 9.6/9.0; cervical spine LAT 21.9/29.6; pelvis AP 7.3/7.1; plain abdominal 6.5/2.2. The costs incurred (1992 pesetas) with the convectional/digital technologies: chest AP and LAT 1,393/2,973; portable chest 2,027/3,714; mammography 2,357/3,486; phlebography 12,718/14,023; hysterosalpingography 4,876/6,701; bone scientigraphy 1,633/2,839. Compared with conventional technology, digital imaging reduces the radiation doses received by the patients, except in the case of mammography. The costs associated with the use of digital technology are greater than those incurred with conventional technology, mainly due to the costs of amortization. the use of digital technology is more justified when: 1) it is very necessary to reduce the dosage; 2) studies of chest and abdomen predominant; 3) the volume of utilization is high; 4) staff management is flexible , and 5) the cost of purchasing the equipment is lower. (Author) 10 refs

  2. Genetic basis for dosage sensitivity in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle M Henry

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Aneuploidy, the relative excess or deficiency of specific chromosome types, results in gene dosage imbalance. Plants can produce viable and fertile aneuploid individuals, while most animal aneuploids are inviable or developmentally abnormal. The swarms of aneuploid progeny produced by Arabidopsis triploids constitute an excellent model to investigate the mechanisms governing dosage sensitivity and aneuploid syndromes. Indeed, genotype alters the frequency of aneuploid types within these swarms. Recombinant inbred lines that were derived from a triploid hybrid segregated into diploid and tetraploid individuals. In these recombinant inbred lines, a single locus, which we call SENSITIVE TO DOSAGE IMBALANCE (SDI, exhibited segregation distortion in the tetraploid subpopulation only. Recent progress in quantitative genotyping now allows molecular karyotyping and genetic analysis of aneuploid populations. In this study, we investigated the causes of the ploidy-specific distortion at SDI. Allele frequency was distorted in the aneuploid swarms produced by the triploid hybrid. We developed a simple quantitative measure for aneuploidy lethality and using this measure demonstrated that distortion was greatest in the aneuploids facing the strongest viability selection. When triploids were crossed to euploids, the progeny, which lack severe aneuploids, exhibited no distortion at SDI. Genetic characterization of SDI in the aneuploid swarm identified a mechanism governing aneuploid survival, perhaps by buffering the effects of dosage imbalance. As such, SDI could increase the likelihood of retaining genomic rearrangements such as segmental duplications. Additionally, in species where triploids are fertile, aneuploid survival would facilitate gene flow between diploid and tetraploid populations via a triploid bridge and prevent polyploid speciation. Our results demonstrate that positional cloning of loci affecting traits in populations containing ploidy and

  3. QR encoded smart oral dosage forms by inkjet printing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edinger, Magnus; Bar-Shalom, Daniel; Sandler, Niklas; Rantanen, Jukka; Genina, Natalja

    2018-01-30

    The use of inkjet printing (IJP) technology enables the flexible manufacturing of personalized medicine with the doses tailored for each patient. In this study we demonstrate, for the first time, the applicability of IJP in the production of edible dosage forms in the pattern of a quick response (QR) code. This printed pattern contains the drug itself and encoded information relevant to the patient and/or healthcare professionals. IJP of the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API)-containing ink in the pattern of QR code was performed onto a newly developed porous and flexible, but mechanically stable substrate with a good absorption capacity. The printing did not affect the mechanical properties of the substrate. The actual drug content of the printed dosage forms was in accordance with the encoded drug content. The QR encoded dosage forms had a good print definition without significant edge bleeding. They were readable by a smartphone even after storage in harsh conditions. This approach of efficient data incorporation and data storage combined with the use of smart devices can lead to safer and more patient-friendly drug products in the future. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Prevalence and trends of cellulosics in pharmaceutical dosage forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastropietro, David J; Omidian, Hossein

    2013-02-01

    Many studies have shown that cellulose derivatives (cellulosics) can provide various benefits when used in virtually all types of dosage forms. Nevertheless, the popularity of their use in approved drug products is rather unknown. This research reports the current prevalence and trends of use for 15 common cellulosics in prescription drug products. The cellulosics were powdered and microcrystalline cellulose (MCC), ethyl cellulose, hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC), hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC), hypromellose (HPMC), HPMC phthalate, HPMC acetate succinate, cellulose acetate (CA), CA phthalate, sodium (Na) and calcium (Ca) carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), croscarmellose sodium (XCMCNa), methyl cellulose, and low substituted HPC. The number of brand drug products utilizing each cellulosics was determined using the online drug index Rxlist. A total of 607 brand products were identified having one or more of the cellulosics as an active or inactive ingredient. An array of various dosage forms was identified and revealed HPMC and MCC to be the most utilized cellulosics in all products followed by XCMCNa and HPC. Many products contained two or more cellulosics in the formulation (42% containing two, 23% containing three, and 4% containing 4-5). The largest combination occurrence was HPMC with MCC. The use of certain cellulosics within different dosage form types was found to contain specific trends. All injectables utilized only CMCNa, and the same with all ophthalmic solutions utilizing HPMC, and otic suspensions utilizing HEC. Popularity and trends regarding cellulosics use may occur based on many factors including functionality, safety, availability, stability, and ease of manufacturing.

  5. Reduced Erg Dosage Impairs Survival of Hematopoietic Stem and Progenitor Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Ying; Koch, Mia Lee; Zhang, Xin; Hamblen, Melanie J; Godinho, Frank J; Fujiwara, Yuko; Xie, Huafeng; Klusmann, Jan-Henning; Orkin, Stuart H; Li, Zhe

    2017-07-01

    ERG, an ETS family transcription factor frequently overexpressed in human leukemia, has been implicated as a key regulator of hematopoietic stem cells. However, how ERG controls normal hematopoiesis, particularly at the stem and progenitor cell level, and how it contributes to leukemogenesis remain incompletely understood. Using homologous recombination, we generated an Erg knockdown allele (Erg kd ) in which Erg expression can be conditionally restored by Cre recombinase. Erg kd/kd animals die at E10.5-E11.5 due to defects in endothelial and hematopoietic cells, but can be completely rescued by Tie2-Cre-mediated restoration of Erg in these cells. In Erg kd/+ mice, ∼40% reduction in Erg dosage perturbs both fetal liver and bone marrow hematopoiesis by reducing the numbers of Lin - Sca-1 + c-Kit + (LSK) hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) and megakaryocytic progenitors. By genetic mosaic analysis, we find that Erg-restored HSPCs outcompete Erg kd/+ HSPCs for contribution to adult hematopoiesis in vivo. This defect is in part due to increased apoptosis of HSPCs with reduced Erg dosage, a phenotype that becomes more drastic during 5-FU-induced stress hematopoiesis. Expression analysis reveals that reduced Erg expression leads to changes in expression of a subset of ERG target genes involved in regulating survival of HSPCs, including increased expression of a pro-apoptotic regulator Bcl2l11 (Bim) and reduced expression of Jun. Collectively, our data demonstrate that ERG controls survival of HSPCs, a property that may be used by leukemic cells. Stem Cells 2017;35:1773-1785. © 2017 AlphaMed Press.

  6. Dosage compensation in Drosophila melanogaster, a model for control in other insect species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilfiker, A.; Hilfiker-Kleiner, D.; Lucchesi, J.C.

    1998-01-01

    In the animal kingdom, many species with euchromatic heteromorphic sex chromosomes have developed mechanisms for the equalization of gene products in the homo- and the heterogametic sex. This mechanism, called dosage compensation, is achieved in Drosophila by the doubling of the transcriptional activity of X-linked genes in the male, in comparison to the female. Any failure in achieving dosage compensation causes lethality: hapto-X male individuals that fail to hyperactivate their single X-chromosome as well as diplo-X female individuals that hyperactivate their X-chromosomes die. Five genes that are involved in the regulation of this process have been identified. in males, a group of four genes, the so called male-specific lethals (mle, msl-1, msl-2, msl-3), must be active in order for hypertranscription to occur, whereas in females the Sxl gene, the master key gene of sex determination, has to be active to prevent the msl genes from becoming active. However, XX individuals with mutations in Sxl cannot be rescued by mutations in the msl genes indicating that at least one member of this group is yet to be uncovered. Furthermore, the msl gene that is regulated in a sex-specific manner has not yet been identified. Given that msl-1 is transcribed in both sexes but its protein product is nearly absent in females, we have investigated whether this gene is the target of sex-specific regulation. We have also carried out extensive genetic screens for the purpose of identifying additional members of the msl group. These investigations are necessary prerequisites to the development of genetic sexing techniques based on the constitutive expression of msl genes in females causing female-specific lethality. (author)

  7. Intelligent tactical asset allocation support system

    OpenAIRE

    Hiemstra, Y.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents an advanced support system for Tactical Asset Allocation. Asset allocation explains over 90% of portfolio performance (Brinson, Hood and Beebower, 1988). Tactical asset allocation adjusts a strategic portfolio on the basis of short term market outlooks. The system includes aprediction model that forecasts quarterly excess returns on the S and PSOO, an optimization model that adjusts a user-specified strategic portfolio on thebasis of the excess return forecast, and a compo...

  8. An intelligent allocation algorithm for parallel processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Chester C.; Homaifar, Abdollah; Ananthram, Kishan G.

    1988-01-01

    The problem of allocating nodes of a program graph to processors in a parallel processing architecture is considered. The algorithm is based on critical path analysis, some allocation heuristics, and the execution granularity of nodes in a program graph. These factors, and the structure of interprocessor communication network, influence the allocation. To achieve realistic estimations of the executive durations of allocations, the algorithm considers the fact that nodes in a program graph have to communicate through varying numbers of tokens. Coarse and fine granularities have been implemented, with interprocessor token-communication duration, varying from zero up to values comparable to the execution durations of individual nodes. The effect on allocation of communication network structures is demonstrated by performing allocations for crossbar (non-blocking) and star (blocking) networks. The algorithm assumes the availability of as many processors as it needs for the optimal allocation of any program graph. Hence, the focus of allocation has been on varying token-communication durations rather than varying the number of processors. The algorithm always utilizes as many processors as necessary for the optimal allocation of any program graph, depending upon granularity and characteristics of the interprocessor communication network.

  9. Cognitive radio networks dynamic resource allocation schemes

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Shaowei

    2014-01-01

    This SpringerBrief presents a survey of dynamic resource allocation schemes in Cognitive Radio (CR) Systems, focusing on the spectral-efficiency and energy-efficiency in wireless networks. It also introduces a variety of dynamic resource allocation schemes for CR networks and provides a concise introduction of the landscape of CR technology. The author covers in detail the dynamic resource allocation problem for the motivations and challenges in CR systems. The Spectral- and Energy-Efficient resource allocation schemes are comprehensively investigated, including new insights into the trade-off

  10. 21 CFR 330.3 - Imprinting of solid oral dosage form drug products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Imprinting of solid oral dosage form drug products... AS SAFE AND EFFECTIVE AND NOT MISBRANDED General Provisions § 330.3 Imprinting of solid oral dosage form drug products. A requirement to imprint an identification code on solid oral dosage form drug...

  11. 21 CFR 522.1696 - Penicillin G procaine implantation and injectable dosage forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Penicillin G procaine implantation and injectable dosage forms. 522.1696 Section 522.1696 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.1696 Penicillin G procaine implantation and injectable dosage forms. ...

  12. 21 CFR 524.1662 - Oxytetracycline hydrochloride ophthalmic and topical dosage forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Oxytetracycline hydrochloride ophthalmic and topical dosage forms. 524.1662 Section 524.1662 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.1662 Oxytetracycline hydrochloride ophthalmic and topical dosage forms. ...

  13. Effective Loss Minimization and Allocation of Unbalanced Distribution Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manvir Kaur

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available An efficient distribution network must be able to supply power with good voltage profile. The main objective of the proposed work is to allocate losses of the unbalanced distribution network by the firefly algorithm in regulated and deregulated environments before and after loss minimization. Reconfiguration is one of the methods for loss reduction of unbalanced distribution network. Further, optimal placement of distributed generation and capacitor in the reconfigured unbalanced distribution network can further reduce the loss. The results of reconfigured unbalanced distribution network in regulated environment have already been reported. In this paper reconfiguration of an unbalanced distribution network in a deregulated environment is also carried out using an established Fuzzy Firefly algorithm. Loss sensitivity factor of unbalanced distribution networks is used to get the appropriate location of distributed generation and capacitor to be placed in the unbalanced distribution network. Their ratings have been found out by using bacteria foraging optimization algorithm (BFOA. The suggested loss allocation method using Firefly algorithm is implemented at first on 13 node unbalanced distribution network to check the performance of the proposed loss allocation method when compared to other available method. Finally the proposed method has been implemented on 25 node unbalanced distribution network. Both of the implementations are carried out under MATLAB environment.

  14. Peer-Allocated Instant Response (PAIR): Computional allocation of peer tutors in learning communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westera, Wim

    2009-01-01

    Westera, W. (2007). Peer-Allocated Instant Response (PAIR): Computational allocation of peer tutors in learning communities. Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation, http://jasss.soc.surrey.ac.uk/10/2/5.html

  15. Application research of power allocation based on Buck circuit in DC microgrid

    OpenAIRE

    Wang Zihao; Zhou Mingyu

    2017-01-01

    In a traditional DC microgrid, the power sharing control strategy has been always used in the distributed power converters, resulting in not making outer power allocation arbitrarily. In order to solve the power output allocation problem of wind power in DC microgrid, the intelligent Buck circuit based on PI algorithm and the load current feed-forward method was used to realize the arbitrary regulation of the output power of the wind power in the DC microgrid system. Compared with traditional...

  16. Land use allocation model considering climate change impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, D. K.; Yoon, E. J.; Song, Y. I.

    2017-12-01

    In Korea, climate change adaptation plans are being developed for each administrative district based on impact assessments constructed in various fields. This climate change impact assessments are superimposed on the actual space, which causes problems in land use allocation because the spatial distribution of individual impacts may be different each other. This implies that trade-offs between climate change impacts can occur depending on the composition of land use. Moreover, the actual space is complexly intertwined with various factors such as required area, legal regulations, and socioeconomic values, so land use allocation in consideration of climate change can be very difficult problem to solve (Liu et al. 2012; Porta et al. 2013).Optimization techniques can generate a sufficiently good alternatives for land use allocation at the strategic level if only the fitness function of relationship between impact and land use composition are derived. It has also been noted that land use optimization model is more effective than the scenario-based prediction model in achieving the objectives for problem solving (Zhang et al. 2014). Therefore in this study, we developed a quantitative tool, MOGA (Multi Objective Genetic Algorithm), which can generate a comprehensive land use allocations considering various climate change impacts, and apply it to the Gangwon-do in Korea. Genetic Algorithms (GAs) are the most popular optimization technique to address multi-objective in land use allocation. Also, it allows for immediate feedback to stake holders because it can run a number of experiments with different parameter values. And it is expected that land use decision makers and planners can formulate a detailed spatial plan or perform additional analysis based on the result of optimization model. Acknowledgments: This work was supported by the Korea Ministry of Environment (MOE) as "Climate Change Correspondence Program (Project number: 2014001310006)"

  17. Time allocation of disabled individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagán, Ricardo

    2013-05-01

    Although some studies have analysed the disability phenomenon and its effect on, for example, labour force participation, wages, job satisfaction, or the use of disability pension, the empirical evidence on how disability steals time (e.g. hours of work) from individuals is very scarce. This article examines how disabled individuals allocate their time to daily activities as compared to their non-disabled counterparts. Using time diary information from the Spanish Time Use Survey (last quarter of 2002 and the first three quarters of 2003), we estimate the determinants of time (minutes per day) spent on four aggregate categories (market work, household production, tertiary activities and leisure) for a sample of 27,687 non-disabled and 5250 disabled individuals and decompose the observed time differential by using the Oaxaca-Blinder methodology. The results show that disabled individuals devote less time to market work (especially females), and more time to household production (e.g. cooking, cleaning, child care), tertiary activities (e.g., sleeping, personal care, medical treatment) and leisure activities. We also find a significant effect of age on the time spent on daily activities and important differences by gender and disability status. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that disability steals time, and reiterate the fact that more public policies are needed to balance working life and health concerns among disabled individuals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Multiobjective optimal allocation problem with probabilistic non ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    In multivariate stratified sampling where more than one characteristic are to be estimated, an allocation which is optimum for one characteristic may not be optimum for other characteristics also. In such situations a compromise criterion is needed to work out a usable allocation which is optimum for all characteristics in some ...

  19. Bounds in the location-allocation problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel, Henrik

    1981-01-01

    Develops a family of stronger lower bounds on the objective function value of the location-allocation problem. Solution methods proposed to solve problems in location-allocation; Efforts to develop a more efficient bound solution procedure; Determination of the locations of the sources....

  20. A Time Allocation Study of University Faculty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Link, Albert N.; Swann, Christopher A.; Bozeman, Barry

    2008-01-01

    Many previous time allocation studies treat work as a single activity and examine trade-offs between work and other activities. This paper investigates the at-work allocation of time among teaching, research, grant writing and service by science and engineering faculty at top US research universities. We focus on the relationship between tenure…

  1. Obtaining a Proportional Allocation by Deleting Items

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorn, B.; de Haan, R.; Schlotter, I.; Röthe, J.

    2017-01-01

    We consider the following control problem on fair allocation of indivisible goods. Given a set I of items and a set of agents, each having strict linear preference over the items, we ask for a minimum subset of the items whose deletion guarantees the existence of a proportional allocation in the

  2. Directed networks, allocation properties and hierarchy formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slikker, M.; Gilles, R.P.; Norde, H.W.; Tijs, S.H.

    2005-01-01

    We investigate properties for allocation rules on directed communication networks and the formation of such networks under these payoff properties. We study allocation rules satisfying two appealing properties, Component Efficiency (CE) and the Hierarchical Payoff Property (HPP). We show that such

  3. Nash social welfare in multiagent resource allocation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramezani, S.; Endriss, U.; David, E.; Gerding, E.; Sarne, D.; Shehory, O.

    2010-01-01

    We study different aspects of the multiagent resource allocation problem when the objective is to find an allocation that maximizes Nash social welfare, the product of the utilities of the individual agents. The Nash solution is an important welfare criterion that combines efficiency and fairness

  4. Risk and reliability allocation to risk control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vojnovic, D.; Kozuh, M.

    1992-01-01

    The risk allocation procedure is used as an analytical model to support the optimal decision making for reliability/availability improvement planning. Both levels of decision criteria, the plant risk measures and plant performance indices, are used in risk allocation procedure. Decision support system uses the multi objective decision making concept. (author) [sl

  5. Bidding for surplus in network allocation problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slikker, M.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we study non-cooperative foundations of network allocation rules. We focus on three allocation rules: the Myerson value, the position value and the component-wise egalitarian solution. For any of these three rules we provide a characterization based on component efficiency and some

  6. Cost Allocation and Convex Data Envelopment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Tind, Jørgen

    such as Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). The convexity constraint of the BCC model introduces a non-zero slack in the objective function of the multiplier problem and we show that the cost allocation rules discussed in this paper can be used as candidates to allocate this slack value on to the input (or output...

  7. Optimal allocation of resources in systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derman, C.; Lieberman, G.J.; Ross, S.M.

    1975-01-01

    In the design of a new system, or the maintenance of an old system, allocation of resources is of prime consideration. In allocating resources it is often beneficial to develop a solution that yields an optimal value of the system measure of desirability. In the context of the problems considered in this paper the resources to be allocated are components already produced (assembly problems) and money (allocation in the construction or repair of systems). The measure of desirability for system assembly will usually be maximizing the expected number of systems that perform satisfactorily and the measure in the allocation context will be maximizing the system reliability. Results are presented for these two types of general problems in both a sequential (when appropriate) and non-sequential context

  8. Therapeutic dosages of aspirin counteract the IL-6 induced pro-tumorigenic effects by slowing down the ribosome biogenesis rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brighenti, Elisa; Giannone, Ferdinando Antonino; Fornari, Francesca; Onofrillo, Carmine; Govoni, Marzia; Montanaro, Lorenzo; Treré, Davide; Derenzini, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Chronic inflammation is a risk factor for the onset of cancer and the regular use of aspirin reduces the risk of cancer development. Here we showed that therapeutic dosages of aspirin counteract the pro-tumorigenic effects of the inflammatory cytokine interleukin(IL)-6 in cancer and non-cancer cell lines, and in mouse liver in vivo. We found that therapeutic dosages of aspirin prevented IL-6 from inducing the down-regulation of p53 expression and the acquisition of the epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) phenotypic changes in the cell lines. This was the result of a reduction in c-Myc mRNA transcription which was responsible for a down-regulation of the ribosomal protein S6 expression which, in turn, slowed down the rRNA maturation process, thus reducing the ribosome biogenesis rate. The perturbation of ribosome biogenesis hindered the Mdm2-mediated proteasomal degradation of p53, throughout the ribosomal protein-Mdm2-p53 pathway. P53 stabilization hindered the IL-6 induction of the EMT changes. The same effects were observed in livers from mice stimulated with IL-6 and treated with aspirin. It is worth noting that aspirin down-regulated ribosome biogenesis, stabilized p53 and up-regulated E-cadherin expression in unstimulated control cells also. In conclusion, these data showed that therapeutic dosages of aspirin increase the p53-mediated tumor-suppressor activity of the cells thus being in this way able to reduce the risk of cancer onset, either or not linked to chronic inflammatory processes. PMID:27557515

  9. Therapeutic dosages of aspirin counteract the IL-6 induced pro-tumorigenic effects by slowing down the ribosome biogenesis rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brighenti, Elisa; Giannone, Ferdinando Antonino; Fornari, Francesca; Onofrillo, Carmine; Govoni, Marzia; Montanaro, Lorenzo; Treré, Davide; Derenzini, Massimo

    2016-09-27

    Chronic inflammation is a risk factor for the onset of cancer and the regular use of aspirin reduces the risk of cancer development. Here we showed that therapeutic dosages of aspirin counteract the pro-tumorigenic effects of the inflammatory cytokine interleukin(IL)-6 in cancer and non-cancer cell lines, and in mouse liver in vivo. We found that therapeutic dosages of aspirin prevented IL-6 from inducing the down-regulation of p53 expression and the acquisition of the epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) phenotypic changes in the cell lines. This was the result of a reduction in c-Myc mRNA transcription which was responsible for a down-regulation of the ribosomal protein S6 expression which, in turn, slowed down the rRNA maturation process, thus reducing the ribosome biogenesis rate. The perturbation of ribosome biogenesis hindered the Mdm2-mediated proteasomal degradation of p53, throughout the ribosomal protein-Mdm2-p53 pathway. P53 stabilization hindered the IL-6 induction of the EMT changes. The same effects were observed in livers from mice stimulated with IL-6 and treated with aspirin. It is worth noting that aspirin down-regulated ribosome biogenesis, stabilized p53 and up-regulated E-cadherin expression in unstimulated control cells also. In conclusion, these data showed that therapeutic dosages of aspirin increase the p53-mediated tumor-suppressor activity of the cells thus being in this way able to reduce the risk of cancer onset, either or not linked to chronic inflammatory processes.

  10. Condensin-driven remodelling of X chromosome topology during dosage compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Emily; Bian, Qian; McCord, Rachel Patton; Lajoie, Bryan R.; Wheeler, Bayly S.; Ralston, Edward J.; Uzawa, Satoru; Dekker, Job; Meyer, Barbara J.

    2015-07-01

    The three-dimensional organization of a genome plays a critical role in regulating gene expression, yet little is known about the machinery and mechanisms that determine higher-order chromosome structure. Here we perform genome-wide chromosome conformation capture analysis, fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), and RNA-seq to obtain comprehensive three-dimensional (3D) maps of the Caenorhabditis elegans genome and to dissect X chromosome dosage compensation, which balances gene expression between XX hermaphrodites and XO males. The dosage compensation complex (DCC), a condensin complex, binds to both hermaphrodite X chromosomes via sequence-specific recruitment elements on X (rex sites) to reduce chromosome-wide gene expression by half. Most DCC condensin subunits also act in other condensin complexes to control the compaction and resolution of all mitotic and meiotic chromosomes. By comparing chromosome structure in wild-type and DCC-defective embryos, we show that the DCC remodels hermaphrodite X chromosomes into a sex-specific spatial conformation distinct from autosomes. Dosage-compensated X chromosomes consist of self-interacting domains (~1 Mb) resembling mammalian topologically associating domains (TADs). TADs on X chromosomes have stronger boundaries and more regular spacing than on autosomes. Many TAD boundaries on X chromosomes coincide with the highest-affinity rex sites and become diminished or lost in DCC-defective mutants, thereby converting the topology of X to a conformation resembling autosomes. rex sites engage in DCC-dependent long-range interactions, with the most frequent interactions occurring between rex sites at DCC-dependent TAD boundaries. These results imply that the DCC reshapes the topology of X chromosomes by forming new TAD boundaries and reinforcing weak boundaries through interactions between its highest-affinity binding sites. As this model predicts, deletion of an endogenous rex site at a DCC-dependent TAD boundary using

  11. Mechanisms and evolutionary patterns of mammalian and avian dosage compensation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Julien

    Full Text Available As a result of sex chromosome differentiation from ancestral autosomes, male mammalian cells only contain one X chromosome. It has long been hypothesized that X-linked gene expression levels have become doubled in males to restore the original transcriptional output, and that the resulting X overexpression in females then drove the evolution of X inactivation (XCI. However, this model has never been directly tested and patterns and mechanisms of dosage compensation across different mammals and birds generally remain little understood. Here we trace the evolution of dosage compensation using extensive transcriptome data from males and females representing all major mammalian lineages and birds. Our analyses suggest that the X has become globally upregulated in marsupials, whereas we do not detect a global upregulation of this chromosome in placental mammals. However, we find that a subset of autosomal genes interacting with X-linked genes have become downregulated in placentals upon the emergence of sex chromosomes. Thus, different driving forces may underlie the evolution of XCI and the highly efficient equilibration of X expression levels between the sexes observed for both of these lineages. In the egg-laying monotremes and birds, which have partially homologous sex chromosome systems, partial upregulation of the X (Z in birds evolved but is largely restricted to the heterogametic sex, which provides an explanation for the partially sex-biased X (Z expression and lack of global inactivation mechanisms in these lineages. Our findings suggest that dosage reductions imposed by sex chromosome differentiation events in amniotes were resolved in strikingly different ways.

  12. 76 FR 33615 - Energy Priorities and Allocations System Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-09

    ... an item, prohibit the use of selected items, divert supply of one type of product to another, or to... district with a population of less than 50,000. A small organization is any not-for- profit enterprise... an item, prohibit the use of selected items, or divert supply of one type of product to another, or...

  13. 75 FR 41405 - Energy Priorities and Allocations System Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-16

    ... information, including through the use of automated collection techniques or other forms of information... warehousing, ports, services, equipment and facilities, such as transportation carrier shop and repair... Department of Defense, use of petroleum and gas pipelines, and coal slurry pipelines used only to supply...

  14. Dependence of 'CT clearance' on dosage and time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaltenborn, H.A.; Klose, K.J.; Dexheimer, C.; Steinijans, V.

    1989-01-01

    The contrast medium dose used in CT renal function analysis corresponds to about 1 ml/kg body weight at a measurement interval of 5 or 10 minutes. In the present study the dependence of 'CT clearance' on dosage and time was examined in 12 healthy subjects. The amount of clearance was directly proportional to the employed contrast medium dose and to the length of the measurement interval. On account of the superior signal-to-noise ratio, the higher dose (1 ml/kg body weight) will continue to be prefered in future. The measurement interval can be limited to 10 minutes. (orig.) [de

  15. Comprehensive review on additives of topical dosage forms for drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Tarun; Rath, Goutam; Goyal, Amit K

    2015-12-01

    Skin is the largest organ of the human body and plays the most important role in protecting against pathogen and foreign matter. Three important modes such as topical, regional and transdermal are widely used for delivery of various dosage forms. Among these modes, the topical dosage forms are preferred because it provides local therapeutic activity when applied to the skin or mucous membranes. Additives or pharmaceutical excipients (non-drug component of dosage form) are used as inactive ingredients in dosage form or tools for structuring dosage forms. The main use of topical dosage form additives are controling the extent of absorption, maintaining the viscosity, improving the stability as well as organoleptic property and increasing the bulk of the formulation. The overall goal of this article is to provide the clinician with information related to the topical dosage form additives and their current major applications against various diseases.

  16. General lack of global dosage compensation in ZZ/ZW systems? Broadening the perspective with RNA-seq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolf Jochen BW

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Species with heteromorphic sex chromosomes face the challenge of large-scale imbalance in gene dose. Microarray-based studies in several independent male heterogametic XX/XY systems suggest that dosage compensation mechanisms are in place to mitigate the detrimental effects of gene dose differences. However, recent genomic research on female heterogametic ZZ/ZW systems has generated surprising results. In two bird species and one lepidopteran no evidence for a global dosage compensating mechanism has been found. The recent advent of massively parallel RNA sequencing now opens up the possibility to gauge the generality of this observation with a broader phylogenetic sampling. It further allows assessing the validity of microarray-based inference on dosage compensation with a novel technology. Results We here expemplify this approach using massively parallel sequencing on barcoded individuals of a bird species, the European crow (Corvus corone, where previously no genetic resources were available. Testing for Z-linkage with quantitative PCR (qPCR, we first establish that orthology with distantly related species (chicken, zebra finch can be used as a good predictor for chromosomal affiliation of a gene. We then use a digital measure of gene expression (RNA-seq on brain transcriptome and confirm a global lack of dosage compensation on the Z chromosome. RNA-seq estimates of male-to-female (m:f expression difference on the Z compare well to previous microarray-based estimates in birds and lepidopterans. The data further lends support that an up-regulation of female Z-linked genes conveys partial compensation and suggest a relationship between sex-bias and absolute expression level of a gene. Correlation of sex-biased gene expression on the Z chromosome across all three bird species further suggests that the degree of compensation has been partly conserved across 100 million years of avian evolution. Conclusions This work

  17. Regulative environmental policy. Regulative Umweltpolitik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goerlitz, A; Voigt, R [Universitaet der Bundeswehr Muenchen, Neubiberg (Germany, F.R.). Fakultaet fuer Sozialwissenschaften; eds.

    1991-01-01

    Regulative policy means those governmental attempts to steer the course of things which can fall back on a certain repertoire of instruments for actions in order to warrant the causal and temporal connection between the making available and the employment of means. The fact that environmental protection needs regulative policy is substantiated by the thesis that the market has failed; consequently only government can manage the public goods 'environment' in a suitable way, and it is a matter of fact that environmental protection at present is operated preferably via regulative policy. The problems of regulative enviromental policy are manifold. Its implementation often miscarries because of limited administrative resources on the one hand - making sufficient control impossible for instance -, and because of poor quality regulative instruments on the other hand. One way out would be to increase the efficiency of regulative policy by sophisticating judicial techniques. Other ways out point to the executing level and aim at improving implementation strategies or are concerned with post-regulative law. The latter refers to a new legal quality which demonstrates itself already in corporatistical crisis regulation or in induction programs such as pollution limits. A final way out favours deregulation strategies which includes the introduction of environmental levies or the allocation of environmental licences. An interdisciplinary discourse is to find out what would happen if these ways were taken. Pointers to solutions from varying scientific disciplines resulting from this discourse are to be found in this volume. (orig./HSCH).

  18. Work-family conflict and self-discrepant time allocation at work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahm, Patricia C; Glomb, Theresa M; Manchester, Colleen Flaherty; Leroy, Sophie

    2015-05-01

    We examine the relationships between work-to-family conflict, time allocation across work activities, and the outcomes of work satisfaction, well-being, and salary in the context of self-regulation and self-discrepancy theories. We posit work-to-family conflict is associated with self-discrepant time allocation such that employees with higher levels of work-to-family conflict are likely to allocate less time than preferred to work activities that require greater self-regulatory resources (e.g., tasks that are complex, or those with longer term goals that delay rewards and closure) and allocate more time than preferred to activities that demand fewer self-regulatory resources or are replenishing (e.g., those that provide closure or are prosocial). We suggest this self-discrepant time allocation (actual vs. preferred time allocation) is one mechanism by which work-to-family conflict leads to negative employee consequences (Allen, Herst, Bruck, & Sutton, 2000; Mesmer-Magnus & Viswesvaran, 2005). Using polynomial regression and response surface methodology, we find that discrepancies between actual and preferred time allocations to work activities negatively relate to work satisfaction, psychological well-being, and physical well-being. Self-discrepant time allocation mediates the relationship between work-to-family conflict and work satisfaction and well-being, while actual time allocation (rather than the discrepancy) mediates the relationship between work-to-family conflict and salary. We find that women are more likely than men to report self-discrepant time allocations as work-to-family conflict increases. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  19. Identifying Memory Allocation Patterns in HEP Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kama, S.; Rauschmayr, N.

    2017-10-01

    HEP applications perform an excessive amount of allocations/deallocations within short time intervals which results in memory churn, poor locality and performance degradation. These issues are already known for a decade, but due to the complexity of software frameworks and billions of allocations for a single job, up until recently no efficient mechanism has been available to correlate these issues with source code lines. However, with the advent of the Big Data era, many tools and platforms are now available to do large scale memory profiling. This paper presents, a prototype program developed to track and identify each single (de-)allocation. The CERN IT Hadoop cluster is used to compute memory key metrics, like locality, variation, lifetime and density of allocations. The prototype further provides a web based visualization back-end that allows the user to explore the results generated on the Hadoop cluster. Plotting these metrics for every single allocation over time gives a new insight into application’s memory handling. For instance, it shows which algorithms cause which kind of memory allocation patterns, which function flow causes how many short-lived objects, what are the most commonly allocated sizes etc. The paper will give an insight into the prototype and will show profiling examples for the LHC reconstruction, digitization and simulation jobs.

  20. Gamma ray dosage and mutation breeding in St. Augustinegrass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busey, P.

    1980-01-01

    Stolon pieces of St. Augustinegrass [Stenotaphrum secundatum (Walt.) Kuntze] were irradiated with gamma rays in an attempt to cause mutations. A practical dosage for most genotypes was 4,500 rads. This dosage caused considerable (50%) growth retardation and a mean survival of about 40% of single-node cuttings. However, Bitterblue and another accession were entirely killed at 4,000 rads. At 4,500 rads, up to 7% recognizable mutants of accession FA-243 were obtained. This proportion resulted when irradiated cuttings were propagated clonally and observed for 1.5 years in replicated microplots. In addition to morphological variants, a chimeral anthocyanin change was noticed. From this chimera arose a stable genotype with green stolons and white stigmas, whereas the source genotype (FA-243) had red stolons and purple stigmas. Associated reduction in fertility from 56 to 0.6% suggested that the mutation arose as a small chromosome deletion. Mutation breeding is effective in improving St. Augustinegrass when easily recognizable variants are needed

  1. Biowaiver monographs for immediate release solid oral dosage forms: efavirenz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristofoletti, Rodrigo; Nair, Anita; Abrahamsson, Bertil; Groot, D W; Kopp, Sabine; Langguth, Peter; Polli, James E; Shah, Vinod P; Dressman, Jennifer B

    2013-02-01

    Literature data pertaining to the decision to allow a waiver of in vivo bioequivalence testing for the approval of immediate-release (IR) solid oral dosage forms containing efavirenz as the only active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) are reviewed. Because of lack of conclusive data about efavirenz's permeability and its failure to comply with the "high solubility" criteria according to the Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS), the API can be classified as BCS Class II/IV. In line with the solubility characteristics, the innovator product does not meet the dissolution criteria for a "rapidly dissolving product." Furthermore, product variations containing commonly used excipients or in the manufacturing process have been reported to impact the rate and extent of efavirenz absorption. Despite its wide therapeutic index, subtherapeutic levels of efavirenz can lead to treatment failure and also facilitate the emergence of efavirenz-resistant mutants. For all these reasons, a biowaiver for IR solid oral dosage forms containing efavirenz as the sole API is not scientifically justified for reformulated or multisource drug products. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Gamma scintigraphy in the evaluation of pharmaceutical dosage forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, S.S.; Hardy, J.G.; Newman, S.P.; Wilding, I.R.

    1992-01-01

    Gamma-scintigraphy is applied extensively in the development and evaluation of pharmaceutical drug delivery systems. It is used particularly for monitoring formulations in the gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts. The radiolabelling is generally achieved by the incorporation of an appropriate technetium-99m or indium-111 labelled radiopharmaceutical into the formulation. In the case of complex dosage forms, such as enteric-coated tablets, labelling is best undertaken by the addition of a non-radioactive tracer such as samarium-152 or erbium-170 followed by neutron activation of the final product. Systems investigated include tablets and multiparticulates for oral administration, enemas and suppositories, metered dose inhalers and nebulisers, and nasal sprays and drops. Gamma-scintigraphy provides information on the deposition, dispersion and movement of the formulation. The combination of such studies with the assay of drug levels in blood or urine specimens, pharmacoscintigraphy, provides information concerning the sites of drug release and absorption. Data acquired from the scintigraphic evaluation of pharmaceutical dosage forms are now being used increasingly at all stages of product development, from the assessment of prototype delivery systems to supporting the product licence application. (orig.)

  3. Emergence of 3D Printed Dosage Forms: Opportunities and Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhnan, Mohamed A; Okwuosa, Tochukwu C; Sadia, Muzna; Wan, Ka-Wai; Ahmed, Waqar; Arafat, Basel

    2016-08-01

    The recent introduction of the first FDA approved 3D-printed drug has fuelled interest in 3D printing technology, which is set to revolutionize healthcare. Since its initial use, this rapid prototyping (RP) technology has evolved to such an extent that it is currently being used in a wide range of applications including in tissue engineering, dentistry, construction, automotive and aerospace. However, in the pharmaceutical industry this technology is still in its infancy and its potential yet to be fully explored. This paper presents various 3D printing technologies such as stereolithographic, powder based, selective laser sintering, fused deposition modelling and semi-solid extrusion 3D printing. It also provides a comprehensive review of previous attempts at using 3D printing technologies on the manufacturing dosage forms with a particular focus on oral tablets. Their advantages particularly with adaptability in the pharmaceutical field have been highlighted, which enables the preparation of dosage forms with complex designs and geometries, multiple actives and tailored release profiles. An insight into the technical challenges facing the different 3D printing technologies such as the formulation and processing parameters is provided. Light is also shed on the different regulatory challenges that need to be overcome for 3D printing to fulfil its real potential in the pharmaceutical industry.

  4. Gamma scintigraphy in the evaluation of pharmaceutical dosage forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, S.S.; Hardy, J.G.; Newman, S.P.; Wilding, I.R. (Pharmaceutical Profiles Ltd., Nottingham (United Kingdom))

    1992-11-01

    Gamma-scintigraphy is applied extensively in the development and evaluation of pharmaceutical drug delivery systems. It is used particularly for monitoring formulations in the gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts. The radiolabelling is generally achieved by the incorporation of an appropriate technetium-99m or indium-111 labelled radiopharmaceutical into the formulation. In the case of complex dosage forms, such as enteric-coated tablets, labelling is best undertaken by the addition of a non-radioactive tracer such as samarium-152 or erbium-170 followed by neutron activation of the final product. Systems investigated include tablets and multiparticulates for oral administration, enemas and suppositories, metered dose inhalers and nebulisers, and nasal sprays and drops. Gamma-scintigraphy provides information on the deposition, dispersion and movement of the formulation. The combination of such studies with the assay of drug levels in blood or urine specimens, pharmacoscintigraphy, provides information concerning the sites of drug release and absorption. Data acquired from the scintigraphic evaluation of pharmaceutical dosage forms are now being used increasingly at all stages of product development, from the assessment of prototype delivery systems to supporting the product licence application. (orig.).

  5. Maintenance and Loss of Duplicated Genes by Dosage Subfunctionalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gout, Jean-Francois; Lynch, Michael

    2015-08-01

    Whole-genome duplications (WGDs) have contributed to gene-repertoire enrichment in many eukaryotic lineages. However, most duplicated genes are eventually lost and it is still unclear why some duplicated genes are evolutionary successful whereas others quickly turn to pseudogenes. Here, we show that dosage constraints are major factors opposing post-WGD gene loss in several Paramecium species that share a common ancestral WGD. We propose a model where a majority of WGD-derived duplicates preserve their ancestral function and are retained to produce enough of the proteins performing this same ancestral function. Under this model, the expression level of individual duplicated genes can evolve neutrally as long as they maintain a roughly constant summed expression, and this allows random genetic drift toward uneven contributions of the two copies to total expression. Our analysis suggests that once a high level of imbalance is reached, which can require substantial lengths of time, the copy with the lowest expression level contributes a small enough fraction of the total expression that selection no longer opposes its loss. Extension of our analysis to yeast species sharing a common ancestral WGD yields similar results, suggesting that duplicated-gene retention for dosage constraints followed by divergence in expression level and eventual deterministic gene loss might be a universal feature of post-WGD evolution. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. ORODISPERSIBLE TABLET: A Patient Friendly Dosage Form (a Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. K. Rameesa

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The most common and preferred route of drug administration is through the oral route. Orodispersible tablets are gaining importance among novel oral drug delivery system as they have improved patient compliance and have some additional advantages compared to other formulation. They are also solid unit dosage forms, which disintegrate in the mouth within a minute in the presence of saliva due to superdisintegrants in the formulation. Thus this type of drug delivery helps a proper per oral administration in pediatric and geriatric population where swallowing is a matter of trouble. Various scientists have prepared orodispersible tablets by following various methods. However, the most common method is the direct compression method. Other special methods are Freeze Drying,Tablet Molding, Sublimation, Spray Drying, Mass extrusion, Phase transition process, etc. Since these tablets dissolve directly in the mouth, so, their taste is also an important factor. Various approaches have been taken in order to mask the bitter taste of the drug. A number of scientists have explored several drugs in this field. Like all other solid dosage forms, they are also evaluated in the field of hardness, friability, wetting time, moisture uptake, disintegration test and dissolution test.

  7. Stability of pharmaceutical salts in solid oral dosage forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Haichen; Byrn, Stephen R; Zhou, Qi Tony

    2017-08-01

    Using pharmaceutical salts in solid dosage forms can raise stability concerns, especially salt dissociation which can adversely affect the product performance. Therefore, a thorough understanding of the salt instability encountered in solid-state formulations is imperative to ensure the product quality. The present article uses the fundamental theory of acid base, ionic equilibrium, relationship of pH and solubility as a starting point to illustrate and interpret the salt formation and salt disproportionation in pharmaceutical systems. The criteria of selecting the optimal salt form and the underlying theory of salt formation and disproportionation are reviewed in detail. Factors influencing salt stability in solid dosage forms are scrutinized and discussed with the case studies. In addition, both commonly used and innovative strategies for preventing salt dissociations in formulation, on storage and during manufacturing will be suggested herein. This article will provide formulation scientists and manufacturing engineers an insight into the mechanisms of salt disproportionation and salt formation, which can help them to avoid and solve the instability issues of pharmaceutical salts in the product design.

  8. Worst-case analysis of heap allocations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puffitsch, Wolfgang; Huber, Benedikt; Schoeberl, Martin

    2010-01-01

    the worst-case heap allocations of tasks. The analysis builds upon techniques that are well established for worst-case execution time analysis. The difference is that the cost function is not the execution time of instructions in clock cycles, but the allocation in bytes. In contrast to worst-case execution...... time analysis, worst-case heap allocation analysis is not processor dependent. However, the cost function depends on the object layout of the runtime system. The analysis is evaluated with several real-time benchmarks to establish the usefulness of the analysis, and to compare the memory consumption...

  9. Dynamic Allocation of Sugars in Barley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumberbatch, L. C.; Crowell, A. S.; Fallin, B. A.; Howell, C. R.; Reid, C. D.; Weisenberger, A. G.; Lee, S. J.; McKisson, J. E.

    2014-03-01

    Allocation of carbon and nitrogen is a key factor for plant productivity. Measurements are carried out by tracing 11C-tagged sugars using positron emission tomography and coincidence counting. We study the mechanisms of carbon allocation and transport from carbohydrate sources (leaves) to sinks (stem, shoot, roots) under various environmental conditions such as soil nutrient levels and atmospheric CO2 concentration. The data are analyzed using a transfer function analysis technique to model transport and allocation in barley plants. The experimental technique will be described and preliminary results presented. This work was supported in part by USDOE Grant No. DE-FG02-97-ER41033 and DE-SC0005057.

  10. Gene dosage, expression, and ontology analysis identifies driver genes in the carcinogenesis and chemoradioresistance of cervical cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malin Lando

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Integrative analysis of gene dosage, expression, and ontology (GO data was performed to discover driver genes in the carcinogenesis and chemoradioresistance of cervical cancers. Gene dosage and expression profiles of 102 locally advanced cervical cancers were generated by microarray techniques. Fifty-two of these patients were also analyzed with the Illumina expression method to confirm the gene expression results. An independent cohort of 41 patients was used for validation of gene expressions associated with clinical outcome. Statistical analysis identified 29 recurrent gains and losses and 3 losses (on 3p, 13q, 21q associated with poor outcome after chemoradiotherapy. The intratumor heterogeneity, assessed from the gene dosage profiles, was low for these alterations, showing that they had emerged prior to many other alterations and probably were early events in carcinogenesis. Integration of the alterations with gene expression and GO data identified genes that were regulated by the alterations and revealed five biological processes that were significantly overrepresented among the affected genes: apoptosis, metabolism, macromolecule localization, translation, and transcription. Four genes on 3p (RYBP, GBE1 and 13q (FAM48A, MED4 correlated with outcome at both the gene dosage and expression level and were satisfactorily validated in the independent cohort. These integrated analyses yielded 57 candidate drivers of 24 genetic events, including novel loci responsible for chemoradioresistance. Further mapping of the connections among genetic events, drivers, and biological processes suggested that each individual event stimulates specific processes in carcinogenesis through the coordinated control of multiple genes. The present results may provide novel therapeutic opportunities of both early and advanced stage cervical cancers.

  11. Ising game: Nonequilibrium steady states of resource-allocation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, C.; Yang, G.; Huang, J. P.

    2017-04-01

    Resource-allocation systems are ubiquitous in the human society. But how external fields affect the state of such systems remains poorly explored due to the lack of a suitable model. Because the behavior of spins pursuing energy minimization required by physical laws is similar to that of humans chasing payoff maximization studied in game theory, here we combine the Ising model with the market-directed resource-allocation game, yielding an Ising game. Based on the Ising game, we show theoretical, simulative and experimental evidences for a formula, which offers a clear expression of nonequilibrium steady states (NESSs). Interestingly, the formula also reveals a convertible relationship between the external field (exogenous factor) and resource ratio (endogenous factor), and a class of saturation as the external field exceeds certain limits. This work suggests that the Ising game could be a suitable model for studying external-field effects on resource-allocation systems, and it could provide guidance both for seeking more relations between NESSs and equilibrium states and for regulating human systems by choosing NESSs appropriately.

  12. Functional Requirement Analysis and Function Allocation for APR 1400

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuraslinda, Anuar; Florah, Kamanja; Noloyiso, Mtoko and others

    2013-01-01

    This paper intends to fulfill the FRA and FA of the HFE as required in Chapter 4 of NUREG-0711 rev. 3 for APR1400 to satisfy both plant safety and power generation objectives. This paper aims to evaluate the FRA and FA for APR1400. The allocation of function is done at the system level for all processes for both the power generation and safety goals, following the NUREG/CR-3331 guideline. As a conclusion, this paper has successfully implemented the requirements and methodology specified in NUREG-0711 for APR 1400. The Functional Requirement Analysis (FRA) and Function Allocation (FA) are required by the regulation in the Human Factors Engineering (HFE) program. The FRA defines the functions, processes, and system for plant safety and power generation. The FA allocates the functions to human operator, automation, or a combination of two. The FRA and FA for APR1400 have been performed in the very early stage of development but only for the plant safety. However, the analysis did not include the goal of power generation and also did not fully satisfy the latest revision of NUREG-0711

  13. NASH BARGAINING BASED BANDWIDTH ALLOCATION IN COGNITIVE RADIO FOR DELAY CRITICAL APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalyani Kulkarni

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to effectively regulate the existing resources, dynamic spectrum access in cognitive radio needs to adopt the effective resource allocation strategies. Multimedia applications require large bandwidth and have to meet the delay constraints while maintaining the data quality. Game theory is emerging as an effective analytical tool for the analysis of available resources and its allocation. This paper addresses resource allocation schemes employing bargaining game model for Multi-carrier CDMA based Cognitive Radio. Resource allocation scheme is designed for transmission of video over cognitive radio networks and aim to perform bandwidth allocation for different cognitive users. Utility function based on bargaining model is proposed. Primary user utility function includes the pricing factor and an upbeat factor that can be adjusted by observing the delay constraints of the video. Allocated bandwidth to the secondary user can be adjusted by changing the upbeat factor. Throughput in the proposed scheme is increased by 2% as compared to other reported pricing based resource allocation schemes. The edge PSNR of reconstructed video obtained as 32.6dB resulting to optimum decoding of the video at the receiver. The study also shows upbeat factor can be used to enhanced capacity of the network.

  14. THE EFFECTIVENESS OF BUDGET ALLOCATION IN PUBLIC PROCUREMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Yu. Fedorova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the problem of budget allocation in the state order inRussia. Assesses the effectiveness of the financial mechanism of the public procurement business entities, purchasing activities are regulated by Federal Law №44-FZ and №223-FZ. The dynamics of financing the procurement process and reveal its features by using the most common methods of procurement through competitive bidding and without bidding. Identifies the causes of inefficient spending budget as a result of the non-competitive procurement methods by certain categories of business entities. 

  15. Merchant interconnector projects by generators in the EU: Profitability and allocation of capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koten, Silvester van

    2012-01-01

    When building a cross-border transmission line (a so-called interconnector) as a for-profit (merchant) project, where the regulator has required that capacity allocation be done non-discriminatorily by explicit auction, the identity of the investor can affect the profitability of the interconnector project and, once operational, the resulting allocation of its capacity. Specifically, when the investor is a generator (hereafter the integrated generator) who also can use the interconnector to export its electricity to a distant location, then, once operational, the integrated generator will bid more aggressively in the allocation auctions to increase the auction revenue and thus its profits. As a result, the integrated generator is more likely to win the auction and the capacity is sold for a higher price. This lowers the allocative efficiency of the auction, but it increases the expected ex-ante profitability of the merchant interconnector project. Unaffiliated, independent generators, however, are less likely to win the auction and, in any case, pay a higher price, which dramatically lowers their revenues from exporting electricity over this interconnector. - Highlights: ► A merchant interconnector owned by an electricity generator needs special attention of regulators. ► Even when allocation of the capacity is done by auctions, the generator will make a large profit. ► The generator will also decrease the allocation of capacity to competitors by bidding aggressively.

  16. ALLOCATION OF FINANCIAL RESOURCE TO ENHANCE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GRACE

    This study examines the allocation of financial resource to the education industry and ..... This should check all books of account at least once a month to reconcile ... All cash advance request must be supported with relevant documents vii.

  17. Fund allocation using capacitated vehicle routing problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamat, Nur Jumaadzan Zaleha; Jaaman, Saiful Hafizah; Ahmad, Rokiah Rozita; Darus, Maslina

    2014-09-01

    In investment fund allocation, it is unwise for an investor to distribute his fund into several assets simultaneously due to economic reasons. One solution is to allocate the fund into a particular asset at a time in a sequence that will either maximize returns or minimize risks depending on the investor's objective. The vehicle routing problem (VRP) provides an avenue to this issue. VRP answers the question on how to efficiently use the available fleet of vehicles to meet a given service demand, subjected to a set of operational requirements. This paper proposes an idea of using capacitated vehicle routing problem (CVRP) to optimize investment fund allocation by employing data of selected stocks in the FTSE Bursa Malaysia. Results suggest that CRVP can be applied to solve the issue of investment fund allocation and increase the investor's profit.

  18. U.S. Army Recruiter Allocation Model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brence, John

    2004-01-01

    .... Our methodology will build on both the new and old schools of recruiting by conducting stakeholder interviews that will lead us to a model that is an efficient starting point for the Recruiter Mission Allocation (RMA...

  19. Optimal Resource Allocation in Library Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouse, William B.

    1975-01-01

    Queueing theory is used to model processes as either waiting or balking processes. The optimal allocation of resources to these processes is defined as that which maximizes the expected value of the decision-maker's utility function. (Author)

  20. Resource allocation based on cost efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dehnokhalaji, Akram; Ghiyasi, Mojtaba; Korhonen, Pekka

    2017-01-01

    -objective linear programming problem using two different strategies. First, we propose an RA model which keeps the cost efficiencies of units unchanged. This is done assuming fixed technical and allocative efficiencies. The approach is based on the assumption that the decision maker (DM) may not have big changes......In this paper, we consider a resource allocation (RA) problem and develop an approach based on cost (overall) efficiency. The aim is to allocate some inputs among decision making units (DMUs) in such way that their cost efficiencies improve or stay unchanged after RA. We formulate a multi...... in the structure of DMUs within a short term. The second strategy does not impose any restrictions on technical and allocative efficiencies. It guarantees that none of the cost efficiencies of DMUs get worse after RA, and the improvement for units is possible if it is feasible and beneficial. Two numerical...

  1. regional grain allocation and transportation in China

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-12-14

    Dec 14, 2011 ... China was partitioned into eight regions, and the virtual water flow due to regional grain allocation and ... strategy can be choices which can realize Chinese food security and ..... Globalization of water: Sharing the planet's ...

  2. Telecommunications Circuit Allocation Programs - Kansas City Area

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thomas, William

    1994-01-01

    The overall objective of the audit was to determine whether DoD circuit allocation programs identified and used the most effective configurations for leased long-haul, special-purpose telecommunications circuits...

  3. Draft regulatory analysis: notice of proposed rulemaking motor gasoline allocation revisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-06-01

    The Draft Regulatory Analysis is prepared for those proposed regulations which either may have a major impact on the general economy, individual industries, or geographic regions and levels of government, or may be significant in that they affect important DOE policy concerns and are the object of public interest. The problems and proposed solutions for the Notice of Proposed Rulemaking and Public Hearings on the Motor Gasoline Allocation Program are examined. The ERA's mandate for this program is set out in the Emergency Petroleum Allocation Act of 1973. Under this Act, the President is empowered to enforce, at his discretion, price and allocation controls on petroleum and petroleum products, including gasoline, through September 30, 1981. The Act sets the following allocation goals: protect public health; maintain public services and agricultural operations; foster competition in the petroleum industry; distribute petroleum among industry sectors and US regions equitably; and minimize economic disruption and unnecessary interference wth market mechanisms.

  4. Macroeconomic influences on optimal asset allocation

    OpenAIRE

    Flavin, Thomas; Wickens, M.R.

    2003-01-01

    We develop a tactical asset allocation strategy that incorporates the effects of macroeconomic variables. The joint distribution of financial asset returns and the macroeconomic variables is modelled using a VAR with a multivariate GARCH (M-GARCH) error structure. As a result, the portfolio frontier is time varying and subject to contagion from the macroeconomic variable. Optimal asset allocation requires that this be taken into account. We illustrate how to do this using three ri...

  5. Human Capital and Risky Asset Allocation

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Wenjie; Yu, Qun

    2011-01-01

    Much research has been done to examine the relation between investors' human capital and their financial asset allocation. While some showed that the value of human capital should be taken into consideration to make financial asset allocation decisions on the composition of investing portfolios, most argued not. In this paper, we selected the monthly return of 9 industrial ETFs from June of 2007 to July 2011, used the present value of total future income as estimate of human capital, and reli...

  6. Cost allocation. Combined heat and power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidzikauskas, V.

    2002-01-01

    The benefits of Combined Heat and Power (CHP) generation are discussed. The include improvement in energy intensity of 1% by 2010, 85-90% efficiency versus 40-50% of condensation power and others. Share of CHP electricity production in ERRA countries is presented.Solutions for a development CHP cost allocation are considered. Conclusion are presented for CHP production cost allocation. (R.P.)

  7. ABCB1 genetic variability and methadone dosage requirements in opioid-dependent individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coller, Janet K; Barratt, Daniel T; Dahlen, Karianne; Loennechen, Morten H; Somogyi, Andrew A

    2006-12-01

    The most common treatment for opioid dependence is substitution therapy with another opioid such as methadone. The methadone dosage is individualized but highly variable, and program retention rates are low due in part to nonoptimal dosing resulting in withdrawal symptoms and further heroin craving and use. Methadone is a substrate for the P-glycoprotein transporter, encoded by the ABCB1 gene, which regulates central nervous system exposure. This retrospective study aimed to investigate the influence of ABCB1 genetic variability on methadone dose requirements. Genomic deoxyribonucleic acid was isolated from opioid-dependent subjects (n = 60) and non-opioid-dependent control subjects (n = 60), and polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism and allele-specific polymerase chain reaction were used to determine the presence of single nucleotide polymorphisms at positions 61, 1199, 1236, 2677, and 3435. ABCB1 haplotypes were inferred with PHASE software (version 2.1). There were no significant differences in the allele or genotype frequencies of the individual single nucleotide polymorphisms or haplotypes between the 2 populations. ABCB1 genetic variability influenced daily methadone dose requirements, such that subjects carrying 2 copies of the wild-type haplotype required higher doses compared with those with 1 copy and those with no copies (98.3 +/- 10.4, 58.6 +/- 20.9, and 55.4 +/- 26.1 mg/d, respectively; P = .029). In addition, carriers of the AGCTT haplotype required significantly lower doses than noncarriers (38.0 +/- 16.8 and 61.3 +/- 24.6 mg/d, respectively; P = .04). Although ABCB1 genetic variability is not related to the development of opioid dependence, identification of variant haplotypes may, after larger prospective studies have been performed, provide clinicians with a tool for methadone dosage individualization.

  8. Nanofibrous solid dosage form of living bacteria prepared by electrospinning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Wagner

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to investigate the suitability of electrospinning for biodrug delivery and to develop an electrospinning-based method to produce vaginal drug delivery systems. Lactobacillus acidophilus bacteria were encapsulated into nanofibers of three different polymers (polyvinyl alcohol and polyvinylpyrrolidone with two different molar masses. Shelf life of the bacteria could be enhanced by the exclusion of water and by preparing a solid dosage form, which is an advantageous and patient-friendly way of administration. The formulations were stored at –20, 7 and 25°C, respectively. Viability testing showed that the nanofibers can provide long term stability for huge amounts of living bacteria if they are kept at (or below 7°C. Furthermore, all kinds of nanowebs prepared in this work dissolved instantly when they got in contact with water, thus the developed biohybrid nanowebs can provide new potential ways for curing bacterial vaginosis.

  9. Investigation of radiation exposure dosage in dental and panoramic radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Kenichi

    2005-01-01

    Dental radiography and a 10-sheet procedure were conducted at 10 sites in the maxillomandibular anterior teeth and at both sides of the premolar and molar teeth sections with and without a protective apron (total 22 patterns). Experiments, which included a total of five patterns, involving standard ortho-radiography were performed with and without a protective apron, positioning of an apron exclusively on the anterior or the posterior portion of the body and utility of an apron that covered the entire body. Results are as follows: In dental radiography, internal organs included in a bundle demonstrated high radiation exposure, whereas organs excluded from the bundle exhibited low radiation exposure. In organs situated below the thyroid gland, utilization of aprons resulted in lower radiation exposure. In ortho-radiography, radiation exposure was greatest in the parotid gland, followed by the mandibular, sublingual and thyroid glands, respectively. The protective apron resulted in lower radiation exposure at sites situated below the mammary glands; moreover, a protector covering the entire body led to lower radiation exposure in comparison to an apron worn exclusively on the anterior or the posterior aspect of the body. No significant difference was observed in terms of exposure between protective aprons worn on the anterior or the posterior aspect of the body. Furthermore, a protective collar resulted in nearly zero radiation exposure in the thyroid gland. However, a protective collar largely interferes with interpretation of the radiograph; thus, in order to produce interpretable radiographs, protection of the thyroid gland is not possible. In conclusion, radiation exposure dosage can be reduced via utilization of a protective apron positioned below the thyroid gland during dental radiography and below the mammary glands during ortho-radiography. We confirmed evidence indicating that application of a protective apron can reduce patient radiation exposure dosage

  10. Effects of maternal psychotropic drug dosage on birth outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michielsen LA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Laura A Michielsen,1 Frank MMA van der Heijden,1 Paddy KC Janssen,2 Harold JH Kuijpers11Vincent van Gogh Institute for Psychiatry, Venlo, the Netherlands; 2Department of Pharmacy, VieCuri Medical Centre, Venlo, the NetherlandsBackground: The aim of this retrospective study was to explore the relationship between psychotropic medication dosage and birth outcomes.Methods: A total of 136 women were enrolled, who had an active mental disorder, were taking medication to prevent a relapse, or had a history of postpartum depression or psychosis. Medication use was evaluated for the three trimesters and during labor. Based on the defined daily dose, medication use was classified into three groups. Primary outcome variables included the infant gestational age at birth, birth weight, and Apgar scores at one and 5 minutes.Results: Our study showed a significantly higher incidence of Apgar score ≤7 at 5 minutes in women taking psychotropic drugs as compared with the group taking no medication, respectively (16.3% versus 0.0%, P=0.01. There was no significant difference between the two groups in Apgar score at one minute or in gestational age and birth weight. The results showed no significant differences in gestational age, birth weight, or Apgar scores for a low–intermediate or high dose of a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor and for a low or intermediate dose of an antipsychotic.Conclusion: This study does not indicate a relationship between doses of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and antipsychotics and adverse neonatal outcomes.Keywords: pregnancy, psychotropic medication, dosage, birth outcomes

  11. Warfarin dosage response related pharmacogenetics in Chinese population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siyue Li

    Full Text Available As the most frequently prescribed anticoagulant, warfarin has large inter-individual variability in dosage. Genetic polymorphisms could largely explain the differences in dosage requirement. rs9923231 (VKORC1, rs7294 (VKORC1, rs1057910 (CYP2C9, rs2108622 (CYP4F2, and rs699664 (GGCX involved in the warfarin action mechanism and the circulatory vitamin K were selected to investigate their polymorphism characteristics and their effects on the pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of warfarin in Chinese population.220 patients with cardiac valve replacement were recruited. International normalized ratio and plasma warfarin concentrations were determined. The five genetic polymorphisms were genotyping by pyro-sequencing. The relationships of maintenance dose, plasma warfarin concentration and INR were assessed among groups categorized by genotypes.rs9923231 and rs7294 in VKORC1 had the analogous genotype frequencies (D': 0.969. 158 of 220 recruited individuals had the target INR (1.5-2.5. Patients with AA of rs9923231 and CC of rs7294 required a significantly lower maintenance dose and plasma concentration than those with AG and TC, respectively. The mean weekly maintenance dose was also significantly lower in CYP2C9 rs1057910 mutated heterozygote than in patients with the wild homozygote. Eliminating the influence from environment factors (age, body weight and gender, rs9923231 and rs1057910 could explain about 32.0% of the variability in warfarin maintenance dose; rs7294 could explain 26.7% of the variability in plasma concentration. For patients with allele G of rs9923231 and allele T of rs7294, higher plasma concentration was needed to achieve the similar goal INR.A better understanding of the genetic variants in individuals can be the foundation of warfarin dosing algorithm and facilitate the reasonable and effective use of warfarin in Chinese.

  12. Online Job Allocation with Hard Allocation Ratio Requirement (Author’s Manuscript)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-14

    server divided by its capacity. Specifically , let nj be the number of jobs that have already been allocated to server j. When job i arrives, it is...decisions solely based on current system state is needed. The problem of online job allocation has attracted much attention . Most current studies study...closed-form expressions for their performance. Specifically , we prove that, in order to allocate at least 1− 1θ of jobs , the two policies only need to

  13. Dosage of strontium 90 in human bone ashes; Dosage du strontium 90 sans les cendres d'os humain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patti, F; Jeanmaire, L [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    The determination of {sup 90}Sr in bones by dosage of its daughter product {sup 90}Y is a 4-step process: 1) elimination of the phosphate ions by precipitation of the Ca and Sr as oxalate in the presence of acid; 2) reduction in the calcium concentration to a suitable level by the addition of a known volume of nitric acid (a single precipitation is sufficient), the precipitation yield of the strontium nitrate is checked by the measurement of the amount of {sup 85}Sr added as tracer; 3) purification by a yttrium hydroxide precipitation; 4) extraction at equilibrium of the {sup 90}Y which is counted to give the concentration. By using 50 gm of ash it is possible to detect about 0.1 pCi of {sup 90}Sr per gram of calcium. The advantages of this technique: -) treatment of a large quantity of bone ash -) the use of a small volume of nitric acid (less than 2 ml/g of ash, and -) the various operations present no difficulty. (authors) [French] Determination du Sr dans les os par dosage de son produit de filiation {sup 90}Y. Principe du dosage: 1 - Eliminer les ions phosphates par precipitation du calcium et du strontium sous forme d'oxalate en milieu acide. 2 - Reduire la concentration en calcium a un niveau convenable par addition d'un volume determine d'acide nitrique (une seule precipitation est necessaire). Le rendement de precipitation du nitrate de strontium est controle par la mesure de {sup 85}Sr ajoute comme traceur. 3 - Purifier par une precipitation d'hydroxyde d'yttrium. 4 - Extraire a l'equilibre l'{sup 90}Y qui eat compte pour determiner le {sup 90}Sr. En traitant 50 g de cendre, il est possible de deceler de l'ordre de 0,1 pCi de {sup 90}Sr par gramme de calcium. Les 3 avantages de cette technique: 1 - traitement d'une quantite importante de cendres d'os, 2 - emploi d'un faible volume d'acide nitrique (moins de 2 ml/g de cendres), et 3 - les diverses operations ne presentent aucune difficulte.

  14. TaS2 nanosheet-based room-temperature dosage meter for nitric oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiyuan He

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A miniature dosage meter for toxic gas is developed based on TaS2 nanosheets, which is capable of indicating the toxic dosage of trace level NO at room temperature. The TaS2 film-based chemiresistor shows an irreversible current response against the exposure of NO. The unique non-recovery characteristic makes the TaS2 film-based device an ideal indicator of total dosage of chronicle exposure.

  15. Evaluation of insecticides in different dosages to control cicadas in parica plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odineila Martins Monteiro

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the more efficient and economically viable dosage of chemical insecticide to control Quesada gigas (Hemiptera: Cicadidae nymphs in parica plantations. Three dosages of three products (carbofuran, imidacloprid and thiamethoxam were tested based on the maximum recommended dosage for the control of cicadas in coffee plants and applied in total area. The dosage of one kilogram of a commercial product based in thiamethoxam per hectare was more efficient economically and environmentally to control nymphs of Q. gigas in parica plantations.

  16. What's inside the black box: a case study of allocative politics in the Hill-Burton program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feshbach, D

    1979-01-01

    This paper explores the political and bureaucratic determinants of grant allocations within the Hospital Survey and Construction Act of 1946 (the Hill-Burton Act), which established the major hospital construction subsidy program in the United States. Resource allocation within the Hill-Burton Program was neither purely a function of external political forces impinging on the state nor purely a result of internal organizational factors. Instead, as shown in the analysis which follows, external political forces shaped program structure, operating routines, and rules and regulations at the time of the Program's formation. Rules and regulations depoliticized the grant allocation process while institutionalizing the interests of hospitals and other producers into the program structure. Consumer interests and influence are excluded from program decision making. Once established, the rules and regulations and a set of bureaucratic behaviors play a critical role in determining resource allocation. Rules and regulations facilitate distributing divisible benefits to producer interests in a politically predi-table way. Yet rules and regulations must also regulate the supply of hospital beds in accordance with local and national market conditions. The mode of operations required for distributing benefits in a politically predictable way limited the Program's ability to regulate hospital bed supply. This was a critical factor which led the Hill-Burton Program to subsidize excess capacity in the U.S. hospital system and is a useful way of explaning many similar dysfunctions within allocative programs such as Hill-Burton.

  17. SOME NOTES ON COST ALLOCATION IN MULTICASTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darko Skorin-Kapov

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We analyze the cost allocation strategies with the problef of broadcasting information from some source to a number of communication network users. A multicast routing chooses a minimum cost tree network that spans the source and all the receivers. The cost of such a network is distributed among its receivers who may be individuals or organizations with possibly conflicting interests. Providing network developers, users and owners with practical computable 'fair' cost allocation solution procedures is of great importance for network mamagement. Consequently, this multidisciplinary problem was extensively studied by Operational Researchers, Economists, Mathematicians and Computer Scientists. The fairness of various proposed solutions was even argued in US courts. This presentation overviews some previously published, as well as some recent results, in the development of algorithmic mechanisms to efficiently compute 'attractive' cost allocation solutions for multicast networks. Specifically, we will analyze cooperative game theory based cost allocation models that avoid cross subsidies and/or are distance and population monotonic. We will also present some related open cost allocation problems and the potential contribution that such models might make to this problem in the future.

  18. Cognitive allocation and the control room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paradies, M.W.

    1985-01-01

    One of the weakest links in the design of nuclear power plants is the inattention to the needs and capabilities of the operators. This flaw causes decreased plant reliability and reduced plant safety. To solve this problem the designer must, in the earliest stages of the design process, consider the operator's abilities. After the system requirements have been established, the designer must consider what functions to allocate to each part of the system. The human must be considered as part of this system. The allocation of functions needs to consider not only the mechanical tasks to be performed, but also the control requirements and the overall control philosophy. In order for the designers to consider the control philosophy, they need to know what control decisions should be automated and what decisions should be made by an operator. They also need to know how these decisions will be implemented: by an operator or by automation. ''Cognitive Allocation'' is the allocation of the decision making process between operators and machines. It defines the operator's role in the system. When designing a power plant, a cognitive allocation starts the process of considering the operator's abilities. This is the first step to correcting the weakest link in the current plant design

  19. Methodology for allocating reliability and risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, N.Z.; Papazoglou, I.A.; Bari, R.A.

    1986-05-01

    This report describes a methodology for reliability and risk allocation in nuclear power plants. The work investigates the technical feasibility of allocating reliability and risk, which are expressed in a set of global safety criteria and which may not necessarily be rigid, to various reactor systems, subsystems, components, operations, and structures in a consistent manner. The report also provides general discussions on the problem of reliability and risk allocation. The problem is formulated as a multiattribute decision analysis paradigm. The work mainly addresses the first two steps of a typical decision analysis, i.e., (1) identifying alternatives, and (2) generating information on outcomes of the alternatives, by performing a multiobjective optimization on a PRA model and reliability cost functions. The multiobjective optimization serves as the guiding principle to reliability and risk allocation. The concept of ''noninferiority'' is used in the multiobjective optimization problem. Finding the noninferior solution set is the main theme of the current approach. The final step of decision analysis, i.e., assessment of the decision maker's preferences could then be performed more easily on the noninferior solution set. Some results of the methodology applications to a nontrivial risk model are provided, and several outstanding issues such as generic allocation, preference assessment, and uncertainty are discussed. 29 refs., 44 figs., 39 tabs

  20. Low starting dosage of infliximab with possible escalating dosage in psoriatic arthritis gives the same treatment results as standard dosage of adalimumab or etanercept: results from the nationwide Icelandic ICEBIO registry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gudbjornsson B

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Bjorn Gudbjornsson,1,2 Arni Jon Geirsson,3,4 Niels Steen Krogh5 1Centre for Rheumatology Research, University Hospital, Reykjavik, Iceland; 2Faculty of Medicine, University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland; 3Department of Rheumatology, University Hospital, Reykjavik, Iceland; 4Laeknasetrid - Medical Clinic, University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland; 5Zitelab Aps, Copenhagen, Denmark Objective: To explore differences in response to a low dosage regimen of infliximab with an escalating dosage in comparison to a standard dosage of etanercept and adalimumab in patients with psoriatic arthritis (PsA. Methods: Biologically naïve PsA patients who were beginning anti-TNF-α therapy were selected from the ICEBIO registry. Demographics and clinical differences were compared in four treatment groups: infliximab <4 mg/kg; infliximab >4 mg/kg; etanercept or adalimumab at baseline and on follow-up (6 and 12 months, last visit. The Kruskal–Wallis rank sum test was used for comparison of the groups and the Wilcoxon test to compare the two infliximab dosage regimens. Results: One hundred and eighty-five patients (61% female were identified; 84 patients received infliximab, 66 etanercept, and 35 adalimumab. A total of 19% of the patients treated with infliximab escalated their dosage ≥4 mg/kg. No significant differences were observed at baseline in respect to visual analog scale (VAS pain, VAS fatigue, Health Assessment Questionnaire, C-reactive protein (CRP, numbers of swollen or tender joints, or Disease Activity Score (DAS 28-CRP values. A similar treatment response was observed in all four treatment groups on follow-up. Conclusion: In respect to treatment effects, a low dosage of infliximab with possible escalating dosage is acceptable for the majority of PsA patients who are in need of biological treatment. Keywords: psoriatic arthritis, outcome, biological treatment, routine care, clinical nationwide registry

  1. An Analysis and Allocation System for Library Collections Budgets: The Comprehensive Allocation Process (CAP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Lucy Eleonore; Blosser, John

    2012-01-01

    The "Comprehensive Allocation Process" (CAP) is a reproducible decision-making structure for the allocation of new collections funds, for the reallocation of funds within stagnant budgets, and for budget cuts in the face of reduced funding levels. This system was designed to overcome common shortcomings of current methods. Its philosophical…

  2. Dosage of boron traces in graphite, uranium and beryllium oxide; Dosage de traces de bore dans le graphite, l'uranium et l'oxyde de beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coursier, J [Ecole Nationale Superieure de Physique et Chimie Industrielles, 75 - Paris (France); Hure, J; Platzer, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1955-07-01

    The problem of the dosage of the boron in the materials serving to the construction of nuclear reactors arises of the following way: to determine to about 0,1 ppm close to the quantities of boron of the order of tenth ppm. We have chosen the colorimetric analysis with curcumin as method of dosage. To reach the indicated contents, it is necessary to do a previous separation of the boron and the materials of basis, either by extraction of tetraphenylarsonium fluoborate in the case of the boron dosage in uranium and the beryllium oxide, either by the use of a cations exchanger resin of in the case of graphite. (M.B.) [French] Le probleme du dosage du bore dans les materiaux servant a la construction de reacteurs nucleaires se pose de la facon suivante: determiner a environ 0,1 ppm pres des quantites de bore de l'ordre de quelques dixiemes de ppm. Nous avons choisit la colorimetrie a la curcumine comme methode de dosage. Pour atteindre les teneurs indiquees, il est necessaire d'effectuer une separation prealable du bore et des materiaux de base, soit par extraction du fluoborate de tetraphenylarsonium dans le cas du dosage de bore dans l'uranium et l'oxyde de beryllium, soit par l'utilisation d'une resine echangeuse de cations dans le cas du graphite. (M.B.)

  3. Biowaiver monographs for immediate release solid oral dosage forms: piroxicam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shohin, Igor E; Kulinich, Julia I; Ramenskaya, Galina V; Abrahamsson, Bertil; Kopp, Sabine; Langguth, Peter; Polli, James E; Shah, Vinod P; Groot, D W; Barends, Dirk M; Dressman, Jennifer B

    2014-02-01

    Literature and experimental data relevant to the decision to allow a waiver of in vivo bioequivalence (BE) testing for the approval of immediate release (IR) solid oral dosage forms containing piroxicam in the free acid form are reviewed. Piroxicam solubility and permeability, its therapeutic use and therapeutic index, pharmacokinetic properties, data related to the possibility of excipient interactions and reported BE/bioavailability (BA), and corresponding dissolution data are taken into consideration. The available data suggest that according to the current biopharmaceutics classification system (BCS) and all current guidances, piroxicam would be assigned to BCS Class II. The extent of piroxicam absorption seems not to depend on manufacturing conditions or excipients, so the risk of bioinequivalence in terms of area under the curve (AUC) is very low, but the rate of absorption (i.e., BE in terms of Cmax ) can be affected by the formulation. Current in vitro dissolution methods may not always reflect differences in terms of Cmax for BCS Class II weak acids; however, minor differences in absorption rate of piroxicam would not subject the patient to unacceptable risks: as piroxicam products may be taken before or after meals, the rate of absorption cannot be considered crucial to drug action. Therefore, a biowaiver for IR piroxicam solid oral dosage form is considered feasible, provided that (a) the test product contains only excipients, which are also present in IR solid oral drug products containing piroxicam, which have been approved in ICH or associated countries, for instance, those presented in Table 3 of this paper; (b) both the test and comparator drug products dissolve 85% in 30 min or less at pH 1.2, 4.5, and 6.8; and (c) the test product and comparator show dissolution profile similarity in pH 1.2, 4.5, and 6.8. When not all of these conditions can be fulfilled, BE of the products should be established in vivo. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the

  4. 24 CFR 791.404 - Field Office allocation planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Field Office allocation planning... Allocation of Budget Authority for Housing Assistance § 791.404 Field Office allocation planning. (a) General objective. The allocation planning process should provide for the equitable distribution of available budget...

  5. 18 CFR 367.28 - Methods of allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Methods of allocation... Instructions § 367.28 Methods of allocation. Indirect costs and compensation for use of capital must be... allocation. Both direct and allocated indirect costs on projects must be assigned among those companies in...

  6. 17 CFR 256.01-11 - Methods of allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... applicable and currently effective methods of allocation filed with the Commission. Both direct and allocated... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Methods of allocation. 256.01... HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 1935 General Instructions § 256.01-11 Methods of allocation. Indirect costs and...

  7. 40 CFR 60.4142 - Hg allowance allocations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hg allowance allocations. 60.4142... Coal-Fired Electric Steam Generating Units Hg Allowance Allocations § 60.4142 Hg allowance allocations. (a)(1) The baseline heat input (in MMBtu) used with respect to Hg allowance allocations under...

  8. Participation behavior and social welfare in repeated task allocations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ye, Q.C.; Zhang, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Task allocation problems have focused on achieving one-shot optimality. In practice, many task allocation problems are of repeated nature, where the allocation outcome of previous rounds may influence the participation of agents in subsequent rounds, and consequently, the quality of the allocations

  9. Gene dosage effects of the imprinted delta-like homologue 1 (dlk1/pref1 in development: implications for the evolution of imprinting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simao Teixeira da Rocha

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Genomic imprinting is a normal process that causes genes to be expressed according to parental origin. The selective advantage conferred by imprinting is not understood but is hypothesised to act on dosage-critical genes. Here, we report a unique model in which the consequences of a single, double, and triple dosage of the imprinted Dlk1/Pref1, normally repressed on the maternally inherited chromosome, can be assessed in the growing embryo. BAC-transgenic mice were generated that over-express Dlk1 from endogenous regulators at all sites of embryonic activity. Triple dosage causes lethality associated with major organ abnormalities. Embryos expressing a double dose of Dlk1, recapitulating loss of imprinting, are growth enhanced but fail to thrive in early life, despite the early growth advantage. Thus, any benefit conferred by increased embryonic size is offset by postnatal lethality. We propose a negative correlation between gene dosage and survival that fixes an upper limit on growth promotion by Dlk1, and we hypothesize that trade-off between growth and lethality might have driven imprinting at this locus.

  10. Railway Track Allocation: Models and Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lusby, Richard Martin; Larsen, Jesper; Ehrgott, Matthias

    2011-01-01

    Efficiently coordinating the movement of trains on a railway network is a central part of the planning process for a railway company. This paper reviews models and methods that have been proposed in the literature to assist planners in finding train routes. Since the problem of routing trains......, and train routing problems, group them by railway network type, and discuss track allocation from a strategic, tactical, and operational level....... on a railway network entails allocating the track capacity of the network (or part thereof) over time in a conflict-free manner, all studies that model railway track allocation in some capacity are considered relevant. We hence survey work on the train timetabling, train dispatching, train platforming...

  11. Railway Track Allocation: Models and Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lusby, Richard Martin; Larsen, Jesper; Ehrgott, Matthias

    Eciently coordinating the movement of trains on a railway network is a central part of the planning process for a railway company. This paper reviews models and methods that have been proposed in the literature to assist planners in nding train routes. Since the problem of routing trains......, and train routing problems, group them by railway network type, and discuss track allocation from a strategic, tactical, and operational level....... on a railway network entails allocating the track capacity of the network (or part thereof) over time in a con ict-free manner, all studies that model railway track allocation in some capacity are considered relevant. We hence survey work on the train timetabling, train dispatching, train platforming...

  12. Task mapping for non-contiguous allocations.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leung, Vitus Joseph; Bunde, David P.; Ebbers, Johnathan; Price, Nicholas W.; Swank, Matthew.; Feer, Stefan P.; Rhodes, Zachary D.

    2013-02-01

    This paper examines task mapping algorithms for non-contiguously allocated parallel jobs. Several studies have shown that task placement affects job running time for both contiguously and non-contiguously allocated jobs. Traditionally, work on task mapping either uses a very general model where the job has an arbitrary communication pattern or assumes that jobs are allocated contiguously, making them completely isolated from each other. A middle ground between these two cases is the mapping problem for non-contiguous jobs having a specific communication pattern. We propose several task mapping algorithms for jobs with a stencil communication pattern and evaluate them using experiments and simulations. Our strategies improve the running time of a MiniApp by as much as 30% over a baseline strategy. Furthermore, this improvement increases markedly with the job size, demonstrating the importance of task mapping as systems grow toward exascale.

  13. Optimal allocation of reviewers for peer feedback

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wind, David Kofoed; Jensen, Ulf Aslak; Jørgensen, Rasmus Malthe

    2017-01-01

    feedback to be effective students should give and receive useful feedback. A key challenge in peer feedback is allocating the feedback givers in a good way. It is important that reviewers are allocated to submissions such that the feedback distribution is fair - meaning that all students receive good......Peer feedback is the act of letting students give feedback to each other on submitted work. There are multiple reasons to use peer feedback, including students getting more feedback, time saving for teachers and increased learning by letting students reflect on work by others. In order for peer...... indicated the quality of the feedback. Using this model together with historical data we calculate the feedback-giving skill of each student and uses that as input to an allocation algorithm that assigns submissions to reviewers, in order to optimize the feedback quality for all students. We test...

  14. 34 CFR 200.89 - MEP allocations; Re-interviewing; Eligibility documentation; and Quality control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of recruiters, size or growth in local migratory child population, effectiveness of local quality... documentation; and Quality control. 200.89 Section 200.89 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department...-interviewing; Eligibility documentation; and Quality control. (a) Allocation of funds under the MEP for fiscal...

  15. 15 CFR 303.6 - Allocation and reallocation of exemptions among producers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Allocation and reallocation of exemptions among producers. 303.6 Section 303.6 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MISCELLANEOUS...

  16. 32 CFR 1900.33 - Allocation of resources; agreed extensions of time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... time. 1900.33 Section 1900.33 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense CENTRAL... Administrative Matters § 1900.33 Allocation of resources; agreed extensions of time. (a) In general. Agency... the component, (2) The business demands imposed on the component by the Director of Central...

  17. 48 CFR 9904.403 - Allocation of home office expenses to segments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... expenses to segments. 9904.403 Section 9904.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.403 Allocation of home office expenses to...

  18. 15 CFR 700.30 - Priorities and allocations in a national emergency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Priorities and allocations in a national emergency. 700.30 Section 700.30 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NATIONAL SECURITY...

  19. 15 CFR 700.4 - Priorities and allocations in a national emergency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Priorities and allocations in a national emergency. 700.4 Section 700.4 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NATIONAL SECURITY...

  20. Prospect theory reflects selective allocation of attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachur, Thorsten; Schulte-Mecklenbeck, Michael; Murphy, Ryan O; Hertwig, Ralph

    2018-02-01

    There is a disconnect in the literature between analyses of risky choice based on cumulative prospect theory (CPT) and work on predecisional information processing. One likely reason is that for expectation models (e.g., CPT), it is often assumed that people behaved only as if they conducted the computations leading to the predicted choice and that the models are thus mute regarding information processing. We suggest that key psychological constructs in CPT, such as loss aversion and outcome and probability sensitivity, can be interpreted in terms of attention allocation. In two experiments, we tested hypotheses about specific links between CPT parameters and attentional regularities. Experiment 1 used process tracing to monitor participants' predecisional attention allocation to outcome and probability information. As hypothesized, individual differences in CPT's loss-aversion, outcome-sensitivity, and probability-sensitivity parameters (estimated from participants' choices) were systematically associated with individual differences in attention allocation to outcome and probability information. For instance, loss aversion was associated with the relative attention allocated to loss and gain outcomes, and a more strongly curved weighting function was associated with less attention allocated to probabilities. Experiment 2 manipulated participants' attention to losses or gains, causing systematic differences in CPT's loss-aversion parameter. This result indicates that attention allocation can to some extent cause choice regularities that are captured by CPT. Our findings demonstrate an as-if model's capacity to reflect characteristics of information processing. We suggest that the observed CPT-attention links can be harnessed to inform the development of process models of risky choice. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Allocation of Decommissioning and Waste Liabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varley, Geoff

    2011-11-01

    The work demonstrates that there are a number of methods available for cost allocation, the pros and cons of which are examined. The study investigates potential proportional and incremental methods in some depth. A recommendation in principle to use the latter methodology is given. It is concluded that a 'fair assumption' is that the potential allocation of costs for 'the RMA Leaching Hall' probably is small, in relation to the total costs, and estimated to be not more than about 175 kSEK, plus any costs associated with decommissioning/ disposal of a number of small pieces of equipment added by the current operator

  2. Vascularized Composite Allografts: Procurement, Allocation, and Implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmel, Axel

    Vascularized composite allotransplantation is a continuously evolving area of modern transplant medicine. Recently, vascularized composite allografts (VCAs) have been formally classified as 'organs'. In this review, key aspects of VCA procurement are discussed, with a special focus on interaction with the procurement of classical solid organs. In addition, options for a matching and allocation system that ensures VCA donor organs are allocated to the best-suited recipients are looked at. Finally, the different steps needed to promote VCA transplantation in society in general and in the medical community in particular are highlighted.

  3. Resource allocation using ANN in LTE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yigit, Tuncay; Ersoy, Mevlut

    2017-07-01

    LTE is the 4th generation wireless network technology, which provides flexible bandwidth, higher data speeds and lower delay. Difficulties may be experienced upon an increase in the number of users in LTE. The objective of this study is to ensure a faster solution to any such resource allocation problems which might arise upon an increase in the number of users. A fast and effective solution has been obtained by making use of Artificial Neural Network. As a result, fast working artificial intelligence methods may be used in resource allocation problems during operation.

  4. Self-compacting concretes (SCC: comparison of methods of dosage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. F. Tutikian

    Full Text Available The composition of a self-compacting concrete (SCC should be defined to fulfills a number of requirements, such as self-compactibility, strength and durability. This study aims to compare three methods of dosage for SCC with local materials, so as to determine which one is the most economical and rational, thus assisting the executor in making a decision and enabling economic and technical feasibility for its application. The methods used in the experimental program were: Nan Su et al., which was developed in 2001 [1]; Repette-Melo, which was proposed in 2005 [2]; and Tutikian & Dal Molin, which was developed in 2007 [3]. From the results obtained in the experimental program, it was observed that the method which presented the lowest cost and highest compressive strength at the ages of 7, 28 and 91 days was Tutikian & Dal Molin, while the one which reached the lowest chloride ion penetration, best compactness and highest elasticity modulus was Repette-Melo. In tests carried out in the fresh state, all tested methods yielded mixtures which comply with the self-compactibility levels required by ABNT NBR 15823:2010 [4].

  5. Dosage-dependent role of Rac1 in podocyte injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Xiaoyang; Lee, Mi-Sun

    2016-01-01

    Activation of small GTPase Rac1 in podocytes is associated with rodent models of kidney injury and familial nephrotic syndrome. Induced Rac1 activation in podocytes in transgenic mice results in rapid transient proteinuria and foot process effacement, but not glomerular sclerosis. Thus it remains an open question whether abnormal activation of Rac1 in podocytes is sufficient to cause permanent podocyte damage. Using a number of transgenic zebrafish models, we showed that moderate elevation of Rac1 activity in podocytes did not impair the glomerular filtration barrier but aggravated metronidazole-induced podocyte injury, while inhibition of Rac1 activity ameliorated metronidazole-induced podocyte injury. Furthermore, a further increase in Rac1 activity in podocytes was sufficient to cause proteinuria and foot process effacement, which resulted in edema and lethality in juvenile zebrafish. We also found that activation of Rac1 in podocytes significantly downregulated the expression of nephrin and podocin, suggesting an adverse effect of Rac1 on slit diaphragm protein expression. Taken together, our data have demonstrated a causal link between excessive Rac1 activity and podocyte injury in a dosage-dependent manner, and transgenic zebrafish of variable Rac1 activities in podocytes may serve as useful animal models for the study of Rac1-related podocytopathy. PMID:26792065

  6. A step toward development of printable dosage forms for poorly soluble drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raijada, Dharaben Kaushikkumar; Genina, Natalja; Fors, Daniela

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to formulate printable dosage forms for a poorly soluble drug (piroxicam; PRX) and to gain understanding of critical parameters to be considered during development of such dosage forms. Liquid formulations of PRX were printed on edible paper using piezoelectric inkjet...

  7. 21 CFR 522.1662 - Oxytetracycline hydrochloride implantation or injectable dosage forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Oxytetracycline hydrochloride implantation or injectable dosage forms. 522.1662 Section 522.1662 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.1662 Oxytetracycline hydrochloride implantation or injectable...

  8. Estimated Effect of Epoetin Dosage on Survival among Elderly Hemodialysis Patients in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yi; Thamer, Mae; Cotter, Dennis; Kaufman, James; Hernán, Miguel A.

    2009-01-01

    Background and objectives: The common finding that low achieved hemoglobin in observational studies and high target hemoglobin in randomized trials each were associated with increased mortality and high epoetin dosage has suggested the possibility that high epoetin dosage might explain the increased mortality risk.

  9. Type monotonic allocation schemes for multi-glove games

    OpenAIRE

    Brânzei, R.; Solymosi, T.; Tijs, S.H.

    2007-01-01

    Multiglove markets and corresponding games are considered.For this class of games we introduce the notion of type monotonic allocation scheme.Allocation rules for multiglove markets based on weight systems are introduced and characterized.These allocation rules generate type monotonic allocation schemes for multiglove games and are also helpful in proving that each core element of the corresponding game is extendable to a type monotonic allocation scheme.The T-value turns out to generate a ty...

  10. The shaping and functional consequences of the dosage effect landscape in multiple myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samur, Mehmet K; Shah, Parantu K; Wang, Xujun; Minvielle, Stéphane; Magrangeas, Florence; Avet-Loiseau, Hervé; Munshi, Nikhil C; Li, Cheng

    2013-10-02

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is a malignant proliferation of plasma B cells. Based on recurrent aneuploidy such as copy number alterations (CNAs), myeloma is divided into two subtypes with different CNA patterns and patient survival outcomes. How aneuploidy events arise, and whether they contribute to cancer cell evolution are actively studied. The large amount of transcriptomic changes resultant of CNAs (dosage effect) pose big challenges for identifying functional consequences of CNAs in myeloma in terms of specific driver genes and pathways. In this study, we hypothesize that gene-wise dosage effect varies as a result from complex regulatory networks that translate the impact of CNAs to gene expression, and studying this variation can provide insights into functional effects of CNAs. We propose gene-wise dosage effect score and genome-wide karyotype plot as tools to measure and visualize concordant copy number and expression changes across cancer samples. We find that dosage effect in myeloma is widespread yet variable, and it is correlated with gene expression level and CNA frequencies in different chromosomes. Our analysis suggests that despite the enrichment of differentially expressed genes between hyperdiploid MM and non-hyperdiploid MM in the trisomy chromosomes, the chromosomal proportion of dosage sensitive genes is higher in the non-trisomy chromosomes. Dosage-sensitive genes are enriched by genes with protein translation and localization functions, and dosage resistant genes are enriched by apoptosis genes. These results point to future studies on differential dosage sensitivity and resistance of pro- and anti-proliferation pathways and their variation across patients as therapeutic targets and prognosis markers. Our findings support the hypothesis that recurrent CNAs in myeloma are selected by their functional consequences. The novel dosage effect score defined in this work will facilitate integration of copy number and expression data for identifying driver

  11. Trajectories of goods in distributed allocation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chevaleyre, Y.; Endriss, U.; Maudet, N.; Padgham, L.; Parkes, D.; Müller, J.; Parsons, S.

    2008-01-01

    Distributed allocation mechanisms rely on the agents' autonomous (and supposedly rational) behaviour: states evolve as a result of agents contracting deals and exchanging resources. It is no surprise that restrictions on potential deals also restrict the reachability of some desirable states, for

  12. Multiobjective optimal allocation problem with probabilistic non ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper considers the optimum compromise allocation in multivariate stratified sampling with non-linear objective function and probabilistic non-linear cost constraint. The probabilistic non-linear cost constraint is converted into equivalent deterministic one by using Chance Constrained programming. A numerical ...

  13. Human Resource Subjects Allocation and Students' Academic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated human resource subjects' allocation and students' academic performance in Secondary Schools in Obudu, Nigeria. The relevant variables of teachers subject was used as independent variable while the dependent variables were students' academic performance. Six hundred teachers from 20 ...

  14. FARM RESOURCE ALLOCATION AND PROFITABILITY OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unique cropping systems have emerged in Nigeria to suit limited farmer resources and production objectives in humid forest inland valley ecosystems. But the basis for farm resource allocation and profitability of different crop enterprises are not properly understood. This study is based on a survey of 48 randomly selected ...

  15. Administrative Decision Making and Resource Allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardy, Susan; Sardy, Hyman

    This paper considers selected aspects of the systems analysis of administrative decisionmaking regarding resource allocations in an educational system. A model of the instructional materials purchase system is presented. The major components of this model are: environment, input, decision process, conversion structure, conversion process, output,…

  16. Dynamic resource allocation using performance forecasting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moura, Paulo; Kon, Fabio; Voulgaris, Spyros; Van Steen, Maarten

    2016-01-01

    To benefit from the performance gains and cost savings enabled by elasticity in cloud IaaS environments, effective automated mechanisms for scaling are essential. This automation requires monitoring system status and defining criteria to trigger allocation and deallocation of resources. While these

  17. Resource Allocation Patterns and Student Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Lori; Pate, James; Leech, Donald; Martin, Ellice; Brockmeier, Lantry; Dees, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    This quantitative research study was designed to examine the relationship between system resource allocation patterns and student achievement, as measured by eighth grade Criterion-Referenced Competency Test (CRCT) mathematics, eighth grade CRCT reading, eleventh grade Georgia High School Graduation Test (GHSGT) mathematics, eleventh grade and…

  18. 42 CFR 24.2 - Allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allocation. 24.2 Section 24.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES PERSONNEL SENIOR BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH SERVICE § 24... talent. (e) The Secretary will ensure that SBRS slots are used in support of high priority programs...

  19. Biased Allocation of Faces to Social Categories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dotsch, R.; Wigboldus, D.H.J.; Knippenberg, A.F.M. van

    2011-01-01

    Three studies show that social categorization is biased at the level of category allocation. In all studies, participants categorized faces. In Studies 1 and 2, participants overallocated faces with criminal features-a stereotypical negative trait-to the stigmatized Moroccan category, especially if

  20. Cooperation and profit allocation in distribution chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guardiola, L.A.; Meca, A.; Timmer, Judith B.

    2005-01-01

    We study the coordination of actions and the allocation of profit in distribution chains under decentralized control. We consider distribution chains in which a single supplier supplies goods for replenishment of stocks of several retailers who, in turn, sell these goods to their own separate

  1. Cooperation and profit allocation in distribution chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guardiola, Luis A.; Meca, Ana; Timmer, Judith B.

    2007-01-01

    We study the coordination of actions and the allocation of profit in supply chains under decentralized control in which a single supplier supplies several retailers with goods for replenishment of stocks. The goal of the supplier and the retailers is to maximize their individual profits. Since the

  2. Analysts' earnings forecasts and international asset allocation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijgen, Carel; Plantinga, Auke

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate whether financial analysts’ earnings forecasts are informative from the viewpoint of allocating investments across different stock markets. Therefore we develop a country forecast indicator reflecting the analysts’ prospects for specific stock markets. The

  3. Adaptive resource allocation for efficient patient scheduling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, Ivan B.; Bohte, Sander M.; Elkhuizen, Sylvia G.; Lameris, Han; Bakker, Piet J. M.; La Poutré, Han

    2009-01-01

    Efficient scheduling of patient appointments on expensive resources is a complex and dynamic task. A resource is typically used by several patient groups. To service these groups, resource capacity is often allocated per group, explicitly or implicitly. Importantly, due to fluctuations in demand,

  4. Patient flow based allocation of hospital resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vissers, J M

    1995-01-01

    The current practice of allocating resources within a hospital introduces peaks and troughs in the workloads of departments and leads therefore to loss of capacity. This happens when requirements for capacity coordination are not adequately taken into account in the decision making process of allocating resources to specialties. The first part of this research involved an analysis of the hospital's production system on dependencies between resources, resulting in a number of capacity coordination requirements that need to be fulfilled for optimized resource utilization. The second, modelling, part of the study involved the development of a framework for resource management decision making, of a set of computer models to support hospital managerial decision making on resource allocation issues in various parts of the hospital, and of an implementation strategy for the application of the models to concrete hospital settings. The third part of the study was devoted to a number of case-studies, illustrating the use of the models when applied in various resource management projects, such as a reorganization of an operating theatre timetable, or the development of a master plan for activities of a group of general surgeons serving two locations of a merged hospital system. The paper summarizes the main findings of the study and concludes with a discussion of results obtained with the new allocation procedure and with recommendations for future research.

  5. Issues in organ procurement, allocation, and transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nierste, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    Organ transplantation extends lives and improves health but presents complex ethical dilemmas for nurses caring for donors, recipients, and their families. This article overviews organ procurement and allocation, discusses ethical dilemmas in transplantation, and offers strategies from professional and biblical perspectives for coping with moral distress and maintaining compassionate care.

  6. 15 CFR 923.110 - Allocation formula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... and comment. (f) Calculation of financial assistance award levels. Actual financial assistance award... matches any such grant according to the following ratios of Federal-to-state contributions for the...) Allocation formula factors and weighting. Each State eligible to receive a financial assistance award shall...

  7. Allocation of Cognitive Resources in Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvelplund, Kristian Tangsgaard

    The present study is an empirical investigation of translators' allocation of cognitive resources during the translation process, and it aims at investigating how translators' mental processing resources are put to use during translation. The study bases ts analyses on quantitative eye...

  8. Axioms for health care resource allocation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østerdal, Lars Peter

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines principles of health care resource allocation based on axioms for individual preferences and distributive justice. We establish axioms for representing individual preferences by quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), as well as axioms for existence of a social welfare function...

  9. Financial Resource Allocation in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ušpuriene, Ana; Sakalauskas, Leonidas; Dumskis, Valerijonas

    2017-01-01

    The paper considers a problem of financial resource allocation in a higher education institution. The basic financial management instruments and the multi-stage cost minimization model created are described involving financial instruments to constraints. Both societal and institutional factors that determine the costs of educating students are…

  10. Spatial allocation of forest recreation value

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenneth A. Baerenklau; Armando Gonzalez-Caban; Catrina Paez; Edgard Chavez

    2009-01-01

    Non-market valuation methods and geographic information systems are useful planning and management tools for public land managers. Recent attention has been given to investigation and demonstration of methods for combining these tools to provide spatially-explicit representations of non-market value. Most of these efforts have focused on spatial allocation of...

  11. Weird mammals provide insights into the evolution of mammalian sex chromosomes and dosage compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Jennifer A Marshall

    2015-12-01

    The deep divergence of mammalian groups 166 and 190 million years ago (MYA) provide genetic variation to explore the evolution of DNA sequence, gene arrangement and regulation of gene expression in mammals. With encouragement from the founder of the field, Mary Lyon, techniques in cytogenetics and molecular biology were progressively adapted to characterize the sex chromosomes of kangaroos and other marsupials, platypus and echidna-and weird rodent species. Comparative gene mapping reveals the process of sex chromosome evolution from their inception 190 MYA (they are autosomal in platypus) to their inevitable end (the Y has disappeared in two rodent lineages). Our X and Y are relatively young, getting their start with the evolution of the sex-determining SRY gene, which triggered progressive degradation of the Y chromosome. Even more recently, sex chromosomes of placental mammals fused with an autosomal region which now makes up most of the Y. Exploration of gene activity patterns over four decades showed that dosage compensation via X-chromosome inactivation is unique to therian mammals, and that this whole chromosome control process is different in marsupials and absent in monotremes and reptiles, and birds. These differences can be exploited to deduce how mammalian sex chromosomes and epigenetic silencing evolved.

  12. Preactivated thiolated nanoparticles: A novel mucoadhesive dosage form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzel, Claudia; Bonengel, Sonja; Pereira de Sousa, Irene; Laffleur, Flavia; Prüfert, Felix; Bernkop-Schnürch, Andreas

    2016-01-30

    Within this study a novel form of mucoadhesive nanoparticles (NPs) exhibiting a prolonged residence time on mucosal tissues was developed. In order to achieve this goal a new thiomer was synthesized by the covalent attachment of the amino acid l-cysteine ethyl ester to poly(acrylic acid) (100 kDa). The free thiol groups were in the following preactivated with the aromatic thiol bearing ligand 2-mercaptonicotinic acid (2-MNA) and the amount of coupled l-cysteine ethyl ester as well as the amount of attached 2-MNA was determined. Based on this, preactivated thiomer NPs were prepared by ionic gelation with polyethylenimine (PEI). The resulting NPs were characterized regarding size and zeta potential. Furthermore their mucoadhesive properties were investigated via rheological measurements with porcine intestinal mucus and via determination of the particles' mucosal residence time. Results showed that 1666.74 μmol l-cysteine ethyl ester and 603.07 μmol 2-MNA could be attached per gram polymer. NPs were in a size range of 112.67-252.84 nm exhibiting a zeta potential of -29 mV. Thiolated NPs only led to a 2-fold increase in mucus viscosity whereas preactivated NPs showed a 6-fold higher mucus viscosity than unmodified NPs. The mucosal residence time of thiolated NPs was 1.6-fold prolonged and that of preactivated NPs even 4.4-fold higher compared to unmodified particles. Accordingly, preactivated thiolated NPs providing a prolonged residence time on mucosal membranes could be a promising dosage form for various applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Mathematical modeling of drug release from lipid dosage forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siepmann, J; Siepmann, F

    2011-10-10

    Lipid dosage forms provide an interesting potential for controlled drug delivery. In contrast to frequently used poly(ester) based devices for parenteral administration, they do not lead to acidification upon degradation and potential drug inactivation, especially in the case of protein drugs and other acid-labile active agents. The aim of this article is to give an overview on the current state of the art of mathematical modeling of drug release from this type of advanced drug delivery systems. Empirical and semi-empirical models are described as well as mechanistic theories, considering diffusional mass transport, potentially limited drug solubility and the leaching of other, water-soluble excipients into the surrounding bulk fluid. Various practical examples are given, including lipid microparticles, beads and implants, which can successfully be used to control the release of an incorporated drug during periods ranging from a few hours up to several years. The great benefit of mechanistic mathematical theories is the possibility to quantitatively predict the effects of different formulation parameters and device dimensions on the resulting drug release kinetics. Thus, in silico simulations can significantly speed up product optimization. This is particularly useful if long release periods (e.g., several months) are targeted, since experimental trial-and-error studies are highly time-consuming in these cases. In the future it would be highly desirable to combine mechanistic theories with the quantitative description of the drug fate in vivo, ideally including the pharmacodynamic efficacy of the treatments. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Carboxymethyl starch mucoadhesive microspheres as gastroretentive dosage form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemieux, Marc; Gosselin, Patrick; Mateescu, Mircea Alexandru

    2015-12-30

    Carboxymethyl starch microspheres (CMS-MS) were produced from carboxymethyl starch powder (CMS-P) with a degree of substitution (DS) from 0.1 to 1.5 in order to investigate the influence of DS on physicochemical, drug release and mucoadhesion properties as well as interactions with gastrointestinal tract (GIT) epithelial barrier models. Placebo and furosemide loaded CMS-MS were obtained by emulsion-crosslinking with sodium trimetaphosphate (STMP). DS had an impact on increasing equilibrium water uptake and modulating drug release properties of the CMS-MS according to the surrounding pH. The transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) of NCI-N87 gastric cell monolayers was not influenced in presence of CMS-MS, whereas that of Caco-2 intestinal cell monolayers decreased with increasing DS but recovered initial values at about 15h post-treatment. CMS-MS with increasing DS also enhanced furosemide permeability across both NCI-N87 and Caco-2 monolayers at pH gradients from 3.0 to 7.4. Mucoadhesion of CMS-MS on gastric mucosa (acidic condition) increased with the DS up to 55% for a DS of 1.0 but decreased on neutral intestinal mucosa to less than 10% with DS of 0.1. The drug release, permeability enhancement and mucoadhesive properties of the CMS-MS suggest CMS-MS with DS between 0.6 and 1.0 as suitable excipient for gastroretentive oral delivery dosage forms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Performance assessment of a dynamic current allocator for the JET eXtreme Shape Controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varano, G.; Ambrosino, G.; Tommasi, G.De; Galeani, S.; Pironti, A.; Zaccarian, L.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on a recently proposed dynamic allocation technique that can be effectively adopted to handle the current saturations of the Poloidal Field coils with the eXtreme Shape Controller. The proposed approach allows to automatically relax the plasma shape regulation when the reference shape requires current levels out of the available ranges, finding in real-time an optimal trade-off between shape control precision and currents saturation avoidance. In this paper the results attained during preliminary analysis are presented, showing the advantage arising from the use of the dynamic allocator, versus the bare use of the eXtreme Shape Controller.

  16. Ancillary reactive power service allocation cost in deregulated markets: a methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez, J. Horacio Tovar; Jimenez-Guzman, Miguel; Gutierrez-Alcaraz, Guillermo

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a methodology to allocate reactive power costs in deregulated markets. Reactive power supply service is decomposed into voltage regulation and reactive power spinning reserve. The proposed methodology is based on sensitivities and the postage-stamp method in order to allocate the total costs service among all participants. With the purpose of achieving this goal, the system operator identifies voltage support and/or reactive power requirements, and looks out for suitable providers. One case study is presented here to illustrate the methodology over a simplified southeastern Mexican grid. (Author)

  17. Application of DBNPA dosage for biofouling control in spiral wound membrane systems

    KAUST Repository

    Siddiqui, Amber

    2017-05-30

    Biocides may be used to control biofouling in spiral-wound reverse osmosis (RO) and nanofiltration (NF) systems. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of biocide 2,2-dibromo-3-ni-trilopropionamide (DBNPA) dosage on biofouling control. Preventive biofouling control was studied applying a continuous dosage of substrate (0.5 mg/L) and DBNPA (1 mg/L). Curative biofouling control was studied on pre-grown biofilms, once again applying a continuous dosage of substrate (0.5 mg acetate C/L) and DBNPA (1 and 20 mg/L). Biofouling studies were performed in membrane fouling simulators (MFSs) supplied with biodegradable substrate and DBNPA. The pressure drop was monitored in time and at the end of the study, the accumulated biomass in MFS was quantified by adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and total organic carbon (TOC) analysis. Continuous dosage of DBNPA (1 mg/L) prevented pressure drop increase and biofilm accumulation in the MFSs during a run time of 7 d, showing that biofouling can be managed by preventive DBNPA dosage. For biofouled systems, continuous dosage of DBNPA (1 and 20 mg/L) inactivated the accumulated biomass but did not restore the original pressure drop and did not remove the accumulated inactive cells and extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), indicating DBNPA dosage is not suitable for curative biofouling control.

  18. Dosage sensitivity shapes the evolution of copy-number varied regions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Schuster-Böckler

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Dosage sensitivity is an important evolutionary force which impacts on gene dispensability and duplicability. The newly available data on human copy-number variation (CNV allow an analysis of the most recent and ongoing evolution. Provided that heterozygous gene deletions and duplications actually change gene dosage, we expect to observe negative selection against CNVs encompassing dosage sensitive genes. In this study, we make use of several sources of population genetic data to identify selection on structural variations of dosage sensitive genes. We show that CNVs can directly affect expression levels of contained genes. We find that genes encoding members of protein complexes exhibit limited expression variation and overlap significantly with a manually derived set of dosage sensitive genes. We show that complexes and other dosage sensitive genes are underrepresented in CNV regions, with a particular bias against frequent variations and duplications. These results suggest that dosage sensitivity is a significant force of negative selection on regions of copy-number variation.

  19. Study to Evaluate Two Dosage Regimens of Vitamin D Through an Academic Year in Middle School Girls: A Randomized Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Shajari

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D is an essential hormone for growth and development of bones in children. There is a lot of evidence for deficiency of this vitamin in Middle East females. This study conduct to find a way to combat deficiency in girls during rapid growth phase of puberty in academic year. One hundred and two Middle School girls who had not consumed any vitamins supplement have been participated in this randomized clinical trial. They allocated randomly in two case groups who received 50,000 or 100,000 IU vitamin D3 in October and three months later in January or in control group who received vitamin E. At the end of winter blood samples for 25-hydroxyvitamin D were checked. The mean of 25-hydroxyvitamin D were 5.5±1.5 ng/ml, 15.2±6 ng/ml, 23.0±6.8 ng/ml in control, 50,000 and 100,000 IU vitamin D groups respectively (P0.05. Urine calcium/creatinin ratio was equal in case and control groups (P>0.05. 100,000 IU of vitamin D3 every three months (equal to 800IU/day can raise 25-hydroxyvitamin D above 12 ng/ml in all cases but for area with high prevalence of sever deficiency, dosage more than 100,000 IU every three months or shorter interval recommended to achieve optimal level.

  20. Boxing and mixed martial arts: preliminary traumatic neuromechanical injury risk analyses from laboratory impact dosage data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartsch, Adam J; Benzel, Edward C; Miele, Vincent J; Morr, Douglas R; Prakash, Vikas

    2012-05-01

    In spite of ample literature pointing to rotational and combined impact dosage being key contributors to head and neck injury, boxing and mixed martial arts (MMA) padding is still designed to primarily reduce cranium linear acceleration. The objects of this study were to quantify preliminary linear and rotational head impact dosage for selected boxing and MMA padding in response to hook punches; compute theoretical skull, brain, and neck injury risk metrics; and statistically compare the protective effect of various glove and head padding conditions. An instrumented Hybrid III 50th percentile anthropomorphic test device (ATD) was struck in 54 pendulum impacts replicating hook punches at low (27-29 J) and high (54-58 J) energy. Five padding combinations were examined: unpadded (control), MMA glove-unpadded head, boxing glove-unpadded head, unpadded pendulum-boxing headgear, and boxing glove-boxing headgear. A total of 17 injury risk parameters were measured or calculated. All padding conditions reduced linear impact dosage. Other parameters significantly decreased, significantly increased, or were unaffected depending on padding condition. Of real-world conditions (MMA glove-bare head, boxing glove-bare head, and boxing glove-headgear), the boxing glove-headgear condition showed the most meaningful reduction in most of the parameters. In equivalent impacts, the MMA glove-bare head condition induced higher rotational dosage than the boxing glove-bare head condition. Finite element analysis indicated a risk of brain strain injury in spite of significant reduction of linear impact dosage. In the replicated hook punch impacts, all padding conditions reduced linear but not rotational impact dosage. Head and neck dosage theoretically accumulates fastest in MMA and boxing bouts without use of protective headgear. The boxing glove-headgear condition provided the best overall reduction in impact dosage. More work is needed to develop improved protective padding to minimize

  1. Pavor nocturnus: a complication of single daily tricyclic or neuroleptic dosage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flemenbaum, A

    1976-05-01

    The author tested the hypothesis that a single bedtime dosage schedule of tricyclic or neuroleptic medication produces increased frequency of night terrors by administering a questionnaire to 30 medical patients who were not receiving such medications and 100 psychiatric patients on either multiple- or single-dosage schedules. Psychiatric patients on multiple-dosage schedules reported no more frightening dreams than the medical patients, whereas almost three-fourths of those receiving single bedtime doses had frightening dreams, a significant difference from the medical sample. This preliminary report is presented to call attention to the possible undesirable effects of a single dose schedule.

  2. Intelligent Continuous Double Auction method For Service Allocation in Cloud Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nima Farajian

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Market-oriented approach is an effective method for resource management because of its regulation of supply and demand and is suitable for cloud environment where the computing resources, either software or hardware, are virtualized and allocated as services from providers to users. In this paper a continuous double auction method for efficient cloud service allocation is presented in which i enables consumers to order various resources (services for workflows and coallocation, ii consumers and providers make bid and request prices based on deadline and workload time and in addition providers can tradeoff between utilization time and price of bids, iii auctioneers can intelligently find optimum matching by sharing and merging resources which result more trades. Experimental results show that proposed method is efficient in terms of successful allocation rate and resource utilization.

  3. Bayesian Modelling, Monte Carlo Sampling and Capital Allocation of Insurance Risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gareth W. Peters

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this work is to develop a detailed step-by-step guide to the development and application of a new class of efficient Monte Carlo methods to solve practically important problems faced by insurers under the new solvency regulations. In particular, a novel Monte Carlo method to calculate capital allocations for a general insurance company is developed, with a focus on coherent capital allocation that is compliant with the Swiss Solvency Test. The data used is based on the balance sheet of a representative stylized company. For each line of business in that company, allocations are calculated for the one-year risk with dependencies based on correlations given by the Swiss Solvency Test. Two different approaches for dealing with parameter uncertainty are discussed and simulation algorithms based on (pseudo-marginal Sequential Monte Carlo algorithms are described and their efficiency is analysed.

  4. Energy savings potential in China's industrial sector: From the perspectives of factor price distortion and allocative inefficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouyang, Xiaoling; Sun, Chuanwang

    2015-01-01

    China's industrial energy consumption accounted for 70.82% of national and 14.12% of world energy usage in 2011. In the context of energy scarcity and environmental pollution, the industrial sector in China faces unsustainable growth problems. By adopting the stochastic frontier analysis (SFA) framework, this paper analyzes the factor allocative efficiency of China's industrial sector, and estimates the energy savings potential from the perspective of allocative inefficiency. This paper focuses on three issues. The first is examining the factor allocative inefficiency of China's industrial sector. The second is measuring factor price distortion by the shadow price model. The third is estimating the energy savings potential in China's industrial sector during 2001–2009. Major conclusions are thus drawn. First, factor prices of capital, labor and energy are distorted in China due to government regulations. Moreover, energy price is relatively low compared to capital price, while is relatively high compared to labor price. Second, the industry-wide energy savings potential resulted from energy allocative inefficiency was about 9.71% during 2001–2009. The downward trend of energy savings potential implies the increasing energy allocative efficiency in China's industrial sector. Third, a transparent and reasonable pricing mechanism is conducive to improving energy allocative efficiency. - Highlights: • We measure energy savings potential resulted from allocative inefficiency in China's industrial sector. • Allocative inefficiency is explained based on the theoretical and empirical models. • Factor prices of capital, labor and energy are distorted because of government regulations. • Energy pricing reform is conducive to improving energy allocative efficiency

  5. Influence of dosage form on the intravitreal pharmacokinetics of diclofenac.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durairaj, Chandrasekar; Kim, Stephen J; Edelhauser, Henry F; Shah, Jaymin C; Kompella, Uday B

    2009-10-01

    To prepare a suspension form of diclofenac and compare the influence of the injected form (suspension versus solution) on the intravitreal pharmacokinetics of diclofenac in Dutch belted pigmented rabbits. Diclofenac acid was prepared and characterized in a suspension formulation. Rabbit eyes were injected with either diclofenac sodium solution (0.3 mg) or diclofenac acid suspension (10 mg) prepared in 0.1 mL balanced salt solution. Rabbits were killed at regular time intervals, the eyes enucleated, and drug content quantified in the vitreous humor and retina-choroid tissue by high-performance liquid chromatography. Pharmacokinetic models were developed for both the dosage forms, and simulations were performed for different doses. Diclofenac acid with an approximate 5-mum particle size exhibited 3.5-fold lower solubility in vitreous humor, when compared with its sodium salt. The estimated settling velocity of the suspension in the vitreous humor was 3 cm/h. After diclofenac sodium salt solution injection, drug levels declined rapidly with no drug levels detectable after 24 hours in the vitreous humor and 4 hours in the RC. Throughout the assessed time course, drug levels were higher in the vitreous. However, sustained, high drug levels were observed in both the vitreous humor and the retina-choroid even on day 21 after diclofenac acid suspension injection, with retina-choroid drug levels being higher beginning at 0.25 hour. The elimination half-life of diclofenac suspension was 24 and 18 days in vitreous and retina-choroid, respectively, compared to 2.9 and 0.9 hours observed with diclofenac sodium. The pharmacokinetic models developed indicated a slow-release distribution or depot compartment for the diclofenac acid suspension in the posterior segment. Simulations indicated the inability of a 10-mg dose of diclofenac sodium solution to sustain drug levels in the vitreous beyond 11 days. By choosing a less soluble form of a drug such as diclofenac acid, vitreous

  6. Risk allocation in independent power supply contracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willrich, M.; Campbell, W.L.

    1992-01-01

    Congress has made significant progress in recent months toward amending the Public Utility Holding Company Act of 1935 (PUHCA). The purposes of such amendment are to broaden power supply options for electric utilities and expand competition in whole-sale power generation markets. PUHCA reform is an integral part of President Bush's National Energy Strategy and has been included in legislation pending in both Houses of Congress. Congress will, hopefully, approve energy legislation that includes PUHCA reform before it adjourns this year. PUHCA reform has, however, stimulated heated debate within the power industry itself as well as among various consumer interest groups. One important issue in the public debate concerns risk allocation. If PUHCA is reformed, will risk be allocated efficiently and equitably between independent power producers and electric utility buyers? This article addresses that important question

  7. Using contests to allocate pollution rights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacKenzie, Ian A.; Hanley, Nick; Kornienko, Tatiana

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we advocate a new initial allocation mechanism for a tradable pollution permit market. We outline a Permit Allocation Contest (PAC) that distributes permits to firms based on their rank relative to other firms. This ranking is achieved by ordering firms based on an observable 'external action' where the external action is an activity or characteristic of the firm that is independent of their choice of emissions in the tradable permit market. We argue that this mechanism has a number of benefits over auctioning and grandfathering. Using this mechanism efficiently distributes permits, allows for the attainment of a secondary policy objective and has the potential to be more politically appealing than existing alternatives.

  8. Fund Allocation in Complex Rehabilitation Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarek Hegazy

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Civil Infrastructure assets require continuous renewal actions to sustain their operability and safety. Allocating limited renewal funds amongst numerous building components, however, represents a large-scale optimization problem and earlier efforts utilized genetic algorithms (GAs to optimize medium size problems yet exhibit steep performance degradation as problem size increases. In this research, after experimenting with various approaches of segmenting a large problem into multiple smaller sub-problems, clustered segmentation proved to be the most promising. The paper discusses the underlying life cycle analysis model, the various segmentation methods, and the optimization results using the improved GAs + clustered segmentation, which proved to be able to optimize asset renewals for 50,000 components with no noticeable performance degradation. The proposed method is simple and logical, and can be used on variety of asset types to improve infrastructure fund allocation. Future extension of this research is then highlighted.

  9. Optimal allocation and adaptive VAR control of PV-DG in distribution networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Xueqian; Chen, Haoyong; Cai, Runqing; Yang, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A methodology for optimal PV-DG allocation based on a combination of algorithms. • Dealing with the randomicity of solar power energy using CCSP. • Presenting a VAR control strategy to balance the technical demands. • Finding the Pareto solutions using MOPSO and SVM. • Evaluating the Pareto solutions using WRSR. - Abstract: The development of distributed generation (DG) has brought new challenges to power networks. One of them that catches extensive attention is the voltage regulation problem of distribution networks caused by DG. Optimal allocation of DG in distribution networks is another well-known problem being widely investigated. This paper proposes a new method for the optimal allocation of photovoltaic distributed generation (PV-DG) considering the non-dispatchable characteristics of PV units. An adaptive reactive power control model is introduced in PV-DG allocation as to balance the trade-off between the improvement of voltage quality and the minimization of power loss in a distribution network integrated with PV-DG units. The optimal allocation problem is formulated as a chance-constrained stochastic programming (CCSP) model for dealing with the randomness of solar power energy. A novel algorithm combining the multi-objective particle swarm optimization (MOPSO) with support vector machines (SVM) is proposed to find the Pareto front consisting of a set of possible solutions. The Pareto solutions are further evaluated using the weighted rank sum ratio (WRSR) method to help the decision-maker obtain the desired solution. Simulation results on a 33-bus radial distribution system show that the optimal allocation method can fully take into account the time-variant characteristics and probability distribution of PV-DG, and obtain the best allocation scheme

  10. Adolescence, Attention Allocation, and Driving Safety

    OpenAIRE

    Romer, Daniel; Lee, Yi-Ching; McDonald, Catherine C.; Winston, Flaura K.

    2014-01-01

    Motor vehicle crashes are the leading source of morbidity and mortality in adolescents in the United States and the developed world. Inadequate allocation of attention to the driving task and to driving hazards are important sources of adolescent crashes. We review major explanations for these attention failures with particular focus on the roles that brain immaturity and lack of driving experience play in causing attention problems. The review suggests that the potential for overcoming inexp...

  11. Nonparametric correlation models for portfolio allocation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aslanidis, Nektarios; Casas, Isabel

    2013-01-01

    This article proposes time-varying nonparametric and semiparametric estimators of the conditional cross-correlation matrix in the context of portfolio allocation. Simulations results show that the nonparametric and semiparametric models are best in DGPs with substantial variability or structural ...... currencies. Results show the nonparametric model generally dominates the others when evaluating in-sample. However, the semiparametric model is best for out-of-sample analysis....

  12. Rethinking Reinforcement: Allocation, Induction, and Contingency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, William M

    2012-01-01

    The concept of reinforcement is at least incomplete and almost certainly incorrect. An alternative way of organizing our understanding of behavior may be built around three concepts: allocation, induction, and correlation. Allocation is the measure of behavior and captures the centrality of choice: All behavior entails choice and consists of choice. Allocation changes as a result of induction and correlation. The term induction covers phenomena such as adjunctive, interim, and terminal behavior—behavior induced in a situation by occurrence of food or another Phylogenetically Important Event (PIE) in that situation. Induction resembles stimulus control in that no one-to-one relation exists between induced behavior and the inducing event. If one allowed that some stimulus control were the result of phylogeny, then induction and stimulus control would be identical, and a PIE would resemble a discriminative stimulus. Much evidence supports the idea that a PIE induces all PIE-related activities. Research also supports the idea that stimuli correlated with PIEs become PIE-related conditional inducers. Contingencies create correlations between “operant” activity (e.g., lever pressing) and PIEs (e.g., food). Once an activity has become PIE-related, the PIE induces it along with other PIE-related activities. Contingencies also constrain possible performances. These constraints specify feedback functions, which explain phenomena such as the higher response rates on ratio schedules in comparison with interval schedules. Allocations that include a lot of operant activity are “selected” only in the sense that they generate more frequent occurrence of the PIE within the constraints of the situation; contingency and induction do the “selecting.” PMID:22287807

  13. Allocating nuclear power plant costs: an extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bierman, H. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    The author modifies and extends the argument presented in the September 22, 1983 issue by Richard E. Nellis for using economic depreciation to allocate nuclear power plant costs. The two goals of his model are to charge constant real costs to consumers and to provide a fair return of .125 to investors in each period. The addition of other objectives requires further modification of the model since the schedule of revenues that are deemed to be optimum defines the depreciation schedule. 1 table

  14. Continuous intravenous infusion of ampicillin and gentamicin during parenteral nutrition to 36 newborn infants using a dosage schedule

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colding, H; Møller, S; Andersen, G E

    1984-01-01

    Ampicillin and gentamicin were given continuously i.v. to 36 newborn infants using a dosage schedule and the results were compared with those obtained in an earlier study including 88 infants who received individually calculated dosages. With the dosage schedule the variation in the serum concent...

  15. A Channel Allocation Mechanism for Cellular Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Hua Chen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In cellular networks, call blocking causes lower customer satisfaction and economic loss. Therefore, the channel allocation for call block avoidance is an important issue. This study proposes a mechanism that considers the real-time traffic information (e.g., traffic flow and vehicle speed and the user behavior (e.g., call inter-arrival time and call holding time to analyze the adaptable number of communication calls in the specific cell for channel allocation. In experiments about call block probabilities (CBP, this study simulated two cases that are the situations of the whole day and traffic accident. The simulation results show that all CBPs in the scenario of whole day are less than 21.5% by using the proposed mechanism, which is better than using the static channel allocation (SCA mechanism. Moreover, all CBPs in the scenario of traffic accidents are less than 16.5% by using the proposed mechanism, which is better than using the SCA mechanism. Therefore, the proposed mechanism can decrease the number of CBPs effectively.

  16. Irrational time allocation in decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oud, Bastiaan; Krajbich, Ian; Miller, Kevin; Cheong, Jin Hyun; Botvinick, Matthew; Fehr, Ernst

    2016-01-13

    Time is an extremely valuable resource but little is known about the efficiency of time allocation in decision-making. Empirical evidence suggests that in many ecologically relevant situations, decision difficulty and the relative reward from making a correct choice, compared to an incorrect one, are inversely linked, implying that it is optimal to use relatively less time for difficult choice problems. This applies, in particular, to value-based choices, in which the relative reward from choosing the higher valued item shrinks as the values of the other options get closer to the best option and are thus more difficult to discriminate. Here, we experimentally show that people behave sub-optimally in such contexts. They do not respond to incentives that favour the allocation of time to choice problems in which the relative reward for choosing the best option is high; instead they spend too much time on problems in which the reward difference between the options is low. We demonstrate this by showing that it is possible to improve subjects' time allocation with a simple intervention that cuts them off when their decisions take too long. Thus, we provide a novel form of evidence that organisms systematically spend their valuable time in an inefficient way, and simultaneously offer a potential solution to the problem. © 2016 The Author(s).

  17. Optimal allocation of trend following strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grebenkov, Denis S.; Serror, Jeremy

    2015-09-01

    We consider a portfolio allocation problem for trend following (TF) strategies on multiple correlated assets. Under simplifying assumptions of a Gaussian market and linear TF strategies, we derive analytical formulas for the mean and variance of the portfolio return. We construct then the optimal portfolio that maximizes risk-adjusted return by accounting for inter-asset correlations. The dynamic allocation problem for n assets is shown to be equivalent to the classical static allocation problem for n2 virtual assets that include lead-lag corrections in positions of TF strategies. The respective roles of asset auto-correlations and inter-asset correlations are investigated in depth for the two-asset case and a sector model. In contrast to the principle of diversification suggesting to treat uncorrelated assets, we show that inter-asset correlations allow one to estimate apparent trends more reliably and to adjust the TF positions more efficiently. If properly accounted for, inter-asset correlations are not deteriorative but beneficial for portfolio management that can open new profit opportunities for trend followers. These concepts are illustrated using daily returns of three highly correlated futures markets: the E-mini S&P 500, Euro Stoxx 50 index, and the US 10-year T-note futures.

  18. Biomass Resource Allocation among Competing End Uses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newes, E.; Bush, B.; Inman, D.; Lin, Y.; Mai, T.; Martinez, A.; Mulcahy, D.; Short, W.; Simpkins, T.; Uriarte, C.; Peck, C.

    2012-05-01

    The Biomass Scenario Model (BSM) is a system dynamics model developed by the U.S. Department of Energy as a tool to better understand the interaction of complex policies and their potential effects on the biofuels industry in the United States. However, it does not currently have the capability to account for allocation of biomass resources among the various end uses, which limits its utilization in analysis of policies that target biomass uses outside the biofuels industry. This report provides a more holistic understanding of the dynamics surrounding the allocation of biomass among uses that include traditional use, wood pellet exports, bio-based products and bioproducts, biopower, and biofuels by (1) highlighting the methods used in existing models' treatments of competition for biomass resources; (2) identifying coverage and gaps in industry data regarding the competing end uses; and (3) exploring options for developing models of biomass allocation that could be integrated with the BSM to actively exchange and incorporate relevant information.

  19. Resource allocation models of auditory working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Sabine; Teki, Sundeep; Kumar, Sukhbinder; Husain, Masud; Griffiths, Timothy D

    2016-06-01

    Auditory working memory (WM) is the cognitive faculty that allows us to actively hold and manipulate sounds in mind over short periods of time. We develop here a particular perspective on WM for non-verbal, auditory objects as well as for time based on the consideration of possible parallels to visual WM. In vision, there has been a vigorous debate on whether WM capacity is limited to a fixed number of items or whether it represents a limited resource that can be allocated flexibly across items. Resource allocation models predict that the precision with which an item is represented decreases as a function of total number of items maintained in WM because a limited resource is shared among stored objects. We consider here auditory work on sequentially presented objects of different pitch as well as time intervals from the perspective of dynamic resource allocation. We consider whether the working memory resource might be determined by perceptual features such as pitch or timbre, or bound objects comprising multiple features, and we speculate on brain substrates for these behavioural models. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Auditory working memory. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Transnational Energy Companies' Investment Allocation Decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osmundsen, Petter; Emhjellen, Magne; Halleraker, Morten

    2001-10-01

    When making international capital budgeting decisions, energy companies are often faced with capital and organisational constraints. The constraints may be real or management imposed. In addition, when entering into a new country or region the companies will incur fixed new area costs that must be considered before investment approval. The decision problem is therefore not a linear problem where the standard net present value rule applies, but a non-linear problem of selecting the combination of projects with the maximum aggregate net present value. New project investments will therefore be selected based on the size of the net present value (often referred to as financial volume or materiality) compared to the projects' use of capital and scarce personnel and organisational capacity. Consequently, projects with a positive net present value, but with low materiality, may not be approved. The portfolio choice has a parallel to the company's choice of core areas. Instead of complex portfolio models, the companies often apply simpler allocation mechanisms, e.g., combinations of fixed investment budgets and materiality requirements. Analysing petroleum cases, we compare the allocations decisions generated by portfolio models and simpler mechanisms. We also discuss the implications of this capital allocation pattern for governments' design of tax systems and license conditions. (author)

  1. Adapting water allocation management to drought scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Giacomelli

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Climate change dynamics have significant consequences on water resources on a watershed scale. With water becoming scarcer and susceptible to variation, the planning and reallocation decisions in watershed management need to be reviewed. This research focuses on an in-depth understanding of the current allocation balance of water resources among competitors, placed along the course of the Adda River. In particular, during the summer period, the demand for water dramatically increases. This is due to the increase in irrigation activities in the lower part of the basin and to the highest peaks of tourist inflow, in the Como Lake and Valtellina areas. Moreover, during these months, the hydroelectric reservoirs in the upper part of the Adda River basin (the Valtellina retain most of the volume of water coming from the snow and glacier melt. The existing allocation problem among these different competing users is exacerbated by the decreasing water supplies. The summer of 2003 testified the rise in a number of allocation problems and situations of water scarcity that brought about environmental and economical consequences. The RICLIC project is committed to the understanding of water dynamics on a regional scale, to quantify the volumes involved and offer local communities an instrument to improve a sustainable water management system, within uncertain climate change scenarios.

  2. Management of electricity network cross border capacity: allocation procedures between France and Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raytchev, D.

    2003-01-01

    This paper tries to identify a method of allocation of the Interconnector capacity for the transport of electricity which complies best with the (conflicting) interests of users, system operators and regulators in the context of a common European market of electricity. The first part combines a historical approach with a comparative study of existing allocation procedures to show that the new joint mechanism of auctioning and market splitting, applied to the whole northern zone of UCTE is vastly superior to the existing allocation arrangement on the Franco-Belgian border. The second part discusses some problems related to the implementation of the new allocation mechanism. Here we examine some difficulties concerning ca achy auctioning (like auction methods and organisation, profit distribution and derivative markets) as well as the market splitting method (neutrality, markets without power exchanges, etc). The main obstacle facing the new method remains however the lack of willingness to address the urgent issue of reforming the present allocation procedures- a remnant from the period of centrally planned electricity systems where neighbouring monopoly companies negotiated agreements of mutual assistance. These agreements are currently kept in place by tacit inaction despite their heterogeneity and arbitrariness which slow down the emergence of a real competition capable of contesting the positions of historic operators. (authors)

  3. Multiarea Transmission Cost Allocation in Large Power Systems Using the Nodal Pricing Control Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ghayeni

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an algorithm for transmission cost allocation (TCA in a large power system based on nodal pricing approach using the multi-area scheme. The nodal pricing approach is introduced to allocate the transmission costs by the control of nodal prices in a single area network. As the number of equations is dependent on the number of buses and generators, this method will be very time consuming for large power systems. To solve this problem, the present paper proposes a new algorithm based on multi-area approach for regulating the nodal prices, so that the simulation time is greatly reduced and therefore the TCA problem with nodal pricing approach will be applicable for large power systems. In addition, in this method the transmission costs are allocated to users more equitable. Since the higher transmission costs in an area having a higher reliability are paid only by users of that area in contrast with the single area method, in which these costs are allocated to all users regardless of their locations. The proposed method is implemented on the IEEE 118 bus test system which comprises three areas. Results show that with application of multi-area approach, the simulation time is greatly reduced and the transmission costs are also allocated to users with less variation in new nodal prices with respect to the single area approach.

  4. Efficient Power Allocation for Video over Superposition Coding

    KAUST Repository

    Lau, Chun Pong; Jamshaid, K.; Shihada, Basem

    2013-01-01

    are conducted to gain a better understanding of its efficiency, specifically, the impact of the received signal due to different power allocation ratios. Our experimental results show that to maintain high video quality, the power allocated to the base layer

  5. Tissue- and stage-dependent dosage compensation on the Neo-X chromosome in drosophila pseudoobscura

    KAUST Repository

    Nozawa, Masafumi; Fukuda, Nana; Ikeo, Kazuho; Gojobori, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    Sex chromosome dosage compensation (DC) is widely accepted in various organisms. This concept is mostly supported by comparisons of gene expression between chromosomes and between sexes. However, genes on the X chromosome and autosomes are mostly

  6. 76 FR 81806 - Ophthalmic and Topical Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Ivermectin Topical Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-29

    .... FDA-2011-N-0003] Ophthalmic and Topical Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Ivermectin Topical Solution... solution of ivermectin. DATES: This rule is effective December 29, 2011. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT... ANADA 200-318 for [[Page 81807

  7. Meta-analysis : High-dosage vitamin E supplementation may increase all-cause mortality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miller, ER; Pastor-Barriuso, R; Dalal, D; Riemersma, RA; Appel, LJ; Guallar, E

    2005-01-01

    Background: Experimental models and observational studies suggest that vitamin E supplementation may prevent cardiovascular disease and cancer. However, several trials of high-dosage vitamin E supplementation showed non-statistically significant increases in total mortality. Purpose: To perform a

  8. Low-dosage helical CT applications for chest medical checkup and lung cancer screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ping; Cui Fa; Liang Huanqing; Zheng Minfei

    2005-01-01

    Objective: A discussion on low-dosage helical CT applications on chest medical checkup and lung cancer screening. Methods: On the 100 chest medical check up with three different of protocols, including standard-dosage (the tube current was 230 mAs) were compared with low-dose (tube current was 50 mAs or 30 mAs). Results: Low-dosage helical CT scan provides excellent images. In 100 chest medical checkup, 39 nodules or masses were revealed, enlarged lymph node was noted in 1 case; emphysema or bullae was demonstrated in 3 segments; thickening of bronchial wall was shown in 2 cases; and localized pleural thickening was found in 1 case. Conclusion: In chest checkup or lung cancer screening low-dosage helical CT (tube current 30 mAs) will not only guarantee image quality but also reduce the radiation dose during the examination. (authors)

  9. Biowaiver Monographs for Immediate Release Solid Oral Dosage Forms: Proguanil Hydrochloride.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plöger, Gerlinde F; Abrahamsson, Bertil; Cristofoletti, Rodrigo; Groot, D I R K W; Langguth, Peter; Mehta, Mehul U; Parr, Alan; Polli, James E; Shah, Vinod P; Tajiri, Tomokazu; Dressman, Jennifer B

    2018-01-01

    Literature data relevant to the decision to waive in vivo bioequivalence testing for the approval of generic immediate release solid oral dosage forms of proguanil hydrochloride are reviewed. To clarify the Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS) classification, experimental solubility and

  10. Clinical criteria for medical staff exposure and reference dosage within the Galician health Service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Comesana, J.

    2003-01-01

    The generalised use of ionising radiation tests is making these tests become the prime cause of exposure to artificial radiation, receiving one sixth of the dosage through background radiation. (Author)

  11. Dynamic Asset Allocation and the Informational Efficiency of Markets.

    OpenAIRE

    Grossman, Sanford J

    1995-01-01

    Markets have an allocational role; even in the absence of news about payoffs, prices change to facilitate trade and allocate resources to their best use. Allocational price changes create noise in the signal extraction process, and markets where such trading is important are markets in which we may expect to find a failure of informational efficiency. An important source of allocational trading is the use of dynamic trading strategies caused by the incomplete equitization of risks. Incomplete...

  12. Constrained control allocation for systems with redundant control effectors

    OpenAIRE

    Bordignon, Kenneth A

    1996-01-01

    Control allocation is examined for linear time-invariant problems that have more controls than degrees of freedom. The controls are part of a physical system and are subject to limits on their maximum positions. A control allocation scheme commands control deflections in response to some desired output. The ability of a control allocation scheme to produce the desired output without violating the physical position constraints is used to compare allocation schemes. Methods are develop...

  13. Fundamental-driven and Tactical Asset Allocation: what really matters?

    OpenAIRE

    Hartpence, Maria; Boulier, Jean-François

    2004-01-01

    Asset allocation contribution to ex-post performance is of primary importance. Nobody denies its role, yet the subject of allocating assets remains controversial. To some contenders, the added value stems only from strategic asset allocation which aims at providing the long-term average exposure to the selected asset classes. On the other hand, proponents of active management have introduced several forms of tactical asset allocation. In this paper, we will go a step further by distinguishing...

  14. Administered activity of Tc-99m MDP for bone scintigraphy, standard or individual dosage?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vestergren, E.; Gretarsdottir, J.; Jacobsson, L.

    2002-01-01

    Background and Aim: Adult patients are generally, irrespective of size, given the same amount of activity for a certain type of nuclear medicine examination, a standard dosage. Identical image quality is essential when comparing different patient studies. The aim of this study is to evaluate different dosage methods for Tc-99m-MDP bone scintigraphy and to investigate whether individual dosage will decrease the variations in image quality between different patients. Material and Methods: 100 consecutive adult patients (aged between 40 and 89 years) undergoing whole body bone scintigraphy were studied. Eight patients were excluded from the study because of abnormal high uptake in the areas of interest. The patient weight and height were registered. The activity in the syringes was measured before and after the injection of about 600 MBq Tc-99m MDP. Scanning was performed, with a dual head gamma camera (Maxxus or Millennium VG, General Electric) equipped with a high-resolution collimator, at approximately 4 hours (mean 3.8 h) post-injection. Regions of interest (ROI) were drawn over the lumbar spine (posterior view), the right femur (anterior view) and also soft tissue background regions for each area. The total counts, maximum counts/pixel and number of pixels in the ROIs were registered. The maximum number of counts/pixel (background-subtracted), SPINEmax and FEMURmax were chosen as the image quality parameters. For each patient, SPINEmax and FEMURmax where recalculated to the number that would have been obtained with standard dosage (exactly 600 MBq), and dosage proportional to body weight, body surface area and body height. All values were corrected to a scanning time 3.8 h after injection. Results: Both with a standard activity dosage and a dosage proportional to body height, SPINEmax decreases with increasing body weight. Dosage proportional to body weight gives increasing values of SPINEmax with increasing body weight. Dosage proportional to body surface area

  15. Methotrexate Dosage Reduction Upon Adalimumab Initiation: Clinical and Ultrasonographic Outcomes from the Randomized Noninferiority MUSICA Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaeley, Gurjit S; Evangelisto, Amy M; Nishio, Midori J; Goss, Sandra L; Liu, Shufang; Kalabic, Jasmina; Kupper, Hartmut

    2016-08-01

    To examine the clinical and ultrasonographic (US) outcomes of reducing methotrexate (MTX) dosage upon initiating adalimumab (ADA) in MTX-inadequate responders with moderately to severely active rheumatoid arthritis (RA). MUSICA (NCT01185288) was a double-blind, randomized, parallel-arm study of 309 patients with RA receiving MTX ≥ 15 mg/week for ≥ 12 weeks before screening. Patients were randomized to high dosage (20 mg/week) or low dosage (7.5 mg/week) MTX; all patients received 40 mg open-label ADA every other week for 24 weeks. The primary endpoint was Week 24 mean 28-joint Disease Activity Score based on C-reactive protein (DAS28-CRP) to test for noninferiority of low-dosage MTX using a 15% margin. US images were scored using a 10-joint semiquantitative system incorporating OMERACT definitions for pathology, assessing synovial hypertrophy, vascularity, and bony erosions. Rapid improvement in clinical indices was observed in both groups after addition of ADA. The difference in mean DAS28-CRP (0.37, 95% CI 0.07-0.66) comparing low-dosage (4.12, 95% CI 3.88-4.34) versus high-dosage MTX (3.75, 95% CI 3.52-3.97) was statistically significant and non-inferiority was not met. Statistically significant differences were not detected for most clinical, functional, and US outcomes. Pharmacokinetic and safety profiles were similar. In MUSICA, Week 24 mean DAS28-CRP, the primary endpoint, did not meet non-inferiority for the low-dosage MTX group. Although the differences between the 2 MTX dosage groups were small, our study findings did not support routine MTX reduction in MTX inadequate responders initiating ADA.

  16. Feedback Control of Sex Determination by Dosage Compensation Revealed through Caenorhabditis Elegans Sdc-3 Mutations

    OpenAIRE

    DeLong, L.; Plenefisch, J. D.; Klein, R. D.; Meyer, B. J.

    1993-01-01

    In Caenorhabditis elegans, sex determination and dosage compensation are coordinately controlled through a group of genes that respond to the primary sex determination signal. Here we describe a new gene, sdc-3, that also controls these processes. In contrast to previously described genes, the sex determination and dosage compensation activities of sdc-3 are separately mutable, indicating that they function independently. Paradoxically, the sdc-3 null phenotype fails to reveal the role of sdc...

  17. Miniaturized approach for excipient selection during the development of oral solid dosage form

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raijada, Dharaben Kaushikkumar; Müllertz, Anette; Cornett, Claus

    2014-01-01

    The present study introduces a miniaturized high-throughput platform to understand the influence of excipients on the performance of oral solid dosage forms during early drug development. Wet massing of binary mixtures of the model drug (sodium naproxen) and representative excipients was followed...... for excipient selection and for early-stage performance testing of active pharmaceutical ingredient intended for oral solid dosage form. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 103:900-908, 2014....

  18. Matching today's allocation of LDC expenses with cost causation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yankel, A.J.

    1990-01-01

    This article discusses the costs of natural gas distribution and how to integrate these costs into the allocation of local distribution companies expenses for the purpose of establishing rate structures. The author's contention is that costs related to throughput are a larger share than historically used allocation factors suggest. Topics include the historical allocation factors, a case study and the conclusions drawn from it

  19. Resource Allocation for A Mobile Application Oriented Architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guo, Y.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria; Lu, W.W.; Xie, X.

    2005-01-01

    A Montium is a coarse-grained reconfigurable architecture designed by the CADTES group of the University of Twente for mobile applications. This paper presents a resource allocation method to allocate variables to storage places and to schedule data movements for the Montium. The resource allocation

  20. Reward-allocation judgments in Romania : A factorial survey approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buzea, C.; Meseşan-Schmitz, L.; van de Vijver, F.J.R.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated reward-allocation judgments when positive outcomes (monetary rewards) were distributed and the allocator was not a co-recipient, in a sample of 200 Romanian students. Within a full factorial survey design, seven factors, selected to affect the allocation decision, were orthogonally

  1. Risk allocation approach to reactor safety design and evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gokcek, O.; Temme, M.I.; Derby, S.L.

    1978-01-01

    This paper describes a risk allocation technique used for determining nuclear power plant design reliability requirements. The concept of risk allocation-optimum choice of safety function reliabilities under a maximum risk constraint - is described. An example of risk allocation is presented to demonstrate the application of the methodology

  2. 30 CFR 206.459 - Allocation of washed coal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allocation of washed coal. 206.459 Section 206... MANAGEMENT PRODUCT VALUATION Indian Coal § 206.459 Allocation of washed coal. (a) When coal is subjected to washing, the washed coal must be allocated to the leases from which it was extracted. (b) When the net...

  3. 30 CFR 206.260 - Allocation of washed coal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allocation of washed coal. 206.260 Section 206... MANAGEMENT PRODUCT VALUATION Federal Coal § 206.260 Allocation of washed coal. (a) When coal is subjected to washing, the washed coal must be allocated to the leases from which it was extracted. (b) When the net...

  4. Efficiency of individual dosage of digoxin with calculated concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao L

    2014-07-01

    digoxin and creatinine clearance, our results show that although there was a significant correlation between clearance of digoxin and creatinine clearance in the group overall, correlations were not evident within the different stages of renal function.Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that clearance of digoxin and the creatinine clearance rate cannot be explained by renal function alone and that the validity of the Konishi equation for individualizing the digoxin dosage in Chinese patients is limited, being applicable only in stage 3 renal disease. Further research in larger numbers of patients across all stages of renal function will be required in the future to verify the original Konishi model. Keywords: serum digoxin concentration, predicted concentration, renal insufficiency

  5. Measurement of the lowest dosage of phenobarbital that can produce drug discrimination in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overton, Donald A.; Stanwood, Gregg D.; Patel, Bhavesh N.; Pragada, Sreenivasa R.; Gordon, M. Kathleen

    2009-01-01

    Rationale Accurate measurement of the threshold dosage of phenobarbital that can produce drug discrimination (DD) may improve our understanding of the mechanisms and properties of such discrimination. Objectives Compare three methods for determining the threshold dosage for phenobarbital (D) versus no drug (N) DD. Methods Rats learned a D versus N DD in 2-lever operant training chambers. A titration scheme was employed to increase or decrease dosage at the end of each 18-day block of sessions depending on whether the rat had achieved criterion accuracy during the sessions just completed. Three criterion rules were employed, all based on average percent drug lever responses during initial links of the last 6 D and 6 N sessions of a block. The criteria were: D%>66 and N%50 and N%33. Two squads of rats were trained, one immediately after the other. Results All rats discriminated drug versus no drug. In most rats, dosage decreased to low levels and then oscillated near the minimum level required to maintain criterion performance. The lowest discriminated dosage significantly differed under the three criterion rules. The squad that was trained 2nd may have benefited by partially duplicating the lever choices of the previous squad. Conclusions The lowest discriminated dosage is influenced by the criterion of discriminative control that is employed, and is higher than the absolute threshold at which discrimination entirely disappears. Threshold estimations closer to absolute threshold can be obtained when criteria are employed that are permissive, and that allow rats to maintain lever preferences. PMID:19082992

  6. Cognitive radio resource allocation based on coupled chaotic genetic algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zu Yun-Xiao; Zhou Jie; Zeng Chang-Chang

    2010-01-01

    A coupled chaotic genetic algorithm for cognitive radio resource allocation which is based on genetic algorithm and coupled Logistic map is proposed. A fitness function for cognitive radio resource allocation is provided. Simulations are conducted for cognitive radio resource allocation by using the coupled chaotic genetic algorithm, simple genetic algorithm and dynamic allocation algorithm respectively. The simulation results show that, compared with simple genetic and dynamic allocation algorithm, coupled chaotic genetic algorithm reduces the total transmission power and bit error rate in cognitive radio system, and has faster convergence speed

  7. Prey risk allocation in a grazing ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gude, Justin A; Garrott, Robert A; Borkowski, John J; King, Fred

    2006-02-01

    Understanding the behaviorally mediated indirect effects of predators in ecosystems requires knowledge of predator-prey behavioral interactions. In predator-ungulate-plant systems, empirical research quantifying how predators affect ungulate group sizes and distribution, in the context of other influential variables, is particularly needed. The risk allocation hypothesis proposes that prey behavioral responses to predation risk depend on background frequencies of exposure to risk, and it can be used to make predictions about predator-ungulate-plant interactions. We determined non-predation variables that affect elk (Cervus elaphus) group sizes and distribution on a winter range in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE) using logistic and log-linear regression on surveys of 513 1-km2 areas conducted over two years. Employing model selection techniques, we evaluated risk allocation and other a priori hypotheses of elk group size and distributional responses to wolf (Canis lupus) predation risk while accounting for influential non-wolf-predation variables. We found little evidence that wolves affect elk group sizes, which were strongly influenced by habitat type and hunting by humans. Following predictions from the risk allocation hypothesis, wolves likely created a more dynamic elk distribution in areas that they frequently hunted, as elk tended to move following wolf encounters in those areas. This response should dilute elk foraging pressure on plant communities in areas where they are frequently hunted by wolves. We predict that this should decrease the spatial heterogeneity of elk impacts on grasslands in areas that wolves frequently hunt. We also predict that this should decrease browsing pressure on heavily browsed woody plant stands in certain areas, which is supported by recent research in the GYE.

  8. Fuzzy containers allocation problem in maritime terminal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed-Mohammad Seyed-Hosseini

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Normal.dotm 0 0 1 140 799 UPC 6 1 981 12.0 0 false 18 pt 18 pt 0 0 false false false /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:12.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ascii-font-family:Cambria; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:??; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Cambria; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Containers allocation in terminals has attracted lots of research works due to practical & theoretical importance in transportation literature. In this paper, we developed a fuzzy mathematical programming model for solving problem of allocating the containers in terminal area. The objective is minimizing the total distance traversed by the containers from the ship to the terminal area they are assigned. Fuzzy set concepts are used to treat imprecision regarding the distances between berth and terminals area, number of containers in an arrived ship and estimation of available area in each terminal at a port. We proposed two types of models for optimistic and pessimistic situations. The proposed models have been coded in LINGO8.0 solver and a numerical example has been solved for illustration purpose. The full analysis of the proposed models can cause an optimum allocation of containers of several ships to different terminals of berths in fuzzy environment.

  9. Feeding-Related Traits Are Affected by Dosage of the foraging Gene in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Aaron M; Anreiter, Ina; Neville, Megan C; Sokolowski, Marla B

    2017-02-01

    Nutrient acquisition and energy storage are critical parts of achieving metabolic homeostasis. The foraging gene in Drosophila melanogaster has previously been implicated in multiple feeding-related and metabolic traits. Before foraging's functions can be further dissected, we need a precise genetic null mutant to definitively map its amorphic phenotypes. We used homologous recombination to precisely delete foraging, generating the for 0 null allele, and used recombineering to reintegrate a full copy of the gene, generating the {for BAC } rescue allele. We show that a total loss of foraging expression in larvae results in reduced larval path length and food intake behavior, while conversely showing an increase in triglyceride levels. Furthermore, varying foraging gene dosage demonstrates a linear dose-response on these phenotypes in relation to foraging gene expression levels. These experiments have unequivocally proven a causal, dose-dependent relationship between the foraging gene and its pleiotropic influence on these feeding-related traits. Our analysis of foraging's transcription start sites, termination sites, and splicing patterns using rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) and full-length cDNA sequencing, revealed four independent promoters, pr1-4, that produce 21 transcripts with nine distinct open reading frames (ORFs). The use of alternative promoters and alternative splicing at the foraging locus creates diversity and flexibility in the regulation of gene expression, and ultimately function. Future studies will exploit these genetic tools to precisely dissect the isoform- and tissue-specific requirements of foraging's functions and shed light on the genetic control of feeding-related traits involved in energy homeostasis. Copyright © 2017 by the Genetics Society of America.

  10. Optimal load allocation of multiple fuel boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Alex C; Du, Yan Yi

    2009-04-01

    This paper presents a new methodology for optimally allocating a set of multiple industrial boilers that each simultaneously consumes multiple fuel types. Unlike recent similar approaches in the utility industry that use soft computing techniques, this approach is based on a second-order gradient search method that is easy to implement without any specialized optimization software. The algorithm converges rapidly and the application yields significant savings benefits, up to 3% of the overall operating cost of industrial boiler systems in the examples given and potentially higher in other cases, depending on the plant circumstances. Given today's energy prices, this can yield significant savings benefits to manufacturers that raise steam for plant operations.

  11. A unified transmission loss allocation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, Qifeng; Abur, Ali

    2007-01-01

    A new unified method which allocates transmission losses either to buses in a pool market or to individual transactions in a bilateral contract market is presented in this paper. A detailed derivation of the method is given. A bus-loss matrix and a transaction-loss matrix are developed to show the interactions between bus injections and transactions. It is further demonstrated that the ''Physical-power-flow-based'' method can be obtained as an approximation of this unified approach under certain simplifying assumptions. Test systems are used to illustrate how the proposed method behaves under different possible scenarios. (author)

  12. Radio resource allocation and dynamic spectrum access

    CERN Document Server

    Benmammar , Badr

    2013-01-01

    We are currently witnessing an increase in telecommunications norms and standards given the recent advances in this field. The increasing number of normalized standards paves the way for an increase in the range of services available for each consumer. Moreover, the majority of available radio frequencies have already been allocated. This explains the emergence of cognitive radio (CR) - the sharing of the spectrum between a primary user and a secondary user.In this book, we will present the state of the art of the different techniques for spectrum access using cooperation and competit

  13. Asset allocation using option-implied moments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahaludin, H.; Abdullah, M. H.; Tolos, S. M.

    2017-09-01

    This study uses an option-implied distribution as the input in asset allocation. The computation of risk-neutral densities (RND) are based on the Dow Jones Industrial Average (DJIA) index option and its constituents. Since the RNDs estimation does not incorporate risk premium, the conversion of RND into risk-world density (RWD) is required. The RWD is obtained through parametric calibration using the beta distributions. The mean, volatility, and covariance are then calculated to construct the portfolio. The performance of the portfolio is evaluated by using portfolio volatility and Sharpe ratio.

  14. Reliability allocation in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bari, R.A.; Cho, N.Z.; Papazoglou, I.A.

    1985-01-01

    The technical feasibility of allocating reliability and risk to reactor systems, subsystems, components, operations, and structures is investigated. A methodology is discussed which identifies top level risk indices as objective functions and plant-specific performance variables as decision variables. These are related by a risk model which includes cost as a top level risk index. A multiobjective optimization procedure is used to find non-inferior solutions in terms of the objective functions and the decision variables. The approach is illustrated for a boiling water reactor plant. The use of the methodology for both operating reactors and for advanced designs is briefly discussed. 16 refs., 1 fig

  15. Tactical Asset Allocation mit Genetischen Algorithmen

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel Ammann; Christian Zenkner

    2003-01-01

    In this study of tactical asset allocation, we use a genetic algorithm to implement a market timing strategy. The algorithm makes a daily decision whether to invest in the market index or in a riskless asset. The market index is represented by the S&P500 Composite Index, the riskless asset by a 3-month T-Bill. The decision of the genetic algorithm is based on fundamental macroeconomic variables. The association of fundamental variables with a set of operators creates a space of possible strat...

  16. Determination of the mechanical properties of solid and cellular polymeric dosage forms by diametral compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaesi, Aron H; Saka, Nannaji

    2016-07-25

    At present, the immediate-release solid dosage forms, such as the oral tablets and capsules, are granular solids. They release drug rapidly and have adequate mechanical properties, but their manufacture is fraught with difficulties inherent in processing particulate matter. Such difficulties, however, could be overcome by liquid-based processing. Therefore, we have recently introduced polymeric cellular (i.e., highly porous) dosage forms prepared from a melt process. Experiments have shown that upon immersion in a dissolution medium, the cellular dosage forms with polyethylene glycol (PEG) as excipient and with predominantly open-cell topology disintegrate by exfoliation, thus enabling rapid drug release. If the volume fraction of voids of the open-cell structures is too large, however, their mechanical strength is adversely affected. At present, the common method for determining the tensile strength of brittle, solid dosage forms (such as select granular forms) is the diametral compression test. In this study, the theory of diametral compression is first refined to demonstrate that the relevant mechanical properties of ductile and cellular solids (i.e., the elastic modulus and the yield strength) can also be extracted from this test. Diametral compression experiments are then conducted on PEG-based solid and cellular dosage forms. It is found that the elastic modulus and yield strength of the open-cell structures are about an order of magnitude smaller than those of the non-porous solids, but still are substantially greater than the stiffness and strength requirements for handling the dosage forms manually. This work thus demonstrates that melt-processed polymeric cellular dosage forms that release drug rapidly can be designed and manufactured to have adequate mechanical properties. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Semi-solid dosage form of clonazepam for rapid oral mucosal absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakata, Osamu; Machida, Yoshiharu; Onishi, Hiraku

    2011-07-01

    In order to obtain an alternative to the intravenous (i.v.) dosage form of clonazepam (CZ), an oral droplet formulation of CZ was developed previously; however, the droplet was physically unstable. Therefore, in the present study, it was attempted to develop an easily-handled dosage form, which was more physically stable and allowed rapid drug absorption from oral mucosa. A semi-solid dosage form, composed of polyethylene glycol 1500 (PEG), CZ, and oleic acid (OA) at 37/1/2 (w/w) and named PEG/CZ/OA, and a semi-solid dosage form containing PEG and CZ at 39/1 (w/w), called PEG/CZ, were prepared. Their physical stability in air at room temperature and oral mucosal absorption in rats were investigated. The semi-solid dosage forms were much more stable physically than the droplet, that is, no recrystallization of CZ was observed for at least 8 days. The effective concentration for humans and rats (20 ng/mL or more) was achieved within 30 min after buccal administration for both PEG/CZ/OA and PEG/CZ. The plasma concentration increased gradually and less varied at each time point for PEG/CZ/OA. PEG/CZ/OA was found to show more rapid and higher absorption of CZ in buccal administration than in sublingual administration. Buccal administration with the semi-solid dosage PEG/CZ with or without OA was suggested to be a possibly useful novel dosage form as an alternative to i.v. injection.

  18. Intrathecal baclofen in multiple sclerosis and spinal cord injury: complications and long-term dosage evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draulans, Nathalie; Vermeersch, Kristof; Degraeuwe, Bart; Meurrens, Tom; Peers, Koen; Nuttin, Bart; Kiekens, Carlotte

    2013-12-01

    To investigate the long-term dosage evolution and complication rate of intrathecal baclofen use in multiple sclerosis and spinal cord injury patients, based on a large population with a long follow-up. Retrospective data analysis. Academic hospital. Patients with multiple sclerosis (n = 81) or spinal cord injury (n = 49) having an intrathecal baclofen pump implanted at the University Hospitals Leuven between 1988 and 2009. Medical records review of included patients in August 2010. Complications linked to intrathecal baclofen therapy. Daily baclofen dosage after 3 and 6 months, and yearly thereafter. Data on dosage evolution were analysed using a mixed-effect linear model. In 130 patients with a mean follow-up of 63 months, comprising 797 pump years, 104 complications were recorded. This corresponds to a complication rate of 0.011 per month, equally divided among both groups. Seventy-eight of these complications were catheter related. The mean dosage of baclofen stabilizes two years after implantation at 323 µg/day in the multiple sclerosis population. In spinal cord injury patients the daily dose only stabilizes after five years at a significantly higher dosage (504 µg/day). No significant increase in dosage is seen in the long term. In multiple sclerosis and spinal cord injury patients, intrathecal baclofen therapy has a complication rate of 1% per month. Complications are mainly due to catheter-related problems (74%). The intrathecal baclofen dosage stabilizes in the long term, indicating that long-term tolerance, defined as progressive diminution of the susceptibility to the effects of a drug, is not present.

  19. Allocation of responsibilities for monitoring and retrieval activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCombie, C.

    2000-01-01

    Geologic disposal is considered by many to offer a way to achieve the long term isolation required for radioactive wastes. The extremely long timescales, however, have drawn attention to the need for society to plan far ahead into the future. Perhaps for the first time, much thought and debate is being explicitly devoted to the burdens and the benefits which a technology will bring to many generations in the future. The questions to be answered concern not only what the benefits and burdens are, but also who bears the responsibility for defining courses of action affecting future generations and for implementing any measures required to protect society beyond the lifetimes of those initiating activities with far future impacts. In the present paper, the intention is to review the actions which may have to be taken during and after the operation of a disposal facility, to consider who shares responsibility for such actions and to look rationally at how responsibilities can best be allocated to ensure that they will be fulfilled in a way which protects future generations from harm, be it physical or financial. The paper defines the phases in the lifetime of a geologic repository, and postulates that responsibilities are to be shared between governments, regulators, repository implementers, waste producers and potentially also supra-national bodies. The specific responsibilities ranging from conceptual planning through to financial provisions for actions are then listed. The allocation of these responsibilities is then discussed. The broad conclusions are that waste producers are responsible for all financing and for most of the specific actions to be taken. In very far future times, however, responsibility for a closed and sealed national repository must revert to the government of a State. (author)

  20. Sub-apoptotic dosages of pro-oxidant vitamin cocktails sensitize human melanoma cells to NK cell lysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremante, Elisa; Santarelli, Lory; Lo Monaco, Elisa; Sampaoli, Camilla; Ingegnere, Tiziano; Guerrieri, Roberto; Tomasetti, Marco; Giacomini, Patrizio

    2015-10-13

    Alpha-tocopheryl succinate (αTOS), vitamin K3 (VK3) and vitamin C (ascorbic acid, AA) were previously shown to synergistically promote different death pathways in carcinoma cells, depending on their concentrations and combinations. Similar effects were observed herein in melanoma cells, although αTOS behaved as an antagonist. Interestingly, suboptimal cell death-inducing concentrations (1.5 μM αTOS/20 μM AA/0.2 μM VK3) effectively up-regulated activating Natural Killer (NK) cell ligands, including MICA (the stress-signaling ligand of the NKG2D receptor), and/or the ligands of at least one of the natural cytotoxicity receptors (NKp30, NKp44 and NKp46) in 5/6 melanoma cell lines. Only an isolated MICA down-regulation was seen. HLA class I, HLA class II, ULBP1, ULBP2, ULBP3, Nectin-2, and PVR displayed little, if any, change in expression. Ligand up-regulation resulted in improved lysis by polyclonal NK cells armed with the corresponding activating receptors. These results provide the first evidence for concerted induction of cell death by cell-autonomous and extrinsic (immune) mechanisms. Alarming the immune system much below the cell damage threshold may have evolved as a sensitive readout of neoplastic transformation and oxidative stress. Cocktails of vitamin analogues at slightly supra-physiological dosages may find application as mild complements of melanoma treatment, and in chemoprevention.

  1. Congestion Pricing for Aircraft Pushback Slot Allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lihua; Zhang, Yaping; Liu, Lan; Xing, Zhiwei

    2017-01-01

    In order to optimize aircraft pushback management during rush hour, aircraft pushback slot allocation based on congestion pricing is explored while considering monetary compensation based on the quality of the surface operations. First, the concept of the "external cost of surface congestion" is proposed, and a quantitative study on the external cost is performed. Then, an aircraft pushback slot allocation model for minimizing the total surface cost is established. An improved discrete differential evolution algorithm is also designed. Finally, a simulation is performed on Xinzheng International Airport using the proposed model. By comparing the pushback slot control strategy based on congestion pricing with other strategies, the advantages of the proposed model and algorithm are highlighted. In addition to reducing delays and optimizing the delay distribution, the model and algorithm are better suited for use for actual aircraft pushback management during rush hour. Further, it is also observed they do not result in significant increases in the surface cost. These results confirm the effectiveness and suitability of the proposed model and algorithm.

  2. Congestion Pricing for Aircraft Pushback Slot Allocation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihua Liu

    Full Text Available In order to optimize aircraft pushback management during rush hour, aircraft pushback slot allocation based on congestion pricing is explored while considering monetary compensation based on the quality of the surface operations. First, the concept of the "external cost of surface congestion" is proposed, and a quantitative study on the external cost is performed. Then, an aircraft pushback slot allocation model for minimizing the total surface cost is established. An improved discrete differential evolution algorithm is also designed. Finally, a simulation is performed on Xinzheng International Airport using the proposed model. By comparing the pushback slot control strategy based on congestion pricing with other strategies, the advantages of the proposed model and algorithm are highlighted. In addition to reducing delays and optimizing the delay distribution, the model and algorithm are better suited for use for actual aircraft pushback management during rush hour. Further, it is also observed they do not result in significant increases in the surface cost. These results confirm the effectiveness and suitability of the proposed model and algorithm.

  3. Congestion Pricing for Aircraft Pushback Slot Allocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yaping

    2017-01-01

    In order to optimize aircraft pushback management during rush hour, aircraft pushback slot allocation based on congestion pricing is explored while considering monetary compensation based on the quality of the surface operations. First, the concept of the “external cost of surface congestion” is proposed, and a quantitative study on the external cost is performed. Then, an aircraft pushback slot allocation model for minimizing the total surface cost is established. An improved discrete differential evolution algorithm is also designed. Finally, a simulation is performed on Xinzheng International Airport using the proposed model. By comparing the pushback slot control strategy based on congestion pricing with other strategies, the advantages of the proposed model and algorithm are highlighted. In addition to reducing delays and optimizing the delay distribution, the model and algorithm are better suited for use for actual aircraft pushback management during rush hour. Further, it is also observed they do not result in significant increases in the surface cost. These results confirm the effectiveness and suitability of the proposed model and algorithm. PMID:28114429

  4. Spatially resolved metabolic analysis reveals a central role for transcriptional control in carbon allocation to wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, Melissa; Arrivault, Stéphanie; Mahboubi, Amir; Krohn, Nicole; Sulpice, Ronan; Stitt, Mark; Niittylä, Totte

    2017-06-15

    The contribution of transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation to modifying carbon allocation to developing wood of trees is not well defined. To clarify the role of transcriptional regulation, the enzyme activity patterns of eight central primary metabolism enzymes across phloem, cambium, and developing wood of aspen (Populus tremula L.) were compared with transcript levels obtained by RNA sequencing of sequential stem sections from the same trees. Enzymes were selected on the basis of their importance in sugar metabolism and in linking primary metabolism to lignin biosynthesis. Existing enzyme assays were adapted to allow measurements from ~1 mm3 sections of dissected stem tissue. These experiments provided high spatial resolution of enzyme activity changes across different stages of wood development, and identified the gene transcripts probably responsible for these changes. In most cases, there was a clear positive relationship between transcripts and enzyme activity. During secondary cell wall formation, the increases in transcript levels and enzyme activities also matched with increased levels of glucose, fructose, hexose phosphates, and UDP-glucose, emphasizing an important role for transcriptional regulation in carbon allocation to developing aspen wood. These observations corroborate the efforts to increase carbon allocation to wood by engineering gene regulatory networks. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  5. Dosage-sensitive function of retinoblastoma related and convergent epigenetic control are required during the Arabidopsis life cycle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal J Johnston

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The plant life cycle alternates between two distinct multi-cellular generations, the reduced gametophytes and the dominant sporophyte. Little is known about how generation-specific cell fate, differentiation, and development are controlled by the core regulators of the cell cycle. In Arabidopsis, RETINOBLASTOMA RELATED (RBR, an evolutionarily ancient cell cycle regulator, controls cell proliferation, differentiation, and regulation of a subset of Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 (PRC2 genes and METHYLTRANSFERASE 1 (MET1 in the male and female gametophytes, as well as cell fate establishment in the male gametophyte. Here we demonstrate that RBR is also essential for cell fate determination in the female gametophyte, as revealed by loss of cell-specific marker expression in all the gametophytic cells that lack RBR. Maintenance of genome integrity also requires RBR, because diploid plants heterozygous for rbr (rbr/RBR produce an abnormal portion of triploid offspring, likely due to gametic genome duplication. While the sporophyte of the diploid mutant plants phenocopied wild type due to the haplosufficiency of RBR, genetic analysis of tetraploid plants triplex for rbr (rbr/rbr/rbr/RBR revealed that RBR has a dosage-dependent pleiotropic effect on sporophytic development, trichome differentiation, and regulation of PRC2 subunit genes CURLY LEAF (CLF and VERNALIZATION 2 (VRN2, and MET1 in leaves. There were, however, no obvious cell cycle and cell proliferation defects in these plant tissues, suggesting that a single functional RBR copy in tetraploids is capable of maintaining normal cell division but is not sufficient for distinct differentiation and developmental processes. Conversely, in leaves of mutants in sporophytic PRC2 subunits, trichome differentiation was also affected and expression of RBR and MET1 was reduced, providing evidence for a RBR-PRC2-MET1 regulatory feedback loop involved in sporophyte development. Together, dosage-sensitive RBR

  6. Hyperintense acute reperfusion marker is associated with higher contrast agent dosage in acute ischaemic stroke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostwaldt, Ann-Christin; Schaefer, Tabea; Villringer, Kersten; Fiebach, Jochen B. [Charite Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Academic Neuroradiology, Center for Stroke Research Berlin (CSB), Berlin (Germany); Rozanski, Michal; Ebinger, Martin [Charite Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Academic Neuroradiology, Center for Stroke Research Berlin (CSB), Berlin (Germany); Charite Universitaetsmedizin, Department of Neurology, Berlin (Germany); Jungehuelsing, Gerhard J. [Stiftung des Buergerlichen Rechts, Juedisches Krankenhaus Berlin, Berlin (Germany)

    2015-11-15

    The hyperintense acute reperfusion marker (HARM) on fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) images is associated with blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability changes. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of contrast agent dosage on HARM incidence in acute ischaemic stroke patients. We prospectively included 529 acute ischaemic stroke patients (204 females, median age 71 years). Patients underwent a first stroke-MRI within 24 hours from symptom onset and had a follow-up on day 2. The contrast agent Gadobutrol was administered to the patients for perfusion imaging or MR angiography. The total dosage was calculated as ml/kg body weight and ranged between 0.04 and 0.31 mmol/kg on the first examination. The incidence of HARM was evaluated on day 2 FLAIR images. HARM was detected in 97 patients (18.3 %). HARM incidence increased significantly with increasing dosages of Gadobutrol. Also, HARM positive patients were significantly older. HARM was not an independent predictor of worse clinical outcome, and we did not find an association with increase risk of haemorrhagic transformation. A higher dosage of Gadobutrol in acute stroke patients on initial MRI is associated with increased HARM incidence on follow-up. MRI studies on BBB should therefore standardize contrast agent dosages. (orig.)

  7. Dependence of surface smoothing, sputtering and etching phenomena on cluster ion dosage

    CERN Document Server

    Song, J H; Choi, W K

    2002-01-01

    The dependence of surface smoothing and sputtering phenomena of Si (1 0 0) solid surfaces irradiated by CO sub 2 cluster ions on cluster-ion dosage was investigated using an atomic force microscope. The flux and total ion dosage of impinging cluster ions at the acceleration voltage of 50 kV were fixed at 10 sup 9 ions/cm sup 2 s and were scanned from 5x10 sup 1 sup 0 to 5x10 sup 1 sup 3 ions/cm sup 2 , respectively. The density of hillocks induced by cluster ion impact was gradually increased with the dosage up to 5x10 sup 1 sup 1 ions/cm sup 2 , which caused that the irradiated surface became rough from 0.4 to 1.24 nm in root-mean-square roughness (sigma sub r sub m sub s). At the boundary of the ion dosage of 10 sup 1 sup 2 ions/cm sup 2 , the density of the induced hillocks was decreased and sigma sub r sub m sub s was about 1.21 nm, not being deteriorated further. At the dosage of 5x10 sup 1 sup 3 ions/cm sup 2 , the induced hillocks completely disappeared and the surface became very flat as much as sigma...

  8. Adrenal Insufficiency under Standard Dosage of Glucocorticoid Replacement after Unilateral Adrenalectomy for Cushing’s Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kentaro Fujii

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Glucocorticoid replacement is needed for patients after adrenal surgery for Cushing’s syndrome; however, the adequate dosage is not easily determined. The patient was a 62-year-old woman who has had hypertension for 5 years and presented with heart failure due to hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. She consulted with us because of general fatigue, facial edema, and muscle weakness and was diagnosed with Cushing’s syndrome. A laparoscopic left adrenalectomy was performed, standard dosage of postoperative replacement was administered, and she was discharged with 30 mg/day of hydrocortisone (cortisol. However, she suffered from loss of appetite and was transferred to an emergency unit with the symptoms of adrenal insufficiency on postoperative day 15. After initial hydrocortisone replacement with 200 mg/day, the dosage was gradually decreased during hospitalization; however, reduction of hydrocortisone dosage lower than 60 mg/day was difficult because of nausea and fatigue. Her circadian cortisol profile after hydrocortisone administration showed delayed and lowered peaks, which suggested that hydrocortisone absorption in the intestine was impaired. Therefore, complicated heart failure may have led to the adrenal insufficiency in the patient. In such cases, we should consider postoperative administration of more than the standard dosage of hydrocortisone to avoid adrenal insufficiency after surgery for Cushing’s syndrome.

  9. Dosage-dependent non-linear effect of L-dopa on human motor cortex plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monte-Silva, Katia; Liebetanz, David; Grundey, Jessica; Paulus, Walter; Nitsche, Michael A

    2010-09-15

    The neuromodulator dopamine affects learning and memory formation and their likely physiological correlates, long-term depression and potentiation, in animals and humans. It is known from animal experiments that dopamine exerts a dosage-dependent, inverted U-shaped effect on these functions. However, this has not been explored in humans so far. In order to reveal a non-linear dose-dependent effect of dopamine on cortical plasticity in humans, we explored the impact of 25, 100 and 200 mg of L-dopa on transcranial direct current (tDCS)-induced plasticity in twelve healthy human subjects. The primary motor cortex served as a model system, and plasticity was monitored by motor evoked potential amplitudes elicited by transcranial magnetic stimulation. As compared to placebo medication, low and high dosages of L-dopa abolished facilitatory as well as inhibitory plasticity, whereas the medium dosage prolonged inhibitory plasticity, and turned facilitatory plasticity into inhibition. Thus the results show clear non-linear, dosage-dependent effects of dopamine on both facilitatory and inhibitory plasticity, and support the assumption of the importance of a specific dosage of dopamine optimally suited to improve plasticity. This might be important for the therapeutic application of dopaminergic agents, especially for rehabilitative purposes, and explain some opposing results in former studies.

  10. Effects of pharmaceutical processing on pepsin activity during the formulation of solid dosage forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristó, Katalin; Pintye-Hódi, Klára

    2013-02-01

    The main aim of this study was to investigate the effects of pharmaceutical technological methods on pepsin activity during the formulation of solid dosage forms. The circumstances of direct compression and wet granulation were modeled. During direct compression, the heat and the compression force must be taken into consideration. The effects of these parameters were investigated in three materials (pure pepsin, and 1:1 (w/w) pepsin-tartaric acid and 1:1 (w/w) pepsin-citric acid powder mixtures). It was concluded that direct compression is appropriate for the formulation of solid dosage forms containing pepsin through application without acids or with acids at low compression force. The effects of wet granulation were investigated with a factorial design for the same three materials. The factors were time, temperature and moisture content. There was no significant effect of the factors when acids were not applied. Temperature was a significant factor when acids were applied. The negative effect was significantly higher for citric acid than for tartaric acid. It was found that wet granulation can be utilized for the processing of pepsin into solid dosage forms under well-controlled circumstances. The application of citric acid is not recommended during the formulation of solid dosage forms through wet granulation. A mathematically based optimization may be necessary for preformulation studies of the preparation of dosage forms containing sensitive enzymes.

  11. Financial Resources Allocation of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmaeil Afiyan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ​ Background and Objectives : According to complexity of resource allocation, issue about how to allocate health care resources in an accurate and fair manner has become the subject of discussions and decisions of related groups. Therefore, in this research we aim to study the methods of financial resource allocation of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences in order to identify its strengths and weaknesses for its promotion. Material and Methods : This study is a descriptive, qualitative sectional research and all comments have been collected by focus group discussions with experts and managers involved in the allocation of financial resources of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences. All factors affecting the process of allocation have been reviewd carefully. Results : Results suggested that except the health sector, none of the other sectors use the formulated  and scientific methods for allocating financial resources and despite the emphasize in the 4th development plan for operating funding, the final cost of the services, has no role in allocating financial resources. Conclusion : Regarding to judgmental and subjective method of financial resources allocation of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences and lack of documented and formulated methods, there is an essential need for developing an appropriate and formulated model for scientific allocation of financial resources in order to improve the efficiency and fairness of the allocation.

  12. Dosage of fission products in irradiated fuel treatment effluents (radio-chemical method); Dosage des produits de fission dans les effluents du traitement des combustibles irradies (methode radiochimique)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auchapt, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Marcoule (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1966-07-01

    The dosage methods presented here are applicable to relatively long-lived fission products present in the effluents resulting from irradiated fuel treatment processes (Sr - Cs - Ce - Zr - Nb - Ru - I). The methods are based on the same principle: - addition of a carrying-over agent - chemical separation over several purification stages, - determination of the chemical yield by calorimetry - counting of an aliquot liquid portion. (author) [French] Les methodes de dosage presentees concernent les produits de fission a vie relativement longue presents dans les effluents de traitement des combustibles irradies (Sr - Cs - Ce - Zr - Nb - Ru - I). Elles sont toutes basees sur le meme principe: - addition d'entraineur, - separation chimique en plusieurs stades de purification, - determination du rendement chimique par calorimetrie, - comptage d'une aliquote liquide. (auteur)

  13. Dosage of cesium 137 in radioactive wastes by the application of sodium tetraphenylborate; Dosage du cesium 137 dans les effluents radioactifs par le tetraphenylborate de sodium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Testemale, G; Girault, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-07-01

    A simple technique of the dosage of {sup 137}Cs has been developed. The technique consists in the formation of cesium tetraphenyl borate, followed by a double extraction with isoamyl acetate, and washing of the organic phase. The counting of known parts of the cesium solution assaying of its purity by {gamma} spectrometry enable the determination of the {sup 137}Cs. The yield is about 98 per cent. (authors) [French] Une technique simple du dosage du {sup 137}Cs a ete mise au point. Elle consiste en une double extraction du tetraphenylborate de cesium forme par l'acetate d'isoamyle suivie d'un lavage de la phase organique. Des comptages sur des parties aliquotes de la solution de cesium et un controle de purete par spectrometrie {gamma} permettent la determination de cet element. Rendement: environ 98 pour cent. (auteurs)

  14. Toward Higher QA: From Parametric Release of Sterile Parenteral Products to PAT for Other Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hock, Sia Chong; Constance, Neo Xue Rui; Wah, Chan Lai

    2012-01-01

    Pharmaceutical products are generally subjected to end-product batch testing as a means of quality control. Due to the inherent limitations of conventional batch testing, this is not the most ideal approach for determining the pharmaceutical quality of the finished dosage form. In the case of terminally sterilized parenteral products, the limitations of conventional batch testing have been successfully addressed with the application of parametric release (the release of a product based on control of process parameters instead of batch sterility testing at the end of the manufacturing process). Consequently, there has been an increasing interest in applying parametric release to other pharmaceutical dosage forms, beyond terminally sterilized parenteral products. For parametric release to be possible, manufacturers must be capable of designing quality into the product, monitoring the manufacturing processes, and controlling the quality of intermediates and finished products in real-time. Process analytical technology (PAT) has been thought to be capable of contributing to these prerequisites. It is believed that the appropriate use of PAT tools can eventually lead to the possibility of real-time release of other pharmaceutical dosage forms, by-passing the need for end-product batch testing. Hence, this literature review attempts to present the basic principles of PAT, introduce the various PAT tools that are currently available, present their recent applications to pharmaceutical processing, and explain the potential benefits that PAT can bring to conventional ways of processing and quality assurance of pharmaceutical products. Last but not least, current regulations governing the use of PAT and the manufacturing challenges associated with PAT implementation are also discussed. Pharmaceutical products are generally subjected to end-product batch testing as a means of quality control. Due to the inherent limitations of conventional batch testing, this is not the most

  15. Quercetin topical application, from conventional dosage forms to nanodosage forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatahet, T; Morille, M; Hommoss, A; Devoisselle, J M; Müller, R H; Bégu, S

    2016-11-01

    Skin is a multifunctional organ with activities in protection, metabolism and regulation. Skin is in a continuous exposure to oxidizing agents and inflammogens from the sun and from the contact with the environment. These agents may overload the skin auto-defense capacity. To strengthen skin defense mechanisms against oxidation and inflammation, supplementation of exogenous antioxidants is a promising strategy. Quercetin is a flavonoid with very pronounced effective antioxidant and antiinflammatory activities, and thus a candidate of first choice for such skin supplementation. Quercetin showed interesting actions in cellular and animal based models, ranging from protecting cells from UV irradiation to support skin regeneration in wound healing. However, due to its poor solubility, quercetin has limited skin penetration ability, and various formulation approaches were taken to increase its dermal penetration. In this article, the quercetin antioxidant and antiinflammatory activities in wound healing and supporting skin against aging are discussed in detail. In addition, quercetin topical formulations from conventional emulsions to novel nanoformulations in terms of skin penetration enhancement are also presented. This article gives a comprehensive review of quercetin for topical application from biological effects to pharmaceutical formulation design for the last 25 years of research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Rac1 Dosage Is Crucial for Normal Endochondral Bone Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Dai; Bush, Jason R; Bryce, Dawn-Marie; Kamijo, Ryutaro; Beier, Frank

    2017-10-01

    Rac1, a member of the small Rho GTPase family, plays multiple cellular roles. Studies of mice conditionally lacking Rac1 have revealed essential roles for Rac1 in various tissues, including cartilage and limb mesenchyme, where Rac1 loss produces dwarfism and long bone shortening. To gain further insight into the role of Rac1 in skeletal development, we have used transgenic mouse lines to express a constitutively active (ca) Rac1 mutant protein in a Cre recombinase-dependent manner. Overexpression of caRac1 in limb bud mesenchyme or chondrocytes leads to reduced body weight and shorter bones compared with control mice. Histological analysis of growth plates showed that caRac1;Col2-Cre mice displayed ectopic hypertrophic chondrocytes in the proliferative zone and enlarged hypertrophic zones. These mice also displayed a reduced proportion of proliferating cell nuclear antigen-positive cells in the proliferative zone and nuclear β-catenin localization in the ectopic hypertrophic chondrocytes. Importantly, overexpression of caRac1 partially rescued the phenotypes of Rac1fl/fl;Col2-Cre and Rac1fl/fl;Prx1-Cre conditional knockout mice, including body weight, bone length, and growth plate disorganization. These results suggest that tight regulation of Rac1 activity is necessary for normal cartilage development. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society.

  17. Effect of Calcium Ions on the Disintegration of Enteric-Coated Solid Dosage Forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Gousous, Jozef; Langguth, Peter

    2016-02-01

    To investigate the effect of calcium ions on the disintegration of enteric-coated dosage forms, disintegration testing was performed on enteric-coated aspirin tablets in the presence and absence of calcium in the test media. The results show that the presence of calcium ions retards the disintegration of enteric-coated dosage forms. This finding, which has not been reported in scientific literature, sheds light on the importance of conducting well-designed detailed investigations into the potential of calcium from dietary sources, calcium supplements, antacids, and/or phosphate binders affecting the absorption of drugs formulated into enteric-coated dosage forms. Moreover, it shows the necessity to investigate the potential of the occurrence of additional nutrient-excipient interactions. Copyright © 2016 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Histomorphological study of submandibulary glands of rats submitted to low dosage of X-radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navarro, Claudia Maria; Onofre, Mirian Aparecida; Chan, Carolina; Cordeiro, Rita de Cassis Loiola; Raveli, Dirceu Barnabe

    1996-01-01

    The minimal dosage of X-ray that is likely to induce cellular alterations is unknown and there are just a few reports with low dosage in odontologic literature. The authors developed a histomorphological analysis of the submandibulary glands of rat that received low dosage of X radiation. The body of the animals was covered with a lead lamin leaving the cervical area uncovered. The submandibular glands were exposed to 1,80 Gy of X-radiation in a single dose. After 24, 48, 72 hours, 7, 14 and 21 days the glands were excised, fixed and prepared for analysis in light microscopy. Mild degenerative changes and nuclear pleomorfism, mainly on the first three experimental periods were observed. (author)

  19. Optimal Antibiotic Dosage for Chronic Kidney Disease Patient: A Pharmacological Manual for Oral Clinicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chidambaram, Ramasamy

    2015-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease, (CKD) a gradual and inevitable deterioration in renal function, is the disease with the most associations in dentistry. Dosage adjustment is one amongst the vital elements to be familiar with during their oral care. CKD patients take extended duration to filter out medications, therefore dosage must always be tailored under the supervision of nephrologist. The relished benefits from antibiotic could transform as anti-microbial resistance on their abuse and nephrotoxic when contraindicated drugs are encouraged. New patented drug belonging to oxazoliodine group has driven the researchers to handle the emerging AMR. The present communication discusses the pharmacological factors influencing in prescribing the antibiotics for CKD patient from the dentist's point of view. The formulas destined for calculating the optimal dosage of antibiotics have been documented to aid oral physicians.

  20. In situ experimental study for the optimization of chlorine dosage in seawater cooling systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nebot, E.; Casanueva, T.; Fernandez-Baston, M.M.; Sales, D. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Food Technology and Environmental Technologies, University of Cadiz (Spain); Casanueva, J.F. [Department of Thermal Engines, University of Cadiz (Spain)

    2006-11-15

    The paper details an in situ study for the evaluation of the evolution of fouling heat transfer resistance and to optimize the antifouling chlorine dosage at a 550MW power station. A portable pilot plant has been designed to simulate the steam surface condenser and used as an accurate fouling monitor that takes the seawater from the same intake point as the power station. This study includes fouling extraction and its characterization for different dosage patterns. The residual chlorine concentration at the cooling-water discharge from the power station is 0.2mg/l and has been considered appropriate for the prevention of the formation of fouling, because with this concentration approximately 90% reduction in the amount of fouling is obtained. Residual chlorine dosages lower than 0.2ppm could be effective in controlling fouling development if mechanical techniques of fouling control are also available. (author)

  1. KANBAN allocation in a serial suply chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Andrés Sánchez C.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this project is to simulate a Kanban system using N stages with the objective of maintaining an acceptable throughput and mean system time. The document shows the production systems where Kanban is applicable and what the potential benefits are. A serial of simulations will be done using a demand given by a poison distribution with rate λ ^ ext. The simulation aimed to find the best number of withdrawal Kanban on all stages when the values of μ (for exponential distribution of the process and λ ^ ext increase and decrease. At the end of this simulation, the best way to allocate the withdrawal Kanban over N stages with the objective of maintaining acceptable throughput and mean system time will be clearer thus the conclusions of this work will be done.

  2. Adolescence, attention allocation, and driving safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romer, Daniel; Lee, Yi-Ching; McDonald, Catherine C; Winston, Flaura K

    2014-05-01

    Motor vehicle crashes are the leading source of morbidity and mortality in adolescents in the United States and the developed world. Inadequate allocation of attention to the driving task and to driving hazards are important sources of adolescent crashes. We review major explanations for these attention failures with particular focus on the roles that brain immaturity and lack of driving experience play in causing attention problems. The review suggests that the potential for overcoming inexperience and immaturity with training to improve attention to both the driving task and hazards is substantial. Nevertheless, there are large individual differences in both attentional abilities and risky driving tendencies that pose challenges to novice driver policies. Research that can provide evidence-based direction for such policies is urgently needed. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Vehicle routing problem in investment fund allocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamat, Nur Jumaadzan Zaleha; Jaaman, Saiful Hafizah; Ahmad, Rokiah Rozita; Mohd, Ismail

    2013-04-01

    Since its introduction by Dantzig and Ramser in 1959, vehicle routing problem keeps evolving in theories, applications and variability. The evolution in computing and technology are also important contributors to research in solving vehicle routing problem. The main sectors of interests among researchers and practitioners for vehicle routing problem are transportation, distribution and logistics. However, literature found that concept and benefits of vehicle routing problem are not taken advantages of by researchers in the field of investment. Other methods found used in investment include multi-objective programming, linear programming, goal programming and integer programming. Yet the application of vehicle routing problem is not fully explored. A proposal on a framework of the fund allocation optimization using vehicle routing problem is presented here. Preliminary results using FTSE Bursa Malaysia data testing the framework are also given.

  4. Allocation and Location of Transport Logistics Centres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Mocková

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The facility allocation problem sets out to determine the optimal number of facilities to be opened. Based on multiple criteria evaluation, the optimal location of the facilities is usually solved subsequently. Several considerations, e.g. technical parameters, costs and finance must be taken into account. Economic analysis is carried out on the basis of the specific instance of the problem.Let us assume that the number of potentially located facilities is known. Then the problem of the optimal location of a given number of facilities in a network is referred to as the facility location problem. The solution to the problem is a set of facilities optimally located in an area such that this area is fully covered by the required services that the facilities provide. An example of a real-life problem of this type is the location of logistics centers. 

  5. Adolescence, Attention Allocation, and Driving Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romer, Daniel; Lee, Yi-Ching; McDonald, Catherine C.; Winston, Flaura K.

    2014-01-01

    Motor vehicle crashes are the leading source of morbidity and mortality in adolescents in the United States and the developed world. Inadequate allocation of attention to the driving task and to driving hazards are important sources of adolescent crashes. We review major explanations for these attention failures with particular focus on the roles that brain immaturity and lack of driving experience play in causing attention problems. The review suggests that the potential for overcoming inexperience and immaturity with training to improve attention to both the driving task and hazards is substantial. Nevertheless, there are large individual differences in both attentional abilities and risky driving tendencies that pose challenges to novice driver policies. Research that can provide evidence-based direction for such policies is urgently needed. PMID:24759442

  6. Sample size allocation in multiregional equivalence studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Jason J Z; Yu, Ziji; Li, Yulan

    2018-06-17

    With the increasing globalization of drug development, the multiregional clinical trial (MRCT) has gained extensive use. The data from MRCTs could be accepted by regulatory authorities across regions and countries as the primary sources of evidence to support global marketing drug approval simultaneously. The MRCT can speed up patient enrollment and drug approval, and it makes the effective therapies available to patients all over the world simultaneously. However, there are many challenges both operationally and scientifically in conducting a drug development globally. One of many important questions to answer for the design of a multiregional study is how to partition sample size into each individual region. In this paper, two systematic approaches are proposed for the sample size allocation in a multiregional equivalence trial. A numerical evaluation and a biosimilar trial are used to illustrate the characteristics of the proposed approaches. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Vaccines: from valuation to resource allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, David E; Madhavan, Guruprasad

    2015-06-08

    This review focuses on selected challenges and opportunities concerning broader valuation of vaccines and immunization. The challenges involve conceptualizing and measuring the value of vaccines, while the opportunities relate to the strategic and systematic use of that information in health policy decisions that range from the adoption of particular vaccines in national immunization plans to the allocation of resources to vaccine research, development, and delivery. Clarifying the demonstrable individual, family, and community-level benefits of vaccines will allow the public health community to make better-informed and more meaningful comparisons of the costs of vaccines in relation to their full benefits. Taking advantage of this opportunity will require enhanced data collection and the development of strategic planning tools for transparently assessing trade-offs among the myriad attributes of different vaccines in various social and economic contexts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Portfolio Allocation Subject to Credit Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogerio de Deus Oliveira

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Credit Risk is an important dimension to be considered in the risk management procedures of financial institutions. Is a particularly useful in emerging markets where default rates on bank loan products are usually high. It is usually calculated through highly costly Monte Carlo simulations which consider different stochastic factors driving the uncertainly associated to the borrowers liabilities. In this paper, under some restrictions, we drive closed form formulas for the probability distributions of default rates of bank loans products involving a big number of clients. This allows us to quickly obtain the credit risk of such products. Moreover, using these probability distributions, we solve the problem of optimal portfolio allocation under default risk.

  9. Explaining the Allocation of Regional Structural Funds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charron, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    What regional factors can explain the heterogeneity in Structural Funds distribution to European Union regions? Past studies have shown that aside from the level of economic development and rates of unemployment, other political, and economic factors systematically explain why certain European...... Union regions receive greater funding than others, in particular where there is room for bargaining. In this article, a novel theory is posited which argues that the determination of Structural Funds is based on an interaction between a region’s formal institutions (the level of a regional autonomy......) and informal institutions (its level of quality of government). In cases of low regional autonomy, member states and European Union level actors prefer to allocate greater levels of Funds to regions with lower quality of government in order to increase cohesion. Yet in cases of high regional autonomy, risks...

  10. Optimal Register Allocation by Augmented Left-Edge Algorithm on Arbitrary Control-Flow Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruvald Pedersen, Mark; Madsen, Jan

    2012-01-01

    for allocation to be done using only quasi-local and local allocation - avoiding the complexity of true global allocation. As local allocation is much simpler than global allocation, this approach emphasizes efficiency and ease of implementation - at a cost of an increased number of register transfers compared...... to other allocators. Experiments show that runtime is linear for all practical purposes....

  11. Dynamically allocated virtual clustering management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Kelvin; Cannata, Jess

    2013-05-01

    The U.S Army Research Laboratory (ARL) has built a "Wireless Emulation Lab" to support research in wireless mobile networks. In our current experimentation environment, our researchers need the capability to run clusters of heterogeneous nodes to model emulated wireless tactical networks where each node could contain a different operating system, application set, and physical hardware. To complicate matters, most experiments require the researcher to have root privileges. Our previous solution of using a single shared cluster of statically deployed virtual machines did not sufficiently separate each user's experiment due to undesirable network crosstalk, thus only one experiment could be run at a time. In addition, the cluster did not make efficient use of our servers and physical networks. To address these concerns, we created the Dynamically Allocated Virtual Clustering management system (DAVC). This system leverages existing open-source software to create private clusters of nodes that are either virtual or physical machines. These clusters can be utilized for software development, experimentation, and integration with existing hardware and software. The system uses the Grid Engine job scheduler to efficiently allocate virtual machines to idle systems and networks. The system deploys stateless nodes via network booting. The system uses 802.1Q Virtual LANs (VLANs) to prevent experimentation crosstalk and to allow for complex, private networks eliminating the need to map each virtual machine to a specific switch port. The system monitors the health of the clusters and the underlying physical servers and it maintains cluster usage statistics for historical trends. Users can start private clusters of heterogeneous nodes with root privileges for the duration of the experiment. Users also control when to shutdown their clusters.

  12. The allocation of resources for animal health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, K S

    2017-04-01

    Economics is too important to be left to the experts. This paper is therefore mainly for animal health policy-makers who are not economists but want a better appreciation of how economics can contribute to resource allocation decisions. First, the methodology of economic analysis is outlined with the objective of dispelling criticisms of its simplifying assumption of rationality. Then, unusual in economics but more familiar to biological and veterinary scientists, the technical aspects of transforming resources into products are discussed. Economics' unique contribution is to establish criteria enabling society to obtain maximum value from the production and distribution of goods and services (products) from scarce resources. Animal disease reduces the efficiency of this process. Value is intangible, but people reveal how much they value (i.e. feel a want or need for) products by what they actually consume, in quality and quantity. Animal products, and so implicitly animals themselves, are an example. The strength of people's preferences is reflected both in the prices they pay for market goods and services, and by their political votes where markets do not exist. Importantly, there is a difference between financial value (what the consumer pays for a good or service) and economic value (the maximum amount of money they would be prepared to pay for it). Allocating resources for animal health creates both costs and benefits, financial and economic. Moreover, costs and benefits are both private and social because of externalities, a major consideration in infectious diseases. Where production decisions with animal health implications are made exclusively for private benefit, government has a role in providing incentives for animal sectors to act in ways that result in socially efficient outcomes.

  13. Mechanisms and direction of allocation bias in randomised clinical trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paludan-Müller, Asger; Teindl Laursen, David Ruben; Hróbjartsson, A.

    2016-01-01

    clinical trials. Methods: Two systematic reviews and a theoretical analysis. We conducted one systematic review of empirical studies of motives/methods for deciphering patient allocation sequences; and another review of methods publications commenting on allocation bias. We theoretically analysed...... the mechanisms of allocation bias and hypothesised which main factors predicts its direction. Results: Three empirical studies addressed motives/methods for deciphering allocation sequences. Main motives included ensuring best care for patients and ensuring best outcome for the trial. Main methods included...... various manipulations with randomisation envelopes. Out of 57 methods publications 11 (19 %) mentioned explicitly that allocation bias can go in either direction. We hypothesised that the direction of allocation bias is mainly decided by the interaction between the patient allocators’ motives...

  14. Optimal defense resource allocation in scale-free networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuejun; Xu, Guoqiang; Xia, Yongxiang

    2018-02-01

    The robustness research of networked systems has drawn widespread attention in the past decade, and one of the central topics is to protect the network from external attacks through allocating appropriate defense resource to different nodes. In this paper, we apply a specific particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm to optimize the defense resource allocation in scale-free networks. Results reveal that PSO based resource allocation shows a higher robustness than other resource allocation strategies such as uniform, degree-proportional, and betweenness-proportional allocation strategies. Furthermore, we find that assigning less resource to middle-degree nodes under small-scale attack while more resource to low-degree nodes under large-scale attack is conductive to improving the network robustness. Our work provides an insight into the optimal defense resource allocation pattern in scale-free networks and is helpful for designing a more robust network.

  15. On the allocation of functions between human and machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wirstad, J.

    1979-09-01

    The idea of allocating functions between human and machine was proceduralized early through aids like Fitts' List which describes the relative advantages of men and machines. Although the principle is clear, function allocation has never worked in practice. Some conditions for function allocations are discussed; adequate logic, a common man-machine system language, usable human engineering guides and data and professional habits and attitudes. Trends which will influence ergonomics procedures are described; influence from technology, increasing work environment requirements and user participation requirements. A procedural structure for human engineering or ergonomics in control system design is suggested. This does not include a separate function allocation activity but a number of activities, the result of which will be a systematic function allocation. A case study on ergonomics techniques for systematic function allocation in a control system is described in an appendix to the report. (author)

  16. On the exfoliating polymeric cellular dosage forms for immediate drug release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaesi, Aron H; Saka, Nannaji

    2016-06-01

    The most prevalent pharmaceutical dosage forms at present-the oral immediate-release tablets and capsules-are granular solids. Though effective in releasing drug rapidly, development and manufacture of such dosage forms are fraught with difficulties inherent to particulate processing. Predictable dosage form manufacture could be achieved by liquid-based processing, but cast solid dosage forms are not suitable for immediate drug release due to their resistance to fluid percolation. To overcome this limitation, we have recently introduced cellular dosage forms that can be readily prepared from polymeric melts. It has been shown that open-cell structures comprising polyethylene glycol 8000 (PEG 8k) excipient and a drug exfoliate upon immersion in a dissolution medium. The drug is then released rapidly due to the large specific surface area of the exfoliations. In this work, we vary the molecular weight of the PEG excipient and investigate its effect on the drug release kinetics of structures with predominantly open-cell topology. We demonstrate that the exfoliation rate decreases substantially if the excipient molecular weight is increased from 12 to 100kg/mol, which causes the drug dissolution time to increase by more than a factor of ten. A model is then developed to elucidate the exfoliation behavior of cellular structures. Diverse transport processes are considered: percolation due to capillarity, diffusion of dissolution medium through the cell walls, and viscous flow of the saturated excipient. It is found that the lower exfoliation rate and the longer dissolution time of the dosage forms with higher excipient molecular weight are primarily due to the greater viscosity of the cell walls after fluid penetration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The effect of decreasing computed tomography dosage on radiostereometric analysis (RSA) accuracy at the glenohumeral joint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Anne-Marie V; Kedgley, Angela E; Lalone, Emily A; Johnson, James A; Athwal, George S; Jenkyn, Thomas R

    2011-11-10

    Standard, beaded radiostereometric analysis (RSA) and markerless RSA often use computed tomography (CT) scans to create three-dimensional (3D) bone models. However, ethical concerns exist due to risks associated with CT radiation exposure. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of decreasing CT dosage on RSA accuracy. Four cadaveric shoulder specimens were scanned using a normal-dose CT protocol and two low-dose protocols, where the dosage was decreased by 89% and 98%. 3D computer models of the humerus and scapula were created using each CT protocol. Bi-planar fluoroscopy was used to image five different static glenohumeral positions and two dynamic glenohumeral movements, of which a total of five static and four dynamic poses were selected for analysis. For standard RSA, negligible differences were found in bead (0.21±0.31mm) and bony landmark (2.31±1.90mm) locations when the CT dosage was decreased by 98% (p-values>0.167). For markerless RSA kinematic results, excellent agreement was found between the normal-dose and lowest-dose protocol, with all Spearman rank correlation coefficients greater than 0.95. Average root mean squared errors of 1.04±0.68mm and 2.42±0.81° were also found at this reduced dosage for static positions. In summary, CT dosage can be markedly reduced when performing shoulder RSA to minimize the risks of radiation exposure. Standard RSA accuracy was negligibly affected by the 98% CT dose reduction and for markerless RSA, the benefits of decreasing CT dosage to the subject outweigh the introduced errors. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Modeling the multi-scale mechanisms of macromolecular resource allocation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Laurence; Yurkovich, James T; King, Zachary A

    2018-01-01

    As microbes face changing environments, they dynamically allocate macromolecular resources to produce a particular phenotypic state. Broad 'omics' data sets have revealed several interesting phenomena regarding how the proteome is allocated under differing conditions, but the functional consequen...... and detail how mathematical models have aided in our understanding of these processes. Ultimately, such modeling efforts have helped elucidate the principles of proteome allocation and hold promise for further discovery....

  19. Adaptive Control Allocation for Fault Tolerant Overactuated Autonomous Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-01

    Tolerant Overactuated Autonomous Vehicles Casavola, A.; Garone, E. (2007) Adaptive Control Allocation for Fault Tolerant Overactuated Autonomous ...Adaptive Control Allocation for Fault Tolerant Overactuated Autonomous Vehicles 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...Tolerant Overactuated Autonomous Vehicles 3.2 - 2 RTO-MP-AVT-145 UNCLASSIFIED/UNLIMITED Control allocation problem (CAP) - Given a virtual input v(t

  20. Cost allocation policy review: options and preferred alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-10-15

    This policy review of the consultation process on the electricity cost allocation issue is presented with specific cost allocation policy issues addressed herein, such as: the new microFIT rate, accounting changes and the transition to IFRS, and review of allocating costs to load displacement generation. This report gave the current situation for all these issues, previous work, issues, viable options for dealing with these issues and the preferred alternatives.

  1. Short-time, high-dosage penicillin infusion therapy of syphilis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lomholt, Hans; Poulsen, Asmus; Brandrup, Flemming

    2003-01-01

    The optimal dosage and duration of penicillin treatment for the various stages of syphilis are not known. We present data on 20 patients with syphilis (primary, secondary or latent) treated with high-dose, short-time penicillin infusion therapy. Patients were given 10 MIU of penicillin G intraven......The optimal dosage and duration of penicillin treatment for the various stages of syphilis are not known. We present data on 20 patients with syphilis (primary, secondary or latent) treated with high-dose, short-time penicillin infusion therapy. Patients were given 10 MIU of penicillin G...

  2. Derivative spectrophotometric method for simultaneous determination of clindamycin phosphate and tretinoin in pharmaceutical dosage forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barazandeh Tehrani, Maliheh; Namadchian, Melika; Fadaye Vatan, Sedigheh; Souri, Effat

    2013-04-10

    A derivative spectrophotometric method was proposed for the simultaneous determination of clindamycin and tretinoin in pharmaceutical dosage forms. The measurement was achieved using the first and second derivative signals of clindamycin at (1D) 251 nm and (2D) 239 nm and tretinoin at (1D) 364 nm and (2D) 387 nm.The proposed method showed excellent linearity at both first and second derivative order in the range of 60-1200 and 1.25-25 μg/ml for clindamycin phosphate and tretinoin respectively. The within-day and between-day precision and accuracy was in acceptable range (CVpharmaceutical dosage form.

  3. Survey of Transmission Cost Allocation Methodologies for Regional Transmission Organizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fink, S.; Porter, K.; Mudd, C.; Rogers, J.

    2011-02-01

    The report presents transmission cost allocation methodologies for reliability transmission projects, generation interconnection, and economic transmission projects for all Regional Transmission Organizations.

  4. Resource Allocation in a Repetitive Project Scheduling Using Genetic Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Biju; Mathew, Jeeno

    2018-03-01

    Resource Allocation is procedure of doling out or allocating the accessible assets in a monetary way and productive way. Resource allocation is the scheduling of the accessible assets and accessible exercises or activities required while thinking about both the asset accessibility and the total project completion time. Asset provisioning and allocation takes care of that issue by permitting the specialist co-ops to deal with the assets for every individual demand of asset. A probabilistic selection procedure has been developed in order to ensure various selections of chromosomes

  5. Characterizing contract-based multiagent resource allocation in networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Bo; Lesser, Victor

    2010-06-01

    We consider a multiagent resource allocation problem where individual users intend to route traffic by requesting the help of entities across a network, and a cost is incurred at each network node that depends on the amount of traffic to be routed. We propose to study contract-based network resource allocation. In our model, users and nodes in the network make contracts before nodes route traffic for the users. The problem is an interesting self-interested negotiation problem because it requires the complete assembly of a set of distinct resources, and there are multiple combinations of distinct resources that could satisfy the goal of negotiation. First, we characterize the network allocation problem and show that finding optimal allocations is NP-complete and is inapproximable. We take both Nash equilibrium and pairwise Nash equilibrium as the solution concepts to characterize the equilibrium allocations. We find that, for any resource allocation game, Nash equilibrium and pairwise Nash equilibrium always exist. In addition, socially optimal allocations are always supported by Nash equilibrium and pairwise Nash equilibrium. We introduce best-response dynamics in which each agent takes a myopic best-response strategy and interacts with each other to dynamically form contracts. We analyze the convergence of the dynamics in some special cases. We also experimentally study the convergence rate of the dynamics and how efficient the evolved allocation is as compared with the optimal allocation in a variety of environments.

  6. Adaptive response to chronic mild ethanol stress involves ROS, sirtuins and changes in chromosome dosage in wine yeasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk, Jagoda; Deregowska, Anna; Skoneczny, Marek; Skoneczna, Adrianna; Kwiatkowska, Aleksandra; Potocki, Leszek; Rawska, Ewa; Pabian, Sylwia; Kaplan, Jakub; Lewinska, Anna; Wnuk, Maciej

    2016-05-24

    Industrial yeast strains of economic importance used in winemaking and beer production are genomically diverse and subjected to harsh environmental conditions during fermentation. In the present study, we investigated wine yeast adaptation to chronic mild alcohol stress when cells were cultured for 100 generations in the presence of non-cytotoxic ethanol concentration. Ethanol-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) and superoxide signals promoted growth rate during passages that was accompanied by increased expression of sirtuin proteins, Sir1, Sir2 and Sir3, and DNA-binding transcription regulator Rap1. Genome-wide array-CGH analysis revealed that yeast genome was shaped during passages. The gains of chromosomes I, III and VI and significant changes in the gene copy number in nine functional gene categories involved in metabolic processes and stress responses were observed. Ethanol-mediated gains of YRF1 and CUP1 genes were the most accented. Ethanol also induced nucleolus fragmentation that confirms that nucleolus is a stress sensor in yeasts. Taken together, we postulate that wine yeasts of different origin may adapt to mild alcohol stress by shifts in intracellular redox state promoting growth capacity, upregulation of key regulators of longevity, namely sirtuins and changes in the dosage of genes involved in the telomere maintenance and ion detoxification.

  7. Equitable fund allocation, an economical approach for sustainable waste load allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashtiani, Elham Feizi; Niksokhan, Mohammad Hossein; Jamshidi, Shervin

    2015-08-01

    This research aims to study a novel approach for waste load allocation (WLA) to meet environmental, economical, and equity objectives, simultaneously. For this purpose, based on a simulation-optimization model developed for Haraz River in north of Iran, the waste loads are allocated according to discharge permit market. The non-dominated solutions are initially achieved through multiobjective particle swarm optimization (MOPSO). Here, the violation of environmental standards based on dissolved oxygen (DO) versus biochemical oxidation demand (BOD) removal costs is minimized to find economical total maximum daily loads (TMDLs). This can save 41% in total abatement costs in comparison with the conventional command and control policy. The BOD discharge permit market then increases the revenues to 45%. This framework ensures that the environmental limits are fulfilled but the inequity index is rather high (about 4.65). For instance, the discharge permit buyer may not be satisfied about the equity of WLA. Consequently, it is recommended that a third party or institution should be in charge of reallocating the funds. It means that the polluters which gain benefits by unfair discharges should pay taxes (or funds) to compensate the losses of other polluters. This intends to reduce the costs below the required values of the lowest inequity index condition. These compensations of equitable fund allocation (EFA) may help to reduce the dissatisfactions and develop WLA policies. It is concluded that EFA in integration with water quality trading (WQT) is a promising approach to meet the objectives.

  8. The Wireless Craze, The Unlimited Bandwidth Myth, The Spectrum Auction Faux Pas, and the Punchline to Ronald Coase's 'Big Joke': An Essay on Airwave Allocation Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Hazlett, Thomas W.

    2001-01-01

    In 1959 the Federal Communications Commission invited economist Ronald Coase to testify about his proposal for market allocation of radio spectrum rights. The FCC's first question: 'Is this all a big joke'' Today, however, leading policy makers, including the current FCC Chair, decry the 'spectrum drought' produced by administrative allocation and call for the creation of private bandwidth markets. This essay examines marketplace trends driving regulators' change of humor, and considers the p...

  9. Material Considerations for Fused-Filament Fabrication of Solid Dosage Forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evert Fuenmayor

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Material choice is a fundamental consideration when it comes to designing a solid dosage form. The matrix material will ultimately determine the rate of drug release since the physical properties (solubility, viscosity, and more of the material control both fluid ingress and disintegration of the dosage form. The bulk properties (powder flow, concentration, and more of the material should also be considered since these properties will influence the ability of the material to be successfully manufactured. Furthermore, there is a limited number of approved materials for the production of solid dosage forms. The present study details the complications that can arise when adopting pharmaceutical grade polymers for fused-filament fabrication in the production of oral tablets. The paper also presents ways to overcome each issue. Fused-filament fabrication is a hot-melt extrusion-based 3D printing process. The paper describes the problems encountered in fused-filament fabrication with Kollidon® VA64, which is a material that has previously been utilized in direct compression and hot-melt extrusion processes. Formulation and melt-blending strategies were employed to increase the printability of the material. The paper defines for the first time the essential parameter profile required for successful 3D printing and lists several pre-screening tools that should be employed to guide future material formulation for the fused-filament fabrication of solid dosage forms.

  10. 75 FR 26647 - Ophthalmic and Topical Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Ivermectin Topical Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-12

    .... FDA-2010-N-0002] Ophthalmic and Topical Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Ivermectin Topical Solution... are treated with a topical solution of ivermectin. DATES: This rule is effective May 12, 2010. FOR... ANADA 200-340 for PRIVERMECTIN (ivermectin), a topical solution used on cattle to control infestations...

  11. The effect of different dosages of caffeine on endurance performance time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pasman, W.J.; Baak, M.A. van; Jeukendrup, A.E.; Haan, A. de

    1995-01-01

    The effect of different dosages of caffeine (0 - 5 - 9 - 13 mg · kg body weight-1) on endurance performance was examined. Nine well-trained cyclists participated in this study (VO2max 65.1 + 2.6 ml · kg-1 · min-1). Caffeine capsules were administered in random order and double-blind. One hour after

  12. Biowaiver monograph for immediate-release solid oral dosage forms: bisoprolol fumarate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charoo, Naseem A; Shamsher, Areeg A A; Lian, Lai Y; Abrahamsson, Bertil; Cristofoletti, Rodrigo; Groot, D W; Kopp, Sabine; Langguth, Peter; Polli, James; Shah, Vinod P; Dressman, Jennifer

    2014-02-01

    Literature data relevant to the decision to allow a waiver of in vivo bioequivalence (BE) testing for the approval of immediate-release (IR) solid oral dosage forms containing bisoprolol as the sole active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) are reviewed. Bisoprolol is classified as a Class I API according to the current Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS). In addition to the BCS class, its therapeutic index, pharmacokinetic properties, data related to the possibility of excipient interactions, and reported BE/bioavailability problems are taken into consideration. Qualitative compositions of IR tablet dosage forms of bisoprolol with a marketing authorization (MA) in ICH (International Conference on Harmonisation) countries are tabulated. It was inferred that these tablets had been demonstrated to be bioequivalent to the innovator product. No reports of failure to meet BE standards have been made in the open literature. On the basis of all these pieces of evidence, a biowaiver can currently be recommended for bisoprolol fumarate IR dosage forms if (1) the test product contains only excipients that are well known, and used in normal amounts, for example, those tabulated for products with MA in ICH countries and (2) both the test and comparator dosage form are very rapidly dissolving, or, rapidly dissolving with similarity of the dissolution profiles demonstrated at pH 1.2, 4.5, and 6.8. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  13. 76 FR 22610 - Implantation or Injectable Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Enrofloxacin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-22

    .... FDA-2011-N-0003] Implantation or Injectable Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Enrofloxacin AGENCY: Food... the indications for use of enrofloxacin solution in cattle, as a single injection, for the treatment... supplement to NADA 141-068 for BAYTRIL 100 (enrofloxacin), an injectable solution. The supplemental NADA...

  14. 78 FR 30197 - Oral Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Clindamycin; Enrofloxacin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-22

    ...-0002] Oral Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Clindamycin; Enrofloxacin AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration...- Tallaght, Dublin Oral Drops. 940. 24, Ireland. 200-551........ Putney, Inc., 400 Enrofloxacin Original....812 Enrofloxacin. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains 22.7, 68.0, or 136.0 milligrams (mg) of...

  15. Application of DBNPA dosage for biofouling control in spiral wound membrane systems

    KAUST Repository

    Siddiqui, Amber; Pinel, I.; Prest, E.I.; Bucs, Szilard; van Loosdrecht, M.C.M.; Kruithof, J.C.; Vrouwenvelder, Johannes S.

    2017-01-01

    in MFS was quantified by adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and total organic carbon (TOC) analysis. Continuous dosage of DBNPA (1 mg/L) prevented pressure drop increase and biofilm accumulation in the MFSs during a run time of 7 d, showing that biofouling can

  16. Purifying Selection Maintains Dosage-Sensitive Genes during Degeneration of the Threespine Stickleback Y Chromosome

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Michael A.; Kitano, Jun; Peichel, Catherine L.

    2015-01-01

    Sex chromosomes are subject to unique evolutionary forces that cause suppression of recombination, leading to sequence degeneration and the formation of heteromorphic chromosome pairs (i.e., XY or ZW). Although progress has been made in characterizing the outcomes of these evolutionary processes on vertebrate sex chromosomes, it is still unclear how recombination suppression and sequence divergence typically occur and how gene dosage imbalances are resolved in the heterogametic sex. The threespine stickleback fish (Gasterosteus aculeatus) is a powerful model system to explore vertebrate sex chromosome evolution, as it possesses an XY sex chromosome pair at relatively early stages of differentiation. Using a combination of whole-genome and transcriptome sequencing, we characterized sequence evolution and gene expression across the sex chromosomes. We uncovered two distinct evolutionary strata that correspond with known structural rearrangements on the Y chromosome. In the oldest stratum, only a handful of genes remain, and these genes are under strong purifying selection. By comparing sex-linked gene expression with expression of autosomal orthologs in an outgroup, we show that dosage compensation has not evolved in threespine sticklebacks through upregulation of the X chromosome in males. Instead, in the oldest stratum, the genes that still possess a Y chromosome allele are enriched for genes predicted to be dosage sensitive in mammals and yeast. Our results suggest that dosage imbalances may have been avoided at haploinsufficient genes by retaining function of the Y chromosome allele through strong purifying selection. PMID:25818858

  17. Use of fluorescence spectroscopy to control ozone dosage in recirculating aquaculture systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spiliotopoulou, Aikaterini; Martin, Richard; Pedersen, Lars-Flemming

    2017-01-01

    , in order to optimise ozonation treatment. Water samples from six different Danish facilities (two rearing units from a commercial trout RAS, a commercial eel RAS, a pilot RAS and two marine water aquariums) were treated with different O3 dosages (1.0–20.0 mg/L ozone) in bench-scale experiments, following...

  18. Rheology as a tool for evaluation of melt processability of innovative dosage forms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aho, Johanna Maaria; Boetker, Johan P; Baldursdottir, Stefania

    2015-01-01

    ) printing, will have an increasingly important role when designing products for flexible dosing, since dosage forms based on compacting of a given powder mixture do not enable manufacturing of optimal pharmaceutical products for personalized treatments. The melt processability of polymers and API...

  19. Absorption of macronutrients by cassava in different harvest dates and dosages of nitrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nádia Souza dos Santos

    Full Text Available A field experiment was carried out in 2010-2011 crop years in the experimental area of the Centro de Ciências Agrárias of the Universidade Federal de Roraima, in Boa Vista, Roraima, Brazil. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of nitrogen availability on the concentrations of N, P, K, Ca, Mg and S in cassava, cultivar Aciolina, in different harvest times. A randomized block design was used in split-plot, with four replications. Dosages of N in cover were applied randomly on the plots (0, 30, 60, 150 and 330 kg ha-1, and in the subplot the harvest dates 120, 150, 180, 210, 240, 270 and 300 days after emergence (DAE. The vegetal material was collected, ground and then underwent an analysis for determination of nutrients concentrations in the leaves (N, P, K, Ca Mg and S. The harvest dates and dosages of N affect the nutrient concentrations in the cassava leaves, cv. Aciolina. The macronutrients dosage in the leaves, 120 DAE, is a good indicator of the nutritional status of the cassava plant. The dosage of 150 kg ha-1 of N raises the tubers roots per plant. The sequence of the macronutrients concentration in the leaves of the cassava, cv. Aciolina is N>Ca>K>Mg>P>S.

  20. Study of hydrogels based on polyacrilamide as new controlled release dosage forms produced by frontal polymerization

    OpenAIRE

    Sechi, Rossana; Gavini, Elisabetta; Mariani, Alberto; Bidali, Simone; Bonferoni, Maria Cristina; Sanna, Vanna Annunziata; Rassu, Giovanna; Pirisino, Gerolamo Antonio; Giunchedi, Paolo

    2006-01-01

    The work purpose was the evaluation of the potential application of the Frontal Polymerization (FP) technique as a new method for the preparation of controlled release dosage forms based on polyacrilamide, in which the drug loading and the polymer preparation occur at the same time.

  1. 76 FR 3488 - Implantation or Injectable Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Oxytetracycline and Flunixin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-20

    .... FDA-2010-N-0002] Implantation or Injectable Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Oxytetracycline and Flunixin... combination drug injectable solution containing oxytetracycline and flunixin meglumine in cattle. [[Page 3489... veterinary prescription use of HEXASOL (oxytetracycline and flunixin meglumine) Injection for the treatment...

  2. Accelerated in-vitro release testing methods for extended-release parenteral dosage forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jie; Burgess, Diane J

    2012-07-01

    This review highlights current methods and strategies for accelerated in-vitro drug release testing of extended-release parenteral dosage forms such as polymeric microparticulate systems, lipid microparticulate systems, in-situ depot-forming systems and implants. Extended-release parenteral dosage forms are typically designed to maintain the effective drug concentration over periods of weeks, months or even years. Consequently, 'real-time' in-vitro release tests for these dosage forms are often run over a long time period. Accelerated in-vitro release methods can provide rapid evaluation and therefore are desirable for quality control purposes. To this end, different accelerated in-vitro release methods using United States Pharmacopeia (USP) apparatus have been developed. Different mechanisms of accelerating drug release from extended-release parenteral dosage forms, along with the accelerated in-vitro release testing methods currently employed are discussed. Accelerated in-vitro release testing methods with good discriminatory ability are critical for quality control of extended-release parenteral products. Methods that can be used in the development of in-vitro-in-vivo correlation (IVIVC) are desirable; however, for complex parenteral products this may not always be achievable. © 2012 The Authors. JPP © 2012 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  3. Accelerated in vitro release testing methods for extended release parenteral dosage forms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jie; Burgess, Diane J.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives This review highlights current methods and strategies for accelerated in vitro drug release testing of extended release parenteral dosage forms such as polymeric microparticulate systems, lipid microparticulate systems, in situ depot-forming systems, and implants. Key findings Extended release parenteral dosage forms are typically designed to maintain the effective drug concentration over periods of weeks, months or even years. Consequently, “real-time” in vitro release tests for these dosage forms are often run over a long time period. Accelerated in vitro release methods can provide rapid evaluation and therefore are desirable for quality control purposes. To this end, different accelerated in vitro release methods using United States Pharmacopoeia (USP) apparatus have been developed. Different mechanisms of accelerating drug release from extended release parenteral dosage forms, along with the accelerated in vitro release testing methods currently employed are discussed. Conclusions Accelerated in vitro release testing methods with good discriminatory ability are critical for quality control of extended release parenteral products. Methods that can be used in the development of in vitro-in vivo correlation (IVIVC) are desirable, however for complex parenteral products this may not always be achievable. PMID:22686344

  4. 3D printing of high drug loaded dosage forms using thermoplastic polyurethanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verstraete, G; Samaro, A; Grymonpré, W; Vanhoorne, V; Van Snick, B; Boone, M N; Hellemans, T; Van Hoorebeke, L; Remon, J P; Vervaet, C

    2018-01-30

    It was the aim of this study to develop high drug loaded (>30%, w/w), thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU)-based dosage forms via fused deposition modelling (FDM). Model drugs with different particle size and aqueous solubility were pre-processed in combination with diverse TPU grades via hot melt extrusion (HME) into filaments with a diameter of 1.75 ± 0.05 mm. Subsequently, TPU-based filaments which featured acceptable quality attributes (i.e. consistent filament diameter, smooth surface morphology and good mechanical properties) were printed into tablets. The sustained release potential of the 3D printed dosage forms was tested in vitro. Moreover, the impact of printing parameters on the in vitro drug release was investigated. TPU-based filaments could be loaded with 60% (w/w) fine drug powder without observing severe shark skinning or inconsistent filament diameter. During 3D printing experiments, HME filaments based on hard TPU grades were successfully converted into personalized dosage forms containing a high concentration of crystalline drug (up to 60%, w/w). In vitro release kinetics were mainly affected by the matrix composition and tablet infill degree. Therefore, this study clearly demonstrated that TPU-based FDM feedstock material offers a lot of formulation freedom for the development of personalized dosage forms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Improved sentinel node visualization in breast cancer by optimizing the colloid particle concentration and tracer dosage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valdés Olmos, R. A.; Tanis, P. J.; Hoefnagel, C. A.; Nieweg, O. E.; Muller, S. H.; Rutgers, E. J.; Kooi, M. L.; Kroon, B. B.

    2001-01-01

    Faint lymph uptake may hamper sentinel node (SN) identification by scintigraphy and subsequent gamma probe localization. The aim of the present study was to evaluate an adjustment in the colloid particle concentration and tracer dosage to optimize mammary lymphoscintigraphy. Scintigraphy was

  6. Minimum effective dosages of anti-TNF in rheumatoid arthritis: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Torre, Inmaculada; Valor, Lara; Nieto, Juan Carlos; Montoro, María; Carreño, Luis

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the modified dosages of anti-TNF in controlling disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) measured by DAS28-ESR. Cross-sectional study: RA patients treated with etanercept (ETN), adalimumab (ADA) or infliximab (IFX), at standard or modified doses. dosage, concomitant disease modifying drugs (DMARDs), DAS28-ESR. 195 RA patients included (79% women, mean age 58.1 years): ETN=81, ADA=56, IFX=58. Mean disease duration and time to first biological treatment was higher in IFX group (P=.01). Patients distribution by dosage: standard: ETN (72.8%), ADA (69.6%), IFX (27.6%); escalated: IFX (69%), ADA (5.4%), ETN (0%); reduced: ETN (27.1%), ADA (25%), IFX (3.4%). Concomitant DMARDs use was lower in ETN (58.2%) than ADA (66.07%) and IFX (79.31%). Higher proportion of responders (DAS28 ≤3.2) in ADA (65.3%) and ETN (61.7%) than IFX (48.3%). RA clinical control can be preserved with modified anti-TNF dosages. Controlled prospective studies should be performed to define when therapy can be tailored and for which patients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  7. 75 FR 21162 - Certain Other Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Detomidine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-23

    .... FDA-2010-N-0002] Certain Other Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Detomidine AGENCY: Food and Drug... NADA provides for veterinary prescription use of detomidine hydrochloride oromucosal gel for sedation... prescription use of DORMOSEDAN GEL (detomidine hydrochloride) for sedation and restraint of horses. The...

  8. 76 FR 16533 - Certain Other Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Detomidine; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-24

    .... FDA-2010-N-0002] Certain Other Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Detomidine; Correction AGENCY: Food and... paragraph describing limitations to the approved conditions of use for detomidine hydrochloride oromucosal... conditions of use for detomidine hydrochloride oromucosal gel in horses. This correction is being made to...

  9. LABORATORY PROTECTION RATE OF TORN BEDNETS TREATED WITH THREE DOSAGES OF PYRETHROIDE AGAINST ANOPHELES CULICIFACIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Babaee

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Evaluated under laboratory condition. The objective of the present study was to observe the effect of impregnated torn bednets on the number of bites by An. culicifacies A glass made tunnel test was designed to The effect of torn bednets treated with three dosages of cyfluthrin 5% EW, were induce hungry female mosquitoes to pass through holes cut in the pyrethroid treated nets. A guinea pig used as bait to attract mosquitoes through circular holes in the netting. With untreated netting, 72-87% of laboratory-reared females passed through the holes overnight, 64-92% blood-fed successfully and 0.3/9-4/3% died. When the netting was treated with cyfluthrin at doses of 25, 50 and 100 mg a.i./m2, the entry Index (the proportions that passed through the holes overnight were 43.37%, 42.82% and 24.72%; mortality rates were 66.31%, 81.45% and 95.99%; and the feeding rate were 45%, 27% and 3%. In conclusion it should be stressed that efficacy of pyrethroid impregnated bednets using “Tunnel Tests” showing acceptable protection rate both in lower and higher dosages as well as cause dead in the blood-fed mosquitoes. In addition, the higher dosages of these three dosages pyrethroid provided good levels of protection against An. culicifacies.

  10. Plasma concentrations of caspofungin at two different dosage regimens in a patient with hepatic dysfunction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Elst, K.C.; Bruggemann, R.J.M.; Rodgers, M.G.; Alffenaar, J.W.C.

    2012-01-01

    The currently recommended dosage regimen of caspofungin (50 mg/day) was developed for patients with invasive candidiasis. With invasive aspergillosis, successful outcomes occur in less than half the patients. We evaluate the pharmacokinetics in a patient with elevated liver enzyme levels after liver

  11. Plasma concentrations of caspofungin at two different dosage regimens in a patient with hepatic dysfunction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Elst, K. C. M.; Bruggemann, R. J. M.; Rodgers, M. G. G.; Alffenaar, J. W. C.

    The currently recommended dosage regimen of caspofungin (50 mg/day) was developed for patients with invasive candidiasis. With invasive aspergillosis, successful outcomes occur in less than half the patients. We evaluate the pharmacokinetics in a patient with elevated liver enzyme levels after liver

  12. 75 FR 20268 - Implantation or Injectable Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Change of Sponsor; Propofol

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-19

    ... 21 CFR Part 522 Animal drugs. Therefore, under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act and under... use in dogs and cats--(1) Amount. The drug is administered by intravenous injection as follows: (i) Dogs. For induction of general anesthesia without the use of preanesthetics the dosage is 5.5 to 7.0 mg...

  13. Application research of power allocation based on Buck circuit in DC microgrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Zihao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In a traditional DC microgrid, the power sharing control strategy has been always used in the distributed power converters, resulting in not making outer power allocation arbitrarily. In order to solve the power output allocation problem of wind power in DC microgrid, the intelligent Buck circuit based on PI algorithm and the load current feed-forward method was used to realize the arbitrary regulation of the output power of the wind power in the DC microgrid system. Compared with traditional distributed generators power-sharing method, the simulation and experimental results show the proposed method can realize arbitrary power outputting from distributed generators. Finally, the simulation and experimental results prove the validity and effectiveness of the control method.

  14. Road Traffic Congestion Management Based on a Search-Allocation Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raiyn Jamal

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a new scheme for road traffic management in smart cities, aimed at reducing road traffic congestion. The scheme is based on a combination of searching, updating, and allocation techniques (SUA. An SUA approach is proposed to reduce the processing time for forecasting the conditions of all road sections in real-time, which is typically considerable and complex. It searches for the shortest route based on historical observations, then computes travel time forecasts based on vehicular location in real-time. Using updated information, which includes travel time forecasts and accident forecasts, the vehicle is allocated the appropriate section. The novelty of the SUA scheme lies in its updating of vehicles in every time to reduce traffic congestion. Furthermore, the SUA approach supports autonomy and management by self-regulation, which recommends its use in smart cities that support internet of things (IoT technologies.

  15. Inverse Statistics and Asset Allocation Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolgorian, Meysam

    In this paper using inverse statistics analysis, the effect of investment horizon on the efficiency of portfolio selection is examined. Inverse statistics analysis is a general tool also known as probability distribution of exit time that is used for detecting the distribution of the time in which a stochastic process exits from a zone. This analysis was used in Refs. 1 and 2 for studying the financial returns time series. This distribution provides an optimal investment horizon which determines the most likely horizon for gaining a specific return. Using samples of stocks from Tehran Stock Exchange (TSE) as an emerging market and S&P 500 as a developed market, effect of optimal investment horizon in asset allocation is assessed. It is found that taking into account the optimal investment horizon in TSE leads to more efficiency for large size portfolios while for stocks selected from S&P 500, regardless of portfolio size, this strategy does not only not produce more efficient portfolios, but also longer investment horizons provides more efficiency.

  16. THE ALLOCATIVE EFFICIENCY OF LAND RENTAL MARKETS IN TRANSITION AGRICULTURE

    OpenAIRE

    Vranken, Liesbet; Mathijs, Erik

    2001-01-01

    This paper examines the functioning of the Hungarian land rental market. The allocative inefficiency of the land rental market is determined by calculating the marginal value productivity of land and using rental prices. Regional differences in allocative inefficiency are then correlated with demographic and socio-economic variables and with labor market-related factors.

  17. Fast Allocation and Deallocation with an Improved Buddy System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Demaine, Erik D.; Munro, J. Ian

    2005-01-01

    We propose several modifications to the binary buddy system for managing dynamic allocation of memory blocks whose sizes are powers of two. The standard buddy system allocates and deallocates blocks in Theta(lg n) time in the worst case (and on an amortized basis), where n is the size of the memo...

  18. Age, lighting treatment, feed allocation and feed form influence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    During a broiler breeder trial with 3200 Cobb 500 hens, the effects of lighting treatment after 20 weeks' feed allocation and of feed form on the length of time taken to consume the daily allocation of feed were measured. Pullets were reared on 8-hour photoperiods to 20 weeks, then transferred to one of four lighting ...

  19. Joint overbooking and seat allocation for fare families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Robert; Fiig, Thomas; Bondoux, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Revenue Management Systems (RMS) traditionally solve the seat allocation problem separately from the overbooking problem. Overbooking is managed by inflating the authorization levels obtained from seat allocation by various heuristics. This approach although suboptimal, is necessitated because...... independent demand model, which is readily solved. The resulting availability control can easily by implemented in existing RMS...

  20. An Optimization Approach to the Dynamic Allocation of Economic Capital

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laeven, R.J.A.; Goovaerts, M.J.

    2004-01-01

    We propose an optimization approach to allocating economic capital, distinguishing between an allocation or raising principle and a measure for the risk residual. The approach is applied both at the aggregate (conglomerate) level and at the individual (subsidiary) level and yields an integrated

  1. Comment: Risk Allocation Norms of Civil Construction Contracts in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This comment discusses risk allocation under Ethiopian construction law and examines risks in civil construction contracts. The comment highlights the gaps in risk allocation norms under the standard format of construction contract that was issued by the Ethiopian Ministry of Work and Urban Development (MoWUD) in 1994 ...

  2. Foreign Bank Entry and Credit Allocation in Emerging Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Degryse, H.A.; Havrylchyk, O.; Jurzyk, E.; Kozak, S.

    2009-01-01

    We employ a unique data set containing bank-specific information to explore how foreign bank entry determines credit allocation in emerging markets. We investigate the impact of the mode of foreign entry (greenfield or takeover) on banks’ portfolio allocation to borrowers with different degrees of

  3. Funding Allocation and Staff Management. A Portuguese Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Maria Joao; Amado, Diana; Amaral, Alberto

    2009-01-01

    For many years the Portuguese Ministry of Education used a funding formula to allocate the State budget to public higher education institutions. Some of its major objectives were higher enrolments and allocation equity. As the expenditure on salaries was a major component of the budget, the formula was supposed to force convergence to established…

  4. Competition for export markets and the allocation of foreign aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barthel, Fabian; Neumayer, Eric; Nunnenkamp, Peter

    2014-01-01

    and services to a specific recipient country at both stages of their allocation of aid for economic infrastructure and production sectors. By contrast, evidence for export competition driving aid allocation is lacking for more altruistic donors and for aid in social infrastructure....

  5. Resource Allocation Models and Accountability: A Jamaican Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkrumah-Young, Kofi K.; Powell, Philip

    2008-01-01

    Higher education institutions (HEIs) may be funded privately, by the state or by a mixture of the two. Nevertheless, any state financing of HE necessitates a mechanism to determine the level of support and the channels through which it is to be directed; that is, a resource allocation model. Public funding, through resource allocation models,…

  6. Energy-Efficient Power Allocation for MIMO-SVD Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Sboui, Lokman; Rezki, Zouheir; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we address the problem of energyefficient power allocation in MIMO systems. In fact, the widely adopted water-filling power allocation does not ensure the maximization of the energy efficiency (EE). Since the EE maximization is a non

  7. On capital allocation for stochastic arrangement increasing actuarial risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan Xiaoqing

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the increasing convex ordering of the optimal discounted capital allocations for stochastic arrangement increasing risks with stochastic arrangement decreasing occurrence times. The application to optimal allocation of policy limits is presented as an illustration as well.

  8. 14 CFR 1214.113 - Allocation of risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Allocation of risk. 1214.113 Section 1214.113 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SPACE FLIGHT General....113 Allocation of risk. The U.S. Government will assume no risk for damages to the customer resulting...

  9. 40 CFR 60.4153 - Recordation of Hg allowance allocations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Recordation of Hg allowance allocations... Times for Coal-Fired Electric Steam Generating Units Hg Allowance Tracking System § 60.4153 Recordation of Hg allowance allocations. (a) By December 1, 2006, the Administrator will record in the Hg Budget...

  10. Models for the discrete berth allocation problem: A computational comparison

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhrkal, Katja Frederik; Zuglian, Sara; Røpke, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we consider the problem of allocating arriving ships to discrete berth locations at container terminals. This problem is recognized as one of the most important processes for any container terminal. We review and describe three main models of the discrete dynamic berth allocation...

  11. Models for the Discrete Berth Allocation Problem: A Computational Comparison

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhrkal, Katja; Zuglian, Sara; Røpke, Stefan

    In this paper we consider the problem of allocating arriving ships to discrete berth locations at container terminals. This problem is recognized as one of the most important processes for any container terminal. We review and describe the three main models of the discrete dynamic berth allocation...

  12. Capacity allocation in wireless communication networks - models and analyses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Litjens, Remco

    2003-01-01

    This monograph has concentrated on capacity allocation in cellular and Wireless Local Area Networks, primarily with a network operator’s perspective. In the introduc- tory chapter, a reference model has been proposed for the extensive suite of capacity allocation mechanisms that can be applied at

  13. An assessment of Nigerias budgetary allocation to the education ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study assessed Nigerias budgetary allocations to the Education sector from year 2000 to 2010. Simple percentage method was adopted in the empirical investigation. The study showed that Nigerias budgetary allocation was less than the 26 percent recommended by the United Nations Educational Scientifc and ...

  14. 40 CFR 96.142 - CAIR NOX allowance allocations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the 3 highest amounts of the unit's adjusted control period heat input for 2000 through 2004, with the adjusted control period heat input for each year calculated as follows: (A) If the unit is coal-fired... CAIR NOX Allowance Allocations § 96.142 CAIR NOX allowance allocations. (a)(1) The baseline heat input...

  15. 40 CFR 97.142 - CAIR NOX allowance allocations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... heat input for each year calculated as follows: (A) If the unit is coal-fired during the year, the unit... the first such 5 years. (2)(i) A unit's control period heat input, and a unit's status as coal-fired... Allocations § 97.142 CAIR NOX allowance allocations. (a)(1) The baseline heat input (in mmBtu) used with...

  16. Toward a Multilevel Perspective on the Allocation of Educational Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monk, David H.

    1981-01-01

    The importance of the following is demonstrated: (1) striking a balance between the attention given to resource allocation practices at macro compared to microlevels of decision making; and (2) learning more about how resource allocation decisions made at one level affect practices at other levels of the educational system. (Author/GK)

  17. 47 CFR 69.502 - Base factor allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Base factor allocation. 69.502 Section 69.502... Segregation of Common Line Element Revenue Requirement § 69.502 Base factor allocation. Projected revenues from the following shall be deducted from the base factor portion to determine the amount that is...

  18. Portfolio allocation under the vendor managed inventory: A Markov ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Portfolio allocation under the vendor managed inventory: A Markov decision process. ... Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management ... This study provides a review of Markov decision processes and investigates its suitability for solutions to portfolio allocation problems under vendor managed inventory in ...

  19. Resource Allocation and Public Policy in Alberta's Postsecondary System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barneston, Bob; Boberg, Alice

    2000-01-01

    Resource allocation in Alberta's postsecondary system has changed substantially since 1994, designed to reapportion financial responsibility for higher education, increase vocational outcomes of postsecondary education, and increase transfer of knowledge and technology to the private sector. This paper outlines how resource allocation has been…

  20. 12 CFR 615.5208 - Allotment of allocated investments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Allotment of allocated investments. 615.5208... allocated investments. (a) The following conditions apply to agreements that a Farm Credit Bank or... investments held by those associations with which there is no agreement (nonagreeing associations), and does...

  1. Unilateral brief-pulse electroconvulsive therapy and cognition: effects of electrode placement, stimulus dosage and time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semkovska, Maria; Keane, Deborah; Babalola, Oyemi; McLoughlin, Declan M

    2011-06-01

    To clarify advantages of unilateral electrode placement as an optimisation technique for electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) for depression, aims were to meta-analyse unilateral ECT effects on cognitive performance relative to: (1) bitemporal electrode placement, (2) electrical dosage, and (3) time interval between final treatment and cognitive reassessment. Relevant electronic databases were systematically searched through May 2009, using the terms: "electroconvulsive therapy" and ["cogniti∗", "neuropsycholog∗", "memory", "attention", "executive", "spatial", or "intellectual"]. Inclusion criteria were: independent study of depressed patients receiving unilateral or bitemporal brief-pulse ECT; within-subjects design; use of objective cognitive assessments; available mean electrical dosage for unilateral samples. Standardized pre-post ECT weighted effect sizes were computed and pooled within 16 cognitive domains by a mixed-effects model. Thirty-nine studies (1415 patients) were meta-analysed. Up to three days after final treatment, unilateral ECT was associated with significantly smaller decreases in global cognition, delayed verbal memory retrieval, and autobiographical memory, compared to bitemporal ECT. Significant publication bias was found for autobiographical memory, favouring reporting of larger percentage loss. Higher unilateral ECT electrical dosage predicted larger decreases in verbal learning, delayed verbal memory retrieval, visual recognition, and semantic memory retrieval. When retested more than three days after completing ECT, no significant differences remained between the two electrode placements; for unilateral ECT, electrical dosage no longer predicted cognitive performance whereas increasing interval between final treatment and retesting predicted growing improvement in some variables. This interval is a more useful long-term predictor of cognitive function than electrode placement or electrical dosage following unilateral ECT. Copyright © 2010

  2. Study on image quality and dosage comparison of F/S system and DR system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sun Chil; Jung, Jae Eun

    2003-01-01

    Currently, many hospital are hastening to introduce digital radiography systems. This is a direct result of the intentions to improve medical services and to digitalized radiology information systems, and is also leading to the improvement of medical imaging technology. Throughout F/S system's long history, many people have researched the image quality and dosage concerning these systems, and as a result, huge improvements in the dosage of patients were possible. Similarly, I believe that DR systems need the same kind of effort. Of course, decreases in dosage that ignore image quality are unthinkable. The results of experiments conducted by five hospitals during a period of 3 months brought to us the conclusions listed below. Based on the comparison and analysis of the exposure control of F/S systems and DR systems, DR systems generally showed higher exposure control for parts of the phantom that became thicker, and the exposure control improved rapidly as the thickness increased. DR systems still proved to be somewhat deficient in resolution measurements compared to existing F/S systems. The image processing part of DR systems contributed much to these result. Under conditions used clinically, the dosage measurements of DR systems were generally higher regardless of region. According to the evaluation of image quality, DR systems showed a higher degree of satisfaction as the thickness of the region became thinner. As mentioned above and based on the mutual relationship experiments between the dosage and image quality of F/S systems and DR systems, research to increase the satisfaction of DR systems must be considered

  3. Unilateral brief-pulse electroconvulsive therapy and cognition: Effects of electrode placement, stimulus dosage and time.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Semkovska, Maria

    2010-11-23

    To clarify advantages of unilateral electrode placement as an optimisation technique for electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) for depression, aims were to meta-analyse unilateral ECT effects on cognitive performance relative to: (1) bitemporal electrode placement, (2) electrical dosage, and (3) time interval between final treatment and cognitive reassessment. Relevant electronic databases were systematically searched through May 2009, using the terms: "electroconvulsive therapy" and ["cogniti∗", "neuropsycholog∗", "memory", "attention", "executive", "spatial", or "intellectual"]. Inclusion criteria were: independent study of depressed patients receiving unilateral or bitemporal brief-pulse ECT; within-subjects design; use of objective cognitive assessments; available mean electrical dosage for unilateral samples. Standardized pre-post ECT weighted effect sizes were computed and pooled within 16 cognitive domains by a mixed-effects model. Thirty-nine studies (1415 patients) were meta-analysed. Up to three days after final treatment, unilateral ECT was associated with significantly smaller decreases in global cognition, delayed verbal memory retrieval, and autobiographical memory, compared to bitemporal ECT. Significant publication bias was found for autobiographical memory, favouring reporting of larger percentage loss. Higher unilateral ECT electrical dosage predicted larger decreases in verbal learning, delayed verbal memory retrieval, visual recognition, and semantic memory retrieval. When retested more than three days after completing ECT, no significant differences remained between the two electrode placements; for unilateral ECT, electrical dosage no longer predicted cognitive performance whereas increasing interval between final treatment and retesting predicted growing improvement in some variables. This interval is a more useful long-term predictor of cognitive function than electrode placement or electrical dosage following unilateral ECT.

  4. S4HARA: System for HIV/AIDS resource allocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carter Michael W

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV/AIDS resource allocation decisions are influenced by political, social, ethical and other factors that are difficult to quantify. Consequently, quantitative models of HIV/AIDS resource allocation have had limited impact on actual spending decisions. We propose a decision-support System for HIV/AIDS Resource Allocation (S4HARA that takes into consideration both principles of efficient resource allocation and the role of non-quantifiable influences on the decision-making process for resource allocation. Methods S4HARA is a four-step spreadsheet-based model. The first step serves to identify the factors currently influencing HIV/AIDS allocation decisions. The second step consists of prioritizing HIV/AIDS interventions. The third step involves allocating the budget to the HIV/AIDS interventions using a rational approach. Decision-makers can select from several rational models of resource allocation depending on availability of data and level of complexity. The last step combines the results of the first and third steps to highlight the influencing factors that act as barriers or facilitators to the results suggested by the rational resource allocation approach. Actionable recommendations are then made to improve the allocation. We illustrate S4HARA in the context of a primary healthcare clinic in South Africa. Results The clinic offers six types of HIV/AIDS interventions and spends US$750,000 annually on these programs. Current allocation decisions are influenced by donors, NGOs and the government as well as by ethical and religious factors. Without additional funding, an optimal allocation of the total budget suggests that the portion allotted to condom distribution be increased from 1% to 15% and the portion allotted to prevention and treatment of opportunistic infections be increased from 43% to 71%, while allocation to other interventions should decrease. Conclusion Condom uptake at the clinic should be increased by

  5. S4HARA: System for HIV/AIDS resource allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasry, Arielle; Carter, Michael W; Zaric, Gregory S

    2008-03-26

    HIV/AIDS resource allocation decisions are influenced by political, social, ethical and other factors that are difficult to quantify. Consequently, quantitative models of HIV/AIDS resource allocation have had limited impact on actual spending decisions. We propose a decision-support System for HIV/AIDS Resource Allocation (S4HARA) that takes into consideration both principles of efficient resource allocation and the role of non-quantifiable influences on the decision-making process for resource allocation. S4HARA is a four-step spreadsheet-based model. The first step serves to identify the factors currently influencing HIV/AIDS allocation decisions. The second step consists of prioritizing HIV/AIDS interventions. The third step involves allocating the budget to the HIV/AIDS interventions using a rational approach. Decision-makers can select from several rational models of resource allocation depending on availability of data and level of complexity. The last step combines the results of the first and third steps to highlight the influencing factors that act as barriers or facilitators to the results suggested by the rational resource allocation approach. Actionable recommendations are then made to improve the allocation. We illustrate S4HARA in the context of a primary healthcare clinic in South Africa. The clinic offers six types of HIV/AIDS interventions and spends US$750,000 annually on these programs. Current allocation decisions are influenced by donors, NGOs and the government as well as by ethical and religious factors. Without additional funding, an optimal allocation of the total budget suggests that the portion allotted to condom distribution be increased from 1% to 15% and the portion allotted to prevention and treatment of opportunistic infections be increased from 43% to 71%, while allocation to other interventions should decrease. Condom uptake at the clinic should be increased by changing the condom distribution policy from a pull system to a push

  6. A method for allocating renewable energy source subsidies among final energy consumers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batlle, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    In a new context of growing need for renewable energy sources (RES), tariff design has become a critical component of energy system regulation. A methodology for allocating the cost of RES subsidies that ensures an optimal balance between compliance with the main regulatory principles of tariff design and each state's specific policy is of cardinal importance in the current context. This paper presents and discusses a novel methodology to allocate the RES subsidy costs, which consists of distributing them among final energy consumers, in proportion to their consumption, regardless of the type of final energy consumed (liquid fuels, gas, electricity or coal). First, the different designs of RES subsidies are categorized and a review of a good number of the RES burden sharing mechanisms implemented in the EU is presented. Then, the proposed methodology is developed on the basis of the basic regulatory principles underlying the tariff design and the current regulatory context in force in the EU. Finally, to illustrate its actual impact in a real case example, the proposed methodology is applied to the Spanish system, in which the burden of extra costs incurred for RES amounts to a very large proportion of the overall energy system costs. - Research highlights: → This paper develops a novel methodology to allocate RES subsidy costs among final energy consumers. → The methodology is built upon the basic tariff design principles and the 3rd package regulations. → It consists of distributing them in proportion to liquid fuels, gas, electricity or coal consumption. → The 20% RES target affects all energy sectors and justifies allocating the extra costs accordingly. → The methodology is applied to the Spanish energy system, where the RES burden is a very significant.

  7. Accounting of allocation of production enterprises’ overhead costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О.V. Ivaniuta

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Taking into account the complexity of engineering technological cycles, the use of traditional approaches to the allocation of overhead costs at the researching enterprises is inexpedient and inefficient. The authors find out that to solve this problem it is not enough to choose only one base of allocation because the formed prime cost with such an approach will not meet the reality. That is why it is suggested to use a multilevel allocation of overhead costs. The proposed approach involves the allocation of overhead costs at the following levels: fixed and variable, with shops of main and auxiliary production, calculation stations, some orders. Each level involves the selection of individual allocation bases that are grouped on economic, technological and integrated ones.

  8. Children's self-allocation and use of classroom curricular time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, J; Worrall, N

    1992-02-01

    A class of 9-10 year-olds (N = 12) in a British primary school were observed as it moved over a one-year period through three types of classroom environment, traditional directive, transitional negotiative and established negotiative. Each environment offered the children a differing relationship with curricular time, its control and allocation, moving from teacher-allocated time to child allocation. Pupil self-report and classroom observation indicated differences in the balance of curricular spread and allocated time on curricular subject in relation to the type of classroom organisation and who controlled classroom time. These differences were at both class and individual child level. The established negotiative environment recorded the most equitable curricular balance, traditional directive the least. While individual children responded differently within and across the three classroom environments, the established negotiative where time was under child control recorded preference for longer activity periods compared to where the teacher controlled time allocations.

  9. Downlink resource allocation for multichannel TDMA visible light communications

    KAUST Repository

    Abdelhady, Amr Mohamed Abdelaziz

    2017-05-12

    Optical wireless communications (OWC) in general and resource allocation in OWC networks particularly have gained lots of attention recently. In this work, we consider the resource allocation problem of a visible light communication downlink transmission system based on time division multiple access with the objective of maximizing spectral efficiency (SE). As for the operational conditions, we impose constraints on the average optical intensity, the energy consumption and the quality-of-service. To solve the non-convex problem, we transform the objective function into a difference of concave functions by solving a second order differential inequality. Then, we propose a low-complexity algorithm to solve the resource allocation problem. Finally, we show by simulations the SE performance gains achieved by optimizing the power allocation over equal power allocation in the considered system. Numerical results show the SE gains achieved by using this solution.

  10. Downlink resource allocation for multichannel TDMA visible light communications

    KAUST Repository

    Abdelhady, Amr Mohamed Abdelaziz; Amin, Osama; Chaaban, Anas; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2017-01-01

    Optical wireless communications (OWC) in general and resource allocation in OWC networks particularly have gained lots of attention recently. In this work, we consider the resource allocation problem of a visible light communication downlink transmission system based on time division multiple access with the objective of maximizing spectral efficiency (SE). As for the operational conditions, we impose constraints on the average optical intensity, the energy consumption and the quality-of-service. To solve the non-convex problem, we transform the objective function into a difference of concave functions by solving a second order differential inequality. Then, we propose a low-complexity algorithm to solve the resource allocation problem. Finally, we show by simulations the SE performance gains achieved by optimizing the power allocation over equal power allocation in the considered system. Numerical results show the SE gains achieved by using this solution.

  11. 4G femtocells resource allocation and interference management

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Haijun; Wen, Xiangming

    2014-01-01

    This brief examines resource allocation and interference management for 4G femtocells. It introduces 4G femtocells in the context of 4G mobile networks and discusses related technical challenges in resource allocation and interference management. Topics include ant colony algorithm based downlink resource allocation, intelligent scheduling and power control, uplink and downlink for two-tier networks, quality of service (QoS) constraints and the cross-tier interference constraint. The authors present algorithms to alleviate common femtocell-related problems such as subchannel power allocation. The complexity of the proposed resource allocation algorithms is analyzed, and the effectiveness of the proposed algorithms is verified by simulations. This concise and practical book directly addresses common problems relating to femtocells and resource management. It serves as a useful tool for researchers in the field. Advanced-level students or professionals interested in femtocells and networks will also find the co...

  12. Function allocation in distributed safeguards and security systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barlich, G.L.

    1991-01-01

    Computerized distributed systems are being used to collect and manage data for activities such as nuclear materials accounting, process control, laboratory coordination, and security. Poor choices made in allocating functions to individual processors can make a system unusable by burdening machines with excessive network retrievals and updates. During system design phases, data allocation algorithms based on operation frequencies, field sizes, security information, and reliability requirements can be applied in sensitivity studies to mathematically ensure processor efficiency. The Los Alamos Network Design System (NDS) implements such an allocation algorithm. The authors analyzed a large, existing distributed system to test the cost functions and to compare actual network problems with NDS results. Several common configurations were also designed and studied using the software. From these studies, some basic principles for allocating functions emerged. In this paper recommendations for function allocation in generic systems and related design options are discussed

  13. ACE-it: a tool for genome-wide integration of gene dosage and RNA expression data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wieringen, W.N.; Belien, J.A.M.; Vosse, S.; Achame, E.M.; Ylstra, B.

    2006-01-01

    Summary: We describe a tool, called ACE-it (Array CGH Expression integration tool). ACE-it links the chromosomal position of the gene dosage measured by array CGH to the genes measured by the expression array. ACE-it uses this link to statistically test whether gene dosage affects RNA expression. ©

  14. [Post-marketing re-evaluation about usage and dosage of Chinese medicine based on human population pharmacokinetics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Junjie; Xie, Yanming

    2011-10-01

    The usage and dosage of Chinese patent medicine are determined by rigorous evaluation which include four clinical trail stages: I, II, III. But the usage and dosage of Chinese patent medicine are lacked re-evaluation after marketing. And this lead to unchanging or fixed of the usage and dosage of Chinese patent medicine instead of different quantity based on different situations in individual patients. The situation of Chinese patent medicine used in clinical application is far away from the idea of the "Treatment based on syndrome differentiation" in traditional Chinese medicine and personalized therapy. Human population pharmacokinetics provides data support to the personalized therapy in clinical application, and achieved the postmarking reevaluating of the usage and dosage of Chinese patent medicine. This paper briefly introduced the present situation, significance and the application of human population pharmacokinetics about re-evaluation of the usage and dosage of Chinese patent medicine after marketing.

  15. Waste package performance allocation system study report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Memory, R.D.

    1994-01-01

    The Waste Package Performance Allocation system study was performed in order to provide a technical basis for the selection of the waste package period of substantially complete containment and its resultant contribution to the overall total system performance. This study began with a reference case based on the current Mined Geologic Disposal System (MGDS) baseline design and added a number of alternative designs. The waste package designs were selected from the designs being considered in detail during Advanced Conceptual Design (ACD). The waste packages considered were multi-barrier packages with a 0.95 cm Alloy 825 inner barrier and a 10, 20, or 45 cm thick carbon steel outer barrier. The waste package capacities varied from 6 to 12 to 21 Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) fuel assemblies. The vertical borehole and in-drift emplacement modes were also considered, as were thermal loadings of 25, 57, and 114 kW/acre. The repository cost analysis indicated that the 21 PWR in-drift emplacement mode option with the 10 cm and 20 cm outer barrier thicknesses are the least expensive and that the 12 PWR in-drift case has approximately the same cost as the 6 PWR vertical borehole. It was also found that the cost increase from the 10 cm outer barrier waste package to the 20 cm waste package was less per centimeter than the increase from the 20 cm outer barrier waste package to the 45 cm outer barrier waste package. However, the repository cost was nearly linear with the outer barrier thickness for the 21 PWR in-drift case. Finally, corrosion rate estimates are provided and the relationship of repository cost versus waste package lifetime is discussed as is cumulative radionuclide release from the waste package and to the accessible environment for time periods of 10,000 years and 100,000 years

  16. RESSOURCES ALLOCATION POSSIBILITIES WITHIN HEALTH SERVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manea Liliana

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The state policy in the health care area must take into account the complexity and specificity of the domain. Health means not only “to treat”, but also “to prevent” and “to recover and rehabilitate the individual physically”. Regardless of the adopted health insurance system, the health system is facing a big problem and this is the insufficient funds necessary to function properly. The underfunding may have various causes, from a wrong health policy, based on “treating” instead of “preventing”, by the misuse of funds. This papers intended to formulate assumptions that underpin the research I am conducting within the Doctoral Research Program held at the Valahia University of Targoviste, which aims at using the management control in increasing the health services performance. The application of the accounting and management control methods in determining health costs can be a beginning to streamline the system. This is also a result of the fact that health care is a public service with specific characteristics: it can not be subject only to market requirements but at the same time he must undergo an administrative savings, representing a typical case of market failure. The increased cost of treatment, as well as the decline in their quality can be determined by the discrepancy between the funding and payment mechanisms. Different payment systems currently available do nothing but perpetuate the shortcomings in the system. Switching to the introduction of cost and budgets by cost centers or object (if solved can be a step forward for a better management of resources. In this context, we consider as a necessity to be imposed the cost analysis on responsibility centers, the definition of the cost object and cost center identification and determination of direct costs and those indirect services to choose the basis for the allocation of cost centers and the determination of each actual cost per diagnosis.

  17. Designing equitable antiretroviral allocation strategies in resource-constrained countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David P Wilson

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Recently, a global commitment has been made to expand access to antiretrovirals (ARVs in the developing world. However, in many resource-constrained countries the number of individuals infected with HIV in need of treatment will far exceed the supply of ARVs, and only a limited number of health-care facilities (HCFs will be available for ARV distribution. Deciding how to allocate the limited supply of ARVs among HCFs will be extremely difficult. Resource allocation decisions can be made on the basis of many epidemiological, ethical, or preferential treatment priority criteria.Here we use operations research techniques, and we show how to determine the optimal strategy for allocating ARVs among HCFs in order to satisfy the equitable criterion that each individual infected with HIV has an equal chance of receiving ARVs. We present a novel spatial mathematical model that includes heterogeneity in treatment accessibility. We show how to use our theoretical framework, in conjunction with an equity objective function, to determine an optimal equitable allocation strategy (OEAS for ARVs in resource-constrained regions. Our equity objective function enables us to apply the egalitarian principle of equity with respect to access to health care. We use data from the detailed ARV rollout plan designed by the government of South Africa to determine an OEAS for the province of KwaZulu-Natal. We determine the OEAS for KwaZulu-Natal, and we then compare this OEAS with two other ARV allocation strategies: (i allocating ARVs only to Durban (the largest urban city in KwaZulu-Natal province and (ii allocating ARVs equally to all available HCFs. In addition, we compare the OEAS to the current allocation plan of the South African government (which is based upon allocating ARVs to 17 HCFs. We show that our OEAS significantly improves equity in treatment accessibility in comparison with these three ARV allocation strategies. We also quantify how the size of the

  18. Management of electricity network cross border capacity: allocation procedures between France and Belgium; Gestion des capacites d'echange d'electricite: methodes d'allocation entre la France et la Belgique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raytchev, D. [Bordeaux-4 Univ. Montesquieu, LAREefi, 33 (France)

    2003-11-01

    This paper tries to identify a method of allocation of the Interconnector capacity for the transport of electricity which complies best with the (conflicting) interests of users, system operators and regulators in the context of a common European market of electricity. The first part combines a historical approach with a comparative study of existing allocation procedures to show that the new joint mechanism of auctioning and market splitting, applied to the whole northern zone of UCTE is vastly superior to the existing allocation arrangement on the Franco-Belgian border. The second part discusses some problems related to the implementation of the new allocation mechanism. Here we examine some difficulties concerning ca achy auctioning (like auction methods and organisation, profit distribution and derivative markets) as well as the market splitting method (neutrality, markets without power exchanges, etc). The main obstacle facing the new method remains however the lack of willingness to address the urgent issue of reforming the present allocation procedures- a remnant from the period of centrally planned electricity systems where neighbouring monopoly companies negotiated agreements of mutual assistance. These agreements are currently kept in place by tacit inaction despite their heterogeneity and arbitrariness which slow down the emergence of a real competition capable of contesting the positions of historic operators. (authors)

  19. Preparation, extraction and dosage of labelled cholesterol (D and C{sup 14}); Preparation, extraction et dosage de cholesterol marque (D et C{sup 14})

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bugnard, L; Chevallier, F; Coursaget, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay(France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1953-07-01

    We returned in this note the techniques that we used for the preparation of labelled cholesterol. The chemical exchange of hydrogen enabling to contain deutero-cholesterol until 4 percent deuterium. The biologic synthesis, done on living rats or on their liver maintained in survival, permits, on the other hand, to get active cholesterol from acetate of containing sodium of the carbon 14. We indicated the techniques of extraction and dosage of the marked cholesterol. The radioactivity is measured with a Geiger-Muller counter. (M.B.) [French] Nous avons rapporte dans cette note les techniques que nous avons utilisees pour la preparation de cholesterol marque. L'echange chimique d'hydrogene conduit a du deuterio-cholesterol pouvant contenir jusqu'a 4 pour cent de deuterium. La synthese biologique, effectuee sur des rats vivants ou sur leur foie maintenu en survie, permet, d'autre part, d'obtenir du cholesterol radio-actif a partir d'acetate de sodium contenant du carbone 14. Nous avons indique les techniques d'extraction et de dosage du cholesterol marque. Sa radioactivite est mesuree au compteur de Geiger-Muller. (M.B.)

  20. Can generalized distribution factors lead to ''objective'' transmission toll allocations? Some lessons from the recent Chilean experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galetovic, Alexander; Palma-Behnke, Rodrigo

    2008-01-01

    How to charge for transmission lines in a liberalized electricity market is still a conceptually unresolved issue and the literature offers many methods to determine who ''uses'' a given line and how to allocate tolls among users. But there seems to be some agreement that once a given method is chosen, calculating use and toll allocations is a mere technical matter. We suggest, by contrast that this belief is not warranted. We apply one power flow identification method - generalized load distribution factors - to allocate transmission tolls among the users of the Chilean transmission system and show that almost any allocation of tolls can be achieved by suitably choosing parameter values. Essentially, the method affords many degrees of freedom to the person responsible for setting the parameters needed to apply it. We argue that this suggests that setting parameter values is a central feature of transmission regulation. Moreover, our results suggest that an allocation method cannot answer the key unresolved question in the literature: what is the structure of tolls that gives economically adequate expansion incentives. (author)

  1. Detecting non-binomial sex allocation when developmental mortality operates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Richard D; Kapranas, Apostolos; Hardy, Ian C W

    2016-11-07

    Optimal sex allocation theory is one of the most intricately developed areas of evolutionary ecology. Under a range of conditions, particularly under population sub-division, selection favours sex being allocated to offspring non-randomly, generating non-binomial variances of offspring group sex ratios. Detecting non-binomial sex allocation is complicated by stochastic developmental mortality, as offspring sex can often only be identified on maturity with the sex of non-maturing offspring remaining unknown. We show that current approaches for detecting non-binomiality have limited ability to detect non-binomial sex allocation when developmental mortality has occurred. We present a new procedure using an explicit model of sex allocation and mortality and develop a Bayesian model selection approach (available as an R package). We use the double and multiplicative binomial distributions to model over- and under-dispersed sex allocation and show how to calculate Bayes factors for comparing these alternative models to the null hypothesis of binomial sex allocation. The ability to detect non-binomial sex allocation is greatly increased, particularly in cases where mortality is common. The use of Bayesian methods allows for the quantification of the evidence in favour of each hypothesis, and our modelling approach provides an improved descriptive capability over existing approaches. We use a simulation study to demonstrate substantial improvements in power for detecting non-binomial sex allocation in situations where current methods fail, and we illustrate the approach in real scenarios using empirically obtained datasets on the sexual composition of groups of gregarious parasitoid wasps. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Dosage-dependent copy number gains in E2f1 and E2f3 drive hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Lindsey N; Bae, Sooin; Tsai, Shih-Yin; Tang, Xing; Srivastava, Arunima; Koivisto, Christopher; Martin, Chelsea K; Ridolfi, Elisa; Miller, Grace C; Zorko, Sarah M; Plevris, Emilia; Hadjiyannis, Yannis; Perez, Miguel; Nolan, Eric; Kladney, Raleigh; Westendorp, Bart; de Bruin, Alain; Fernandez, Soledad; Rosol, Thomas J; Pohar, Kamal S; Pipas, James M; Leone, Gustavo

    2017-03-01

    Disruption of the retinoblastoma (RB) tumor suppressor pathway, either through genetic mutation of upstream regulatory components or mutation of RB1 itself, is believed to be a required event in cancer. However, genetic alterations in the RB-regulated E2F family of transcription factors are infrequent, casting doubt on a direct role for E2Fs in driving cancer. In this work, a mutation analysis of human cancer revealed subtle but impactful copy number gains in E2F1 and E2F3 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Using a series of loss- and gain-of-function alleles to dial E2F transcriptional output, we have shown that copy number gains in E2f1 or E2f3b resulted in dosage-dependent spontaneous HCC in mice without the involvement of additional organs. Conversely, germ-line loss of E2f1 or E2f3b, but not E2f3a, protected mice against HCC. Combinatorial mapping of chromatin occupancy and transcriptome profiling identified an E2F1- and E2F3B-driven transcriptional program that was associated with development and progression of HCC. These findings demonstrate a direct and cell-autonomous role for E2F activators in human cancer.

  3. Influence of prenatal EGCG treatment and Dyrk1a dosage reduction on craniofacial features associated with Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElyea, Samantha D; Starbuck, John M; Tumbleson-Brink, Danika M; Harrington, Emily; Blazek, Joshua D; Ghoneima, Ahmed; Kula, Katherine; Roper, Randall J

    2016-11-15

    Trisomy 21 (Ts21) affects craniofacial precursors in individuals with Down syndrome (DS). The resultant craniofacial features in all individuals with Ts21 may significantly affect breathing, eating and speaking. Using mouse models of DS, we have traced the origin of DS-associated craniofacial abnormalities to deficiencies in neural crest cell (NCC) craniofacial precursors early in development. Hypothetically, three copies of Dyrk1a (dual-specificity tyrosine-(Y)-phosphorylation regulated kinase 1A), a trisomic gene found in most humans with DS and mouse models of DS, may significantly affect craniofacial structure. We hypothesized that we could improve DS-related craniofacial abnormalities in mouse models using a Dyrk1a inhibitor or by normalizing Dyrk1a gene dosage. In vitro and in vivo treatment with Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a Dyrk1a inhibitor, modulated trisomic NCC deficiencies at embryonic time points. Furthermore, prenatal EGCG treatment normalized some craniofacial phenotypes, including cranial vault in adult Ts65Dn mice. Normalization of Dyrk1a copy number in an otherwise trisomic Ts65Dn mice normalized many dimensions of the cranial vault, but did not correct all craniofacial anatomy. These data underscore the complexity of the gene–phenotype relationship in trisomy and suggest that changes in Dyrk1a expression play an important role in morphogenesis and growth of the cranial vault. These results suggest that a temporally specific prenatal therapy may be an effective way to ameliorate some craniofacial anatomical changes associated with DS.

  4. The prospective study of the effect of the low-dosage radiation on the health of the staff members

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Shicheng; Jing Luwei; Tian Guang; Liu Linxiu; Wu Wentao

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To study the effect of the long term low-dosage radiation on the health of the staff members in order to provide a scientific basis for the rational protective measures to be taken. Methods: Dynamic observations were made for 15 years of the conditions of the staff members exposed to radiation. The inherent changes and the affecting factors were analyzed. Group of people free from radiation were chosen to the control group. Results: Sighs of nervous breakdown, damages of the eye crystal, hand skin and nails are much more frequently seen among medical radiation workers than these in the control group. There are differences between radiation workers and the control in the positive rates of the objective indices such as leukocytes, erythrocytes, blood platelets, immune functions, the minute nuclei and the chromosome fission. Conclusion: Persistent low-dose radiation can cause damages to the health of radiation workers in many respects, Measures of radiation protection and persistant health monitoring should be taken. Thisis of great importance in implementing the state's relative laws and regulations to protect the health of the radiation workers. (authors)

  5. Efficient Power Allocation for Video over Superposition Coding

    KAUST Repository

    Lau, Chun Pong

    2013-03-01

    In this paper we consider a wireless multimedia system by mapping scalable video coded (SVC) bit stream upon superposition coded (SPC) signals, referred to as (SVC-SPC) architecture. Empirical experiments using a software-defined radio(SDR) emulator are conducted to gain a better understanding of its efficiency, specifically, the impact of the received signal due to different power allocation ratios. Our experimental results show that to maintain high video quality, the power allocated to the base layer should be approximately four times higher than the power allocated to the enhancement layer.

  6. Study on the methodology for allocating costs of grid losses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aalberts, A.; Dekker, G.; Jaarsma, S.; Tieben, B.; Vlug, N.

    2011-01-01

    The research question in this report: 'Where are grid losses caused and in which (objective) manner can the costs of these grid losses be allocated to the buyers. The key questions answered in the research are: (1) In which locations of the electricity grid are losses caused and what is the volume of these losses?; (2) How are the costs of grid losses allocated to the various groups of end users?; and (3) What are alternative way(s) to allocate the costs of grid losses to the buyers?. [nl

  7. A global resource allocation strategy governs growth transition kinetics of Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, David W; Schink, Severin J; Patsalo, Vadim; Williamson, James R; Gerland, Ulrich; Hwa, Terence

    2017-11-02

    A grand challenge of systems biology is to predict the kinetic responses of living systems to perturbations starting from the underlying molecular interactions. Changes in the nutrient environment have long been used to study regulation and adaptation phenomena in microorganisms and they remain a topic of active investigation. Although much is known about the molecular interactions that govern the regulation of key metabolic processes in response to applied perturbations, they are insufficiently quantified for predictive bottom-up modelling. Here we develop a top-down approach, expanding the recently established coarse-grained proteome allocation models from steady-state growth into the kinetic regime. Using only qualitative knowledge of the underlying regulatory processes and imposing the condition of flux balance, we derive a quantitative model of bacterial growth transitions that is independent of inaccessible kinetic parameters. The resulting flux-controlled regulation model accurately predicts the time course of gene expression and biomass accumulation in response to carbon upshifts and downshifts (for example, diauxic shifts) without adjustable parameters. As predicted by the model and validated by quantitative proteomics, cells exhibit suboptimal recovery kinetics in response to nutrient shifts owing to a rigid strategy of protein synthesis allocation, which is not directed towards alleviating specific metabolic bottlenecks. Our approach does not rely on kinetic parameters, and therefore points to a theoretical framework for describing a broad range of such kinetic processes without detailed knowledge of the underlying biochemical reactions.

  8. Genomic imprinting, growth control and the allocation of nutritional resources: consequences for postnatal life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charalambous, Marika; da Rocha, Simão Teixeira; Ferguson-Smith, Anne C

    2007-02-01

    Genes subject to genomic imprinting are predominantly expressed from one of the two parental chromosomes, are often clustered in the genome, and their activity and repression are epigenetically regulated. The role of imprinted genes in growth control has been apparent since the discovery of imprinting in the early 1980s. Drawing from studies in the mouse, we propose three distinct classes of imprinted genes - those expressed, imprinted and acting predominantly within the placenta, those with no associated foetal growth effects that act postnatally to regulate metabolic processes, and those expressed in the embryo and placenta that programme the development of organs participating in metabolic processes. Members of this latter class may interact in functional networks regulating the interaction between the mother and the foetus, affecting generalized foetal well-being, growth and organ development; they may also coordinately regulate the development of particular organ systems. The mono-allelic behaviour and sensitivity to changes in regional epigenetic states renders imprinted genes adaptable and vulnerable; in all cases, their perturbed dosage can compromise prenatal and/or postnatal control of nutritional resources. This finding has implications for understanding the relationships between prenatal events and diseases later in life.

  9. Identification and analcime quantification; Identification et dosage de l'analcime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chantret, F; Guillemaut, A; Pouget, R

    1962-07-01

    The authors are comparing thermal analysis and X-ray diffraction methods for the estimation of analcime in rocks. From application to the analcimolithes of Agades - Republic of Niger - it appears that X-ray diffractometry is better convenient, both for identification and estimation; nevertheless, thermal analysis combined with chemical analysis allows to detect variations in the composition of analcime inside a given series. [French] Les auteurs comparent les techniques d'analyse thermique et de diffraction X pour le dosage de l'analcime dans les roches. L'application aux analcimolites d'Agades - Republique du Niger - montre que la diffractometrie X est mieux adaptee a la fois dans l'identification et le dosage; neanmoins, l'analyse thermique, associee a l'analyse chimique, permet de suivre les fluctuations de composition de l'analcime a l'interieur d'une serie determinee. (auteurs)

  10. Cumulative dosages of antipsychotic drugs are associated with increased mortality rate in patients with Alzheimer's dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, R E; Lolk, A; Valentin, J B

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We wished to investigate the effects of cumulative dosages of antipsychotic drug in Alzheimer's dementia, when controlling for known risk factors, including current antipsychotic exposure, on all-cause mortality. METHOD: We utilized a nationwide, population-based, retrospective cohort...... study design with mortality as outcome in individual patients diagnosed with Alzheimer's dementia. RESULTS: We included a total of 45 894 patients and followed them for 3 803 996 person-years in total, presenting 27 894 deaths in the study population. Cumulative antipsychotic exposure increased...... or equal to 730 DDDs: HR 1.06, 95% CI (0.95-1.18), P = 0.322, when controlling for proxy markers of severity, somatic and mental comorbid disorders. CONCLUSION: In this nationwide cohort study of 45 894 patients diagnosed with Alzheimer's dementia, we found that cumulative dosages of antipsychotic drugs...

  11. Prediction of required ozone dosage for pilot recirculating aquaculture systems based on laboratory studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spiliotopoulou, Aikaterini; Rojas-Tirado, Paula Andrea; Kaarsholm, Kamilla Marie Speht

    2017-01-01

    In recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS), the water quality changes continuously. Organic and inorganic compounds accumulates creating toxic conditions for the farmed organisms. Ozone improves water quality diminishing significantly both bacteria load and dissolved organic matter. However......, in a non-meticulously designed system, residual ozone might reach the culture tanks causing significant harm to cultured species or excess costs. The aim of the study was to predict the suitable ozone dosage in pilot RAS, for water treatment purposes, based on laboratory studies. The ozone effect on water...... quality of freshwater RAS and system’s ozone demand was investigated. Bench-scale ozonation experiments revealed the ozone demand of the system to be 180 mg O3/h. Three different ozone dosages were applied to four replicated systems with fixed feed loading (1.56 kg feed/m3 make up water). Results...

  12. Artificial Neural Networks in Evaluation and Optimization of Modified Release Solid Dosage Forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zorica Djurić

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Implementation of the Quality by Design (QbD approach in pharmaceutical development has compelled researchers in the pharmaceutical industry to employ Design of Experiments (DoE as a statistical tool, in product development. Among all DoE techniques, response surface methodology (RSM is the one most frequently used. Progress of computer science has had an impact on pharmaceutical development as well. Simultaneous with the implementation of statistical methods, machine learning tools took an important place in drug formulation. Twenty years ago, the first papers describing application of artificial neural networks in optimization of modified release products appeared. Since then, a lot of work has been done towards implementation of new techniques, especially Artificial Neural Networks (ANN in modeling of production, drug release and drug stability of modified release solid dosage forms. The aim of this paper is to review artificial neural networks in evaluation and optimization of modified release solid dosage forms.

  13. Assessment of tobramycin RIA for drug monitoring and dosage regimen. Comparison with other assay technics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, S.; Shinozaki, K.; Tsujino, D.; Ohhara, H.; Tanaka, Y.; Arai, S.; Someya, K.; Sasaki, Y.

    1983-01-01

    Because of wide range of inter-individual difference of pharmacokinetic parameter, importance of monitoring blood concentration of aminoglycoside antibiotics in each patient has been recognized. With the purpose to use for monitoring of serum tobramycin (TOB) levels and for adequate dosage regimen RIA of TOB was evaluated in comparison with other assay technics. Gamma Coat TOB RIA kits (Clinical Assay-Travenol Japan) were used for RIA of TOB. The TOB concentrations in the same samples were also measured by two kinds of enzyme immunoassay (EIA) (EMIT EIA and SLFIA EIA), High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) and bioassay (BA). RIA of TOB is a useful assay method with high sensitivity and reasonably good precision to be used for drug monitoring and adequate dosage regimen. Modification of the method for rapid assay of a small number of samples will increase the clinical usefulness in individualized drug monitoring

  14. Plasma levels and symptom complaints in patients maintained on daily dosage of methadone hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horns, W H; Rado, M; Goldstein, A

    1975-06-01

    Plasma methadone levels, symptom complaints, and urine tests for illicit opiate use were followed weekly in 17 patients on a methadone maintenance program. There were very large differences between patients in the plasma level established at a given dosage, implying large differences in the rate of methadone metabolism. Despite virtually constant daily dosage, the plasma methadone levels fluctuated greatly from week to week and from day to day in individual patients. With rate exceptions there was no relationship between plasma methadone level and symptom complaints or between weekly chamges in plasma methadone level and changes in symptom complaints. Except possible to identify the ocassional patient with unusually low plasam methadone levels, the determination of methadone levels is not likely to be or practical value in methadone programs.

  15. Apparatus comprising trace element dosage and method for treating raw water in biofilter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    the inlet (2) to the outlet (3) or in the reverse direction, - the trace element dosage device (13) is positioned upstream of the porous filter material and microbial biomass and is configured to dose trace element(s) to the water flowing through the filter. A method for treating raw water by microbial......Apparatus for treating raw water in a biofilter The present invention relates to an apparatus in which raw water is treated through microbial activity where microbial activity is controlled by nutrients and other parameters. Some of the nutrients controlling the microbial activity are trace...... elements such as certain metals (Cu, Co, Cr, Mo, Ni, W, Zn or a mixture thereof). The apparatus comprising - a volume provided with an inlet (2) for raw water and an outlet (3) for water having been subjected to microbial activity, a filter and a trace element dosage device (13) are placed in this volume...

  16. A Validated RP-HPLC Method for the Determination of Atazanavir in Pharmaceutical Dosage Form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Srinivasu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A validated RP HPLC method for the estimation of atazanavir in capsule dosage form on YMC ODS 150 × 4.6 mm, 5 μ column using mobile phase composition of ammonium dihydrogen phosphate buffer (pH 2.5 with acetonitrile (55:45 v/v. Flow rate was maintained at 1.5 mL/min with 288 nm UV detection. The retention time obtained for atazanavir was at 4.7 min. The detector response was linear in the concentration range of 30 - 600 μg/mL. This method has been validated and shown to be specific, sensitive, precise, linear, accurate, rugged, robust and fast. Hence, this method can be applied for routine quality control of atazanavir in capsule dosage forms as well as in bulk drug.

  17. Vitamin D supplementation in inflammatory bowel disease: the role of dosage and patient compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojecky, V; Adamikova, A; Klimek, P

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin D substitution is recommended in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Specific guidelines are lacking. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of vitamin D supplementation with respect to dosage and patient compliance. A prospective cohort study of 167 Crohn disease/ulcerative colitis outpatients. Patients were screened for serum vitamin D (25OHD2+3) at the end of summer and in late winter. Demographic data, history of vitamin D supplementation were recorded and matched with prescription records. A total of 57 subjects used vitamin D supplementation (mean dose 1104 IU/day). 25OHD2+3 levels were lower (p compliance with vitamin D supplementation was low, however this fact did not significantly contribute to the degree of vitamin D deficiency in this dosage (Tab. 3, Fig. 1, Ref. 21).

  18. Fluorometric determination of uranium in urine; Dosage fluorimetrique de l'uranium urinaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronteix, C; Hugot, G [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    For the medical supervision of personnel the most sensitive analytical methods must be used. The fluorimetric method, enabling determinations to be made without previous concentration, is undoubtedly the quickest and most effective. This report is intended to help users of the method to avoid loss of time in the practical application. It therefore describes in great detail the material used, and also gives precise technical information acquired by experience. (author) [French] Pour la surveillance medicale du personnel, il est necessaire d'utiliser les methodes de dosages les plus sensibles. La methode fluorimetrique qui permet d'effectuer le dosage sans concentration prealable est, sans conteste, la plus rapide et la plus efficace. Le present rapport a pour but de permettre aux utilisateurs de cette methode, d'eviter des pertes de temps dans l'application pratique. Il contient donc, tres detaille, le materiel utilise ainsi que des precisions techniques acquises par l'experience. (auteur)

  19. Standardization of radioimmunoassay for dosage of angiotensin II (ang-II) and its methodological evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mantovani, Milene; Mecawi, Andre S.; Elias, Lucila L.K.; Antunes-Rodrigues, Jose

    2011-01-01

    This paper standardizes the radioimmunoassay (RIA) for dosage of ANG-II of rats, after experimental conditions of saline hypertonic (2%), treating with losartan (antagonist of ANG-II), hydric privation, and acute hemorrhage (25%). After that, the plasmatic ANG-II was extracted for dosage of RIA, whose sensitiveness was of 1.95 pg/m L, with detection of 1.95 to 1000 pg/m L. The treatment with saline reduced the concentration of ANG-II, while the administration pf losartan, the hydric administration and the hemorrhage increase the values, related to the control group. Those results indicate variations in the plasmatic concentration of ANG-II according to the experimental protocols, validating the method for evaluation of activity renin-angiotensin

  20. Semi-Solid and Solid Dosage Forms for the Delivery of Phage Therapy to Epithelia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrovski, Steve; Chan, Hiu Tat; Angove, Michael J.; Tucci, Joseph

    2018-01-01

    The delivery of phages to epithelial surfaces for therapeutic outcomes is a realistic proposal, and indeed one which is being currently tested in clinical trials. This paper reviews some of the known research on formulation of phages into semi-solid dosage forms such as creams, ointments and pastes, as well as solid dosage forms such as troches (or lozenges and pastilles) and suppositories/pessaries, for delivery to the epithelia. The efficacy and stability of these phage formulations is discussed, with a focus on selection of optimal semi-solid bases for phage delivery. Issues such as the need for standardisation of techniques for formulation as well as for assessment of efficacy are highlighted. These are important when trying to compare results from a range of experiments and across different delivery bases. PMID:29495355