WorldWideScience

Sample records for dorsal organizer territory

  1. L.O.T.O. - Landscape Opportunities For Territorial Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Rossi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The European Union promoted the transnational cooperation project L.O.T.O. (Landscape Opportunities for Territorial Organization by the program Interreg IIIB CADSES. The project gave up the illustration of some outputs in the seminar Landscape opportunities. Guidelines for the landscape management of the territorial transformations (Milan, 2005, October 6th-7th. This paper is a summary of introduction at the project. The attaches are the original reports of the end seminar. 

  2. Organization of research of technogenic territories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Shishikin

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available To conduct complex research, the system of classification of biological objects was developed and adapted for different nature conditions and forms of anthropogenic impacts. The experience of organization of biological investigations at coal mine dumps and gold-mining polygons, pollutant emissions, operating and developing hydropower station reservoirs was used in the work. The general structure of development of the classification schemes of anthropogenic lands is presented with three generalized specific levels distinguished. The form and intensity of the anthropogenic impacts were used for zoning. Spatial extrapolation and forecast of the anthropogenic impacts are made with respect to the geomorphological state and succession’ dynamics of the anthropogenic habitats. Monitoring and resource estimation are carried out by the succession stages. Quantitative estimation of the structure of the anthropogenic lands is made with a use of moderate- and high- resolution satellite data in GIS. Types of mountain recultivations of coal mine dumps determine three post-anthropogenic succession series/classes: erosion, forest, and steppe. They are divided by groups of types depending on succession stage – from juvenile to closed corresponded to the zonal standards. The type shows stage that is determined by the dominant vegetation. For Norilsk anthropogenic region where there is constant pollutants impact, five classes/zones, four groups of types by geomorphological characteristics and two additional indicators which estimate the presence of dead ground vegetation as well as six types by dominant vegetation were defined. Classification scheme of the impact of hydropower station reservoirs is characterized by three levels of generalization for water and coast surfaces. The basin is divided by classes depending on the width and direction of the dominant winds (open, closed, groups of types depending on depth (deep-, shallow-water, types depending on

  3. Modality-Based Organization of Ascending Somatosensory Axons in the Direct Dorsal Column Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Jingwen; Ding, Long; Li, Jian J.; Kim, Hyukmin; Liu, Jiakun; Li, Haipeng; Moberly, Andrew; Badea, Tudor C.; Duncan, Ian D.; Son, Young-Jin; Scherer, Steven S.

    2013-01-01

    The long-standing doctrine regarding the functional organization of the direct dorsal column (DDC) pathway is the “somatotopic map” model, which suggests that somatosensory afferents are primarily organized by receptive field instead of modality. Using modality-specific genetic tracing, here we show that ascending mechanosensory and proprioceptive axons, two main types of the DDC afferents, are largely segregated into a medial–lateral pattern in the mouse dorsal column and medulla. In addition, we found that this modality-based organization is likely to be conserved in other mammalian species, including human. Furthermore, we identified key morphological differences between these two types of afferents, which explains how modality segregation is formed and why a rough “somatotopic map” was previously detected. Collectively, our results establish a new functional organization model for the mammalian direct dorsal column pathway and provide insight into how somatotopic and modality-based organization coexist in the central somatosensory pathway. PMID:24198362

  4. Apc1 is required for maintenance of local brain organizers and dorsal midbrain survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paridaen, Judith T M L; Danesin, Catherine; Elas, Abu Tufayal; van de Water, Sandra; Houart, Corinne; Zivkovic, Danica

    2009-07-15

    The tumor suppressor Apc1 is an intracellular antagonist of the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway, which is vital for induction and patterning of the early vertebrate brain. However, its role in later brain development is less clear. Here, we examined the mechanisms underlying effects of an Apc1 zygotic-effect mutation on late brain development in zebrafish. Apc1 is required for maintenance of established brain subdivisions and control of local organizers such as the isthmic organizer (IsO). Caudal expansion of Fgf8 from IsO into the cerebellum is accompanied by hyperproliferation and abnormal cerebellar morphogenesis. Loss of apc1 results in reduced proliferation and apoptosis in the dorsal midbrain. Mosaic analysis shows that Apc is required cell-autonomously for maintenance of dorsal midbrain cell fate. The tectal phenotype occurs independently of Fgf8-mediated IsO function and is predominantly caused by stabilization of beta-catenin and subsequent hyperactivation of Wnt/beta-catenin signalling, which is mainly mediated through LEF1 activity. Chemical activation of the Wnt/beta-catenin in wild-type embryos during late brain maintenance stages phenocopies the IsO and tectal phenotypes of the apc mutants. These data demonstrate that Apc1-mediated restriction of Wnt/beta-catenin signalling is required for maintenance of local organizers and tectal integrity.

  5. Eco-organic tourism as an element of the sustainable development of territories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, D. V.; Ziganshin, I. I.

    2018-01-01

    Organic agricultural production is an ecologically oriented alternative to traditional agriculture and is aimed at ensuring food and environmental safety of the population and territories. The development of ecological tourism on the basis of organic production farms is considered as a promising direction in the development of regional programs for the sustainable development of territories. Studies have shown that, farms engaged in the production of organic products in the Republic of Tatarstan have a significant potential for the development of eco-organic tourism using elements of the nature protection structure.

  6. Three-Dimensional Organization of Chromosome Territories and the Human Interphase Cell Nucleus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.A. Knoch (Tobias); C. Münkel (Christian); J. Langowski (Jörg)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractTo study the three-dimensional organization of chromosome territories and the human interphase cell nucleus we developed models which could be compared to experiments. Despite the successful linear sequencing of the human genome its 3D-organization is widely unknown. Using Monte

  7. Three-Dimensional Organization of Chromosome Territories and the Human Cell Nucleus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.A. Knoch (Tobias)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractTo study the three-dimensional organization of chromosome territories and the human interphase cell nucleus we developed models, which could be compared to experiments. Despite the successful linear sequencing of the human genome its 3D-organization is widely unknown. Using Monte

  8. Histochemistry and functional organization of the dorsal skin of Ancistrus dolichopterus (Siluriformes: Loricariidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarun K. Garg

    Full Text Available The structural organization and histo-cytochemical features of dorsal skin of Ancistrus dolichopterus (acari bodo are the main focus of this work. The epidermis, dermis and subcutis are the principal layers of the skin. The epidermis mainly consists of epithelial and mucous cells. Interspersed between them are lymphocytes, pigment cells, eosinophilic granular cells (EGC, and the taste buds as sensory structures. The high number of EGCs is implicated in general and specific immunological defense from pathogenic bacteria and multicellular parasites. The epithelial cells and mucous cells contain glycoproteins with oxidizable vicinal diols, carboxyl groups and O-sulphate esters and their high secretory activity is correlated with the bottom dwelling habit of this species. A thick stratum laxum contains overlapping osteoderms bearing denticles, and the stratum compactum make the integument thicker to help the fish in negative buoyancy for maneuvering near the bottom and protection. The entire body surface is covered by conical, backwardly directed denticles. These are composed of a dentine cone, surrounding a pulp cavity with the top covered by mineralized cap, and are the true homologues of teeth. These structures provide effective protection from abrasion and enemies. These structural peculiarities and histochemical features indicate additional physiological role of the skin of A. dolichopterus.

  9. A Proposal for Romania’s Administrative Organization Based on Functional Relations in the Territory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu SĂGEATĂ

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Having in view the low absorption of European funds, it is extremely necessary to have a regional administrative system put in place. The present paper, based on a many-sided critical study of functional relations among human settlements, offers a viable alternative to current controversies concerning Romania’s administrative- territorial organization. Proceeding from regional, county and local polarization cores, a four-level type of regional administration has been devised, namely, the region, the county, the small rural district (Rom. plasă and the town/commune, among which clear-cut hierarchical relations of decentralization and concentration of services are to be established. What has emerged is a number of eleven administrative- territorial structures worth being vested with regional administrative status. These structures are based on the historical regions developed over time as homogeneous mental and functional spaces.

  10. Chromosome Territories

    OpenAIRE

    Cremer, Thomas; Cremer, Marion

    2010-01-01

    Chromosome territories (CTs) constitute a major feature of nuclear architecture. In a brief statement, the possible contribution of nuclear architecture studies to the field of epigenomics is considered, followed by a historical account of the CT concept and the final compelling experimental evidence of a territorial organization of chromosomes in all eukaryotes studied to date. Present knowledge of nonrandom CT arrangements, of the internal CT architecture, and of structural interactions wit...

  11. Retrospective radiation-hygienic assessment of cesium-137 intake with feeding in the organisms of the Altai Territory habitants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meshkov, N.A.; Val'tseva, E.A.

    2016-01-01

    Radioactive precipitations as the result of atmospheric nuclear tests on the Semipalatinsk test site turned to local soil contamination by cesium-137 on the territory of the Altai Territory and Gorny Altai. The distribution of long-lived radioisotopes, cesium-137 in particular, in the main food staffs for local population is investigated. The retrospective analysis of cesium-137 specific activity in food products produced on these territories is carried out. It is ascertained that cesium-137 in meat has the general contribution to intake with food into organisms of adult population [ru

  12. The reform of Byzantine military and territorial organization under Justinian II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvetković Miloš

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers a contribution to the research of the initial stages in the evolution of the thematic system. It focuses on the role of Emperor Justinian II in the formation of the new imperial military and territorial organization. Byzantine scholars have determined a long time ago that it is Justinian II who should be credited with the founding of new military districts (themes in Hellas and Sicily. This paper, however, suggests that the formation of the themes in Thrace and Kibyrrhaiotai could also be considered a part of Justinian’s policy. In addition, the paper aims to highlight Justinian’s role in the formation of the frontier military and administrative system (the kleisourai of Strymon and Cappadocia, as well as in the reform of military and territorial organization in the Aegean basin. By creating new army units which were not based on the Late Roman heritage, Justinian essentially abandoned the principles that the Byzantine army had previously functioned on. Finally, the paper highlights the fact that the establishment of new thematic units under Emperor Justinian II was coupled with his extensive colonization measures. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. 177032: Tradicija, inovacija i identitet u vizantijskom svetu

  13. The Metadistrict as the Territorial Strategy: From Set Theory and a Matrix Organization Model Hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Contò

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this proposal is to explore a new concept of 'Metadistrict' to be applied in a region of Southern Italy – Apulia ‐ in order to analyze the impact that the activation of a special network between different sector chains and several integrated projects may have for revitalizing the local economy; an important role is assigned to the network of relationships and so to the social capital. The Metadistrict model stems from the Local Action Groups and the Integrated Projects of Food Chain frameworks. It may represent a crucial driver of the rural economy through the realization of sector circuits connected to the concept of multi‐functionality in agriculture, that is Network of the Territorial Multi‐functionality. It was formalized by making use of a set of theories and of a Matrix Organization Model. The adoption of the Metadistrict perspective as the territorial strategy may play a key role to revitalize the primary sector, through the increase of economic and productive opportunities due to the implementation of a common and shared strategy and organization.

  14. FORMATION AND IMPLEMENTATION OF PUBLIC NEEDS AS A MEASURE OF IMPROVEMENT OF SOCIETY TERRITORIAL ORGANIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larysa Bogush

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to study the relationship of the formation and implementation of the range of social needs with the evolution and activity is focused on the improvement of the territorial organization of society. Methodology of research involves: the substantiation of the origin, factors for the development, approaches to classification, functions of public needs in the development of state and society; the study of the socio-humanitarian space of formation and realization of the needs of individuals, functional and territorial communities, as well as a mechanism of their satisfaction at the national and spatial scales (on the example of Ukraine – a country with a developing economy, wherein the decentralization of powers in the field social welfare and consolidation of local communities are implemented at present. Results. Summarized and proved the patterns and trends of development, evolution, transformation of needs of social groups, functional and territorial communities of the population, as well as the relationship of these processes with the economic and institutional capacities and mechanisms of satisfaction of the spectrum of social needs in consideration of peculiarities, achieved and desired parameters of development of productive forces, human and other components of the social and humanitarian potential, cultural features of the society. The development of the institutional, functional and territorial organization of society, in fact, is a process of formation and implementation in the range of human needs (individual and collective, which is estimated with the factors, conditions and mechanisms of their satisfaction, including through the dynamics of the positions of the spectrum of social groups and subjects concerning the required amount of vital goods consumption. Practical implications. Social and political transformation stimulates the establishment of the multidirectional formation in the Ukrainian economy of

  15. Lateral prefrontal cortex is organized into parallel dorsal and ventral streams along the rostro-caudal axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenfeld, Robert S; Nomura, Emi M; Gratton, Caterina; D'Esposito, Mark

    2013-10-01

    Anatomical connectivity differences between the dorsal and ventral lateral prefrontal cortex (PFC) of the non-human primate strongly suggests that these regions support different functions. However, after years of study, it remains unclear whether these regions are functionally distinct. In contrast, there has been a groundswell of recent studies providing evidence for a rostro-caudal functional organization, along the lateral as well as dorsomedial frontal cortex. Thus, it is not known whether dorsal and ventral regions of lateral PFC form distinct functional networks and how to reconcile any dorso-ventral organization with the medio-lateral and rostro-caudal axes. Here, we used resting-state connectivity data to identify parallel dorsolateral and ventrolateral streams of intrinsic connectivity with the dorsomedial frontal cortex. Moreover, we show that this connectivity follows a rostro-caudal gradient. Our results provide evidence for a novel framework for the intrinsic organization of the frontal cortex that incorporates connections between medio-lateral, dorso-ventral, and rostro-caudal axes.

  16. Transitional processes: Territorial organization of authorities and the future constitution of Serbia comparative analysis of five constitutional models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Despotović Ljubiša M.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the authors give a comparative analysis of territorial organization of authorities in five constitutional models for Serbia. The paper consists of the following chapters: Introduction, Outline of the Constitution of Kingdom of Serbia, Basic Principles of the New Constitution of Serbia - DSS, Outline of Constitution of Republic of Serbia - DS Constitutional Solutions for Serbia - BCLJP, Project of Constitution of Republic of Serbia - Forum iuris, Conclusion. The analysis of territorial organization of authorities has been seen in the context of the processes of transition and archiving the important principles of civil society and civil autonomies.

  17. CONTRIBUTION OF PRODUCER ORGANIZATIONS TO THE SUTAINABITLITY OF THEIR TERRITORIES, GUAYA’B (GUATEMALA Y MAYA VINIC (CHIAPAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remy Vandame

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The present work aims at identifying and assesment the contribution of honey and coffee producers to the sustainability of their territories, by using a qualitative approach. For this purpose, two economically oriented organizations, which emerged in the context of strong social conflicts, are studied: “Unión de Productores Maya Vinic, Soc. Coop.” in Los Altos de Chiapas, México and “Guaya’b A.C.” in Huehuetenango, Guatemala. We identify eight categories of analysis, shaped thought the approach to these organizations, our previous experience with other similar organizational processes and the reading of documents. These categories are: self-organization; collective action; income and other benefits; conservation of natural resources; development of abilities and capacities; identity; integration to communal life and permanence. Taken together, these categories aim to help to provide a qualitative tool to increase our knowledge of two of the honey and coffee beans producers’ structure with the purpose of finding whether they contribute to the sustainability of their land. We defined measurement scales for each of these categories, based on the organization members’ perception. Finally, we carried out a graphical visualization of the interaction between these categories, by constructing a radial graph. We stress the importance that deepening the knowledge of the context and history of the territories, where these organizations are immersed, has for both, the understanding of their self-organization and the contributions they may offer to their own members and their territori. In the same way, we conclude that there is a close relation among producers’ organizations, its self-organization and their ties to their territories (the identity to the territory and to those elements that allow its sustainability.

  18. Organization of Functional Long-Range Circuits Controlling the Activity of Serotonergic Neurons in the Dorsal Raphe Nucleus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zhou

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Serotonergic neurons play key roles in various biological processes. However, circuit mechanisms underlying tight control of serotonergic neurons remain largely unknown. Here, we systematically investigated the organization of long-range synaptic inputs to serotonergic neurons and GABAergic neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN of mice with a combination of viral tracing, slice electrophysiological, and optogenetic techniques. We found that DRN serotonergic neurons and GABAergic neurons receive largely comparable synaptic inputs from six major upstream brain areas. Upon further analysis of the fine functional circuit structures, we found both bilateral and ipsilateral patterns of topographic connectivity in the DRN for the axons from different inputs. Moreover, the upstream brain areas were found to bidirectionally control the activity of DRN serotonergic neurons by recruiting feedforward inhibition or via a push-pull mechanism. Our study provides a framework for further deciphering the functional roles of long-range circuits controlling the activity of serotonergic neurons in the DRN.

  19. Territorial Dioceses and Ethnic Episcopies in the Structure of the Church Organization of the First Bulgarian Kingdom (Canonical Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archpriest Alexander Zadornov

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The coexistence of ethnic and territorial principles in the structure of ecclesiastical organizations is a well known fact in church history. Both principles are equally legitimate from the point of view of canonical law. The “ethnic principle” was based on legal norms of the so-called 34th Apostolic Rule, and contrary to the opinion of scholars of the 19th century, it was still in use after the era of the Ecumenical Councils. This fact must be considered by students of the history of Church organizations in the First Bulgarian Kingdom, too. The observations regarding the structure of church organizations in Simeonic Bulgaria make it possible to assume the coexistence of ethnic and territorial principles of church organizations in his kingdom. As is known, Slavonic church schools were established in the southwestern part of the First Bulgarian Kingdom after 886. They were aimed at training the Slavonic clergy for the Slavonic church organization. In 893, the Bulgarian King Simeon was elevated to the throne, and a Slavonic eparchy headed by St. Clement of Ohrid was established in the southwestern territories of the First Bulgarian Kingdom. As a result, heterogeneous church organizations were established in the region, and church structures of ethnic and territorial types appeared. They differ from each other by the language of their church services. Old Church Slavonic must have been used as a liturgical language in the ethnic Slavonic eparchy. Since direct historical evidence for such heterogeneous church structure in the First Bulgarian Kingdom is absent, new interpretations of sources made on the basis of canonical law can be of importance for Slavonic studies.

  20. Organization of Functional Long-Range Circuits Controlling the Activity of Serotonergic Neurons in the Dorsal Raphe Nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Li; Liu, Ming-Zhe; Li, Qing; Deng, Juan; Mu, Di; Sun, Yan-Gang

    2017-03-21

    Serotonergic neurons play key roles in various biological processes. However, circuit mechanisms underlying tight control of serotonergic neurons remain largely unknown. Here, we systematically investigated the organization of long-range synaptic inputs to serotonergic neurons and GABAergic neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) of mice with a combination of viral tracing, slice electrophysiological, and optogenetic techniques. We found that DRN serotonergic neurons and GABAergic neurons receive largely comparable synaptic inputs from six major upstream brain areas. Upon further analysis of the fine functional circuit structures, we found both bilateral and ipsilateral patterns of topographic connectivity in the DRN for the axons from different inputs. Moreover, the upstream brain areas were found to bidirectionally control the activity of DRN serotonergic neurons by recruiting feedforward inhibition or via a push-pull mechanism. Our study provides a framework for further deciphering the functional roles of long-range circuits controlling the activity of serotonergic neurons in the DRN. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. FEATURES OF THE TERRITORIAL ORGANIZATION OF PRODUCTION IN THE AGRICULTURE OF THE REPUBLIC OF KAZAKHSTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aigul Kazambayeva

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the current state and problems of the development of agriculture, the share of agriculture in gross domestic product of the country and the ratio of industries in gross agricultural output are analyzed. The advantages of rational allocation and specialization of agricultural production, as well as the criteria for division into industries are considered. The analysis of territorial specialization of agriculture of the Republic of Kazakhstan is carried out, recommendations for its optimization are given

  2. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF EFFICIENCY FUNCTIONING OF THE CONTROLLER-MELIORATIVE ORGANIZATION OF THE TERRITORY IN UKRAINE AND THE USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Butenko E.

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to create an optimal land use model and reduce the impact of erosion on agricultural land, a number of land conservation measures need to be introduced. The most effective set of measures that minimizes the manifestation of water erosion in erosion-hazardous areas is the contouring-reclamation organization of the territory. This complex of activities combines a protective reclamation structure that interacts with the terrain and soil protection technology of growing crops. In general, at the end of the 1980s, projects of contouring-reclamation organization of the territory were developed for sites that had a negative erosion effect throughout the territory of Ukraine. However, with the beginning of the 1990s, the practical implementation of measures to restructure the territory was suspended due to political transformations and lack of funds. In practice, one of the most striking examples of the implementation of design decisions is the territory of Lisnosankivsky village council of the Kupyansk district, whose Kharkiv territory is characterized by significant manifestations of erosion. For three decades, the staff of the soil protection laboratory conducted experiments on these sites. The possibility of achieving sustainable ecological indicators of soil erosion at field crop rotation -1.8 t / ha and soil protection crop rotation -1.5 t / ha was established. Similar objects that were implemented and implemented in the Kupyansk district of the Kharkiv region, were partially implemented on other erosion-hazardous sites in Polissya, Forest-steppe and Steppe regions of Ukraine. Today, most of these activities have exhausted their laid-out exploitation resources, some of the protected areas were destroyed as a result of the lack of state control, constant change of owners and the lack of motivation of actual land users. The negative manifestation of water erosion on arable land is characteristic not only for the territory of Ukraine. This

  3. FEATURES OF THE ORGANIZATION OF SYSTEM OF ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT AND MANAGING IN RESOR-RECREATIONAL TERRITORIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Oborin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Resort and recreational activity is the difficult natural and social and economic process directed on improvement of quality of life and health of the population. Territorial public systems are included by natural medical and improving, social, production, recreational, labor, financial, administrative resources, infrastructure which are directed on formation and rendering resort and recreational services. For successful and effective development of resort and recreational activity it is necessary to create structure of system of rational resort and recreational environmental management. In preservation and improvement of resort medical resources the infrastructure complex including medical, improving, economic, serving and recreational objects has a big role. The system of resort and recreational environmental management and resort infrastructure allow to create necessary financial receipts for replenishment of local, regional and national budgets. 

  4. Cloudy Territories?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drees, W.B.

    2016-01-01

    The Cloud of Unknowing is a late medieval English mystical text; it has inspired Catherine Keller's title Cloud of the Impossible. A cloud seems fairly diffuse; territory sounds more solid: terra-Earth. However, The Territories of Science and Religion is unsettling for those who assume to be on firm

  5. Three-Dimensional Organization of Chromosome Territories in the Human Interphase Nucleus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.A. Knoch (Tobias); J. Langowski (Jörg)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractDespite the successful linear sequencing of the human genome its three-dimensional structure is widely unknown. The regulation of genes has been shown to be connected closely to the three-dimensional organization of the genome in the cell nucleus. The nucleus of the cell has for a long

  6. Political learning in territories of exclusion, conflict and popular organization (research notes)

    OpenAIRE

    Paulo J. Krischke

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses some interfaces between the approaches to political learning, and their reference to situations of social exclusion, conflict and popular organization. The first part of the paper discusses the approach to the study of political learning among the elites; the second part examines approaches to research of political culture among the masses; and the third part outlines an alternative approach to political learning derived from Jürgen Habermass theory of comm...

  7. International atomic energy agency organization (IAEA) in case of extra territorial accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mrabit, K.; Nogueira de Oliveira, C.

    2006-01-01

    This article sums up the actual activities of IAEA in terms of preparation and responses to nuclear or radiological emergencies. The Agency has established in 1986 a surveillance unit 24 h/24 h and an operational unit: the center of response to emergencies (C.R.U). The C.R.U. is the principal operational unit in charge of acting in case of nuclear emergency notification and to answer to the demand of information or help during an incident or emergency. It receives the reports of an authority of any state, on an incident and checks any report that is not confirmed. It establishes the first functional links with the state at the origin o the report and any state potentially concerned. It establishes links with W.H.O (world health organization), W.M.O.(world meteorological organization), (B.C.A.H.) the office of coordination of humanitarian affairs of united nations, the FAO ( food and agriculture organization).The principal lessons got from interventions made during real events have been the following ones: first, official information communicated by the Center for the IAEA emergency interventions have contributed to avoid the propagations of hearsay and panic, secondly a fast international cooperation and the presence of the team of IAEA center on the premises during an intervention in case of event with multi sectorial consequences are extremely important. (N.C.)

  8. Ontogeny of osmoregulation in embryos of intertidal crabs (Hemigrapsus sexdentatus and H. crenulatus, Grapsidae, Brachyura): putative involvement of the embryonic dorsal organ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seneviratna, Deepani; Taylor, H H

    2006-04-01

    This study examined whether the existence of hyperosmotic internal fluids in embryos of euryhaline crabs (Hemigrapsus sexdentatus and H. crenulatus) in dilute seawater reflects osmotic isolation due to impermeability of the egg envelope, as proposed for other decapods, or active osmoregulation. When ovigerous crabs with eggs at gastrula stage were transferred from 100% seawater (osmolality 1000 mmol kg(-1)) to 50% seawater, embryogenesis and hatching of zoea were completed normally, but were delayed. Hatching failed if the transfer to 50% seawater occurred before gastrulation, and embryogenesis was abnormal in 25% seawater. In 100% seawater, embryos at all stages were internally hyperosmotic by 150-250 mmol kg(-1). On transfer to 50% seawater, osmolality initially decreased but remained 200-350 mmol kg(-1) hyperosmotic to the medium for several weeks until hatching. High efflux rates of tritium-labelled water (t((1/2)) 16-75 min) and (22)Na (t(1/2) 109-374 min) from H. crenulatus embryos were inconsistent with the osmotic isolation hypothesis. It is concluded that post-gastrula embryos were actively hyper-osmoregulating. The diffusional water permeability of the embryos decreased during development while the sodium efflux rate increased 10-fold. Very rapidly exchanging pools of water and sodium (t(1/2) a few seconds to minutes) probably corresponded to peri-embryonic fluid and implied that the egg envelope was a negligible barrier to diffusion of water and salts. Higher Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activities in late embryos of H. crenulatus incubated in 50% seawater than in embryos incubated in full strength seawater were consistent with an acclimation response. An area of the embryonic surface located over the yolk in the region of the embryonic dorsal organ stained with AgNO(3). Staining appeared at gastrulation, persisted throughout development and was lost at hatching. Deposits of AgCl between the outer and inner membranes, identified by X-ray microanalysis, suggest that

  9. Patterning Muscles Using Organizers: Larval Muscle Templates and Adult Myoblasts Actively Interact to Pattern the Dorsal Longitudinal Flight Muscles of Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Sudipto; VijayRaghavan, K.

    1998-01-01

    Pattern formation in muscle development is often mediated by special cells called muscle organizers. During metamorphosis in Drosophila, a set of larval muscles function as organizers and provide scaffolding for the development of the dorsal longitudinal flight muscles. These organizers undergo defined morphological changes and dramatically split into templates as adult fibers differentiate during pupation. We have investigated the cellular mechanisms involved in the use of larval fibers as templates. Using molecular markers that label myoblasts and the larval muscles themselves, we show that splitting of the larval muscles is concomitant with invasion by imaginal myoblasts and the onset of differentiation. We show that the Erect wing protein, an early marker of muscle differentiation, is not only expressed in myoblasts just before and after fusion, but also in remnant larval nuclei during muscle differentiation. We also show that interaction between imaginal myoblasts and larval muscles is necessary for transformation of the larval fibers. In the absence of imaginal myoblasts, the earliest steps in metamorphosis, such as the escape of larval muscles from histolysis and changes in their innervation, are normal. However, subsequent events, such as the splitting of these muscles, fail to progress. Finally, we show that in a mutant combination, null for Erect wing function in the mesoderm, the splitting of the larval muscles is aborted. These studies provide a genetic and molecular handle for the understanding of mechanisms underlying the use of muscle organizers in muscle patterning. Since the use of such organizers is a common theme in myogenesis in several organisms, it is likely that many of the processes that we describe are conserved. PMID:9606206

  10. Gastrointestinal-projecting neurones in the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus exhibit direct and viscerotopically organized sensitivity to orexin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabauskas, Gintautas; Moises, Hylan C

    2003-01-01

    Orexin (hypocretin)-containing projections from lateral hypothalamus (LH) are thought to play an important role in the regulation of feeding behaviour and energy balance. In rodent studies, central administration of orexin peptides increases food intake, and orexin neurones in the LH are activated by hypoglycaemia during fasting. In addition, administration of orexins into the fourth ventricle or the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMV) has been shown to stimulate gastric acid secretion and motility, respectively, via vagal efferent pathways. In this study, whole-cell recordings were obtained from DMV neurones in rat brainstem slices to investigate the cellular mechanism(s) by which orexins produce their gastrostimulatory effects. To determine whether responsiveness to orexins might be differentially expressed among distinct populations of preganglionic vagal motor neurones, recordings were made from neurones whose projections to the gastrointestinal tract had been identified by retrograde labelling following apposition of the fluorescent tracer DiI to the gastric fundus, corpus or antrum/pylorus, the duodenum or caecum. Additionally, the responses of neurones to orexins were compared with those produced by oxytocin, which acts within the DMV to stimulate gastric acid secretion, but inhibits gastric motor function. Bath application of orexin-A or orexin-B (30–300 nm) produced a slow depolarization, accompanied by increased firing in 47 of 102 DMV neurones tested, including 70 % (30/43) of those that projected to the gastric fundus or corpus. In contrast, few DMV neurones that supplied the antrum/pylorus (3/13), duodenum (4/18) or caecum (1/13) were responsive to these peptides. The depolarizing responses were concentration dependent and persisted during synaptic isolation of neurones with TTX or Cd2+, indicating they resulted from activation of postsynaptic orexin receptors. They were also associated with a small increase in membrane resistance, and in voltage

  11. Territorial organization in Spain and in Colombia: “Report on Spain. Rethinking the State or destroying it”. Santiago Muñoz Machado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina Ana Larach Del Castillo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Two recently published books, one from Spain (Muñoz Machado, 2012 and the other from Colombia (Mendoza Martelo, 2013, evince concerns with respect to the territorial organization in both countries. What is the appeal of the territorial model? With common constitutional errors occurring in the territorial area, and a crisis in both function and coordination in various levels of the Government –as well as in the different regions and autonomous communities–, is legal reform preferable to constitutional change? These are some of the issues raised and evaluated in current debates. In the work in question, the main problems in Spain are analyzed and the author proposes ways of solving or diminishing these problems, such as a return to centralism, the partial conservation of autonomous communities, the replacement of the current model with a federal State, as well as the possibilities of self-determination and separatism. The proposed study will serve to revise certain aspects of Colombia’s territorial system, in order to determine whether or not reformation is necessary.

  12. Composite Territories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicholas, Paul; Tamke, Martin

    2012-01-01

    and assembly of the fibre reinforced composite structure Composite Territories, in which the property of bending is activated and varied so as to match solely through material means a desired form. This case study demonstrates how one might extend the geometric model so that it is able to engage and reconcile...

  13. The organized contadi. Administration and territoriality of "rural communities" in four districts of Lombardy (1210-1250 ca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Gabriele Nobili

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the evolution in the administrations of four Contadi in central and eastern cities of Lombardy (Bergamo, Brescia, Lodi and Mantova. It begins by examining the estate surveys that in the whole area start from the first two decades of the thirteenth century. These surveys will become instruments of knowledge of local territories. In addition it considers the legislation with which the city was seeking to build an active territoriality of the communities in the district. The district is also divided by cities into smaller administrative entities: the rural communities.

  14. Acoustic Territoriality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreutzfeldt, Jacob

    2011-01-01

    Under the heading of "Gang i København" a number of initiatives was presented by the Lord Mayer and the Technical and Environmental Mayer of Copenhagen in May 2006. The aim of the initiative, which roughly translates to Lively Copenhagen, was both to make Copenhagen a livelier city in terms of city...... this article outline a few approaches to a theory of acoustic territoriality....

  15. Lumbar dorsal ramus syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogduk, N

    1980-11-15

    Low back pain, referred pain in the lower limbs, and spasm of the back, gluteal, and hamstring muscles are clinical features which can be induced in normal volunteers by stimulating structures which are innervated by the lumbar dorsal rami. Conversely, they can be relieved in certain patients by selective interruption of conduction along dorsal rami. These facts permit the definition of a lumbar dorsal ramus syndrome, which can be distinguished from the intervertebral disc syndrome and other forms of low back pain. The distinguishing feature is that, in lumbar dorsal ramus syndrome, all the clinical features are exclusively mediated by dorsal rami and do not arise from nerve-root compression. The pathophysiology, pathology, and treatment of this syndrome are described. Recognition of this syndrome, and its treatment with relatively minor procedures, can obviate the need for major surgery which might otherwise be undertaken.

  16. The dorsal shell wall structure of Mesozoic ammonoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregor Radtke

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The study of pristine preserved shells of Mesozoic Ammonoidea shows different types of construction and formation of the dorsal shell wall. We observe three major types: (i The vast majority of Ammonoidea, usually planispirally coiled, has a prismatic reduced dorsal shell wall which consists of an outer organic component (e.g., wrinkle layer, which is the first layer to be formed, and the subsequently formed dorsal inner prismatic layer. The dorsal mantle tissue suppresses the formation of the outer prismatic layer and nacreous layer. With the exception of the outer organic component, secretion of a shell wall is omitted at the aperture. A prismatic reduced dorsal shell wall is always secreted immediately after the hatching during early teleoconch formation. Due to its broad distribution in (planispiral Ammonoidea, the prismatic reduced dorsal shell wall is probably the general state. (ii Some planispirally coiled Ammonoidea have a nacreous reduced dorsal shell wall which consists of three mineralized layers: two prismatic layers (primary and secondary dorsal inner prismatic layer and an enclosed nacreous layer (secondary dorsal nacreous layer. The dorsal shell wall is omitted at the aperture and was secreted in the rear living chamber. Its layers are a continuation of an umbilical shell doubling (reinforcement by additional shell layers that extends towards the ventral crest of the preceding whorl. The nacreous reduced dorsal shell wall is formed in the process of ontogeny following a prismatic reduced dorsal shell wall. (iii Heteromorph and some planispirally coiled taxa secrete a complete dorsal shell wall which forms a continuation of the ventral and lateral shell layers. It is formed during ontogeny following a prismatic reduced dorsal shell wall or a priori. The construction is identical with the ventral and lateral shell wall, including a dorsal nacreous layer. The wide distribution of the ability to form dorsal nacre indicates that it is

  17. Features of Solving Retrospective (Successive Tasks of the Monitoring Subsystem in Systems for Strategic Control of the Regional Structure and Territorial Organization in the Agri-Food Sphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tkachenko Serhii A.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The given article highlights features of solving retrospective (successive tasks of monitoring production and economic activity of the territorial-production system through a profound using of scientific principles in the developed and introduced enlarged block diagram of the control system for a functionally advanced solution of the task of monitoring labour force turnover at the entity in the agri-food sphere. Solving the task of monitoring the labour force turnover in the territorial-production system by means of electronic digital machines allows: to reduce the complexity of calculations performed by employees of Human Resources Department and make time for other research and control functions; to accelerate submission of necessary accounting and economic as well as analytical information on the labour force turnover at the entity in the agri-food sphere to consumers; increase the quality of accounting and economic as well as analytical information by eliminating errors, which occur at manual calculation; to build a real scientific basis for developing measures of technical, organizational and socio-economic nature aimed at reducing the labour force turnover. The given list of issues solved at development of the monitoring subsystem in strategic control systems of the regional structure and territorial organization of the agri-food sphere is not complete, the use of industrial methods for creating a monitoring subsystem, training specialists and a number of other issues, which are no less important, should be mentioned as well.

  18. Identification and systems methodologies for territorial delimitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Montoya R

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This document identifies the main issues affecting the delimitation of territories and explores the conceptual approaches for describing the relationship of the territories understood as organizations with their environment. Subsequently, we studied the systems methodologies known as soft systems methodology, SSM, and complex adaptive systems, CAS. Finally, the advantages of systemic approaches to territorial delimitation are shown

  19. Guidance on methodology for evaluation of the effectiveness of options for reducing the risk of introduction and spread of organisms harmful to plant health in the EU territory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, R.; Candresse, T.; Dormannsné Simon, E.

    2012-01-01

    The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) requested the Panel on Plant Health (PLH Panel) to provide guidance for the evaluation of the effectiveness of the options for plants and plant products for reducing the risk of introduction and spread of harmful organisms in the European Union territory...... and guidance documents for assessing a proposed RRO. In addition, the current document provides recommendations for assessing RROs, specifically: on experimental design; on the use of statistical methods including approaches for studying uncertainty; on the use of quantitative pathway analysis and spread...

  20. Insights from event-related potentials into the temporal and hierarchical organization of the ventral and dorsal streams of the visual system in selective attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Loeches, M; Hinojosa, J A; Rubia, F J

    1999-11-01

    The temporal and hierarchical relationships between the dorsal and the ventral streams in selective attention are known only in relation to the use of spatial location as the attentional cue mediated by the dorsal stream. To improve this state of affairs, event-related brain potentials were recorded while subjects attended simultaneously to motion direction (mediated by the dorsal stream) and to a property mediated by the ventral stream (color or shape). At about the same time, a selection positivity (SP) started for attention mediated by both streams. However, the SP for color and shape peaked about 60 ms later than motion SP. Subsequently, a selection negativity (SN) followed by a late positive component (LPC) were found simultaneously for attention mediated by both streams. A hierarchical relationship between the two streams was not observed, but neither SN nor LPC for one property was completely insensitive to the values of the other property.

  1. Composite Territories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicholas, Paul; Tamke, Martin

    2012-01-01

    for the varied composition of material, an extension of the digital chain that foregrounds a new need to engage materials at multiple scales within the design process. Recognising that the process of making materials affords perspectives not available with found materials, this paper reports the design...... and assembly of the fibre reinforced composite structure Composite Territories, in which the property of bending is activated and varied so as to match solely through material means a desired form. This case study demonstrates how one might extend the geometric model so that it is able to engage and reconcile......Today, material performance is regarded as one of the richest sources of innovation. Accordingly, architecture is shifting to practices by which the computational generation of form is directly driven by material characteristics. At the same time, there is a growing technological means...

  2. Olympic territorialization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egidio Dansero

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Les méga-événements tels que les jeux olympiques attirent de plus en plusl’attention dans le débat relatif aux transformations urbaines. Leurs dimensions sont multiples ; leurs plus importants impacts sont sans doute ceux de nature spatiale. Ils sont l’occasion d’entreprendre une transformation urbaine extraordinaire en termes de structure interne, d’image et de compétitivité externe. À partir de l’expérience des Jeux de 2006 organisés à Turin, cet article propose une approche théorique pour l’étude de la territorialisation de méga-événements et du défi problématique leur legs.Mega-events, as the Olympic Games, receive an increasing attention in the debate about urban transformations. They have multiple dimensions but surely one of the most important impacts are the spatial ones. They are an occasion of extraordinary urban transformation, in its inside structure, in its image and in its external competitiveness. Moving from Torino 2006, this paper present a theoretical approach to study the territorialization of mega-events and the problematic challenge of the legacy.

  3. [Evaluation of the inclusion of organic food from family-based agriculture in school food in municipalities of rural territories of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Fernanda; Fernandes, Patrícia Fogaça; Rockett, Fernanda Camboim; de Oliveira, Ana Beatriz Almeida

    2014-05-01

    Organic food enables the promotion of Food and Nutritional Safety (FNS) and sustainable regional development. In this context, the National School Food Program (NSFD) seeks to comply with the requirements of FNS. This study evaluated the inclusion of organic food in school food in the municipalities of rural territories of the state of Rio Grande do Sul by means of interviews with local managers. Eight territories were visited, albeit of its 153 municipalities only 102 comprised the sample for this study. Of these, 20.58% said they buy organic produce from family farms. The Center South Territory revealed the highest percentage of purchase, in which 40% of the municipalities visited purchased organic produce, followed by the Center Mountain Territory with 33.3%, while the lowest percentage was 7.1% in the Countryside Territory. The study identified the need for intersectoral action to develop organic production, as well as stimulate the consumption of these foods in the school environment, in order to meet the requirements of FNS.

  4. Colombia: Territorial classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendoza Morales, Alberto

    1998-01-01

    The article is about the approaches of territorial classification, thematic axes, handling principles and territorial occupation, politician and administrative units and administration regions among other topics. Understanding as Territorial Classification the space distribution on the territory of the country, of the geographical configurations, the human communities, the political-administrative units and the uses of the soil, urban and rural, existent and proposed

  5. A territorial classification for the ecological strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arias de Greiff, Jorge

    2002-01-01

    The author proposes a territorial classification including at the sun, the water, the atmosphere, the vegetable earth and the vegetation of green leaf, describes each one of the elements, he refers to the micro-climates and he gives a territorial organization for the ecological emergency

  6. Mapping the Indonesian territory, based on pollution, social demography and geographical data, using self organizing feature map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernawati, Kuswari; Insani, Nur; Bambang S. H., M.; Nur Hadi, W.; Sahid

    2017-08-01

    This research aims to mapping the 33 (thirty-three) provinces in Indonesia, based on the data on air, water and soil pollution, as well as social demography and geography data, into a clustered model. The method used in this study was unsupervised method that combines the basic concept of Kohonen or Self-Organizing Feature Maps (SOFM). The method is done by providing the design parameters for the model based on data related directly/ indirectly to pollution, which are the demographic and social data, pollution levels of air, water and soil, as well as the geographical situation of each province. The parameters used consists of 19 features/characteristics, including the human development index, the number of vehicles, the availability of the plant's water absorption and flood prevention, as well as geographic and demographic situation. The data used were secondary data from the Central Statistics Agency (BPS), Indonesia. The data are mapped into SOFM from a high-dimensional vector space into two-dimensional vector space according to the closeness of location in term of Euclidean distance. The resulting outputs are represented in clustered grouping. Thirty-three provinces are grouped into five clusters, where each cluster has different features/characteristics and level of pollution. The result can used to help the efforts on prevention and resolution of pollution problems on each cluster in an effective and efficient way.

  7. Patterning of the dorsal-ventral axis in echinoderms: insights into the evolution of the BMP-chordin signaling network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Lapraz

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Formation of the dorsal-ventral axis of the sea urchin embryo relies on cell interactions initiated by the TGFbeta Nodal. Intriguingly, although nodal expression is restricted to the ventral side of the embryo, Nodal function is required for specification of both the ventral and the dorsal territories and is able to restore both ventral and dorsal regions in nodal morpholino injected embryos. The molecular basis for the long-range organizing activity of Nodal is not understood. In this paper, we provide evidence that the long-range organizing activity of Nodal is assured by a relay molecule synthesized in the ventral ectoderm, then translocated to the opposite side of the embryo. We identified this relay molecule as BMP2/4 based on the following arguments. First, blocking BMP2/4 function eliminated the long-range organizing activity of an activated Nodal receptor in an axis rescue assay. Second, we demonstrate that BMP2/4 and the corresponding type I receptor Alk3/6 functions are both essential for specification of the dorsal region of the embryo. Third, using anti-phospho-Smad1/5/8 immunostaining, we show that, despite its ventral transcription, the BMP2/4 ligand triggers receptor mediated signaling exclusively on the dorsal side of the embryo, one of the most extreme cases of BMP translocation described so far. We further report that the pattern of pSmad1/5/8 is graded along the dorsal-ventral axis and that two BMP2/4 target genes are expressed in nested patterns centered on the region with highest levels of pSmad1/5/8, strongly suggesting that BMP2/4 is acting as a morphogen. We also describe the very unusual ventral co-expression of chordin and bmp2/4 downstream of Nodal and demonstrate that Chordin is largely responsible for the spatial restriction of BMP2/4 signaling to the dorsal side. Thus, unlike in most organisms, in the sea urchin, a single ventral signaling centre is responsible for induction of ventral and dorsal cell fates. Finally

  8. Organization of measures on protection of population and territories against weapons of mass destruction: brief analysis of laboratory control and conditions of personnel protective means of respiratory organs in the Republic of Tajikistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamalov, D.D.; Makhmadov, T.F.; Stotskiy, D.F.

    2010-01-01

    and territory protection from mass-destruction weapon. Organization of actions on population and territory protection is caused on geographical location of Tajikistan. There is a number of some states near Tajikistan that have nuclear weapon: India, China, Pakistan. The basic actions for protection of the population and territories from weapons of mass destruction are: maintenance and accumulation of means of an individual defense, creation of stocks; creation and restoration of protective constructions of a civil defense; evacuation actions planning; restoration of system of monitoring and the laboratory control of a civil defense of Republic Tajikistan; according to the Government Regulation N 527 and dated on 31"s"t of October, 2008 the 'Emergency situations and civil defense system development 2009-2014' Program was adopted. According to the Plan of the events within this Programme Committee of emergency situations and civil defense under the Government of Republic of Tajikistan provides a stage-by-stage realization of the actions for protection of population and territories from mass-destruction weapon. One of the important actions is provision and accumulation of the means of personal protection, keeping of this means. The means of personal protections are laboratory tested by the specialists of the Committee of emergency situations and civil defense. Analytical data of the Committee of emergency situations and civil defense allows making some conclusions concerning experienced storage of the means of personal protection. A general analysis of laboratory test indicates that: laboratory tests of filtering boxes indicate the preservation of air flow resistance and waterproof due to the adherence to the rules of keeping; laboratory tests of the front parts of the gas masks and their hardness and waterproof, and the waterproof of the valves show that the front part is dependent on meteorological character of the region of storage at long-term keeping. Conclusions

  9. THE NUMERICAL REPRESENTATION OF CHILDREN WITH DAMAGED EYESIGHT ON THE TERRITORY OF SKOPJE AND WORK ORGANIZATION WITH THIS POPULATION AT PRESCHOOL PERIOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snezana TALEVSKA

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available The binocular function of the eyesight as a process develops as early as the first years of life.Taking into consideration the great number of inherent factors, which disturb the normal development of the eye-sight function, and the great number of causes of damages in the prenatal and natal period, the question of early detection of the reasons, diagnostics and treatment are of utmost importance.That’s possible, only if there is a cooperation among persons that are in the closest contacts with the child:· the mother;· the pediatrician;· the nurse;· the ophthalmologist;· the educator and· the physician.It’s not so necessary to talk about the importance of the sight in the human life, i.e. the importance of the binocular function of the children sight, from the early age when their psycho-physical development is the most flourishing.The importance of the early detection, diagnostics and treatment of the damaged eyesight is great. Especially, this is of great importance for ambliopia, which can be hardly detected at this early period, but it can be easily and successfully treated. We say it is hard to detect because of the delusion and inertness of parents, just during early years from birth to the 3 year, that the child is small and it’s too early to start a treatment.On the contrary, practice has shown that this time is lost and hardly can be compensate, either in means of cure of ambliopia and treatment or rehabilitation of amaurosis.The numerical data of children with damaged eyesight on the territory of Skopje and the need of organized work with this population of children at preschool age will be confirmed and enclosed.

  10. Desenvolvimento a Partir da Perspectiva Territorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdir Dallabrida Roque

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The different contemporary approaches that touches the development focus from the territorial perspective can be classified into two big surveys of the so called new regionalism: the globalist survey and the regionalist survey. Some authors have preferred to focus on the regionalist studies in an excessively optimistic way, this way deserving being critically analysed. In spite of all that, it is possible to visualize a scenery of breathing answers to the challenges of the development territorialization in a way that the different forms of social territorial organization, the territorial collective innovation and the necessary reconsideration of the State´s role deserve destak. This way, it is opened the possibility that the progressive trajectory of territorial development can be managed and administrated from the articulated action of public and private actors.

  11. Territoriality as Medium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harste, Gorm

    2010-01-01

    concrete evidences as space, land, roads and bricks. The paper discusses especially the history of French territorialisation from 1500 to 1900 as model for state-territory.The methodological devices of the paper are, first, to observe the territorial state system as an improbable system emerged through...

  12. Creating ecotourism territories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bluwstein, Jevgeniy

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores territorial struggles around ecotourism in community-based conservation in wildlife rich Northern Tanzania. At the centre of analysis are two emblematic and distinctly different ecotourism business models that rely on a particular territorialization of property relations and r...

  13. Territorial autonomy, energy resources administration and regalia regime in Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henao Rodriguez, Alberto

    2000-01-01

    The paper includes topics like the territorial organization in Colombia, the energy administration, the organization of the Colombian system of regalia, options of the not-renewable natural resources administration, reorganization of the Colombian system of regalia, articulation to the territorial organization of the country and an administration proposal is made

  14. Anterior Myocardial Territory May Replace the Heart as Organ at Risk in Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Left-Sided Breast Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan Wenyong; Liu Dong; Xue Chenbin; Xu Jiaozhen; Li Beihui; Chen Zhengwang; Hu Desheng; Wang Xionghong

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: We investigated whether the heart could be replaced by the anterior myocardial territory (AMT) as the organ at risk (OAR) in intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) of the breast for patients with left-sided breast cancer. Methods and Materials: Twenty-three patients with left-sided breast cancer who received postoperative radiation after breast-conserving surgery were studied. For each patient, we generated five IMRT plans including heart (H), left ventricle (LV), AMT, LV+AMT, and H+LV as the primary OARs, respectively, except both lungs and right breast, which corresponded to IMRT(H), IMRT(LV), IMRT(AMT), IMRT(LV+AMT), and IMRT(H+LV). For the planning target volumes and OARs, the parameters of dose–volume histograms were compared. Results: The homogeneity index, conformity index, and coverage index were not compromised significantly in IMRT(AMT), IMRT(LV) and IMRT(LV+ AMT), respectively, when compared with IMRT(H). The mean dose to the heart, LV, and AMT decreased 5.3–21.5% (p < 0.05), 19.9–29.5% (p < 0.05), and 13.3–24.5% (p < 0.05), respectively. Similarly, the low (e.g., V5%), middle (e.g., V20%), and high (e.g., V30%) dose-volume of the heart, LV, and AMT decreased with different levels. The mean dose and V10% of the right lung increased by 9.2% (p < 0.05) and 27.6% (p < 0.05), respectively, in IMRT(LV), and the mean dose and V5% of the right breast decreased significantly in IMRT(AMT) and IMRT(LV+AMT). IMRT(AMT) was the preferred plan and was then compared with IMRT(H+LV); the majority of dose–volume histogram parameters of OARs including the heart, LV, AMT, both lungs, and the right breast were not statistically different. However, the low dose-volume of LV increased and the middle dose-volume decreased significantly (p < 0.05) in IMRT(AMT). Also, those of the right lung (V10%, V15%) and right breast (V5%, V10%) decreased significantly (p < 0.05). Conclusions: The AMT may replace the heart as the OAR in left-sided breast IMRT after breast

  15. Organismo territoriale e annodamenti urbani. Metodi di progetto per i centri minori del Lazio / Territorial organism and urban knottingt. Design methods for minor centers of Lazio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Strappa

    2013-07-01

    , con esisti disastrosi, a quello abitativo. / The research, currently being finalized by the study group by me coordinated at the Faculty of Architecture of "Sapienza" in Rome, within the more general topic of "City in extension", investigates the problem of how minor historical centers may experience contemporary transformations "congruent" with their formative process, in the belief that it is necessary to accept the incontrovertible fact that an urban organism, like any living organism, can only host continuous modifications. The study is part of a general framework of the national research and shares the assumption that the connotations of the Italian landscape suggests alternative tools, compared to the current ones, for the architectural design, and the possibility of an original placement, with specific characters, in the international state art of the discipline. In particular, the research examines the landscape characters of the Lazio region due to the diffusion in the territory of towns of considerable historical interest that are rapidly losing their quality. These centers are structurally weakened also by the influence of the near metropolitan area of Rome, wich its rapidly changing its shape through a gradual disorganization. The research proposes (and verifies the potential in some case studies, the reading of the urban fabrics of small towns, their form with typical characters, their potential “knotting”, the transformations in nodal places to form new nodal organisms, specialized building that innovate the existing fabric in a coherent and proportionate manner, allowing to avoid a “specialistic sprawl” (see the case of the displacement of the town halls outside of the town center that is added, with a disastrous result, to the current residential sprawl.

  16. Territorial Defense, Education, and Interculturalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Patricia Sierra Pardo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The article carries out a series of reflections regarding the social and economic conditions in which the cultivation of oil palm affected the Bajo Atrato region of the Department of Chocó at the end of the nineteen nineties. It also discusses the actions carried out by communities, companies, and organizations in solidarity with the region’s cause, since these expressions make it possible to understand the role of organization and education in territorial defense processes. Finally, the article examines the different tensions, struggles, challenges, and contradictions inherent to these types of processes.

  17. PROJECTIONS OF DORSAL AND MEDIAN RAPHE NUCLEI TO DORSAL AND VENTRAL STRIATUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. R. Hassanzadeh G. Behzadi

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The ascending serotonergic projections are derived mainly from mesencephalic raphe nuclei. Topographical projections from mesencephalic raphe nuclei to the striatum were examined in the rat by the retrograde transport technique of HRP (horseradish peroxidase. In 29 rats stereotaxically injection of HRP enzyme were performed in dorsal and ventral parts of striatum separately. The extent of the injection sites and distribution of retrogradely labeled neuronal cell bodies were drawed on representative sections using a projection microscope. Following ipsilateral injection of HRP into the dorsal striatum, numerous labeled neurons were seen in rostral portion of dorsal raphe (DR nucleus. In the same level the cluster of labeled neurons were hevier through caudal parts of DR. A few neurons were also located in lateral wing of DR. More caudally some labeled neurons were found in lateral, medial line of DR. In median raphe nucleus (MnR the labeled neurons were scattered only in median portion of this nucleus. The ipsilateral injection of HRP into the ventral region of striatum resulted on labeling of numerous neurons in rostral, caudal and lateral portions of DR. Through the caudal extension of DR on 4th ventricle level, a large number of labeled neurons were distributed along the ventrocaudal parts of DR. In MnR, labeled neurons were observed only in median part of this nucleus. These findings suggest the mesencephalic raphe nuclei projections to caudo-putamen are topographically organized. In addition dorsal and median raphe nuclei have a stronger projection to the ventral striatum.

  18. Modern territorial statehood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hansen, Nicholas Gerald

    2008-01-01

    This theoretical study considers the interplay between the rights and responsibilities of (postcolonial) states in forming the underpinnings of public international law. It considers the ways states administer their territory, in some cases after having inherited colonially defined boundaries. It

  19. El panorama territorial colombiano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Robledo Silva

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available i. Antecedentes constitucionales. ii. Bases constitucionales del ordenamiento territorial colombiano a partir de 1991. La convivencia de dos principios. A. Principio unitario. B. Principio de autonomía de los entes territoriales. iii. Las piezas del “rompecabezas territorial”. A. Las entidades territoriales de rango constitucional. B. Las entidades territoriales de rango legal. C. Otras formas de organización territorial. iv. Balance y perspectivas

  20. The European chart of territorial planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    In this chapter the European chart of territorial planning is included. This European chart contains next chapters: Introduction; The mission of the territorial planning; The basic aims; Realization of aims of the territorial planning; The confirmation of the European co-operation. In the Appendix the Specific aims: (1) The village territory; (2) The urban territory; (3) The boundary territory; (4) The mountain territory; (5) The structurally weak territory; (6) The decaying territory; (7) The coastal territories and islands

  1. Energy management in the patrimonial buildings of European territorial organizations in the framework of markets liberalization. Economic study of financial incentive mechanisms in favor of energy efficiency investment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gayral, L.

    2005-12-01

    The territorial and patrimonial components of energy savings are not well developed because many barriers - political, organisational and financial - prevent investments in energy efficiency. Although investing in the improvement of the energy efficiency of their public buildings is a rational process, the local authorities are far from systematically carrying out this type of investment. Their limited investment capacity, associated to the lack of spare capital to finance their projects leads them to a 'vicious circle of energy wasting'. Our thesis analyzes the economic and financial tools a local authority can use to invest and enter a 'virtuous circle of energy efficiency'. Our topic deals with the financing of energy efficiency investments at a local level. We describe with details the functioning of each financial mechanism indexed. We illustrate their implementation within European municipalities through many case studies. Finally, we suggest recommendations for their broad reproducibility within French local authorities. (author)

  2. Patagonia: nature and territories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Fabián Schweitzer

    2014-12-01

    This paper analyzes the place occupied by Patagonia in today’s fin de siècle scenario of commodities, hegemony crisis and multi-polar world emergence concurring with the convergence of consumerist guidelines, all of which would apparently lead to an in-depth socio-ecological crisis as well as to an accelerated dispute over nature and territory sense.

  3. pessoal e territorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Cristina Prochet

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El cuidar es un continuo desafío que engloba el diálogo consciente, la negociación y la atención a los detalles. Los objetivos de este trabajo han sido identificar las situaciones que los ancianos hospitalizados caracterizan como invasión del espacio personal y territorial, e identificar las situaciones, en las que a pesar de haber invasión del espacio personal y territorial, puedan ser consideradas agradables. Es un estudio exploratorio descriptivo realizado en 2007, con 30 ancianos hospitalizados en un hospital público, situado en el interior de São Paulo. El estudio fue realizado con el empleo de la Escala de Medida del Sentimiento Frente a la Invasión del Espacio Territorial y Personal. Las situaciones consideradas desagradables y que caracterizan invasión del espacio territorial han sido relacionadas a la falta de respeto y al cambio sin permiso de su espacio físico; las referencias a la invasión de su espacio personal, han sido aquellas relacionadas con mostrar las partes íntimas durante la realización de los procedimientos. Las situaciones agradables, a pesar de la invasión, son las aquellas en las que ocurren los toques afectivos.

  4. Assembling sustainable territories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vandergeest, Peter; Ponte, Stefano; Bush, Simon

    2015-01-01

    The authors show how certification assembles ‘sustainable’ territories through a complex layering of regulatory authority in which both government and nongovernment entities claim rule-making authority, sometimes working together, sometimes in parallel, sometimes competitively. It is argued that

  5. Agenesis of the dorsal pancreas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnedl, Wolfgang J; Piswanger-Soelkner, Claudia; Wallner, Sandra J; Krause, Robert; Lipp, Rainer W

    2009-01-01

    During the last 100 years in medical literature, there are only 54 reports, including the report of Pasaoglu et al (World J Gastroenterol 2008; 14: 2915-2916), with clinical descriptions of agenesis of the dorsal pancreas in humans. Agenesis of the dorsal pancreas, a rare congenital pancreatic malformation, is associated with some other medical conditions such as hyperglycemia, abdominal pain, pancreatitis and a few other diseases. In approximately 50% of reported patients with this congenital malformation, hyperglycemia was demonstrated. Evaluation of hyperglycemia and diabetes mellitus in all patients with agenesis of the dorsal pancreas including description of fasting blood glucose, oral glucose tolerance test, glycated hemoglobin and medical treatment would be a future goal. Since autosomal dominant transmission has been suggested in single families, more family studies including imaging technologies with demonstration of the pancreatic duct system are needed for evaluation of this disease. With this letter to the editor, we aim to increase available information for the better understanding of this rare disease. PMID:19140241

  6. Indians of Yukon and Northwest Territories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development, Ottawa (Ontario).

    A report is presented of the 7 American Indian tribes (Chipewyan, Yellowknife, Slave, Dogrib, Hare, Nahani, and Kutchin) of the Yukon and Northwest Territories. Described is each tribe's history, foodgathering methods, clothing, work distribution practices, social organization, and religion. A brief history of formal education among the tribes…

  7. Territory development as economic and geographical activity (theory, methodology, practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitaliy Nikolaevich Lazhentsev

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Accents in a description of theory and methodology of territory development are displaced from distribution of the national benefits on formation of territorial natural and economic systems and organization of economical and geographical activity. The author reveals theconcept of «territory development» and reviews its placein thetheory and methodology of human geography and regionaleconomy. In the articletheindividual directions ofeconomic activity areconsidered. The author has made an attempt to definethesubject matter of five levels of «ideal» territorial and economic systems as a part of objects of the nature, societies, population settlement, production, infrastructure and management. The author’s position of interpretation of sequences of mechanisms of territory development working according to a Nested Doll principle (mechanism of economy, economic management mechanism, controlling mechanism of economy is presented. The author shows the indicators, which authentically define territory development

  8. Beyond territory and scarcity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The attainment of sound and sustainable environmental management is one of humanity's greatest challenges this century, particularly in Africa, which is still heavily dependent on the exploitation of natural and agricultural resources and is faced with rapid population growth. Yet, this challenge...... alternatives to the strong natural determinism that reduces natural resource management to questions of territory and scarcity. - Presenting material and methodologies that explore the different contexts in which social and cultural values intervene, and discovering more than "rational choice" in the agency...... of individuals. - Examining the relevance of the different conceptions of territory for the ways in which people manage, or attempt to manage, natural resources. - Placing their research within the framework of the developing discussion on policy and politics in natural resource management. The studies are drawn...

  9. Health and nomadism: territory and belonging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betina Hillesheim

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses how territory and linking notions articulate with the health field in Brazil, in view of the relations that are established between health staff and certain social groups who see in the movement a logic of life, survival and resistance: the nomads. The concept of territory is an important organizer of Brazilian’s public policies, and is closely related to inclusion. The data were collected through participant observation of the daily work of two teams of Family Health Strategy, in a medium-sized city located in the state of Rio Grande do Sul. For these services, nomadism is seen as a nuisance. On the other hand, include not only acquires a sense of attachment and population control, but the demarcation of belonging territories, from the investment of the relation of users with health services.

  10. Special zone territory decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samojlenko, Yu.N.; Golubev, V.V.

    1989-01-01

    Special zone is the Chernobyl' NPP operating site (OS). OS decontamination is described including reactor ruins from the accident moment. The process was begun from reactor bombardment with absorbing and filtering materials (sand, clay, lead, boron compounds). Then were produced soil shovelling, territory filling by dry concrete and laying concrete layer with thickness up to 300 mm. NPP room and equipment decontamination is described. 3 figs.; 3 tabs

  11. Transformation of industrial territories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotnikova, N. I.; Kolocova, I. I.

    2017-08-01

    The problem of removing industrial enterprises from the historical center of the city and the subsequent effective use of the territories has been relevant for Western countries. Nowadays, the problem is crucial for Russia, its megacities and regional centers. The paper analyzes successful projects of transforming industrial facilities into cultural, business and residential objects in the world and in Russia. The patterns of the project development have been determined and presented in the paper.

  12. Energy: decentralized production and sustainable development of territories.... Tomorrow: which roles for the local organizations? Proceedings; Energie: production decentralisee et developpement durable des territoires.... Demain: quels roles pour les collectivites locales? Recueil des interventions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labrousse, M [Cabinet Explicit, 75 - Paris (France); Magnin, G [Energie-Cites, 25 - Besancon (France)

    2002-07-01

    These 4. national energy sittings were organized around 3 invited talks and 16 workshops dealing with: the technological, economical and territorial stakes of decentralized energy; the small cogeneration experience of Frankfurt city (Germany); the new power supply tariff in Geneva (Switzerland), which choice for the consumer? Which role for the city?. Workshop 1 - knowing about the energy situation of a a territory: why? How? What the energy collective services scheme says; the example of a regional energy observatory. Workshop 2 - the electric power law: consequences for the local organizations; role and point of view of a licence holder with respect to the territory energy supply. Workshop 3 - the new legal dispositions for territory projects and the place of energy; a commonwealth of towns integrates the renewable energies in its competences; the solar ordinance of Barcelona (Spain). Workshop 4 - energy, a development tool inside the regional natural parks; a citizenship action for a wind power project; a district heating network supplied by a wood-fueled boiler plant and a gas-fueled cogeneration plant. Workshop 5 - cogeneration and cogeneration systems: what is the matter in France? In other countries? Which place for local systems?; district heating and cooling in Montpellier city: the tri-generation plant of the town hall. Workshop 6 - the success of biomass in Styria (Austria); geothermal energy and other energy sources, from competition to complementarity, the example of two district heating networks: Chevilly-Larue/l'Hay-les-Roses and Fresnes. Workshop 7 - overview of the French and European situation; a micro-hydroelectric power plant on a drinkable water supply; the Vauban district in Freiburg. Workshop 8 - heat pumps; solar thermal energy; solar photovoltaic power: from birth to full development; conversion, coupling and control technologies for the development of distributed power generation; evolution of biomass valorization files. Workshop 9 - will

  13. Energy: decentralized production and sustainable development of territories.... Tomorrow: which roles for the local organizations? Proceedings; Energie: production decentralisee et developpement durable des territoires.... Demain: quels roles pour les collectivites locales? Recueil des interventions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labrousse, M. [Cabinet Explicit, 75 - Paris (France); Magnin, G. [Energie-Cites, 25 - Besancon (France)

    2002-07-01

    These 4. national energy sittings were organized around 3 invited talks and 16 workshops dealing with: the technological, economical and territorial stakes of decentralized energy; the small cogeneration experience of Frankfurt city (Germany); the new power supply tariff in Geneva (Switzerland), which choice for the consumer? Which role for the city?. Workshop 1 - knowing about the energy situation of a a territory: why? How? What the energy collective services scheme says; the example of a regional energy observatory. Workshop 2 - the electric power law: consequences for the local organizations; role and point of view of a licence holder with respect to the territory energy supply. Workshop 3 - the new legal dispositions for territory projects and the place of energy; a commonwealth of towns integrates the renewable energies in its competences; the solar ordinance of Barcelona (Spain). Workshop 4 - energy, a development tool inside the regional natural parks; a citizenship action for a wind power project; a district heating network supplied by a wood-fueled boiler plant and a gas-fueled cogeneration plant. Workshop 5 - cogeneration and cogeneration systems: what is the matter in France? In other countries? Which place for local systems?; district heating and cooling in Montpellier city: the tri-generation plant of the town hall. Workshop 6 - the success of biomass in Styria (Austria); geothermal energy and other energy sources, from competition to complementarity, the example of two district heating networks: Chevilly-Larue/l'Hay-les-Roses and Fresnes. Workshop 7 - overview of the French and European situation; a micro-hydroelectric power plant on a drinkable water supply; the Vauban district in Freiburg. Workshop 8 - heat pumps; solar thermal energy; solar photovoltaic power: from birth to full development; conversion, coupling and control technologies for the development of distributed power generation; evolution of biomass valorization files. Workshop 9

  14. Developing Indicators of Territorial Cohesion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gallina, Andrea; Farrugia, Nadia

    setting. The concept of territorial cohesion attaches importance to the diversity of the European territory which is seen as a key competitive advantage, the preservation of the European social model, and the ability of the citizens of Europe's nations and regions to be able to continue to live within...... (EU). The objective of territorial cohesion, which builds on the European Spatial Development Perspective (ESDP), is to help achieve a more balanced development by reducing existing disparities, avoiding territorial imbalances and by making sectoral policies, which have a spatial impact and regional...... policy more coherent. It also aims to improve territorial integration and encourage cooperation between regions. Territorial cohesion complements the notions of economic and social cohesion by translating the fundamental EU goal of a balanced competitiveness and sustainable development into a territorial...

  15. Sustainable development indicators for territories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreau; Sylvain; Bottin, Anne; Bovar, Odile; Nirascou, Francoise; Albecker, Marie-Fleur; Bardou, Magali; Barret, Christophe; Berger, Emmanuel; Blanc, Christophe; Bovar, Odile; Briquel, Vincent; Chery, Jean-Pierre; Deshayes, Michel; Firdion, Laetitia; Fluxa, Christine; Girault, Maurice; Guerrero, David; Hassaine, Zahida; Hilal, Mohamed; Imbert, Frederic; Kerouanton, Marie-Helene; Lacroix, Steve; Magnier, Celine; Moreau, Jacques; Nirascou, Francoise; Pageaud, Dorothee; Schaeffer, Yves; Thienard, Helene; Vinet, Loic; Wemelbeke, Guillaume; Wichmann, Martine; Boitard, Corinne; Bird, Geoffrey

    2011-11-01

    For different themes (Sustainable consumption and production, Knowledge and social and economic development society, governance, climate change and energy management, sustainable transport and modality, conservation and sustainable management of biodiversity and natural resources, public health, risk prevention and management, social and territorial cohesion), this study proposes a set of axis, and several indicators for each axis. Indicators correspond to different geographical scale and are determined from different sources. These indicators are for example: production of aggregates, proportion of organic agriculture in usable agricultural area, evolution in quantity of household waste collected per inhabitant, employment rate, research spending in relation to GDP, coverage of population by local Agenda 21, and so on. Thus, each indicator is discussed, commented and analysed

  16. The architecture of chicken chromosome territories changes during differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stadler Sonja

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Between cell divisions the chromatin fiber of each chromosome is restricted to a subvolume of the interphase cell nucleus called chromosome territory. The internal organization of these chromosome territories is still largely unknown. Results We compared the large-scale chromatin structure of chromosome territories between several hematopoietic chicken cell types at various differentiation stages. Chromosome territories were labeled by fluorescence in situ hybridization in structurally preserved nuclei, recorded by confocal microscopy and evaluated visually and by quantitative image analysis. Chromosome territories in multipotent myeloid precursor cells appeared homogeneously stained and compact. The inactive lysozyme gene as well as the centromere of the lysozyme gene harboring chromosome located to the interior of the chromosome territory. In further differentiated cell types such as myeloblasts, macrophages and erythroblasts chromosome territories appeared increasingly diffuse, disaggregating to separable substructures. The lysozyme gene, which is gradually activated during the differentiation to activated macrophages, as well as the centromere were relocated increasingly to more external positions. Conclusions Our results reveal a cell type specific constitution of chromosome territories. The data suggest that a repositioning of chromosomal loci during differentiation may be a consequence of general changes in chromosome territory morphology, not necessarily related to transcriptional changes.

  17. Territories, Peoples, Sovereignty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabino Cassese

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Nation States have three defining characteristics: government of a territory, rapport with a group of people and ownership of a sovereign power. All three of these characteristics are undergoing changes. Several developments involve a redefinition of the “State” and produce numerous contradictions, which can only be solved if we consider the historicity of both the phenomenal essence and the conceptual essence of the State. We need to rethink and reconceptualise the State within the context of the new tendencies and transformations delineated by globalisation.

  18. Between Maps and Territories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmboe, Rasmus; Stricker, Jan Høgh

    2016-01-01

    This audio paper departs from an artwork made by Andreas Führer called The Map is Not The Territory D’Or; a score for a soundwalk in the town of Roskilde, Denmark. The basic sound materials used in the audio paper are 1) an interview in Danish with the artist, 2) a voice over of a theoretical text...... in English, and 3) recordings from performances of the piece, including walking, breathing exercises, and the sounds of ventilation systems and other environmental sound. By mingling these different materials, and by using ‘map’ and ‘territory’ as metaphors, the paper complicates issues of representation...

  19. Italian Troops on USSR occupied Territories in 1941−1945

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Игорь Игоревич Баринов

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The article studies the activities of Italian allied troops of Nazi Germany in the occupied during the Great Patriotic War of 1941-1945 of the USSR Soviet territories. The material contained in the article allows to compare the Italian occupation administration policy and its features as well as its involvement in war crimes on Soviet territory. This article also gives a possibility to trace the organizing role of Germany in terms of organization of the occupation regime on the Soviet territory and its relations with its allies and satellites on the Eastern Front. The work is based primarily on unexplored archival documents.

  20. Project of law, adopted by the Senate, giving permission to the approval of the agreement between the French government and the international organization for thermonuclear fusion energy ITER, relative to the head office of ITER organization and to the privileges and immunities of ITER organization in the French territory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The will of building up an international thermonuclear experimental reactor (ITER) gathers since several years the European community of atomic energy (Euratom), Japan, the USA, and Russia, next followed by China, South Korea and, since 2005, by India. The agreement signed in Paris between these seven parties on November 21, 2006 entrusted the international organization ITER with the realization of this project. The implications of the ITER project are enormous both in their scientific and in their economical aspects. France has a particular position in this project since the head office of ITER organisation is sited at Saint-Paul-lez-Durance and the tokamak will be built at Cadarache. Therefore, an agreement has been signed between ITER organization and the French government. The approval of this agreement is the object of this project of law made of a single article. The agreement between the French government and the international organization ITER is attached to the document. It defines the juridical status, the privileges and immunities of the organization itself and of its personnel inside the French territory. An appendix to the agreement precises the cooperation modalities between the French authorities and ITER organization. (J.S.)

  1. Nuclear industry and territories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Ngoc, B.

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear industry being composed of plants, laboratories, nuclear power stations, uranium mines, power lines and fluxes of materials from one facility to another is a strong shaper of the national territory. Contrary to other European countries, French nuclear industry is present all over the national territory. In 64 departments out of 101 there is at least one enterprise whose half of the revenues depends on nuclear activities. The advantage of such a geographical dispersion is when a nuclear activity is given up the social impact is less important: people tend to find a new job in the same region. French Nuclear power plants are generally set in remote places where population density is low and being the first employer by far of the area and being a major contributor to the city revenues, they are perceived as a key element the local population is proud of. In Germany, nuclear power plants are set inside dense industrial regions and appear as an industry just like any other.(A.C.)

  2. DORSAL ROOT REGENERATION INTO TRANSPLANTS OF DORSAL OR VENTRAL HALF OF EMBRYONIC SPINAL CORD

    OpenAIRE

    Ohta, Tohru; Itoh, Yasunobu; Tessler, Alan; Mizoi, Kazuo

    2009-01-01

    Adult cut dorsal root axons regenerate into the transplants of embryonic spinal cord (ESC) and form functional synapses within the transplants. It is unknown whether the growth is specific to transplants of dorsal half of ESC, a normal target of most dorsal root axons, or whether it is due to properties shared by transplants of ventral half of ESC. We used calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) immunohistochemistry to label to the subpopulations of regenerated adult dorsal root axons, quantit...

  3. Liposarcome dorsal: aspect clinique rare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbessi, Odry; Arrob, Adil; Fiqhi, Kamal; Khalfi, Lahcen; Nassih, Mohammed; El Khatib, Karim

    2015-01-01

    Décrit la première fois par Virchow en 1860, le liposarcome est une tumeur mésenchymateuse rare. Cette rareté est relative car les liposarcomes représentent quand même 14 à 18% de l'ensemble des tumeurs malignes des parties molles et ils constituent le plus fréquent des sarcomes des parties molles. Pour la majorité des auteurs, il ne se développerait jamais sur un lipome ou une lipomatose préexistant. Nous rapportons un cas de volumineux liposarcome de la face dorsale du tronc. L'histoire de la maladie, l'aspect clinique inhabituel « de tumeur dans tumeur », l'aspect de la pièce opératoire nous fait évoquer la possibilité de la transformation maligne d'un lipome bénin préexistant. PMID:26113914

  4. Territorial prevention of natural disasters. Campania Region: a high risk territory. Studies by PLINIVS Centre and open issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulio Zuccaro

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The safety of the territory and the environment is a theme much discussed, but often not in organic and competent way. PLINIVS study centre has been studying for several years the impact of potentially disastrous events on the territory and has produced analysis models and scenery simulation of main natural risks regarding Campania territory (seismic, hydrogeological, volcanic, meteo-marine risks, etc.. Knowing the risk, and quantifying it, is important in order to single out critical aspects of the territory (threats and to intervene through mitigation measures and eventually a modern Plan of Civil Protection. Therefore the plan becomes a dynamic process able to control rhythmically the state of the risk and the safety level of the territory, and spatial planning should avail itself of the fundamental contribution of knowledge offered by these tools.

  5. Dorsal skinfold chamber models in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schreiter, Jeannine

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background/purpose: The use of dorsal skinfold chamber models has substantially improved the understanding of micro-vascularisation in pathophysiology over the last eight decades. It allows pathophysiological studies of vascularisation over a continuous period of time. The dorsal skinfold chamber is an attractive technique for monitoring the vascularisation of autologous or allogenic transplants, wound healing, tumorigenesis and compatibility of biomaterial implants. To further reduce the animals’ discomfort while carrying the dorsal skinfold chamber, we developed a smaller chamber (the Leipzig Dorsal Skinfold Chamber and summarized the commercial available chamber models. In addition we compared our model to the common chamber. Methods: The Leipzig Dorsal Skinfold Chamber was applied to female mice with a mean weight of 22 g. Angiogenesis within the dorsal skinfold chamber was evaluated after injection of fluorescein isothiocyanate dextran with an Axio Scope microscope. The mean vessel density within the dorsal skinfold chamber was assessed over a period of 21 days at five different time points. The gained data were compared to previous results using a bigger and heavier dorsal skinfold model in mice. A PubMed and a patent search were performed and all papers related to “dorsal skinfold chamber” from 1 of January 2006 to 31 of December 2015 were evaluated regarding the dorsal skinfold chamber models and their technical improvements. The main models are described and compared to our titanium Leipzig Dorsal Skinfold Chamber model.Results: The Leipzig Dorsal Skinfold Chamber fulfils all requirements of continuous models known from previous chamber models while reducing irritation to the mice. Five different chamber models have been identified showing substantial regional diversity. The newly elaborated titanium dorsal skinfold chamber may replace the pre-existing titanium chamber model used in Germany so far, as it is smaller and lighter

  6. Heterotaxy syndrome with associated agenesis of dorsal pancreas and polysplenia: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Althaf Ali1

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Heterotaxy syndrome is a rare embryological disorder comprising of polysplenia, partial agenesis of dorsal pancreas, malrotation of gut, cardiac and vascular anomalies resulting from failure of development of the usual left–right asymmetry of organs. We report a rare case of heterotaxy syndrome with polysplenia, partial agenesis of dorsal pancreas and malrotation of gut in a 28 year female presenting with subacute intestinal obstruction along with imaging illustrations, brief discussion and thorough review of literature.

  7. Sales Territory Alignment: A Review and Model

    OpenAIRE

    Andris A. Zoltners; Prabhakant Sinha

    1983-01-01

    The sales territory alignment problem may be viewed as the problem of grouping small geographic sales coverage units into larger geographic clusters called sales territories in a way that the sales territories are acceptable according to managerially relevant alignment criteria. This paper first reviews sales territory alignment models which have appeared in the marketing literature. A framework for sales territory alignment and several properties of a good sales territory alignment are devel...

  8. Rise, fall and resurrection of chromosome territories: a historical perspective. Part I. The rise of chromosome territories

    OpenAIRE

    T Cremer; C Cremer

    2009-01-01

    It is now generally accepted that chromosomes in the cell nucleus are organized in distinct domains, first called chromosome territories in 1909 by the great cytologist Theodor Boveri. Yet, even today chromosomes have remained enigmatic individuals, whose structures, arrangements and functions in cycling and post-mitotic cells still need to be explored in full detail. Whereas numerous recent reviews describe present evidence for a dynamic architecture of chromosome territories and discuss the...

  9. Personal authentication through dorsal hand vein patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chih-Bin; Hao, Shu-Sheng; Lee, Jen-Chun

    2011-08-01

    Biometric identification is an emerging technology that can solve security problems in our networked society. A reliable and robust personal verification approach using dorsal hand vein patterns is proposed in this paper. The characteristic of the approach needs less computational and memory requirements and has a higher recognition accuracy. In our work, the near-infrared charge-coupled device (CCD) camera is adopted as an input device for capturing dorsal hand vein images, it has the advantages of the low-cost and noncontact imaging. In the proposed approach, two finger-peaks are automatically selected as the datum points to define the region of interest (ROI) in the dorsal hand vein images. The modified two-directional two-dimensional principal component analysis, which performs an alternate two-dimensional PCA (2DPCA) in the column direction of images in the 2DPCA subspace, is proposed to exploit the correlation of vein features inside the ROI between images. The major advantage of the proposed method is that it requires fewer coefficients for efficient dorsal hand vein image representation and recognition. The experimental results on our large dorsal hand vein database show that the presented schema achieves promising performance (false reject rate: 0.97% and false acceptance rate: 0.05%) and is feasible for dorsal hand vein recognition.

  10. Exclusive Territories and Manufacturers’ Collusion

    OpenAIRE

    Salvatore Piccolo; Markus Reisinger

    2010-01-01

    This paper highlights the rationale for exclusive territories in a model of repeated interaction between competing supply chains. We show that with observable contracts exclusive territories have two countervailing effects on manufacturers' incentives to sustain tacit collusion. First, granting local monopolies to retailers distributing a given brand softens inter- and intrabrand competition in a one-shot game. Hence, punishment profits are larger, thereby rendering deviation more profitable....

  11. Dosimetric Comparison of Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy Plans, With or Without Anterior Myocardial Territory and Left Ventricle as Organs at Risk, in Early-Stage Left-Sided Breast Cancer Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan Wenyong; Wang Xiaohong; Qiu Dasheng; Liu Dong; Jia Shaohui; Zeng Fanyu; Chen Zhengwang; Li Beihui; Xu Jiaozhen; Wei Lai; Hu Desheng

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: We evaluated heart sparing using an intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) plan with the left ventricle (LV) and/or the anterior myocardial territory (AMT) as additional organs at risk (OARs). Methods and Materials: A total of 10 patients with left-sided breast cancer were selected for dosimetric planning. Both lungs, the right breast, heart, LV, and AMT were defined as OARs. We generated one tangential field plan and four IMRT plans for each patient. We examined the dose–volume histogram parameters of the planning target volume and OARs. Results: Compared with the tangential field plan, the mean dose to the heart in the IMRT plans did not show significant differences; however, the dose to the AMT and LV decreased by 18.7–45.4% and 10.8–37.4%, respectively. The maximal dose to the heart decreased by 18.6–35.3%, to the AMT by 22.0–45.1%, and to the LV by 23.5–45.0%, And the relative volumes of the heart (V ≥12 ), AMT (V >11 ) and LV (V >10 ) decreased significantly with different levels, respectively. The volume of the heart, AMT, LV, both lungs, and right breast receiving ≥5 Gy showed a significant increase. Compared with the IMRT (H) plan, the mean dose to the heart, AMT, and LV decreased by 17.5–21.5%, 25.2–29.8%, and 22.8–29.8% and the maximal dose by 13.6–20.6%, 23.1–29.6%, and 17.3–29.1%, respectively. The IMRT plans for both lungs and the right breast showed no significant differences. Conclusions: The IMRT plans with the addition of the AMT and/or LV as OARs considerably increased heart sparing. We recommend including the LV as an additional OAR in such plans.

  12. Food, place, territorialization. From territory appreciation to successful businesses

    OpenAIRE

    Dessì, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    During the last decades, the awareness of the bond between food and its territory of origin has grown, and food perceived to be local and traditional increased in its attractiveness. Aware of this scenario, the purpose of this dissertation is to explore in depth the phenomenon of place-based food: firstly, it aims for a better understanding of the concept of place-based food; secondly, the purpose is to study the territorial orientation of food companies, trying to understand how local and gl...

  13. Regions and the Territorial Cohesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Ianos

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Territorial cohesion is an important target of European Union, constantly promoted by its institutions and their representatives. In the context of the Europe 2020 strategy, one of the most important support documents, the region represents a very important issue, being considered to be the key to its successfulness. The region is seen as a support for the smart growth and all the operational policy concepts try to make use of the spatial potential, by taking better account of the territorial specificities. Two main questions play attention: the need to transform the present-day developmental regions into administrative ones is a priority? What kind of regionalization it must to be promoted? Correlating these issues with already defined territorial cohesion, the administrative region is a real tool for the future territorial development. The experience of the last 14 years asks urgently the building of a new territorial administrative reform, giving competences to regions. For instant, each development region is a construction resulted from a free association of the counties. Their role in the regional development is much reduced one, because their regional councils are not elected; decisions taken at this level are consultative for the social, economical, cultural or political actors.

  14. Rehabilitation of the contaminated territories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ageets, V.Yu.; Kenigsberg, Ya.Eh.; Skurat, V.V.; Tikhonova, L.E.; Shevchuk, V.E.; Ipat'ev, V.A.; Klimova, T.A.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of the activity is development of the scientific reasonable projects of socio-economic and social-psychological rehabilitation of specific areas and populated localities on the contaminated territories of the both Gomel and Mogilev Regions. The results of economic researches allow to decrease expenses for realization of protective measures, to increase feedback of counter-measures, to speed up process of development of the plans and their realization, to decrease the labour input of planning of the rehabilitation measures, to increase quantity of considered alternative variants of strategy of the contaminated regions rehabilitation. On the basis of the sociological and psychological researches the recommendations for the most effective formation of adaptation strategies of behaviour of the people on the contaminated territories, formation of post accidental culture and active life image at teenagers, ways of fastening of youth in these areas, more address specialized social support and protection of the irradiated persons, perfection of social demographic policy on rehabilitated territories are offered. In the report are described following directions: scientific ground and development of the complex programmes of rehabilitation of administrative regions on the contaminated territories; development of administration system of the social economical development of the territories having suffered after the Chernobyl accident; social support and socio-psychological rehabilitation of the population of Belarus

  15. Organization of measures on protection of population and territories against weapons of mass destruction: brief analysis of laboratory control and conditions of personnel protective means of respiratory organs in the Republic of Tajikistan; Organizatsiya meropriyatiy po zashite naseleniya i territoriy ot oruzhiya massovogo unichtozheniya; kratkiy analiz laborotornogo kotrolya i sostoyaniya sredstv individual'noy zashiti organov dikhaniya v Respublike Tadzhikistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamalov, D. D.; Makhmadov, T. F.; Stotskiy, D. F. [Committee of Emergency Situations and Civil Defence under the Government of the Republic of Tajikistan, Dushanbe (Tajikistan)

    2010-07-01

    population and territory protection from mass-destruction weapon. Organization of actions on population and territory protection is caused on geographical location of Tajikistan. There is a number of some states near Tajikistan that have nuclear weapon: India, China, Pakistan. The basic actions for protection of the population and territories from weapons of mass destruction are: maintenance and accumulation of means of an individual defense, creation of stocks; creation and restoration of protective constructions of a civil defense; evacuation actions planning; restoration of system of monitoring and the laboratory control of a civil defense of Republic Tajikistan; according to the Government Regulation N 527 and dated on 31{sup st} of October, 2008 the 'Emergency situations and civil defense system development 2009-2014' Program was adopted. According to the Plan of the events within this Programme Committee of emergency situations and civil defense under the Government of Republic of Tajikistan provides a stage-by-stage realization of the actions for protection of population and territories from mass-destruction weapon. One of the important actions is provision and accumulation of the means of personal protection, keeping of this means. The means of personal protections are laboratory tested by the specialists of the Committee of emergency situations and civil defense. Analytical data of the Committee of emergency situations and civil defense allows making some conclusions concerning experienced storage of the means of personal protection. A general analysis of laboratory test indicates that: laboratory tests of filtering boxes indicate the preservation of air flow resistance and waterproof due to the adherence to the rules of keeping; laboratory tests of the front parts of the gas masks and their hardness and waterproof, and the waterproof of the valves show that the front part is dependent on meteorological character of the region of storage at long-term keeping

  16. Joint of activities related to the territorial ordering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez Vilca, Wilmer

    2005-01-01

    The process of territorial ordering in Peru has little experiences; one of them is the one that comes carrying out in the department from san martin, with the conduction of its respective regional government. This department is in the Amazonian natural region and comes being affected by a series from problems social (like the existence of an uncontrolled migration, deficiency of basic services), economic (unemployment, unmannerliness), legal (territorial invasions to the property, conflicts) and environmental (deforestation, gradual loss of the biodiversity, environmental contamination), in addition to the loss of leadership of the organizations responsible for the departmental development. As opposed to it, the local institutional organizations decided to give priority as of year 2004 to the project of territorial ordering as a measurement to obtain the use and suitable occupation of the territory. This project has between its characteristics the one to gather and to group the experiences in demarcation and territorial organization, economic ecological zonification, road management of the use of the territory, plans and conformation of regions. This set of activities arisen without a national technical-legal frame that unifies them is being articulated by means of the execution of a project of public investment denominated 'territorial ordering of the department of san cultural, institutional, economic and environmental martin whose indicators of management are being constructed with the purpose of evaluating their social impact. Like all developing process, it has his discharges and losses, whose lessons will be with the purpose of taking advantage of the obtained knowledge and that it has in the geomatic to one of his tools of technological support

  17. Joint of activities related to the territorial ordering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez Vilca, Wilmer

    2006-01-01

    The process of territorial ordering in Peru has little experiences; one of them is the one that comes carrying out in the department from san martin, with the conduction of its respective regional government. This department is in the Amazonian natural region and comes being affected by a series from problems social (like the existent of an uncontrolled migration, deficiency of basic services), economic (unemployment, un mannerliness), legal (territorial invasions to the property, conflicts) and environmental (deforestation, gradual loss of the biodiversity, environmental contamination), in addition to the loss of leadership of the organizations responsible for the departmental development. As opposed to it, the local institutional organizations decided to give priority as of year 2004 to the project of territorial ordering as a measurement to obtain the use and suitable occupation of the territory. This project has between its characteristics the one to gather and to group the experiences in demarcation and territorial organization, economic ecological zincification, road management of the use of the territory, plans and conformation of regions. This set of activities arisen without a national technical-legal frame that unifies them is being articulated by means of the execution of a project of public investment denominated territorial ordering of the department of san cultural, institutional, economic and environmental martin, whose indicators of management are being constructed with the purpose of evaluating their social impact. Like all developing process, it has his discharges and losses, whose lessons will be with the purpose of taking advantage of the obtained knowledge and that it has in the geomatic to one of his tools of technological support

  18. A Comparative Study of Dorsal Buccal Mucosa Graft Substitution Urethroplasty by Dorsal Urethrotomy Approach versus Ventral Sagittal Urethrotomy Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Pahwa, Mrinal; Gupta, Sanjeev; Pahwa, Mayank; Jain, Brig D. K.; Gupta, Manu

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. To compare the outcome of dorsal buccal mucosal graft (BMG) substitution urethroplasty by dorsal urethrotomy approach with ventral urethrotomy approach in management of stricture urethra. Methods and Materials. A total of 40 patients who underwent dorsal BMG substitution urethroplasty were randomized into two groups. 20 patients underwent dorsal onlay BMG urethroplasty as described by Barbagli, and the other 20 patients underwent dorsal BMG urethroplasty by ventral urethrotomy as ...

  19. Nuclear: an energy in territories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Ngoc, Boris

    2016-01-01

    After having briefly outlined that introducing a relationship between geography and nuclear energy is a quite recent approach, and by often quoting a researcher (Teva Meyer) specialised in Swedish energy issues, the author briefly discusses how nuclear energy structures territories through meshing and 'polarisation' effects, and economic and social impacts. He also discusses whether territories then become dependent on nuclear activity, what happens when a nuclear plant stops, how the existence of a nuclear plant becomes an identity market for a territory, and how material flows also deal with geography. In the last part, the author notices that in Germany, nuclear industry is considered as an industry like any other one. He finally outlines that geography could be useful to achieve energy transition

  20. Tools for territorial sustainability policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Amico, Flaviano; Buleandra, Mirian Mihai; Velardi, Maria; Buleandra, Mihaela; Tanase, Ion

    2006-01-01

    Industrial ecology and sustainable development share the concept of territory. Two models of territorial development are proposed: Eco industrial Parks and Italian Districts. Both models use industrial-ecology concepts and strategies, but both are still far from incorporating sustainability. This ideal could be pursed by more and better networking, in the first case to strengthen links with the local community, and in the second to increase financial resources. The Masurin project, co-funded by the EU, provides a response to this lack. This article describes Batter (one of the Masurin tolls) and its application to the city of Venice) [it

  1. Integrated territorial management and governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galland, Daniel

    This was the last in a series of three postgraduate workshops undertaken by the ENECON project during the period 2012-2014. A total of 28 master’s students, postgraduate students and lecturers from the Nordic-Baltic region gathered at the Utzon Centre in Aalborg to discuss territorial governance...

  2. Neuroradiological evaluation of dorsal cyst malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utsunomiya, Hidetsuna; Hayashi, Takashi; Hashimoto, Takeo; Matsuishi, Toyojiro; Okudera, Toshio.

    1988-01-01

    We discussed six cases with dorsal cyst malformations listing their neuroradiological observations and proposed to differentiate between the holosphere and hemisphere as defined by Yokota (1984). The cases were divided into holospheric and hemispheric groups depending on the continuity of their frontal lobe midlines. Cases 1, 2 and 3 were placed in the holospheric group because of their unseparated frontal lobe sbeneath the partially formed anterior interhemispheric fissures. Cases 4, 5 and 6 were grouped in the hemisphere due to the completion of the interhemispheric fissures. There has been a tendency in recent years for most cases of cerebral malformations having an endogenous dorsal cyst with monoventricular configuration to be diagnosed as holoprosencephaly. However, we believe that only patients who have a dorsal cyst in the holospheric brain should be included, and the others in the hemispheric brain, which is capable of completing hemispheric cleavage, should not. Therefore, we emphasize the importance of correctly identifying the holospheric state in the dorsal cyst malformations for diagnosing holoprosencephaly. (author)

  3. A case of dorsal oblique fingertip amputation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Shinsuke; Tatebe, Masahiro; Morita, Akimasa; Yoneda, Hidemasa; Iwatsuki, Katsuyuki; Hirata, Hitoshi

    2017-01-01

    This study reports successful finger replantation in a patient with a dorsal oblique fingertip amputation. When repairing this unique type of injury, an evaluation of the remaining vessels is more useful for successful replantation than the anatomical zone classification. We propose that Kasai's classification is appropriate for guiding treatment.

  4. A case of dorsal oblique fingertip amputation

    OpenAIRE

    Takeda, Shinsuke; Tatebe, Masahiro; Morita, Akimasa; Yoneda, Hidemasa; Iwatsuki, Katsuyuki; Hirata, Hitoshi

    2017-01-01

    Abstract This study reports successful finger replantation in a patient with a dorsal oblique fingertip amputation. When repairing this unique type of injury, an evaluation of the remaining vessels is more useful for successful replantation than the anatomical zone classification. We propose that Kasai?s classification is appropriate for guiding treatment.

  5. Tactile spatial working memory activates the dorsal extrastriate cortical pathway in congenitally blind individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonino, D; Ricciardi, E; Sani, L; Gentili, C; Vanello, N; Guazzelli, M; Vecchi, T; Pietrini, P

    2008-09-01

    In sighted individuals, both the visual and tactile version of the same spatial working memory task elicited neural responses in the dorsal "where" cortical pathway (Ricciardi et al., 2006). Whether the neural response during the tactile working memory task is due to visually-based spatial imagery or rather reflects a more abstract, supramodal organization of the dorsal cortical pathway remains to be determined. To understand the role of visual experience on the functional organization of the dorsal cortical stream, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) here we examined brain response in four individuals with congenital or early blindness and no visual recollection, while they performed the same tactile spatial working memory task, a one-back recognition of 2D and 3D matrices. The blind subjects showed a significant activation in bilateral posterior parietal cortex, dorsolateral and inferior prefrontal areas, precuneus, lateral occipital cortex, and cerebellum. Thus, dorsal occipito-parietal areas are involved in mental imagery dealing with spatial components in subjects without prior visual experience and in response to a non-visual task. These data indicate that recruitment of the dorsal cortical pathway in response to the tactile spatial working memory task is not mediated by visually-based imagery and that visual experience is not a prerequisite for the development of a more abstract functional organization of the dorsal stream. These findings, along with previous data indicating a similar supramodal functional organization within the ventral cortical pathway and the motion processing brain regions, may contribute to explain how individuals who are born deprived of sight are able to interact effectively with the surrounding world.

  6. Propuesta de un Modelo de Inteligencia Territorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Rosa Guzmán

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A territory is built on the shared space and interaction between diverse public and private actors providing knowledge and resources that encourage development of the territory according to their own trajectories, visions and contexts. Territorial development depends on the competences and efforts of these actors to articulate territorial networks and to build knowledge assets around the territorial possibilities and potential, so they can act favorably in front of the changing environment, deploying both adaptive and predictive behavior. This paper proposes a conceptual model of territorial intelligence that includes the processes that allow territorial appropriation of knowledge as well as the development of a collective intelligence to promote the sustainable development of the territory.

  7. Hydrosocial territories: a political ecology perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boelens, Rutgerd; Hoogesteger, Jaime; Swyngedouw, Erik; Vos, Jeroen; Wester, Philippus

    2016-01-01

    We define and explore hydrosocial territories as spatial configurations of people, institutions, water flows, hydraulic technology and the biophysical environment that revolve around the control of water. Territorial politics finds expression in encounters of diverse actors with divergent spatial

  8. TERRITORIAL BEHAVIOUR IN CERTAIN HORNED UNGULATES ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    territoriality. The existence of such boundaries becomes evident from certain behavioural symptoms;. "defence" or better, localized dominance which may lead to intolerance, is one of them. Not all bovids are territorial. Within the territorial species, there seem to be at least two types: (a). The animals, usually in pairs, may, ...

  9. What do territory owners defend against?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hinsch, Martin; Komdeur, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Theoretical research on evolutionary aspects of territoriality has a long history. Existing studies, however, differ widely in modelling approach and research question. A generalized view on the evolution of territoriality is accordingly still missing. In this review, we show that territorial

  10. Observations on Territorial Behaviour of Springbok, Antidorcas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Males did not have permanent harems, since groups of females were fluid in composition and highly mobile. Groups ... Aspects of territorial behaviour, such as courtship displays, defence of territory (by chasing out trespassing males), and advertising of territory by means of linked urination-defaecation displays on discrete ...

  11. Rehabilitation of the contaminated territories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lych, G.M.; Babosov, E.M.; Firsakova, S.K.

    1997-01-01

    In the chapter the system of management of socio economical development of contaminated territories in conditions of transition of the republic to market economy is described. The scientific substantiation of the complex programs of rehabilitation of both Bragin and Vetka areas of the Gomel Region is given. The methods of social support and socio psychological rehabilitation of the population having suffered after the Chernobyl accident are offered

  12. Territorial stigmatization and local belonging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Sune Qvotrup; Christensen, Ann-Dorte

    2012-01-01

    Loïc Wacquant has made a widely read and debated contribution to critical research on contemporary urban marginality. A central part of the theoretical framework is that residents of deprived areas internalize territorial stigmatization, which then has a range of negative effects. Based on empiri......; a discussion of the specific political culture of Scandinavian societies; and a problematization of Wacquant's reliance on Bourdieu's conception of symbolic violence....

  13. Prey availability affects territory size, but not territorial display behavior, in green anole lizards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stehle, Chelsea M.; Battles, Andrew C.; Sparks, Michelle N.; Johnson, Michele A.

    2017-10-01

    The availability of food resources can affect the size and shape of territories, as well as the behaviors used to defend territories, in a variety of animal taxa. However, individuals within a population may respond differently to variation in food availability if the benefits of territoriality vary among those individuals. For example, benefits to territoriality may differ for animals of differing sizes, because larger individuals may require greater territory size to acquire required resources, or territorial behavior may differ between the sexes if males and females defend different resources in their territories. In this study, we tested whether arthropod abundance and biomass were associated with natural variation in territory size and defense in insectivorous green anole lizards, Anolis carolinensis. Our results showed that both male and female lizards had smaller territories in a habitat with greater prey biomass than lizards in habitats with less available prey, but the rates of aggressive behaviors used to defend territories did not differ among these habitats. Further, we did not find a relationship between body size and territory size, and the sexes did not differ in their relationships between food availability and territory size or behavioral defense. Together, these results suggest that differences in food availability influenced male and female territorial strategies similarly, and that territory size may be more strongly associated with variation in food resources than social display behavior. Thus, anole investment in the behavioral defense of a territory may not vary with territory quality.

  14. The city, territoriality and networks in mental health policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Assis Costa

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The understanding of territory, made evident by a decentralized, local based, and non-institutionalized mental health model, is a fundamental element in building a renewed network. The objective of this essay is to understand how mental health policies gradually favor local actions, organized in terms of territories, to develop strategies of care that support the new model of mental health. From this perspective, the aim of this research is to reflect on the possibilities of establishing new social relations that can, in fact, widen the sense of community belonging in the daily living of those presenting mental health conditions. This study draws from theoretical concepts and frameworks of the social sciences, describing the diverse positions held by the main schools of urban sociology with regards to the understanding of territories. The multiple conceptions of territories and their relations to mental health are analyzed. Historical data about mental health in Brazil show a heterogeneous development of mental health policies in different areas of the country. Finally, social inclusion in the cities depends on an effective expansion of territory-based mental health services, as well as an amplification of the access to consumer goods and services not necessarily connected to health care, but to basic social and civil rights. Hopefully, new rules of social interaction will not be restricted to the mental health universe, but will promote new encounters in the urban space, with respect for differences and appreciation of diversity.

  15. Immunostaining for Homer reveals the majority of excitatory synapses in laminae I?III of the mouse spinal dorsal horn

    OpenAIRE

    Gutierrez-Mecinas, Maria; Kuehn, Emily D.; Abraira, Victoria E.; Polg?r, Erika; Watanabe, Masahiko; Todd, Andrew J.

    2016-01-01

    The spinal dorsal horn processes somatosensory information before conveying it to the brain. The neuronal organization of the dorsal horn is still poorly understood, although recent studies have defined several distinct populations among the interneurons, which account for most of its constituent neurons. All primary afferents, and the great majority of neurons in laminae I–III are glutamatergic, and a major factor limiting our understanding of the synaptic circuitry has been the difficulty i...

  16. Drosophila heart cell movement to the midline occurs through both cell autonomous migration and dorsal closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haack, Timm; Schneider, Matthias; Schwendele, Bernd; Renault, Andrew D

    2014-12-15

    The Drosophila heart is a linear organ formed by the movement of bilaterally specified progenitor cells to the midline and adherence of contralateral heart cells. This movement occurs through the attachment of heart cells to the overlying ectoderm which is undergoing dorsal closure. Therefore heart cells are thought to move to the midline passively. Through live imaging experiments and analysis of mutants that affect the speed of dorsal closure we show that heart cells in Drosophila are autonomously migratory and part of their movement to the midline is independent of the ectoderm. This means that heart formation in flies is more similar to that in vertebrates than previously thought. We also show that defects in dorsal closure can result in failure of the amnioserosa to properly degenerate, which can physically hinder joining of contralateral heart cells leading to a broken heart phenotype. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Dissemination and geovisualization of territorial entities' history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Plumejeaud

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an innovative solution for geovisualization of the demographic and administrative history of French municipalities, named "communes" in French. This solution allows for the open dissemination of such data. The challenge is to provide a web interface for unskilled users in order to help them understand complex information about the demographic evolution of French territories. Our approach combines interactive thematic, spatial, and temporal views. We describe our architecture, based on open-source technologies, and the organization of this imperfect geo-historical information in our spatiotemporal database. Our second contribution concerns the concept of an acquaintance graph that has been used to obtain an efficient design with good performance in our geovisualization website.

  18. Social acceptability of new territorial development projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-05-01

    This paper reviews the historical evolution of environmental awareness over the last three decades. The aspects covered include: the growing economic interdependence of nations, the development of new technologies, the internationalization of human rights and the phenomenon of organized trans-nationalism. The paper then develops a framework of territorial development assessment criteria embodying the United Nation's approach towards sustainable growth in which the rights of the human individual to a healthy life in harmony with nature are placed at the forefront of all sustainable growth decision making. Examples of decisional processes during actual hearings to decide on the go-ahead of energy development projects in Italy (a district heating system and a combined cycle gas turbine power plant) are given to evidence optimum ways to have public participation and interaction with government and expert committees take place in line with the United Nation's approach towards development. An important element dealt with is how to optimize the dissemination and use of information

  19. Endogenous neurotrophin-3 promotes neuronal sprouting from dorsal root ganglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xu-Yang; Gu, Pei-Yuan; Chen, Shi-Wen; Gao, Wen-Wei; Tian, Heng-Li; Lu, Xiang-He; Zheng, Wei-Ming; Zhuge, Qi-Chuan; Hu, Wei-Xing

    2015-11-01

    In the present study, we investigated the role of endogenous neurotrophin-3 in nerve terminal sprouting 2 months after spinal cord dorsal root rhizotomy. The left L1-5 and L7-S2 dorsal root ganglia in adult cats were exposed and removed, preserving the L6 dorsal root ganglia. Neurotrophin-3 was mainly expressed in large neurons in the dorsal root ganglia and in some neurons in spinal lamina II. Two months after rhizotomy, the number of neurotrophin-3-positive neurons in the spared dorsal root ganglia and the density of neurite sprouts emerging from these ganglia were increased. Intraperitoneal injection of an antibody against neurotrophin-3 decreased the density of neurite sprouts. These findings suggest that endogenous neurotrophin-3 is involved in spinal cord plasticity and regeneration, and that it promotes axonal sprouting from the dorsal root ganglia after spinal cord dorsal root rhizotomy.

  20. Organisation et contrôle de l’espace dans l’aire culturelle aja-fon (Sud-Togo et Bénin – XVIIe-XIXe siècle The organization and control of territory in the aja-fon cultural zone (southern Togo and Benin, 17th-19th centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Juhé-Beaulaton

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Les migrations des populations, la fondation de nouveaux villages conduisent les hommes à appréhender leur environnement, leur nouveau territoire et leurs occupants en s’appuyant sur des principes religieux à la base du fonctionnement des sociétés de l’aire culturelle aja-fon, ou aja-tado. Les traditions orales, la toponymie, les sources écrites européennes montrent comment l’espace s’est structuré à partir de la perception de l’environnement. Le contrôle du milieu naturel par l’organisation sociale aboutit à sa territorialisation. Les migrants ou les conquérants (selon les contextes déploient des stratégies pour maîtriser l’espace et les hommes qui l’occupent par le biais concomitant des alliances matrimoniales et des déplacements de divinités. Dans le cadre des royaumes de la côte des Esclaves (Ouidah, Allada, Dahomey, un réseau d’implantations royales, toujours associées à des divinités installées dans l’objectif de contrôler les mouvements des hommes et des biens, permettait d’assurer la domination politique sur l’ensemble du territoire dominé.Human migrations and the foundation of new villages led people to reckon with their environment, with the new territory and its occupants, by referring to the religious principles that underlay the social organization of Aja-Tado societies. Oral traditions, toponyms and writings by Europeans provide evidence about how this territory took shape out of a perception of this environment. The control of the natural environment exercised by the society led to its territorialization. Migrants or conquerors, depending on the context, adopted strategies that involved making matrimonial alliances and moving divinities so as to control a territory and its occupants. Among the Slave Coast kingdoms (Ouidah, Allada, Dahomey, a network of royal settlements, likewise associated with divinities, controlled the movement of people and goods, and thus asserted political

  1. Geoecological zoning of developed territories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. N. Gryaznov

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article contains information on methods of geoecological zoning carried out based on the assessment of cartographic material using geoinformation technologies for the analysis of factographic cartographic material. The proposed methodology complements the existing methodological recommendations on geological and environmental research, developed by VSEGINGEO. The paper reflects the basic principles of obtaining the initial environmental information for creation of a map evaluation model of the Salekhard Area, and the rationale for selecting factors and numerical criteria for an integrated environmental assessment of the territory, taking into account the specifics of nature-technogenic conditions of the Severnoye Priobye region (West Siberia. The article briefly describes the main natural factors of the region of research, including landscape, geological, radiation, engineering-geological, geocryological, hydrogeological factors. Separate block describes the objects of technogenic load, including technogeneally-transformed landscapes in residential areas, corridors of transport communications, industrial and energy zones, and local ecologically significant objects. Ecological significance of natural and technogenic factors affected conducted ranking of their numerical parameters of the evaluation criteria. The article shows the application of a method of expert scoring for obtaining an integral assessment of the ecological state of the geological environment and creating a map of the regionalization of the Salekhard Area. Based on obtained cartographic model, a brief analysis of the existing ecological situation in the Salekhard Area shows the territories of favorable, satisfactory, tense, and crisis ecological states. The geoinformation-integrated model serves as the basis for determination of ecologically significant factors at the points of mapping the state of the geological environment, which allows for the further development of the

  2. Radiographic Outcomes of Dorsal Distraction Distal Radius Plating for Fractures With Dorsal Marginal Impaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huish, Eric G; Coury, John G; Ibrahim, Mohamed A; Trzeciak, Marc A

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare radiographic outcomes of patients treated with dorsal spanning plates with previously reported normal values of radiographic distal radius anatomy and compare the results with prior publications for both external fixation and internal fixation with volar locked plates. Patients with complex distal radius fractures including dorsal marginal impaction pattern necessitating dorsal distraction plating at the discretion of the senior authors (M.A.T. and M.A.I.) from May 30, 2013, to December 29, 2015, were identified and included in the study. Retrospective chart and radiograph review was performed on 19 patients, 11 male and 8 female, with mean age of 47.83 years (22-82). No patients were excluded from the study. All fractures united prior to plate removal. The average time the plate was in place was 80.5 days (49-129). Follow-up radiographs showed average radial inclination of 20.5° (13.2°-25.5°), radial height of 10.7 mm (7.5-14 mm), ulnar variance of -0.3 mm (-2.1 to 3.1 mm), and volar tilt of 7.9° (-3° to 15°). One patient had intra-articular step-off greater than 2 mm. Dorsal distraction plating of complex distal radius fractures yields good radiographic results with minimal complications. In cases of complex distal radius fractures including dorsal marginal impaction where volar plating is not considered adequate, a dorsal distraction plate should be considered as an alternative to external fixation due to reduced risk for infection and better control of volar tilt.

  3. Rise, fall and resurrection of chromosome territories: a historical perspective. Part I. The rise of chromosome territories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Cremer

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available It is now generally accepted that chromosomes in the cell nucleus are organized in distinct domains, first called chromosome territories in 1909 by the great cytologist Theodor Boveri. Yet, even today chromosomes have remained enigmatic individuals, whose structures, arrangements and functions in cycling and post-mitotic cells still need to be explored in full detail. Whereas numerous recent reviews describe present evidence for a dynamic architecture of chromosome territories and discuss the potential significance within the functional compartmentalization of the nucleus, a comprehensive historical account of this important concept of nuclear organization was lacking so far. Here, we describe the early rise of chromosome territories within the context of the discovery of chromosomes and their fundamental role in heredity, covering a period from the 1870th to the early 20th century (part I, this volume. In part II (next volume we review the abandonment of the chromosome territory concept during the 1950th to 1980th and the compelling evidence, which led to its resurrection during the 1970th to 1980th.

  4. New territory for NGL pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, C.L.; Billings, F.E.

    1994-01-01

    Even though the NGL pipeline industry appears mature, new geographic territory exists for expansion of NGL pipelines. However, the most fertile territory that must be pursued is the collective opportunities to better link the existing NGL industry. Associations like the Gas Processors Association can not perform the role demanded by a need to share information between the links of the chain on a more real time basis. The Association can not substitute for picking up the phone or calling a meeting of industry participants to discuss proposed changes in policies and procedures. All stakeholders must participate in squeezing out the inefficiencies of the industry. Some expansion and extension of NGL pipelines will occur in the future without ownership participation or commitments from the supply and demand businesses. However, significant expansions linking new supply sources and demand markets will only be made as the supply and demand businesses share long-term strategies and help define the pipeline opportunity. The successful industries of the twenty-first century will not be dominated by a single profitable sector, but rather by those industries which foster cooperation as well as competition. A healthy NGL industry will be comprised of profitable supply businesses and profitable demand businesses, linked together by profitable pipeline businesses

  5. Dorsal and ventral streams across sensory modalities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anna Sedda; Federica Scarpina

    2012-01-01

    In this review,we describe the current models of dorsal and ventral streams in vision,audition and touch.Available theories take their first steps from the model of Milner and Goodale,which was developed to explain how human actions can be efficiently carried out using visual information.Since then,similar concepts have also been applied to other sensory modalities.We propose that advances in the knowledge of brain functioning can be achieved through models explaining action and perception patterns independently from sensory modalities.

  6. Changing Endogenous Development: the Territorial Capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balázs István Tóth

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to analyze territorial capital as a new paradigm to make best use of endogenous assets. The study is dealing with the preconditions, meaning and possible theoretical taxonomies of territorial capital. In this study I emphasize that the cumulative effects of regional potentials are more important than economies of scale and location factors. I present different approaches and interpretations of territorial capital, then make an attempt to create an own model. I try to find answers for questions, such as why territorial capital shows a new perspective of urban and regional development; how cognitive elements of territorial capital provide increasing return; how territorial capital influences competitiveness and what kind of relation it has with cohesion.

  7. The Political and Territorial Development of Nations without States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jernej Zupančič

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the issue of nations without states in contemporary Europe between the Atlantic and the Urals. The political map of the continent comprises forty-seven countries, most of which are nation-states. However, the cultural mosaic of Europe is far more complex; there are around fifty ethnic groups (in addition to historical, territorial, or indigenous ethnic minorities and an enormous number of immigrant ethnic communities lacking a state-based organization. Together, these people add up to 78 million, or almost 15% of the European population. Twenty-seven groups can be considered nations without states; they are culturally and ethnically based and have various forms of territorial integrity and political organization. However, they did not create a state organization, despite many attempts by some through history. Without a state organization, those communities have poorer opportunities to protect their folk culture and to reproduce various elements of ethnic identity. This is why they seek territorial autonomy or independent statehood through nationalist movements. In many cases, these ambitions are encompassed in regional movements. These movements have been popular in Europe, particularly because the idea of a “Europe of regions” as part of the European Union has had broad political support and acceptance. However, it has not actually succeeded. The EU and Europe as a whole are still a Europe of (nation-states. In general, regional movements have been successful and through this some nations without states have attained part of their political ambitions in the form of territorial autonomy. The regionalization of former centralist states (e.g., Spain and the United Kingdom increased the chances of ethnic survival for the Catalans, Basques, Scots, and Welsh. On the other hand, the regionalization of nations without states represented territorial division, a kind of “divide and rule” strategy serving to reduce their

  8. Territorial Cooperation With Non-Eu Regions

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez-Cohard, Juan Carlos; Alfonso, Javier; Vázquez-Barquero, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    TERRITORIAL COOPERATION WITH NON-EU REGIONS Territorial Cooperation (TC) has been possible because there is a trajectory of many years of work invested by the local actors, participants who have become the architects of TC through the city or region involved. Transcontinental cooperation as studied by the European Union TERCO project is providing important lessons for understanding TC. The purpose of the presentation is to analyze the Andalusian-North of Morocco territorial cooperation during...

  9. Two different streams form the dorsal visual system: anatomy and functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzolatti, Giacomo; Matelli, Massimo

    2003-11-01

    There are two radically different views on the functional role of the dorsal visual stream. One considers it as a system involved in space perception. The other is of a system that codes visual information for action organization. On the basis of new anatomical data and a reconsideration of previous functional and clinical data, we propose that the dorsal stream and its recipient parietal areas form two distinct functional systems: the dorso-dorsal stream (d-d stream) and the ventro-dorsal stream (v-d stream). The d-d stream is formed by area V6 (main d-d extrastriate visual node) and areas V6A and MIP of the superior parietal lobule. Its major functional role is the control of actions "on line". Its damage leads to optic ataxia. The v-d stream is formed by area MT (main v-d extrastriate visual node) and by the visual areas of the inferior parietal lobule. As the d-d stream, v-d stream is responsible for action organization. It, however, also plays a crucial role in space perception and action understanding. The putative mechanisms linking action and perception in the v-d stream is discussed.

  10. Design Mechanism as Territorial Strategic Capability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianita BLEOJU

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The current exigencies that a territory must faced in order to its’ optimalpositioning in future regional competition requires the ability to design theappropriate mechanism which better valorize the territory capability. Such aconstruct is vital for territorial sustainable development and supposes thecreation of a specific body of knowledge from distinctive local resourceexploitation and unique value creation and allocation. Territorial mechanismdesign is a typical management decision about identification, ownership andcontrol of specific strategic capabilities and their combination in a distinctiveterritorial portfolio. The most difficult responsibility is to allocate the territorialvalue added which is a source of conflict among territorial components. Ourcurrent paper research covers the basics of two complementary territorialpillars-rural and tourism potential and proves the lack of specific designmechanisms which explain the current diminishing value of Galati Brailaregion. The proposed management system, relying upon territorial controlmechanism, will ensure knowledge sharing process via collaborative learning,with the final role of appropriate territorial attractivity signals, reinforcingidentity as key factor of territorial attractability. Our paper is fully documentedon there years of data analyzing from territorial area of interest. This offers usthe necessary empiric contrasting for our proposed solution.

  11. TERRITORIES, TERRITORIALITIES AND IDENTITIES: MATERIAL RELATIONS, SYMBOLIC, AND OF GENDER IN THE COUNTRYSIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia Aparecida Pires de

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The territory is understood as an appropriate space, delimitated by power relations, and constituted by material and symbolic relations which provide elements to the territorialities development and for forming men and women identities. In the territory of familiar production, the sexual division of labor and of spaces causes the 'invisibility' of women's work in the productive sphere, fact that influences on the construction of the rural women’s identity. However, women exercise their territorialities in both spaces and their productive and reproductive activities are fundamental to the family's livingness and permanence in the countryside. In this sense, it proposes to analyze the territorialities and the territorial identity of the subjects of the countryside and ascertain how this discussion contributes to the recognition of rural woman's identity. To the development of this research, have been taken theoretical research about: territory, territoriality, identity, gender and domestic space.

  12. The territorial biorefinery as a new business model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Lucian Ceapraz

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The transition toward more sustainable industries opens the way for alternative solutions based upon new economic models using agricultural inputs or biomass to substitute oil-based inputs. In this context different generations of biorefinery complexes are evolving rapidly and highlight the numerous possibilities for the organization of processing activities, from supply to final markets. The evolution of these biorefineries has followed two main business models, the port biorefinery, based on the import of raw materials, and the territorial biorefinery, based on strong relationships with local (or regional supply bases. In this article we focus on the concept of the ‘territorial biorefinery’, seen as a new business model. We develop the idea of a link between the biorefinery and its territory through several relevant theoretical approaches and demonstrate that the definition of ‘territorial biorefinery’ does not achieve, from these theoretical backgrounds, a consensus. More importantly, we emphasise that the theoretical assumptions underlying the different definitions used should be made explicit in order to facilitate the manner in which practioners study, develop and set up businesses of this kind.

  13. Regional competitiveness and territorial industrial development in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeković Slavka

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paper are investigated the regional competitiveness and the territorial aspects of industry in Serbia. There are analyzed the key recent movement in industrial development of Serbia and macrolocational factors and territorial organization of industry. The research of possible structural changes of industry and identification of its key development sectors is the important component of territorial development analysis in Serbia. This paper points to the kinds and types of industrial zones and industrial parks as fundamental models of regional and urban development of that activity with critical retrospection on the industrial zones in Serbia (greenfield and brownfield industrial locations. There are shown results of evaluation the regional competitiveness from a stand-point of possibilities of industrial development on the regional level (NUTS 3 by comparative analyses and Spider method. Results are used as one of the bases for making preliminary draft of territorial development scenario of this activity in Serbia and for the possible alocation of the future industrial zones and industrial parks in region level.

  14. 31 CFR 515.322 - Authorized trade territory; member of the authorized trade territory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Authorized trade territory; member of the authorized trade territory. 515.322 Section 515.322 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... CUBAN ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 515.322 Authorized trade territory; member of the...

  15. Versatility of the ventral approach in bulbar urethroplasty using dorsal, ventral or dorsal plus ventral oral grafts

    OpenAIRE

    Palminteri, Enzo; Berdondini, Elisa; Fusco, Ferdinando; Nunzio, Cosimo De; Giannitsas, Kostas; Shokeir, Ahmed A.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the versatility of the ventral urethrotomy approach in bulbar reconstruction with buccal mucosa (BM) grafts placed on the dorsal, ventral or dorsal plus ventral urethral surface. Patients and methods Between 1999 and 2008, 216 patients with bulbar strictures underwent BM graft urethroplasty using the ventral-sagittal urethrotomy approach. Of these patients, 32 (14.8%; mean stricture 3.2?cm, range 1.5?5) had a dorsal graft urethroplasty (DGU), 121 (56%; mean stricture...

  16. Geologic structure of Semipalatinsk test site territory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ergaliev, G.Kh.; Myasnikov, A.K.; Nikitina, O.I.; Sergeeva, L.V.

    2000-01-01

    This article gives a short description of the territory of Semipalatinsk test site. Poor knowledge of the region is noted, and it tells us about new data on stratigraphy and geology of Paleozoic layers, obtained after termination of underground nuclear explosions. The paper contains a list a questions on stratigraphy, structural, tectonic and geologic formation of the territory, that require additional study. (author)

  17. Territoriality and breeding success in Gurney's sugarbird ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Only 25 %of pairs laid eggs, and mating appears to have been constrained by low nectar and arthropod energy availability, and the costs associated with the defence of large territories. Reproductive success was directly related to arthropod availability on territories, with pairs not even appearing to attempt breeding if this is ...

  18. Towards Territorial Privacy in Smart Environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Könings, Bastian; Schaub, Florian; Weber, M.; Kargl, Frank

    Territorial privacy is an old concept for privacy of the personal space dating back to the 19th century. Despite its former relevance, territorial privacy has been neglected in recent years, while privacy research and legislation mainly focused on the issue of information privacy. However, with the

  19. Asymmetric interspecific territorial competition over food resources ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The rock-dwelling cichlids in Lake Malawi comprise the most diverse freshwater fish community in the world. Individuals frequently interact with heterospecifics through feeding territoriality. Underwater observations and experiments were conducted to examine interspecific variation in the frequencies of territorial behaviour ...

  20. 27 CFR 4.2 - Territorial extent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Territorial extent. 4.2 Section 4.2 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE Scope § 4.2 Territorial extent. This part...

  1. TERRITORIAL AND NON-TERRITORIAL AUTONOMY: “ROMANIAN PARADOX”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRISTIAN JURA

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Whereas in Romania there are 19 national minorities officially acknowledged by Romanian state, up to present, one did not manage to adopt a special law of national minorities. We identify special disposals related to national minorities in Romanian Constitution, in the law of local public administration, the law of education, the law concerning the election of the Chamber of Deputies and Senate, the law related to political parties, the law for the election of the authorities of local public administration, the law concerning the combating of all forms of discrimination. In the last project of the Law concerning the statute of national minorities in Romania, a new concept is introduced: cultural autonomy of minorities. The cultural autonomy is a form of non-territorial autonomy. Nevertheless, Romania is criticised by some international organisations for the fact that the organisations of national minorities represented in the Parliament of Romania have instituted a monopole, therefore no other organisation of any minority is allowed to participate to the elections.

  2. State and Territory Greenhouse Gas Emissions 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-06-01

    This document provides an overview of the latest available estimates of greenhouse gas emissions for Australia's States and Territories. Australia's total greenhouse gas emissions in 2004 amounted to 564.7 million tonnes. The State and Territory breakdown was: New South Wales: 158.7 million tonnes (Mt); Queensland: 158.5 Mt; Victoria: 123.0 Mt; Western Australia: 68.5 Mt; South Australia: 27.6 Mt; Northern Territory: 15.6 Mt; Tasmania: 10.7 Mt; ACT: 1.2 Mt. The summary of State and Territory inventories presented in this document reports estimates of greenhouse gas emissions for each State and Territory for the period 1990 to 2004. It is the first time that a complete annual time-series has been reported

  3. Territory and management of social policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldaíza Sposati

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article developed in three movements. The territory building is historical construction and distinguishes this reading of which treat the territory as a place, a coverage area under a given geographic boundary. Assigns key character that distinction for the examination of the relationship territory and social policy. Shows that she is not limited to location of social equipment, and distinguishes it from the social policies operation format without territory, whose management logic is standardized, have homogeneous character of procedures, with similarity to financial agencies operation. In the second movement puts in scene the relationship between institutional agents of social services and the citizens who use them for lives being him. Finally highlights the constituent elements of that relationship as: the recognition of heterogeneity as an expression of singular identities; and the territory trajectory constitution that focuses of living on it, and these influenced by these trajectories.

  4. Effects of previous intrusion pressure on territorial responses in nightingales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sprau, P.; Roth, T.; Amrhrein, V.; Naguib, M.

    2014-01-01

    In territorial animals, establishing and defending a territory against rivals is commonly a prerequisite for successful reproduction. Yet, often, non-territorial males that are seeking to establish their own territory may intrude into occupied territories and persistently challenge residents in

  5. LAND USE PLANNING AND URBAN PLANS: TERRITORIAL BALANCE AS ETHICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunice Helena Sguizzardi Abascal

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The article suggests a necessary link between urban planning and territorial organization, in order to, through the synergistic relationship between planning tools and their application to planning, implementing a policy of urban and regional management. By linking the development plan for territorial development plans and categories of land use, this methodology helps to streamline operations at multiple scales. The establishment of this network of instruments and shapes the actions of government action against the rapid and intense increase of only economic forces that shape the territory today, suggesting that it is possible to regulate the action of the housing market through planned interventions, valuing the regional balance, social and environmental - ethical by definition. It is suggested that the possible effects predatory natural and built environment can be reversed or prevented by an action articulating these planning instruments are linked to the development and implementation of plans (and projects at multiple scales, approaching from the regional to the local and metropolitan, from regional policies to sectors, that are incidents in the municipal territory. However, the speed and magnitude of the occupation and transformation of soil occur mainly in periods of heating housing, often jeopardize the balance and environmental quality, natural heritage, urban and landscape. It assumes the argument that the overcoming of undesirable environmental effects, triggered by occupation of the ground guided by the real estate sector fast action can be successful with the articulation of levels of planning and intervention. It is proposed that the complexity of contemporary urban and metropolitan requires the articulation of different scales through the use of innovative urban instruments. By articulating these different scales, at the municipal and other levels supra, contributes to, through a network plan to overcome the undesirable dichotomy

  6. The functional anatomy of speech perception: Dorsal and ventral processing pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickok, Gregory

    2003-04-01

    Drawing on recent developments in the cortical organization of vision, and on data from a variety of sources, Hickok and Poeppel (2000) have proposed a new model of the functional anatomy of speech perception. The model posits that early cortical stages of speech perception involve auditory fields in the superior temporal gyrus bilaterally (although asymmetrically). This cortical processing system then diverges into two broad processing streams, a ventral stream, involved in mapping sound onto meaning, and a dorsal stream, involved in mapping sound onto articulatory-based representations. The ventral stream projects ventrolaterally toward inferior posterior temporal cortex which serves as an interface between sound and meaning. The dorsal stream projects dorsoposteriorly toward the parietal lobe and ultimately to frontal regions. This network provides a mechanism for the development and maintenance of ``parity'' between auditory and motor representations of speech. Although the dorsal stream represents a tight connection between speech perception and speech production, it is not a critical component of the speech perception process under ecologically natural listening conditions. Some degree of bi-directionality in both the dorsal and ventral pathways is also proposed. A variety of recent empirical tests of this model have provided further support for the proposal.

  7. Versatile and simple approach to determine astrocyte territories in mouse neocortex and hippocampus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antje Grosche

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Besides their neuronal support functions, astrocytes are active partners in neuronal information processing. The typical territorial structure of astrocytes (the volume of neuropil occupied by a single astrocyte is pivotal for many aspects of glia-neuron interactions. METHODS: Individual astrocyte territorial volumes are measured by Golgi impregnation, and astrocyte densities are determined by S100β immunolabeling. These data are compared with results from conventionally applied methods such as dye filling and determination of the density of astrocyte networks by biocytin loading. Finally, we implemented our new approach to investigate age-related changes in astrocyte territories in the cortex and hippocampus of 5- and 21-month-old mice. RESULTS: The data obtained by our simplified approach based on Golgi impregnation were compared to previously published dye filling experiments, and yielded remarkably comparable results regarding astrocyte territorial volumes. Moreover, we found that almost all coupled astrocytes (as indicated by biocytin loading were immunopositive for S100β. A first application of this new experimental approach gives insight in age-dependent changes in astrocyte territorial volumes. They increased with age, while cell densities remained stable. In 5-month-old mice, the overlap factor was close to 1, revealing little or no interdigitation of astrocyte territories. However, in 21-month-old mice, the overlap factor was more than 2, suggesting that processes of adjacent astrocytes interdigitate. CONCLUSION: Here we verified the usability of a simple, versatile method for assessing astrocyte territories and the overlap factor between adjacent territories. Second, we found that there is an age-related increase in territorial volumes of astrocytes that leads to loss of the strict organization in non-overlapping territories. Future studies should elucidate the physiological relevance of this adaptive reaction of

  8. Scanning electron microscopy of the dorsal vessel of Panstrongylus megistus (Burmeister, 1835 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadir Francisca Sant'Anna Nogueira

    1991-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study we analyzed the microanatomy of the dorsal vessel of the triatomine Panstrongylus megistus. The organ is a tuble anatomically divided into an anterior aorta anad a posterior heart, connected to the body wall through 8 pairs of alary muscles. The heart is divided in 3 chambers by means of 2 pairs of cardiac valves. a pair of ostia can be observed in the lateral wall of each chamber. A bundle of nerve fibers was found outside the organ, running dorsally along its major axis. A group of longitudinal muscular fibers was found in the ventral portion of the vessel. The vessel was found to be lined both internally and externally by pericardial cells covered by a thin laminar membrane. Inseide the vessel the pericardial cells were disposed in layers and on the outside they formed clusters or rows.

  9. The issue of ventral versus dorsal approach in bulbar urethral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    E. Palminteri

    From surgical point of view, the Barbagli Dorsal Grafting by Dor- sal approach [8] gives a good support for the graft; Barbagli stated that his technique offers a wider augmentation than ventral or dorsal grafting using the ventral approach. The good spongiosum covering seems reduce the risk of fistula; in reality there is a ...

  10. Dorsal finger texture recognition: Investigating fixed-length SURF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartung, Daniel; Kückelhahn, Jesper

    2012-01-01

    We seek to create fixed-length features from dorsal finger skin images extracted by the SURF interest point detector to combine it in the privacy enhancing helper data scheme. The source of the biometric samples is the GUC45 database which features finger vein, fingerprint and dorsal finger skin...

  11. Sunscreen Use on the Dorsal Hands at the Beach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren, D. B.; Hobbs, J. B.; Jr, R. F. W.; Riahi, R. R.

    2013-01-01

    Since skin of the dorsal hands is a known site for the development of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma, an epidemiologic investigation was needed to determine if beachgoers apply sunscreen to the dorsal aspect of their hands as frequently as they apply it to other skin sites. Aim. The aim of the current study was to compare the use of sunscreen on the dorsal hands to other areas of the body during subtropical late spring and summer sunlight exposure at the beach. Materials and Methods. A cross-sectional survey from a convenience sample of beachgoers was designed to evaluate responded understanding and protective measures concerning skin cancer on the dorsal hands in an environment with high natural UVR exposure. Results. A total of 214 surveys were completed and analyzed. Less than half of subjects (105, 49%) applied sunscreen to their dorsal hands. Women applied sunscreen to the dorsal hands more than men (55% women versus 40% men, ρ=0.04 ). Higher Fitzpatrick Skin Type respondents were less likely to protect their dorsal hands from ultraviolet radiation (ρ=0.001 ). Conclusions. More public education focused on dorsal hand protection from ultraviolet radiation damage is necessary to reduce the risk for squamous cell carcinomas of the hands.

  12. Architecture, urbanism, and territorial transformations of the paracas period in the Valley of Chincha

    OpenAIRE

    Canziani, José

    2015-01-01

    With questions still surrounding the indefinition of the Paracas social formation, we consider that analyses of architecture, ur-banism, and territorial transformations play a fundamental role in forming hypotheses and approaching an understanding of its possible characteristics. Unlike other valleys on the south coast, the Chincha valley sees consistent expressions of monumental architecture, urban organization and territorial transformations, which together acquire an exceptional character ...

  13. Dorsal-ventral patterning in amphioxus: current understanding, unresolved issues, and future directions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kozmiková, Iryna; Yu, J.K.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 10-12 (2017), s. 601-610 ISSN 0214-6282 R&D Projects: GA ČR GC15-21285J Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : dorsal-ventral patterning * organizer * signaling pathway * chordate * evolution Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Biology (theoretical, mathematical, thermal, cryobiology, biological rhythm), Evolutionary biology Impact factor: 1.981, year: 2016

  14. The judicialization of territorial politics in Brazil, Colombia and Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helder Ferreira do Vale

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This article explains how judicial review influences intergovernmental political dynamics in Brazil, Colombia and Spain. The argument is developed in light of two questions: how supreme courts have established themselves as pivotal institutions for settling vertical intergovernmental disputes, and how national and subnational politicians use judicial review in order to enhance their own interests. A comparison between the judicial review processes in federal Brazil, quasi-federal Spain, and unitary Colombia provides an answer to these questions. Accounting for the differences in the territorial organization and systems of government among these countries, the article assesses the patterns of judicial review originating from the subnational level. Findings suggest that courts affect the interaction between national and subnational politicians in the three country-cases, but through different patterns of judicialization of territorial politics.

  15. Collaborative environmental assessment in the Northwest Territories, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armitage, Derek R.

    2005-01-01

    Recent trends in environmental assessment theory and practice indicate a growing concern with collaboration and learning. Although there are few examples of the institutional, organizational, and socio-political forms and processes required to foster this collaboration and learning, the establishment of an environmental planning, management, and assessment regime in Canada's Northwest Territories offers useful insights. Consequently, this paper identifies and examines the institutional, organizational, and socio-political conditions that have encouraged more collaborative forms of environmental assessment practice in the Northwest Territories. Key issues highlighted include: (1) the development of decentralized regulatory organizations more responsive to changing circumstances; (2) strategies for more effective communication and participation of community interests; (3) efforts to build a collaborative vision of economic and social development through region-specific land use plans; (4) the integration of knowledge frameworks; and (5) a concern with the capacity required to encourage effective intervention in the assessment process

  16. Animal interactions and the emergence of territoriality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Giuggioli

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Inferring the role of interactions in territorial animals relies upon accurate recordings of the behaviour of neighbouring individuals. Such accurate recordings are rarely available from field studies. As a result, quantification of the interaction mechanisms has often relied upon theoretical approaches, which hitherto have been limited to comparisons of macroscopic population-level predictions from un-tested interaction models. Here we present a quantitative framework that possesses a microscopic testable hypothesis on the mechanism of conspecific avoidance mediated by olfactory signals in the form of scent marks. We find that the key parameters controlling territoriality are two: the average territory size, i.e. the inverse of the population density, and the time span during which animal scent marks remain active. Since permanent monitoring of a territorial border is not possible, scent marks need to function in the temporary absence of the resident. As chemical signals carried by the scent only last a finite amount of time, each animal needs to revisit territorial boundaries frequently and refresh its own scent marks in order to deter possible intruders. The size of the territory an animal can maintain is thus proportional to the time necessary for an animal to move between its own territorial boundaries. By using an agent-based model to take into account the possible spatio-temporal movement trajectories of individual animals, we show that the emerging territories are the result of a form of collective animal movement where, different to shoaling, flocking or herding, interactions are highly heterogeneous in space and time. The applicability of our hypothesis has been tested with a prototypical territorial animal, the red fox (Vulpes vulpes.

  17. Territorial fiscal control. Diagnostic and outlook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Ariel Sanchez-Torres

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This document contains the research results of the territorial fiscal control improvement proposal project, developed  by  Rosario  University  with  the support by  the  German Technical Cooperation Agency (GTZ. In short, it analyzes and identifies the principal problems of the Colombian territorial fiscal control system on the first level, (Contraloría General de la República Office, Departmental, Municipal and District Controller Offices offering a general view of the performance and the distribution of responsibilities between the different fiscal control bodies. The document is structured as follows: l introduction and constitutional scheme of the fiscal control system, 2 a description of the distribution of responsibilities between the different fiscal control bodies, 3 the development of territorial fiscal control with reference to jurisprudence,  4 territorial fiscal control, 5 quality of territorial fiscal control and 6 reform proposals and conclusions. Among the proposals  analyzed  in this  project  we  have,  the depoliticization  on  the election of the employees in charge of territorial fiscal control, the financing necessary to realize that control, sourced from territorial entities own resources and the achievement of economies of scale thought the merging of control bodies; Another proposal involves the integration of territorial fiscal control with the second level control by means of .the application of support mechanism to the control function exercise by Contraloría General de la República Office, and a improvement of information systems, indicators and evaluations applied by territorial controller offices.

  18. Versatility of the ventral approach in bulbar urethroplasty using dorsal, ventral or dorsal plus ventral oral grafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palminteri, Enzo; Berdondini, Elisa; Fusco, Ferdinando; De Nunzio, Cosimo; Giannitsas, Kostas; Shokeir, Ahmed A

    2012-06-01

    To investigate the versatility of the ventral urethrotomy approach in bulbar reconstruction with buccal mucosa (BM) grafts placed on the dorsal, ventral or dorsal plus ventral urethral surface. Between 1999 and 2008, 216 patients with bulbar strictures underwent BM graft urethroplasty using the ventral-sagittal urethrotomy approach. Of these patients, 32 (14.8%; mean stricture 3.2 cm, range 1.5-5) had a dorsal graft urethroplasty (DGU), 121 (56%; mean stricture 3.7, range 1.5-8) a ventral graft urethroplasty (VGU), and 63 (29.2%; mean stricture 3.4, range 1.5-10) a dorsal plus ventral graft urethroplasty (DVGU). The strictured urethra was opened by a ventral-sagittal urethrotomy and BM graft was inserted dorsally or ventrally or dorsal plus ventral to augment the urethral plate. The median follow-up was 37 months. The overall 5-year actuarial success rate was 91.4%. The 5-year actuarial success rates were 87.8%, 95.5% and 86.3% for the DGU, VGU and DVGU, respectively. There were no statistically significant differences among the three groups. Success rates decreased significantly only with a stricture length of >4 cm. In BM graft bulbar urethroplasties the ventral urethrotomy access is simple and versatile, allowing an intraoperative choice of dorsal, ventral or combined dorsal and ventral grafting, with comparable success rates.

  19. Concerning the notions of space and territory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomadoni, Claudia

    2008-01-01

    This article intends to manifest some conceptual and methodological questions around spacetime, space and territory, sustainability, social agent, territoriality. It is necessary to overcome the dichotomy space without time and time without space and to un think the world of the social, leaving out the analysis of problems that overcome the fields of the disciplines. The most appropriate approach would be to recognize the existence of a spacetime dimension, or if one wants, time space and to define the geography as a social science that considers the territory like a social construction through the spacetime

  20. Cooperation between territorial communities: theory and practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    П. М. Любченко

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Problem Setting. The paper analyzes the problems in the system of legal regulation of cooperation between communities, highlights the advantages and disadvantages of such cooperation in Ukrainian local government. Analysis of the recent researches and publications. The legal basis for cooperation in the field of local government are provisions of the Constitution and laws of Ukraine, by-laws. The organizational principles of communities cooperation, principles, forms and mechanisms of such cooperation and its promotion, financing and monitoring prescribed by the Law of Ukraine «On cooperation of local communities» 17 June 2014, which provides five possible forms of cooperation. Paper main body. The first form - delegation to one party of cooperation by another parties of cooperation execution of one or few tasks with transferring of appropriate resources - one of the most difficult to implement, therefore in Ukraine it is not yet implemented. The second form – realization of joint projects, involving coordination of activities between parties of cooperation and accumulating them for a certain period resources to joint implementation of appropriate measures - one of the most common. This  form is popular because of its simplicity and versatility. Parties are determining the purpose of the project, terms and conditions of its implementation, a list of activities and conditions for their implementation, financial liabilities, other forms of local governments participation in implementation of the project and mechanism of coordination. The third and fourth forms aimed on the creation and maintenance of communal enterprises, institutions and organizations - joint infrastructure projects by parties of cooperation. This form of cooperation with the prospect of widespread use because it is aimed at ensuring effective use of resources of local communities based on common application available in one of the subjects of cooperation of municipal

  1. Areas of rural reservation in Bolivar's South: a proposal of rural territorial reordering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molina Lopez, Luis

    2005-01-01

    The article describes by means of a methodological process and inside an analysis mark that picks up aspects tried from the perspective of agrarian economy and the human geography, the effects of the public politics of the rural reservations in Bolivar's south, as well as its advances and challenges in the territorial reorganization of the territory. In this context, the document evidences the process of the new territorial configurations, in Bolivar's south, result of a social construction exercised by its own rural communities. In a same way the document presents a brief analysis of the agrarian structure of the rural reservations, and it illustrates the new underlying classification, product of the territorial control that develop the illegal armed groups at the moment. The advances, difficulties and challenges of the rural reservations, are the central axis of the present text, since the figure is presents as an interesting project of public politics, not alone of colonization and of agrarian reformation, but of territorial rural ordination, stiller, when in the country it has not been possible to approve an organic law of territorial classification that involves in an integral way the territorial aspects with the agrarian ones, going outside of the conception of the agrarian things of the strictly agricultural thing

  2. Enchained territories, migratory displacements and adaptive ruralities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Camarero

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The text is concerned with the ways in which the territories, in this case the different rural areas and localities, are integrated, linked or dissociated into processes and chains of production and economic of a global order. The connection between territories and economic chains occurs through flows of goods, inputs and capital, but also through migratory movements and diverse mobility practices. The process of social division of labor generates new logics of integration / disintegration of the regions in the socioeconomic process, and different mobility demands associated with these changes. The hypothesis that encloses this text is that places and territories will reach to insert in global chains if they develop capacities of adaptability to the productive conditions and especially they manage to reduce the territorial friction guaranteeing the migratory management and mobility of the labor force. With this point of view the socio-agricultural evolution of the rural areas in Spain is contemplated from the end of century XIX

  3. Territorial stigmatisation and the negotiation of place

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kim Toft; Christensen, Jørgen Riber

    2018-01-01

    The article addresses the negotiated meaning of notorious places through a consideration of a recent tendency in Danish TV documentaries where marginalized, often peripheral, places are portrayed and debated. Based partly on sociological research about territorial stigmatisation, partly on location...

  4. Strengthening territorial development and local management ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    In 1991, mayors were elected for the first time and local governments were mandated to ... and promote new and better territorial development practices and policies. ... workshops for government employees, production of information booklets, ...

  5. Historizing the production of territorial stigmatization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Troels Schultz; Delica, Kristian Nagel

    of the literature has been on the effects of territorial stigmatization rather than its actual production. This article brings structure to the debate and cast light on the production of territorial stigmatization by analysing a corpus of 119 publications from peer reviewed academic journals. Building...... we have witnessed a steep increase in the academic publication on Territorial stigmatization and its consequence; however there seem to be a rather large fragmentation in the different approaches, which makes for fragmented discussions and a confusing debate. Secondly the focus of the majority...... stigmatization is not a new a phenomena we do find that the modes and conditions for the production of territorial stigmatization at a number of different levels are novel and distinct from past experiences in several ways....

  6. Transforming Territories (Latin America) | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... -test options to improve the effectiveness of territorial development programs ... The research team will conduct cost-benefit analyses of policies or programs in ... staff, fine-tuned business and fundraising model, and stronger country offices ...

  7. The territorial competitive intelligence: a network concept

    OpenAIRE

    Bertacchini, Yann; Dou, Henri

    2003-01-01

    Whenever a territorial district is thinking about the next orientations of its own future, indeed it implies an act of development. In other words, it initiates a process of global competitiveness (Cavalcant, 1999) It is nothing less but reinforce the attractiveness capacity of the territory, endow it with specific arguments, make the potential partners know about them when they exist and finally, probably show a real will towards the associate partners related to the development program (Har...

  8. Environmental radioactivity of the Russian Federation territory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    General characteristics of the contaminated areas at the territory of Russia due to the Chernobyl accident is presented. Greatest areas of 137 Cs contamination (1-5 Ci/km 2 ) were revealed in Russia as compared with Belarus Ukraine and Moldova Russian territory was studied less than that of other republics affected due to the Chernobyl accident. Ratio of regions of Russia by 137 Cs contamination degree was considered. 3 tabs

  9. El reclamo territorial Ayoreo Totobiegosode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladys Margarita Casaccia

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available El proceso jurídico-administrativo abierto en 1993 ante los poderes del Estado Paraguayo para la reivindicación de una parte del territorio de los Totobiegosode, grupo local del pueblo Ayoreo, es experiencia singular en el país. En el proceso, los instrumentos jurídicos que garantizan derechos de los pueblos indígenas están sometidos a prueba no sólo en lo relativo a la coherencia de sus postulados, disposiciones y procedimientos, sino también en función a las constricciones del contexto socio-político. El trabajo expone el abordaje interdisciplinario de la gestión conjunta entre los Ayoreo Totobiegosode y profesionales no indígenas, como las distintas dimensiones administradas en la reivindicación territorial: étnica, ambiental, patrimonial cultural y de derechos humanos. La existencia de sub-grupos Totobiegosode sin contacto con la sociedad envolvente, y la transformación acelerada de la región del Chaco Paraguayo, son condiciones particulares de los trámites aún en curso.The legal-administrative process started in 1993 before the Paraguayan governmental powers to claim part of the land of the Totobiegosode, an indigenous local group of the Ayoreo people, is a unique experience in the country. In the process, the legal instruments that guarantee the rights of the indigenous people are not only tested with regards to the coherence of its principles, regulations and procedures, but also with regards to the constraints of the socio-political context. This paper explains the interdisciplinary approach of joint management between the Ayoreo Totobiegosode and non-indigenous team of professionals, such as the different aspects managed during the land claims: ethnic, environmental, cultural heritage and human rights. The existence of sub-groups of Totobiegosode without contact with the surrounding society, currently called "in isolation", and the accelerated transformation of the Paraguayan Chaco region, are particular conditions of

  10. Rethinking the Territorial Pact in the Context of European Territorial Cohesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina SAGHIN

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The authors argue through this paper, the importance of rethinking the recently abandoned tools that can be reactivated in times of crisis. EU 2020 Strategy and other EU documents create a favorable frame in order to achieve the priorities set by reconsidering the territorial pact concept. Recent documents define the partnership agreement concept, which seems to be more rigid and less flexible than the territorial pact. Having as a starter point Romania’s specifics, there are individualized 10 thematic territorial pacts and 8 global pacts. They must generate territorial synergies capable of ensuring the coherence between regions, states and the European Union as a whole.

  11. A Fate Map of the Murine Pancreas Buds Reveals a Multipotent Ventral Foregut Organ Progenitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelo, Jesse R.; Guerrero-Zayas, Mara-Isel; Tremblay, Kimberly D.

    2012-01-01

    The definitive endoderm is the embryonic germ layer that gives rise to the budding endodermal organs including the thyroid, lung, liver and pancreas as well as the remainder of the gut tube. DiI fate mapping and whole embryo culture were used to determine the endodermal origin of the 9.5 days post coitum (dpc) dorsal and ventral pancreas buds. Our results demonstrate that the progenitors of each bud occupy distinct endodermal territories. Dorsal bud progenitors are located in the medial endoderm overlying somites 2–4 between the 2 and 11 somite stage (SS). The endoderm forming the ventral pancreas bud is found in 2 distinct regions. One territory originates from the left and right lateral endoderm caudal to the anterior intestinal portal by the 6 SS and the second domain is derived from the ventral midline of the endoderm lip (VMEL). Unlike the laterally located ventral foregut progenitors, the VMEL population harbors a multipotent progenitor that contributes to the thyroid bud, the rostral cap of the liver bud, ventral midline of the liver bud and the midline of the ventral pancreas bud in a temporally restricted manner. This data suggests that the midline of the 9.5 dpc thyroid, liver and ventral pancreas buds originates from the same progenitor population, demonstrating a developmental link between all three ventral foregut buds. Taken together, these data define the location of the dorsal and ventral pancreas progenitors in the prespecified endodermal sheet and should lead to insights into the inductive events required for pancreas specification. PMID:22815796

  12. A Comparative Study of Dorsal Buccal Mucosa Graft Substitution Urethroplasty by Dorsal Urethrotomy Approach versus Ventral Sagittal Urethrotomy Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrinal Pahwa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To compare the outcome of dorsal buccal mucosal graft (BMG substitution urethroplasty by dorsal urethrotomy approach with ventral urethrotomy approach in management of stricture urethra. Methods and Materials. A total of 40 patients who underwent dorsal BMG substitution urethroplasty were randomized into two groups. 20 patients underwent dorsal onlay BMG urethroplasty as described by Barbagli, and the other 20 patients underwent dorsal BMG urethroplasty by ventral urethrotomy as described by Asopa. Operative time, success rate, satisfaction rate, and complications were compared between the two groups. Mean follow-up was 12 months (6–24 months. Results. Ventral urethrotomy group had considerably lesser operative time although the difference was not statistically significant. Patients in dorsal group had mean maximum flow rate of 19.6 mL/min and mean residual urine of 27 mL, whereas ventral group had a mean maximum flow rate of 18.8 and residual urine of 32 mL. Eighteen out of twenty patients voided well in each group, and postoperative imaging study in these patients showed a good lumen with no evidence of leak or extravasation. Conclusion. Though ventral sagittal urethrotomy preserves the blood supply of urethra and intraoperative time was less than dorsal urethrotomy technique, there was no statistically significant difference in final outcome using either technique.

  13. A Comparative Study of Dorsal Buccal Mucosa Graft Substitution Urethroplasty by Dorsal Urethrotomy Approach versus Ventral Sagittal Urethrotomy Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahwa, Mrinal; Gupta, Sanjeev; Pahwa, Mayank; Jain, Brig D K; Gupta, Manu

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. To compare the outcome of dorsal buccal mucosal graft (BMG) substitution urethroplasty by dorsal urethrotomy approach with ventral urethrotomy approach in management of stricture urethra. Methods and Materials. A total of 40 patients who underwent dorsal BMG substitution urethroplasty were randomized into two groups. 20 patients underwent dorsal onlay BMG urethroplasty as described by Barbagli, and the other 20 patients underwent dorsal BMG urethroplasty by ventral urethrotomy as described by Asopa. Operative time, success rate, satisfaction rate, and complications were compared between the two groups. Mean follow-up was 12 months (6-24 months). Results. Ventral urethrotomy group had considerably lesser operative time although the difference was not statistically significant. Patients in dorsal group had mean maximum flow rate of 19.6 mL/min and mean residual urine of 27 mL, whereas ventral group had a mean maximum flow rate of 18.8 and residual urine of 32 mL. Eighteen out of twenty patients voided well in each group, and postoperative imaging study in these patients showed a good lumen with no evidence of leak or extravasation. Conclusion. Though ventral sagittal urethrotomy preserves the blood supply of urethra and intraoperative time was less than dorsal urethrotomy technique, there was no statistically significant difference in final outcome using either technique.

  14. Spatially Compact Neural Clusters in the Dorsal Striatum Encode Locomotion Relevant Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbera, Giovanni; Liang, Bo; Zhang, Lifeng; Gerfen, Charles R; Culurciello, Eugenio; Chen, Rong; Li, Yun; Lin, Da-Ting

    2016-10-05

    An influential striatal model postulates that neural activities in the striatal direct and indirect pathways promote and inhibit movement, respectively. Normal behavior requires coordinated activity in the direct pathway to facilitate intended locomotion and indirect pathway to inhibit unwanted locomotion. In this striatal model, neuronal population activity is assumed to encode locomotion relevant information. Here, we propose a novel encoding mechanism for the dorsal striatum. We identified spatially compact neural clusters in both the direct and indirect pathways. Detailed characterization revealed similar cluster organization between the direct and indirect pathways, and cluster activities from both pathways were correlated with mouse locomotion velocities. Using machine-learning algorithms, cluster activities could be used to decode locomotion relevant behavioral states and locomotion velocity. We propose that neural clusters in the dorsal striatum encode locomotion relevant information and that coordinated activities of direct and indirect pathway neural clusters are required for normal striatal controlled behavior. VIDEO ABSTRACT. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. A deepwater fish with 'lightsabers'--dorsal spine-associated luminescence in a counterilluminating lanternshark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claes, Julien M; Dean, Mason N; Nilsson, Dan-Eric; Hart, Nathan S; Mallefet, Jérôme

    2013-01-01

    We report the discovery of light organs (photophores) adjacent to the dorsal defensive spines of a small deep-sea lanternshark (Etmopterus spinax). Using a visual modeling based on in vivo luminescence recordings we show that this unusual light display would be detectable by the shark's potential predators from several meters away. We also demonstrate that the luminescence from the spine-associated photophores (SAPs) can be seen through the mineralized spines, which are partially translucent. These results suggest that the SAPs function, either by mimicking the spines' shape or by shining through them, as a unique visual deterrent for predators. This conspicuous dorsal warning display is a surprising complement to the ventral luminous camouflage (counterillumination) of the shark.

  16. SPINAL DEFORMITIES AFTER SELECTIVE DORSAL RHIZOTOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PATRICIO PABLO MANZONE

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: Selective dorsal rhizotomy (SDR used for spasticity treatment could worsen or develop spinal deformities. Our goal is to describe spinal deformities seen in patients with cerebral palsy (CP after being treated by SDR. Methods: Retrospective study of patients operated on (SDR between January/1999 and June/2012. Inclusion criteria: spinal Rx before SDR surgery, spinography, and assessment at follow-up. We evaluated several factors emphasizing level and type of SDR approach, spinal deformity and its treatment, final Risser, and follow-up duration. Results: We found 7 patients (6 males: mean age at SDR 7.56 years (4.08-11.16. Mean follow-up: 6.64 years (2.16-13, final age: 14.32 years (7.5-19. No patient had previous deformity. GMFCS: 2 patients level IV, 2 level III, 3 level II. Initial walking status: 2 community walkers, 2 household walkers, 2 functional walkers, 1 not ambulant, at the follow-up, 3 patients improved, and 4 kept their status. We found 4 TL/L laminotomies, 2 L/LS laminectomies, and 1 thoracic laminectomy. Six spinal deformities were observed: 2 sagittal, 3 mixed, and 1 scoliosis. There was no association among the type of deformity, final gait status, topographic type, GMFCS, age, or SDR approach. Three patients had surgery indication for spinal deformity at skeletal maturity, while those patients with smaller deformities were still immature (Risser 0 to 2/3 although with progressive curves. Conclusions: After SDR, patients should be periodically evaluated until they reach Risser 5. The development of a deformity does not compromise functional results but adds morbidity because it may require surgical treatment.

  17. A double dissociation of dorsal and ventral hippocampal function on a learning and memory task mediated by the dorso-lateral striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Robert J; Jones, Jana; Richards, Blake; Hong, Nancy S

    2006-09-01

    The objectives of this research were to further delineate the neural circuits subserving proposed memory-based behavioural subsystems in the hippocampal formation. These studies were guided by anatomical evidence showing a topographical organization of the hippocampal formation. Briefly, perpendicular to the medial/lateral entorhinal cortex division there is a second system of parallel circuits that separates the dorsal and ventral hippocampus. Recent work from this laboratory has provided evidence that the hippocampus incidentally encodes a context-specific inhibitory association during acquisition of a visual discrimination task. One question that emerges from this dataset is whether the dorsal or ventral hippocampus makes a unique contribution to this newly described function. Rats with neurotoxic lesions of the dorsal or ventral hippocampus were assessed on the acquisition of the visual discrimination task. Following asymptotic performance they were given reversal training in either the same or a different context from the original training. The results showed that the context-specific inhibition effect is mediated by a circuit that includes the ventral but not the dorsal hippocampus. Results from a control procedure showed that rats with either dorso-lateral striatum damage or dorsal hippocampal lesions were impaired on a tactile/spatial discrimination. Taken together, the results represent a double dissociation of learning and memory function between the ventral and dorsal hippocampus. The formation of an incidental inhibitory association was dependent on ventral but not dorsal hippocampal circuitry, and the opposite dependence was found for the spatial component of a tactile/spatial discrimination.

  18. Dorsal onlay graft bulbar urethroplasty using buccal mucosa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    G. Barbagli

    2015-12-02

    Dec 2, 2015 ... promote the transformation of the urethral mucosa plate into a tube, according to ... Allen stirrups and sequential inflatable compression sleeves. Figure 2 .... the ventral, dorsal or lateral surface of the urethra, we investigated if.

  19. 33 CFR 2.20 - Territorial sea baseline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Territorial sea baseline. 2.20... JURISDICTION Jurisdictional Terms § 2.20 Territorial sea baseline. Territorial sea baseline means the line.... Normally, the territorial sea baseline is the mean low water line along the coast of the United States...

  20. Seismotectonic zoning of Azerbaijan territory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kangarli, Talat; Aliyev, Ali; Aliyev, Fuad; Rahimov, Fuad

    2017-04-01

    structure of Greater and Lesser Caucasus, detailed description of the deep structure of Caspian zone, Kur and Caspian megadepressions, identification of nappe-folded structure of the Absheron Peninsula and the Absheron threshold at the border of Middle and South Caspian, justification of the possible hydrocarbon concentration at the tectonically stratified substantial complexes of mountain and foothill areas, etc. Based on the outcomes of implemented researches, some general conclusions and schemes were drawn for some parts of the project region within the plate tectonics conceptual frameworks, to include the territories of Lesser Caucasus and South Caspian. Analysis and comparison of these data with macroseismic and instrumental data allowed us to conduct seismotectonic studies in a region and develop a new scheme of seismotectonic map with outlined recent and forecasted seismic activity. There also correlated foci zones of earthquakes with subhorizontal and subvertical borders in earth crust, which shows their structure-dynamic relationship. In the one hand, the earthquake foci zones belong to the faults of the basement which extend to sedimentary cover and their intersection knots. On the other hand, there appearing inner-block seismogenic levels, namely, in seismic generation acts all the earth crust: tectonic stress results on movements along fault zones, as well as lateral displacements along non-stable contacts of the structure-substance complexes of different competency.

  1. Computer Modelling of Chromosome Territories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.A. Knoch (Tobias)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractDespite the successful linear sequencing of the human genome its three-dimensional structure is widely unknown. However, the regulation of genes - their transcription and replication - has been shown to be closely connected to the three-dimensional organization of the genome and

  2. Computer Modelling of Chromosome Territories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.A. Knoch (Tobias)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractDespite the successful linear sequencing of the human genome its three-dimensional structure is widely unknown. However, the regulation of genes - their transcription and replication - has been shown to be closely connected to the three-dimensional organization of the genome and the cell

  3. Agribusiness model approach to territorial food development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murcia Hector Horacio

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available

    Several research efforts have coordinated the academic program of Agricultural Business Management from the University De La Salle (Bogota D.C., to the design and implementation of a sustainable agribusiness model applied to food development, with territorial projection. Rural development is considered as a process that aims to improve the current capacity and potential of the inhabitant of the sector, which refers not only to production levels and productivity of agricultural items. It takes into account the guidelines of the Organization of the United Nations “Millennium Development Goals” and considered the concept of sustainable food and agriculture development, including food security and nutrition in an integrated interdisciplinary context, with holistic and systemic dimension. Analysis is specified by a model with an emphasis on sustainable agribusiness production chains related to agricultural food items in a specific region. This model was correlated with farm (technical objectives, family (social purposes and community (collective orientations projects. Within this dimension are considered food development concepts and methodologies of Participatory Action Research (PAR. Finally, it addresses the need to link the results to low-income communities, within the concepts of the “new rurality”.

  4. Functional connectivity of the dorsal striatum in female musicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoji eTanaka

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The dorsal striatum (caudate/putamen is a node of the cortico-striato-pallido-thalamo-cortical (CSPTC motor circuit, which plays a central role in skilled motor learning, a critical feature of musical performance. The dorsal striatum receives input from a large part of the cerebral cortex, forming a hub in the cortical-subcortical network. This study sought to examine how the functional network of the dorsal striatum differs between musicians and nonmusicians.Resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI data were acquired from female university students majoring in music and nonmusic disciplines. The data were subjected to graph theoretical analysis and functional connectivity analysis. The graph theoretical analysis of the entire brain revealed that the degree, which represents the number of connections, of the bilateral putamen was significantly lower in musicians than in nonmusicians. The functional connectivity analysis indicated that compared with nonmusicians, musicians had significantly decreased connectivity between the left putamen and bilateral frontal operculum and between the left caudate nucleus and cerebellum. In conclusion, compared with nonmusicians, female musicians have a smaller functional network of the dorsal striatum, with decreased connectivity. These data are consistent with previous anatomical studies reporting a reduced volume of the dorsal striatum in musicians and ballet dancers. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study suggesting that long-term musical training results in a less extensive or selective functional network of the dorsal striatum.

  5. MAIN STAGES SCIENTIFIC AND PRODUCTION MASTERING THE TERRITORY AVERAGE URAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.S. Bochko

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Questions of the shaping Average Ural, as industrial territory, on base her scientific study and production mastering are considered in the article. It is shown that studies of Ural resources and particularities of the vital activity of its population were concerned by Russian and foreign scientist in XVIII-XIX centuries. It is noted that in XX century there was a transition to systematic organizing-economic study of production power, society and natures of Average Ural. More attention addressed on new problems of region and on needs of their scientific solving.

  6. Disputes over territorial boundaries and diverging valuation languages : The Santurban hydrosocial highlands territory in Colombia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duarte-Abadía, B.; Boelens, R.

    2016-01-01

    We examine the divergent modes of conceptualizing, valuing and representing the páramo highlands of Santurban, Colombia, as a struggle over hydrosocial territory. Páramo residents, multinational companies, government and scientists deploy territorial representations and valuation languages that

  7. Disputes over territorial boundaries and diverging valuation languages: the Santurban hydrosocial highlands territory in Colombia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duarte-Abadía, Bibiana; Boelens, Rutgerd

    2016-01-01

    We examine the divergent modes of conceptualizing, valuing and representing the páramo highlands of Santurban, Colombia, as a struggle over hydrosocial territory. Páramo residents, multinational companies, government and scientists deploy territorial representations and valuation languages that

  8. Mobility as a territorial key factor in the emission of greenhouse gases; La movilidad como factor territorial dominante en la emision de gases de efecto invernadero

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crespo Garcia, L.; Montane Lopez, M. M.; Garcia Cortes, A.; Jimenez Arroyo, F.

    2011-07-01

    Transport and energy generation are the two dominant sectors in the overall balance of energy consumption, and thus of greenhouse gases emissions. Placement of energy generation plants responds to strategic reasons relate to energy supply in the Spanish territory, while transport is an economic activity tightly related to the productive structure and territorial characteristics: density of populations, geographic situation, efficient space organization, etc. The analysis of these factors enables to prioritize different strategies according the their energetic efficiency in order to pursue an economy less dependent of fossil fuels, focused in activities of higher added value and that keeps in mind limits and strengths of Spanish reality. (Author) 9 refs.

  9. Territorial energy operators. The builders of an energetic and territorial autonomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regnier, Yannick; Durand, Lucas; Arnaud, Baptiste; Rebelle, Bruno; Bailleul, Esther; Causse, Laurent; Cauvin, Frederick; Claustre, Raphael; Collin, Lucie; Ferrari, Albert; Julien, Emmanuel; Flye Sainte Marie, Luc; Hennion, Anne-Sophie; Leclerq, Michel; Le Page, Delphine; Le Quellenec, Johan; Marillier, Frederic; Martin, Florence; Moncorge, Sophie; Mottl, Karin; Rynikiewicz, Christophe; Ribardiere Le May, Elodie; Stegen, Eva; Robillard, Julien

    2017-06-01

    As the recent law on energy transition defined a legal framework which allowed the action of local authorities in the field of energy, and resulted in the creation of local or territorial energy utilities by these authorities or other actors, this report proposes a presentation of examples of territorial energy utilities or operators. These examples are chosen in different French towns, district or regions (Vienne, Montpellier, Lannion, Pays de Vilaine, Lot, Ile-de-France, Rhone-Alpes) but also in Germany and Austria. Before presenting these experiments, the authors describe and discuss the French legal framework of territorial energy transition. They describe the territorial energy operator as a factor of emergence of an energetic and territorial autonomy

  10. The Territorial Trap and The Problem of Non-territorialized Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mireille Marcia Karman

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to argue that territory is ahistorical concept rather than a constant one in explaining political conception of state and other political entities. Referring to liberalism and political realism, territory has been one of the core concepts in the study of political science. This paper will then elaborate the concept of territoriality and its problem in the era of globalization, which will also describe the existence of territory of non-state actor in private and public sphere. At the end of this article, I will outline the possibility to have a different reaction against the threat of non-state actor when the notion of territory is not taken for granted anymore.

  11. Participation in Organizations, Technical Efficiency and Territorial Differences: A Study of Small Wheat Farmers in Chile Participación en Organizaciones, Eficiencia Técnica y Diferencias Territoriales: El Caso de la Pequeña Agricultura de Trigo en Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica M Jaime

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The lack of efficient individual solutions for small farmers either in the market or through the State has resulted in a search for collective spaces to strengthen their productive capacities, where participation in organizations emerges as a relevant factor to obtain higher efficiency levels. The aims of this study were to analyze the determinants of technical efficiency of wheat small farmers in Bío-Bío Region (Chile and to evaluate its relation to a variety of variables, including farmer participation in organizations, for several territories with different agro-climatic conditions. Using information from the VII Agricultural and Forestry Survey, a stochastic frontier production function was estimated. The results show that age, education, farm size, degree of specialization and dependence of activity explain individual technical efficiency levels. Participation in cooperatives and gremial associations is also related to higher technical efficiency levels, especially in territories characterized for a lower wheat productive vocation.La incapacidad del mercado y del Estado para generar soluciones eficientes desde una perspectiva individual, ha llevado a la búsqueda de espacios colectivos que conduzcan a un fortalecimiento de las capacidades productivas, en donde la asociatividad aparece como un factor relevante en la consecución de mayores niveles de eficiencia. El propósito de este estudio es analizar los determinantes de la eficiencia técnica de los pequeños agricultores de trigo de a Región del Bío-Bío (Chile, e indagar si existe una relación entre participación en organizaciones y eficiencia técnica para un conjunto de territorios que presentan diferencias en sus condiciones agro-climáticas. Utilizando información del VII Censo Agropecuario y Forestal, se estimó un modelo de fronteras estocásticas que incorpora factores específicos para cada productor. Los resultados sugieren que la edad, nivel de educación, tamaño del

  12. Waste prevention and management in territories, Report of contributions - Composting and/or methanization: which project for your territory?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazaud, Denis; Michel, Julia; Gaillard, Nathalie; Monteux, Fabienne; Tardy, Marc; Nathanael, Frere; Onno, Jean Marc; Thauvin, Philippe; Menou, Jean-Yves; Grappe, Denis; Winkelmuller, Serge; Tronc, Jean-Sebastien; Micone, Philippe; Zdanevitch, Isabelle; Couturier, Christian; Joly, Yves; Thevenin, Nicolas; Cheverry, Marc; Labeyrie, Pierre; Meunier, Melaine; Pouech, Philippe; Proix, Roger; Ramos, Richard

    2011-06-01

    Contributions of this colloquium addressed the following topics related to composting and methanization practices: proximity management (experiments in collective housing and in specific premises, autonomous effluent methanization for heat production, farm-based methanization) centralised management (experiments of waste processing, pollutions and working conditions), sector economy and quality, and how to choose solutions for organic waste management on a territory. The document also proposes a set of opinions published by the ADEME on mechanical-biological processing of domestic wastes, on the methanization of domestic and industrial wastes, and on agricultural methanization

  13. Highland rural constellations. Territory occupation logics and models of order at the North of Traslasierra [Córdoba, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Diaz Terreno

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A set of intentioned readings made on an ancient Córdoba’s landscape reveal the occupation logics developed over centuries of territorial construction. These logics result from the combination of cultural ways of domination and exploitation of space, technical resources available and the natural landscape conditions imposed. From these processes, models of territorial order emerge as operational synthesis from the accumulation of human labor in the territory, gathering –in their own material structure– the key for future planning criteria. Just like constellation structures, order models express a form of spatial organization and some type of rurality specific from Northern Traslasierra. The aim is to arrive at a deep understanding of this postponed territory, show its cultural and natural resources and, through those, build a territorial narrative that places them back on the map of Córdoba’s regions.

  14. Rural territorial dynamics in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Chiriboga

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article draws from the preliminary findings of an ongoing appliedresearch program on rural territorial dynamics carried out by the Latin American Center for Rural Development (RIMISP. The article provides some initial findings on 4 territories, of the 11 territories that are part of the overall study. The case studies include the island of Chiloé in southern Chile, the province of Tungurahua in Ecuador, a dairy farm region of Santo Tomás Nicaragua and Cuatro Lagunas near Cuzco Perú. Rural areas in Latin America are characterized by their dual nature with agro-exporting enclaves linked to global value chains alongside impoverished peasant economies, leading to differentiated policy recommendations. The research attempts to find relationships between reduced poverty and inequality in winning regions, measured by three variables, with issues of access to resources, human capital, political empowerment, markets and institutions, with particular attention to innovative social coalitions.

  15. The territorial approach to EU cohesion policy: Current issues and evidence from Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thoidou Elisavet

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance attributed to the territorial dimension of the European Union cohesion policy steadily influences its successive reforms and adaptations, while in recent years there has been an evolution in the way this particular dimension of cohesion policy is perceived. Important evidence for this is the way in which the Community Strategic Guidelines on cohesion 2007-13 take account of the territorial dimension of cohesion policy. This paper discusses the territorial approach to cohesion policy in relation to both policy and practice. Specifically, it examines the territorial dimension of regional development planning in Greece as it has emerged in the relevant official documents, namely the successive three Community Support Frameworks since 1989 and the National Strategic Reference Framework for the current 2007-13 period. The territorial dimension of the organization of the planning system is also considered in an effort to understand limitations and prospects, in light of the importance of the territorial approach to cohesion policy post-2013.

  16. Disentangling the effects of date, individual, and territory quality on the seasonal decline in fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pärt, Tomas; Knape, Jonas; Low, Matthew; Öberg, Meit; Arlt, Debora

    2017-08-01

    The seasonal timing of reproduction is a major fitness factor in many organisms. Commonly, individual fitness declines with time in the breeding season. We investigated three suggested but rarely tested hypotheses for this seasonal fitness decline: (1) time per se (date hypothesis), (2) late breeders are of lower quality than early ones (individual quality hypothesis), and (3) late breeders are breeding at poorer territories than early breeders (territory quality hypothesis). We used Bayesian variance component analyses to examine reproductive output (breeding success, number fledged, and number of recruits) from repeated observations of female Northern Wheatears (Oenanthe oenanthe) and individual territories from a 20-yr population study. The major part of the observed seasonal decline in reproductive output seemed to be driven by date-related effects, whereas female age and territory type (i.e., known indicators of temporary quality) contributed to a smaller degree. Other, persistent effects linked to individual and territory identity did not show any clear patterns on the seasonal decline in reproductive output. To better disentangle the quality effects (persistent and temporary) of individual and territory from effects caused by the deterioration of the environment we suggest a protocol combining experimental manipulation of breeding time with a variance-covariance partitioning method used here. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  17. Indigenous territorial rights as a human right; an analysis of the (auto demarcation of indigenous territories process in Venezuela (1999-2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Bustillos

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The 1999 Constitution of the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela (CBRV recognizes Indigenous Rights; among them, the territorial claims. In agreement with what is stated in the article 119 of the Magna Carta, the right to the territory of these populations is exercised through the public policy of demarcation, which is understood as the process in which its territorial space is disclaimed, made by the State in participation with the peoples and communities to be demarcated, subsequently to entitle the collective ownership for these human beings groups. Fifteen years after the Constitution was approved, this process of delineation has been slow and misleading. This delay has caused that in the present, these human beings groups are being stalked by outside interests (illegal mining, development projects, irregular forces, among others who threaten their existence as distinct cultures; since the right to territory is a fundamental human right for their survival. This article is the result of a field research. In the first part, the study analyzes the Organic Law of Indigenous Peoples and Communities (LOPCI (2005 in Venezuela, with the purpose of clarifying at what stage the territorial demarcation process is paralyzed; and as a result, it describes how many communities and indigenous peoples have been demarcated and entitled from 2005 to 2014.

  18. Situation in the Albanian territories a$ er World War I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naim Seferi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The end of World War I and the victory of the forces of Antante on 11 November 1918 did not result in the end of war in Londonized Albania and in the territories inhabited by Albanian people in Yugoslavia and Greece because neighbouring countries did not withdraw from Albanian territories since their desires were to extend even more to the detriment of the Albanian and were not satisfi ed only with the invasion of Kosovo by Serbia, Cameria by Greece, and Italy aspiring to keep Albania under its supervision. The European countries of Antante, such as England, France and Italy, did not support the Albanian people because they had reached an agreement during the World War 1 to conquer the countries of the triple alliance by promising Albanian territories to the neighbouring countries of Albania. The Protocol of April 1915 was devastating for Albania. The fate of Albanian people was such that European countries could not change the course of the World War 1. The intervention of USA was the one that changed the course of the World War 1, and USA even joined the war by stating that it did not recognize the agreements made during the war with regard to the territorial division. The neighboring countries of Albania had forgo$ en that in the global stage a political-military power was emerging which would lay the foundations of the new world order. Even though the war had ended, the neighboring countries of Albania were making agreements for the supervision of Albania. Italy was interested in keeping Albania under its supervision whereas Greece and Yugoslavia were interested in the division of Albania. Under these circumstances the Albanian people was facing new invasive challenges and they had to get organized both inside and outside the country for their national salvation. Albanians were organized in clubs and associations abroad, in order to help the freedom of Londonized Albania. The Albanians in Albania were fed up with long and savage invasions

  19. Geoinformation dataware for radiological monitoring of territories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zatserkovnyi, V. I.; Kozachenko, E. V.; Shishenko, O. I.

    2015-10-01

    The paper provides a study, during which the fully accessible and open information from the literature and thematic maps is processed and systemized, reflecting the state of the problem of the radiological monitoring of the territories using the geoinformation technology. The stated ArcGIS technologies is used in the Web ecological Chernihiv region atlas for the map binding of sites and zones of the radioactive and chemical contamination of the territories as well as filling the atlas data with ecological and economical resources of the region.

  20. BMPs regulate msx gene expression in the dorsal neuroectoderm of Drosophila and vertebrates by distinct mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteves, Francisco F; Springhorn, Alexander; Kague, Erika; Taylor, Erika; Pyrowolakis, George; Fisher, Shannon; Bier, Ethan

    2014-09-01

    In a broad variety of bilaterian species the trunk central nervous system (CNS) derives from three primary rows of neuroblasts. The fates of these neural progenitor cells are determined in part by three conserved transcription factors: vnd/nkx2.2, ind/gsh and msh/msx in Drosophila melanogaster/vertebrates, which are expressed in corresponding non-overlapping patterns along the dorsal-ventral axis. While this conserved suite of "neural identity" gene expression strongly suggests a common ancestral origin for the patterning systems, it is unclear whether the original regulatory mechanisms establishing these patterns have been similarly conserved during evolution. In Drosophila, genetic evidence suggests that Bone Morphogenetic Proteins (BMPs) act in a dosage-dependent fashion to repress expression of neural identity genes. BMPs also play a dose-dependent role in patterning the dorsal and lateral regions of the vertebrate CNS, however, the mechanism by which they achieve such patterning has not yet been clearly established. In this report, we examine the mechanisms by which BMPs act on cis-regulatory modules (CRMs) that control localized expression of the Drosophila msh and zebrafish (Danio rerio) msxB in the dorsal central nervous system (CNS). Our analysis suggests that BMPs act differently in these organisms to regulate similar patterns of gene expression in the neuroectoderm: repressing msh expression in Drosophila, while activating msxB expression in the zebrafish. These findings suggest that the mechanisms by which the BMP gradient patterns the dorsal neuroectoderm have reversed since the divergence of these two ancient lineages.

  1. BMPs regulate msx gene expression in the dorsal neuroectoderm of Drosophila and vertebrates by distinct mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco F Esteves

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In a broad variety of bilaterian species the trunk central nervous system (CNS derives from three primary rows of neuroblasts. The fates of these neural progenitor cells are determined in part by three conserved transcription factors: vnd/nkx2.2, ind/gsh and msh/msx in Drosophila melanogaster/vertebrates, which are expressed in corresponding non-overlapping patterns along the dorsal-ventral axis. While this conserved suite of "neural identity" gene expression strongly suggests a common ancestral origin for the patterning systems, it is unclear whether the original regulatory mechanisms establishing these patterns have been similarly conserved during evolution. In Drosophila, genetic evidence suggests that Bone Morphogenetic Proteins (BMPs act in a dosage-dependent fashion to repress expression of neural identity genes. BMPs also play a dose-dependent role in patterning the dorsal and lateral regions of the vertebrate CNS, however, the mechanism by which they achieve such patterning has not yet been clearly established. In this report, we examine the mechanisms by which BMPs act on cis-regulatory modules (CRMs that control localized expression of the Drosophila msh and zebrafish (Danio rerio msxB in the dorsal central nervous system (CNS. Our analysis suggests that BMPs act differently in these organisms to regulate similar patterns of gene expression in the neuroectoderm: repressing msh expression in Drosophila, while activating msxB expression in the zebrafish. These findings suggest that the mechanisms by which the BMP gradient patterns the dorsal neuroectoderm have reversed since the divergence of these two ancient lineages.

  2. The End of Eastern Territoriality?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vasev, Nikolay Rumenov; Vrangbæk, Karsten; Krepelka, Filip

    2017-01-01

    . For the results in the old Member States we rely on Obermaier’s 2009 “The End of Territoriality”. The study is qualitative in nature and relies mostly on qualitative semi-structured interviews with experts from ministries of health, health insurers and legal experts from all three countries. We distinguish...... and the European healthcare union’s strength in the new Members. In order to deliver a structured analysis and transferrable results, we compare Poland, the Czech Republic and Bulgaria with France and Germany. The countries are selected on the basis of the commonalities in their systems’ organization...... domestic conditions, ranging from insurance funds’ amenability, national courts’ complaisance and state administration’s obstinacy....

  3. Systematization, distribution and territory of the caudal cerebral artery on the brain's surface of the turkey (Meleagris gallopavo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amarílis Díaz de Carvalho

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Thirty Meleagris gallopavo heads with their neck segments were used. Animals were contained and euthanized with the association of mebezonium iodide, embutramide and tetracaine hydrochloride (T 61, Intervet by intravenous injection. The arterial system was rinsed with cold saline solution (15°C, with 5000IU heparin and filled with red-colored latex. The samples were fixed in 20% formaldehyde for seven days. The brains were removed with a segment of cervical spinal cord and after, the dura-mater was removed and the arteries dissected. The cerebral carotid arteries, after the intercarotid anastomosis, were projected around the hypophysis, until they reached the tuber cinereum and divided into their terminal branches, the caudal branch and the rostral branch. The rostral branch was projected rostrolateralwards and gave off, in sequence, two collateral branches, the caudal cerebral and the middle cerebral arteries and the terminal branch was as cerebroethmoidal artery. The caudal cerebral artery of one antimere formed the interhemispheric artery, which gave off dorsal hemispheric branches to the convex surface of both antimeres. Its dorsal tectal mesencephalic branch, of only one antimere, originated the dorsal cerebellar artery. In the interior of the cerebral transverse fissure, after the origin of the dorsal tectal mesencephalic artery, the caudal cerebral artery emitted occipital hemispheric branches, pineal branches and medial hemispheric branches, on both antimeres. The caudal cerebral artery's territory comprehended the entire surface of the dorsal hemioptic lobe, the rostral surface of the cerebellum, the diencephalic structures, the caudal pole and the medial surface of the cerebral hemisphere and in the convex surface, the sagittal eminence except for its most rostral third. Due to the asymmetry found in the caudal cerebral arteries' ramifications, the models were classified into three types and their respective subtypes.

  4. Emergent properties during dorsal closure in Drosophila morphogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peralta, X G; Toyama, Y; Edwards, G S; Kiehart, D P

    2008-01-01

    Dorsal closure is an essential stage of Drosophila development that is a model system for research in morphogenesis and biological physics. Dorsal closure involves an orchestrated interplay between gene expression and cell activities that produce shape changes, exert forces and mediate tissue dynamics. We investigate the dynamics of dorsal closure based on confocal microscopic measurements of cell shortening in living embryos. During the mid-stages of dorsal closure we find that there are fluctuations in the width of the leading edge cells but the time-averaged analysis of measurements indicate that there is essentially no net shortening of cells in the bulk of the leading edge, that contraction predominantly occurs at the canthi as part of the process for zipping together the two leading edges of epidermis and that the rate constant for zipping correlates with the rate of movement of the leading edges. We characterize emergent properties that regulate dorsal closure, i.e., a velocity governor and the coordination and synchronization of tissue dynamics

  5. The Neural Border: Induction, Specification and Maturation of the territory that generates Neural Crest cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pla, Patrick; Monsoro-Burq, Anne H

    2018-05-28

    The neural crest is induced at the edge between the neural plate and the nonneural ectoderm, in an area called the neural (plate) border, during gastrulation and neurulation. In recent years, many studies have explored how this domain is patterned, and how the neural crest is induced within this territory, that also participates to the prospective dorsal neural tube, the dorsalmost nonneural ectoderm, as well as placode derivatives in the anterior area. This review highlights the tissue interactions, the cell-cell signaling and the molecular mechanisms involved in this dynamic spatiotemporal patterning, resulting in the induction of the premigratory neural crest. Collectively, these studies allow building a complex neural border and early neural crest gene regulatory network, mostly composed by transcriptional regulations but also, more recently, including novel signaling interactions. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Incorporating territory compression into population models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ridley, J; Komdeur, J; Sutherland, WJ; Sutherland, William J.

    The ideal despotic distribution, whereby the lifetime reproductive success a territory's owner achieves is unaffected by population density, is a mainstay of behaviour-based population models. We show that the population dynamics of an island population of Seychelles warblers (Acrocephalus

  7. The nuclear accident risk: a territorial approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambroise, Pascal

    2011-01-01

    How many people live in the vicinity of French nuclear power stations? Recent events - notably in Japan, but also in France - highlight the urgent need to be able to predict the possible effects of a nuclear accident on surrounding territories. Here, Ambroise Pascal identifies two key criteria for such an estimation: residential density and land use. (author)

  8. Territorial structure of tourism in Guatemala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Sánchez Crispín

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to reveal the nuclei, flows and surfaces generated by tourism in Guatemala that, nowadays, constitute the basis for the promotion of the country in the international market. Following the trend in Central America, and after a long civil war, Guatemala is encouraging the growth of its tourism economy. The starting point of this research is rooted in the fact that there are only a handful of places, distributed over the Guatemalan territory, that articulate the tourist flows (constituted mainly by international visitors and onto which tourism surfaces are being constructed. We assume that this territorial structure is still weak, does not include all areas of the country and it is mostly dependant on regional emitting markets. The context of the territorial structure of tourism in Guatemala suggests that all countries in the region are competing to get access to the international tourism market and that this competition will be decided in favour of those nations that mastermind the administration of their natural and cultural resources. At the end of the text, we comment on the basics of the territorial structure found by our study.

  9. From Territorial Defence to Expeditionary Forces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyemann, Dorthe; Staun, Jørgen Meedom

    2016-01-01

    After the Cold War the Danish Armed Forces moved away from its traditional role of territorial defense of Danish soil and towards a role as a globally deployable expeditionary force, imbedded with UK and/or US forces. This shift in national strategy amplified the requirements of the young officer...

  10. Mining and energy in the Northern Territory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    Included in this book is a section on each of the major minerals of present or future importance to the Northern Territory. Brief details of the uranium mining projects at Nabarlek, Ranger, Koongarra and Jabiluka in the Alligator Rivers regions are given. Subjects such as environmental protection, Aboriginal land rights and the geology of the area are also considered

  11. Human territoriality: an examination of a construct

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas D. Wickham; Harry C. Zinn

    2001-01-01

    Human territory research has generally been focused in a variety of settings including urban neighborhoods, libraries, mall parking lots, and areas around phones in public places. It refers to an intertwined system of emotions, beliefs, and behaviors that are place specific, socially and culturally influenced, and are linked to person-place transactions dealing with...

  12. Observatorios de Desarrollo Territorial Sustentable Mendoza, Argentina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Elina Gudiño

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available El observatorio de Desarrollo territorial Sustentable para Mendoza, Argentina surge en el marco de la ley 8051/09 de Ordenamiento Territorial y Usos del Suelo. Se trata de una herramienta de comunicación para la validación y el monitoreo de indicadores, políticas, planes, programas y proyectos de índole territorial. El marco teórico-metodológico se sustenta en los principios del ordenamiento territorial y el enfoque de sistemas complejos adaptativos. La estructura se diseña en una plataforma tecnológica que permite estandarizar datos, sistematizar información, construir indicadores territoriales y publicar cartografía. Una vez logrado el prototipo, se conforma “Red Territorio” como modelo de gestión que permite interactuar entre instituciones del sector público, privado, científico y ONG. Actualmente, se está trabajando en la vinculación con las instituciones que formarán parte de la experiencia piloto de Red territorio y en el ajuste de la plataforma informática que le dará sustento.

  13. The Formulation of Extra-Territorial Recognition

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hrubec, Marek

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 1 (2010), s. 65-72 ISSN 1674-1277 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06013 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z90090514 Keywords : global justice * extra-territorial recognition Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  14. Child Homicide on the Territory of Belgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baralic, Ivanka; Savic, Slobodan; Alempijevic, Djordje M.; Jecmenica, Dragan S.; Sbutega-Milosevic, Gorica; Obradovic, Miroljub

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study examines the incidence and other epidemiological and medico-legal characteristics of child homicide in the territory of Belgrade, Republic of Serbia. Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of all autopsies carried out at the Institute of Forensic Medicine in Belgrade during a 15 year period between 1991 and 2005,…

  15. Territorial Rights, Political Association, and Immigration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægaard, Sune

    2013-01-01

    argues that state legitimacy and freedom of political association fail to connect in the way required to justify a right to control immigration. Wellman’s argument conflates the state as an institution and the people as a political collective and elides the difference between territorial jurisdiction...

  16. Responsibilities and Limits of Local Government Actions against Users of Public Services of Planning and Sustainable Territorial Development in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Suditu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In the context of the changes that have occurred in the Romanian society, the public authorities are required to play a coordinating role in providing the framework for a sustainable and balanced development of the national territory, and to ensure the quality of life of the citizens. In order to achieve these goals of social responsibility, the public administration authorities must build and adapt the tools of public territorial action based on their specificity and within the existing legal framework and resources,. Thus, the study shows the national and European context that frames the actions of public administration for what concerns the sustainable territorial development. It analyzes the characteristics of administrative-territorial structures of Romania, highlighting their socio-demographic diversity and the territorial forms of institutional cooperation. The approach of these issues is based in the first instance on an analysis of the European strategic documents in the field, as well as on the national regulations concerning the organization and functioning of public administration and territorial planning. The implementation of decentralization and local public autonomy has led to the capitalization of the local potential of some administrative divisions and caused a competition and a difficult cooperation between them. By analogy with the provisions of the quality standards regarding the responsibilities of the organizations towards customers, the study illustrates and analyzes the responsibilities and limits of public administration authorities in promoting sustainable development, territorial equity and the quality of life for the users of public services, i.e. the community members.

  17. Evaluation of Seismic Risk of Siberia Territory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seleznev, V. S.; Soloviev, V. M.; Emanov, A. F.

    The outcomes of modern geophysical researches of the Geophysical Survey SB RAS, directed on study of geodynamic situation in large industrial and civil centers on the territory of Siberia with the purpose of an evaluation of seismic risk of territories and prediction of origin of extreme situations of natural and man-caused character, are pre- sented in the paper. First of all it concerns the testing and updating of a geoinformation system developed by Russian Emergency Ministry designed for calculations regarding the seismic hazard and response to distructive earthquakes. The GIS database contains the catalogues of earthquakes and faults, seismic zonation maps, vectorized city maps, information on industrial and housing fund, data on character of building and popula- tion in inhabited places etc. The geoinformation system allows to solve on a basis of probabilistic approaches the following problems: - estimating the earthquake impact, required forces, facilities and supplies for life-support of injured population; - deter- mining the consequences of failures on chemical and explosion-dangerous objects; - optimization problems on assurance technology of conduct of salvage operations. Using this computer program, the maps of earthquake risk have been constructed for several seismically dangerous regions of Siberia. These maps display the data on the probable amount of injured people and relative economic damage from an earthquake, which can occur in various sites of the territory according to the map of seismic zona- tion. The obtained maps have allowed determining places where the detailed seismo- logical observations should be arranged. Along with it on the territory of Siberia the wide-ranging investigations with use of new methods of evaluation of physical state of industrial and civil establishments (buildings and structures, hydroelectric power stations, bridges, dams, etc.), high-performance detailed electromagnetic researches of ground conditions of city

  18. Report made on behalf of the commission of foreign affairs about the project of law, adopted by the Senate, giving permission to the approval of the agreement between the French government and the international organization for thermonuclear fusion energy ITER, relative to the head office of ITER organization and to the privileges and immunities of ITER organization in the French territory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-02-01

    The will of building up an international thermonuclear experimental reactor (ITER) gathers since several years the European community of atomic energy (Euratom), Japan, the USA, and Russia, next followed by China, South Korea and, since 2005, by India. The agreement signed in Paris between these seven parties on November 21, 2006 entrusted the international organization ITER with the realization of this project. The implications of the ITER project are enormous both in their scientific and in their economical aspects. France has a particular position in this project since the head office of ITER organisation is sited at Saint-Paul-lez-Durance and the tokamak will be built at Cadarache. Therefore, an agreement has been signed between ITER organization and the French government. The approval of this agreement is the object of this project of law. The document presents first the principle, challenge and stakes of the ITER project and the long negotiations that have led to chose France for the setting up of the research facility. Then, it presents the agreement of November 7, 2007, which fixes the general framework of the conditions necessary to the achievement of the project. The agreement comprises the classical rules, privileges and immunities of any international organization sited on the French ground, plus some more specific dispositions in particular in the domain of management of the wastes generated by the facility. (J.S.)

  19. Project of law, adopted by the Senate, giving permission to the approval of the agreement between the French government and the international organization for thermonuclear fusion energy ITER, relative to the head office of ITER organization and to the privileges and immunities of ITER organization in the French territory; Projet de loi adopte par le Senat, autorisant l'approbation de l'accord entre le Gouvernement de la Republique francaise et l'Organisation internationale ITER pour l'energie de fusion relatif au siege de l'Organisation ITER et aux privileges et immunites de l'Organisation ITER sur le territoire francais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-01-15

    The will of building up an international thermonuclear experimental reactor (ITER) gathers since several years the European community of atomic energy (Euratom), Japan, the USA, and Russia, next followed by China, South Korea and, since 2005, by India. The agreement signed in Paris between these seven parties on November 21, 2006 entrusted the international organization ITER with the realization of this project. The implications of the ITER project are enormous both in their scientific and in their economical aspects. France has a particular position in this project since the head office of ITER organisation is sited at Saint-Paul-lez-Durance and the tokamak will be built at Cadarache. Therefore, an agreement has been signed between ITER organization and the French government. The approval of this agreement is the object of this project of law made of a single article. The agreement between the French government and the international organization ITER is attached to the document. It defines the juridical status, the privileges and immunities of the organization itself and of its personnel inside the French territory. An appendix to the agreement precises the cooperation modalities between the French authorities and ITER organization. (J.S.)

  20. De-Territorialization and Re-Territorialization of “the social”. A debate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Deterritorialization has been used as an anthropological concept to designate the weakened ties between culture and place: Certain cultural/social processes and relations seem to increasingly transcend their previously given territorial boundaries in flexible capitalist societies. At the same time, policy studies, especially Studies on Governmentality, have emphasized the re-territorialization of the social, in which the former national welfare arrangements (welfare and nation state as the scale of bio-political integration patterns are more and more substituted by small scaled inclusion areas (e.g. neighbourhoods, districts and communities. Drawing on Deleuze and Guattari, de-territorialization processes have therefore always to be understood as combined with processes of a re-territorialization, producing new spatial formations. In this view, spatial arrangements and connections are not given and static structures, but controversial and unstable – nevertheless they are influential.

  1. REVIEW OF THE EUROPEAN SYSTEMS RESEARCH PROGRAMS OF URBAN TERRITORIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. N. Kovalskyi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The model of sustainable development of the territory should be in a state of control and management. The system of urban monitoring of Ukraine does not fully provide information on the level of sustainable development of settlements and regions. Therefore, it is necessary to create systems for monitoring indicators of sustainable development of human settlements and regions. The objective of this study is to analyze the existing programs for stimulating sustainable development in European countries and to develop recommendations on the need to organize such systems in Ukraine and to improve the system of urban monitoring. The article describes such systems and programs: URBACT is a program for sharing best practices between cities by creating thematic networks. URBACT’s mission is to encourage cities to work together and develop integrated solutions to common urban problems, through networking, to learn from each other’s experiences and identify best practices in order to improve urban policies; URBAN AUDIT – a large set of statistical information. The main objective of the system is to provide objective and comparable statistical data on European cities; URBAN ATLAS – provides a pan-European comparison of urban land use data. The information is in the form of open geospatial data. The system is aimed at facilitating work on site planning and site accounting. It is necessary to adopt the best practices of implementing sustainable development technology and apply it in other countries that have chosen a model for their development – a model for sustainable development of the territory. The current system of town-planning monitoring in Ukraine needs to be improved and given a new task – to take into account indicators of sustainable development of the territories. This system is most suitable for this task, since urban monitoring already takes into account certain indicators in the form of spatial data.

  2. Agenesis of the dorsal mesentery presenting in an adolescent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anith Chacko

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Agenesis of the dorsal mesentery is a rare occurrence that usually presents in children. It is associated with proximal small bowel malrotation as well as high jejunal atresia with discontinuity of the small bowel. We present a case report of an adolescent presenting with clinical features of proximal small bowel obstruction (confirmed on imaging as well as acute pancreatitis. At laparotomy, he was found to have no dorsal mesentery, without small bowel atresia, and the duodenum was fixed to the posterior abdominal wall. The patient recovered well and remained symptom-free.

  3. Complete dorsal pancreatic agenesis and unilateral renal agenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Adriana; Carvalho, André; Portugal, Inês; Jesus, José Miguel

    2018-02-01

    Dorsal pancreatic agenesis is a very rare congenital anomaly. Unilateral renal agenesis, on the other hand, is a relatively common congenital anomaly, although its etiology is not fully understood. Renal and pancreatic embryologic development appears to be nonrelated. We report a case of a 34-year-old man who was referred to our hospital for evaluation of cholestasis and microalbuminuria. Ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging examinations showed empty right renal fossa and absence of the pancreatic neck, body, and tail. Our case report is the second case of a dorsal pancreatic agenesis and unilateral renal agenesis in a young male patient.

  4. Smart specialisation as a process tool in lower-tier territories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drejer, Ina; Laursen, Lea Louise Holst

    The paper focuses on the potential of combining the smart specialization – and the associated quadruple helix – framework with a place-specific planning perspective in proposing as process tool for organizing business development in small and medium-sized non-urban, lower-tier territories...

  5. Neural correlates of consciousness: a definition of the dorsal and ventral streams and their relation to phenomenology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakalopoulos, Costa

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents a hypothesis for a neural correlate of consciousness. A proposal is made that both the dorsal and ventral streams must be concurrently active to generate conscious awareness and that V1 (striate cortex) provides a serial link between them. An argument is presented against a true extrastriate communication between the dorsal and ventral streams. Secondly, a detailed theory is developed for the structure of the visual hierarchy. Premotor theory states that each organism-object interaction can be described by the two quantitative measures of torque and change in joint position served by the basal ganglia and cerebellum, respectively. This leads to a component theory of motor efference copy providing a fundamental tool for categorizing dorsal and ventral stream networks. The rationale for this is that the dorsal stream specifies spatial coordinates of the external world, which can be coded by the reafference of changes in joint position. The ventral stream is concerned with object recognition and is coded for by forces exerted on the world during a developmental exploratory phase of the organism. The proposed pathways for a component motor efference copy from both the cerebellum and basal ganglia converge on the thalamus and modulate thalamocortical projections via the thalamic reticular nucleus. The origin of the corticopontine projections, which are a massive pathway for cortical information to reach the cerebellum, coincides with the area typically considered as part of the dorsal stream, whereas the entire cortex projects to the striatum. This adds empirical support for a new conceptualization of the visual streams. The model also presents a solution to the binding problem of a neural correlate of consciousness, that is, how a distributed neural network synchronizes its activity during a cognitive event. It represents a reinterpretation of the current status of the visual hierarchy.

  6. Analysis of Territorial Planning and Prospects for Further Development of Urban Districts and Settlements in Rostov Region

    OpenAIRE

    Ovchinnikova Natalia

    2017-01-01

    This article covers the problems of modern urban districts and settlements of the Rostov region with due regard to the organization of their territories. Prospects for the further development of the urban districts and settlements are defined based on the goals of the urban-planning activity. Short-term and mid-term trends of residential construction in the Rostov region are classified in terms of the improvement of town-planning documentation. It is concluded that the territorial planning or...

  7. Organizaciones vecinales en municipios de Mendoza. Potencialidad para generar prácticas sociales con inteligencia territorial

    OpenAIRE

    Molina , Gladys

    2012-01-01

    The idea of Territorial Intelligence emphasizes the participation of different types from actors in the decisions that concern to the local territory. Between the communitarian actors, the ocal organizations are fundamental because they have an existential knowledge of the geographic space who share the neighbors. That knowledge, is focused generally in the deficiencies of the district or of the district and it is constituted in its reason of being, like average for the defense as opposed to ...

  8. The quality of the environmental participation in planning of the territorial arrangement in Medellin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuluaga M, Clara; Carmona M, Sergio Ivan

    2005-01-01

    After the political constitution issued in 1991 and the gamma of laws that develop it, the possible environmental participation in Colombia is a legitimate participation that does not contribute to building of citizenship. In Medellin, the environmental participation, in planning the territorial arrangement, is low qualified for it presents grave faults in its structural attributes. As shown by the indicators, the representatively, legitimacy, the level of environmental information, the territorial associations, the communicative competence and the participation pertinence, present a low level of contribution to a substantive, democratic, involving, organic, co-responsible and informative environmental participation

  9. Organics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chian, Edward S. K.; DeWalle, Foppe B.

    1978-01-01

    Presents water analysis literature for 1978. This review is concerned with organics, and it covers: (1) detergents and surfactants; (2) aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons; (3) pesticides and chlorinated hydrocarbons; and (4) naturally occurring organics. A list of 208 references is also presented. (HM)

  10. Organizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callison, Daniel

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on "organizers," tools or techniques that provide identification and classification along with possible relationships or connections among ideas, concepts, and issues. Discusses David Ausubel's research and ideas concerning advance organizers; the implications of Ausubel's theory to curriculum and teaching; "webbing," a…

  11. LIMITS AND POSSIBILITIES OF THE TERRITORIAL DEVELOPMENT POLICY: AN ANALYSIS FROM THE TERRITORY CITIZENSHIP CENTRAL OF RS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Aparecida Balem

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Citizenship Territories Program, created in 2008 to replace the Rural Areas Program 2003, stands out as the Brazilian territorial development policy. This work aims, from the analysis of the Central Territory Citizenship of Rio Grande do Sul, to identify if the limits and possibilities of implementation of this territory are from public policy or from particularities of the region itself. Were outlined four keys for analytical analysis, which seek to discuss how policy has been implemented and how the notion of territorial development has been appropriated by society. In addition, we seek to present the main limitations for the development of territorial politics. Even if the territory proves an important forum for discussion and mobilization in the region, yet is insufficient to account for the territorial development, since the actions and policies of development for the circumscribed space not fully converge.

  12. Morphological patterns of urban sprawl territories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica I. Stan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the context of global criticism on urban sprawl, the questions which arises are: what can we do with the expansion forms already occurred in most part of our cities; can they be fully or partially integrated into the city? But first, which exactly are the common morphological features of urban expansion areas in large European cities, and (by comparison in Romania? The urban form correlated to these „sparwl patterns” and „sprawl mechanisms” shows more then the lack of planning, but a social input in occuping the territory, related with a specific meaning of the landscape. The paper explores the relationship between the five distinct morphological patterns ways of forming in relation to spatial and landscape shapes which they generate, in the territories of sprawl, all illustrated through case studies of Bucharest.

  13. The polymorphic, multilayered and networked urbanised territory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Tom

    2015-01-01

    The discussion of the network city has in recent years been supplemented by an increasing interest in reconsidering the notion of territory. Looking into both geographical and urban design theories, we find examples of a focus on how the networks of the city not only connect them irreversibly...... with sites and systems without any direct physical relation, but also of how this does not necessarily result in complete fragmentation and dissociation between the parts and the surrounding landscapes, as described in network city theory. By relating examples from this literature to a description...... in theory. The concept of The Polymorphic, Multilayered and Networked Urbanised Territory is introduced to grasp the reality experienced in European regions outside the largest and most potent versions of contemporary cities....

  14. Expansion of eucalyptus culture in the municipalities of Minas Gerais and territorial management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Batista Rezende

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the development of monoculture index (MI of eucalyptus as a key element for the management of the territory, from the perspective of sustainable development. We analyzed the "geography" of the eucalyptus plantation in Minas Gerais, to support the planning, organization, control and use of territory. The Monoculture index proposed, which is an important tool for land management, was developed and validate by its application to municipalities of Minas Gerais state. It was shown that the culture of Eucalyptus represents a low rate of monoculture in the state of Minas Gerais and that the geography of this culture is compatible with sustainable territorial expansion. Therefore, these results contribute to the definition of public land management in Minas Gerais and the methodology used can be applied to other states.

  15. A radiologic study on the urinary bladder following dorsal and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pneumocystography and positive contrast cystography using solutrast® were carried out immediately after surgery and on the second operative day following dorsal and ventral cystotomy in 22 adult mongrel dogs. In all the radiographs, there was no contrast observed in the abdominal cavity and the apex of the bladder had ...

  16. Attention modulates the dorsal striatum response to love stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langeslag, Sandra J E; van der Veen, Frederik M; Röder, Christian H

    2014-02-01

    In previous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies concerning romantic love, several brain regions including the caudate and putamen have consistently been found to be more responsive to beloved-related than control stimuli. In those studies, infatuated individuals were typically instructed to passively view the stimuli or to think of the viewed person. In the current study, we examined how the instruction to attend to, or ignore the beloved modulates the response of these brain areas. Infatuated individuals performed an oddball task in which pictures of their beloved and friend served as targets and distractors. The dorsal striatum showed greater activation for the beloved than friend, but only when they were targets. The dorsal striatum actually tended to show less activation for the beloved than the friend when they were distractors. The longer the love and relationship duration, the smaller the response of the dorsal striatum to beloved-distractor stimuli was. We interpret our findings in terms of reinforcement learning. By virtue of using a cognitive task with a full factorial design, we show that the dorsal striatum is not activated by beloved-related information per se, but only by beloved-related information that is attended. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Dorsal hand coverage with free serratus fascia flap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fotopoulos, Peter; Holmer, Per; Leicht, Pernille

    2003-01-01

    in the flap, leaving the long thoracic nerve intact on the serratus muscle. Coverage of the flap with split-thickness skin graft is done immediately. The free serratus fascia flap is an ideal flap for dorsal hand coverage when the extensor tendons are exposed, especially because of low donor-site morbidity....

  18. Expression of interleukin-1 beta in rat dorsal root ganglia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Copray, JCVM; Mantingh, [No Value; Brouwer, N; Biber, K; Kust, BM; Liem, RSB; Huitinga, [No Value; Tilders, FJH; Van Dam, AM; Boddeke, HWGM

    2001-01-01

    The expression of interleukin-lp was examined in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons from adult rats using non-radioactive in Situ hybridization and immunocytochemistry. At all spinal levels, approximately 70% of the DRG neurons appeared to express IL-1 beta mRNA: about 80% of these DRG neurons

  19. Slack KNa Channels Influence Dorsal Horn Synapses and Nociceptive Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evely, Katherine M; Pryce, Kerri D; Bausch, Anne E; Lukowski, Robert; Ruth, Peter; Haj-Dahmane, Samir; Bhattacharjee, Arin

    2017-01-01

    The sodium-activated potassium channel Slack (Kcnt1, Slo2.2) is highly expressed in dorsal root ganglion neurons where it regulates neuronal firing. Several studies have implicated the Slack channel in pain processing, but the precise mechanism or the levels within the sensory pathway where channels are involved remain unclear. Here, we furthered the behavioral characterization of Slack channel knockout mice and for the first time examined the role of Slack channels in the superficial, pain-processing lamina of the dorsal horn. We performed whole-cell recordings from spinal cord slices to examine the intrinsic and synaptic properties of putative inhibitory and excitatory lamina II interneurons. Slack channel deletion altered intrinsic properties and synaptic drive to favor an overall enhanced excitatory tone. We measured the amplitudes and paired pulse ratio of paired excitatory post-synaptic currents at primary afferent synapses evoked by electrical stimulation of the dorsal root entry zone. We found a substantial decrease in the paired pulse ratio at synapses in Slack deleted neurons compared to wildtype, indicating increased presynaptic release from primary afferents. Corroborating these data, plantar test showed Slack knockout mice have an enhanced nociceptive responsiveness to localized thermal stimuli compared to wildtype mice. Our findings suggest that Slack channels regulate synaptic transmission within the spinal cord dorsal horn and by doing so establishes the threshold for thermal nociception.

  20. Treatment of acute and subacute dorsal perilunate fracture dislocations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levent Kucuk

    2014-04-01

    Outcomes: Results of the perilunate fracture dislocations treated in acute or subacute phase by open reduction and internal fixation via dorsal approach are satisfactory. There is a strong demand for prospective, randomized studies to compare the results of different treatment modalities. [Hand Microsurg 2014; 3(1.000: 1-7

  1. A study of dorsal vein pattern for biometric security

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nafiisah

    ensure more reliable security, many biometric verification techniques have been developed .... 3.0 HA D DORSAL VEI PATTER AS A BIOMETRIC ... image for the back of the hand, and converted by a computer into a digital image that can be.

  2. Analysis of territorial and industrial development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhul'kova Yuliya Nikolaevna

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available At present a territory is considered as the basis for effective socio-economical development of the region. However, special attention should be paid to the presence of available resources on the territory under consideration, as well as the conditions of their future development. The availability and/or the possibility of creating/upgrading the existing resources encourage today the accumulated potential of the territory. Potential of the area is a set of capabilities and different levels of impact on the total potential of the area and includes such resources as natural, human, investment, innovation, employment, scientific and technological, demographic, urban development, tourism, tax, financial, recreational, marketing, cluster and infrastructure, as well as other kinds of potentials. The prospects for the development of enterprises or their complexes determine the capacities of the territory, the basis of their operation being the location. In this connection it is necessary to consider the basic types of potential undertakings, which the article refer to: marketing, investment, innovation, employment, tax, industrial, economic, resources. For more exact information and accurate prediction each primary resource must include a group of elements. The number of analyzed resources, as well as their elements, is not limited. However an obligatory demand for including the resources or their elements in the list is their exceptional importance for the development of the subject. For efficient operation of enterprises or their complexes in a certain area it is necessary to identify the sources of coordinated development of land and property of the complex, the purpose of which is to obtain maximum benefit from the combination of "territory↔enterprise (s". For this aim we suggest assessing the possibility of long-term development according to the following scenario: establishment of a list of core resources, having impact on businesses

  3. From conservationism to sustainable territorial development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Freire Vieira

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Since the end of the 1960s, the eclosion of a planetary problematics related to the recognition of the “ecological limits of material growth” has mobilized growing attention on the part of scientific communities and public opinion. The systemic concept of eco-development has emerged from this context and been gradually disseminated as a an expression of the radical critique of the economistic ideology underlying industrial-technological “civilization”. Over the course of the 1980s and 1990s, the proliferation of case studies on experiences of local and territorial development in different national contexts has contributed to a deepening of (systemic notions of endogeneity, de-centralization, self-reliance, local autonomy and integrated local productive systems, which have always considered bases of the ecodevelopmentalist position. Against the background of the uncertainties, constraints and opportunities imposed by assymetrical globalization, special attention began to be given to the analysis of the innovative and synergic responses – in terms of socio-economic, socio-cultural and political-institutional reorganization – that have been generated within these spaces. Furthermore, and in a rather paradoxical way, most of the studies linked to a territorial focus give little attention to the treatment of the immense challenges brought about through the elosion of socioenvironmental crisis and the appearance of a vast literature dealing with the connection between environment and development. The present article offers exploratory subsidies that attempt to overcome the aforementioned lacunae, evaluating both the pertinence and general conditions of viability of the sustainable territorial development approach at the current stage of evolution of the Brazilian environmental agenda. Keywords: systemic research, ecological policy, environmental policy, sustainable territorial development.

  4. [The hospital as space and as territory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiefel, Friedrich; Marion-Veyron, Régis; Englebert, Jérôme

    2018-02-07

    Space is lived individually and collectively and can become a source of existential affectation, especially when the lived experience is modified by disease. The fact that the hospital is also a place of territorialisation can potentiate this affectation, with at times surprising consequences. We aim - based on a reflection about the relationship patients and clinicians establish with the territory of the hospital- to identify some psychological and existential issues at stake with regard to space as a social construction.

  5. Territory, competitive advantages and local productive systems

    OpenAIRE

    Monarca U.

    2007-01-01

    This work aims at analyzing if, as often indicated by theoretical and empirical literature, the "territory" variable shows local development dynamics. A review of the districts phenomenon has favoured the attempt to integrate modern economical trends in this consolidated productive model, with particular emphasis on firm internationalization, market globalisation and the IT developments, including business services as well. The work underlines two implication of this innovative approach: the ...

  6. The Materiality of Territorial Production - A Conceptual Discussion of Territoriality, Materiality and the Everyday Life of Public Space

    OpenAIRE

    Kärrholm, Mattias

    2007-01-01

    This article brings together research on territoriality and actor-network theory in order to develop new ways of investigating the role of materiality and material design in the territorial power relations of urban public places. Using the public square as a main example, I suggest some new ways of conceptualizing the production and stabilization of territories in the everyday urban environment. Setting out from a brief outline of the history of territoriality research, I re-appropriate the t...

  7. Couch potatoes do better: Delayed dispersal and territory size affect the duration of territory occupancy in a monogamous mammal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Martin; Zedrosser, Andreas; Rosell, Frank

    2017-06-01

    In territorial, socially monogamous species, the establishment and defense of a territory are an important strategy to maximize individual fitness, but the factors responsible for the duration of territory occupancy are rarely studied, especially in long-lived mammals. A long-term monitoring program in southeast Norway spanning over 18 years allowed us to follow the individual life histories of Eurasian beavers ( Castor fiber ) from adolescence in their natal family group to dispersal and territory establishment until the end of territory occupancy. We investigated whether territory size, resource availability, population density, and dispersal age could explain the duration of territory occupancy, which ranged from 1 to 11 years. The duration of territory occupancy was positively related to dispersal age, suggesting that individuals that delayed dispersal had a competitive advantage due to a larger body mass. This is in support with the maturation hypothesis, which states that an animal should await its physical and behavioral maturation before the acquisition of a territory. Further, we found that individuals that established in medium-sized territories occupied them longer as compared to individuals in small or large territories. This suggests that large territories are more costly to defend due to an increased patrolling effort, and small territories might not have sufficient resources. The lifetime reproductive success ranged from zero to six kits and generally increased with an increasing duration of territory occupancy. Our findings show the importance of holding a territory and demonstrate that dispersal decisions and territory selection have important consequences for the fitness of an individual.

  8. Birth Territory: a theory for midwifery practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahy, Kathleen M; Parratt, Jenny Anne

    2006-07-01

    The theory of Birth Territory describes, explains and predicts the relationships between the environment of the individual birth room, issues of power and control, and the way the woman experiences labour physiologically and emotionally. The theory was synthesised inductively from empirical data generated by the authors in their roles as midwives and researchers. It takes a critical post-structural feminist perspective and expands on some of the ideas of Michel Foucault. Theory synthesis was also informed by current research about the embodied self and the authors' scholarship in the fields of midwifery, human biology, sociology and psychology. In order to demonstrate the significance of the theory, it is applied to two clinical stories that both occur in hospital but are otherwise different. This analysis supports the central proposition that when midwives use 'midwifery guardianship' to create and maintain the ideal Birth Territory then the woman is most likely to give birth naturally, be satisfied with the experience and adapt with ease in the post-birth period. These benefits together with the reduction in medical interventions also benefit the baby. In addition, a positive Birth Territory is posited to have a broader impact on the woman's partner, family and society in general.

  9. Hydrocarbons in Argentina: networks, territories, integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrizo, S.C.

    2003-12-01

    Argentinean hydrocarbons networks have lived a huge reorganizing the structure, after the State reform in the 90's. Activities deregulation and the privatization of YPF and Gas del Estado forced the sector re-concentration, since then dominated by foreign companies, leaded by Repsol YPF. The hydrocarbons federalization contributed to the weakening and un-capitalization loss of wealth of the State. These changes resulted in an increase of the hydrocarbons production allowing to achieve the self-supply. Nevertheless, the expansion of internal networks has not been large enough to ensure the coverage of new requirements. Besides, several infrastructures have been built up to join external markets. National networks are connected to those of near neighboring countries. This integration is an opportunity for the 'South Cone' countries to enhance their potentials. In the country, hydrocarbons territories undergo the reorganizing the structure effects (unemployment, loss of territorial identity, etc). With many difficulties and very different possibilities, those territories, like Comodoro Rivadavia, Ensenada et and Bahia Blanca, look for their re-invention. (author)

  10. Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hatch, Mary Jo

    and considers many more. Mary Jo Hatch introduces the concept of organizations by presenting definitions and ideas drawn from the a variety of subject areas including the physical sciences, economics, sociology, psychology, anthropology, literature, and the visual and performing arts. Drawing on examples from......Most of us recognize that organizations are everywhere. You meet them on every street corner in the form of families and shops, study in them, work for them, buy from them, pay taxes to them. But have you given much thought to where they came from, what they are today, and what they might become...... prehistory and everyday life, from the animal kingdom as well as from business, government, and other formal organizations, Hatch provides a lively and thought provoking introduction to the process of organization....

  11. Dorsal Phalloplasty to Preserve Penis Length after Penile Prosthesis Implantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osama Shaeer

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Following penile prosthesis implantation (PPI, patients may complain of a decrease in visible penis length. A dorsal phalloplasty defines the penopubic junction by tacking pubic skin to the pubis, revealing the base of the penis. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of a dorsal phalloplasty in increasing the visible penis length following PPI. Methods: An inflatable penile prosthesis was implanted in 13 patients with severe erectile dysfunction (ED at the Kamal Shaeer Hospital, Cairo, Egypt, from January 2013 to May 2014. During the surgery, nonabsorbable tacking sutures were used to pin the pubic skin to the pubis through the same penoscrotal incision. Intraoperative penis length was measured before and after the dorsal phalloplasty. Overall patient satisfaction was measured on a 5-point rating scale and patients were requested to subjectively compare their postoperative penis length with memories of their penis length before the onset of ED. Results: Intraoperatively, the dorsal phalloplasty increased the visible length of the erect penis by an average of 25.6%. The average length before and after tacking was 10.2 ± 2.9 cm and 13.7 ± 2.8 cm, respectively (P <0.002. Postoperatively, seven patients (53.8% reported a longer penis, five patients (38.5% reported no change in length and one patient (7.7% reported a slightly shorter penis. The mean overall patient satisfaction score was 4.9 ± 0.3. None of the patients developed postoperative complications. Conclusion: A dorsal phalloplasty during PPI is an effective method of increasing visible penis length, therefore minimising the impression of a shorter penis after implantation.

  12. Control of territorial communities in local government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. А. Смоляр

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available According to Art. 5 of the Constitution of Ukraine all power in Ukraine belong to people, which is primary, unified, inalienable and carried people through free will through elections, referendum and other forms of direct democracy, including those intended to control the activity of bodies and officials of the government and local government. Paper objective. At the local level the main supervisory entity in local government is local community. Consolidation of the Constitution of Ukraine the primary subject of local self-government territorial community not only meets current international practice, but also the historical traditions of Ukrainian people. Control territorial community in all phases of local government is one of the most important functions of managing the development of appropriate settlements, and therefore needs an effective mechanism of legal regulation, clearly define mutual rights and responsibilities of controlling and controlled entities. Recent research and publications analysis. Problems Assessment of local communities and the activities of local government officials in their works viewed Y.G. Barabash, P.M. Liubchenko, O.D. Skopych, Y.P. Strilets. However, given the variety of aspects of this area of research remain many questions that need resolving, on which depends largely on the further process of local governance. The paper main body. The existing regulation territorial communities can exercise control in local government actually only through local governments. The control of the executive bodies of village, town council municipalities can only be made through the appropriate council. The existing regulation of territorial communities can exercise control in local government actually only through local governments. The control of the executive bodies of village, town council municipalities can only be made through the appropriate council. The author emphasizes that only by implementing self-control powers local

  13. The Extreme Right in Eastern Europe and Territorial Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Mareš

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses and compares the different territorial conceptions of the extreme right in Eastern Europe and their political impact, with a view to explaining how important the historical legacy of the supposed territorial and border claims and injustices is for the identity of the extreme right (or their parts in contemporary Eastern Europe. It analyses the historical roots of the territorial claims of the extreme right in the area, the current situation regarding their territorial claims and disputes, and the impact of these territorial claims on domestic politics, on the politics of the extreme right at the European level and on regional security in this area.

  14. "Territorial promiscuity” and border demarcation in Piedmont. The case of Piovà Massaia and Cerreto d’Asti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Bordone

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between a community organized in an established administrative structure and the surrounding territory and its exploitable resources is not always definitely biunique. We will discuss some cases in Piedmont, illustrating the persistence of situations dating back to the Middle Ages that still affect the administrative structures. Particular attention will be given to the boundary dispute between Cerreto d’Asti and Piovà Massaia, originating from a long-lasting condition of uncertain boundaries between the two territories. Originally, both villages were part of one ecclesiastical-political district (the Mairate parish church, with no territorial divisions. In the Modern Age each of them achieved a more defined territorial status; yet, there remained (and still remain areas of uncertain attribution. The dispute that is now in progress is the heritage of a territorial organization dating back to the Middle Ages, at present opposing a different, universally adopted model. Thus two alternatives – originally not in contrast – emerge: either sharing the territorial resources or exploiting them in an exclusive way.

  15. Territory and place : Potential for analysis of political subjects' constitution: The case of an unemployed movement in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Torres

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at introducing the debate about the concepts of "space", "territory", "territoriality", "place" and their possible responsibility in the analysis of political subjects, especially in connection with an Argentine unemployment movement: the CTD Aníbal Verón. First of all, we deal with the debate about whether the space can be thought of as a political constituting dimensión or whether it is enough for it to be considered a conflict manifestation, limit demarcation and access control; the space built being understood as territory. Secondly, we also carry out an analysis of the relation between subjects and space, their appropriation and the meaning they give it, involving identity relations which are often analyzed through the category of place. Attention will be paid to two of the various practices which construct places [in terms of identity] in the territories built/appropriated by the organization: the neighborhood and the picket

  16. Predicting Early Reading Skills from Pre-Reading Measures of Dorsal Stream Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevan, Alison; Pammer, Kristen

    2009-01-01

    It is well documented that good reading skills may be dependent upon adequate dorsal stream processing. However, the degree to which dorsal stream deficits play a causal role in reading failure has not been established. This study used coherent motion and visual frequency doubling to examine whether dorsal stream sensitivity measured before the…

  17. Ethnic identity, territory and sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carmona Maya, Sergio Ivan

    1998-01-01

    This article explores, within the relationship between territory and society, the various points concerning cultural, social and ethnic identity through which the social contract on sustainable development must confront its greatest contradictions. The political position taken as regards sustainable development seeks cultural unity as a necessary condition for establishing modern forms of behavior to deal with styles of development and the management of the environment, for which to reconcile cultural diversity and the permanent social interaction between different ethnic groups, which is both imperative and of the utmost urgency

  18. Dorsal onlay (Barbagli technique) versus dorsal inlay (Asopa technique) buccal mucosal graft urethroplasty for anterior urethral stricture: a prospective randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldaqadossi, Hussein; El Gamal, Samir; El-Nadey, Mohamed; El Gamal, Osama; Radwan, Mohamed; Gaber, Mohamed

    2014-02-01

    To compare both the dorsal onlay technique of Barbagli and the dorsal inlay technique of Asopa for the management of long anterior urethral stricture. From January 2010 to May 2012, a total of 47 patients with long anterior urethral strictures were randomized into two groups. The first group included 25 patients who were managed by dorsal onlay buccal mucosal graft urethroplasty. The second group included 22 patients who were managed by dorsal inlay buccal mucosal graft urethroplasty. Different clinical parameters, postoperative complications and success rates were compared between both groups. The overall success rate in the dorsal onlay group was 88%, whereas in the dorsal inlay group the success rate was 86.4% during the follow-up period. The mean operative time was significantly longer in the dorsal onlay urethroplasty group (205 ± 19.63 min) than in the dorsal inlay urethroplasty group (128 ± 4.9 min, P-value <0.0001). The average blood loss was significantly higher in the dorsal onlay urethroplasty group (228 ± 5.32 mL) than in the dorsal inlay urethroplasty group (105 ± 12.05 mL, P-value <0.0001). The dorsal onlay technique of Barbagli and the dorsal inlay technique of Asopa buccal mucosal graft urethroplasty provide similar success rates. The Asopa technique is easy to carry out, provides shorter operative time and less blood loss, and it is associated with fewer complications for anterior urethral stricture repair. © 2013 The Japanese Urological Association.

  19. Dorsal approaches to intradural extramedullary tumors of the craniovertebral junction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Refai

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Tumors of the craniovertebral junction (CVJ pose significant challenges to cranial and spine surgeons. Familiarity with the complex anatomy and avoidance of injury to neurologic and vascular structures are essential to success. Multiple surgical approaches to address lesions at the CVJ have been promoted, including ventral and dorsal-based trajectories. However, optimal selection of the surgical vector to manage the pathology requires a firm understanding of the limitations and advantages of each approach. The selection of the best surgical trajectory must include several factors, such as obtaining the optimal exposure of the region of interest, avoiding injury to critical neurologic or vascular structures, identification of normal anatomical landmarks, the familiarity and comfort level of the surgeon to the approach, and the need for fixation. This review article focuses on dorsal approaches to the CVJ and the advantages and limitations in managing intradural extramedullary tumors.

  20. Dorsal and ventral changes of the occipital vertebrae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banki, Z.

    1981-01-01

    Based on his own observation and on the literature, the author discusses various types of calcification in the occipital-cervical region, beginning with those situated dorsally and followed by ventral forms. An attempt is made to classify these changes, depending on their morphology and situation, from an embryological point of view. The pro-atlantal and ante pro-atlanto origin of the occipital vertebrae is discussed. Differentiation depends on appearances. (orig.) [de

  1. Bulbar urethroplasty using the dorsal approach: current techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbagli Guido

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The use of flaps or grafts is mandatory in patients with longer and complex strictures. In 1995-96 we described a new dorsal onlay graft urethroplasty. Over time, our original technique was better defined and changed. Now this procedure (also named Barbagli technique has been greeted with a fair amount of enthusiasm in Europe and in the United States. SURGICAL TECHNIQUE: The patient is placed in normal lithotomy position, and a midline perineo-scrotal incision is made. The bulbar urethra is then free from the bulbo-cavernous muscles, and is dissected from the corpora cavernosa. The urethra is completely mobilized from the corpora cavernosa, it is rotated 180 degrees, and is incised along its dorsal surface. The graft (preputial skin or buccal mucosa or the flap is fixed and quilted to the tunica albuginea of the corporal bodies. The right mucosal margin of the opened urethra is sutured to the right side of the patch-graft. The urethra is rotated back into its original position. The left urethral margin is sutured to the left side of the patch graft and to the corporal bodies, and the grafted area is entirely covered by the urethral plate. The bulbo-cavernous muscles are approximated over the grafted area. A 16F silicone Foley catheter is left in place. COMMENTS: Dorsal onlay graft urethroplasty is a versatile procedure that may be combined with various substitute materials like preputial skin, buccal mucosa grafts or pedicled flaps.

  2. Diagnosis of dorsal inter osseous pseudotumours by magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peh, W.C.G.; Wong, L.L.S.; Ip, W.Y.

    1999-01-01

    Two middle-aged-patients each presenting with a progressively enlarging mass in the first dorsal web space of their hands are reported. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated the cause to be a hypertrophic first dorsal inter osseous muscle, with normal T1, T2 and post-gadopentetate dimeglumine signal characteristics. The ability of MRI to diagnose anatomical variants of hand muscles is important in the clinical management of patients with these pseudotumours. The usefulness of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in evaluation of soft tissue tumours of the musculoskeletal system is now widely accepted. Its ability to maximize contrast between tumour and adjacent normal tissue in a multiplanar manner makes it the imaging modality of choice in pre-operative staging of soft tissue masses. In the hand and wrist, where benign tumours predominate, MRI may provide a specific diagnosis. We describe two cases in which MRI demonstrated the cause of a hand pseudotumour to be due to hypertrophy of the first dorsal inter osseous muscle. Copyright (1999) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  3. Diagnosis of dorsal inter osseous pseudotumours by magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peh, W.C.G.; Wong, L.L.S. [The University of Hong Kong, Queen Mary Hospital, (Hong Kong). Hand Surgery Division, Department of Diagnotic Radiology; Ip, W.Y. [The University of Hong Kong, Queen Mary Hospital, (Hong Kong). Hand Surgery Division, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery

    1999-08-01

    Two middle-aged-patients each presenting with a progressively enlarging mass in the first dorsal web space of their hands are reported. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated the cause to be a hypertrophic first dorsal inter osseous muscle, with normal T1, T2 and post-gadopentetate dimeglumine signal characteristics. The ability of MRI to diagnose anatomical variants of hand muscles is important in the clinical management of patients with these pseudotumours. The usefulness of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in evaluation of soft tissue tumours of the musculoskeletal system is now widely accepted. Its ability to maximize contrast between tumour and adjacent normal tissue in a multiplanar manner makes it the imaging modality of choice in pre-operative staging of soft tissue masses. In the hand and wrist, where benign tumours predominate, MRI may provide a specific diagnosis. We describe two cases in which MRI demonstrated the cause of a hand pseudotumour to be due to hypertrophy of the first dorsal inter osseous muscle. Copyright (1999) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd 20 refs., 3 figs.

  4. Compound dorsal dislocation of lunate with trapezoid fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bong-Sung Kim

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We report about a dorsal dislocation of the lunate accompanied by a trapezoid fracture in a 41-year old male patient after a motorcycle accident. The lunate dislocation with no dorsal or volar intercalated segment instability (DISI, VISI was diagnosed by x-ray whereas the trapezoid fracture was only diagnosable by computed tomography. A closed reduction and internal fixation of the lunate by two Kirschner wires was performed, the trapezoid fracture was conservatively treated. Surgery was followed by immobilization, intense physiotherapy and close follow-up. Even though complaints such as swelling and pain subsided during the course of rehabilitation, partial loss of strength and range of motion remained even after 16 months. In conclusion, a conservative treatment of trapezoid fractures seems to be sufficient in most cases. Closed reduction with Kwire fixation led to an overall satisfactory result in our case. For dorsal lunate dislocations in general, open reduction should be performed when close reduction is unsuccessful or DISI/VISI are observed in radiographs after attempted close reduction.

  5. Alzheimer disease: functional abnormalities in the dorsal visual pathway.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bokde, Arun L W

    2012-02-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate whether patients with Alzheimer disease (AD) have altered activation compared with age-matched healthy control (HC) subjects during a task that typically recruits the dorsal visual pathway. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was performed in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki, with institutional ethics committee approval, and all subjects provided written informed consent. Two tasks were performed to investigate neural function: face matching and location matching. Twelve patients with mild AD and 14 age-matched HC subjects were included. Brain activation was measured by using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Group statistical analyses were based on a mixed-effects model corrected for multiple comparisons. RESULTS: Task performance was not statistically different between the two groups, and within groups there were no differences in task performance. In the HC group, the visual perception tasks selectively activated the visual pathways. Conversely in the AD group, there was no selective activation during performance of these same tasks. Along the dorsal visual pathway, the AD group recruited additional regions, primarily in the parietal and frontal lobes, for the location-matching task. There were no differences in activation between groups during the face-matching task. CONCLUSION: The increased activation in the AD group may represent a compensatory mechanism for decreased processing effectiveness in early visual areas of patients with AD. The findings support the idea that the dorsal visual pathway is more susceptible to putative AD-related neuropathologic changes than is the ventral visual pathway.

  6. Dorsal onlay vaginal graft urethroplasty for female urethral stricture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manmeet Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Female urethral stricture is an underdiagnosed and overlooked cause of female bladder outlet obstruction. The possible etiologies may be infection, prior dilation, difficult catheterization with subsequent fibrosis, urethral surgery, trauma, or idiopathic. We present our technique and results of dorsal onlay full thickness vaginal graft urethroplasty for female urethral stricture. Materials and Methods: A retrospective review was performed on 16 female patients with mid-urethral stricture who underwent dorsal onlay vaginal graft urethroplasty from January 2007 to June 2011.Of these, 13 patients had previously undergone multiple Hegar dilatations, three had previous internal urethrotomies. The preoperative work up included detailed voiding history, local examination, uroflowmetry, calibration, and micturating cystourethrogram. Results: All patients had mid-urethral stricture. Mean age was 47.5 years. Mean Q max improved from 6.2 to 27.6 ml/s. Mean residual volume decreased from 160 to 20 ml. Mean duration of follow-up was 24.5 months (6 months to 3 years. Only one patient required self-calibration for 6 months after which her stricture stabilized. None of the patient was incontinent. Conclusion: Dorsal vaginal onlay graft urethroplasty could be considered as an effective way to treat female urethral stricture.

  7. Harmane inhibits serotonergic dorsal raphe neurons in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touiki, Khalid; Rat, Pascal; Molimard, Robert; Chait, Abderrahman; de Beaurepaire, Renaud

    2005-11-01

    Harmane and norharmane (two beta-carbolines) are tobacco components or products. The effects of harmane and norharmane on serotonergic raphe neurons remain unknown. Harmane and norharmane are inhibitors of the monoamine oxidases A (MAO-A) and B (MAO-B), respectively. To study the effects of harmane, norharmane, befloxatone (MAOI-A), and selegiline (MAOI-B) on the firing of serotonergic neurons. To compare the effects of these compounds to those of nicotine (whose inhibitory action on serotonergic neurons has been previously described). The effects of cotinine, a metabolite of nicotine known to interact with serotonergic systems, are also tested. In vivo electrophysiological recordings of serotonergic dorsal raphe neurons in the anaesthetized rat. Nicotine, harmane, and befloxatone inhibited serotonergic dorsal raphe neurons. The other compounds had no effects. The inhibitory effect of harmane (rapid and long-lasting inhibition) differed from that of nicotine (short and rapidly reversed inhibition) and from that of befloxatone (slow, progressive, and long-lasting inhibition). The inhibitory effects of harmane and befloxatone were reversed by the 5-HT1A antagonist WAY 100 635. Pretreatment of animals with p-chlorophenylalanine abolished the inhibitory effect of befloxatone, but not that of harmane. Nicotine, harmane, and befloxatone inhibit the activity of raphe serotonergic neurons. Therefore, at least two tobacco compounds, nicotine and harmane, inhibit the activity of serotonergic neurons. The mechanism by which harmane inhibits serotonergic dorsal raphe neurons is likely unrelated to a MAO-A inhibitory effect.

  8. Comparative estimates of Kamchatka territory development in the context of northern territories of foreign countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Gennadyevich Shelomentsev

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article promotes an approach to assess the prospects of regional development on the basis of the synthesis of comparative and historical methods of research. According to the authors, the comparative analysis of the similar functioning of the socio-economic systems forms deeper understanding what part factors and methods of state regulation play in regional development, and also their place in socio-economic and geopolitical space. The object of the research is Kamchatka territory as the region playing strategically important role in socio-economic development of Russia and also northern territories of the other countries comparable with Kamchatka on the bass if environmental conditions such as Iceland, Greenland, USA (Alaska, Canada (Yukon, and Japan (Hokkaido. On the basis of allocation of the general signs of regional socio-economic systems and creation of the regional development models forming the basis for comparative estimates, the article analyses the territories, which are comparable on the base of climatic, geographic, economic, geopolitical conditions, but thus significantly different due to the level of economic familiarity. The generalization of the extensive statistical material characterizing various spheres of activity at these territories, including branch structure of the economy, its infrastructure security, demographic situation, the budgetary and financial sphere are given. It allows defining the crucial features of the regional economy development models. In the conclusion, the authors emphasize that ignoring of the essential relations among the regional system elements and internal and external factors deprives a research of historical and socio-economic basis.

  9. Territorial expansion and primary state formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Charles S

    2010-04-20

    A major research problem in anthropology is the origin of the state and its bureaucratic form of governance. Of particular importance for evaluating theories of state origins are cases of primary state formation, whereby a first-generation state evolves without contact with any preexisting states. A general model of this process, the territorial-expansion model, is presented and assessed with archaeological data from six areas where primary states emerged in antiquity: Mesoamerica, Peru, Egypt, Mesopotamia, the Indus Valley, and China. In each case, the evidence shows a close correspondence in time between the first appearance of state institutions and the earliest expansion of the state's political-economic control to regions lying more than a day's round-trip from the capital. Although additional research will add detail and clarity to the empirical record, the results to date are consistent with the territorial-expansion model, which argues that the success of such long-distance expansion not only demanded the bureaucratization of central authority but also helped provide the resources necessary to underwrite this administrative transformation.

  10. Young (inscene: art, culture and territory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Akemi Takeiti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the importance of aesthetic inventions on modes of youth subjectivity in the vulnerability and violence contexts. It also intends to reflect on how the actions undertaken by these youth can cut across the discussion between occupational therapy and culture. Therefore, we worked with some fragments of life stories of three young people engaged in cultural collective distinctive - marginal literature soiree, hip hop movement and audiovisual production - in the districts of Brasilândia and Vila Nova Cachoeirinha in the north of the city of São Paulo, whose we could follow through ethnographic incursions in protagonized cultural activities or in which they participate and oral history interviews. The youth subjectivities productions has been configured as a live territory marked not only by poverty and violence experiences, but, also by collective and creative productions, a brand new life style through aesthetic inventions in the periphery where the stigma of being young, negro and poor gives place to an emblem: the pride of being from the periphery. This emblematic territory is highlighted in cultural collective, particularly in Sarau Poetry Brasa and Cinescadão, two strategies of art and culture that invoke an experience resistance, transforming the experiences of violence and vulnerability that are experienced on the outskirts, in ethical, aesthetic and policies practices.

  11. The environmental perspective in the territorial classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leyva Franco, Pablo

    1998-01-01

    The article is about the environmental aspects in the territorial classification, of the constitutional structure and its reaches, of the precision in the approaches and procedures and of the law 388 of 1997 it understands each other for the environmental thing the relationship between the systems and natural processes and the systems and social, economic and cultural processes; this way the environmental thing transcends the ecological thing and the geographical thing to become a new dimension of the science, of the knowledge and of the culture. The environmental thing also acquires a particular concretion when serving like basic instrument for the interpretation of the necessities of the society and in the way of satisfying them without damage of the natural thing and territorial classification as the process of reflection of a society on the form of occupying the space, of taking advantage of the natural resources, of building establishments, of establishing an infrastructure and of managing the relationships and the economic flows, to obtain a disposition and space arrangements of their activities finally, in harmony with the nature that they correspond to their culture and the form like it wants to maintain or to improve their quality of life in a sustainable way

  12. Living the territoriality: Mapuche tourism and development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorian Rommens

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This article examines how Mapuche entrepreneurs are shaping the landscape of tourism in southern Chile in the context of indigenous development. Based on ethnographic research in and around Lican Ray, we looked at the impacts of Mapuche tourism ventures on development and deterritorialisation. Furthermore, we consider Mapuche tourism as a strategy of resistance in response to the deepening displacement of Mapuche population and the loss of traditional cultural values. The first section means to give an overview of the complexity of issues regarding (indigenous tourism and development as well as to introduce Mapuche tourism practices. Next, dealing with notions as territoriality and collectivism, we argue that Mapuche entrepreneurs are reappropriating Mapuche culture for development. Mapuche tourism is mobilising alternative ways for development, being and relating to the profound relationship they have with their territory and environment in accordance to their worldview. Finally, following the theories of anthropologists Charles Hale and James Scott, we show how Mapuche tourism is shaped in globalisation through Chile’s neoliberal policy. However, the Mapuche indigenous people active in tourism demonstrate that they possess the agency to construct strategies of ‘cultural resistance’. This article brings new perspectives to the study of indigenous tourism and development and represents Mapuche tourism as an opportunity for both indigenous development and resistance.

  13. territorial previa a la toma de decisiones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel Raúl Ruiz Pulpón

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available La expansión de la agricultura de regadío ha ocasionado una signifi cativa confl ictividad ecológica, económica y social concerniente al uso del agua en la cuenca del Guadiana. Ante la ausencia, en estos últimos treinta años, de enfoques territoriales y sistémicos para la resolución de la problemática, se propone una metodología que permite la clasifi cación territorial de los municipios de la cuenca hidrográfi ca del Guadiana que presenten unas características similares de sus regadíos, con el objeto de plantear un modelo espacial previo a la toma de decisiones sobre la gestión de los recursos hídricos, agrarios y ambientales en Castilla-La Mancha, en consonancia con los preceptos estipulados por la Directiva Marco de Aguas y la Estrategia Territorial Europea

  14. MODERN MARKETING CONCEPTS AS THE BASIS FOR FORMATION AND INCREASE OF THE ATTRACTIVENESS OF CITIES AND TERRITORIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iryna Budnikevych

    2017-11-01

    . Using the instruments of municipal marketing social-ethic conception one can focus target audiences’ attention on social, ecological and economical territorial attractiveness ensuring stable territorial development. Territorial marketing within the framework of partnership conceptions as the philosophy of territorial (region, city functioning based on the formation, support and development of mutually beneficial long-term relations between the participants of interaction will create new common values, obtaining and sharing advantages of this activity. The development of the relations between territory and its target audiences defines and forms the basis of the environment to make decisions as to the habitation, visiting, conducting business, investment etc., i. e. forms specific territory’s (country, region, city, settlement attractiveness. Novelty. On the basis of this research the authors proposed to consider marketing approach to territorial (regional, urban attractiveness as a transition to long-term development in the field of systematic management on the basis of consumers’ demands orientation and partnership, clear definition of target audience and its demands, flexible regional policy, applying both traditional and non-traditional instruments to form, improve, support and, sometimes, decrease the attractiveness of territory with demarketing means. Conclusions. It has been determined, that according to marketing approach, the attractiveness of the territory is – the ideas total about properties and features, factors and conditions, limits and possibilities, means and instruments, providing satisfaction and the perspective of increase of target audiences’ needs while they choose a proper region for activity and organize their loyalty towards the territory (region, city. Marketing policy of the attractiveness of territories is proposed as a complex of measures aimed at attracting target audience’s attention, it’s being worked out and realized by

  15. Transformation of soil and vegetable conditions at oil production territories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatina, Evgeniia

    2017-04-01

    On the territory of modern oil production soil, vegetation, ecosystem conditions of the environment are significantly transformed. Researches have been conducted on the oil production territories located in a boreal coniferous forest natural zone from 2005 to 2015. Standard geobotanical and soil methods are used. Mechanical destruction of a plant cover, change of the water conditions, intake of oil products and salty waters in ecosystems, pollution of the atmosphere are considered as the major technology-related factors defining transformation of land ecosystems at operation of the oil field. Under the mechanical destruction of a plant cover the pioneer plant communities are formed. These communities are characterized by most reduced specific wealth with prevalence of types of meadow groups of plants and presence of types of wetland groups of plants. The biodiversity of biocenosis which are affected linear infrastructure facilities of oil production territories and change of the water conditions, decreases. It is observed decrease in species wealth, simplification of structure of communities. Under the salting of soils in ecosystems there is a decrease species diversity of communities to prevalence nitrophilous and meadow plant species. At the increased content of organic substances in the soils that is a consequence of intake of oil products, is characteristic increase in specific richness of communities, introduction of types of wetland and oligotrophic groups of plants in forest communities. Influence depends on distance to an influence source. In process of removal from a source of atmospheric pollution in forest communities there is a decrease in species diversity and complication of structure of community. It is caused by introduction of types of meadow groups of plants in ecotone sites of the forest communities located near a source of influence and restoration of structural features of forest communities in process of removal from an influence source

  16. Energetic cost of feeding territories in an Hawaiian honeycreeper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, F Lynn; MacMillen, Richard E

    1976-09-01

    By analysis of time budgets the daily energy expenditure in territorial individuals of a Hawaiian honeycreeper (Vestiaria coccinea, Fam. Drepanididae) were estimated during the nonbreeding season and compared to that of nonterritorial individuals. The mean rise in living costs was 2.3 kcal/24 h or 17% of the nonterritorial energy budget. The most costly territorial behavior was advertisement rather than chasing, and total territorial cost was seen to be little affected by the number of intruders or the size of the territory. These results are compared with data on feeding (nonbreeding) territories of other nectar-feeding birds. The suggestion is made that hummingbirds may be more likely to develop nonbreeding territorial behavior in any set of environmental circumstances than are honeycreepers because of relatively lower total cost of advertisement plus chasing.

  17. Territoriality and Consumption Behaviour with Location-based Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tussyadiah, Iis

    2012-01-01

    The development in location-based mobile media has led to the popularity of its use for place experiences. This study explored the concept of territoriality, which is suggested as the underlying human behaviour that influences consumers’ mobility and experience stimulated by the social gaming...... feature of location-based media. From an exploratory investigation with a series of focus group discussions with users of location-based media, this study observed the activities of territorial tagging for the purposes of territorial claim and defence to gain and maintain the perceived territorial control...... over resources and rewards attached to certain places. The ability of location-based media to make the physical territory to interact with informational devices enables territorial behaviour to manifest in the consumption of local establishments, making location-based media a powerful tool...

  18. Northwest Territories Power Corporation annual report 1991/92

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-06-01

    The Northwest Territories Power Corporation is a crown corporation of the government of the Northwest Territories. The Corporation operates diesel and hydroelectric production facilities to provide utility services on a self-sustaining basis in the Northwest Territories. Total revenue for 1991/92 amounted to $92,872,000 with $84,954,000 coming from the sale of power. Financial statements are presented. 3 figs

  19. Northwest Territories Power Corporation annual report 1992/93

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-06-01

    The Northwest Territories Power Corporation is a crown corporation of the government of the Northwest Territories. The Corporation operates diesel and hydroelectric production facilities to provide utility services on a self-sustaining basis in the Northwest Territories. Total revenue for 1992/93 amounted to $98,327,000 with $90,274,000 coming from the sale of power. Financial statements are presented. 3 figs

  20. Iodine-131 distribution on the territory of the Republic of Belarus during the first period of the Chernobyl NPP catastrophe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Germenchuk, M.G.; Zhukova, O.M.; Shagalova, E.D.; Matveenko, I.I.

    1998-01-01

    To reconstruct space distribution of iodine-131 on the territory of Belarus we used the following data: (i) contents of iodine-131 in soil measured by gamma spectrometry method in May-July, 1986; (ii) contents of iodine-131 in samples of radioactive atmospheric fall-outs measured by gamma spectrometry method in May, 1986; (iii) daily measurements of exposure dose power levels on the territory of Belarus obtained in April-July, 1986; (iv) results of aerial gamma radiation mapping, obtained in May, 1986; (v) daily measurements of radioactive contamination of milk on the territory of Belarus obtained in May-July, 1986; (vi) measurements of iodine-131 content in links of biological chain 'soil-grass-milk' sampled from 15 reference farms; (vii) maps of specific activity of natural hayfields grass on the territory of Belarus (for every district) obtained on June 2 and 5, on July 3, 1986. Dose commitments on thyroid gland caused by iodine isotopes were formed mainly during the first 2.5 months after the accident. Local irradiation of this organ was stipulated by high accumulation factor of iodine isotopes in thyroid gland that caused increasing of malignant thyroid tumors incidences, including children, on all over the territory of Belarus. Comparison of iodine-131 distribution map and malignant thyroid gland tumor incidences among children on the territory of Belarus map shows that the more level of iodine contamination the more malignant thyroid gland tumor incidence

  1. Multidimensional and multiscalar analisis of territorial rural development in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Schneider

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Of late, there have been several political, practical and analytical changes to our understanding of rural development. Diverse efforts have emerged in the analysis and discussion of spatial dynamics such as “rurality”, territories, in the construction of a territorial perspective of rural development. These changes in the forms of identification and measurement of rural development lead us to question the validity and effectiveness of applied methods, inviting us to establish methodologies and analytical criteria coherent with the multiple manifestations and scales of development. This article offers a multidimensional and multi-scalar analytical model for territorial rural development, using our methodology tested in four rural territories of Brazil.

  2. Golden Eagle Territories and Ecology at Site 300

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fratanduono, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-09-29

    Garcia and Associates (GANDA) was contracted by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to collect information on golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) use of Site 300. During 2014, we conducted surveys at Site 300 and for an area including a 10-mile radius of Site 300. Those surveys documented 42 golden eagle territories including two territories that overlapped with Site 300. These were named ‘Tesla’ and ‘Linac Road’. In 2015, we conducted surveys to refine the territory boundaries of golden eagle territories that overlapped with Site 300 and to document eagle activity at Site 300.

  3. The urgency of outer territories anthropology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miloš Milenković

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In the context of transforming a part of Serbian anthropology into social theoretic management of identity, I suggest both comparative historiographic and ethnographic learning from societies with similar post-colonial experience, with the aim to include the discipline into an urgent defense of Serbia and Belgrade from further ethno-profiteering interests of elites in/from outer territories, left over on the ruins of our ill judged, resource incompatible, exaggerated or immoral twentieth century adventures. Serbian anthropology, written by anthropologists to whom Serbia and Belgrade are "homeland" by origin or civilized choice, should play the key role in the defense of Serbian citizens from the interest of elites in/from the outer "homelands", particularly by revealing the processes for which it is, as a discipline, most expert at – the professionalization of ethnicity, interactive and hybrid nature of identity, instrumental nature of tradition and the identity politics in general. Having in mind the latest attempt, a particularly successful one, conducted by the end of the 20th and the beginning of the 21st century that the lives, health, well-being, dignity and future of persons born in and loyal to the interest of Serbia and Belgrade, in large scale, thoroughly and long term be sacrificed and dedicated to the interests of ethno-profiteering elites in/from outer territories, in this article I point to the possibility to, along with the comparative learning from the above mentioned post-colonial experiences, delicate experiences of urgent anthropology be applied as well as the rich tradition of collective research. This text analyzes the results of first such research, that represenst the initial, praiseworthy and a brave step in the wise striving to engage social sciences and humanities in a search of expert and not mythical/daily-political solutions of the key problem of the Serbian nation – that of how to settle the interests of the

  4. Fires in the Australian Capital Territory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    The height and extent of billowing smoke plumes from bushfires near Canberra, the Australian capital, are illustrated by these views from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR). The images were acquired on January 18, 2003. Never before had fires of this magnitude come so close to Australia's capital. Four people lost their lives and over 500 homes were destroyed, mostly in the southwestern suburbs. Australia's famous Mount Stromlo Observatory, located immediately west of the city, was also incinerated by the fires.The top panel portrays a natural-color view from MISR's nadir camera, in which the eastern portion of the Australian Capital Territory is located south of a pale, ephemeral lake in the upper left-hand corner (Lake George). Several smoke plumes originate within the eastern part of the Australian Capital Territory, while the major plumes originate to the west of the image area. The Australian Capital Territory and much of New South Wales are completely obscured by the smoke, which is driven by fierce westerly winds and extends eastward to the coast and over the Pacific Ocean.The lower panel provides a stereoscopically retrieved height field of the clouds and smoke plumes. The greenish areas indicate where smoke plumes extend several kilometers above a bank of patchy stratus clouds below. A few high clouds appear near the bottom of the image. Wind retrievals were excluded from this image in order to generate a smooth and continuous field. Although relative height variations are well-represented here, the inclusion of wind retrievals for this scene reduces the actual cloud height results by 1 to 2 kilometers. Areas where heights could not be retrieved are shown as dark gray.The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer observes the daylit Earth continuouslyand every 9 days views the entire globe between 82 degrees north and 82 degrees south latitude. This data product was generated from a portion of the imagery acquired during Terra orbit 16421. The

  5. URBAN REGIONAL NETWORKS AND TERRITORIAL DEVELOPMENT: AN ANALYSIS OF “MINAS GERAIS” NORTHWEST TERRITORY IN RECENT YEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clesio Marcelino Jesus

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to show that the establishment of a rural area as a cutout for implementation of public policies for development needs to consider the configuration of the urban network of the municipalities that compose it, identifying what are the hierarchical relationships between the municipalities that make up the territory and if the most dynamic centers radiate influence to the whole. We present the case study of the Northwest Territory of Minas, where were identified various limits for the implementation of territorial development policies. In this article it is shown that such limits are manifested largely because the territory groups municipalities that have different polarizations and establish differentiated functional relationships within the regional urban network. It was found that in this territorial clipping are articulated different social production systems and that the delimitation of the territory does not match even with the regionalization of state and federal agencies.

  6. SUBSTANTIATION OF THE COST OF HOUSING CONSTRUCTION INCLUDING THE FACTOR OF INVESTMENT ATTRACTIVENESS OF TERRITORIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZAIATS Yi. I.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement. For planning and organization of urban construction is necessary to analyze the use of areas. Territorial resources of the city, being used for construction and other urban purposes, consists of plots of land: disposable, reserved and undeveloped in previous years of construction in progress; residential districts and blocks of obsolete housing fund; industrial and municipal and warehouse enterprises being used irrationally or stopped to work; the defence department, where the amortized warehouses and other main funds are that are not used by purpose; agricultural enterprises where the obsolete industrial funds, haying, nurseries, greenhouses. The number of free areas suitable for future urban development is extremely limited. However a considerable part of the territories of almost all functional zones is used inefficiently. Purpose. Formalization of a factor of investment attractiveness of territories for the further identification and research of the connection between it and the cost of housing construction is necessary. Conclusion. The identification of regularities of influence of the factor of investment attractiveness of territories on the cost of construction of high-rise buildings allow to obtain a quantitative estimate of this effect and can be used in the development of the methodology of substantiation of the expediency and effectiveness of the implementation of highrise construction projects, based on organizational and technological aspects.

  7. SOCIO-TERRITORIAL CAPITAL AND DEVELOPMENT INDICATORS: A COMPARATIVE STUDY IN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvio Bandeira de Mello e Silva

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes, based on data from 2010, the social organization in Brazil, measured by the distribution of Private Foundations and Non-Profit Associations (FASFIL, comparing them with the main socioeconomic indicators. The concept of socio-territorial capital is adopted, based on the notion of social capital (PUTNAM, 1996. This concept values the territorial networking, the bonds of cohesion and cooperation and the territorial rooting, that is, the interaction in different sectors and scales. An analysis is made for the relation between by FASFIL and GDP per capita for the Major Regions and for the Federation Units. The results confirm regional imbalances and interstate imbalances, that is, where there is more FASFIL income is higher. The analysis is also done for the main metropolitan regions and for the metropolises, now involving, in addition to GDP per capita, seven socioeconomic indicators (HDI, Gini index, Life expectancy at birth, Infant mortality, Persons with complete upper level, Percentage of vulnerable to poverty and Formalization of the employed. The results are more expressive than in the scale of the Federation Units, especially at the level of the metropolises, that is, they express more prominently the relation between FASFIL and socio territorial capital.

  8. Persuasive territories in European cultural politics:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thelle, Mikkel; Thylstrup, Nanna Bonde

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – This paper aims to view the concept of persuasive technology as a framework for discussing cultural politics on the internet. Taking digital collections as a point of departure, the cases of Europeana and Google Books are to be discussed as promoting different assemblies of information......, practice and identity politics. Through this discussion the study aims to show how the internet becomes territorialized through persuasive mechanisms. Design/methodology/approach – The study applies different concepts on the cases, derived from different fields of social theory, such as “soft power......”, “assembly” and “folksonomy” in order to question the traditional view of persuasive technology as a concept instrumental to, for example, marketing agendas. Targeting the relation between policy and everyday practice, the paper aims to open a discussion of persuasive technology deeply embedded in digital...

  9. Representación territorial y democracia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Reynoso

    2004-01-01

    son una prueba del papel de los territorios en su sistema de representación legislativa. Los sistemas bicamerales permiten hacer frente al dilema de la representación democrática cuando los territorios, además de los ciudadanos, importan. En este trabajo, se explora la tensión normativa entre el principio 'una persona, un voto' de representación y el principio de representación de igualdad territorial existente (no sólo en los sistemas federales. Además, se presenta un análisis de los sistemas de representación bicameral conforme a estos dos criterios. Salvo excepciones (por ejemplo, Kymlica, 1996, la mayoría de la literatura previa, de una forma u otra ha juzgado patológica la existencia de criterios territoriales. En este trabajo se discute esa apreciación.

  10. Territorial disputes in international arbitration practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tubić Bojan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the issue of territorial disputes settlement in international arbitrations. The arbitration represents an efficient way of determining state borders, together with diplomatic means of dispute resolution and procedure before the International Court of Justice. Parties in a dispute choose arbiters, rules of procedure and commit themselves to accept and implement arbitration award, which is based on international law. States can create an ad hoc tribunal or they can decide to resolve the dispute before the Permanent Court of Arbitration in The Hague. In arbitration practice there were cases of successful arbitrations, especially in situations when a dispute was primarily factual and when major economic and political interests were not involved.

  11. Frontiers, territoriality and tensions in bordering spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Eugenia Comerci

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The expansión of the agricultural frontier in the Argentine pampas implied a re-valuation of "bordering" spaces, which were considered "marginal" by capital. This paper aims at interpreting the socio-territorial impact -from both a material and a symbolic level- being caused by the expansión of the productive, business-profile [agricultural and oil] frontier in the center-west of the province of La Pampa. With the interpretative approach provided by qualitative methodologies, we intend to analyze -in a case study- how these frontier expansión processes altered and re-defined the social arena between the years 2000 and 2010, the social construction of the space and the power relations in Chos Malal

  12. Sporotrichosis from the Northern Territory of Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subedi, Shradha; Kidd, Sarah E.; Baird, Robert W.; Coatsworth, Nicholas; Ralph, Anna P.

    2014-01-01

    We report three cases of lymphocutaneous infection caused by the thermally dimorphic fungus, Sporothrix schenckii from Australia's tropical Northern Territory. Two cases were acquired locally, making them the first to be reported from this region. All three cases presented with ulceration in the limb; however, the classical sporotrichoid spread was present only in the first two cases. Their occurrence within several weeks of each other was suggestive of a common source of environmental contamination such as hay used as garden mulch. Diagnoses were delayed in each case, with each patient having substantial exposure to ineffective antibiotics before the correct diagnosis was made. These cases bring the total number of reported sporotrichosis cases in Australia since 1951 to 199. Lessons from these cases are to consider the diagnosis of sporotrichosis in lesions of typical appearance, even in geographical settings from where this pathogen has not previously been reported. PMID:25200259

  13. Simulation of Demographic Change in Palestinian Territories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumour, M. A.; El-Astal, A. H.; Shabat, M. M.; Radwan, M. A.

    Mortality, birth rates and retirement play a major role in demographic changes. In most cases, mortality rates decreased in the past century without noticeable decrease in fertility rates, leading to a significant increase in population growth. In many poor countries like Palestinian Territories the number of births has fallen and the life expectancy increased. In this paper we concentrate on measuring, analyzing and extrapolating the age structure in Palestine a few decades ago into the future. A Fortran program has been designed and used for the simulation and analysis of our statistical data. This study of demographic change in Palestine has shown that Palestinians will have in future problems as the strongest age cohorts are the above-60-year olds. We therefore recommend the increase of both the retirement age and female employment.

  14. Which territorial governance for energy transition?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richard, Marion; Berthier, Julien; Delcroix, Julie; Boucher, James; Lenoir, Didier; Cheron, Marie; Sivardiere, Jean; Connor, Helene; Denizot, Damien; Guilhem, Isaac-Georges

    2013-01-01

    The first part of this report proposes an overview of the present situation for climate-energy policies in France. It outlines the lack of transversality of local climate-energy policies which tend to be rather sector-oriented, the lack of coherence of these policies, their lack of efficiency due to a weak power of decision of local communities and to their lack of financial means, and the fact that the territorial organisation is not well adapted to climate-energy stakes. The second part presents and comments a set of proposals: to strengthen the region and the inter-communal levels, to give to local communities political and legal means of action, to reinforce human and financial means dedicated to energy transition, and to strengthen survey, follow-up and assessment missions

  15. Jícama: Producto con Identidad Territorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisol Idrovo Avecillas

    2015-11-01

    La jícama es un producto con identidad territorial (PIT, son fragmentos de la perspectiva de tierras aptas para el cultivo, producción, comercialización sostenible que se apega al Plan Nacional del Buen Vivir, que se ajusta al cambio de la Matriz Productiva incluyendo a los sectores involucrados del país, este vegetal andino no es consumido regularmente por los ecuatorianos; los resultados obtenidos en el laboratorio nos indican que es un vegetal rico en: grasa, proteína, humedad, fibra dietética, carbohidratos totales, energía total, energía de la grasa, hierro, sodio, potasio, calcio, vitaminas, entre otras propiedades.

  16. Wave power potential in Malaysian territorial waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmida Mohd Nasir, Nor; Maulud, Khairul Nizam Abdul

    2016-06-01

    Up until today, Malaysia has used renewable energy technology such as biomass, solar and hydro energy for power generation and co-generation in palm oil industries and also for the generation of electricity, yet, we are still far behind other countries which have started to optimize waves for similar production. Wave power is a renewable energy (RE) transported by ocean waves. It is very eco-friendly and is easily reachable. This paper presents an assessment of wave power potential in Malaysian territorial waters including waters of Sabah and Sarawak. In this research, data from Malaysia Meteorology Department (MetMalaysia) is used and is supported by a satellite imaginary obtained from National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and Malaysia Remote Sensing Agency (ARSM) within the time range of the year 1992 until 2007. There were two types of analyses conducted which were mask analysis and comparative analysis. Mask analysis of a research area is the analysis conducted to filter restricted and sensitive areas. Meanwhile, comparative analysis is an analysis conducted to determine the most potential area for wave power generation. Four comparative analyses which have been carried out were wave power analysis, comparative analysis of wave energy power with the sea topography, hot-spot area analysis and comparative analysis of wave energy with the wind speed. These four analyses underwent clipping processes using Geographic Information System (GIS) to obtain the final result. At the end of this research, the most suitable area to develop a wave energy converter was found, which is in the waters of Terengganu and Sarawak. Besides that, it was concluded that the average potential energy that can be generated in Malaysian territorial waters is between 2.8kW/m to 8.6kW/m.

  17. Rare patterns of dorsal puncture in Pterostichus oblongopunctatus (Coleoptera: Carabidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axel Schwerk

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background The carabid beetle species Pterostichus oblongopunctatus is common in different types of forests in Poland and Europe. With respect to this species, some unclarities exist concerning the morphological feature of punctures on the elytra. P. oblongopunctatus has dorsal pits in the third interval of the elytra, the available identification keys, however, provide inconsistent information concerning the puncture in other intervals. During long-term studies at different study sites in Poland, the first author rarely but regularly discovered individuals with unusual dorsal puncture patterns, i.e., pits in the fifth and even in the seventh interval of the elytra. Since such rare patterns might be connected with special habitat characteristics, and thus have a potential as an indicator, the aim of the study was to test if they are connected with specific subpopulations (interaction groups, if they are related to the sex or size of the beetles, and if they are related to specific habitat conditions. Material and Methods We counted the pits on the elytra, determined the sex, and measured the length of the right elytron of individuals of P. oblongopunctatus collected at numerous study sites located within the borders of the Regional Directory of National Forests in Piła (Western Poland over the period 2014–2016. Results Altogether, 1,058 individuals of P. oblongopunctatus were subjected to statistical analysis. Almost 19% of the individuals had a dorsal puncture in the fifth interval of the elytra and about 0.7% had a dorsal puncture in the seventh interval of the elytra. In 2014 and 2015, significantly more females exhibited such unusual patterns of dorsal puncture than males. Even if not statistically significant, in 2016 also relatively more females showed such a pattern. Neither males nor females of the analysed individuals with usual puncture patterns showed a significant difference in the length of the right elytron from those with

  18. Radiological monitoring of food on the French territory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boissieux, T.; Leprieur, F.; Pierrard, O. [Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety (France)

    2014-07-01

    Drink the milk of cows grazing near French nuclear power plants is it really safe in normal times? In case of a nuclear accident leading to release in the environment, what kind of foodstuff can we still eat? In his regulatory mission of environmental monitoring, the French Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN) tends to answer these questions by acquiring radioactivity data in the food chain. Food radiological monitoring program by IRSN is implemented with a three scale strategy. Locally, i.e. within the range 0 to 10 kilometers of nuclear installations, foodstuff locally produced and thus potentially exposed to radioactive sources are frequently sampled and analyzed. At the regional level, specific studies are carried out to establish an updated levels baseline of radioactivity in the environment, especially in agricultural productions characteristic of the area concerned. At the national level, monitoring food aims to map the average contamination observed all around the French territory. This work of vigilance is organized in partnerships with other French actors involved in food monitoring. In the event of a nuclear accident or small-scale incidents, it would allow having an efficient support network of samplers and measurers located on the whole French territory and quickly mobilized in short or medium terms. Since 2008, IRSN has developed a food monitoring program with the Directorate general for food (DGAL) and the Directorate general for competition policy, consumer affairs and fraud control (DGCCRF). These directions have a general mission of food safety control (animal and plant products) and animal feed-stuff, which requires the search for chemical, physical, biological and radioactive substances. Likewise, a sampling program of grain products is efficient since 1969 with the support of France Agrimer. In 2013, the food monitoring is based on multi-radionuclides analysis (cesium, iodine, tritium, alpha emitters...) in about 650

  19. Lasting Differential Effects on Plasticity Induced by Prenatal Stress in Dorsal and Ventral Hippocampus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayane Grigoryan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Early life adversaries have a profound impact on the developing brain structure and functions that persist long after the original traumatic experience has vanished. One of the extensively studied brain structures in relation to early life stress has been the hippocampus because of its unique association with cognitive processes of the brain. While the entire hippocampus shares the same intrinsic organization, it assumes different functions in its dorsal and ventral sectors (DH and VH, resp., based on different connectivity with other brain structures. In the present review, we summarize the differences between DH and VH and discuss functional and structural effects of prenatal stress in the two sectors, with the realization that much is yet to be explored in understanding the opposite reactivity of the DH and VH to stressful stimulation.

  20. Automatic phoneme category selectivity in the dorsal auditory stream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevillet, Mark A; Jiang, Xiong; Rauschecker, Josef P; Riesenhuber, Maximilian

    2013-03-20

    Debates about motor theories of speech perception have recently been reignited by a burst of reports implicating premotor cortex (PMC) in speech perception. Often, however, these debates conflate perceptual and decision processes. Evidence that PMC activity correlates with task difficulty and subject performance suggests that PMC might be recruited, in certain cases, to facilitate category judgments about speech sounds (rather than speech perception, which involves decoding of sounds). However, it remains unclear whether PMC does, indeed, exhibit neural selectivity that is relevant for speech decisions. Further, it is unknown whether PMC activity in such cases reflects input via the dorsal or ventral auditory pathway, and whether PMC processing of speech is automatic or task-dependent. In a novel modified categorization paradigm, we presented human subjects with paired speech sounds from a phonetic continuum but diverted their attention from phoneme category using a challenging dichotic listening task. Using fMRI rapid adaptation to probe neural selectivity, we observed acoustic-phonetic selectivity in left anterior and left posterior auditory cortical regions. Conversely, we observed phoneme-category selectivity in left PMC that correlated with explicit phoneme-categorization performance measured after scanning, suggesting that PMC recruitment can account for performance on phoneme-categorization tasks. Structural equation modeling revealed connectivity from posterior, but not anterior, auditory cortex to PMC, suggesting a dorsal route for auditory input to PMC. Our results provide evidence for an account of speech processing in which the dorsal stream mediates automatic sensorimotor integration of speech and may be recruited to support speech decision tasks.

  1. Shape representations in the primate dorsal visual stream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom eTheys

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The primate visual system extracts object shape information for object recognition in the ventral visual stream. Recent research has demonstrated that object shape is also processed in the dorsal visual stream, which is specialized for spatial vision and the planning of actions. A number of studies have investigated the coding of 2D shape in the anterior intraparietal area (AIP, one of the end-stage areas of the dorsal stream which has been implicated in the extraction of affordances for the purpose of grasping. These findings challenge the current understanding of area AIP as a critical stage in the dorsal stream for the extraction of object affordances. The representation of three-dimensional (3D shape has been studied in two interconnected areas known to be critical for object grasping: area AIP and area F5a in the ventral premotor cortex (PMv, to which AIP projects. In both areas neurons respond selectively to 3D shape defined by binocular disparity, but the latency of the neural selectivity is approximately 10 ms longer in F5a compared to AIP, consistent with its higher position in the hierarchy of cortical areas. Furthermore F5a neurons were more sensitive to small amplitudes of 3D curvature and could detect subtle differences in 3D structure more reliably than AIP neurons. In both areas, 3D-shape selective neurons were co-localized with neurons showing motor-related activity during object grasping in the dark, indicating a close convergence of visual and motor information on the same clusters of neurons.

  2. The dorsal striatum and ventral striatum play different roles in the programming of social behaviour: a tribute to Lex Cools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Bos, Ruud

    2015-02-01

    Early work by Lex Cools suggested that the caudate nucleus (dorsal striatum) plays a role in programming social behaviour: enhanced activity in the caudate nucleus increased the extent to which ongoing behaviour is controlled by the individual's own behaviour (internal control) rather than by that of its partners (external control). Interestingly, later studies by others have indicated that the ventral striatum plays a role in external rather than internal control. Here, I discuss the role of these different striatal areas - and the emotional (ventral striatum) and cognitive control (dorsal striatum) system in which they are embedded - in the organization of social behaviour in the context of locus of control. Following on from this discussion, I will pay particular attention to individual differences in social behaviour (individuals with more internal or external control), focusing on the role of dopamine, serotonin and the effects of stress-related challenges in relation to their different position in a dominance hierarchy. I will subsequently allude to potential psychological and behavioural problems in the social domain following on from these differences in locus of control ['social obliviousness' (dorsal stratum) and 'social impulsivity' (ventral striatum)]. In doing so, I provide as a tribute a historical account of the early research by Lex Cools.

  3. Fat opacities dorsal to the equine antebrachiocarpal joint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietze, A.E.; Rendano, V.T.

    1984-01-01

    Radiolucencies due to fat in the soft tissues dorsal to the equine antebrachiocarpal joint were studied in 12 necropsy specimens. In lateral-to-medial xeroradiographs of these 12 specimens, focal radiolucencies were present in ten, one focal radiolucency was present in one, and no focal radiolucencies were present in ten, one focal radiolucency was present in one, and no focal radiolucencies were in another. These radiolucencies were identified as fat in the antebrachiocarpal joint capsule. The fat was in two locations within this joint capsule. It was associated with the synovial membrane of the extensor carpi radialis tendon sheath and the synovial membrane of the antebrachiocarpal joint

  4. Covering the Dorsal Finger Defect with Reverse Cross Finger Flap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaan Gurbuz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Reconstruction of finger extensor zone defects with or without tendon gaps still remains a challenge for surgeons. Although surgical treatments may differ, and range from the use of local, regional, to free flaps, the outcomes for all cases are not satisfactory. In this case report, we present a case of a 3rd finger extensor side crush injury including a defect of Dd (Digit Dorsal 1, Dd2 and Dd3 defects of extensor zones with tendon gap. Tendon gap was reconstructed using m. palmaris longus tendon graft and the defect was covered with reversed cross-finger flap (random pattern with good cosmetic and excellent functional results.

  5. Posture And Dorsal Shape At A Sitted Workstation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepoutre, F. X.; Cloup, P.; Guerra, T. M.

    1986-07-01

    The ergonomic analysis of a control or a supervision workstation for a vehicle or a process, necessitates to take into account the biomecanical visuo-postural system. The measurements, which are necessary to do, must give informations about the spatial direction of the limbs, the dorsal shape, eventually the eyes direction, and the postural evolution during the working time. More, the smallness of the work station, the backrest and sometime a vibratory environment made use specific, strong and small devices wich do not disturb the operator. The measurement system which we propose is made of an optical device. This system is studied in relation with the french "Institute de Recherche pour les Transports" for an ergonomic analysis of a truck cabin. The optical device consists on placing on the body of the driver on particular places materializing specially members and trunck joint points, some drops which reflect the infra-red raies coming from a specific light. Several cameras whose relative positions depend on the experiment site, transmit video signals to the associated treatment systems which extract the coordinates (Xi, Yi) of each drop in the observation scope of any camera. By regrouping the informations obtained from every view, it is possible to obtain the spatial drop position and then to restore the individual's posture in three dimensions. Therefore, this device doesn't enable us, in consideration of the backrest, to analyse the dorsal posture, which is important with regard to dorsal pains frequency. For that reason, we complete the measurements by using a "curvometer". This device consists of a flexible stick fixed upon the individual back with elastic belts, whose distorsions (curvature in m-1) are measured, in the individual's sagittal plane, with 4 strain gauges pairs; located approximately at the level of vertebra D1, D6, D10 and L3. A fifth measurement, concerning the inclination (in degree) of the lower part of the stick, makes it is possible to

  6. Territorial Developments Based on Graffiti: a Statistical Mechanics Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-28

    Many animals, among which wolves , foxes and coyotes, are known to scent–mark their territories as a way of warning intruders of their presence and to...A. Lewis and R. L. Crabtree, Mechanistic home range models capture spatial patterns and dynamics of coyote territories in Yellowstone , Proc. Roy

  7. 42 CFR 423.907 - Treatment of territories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM VOLUNTARY MEDICARE PRESCRIPTION DRUG BENEFIT Special Rules for States...) General rules. (1) Low-income Part D eligible individuals who reside in the territories are not eligible... under Part A or enrolled under Part B and who reside in the territory (as determined by the Secretary...

  8. Territorial cohesion post - 2013 : To whomsoever it may concern

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faludi, A.K.F.

    2010-01-01

    Conceived as a motion for resolution, the paper considers territorial cohesion now being on the statute book, the Green Paper on Territorial Cohesion, Barca making the case for integrated, place-based strategies, the EU Strategy for the Baltic Sea Region and the future of Cohesion policy. The

  9. Aggressive display and territoriality of the bateleur Terathopius ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1988-07-04

    Jul 4, 1988 ... territorial function because it drives intruders away from the nest, usually by a gain in altitude by the intruder. ... bateleur I saw in the field, also noting the bird's age and ..... benefit of territoriality may change depending on the.

  10. Territoriality, breeding biology and vocalisations of the Crimson ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study reports on aspects of the territoriality, breeding success and vocal behaviour of Crimson-breasted Shrikes Laniarus atrococcineus at a study site in the Nylsvley district, South Africa. Their mean territory size was c. 12ha. Breeding success was very low, with only one nestling fledging from 13 clutches.

  11. 27 CFR 478.117 - Function outside a customs territory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Function outside a customs... Importation § 478.117 Function outside a customs territory. In the insular possessions of the United States outside customs territory, the functions performed by U.S. Customs officers under this subpart within a...

  12. 19 CFR 146.61 - Constructive transfer to Customs territory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Constructive transfer to Customs territory. 146.61 Section 146.61 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Constructive transfer to Customs territory. The port director shall accept receipt of any entry in proper form...

  13. 46 CFR 308.504 - Definition of territories and possessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definition of territories and possessions. 308.504 Section 308.504 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Cargo Insurance I-Introduction § 308.504 Definition of territories and...

  14. Individual quality explains variation in reproductive success better than territory quality in a long-lived territorial raptor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jabi Zabala

    Full Text Available Evolution by natural selection depends on the relationship between individual traits and fitness. Variation in individual fitness can result from habitat (territory quality and individual variation. Individual quality and specialization can have a deep impact on fitness, yet in most studies on territorial species the quality of territory and individuals are confused. We aimed to determine if variation in breeding success is better explained by territories, individual quality or a combination of both. We analysed the number of fledglings and the breeding quality index (the difference between the number of fledglings of an individual/breeding pair and the average number of fledglings of the monitored territories in the same year as part of a long term (16 years peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus monitoring program with identification of individuals. Using individual and territory identities as correlates of quality, we built Generalised Linear Models with Mixed effects, in which random factors depicted different hypotheses for sources of variation (territory/individual quality in the reproductive success of unique breeding pairs, males and females, and assessed their performance. Most evidence supported the hypothesis that variation in breeding success is explained by individual identity, particularly male identity, rather than territory. There is also some evidence for inter year variations in the breeding success of females and a territory effect in the case of males. We argue that, in territorial species, individual quality is a major source of variation in breeding success, often masked by territory. Future ecological and conservation studies on habitat use should consider and include the effect of individuals, in order to avoid misleading results.

  15. Mammal-like organization of the avian midbrain central gray and a reappraisal of the intercollicular nucleus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcy A Kingsbury

    Full Text Available In mammals, rostrocaudal columns of the midbrain periaqueductal gray (PAG regulate diverse behavioral and physiological functions, including sexual and fight-or-flight behavior, but homologous columns have not been identified in non-mammalian species. In contrast to mammals, in which the PAG lies ventral to the superior colliculus and surrounds the cerebral aqueduct, birds exhibit a hypertrophied tectum that is displaced laterally, and thus the midbrain central gray (CG extends mediolaterally rather than dorsoventrally as in mammals. We therefore hypothesized that the avian CG is organized much like a folded open PAG. To address this hypothesis, we conducted immunohistochemical comparisons of the midbrains of mice and finches, as well as Fos studies of aggressive dominance, subordinance, non-social defense and sexual behavior in territorial and gregarious finch species. We obtained excellent support for our predictions based on the folded open model of the PAG and further showed that birds possess functional and anatomical zones that form longitudinal columns similar to those in mammals. However, distinguishing characteristics of the dorsal/dorsolateral PAG, such as a dense peptidergic innervation, a longitudinal column of neuronal nitric oxide synthase neurons, and aggression-induced Fos responses, do not lie within the classical avian CG, but in the laterally adjacent intercollicular nucleus (ICo, suggesting that much of the ICo is homologous to the dorsal PAG.

  16. Improved dynamic CT angiography visualization by flow territory masking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren Christensen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Backgound and Purpose: Computerized tomography (CT perfusion (or CTP source images from CT scanners with small detector widths can be used to create a dynamic CT angiogram (CTA similar to digital subtraction angiography (DSA. Because CTP studies use a single intravenous injection, all arterial territories enhance simultaneously, and individual arterial territories [i.e., anterior cerebral artery (ACA, middle cerebral artery (MCA, and posterior cerebral artery (PCA] cannot be delineated. This limits the ability to assess collateral flow patterns on dynamic CTAs. The aim of this study was to devise and test a postprocessing method to selectively color-label the major arterial territories on dynamic CTA. Materials and Methods: We identified 22 acute-stroke patients who underwent CTP on a 320-slice CT scanner within 6 h from symptom onset. For each case, two investigators independently generated an arterial territory map from CTP bolus arrival maps using a semiautomated method. The volumes of the arterial territories were calculated for each map and the average relative difference between these volumes was calculated for each case as a measure of interrater agreement. Arterial territory maps were superimposed on the dynamic CTA to create a vessel-selective dynamic CTA with color-coding of the main arterial territories. Two experts rated the arterial territory maps and the color-coded CTAs for consistency with expected arterial territories on a 3-point scale (excellent, moderate, poor. Results: Arterial territory maps were generated for all 22 patients. The median difference in arterial territory volumes between investigators was 2.2% [interquartile range (IQR 0.6-8.5%]. Based on expert review, the arterial territory maps and the vessel-selective dynamic CTAs showed excellent consistency with the expected arterial territories in 18 of 22 patients, moderate consistency in 2 patients, and poor consistency in another 2 patients. Conclusion: Using a

  17. The role of territory settlement, individual quality, and nesting initiation on productivity of Bell's vireos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cara J. Joos; Frank R., III Thompson; John. Faaborg

    2014-01-01

    Variation in habitat quality among territories within a heterogeneous patch should influence reproductive success of territory owners. Further, territory settlement order following an ideal despotic distribution (IDD) should predict the fitness of occupants if territory selection is adaptive. We recorded settlement order and monitored nests in territories occupied by...

  18. The developing dorsal ganglion of the salp Thalia democratica, and the nature of the ancestral chordate brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    C.Lacalli, T.

    1998-01-01

    The development of the dorsal ganglion of the salp, Thalia democratica, is described from electron microscope reconstructions up to the stage of central neuropile formation. The central nervous system (CNS) rudiment is initially tubular with an open central canal. Early developmental events include: (i) the formation of a thick dorsal mantle of neuroblasts from which paired dorsal paraxial neuropiles arise; (ii) the differentiation of clusters of primary motor neurons along the ventral margin of the mantle; and (iii) the development from the latter of a series of peripheral nerves. The dorsal paraxial neuropiles ultimately connect to the large central neuropile, which develops later. Direct contact between neuroblasts and muscle appears to be involved in the development of some anterior nerves. The caudal nerves responsible for innervating more distant targets in the posterior part of the body develop without such contacts, which suggests that a different patterning mechanism may be employed in this part of the neuromuscular system. The results are compared with patterns of brain organization in other chordates. Because the salp CNS is symmetrical and generally less reduced than that of ascidian larvae, it is more easily compared with the CNS of amphioxus and vertebrates. The dorsal paraxial centres in the salp resemble the dorsolateral tectal centres in amphioxus in both position and organization; the central neuropile in salps likewise resembles the translumenal system in amphioxus. The neurons themselves are similar in that many of their neurites appear to be derived from the apical surface instead of the basal surface of the cell. Such neurons, with extensively developed apical neurites, may represent a new cell type that evolved in the earliest chordates in conjunction with the formation of translumenal or intralumenal integrative centres. In comparing the salp ganglion with vertebrates, we suggest that the main core of the ganglion is most like the mes

  19. Geostrategy of Economic Spaces: Innovation and Change in Latin America Territorial Administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Euripedes Falcão Vieira

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available In this essay we analyze the geostrategy of economic spaces in the sphere of new links in the global economy, placing Latin America in the scenario of the new world order. The geostrategic dimension of economic spaces includes spatial redefinitions as a result of new global strategies of the major transnational corporations. This is, therefore, of a space-time configuration of scenarios in the articulation between the importance of the place, action site, and expression of power. Territorial administration adopts new outlines, sharing and is linked to the logistics of market interests. In the new configuration of interests of global economics, the spatial barriers are set aside and global places are created, representing fragmentations of territorialized space. Territorialization of global productive spaces represents deterritorialization of national spaces. Forms of power and influence of power radiate from them in all directions. Power and administration of territory in the large complex economic and political organisms – regional blocks – confront each member’s historic reality, the inequalities of the rates of development, culture and social levels. These realities are hard to harmonize and eventually categorize hegemonic centers of power and a national fringe of dependence. Global geostrategy, therefore, takes over, redefines and reorders productive circulation spaces, establishing new relations of power and administration of territories. Historically, Latin America continued to depend heavily on the economic order established by the colonizing countries and this dependence gradually shifted to the world financial supremacies. This dependence intensified the indebtedness process that today characterizes the so-called market of foreign debts, with significant reflections on the internal social order.

  20. PROBLEMS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF RURAL TERRITORIES OF THE REGION: ECOLOGICAL AND SOCIO-ECONOMIC ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Tikhij

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The current economic situation in rural territories is characterized by many challenges to their sustainable development. The level and quality of life in rural areas, underdevelopment of social infrastructure, the environmental situation significantly contributes to the depopulation of the rural territories. In this regard, it is very important to research and discuss the possible decision of problems of development of rural settlements.The actions of the state on formation of the complex of normative-legal documents regulating state policy in the field of rural development are aimed at ensuring the management of these areas by federal authorities which leads to some extent to resource dependence on it, and reduces the motivation of regional and municipal management to the formation of effective policy of rural development.The management of the regions chooses its directions of developing rural areas, without taking into account the prevailing socio-economic situation at the municipal level and features of development of rural settlements, which reduces the effectiveness of the management of the territory.As an example the authors have evaluated the level of rural areas development in Orel Region and proposed a classification of areas at regional level. The results of the research show that there could be three levels of rural territories development: highly stable, moderately stable and unstable areas. The main indicators of development of rural territories were selected as follows: incomes and expenses of budgets of rural areas, the volume of investments in fixed capital, average monthly nominal accrued wages of employees of enterprises and organizations, agricultural production in farms of all categories of the rural population. The authors have made some proposals as to how to solve the problems of instability in rural areas. The implementation of these decisions should happen on the background of permanent monitoring of the status and

  1. Hydrodynamic function of dorsal fins in spiny dogfish and bamboo sharks during steady swimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, Anabela; Lauder, George V; Wilga, Cheryl D

    2017-11-01

    A key feature of fish functional design is the presence of multiple fins that allow thrust vectoring and redirection of fluid momentum to contribute to both steady swimming and maneuvering. A number of previous studies have analyzed the function of dorsal fins in teleost fishes in this context, but the hydrodynamic function of dorsal fins in freely swimming sharks has not been analyzed, despite the potential for differential functional roles between the anterior and posterior dorsal fins. Previous anatomical research has suggested a primarily stabilizing role for shark dorsal fins. We evaluated the generality of this hypothesis by using time-resolved particle image velocimetry to record water flow patterns in the wake of both the anterior and posterior dorsal fins in two species of freely swimming sharks: bamboo sharks ( Chiloscyllium plagiosum ) and spiny dogfish ( Squalus acanthias ). Cross-correlation analysis of consecutive images was used to calculate stroke-averaged mean longitudinal and lateral velocity components, and vorticity. In spiny dogfish, we observed a velocity deficit in the wake of the first dorsal fin and flow acceleration behind the second dorsal fin, indicating that the first dorsal fin experiences net drag while the second dorsal fin can aid in propulsion. In contrast, the wake of both dorsal fins in bamboo sharks displayed increased net flow velocity in the majority of trials, reflecting a thrust contribution to steady swimming. In bamboo sharks, fluid flow in the wake of the second dorsal fin had higher absolute average velocity than that for first dorsal fin, and this may result from a positive vortex interaction between the first and second dorsal fins. These data suggest that the first dorsal fin in spiny dogfish has primarily a stabilizing function, while the second dorsal fin has a propulsive function. In bamboo sharks, both dorsal fins can contribute thrust and should be considered as propulsive adjuncts to the body during steady

  2. Synaptically evoked glutamate transporter currents in Spinal Dorsal Horn Astrocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dougherty Patrick M

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Removing and sequestering synaptically released glutamate from the extracellular space is carried out by specific plasma membrane transporters that are primarily located in astrocytes. Glial glutamate transporter function can be monitored by recording the currents that are produced by co-transportation of Na+ ions with the uptake of glutamate. The goal of this study was to characterize glutamate transporter function in astrocytes of the spinal cord dorsal horn in real time by recording synaptically evoked glutamate transporter currents. Results Whole-cell patch clamp recordings were obtained from astrocytes in the spinal substantia gelatinosa (SG area in spinal slices of young adult rats. Glutamate transporter currents were evoked in these cells by electrical stimulation at the spinal dorsal root entry zone in the presence of bicuculline, strychnine, DNQX and D-AP5. Transporter currents were abolished when synaptic transmission was blocked by TTX or Cd2+. Pharmacological studies identified two subtypes of glutamate transporters in spinal astrocytes, GLAST and GLT-1. Glutamate transporter currents were graded with stimulus intensity, reaching peak responses at 4 to 5 times activation threshold, but were reduced following low-frequency (0.1 – 1 Hz repetitive stimulation. Conclusion These results suggest that glutamate transporters of spinal astrocytes could be activated by synaptic activation, and recording glutamate transporter currents may provide a means of examining the real time physiological responses of glial cells in spinal sensory processing, sensitization, hyperalgesia and chronic pain.

  3. High plasticity in epithelial morphogenesis during insect dorsal closure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen A. Panfilio

    2013-09-01

    Insect embryos complete the outer form of the body via dorsal closure (DC of the epidermal flanks, replacing the transient extraembryonic (EE tissue. Cell shape changes and morphogenetic behavior are well characterized for DC in Drosophila, but these data represent a single species with a secondarily reduced EE component (the amnioserosa that is not representative across the insects. Here, we examine DC in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, providing the first detailed, functional analysis of DC in an insect with complete EE tissues (distinct amnion and serosa. Surprisingly, we find that differences between Drosophila and Tribolium DC are not restricted to the EE tissue, but also encompass the dorsal epidermis, which differs in cellular architecture and method of final closure (zippering. We then experimentally manipulated EE tissue complement via RNAi for Tc-zen1, allowing us to eliminate the serosa and still examine viable DC in a system with a single EE tissue (the amnion. We find that the EE domain is particularly plastic in morphogenetic behavior and tissue structure. In contrast, embryonic features and overall kinetics are robust to Tc-zen1RNAi manipulation in Tribolium and conserved with a more distantly related insect, but remain substantially different from Drosophila. Although correct DC is essential, plasticity and regulative, compensatory capacity have permitted DC to evolve within the insects. Thus, DC does not represent a strong developmental constraint on the nature of EE development, a property that may have contributed to the reduction of the EE component in the fly lineage.

  4. Kinesthetic working memory and action control within the dorsal stream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiehler, Katja; Burke, Michael; Engel, Annerose; Bien, Siegfried; Rösler, Frank

    2008-02-01

    There is wide agreement that the "dorsal (action) stream" processes visual information for movement control. However, movements depend not only on vision but also on tactile and kinesthetic information (=haptics). Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, the present study investigates to what extent networks within the dorsal stream are also utilized for kinesthetic action control and whether they are also involved in kinesthetic working memory. Fourteen blindfolded participants performed a delayed-recognition task in which right-handed movements had to be encoded, maintained, and later recognized without any visual feedback. Encoding of hand movements activated somatosensory areas, superior parietal lobe (dorsodorsal stream), anterior intraparietal sulcus (aIPS) and adjoining areas (ventrodorsal stream), premotor cortex, and occipitotemporal cortex (ventral stream). Short-term maintenance of kinesthetic information elicited load-dependent activity in the aIPS and adjacent anterior portion of the superior parietal lobe (ventrodorsal stream) of the left hemisphere. We propose that the action representation system of the dorsodorsal and ventrodorsal stream is utilized not only for visual but also for kinesthetic action control. Moreover, the present findings demonstrate that networks within the ventrodorsal stream, in particular the left aIPS and closely adjacent areas, are also engaged in working memory maintenance of kinesthetic information.

  5. Patella dislocation with vertical axis rotation: the "dorsal fin" patella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, David; Otto, Quentin; Carrothers, Andrew D; Khanduja, Vikas

    2015-01-01

    A 44-year-old woman presented following minor trauma to her right knee. While dancing she externally rotated around a planted foot and felt sudden pain in her right knee. She presented with her knee locked in extension with a "dorsal fin" appearance of the soft tissues tented over the patella. This was diagnosed as a rare case of an intraarticular patella dislocation, which was rotated 90 degrees about the vertical axis. Closed reduction in the emergency room was unsuccessful but was achieved in theatre under general anaesthetic with muscle relaxation. Postreduction arthroscopy demonstrated that no osteochondral or soft tissue damage to the knee had been sustained. In patients presenting with a knee locked in extension with tenting of skin over the patella (the "dorsal fin" appearance), intra-articular patella dislocation should be suspected. Attempts to reduce vertical patella dislocations under sedation with excessive force or repeatedly without success should be avoided to prevent unnecessary damage to the patellofemoral joint. In this clinical situation we recommend closed reduction under general anaesthetic followed by immediate knee arthroscopy under the same anaesthetic to ensure that there is no chondral damage to the patella or femoral trochlea and to rule out an osteochondral fracture.

  6. Morphology of the dorsal and lateral calcaneocuboid ligaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorn-Lange, Nadja V; Nauck, Tanja; Lohrer, Heinz; Arentz, Sabine; Konerding, Moritz A

    2008-09-01

    The dorsolateral calcaneocuboid ligaments have different configurations. In the literature they are only described as either the dorsal or lateral calcaneocuboid ligament. However, recent reconstructive surgical techniques may benefit from a better understanding of the anatomy. The aims of this study were to classify the morphology and attachments of the dorso-lateral calcaneocuboid ligaments and to determine their dimensions. The dorso-lateral aspects of the calcaneocuboid joint of 30 cadaver feet were dissected to expose the associated ligaments. Further, we evaluated possible bony landmarks of the calcaneus that could imply which shape or course the ligament would have in a specific individual. Our findings showed a wide variety of configurations in shape, number, and attachment sites. A constant dorsal ligament and an additional narrower lateral ligament was detectable in half of the cases. The majority of the dorso-lateral calcaneocuboid ligament-complex had an upward course and fanning out from proximal to distal. No bony predictor for the ligaments' shape or course was found. The dorso-lateral ligament-complex of the calcaneocuboid joint revealed a wide variety of configurations. Better understanding of the anatomy of these ligaments may aid in the anatomic reconstruction of these ligaments.

  7. Retinal glia promote dorsal root ganglion axon regeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Lorber

    Full Text Available Axon regeneration in the adult central nervous system (CNS is limited by several factors including a lack of neurotrophic support. Recent studies have shown that glia from the adult rat CNS, specifically retinal astrocytes and Müller glia, can promote regeneration of retinal ganglion cell axons. In the present study we investigated whether retinal glia also exert a growth promoting effect outside the visual system. We found that retinal glial conditioned medium significantly enhanced neurite growth and branching of adult rat dorsal root ganglion neurons (DRG in culture. Furthermore, transplantation of retinal glia significantly enhanced regeneration of DRG axons past the dorsal root entry zone after root crush in adult rats. To identify the factors that mediate the growth promoting effects of retinal glia, mass spectrometric analysis of retinal glial conditioned medium was performed. Apolipoprotein E and secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC were found to be present in high abundance, a finding further confirmed by western blotting. Inhibition of Apolipoprotein E and SPARC significantly reduced the neuritogenic effects of retinal glial conditioned medium on DRG in culture, suggesting that Apolipoprotein E and SPARC are the major mediators of this regenerative response.

  8. Territorial Balancing of Poles of Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CLAUDIA POPESCU

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is part of the study "Specific problems of the development of the settlement network in south-eastern Romania. Regions of development 3 (South, 4 (South-West and 8 (Bucharest-Ilfov" elaborated during 2004 – 2006, within the AMTRANS programme funded by the Ministry of Education and Research, coordinated by INCD – URBANPROIECT in partnership with the Institute of Geography of the Romanian Academy and the Qualification in Statistics National Centre. The general objective of the project was sustainable and balanced spatial development of the settlement network and promotion of new relationships between urban and rural. Concretely, the study has produced a model of a polycentric and balanced settlement network according to the European principles. The case study testing and validating this model took place in southern Romania, territory exhibiting acutely the entire range of problems related to the state of the settlement network: profoundly large rural areas, accentuated dynamics of declaring new cities without sufficient evidence, excessive polarization exercised by Bucharest, etc. The paper presents the intervention directions needed to balance in the territory urban poles within the studied area, focusing on the establishment of orientation policies to consolidate the role of each settlement based on the hierarchical level of importance: European, national, regional, and local. The paper also identifies possible functional urban areas: the metropolitan area of Bucharest, areas of potential strategic integration, areas of cooperation between the small and medium-sized cities and the rural regions. Within each of these areas, the paper proposes to establish new relationships between urban and rural based on partnership, involving cooperation and coordination in achieving common goals.The study considers that the poles of development are the key element of proposed model, and their identification, formation, and balanced distribution

  9. Considerations upon extreme temperatures on Romanian territory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. MARINICĂ

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article we analyse the evolution in time of extreme temperatures significant for Romania with a focus on absolute extreme temperatures recorded on the overall present teritory. After thoroughly investigating the credible sources we quoted in our bibliography, we present in chronological order the records for absolute minimum temperatures, and absolute maximum temperatures which were measured at the meteorological stations on the present territory of Romania, according to the availability of the data, i.e. the last two decades of the XIXth century up until 2017. We classify and discuss the sources of climatological data in the form of minimum and maximum temperatures. The measurements of meteorological parameters on the current national territory were recorded since 1770 at Iași (cf. Dissescu 1931 and also http://www.meteoromania.ro/anm2/despre-noi/istoric/ - page in Romanian as of 30.03.2017. For a systematic approach with credible data, at least another century passed, until Ștefan Hepites (1851-1922 founded in 1884 in Bucharest the Central Meteorological Institute of Romania (I.M.C. in Romanian(Dissescu, 1931 and cf. the ANM web page quoted earlier. The newly created Institute did not include the meteorological stations which were present at that time in Transylvania, but only the ones on the official Romanian teritory of 1859-1918 made up of Moldavia and Wallachia. This paper argues in favour of the process of global warming (GW and its effects upon the evolution of extreme temperature values in a certain time interval. The conclusions stemming from the investigation of the dataset in this paper should provide a helpful and necessary point of departure in subsequent research of climatologists in their quest of identitifying the correct model of future climate. Our article should be regarded as part of a series of analyses of the variability of the climate in Romania, the recent influence of global warming on it and on certain

  10. Environmental enrichment increases transcriptional and epigenetic differentiation between mouse dorsal and ventral dentate gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tie-Yuan; Keown, Christopher L; Wen, Xianglan; Li, Junhao; Vousden, Dulcie A; Anacker, Christoph; Bhattacharyya, Urvashi; Ryan, Richard; Diorio, Josie; O'Toole, Nicholas; Lerch, Jason P; Mukamel, Eran A; Meaney, Michael J

    2018-01-19

    Early life experience influences stress reactivity and mental health through effects on cognitive-emotional functions that are, in part, linked to gene expression in the dorsal and ventral hippocampus. The hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) is a major site for experience-dependent plasticity associated with sustained transcriptional alterations, potentially mediated by epigenetic modifications. Here, we report comprehensive DNA methylome, hydroxymethylome and transcriptome data sets from mouse dorsal and ventral DG. We find genome-wide transcriptional and methylation differences between dorsal and ventral DG, including at key developmental transcriptional factors. Peripubertal environmental enrichment increases hippocampal volume and enhances dorsal DG-specific differences in gene expression. Enrichment also enhances dorsal-ventral differences in DNA methylation, including at binding sites of the transcription factor NeuroD1, a regulator of adult neurogenesis. These results indicate a dorsal-ventral asymmetry in transcription and methylation that parallels well-known functional and anatomical differences, and that may be enhanced by environmental enrichment.

  11. Centro de Proteccion e Higiene de las Radiaciones (CPHR) Holguin Territorial Office Scientific Technical Co-operation in the field of ionizing radiation metrology: Results and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales, J.A.; Bravo, R.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the activities carried out in order to organic a dosimetric calibration territorial service to be performed mainly with Secretaria Ejecutiva Para Asuntos Nucleares (SEAN) personnel and model facilities. This paper emphasizes the results of the calibration which will performed this service in joint association with CPHR specialist and Holguin Territorial Office (june 1993). The perspective of co-operation in this field starting up the CPHR dosimetric calibration secondary laboratory are presented

  12. Pleistocene vertebrates of the Yukon Territory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harington, C. R.

    2011-08-01

    Unglaciated parts of the Yukon constitute one of the most important areas in North America for yielding Pleistocene vertebrate fossils. Nearly 30 vertebrate faunal localities are reviewed spanning a period of about 1.6 Ma (million years ago) to the close of the Pleistocene some 10 000 BP (radiocarbon years before present, taken as 1950). The vertebrate fossils represent at least 8 species of fishes, 1 amphibian, 41 species of birds and 83 species of mammals. Dominant among the large mammals are: steppe bison ( Bison priscus), horse ( Equus sp.), woolly mammoth ( Mammuthus primigenius), and caribou ( Rangifer tarandus) - signature species of the Mammoth Steppe fauna ( Fig. 1), which was widespread from the British Isles, through northern Europe, and Siberia to Alaska, Yukon and adjacent Northwest Territories. The Yukon faunas extend from Herschel Island in the north to Revenue Creek in the south and from the Alaskan border in the west to Ketza River in the east. The Yukon holds evidence of the earliest-known people in North America. Artifacts made from bison, mammoth and caribou bones from Bluefish Caves, Old Crow Basin and Dawson City areas show that people had a substantial knowledge of making and using bone tools at least by 25 000 BP, and possibly as early as 40 000 BP. A suggested chronological sequence of Yukon Pleistocene vertebrates ( Table 1) facilitates comparison of selected faunas and indicates the known duration of various taxa.

  13. TLD territorial network in the Czech Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroutilikova, D. [National Radiation Protection Institute, Prague (Czech Republic)

    1996-12-31

    At present, there are 236 measuring points practically homogeneously distributed on the territory of the Czech Republic. 98 measuring points are distributed as local TLD-networks in the surroundings of Czech two nuclear power plants. Both of the TLD-networks are operated by the National Radiation Protection Institute in Prague. The dosimeters hitherto used are the CaSO{sub 4}:Dy-teflon detectors placed in TL-badges and shielded on both sides by energy compensation filters composed of lead and tin. Recently, a new modernization of the measuring system, type of dosimeter and methods of evaluation is under way. From 1996 the Czech Radiation Monitoring Network will be used the TLD system HARSHAW 4000, along with the type 8807 ENVIRONMENTAL DOSIMETER. The dosimeter is composed of four TL-elements - two LiF and two CaF{sub 2}, placed in a plastic badge. In addition, the CaF{sub 2} elements are shielded on both sides by energy compensation filters composed of tantalum and lead. Before the routine use of the new system a testing of the dosimeters was made. The following text summarizes the obtained results (J.K.). 4 tabs.

  14. Sustainability and the Viable Systems Approach: Opportunities and Issues for the Governance of the Territory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Barile

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to propose an approach for representing the territory as a dynamic system of intersubjective relationships that is able to guarantee not only the efficiency of the processes within organizations, but also effective results in the general context and a sustainable impact on the broader environment. This contribution is developed on the basis of the viable systems approach (vSa, which is intended as a theoretical framework for the analysis of social phenomena as well as for orienting government processes. Using this theoretical framework, the proposed approach leads to the representation of the territory as a viable system that is capable of surviving in its own context by creating value for the other entities of the context (public groups of governments, communities, investors, natural environment, future generations, non-human species, thus defining the essential conditions for a sustainable equilibrium. The consideration that social phenomena have to be analyzed by taking into account the different relations and interactions that orient the behavior of individuals and, as a consequence, their main collective manifestations, i.e., organizations, underlines the importance of shifting from a traditional reductionist approach to a systemic approach. In what follows, taking a cue from the definition of sustainability that implies a wider sharing, we provide some initial critical positions, and finally shape the useful elements that can be preparatory to the introduction of a working hypothesis that is capable of delineating a possible itinerary for the development of the territory.

  15. A territorial understanding of sustainability in public development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peti, Marton, E-mail: mpeti@vati.hu

    2012-01-15

    Sustainability theories in European Union (EU) development policies are facing significant challenges: it is difficult to transmit context-specific, publicly communicable messages; the recent development policies strengthen the concurrent development paradigm of economic growth and competitiveness; 'climate change' became a more popular environmental integration term than sustainability in the last few years. However, due to the recent crises of the economic growth, there is a great chance to reintroduce a sustainability-based development. A territorial/regional understanding of sustainability can also be an answer for the current challenges, a platform for refreshing the concept with relevant, specific messages that are close to the everyday life. This paper summarises the 'territorial system'-based basic principles of territorial sustainability in a model called AUTHARSIIV (AUTonomy, HARmony, Solidarity, Innovation, Identity and Values). This is a supplementary sustainability content specified for the context of spatial/regional development or planning. The paper also examines the presence of 'general and territorial sustainability' in regional development programmes, and case studies on applying the territorial sustainability principles in planning, assessment, and implementation. According to the results, sustainability is rarely adapted to the conditions of a given sector or a region, and the territorial aspect of sustainability is underrepresented even in territorial programmes. Therefore, the paper proposes a new planning and assessment system that is based on a set of regionally legitimate sustainability values.

  16. Indigenous Territories and REDD in Latin America: Opportunity or Threat?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris van Dam

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available An important proportion of Latin America’s forests are located in indigenous territories, and indigenous peoples are the beneficiaries of about 85% of the area for which local rights to land and forest have been recognized in Latin America since the 1980s. Nevertheless, many of these areas, whether or not rights have been recognized, are subject to threats from colonists, illegal loggers, mining and oil interests and others, whose practices endanger not only the forests but also indigenous people’s territory as a whole. In this context, REDD could constitute a new threat or intensify others, particularly in places where indigenous tenure rights have not been recognized, but REDD could also offer new opportunities. This article describes the limitations of thinking only in terms of communities, rather than territories, and examines the extent to which REDD has been conceived considering the characteristics of this new territorial configuration. It also identifies the challenges that REDD may face with this new ‘stakeholder’, such as numerous specific characteristics of territories, given their heterogeneity, in the context of past experiences regarding ‘forest options’. This paper analyses the situation in already-titled indigenous territories in particular, and also discusses problems facing territories in the titling process.

  17. Association, property, territory: What is at stake in immigration?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miklósi Zoltán

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available It is often claimed that states have territorial rights, and that these rights include the right to exclude people who seek admission to their territory. In this paper I will examine whether the most defensible account of territorial rights can provide support to the right to exclude. I will discuss three types of theories of territorial rights. The first account links the right of states to exclude to the prior right of individuals to freedom of association, which is said to include the right not to associate and to dissociate. The second is a Lockean theory that grounds the territorial rights of states, and hence their right to exclude, in the prior right of individuals to private property in the land that constitutes the territory of the state. I argue that these accounts have independently implausible implications, regardless of their implications for the immigration debate. The third account is a Kantian theory that bases the territorial jurisdiction of states on individuals’ duty to create, sustain and submit themselves to a shared system of law that is a necessary condition of guaranteeing their rights and of discharging their duties towards one another. I will argue that the Kantian account is superior to its current alternatives. However, I also suggest that it cannot ground a broad right to exclude.

  18. A territorial understanding of sustainability in public development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Péti, Márton

    2012-01-01

    Sustainability theories in European Union (EU) development policies are facing significant challenges: it is difficult to transmit context-specific, publicly communicable messages; the recent development policies strengthen the concurrent development paradigm of economic growth and competitiveness; ‘climate change’ became a more popular environmental integration term than sustainability in the last few years. However, due to the recent crises of the economic growth, there is a great chance to reintroduce a sustainability-based development. A territorial/regional understanding of sustainability can also be an answer for the current challenges, a platform for refreshing the concept with relevant, specific messages that are close to the everyday life. This paper summarises the ‘territorial system’-based basic principles of territorial sustainability in a model called AUTHARSIIV (AUTonomy, HARmony, Solidarity, Innovation, Identity and Values). This is a supplementary sustainability content specified for the context of spatial/regional development or planning. The paper also examines the presence of ‘general and territorial sustainability’ in regional development programmes, and case studies on applying the territorial sustainability principles in planning, assessment, and implementation. According to the results, sustainability is rarely adapted to the conditions of a given sector or a region, and the territorial aspect of sustainability is underrepresented even in territorial programmes. Therefore, the paper proposes a new planning and assessment system that is based on a set of regionally legitimate sustainability values.

  19. Local authorities and electricity: territories, actors and issues within the local public service in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouvier, G.

    2005-06-01

    In France, the role of local authorities in the organization of the electricity supply system is largely unknown mainly due to the size of the state-owned utility Electricite de France (EDF). Local authorities and their groupings played a major role in the electrification of the national territory and have kept important prerogatives as conceding authorities of this service of general interest. These groupings also became the tools of the soft power of local actors. The geopolitical analysis of the relationships between local municipalities and electric power stakeholders shows the diversity of actors and opinions. Stuck between market liberalization issues and decentralization to local authorities, these groupings tend to reinforce their competencies. Furthermore, decentralization goes along with a reinforcement of the political involvement in local energy policy and with conflicts on the adequate territorial scale for theses policies. (author)

  20. PLANEJAMENTO TERRITORIAL E A AGENDA TRANSREGIONAL EM INFRA-ESTRUTURA NA AMÉRICA DO SUL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elói Martins Senhoras

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available LInserted in the debates about the transnational regionalization of the space through the negotiations of the subregional blocks of Mercosul and of the Andean Community this article aims to study the conception of the new territorial planning in order to reveal its relationship with the modernization process of the Initiative for the Integration of Regional Infrastructure in South America (IIRSA. Taking as granted the study of the speeches in official documents and the critical debates about the IIRSA planning this paper brings an objective understanding about the physical integration process that has been moving forward in South America through several crossing hubs. Throughout this discussion the article aims to contribute for a better comprehension about the geoestrategic content of the South American transnational regionalism and the territorial planning notion contained in the physical integration hubs that are supposed to organize the subcontinental space through infrastructure buildings of logistic, telecom, and energetic networks.

  1. Immunization Elicits Antigen-Specific Antibody Sequestration in Dorsal Root Ganglia Sensory Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunasekaran, Manojkumar; Chatterjee, Prodyot K.; Shih, Andrew; Imperato, Gavin H.; Addorisio, Meghan; Kumar, Gopal; Lee, Annette; Graf, John F.; Meyer, Dan; Marino, Michael; Puleo, Christopher; Ashe, Jeffrey; Cox, Maureen A.; Mak, Tak W.; Bouton, Chad; Sherry, Barbara; Diamond, Betty; Andersson, Ulf; Coleman, Thomas R.; Metz, Christine N.; Tracey, Kevin J.; Chavan, Sangeeta S.

    2018-01-01

    The immune and nervous systems are two major organ systems responsible for host defense and memory. Both systems achieve memory and learning that can be retained, retrieved, and utilized for decades. Here, we report the surprising discovery that peripheral sensory neurons of the dorsal root ganglia (DRGs) of immunized mice contain antigen-specific antibodies. Using a combination of rigorous molecular genetic analyses, transgenic mice, and adoptive transfer experiments, we demonstrate that DRGs do not synthesize these antigen-specific antibodies, but rather sequester primarily IgG1 subtype antibodies. As revealed by RNA-seq and targeted quantitative PCR (qPCR), dorsal root ganglion (DRG) sensory neurons harvested from either naïve or immunized mice lack enzymes (i.e., RAG1, RAG2, AID, or UNG) required for generating antibody diversity and, therefore, cannot make antibodies. Additionally, transgenic mice that express a reporter fluorescent protein under the control of Igγ1 constant region fail to express Ighg1 transcripts in DRG sensory neurons. Furthermore, neural sequestration of antibodies occurs in mice rendered deficient in neuronal Rag2, but antibody sequestration is not observed in DRG sensory neurons isolated from mice that lack mature B cells [e.g., Rag1 knock out (KO) or μMT mice]. Finally, adoptive transfer of Rag1-deficient bone marrow (BM) into wild-type (WT) mice or WT BM into Rag1 KO mice revealed that antibody sequestration was observed in DRG sensory neurons of chimeric mice with WT BM but not with Rag1-deficient BM. Together, these results indicate that DRG sensory neurons sequester and retain antigen-specific antibodies released by antibody-secreting plasma cells. Coupling this work with previous studies implicating DRG sensory neurons in regulating antigen trafficking during immunization raises the interesting possibility that the nervous system collaborates with the immune system to regulate antigen-mediated responses. PMID:29755449

  2. Aposematism and crypsis are not enough to explain dorsal polymorphism in the Iberian adder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Freiría, Fernando; Pérez i de Lanuza, Guillem; Pimenta, António A.; Pinto, Tiago; Santos, Xavier

    2017-11-01

    Aposematic organisms can show phenotypic variability across their distributional ranges. The ecological advantages of this variability have been scarcely studied in vipers. We explored this issue in Vipera seoanei, a species that exhibits five geographically structured dorsal colour phenotypes across Northern Iberia: two zigzag patterned (Classic and Cantabrica), one dorsal-strip patterned (Bilineata), one even grey (Uniform), and one melanistic (Melanistic). We compared predation rates (raptors and mammals) on plasticine models resembling each colour phenotype in three localities. Visual modelling techniques were used to infer detectability (i.e. conspicuousness) of each model type for visually guided predators (i.e. diurnal raptors). We hypothesize that predation rates will be lower for the two zigzag models (aposematism hypothesis) and that models with higher detectability would show higher predation rates (detectability hypothesis). Classic and Bilineata models were the most conspicuous, while Cantabrica and Uniform were the less. Melanistic presented an intermediate conspicuousness. Predation rate was low (3.24% of models) although there was variation in attack frequency among models. Zigzag models were scarcely predated supporting the aposematic role of the zigzag pattern in European vipers to reduce predation (aposematism hypothesis). From the non-zigzag models, high predation occurred on Bilineata and Melanistic models, and low on Uniform models, partially supporting our detectability hypothesis. These results suggest particular evolutionary advantages for non-zigzag phenotypes such as better performance of Melanistic phenotypes in cold environments or better crypsis of Uniform phenotypes. Polymorphism in V. seoanei may respond to a complex number of forces acting differentially across an environmental gradient.

  3. Immunization Elicits Antigen-Specific Antibody Sequestration in Dorsal Root Ganglia Sensory Neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manojkumar Gunasekaran

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The immune and nervous systems are two major organ systems responsible for host defense and memory. Both systems achieve memory and learning that can be retained, retrieved, and utilized for decades. Here, we report the surprising discovery that peripheral sensory neurons of the dorsal root ganglia (DRGs of immunized mice contain antigen-specific antibodies. Using a combination of rigorous molecular genetic analyses, transgenic mice, and adoptive transfer experiments, we demonstrate that DRGs do not synthesize these antigen-specific antibodies, but rather sequester primarily IgG1 subtype antibodies. As revealed by RNA-seq and targeted quantitative PCR (qPCR, dorsal root ganglion (DRG sensory neurons harvested from either naïve or immunized mice lack enzymes (i.e., RAG1, RAG2, AID, or UNG required for generating antibody diversity and, therefore, cannot make antibodies. Additionally, transgenic mice that express a reporter fluorescent protein under the control of Igγ1 constant region fail to express Ighg1 transcripts in DRG sensory neurons. Furthermore, neural sequestration of antibodies occurs in mice rendered deficient in neuronal Rag2, but antibody sequestration is not observed in DRG sensory neurons isolated from mice that lack mature B cells [e.g., Rag1 knock out (KO or μMT mice]. Finally, adoptive transfer of Rag1-deficient bone marrow (BM into wild-type (WT mice or WT BM into Rag1 KO mice revealed that antibody sequestration was observed in DRG sensory neurons of chimeric mice with WT BM but not with Rag1-deficient BM. Together, these results indicate that DRG sensory neurons sequester and retain antigen-specific antibodies released by antibody-secreting plasma cells. Coupling this work with previous studies implicating DRG sensory neurons in regulating antigen trafficking during immunization raises the interesting possibility that the nervous system collaborates with the immune system to regulate antigen-mediated responses.

  4. Outline of a model of responses to territorial stigma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Troels Schultz; Delica, Kristian Nagel

    groups inhabiting neglected neighbourhoods inform their reactions to the symbolic boundaries and hierarchies, their relations to the place they inhabit and the strategies with which they react towards the territorial stigma. Further, we demonstrate that it is possible to chart the distribution...... of different sets of strategies designed to cope with territorial stigma according to the relevance and efficacy of the inherently different groups living in territorially stigmatized places based on their specific position in the model. By doing so we can also critically examine Wacquants central claim...

  5. Communities of floodplain forests in the territory of Pecna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majekova, M.; Vykoukova, I.

    2010-01-01

    The paper deals with studying of preserved fragment of original vegetation of flood-plain forests in the territory of Pecna, which falls within territory of European significance Bratislava wetlands. This topic is part of very current issue of preserving of wetland ecosystems, and water resources in the country in the present time. The area of Pecna is safely used as one of drinking water for Bratislava. The aim of our study was to assess phyto-sociologically the current state of flood-plain forests on the territory of Pecna.

  6. Pest risk assessment of Monilinia fructicola for the EU territory and identification and evaluation of risk management options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, R.; Candresse, T.; Dormannsné Simon, E.

    2011-01-01

    The EFSA Panel on Plant Health has delivered a pest risk assessment on the risk posed by Monilinia fructicola to the EU territory and has identified risk management options and evaluated their effectiveness in reducing the risk to plant health posed by this organism. The Panel has also analysed...... the effectiveness of the special requirements presently listed in Annex IV, Part A, Section I of Council Directive 2000/29/EC, in reducing the risk of introduction of this pest into the EU territory. The Panel concluded that the main pathways for entry into the EU territory are plant material for propagation...... of the risk assessment area. Cultural practices and control measures currently applied and competition with other Monilinia species cannot prevent the establishment of M. fructicola. The probability of spread is very likely because of the multiple ways of dispersal of the pest. The overall impact...

  7. Decreased resting-state BOLD regional homogeneity and the intrinsic functional connectivity within dorsal striatum is associated with greater impulsivity in food-related decision-making and BMI change at 6-month follow up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiao; Liang, Qianlin; Wu, Guorong; She, Ying; Sui, Nan; Chen, Hong

    2018-04-30

    Increasing animal models as well as brain imaging studies among human suggest an association between substance-related impulsivity in decision-making and decreased function of dorsal striatum. However, the resting-state intrinsic functional organization of dorsal striatum underlying food-choice impulsivity remains unknown. To address this issue, we used resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI) to measure brain activity among adult females. Subjects underwent the food rating task, during which they rated each food item according to their subjective perception of its taste (from Dislike it very much to Like it very much), its long term effect on health (from very unhealthy to very healthy) and decision strength to eat it (from Strong no to Strong yes). Behaviorally, impulsivity in food-choice was indexed by the decision strength of the palatable high-calorie food rather than of the low-caloric food. Results on rs-fMRI showed that greater impulsivity in food-related decision-making was inversely correlated with spontaneous regional homogeneity in the dorsal striatum (dorsal caudate), as well as the resting-state functional connectivity (rs-FC) between the dorsal caudate seed and the rostral putamen. Furthermore, the caudate-putamen rs-FC inversely predicted BMI change at six-month follow-up. These findings may suggest the insensitivity to reward signals in dorsal caudate in decision-making coupled with an imbalance between goal-directed behaviors (modulated by dorsal caudate) and habitual actions (modulated by putamen) underlying impulsivity and future weight gain. In sum, these findings extend our understanding on the neural basis of food-related impulsivity, and provide evidence for the dorsal striatum as one of the landmarks in over eating and weight change. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. [The crooked nose: correction of dorsal and caudal septal deviations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foda, H M T

    2010-09-01

    The deviated nose represents a complex cosmetic and functional problem. Septal surgery plays a central role in the successful management of the externally deviated nose. This study included 800 patients seeking rhinoplasty to correct external nasal deviations; 71% of these suffered from variable degrees of nasal obstruction. Septal surgery was necessary in 736 (92%) patients, not only to improve breathing, but also to achieve a straight, symmetric external nose. A graduated surgical approach was adopted to allow correction of the dorsal and caudal deviations of the nasal septum without weakening its structural support to the nasal dorsum or nasal tip. The approach depended on full mobilization of deviated cartilage, followed by straightening of the cartilage and its fixation in the corrected position by using bony splinting grafts through an external rhinoplasty approach.

  9. Direct dorsal hippocampal-prelimbic cortex connections strengthen fear memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xiaojing; Kapeller-Libermann, Dana; Travaglia, Alessio; Inda, M Carmen; Alberini, Cristina M

    2017-01-01

    The ability to regulate the consolidation and strengthening of memories for threatening experiences is critical for mental health, and its dysregulation may lead to psychopathologies. Re-exposure to the context in which the threat was experienced can either increase or decrease fear response through distinct processes known, respectively, as reconsolidation or extinction. Using a context retrieval-dependent memory-enhancement model in rats, we report that memory strengthens through activation of direct projections from dorsal hippocampus to prelimbic (PL) cortex and activation of critical PL molecular mechanisms that are not required for extinction. Furthermore, while sustained PL brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression is required for memory consolidation, retrieval engages PL BDNF to regulate excitatory and inhibitory synaptic proteins neuroligin 1 and neuroligin 2, which promote memory strengthening while inhibiting extinction. Thus, context retrieval-mediated fear-memory enhancement results from a concerted action of mechanisms that strengthen memory through reconsolidation while suppressing extinction.

  10. Dorsal Raphe Dopamine Neurons Represent the Experience of Social Isolation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Gillian A.; Nieh, Edward H.; Vander Weele, Caitlin M.; Halbert, Sarah A.; Pradhan, Roma V.; Yosafat, Ariella S.; Glober, Gordon F.; Izadmehr, Ehsan M.; Thomas, Rain E.; Lacy, Gabrielle D.; Wildes, Craig P.; Ungless, Mark A.; Tye, Kay M.

    2016-01-01

    Summary The motivation to seek social contact may arise from either positive or negative emotional states, as social interaction can be rewarding and social isolation can be aversive. While ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine (DA) neurons may mediate social reward, a cellular substrate for the negative affective state of loneliness has remained elusive. Here, we identify a functional role for DA neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN), in which we observe synaptic changes following acute social isolation. DRN DA neurons show increased activity upon social contact following isolation, revealed by in vivo calcium imaging. Optogenetic activation of DRN DA neurons increases social preference but causes place avoidance. Furthermore, these neurons are necessary for promoting rebound sociability following an acute period of isolation. Finally, the degree to which these neurons modulate behavior is predicted by social rank, together supporting a role for DRN dopamine neurons in mediating a loneliness-like state. PaperClip PMID:26871628

  11. Spinal dorsal horn astrocytes: New players in chronic itch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoto Tsuda

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic itch is a debilitating symptom of inflammatory skin conditions, such as atopic dermatitis, and systemic diseases, for which existing treatment is largely ineffective. Recent studies have revealed the selective neuronal pathways that are involved in itch sensations; however, the mechanisms by which itch turns into a pathological chronic state are poorly understood. Recent advances in our understanding of the mechanisms producing chronic itch have been made by defining causal roles for astrocytes in the spinal dorsal horn in mouse models of chronic itch including atopic dermatitis. Understanding the key roles of astrocytes may provide us with exciting insights into the mechanisms for itch chronicity and lead to a previously unrecognized target for treating chronic itch.

  12. The presence of nuclear cactus in the early Drosophila embryo may extend the dynamic range of the dorsal gradient.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D O'Connell

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In a developing embryo, the spatial distribution of a signaling molecule, or a morphogen gradient, has been hypothesized to carry positional information to pattern tissues. Recent measurements of morphogen distribution have allowed us to subject this hypothesis to rigorous physical testing. In the early Drosophila embryo, measurements of the morphogen Dorsal, which is a transcription factor responsible for initiating the earliest zygotic patterns along the dorsal-ventral axis, have revealed a gradient that is too narrow to pattern the entire axis. In this study, we use a mathematical model of Dorsal dynamics, fit to experimental data, to determine the ability of the Dorsal gradient to regulate gene expression across the entire dorsal-ventral axis. We found that two assumptions are required for the model to match experimental data in both Dorsal distribution and gene expression patterns. First, we assume that Cactus, an inhibitor that binds to Dorsal and prevents it from entering the nuclei, must itself be present in the nuclei. And second, we assume that fluorescence measurements of Dorsal reflect both free Dorsal and Cactus-bound Dorsal. Our model explains the dynamic behavior of the Dorsal gradient at lateral and dorsal positions of the embryo, the ability of Dorsal to regulate gene expression across the entire dorsal-ventral axis, and the robustness of gene expression to stochastic effects. Our results have a general implication for interpreting fluorescence-based measurements of signaling molecules.

  13. Selective resection of dorsal nerves of penis for premature ejaculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, G-X; Yu, L-P; Bai, W-J; Wang, X-F

    2012-12-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is one of the most prevalent male sexual dysfunctions. Selective resection of the dorsal nerve (SRDN) of penis has recently been used for the treatment of PE and has shown some efficacy. To further clarify the efficacy and safety of SRDN on PE, we performed a preliminary, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical observational study. Persons with the complaints of rapid ejaculation, asking for circumcision because of redundant foreskin, intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT) within 2 min, not responding to antidepressant medication or disliking oral medication were randomly enrolled in two groups. From April 2007 to August 2010, a total of 101 eligible persons were enrolled, 40 of them received SRDN which dorsal nerves of the penis were selectively resected, and those (n = 61) enrolled in the control group were circumcised only. IELT and the Brief Male Sexual Function Inventory (BMSFI) questionnaire were implemented pre- and post-operatively for the evaluation of the effect and safety of the surgery. There are no statistically significant differences in the baseline data including mean ages, mean IELTs, perceived control abilities and the BMSFI mean scores between the two groups. With regard to the post-operative data of the surgery, both IELTs and perceived control abilities were significantly increased after SRDN (1.1 ± 0.9 min vs. 3.8 ± 3.1 min for pre- and post-operative IELT, respectively, p 0.05). Also, there were no statistically significant differences both in BMSFI composite and subscale scores between the two groups after surgery. Hence, we conclude that SRDN is effective in delaying ejaculation and improving ejaculatory control, whereas erectile function is not affected. The results imply that SRDN may be an alternative method for the treatment of PE for some patients. © 2012 The Authors. International Journal of Andrology © 2012 European Academy of Andrology.

  14. Radioprotective effect of microelements at the territories contaminated by radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gudkov, I.N.

    2007-01-01

    The most radioactively contaminated region of Ukrainian and Byelorussian Palesse belongs to a biogeochemical province where soils, plants, and, accordingly, forage for animals and food stuffs are poor with biologically important microelements - iodine, zinc, copper, cobalt, fluorine, manganese, lithium, boron. It is a cause of specific diseases of plants, animals and people known as hypomicroelementhoses. Carrying out the radioprotective measures (countermeasures), particularly liming of soils and applying the heightened doses of phosphoric fertilizers, reduces transfer of radionuclides from soil to plants and also elements of mineral nutrition included the microelements. It aggravates the deficiency of microelements following the decrease of productivity and quality of production in plant and animal breeding and exacerbation of the mentioned diseases. It is known, that many microelements have radioprotective properties, and same of them can influence on uptake of other elements in plants. Therefore, considering the situation with microelements, we can expect of their role in radiation protection of living organisms in a zone affected by accident in Chernobyl NPP. It was shown the applying (root injection) of zinc, manganese, cobalt, copper in the sulfates and chlorides (4-6 kg of metal per hectare) on soddy-podsolic soil, reduced the Sr 90 and Cs 137 transfer factor. Zinc was the most effective: the content of both radionuclides in grain of oats and lupine decreased in 1,5-2 times. Lesser efficiency was observed with manganese and cobalt, much less - with copper. Moreover, in some cases the increase of Sr 90 accumulation was observed. Influence of microelements was stronger in variants without fertilizers, than with their heightened doses. It happened because, firstly, fertilizers contain some various microelements. And, secondly, in favorable conditions for growth and development of plants provided by fertilizers, the action of both factors, positive, and

  15. Droughts in historical times in Polish territory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limanowka, Danuta; Cebulak, Elzbieta; Pyrc, Robert; Doktor, Radoslaw

    2015-04-01

    Climate change is one of the key environmental, social and economical issues, and it is also followed by political consequences. Impact of climate conditions on countries' economy is increasingly recognized, and a lot of attention is given, both in the global scale and by the individual national governments. In years 2008-2010, at the Poland -Institute of Meteorology and Water Management-National Research Institute was realized the KLIMAT Project on Impact of climate change on environment, economy and society (changes, effects and methods of reducing them, conclusions for science, engineering practice and economic planning) No. POIG01-03-01-14-011/08. The project was financed by the European Union and Polish state budget in frame of Innovative Economy Operational Programme. A very wide range of research was carried out in the different thematic areas. One of them was "Natural disasters and internal safety of the country (civil and economical)." The problem of drought in Poland was developed in terms of meteorology and hydrology. "Proxy" Data Descriptions very often inform about dry years and seasons, hot periods without precipitation. Analysis of historical material allowed to extract the years that have experienced prolonged periods of high temperatures and rainfall shortages. Weather phenomenon defined as drought belongs to extreme events. This information was very helpful in the process of indexing and thus to restore the course and intensity of climatic elements in the past. The analysis covered the period from year 1000 to modern times. Due to the limited information from the period of 1000-1500 the authors focused primarily on the period from 1500 to 2010. Analysis of the collected material has allowed the development of a highly precise temporal structure of the possible occurrence of dry periods to Polish territory.

  16. Second Gender Profile on the Palestinian Occupied Territories 1999 ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The first gender profile was compiled by the Institute of Women's Studies ... and published under the title, Towards Gender Equality in the Palestinian Territories. ... inequality, promote greater gender parity, and empower women and girls.

  17. [Local health promotion plans: intersetoralities created in the territory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moysés, Simone Tetu; Franco de Sá, Ronice

    2014-11-01

    The article highlights the importance of considering the specificities of spaces/territories/ locations of individual and collective life in creating health promotion actions. It explores how this approach has conceptually consolidated respect for territoriality and territorial actions as a principle and an operational health promotion strategy. Based on the literature, the article also points to the need to envision the territory occupied as a locus to put intersetorialities into practice, giving a voice to people who live there, seek to and solve their complex problems, to existing and emerging social networks. It also presents a nationally and internationally validated strategy/method (Bamboo Method) for the development of local health promotion plans, which enables the prioritization of actions by listening to the people and to the managers.

  18. Fire and EMS Districts - MDC_FDStationTerritoryInhabited

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — A polygon feature class of Miami-Dade County Fire Rescue (MDFR) Fire District Station Territories clipped to the extent of inhabited areas. This layer is intended...

  19. The transnational territorial transport system of the Baltic Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gumenyuk Ivan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we focus on the structure and territorial borders of the Baltic Sea region, and examine the key structural elements of the transnational territorial transport system. In this respect, we clarify some terms used in transport geography. For the first time the transport system gets territorially localized, which allows for a broad range of new studies of transnational transportation in the Baltic Sea area. We also identify the main principles of development and operation of international territorial transport systems and present them taking the Baltic Sea region as an example. Our findings, we hope, will have a great practical application for researchers of transport geography, especially those studying international logistics.

  20. 42 CFR 403.817 - Special rules concerning the territories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... to benefits under Medicare Part A or enrolled under Medicare Part B, and who have income at or below 135 percent of the poverty line for the contiguous United States; and (ii) Describe how the territory...

  1. Territory in the Constitutional Standards of Unitary States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina V. Markhgeym

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is based on the analysis of the constitutions of seven European countries (Albania, Hungary, Greece, Spain, Malta, Poland, Sweden. The research allows to reveal general and specific approaches to consolidation of norms on territories in a state and give the characteristic of the corresponding constitutional norms. Given the authors ' comprehensive approach to the definition of the territory of the state declared constitutional norms were assessed from the perspective of the fundamental principles and constituent elements of the territory. Considering the specifics of the constitutional types of state territories authors suggest typical and variative models and determine the constitutions of unitary states, distinguished by their originality in the declared group of legal relations. The original constitutional language areas associated with the introduction at the state level, these types of areas that are not typical for other countries.

  2. Assessing bear-human conflicts in the Yukon Territory

    OpenAIRE

    Lukie, Raechel Dawn

    2010-01-01

    Managing conflicts between bears and humans is vital for human safety and for the conservation of bears. This study investigated black bear (Ursus americanus) and grizzly bear (Ursus arctos) interactions with humans in 18 major communities of the Yukon Territory. I used an information theoretic approach to generate predictive models of the relative potential of bear-human interaction for the 9 conservation officer management regions in the Yukon Territory. I independently modeled interactions...

  3. Tourism and territorial structure in Ciudad Juarez, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Oswaldo Gallegos; Alvarado López López

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with the issue of the territorial structure of tourism in Ciudad Juarez, Mexico. To do this, the study is divided into two major parts: first, theoretical aspects, given support to our analysis, and a brief history of tourism in the Northern borderlands of Mexico are presented. Then, four basic components of the territorial structure of tourism in Ciudad Juarez are examined: natural and cultural attractions, urban land-use, communications network centred around the city and v...

  4. The Role of Exclusive Territories in Producers' Competition

    OpenAIRE

    Patrick Rey; Joseph Stiglitz

    1994-01-01

    The central objective of this paper is to show how vertical restraints, which affect intra-brand competition, can and will be used as an effective mechanism for reducing inter-brand competition and increasing producer profits. We show how exclusive territories alter the perceived demand curve, making each producer believe he faces a less elastic demand curve, thereby inducing an increase of the equilibrium price. The use of exclusive territories may increase producers' profits, even if the pr...

  5. Territorial perspective of agricultural extension policies in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molina Juan Patricio

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a historic perspective of agricultural extension in Colombia and highlights its scope in relationship to regional development. Four periods are identified, which show that policies have evolved towards a territorial and decentralized agricultural extension. However, this trend has not been consolidated in recent years. It is suggested that Colombia should recover an approach of agricultural extension that integrates the productive dimension with a territorial perspective.

  6. Knowledge And Innovation Networks And Territorial Knowledge Management

    OpenAIRE

    Cappellin, R.

    2002-01-01

    According to the approach of “territorial networks” the various forms of integration or the various networks, which may be identified in a local economy, may be described as follows: technological integration; Integration of the local labour market; Production integration between the firms; Integration between the service sectors and the manufacturing firms; Financial integration of the firms; Territorial integration at the local level; Social and cultural integration; Relationships of instit...

  7. Climate change: a reality for the French overseas territories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delcroix, Th.; Cravatte, S.

    2009-01-01

    Warming of the climate system is now unequivocal (see GIEC, 2007). Sea surface temperature and salinity are analyzed for the last decades in the vicinity of French overseas territories, as regional indicators of the related climatic changes. We show a non-homogenous increase in temperature for all territories, as well as a freshening of the waters in the tropical Pacific and an increase of surface salinity in the Atlantic suggesting a drastic modification of the global water cycle. (authors)

  8. Rural tourism on the territory of Krasnodar region

    OpenAIRE

    VOLKOVA TATIANA ALEKSANDROVNA; PUNKO INGA MERABOVNA; ZHULIKOV ANTON ANDREEVICH; KHODYKINA MARIA FEDOROVNA; PONOMARENKO ANASTASIA ANDREEVNA

    2016-01-01

    Active development of rural tourism on the territory of Krasnodar region helps solve two quite important tasks: diversification of tourist product within the region’s territory and development of rural area; rise in the living standards of rural population at the expense of new jobs, increase of the prestige of living in rural area, development of general infrastructure as well as enhancement of investment attractiveness of the village. Functional departmentalization within rural tourism unio...

  9. Motor deficits following dorsal corticospinal tract transection in rats: voluntary versus skilled locomotion readouts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Bieler

    2018-02-01

    The functional relevance of the dorsal CST in locomotion of rats is not as prominent as compared to in humans and thus challenging the motor execution is mandatory to reliably investigate CST function. A detailed analysis of voluntary walking using the CatWalk XT is not adequate to detect deficits following dorsal CST lesion in rats.

  10. The function of the long dorsal sacroiliac ligament : its implications for understanding low back pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pool-Goudzwaard, A.L.; Vleeming, A; Hammudoghlu, D; Stoeckart, R.; Snijders, C.; Mens, Jan M A

    1996-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: In embalmed human bodies the tension of the long dorsal sacroiliac ligament was measured during incremental loading of anatomical structures that are biomechanically relevant. OBJECTIVES: To assess the function of the long dorsal sacroiliac ligament. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: In many

  11. Role of the right dorsal anterior insula in the urge to tic in Tourette syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinaz, Sule; Malone, Patrick; Hallett, Mark; Horovitz, Silvina G

    2015-08-01

    The mid-posterior part of the insula is involved in processing bodily sensations and urges and is activated during tic generation in Tourette syndrome. The dorsal anterior part of the insula, however, integrates sensory and emotional information with cognitive valuation and is implicated in interoception. The right dorsal anterior insula also participates in urge suppression in healthy subjects. This study examined the role of the right dorsal anterior insula in the urge to tic in Tourette syndrome. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging was performed in 13 adult Tourette patients and 13 matched controls. The role of the right dorsal anterior insula within the urge-tic network was investigated using graph theory-based neural network analysis. The functional connectivity of the right dorsal anterior insula was also correlated with urge and tic severity. Even though the patients did not exhibit any overt tics, the right dorsal anterior insula demonstrated higher connectivity, especially with the frontostriatal nodes of the urge-tic network in patients compared with controls. The functional connectivity between the right dorsal anterior insula and bilateral supplementary motor area also correlated positively with urge severity in patients. These results suggest that the right dorsal anterior insula is part of the urge-tic network and could influence the urge- and tic-related cortico-striato-thalamic regions even during rest in Tourette syndrome. It might be responsible for heightened awareness of bodily sensations generating premonitory urges in Tourette syndrome. © 2015 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  12. The ventral stream offers more affordance and the dorsal stream more memory than believed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, Albert; van der Lubbe, Robert Henricus Johannes; Zuidhoek, Sander

    2002-01-01

    Opposed to Norman's proposal, processing of affordance is likely to occur not solely in the dorsal stream but also in the ventral stream. Moreover, the dorsal stream might do more than just serve an important role in motor actions. It supports egocentric location coding as well. As such, it would

  13. Monosynaptic connections between primary afferents and giant neurons in the turtle spinal dorsal horn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernández, A; Radmilovich, M; Russo, R E

    1996-01-01

    This paper reports the occurrence of monosynaptic connections between dorsal root afferents and a distinct cell type-the giant neuron-deep in the dorsal horn of the turtle spinal cord. Light microscope studies combining Nissl stain and transganglionic HRP-labeling of the primary afferents have...

  14. Foraging Habitat Distributions Affect Territory Size and Shape in the Tuamotu Kingfisher

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dylan C. Kesler

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available I studied factors influencing territory configuration in the Tuamotu kingfisher (Todiramphus gambieri. Radiotelemetry data were used to define territory boundaries, and I tested for effects on territory size and shape of landscape habitat composition and foraging patch configuration. Tuamotu kingfisher territories were larger in areas with reduced densities of coconut plantation foraging habitat, and territories were less circular in the study site that had a single slender patch of foraging habitat. Maximum territory length did not differ between study sites, however, which suggested that the size of Tuamotu kingfisher territories might be bounded by the combined influence of maximum travel distances and habitat configurations. Results also suggested that birds enlarge territories as they age. Together, results supported previous work indicating that territory configurations represent a balance between the costs of defending a territory and gains from territory ownership.

  15. Campania: Territory and City in front of the Challenge of Logistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Mazzeo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Logistics can be defined as the process of planning, organization and control of all the activities of transportand storage of goods and informations; it interests all the productive phases, from the acquisition of rawmaterials, to the production process in the factories, up to the delivery of the finished products to the finalcustomers. In this way the logistics intersects the territory at different stages of its activity: when the rawmaterials are brought to the factory, when the factory sends semi-production units to other factories, whereproducts are stored in equipped areas, and when the final goods are brought to terminal sales.Inside the Southern territorial system the Campania is an important hub in the transport and sorting ofgoods. This role has made stronger after the carrying out of new logistics infrastructures, related to othersupport infrastructures, as railways and motorways.The regional system presents nationwide excellence’s peaks that could encourage its role in this sector, butthere are also negative factors that may to slow the take-off of the sector. The reference is to theinfrastructures and operating bottlenecks interfering its efficiency, but also to the weakness of the regionalproduction’s system that doesn’t ensures a local critical mass to the logistics.A third aspect is the lack of a clear structure of programming investment and of a greater transparency inthe roles assigned to various initiatives, arising mainly on local, uncoordinated pushes.The paper analyzes the situation of logistics and of its spatial interrelationships in Campania, identifyingstrengths, weaknesses, and potential evolutionary factors. The discussion faces up aspects of territoriallogistics: it differs from the urban logistics for the amount of handled commodities and for the concentrationin strategic poles, because these logistics platforms require specialized equipments and wide spaces formovement and deposit.The first part of the paper

  16. 47 CFR 73.232 - Territorial exclusivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    .... The term “arrangement“ means any contract, arrangement or understanding, express or implied. [42 FR... term “network organization” means any organization originating program material, with or without...

  17. 47 CFR 73.132 - Territorial exclusivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    .... The term “arrangement” means any contract, arrangement or understanding, expressed or implied. [42 FR... term “network organization” means any organization originating program material, with or without...

  18. Innovative model of development of traditionally industrial territories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Anatolyevna Kozlova

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The consideration in this paper is given to innovative model of development of traditionally industrial territories. We emphasize the following basic approaches to the employment of innovative potential of territories: diversification and restructuring of local economy, integration and disintegration of life-sustaining activity of neighboring territories, progressive economic advance, as well as simultaneous combination of several approaches (mixed model. Progressive model of development is sufficiently popular and is related tothe increasing already existing potential of territories. In practice,it doesn’t generally suppose essential changes in sectoral structure of local economy and means developing existing productions and spheres of activity of territory. Mixed model of structural transformations is characterized through the fact, that it supposes simultaneous use of different elements from the models counted. It allows: firstly, to adopt in a bigger extent a complex of measures to conditions of certain territory; secondly, to take into account a broader range of exogenous and endogenous factors; thirdly, to raise the effectiveness of the program of structural transformations being realized

  19. Innovative factors and conditions of sustainable development of rural territories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voloshenko Ksenya

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the main features of sustainable development of rural territories, identifies the factors of innovative entrepreneurship, and assesses their influence on the condition of rural economy. Special attention is paid to the analysis of concepts, programmes, and projects in the field of rural territory development. The authors summarise conceptual and strategic approaches and actions of the Baltic region states in the field of sustainable development of rural territories. The article identifies objectives, common for the Baltic region, relating to sustainability of rural territories, including sustainable use of natural resource potential, diversification of production through support for non-agricultural activities and employment, application of innovations and efficient technologies, and manufacturing of environmentally friendly products. The analysis of the development of agricultural and innovations in the Baltic Sea regions serves as a basis for identifying the factors and conditions of supporting innovative entrepreneurship. Of special importance are the research, technological, and innovative potential of the territory, the availability of adequate innovative infrastructure, and the formation of innovative culture. The authors corroborate the idea of innovative entrepreneurship development in rural territories through the transformation of organizational and economic mechanism of management relating to the creation of institutional, infrastructure, and spatial conditions. Research and technological cooperation in the Baltic region is emphasised as a priority area.

  20. Using Agent-Based Models in the Analysis and Forecast of Socio-Economic Development of Territories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitalii Nikolaevich Makoveev

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to study the essence of agent-based modeling, defining its features and prospects of usage in the modeling of socio-economic development of territories and systematization of domestic and foreign approaches to the development of prototypes for agent-based models of territories. Information basis for the research comprised the works on agent-based modeling by Russian and foreign scholars, especially articles and monographs of scientists of the Central Economics and Mathematics Institute under the Russian Academy of Sciences, papers presented in an international journal The Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation and other sources available on the Internet. The article presents theoretical and methodological foundations of agent-based models of territories. The author considers the concepts of “agent-based modeling” and “agent” and defines specifics of agent-based models in comparison with other types of simulation modeling. The paper also describes major stages of building agent-based models for territories and considers qualification requirements to a modeling subject. Furthermore, it reviews Russian and foreign approaches to the development of prototypes for agent-based models of territories. It has been determined that most of them deal with the modeling of spatial, territorial and socio-economic development of regions, cities and municipal entities. Agents in such models are presented by households, residents of regions and cities, enterprises and organizations operating in their territory, and public administration authorities (their inclusion in the model makes it possible to test different options of management impacts on territories by changing the model parameters, for instance, the introduction of certain prohibitions and quotas, issuance of permits, distribution of financial resources, etc.. At the end of the paper, the author formulates major conclusions. He shows the complexity faced

  1. [Disseminated metastatic tumor at dorsal surface of medulla oblongata presenting intractable hiccups. A case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arishima, Hidetaka; Kikuta, Ken-ichirou

    2011-04-01

    We report the case of disseminated metastatic tumor at dorsal surface of medulla oblongata presenting intractable hiccups. A 73-year-old man has a history of for metastatic lung tumor of the left tempral lobe. Although 3 surgeries and 4 radiotherapies were performed in the last 8 years, residual tumor grew slowly. He presented with intractable hiccups. His hiccups continued for 30 minutes, sometimes for 3 hours with obstruction of eating. Contrast-enhanced Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging demonstrated the dissemination of metastatic lung tumor at dorsal surface of medulla oblongata and ventral surface of midbrain. Some literatures reported the patients with intractable hiccups caused by dorsal medullary lesions. Therefore, we thought that the small disseminated tumor at dorsal surface of medulla oblongata caused the hiccups. Evaluation of dorsal medullay area by MR imaging is important to reveal the cause of intractable hiccups.

  2. Amnioserosa cell constriction but not epidermal actin cable tension autonomously drives dorsal closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasakarnis, Laurynas; Frei, Erich; Caussinus, Emmanuel; Affolter, Markus; Brunner, Damian

    2016-11-01

    Tissue morphogenesis requires coordination of multiple force-producing components. During dorsal closure in fly embryogenesis, an epidermis opening closes. A tensioned epidermal actin/MyosinII cable, which surrounds the opening, produces a force that is thought to combine with another MyosinII force mediating apical constriction of the amnioserosa cells that fill the opening. A model proposing that each force could autonomously drive dorsal closure was recently challenged by a model in which the two forces combine in a ratchet mechanism. Acute force elimination via selective MyosinII depletion in one or the other tissue shows that the amnioserosa tissue autonomously drives dorsal closure while the actin/MyosinII cable cannot. These findings exclude both previous models, although a contribution of the ratchet mechanism at dorsal closure onset remains likely. This shifts the current view of dorsal closure being a combinatorial force-component system to a single tissue-driven closure event.

  3. Self-restoration of contaminated territories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arapis, G.; Sobotovich, E.; Bondarenko, G.; Sadolko, I.; Petrayev, E.; Sokolik, G.

    1996-01-01

    This paper illustrates the experience gained in the field of natural restoration of contaminated vast ecosystems. Prior to recommending a large-scale application of any rehabilitation technique, it is important to know the medium-and long- term intensity of self-restoration for most of the affected territories. Three main ways express the process of self-restoration: the natural radioactive decay, the transfer of radionuclides out of natural ecosystems and the ability of some pedological components to fixate the contaminants. The first way is a real decontamination process resulting in the removal from the biosphere of significant quantities of radionuclides. Indeed, during the last years the total activity of short-life-isotopes was decreased by a factor of some thousand and actually, the main contaminants are 137 Cs and 90 Sr which are decreasing according to their half-life. The two other ways of self-restoration are closely connected with radionuclides migration (vertical or/and horizontal) in soils. The vertical migration velocities of 137 Cs and 90 St in typical soils of contaminated regions in Ukraine and Belarus were evaluated annually during 9 years since the accident. In most of these soils the migration rate of 90 Sr seems higher than this of 137 Cs and ranges from 0.71 to 1.54 cm/year and 0.10 to 1.16 cm/year respectively. At present time the main part of radionuclides is located in the upper 10 cm layer of soils. The ability of soils components to immobilize the radionuclides was also investigated. From 1989 to 1994 approximately 57% of 137 Cs was converted in fixed forms and for the year 2000 it is expected that this percentage will be 80%. Finally, for total contaminated regions, the obtained results on vertical migration velocity of radionuclides as a function of the soil type, are presented under the form of a map in order to help decision makers to determine the feasibility and the methodology for restoration of areas contaminated by 137 Cs and 90

  4. Transnacional'naja territorial'naja transportnaja sistema Baltijskogo regiona [The transnational territorial transport system of the Baltic Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gumenyuk Ivan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we focus on the structure and territorial borders of the Baltic Sea region, and examine the key structural elements of the transnational territorial transport system. In this respect, we clarify some terms used in transport geography. For the first time the transport system gets territorially localized, which allows for a broad range of new studies of transnational transportation in the Baltic Sea area. We also identify the main principles of development and operation of international territorial transport systems and present them taking the Baltic Sea region as an example. Our findings, we hope, will have a great practical application for researchers of transport geography, especially those studying international logistics.

  5. Spaces of Territorialization in Fritz Lang’s Film Metropolis (1927

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Željka Pješivac

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the relationship between film, architecture and the city in Fritz Lang’s film Metropolis by analyzing and interpreting its spatial concepts as a text of Weimar culture. Locating the study in the context of philosophy, theory of text, and cultural analysis, the main hypothesis of this paper is that the urban and architectural spaces of Metropolis are based on the concept of territorialization (arborescent model of organization of a totalitarian capitalist system through the reduction of real or fictional deterritorialization to a definitive and closed territory of totalitarianism. Developing this hypothesis with historical, comparative, and analytical methods, the aim of this paper is to investigate the relationship between narrative, ideology, and space in Metropolis. How is the ideology of Weimar culture represented by spatial structures in Metropolis? What are the relations of acts of territorialization, narrative, and the rhythmical structures of spaces of modern culture in this film? How are social practices inscribed in the spatial structures of the film, marking the totalitarian system and its terrorist horror on one side, and resistance to the totalitarian system on the other, trying to abolish the active/passive dichotomy? These are the key questions of this study. Its theoretical starting point comes from the works of Gilles Deleuze, Félix Guattari, Luce Irigaray, Erwin Panofsky, and Rosalind Krauss.

  6. Cultural territory and the transformation of the forest into a social artifact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Pereira Magalhães

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The perspective of landscape archaeology views all cultural territory as a space whose landscapes are constructed and environments transformed into social artifacts. The space that a society uses consists of localities with diverse material objects and natural resources that make up a cultural territory with related anthropogenic environments. Much like material artifacts, the landscapes reproduce the spiritual, political, and economic representations of a society. Recent archaeological studies conducted in the region of Porto Trombetas (Pará state have looked into the manner in which societies related to the Konduri ceramic tradition altered the environment by modifying, planting, or cultivating selected plant species according to their particular cultural norms. A botanical inventory and archaeological excavations carried out at the site Greig II, associated with the Konduri tradition, indicate how specific cultural activities create more productive environments as well as familiar landscapes with a specific cultural identity. Independent of the possible stylistic variations present in material culture, societies construct landscapes where they organize and create social and territorial identities.

  7. Territorial Identity and Grassroots Economic Activism: The Politicization of Farmers’ Mobilizations in the French Basque Country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xabier Itçaina

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The French Basque Country (FBC represents an emblematic case of the politicization of local development through grassroots economic activism. These mobilizations are particularly obvious in the agricultural sector. Based on a qualitative research on small farmers’ organizations and short food circuits, this article shows that Basque farmers’ mobilizations constitute a case of a dual politicization of small-scale farming and territorial identity. This process has gone through two phases: the first period (1970-2000 was characterized by the politicization of local productive systems. Throughout the decade 2000-2010, a new mode of grassroots economic activism emerged, signalled by new alliances between producers and consumers, and by an increasing ideological pluralism. Two case studies illustrate these developments. The first relates to a case of explicit politicization with the controversy around the foundation in 2005 of an alternative Basque Chamber of Agriculture. The second case study is devoted to the development of short food circuits in the FBC, considered here as a case of implicit politicization of the encounter between productive and consumption circuits. Both cases illustrate the politicization of new economic social movements, and the constant overlapping of sectoral and territorial claims in the Basque territory.

  8. Temporal binding function of dorsal CA1 is critical for declarative memory formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellami, Azza; Al Abed, Alice Shaam; Brayda-Bruno, Laurent; Etchamendy, Nicole; Valério, Stéphane; Oulé, Marie; Pantaléon, Laura; Lamothe, Valérie; Potier, Mylène; Bernard, Katy; Jabourian, Maritza; Herry, Cyril; Mons, Nicole; Piazza, Pier-Vincenzo; Eichenbaum, Howard; Marighetto, Aline

    2017-09-19

    Temporal binding, the process that enables association between discontiguous stimuli in memory, and relational organization, a process that enables the flexibility of declarative memories, are both hippocampus-dependent and decline in aging. However, how these two processes are related in supporting declarative memory formation and how they are compromised in age-related memory loss remain hypothetical. We here identify a causal link between these two features of declarative memory: Temporal binding is a necessary condition for the relational organization of discontiguous events. We demonstrate that the formation of a relational memory is limited by the capability of temporal binding, which depends on dorsal (d)CA1 activity over time intervals and diminishes in aging. Conversely, relational representation is successful even in aged individuals when the demand on temporal binding is minimized, showing that relational/declarative memory per se is not impaired in aging. Thus, bridging temporal intervals by dCA1 activity is a critical foundation of relational representation, and a deterioration of this mechanism is responsible for the age-associated memory impairment.

  9. Age-related reduction in microcolumnar structure correlates with cognitive decline in ventral but not dorsal area 46 of the rhesus monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, L; Roe, D L; Urbanc, B; Inglis, A; Stanley, H E; Rosene, D L

    2009-02-18

    The age-related decline in cognitive function that is observed in normal aging monkeys and humans occurs without significant loss of cortical neurons. This suggests that cognitive impairment results from subtle, sub-lethal changes in the cortex. Recently, changes in the structural coherence in mini- or microcolumns without loss of neurons have been linked to loss of function. Here we use a density map method to quantify microcolumnar structure in both banks of the sulcus principalis (prefrontal cortical area 46) of 16 (ventral) and 19 (dorsal) behaviorally tested female rhesus monkeys from 6 to 33 years of age. While total neuronal density does not change with age in either of these banks, there is a significant age-related reduction in the strength of microcolumns in both regions on the order of 40%. This likely reflects a subtle but definite loss of organization in the structure of the cortical microcolumn. The reduction in strength in ventral area 46 correlates with cognitive impairments in learning and memory while the reduction in dorsal area 46 does not. This result is congruent with published data attributing cognitive functions to ventral area 46 that are similar to our particular cognitive battery which does not optimally tap cognitive functions attributed to dorsal area 46. While the exact mechanisms underlying this loss of microcolumnar organization remain to be determined, it is plausible that they reflect age-related alterations in dendritic and/or axonal organization which alter connectivity and may contribute to age-related declines in cognitive performance.

  10. Dorsal clitoral nerve injury following transobturator midurethral sling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moss CF

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Chailee F Moss,1 Lynn A Damitz,2 Richard H Gracely,3 Alice C Mintz,3 Denniz A Zolnoun,2–4 A Lee Dellon5 1Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Ohio State University School of Medicine, Columbus, OH, USA; 2Department of Surgery, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, NC, USA; 3Department of Endodontics, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, NC, USA; 4Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC, USA; 5Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA Introduction: Transobturator slings can be successfully used to treat stress urinary incontinence and improve quality of life through a minimally invasive vaginal approach. Persistent postoperative pain can occur and pose diagnostic and therapeutic dilemmas. Following a sling procedure, a patient complained of pinching clitoral and perineal pain. Her symptoms of localized clitoral pinching and pain became generalized over the ensuing years, eventually encompassing the entire left vulvovaginal region.Aim: The aim of this study was to highlight the clinical utility of conventional pain management techniques used for the evaluation and management of patients with postoperative pain following pelvic surgery. Methods: We described a prototypical patient with persistent pain in and around the clitoral region complicating the clinical course of an otherwise successful sling procedure. We specifically discussed the utility of bedside sensory assessment techniques and selective nerve blocks in the evaluation and management of this prototypical patient. Results: Neurosensory assessments and a selective nerve block enabled us to trace the source of the patient’s pain to nerve entrapment along the dorsal nerve of the clitoris. We then utilized a nerve stimulator-guided hydrodissection technique to release the scar contracture Conclusion: This case

  11. Territories of flammulated owls (Otus flammeolus): Is occupancy a measure of habitat quality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian D. Linkhart; Richard T. Reynolds

    1997-01-01

    Annual territory occupancy by Flammulated Owls (Otus flammeolus) in Colorado was evaluated from 1981-1996. Fourteen territories occurred within a 452 ha study area. Each year, three to six territories were occupied by breeding pairs and three to seven were occupied by unpaired males. Territories were occupied by breeding pairs a mean of 5.1 years (...

  12. Vital stability of territory: the contents and ways of strengthening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Stepanovich Bochko

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper shows that the traditional outlook on development of territories as the process of alignment of their socio-economic development with the help of external influences should be advanced and replaced by a new vision. The purpose of the work is the definition of the basic rules of the concept of vital stability of territories. The creation by the local population of the riches and well being by expansion of manufacturing industry on the basis of the use of intelligence — technological and moral — ethical factors are shown as the basic contents of the offered concept. A consequence of such approach is the growing feedback of made expenses, as technologically completed production will be realized but not raw material or semi-finished item. Only the differentiation industrial development of the territory is capable to deduce it from a condition of poverty and depression. The understanding of development of the territory as creation of conditions for growth of people’s wellbeing and formation of a man as a person is opened. The accent of the attention on the promotion of a man not only as the purpose of transformation of territory, but also as the factor of its safe development through an increase of his or her intellectual and spiritual levels is made. The measures and instruction on innovation to the strengthening of vital stability of territories are offered. The separate results of research were used at the prolongation of the Plan for strategic development of Yekaterinburg up to 2020. Authorities of territories at the formation of their development strategy can apply the new offered rules.

  13. Do dorsal raphe 5-HT neurons encode "beneficialness"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Minmin; Li, Yi; Zhong, Weixin

    2016-11-01

    The neurotransmitter serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) affects numerous behavioral and physiological processes. Drugs that alter 5-HT signaling treat several major psychiatric disorders and may lead to widespread abuse. The dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) in the midbrain provides a majority of 5-HT for the forebrain. The importance of 5-HT signaling propels the search for a general theoretical framework under which the diverse functions of the DRN 5-HT neurons can be interpreted and additional therapeutic solutions may be developed. However, experimental data so far support several seeming irreconcilable theories, suggesting that 5-HT neurons mediate behavioral inhibition, aversive processing, or reward signaling. Here, we review recent progresses and propose that DRN 5-HT neurons encode "beneficialness" - how beneficial the current environmental context represents for an individual. Specifically, we speculate that the activity of these neurons reflects the possible net benefit of the current context as determined by p·R-C, in which p indicates reward probability, R the reward value, and C the cost. Through the widespread projections of these neurons to the forebrain, the beneficialness signal may reconfigure neural circuits to bias perception, boost positive emotions, and switch behavioral choices. The "beneficialness" hypothesis can explain many conflicting observations, and at the same time raises new questions. We suggest additional experiments that will help elucidate the exact computational functions of the DRN 5-HT neurons. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Dorsal bridge plating or transarticular screws for Lisfranc fracture dislocations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirzner, N; Zotov, P; Goldbloom, D; Curry, H; Bedi, H

    2018-04-01

    Aims The aim of this retrospective study was to compare the functional and radiological outcomes of bridge plating, screw fixation, and a combination of both methods for the treatment of Lisfranc fracture dislocations. Patients and Methods A total of 108 patients were treated for a Lisfranc fracture dislocation over a period of nine years. Of these, 38 underwent transarticular screw fixation, 45 dorsal bridge plating, and 25 a combination technique. Injuries were assessed preoperatively according to the Myerson classification system. The outcome measures included the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) score, the validated Manchester Oxford Foot Questionnaire (MOXFQ) functional tool, and the radiological Wilppula classification of anatomical reduction. Results Significantly better functional outcomes were seen in the bridge plate group. These patients had a mean AOFAS score of 82.5 points, compared with 71.0 for the screw group and 63.3 for the combination group (p bridge plate group, 38.1 in the screw group, and 45.5 in the combination group (p bridge plating have better functional and radiological outcomes than those treated with transarticular screws or a combination technique. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2018;100-B:468-74.

  15. Dorsal raphe nucleus projecting retinal ganglion cells: Why Y cells?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickard, Gary E.; So, Kwok-Fai; Pu, Mingliang

    2015-01-01

    Retinal ganglion Y (alpha) cells are found in retinas ranging from frogs to mice to primates. The highly conserved nature of the large, fast conducting retinal Y cell is a testament to its fundamental task, although precisely what this task is remained ill-defined. The recent discovery that Y-alpha retinal ganglion cells send axon collaterals to the serotonergic dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) in addition to the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN), medial interlaminar nucleus (MIN), pretectum and the superior colliculus (SC) has offered new insights into the important survival tasks performed by these cells with highly branched axons. We propose that in addition to its role in visual perception, the Y-alpha retinal ganglion cell provides concurrent signals via axon collaterals to the DRN, the major source of serotonergic afferents to the forebrain, to dramatically inhibit 5-HT activity during orientation or alerting/escape responses, which dis-facilitates ongoing tonic motor activity while dis-inhibiting sensory information processing throughout the visual system. The new data provide a fresh view of these evolutionarily old retinal ganglion cells. PMID:26363667

  16. The Molecular Fingerprint of Dorsal Root and Trigeminal Ganglion Neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas M. Lopes

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The dorsal root ganglia (DRG and trigeminal ganglia (TG are clusters of cell bodies of highly specialized sensory neurons which are responsible for relaying information about our environment to the central nervous system. Despite previous efforts to characterize sensory neurons at the molecular level, it is still unknown whether those present in DRG and TG have distinct expression profiles and therefore a unique molecular fingerprint. To address this question, we isolated lumbar DRG and TG neurons using fluorescence-activated cell sorting from Advillin-GFP transgenic mice and performed RNA sequencing. Our transcriptome analyses showed that, despite being overwhelmingly similar, a number of genes are differentially expressed in DRG and TG neurons. Importantly, we identified 24 genes which were uniquely expressed in either ganglia, including an arginine vasopressin receptor and several homeobox genes, giving each population a distinct molecular fingerprint. We compared our findings with published studies to reveal that many genes previously reported to be present in neurons are in fact likely to originate from other cell types in the ganglia. Additionally, our neuron-specific results aligned well with a dataset examining whole human TG and DRG. We propose that the data can both improve our understanding of primary afferent biology and help contribute to the development of drug treatments and gene therapies which seek targets with unique or restricted expression patterns.

  17. A biomechanical comparison of four fixed-angle dorsal plates in a finite element model of dorsally-unstable radius fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knežević, Josip; Kodvanj, Janoš; Čukelj, Fabijan; Pamuković, Frane; Pavić, Arsen

    2017-11-01

    To compare the finite element models of two different composite radius fracture patterns, reduced and stabilised with four different fixed-angle dorsal plates during axial, dorsal and volar loading conditions. Eight different plastic models representing four AO/ASIF type 23-A3 distal radius fractures and four AO/ASIF 23-C2 distal radius fractures were obtained and fixed each with 1 of 4 methods: a standard dorsal non-anatomical fixed angle T-plate (3.5mm Dorsal T-plate, Synthes), anatomical fixed-angle double plates (2.4mm LCP Dorsal Distal Radius, Synthes), anatomical fixed angle T-plate (2.4mm Acu-Loc Dorsal Plate, Acumed) or anatomical variable-angle dorsal T-plate (3.5mm, Dorsal Plate, Zrinski). Composite radius with plate and screws were scanned with a 3D optical scanner and later processed in Abaqus Software to generate the finite element model. All models were axially loaded at 3 points (centrally, volarly and dorsally) with 50 N forces to avoid the appearance of plastic deformations of the models. Total displacements at the end of the bone and the stresses in the bones and plates were determined and compared. Maximal von Mises stress in bone for 3-part fracture models was very similar to that in 2-part fracture models. The biggest difference between models and the largest displacements were seen during volar loading. The stresses in all models were the highest above the fracture gap. The best performance in all parameters tested was with the Zrinski plate and the most modest results were with the Synthes T-plate. There was no significant difference between 2-part (AO/ASIF type 23-A3) and 3-part (AO/ASIF 23-C2) fracture models. Maximal stresses in the plates appeared above the fracture gap; therefore, it is worth considering the development of plates without screw holes above the gap. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Basal Cell Carcinoma of the Dorsal Hand: An Update and Comprehensive Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Tiffany Y; Rubin, Ashley G; Brian Jiang, Shang I

    2016-04-01

    Excessive ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure is the primary predisposing factor for basal cell carcinoma (BCC). However, surprisingly, BCCs occur very rarely on the dorsal hand, which is subject to intense sun exposure, and their infrequent presentation in this location suggests that other factors besides UVR may play a role in BCC pathogenesis. Because dorsal hand BCCs are uncommon, knowledge of their characteristics is limited, and more data are needed to describe their clinical presentation and treatment. To perform an updated review of the literature on the management of dorsal hand BCCs. The authors conducted a comprehensive literature review by searching the PubMed database with the key phrases "basal cell carcinoma dorsal hand," "basal cell carcinoma hand," and "basal cell carcinoma finger," and "basal cell carcinoma thumb." The authors identified 176 cases of dorsal hand BCCs in the literature, 120 of which had sufficient data for analysis. Only 4 cases were treated with Mohs micrographic surgery (MMS). The authors present 14 additional cases of dorsal hand BCCs treated with MMS. Basal cell carcinomas on the dorsal hand occur infrequently, and potential risk factors include being a male of white descent and personal history of skin cancer. Mohs micrographic surgery seems to be an effective treatment method.

  19. Basal Cell Carcinoma of the Dorsal Foot: An Update and Comprehensive Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Tiffany Y; Rubin, Ashley G; Jiang, Shang I Brian

    2017-01-01

    Ultraviolet radiation is a well-known risk factor for basal cell carcinoma (BCC). Therefore, the high incidence of BCCs in sun-exposed areas such as the head and neck is unsurprising. However, unexpectedly, BCCs on the sun-protected dorsal foot have also been reported, and tumor occurrence here suggests that other factors besides ultraviolet radiation may play a role in BCC pathogenesis. Because only few dorsal foot BCCs have been reported, data on their clinical features and management are limited. To perform an updated review of the literature on clinical characteristics and treatment of dorsal foot BCCs. We conducted a comprehensive literature review by searching the PubMed database with the key phrases "basal cell carcinoma dorsal foot," "basal cell carcinoma foot," and "basal cell carcinoma toe." We identified 20 cases of dorsal foot BCCs in the literature, 17 of which had sufficient data for analysis. Only 1 case was treated with Mohs micrographic surgery. We present 8 additional cases of dorsal foot BCCs treated with Mohs micrographic surgery. Basal cell carcinomas on the dorsal foot are rare, and potential risk factors include Caucasian descent and personal history of skin cancer. Mohs micrographic surgery seems to be an effective treatment option.

  20. Responses of spinal dorsal horn neurons to foot movements in rats with a sprained ankle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae Hyo; Kim, Hee Young; Chung, Kyungsoon

    2011-01-01

    Acute ankle injuries are common problems and often lead to persistent pain. To investigate the underlying mechanism of ankle sprain pain, the response properties of spinal dorsal horn neurons were examined after ankle sprain. Acute ankle sprain was induced manually by overextending the ankle of a rat hindlimb in a direction of plantarflexion and inversion. The weight-bearing ratio (WBR) of the affected foot was used as an indicator of pain. Single unit activities of dorsal horn neurons in response to plantarflexion and inversion of the foot or ankle compression were recorded from the medial part of the deep dorsal horn, laminae IV-VI, in normal and ankle-sprained rats. One day after ankle sprain, rats showed significantly reduced WBRs on the affected foot, and this reduction was partially restored by systemic morphine. The majority of deep dorsal horn neurons responded to a single ankle stimulus modality. After ankle sprain, the mean evoked response rates were significantly increased, and afterdischarges were developed in recorded dorsal horn neurons. The ankle sprain-induced enhanced evoked responses were significantly reduced by morphine, which was reversed by naltrexone. The data indicate that movement-specific dorsal horn neuron responses were enhanced after ankle sprain in a morphine-dependent manner, thus suggesting that hyperactivity of dorsal horn neurons is an underlying mechanism of pain after ankle sprain. PMID:21389306

  1. Competitive Strategies of Office Furniture Retailing An Exploratory Study in the Territory of Klang Valley

    OpenAIRE

    Saw, Eng Guan

    2010-01-01

    Kuala Lumpur which is in the territory of Klang Valley has gone through a vast transformation the last decade and shopping experience has never been the same. Small retailers are facing a tremendous challenge with the emergence of organized specialty stores and big box super store such as IKEA. The standard of living, the lifestyles and consumer behavior has gone through a cycle of evolution. Consumer today is more selective and choosy of the goods and services they buy and from who they buy ...

  2. Topographic Maps on the Territory of Croatia Editor: Stanislav Frangeš

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miljenko Lapaine

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Promotion of the monograph Topographic Maps on the Territory of Croatiawas organized by the Croatian Cartographic Society and held at the Croatian State Archive in Zagreb on April 18, 2012. At the beginning of the promotion, guests were welcomed by Dr. Stjepan Ćosić, Director of the Croatian State Archive. The monograph was then represented by Prof. Dr. Stanislav Frangeš, the book's editor, Prof. Dr. Miljenko Lapaine, the book's reviewer, and MSc Ivan Landek, one of the book's authors.

  3. Sustainable development, tourism and territory. Previous elements towards a systemic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre TORRENTE

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, tourism is one of the major challenges for many countries and territories. The balance of payments, an ever-increasing number of visitors and the significant development of the tourism offer clearly illustrate the booming trend in this sector. This macro-economic approach is often used by the organizations in charge of tourism, WTO for instance. Quantitative assessments which consider the satisfaction of customers’ needs as an end in itself have prevailed both in tourism development schemes and in prospective approaches since the sixties.

  4. La organización territorial del Protectorado español en Marruecos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villanova, José Luis

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The Spanish protectorate in Morocco was based in a High Commision as the highest authority in the area, supported by diferent delegations that promoted the sectorial policies. The Moroccan authority structure was based on a khalifa who was in charge of the government and the administration with the assistance of a central Makhzen. The political action required a territorial organization to keep the Spanish presence. However, this structure based on the Makhzen and the kabyle administration did not take into account the differences and complexity of Morocco.

  5. Primary afferent terminal sprouting after a cervical dorsal rootlet section in the macaque monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darian-Smith, Corinna

    2004-03-01

    We examined the role of primary afferent neurons in the somatosensory cortical "reactivation" that occurs after a localized cervical dorsal root lesion (Darian-Smith and Brown [2000] Nat. Neurosci. 3:476-481). After section of the dorsal rootlets that enervate the macaque's thumb and index finger (segments C6-C8), the cortical representation of these digits was initially silenced but then re-emerged for these same digits over 2-4 postlesion months. Cortical reactivation was accompanied by the emergence of physiologically detectable input from these same digits within dorsal rootlets bordering the lesion site. We investigated whether central axonal sprouting of primary afferents spared by the rhizotomy could mediate this cortical reactivation. The cortical representation of the hand was mapped electrophysiologically 15-25 weeks after the dorsal rootlet section to define this reactivation. Cholera toxin subunit B conjugated to horseradish peroxidase was then injected into the thumb and index finger pads bilaterally to label the central terminals of any neurons that innervated these digits. Primary afferent terminal proliferation was assessed in the spinal dorsal horn and cuneate nucleus at 7 days and 15-25 postlesion weeks. Labeled terminal bouton distributions were reconstructed and the "lesion" and control sides compared within each monkey. Distributions were significantly larger on the side of the lesion in the dorsal horn and cuneate nucleus at 15-25 weeks after the dorsal rootlet section, than those mapped only 7 days postlesion. Our results provide direct evidence for localized sprouting of spared (uninjured) primary afferent terminals in the dorsal horn and cuneate nucleus after a restricted dorsal root injury. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Features of the territorial planning of the sea coastal zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktoria Yavorska

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The coastal zone in Ukraine is likely to undergo the most profound change in the near future. Already more than 65 percent of the Ukrainian Black Sea region population lives within 30 km of the coast. Consequently, unless territory planning and careful environmental management are instituted, sharp conflicts over coastal space and resource are likely, and the degradation of natural resources will stop future social-economic development. In order to maintain and restore coastal ecosystem it was implemented law about formation of the national ecological network of Ukraine. Later were developed General Scheme for Planning of the Territory of Ukraine and regional level planning scheme but there is no especial document regulating the use of land in the coastal zone. The study of geographical conditions, economic activity, and population resettlement shows separation within the regions of several echelons of economic development in relation to the coastline. Such separation may be based on differences in intensity and types of economic use within the territory and the water area, as well as the population density on the land. These features include the following economic stripes: seaside-facade, middle, peripheral – on land, and coastal, territorial waters, exclusive economic zone – in the direction of the sea. At the same time, each economic stripe has a complex internal structure. There are several basic principles of functional zoning of the territory highlighted in the article can help to rational plan the seaside regions.

  7. State and Territory Greenhouse Gas Emissions. An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-04-01

    This document is a summary of the latest available estimates of greenhouse gas emissions for the States and Territories. They are taken from the national inventory and show emissions for 2002, the latest year for which national statistics on fuel and electricity consumption are available. The report shows that Australia's total greenhouse gas emissions in 2002 amounted to 541.8 million tonnes. The State and Territory breakdown was: New South Wales: 151.5 million tonnes (Mt); Queensland: 145.1 Mt; Victoria: 117.0 Mt; Western Australia: 70.4 Mt; South Australia: 30.9 Mt; Northern Territory: 17.7 Mt; Tasmania: 7.2 Mt; ACT: 1.3 Mt. The State and Territory inventories are the first of what will be an annual series. The national inventory and State and Territory inventories are all prepared according to the international rules and procedures applicable to Australia's Kyoto 108% emissions target. The national inventory undergoes regular independent international review

  8. Persistent dorsal ophthalmic artery arising from the internal carotid artery: Report of three cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Jae Hwan; Lee, Ghi Jai; Shim, Jae Chan; Lee, Kyoung Eun; Kim, Ho Kyun; Suh, Jung Ho [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    Normally, the ophthalmic artery (OA) arises from the supraclinoid segment of the internal carotid artery (ICA) and enters the orbit via the optic canal. A persistent dorsal OA is a rare variation that originates from the cavernous segment of the ICA and enters the orbit via the superior orbital fissure. To the best of our knowledge, persistent dorsal OA has not been described in the Korean literature. In this paper, we report three cases of persistent dorsal OA with review of the literature on embryogenesis and other origins of the OA.

  9. Effect of dorsal hippocampal lesion compared to dorsal hippocampal blockade by atropine on reference memory in vision deprived rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhume, R A; Noronha, A; Nagwekar, M D; Mascarenhas, J F

    1989-10-01

    In order to study the primacy of the hippocampus in place learning function 24 male adult albino rats were hippocampally-lesioned in dorsal hippocampus involving fornical damage (group I); sham operated for comparison with group I (group II); cannulated for instillation of atropine sulphate in the same loci as group I (group III); and cannulated for instillation of saline which served as control for group III (group IV). All the animals were enucleated and their reference memory (long-term memory) was tested, using open 4-arm radial maze. There was loss of reference memory in groups I and III. However, hippocampally-lesioned animals, showed recovery of reference memory deficit within a short period of 10 days or so. Whereas atropinized animals showed persistent reference memory deficit as long as the instillation effect continued. The mechanism involved in the recovery of reference memory in hippocampally-lesioned animals and persistent deficit of reference memory in atropinized animals has been postulated to explain the primacy of hippocampus in the place learning function under normal conditions.

  10. The Territory as Infrastructure: The Case-Study of the Province of Rome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Scoppetta

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Even for the evident "similarities" with the results of scientific and technological evolution of the "network society", during the 90s the network metaphor has established itself as a dominant "image", to which link the understanding/interpretation (project of the contemporary complexity (city/territory/society. This resulted in new descriptions/interpretations (projects of the city and of the territory that move from the "material" and "immaterial" organization of the network itself.However, not always the "reduction" operated within planning was able to highlight limitations and contradictions inherent in the network metaphor as an interpretative key.In reality, the planning “speech” seems to focus primarily on "technical" issues – which certainly are not irrelevant – as congestion of flows, inadequacy of logistics platforms and, more generally, as regards the Italian case, on the serious and continuing infrastructure deficit: all factors that determine an undeniable impact on efficiency and competitiveness, on accessibility to services and on the timing of city use.But what, however, seems to be necessary is the overcoming of the still too sectoral approach towards a truly integrated planning pattern.This difficulty can be traced to some issues/problems of a structural nature that, historically, characterized the political-cultural and disciplinary Italian context. For example, despite the obvious consequences, measures regarding infrastructures tend to be made separately from the planning system. This is derived from the organization in different sectors that historically characterized public administration in general. In addition, we have particularistic logic of both vertical and horizontal type, that is the division of powers between administrative bodies of different levels or between structures of the same sector.This limits related to the issue of segmentation are more noticeable if you switch from ordinary activities to the

  11. Decolonizing through integration: Australia's off-shore island territories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Wettenhall

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Australia’s three small off-shore island territories – Norfolk Island in the Pacific Ocean and Christmas Island and the Cocos (Keeling Islands Group in the Indian Ocean – can be seen as monuments to 19th century British-style colonization, though their early paths to development took very different courses. Their transition to the status of external territories of the Australian Commonwealth in the 20th century – early in the case of Norfolk and later in the cases of Christmas and Cocos – put them on a common path in which serious tensions emerged between local populations which sought autonomous governance and the Commonwealth government which wanted to impose governmental systems similar to those applying to mainstream Australians. This article explores the issues involved, and seeks to relate the governmental history of the three island territories to the exploration of island jurisdictions developed in island studies research.

  12. Climate Change after the International : Rethinking Security, Territory and Authority

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stripple, Johannes

    2005-01-01

    What does a politics after the international mean? Many strands of contemporary scholarship converge on the image of the international as obsolete, but strongly diverge on the contours of the kinds of politics that are superseding it. The modern state has been pivotal to the meaning of security, territory and authority - concepts central to the idea of the international - but they do not necessarily have to be tied to the state. This thesis offers a critique of International Relations theory combined with a study of climate change. A departure in 'process philosophy' facilitate a rethinking of security, territory and authority as activities rather than things, as verbs rather than nouns. The author shows that a multiplicity of practices of securitization, territorialization, and authorization are visible in the climate issue. The book goes beyond, and reflects upon, the traditional study of 'International Environmental Politics' as a particular subfield of International Relations

  13. Redefining territorial scales and the strategic role of spatial planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galland, Daniel; Elinbaum, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    This paper argues that spatial planning systems tend to redefine and reinterpret conventional territorial scales through the dual adoption and articulation of legal instruments and spatial strategies at different levels of planning administration. In depicting such redefinition, this paper delves...... into the cases of Denmark and Catalonia through an analysis concerned with: i) the strategic spatial role attributed to each level of planning; and ii) the redefinition of territorial scales as a result of changing political objectives and spatial relationships occurring between planning levels. The assessment...... pertaining to the strategic roles of spatial planning instruments as well as the evolving redefinition of territorial scales in both Denmark and Catalonia suggests that the conventional, hierarchical ‘cascade-shaped’ ideal of policy implementation is superseded. While both cases tend to converge...

  14. ENFORCEMENT OF FINANCIAL BASEMENTS AS A FACTOR OF TERRITORIES DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.N. Sidorova

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Article contains description of structure of regional finance resources, discloses the sources of financing, describes the role of budgeting. Problems and possible ways of solution of inter-budget relationships optimisation are described with the purpose of increasing of financial prosperity of territories. Overall role of optimisation as one of the most important factors of strengthening of financial basement of territories is described along with the necessity of considering the budget process as stimulated factor for regional economic systems development. Suggestions on substitution of cost method of budget resources management by the model of outcomes management and further development of mechanisms of territorial bodies interaction with economic entities on the base of state-private partnership were proposed.

  15. Constitutionalism, State and territory in the globalization context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Guillermo Jiménez

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Globalization shows that the national State is losing the monopoly in the production of law, and this generates changes concerning the environment of application of the state legal arrangements and the role of the territory as the limit thereof. The object of this work is to offer a panorama about of the law globalization impacts on the State, the constitutional theory and the territory. The study is performed by means of the documentary review technique by using the consultation of diverse sources. Our conclusion is that the Westphalian model of State-nation has been weakened; however, globalization needs the State to be able to operate. Law has been deterritorialized and the territory continues to be a fundamental element for the contemporary State.

  16. CAPABLE TERRITORIAL COMMUNITIES: THE FINANCIAL ASPECT OF FUNCTIONING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pokrovska Olga

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The essence of administrative and territorial reform is analyzed in the article. The role of capable territorial communities is substantiated in the integrated development of the local government system. Purpose. The purpose of the article is to substantiate the theoretical and methodological provisions concerning the development and functioning of capable territorial communities as a guarantee of the effective economic development of the local territories. Results. The theoretical and methodological provisions concerning the development and functioning of the capable territorial communities as the basis of effective economic development of local territories are substantiated. The financial opportunities of the united territorial communities in the solving of problems of a local level have been analyzed. Conclusions. Consequently, the sustainable development of the social economic systems depends directly on the management of economic entity, namely, their economic activity under the influence of processes occurring in the political, social and legal spheres of the domestic economic system. Today one of such processes is the decentralization of power and the creation of a new system of state and a local government. The policy of decentralization of power contributes to the improvement of the economic and social situation in the country, the improvement of relations between the state and local levels of power relations and the rational and efficient use of budgetary funds at various levels of government. The main task of the administrative territorial reform that has been analyzed in accordance with the law is the transfer of power to the places in order to concentrate their own and public funds and resources and their spending on their own needs and development. It is a matter of establishing united territorial communities, which are called to carry out the development of adjacent territories to the unions through the adoption of

  17. Project No. 10 - Partial restoration of Ignalina NPP territory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    At present Ignalina NPP territory makes a total of 2544 ha of land. Due to termination of construction activity development and due to the decision taken to shutdown unit 1 the need in such a territory fell off. For normal and safe operation of Ignalina NPP 1440 ha is enough, including 1237 ha for of Ignalina NPP administrative area and 203 ha for auxiliary objects. Ignalina NPP will have to rearrange territory, forestry that was damaged during the construction activities of the plant and to restore the damaged farmlands and to pass the rearranged forestry that belonged to the Ignalina NPP to the Ministry of Forestry. The total estimated cost of the project is about 1.042 M EURO

  18. Territories and energy transition: from the European Metropolis of Lille and the Pays de Fayence to the potential of Ouarzazate and the West African Economic and Monetary Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boisgibault, Louis

    2016-01-01

    This thesis investigates territorial energy decentralization. It advocates the greater involvement of territories in the energy transition. Should this evolution be driven from the top by global, European and national decisions and targets, which are then transposed in the territories? Would it be better for territories to initiate local sustainable projects, which can then be approved on a regional and national level and then aggregated? How can inter-communal and regional levels increase their influence in energy and climate matters? How do regional schemes and plans interact with local planning documents? Is territorial Energy Independence feasible, and is it compatible with solidarity? The methodology is based on analysis of the corpus, statistical computation and field work. The field work was conducted in four different spatial typologies: the new European Metropolis of Lille, an urban space, the Pays de Fayence, a Southern France rural space, Ouarzazate, Morocco, a desert space and the West African Economic and Monetary Union. These different typologies have allowed us to draw a vertical line guiding the research conducted given the evolving context post-COP 21, the new European Commission initiatives and the 2015 French laws on territorial organization and energy transition. These factors are grouped into three pairs to interpret the results on France's carbon constraints, the Mediterranean region and Africa, which will only be subject to carbon constraints when the COP 21 Paris agreement has entered into force. (author) [fr

  19. Heterogeneity within the frontoparietal control network and its relationship to the default and dorsal attention networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Matthew L; De La Vega, Alejandro; Mills, Caitlin; Andrews-Hanna, Jessica; Spreng, R Nathan; Cole, Michael W; Christoff, Kalina

    2018-02-13

    The frontoparietal control network (FPCN) plays a central role in executive control. It has been predominantly viewed as a unitary domain general system. Here, we examined patterns of FPCN functional connectivity (FC) across multiple conditions of varying cognitive demands, to test for FPCN heterogeneity. We identified two distinct subsystems within the FPCN based on hierarchical clustering and machine learning classification analyses of within-FPCN FC patterns. These two FPCN subsystems exhibited distinct patterns of FC with the default network (DN) and the dorsal attention network (DAN). FPCN A exhibited stronger connectivity with the DN than the DAN, whereas FPCN B exhibited the opposite pattern. This twofold FPCN differentiation was observed across four independent datasets, across nine different conditions (rest and eight tasks), at the level of individual-participant data, as well as in meta-analytic coactivation patterns. Notably, the extent of FPCN differentiation varied across conditions, suggesting flexible adaptation to task demands. Finally, we used meta-analytic tools to identify several functional domains associated with the DN and DAN that differentially predict activation in the FPCN subsystems. These findings reveal a flexible and heterogeneous FPCN organization that may in part emerge from separable DN and DAN processing streams. We propose that FPCN A may be preferentially involved in the regulation of introspective processes, whereas FPCN B may be preferentially involved in the regulation of visuospatial perceptual attention.

  20. Frequency-specific corticofugal modulation of the dorsal cochlear nucleus in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Lingzhi; Xiong, Colin; Li, Liang; Yan, Jun

    2014-01-01

    The primary auditory cortex (AI) modulates the sound information processing in the lemniscal subcortical nuclei, including the anteroventral cochlear nucleus (AVCN), in a frequency-specific manner. The dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN) is a non-lemniscal subcortical nucleus but it is tonotopically organized like the AVCN. However, it remains unclear how the AI modulates the sound information processing in the DCN. This study examined the impact of focal electrical stimulation of AI on the auditory responses of the DCN neurons in mice. We found that the electrical stimulation induced significant changes in the best frequency (BF) of DCN neurons. The changes in the BFs were highly specific to the BF differences between the stimulated AI neurons and the recorded DCN neurons. The DCN BFs shifted higher when the AI BFs were higher than the DCN BFs and the DCN BFs shifted lower when the AI BFs were lower than the DCN BFs. The DCN BFs showed no change when the AI and DCN BFs were similar. Moreover, the BF shifts were linearly correlated to the BF differences. Thus, our data suggest that corticofugal modulation of the DCN is also highly specific to frequency information, similar to the corticofugal modulation of the AVCN. The frequency-specificity of corticofugal modulation does not appear limited to the lemniscal ascending pathway.

  1. Inputs to the dorsal striatum of the mouse conserve the parallel circuit architecture of the forebrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weixing X Pan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The basal ganglia play a critical role in the regulation of voluntary action in vertebrates. Our understanding of the function of the basal ganglia relies heavily upon anatomical information, but continued progress will require an understanding of the specific functional roles played by diverse cell types and their connectivity. An increasing number of mouse lines allow extensive identification, characterization, and, manipulation of specified cell types in the basal ganglia. Despite the promise of genetically modified mice for elucidating the functional roles of diverse cell types, there is relatively little anatomical data obtained directly in the mouse. Here we have characterized the retrograde labeling obtained from a series of tracer injections throughout the dorsal striatum of adult mice. We found systematic variations in input along both the medial-lateral and anterior-posterior neuraxes in close agreement with canonical features of basal ganglia anatomy in the rat. In addition to the canonical features we have provided experimental support for the importance of non-canonical inputs to the striatum from the raphe nuclei and the amygdala. To look for organization at a finer scale we have analyzed the correlation structure of labeling intensity across our entire dataset. Using this analysis we found substantial local heterogeneity within the large-scale order. From this analysis we conclude that individual striatal sites receive varied combinations of cortical and thalamic input from multiple functional areas, consistent with some earlier studies in the rat that have suggested the presence of a combinatorial map.

  2. Inputs to the dorsal striatum of the mouse reflect the parallel circuit architecture of the forebrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Weixing X; Mao, Tianyi; Dudman, Joshua T

    2010-01-01

    The basal ganglia play a critical role in the regulation of voluntary action in vertebrates. Our understanding of the function of the basal ganglia relies heavily upon anatomical information, but continued progress will require an understanding of the specific functional roles played by diverse cell types and their connectivity. An increasing number of mouse lines allow extensive identification, characterization, and manipulation of specified cell types in the basal ganglia. Despite the promise of genetically modified mice for elucidating the functional roles of diverse cell types, there is relatively little anatomical data obtained directly in the mouse. Here we have characterized the retrograde labeling obtained from a series of tracer injections throughout the dorsal striatum of adult mice. We found systematic variations in input along both the medial-lateral and anterior-posterior neuraxes in close agreement with canonical features of basal ganglia anatomy in the rat. In addition to the canonical features we have provided experimental support for the importance of non-canonical inputs to the striatum from the raphe nuclei and the amygdala. To look for organization at a finer scale we have analyzed the correlation structure of labeling intensity across our entire dataset. Using this analysis we found substantial local heterogeneity within the large-scale order. From this analysis we conclude that individual striatal sites receive varied combinations of cortical and thalamic input from multiple functional areas, consistent with some earlier studies in the rat that have suggested the presence of a combinatorial map.

  3. Connections from the rat dorsal column nuclei (DCN) to the periaqueductal gray matter (PAG).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbaresi, Paolo; Mensà, Emanuela

    2016-08-01

    Electrical stimulation of the dorsal columns (DCs; spinal cord stimulation; SCS) has been proposed to treat chronic neuropathic pain. SCS may activate a dual mechanism that would affect both the spinal cord and supraspinal levels. Stimulation of DCs or DC nuclei (DCN) in animals where neuropathic pain has been induced causes activation of brainstem centers including the periaqueductal gray (PAG), which is involved in the endogenous pain suppression system. Biotinylated dextran-amine (BDA) was iontophoretically injected into the DCN to analyze the ascending projection directed to the PAG. Separate injections into the gracile nucleus (GrN) and the cuneate nucleus (CunN) showed BDA-positive fibers terminating in different regions of the contralateral PAG. GrN-PAG afferents terminated in the caudal and middle portions of PAG-l, whereas CunN-PAG fibers terminated in the middle and rostral portions of PAG-l. Based on the DCN somatotopic map, the GrN sends information to the PAG from the contralateral hindlimb and the tail and the CunN from the contralateral forelimb, shoulder, neck and ear. This somatotopic organization is consistent with earlier electrophysiological and PAG stimulation studies. These fibers could form part of the DCs-brainstem-spinal cord loop, which may be involved in the inhibitory effects of SCS on neuropathic pain. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  4. The realities of doing business in the Northwest Territories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gullberg, E.

    2000-01-01

    The practical and legal issues regarding business operations in the Northwest Territories were discussed for the benefit of any enterprise wishing to conduct business in the territory. The non-renewable resources in the North are greatly responsible for the economic development in the Northwest Territories. Yellowknife was established in 1930's to service the gold mines and is now the service centre for Canada's only diamond mine located in the tundra one hour by air from Yellowknife. Other major oil and gas discoveries include Norman Wells along the Mackenzie River and the Beaufort Delta Region. In addition, new oil and gas has been discovered near Fort Liard. There is no legislation governing businesses operating in the oil and gas industry specifically, but several Acts exist where general applications would apply. This paper described the demographics of the territory and the types of government. Band councils play a significant role in local government. Much of the land in the Northwest Territories is the subject of land claims or has been transferred to indigenous people as part of settled land claims. A socio-economic agreement signed in 1996 ensures a certain percentage of northern suppliers, northern resident employees and aboriginal employees in both the construction and operation of the BHP mine. An even more demanding agreement was signed for the Diavik Diamond mine in 1999. The registration and licensing requirements that the government of the Northwest Territories imposes on businesses were described with emphasis on the Business Corporations Act, the Business License Act and the Worker's Compensation Act. Employee issues were also discussed as they relate to the Canada Labour Code, the Employment Standards Regulation, Fair Practices Act, and the Payroll Tax Act. Other regulatory requirements which would apply to the oil and gas industry include the Safety Act, the Motor Vehicles Act

  5. Factors influencing to earthquake caused economical losses on urban territories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurtaev, B.; Khakimov, S.

    2005-12-01

    Questions of assessment of earthquake economical losses on urban territories of Uzbekistan, taking into account damage forming factors, which are increqasing or reducing economical losses were discussed in the paper. Buildings and facilities vulnerability factors were classified. From total value (equal to 50) were selected most important ones. Factors ranging by level of impact and weight function in loss assessment were ranged. One group of damage forming factors includs seismic hazard assessment, design, construction and maintenance of building and facilities. Other one is formed by city planning characteristics and includes : density of constructions and population, area of soft soils, existence of liquefaction susceptible soils and etc. To all these factors has been given weight functions and interval values by groups. Methodical recomendations for loss asessment taking into account above mentioned factors were developed. It gives possibility to carry out preventive measures for protection of vulnerable territories, to differentiate cost assessment of each region in relation with territory peculiarity and damage value. Using developed method we have ranged cities by risk level. It has allowed to establish ratings of the general vulnerability of urban territories of cities and on their basis to make optimum decisions, oriented to loss mitigation and increase of safety of population. Besides the technique can be used by insurance companies for estimated zoning of territory, development of effective utilization schema of land resources, rational town-planning, an economic estimation of used territory for supply with information of the various works connected to an estimation of seismic hazard. Further improvement of technique of establishment of rating of cities by level of damage from earthquakes will allow to increase quality of construction, rationality of accommodation of buildings, will be an economic stimulator for increasing of seismic resistance of

  6. The dorsal tectal longitudinal column (TLCd): a second longitudinal column in the paramedian region of the midbrain tectum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparicio, M-Auxiliadora; Saldaña, Enrique

    2014-03-01

    The tectal longitudinal column (TLC) is a longitudinally oriented, long and narrow nucleus that spans the paramedian region of the midbrain tectum of a large variety of mammals (Saldaña et al. in J Neurosci 27:13108-13116, 2007). Recent analysis of the organization of this region revealed another novel nucleus located immediately dorsal, and parallel, to the TLC. Because the name "tectal longitudinal column" also seems appropriate for this novel nucleus, we suggest the TLC described in 2007 be renamed the "ventral tectal longitudinal column (TLCv)", and the newly discovered nucleus termed the "dorsal tectal longitudinal column (TLCd)". This work represents the first characterization of the rat TLCd. A constellation of anatomical techniques was used to demonstrate that the TLCd differs from its surrounding structures (TLCv and superior colliculus) cytoarchitecturally, myeloarchitecturally, neurochemically and hodologically. The distinct expression of vesicular amino acid transporters suggests that TLCd neurons are GABAergic. The TLCd receives major projections from various areas of the cerebral cortex (secondary visual mediomedial area, and granular and dysgranular retrosplenial cortices) and from the medial pretectal nucleus. It densely innervates the ipsilateral lateral posterior and laterodorsal nuclei of the thalamus. Thus, the TLCd is connected with vision-related neural centers. The TLCd may be unique as it constitutes the only known nucleus made of GABAergic neurons dedicated to providing massive inhibition to higher order thalamic nuclei of a specific sensory modality.

  7. Long-term outcomes five years after selective dorsal rhizotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lagergren Jan

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Selective dorsal rhizotomy (SDR is a well accepted neurosurgical procedure performed for the relief of spasticity interfering with motor function in children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP. The goal is to improve function, but long-term outcome studies are rare. The aims of this study were to evaluate long-term functional outcomes, safety and side effects during five postoperative years in all children with diplegia undergoing SDR combined with physiotherapy. Methods This study group consisted of 35 children, consecutively operated, with spastic diplegia, of which 26 were Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS levels III–V. Mean age was 4.5 years (range 2.5–6.6. They were all assessed by the same multidisciplinary team at pre- and at 6, 12, 18 months, 3 and 5 years postoperatively. Clinical and demographic data, complications and number of rootlets cut were prospectively registered. Deep tendon reflexes and muscle tone were examined, the latter graded with the modified Ashworth scale. Passive range of motion (PROM was measured with a goniometer. Motor function was classified according to the GMFCS and measured with the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM-88 and derived into GMFM-66. Parent's opinions about the children's performance of skills and activities and the amount of caregiver assistance were measured with Pediatric Evaluation Disability Inventory (PEDI. Results The mean proportion of rootlets cut in S2-L2 was 40%. Muscle tone was immediately reduced in adductors, hamstrings and dorsiflexors (p Conclusion SDR is a safe and effective method for reducing spasticity permanently without major negative side effects. In combination with physiotherapy, in a group of carefully selected and systematically followed young children with spastic diplegia, it provides lasting functional benefits over a period of at least five years postoperatively.

  8. Neurochemical characterization of the tree shrew dorsal striatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MATTHEW W RICE

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The striatum is a major component of the basal ganglia and is associated with motor and cognitive functions. Striatal pathologies have been linked to several disorders, including Huntington's, Tourette's syndrome, obsessive-compulsive disorders and schizophrenia. For the study of these striatal pathologies different animal models have been used, including rodents and non-human primates. Rodents lack on morphological complexity (for example, the lack of well defined caudate and putamen nuclei, which makes it difficult to translate data to the human paradigm. Primates, and especially higher primates, are the closest model to humans, but there are ever-increasing restrictions to the use of these animals for research. In our search for a non-primate animal model with a striatum that anatomically (and perhaps functionally can resemble that of humans, we turned our attention to the tree shrew. Evolutionary genetic studies have provided strong data supporting that the tree shrews (Scadentia are one of the closest groups to primates, although their brain anatomy has only been studied in detail for specific brain areas. Morphologically, the tree shrew striatum resembles the primate striatum with the presence of an internal capsule separating the caudate and putamen, but little is known about its neurochemical composition. Here we analyzed the expression of calcium-binding proteins, the presence and distribution of the striosome and matrix compartments (by the use of calbindin, tyrosine hydroxylase and acetylcholinesterase immunohistochemistry, and the GABAergic system by immunohistochemistry against glutamic acid decarboxylase and Golgi impregnation. In summary, our results show that when compared to primates, the tree shrew dorsal striatum presents striking similarities in the distribution of most of the markers studied, while presenting some marked divergences when compared to the rodent striatum.

  9. Dorsal hippocampus is necessary for visual categorization in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jangjin; Castro, Leyre; Wasserman, Edward A; Freeman, John H

    2018-02-23

    The hippocampus may play a role in categorization because of the need to differentiate stimulus categories (pattern separation) and to recognize category membership of stimuli from partial information (pattern completion). We hypothesized that the hippocampus would be more crucial for categorization of low-density (few relevant features) stimuli-due to the higher demand on pattern separation and pattern completion-than for categorization of high-density (many relevant features) stimuli. Using a touchscreen apparatus, rats were trained to categorize multiple abstract stimuli into two different categories. Each stimulus was a pentagonal configuration of five visual features; some of the visual features were relevant for defining the category whereas others were irrelevant. Two groups of rats were trained with either a high (dense, n = 8) or low (sparse, n = 8) number of category-relevant features. Upon reaching criterion discrimination (≥75% correct, on 2 consecutive days), bilateral cannulas were implanted in the dorsal hippocampus. The rats were then given either vehicle or muscimol infusions into the hippocampus just prior to various testing sessions. They were tested with: the previously trained stimuli (trained), novel stimuli involving new irrelevant features (novel), stimuli involving relocated features (relocation), and a single relevant feature (singleton). In training, the dense group reached criterion faster than the sparse group, indicating that the sparse task was more difficult than the dense task. In testing, accuracy of both groups was equally high for trained and novel stimuli. However, both groups showed impaired accuracy in the relocation and singleton conditions, with a greater deficit in the sparse group. The testing data indicate that rats encode both the relevant features and the spatial locations of the features. Hippocampal inactivation impaired visual categorization regardless of the density of the category-relevant features for

  10. Fishermen and Territorial Anxieties in China and Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roszko, Edyta

    2016-01-01

    In the geopolitical conflict over the South China Sea (SCS), fishers are at the center of Chinese and Vietnamese cartographic imaginations that define the sea as either “Chinese” or “Vietnamese” and hence tied to the disputed territories of the Paracel and Spratly Islands. While their historical...... onto the past, in spite of the common historical, cultural, and ethnic flows that always existed in the SCS. Rather than aiming to legitimize or delegitimize Vietnam’s or China’s territorial claims to the SCS, this article argues that seafaring narratives should be liberated from abstract...

  11. Federalism and territorial equality: a contradiction in terms?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Arretche

    Full Text Available The study explores the relationship between federalism and territorial inequality, taking Brazil as the object of analysis. The conclusion is that there is a trade-off between territorial inequality reduction and the full autonomy of local governments. The central government's redistributive role seems to be a condition for reducing revenue inequality between jurisdictions, and so reducing inequality in citizens' access to public services requires the central government to perform redistributive and regulatory role. On the other hand, local autonomy pushes toward inequality. Hence, federal regulation and local autonomy are combined in a given polity, the result tends to be bound inequality.

  12. The politics of mining in the Northern Territory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heatley, A.

    1983-01-01

    Of the three issues which have dominated the politics of mining in the Northern Territory, Australia, only the question of mineral royalties has in any way been resolved. The debate on uranium has been conducted on two levels, the first relating to the establishment of the policy and administrative framework and the application of land rights procedures, and the second concerning the inter-party dispute on uranium mining. Some consideration is given to Commonwealth policy and actions as responsibility for mining policy in the Territory is divided. Attitudes of the political parties, trade unions, the mining industry, Aborigines and the general community are noted

  13. CULTURAL HERITAGE IN STUDIES OF GEOGRAPHY AND TERRITORIAL PLANNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARÍA DOLORES PALAZÓN BOTELLA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available  The Geography and Territorial Planning Degree replaces, under the provisions of the European Higher Education Area and the recommendations of the “Libro Blanco: Título de Grado en Geografía y Ordenación del Territorio”, the Geography Bachelor’s Degree. This change not only affected its name, including territory and its planning, but it also developed into a regulation of its curricula, introducing new subjects that would train the future geographer in order to make him capable of confronting new challenges in their areas of work, where cultural heritage has become an additional option. 

  14. Tourism and territorial structure in Ciudad Juarez, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswaldo Gallegos

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the issue of the territorial structure of tourism in Ciudad Juarez, Mexico. To do this, the study is divided into two major parts: first, theoretical aspects, given support to our analysis, and a brief history of tourism in the Northern borderlands of Mexico are presented. Then, four basic components of the territorial structure of tourism in Ciudad Juarez are examined: natural and cultural attractions, urban land-use, communications network centred around the city and visitors and tourist flows.

  15. Territorial sovereignty and trafficking in the Indonesia-Malaysia borderlands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eilenberg, Michael

    2012-01-01

    This chapter aims to explore the role that anti-trafficking initiatives have played in attempts by the Indonesian state to reclaim authority along its territorial borders. Drawing on data collected between 2002-2007 through personal interviews, government reports and newspaper clippings......, it documents how increased criminalization and the prevention of unauthorized flows of cross-border labour migrants have come to the foreground of national rhetoric concerning border development, territorial sovereignty and security. The chapter argues that the anti-trafficking discourse has had unintended...

  16. Territorial disputes simmer in areas of South China Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that China's award of an exploration cooperation contact in the Nansha area of the South China Sea has revived territorial disputes in the area centering ton the Spratly and Paracel islands. The key dispute is between China and Viet Nam, which earlier engaged in military action over ownership of the islands, believed to have world class potential for hydrocarbon discoveries. Those two nations, as well as Brunei, Malaysia, Philippines, and Taiwan, lay claim to overlapping boundaries of the Spratly Islands. Separately, China and Viet Nam dispute territorial claims in the Paracels. Tensions continue to mount, and regional governments are trying to negotiate compromises to avoid a repeat of warfare

  17. Power, government, and territory: analysis of Bagua conflict, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Dolorier

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Analyzing socioenvironmental conflicts dealing with primary resources is especially necessary to understand the context that explains the conceptions, uses, and governments of territories. This paper presents a diagnosis of the Bagua Conflict, which faced the Peruvian government with the Amazonian indigenous communities, through the Legislative Decrees present in the origin of the mobilizations, and also through the different ways to understand and use the territory. These analyses lead us to propose the construction of spaces for dialogue, participation, and, then, for the recognition of differences.

  18. Inter-territorial Cohesion in Unitarian and Federal States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina Larach-del Castillo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The tension in the distribution of power, with particular regards to the centralization and decentralization techniques, commonly impedes a coherent association between territorial realities and national demands, and could even encourage peripheral and separatist resistances. In spite of different resources available in the States, it is possible to query whether policies jointly executed by distinct levels of government are a sufficient illustration of inter-territorial interaction. This paper examines the unitary and federal models from an interterritorial perspective, with the purpose of finding common grounds, as well as mechanisms that will encourage concerted efforts and actions.

  19. Arterial territories of human brain: brainstem and cerebellum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatu, L.; Moulin, T.; Bogousslavsky, J.; Duvernoy, H.

    1997-01-01

    The development of neuroimaging has allowed clinicians to improve clinico-anatomic correlations in patients with strokes. Brainstem and cerebellum structures are well delineated on MRI, but there is a lack of standardization in their arterial supply. We present a system of 12 brainstem and cerebellum axial sections, depicting the dominant arterial territories and the most important anatomic structures. These sections may be used as a practical tool to determine arterial territories on MRI, and may help establish consistent clinico-anatomic correlations in patients with brainstem and cerebellar ischemic strokes. (authors)

  20. Molecular mechanisms controlling brain development: an overview of neuroepithelial secondary organizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Claudia; Pombero, Ana; García-Lopez, Raquel; Gimeno, Lourdes; Echevarria, Diego; Martínez, Salvador

    2010-01-01

    The vertebrate Central Nervous System (CNS) originates from the embryonic dorsal ectoderm. Differentiation of the neural epithelium from the ectoderm and the formation of the neural plate constitute the first phase of a complex process called neurulation which culminates in the formation of the neural tube, the anlage of the CNS in sauropsids and mammals (for review see Smith and Schoenwolf, 1997; Colas and Schoenwolf, 2001). At neural plate and neural tube stages, local signaling centers in the neuroepithelium, known as secondary organizers, refine the antero-posterior specification of different neural territories (for review see Echevarria et al., 2003; Stern et al.,2006; Woltering and Durston, 2008). In this review, we will describe the principle aspects of CNS development in birds and mammals, starting from early stages of embryogenesis (gastrulation and neurulation) and culminating with the formation of a variety of different regions which contribute to the structural complexity of the brain (regionalization and morphogenesis). We will pay special attention to the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in neural tube regionalization and the key role played by localized secondary organizers in the patterning of neural primordia.

  1. Agenesis of dorsal pancreas with eventration of diaphragm and intrapancreatic pseudocyst: a rare entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poras Chaudhary

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A case of acute pancreatitis in a 43-year-old male patient, which was eventually diagnosed as agenesis of dorsal pancreas with eventration of left hemidiaphragm and intrapancreatic pseudocyst is being reported.

  2. Transcallosal connection patterns of opposite dorsal premotor regions support a lateralized specialization for action and perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Hoorn, Anouk; Potgieser, Adriaan R. E.; de Jong, Bauke M.

    Lateralization of higher brain functions requires that a dominant hemisphere collects relevant information from both sides. The right dorsal premotor cortex (PMd), particularly implicated in visuomotor transformations, was hypothesized to be optimally located to converge visuospatial information

  3. Calcium activity of upper thoracic dorsal root ganglion neurons in zucker diabetic Fatty rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghorbani, Marie Louise; Nyborg, Niels C B; Fjalland, Bjarne

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the calcium activity of C8-T5 dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons from Zucker diabetic fatty rats. In total, 8 diabetic ZDF fatty animals and 8 age-matched control ZDF lean rats were employed in the study. C8-T5 dorsal root ganglia were isolated bilatera......The aim of the present study was to examine the calcium activity of C8-T5 dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons from Zucker diabetic fatty rats. In total, 8 diabetic ZDF fatty animals and 8 age-matched control ZDF lean rats were employed in the study. C8-T5 dorsal root ganglia were isolated...... in calcium activity of the DRG neurons were found, potentially indicating altered neuronal responses during myocardial ischemia....

  4. Human dorsal striatum encodes prediction errors during observational learning of instrumental actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Jeffrey C; Dunne, Simon; Furey, Teresa; O'Doherty, John P

    2012-01-01

    The dorsal striatum plays a key role in the learning and expression of instrumental reward associations that are acquired through direct experience. However, not all learning about instrumental actions require direct experience. Instead, humans and other animals are also capable of acquiring instrumental actions by observing the experiences of others. In this study, we investigated the extent to which human dorsal striatum is involved in observational as well as experiential instrumental reward learning. Human participants were scanned with fMRI while they observed a confederate over a live video performing an instrumental conditioning task to obtain liquid juice rewards. Participants also performed a similar instrumental task for their own rewards. Using a computational model-based analysis, we found reward prediction errors in the dorsal striatum not only during the experiential learning condition but also during observational learning. These results suggest a key role for the dorsal striatum in learning instrumental associations, even when those associations are acquired purely by observing others.

  5. The dorsal thoracic fascia: anatomic significance with clinical applications in reconstructive microsurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, P S; Gottlieb, J R; Harris, G D; Nagle, D J; Lewis, V L

    1987-01-01

    The anatomic distribution and potential arterial flow patterns of the circumflex scapular artery were investigated by Microfil injection. These studies demonstrated that the circumflex scapular artery lies within the dorsal thoracic fascia, which plays a significant role in the circulation of the overlying skin and subcutaneous tissue. We conclude that scapular/parascapular flaps are fasciocutaneous flaps, the dorsal thoracic fascia can be transferred as a free flap without its overlying skin and subcutaneous tissue, and intercommunication exists between the myocutaneous perforators of the latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap and the vascular plexus of the dorsal thoracic fascia. We present microvascular cases in which the vascular properties of the dorsal thoracic fascia facilitated wound closure with free fascia flaps or expanded cutaneous or myocutaneous flaps.

  6. Responses of spinal dorsal horn neurons to foot movements in rats with a sprained ankle

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jae Hyo; Kim, Hee Young; Chung, Kyungsoon; Chung, Jin Mo

    2011-01-01

    Acute ankle injuries are common problems and often lead to persistent pain. To investigate the underlying mechanism of ankle sprain pain, the response properties of spinal dorsal horn neurons were examined after ankle sprain. Acute ankle sprain was induced manually by overextending the ankle of a rat hindlimb in a direction of plantarflexion and inversion. The weight-bearing ratio (WBR) of the affected foot was used as an indicator of pain. Single unit activities of dorsal horn neurons in res...

  7. Dorsal buccal mucosal graft urethroplasty for anterior urethral stricture by Asopa technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisapati, V L N Murthy; Paturi, Srimannarayana; Bethu, Suresh; Jada, Srikanth; Chilumu, Ramreddy; Devraj, Rahul; Reddy, Bhargava; Sriramoju, Vidyasagar

    2009-07-01

    Buccal mucosal graft (BMG) substitution urethroplasty has become popular in the management of intractable anterior urethral strictures with good results. Excellent long-term results have been reported by both dorsal and ventral onlay techniques. Asopa reported a successful technique for dorsal placement of BMG in long anterior urethral strictures through a ventral sagittal approach. To evaluate prospectively the results and advantages of dorsal BMG urethroplasty for recurrent anterior urethral strictures by a ventral sagittal urethrotomy approach (Asopa technique). From December 2002 to December 2007, a total of 58 men underwent dorsal BMG urethroplasty by a ventral sagittal urethrotomy approach for recurrent urethral strictures. Forty-five of these patients with a follow-up period of 12-60 mo were prospectively evaluated, and the results were analysed. The urethra was split twice at the site of the stricture both ventrally and dorsally without mobilising it from its bed, and the buccal mucosal graft was secured in the dorsal urethral defect. The urethra was then retubularised in one stage. The overall results were good (87%), with a mean follow-up period of 42 mo. Seven patients developed minor wound infection, and five patients developed fistulae. There were six recurrences (6:45, 13%) during the follow-up period of 12-60 mo. Two patients with a panurethral stricture and four with bulbar or penobulbar strictures developed recurrences and were managed by optical urethrotomy and self-dilatation. The medium-term results were as good as those reported with the dorsal urethrotomy approach. Long-term results from this and other series are awaited. More randomised trials and meta-analyses are needed to establish this technique as a procedure of choice in future. The ventral sagittal urethrotomy approach is easier to perform than the dorsal urethrotomy approach, has good results, and is especially useful in long anterior urethral strictures.

  8. Thermal effects of dorsal head immersion in cold water on nonshivering humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giesbrecht, Gordon G; Lockhart, Tamara L; Bristow, Gerald K; Steinman, Allan M

    2005-11-01

    Personal floatation devices maintain either a semirecumbent flotation posture with the head and upper chest out of the water or a horizontal flotation posture with the dorsal head and whole body immersed. The contribution of dorsal head and upper chest immersion to core cooling in cold water was isolated when the confounding effect of shivering heat production was inhibited with meperidine (Demerol, 2.5 mg/kg). Six male volunteers were immersed four times for up to 60 min, or until esophageal temperature = 34 degrees C. An insulated hoodless dry suit or two different personal floatation devices were used to create four conditions: 1) body insulated, head out; 2) body insulated, dorsal head immersed; 3) body exposed, head (and upper chest) out; and 4) body exposed, dorsal head (and upper chest) immersed. When the body was insulated, dorsal head immersion did not affect core cooling rate (1.1 degrees C/h) compared with head-out conditions (0.7 degrees C/h). When the body was exposed, however, the rate of core cooling increased by 40% from 3.6 degrees C/h with the head out to 5.0 degrees C/h with the dorsal head and upper chest immersed (P immersed (approximately 10%). The exaggerated core cooling during dorsal head immersion (40% increase) may result from the extra heat loss affecting a smaller thermal core due to intense thermal stimulation of the body and head and resultant peripheral vasoconstriction. Dorsal head and upper chest immersion in cold water increases the rate of core cooling and decreases potential survival time.

  9. SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY STUDY OF THE DORSAL SURFACE OF THE TONGUE IN Chaetophractus vellerosus (MAMMALIA, DASYPODIDAE)

    OpenAIRE

    Estecondo, Silvia; Codón, Stella Maris; Casanave, Emma Beatriz

    2001-01-01

    The characteristics of the dorsal surface of Chaetophractus vellerosus tongue were studied by scanning electron microscopy. Simple or branched filiform, fungiform and vallate papillae are described. Simple conical filiform papillae appear in the apex, lateral edges and posterior third, caudally to the circumvallated ones. The branched papillae are densely distributed all over the dorsal surface of the lingual body. Fungiform ones are scattered among the branched filiform papillae. In the post...

  10. Propagation of a dorsal cortical fracture of the third metacarpal bone in two horses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spurlock, G.H.

    1988-01-01

    Seemingly, propagation of a dorsal cortical fracture in the third metacarpal bone developed after continued race performance in 2 horses. Historically, both horses had intermittent lameness that had responded to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and brief rest periods. However, lameness in both horses had increased in severity. Radiography revealed a dorsal cortical fracture of the third metacarpal bone, with propagation of the fracture plane proximally. Fractures were incomplete and healed with stall rest in both horses

  11. Periostite metacarpiana dorsal: incidência e fatores pré-disponentes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Gomes de Oliveira

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Forty two 2-year-old thoroughbreds were examined clinically at intervals of 15 days during their training for the first race to determine the incidence and the predisposing factors of dorsal metacarpal disease. During the first year 25 horses were followed during 2 months and in the second year the follow up was done for 4 months in 17 . Horses' data like gender, average speed, speed exercise work and trainer were also collected. Dorsal metacarpal disease was diagnosed in 28% and 70,6% of the 2 year-old thoroughbreds in the first and second year of the study, respectively. Total incidence was 45%. The incidence and average speed was not affected by gender. The average speed achieved by affected and none affected horses remained between 16 and 18m/s. On 500 and 700m speed exercise, the average speed of affected horses was higher than of none affected ones (p<0,05. Ten out of 19 horses showed dorsal metacarpal disease signs at the distance of 700m. There was significant difference between trainers regarding the incidence of dorsal metacarpal disease and average speed of their horses. 2-year-olds under care of trainers whose horses had the highest incidence o dorsal metacarpal disease also were the fastest one's. Therefore, fast speed associated with longer distances (700m and trainer are factors that predispose young horses to dorsal metacarpal disease.

  12. The human dorsal action control system develops in the absence of vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiehler, Katja; Burke, Michael; Bien, Siegfried; Röder, Brigitte; Rösler, Frank

    2009-01-01

    The primate dorsal pathway has been proposed to compute vision for action. Although recent findings suggest that dorsal pathway structures contribute to somatosensory action control as well, it is yet not clear whether or not the development of dorsal pathway functions depends on early visual experience. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we investigated the pattern of cortical activation in congenitally blind and matched blindfolded sighted adults while performing kinesthetically guided hand movements. Congenitally blind adults activated similar dorsal pathway structures as sighted controls. Group-specific activations were found in the extrastriate cortex and the auditory cortex for congenitally blind humans and in the precuneus and the presupplementary motor area for sighted humans. Dorsal pathway activity was in addition observed for working memory maintenance of kinesthetic movement information in both groups. Thus, the results suggest that dorsal pathway functions develop in the absence of vision. This favors the idea of a general mechanism of movement control that operates regardless of the sensory input modality. Group differences in cortical activation patterns imply different movement control strategies as a function of visual experience.

  13. Dorsal stream involvement in recognition of objects with transient onset but not with ramped onset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourenco Tomas

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the ventral visual stream is understood to be responsible for object recognition, it has been proposed that the dorsal stream may contribute to object recognition by rapidly activating parietal attention mechanisms, prior to ventral stream object processing. Methods To investigate the relative contribution of the dorsal visual stream to object recognition a group of tertiary students were divided into good and poor motion coherence groups and assessed on tasks classically assumed to rely on ventral stream processing. Participants were required to identify simple line drawings in two tasks, one where objects were presented abruptly for 50 ms followed by a white-noise mask, the other where contrast was linearly ramped on and off over 325 ms and replaced with a mask. Results Although both groups only differed in motion coherence performance (a dorsal stream measure, the good motion coherence group showed superior contrast sensitivity for object recognition on the abrupt, but not the ramped presentation tasks. Conclusions We propose that abrupt presentation of objects activated attention mechanisms fed by the dorsal stream, whereas the ramped presentation had reduced transience and thus did not activate dorsal attention mechanisms as well. The results suggest that rapid dorsal stream activation may be required to assist with ventral stream object processing.

  14. The assignment of occupation densities and the rural soil classification in the territorial classification plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velez R, Luis Anibal; Largacha R, Antonio

    2003-01-01

    Regulations concerning land use density controls in non-urban areas are often ineffective in protecting the rural character of such areas, within the context of Colombia's territorial organization plans What they tend to do is indirectly promote urban expansion through the fixing of minimum plot sizes Rather than question the methods employed in land use classification, the present study uses the case of the rural area of Santa Elena on the outskirts of Medellin and the existing zoning controls as established in the territorial organization plan, and focuses on the regulations established for each land use category as they effect occupation densities and patterns of plot fragmentation. On the one hand a simulation is undertaken of the trends which would result from land occupation in accordance with existing regulations concerning land use classification and plot size This indicates that the overall effect would be to disperse settlement patterns and fragment the landscape Secondly, an alternative scenario is developed based on the modification of minimum plot sizes for each of the three land use classifications established in the existing plan (protection, rural and suburban) In this way, and through the perspective of landscape ecology, It Is shown that in certain cases less dispersion and greater concentration of settlements can be achieved, and in other cases dispersion is minimized The use of GIS is fundamental in the development of such simulation techniques

  15. DEVELOPMENT OF A PROJECT OF LAND TENURE IN THE STAVROPOL TERRITORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Vyacheslavovna Pismennaya

    2016-12-01

    development of agribusiness. The main tasks of the agricultural production of enterprises should be as follows: the correction of specialization and location of livestock production in view of the natural resource base of the landscape; the increase in the share of green fodders from pastures and hayfields; the use of farming technologies adaptive to the climatic conditions that enhance the productivity of agricultural lands and efficiency of the spent material and technical resources; the conservation of degraded agricultural lands followed by grassing, etc. [4–6]. Such an approach will, on the one hand, prevent the manifestation of the adverse natural processes, and, on the other, ensure the environmental sustainability of the territory and the dynamic development of agribusiness, the economic competitiveness of the Russian market and the possibility of import substitution [7]. The aim of the “pilot” draft is to create land tenure with optimal structure and balance. Therefore, agro-ecological evaluation of «Dubovskiy» potential is done to take proper measures to optimize territorial organization of land tenure. The formation of land tenure model will trigger similar actions in 26 districts of Stavropol territory.

  16. Two centuries of economic territorial dynamics: the case of France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magali Talandier

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose an analysis of the socio-economic development processes at work in territories at the scale of French communes from 1806 to 2010. This is an extremely fine scale for such analysis, given that there are 36,000 communes in mainland France. The diachronic dimension, spanning two centuries, makes it possible to consider the temporal depth of territorial development. But the primary interest is not so much demographics as the socio-economic dimension of these variations over two centuries. We have analysed demographic changes as the expression of the socio-economic processes that shaped French territory over two centuries. Dynamic mapping of long-term population shifts reflects the industrial expansion of certain territories, decline due to the end of traditional farming practices, the shock produced by two world wars, the Fordist period and the post-war boom; the subsequent impact of an increasingly globalized, metropolitan economy then becomes apparent. We thus identify, map and analyse several historico-socio-economic phases.

  17. INNOVATION LANDSCAPE AS PRIORITY CONDITION OF INDUSTRIAL AND TERRITORIAL DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. A. Salikov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A rational development of industrial territories and regions implies the improvement of their cooperation in economic sector of the country, perfecting the territorial structure of husbandry, rational exploration of natural resources, usage of promising technologies, mobilization of investment etc. Along with this, the improvement of the existing and formation of a new industrial manufacture structure should be implemented with consideration of key market aspects, connected with competitiveness and innovations. Thus, an important condition of industrial structure development is the formation of innovative landscape representing the entirety of innovative territorial subjects that use innovative technologies, management tools for creation the product. In narrow sense, innovative landscape can be understood as an integrative entirety of parameters including socio-economic conditions, state administrative body, innovative economic subjects, existence of innovative infrastructure and cluster interactions etc. A methodic approach to comparative estimation of industrial regions innovative landscape parameters considered in the article lets identify its state and structural characteristics with the purpose of making more reasonable decisions on productive forces location and o n the increase of innovativeness level of industrial territories and regions.

  18. Territorial Dynamics and Gender Equality Policies in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba Alonso

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the impact of the multilevel governance structure in Spain. Particularly, it explores how the main territorial dynamics underpinning the Spanish decentralization model have shaped gender equality policies, namely the cross-regional competitive bargaining, the existence of multiple arenas, the underdevelopment of intergovernmental mechanisms and a highly salient territorial cleavage. The article looks at three key fields of gender equality public intervention and scholarly research: gender mainstreaming, electoral gender quotas and policies against gender-based violence. Our results align with the conditional approach of the gender and federalism scholarship. While competition has stimulated policy diffusion across regions and feminist agency has frequently benefited from the multilevel opportunity structure, the lack of well-established intergovernmental mechanisms has brought about negative side-effects like ‘patchwork’ policies that fail to guarantee equal rights for all Spanish women. The article also shows that territorial interests have not trumped gender equality since the most advanced policies are found in regions with the highest territorial saliency.

  19. Influence of territorial aggressiveness of ostrich males on egg ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unknown

    A score of. 10 was awarded to males that exhibited extreme territorial aggressiveness towards the observers. A colour chart that was compiled by using commercial paint colour charts, were used to score shin colour. A score of 0 represented a white shin colour, with 5 being a pink shin colour and 10 a bright crimson red.

  20. 15 CFR 303.4 - Determination of territorial distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Determination of territorial distribution. 303.4 Section 303.4 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MISCELLANEOUS REGULATIONS WATCHES...

  1. Monitoring Urban Sprawl in the Federal Capital Territory of Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Monitoring Urban Sprawl in the Federal Capital Territory of Nigeria Using Remote Sensing and GIS Techniques. ... The PDF file you selected should load here if your Web browser has a PDF reader plug-in installed (for example, a recent version of Adobe Acrobat Reader). If you would like more information about how to ...

  2. Forest resources within the Lake States ceded territories 1980 - 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassandra M. Kurtz; W. Keith Moser; Mark H. Hansen; Dale D. Gormanson; Mark A. Hatfield; Paul A. Sowers; Michael J. Dockry; Marla R. Emery; Christopher W. Woodall; Brian F. Walters; Grant M. Domke; Jonathan Gilbert; Alexandra. Wrobel

    2015-01-01

    The Lake States ceded territories are the portions of northern Michigan, northeastern Minnesota, and northern Wisconsin that were ceded by tribes of the Ojibwe to the government of the United States of America in the treaties of 1836, 1837, 1842, and 1854. The tribes retain rights to hunt, fish, and gather in the 1837, 1842, and 1854 treaty areas. This report...

  3. Measurement of the natural radiation of the Belgian territory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillard, J.; Flemal, J.M.; Deworm, J.P.; Slegers, W.

    1989-01-01

    A measurement campaign of natural occuring radionuclides was set up on the Belgian territory in order to assess the doses received by the Belgian population. The results of the measurements are published together with a map of natural occuring radionuclides and exposure rates. (L.D.C.)

  4. Natural sorbents for decontamination of objects of urban territories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Movchan, N.; Fedorenko, Yu.; Zlobenko, B.; Spigoun, A.

    1996-01-01

    This paper gives an information about the use of film coverings, based on natural sorbents, in decontamination of buildings, contaminated after the Chernobyl accident. This method has incontrovertible advantages in the beginning period after the accident and can be used for cleaning considerable areas of urban territories

  5. Reading Stuart Elden’s The Birth of Territory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minca, C.; Crampton, J.; Bryan, J.; Fall, J.J.; Murphy, A.; Paasi, A.; Elden, S.

    2015-01-01

    The Birth of Territory is an outstanding scholarly achievement, a book ‘of remarkable depth and breadth’, as noted by Alec Murphy in his comment, a book that already promises to become a ‘classic’ in geography, together with very few others published in the past decades. But Elden's book is also a

  6. Extra-territorial African police and soldiers in Southern Rhodesia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Southern Rhodesia were dominated by African men from neighbouring territories such as Nyasaland, Northern Rhodesia and Portuguese East Africa who had entered the regional migrant labour system. This included many with previous military experience. As the British South Africa Police (BSAP) evolved from a ...

  7. Topologies of race: doing territory, population and identity in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M'charek, A.; Schramm, K.; Skinner, D.

    2014-01-01

    Territorial borders just like other boundaries are involved in a politics of belonging, a politics of "us" and "them". Border management regimes are thus part of processes of othering. In this article, we use the management of borders and populations in Europe as an empirical example to make a

  8. SYSTEM RISKS OF ENTERPRISES AND TERRITORIES DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.S. Bochko

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the problem of failures in interaction between industrial enterprises and territories. The authors see the reason for that in industrial enterprises taking unnecessary risks. The authors also suggest a new vision for the realization of social responsibility of the businesses via balanced management of system risks.

  9. The regulation of uranium mining in the Northern Territory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wedd, M.

    1989-01-01

    The regulatory framework developed for uranium mining operations in the Northern Territory is reviewed. The respective roles of the Commonwealth Government, State Government and other regulatory authority are described. Whilst complex, expensive and cumbersome the regulatory process has so far ensured input from diverse interest groups and it allowed for environmental protection control in the Alligator River Region

  10. List of Higher Risk Countries and Territories (IDRC, April 2012 ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC CRDI

    List of Higher Risk Countries and Territories (IDRC, April 2012). Afghanistan. Belarus. Burundi. Central African Republic. Congo, Democratic Republic of. Chad. Cuba. Eastern Europe, countries of. Eritrea. Former Soviet Union, countries of. Iran. Iraq. Korea, Democratic People's Republic of. Liberia. Libya. Mali. Myanmar ...

  11. List of Higher Risk Countries and Territories (IDRC, July 2013 ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC CRDI

    List of Higher Risk Countries and Territories (IDRC, July 2013). Afghanistan. Central African Republic. Congo, Brazzaville. Congo, Democratic Republic of. Chad. Cuba. Eastern Europe, countries of. Equatorial Guinea. Eritrea. Former Soviet Union, countries of. Gabon. Guinea-Bissau. Iran. Iraq. Korea, Democratic People's ...

  12. List of Higher Risk Countries and Territories (IDRC, September 2012 ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC CRDI

    List of Higher Risk Countries and Territories (IDRC, September 2012). Afghanistan. Belarus. Burundi. Central African Republic. Congo, Democratic Republic of. Chad. Cuba. Eastern Europe, countries of. Eritrea. Former Soviet Union, countries of. Iran. Iraq. Korea, Democratic People's Republic of. Liberia. Libya. Mali.

  13. The principle of territoriality and cross-border loss compensation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marres, O.

    2011-01-01

    Member States are free to define their income tax base. They may in principle disregard foreign-sourced income, resulting in the impossibility of cross-border loss compensation. The European Court of Justice (ECJ) has accepted the principle of territoriality as a criterion for the division of the

  14. An Eye Care Outreach Programme in the Federal Capital Territory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To describe an eye care outreach programme in the Federal Capital Territory (FCT) and the findings therefrom. Main Outcome Measures: Causes of blindness and ocular morbidity, prevalence of blindness. Methods: The programme was sponsored largely by the Bartimaeus Trust. Eighteen communities with a ...

  15. Using a Popular Pet Fish Species to Study Territorial Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abante, Maria E.

    2005-01-01

    The colourful, vigorous territorial display behaviour of the Siamese fighting fish, "Betta splendens", has great appeal for both pet enthusiasts and animal behaviourists. Their beauty, longevity, easy maintenance and rearing make them a popular pet and an ideal science laboratory specimen. This investigation utilises "B. splendens" to test for the…

  16. Environment Protection (Northern Territory Supreme Court) Act 1978, No.30

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    This Act relates to the enforcement by the Supreme Court of the Northern Territory of certain provisions for protecting the environment in the Alligator Rivers Region; it provides that the Supreme Court has jurisdiction to make orders concerning enforcement of provisions relating to the environmental effects in the Region of uranium mining operations. (NEA) [fr

  17. Medicinal plants on the territory of the Municipality of Dospat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanka Dimitrova-Dyulgerova

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The study presents data on the species diversity of medicinal plants on the territory of the Municipality of Dospat (Western Rhodopes. 332 species were described, grouped in 75 families. The Asteraceae, Lamiaceae and Rosaceae families were represented by the largest species diversity, perennial herbaceous plants being predominant. There were 72 medicinal plant species of conservation significance, including endemic, rare and protectedspecies.

  18. Ordenamiento territorial: del control a la democratización

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Azucena Sacipa

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Ordenamiento Territorial: del control a la democratización. (Resumen Las políticas públicas de ordenamiento territorial adquieren importancia hoy desde diferentes perspectivas, entre ellas, dentro de los actuales procesos de agudización de los conflictos socioterritoriales expresados cada vez más en hechos intranacionales violentos. En Colombia, algunas de estas políticas contemplan la posibilidad de democratizar el Estado colombiano a través de las mismas; con el fin de analizar la posibilidad de democratización del Estado colombiano - en el que fuerzas paralelas al Estado se disputan el control territorial a través de la fuerza -, a partir de la implementación de las políticas públicas de ordenamiento territorial, como estrategia de control y regulación de los conflictos socioterritoriales, se propone observar a través de un caso especifico (el departamento del Guaviare, la importancia de la existencia de un efectivo control a largo plazo, como condición preliminar para garantizar la democracia.

  19. Territory and nest defence in polyandrous pale chanting goshawks ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The behaviour of polyandrous and monogamous pale chanting goshawks Melierax canorus was investigated to determine if co-breeders, by defending the territory and nest contents, helped to increase the fitness of polyandrous trios. Polyandrous trios consisted of a female and male breeder, as well as a subordinate ...

  20. Empowerment of Indigenous Women in the Federal Capital Territory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigeria's development of the new Federal Capital Territory in the central part of the country named Abuja 8,000 km² in size greatly impacted on all spheres of lives of the host communities. However, the host communities of 845 settlements with over 316,000 people were exposed to urban violence and there was fear that ...

  1. Peculiarities of territorial governing in the area of increased risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchinskas, A.

    1998-01-01

    The area of Ignalina NPP can be evaluated from the standpoint of governing as the area of increased risk territory (zone), so the local administration should acquire a specific status. The results of expert examination show insufficient efficiency of the administration's activity, it's orientation to quantitative results. An objective fund is necessary for the supporting the local administration and population of this area. (author)

  2. Dorsal premotor cortex is involved in switching motor plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor-Bernier, Alexandre; Tremblay, Elsa; Cisek, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that neural activity in primate dorsal premotor cortex (PMd) can simultaneously represent multiple potential movement plans, and that activity related to these movement options is modulated by their relative subjective desirability. These findings support the hypothesis that decisions about actions are made through a competition within the same circuits that guide the actions themselves. This hypothesis further predicts that the very same cells that guide initial decisions will continue to update their activities if an animal changes its mind. For example, if a previously selected movement option suddenly becomes unavailable, the correction will be performed by the same cells that selected the initial movement, as opposed to some different group of cells responsible for online guidance. We tested this prediction by recording neural activity in the PMd of a monkey performing an instructed-delay reach selection task. In the task, two targets were simultaneously presented and their border styles indicated whether each would be worth 1, 2, or 3 juice drops. In a random subset of trials (FREE), the monkey was allowed a choice while in the remaining trials (FORCED) one of the targets disappeared at the time of the GO signal. In FORCED-LOW trials the monkey was forced to move to the less valuable target and started moving either toward the new target (Direct) or toward the target that vanished and then curved to reach the remaining one (Curved). Prior to the GO signal, PMd activity clearly reflected the monkey's subjective preference, predicting his choices in FREE trials even with equally valued options. In FORCED-LOW trials, PMd activity reflected the switch of the monkey's plan as early as 100 ms after the GO signal, well before movement onset (MO). This confirms that the activity is not related to feedback from the movement itself, and suggests that PMd continues to participate in action selection even when the animal changes its mind on

  3. TERRITORIAL RISK ASSESMENT AFTER TERRORIST ACT: EXPRESS MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Biliaiev

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The paper involves the development of a method to assess the territorial risk in the event of a terrorist attack using a chemical agent. Methodology. To describe the process of chemical agent scattering in the atmosphere, ejected in the event of a terrorist attack, the equation of mass transfer of an impurity in atmospheric air is used. The equation takes into account the velocity of the wind flow, atmospheric diffusion, the intensity of chemical agent emission, the presence of buildings near the site of the emission of a chemically hazardous substance. For numerical integration of the modeling equation, a finite difference method is used. A feature of the developed numerical model is the possibility of assessing the territorial risk in the event of a terrorist attack under different weather conditions and the presence of buildings. Findings. A specialized numerical model and software package has been developed that can be used to assess the territorial risk, both in the case of terrorist attacks, with the use of chemical agents, and in case of extreme situations at chemically hazardous facilities and transport. The method can be implemented on small and medium-sized computers, which allows it to be widely used for solving the problems of the class under consideration. The results of a computational experiment are presented that allow estimating possibilities of the proposed method for assessing the territorial risk in the event of a terrorist attack using a chemical agent. Originality. An effective method of assessing the territorial risk in the event of a terrorist attack using a chemically hazardous substance is proposed. The method can be used to assess the territorial risk in an urban environment, which allows you to obtain adequate data on possible damage areas. The method is based on the numerical integration of the fundamental mass transfer equation, which expresses the law of conservation of mass in a liquid medium. Practical

  4. Apc1 is required for maintenance of local brain organizers and dorsal midbrain survival.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paridaen, J.T.M.; Danesin, C.; Elas, A.T.; van de Water, S.G.P.; Houart, C.; Zivkovic, D.

    2009-01-01

    The tumor suppressor Apc1 is an intracellular antagonist of the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway, which is vital for induction and patterning of the early vertebrate brain. However, its role in later brain development is less clear. Here, we examined the mechanisms underlying effects of an Apc1

  5. Territorial integration of the geological repository in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farin, S.; Ouzounian, G.; Miguez, R.; Tison, J.-L.

    2011-01-01

    In France, a framework has been drawn up by the National Assembly and implemented by the government, in order to get the best relationship between Andra, among others, and the stakeholders and the inhabitants of the towns and countries where disposal facilities or projects are or could be established. The main threads of the two Acts passed in 2006, being relevant to the relationship with inhabitants are the information exchange and the local economic development. Dealing with the information exchange and diffusion: The Local Information Committee (CLI), for each nuclear facility, has been reinforced and a specific, Local Information and Oversight Committee (for the Underground Laboratory in Meuse-Haute-Marne) has been renewed. The CLI was in charge of a general assignment to inform and consult on nuclear safety, radioprotection and environmental topics. Now, since 2006, the nuclear facility's CLI and the CLIS are able to order study reports, measures and analyses to experts freely selected. Creation of the High Committee for Transparency and Information on Nuclear Safety (HCTISN). This new authority aims to inform, consult and debate about the risks relevant to nuclear activities and their impacts on people's health, environment and nuclear safety. Andra contributes to the functioning of CLI in disposal facilities at Manche and Aube Departments, and CLIS of the underground Laboratory at Meuse and Haute-Marne departments. This paper will present these contributions and how Andra's action helps to reach the goals of information and exchange with the people around its facilities. Concerning the local economic development, there are specific organizations or schemes, depending on the facility: Local taxes contributions based on the disposal facilities activities as is usual in France. A High Level Committee (CHN) and two public interest groups (GIP) in Meuse and Haute-Marne departments have been set up since 1991 and 2005. Andra is represented in these three

  6. Dissociated repetition deficits in aphasia can reflect flexible interactions between left dorsal and ventral streams and gender-dimorphic architecture of the right dorsal stream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthier, Marcelo L; Froudist Walsh, Seán; Dávila, Guadalupe; Nabrozidis, Alejandro; Juárez Y Ruiz de Mier, Rocío; Gutiérrez, Antonio; De-Torres, Irene; Ruiz-Cruces, Rafael; Alfaro, Francisco; García-Casares, Natalia

    2013-01-01

    Assessment of brain-damaged subjects presenting with dissociated repetition deficits after selective injury to either the left dorsal or ventral auditory pathways can provide further insight on their respective roles in verbal repetition. We evaluated repetition performance and its neural correlates using multimodal imaging (anatomical MRI, DTI, fMRI, and(18)FDG-PET) in a female patient with transcortical motor aphasia (TCMA) and in a male patient with conduction aphasia (CA) who had small contiguous but non-overlapping left perisylvian infarctions. Repetition in the TCMA patient was fully preserved except for a mild impairment in nonwords and digits, whereas the CA patient had impaired repetition of nonwords, digits and word triplet lists. Sentence repetition was impaired, but he repeated novel sentences significantly better than clichés. The TCMA patient had tissue damage and reduced metabolism in the left sensorimotor cortex and insula. DTI showed damage to the left temporo-frontal and parieto-frontal segments of the arcuate fasciculus (AF) and part of the left ventral stream together with well-developed right dorsal and ventral streams, as has been reported in more than one-third of females. The CA patient had tissue damage and reduced metabolic activity in the left temporoparietal cortex with additional metabolic decrements in the left frontal lobe. DTI showed damage to the left temporo-parietal and temporo-frontal segments of the AF, but the ventral stream was spared. The direct segment of the AF in the right hemisphere was also absent with only vestigial remains of the other dorsal subcomponents present, as is often found in males. fMRI during word and nonword repetition revealed bilateral perisylvian activation in the TCMA patient suggesting recruitment of spared segments of the left dorsal stream and right dorsal stream with propagation of signals to temporal lobe structures suggesting a compensatory reallocation of resources via the ventral streams. The

  7. US and territory telemedicine policies: identifying gaps in perinatal care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoroh, Ekwutosi M.; Kroelinger, Charlan D.; Smith, Alexander M.; Goodman, David A.; Barfield, Wanda D.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Perinatal regionalization is a system of maternal and neonatal risk-appropriate health care delivery in which resources are ideally allocated for mothers and newborns during pregnancy, labor and delivery, and postpartum, in order to deliver appropriate care. Typically, perinatal risk-appropriate care is provided in-person, but with the advancement of technologies, the opportunity to provide care remotely has emerged. Telemedicine provides distance-based care to patients by consultation, diagnosis, and treatment in rural or remote US jurisdictions (states and territories). OBJECTIVE We sought to summarize the telemedicine policies of states and territories and assess if maternal and neonatal risk-appropriate care is specified. STUDY DESIGN We conducted a 2014 systematic World Wide Web–based review of publicly available rules, statutes, regulations, laws, planning documents, and program descriptions among US jurisdictions (N=59) on telemedicine care. Policies including language on the topics of consultation, diagnosis, or treatment, and those specific to maternal and neonatal risk-appropriate care were categorized for analysis. RESULTS Overall, 36 jurisdictions (32 states; 3 territories; and District of Columbia) (61%) had telemedicine policies with language referencing consultation, diagnosis, or treatment; 29 (49%) referenced consultation, 30 (51%) referenced diagnosis, and 35 (59%) referenced treatment. In all, 26 jurisdictions (22 states; 3 territories; and District of Columbia) (44%), referenced all topics. Only 3 jurisdictions (3 states; 0 territories) (5%), had policy language specifically addressing perinatal care. CONCLUSION The majority of states have published telemedicine policies, but few specify policy language for perinatal risk-appropriate care. By ensuring that language specific to the perinatal population is included in telemedicine policies, access to maternal and neonatal care can be increased in rural, remote, and resource

  8. Accumulation of Heavy Metals by Small Mammals the Background and Polluted Territories of the Urals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovalchuk L. A.

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Accumulation of heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Cd in hemopoietic-competent organs of ecologically contrast species of small mammals (Clethrionomys glareolus, Sorex araneus, Apodemus uralensis from natural populations of the Middle and South Urals were considered. The content of exogenous and essential trace elements in animal tissues (a liver, kidney, a spleen was determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy. It has been shown that bioaccumulation of heavy metals in organs of insectivores significantly differs from it of bank voles and wood mice. The smallest total content of heavy metals is shown in wood mice in technogenic territories of the Middle Urals. The submitted data demonstrate the competitive mechanism of the Cu, Zn, Cd. The increased concentrations of endogenous trace elements (copper, zinc in relation to a toxicant (cadmium, other things being equal, reduce cadmium accumulation level in the tissues Sorex araneus.

  9. Geostrategic Context of Networking of National Minority Communities in Territorial Cooperation Programmes of the EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márton Péti

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The participation of Hungary and Hungarian regions outside of Hungary in transnational and interregional programmes within the framework of the third objective (European Territorial Cooperation of the European Union's Cohesion Policy 2007-2013 is an indicator suitable for analysing the international networking activity of Central European national minorities. These programme areas are very well in alignment with the settlement areas of Hungarians and thus it provides a great opportunity for cooperation in the field of regional developments. The study on the participation of Hungarian organizations in and outside of Hungary in the programming period of 2007-2013 shows; however, that Hungarian organizations outside of Hungary only partly utilize their networking potential and they worked with organisations of the mother country in only a few projects. Policies on cooperation may contribute to further utilize this networking potential.

  10. PES hydrosocial territories: de-territorialization and re-patterning of water control arenas in the Andean highlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodríguez-de-Francisco, Jean Carlo; Boelens, Rutgerd

    2016-01-01

    This article explores how payment for environmental services (PES) approaches envision, design and actively constitute new hydro-social territories by reconfiguring local water control arenas. PES aims to conserve watershed ecosystems by repatterning and commoditizing the link between ‘water service

  11. Space use and territoriality in swift foxes (Vulpes velox) in northeastern Colorado

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lebsock, Amariah A.; Burdett, Christopher L.; Darden, Safi K.

    2012-01-01

    Space use is a fundamental characteristic that informs our knowledge of social relationships and the degree to which individuals are territorial. Until recently, relatively little was known about the spatial ecology and social organization of swift foxes (Vulpes velox (Say, 1823)). We investigated...

  12. Dorsal column sensory axons degenerate due to impaired microvascular perfusion after spinal cord injury in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muradov, Johongir M.; Ewan, Eric E.; Hagg, Theo

    2013-01-01

    The mechanisms contributing to axon loss after spinal cord injury (SCI) are largely unknown but may involve microvascular loss as we have previously suggested. Here, we used a mild contusive injury (120 kdyn IH impactor) at T9 in rats focusing on ascending primary sensory dorsal column axons, anterogradely traced from the sciatic nerves. The injury caused a rapid and progressive loss of dorsal column microvasculature and oligodendrocytes at the injury site and penumbra and a ~70% loss of the sensory axons, by 24 hours. To model the microvascular loss, focal ischemia of the T9 dorsal columns was achieved via phototoxic activation of intravenously injected rose bengal. This caused an ~53% loss of sensory axons and an ~80% loss of dorsal column oligodendrocytes by 24 hours. Axon loss correlated with the extent and axial length of microvessel and oligodendrocyte loss along the dorsal column. To determine if oligodendrocyte loss contributes to axon loss, the glial toxin ethidium bromide (EB; 0.3 µg/µl) was microinjected into the T9 dorsal columns, and resulted in an ~88% loss of dorsal column oligodendrocytes and an ~56% loss of sensory axons after 72 hours. EB also caused an ~72% loss of microvessels. Lower concentrations of EB resulted in less axon, oligodendrocyte and microvessel loss, which were highly correlated (R2 = 0.81). These data suggest that focal spinal cord ischemia causes both oligodendrocyte and axon degeneration, which are perhaps linked. Importantly, they highlight the need of limiting the penumbral spread of ischemia and oligodendrocyte loss after SCI in order to protect axons. PMID:23978615

  13. Territorial differentiation of incomes adjusted for inflation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Valeryevna, Moroshkina

    2017-06-01

    strong tendency of divergence between the regions. This dynamics can be explained by the differences in the level of prices in different Russian regions. The analysis of this indicator in comparable prices showed the opposite dynamics ndash the dynamics of convergence of the regions since 1999. During this period ndash the period of rising prices ndash we see the process of budgetary funds redistribution which increases the income of the population employed in publicsector organizations. The income growth leads to convergence between the regions and to the reduced disparity. Scientific novelty the article analyzes the dynamics of regional differences of the Russian regions in terms of quotper capita incomesquot in current and comparable prices which allowed to assess the impact of inflation on this indicator in the period since 1991. Practical significance the main provisions and conclusions of the article can be used in scientific and practical activities in addressing the issues of interregional differentiation. The results of the Gini index calculations by comparable prices of 1991 are presented in a table and can be used in the analysis of interaction of macroeconomic indicators in the Russian regions and Russia as a whole.

  14. 78 FR 54652 - Sole Source Cooperative Agreement Award to the Association for State and Territorial Health...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-05

    ... coordinate their respective national health security roles and responsibilities to achieve community health... and territorial health officials, which play a critical role in building community health resilience... resilience. SHDs and territorial health officials are intimately familiar with the communities and...

  15. Sistemas fotovoltaicos y la ordenación territorial;The photovoltaic systems and territorial ordination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Rodríguez Gámez

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available La generación fotovoltaica con sistemas conectados a red eléctrica en el esquema de generación distribuida, es una alternativa que contribuye con beneficios a la reducción del pico de demanda vespertina, a la disminución de pérdidas por distribución; siendo una opción en el desarrollo de las inversiones que incrementan la capacidad de la red de distribución en un escenario a gran escala, pudiendo sustituir inversiones en capacidad de generación y transmisión. Esta idea supone la penetración de la tecnología fotovoltaica aumentando su presencia en la generación eléctrica.Los resultados presentados forman parte de la elaboración de los estudios de prefactibilidad para determinar la incidencia de la radiación solar, considerando la ordenación del territorio a partir de las condiciones de la ubicación geográfica, haciendo la selección de los sitios adecuados por las características de potencial solar, eficiencia de la infraestructura eléctrica y disponibilidad del espacio para la introducción de los sistemas fotovoltaicos.The photovoltaic generation with connected systems to electric grid in the outline of distributed generation, is an alternative that contributes with benefits to the reduction of the pick of evening demand, to the decrease of losses for distribution; being an option in the development of the investments that it increase the capacity of the distribution grid in a scenario to great scale, being able to substitute investments in generation capacity and transmission. This idea supposes the penetration of the photovoltaic technology increasing in the electric generation.The presented results are part of the elaboration of the studies of feasibility to determine the incidence of the solar radiation, considering the ordination of the territory starting from the conditions of the geographical location, making the selection of the places adapted by the characteristics of solar potential, the electric efficiency

  16. Actual problems of management of territory and natural objects in the zone of population relocation at the Chernobyl' NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arkhipov, N.P.; Meshalkin, G.S.; Arkhipov, A.N.; Burov, N.I.; Mishenkov, N.N.; Fedotov, I.S.; Tursukova, T.A.; Kulikov, V.V.; Loginova, L.S.

    1989-01-01

    Basing on experimental data and using the research results and estimates of other authors an attempt is made to argue and formulate the principles of management for natural and agricultural lands, which can form the basis for development of the conception for use of the population relocation zone. The list of the first-priority works dealing with the problem of rational management of the zone natural objects is given. The necessity of development of the basis for organization of radioecologic nature, reserve, is shown. The scheme of organization of territory use in the population relocation zone is given. 2 figs.; 1 tab

  17. Electroacupuncture reduces the evoked responses of the spinal dorsal horn neurons in ankle-sprained rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae Hyo; Kim, Hee Young; Chung, Kyungsoon

    2011-01-01

    Acupuncture is shown to be effective in producing analgesia in ankle sprain pain in humans and animals. To examine the underlying mechanisms of the acupuncture-induced analgesia, the effects of electroacupuncture (EA) on weight-bearing forces (WBR) of the affected foot and dorsal horn neuron activities were examined in a rat model of ankle sprain. Ankle sprain was induced manually by overextending ligaments of the left ankle in the rat. Dorsal horn neuron responses to ankle movements or compression were recorded from the lumbar spinal cord using an in vivo extracellular single unit recording setup 1 day after ankle sprain. EA was applied to the SI-6 acupoint on the right forelimb (contralateral to the sprained ankle) by trains of electrical pulses (10 Hz, 1-ms pulse width, 2-mA intensity) for 30 min. After EA, WBR of the sprained foot significantly recovered and dorsal horn neuron activities were significantly suppressed in ankle-sprained rats. However, EA produced no effect in normal rats. The inhibitory effect of EA on hyperactivities of dorsal horn neurons of ankle-sprained rats was blocked by the α-adrenoceptor antagonist phentolamine (5 mg/kg ip) but not by the opioid receptor antagonist naltrexone (10 mg/kg ip). These data suggest that EA-induced analgesia in ankle sprain pain is mediated mainly by suppressing dorsal horn neuron activities through α-adrenergic descending inhibitory systems at the spinal level. PMID:21389301

  18. Opposing dorsal/ventral stream dynamics during figure-ground segregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wokke, Martijn E; Scholte, H Steven; Lamme, Victor A F

    2014-02-01

    The visual system has been commonly subdivided into two segregated visual processing streams: The dorsal pathway processes mainly spatial information, and the ventral pathway specializes in object perception. Recent findings, however, indicate that different forms of interaction (cross-talk) exist between the dorsal and the ventral stream. Here, we used TMS and concurrent EEG recordings to explore these interactions between the dorsal and ventral stream during figure-ground segregation. In two separate experiments, we used repetitive TMS and single-pulse TMS to disrupt processing in the dorsal (V5/HMT⁺) and the ventral (lateral occipital area) stream during a motion-defined figure discrimination task. We presented stimuli that made it possible to differentiate between relatively low-level (figure boundary detection) from higher-level (surface segregation) processing steps during figure-ground segregation. Results show that disruption of V5/HMT⁺ impaired performance related to surface segregation; this effect was mainly found when V5/HMT⁺ was perturbed in an early time window (100 msec) after stimulus presentation. Surprisingly, disruption of the lateral occipital area resulted in increased performance scores and enhanced neural correlates of surface segregation. This facilitatory effect was also mainly found in an early time window (100 msec) after stimulus presentation. These results suggest a "push-pull" interaction in which dorsal and ventral extrastriate areas are being recruited or inhibited depending on stimulus category and task demands.

  19. Detection of genes regulated by Lmx1b during limb dorsalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feenstra, Jennifer M; Kanaya, Kohei; Pira, Charmaine U; Hoffman, Sarah E; Eppey, Richard J; Oberg, Kerby C

    2012-05-01

    Lmx1b is a homeodomain transcription factor that regulates dorsal identity during limb development. Lmx1b knockout (KO) mice develop distal ventral-ventral limbs. Although induction of Lmx1b is linked to Wnt7a expression in the dorsal limb ectoderm, the downstream targets of Lmx1b that accomplish limb dorsalization are unknown. To identify genes targeted by Lmx1b, we compared gene arrays from Lmx1b KO and wild type mouse limbs during limb dorsalization, i.e., 11.5, 12.5, and 13.5 days post coitum. We identified 54 target genes that were differentially expressed in all three stages. Several skeletal targets, including Emx2, Matrilin1 and Matrilin4, demonstrated a loss of scapular expression in the Lmx1b KO mice, supporting a role for Lmx1b in scapula development. Furthermore, the relative abundance of extracellular matrix-related soft tissue targets regulated by Lmx1b, such as collagens and proteoglycans, suggests a mechanism that includes changes in the extracellular matrix composition to accomplish limb dorsalization. Our study provides the most comprehensive characterization of genes regulated by Lmx1b during limb development to-date and provides targets for further investigation. © 2012 The Authors. Development, Growth & Differentiation © 2012 Japanese Society of Developmental Biologists.

  20. Spiny Prey, Fortunate Prey. Dorsal Spines Are an Asset in Intraguild Interactions among Lady Beetles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis Hautier

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The Multicolored Asian Ladybird, Harmonia axyridis, is an extremely successful invasive species. Here we suggest that, in addition to many other traits, the dorsal spines of its larvae contribute to their success, as suggested by behavioral observations of agonistic interactions between H. axyridis and European coccinellids. In coccinellids, the role of dorsal spines in these interactions has been poorly studied and they could be a physical protection against intraguild predators. Dorsal spines of second instar H. axyridis larvae were removed with micro-scissors, which resulted in spineless larvae after molting (spineless group. These larvae were then exposed to starved Coccinella septempunctata larvae. Two control categories were also submitted to interactions: H. axyridis larvae with all their spines (control group and with their spines, but injured by pin stings (injured group. Spine removal at the second instar did not hamper H. axyridis development. The bite rate by C. septempunctata was significantly higher on the spineless H. axyridis and more dorsally located compared to the control and injured groups, while no bite rate difference was observed between the injured and the control group. Our results suggest that in addition to behavioral and chemical defenses, the dorsal spines play a significant protective role against bites. Therefore, spines in ladybirds could be considered as a morphological defense against intraguild predation. In H. axyridis, these defenses might contribute to its success in food resources already exploited by other guild members and thus further facilitate the invasion of new areas.