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  1. PKCα is required for inflammation-induced trafficking of extrasynaptic AMPA receptors in tonically firing lamina II dorsal horn neurons during the maintenance of persistent inflammatory pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopach, Olga; Viatchenko-Karpinski, Viacheslav; Atianjoh, Fidelis E; Belan, Pavel; Tao, Yuan-Xiang; Voitenko, Nana

    2013-02-01

    Persistent inflammation promotes internalization of synaptic GluR2-containing, Ca(2+)-impermeable AMPA receptors (AMPARs) and insertion of GluR1-containing, Ca(2+)-permeable AMPARs at extrasynaptic sites in dorsal horn neurons. Previously we have shown that internalization of synaptic GluR2-containing AMPARs requires activation of spinal cord protein kinase C alpha (PKCα), but molecular mechanisms that underlie altered trafficking of extrasynaptic AMPARs are unclear. Here, using antisense (AS) oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN) that specifically knock down PKCα, we found that a decrease in dorsal horn PKCα expression prevents complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA)-induced increase in functional expression of extrasynaptic Ca(2+)-permeable AMPARs in substantia gelatinosa (SG) neurons of the rat spinal cord. Augmented AMPA-induced currents and associated [Ca(2+)](i) transients were abolished, and the current rectification 1 day post-CFA was reversed. These changes were observed specifically in SG neurons characterized by intrinsic tonic firing properties, but not in those that exhibited strong adaptation. Finally, dorsal horn PKCα knockdown produced an antinociceptive effect on CFA-induced thermal and mechanical hypersensitivity during the maintenance period of inflammatory pain, indicating a role for PKCα in persistent inflammatory pain maintenance. Our results indicate that inflammation-induced trafficking of extrasynaptic Ca(2+)-permeable AMPARs in tonically firing SG neurons depends on PKCα, and that this PKCα-dependent trafficking may contribute to persistent inflammatory pain maintenance. This study shows that PKCα knockdown blocks inflammation-induced upregulation of extrasynaptic Ca(2+)-permeable AMPARs in dorsal horn neurons and produces an antinociceptive effect during the maintenance period of inflammatory pain. These findings have potential implications for use of PKCα gene-silencing therapy to prevent and/or treat persistent inflammatory pain. Copyright

  2. Spinal dorsal horn astrocytes: New players in chronic itch

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    Makoto Tsuda

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic itch is a debilitating symptom of inflammatory skin conditions, such as atopic dermatitis, and systemic diseases, for which existing treatment is largely ineffective. Recent studies have revealed the selective neuronal pathways that are involved in itch sensations; however, the mechanisms by which itch turns into a pathological chronic state are poorly understood. Recent advances in our understanding of the mechanisms producing chronic itch have been made by defining causal roles for astrocytes in the spinal dorsal horn in mouse models of chronic itch including atopic dermatitis. Understanding the key roles of astrocytes may provide us with exciting insights into the mechanisms for itch chronicity and lead to a previously unrecognized target for treating chronic itch.

  3. Synaptically evoked glutamate transporter currents in Spinal Dorsal Horn Astrocytes

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    Dougherty Patrick M

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Removing and sequestering synaptically released glutamate from the extracellular space is carried out by specific plasma membrane transporters that are primarily located in astrocytes. Glial glutamate transporter function can be monitored by recording the currents that are produced by co-transportation of Na+ ions with the uptake of glutamate. The goal of this study was to characterize glutamate transporter function in astrocytes of the spinal cord dorsal horn in real time by recording synaptically evoked glutamate transporter currents. Results Whole-cell patch clamp recordings were obtained from astrocytes in the spinal substantia gelatinosa (SG area in spinal slices of young adult rats. Glutamate transporter currents were evoked in these cells by electrical stimulation at the spinal dorsal root entry zone in the presence of bicuculline, strychnine, DNQX and D-AP5. Transporter currents were abolished when synaptic transmission was blocked by TTX or Cd2+. Pharmacological studies identified two subtypes of glutamate transporters in spinal astrocytes, GLAST and GLT-1. Glutamate transporter currents were graded with stimulus intensity, reaching peak responses at 4 to 5 times activation threshold, but were reduced following low-frequency (0.1 – 1 Hz repetitive stimulation. Conclusion These results suggest that glutamate transporters of spinal astrocytes could be activated by synaptic activation, and recording glutamate transporter currents may provide a means of examining the real time physiological responses of glial cells in spinal sensory processing, sensitization, hyperalgesia and chronic pain.

  4. Responses of spinal dorsal horn neurons to foot movements in rats with a sprained ankle

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    Kim, Jae Hyo; Kim, Hee Young; Chung, Kyungsoon

    2011-01-01

    Acute ankle injuries are common problems and often lead to persistent pain. To investigate the underlying mechanism of ankle sprain pain, the response properties of spinal dorsal horn neurons were examined after ankle sprain. Acute ankle sprain was induced manually by overextending the ankle of a rat hindlimb in a direction of plantarflexion and inversion. The weight-bearing ratio (WBR) of the affected foot was used as an indicator of pain. Single unit activities of dorsal horn neurons in response to plantarflexion and inversion of the foot or ankle compression were recorded from the medial part of the deep dorsal horn, laminae IV-VI, in normal and ankle-sprained rats. One day after ankle sprain, rats showed significantly reduced WBRs on the affected foot, and this reduction was partially restored by systemic morphine. The majority of deep dorsal horn neurons responded to a single ankle stimulus modality. After ankle sprain, the mean evoked response rates were significantly increased, and afterdischarges were developed in recorded dorsal horn neurons. The ankle sprain-induced enhanced evoked responses were significantly reduced by morphine, which was reversed by naltrexone. The data indicate that movement-specific dorsal horn neuron responses were enhanced after ankle sprain in a morphine-dependent manner, thus suggesting that hyperactivity of dorsal horn neurons is an underlying mechanism of pain after ankle sprain. PMID:21389306

  5. Responses of spinal dorsal horn neurons to foot movements in rats with a sprained ankle

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jae Hyo; Kim, Hee Young; Chung, Kyungsoon; Chung, Jin Mo

    2011-01-01

    Acute ankle injuries are common problems and often lead to persistent pain. To investigate the underlying mechanism of ankle sprain pain, the response properties of spinal dorsal horn neurons were examined after ankle sprain. Acute ankle sprain was induced manually by overextending the ankle of a rat hindlimb in a direction of plantarflexion and inversion. The weight-bearing ratio (WBR) of the affected foot was used as an indicator of pain. Single unit activities of dorsal horn neurons in res...

  6. Electroacupuncture reduces the evoked responses of the spinal dorsal horn neurons in ankle-sprained rats

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    Kim, Jae Hyo; Kim, Hee Young; Chung, Kyungsoon

    2011-01-01

    Acupuncture is shown to be effective in producing analgesia in ankle sprain pain in humans and animals. To examine the underlying mechanisms of the acupuncture-induced analgesia, the effects of electroacupuncture (EA) on weight-bearing forces (WBR) of the affected foot and dorsal horn neuron activities were examined in a rat model of ankle sprain. Ankle sprain was induced manually by overextending ligaments of the left ankle in the rat. Dorsal horn neuron responses to ankle movements or compression were recorded from the lumbar spinal cord using an in vivo extracellular single unit recording setup 1 day after ankle sprain. EA was applied to the SI-6 acupoint on the right forelimb (contralateral to the sprained ankle) by trains of electrical pulses (10 Hz, 1-ms pulse width, 2-mA intensity) for 30 min. After EA, WBR of the sprained foot significantly recovered and dorsal horn neuron activities were significantly suppressed in ankle-sprained rats. However, EA produced no effect in normal rats. The inhibitory effect of EA on hyperactivities of dorsal horn neurons of ankle-sprained rats was blocked by the α-adrenoceptor antagonist phentolamine (5 mg/kg ip) but not by the opioid receptor antagonist naltrexone (10 mg/kg ip). These data suggest that EA-induced analgesia in ankle sprain pain is mediated mainly by suppressing dorsal horn neuron activities through α-adrenergic descending inhibitory systems at the spinal level. PMID:21389301

  7. Depletion of vesicular zinc in dorsal horn of spinal cord causes increased neuropathic pain in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jo, Seung; Danscher, Gorm; Schrøder, Henrik

    2008-01-01

    pain. The animals were then sacrificed 5 days later. The ZnT3 immunoreactivity was found to have decreased significantly in dorsal horn of fourth, fifth, and sixth lumbar segments. In parallel with the depressed ZnT3 immunoreactivity the amount of vesicular zinc decreased perceptibly in superficial...

  8. Monosynaptic connections between primary afferents and giant neurons in the turtle spinal dorsal horn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernández, A; Radmilovich, M; Russo, R E

    1996-01-01

    This paper reports the occurrence of monosynaptic connections between dorsal root afferents and a distinct cell type-the giant neuron-deep in the dorsal horn of the turtle spinal cord. Light microscope studies combining Nissl stain and transganglionic HRP-labeling of the primary afferents have...... recording in spinal cord slices provided functional evidence indicating the monosynaptic connections between dorsal root afferents and giant neurons. The recorded neurons were morphologically identified by means of biocytin injection and with avidin conjugates. Electrical stimulation of the ipsilateral...... dorsal roots evoked synaptic responses with short, fixed latencies (1.6-5.6 ms), which remained unchanged at high frequencies (10 Hz). Excitatory polysynaptic potentials were also observed. By means of pharmacological procedures the short-latency response was dissected in two components: one insensitive...

  9. Monosynaptic connections between primary afferents and giant neurons in the turtle spinal dorsal horn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernández, A; Radmilovich, M; Russo, R E

    1996-01-01

    This paper reports the occurrence of monosynaptic connections between dorsal root afferents and a distinct cell type-the giant neuron-deep in the dorsal horn of the turtle spinal cord. Light microscope studies combining Nissl stain and transganglionic HRP-labeling of the primary afferents have...... revealed the occurrence of axosomatic and axodendritic contacts between labeled boutons and giant neurons. The synaptic nature of these contacts has been confirmed by use of electron microscope procedures involving the partial three-dimensional reconstruction of identified giant neurons. Intracellular...

  10. Glutamine uptake contributes to central sensitization in the medullary dorsal horn

    OpenAIRE

    Chiang, Chen Yu; Li, Zhaohui; Dostrovsky, Jonathan O.; Hu, James W.; Sessle, Barry J.

    2008-01-01

    Mustard oil application to tooth pulp produces central sensitization in rat medullary dorsal horn (MDH) nociceptive neurons, which has been implicated in persistent pain mechanisms. We found that superfusion onto MDH of methylaminoisobutyric acid, a competitive inhibitor of the neuronal system A transporter for presynaptic uptake of glutamine (a glutamate precursor released from astroglia), significantly depressed development of mustard oil-induced central sensitization in rat MDH nociceptive...

  11. Central sensitization in medullary dorsal horn involves gap junctions and hemichannels

    OpenAIRE

    Chiang, Chen Yu; Li, Zhaohui; Dostrovsky, Jonathan O.; Sessle, Barry J.

    2010-01-01

    Central sensitization is a fundamental mechanism contributing to acute and chronic pain conditions. Our previous studies have documented a glutamatergic-, purinergic- and glial-dependent central sensitization that can be induced in rat medullary dorsal horn (MDH) nociceptive neurons by mustard oil (MO) application to the tooth pulp. The present study demonstrated that carbenoxolone, a potent gap junction and hemichannel blocker, completely blocked all parameters of MO-induced central sensitiz...

  12. Immunofluorescence characterization of spinal cord dorsal horn microglia and astrocytes in horses

    OpenAIRE

    Meneses, Constanza Stefania; Müller, Heine Yacob; Herzberg, Daniel Eduardo; Uberti, Benjamín; Bustamante, Hedie Almagro; Werner, Marianne Patricia

    2017-01-01

    The role of glial cells in pain modulation has recently gathered attention. The objective of this study was to determine healthy spinal microglia and astrocyte morphology and disposition in equine spinal cord dorsal horns using Iba-1 and GFAP/Cx-43 immunofluorescence labeling, respectively. Five adult horses without visible wounds or gait alterations were selected. Spinal cord segments were obtained post-mortem for immunohistochemical and immunocolocalization assays. Immunodetection of spinal...

  13. Light touch induces ERK activation in superficial dorsal horn neurons after inflammation: involvement of spinal astrocytes and JNK signaling in touch-evoked central sensitization and mechanical allodynia

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    Gao, Yong-Jing; Ji, Ru-Rong

    2010-01-01

    Activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in spinal cord neurons could serve as a marker for sensitization of dorsal horn neurons in persistent pain. ERK is normally activated by high-threshold noxious stimuli. We investigated how low-threshold mechanical stimuli could activate ERK after complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA)-induced inflammation. Unilateral injection of CFA induced ipsilateral heat hyperalgesia and bilateral mechanical allodynia. CFA-induced ERK activation in ipsilateral dorsal horn neurons declined after 2 days. Interestingly, low threshold mechanical stimulation given by light touch either on the inflamed paw or the contralateral non-inflamed paw dramatically increased ERK phosphorylation (pERK) in the dorsal horn ipsilateral to touch stimulation. Notably, light touch induced pERK mainly in superficial neurons in laminae I-IIo. Intrathecal administration of the astroglial toxin L-α-aminoadipate (L-α-AA) on post-CFA day 2 reversed CFA-induced bilateral mechanical allodynia but not heat hyperalgesia. Furthermore, L-α-AA, the glial inhibitor fluorocitrate, and a peptide inhibitor of c-Jun N-terminal Kinase (JNK) all reduced light touch-evoked ERK activation ipsilateral to touch. Collectively, these data suggest that (a) ERK can be activated in superficial dorsal horn neurons by low threshold mechanical stimulation under pathological condition and (b) ERK activation by light touch is associated with mechanical allodynia and requires an astrocyte network. PMID:20722971

  14. Burst-generating neurones in the dorsal horn in an in vitro preparation of the turtle spinal cord

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Russo, R E; Hounsgaard, J

    1996-01-01

    1. In transverse slices of the spinal cord of the turtle, intracellular recordings were used to characterize and analyse the responses to injected current and activation of primary afferents in dorsal horn neurones. 2. A subpopulation of neurones, with cell bodies located centrally in the dorsal...

  15. Immunofluorescence characterization of spinal cord dorsal horn microglia and astrocytes in horses.

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    Meneses, Constanza Stefania; Müller, Heine Yacob; Herzberg, Daniel Eduardo; Uberti, Benjamín; Bustamante, Hedie Almagro; Werner, Marianne Patricia

    2017-01-01

    The role of glial cells in pain modulation has recently gathered attention. The objective of this study was to determine healthy spinal microglia and astrocyte morphology and disposition in equine spinal cord dorsal horns using Iba-1 and GFAP/Cx-43 immunofluorescence labeling, respectively. Five adult horses without visible wounds or gait alterations were selected. Spinal cord segments were obtained post-mortem for immunohistochemical and immunocolocalization assays. Immunodetection of spinal cord dorsal horn astrocytes was done using a polyclonal goat antibody raised against Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein (GFAP) and a polyclonal rabbit antibody against Connexin 43 (Cx-43). For immunodetection of spinal cord dorsal horn microglia, a polyclonal rabbit antibody against a synthetic peptide corresponding to the C-terminus of ionized calcium-binding adaptor molecule 1 (Iba-1) was used. Epifluorescence and confocal images were obtained for the morphological and organizational analysis. Evaluation of shape, area, cell diameter, cell process length and thickness was performed on dorsal horn microglia and astrocyte. Morphologically, an amoeboid spherical shape with a mean cell area of 92.4 + 34 µm2 (in lamina I, II and III) was found in horse microglial cells, located primarily in laminae I, II and III. Astrocyte primary stem branches (and cellular bodies to a much lesser extent) are mainly detected using GFAP. Thus, double GFAP/Cx-43 immunolabeling was needed in order to accurately characterize the morphology, dimension and cell density of astrocytes in horses. Horse and rodent astrocytes seem to have similar dimensions and localization. Horse astrocyte cells have an average diameter of 56 + 14 µm, with a main process length of 28 + 8 µm, and thickness of 1.4 + 0.3 µm, mainly situated in laminae I, II and III. Additionally, a close association between end-point astrocyte processes and microglial cell bodies was found. These results are the first

  16. Immunofluorescence characterization of spinal cord dorsal horn microglia and astrocytes in horses

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    Constanza Stefania Meneses

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The role of glial cells in pain modulation has recently gathered attention. The objective of this study was to determine healthy spinal microglia and astrocyte morphology and disposition in equine spinal cord dorsal horns using Iba-1 and GFAP/Cx-43 immunofluorescence labeling, respectively. Five adult horses without visible wounds or gait alterations were selected. Spinal cord segments were obtained post-mortem for immunohistochemical and immunocolocalization assays. Immunodetection of spinal cord dorsal horn astrocytes was done using a polyclonal goat antibody raised against Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein (GFAP and a polyclonal rabbit antibody against Connexin 43 (Cx-43. For immunodetection of spinal cord dorsal horn microglia, a polyclonal rabbit antibody against a synthetic peptide corresponding to the C-terminus of ionized calcium-binding adaptor molecule 1 (Iba-1 was used. Epifluorescence and confocal images were obtained for the morphological and organizational analysis. Evaluation of shape, area, cell diameter, cell process length and thickness was performed on dorsal horn microglia and astrocyte. Morphologically, an amoeboid spherical shape with a mean cell area of 92.4 + 34 µm2 (in lamina I, II and III was found in horse microglial cells, located primarily in laminae I, II and III. Astrocyte primary stem branches (and cellular bodies to a much lesser extent are mainly detected using GFAP. Thus, double GFAP/Cx-43 immunolabeling was needed in order to accurately characterize the morphology, dimension and cell density of astrocytes in horses. Horse and rodent astrocytes seem to have similar dimensions and localization. Horse astrocyte cells have an average diameter of 56 + 14 µm, with a main process length of 28 + 8 µm, and thickness of 1.4 + 0.3 µm, mainly situated in laminae I, II and III. Additionally, a close association between end-point astrocyte processes and microglial cell bodies was found. These results are the first

  17. Superficial dorsal horn neurons with double spike activity in the rat.

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    Rojas-Piloni, Gerardo; Dickenson, Anthony H; Condés-Lara, Miguel

    2007-05-29

    Superficial dorsal horn neurons promote the transfer of nociceptive information from the periphery to supraspinal structures. The membrane and discharge properties of spinal cord neurons can alter the reliability of peripheral signals. In this paper, we analyze the location and response properties of a particular class of dorsal horn neurons that exhibits double spike discharge with a very short interspike interval (2.01+/-0.11 ms). These neurons receive nociceptive C-fiber input and are located in laminae I-II. Double spikes are generated spontaneously or by depolarizing current injection (interval of 2.37+/-0.22). Cells presenting double spike (interval 2.28+/-0.11) increased the firing rate by electrical noxious stimulation, as well as, in the first minutes after carrageenan injection into their receptive field. Carrageenan is a polysaccharide soluble in water and it is used for producing an experimental model of semi-chronic pain. In the present study carrageenan also produces an increase in the interval between double spikes and then, reduced their occurrence after 5-10 min. The results suggest that double spikes are due to intrinsic membrane properties and that their frequency is related to C-fiber nociceptive activity. The present work shows evidence that double spikes in superficial spinal cord neurones are related to the nociceptive stimulation, and they are possibly part of an acute pain-control mechanism.

  18. Neuronal networks and nociceptive processing in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord.

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    Cordero-Erausquin, Matilde; Inquimbert, Perrine; Schlichter, Rémy; Hugel, Sylvain

    2016-12-03

    The dorsal horn (DH) of the spinal cord receives a variety of sensory information arising from the inner and outer environment, as well as modulatory inputs from supraspinal centers. This information is integrated by the DH before being forwarded to brain areas where it may lead to pain perception. Spinal integration of this information relies on the interplay between different DH neurons forming complex and plastic neuronal networks. Elements of these networks are therefore potential targets for new analgesics and pain-relieving strategies. The present review aims at providing an overview of the current knowledge on these networks, with a special emphasis on those involving interlaminar communication in both physiological and pathological conditions. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. [Pathophysiology of neuropathic pain: molecular mechanisms underlying central sensitization in the dorsal horn in neuropathic pain].

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    Yamanaka, Hiroki; Noguchi, Koichi

    2012-11-01

    Neuropathic pain syndromes are clinically characterized by spontaneous pain and evoked pain (hyperalgesia and allodynia). The optimal treatment approach for neuropathic pain is still under development because of the complex pathological mechanisms underlying this type of pain. The spinal cord is an important gateway thorough which peripheral pain signals are transmitted to the brain, and sensitization of the spinal neurons is one of the important mechanisms underlying neuropathic pain. Central sensitization represents enhancement of the function of neuronal circuits in nociceptive pathways and is a manifestation of the remarkable plasticity of the somatosensory nervous system after nerve injury. This review highlights the pathological features of central sensitization, which develops because of (1) injury-induced abnormal inputs from primary afferents, (2) increase in the excitability of dorsal horn neurons, and (3) activated glial cell-derived signals.

  20. Plateau-generating neurones in the dorsal horn in an in vitro preparation of the turtle spinal cord

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Russo, R E; Hounsgaard, J

    1996-01-01

    1. In transverse slices of the spinal cord of the turtle, intracellular recordings were used to characterize and analyse the responses to injected current and activation of primary afferents in dorsal horn neurones. 2. A subpopulation of neurones, with cell bodies located laterally in the deep...

  1. The effect of intrathecal administration of glial activation inhibitors on dorsal horn BDNF overexpression and hind paw mechanical allodynia in spinal nerve ligated rats.

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    Zhang, Xin; Xu, Yongming; Wang, Jing; Zhou, Quanhong; Pu, Shaofeng; Jiang, Wei; Du, Dongping

    2012-03-01

    Recent studies have suggested that activated glia in the spinal cord may play a vital role at different times during spinal nerve ligation (SNL)-induced neuropathic pain; therefore, glial activation inhibitors have been used as effective painkillers. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is also known to be a powerful pain modulator, but it remains unclear how it contributes to the glial activation inhibitor-based treatment. This study revealed the following results: (1) intrathecal administration of minocycline (a microglial activation inhibitor) could prevent mechanical allodynia during the initiation of SNL-induced neuropathic pain, and its action was associated with the elimination of BDNF overexpression in the dorsal horn; (2) the spinal injection of fluorocitrate (an astrocytic activation inhibitor) but not minocycline could reverse mechanical allodynia during the maintenance phase of SNL-induced pain, and its action was also related to a decrease in BDNF overexpression in the dorsal horn; and (3) treatment with TrkB/Fc (a BDNF-sequestering protein) had a similar effect during both the early development and maintenance periods. These results led to the following conclusions: (1) elevated BDNF expression in the dorsal horn was required to develop and maintain neuropathic pain; (2) minocycline could only prevent mechanical allodynia in the early stages, possibly by inhibiting BDNF release from microglia; and (3) fluorocitrate could reverse existing mechanical allodynia, and its action was associated with the inhibition of BDNF upregulation induced by astrocytic activation.

  2. Leukotriene enhances NMDA-induced inward currents in dorsal horn neurons of the rat spinal cord after peripheral nerve injury.

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    Kiyoyuki, Yasukuni; Taniguchi, Wataru; Okubo, Masamichi; Yamanaka, Hiroki; Kobayashi, Kimiko; Nishio, Naoko; Nakatsuka, Terumasa; Noguchi, Koichi

    2015-09-09

    LTB4 is classified as a leukotriene (LT), a group of lipid mediators that are derived from arachidonic acid. It is recognized that leukotrienes are involved in the pathogenesis of many diseases, including peripheral inflammatory pain. However, little is known about the effects of leukotrienes on the spinal dorsal horn during neuropathic pain. Previously, we reported that there was increased expression of 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) at spinal microglia, and the leukotriene B4 receptor 1 (BLT1), a high affinity receptor of LTB4, in spinal neurons in spared nerve injury (SNI) model rats. In the present study, we examined the effects of LTB4 on spinal dorsal horn neurons in both naïve and SNI model rats using patch-clamp methods. Bath application of LTB4 did not change AMPA receptor-mediated spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs) or membrane potentials. However, we found that LTB4 enhanced the amplitude of NMDA receptor-mediated sEPSCs and significantly increased exogenous NMDA-induced inward currents in SNI model rats. This increase of inward currents could be inhibited by a selective LTB4 antagonist, U75302, as well as a GDP-β-S, a G-protein inhibitor. These results indicate that both increased LTB4 from spinal microglia or increased BLT1 in spinal neurons after peripheral nerve injury can enhance the activity of NMDA receptors through intracellular G-proteins in spinal dorsal horn neurons. Our findings showed that LTB4, which may originate from microglia, can activate BLT1 receptors which are expressed on the membrane of spinal dorsal horn neurons during neuropathic pain. This glia-neuron interaction induces the enhancement of NMDA currents through intracellular G-proteins. The enhancement of NMDA receptor sensitivity of dorsal horn neurons may lead to central sensitization, leading to mechanical pain hypersensitivity.

  3. Three-dimensional distribution of sensory stimulation-evoked neuronal activity of spinal dorsal horn neurons analyzed by in vivo calcium imaging.

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    Nishida, Kazuhiko; Matsumura, Shinji; Taniguchi, Wataru; Uta, Daisuke; Furue, Hidemasa; Ito, Seiji

    2014-01-01

    The spinal dorsal horn comprises heterogeneous populations of interneurons and projection neurons, which form neuronal circuits crucial for processing of primary sensory information. Although electrophysiological analyses have uncovered sensory stimulation-evoked neuronal activity of various spinal dorsal horn neurons, monitoring these activities from large ensembles of neurons is needed to obtain a comprehensive view of the spinal dorsal horn circuitry. In the present study, we established in vivo calcium imaging of multiple spinal dorsal horn neurons by using a two-photon microscope and extracted three-dimensional neuronal activity maps of these neurons in response to cutaneous sensory stimulation. For calcium imaging, a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based calcium indicator protein, Yellow Cameleon, which is insensitive to motion artifacts of living animals was introduced into spinal dorsal horn neurons by in utero electroporation. In vivo calcium imaging following pinch, brush, and heat stimulation suggests that laminar distribution of sensory stimulation-evoked neuronal activity in the spinal dorsal horn largely corresponds to that of primary afferent inputs. In addition, cutaneous pinch stimulation elicited activities of neurons in the spinal cord at least until 2 spinal segments away from the central projection field of primary sensory neurons responsible for the stimulated skin point. These results provide a clue to understand neuronal processing of sensory information in the spinal dorsal horn.

  4. Three-dimensional distribution of sensory stimulation-evoked neuronal activity of spinal dorsal horn neurons analyzed by in vivo calcium imaging.

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    Kazuhiko Nishida

    Full Text Available The spinal dorsal horn comprises heterogeneous populations of interneurons and projection neurons, which form neuronal circuits crucial for processing of primary sensory information. Although electrophysiological analyses have uncovered sensory stimulation-evoked neuronal activity of various spinal dorsal horn neurons, monitoring these activities from large ensembles of neurons is needed to obtain a comprehensive view of the spinal dorsal horn circuitry. In the present study, we established in vivo calcium imaging of multiple spinal dorsal horn neurons by using a two-photon microscope and extracted three-dimensional neuronal activity maps of these neurons in response to cutaneous sensory stimulation. For calcium imaging, a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET-based calcium indicator protein, Yellow Cameleon, which is insensitive to motion artifacts of living animals was introduced into spinal dorsal horn neurons by in utero electroporation. In vivo calcium imaging following pinch, brush, and heat stimulation suggests that laminar distribution of sensory stimulation-evoked neuronal activity in the spinal dorsal horn largely corresponds to that of primary afferent inputs. In addition, cutaneous pinch stimulation elicited activities of neurons in the spinal cord at least until 2 spinal segments away from the central projection field of primary sensory neurons responsible for the stimulated skin point. These results provide a clue to understand neuronal processing of sensory information in the spinal dorsal horn.

  5. Supraspinal modulation of neuronal synchronization by nociceptive stimulation induces an enduring reorganization of dorsal horn neuronal connectivity.

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    Contreras-Hernández, E; Chávez, D; Hernández, E; Velázquez, E; Reyes, P; Béjar, J; Martín, M; Cortés, U; Glusman, S; Rudomin, P

    2018-02-16

    The state of central sensitization induced by the intradermic injection of capsaicin leads to structured (non-random) changes in functional connectivity between dorsal horn neuronal populations distributed along the spinal lumbar segments in anaesthetized cats. The capsaicin-induced changes in neuronal connectivity and the concurrent increase in secondary hyperalgesia are transiently reversed by the systemic administration of small doses of lidocaine, a clinically effective procedure to treat neuropathic pain. The effects of both capsaicin and lidocaine are greatly attenuated in spinalized preparations, showing that supraspinal influences play a significant role in the shaping of nociceptive-induced changes in dorsal horn functional neuronal connectivity. We conclude that changes in functional connectivity between segmental populations of dorsal horn neurones induced by capsaicin and lidocaine result from a cooperative adaptive interaction between supraspinal and spinal neuronal networks, a process that may have a relevant role in the pathogenesis of chronic pain and analgesia. Despite a profusion of information on the molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in the central sensitization produced by intense nociceptive stimulation, the changes in the patterns of functional connectivity between spinal neurones associated with the development of secondary hyperalgesia and allodynia remain largely unknown. Here we show that the state of central sensitization produced by the intradermal injection of capsaicin is associated with structured transformations in neuronal synchronization that lead to an enduring reorganization of the functional connectivity within a segmentally distributed ensemble of dorsal horn neurones. These changes are transiently reversed by the systemic administration of small doses of lidocaine, a clinically effective procedure to treat neuropathic pain. Lidocaine also reduces the capsaicin-induced facilitation of the spinal responses evoked by

  6. Chronic morphine treatment enhances sciatic nerve stimulation-induced immediate early gene expression in the rat dorsal horn.

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    Bojovic, Ognjen; Bramham, Clive R; Tjølsen, Arne

    2015-01-01

    Synaptic plasticity is a property of neurons that can be induced by conditioning electrical stimulation (CS) of afferent fibers in the spinal cord. This is a widely studied property of spinal cord and hippocampal neurons. CS has been shown to trigger enhanced expression of immediate early gene proteins (IEGPs), with peak increases observed 2 hour post stimulation. Chronic morphine treatment has been shown to promoteinduce opioid-induced hyperalgesia, and also to increase CS-induced central sensitization in the dorsal horn. As IEGP expression may contribute to development of chronic pain states, we aimed to determine whether chronic morphine treatment affects the expression of IEGPs following sciatic nerve CS. Changes in expression of the IEGPs Arc, c-Fos or Zif268 were determined in cells of the lumbar dorsal horn of the spinal cord. Chronic Morphine pretreatment over 7 days led to a significant increase in the number of IEGP positive cells observed at both 2 h and 6 h after CS. The same pattern of immunoreactivity was obtained for all IEGPs, with peak increases occurring at 2 h post CS. In contrast, morphine treatment alone in sham operated animals had no effect on IEGP expression. We conclude that chronic morphine treatment enhances stimulus-induced expression of IEGPs in the lumbar dorsal horn. These data support the notion that morphine alters gene expression responses linked to nociceptive stimulation and plasticity.

  7. Key role for spinal dorsal horn microglial kinin B1 receptor in early diabetic pain neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Couture Réjean

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The pro-nociceptive kinin B1 receptor (B1R is upregulated on sensory C-fibres, astrocytes and microglia in the spinal cord of streptozotocin (STZ-diabetic rat. This study aims at defining the role of microglial kinin B1R in diabetic pain neuropathy. Methods Sprague-Dawley rats were made diabetic with STZ (65 mg/kg, i.p., and 4 days later, two specific inhibitors of microglial cells (fluorocitrate, 1 nmol, i.t.; minocycline, 10 mg/kg, i.p. were administered to assess the impact on thermal hyperalgesia, allodynia and mRNA expression (qRT-PCR of B1R and pro-inflammatory markers. Spinal B1R binding sites ((125I-HPP-desArg10-Hoe 140 were also measured by quantitative autoradiography. Inhibition of microglia was confirmed by confocal microscopy with the specific marker Iba-1. Effects of intrathecal and/or systemic administration of B1R agonist (des-Arg9-BK and antagonists (SSR240612 and R-715 were measured on neuropathic pain manifestations. Results STZ-diabetic rats displayed significant tactile and cold allodynia compared with control rats. Intrathecal or peripheral blockade of B1R or inhibition of microglia reversed time-dependently tactile and cold allodynia in diabetic rats without affecting basal values in control rats. Microglia inhibition also abolished thermal hyperalgesia and the enhanced allodynia induced by intrathecal des-Arg9-BK without affecting hyperglycemia in STZ rats. The enhanced mRNA expression (B1R, IL-1β, TNF-α, TRPV1 and Iba-1 immunoreactivity in the STZ spinal cord were normalized by fluorocitrate or minocycline, yet B1R binding sites were reduced by 38%. Conclusion The upregulation of kinin B1R in spinal dorsal horn microglia by pro-inflammatory cytokines is proposed as a crucial mechanism in early pain neuropathy in STZ-diabetic rats.

  8. Dendritic spine dysgenesis in superficial dorsal horn sensory neurons after spinal cord injury.

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    Cao, Xiaoyu C; Pappalardo, Laura W; Waxman, Stephen G; Tan, Andrew M

    2017-01-01

    Neuropathic pain is a major complication of spinal cord injury, and despite aggressive efforts, this type of pain is refractory to available clinical treatment. Our previous work has demonstrated a structure-function link between dendritic spine dysgenesis on nociceptive sensory neurons in the intermediate zone, laminae IV/V, and chronic pain in central nervous system and peripheral nervous system injury models of neuropathic pain. To extend these findings, we performed a follow-up structural analysis to assess whether dendritic spine remodeling occurs on superficial dorsal horn neurons located in lamina II after spinal cord injury. Lamina II neurons are responsible for relaying deep, delocalized, often thermally associated pain commonly experienced in spinal cord injury pathologies. We analyzed dendritic spine morphometry and localization in tissue obtained from adult rats exhibiting neuropathic pain one-month following spinal cord injury. Although the total density of dendritic spines on lamina II neurons did not change after spinal cord injury, we observed an inverse relationship between the densities of thin- and mushroom-shaped spines: thin-spine density decreased while mushroom-spine density increased. These structural changes were specifically noted along dendritic branches within 150 µm from the soma, suggesting a possible adverse contribution to nociceptive circuit function. Intrathecal treatment with NSC23766, a Rac1-GTPase inhibitor, significantly reduced spinal cord injury-induced changes in both thin- and mushroom-shaped dendritic spines. Overall, these observations demonstrate that dendritic spine remodeling occurs in lamina II, regulated in part by the Rac1-signaling pathway, and suggests that structural abnormalities in this spinal cord region may also contribute to abnormal nociception after spinal cord injury.

  9. Key role for spinal dorsal horn microglial kinin B1 receptor in early diabetic pain neuropathy.

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    Talbot, Sébastien; Chahmi, Emna; Dias, Jenny Pena; Couture, Réjean

    2010-06-29

    The pro-nociceptive kinin B1 receptor (B1R) is upregulated on sensory C-fibres, astrocytes and microglia in the spinal cord of streptozotocin (STZ)-diabetic rat. This study aims at defining the role of microglial kinin B1R in diabetic pain neuropathy. Sprague-Dawley rats were made diabetic with STZ (65 mg/kg, i.p.), and 4 days later, two specific inhibitors of microglial cells (fluorocitrate, 1 nmol, i.t.; minocycline, 10 mg/kg, i.p.) were administered to assess the impact on thermal hyperalgesia, allodynia and mRNA expression (qRT-PCR) of B1R and pro-inflammatory markers. Spinal B1R binding sites ((125I)-HPP-desArg10-Hoe 140) were also measured by quantitative autoradiography. Inhibition of microglia was confirmed by confocal microscopy with the specific marker Iba-1. Effects of intrathecal and/or systemic administration of B1R agonist (des-Arg9-BK) and antagonists (SSR240612 and R-715) were measured on neuropathic pain manifestations. STZ-diabetic rats displayed significant tactile and cold allodynia compared with control rats. Intrathecal or peripheral blockade of B1R or inhibition of microglia reversed time-dependently tactile and cold allodynia in diabetic rats without affecting basal values in control rats. Microglia inhibition also abolished thermal hyperalgesia and the enhanced allodynia induced by intrathecal des-Arg9-BK without affecting hyperglycemia in STZ rats. The enhanced mRNA expression (B1R, IL-1beta, TNF-alpha, TRPV1) and Iba-1 immunoreactivity in the STZ spinal cord were normalized by fluorocitrate or minocycline, yet B1R binding sites were reduced by 38%. The upregulation of kinin B1R in spinal dorsal horn microglia by pro-inflammatory cytokines is proposed as a crucial mechanism in early pain neuropathy in STZ-diabetic rats.

  10. Structural and molecular alterations of primary afferent fibres in the spinal dorsal horn in vincristine-induced neuropathy in rat.

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    Thibault, Karine; Rivals, Isabelle; M'Dahoma, Saïd; Dubacq, Sophie; Pezet, Sophie; Calvino, Bernard

    2013-11-01

    Vincristine is one of the most common anti-cancer drug therapies administered for the treatment of many types of cancer. Its dose-limiting side effect is the emergence of peripheral neuropathy, resulting in chronic neuropathic pain in many patients. This study sought to understand the mechanisms underlying the development of neuropathic pain by vincristine-induced neurotoxicity. We focused on signs of functional changes and revealed that deep layers of the spinal cord (III-IV) experience increased neuronal activity both in the absence of peripheral stimulation and, as a result of tactile mechanical stimulations. These laminae and superficial laminae I-II were also subject to structural changes as evidenced by an increase in immunoreactivity of Piccolo, a marker of active presynaptic elements. Further investigations performed, using DNA microarray technology, describe a large number of genes differentially expressed in dorsal root ganglions and in the spinal dorsal horn after vincristine treatment. Our study describes an important list of genes differentially regulated by vincristine treatment that will be useful for future studies and brings forward evidence for molecular and anatomical modifications of large diameter sensory neurons terminating in deep dorsal horn laminae, which could participate in the development of tactile allodynia.

  11. Neonatal local noxious insult affects gene expression in the spinal dorsal horn of adult rats

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    Dubner Ronald

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Neonatal noxious insult produces a long-term effect on pain processing in adults. Rats subjected to carrageenan (CAR injection in one hindpaw within the sensitive period develop bilateral hypoalgesia as adults. In the same rats, inflammation of the hindpaw, which was the site of the neonatal injury, induces a localized enhanced hyperalgesia limited to this paw. To gain an insight into the long-term molecular changes involved in the above-described long-term nociceptive effects of neonatal noxious insult at the spinal level, we performed DNA microarray analysis (using microarrays containing oligo-probes for 205 genes encoding receptors and transporters for glutamate, GABA, and amine neurotransmitters, precursors and receptors for neuropeptides, and neurotrophins, cytokines and their receptors to compare gene expression profiles in the lumbar spinal dorsal horn (LDH of adult (P60 male rats that received neonatal CAR treatment within (at postnatal day 3; P3 and outside (at postnatal 12; P12 of the sensitive period. The data were obtained both without inflammation (at baseline and during complete Freund's adjuvant induced inflammation of the neonatally injured paw. The observed changes were verified by real-time RT-PCR. This study revealed significant basal and inflammation-associated aberrations in the expression of multiple genes in the LDH of adult animals receiving CAR injection at P3 as compared to their expression levels in the LDH of animals receiving either no injections or CAR injection at P12. In particular, at baseline, twelve genes (representing GABA, serotonin, adenosine, neuropeptide Y, cholecystokinin, opioid, tachykinin and interleukin systems were up-regulated in the bilateral LDH of the former animals. The baseline condition in these animals was also characterized by up-regulation of seven genes (encoding members of GABA, cholecystokinin, histamine, serotonin, and neurotensin systems in the LDH ipsilateral to the

  12. Responses of rat spinal dorsal horn neurons to intracutaneous microinjection of histamine, capsaicin, and other irritants.

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    Carstens, E

    1997-05-01

    To investigate the spinal processing of cutaneous pruritic and algesic stimuli, single-unit recordings were made from wide-dynamic-range-type lumbar spinal dorsal horn neurons in pentobarbital-sodium-anesthetized rats. Neuronal responses were recorded to mechanical and noxious thermal stimuli, as well as to microinjection (1 microl) of histamine (0.01-10% = 9 x 10(-1)-9 x 10(-4) M), capsaicin (0.1% = 3.3 x 10(-3) M), or other algesic chemicals into skin within the receptive field via intracutaneously placed needles. Most (84%) of the 89 neurons responded to intracutaneous (i.c.) microinjection of histamine with a brief phasic discharge followed by an afterdischarge of variable (s to min) duration. Ten minutes after i.c. microinjection of histamine (but not NaCl), there was a significant increase in the mean area of the low-threshold (but not high-threshold) portion of unit mechanical receptive fields. However, responses to graded pressure stimuli were not significantly affected after histamine. Responses did not exhibit significant tachyphylaxis when histamine microinjections were repeated at 5- or 10-min intervals. Unit responses significantly increased in a dose-related manner to microinjection of histamine at concentrations ranging across 4 orders of magnitude. Within 30 s after i.c. microinjection of the H1 antagonist cetirizine, unit responses to i.c. histamine delivered at the same skin site were significantly attenuated. Unit responses to histamine, as well as to noxious thermal stimulation, were significantly reduced after systemic administration of morphine (3.5 mg/kg i.p.) in a naloxone-reversible manner. Application of a mechanical rub, scratch, or a noxious heat stimulus during the unit's ongoing response to i.c. histamine produced a brief and marked excitation, often followed by a period of reduced ongoing discharge. Unit responses to histamine were markedly suppressed by electrical stimulation in the midbrain periaqueductal gray. Most (79%) histamine

  13. Superficial Dorsal Vein Injury/Thrombosis Presenting as False Penile Fracture Requiring Dorsal Venous Ligation

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    Arash Rafiei, MD

    2014-12-01

    Conclusion: Early exploration of patients with suspected penile fracture provides excellent results with maintenance of erectile function. Also, in the setting of dorsal vein thrombosis, ligation preserves the integrity of the penile tissues and avoids unnecessary complications from conservative management. Rafiei A, Hakky TS, Martinez D, Parker J, and Carrion R. Superficial dorsal vein injury/thrombosis presenting as false penile fracture requiring dorsal venous ligation. Sex Med 2014;2:182–185.

  14. MHC-I promotes apoptosis of GABAergic interneurons in the spinal dorsal horn and contributes to cancer induced bone pain.

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    Fu, Qiaochu; Shi, Dai; Zhou, Yaqun; Zheng, Hua; Xiang, Hongbing; Tian, Xuebi; Gao, Feng; Manyande, Anne; Cao, Fei; Tian, Yuke; Ye, Dawei

    2016-12-01

    Cancer induced bone pain (CIBP) remains one of the most intractable clinical problems due to poor understanding of its underlying mechanisms. Recent studies demonstrate the decline of inhibitory interneurons, especially GABAergic interneurons in the spinal cord, can evoke generation of chronic pain. It has also been reported that neuronal MHC-I expression renders neurons vulnerable to cytotoxic CD8 + T cells and finally lead to neurons apoptosis in a variety neurological disorders. However, whether MHC-I could induce the apoptosis of GABAergic interneurons in spinal cord and contribute to the development of CIBP remains unknown. In this study, we investigated roles of MHC-I and underlying mechanisms in CIBP on a rat model. Our results showed that increased MHC-I expression on GABAergic interneurons could deplete GABAergic interneurons by inducing their apoptosis in the spinal dorsal horn of tumor-bearing rats. Pretreatment of MHC-I RNAi-lentivirus could prevent the apoptosis of GABAergic interneurons and therefore alleviated mechanical allodynia induced by tumor cells intratibial injection. Additionally, we also found that CD8 + T cells were colocalized with MHC-I and GABAergic neurons and presented a significant and persistent increase in the spinal cord of tumor-bearing rats. Taken together, these findings indicated that MHC-I could evoke CIBP by promoting apoptosis of GABAergic interneurons in the dorsal horn, and this apoptosis was closely related to local CD8 + T cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Reactive Oxygen Species Donors Increase the Responsiveness of Dorsal Horn Neurons and Induce Mechanical Hyperalgesia in Rats

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    Hee Young Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Our previous studies suggest that reactive oxygen species (ROS scavengers have analgesic effect on neuropathic pain through spinal mechanisms in the rat. The studies suggest that superoxide in spinal cord is one of important mediators of persistent pain. To test the hypothesis that increase of superoxide-derived intermediates leads to central sensitization and pain, the effects of an intrathecal injection of chemical ROS donors releasing either OH∙, OCl-, or H2O2 were examined on pain behaviors. Following treatment with t-BOOH (OH∙ donor, dorsal horn neuron responses to mechanical stimuli in normal rats and the changes of neuronal excitability were explored on substantia gelatinosa (SG neurons using whole-cell patch clamping recordings. Intrathecal administration of t-BOOH or NaOCl (OCl- donor, but not H2O2, significantly decreased mechanical thresholds of hind paws. The responses of wide dynamic range neurons to mechanical stimuli increased after a local application of t-BOOH. The t-BOOH increased the frequency and the amplitude of excitatory postsynaptic potentials, depolarized membrane potential in SG neurons, and increased the frequency of action potentials evoked by depolarizing current pulses. These results suggest that elevated ROS, especially OH∙, in the spinal cord sensitized dorsal horn neurons and produced hyperalgesia in normal rats.

  16. Early spread of hyperexcitability to caudal dorsal horn networks after a chemically-induced lesion of the rat spinal cord in vitro.

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    Deumens, R; Mazzone, G L; Taccola, G

    2013-01-15

    Hyperexcitability of dorsal horn neurons has been shown to play a key role in neuropathic pain following chronic experimental spinal cord injury. With a neonatal in vitro spinal cord injury model, we show that a chemically-induced lesion leads to rapid gain-of-function of sublesional dorsal horn networks biased to hyperexcitation. The expression of the GABA synthetic enzyme GAD65 was significantly reduced at the same level of the spinal cord, suggesting a compromised inhibitory system. We propose that our model could be useful to test early approaches to contrast spinal cord injury-induced central sensitization of dorsal horn circuits. Copyright © 2012 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Reversal of neurochemical alterations in the spinal dorsal horn and dorsal root ganglia by Mas-related gene (Mrg) receptors in a rat model of spinal nerve injury.

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    Wang, Dongmei; Xue, Yaping; Yan, Yanhua; Lin, Minjie; Yang, Jiajia; Huang, Jianzhong; Hong, Yanguo

    2016-07-01

    The rodent Mas-related gene (Mrg) receptor subtype C has been demonstrated to inhibit pathological pain. This study investigated the mechanisms underlying the reversal of pain hypersensitivity by the selective MrgC receptor agonist bovine adrenal medulla 8-22 (BAM8-22) in a rat model of L5 spinal nerve ligation (SNL). Intrathecal (i.t.) administration of BAM8-22 (0.1-10nmol) attenuated mechanical allodynia in a dose-dependent manner on day 10 after SNL. The antiallodynia effect of BAM8-22 was abolished by MrgC receptor antibody, but not by naloxone. I.t. BAM8-22 (10nmol) inhibited SNL-induced upregulation of neuronal nitric oxide synthesis (nNOS) and phosphorylation of cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (p-CREB) in the spinal dorsal horn. The BAM8-22 treatment reversed the SNL-induced astrocyte activation, increase of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) expression and phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (p-ERK) in the spinal cord. BAM8-22 also reversed the upregulation of fractalkine and IL-1β in small- and medium-sized dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. Furthermore, the BAM8-22 exposure suppressed the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced increase of nNOS and IL-1β in the DRG explant cultures and the BAM8-22-induced suppression disappeared in the presence of MrgC receptor antibody. The present study provides evidence that activation of MrgC receptors inhibits nerve injury-induced increase of pronociceptive molecules in DRG neurons, suppressing astrocyte activation, the upregulation of excitatory mediators and phosphorylation of transcription factors in the spinal dorsal horn. As MrgC receptors are unequally expressed in the dorsal root and trigeminal ganglia, this study suggests that targeting MrgC receptors could be a new therapy for neuropathic pain with limited unwanted effects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. GLT1 overexpression reverses established neuropathic pain-related behavior and attenuates chronic dorsal horn neuron activation following cervical spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falnikar, Aditi; Hala, Tamara J; Poulsen, David J; Lepore, Angelo C

    2016-03-01

    Development of neuropathic pain occurs in a major portion of traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) patients, resulting in debilitating and often long-term physical and psychological burdens. Following SCI, chronic dysregulation of extracellular glutamate homeostasis has been shown to play a key role in persistent central hyperexcitability of superficial dorsal horn neurons that mediate pain neurotransmission, leading to various forms of neuropathic pain. Astrocytes express the major CNS glutamate transporter, GLT1, which is responsible for the vast majority of functional glutamate uptake, particularly in the spinal cord. In our unilateral cervical contusion model of mouse SCI that is associated with ipsilateral forepaw heat hypersensitivity (a form of chronic at-level neuropathic pain-related behavior), we previously reported significant and long-lasting reductions in GLT1 expression and functional GLT1-mediated glutamate uptake in cervical spinal cord dorsal horn. To therapeutically address GLT1 dysfunction following cervical contusion SCI, we injected an adeno-associated virus type 8 (AAV8)-Gfa2 vector into the superficial dorsal horn to increase GLT1 expression selectively in astrocytes. Compared to both contusion-only animals and injured mice that received AAV8-eGFP control injection, AAV8-GLT1 delivery increased GLT1 protein expression in astrocytes of the injured cervical spinal cord dorsal horn, resulting in a significant and persistent reversal of already-established heat hypersensitivity. Furthermore, AAV8-GLT1 injection significantly reduced expression of the transcription factor and marker of persistently increased neuronal activation, ΔFosB, in superficial dorsal horn neurons. These results demonstrate that focal restoration of GLT1 expression in the superficial dorsal horn is a promising target for treating chronic neuropathic pain following SCI. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Interferon-gamma potentiates NMDA receptor signaling in spinal dorsal horn neurons via microglia-neuron interaction.

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    Sonekatsu, Mayumi; Taniguchi, Wataru; Yamanaka, Manabu; Nishio, Naoko; Tsutsui, Shunji; Yamada, Hiroshi; Yoshida, Munehito; Nakatsuka, Terumasa

    2016-01-01

    Glia-neuron interactions play an important role in the development of neuropathic pain. Expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokne →cytokine Interferon-gamma (IFNγ) is upregulated in the dorsal horn after peripheral nerve injury, and intrathecal IFNγ administration induces mechanical allodynia in rats. A growing body of evidence suggests that IFNγ might be involved in the mechanisms of neuropathic pain, but its effects on the spinal dorsal horn are unclear. We performed blind whole-cell patch-clamp recording to investigate the effect of IFNγ on postsynaptic glutamate-induced currents in the substantia gelatinosa neurons of spinal cord slices from adult male rats. IFNγ perfusion significantly enhanced the amplitude of NMDA-induced inward currents in substantia gelatinosa neurons, but did not affect AMPA-induced currents. The facilitation of NMDA-induced current by IFNγ was inhibited by bath application of an IFNγ receptor-selective antagonist. Adding the Janus activated kinase inhibitor tofacitinib to the pipette solution did not affect the IFNγ-induced facilitation of NMDA-induced currents. However, the facilitatory effect of IFNγ on NMDA-induced currents was inhibited by perfusion of the microglial inhibitor minocycline. These results suggest that IFNγ binds the microglial IFNγ receptor and enhances NMDA receptor activity in substantia gelatinosa neurons. Next, to identify the effector of signal transmission from microglia to dorsal horn neurons, we added an inhibitor of G proteins, GDP-β-S, to the pipette solution. In a GDP-β-S-containing pipette solution, IFNγ-induced potentiation of the NMDA current was significantly suppressed after 30 min. In addition, IFNγ-induced potentiation of NMDA currents was blocked by application of a selective antagonist of CCR2, and its ligand CCL2 increased NMDA-induced currents. Our findings suggest that IFNγ enhance the amplitude of NMDA-induced inward currents in substantia gelatinosa neurons via microglial

  20. Interferon-gamma potentiates NMDA receptor signaling in spinal dorsal horn neurons via microglia–neuron interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonekatsu, Mayumi; Yamanaka, Manabu; Nishio, Naoko; Tsutsui, Shunji; Yamada, Hiroshi; Yoshida, Munehito; Nakatsuka, Terumasa

    2016-01-01

    Background Glia–neuron interactions play an important role in the development of neuropathic pain. Expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokne →cytokine Interferon-gamma (IFNγ) is upregulated in the dorsal horn after peripheral nerve injury, and intrathecal IFNγ administration induces mechanical allodynia in rats. A growing body of evidence suggests that IFNγ might be involved in the mechanisms of neuropathic pain, but its effects on the spinal dorsal horn are unclear. We performed blind whole-cell patch-clamp recording to investigate the effect of IFNγ on postsynaptic glutamate-induced currents in the substantia gelatinosa neurons of spinal cord slices from adult male rats. Results IFNγ perfusion significantly enhanced the amplitude of NMDA-induced inward currents in substantia gelatinosa neurons, but did not affect AMPA-induced currents. The facilitation of NMDA-induced current by IFNγ was inhibited by bath application of an IFNγ receptor-selective antagonist. Adding the Janus activated kinase inhibitor tofacitinib to the pipette solution did not affect the IFNγ-induced facilitation of NMDA-induced currents. However, the facilitatory effect of IFNγ on NMDA-induced currents was inhibited by perfusion of the microglial inhibitor minocycline. These results suggest that IFNγ binds the microglial IFNγ receptor and enhances NMDA receptor activity in substantia gelatinosa neurons. Next, to identify the effector of signal transmission from microglia to dorsal horn neurons, we added an inhibitor of G proteins, GDP-β-S, to the pipette solution. In a GDP-β-S–containing pipette solution, IFNγ-induced potentiation of the NMDA current was significantly suppressed after 30 min. In addition, IFNγ-induced potentiation of NMDA currents was blocked by application of a selective antagonist of CCR2, and its ligand CCL2 increased NMDA-induced currents. Conclusion Our findings suggest that IFNγ enhance the amplitude of NMDA-induced inward currents in substantia

  1. Central sensitization of nociceptive neurons in rat medullary dorsal horn involves purinergic P2X7 receptors.

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    Itoh, K; Chiang, C-Y; Li, Z; Lee, J-C; Dostrovsky, J O; Sessle, B J

    2011-09-29

    Central sensitization is a crucial process underlying the increased neuronal excitability of nociceptive pathways following peripheral tissue injury and inflammation. Our previous findings have suggested that extracellular adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) molecules acting at purinergic receptors located on presynaptic terminals (e.g., P2X2/3, P2X3 subunits) and glial cells are involved in the glutamatergic-dependent central sensitization induced in medullary dorsal horn (MDH) nociceptive neurons by application to the tooth pulp of the inflammatory irritant mustard oil (MO). Since growing evidence indicates that activation of P2X7 receptors located on glia is involved in chronic inflammatory and neuropathic pain, the aim of the present study was to test in vivo for P2X7 receptor involvement in this acute inflammatory pain model. Experiments were carried out in anesthetized Sprague-Dawley male rats. Single unit recordings were made in MDH functionally identified nociceptive neurons for which mechanoreceptive field, mechanical activation threshold and responses to noxious stimuli were tested. We found that continuous intrathecal (i.t.) superfusion over MDH of the potent P2X7 receptor antagonists brilliant blue G and periodated oxidized ATP could each significantly attenuate the MO-induced MDH central sensitization. MDH central sensitization could also be produced by i.t. superfusion of ATP and even more effectively by the P2X7 receptor agonist benzoylbenzoyl ATP. Superfusion of the microglial blocker minocycline abolished the MO-induced MDH central sensitization, consistent with reports that dorsal horn P2X7 receptors are mostly expressed on microglia. In control experiments, superfusion over MDH of vehicle did not produce any significant changes. These novel findings suggest that activation of P2X7 receptors in vivo may be involved in the development of central sensitization in an acute inflammatory pain model. Copyright © 2011 IBRO. All rights reserved.

  2. NR2 subunits and NMDA receptors on lamina II inhibitory and excitatory interneurons of the mouse dorsal horn

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    MacDermott Amy B

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background NMDA receptors expressed by spinal cord neurons in the superficial dorsal horn are involved in the development of chronic pain associated with inflammation and nerve injury. The superficial dorsal horn has a complex and still poorly understood circuitry that is mainly populated by inhibitory and excitatory interneurons. Little is known about how NMDA receptor subunit composition, and therefore pharmacology and voltage dependence, varies with neuronal cell type. NMDA receptors are typically composed of two NR1 subunits and two of four NR2 subunits, NR2A-2D. We took advantage of the differences in Mg2+ sensitivity of the NMDA receptor subtypes together with subtype preferring antagonists to identify the NR2 subunit composition of NMDA receptors expressed on lamina II inhibitory and excitatory interneurons. To distinguish between excitatory and inhibitory interneurons, we used transgenic mice expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein driven by the GAD67 promoter. Results Analysis of conductance ratio and selective antagonists showed that lamina II GABAergic interneurons express both the NR2A/B containing Mg2+ sensitive receptors and the NR2C/D containing NMDA receptors with less Mg2+ sensitivity. In contrast, excitatory lamina II interneurons express primarily NR2A/B containing receptors. Despite this clear difference in NMDA receptor subunit expression in the two neuronal populations, focally stimulated synaptic input is mediated exclusively by NR2A and 2B containing receptors in both neuronal populations. Conclusions Stronger expression of NMDA receptors with NR2C/D subunits by inhibitory interneurons compared to excitatory interneurons may provide a mechanism to selectively increase activity of inhibitory neurons during intense excitatory drive that can provide inhibitory feedback.

  3. Superficial dorsal vein injury/thrombosis presenting as false penile fracture requiring dorsal venous ligation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafiei, Arash; Hakky, Tariq S; Martinez, Daniel; Parker, Justin; Carrion, Rafael

    2014-12-01

    Conditions mimicking penile fracture are extremely rare and have been seldom described. To describe a patient with false penile fracture who presented with superficial dorsal vein injury/thrombosis managed with ligation. A 33-year-old male presented with penile swelling and ecchymosis after intercourse. A penile ultrasound demonstrated a thrombosed superficial dorsal vein but also questionable fracture of the tunica albuginea. As the thrombus was expanding, he was emergently taken to the operating room for exploration and required only dorsal venous ligation. Postoperatively, patient's Sexual Health Inventory for Men score was 23, and he had no issues with erections or sexual intercourse. Early exploration of patients with suspected penile fracture provides excellent results with maintenance of erectile function. Also, in the setting of dorsal vein thrombosis, ligation preserves the integrity of the penile tissues and avoids unnecessary complications from conservative management. Rafiei A, Hakky TS, Martinez D, Parker J, and Carrion R. Superficial dorsal vein injury/thrombosis presenting as false penile fracture requiring dorsal venous ligation.

  4. Blockade of 5-HT2A receptors at the site of inflammation inhibits activation of spinal dorsal horn neurons in rats.

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    Hu, Wei; Zhang, Yan; Cai, Qiaoyan; Wang, Dongmei; Hong, Yanguo

    2016-06-01

    Repeated inflammation in the periphery is a major cause of chronic inflammatory pain. We have showed that blockade of 5-HT2A receptors in the periphery inhibits repeated inflammation-induced pain hypersensitivity. The present study investigated whether inhibition of 5-HT2A receptor signaling at the site of inflammation could inhibit repeated inflammation-induced neurochemical changes in spinal dorsal horn neurons. Treatment with the 5-HT2A receptor antagonist ketanserin (20μg) in the hindpaw following intraplantar injection of carrageenan inhibited the increase in nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-diaphorase (NADPH-d) reactivity, a marker of nitric oxide synthase (NOS), in the spinal dorsal horn. Administration of formalin (1%) in the hindpaw following the carrageenan injection evoked a great increase in NADPH-d reactivity in spinal dorsal horn neurons on the ipsilateral and contralateral sides. These changes were abolished by the pretreatment of ketanserin (20μg). The ketanserin treatment also reduced the repeated inflammation-induced expression of protein kinase gamma (PKCγ) in the membrane of spinal dorsal horn neurons and increased PKCγ protein level in the cytosol. Following the treatment with the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone methiodide (5mg/kg, s.c.), the administration of ketanserin failed to inhibit the repeated inflammation-induced increase in NADPH-d reactivity and c-Fos expression in the spinal dorsal horn. These results suggest that 5-HT2A receptor bioactivity in the inflammatory site plays an important role in repeated inflammation-induced central sensitization. The present study supports the notion that targeting 5-HT2A receptors in the periphery can be a promising therapy for relieving chronic inflammatory pain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Origin of heterogeneous spiking patterns from continuously distributed ion channel densities: a computational study in spinal dorsal horn neurons.

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    Balachandar, Arjun; Prescott, Steven A

    2018-01-20

    Distinct spiking patterns may arise from qualitative differences in ion channel expression (i.e. when different neurons express distinct ion channels) and/or when quantitative differences in expression levels qualitatively alter the spike generation process. We hypothesized that spiking patterns in neurons of the superficial dorsal horn (SDH) of spinal cord reflect both mechanisms. We reproduced SDH neuron spiking patterns by varying densities of K V 1- and A-type potassium conductances. Plotting the spiking patterns that emerge from different density combinations revealed spiking-pattern regions separated by boundaries (bifurcations). This map suggests that certain spiking pattern combinations occur when the distribution of potassium channel densities straddle boundaries, whereas other spiking patterns reflect distinct patterns of ion channel expression. The former mechanism may explain why certain spiking patterns co-occur in genetically identified neuron types. We also present algorithms to predict spiking pattern proportions from ion channel density distributions, and vice versa. Neurons are often classified by spiking pattern. Yet, some neurons exhibit distinct patterns under subtly different test conditions, which suggests that they operate near an abrupt transition, or bifurcation. A set of such neurons may exhibit heterogeneous spiking patterns not because of qualitative differences in which ion channels they express, but rather because quantitative differences in expression levels cause neurons to operate on opposite sides of a bifurcation. Neurons in the spinal dorsal horn, for example, respond to somatic current injection with patterns that include tonic, single, gap, delayed and reluctant spiking. It is unclear whether these patterns reflect five cell populations (defined by distinct ion channel expression patterns), heterogeneity within a single population, or some combination thereof. We reproduced all five spiking patterns in a computational model by

  6. Central connectivity of transient receptor potential melastatin 8-expressing axons in the brain stem and spinal dorsal horn.

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    Yun Sook Kim

    Full Text Available Transient receptor potential melastatin 8 (TRPM8 ion channels mediate the detection of noxious and innocuous cold and are expressed by primary sensory neurons, but little is known about the processing of the TRPM8-mediated cold information within the trigeminal sensory nuclei (TSN and the spinal dorsal horn (DH. To address this issue, we characterized TRPM8-positive (+ neurons in the trigeminal ganglion and investigated the distribution of TRPM8+ axons and terminals, and their synaptic organization in the TSN and in the DH using light and electron microscopic immunohistochemistry in transgenic mice expressing a genetically encoded axonal tracer in TRPM8+ neurons. TRPM8 was expressed in a fraction of small myelinated primary afferent fibers (23.7% and unmyelinated fibers (76.3%, suggesting that TRPM8-mediated cold is conveyed via C and Aδ afferents. TRPM8+ axons were observed in all TSN, but at different densities in the dorsal and ventral areas of the rostral TSN, which dominantly receive sensory afferents from intra- and peri-oral structures and from the face, respectively. While synaptic boutons arising from Aδ and non-peptidergic C afferents usually receive many axoaxonic contacts and form complex synaptic arrangements, TRPM8+ boutons arising from afferents of the same classes of fibers showed a unique synaptic connectivity; simple synapses with one or two dendrites and sparse axoaxonic contacts. These findings suggest that TRPM8-mediated cold is conveyed via a specific subset of C and Aδ afferent neurons and is processed in a unique manner and differently in the TSN and DH.

  7. Central connectivity of transient receptor potential melastatin 8-expressing axons in the brain stem and spinal dorsal horn.

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    Kim, Yun Sook; Park, Jun Hong; Choi, Su Jung; Bae, Jin Young; Ahn, Dong Kuk; McKemy, David D; Bae, Yong Chul

    2014-01-01

    Transient receptor potential melastatin 8 (TRPM8) ion channels mediate the detection of noxious and innocuous cold and are expressed by primary sensory neurons, but little is known about the processing of the TRPM8-mediated cold information within the trigeminal sensory nuclei (TSN) and the spinal dorsal horn (DH). To address this issue, we characterized TRPM8-positive (+) neurons in the trigeminal ganglion and investigated the distribution of TRPM8+ axons and terminals, and their synaptic organization in the TSN and in the DH using light and electron microscopic immunohistochemistry in transgenic mice expressing a genetically encoded axonal tracer in TRPM8+ neurons. TRPM8 was expressed in a fraction of small myelinated primary afferent fibers (23.7%) and unmyelinated fibers (76.3%), suggesting that TRPM8-mediated cold is conveyed via C and Aδ afferents. TRPM8+ axons were observed in all TSN, but at different densities in the dorsal and ventral areas of the rostral TSN, which dominantly receive sensory afferents from intra- and peri-oral structures and from the face, respectively. While synaptic boutons arising from Aδ and non-peptidergic C afferents usually receive many axoaxonic contacts and form complex synaptic arrangements, TRPM8+ boutons arising from afferents of the same classes of fibers showed a unique synaptic connectivity; simple synapses with one or two dendrites and sparse axoaxonic contacts. These findings suggest that TRPM8-mediated cold is conveyed via a specific subset of C and Aδ afferent neurons and is processed in a unique manner and differently in the TSN and DH.

  8. Connectivity of Pacemaker Neurons in the Neonatal Rat Superficial Dorsal Horn

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    Ford, Neil C.; Arbabi, Shahriar; Baccei, Mark L.

    2014-01-01

    Pacemaker neurons with an intrinsic ability to generate rhythmic burst-firing have been characterized in lamina I of the neonatal spinal cord, where they are innervated by high-threshold sensory afferents. However, little is known about the output of these pacemakers, as the neuronal populations which are targeted by pacemaker axons have yet to be identified. The present study combines patch clamp recordings in the intact neonatal rat spinal cord with tract-tracing to demonstrate that lamina I pacemaker neurons contact multiple spinal motor pathways during early life. Retrograde labeling of premotor interneurons with the trans-synaptic virus PRV-152 revealed the presence of burst-firing in PRV-infected lamina I neurons, thereby confirming that pacemakers are synaptically coupled to motor networks in the spinal ventral horn. Notably, two classes of pacemakers could be distinguished in lamina I based on cell size and the pattern of their axonal projections. While small pacemaker neurons possessed ramified axons which contacted ipsilateral motor circuits, large pacemaker neurons had unbranched axons which crossed the midline and ascended rostrally in the contralateral white matter. Recordings from identified spino-parabrachial and spino-PAG neurons indicated the presence of pacemaker activity within neonatal lamina I projection neurons. Overall, these results show that lamina I pacemakers are positioned to regulate both the level of activity in developing motor circuits as well as the ascending flow of nociceptive information to the brain, thus highlighting a potential role for pacemaker activity in the maturation of pain and sensorimotor networks in the CNS. PMID:25380417

  9. Spinal cord injury triggers sensitization of wide dynamic range dorsal horn neurons in segments rostral to the injury.

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    Zhang, Haijun; Xie, Wenrui; Xie, Yikuan

    2005-09-07

    A spinal cord injury (SCI) was produced in adult rats by complete spinal cord transection at L6-S1. Neuropathic pain behaviors similar to the chronic central pain (CCP) syndrome in human, such as thermal hyperalgesia, mechanical allodynia and autotomy, were present in these rats after spinal cord injury. Meanwhile, wide dynamic range (WDR) neurons recorded in the spinal dorsal horn rostral to the lesion responded as high frequency of spontaneous activities, long duration of after-discharges to noxious electrical stimuli and an augmented wind-up to 0.5 Hz stimuli. By using bupivacaine powder, a sodium channel blocker, at the locus of transection immediate after nerve injury, the chronic pain behaviors were prevented; the hyperexcitability of WDR neurons was also substantially reduced. It is suggested that spinal cord transection induces the CCP syndromes, which may be evoked and maintained by the hyperexcitability in WDR neurons rostrally. Reducing the neuronal activity at the site of lesion following injury may prevent the development of CCP after SCI.

  10. Loss of calcineurin in the spinal dorsal horn contributes to neuropathic pain, and intrathecal administration of the phosphatase provides prolonged analgesia.

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    Miletic, Gordana; Lippitt, Jennifer A; Sullivan, Kristine M; Miletic, Vjekoslav

    2013-10-01

    Calcineurin (protein phosphatase 3) regulates synaptic plasticity in the brain. The development of neuropathic pain appears dependent on some of the same mechanisms that underlie brain synaptic plasticity. In this study, we examined whether calcineurin regulates chronic constriction injury (CCI)-elicited plasticity in the spinal dorsal horn. CCI animals exhibited mechanical and thermal hypersensitivity 7 days after ligation of the sciatic nerve. Neither control uninjured nor sham-operated animals exhibited pain behavior. Calcineurin activity and content of its Aα isoform were significantly decreased in the ipsilateral postsynaptic density (PSD) of dorsal horn neurons in CCI animals. Calcineurin activity and content in the contralateral PSD of CCI animals or either side of the dorsal horn in sham animals were not modified. The pain behavior in CCI animals was attenuated by intrathecal application of exogenous calcineurin. The treatment was long-lasting as a single injection provided analgesia for 4 days by restoring the phosphatase's activity and Aα content in the PSD. No signs of toxicity were detected up to 14 days after the single intrathecal injection. Intrathecal application of the calcineurin inhibitor FK-506 elicited pain behavior in control uninjured animals and significantly reduced calcineurin activity in the PSD. CCI may elicit neuropathic pain at least in part as a result of the loss of calcineurin-mediated dephosphorylation in the dorsal horn. Addition of the phosphatase by intrathecal injection reverses the injury-elicited loss and provides prolonged pain relief. Clinical therapy with calcineurin may prove to be a novel, effective, and safe approach in the management of well-established neuropathic pain. Copyright © 2013 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Nerve injury-induced calcium channel alpha-2-delta-1 protein dysregulation leads to increased pre-synaptic excitatory input into deep dorsal horn neurons and neuropathic allodynia

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    Zhou, Chunyi; Luo, Z. David

    2015-01-01

    Background Upregulation of voltage-gated-calcium-channel α2δ1 subunit post spinal nerve ligation injury (SNL) or in α2δ1-overexpressing transgenic (Tg) mice correlates with tactile allodynia, a pain state mediated mainly by Aβ sensory fibers forming synaptic connections with deep dorsal horn neurons. It is not clear however whether dysregulated α2δ1 alters deep dorsal horn synaptic neurotransmission that underlies tactile allodynia development post nerve injury. Methods Tactile allodynia was tested in the SNL and α2δ1 Tg models. Miniature excitatory/inhibitory postsynaptic currents were recorded in deep dorsal horn (DDH) neurons from these animal models using whole cell patch clamp slice recording techniques.. Results There was a significant increase in the frequency, but not amplitude, of miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSC) in DDH neurons that correlated with tactile allodynia in SNL and α2δ1 Tg mice. Gabapentin, an α2δ1 ligand that is known to block tactile allodynia in these models, also normalized mEPSC frequency dose-dependently in DDH neurons from SNL and α2δ1 Tg mice. In contrast, neither frequency nor amplitude of miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents (mIPSC) was altered in DDH neurons from SNL and α2δ1 Tg mice. Conclusion Our data suggest that α2δ1 dysregulation is highly likely contributing to tactile allodynia through a pre-synaptic mechanism involving facilitation of excitatory synaptic neurotransmission in deep dorsal horn of spinal cord. PMID:25691360

  12. Persistent at-level thermal hyperalgesia and tactile allodynia accompany chronic neuronal and astrocyte activation in superficial dorsal horn following mouse cervical contusion spinal cord injury.

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    Jaime L Watson

    Full Text Available In humans, sensory abnormalities, including neuropathic pain, often result from traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI. SCI can induce cellular changes in the CNS, termed central sensitization, that alter excitability of spinal cord neurons, including those in the dorsal horn involved in pain transmission. Persistently elevated levels of neuronal activity, glial activation, and glutamatergic transmission are thought to contribute to the hyperexcitability of these dorsal horn neurons, which can lead to maladaptive circuitry, aberrant pain processing and, ultimately, chronic neuropathic pain. Here we present a mouse model of SCI-induced neuropathic pain that exhibits a persistent pain phenotype accompanied by chronic neuronal hyperexcitability and glial activation in the spinal cord dorsal horn. We generated a unilateral cervical contusion injury at the C5 or C6 level of the adult mouse spinal cord. Following injury, an increase in the number of neurons expressing ΔFosB (a marker of chronic neuronal activation, persistent astrocyte activation and proliferation (as measured by GFAP and Ki67 expression, and a decrease in the expression of the astrocyte glutamate transporter GLT1 are observed in the ipsilateral superficial dorsal horn of cervical spinal cord. These changes have previously been associated with neuronal hyperexcitability and may contribute to altered pain transmission and chronic neuropathic pain. In our model, they are accompanied by robust at-level hyperaglesia in the ipsilateral forepaw and allodynia in both forepaws that are evident within two weeks following injury and persist for at least six weeks. Furthermore, the pain phenotype occurs in the absence of alterations in forelimb grip strength, suggesting that it represents sensory and not motor abnormalities. Given the importance of transgenic mouse technology, this clinically-relevant model provides a resource that can be used to study the molecular mechanisms contributing to

  13. Persistent at-level thermal hyperalgesia and tactile allodynia accompany chronic neuronal and astrocyte activation in superficial dorsal horn following mouse cervical contusion spinal cord injury.

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    Watson, Jaime L; Hala, Tamara J; Putatunda, Rajarshi; Sannie, Daniel; Lepore, Angelo C

    2014-01-01

    In humans, sensory abnormalities, including neuropathic pain, often result from traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI). SCI can induce cellular changes in the CNS, termed central sensitization, that alter excitability of spinal cord neurons, including those in the dorsal horn involved in pain transmission. Persistently elevated levels of neuronal activity, glial activation, and glutamatergic transmission are thought to contribute to the hyperexcitability of these dorsal horn neurons, which can lead to maladaptive circuitry, aberrant pain processing and, ultimately, chronic neuropathic pain. Here we present a mouse model of SCI-induced neuropathic pain that exhibits a persistent pain phenotype accompanied by chronic neuronal hyperexcitability and glial activation in the spinal cord dorsal horn. We generated a unilateral cervical contusion injury at the C5 or C6 level of the adult mouse spinal cord. Following injury, an increase in the number of neurons expressing ΔFosB (a marker of chronic neuronal activation), persistent astrocyte activation and proliferation (as measured by GFAP and Ki67 expression), and a decrease in the expression of the astrocyte glutamate transporter GLT1 are observed in the ipsilateral superficial dorsal horn of cervical spinal cord. These changes have previously been associated with neuronal hyperexcitability and may contribute to altered pain transmission and chronic neuropathic pain. In our model, they are accompanied by robust at-level hyperaglesia in the ipsilateral forepaw and allodynia in both forepaws that are evident within two weeks following injury and persist for at least six weeks. Furthermore, the pain phenotype occurs in the absence of alterations in forelimb grip strength, suggesting that it represents sensory and not motor abnormalities. Given the importance of transgenic mouse technology, this clinically-relevant model provides a resource that can be used to study the molecular mechanisms contributing to neuropathic pain

  14. [Effect of electroacupuncture on phosphorylation of NR2B at Tyr 1742 site in the spinal dorsal horn of CFA rats].

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    Liang, Yi; Fang, Jian-Qiao; Fang, Jun-Fan; Du, Jun-Ying; Qiu, Yu-Jie; Liu, Jin

    2013-10-01

    To observe the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) on phosphorylation of spinal NR2B at Tyr 1742 site in complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) induced inflammatory pain rats. METHods Forty male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into normal group (N group, n = 10), the model group (CFA group, n = 15), and the EA group (n = 15). The inflammatory pain model was established by subcutaneous injecting CFA (0.1 mL per rat) into the right hind paw. Paw withdrawal thresholds (PWTs) were measured before CFA injection (as the base), as well as at 24 h, 25 h, 3rd day, and 7th day after CFA injection. Phosphorylation of NR2B at Tyr 1742 site in the ispilateral spinal dorsal horn at the 3rd day post-injection were detected using immunohistochemical assay. PWTs in the CFA group were significantly lower than those of the N group at every detective time point post-injection (P CFA group at 25 h and 3rd day post-injection (P CFA group was up-regulated. Compared with the CFA group, the ratio of p-NR2B positive cells in the ispilateral spinal dorsal horn of rats showed a decreasing tendency in the EA group. EA might effectively inhibit CFA-induced inflammatory pain possibly associated with down-regulating phosphorylation of NR2B at Tyr 1742 site in the ispilateral spinal dorsal horn.

  15. Expression of Nav1.7 in DRG neurons extends from peripheral terminals in the skin to central preterminal branches and terminals in the dorsal horn

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    Black Joel A

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sodium channel Nav1.7 has emerged as a target of considerable interest in pain research, since loss-of-function mutations in SCN9A, the gene that encodes Nav1.7, are associated with a syndrome of congenital insensitivity to pain, gain-of-function mutations are linked to the debiliting chronic pain conditions erythromelalgia and paroxysmal extreme pain disorder, and upregulated expression of Nav1.7 accompanies pain in diabetes and inflammation. Since Nav1.7 has been implicated as playing a critical role in pain pathways, we examined by immunocytochemical methods the expression and distribution of Nav1.7 in rat dorsal root ganglia neurons, from peripheral terminals in the skin to central terminals in the spinal cord dorsal horn. Results Nav1.7 is robustly expressed within the somata of peptidergic and non-peptidergic DRG neurons, and along the peripherally- and centrally-directed C-fibers of these cells. Nav1.7 is also expressed at nodes of Ranvier in a subpopulation of Aδ-fibers within sciatic nerve and dorsal root. The peripheral terminals of DRG neurons within skin, intraepidermal nerve fibers (IENF, exhibit robust Nav1.7 immunolabeling. The central projections of DRG neurons in the superficial lamina of spinal cord dorsal horn also display Nav1.7 immunoreactivity which extends to presynaptic terminals. Conclusions The expression of Nav1.7 in DRG neurons extends from peripheral terminals in the skin to preterminal central branches and terminals in the dorsal horn. These data support a major contribution for Nav1.7 in pain pathways, including action potential electrogenesis, conduction along axonal trunks and depolarization/invasion of presynaptic axons. The findings presented here may be important for pharmaceutical development, where target engagement in the right compartment is essential.

  16. Stimulation-induced expression of immediate early gene proteins in the dorsal horn is increased in neuropathy.

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    Bojovic, Ognjen; Bramham, Clive R; Tjølsen, Arne

    2016-01-01

    Peripheral neuropathic pain is described as a pain state caused by an injury or dysfunction of the nervous system, and could have clinical manifestations such as hyperalgesia, allodynia and spontaneous pain. The development of neuropathic pain may depend on long-term forms of neuronal plasticity in the spinal cord (SC). Expression of the immediate early gene proteins (IEGPs) Arc, Zif268, and c-Fos are implicated in establishment of long-term potentiation (LTP) induced by conditioning stimulation (CS) of primary afferent fibres. However, the impact of the neuropathic state (Bennett's model) on CS-induced expression of IEGPs has not been studied. The aim of this study was to compare the levels of Arc, c-Fos and Zif268 immunoreactivity prior to and after conditioning stimulation in animals with developed neuropathic pain, with sham operated, non-ligated controls. Twenty-four animals were divided equally into the neuropathic and non-neuropathic groups. Neuropathic pain was induced in all animals by conducting a loose ligation of the sciatic nerve with Chromic Catgut 4.0 sutures 7 days prior to conditioning stimulation or sham operation. The loose ligation was performed by placing sutures around the sciatic nerve compressing the nerve slightly just enough to reduce but not completely diminish the perineural circulation. A state of neuropathy was confirmed by a significant decrease in mechanical withdrawal threshold measured by von Frey's fibres. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed on transverse sections obtained from the L3-L5 segments of the SC at 2 and 6h post-CS and IEGP positive cells were counted in lamina I and II of the dorsal horn. During statistical analyses, the groups were compared by means of analysis of variance (univariate general linear model). If significant differences were found, each set of animals was compared with the sham group with post hoc Tukey's multiple comparison test. Strikingly, all IEGPs exhibited a significant increase in

  17. Central α-adrenoceptors contribute to mustard oil-induced central sensitization in the rat medullary dorsal horn.

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    Wang, H; Xie, Y F; Chiang, C Y; Dostrovsky, J O; Sessle, B J

    2013-04-16

    Our previous studies have demonstrated that application of the inflammatory irritant mustard oil (MO) to the tooth pulp produces trigeminal central sensitization that includes increases in mechanoreceptive field size and responses to noxious stimuli and decrease in activation threshold in brainstem nociceptive neurons of trigeminal subnucleus caudalis (the medullary dorsal horn, MDH). The aim of the present study was to test if central noradrenergic processes are involved in the central sensitization of MDH neurons and if α1-adrenoceptors or α2-adrenoceptors or both are involved. In urethane/α-chloralose-anesthetized rats, the activity of extracellularly recorded and functionally identified single nociceptive neurons in the MDH was studied. Continuous intrathecal (i.t.) superfusion of the adrenergic modulator guanethidine and α-adrenoceptor blocker phentolamine or selective α1-adrenoceptor antagonist prazosin over the medulla strongly attenuated all three MO-induced parameters of central sensitization in the MDH nociceptive neurons, compared to phosphate-buffered saline (as vehicle control). In contrast, i.t. superfusion of the selective α2-adrenoceptor antagonist yohimbine had little effect on the mechanoreceptive field expansion and the decreased mechanical activation threshold, and indeed facilitated responses to noxious stimuli of sensitized nociceptive neurons. Superfusion of each of the four chemicals alone did not affect baseline nociceptive neuronal properties. These findings provide the first documentation of the involvement of central noradrenergic processes in MDH in the development of the central sensitization, and that α1- and α2-adrenoceptors may be differentially involved. Copyright © 2013 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The homeodomain factor Gbx1 is required for locomotion and cell specification in the dorsal spinal cord

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    Hamid Meziane

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Dorsal horn neurons in the spinal cord integrate and relay sensory information to higher brain centers. These neurons are organized in specific laminae and different transcription factors are involved in their specification. The murine homeodomain Gbx1 protein is expressed in the mantle zone of the spinal cord at E12.5-13.5, correlating with the appearance of a discernable dorsal horn around E14 and eventually defining a narrow layer in the dorsal horn around perinatal stages. At postnatal stages, Gbx1 identifies a specific subpopulation of GABAergic neurons in the dorsal spinal cord. We have generated a loss of function mutation for Gbx1 and analyzed its consequences during spinal cord development. Gbx1−/− mice are viable and can reproduce as homozygous null mutants. However, the adult mutant mice display an altered gait during forward movement that specifically affects the hindlimbs. This abnormal gait was evaluated by a series of behavioral tests, indicating that locomotion is impaired, but not muscle strength or motor coordination. Molecular analysis showed that the development of the dorsal horn is not profoundly affected in Gbx1−/− mutant mice. However, analysis of terminal neuronal differentiation revealed that the proportion of GABAergic inhibitory interneurons in the superficial dorsal horn is diminished. Our study unveiled a role for Gbx1 in specifying a subset of GABAergic neurons in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord involved in the control of posterior limb movement.

  19. Selective plasticity of primary afferent innervation to the dorsal horn and autonomic nuclei following lumbosacral ventral root avulsion and reimplantation in long term studies.

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    Wu, Lisa; Wu, Jun; Chang, Huiyi H; Havton, Leif A

    2012-02-01

    Previous studies involving injuries to the nerves of the cauda equina and the conus medullaris have shown that lumbosacral ventral root avulsion in rat models results in denervation and dysfunction of the lower urinary tract, retrograde and progressive cell death of the axotomized motor and parasympathetic neurons, as well as the emergence of neuropathic pain. Root reimplantation has also been shown to ameliorate several of these responses, but experiments thus far have been limited to studying the effects of lesion and reimplantation local to the lumbosacral region. Here, we have expanded the region of investigation after lumbosacral ventral root avulsion and reimplantation to include the thoracolumbar sympathetic region of the spinal cord. Using a retrograde tracer injected into the major pelvic ganglion, we were able to define the levels of the spinal cord that contain sympathetic preganglionic neurons innervating the lower urinary tract. We have conducted studies on the effects of the lumbosacral ventral root avulsion and reimplantation models on the afferent innervation of the dorsal horn and autonomic nuclei at both thoracolumbar and lumbosacral levels through immunohistochemistry for the markers calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and vesicular glutamate transporter 1 (VGLUT1). Surprisingly, our experiments reveal a selective and significant decrease of CGRP-positive innervation in the dorsal horn at thoracolumbar levels that is partially restored with root reimplantation. However, no similar changes were detected at the lumbosacral levels despite the injury and repair targeting efferent neurons, and being performed at the lumbosacral levels. Despite the changes evident in the thoracolumbar dorsal horn, we find no changes in afferent innervation of the autonomic nuclei at either sympathetic or parasympathetic segmental levels by CGRP or VGLUT1. We conclude that even remote, efferent root injuries and repair procedures can have an effect on remote and non

  20. Long-term actions of interleukin-1beta on delay and tonic firing neurons in rat superficial dorsal horn and their relevance to central sensitization.

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    Gustafson-Vickers, Sabrina L; Lu, Van B; Lai, Aaron Y; Todd, Kathryn G; Ballanyi, Klaus; Smith, Peter A

    2008-12-17

    Cytokines such as interleukin 1beta (IL-1beta) have been implicated in the development of central sensitization that is characteristic of neuropathic pain. To examine its long-term effect on nociceptive processing, defined medium organotypic cultures of rat spinal cord were exposed to 100 pM IL-1beta for 6-8 d. Interleukin effects in the dorsal horn were examined by whole-cell patch-clamp recording and Ca(2+) imaging techniques. Examination of the cultures with confocal Fluo-4 AM imaging showed that IL-1beta increased the change in intracellular Ca(2+) produced by exposure to 35-50 mM K+. This is consistent with a modest increase in overall dorsal horn excitability. Despite this, IL-1beta did not have a direct effect on rheobase or resting membrane potential nor did it selectively destroy any specific neuronal population. All effects were instead confined to changes in synaptic transmission. A variety of pre- and postsynaptic actions of IL-1beta were seen in five different electrophysiologically-defined neuronal phenotypes. In putative excitatory 'delay' neurons, cytokine treatment increased the amplitude of spontaneous EPSC's (sEPSC) and decreased the frequency of spontaneous IPSC's (sIPSC). These effects would be expected to increase dorsal horn excitability and to facilitate the transfer of nociceptive information. However, other actions of IL-1beta included disinhibition of putative inhibitory 'tonic' neurons and an increase in the amplitude of sIPSC's in 'delay' neurons. Since spinal microglial activation peaks between 3 and 7 days after the initiation of chronic peripheral nerve injury and these cells release IL-1beta at this time, our findings define some of the neurophysiological mechanisms whereby nerve-injury induced release of IL-1beta may contribute to the central sensitization associated with chronic neuropathic pain.

  1. Long-term actions of interleukin-1β on delay and tonic firing neurons in rat superficial dorsal horn and their relevance to central sensitization

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    Ballanyi Klaus

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cytokines such as interleukin 1β (IL-1β have been implicated in the development of central sensitization that is characteristic of neuropathic pain. To examine its long-term effect on nociceptive processing, defined medium organotypic cultures of rat spinal cord were exposed to 100 pM IL-1β for 6–8 d. Interleukin effects in the dorsal horn were examined by whole-cell patch-clamp recording and Ca2+ imaging techniques. Results Examination of the cultures with confocal Fluo-4 AM imaging showed that IL-1β increased the change in intracellular Ca2+ produced by exposure to 35–50 mM K+. This is consistent with a modest increase in overall dorsal horn excitability. Despite this, IL-1β did not have a direct effect on rheobase or resting membrane potential nor did it selectively destroy any specific neuronal population. All effects were instead confined to changes in synaptic transmission. A variety of pre- and postsynaptic actions of IL-1β were seen in five different electrophysiologically-defined neuronal phenotypes. In putative excitatory 'delay' neurons, cytokine treatment increased the amplitude of spontaneous EPSC's (sEPSC and decreased the frequency of spontaneous IPSC's (sIPSC. These effects would be expected to increase dorsal horn excitability and to facilitate the transfer of nociceptive information. However, other actions of IL-1β included disinhibition of putative inhibitory 'tonic' neurons and an increase in the amplitude of sIPSC's in 'delay' neurons. Conclusion Since spinal microglial activation peaks between 3 and 7 days after the initiation of chronic peripheral nerve injury and these cells release IL-1β at this time, our findings define some of the neurophysiological mechanisms whereby nerve-injury induced release of IL-1β may contribute to the central sensitization associated with chronic neuropathic pain.

  2. Localization of cytochrome oxidase in the mammalian spinal cord and dorsal root ganglia, with quantitative analysis of ventral horn cells in monkeys.

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    Wong-Riley, M T; Kageyama, G H

    1986-03-01

    The spinal cord and dorsal root ganglia of mice, rats, cats, squirrel monkeys, and macaque monkeys were examined at both the light and electron microscopic levels for cytochrome oxidase activity. A similar histochemical pattern prevailed in all of the species examined. While the spinal gray exhibited a heterogeneous but consistent distribution of the enzyme, the white matter was only lightly stained. Highly reactive neurons were either singly scattered or aggregated into discrete clusters. The dorsal nucleus of Clarke, the lateral cervical nucleus (cat), the intermediolateral cell columns of the thoracic and upper lumbar levels, and selected groups of ventral horn neurons formed moderate to darkly reactive cell clusters, whereas fusiform and multipolar cells of Waldeyer in the marginal layer, small fusiform neurons in the ventral gray, funicular cells in the white matter, and ventral horn neurons of varying sizes tended to stand out against the neuropil as singly reactive neurons. At the electron microscopic level, reactive neurons were characterized by a greater packing density of darkly reactive mitochondria, while lightly reactive ones had fewer mitochondria, most of which showed very little reaction product. Reactive mitochondria were also found in the neuropil, mainly in dendritic profiles and some axon terminals. Glial cells, in general, were not very reactive. Ventral horn neurons from three macaque monkeys were measured for somatic areas and optical densities of cytochrome oxidase reaction product. A total of 1,770 neurons from representative sections of the cervical, thoracic, lumbar, and sacral cords of these animals were analyzed. The results indicated that the distribution of cell sizes as well as optical densities at every level of the cord fell on a continuum. Analysis of the regression coefficients revealed that the slopes were negative for all levels, indicating that there was a general inverse relationship between cell size and optical densities

  3. Identification of 5-HT receptor subtypes enhancing inhibitory transmission in the rat spinal dorsal horn in vitro.

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    Xie, Du-Jie; Uta, Daisuke; Feng, Peng-Yu; Wakita, Masahito; Shin, Min-Chul; Furue, Hidemasa; Yoshimura, Megumu

    2012-08-20

    5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) is one of the major neurotransmitters widely distributed in the CNS. Several 5-HT receptor subtypes have been identified in the spinal dorsal horn which act on both pre- and postsynaptic sites of excitatory and inhibitory neurons. However, the receptor subtypes and sites of actions as well as underlying mechanism are not clarified rigorously. Several electrophysiological studies have been performed to investigate the effects of 5-HT on excitatory transmission in substantia gelatinosa (SG) of the spinal cord. In the present study, to understand the effects of 5-HT on the inhibitory synaptic transmission and to identify receptor subtypes, the blind whole cell recordings were performed from SG neurons of rat spinal cord slices. Bath applied 5-HT (50 μM) increased the frequency but not amplitudes of spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents (sIPSCs) in 58% of neurons, and both amplitude and frequency in 23% of neurons. The frequencies of GABAergic and glycinergic mIPSCs were both enhanced. TTX (0.5 μM) had no effect on the increasing frequency, while the enhancement of amplitude of IPSCs was eliminated. Evoked-IPSCs (eIPSCs) induced by focal stimulation near the recording neurons in the presence of CNQX and APV were enhanced in amplitude by 5-HT. In the presence of Ba(2+) (1 mM), a potassium channel blocker, 5-HT had no effect on both frequency and amplitude. A 5-HT(2A) receptor agonist, TCB-2 mimicked the 5-HT effect, and ketanserin, an antagonist of 5-HT(2A) receptor, inhibited the effect of 5-HT partially and TCB-2 almost completely. A 5-HT(2C) receptor agonist WAY 161503 mimicked the 5-HT effect and this effect was blocked by a 5-HT(2C) receptor antagonist, N-desmethylclozapine. The amplitudes of sIPSCs were unaffected by 5-HT(2A) or 5-HT(2C) agonists. A 5-HT(3) receptor agonist mCPBG enhanced both amplitude and frequency of sIPSCs. This effect was blocked by a 5-HT(3) receptor antagonist ICS-205,930. The perfusion of 5-HT(2B

  4. Upregulation of calcium channel alpha-2-delta-1 subunit in dorsal horn contributes to spinal cord injury-induced tactile allodynia.

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    Kusuyama, Kazuki; Tachibana, Toshiya; Yamanaka, Hiroki; Okubo, Masamichi; Yoshiya, Shinichi; Noguchi, Koichi

    2018-01-31

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) commonly results not only in motor paralysis but also in the emergence of neuropathic pain (NeuP), both of which can impair the quality of life for patients with SCI. In the clinical field, it is well known that pregabalin, which binds to the voltage-gated calcium channel alpha-2-delta-1 (α 2 δ-1) subunit has therapeutic effects on NeuP after SCI. A previous study has demonstrated that SCI increased α 2 δ-1 in the L4-L6 dorsal spinal cord of SCI rats by Western blot analysis and that the increase of α 2 δ-1 was correlated with tactile allodynia of the hind paw. However, the detailed feature of an increase in α 2 δ-1 protein in the spinal dorsal horn and the mechanism of pregabalin effect on SCI-induced NeuP have not been fully examined. This study aimed to examine the detailed distribution of α 2 δ-1 expression in the lumbar spinal cord after thoracic SCI in rats and the correlation of the therapeutic effect of pregabalin in SCI rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent thoracic (T10) spinal cord contusion injury using the IH impactor device. Spinal cord injury rats received pregabalin (30 mg/kg) once a day for 2 weeks over a 4-week period after SCI. The mechanical threshold in the rat hind paw was measured over 4 weeks. Alpha-2-delta-1 expression in the lumbar spinal cord and in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) was analyzed using immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization histochemistry. A significant reduction of the withdrawal threshold of mechanical stimuli to the hind paw was observed for 2 weeks and continued at least 4 weeks after SCI. In the control rats, expression of α 2 δ-1 immunoreactivity was detected mainly in laminae I and II in the lumbar dorsal horn. Thoracic SCI significantly increased α 2 δ-1 immunoreactivity in laminae I and II in the lumbar dorsal horn 4 weeks after SCI; however, thoracic SCI did not affect the expression of α 2 δ-1 mRNA in the L4 and L5 DRGs. Meanwhile, the signal intensity of α 2

  5. Pulsed and continuous radiofrequency current adjacent to the cervical dorsal root ganglion of the rat induces late cellular activity in the dorsal horn.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zundert, J. van; Louw, A.J. de; Joosten, E.A.J.; Kessels, A.G.H.; Honig, W.; Dederen, P.J.W.C.; Veening, J.G.; Vles, J.S.; Kleef, M. van

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pulsed radiofrequency treatment has recently been described as a non-neurodestructive or minimally neurodestructive alternative to radiofrequency heat lesions. In clinical practice long-lasting results of pulsed radiofrequency treatment adjacent to the cervical dorsal root ganglion for

  6. Pronociceptive and Antinociceptive Effects of Buprenorphine in the Spinal Cord Dorsal Horn Cover a Dose Range of Four Orders of Magnitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhold, Katharina J.; Drdla-Schutting, Ruth; Honsek, Silke D.; Forsthuber, Liesbeth

    2015-01-01

    Due to its distinct pharmacological profile and lower incidence of adverse events compared with other opioids, buprenorphine is considered a safe option for pain and substitution therapy. However, despite its wide clinical use, little is known about the synaptic effects of buprenorphine in nociceptive pathways. Here, we demonstrate dose-dependent, bimodal effects of buprenorphine on transmission at C-fiber synapses in rat spinal cord dorsal horn in vivo. At an analgesically active dose of 1500 μg·kg−1, buprenorphine reduced the strength of spinal C-fiber synapses. This depression required activation of spinal opioid receptors, putatively μ1-opioid receptors, as indicated by its sensitivity to spinal naloxone and to the selective μ1-opioid receptor antagonist naloxonazine. In contrast, a 15,000-fold lower dose of buprenorphine (0.1 μg·kg−1), which caused thermal and mechanical hyperalgesia in behaving animals, induced an enhancement of transmission at spinal C-fiber synapses. The ultra-low-dose buprenorphine-induced synaptic facilitation was mediated by supraspinal naloxonazine-insensitive, but CTOP-sensitive μ-opioid receptors, descending serotonergic pathways, and activation of spinal glial cells. Selective inhibition of spinal 5-hydroxytryptamine-2 receptors (5-HT2Rs), putatively located on spinal astrocytes, abolished both the induction of synaptic facilitation and the hyperalgesia elicited by ultra-low-dose buprenorphine. Our study revealed that buprenorphine mediates its modulatory effects on transmission at spinal C-fiber synapses by dose dependently acting on distinct μ-opioid receptor subtypes located at different levels of the neuraxis. PMID:26134641

  7. 49 CFR 222.45 - When is a railroad required to cease routine sounding of locomotive horns at crossings?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... sounding of locomotive horns at crossings? 222.45 Section 222.45 Transportation Other Regulations Relating... Horns at Groups of Crossings-Quiet Zones § 222.45 When is a railroad required to cease routine sounding..., a railroad shall refrain from, or cease, routine sounding of the locomotive horn at all public...

  8. Allopregnanolone suppresses mechanical allodynia and internalization of neurokinin-1 receptors at the spinal dorsal horn in a rat postoperative pain model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Masahide; Fukuda, Taeko; Sato, Yasuhiro; Takasusuki, Toshifumi; Tanaka, Makoto

    2018-01-01

    To identify a new strategy for postoperative pain management, we investigated the analgesic effects of allopregnanolone (Allo) in an incisional pain model, and also assessed its effects on the activities of the primary afferent fibers at the dorsal horn. In experiment 1, 45 rats were assigned to Control, Allo small-dose (0.16 mg/kg), and Allo large-dose (1.6 mg/kg) groups (n = 15 in each). The weight bearing and mechanical withdrawal thresholds of the hind limb were measured before and at 2, 24, 48, and 168 h after Brennan's surgery. In experiment 2, 16 rats were assigned to Control and Allo (0.16 mg/kg) groups (n = 8 in each). The degree of spontaneous pain was measured using the grimace scale after the surgery. Activities of the primary afferent fibers in the spinal cord (L6) were evaluated using immunohistochemical staining. In experiment 1, the withdrawal threshold of the Allo small-dose group was significantly higher than that of the Control group at 2 h after surgery. Intergroup differences in weight bearing were not significant. In experiment 2, intergroup differences in the grimace scale scores were not significant. Substance P release in the Allo (0.16 mg/kg) group was significantly lower than that in the Control group. Systemic administration of Allo inhibited mechanical allodynia and activities of the primary afferent fibers at the dorsal horn in a rat postoperative pain model. Allo was proposed as a candidate for postoperative pain management.

  9. Neuropeptide Y receptor-expressing dorsal horn neurons: role in nocifensive reflex and operant responses to aversive cold after CFA inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemons, L L; Wiley, R G

    2012-08-02

    The spinal Neuropeptide Y (NPY) system is a potential target for development of new pain therapeutics. NPY and two of its receptors (Y1 and Y2) are found in the superficial dorsal horn of the spinal cord, a key area of nociceptive gating and modulation. Lumbar intrathecal injection of (NPY) is antinociceptive, reducing hyper-reflexia to thermal and mechanical stimulation, particularly after nerve injury and inflammation. We have also shown that intrathecal injection of the targeted cytotoxin, Neuropeptide Y-sap (NPY-sap), is also antinociceptive, reducing nocifensive reflex responses to noxious heat and formalin. In the present study, we sought to determine the role of dorsal horn Y1R-expressing neurons in pain by destroying them with NPY-sap and testing the rats on three operant tasks. Lumbar intrathecal NPY-sap (1) reduced Complete Freund's Adjuvant (CFA)-induced hyper-reflexia on the 10°C cold plate, (2) reduced cold aversion on the thermal preference and escape tasks, (3) was analgesic to noxious heat on the escape task, (4) reduced the CFA-induced allodynia to cold temperatures experienced on the thermal preference, feeding interference, and escape tasks, and (5) did not inhibit or interfere with morphine analgesia. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. The effects of protein phosphatase inhibitors on the duration of central sensitization of rat dorsal horn neurons following injection of capsaicin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Li

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Protein kinases and phosphatases catalyze opposing reactions of phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, which may modulate the function of crucial signaling proteins in central nervous system. This is an important mechanism in the regulation of intracellular signal transduction pathways in nociceptive neurons. To explore the role of protein phosphatase in central sensitization of spinal nociceptive neurons following peripheral noxious stimulation, using electrophysiological recording techniques, we investigated the role of two inhibitors of protein phosphatase type 2A (PP2A, fostriecin and okadaic acid (OA, on the responses of dorsal horn neurons to mechanical stimuli in anesthetized rats following intradermal injection of capsaicin. Central sensitization was initiated by injection of capsaicin into the plantar surface of the left paw. A microdialysis fiber was implanted in the spinal cord dorsal horn for perfusion of ACSF and inhibitors of PP2A, fostriecin and okadaic acid. We found that in ACSF pretreated animals, the responses to innocuous and noxious stimuli following capsaicin injection increased over a period of 15 min after injection and had mostly recovered by 60 min later. However, pre- or post-treatment with the phosphatase inhibitors, fostriecin or OA, significantly enhanced the effects of capsaicin injection by prolonging the responses to more than 3 hours. These results confirm that blockade of protein phosphatase activity may potentiate central sensitization of nociceptive transmission in the spinal cord following capsaicin injection and indicate that protein phosphatase type 2A may be involved in determining the duration of capsaicin-induced central sensitization.

  11. Different forms of glycine- and GABAA-receptor mediated inhibitory synaptic transmission in mouse superficial and deep dorsal horn neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brichta Alan M

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neurons in superficial (SDH and deep (DDH laminae of the spinal cord dorsal horn receive sensory information from skin, muscle, joints and viscera. In both regions, glycine- (GlyR and GABAA-receptors (GABAARs contribute to fast synaptic inhibition. For rat, several types of GABAAR coexist in the two regions and each receptor type provides different contributions to inhibitory tone. Recent work in mouse has discovered an additional type of GlyR, (containing alpha 3 subunits in the SDH. The contribution of differing forms of the GlyR to sensory processing in SDH and DDH is not understood. Methods and Results Here we compare fast inhibitory synaptic transmission in mouse (P17-37 SDH and DDH using patch-clamp electrophysiology in transverse spinal cord slices (L3-L5 segments, 23°C. GlyR-mediated mIPSCs were detected in 74% (25/34 and 94% (25/27 of SDH and DDH neurons, respectively. In contrast, GABAAR-mediated mIPSCs were detected in virtually all neurons in both regions (93%, 14/15 and 100%, 18/18. Several Gly- and GABAAR properties also differed in SDH vs. DDH. GlyR-mediated mIPSC amplitude was smaller (37.1 ± 3.9 vs. 64.7 ± 5.0 pA; n = 25 each, decay time was slower (8.5 ± 0.8 vs. 5.5 ± 0.3 ms, and frequency was lower (0.15 ± 0.03 vs. 0.72 ± 0.13 Hz in SDH vs. DDH neurons. In contrast, GABAAR-mediated mIPSCs had similar amplitudes (25.6 ± 2.4, n = 14 vs. 25. ± 2.0 pA, n = 18 and frequencies (0.21 ± 0.08 vs. 0.18 ± 0.04 Hz in both regions; however, decay times were slower (23.0 ± 3.2 vs. 18.9 ± 1.8 ms in SDH neurons. Mean single channel conductance underlying mIPSCs was identical for GlyRs (54.3 ± 1.6 pS, n = 11 vs. 55.7 ± 1.8, n = 8 and GABAARs (22.7 ± 1.7 pS, n = 10 vs. 22.4 ± 2.0 pS, n = 11 in both regions. We also tested whether the synthetic endocanabinoid, methandamide (methAEA, had direct effects on Gly- and GABAARs in each spinal cord region. MethAEA (5 μM reduced GlyR-mediated mIPSC frequency in SDH

  12. Preprotachykinin A is expressed by a distinct population of excitatory neurons in the mouse superficial spinal dorsal horn including cells that respond to noxious and pruritic stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez-Mecinas, Maria; Bell, Andrew M; Marin, Alina; Taylor, Rebecca; Boyle, Kieran A; Furuta, Takahiro; Watanabe, Masahiko; Polgár, Erika; Todd, Andrew J

    2017-03-01

    The superficial dorsal horn, which is the main target for nociceptive and pruritoceptive primary afferents, contains a high density of excitatory interneurons. Our understanding of their roles in somatosensory processing has been restricted by the difficulty of distinguishing functional populations among these cells. We recently defined 3 nonoverlapping populations among the excitatory neurons, based on the expression of neurotensin, neurokinin B, and gastrin-releasing peptide. Here we identify and characterise another population: neurons that express the tachykinin peptide substance P. We show with immunocytochemistry that its precursor protein (preprotachykinin A, PPTA) can be detected in ∼14% of lamina I-II neurons, and these are concentrated in the outer part of lamina II. Over 80% of the PPTA-positive cells lack the transcription factor Pax2 (which determines an inhibitory phenotype), and these account for ∼15% of the excitatory neurons in this region. They are different from the neurotensin, neurokinin B, or gastrin-releasing peptide neurons, although many of them contain somatostatin, which is widely expressed among superficial dorsal horn excitatory interneurons. We show that many of these cells respond to noxious thermal and mechanical stimuli and to intradermal injection of pruritogens. Finally, we demonstrate that these cells can also be identified in a knock-in Cre mouse line (Tac1), although our findings suggest that there is an additional population of neurons that transiently express PPTA. This population of substance P-expressing excitatory neurons is likely to play an important role in the transmission of signals that are perceived as pain and itch.

  13. An N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor mediated large, low-frequency, spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic current in neonatal rat spinal dorsal horn neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, L M; Zeng, J; Terman, G W

    2006-09-01

    Examples of spontaneous oscillating neural activity contributing to both pathological and physiological states are abundant throughout the CNS. Here we report a spontaneous oscillating intermittent synaptic current located in lamina I of the neonatal rat spinal cord dorsal horn. The spontaneous oscillating intermittent synaptic current is characterized by its large amplitude, slow decay time, and low-frequency. We demonstrate that post-synaptic N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) mediate the spontaneous oscillating intermittent synaptic current, as it is inhibited by magnesium, bath-applied d-2-amino-5-phosphonovalerate (APV), or intracellular MK-801. The NR2B subunit of the NMDAR appears important to this phenomenon, as the NR2B subunit selective NMDAR antagonist, alpha-(4-hydroxphenyl)-beta-methyl-4-benzyl-1-piperidineethanol tartrate (ifenprodil), also partially inhibited the spontaneous oscillating intermittent synaptic current. Inhibition of spontaneous glutamate release by the AMPA/kainate receptor antagonist 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (CNQX) or the mu-opioid receptor agonist [D-Ala2, N-Me-Phe4, Gly5] enkephalin-ol (DAMGO) inhibited the spontaneous oscillating intermittent synaptic current frequency. Marked inhibition of spontaneous oscillating intermittent synaptic current frequency by tetrodotoxin (TTX), but not post-synaptic N-(2,6-dimethylphenylcarbamoylmethyl)triethylammonium bromide (QX-314), suggests that the glutamate release important to the spontaneous oscillating intermittent synaptic current is dependent on active neural processes. Conversely, increasing dorsal horn synaptic glutamate release by GABAA or glycine inhibition increased spontaneous oscillating intermittent synaptic current frequency. Moreover, inhibiting glutamate transporters with threo-beta-benzyloxyaspartic acid (DL-TBOA) increased spontaneous oscillating intermittent synaptic current frequency and decay time. A possible functional role of this spontaneous NMDAR

  14. Tumor necrosis factor α modulates sodium-activated potassium channel SLICK in rat dorsal horn neurons via p38 MAPK activation pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang K

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Kun Wang,1 Feng Wang,1 Jun-Ping Bao,2 Zhi-Yang Xie,1 Lu Chen,1 Bao-Yi Zhou,1 Xin-Hui Xie,2 Xiao-Tao Wu1,2 1Medical School of Southeast University, 2Department of Orthopaedics, Zhongda Hospital, Southeast University, Nanjing, People’s Republic of China Abstract: The dorsal horn (DH of the spinal cord is the integrative center that processes and transmits pain sensation. Abnormal changes in ion channel expression can enhance the excitability of pain-related DH neurons. Sodium-activated potassium (KNa channels are highly expressed particularly in the central nervous system; however, information about whether rat DH neurons express the SLICK channel protein is lacking, and the direct effects on SLICK in response to inflammation and the potential signaling pathway mediating such effects are yet to be elucidated. Here, using cultured DH neurons, we have shown that tumor necrosis factor-α inhibits the total outward potassium current IK and the KNa current predominantly as well as induces a progressive loss of firing accommodation. However, we found that this change in channel activity is offset by the p38 inhibitor SB202190, thereby suggesting the modulation of SLICK channel activity via the p38 MAPK pathway. Furthermore, we have demonstrated that the tumor necrosis factor-α modulation of KNa channels does not occur at the level of SLICK channel gating but arises from possible posttranslational modification. Keywords: p38 MAPK, SLICK channel, neuropathic pain, dorsal horn, TNF-α

  15. TRPA1 in the spinal dorsal horn is involved in post-inflammatory visceral hypersensitivity: in vivo study using TNBS-treated rat model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Q

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Qian Li,1,* Cheng-Hao Guo,2,* Mohammed Ali Chowdhury,1 Tao-Li Dai,1 Wei Han,1,3 1Department of Gastroenterology, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, 2Department of Pathology, Medical School of Shandong University, 3Laboratory of Translational Gastroenterology, Shandong University, Qilu Hospital, Jinan, Shandong Province, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Introduction: The transient receptor potential ankyrin-1 (TRPA1 channel, a pain transducer and amplifier, is drawing increasing attention in the field of visceral hypersensitivity, commonly seen in irritable bowel syndrome and inflammatory bowel disease. However, the role of TRPA1 in visceral nociception during post-inflammatory states is not well defined. Here, we explore the correlation between TRPA1 expression in the spinal dorsal horn (SDH and persistent post-inflammatory visceral hypersensitivity.Methods: We injected rats intracolonically with 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS or vehicle (n=12 per group. Post-inflammatory visceral hypersensitivity was assessed by recording the electromyographic activity of the external oblique muscle in response to colorectal distension. TRPA1 expression and distribution in the spinal cord and colon were examined by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry.Results: Animals exposed to TNBS had more abdominal contractions than vehicle-injected controls (P<0.05, which corresponded to a lower nociceptive threshold. Expression of TRPA1 in the SDH (especially in the substantia gelatinosa and the colon was significantly greater in the TNBS-treated group than in controls (P<0.05. In the SDH, the number of TRPA1-immunopositive neurons was 25.75±5.12 in the control group and 34.25±7.89 in the TNBS-treated group (P=0.023, and integrated optical density values of TRPA1 in the control and TNBS-treated groups were 14,544.63±6,525.54 and 22,532.75±7,608.11, respectively (P=0.041.Conclusion: Our results indicate

  16. Depression of presynaptic excitation by the activation of vanilloid receptor 1 in the rat spinal dorsal horn revealed by optical imaging

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    Ikeda Hiroshi

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this study, we show that capsaicin (CAP depresses primary afferent fiber terminal excitability by acting on vanilloid receptor 1 (TRPV1 channels of primary afferent fibers in adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP- and temperature-dependent manner using two optical imaging methods. First, transverse slices of spinal cord were stained with a voltage-sensitive dye and the net excitation in the spinal dorsal horn was recorded. Prolonged treatment (>20 min with the TRPV1 channel agonist, CAP, resulted in a long-lasting inhibition of the net excitation evoked by single-pulse stimulation of C fiber-activating strength. A shorter application of CAP inhibited the excitation in a concentration-dependent manner and the inhibition was reversed within several minutes. This inhibition was Ca++-dependent, was antagonized by the TRPV1 channel antagonist, capsazepine (CPZ, and the P2X and P2Y antagonist, suramin, and was facilitated by the P2Y agonist, uridine 5'-triphosphate (UTP. The inhibition of excitation was unaffected by bicuculline and strychnine, antagonists of GABAA and glycine receptors, respectively. Raising the perfusate temperature to 39°C from 27°C inhibited the excitation (-3%/°C. This depressant effect was antagonized by CPZ and suramin, but not by the P2X antagonist, 2', 3'-O-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl adenosine 5'-triphosphate (TNP-ATP. Second, in order to record the presynaptic excitation exclusively, we stained the primary afferent fibers anterogradely from the dorsal root. CAP application and a temperature increase from 27°C to 33°C depressed the presynaptic excitation, and CPZ antagonized these effects. Thus, this study showed that presynaptic excitability is modulated by CAP, temperature, and ATP under physiological conditions, and explains the reported central actions of CAP. These results may have clinical importance, especially for the control of pain.

  17. Phosphorylation of ERK in neurokinin 1 receptor-expressing neurons in laminae III and IV of the rat spinal dorsal horn following noxious stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watanabe Masahiko

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a population of large neurons with cell bodies in laminae III and IV of the spinal dorsal horn which express the neurokinin 1 receptor (NK1r and have dendrites that enter the superficial laminae. Although it has been shown that these are all projection neurons and that they are innervated by substance P-containing (nociceptive primary afferents, we know little about their responses to noxious stimuli. In this study we have looked for phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs in these neurons in response to different types of noxious stimulus applied to one hindlimb of anaesthetised rats. The stimuli were mechanical (repeated pinching, thermal (immersion in water at 52°C or chemical (injection of 2% formaldehyde. Results Five minutes after each type of stimulus we observed numerous cells with phosphorylated ERK (pERK in laminae I and IIo, together with scattered positive cells in deeper laminae. We found that virtually all of the lamina III/IV NK1r-immunoreactive neurons contained pERK after each of these stimuli and that in the great majority of cases there was internalisation of the NK1r on the dorsal dendrites of these cells. In addition, we also saw neurons in lamina III that were pERK-positive but lacked the NK1r, and these were particularly evident in animals that had had the pinch stimulus. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that lamina III/IV NK1r-immunoreactive neurons show receptor internalisation and ERK phosphorylation after mechanical, thermal or chemical noxious stimuli.

  18. Study on the Mechanism Underlying the Regulation of the NMDA Receptor Pathway in Spinal Dorsal Horns of Visceral Hypersensitivity Rats by Moxibustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. D. Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Visceral hypersensitivity is enhanced in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS patients. Treatment of IBS visceral pain by moxibustion methods has a long history and rich clinical experience. In the clinic, moxibustion on the Tianshu (ST25 and Shangjuxu (ST37 acupoints can effectively treat bowel disease with visceral pain and diarrhea symptoms. To investigate the regulatory function of moxibustion on the Tianshu (ST25 and Shangjuxu (ST37 acupoints on spinal cord NR1, NR2B, and PKCε protein and mRNA expression in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS visceral hypersensitivity rats, we did some research. In the study, we found that moxibustion effectively relieved the IBS visceral hyperalgesia status of rats. Analgesic effect of moxibustion was similar to intrathecal injection of Ro 25-6981. The expression of NR1, NR2B, and PKCε in the spinal dorsal horns of IBS visceral hyperalgesia rats increased. Moxibustion on the Tianshu and Shangjuxu acupoints might inhibit the visceral hypersensitivity, simultaneously decreasing the expression of NR1, NR2B, and PKCε in spinal cord of IBS visceral hyperalgesia rats. Based on the above experimental results, we hypothesized NR1, NR2B, and PKCε of spinal cord could play an important role in moxibustion inhibiting the process of central sensitization and visceral hyperalgesia state.

  19. Electrophysiological evidence of increased glycine receptor-mediated phasic and tonic inhibition by blockade of glycine transporters in spinal superficial dorsal horn neurons of adult mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misa Oyama

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available To understand the synaptic and/or extrasynaptic mechanisms underlying pain relief by blockade of glycine transporter subtypes GlyT1 and GlyT2, whole-cell recordings were made from dorsal horn neurons in spinal slices from adult mice, and the effects of NFPS and ALX-1393, selective GlyT1 and GlyT2 inhibitors, respectively, on phasic evoked or miniature glycinergic inhibitory postsynaptic currents (eIPSCs or mIPSCs were examined. NFPS and ALX-1393 prolonged the decay phase of eIPSCs without affecting their amplitude. In the presence of tetrodotoxin to record mIPSCs, NFPS and ALX-1393 induced a tonic inward current that was reversed by strychnine. Although NFPS had no statistically significant influences on mIPSCs, ALX-1393 significantly increased their frequency. We then further explored the role of GlyTs in the maintenance of glycinergic IPSCs. To facilitate vesicular release of glycine, repetitive high-frequency stimulation (HFS was applied at 10 Hz for 3 min during continuous recordings of eIPSCs at 0.1 Hz. Prominent suppression of eIPSCs was evident after HFS in the presence of ALX-1393, but not NFPS. Thus, it appears that phasic and tonic inhibition may contribute to the analgesic effects of GlyT inhibitors. However, reduced glycinergic inhibition due to impaired vesicular refilling could hamper the analgesic efficacy of GlyT2 inhibitors.

  20. TRPA1 in the spinal dorsal horn is involved in post-inflammatory visceral hypersensitivity: in vivo study using TNBS-treated rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qian; Guo, Cheng-Hao; Chowdhury, Mohammed Ali; Dai, Tao-Li; Han, Wei

    2016-01-01

    The transient receptor potential ankyrin-1 (TRPA1) channel, a pain transducer and amplifier, is drawing increasing attention in the field of visceral hypersensitivity, commonly seen in irritable bowel syndrome and inflammatory bowel disease. However, the role of TRPA1 in visceral nociception during post-inflammatory states is not well defined. Here, we explore the correlation between TRPA1 expression in the spinal dorsal horn (SDH) and persistent post-inflammatory visceral hypersensitivity. We injected rats intracolonically with 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) or vehicle (n=12 per group). Post-inflammatory visceral hypersensitivity was assessed by recording the electromyographic activity of the external oblique muscle in response to colorectal distension. TRPA1 expression and distribution in the spinal cord and colon were examined by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Animals exposed to TNBS had more abdominal contractions than vehicle-injected controls ( P hypersensitivity in the rat and provides insight into potential therapeutic targets for the control of persistent visceral hypersensitivity.

  1. Firing characteristics of deep dorsal horn neurons after acute spinal transection during administration of agonists for 5-HT1B/1D and NMDA receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaweerattanasinp, Theeradej; Heckman, Charles J.

    2016-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) results in a loss of serotonin (5-HT) to the spinal cord and a loss of inhibition to deep dorsal horn (DDH) neurons, which produces an exaggerated excitatory drive to motoneurons. The mechanism of this excitatory drive could involve the DDH neurons triggering long excitatory postsynaptic potentials in motoneurons, which may ultimately drive muscle spasms. Modifying the activity of DDH neurons with drugs such as NMDA or the 5-HT1B/1D receptor agonist zolmitriptan could have a large effect on motoneuron activity and, therefore, on muscle spasms. In this study, we characterize the firing properties of DDH neurons after acute spinal transection in adult mice during administration of zolmitriptan and NMDA, using the in vitro sacral cord preparation and extracellular electrophysiology. DDH neurons can be categorized into three major types with distinct evoked and spontaneous firing characteristics: burst (bursting), simple (single spiking), and tonic (spontaneously tonic firing) neurons. The burst neurons likely contribute to muscle spasm mechanisms because of their bursting behavior. Only the burst neurons show significant changes in their firing characteristics during zolmitriptan and NMDA administration. Zolmitriptan suppresses the burst neurons by reducing their evoked spikes, burst duration, and spontaneous firing rate. Conversely, NMDA facilitates them by enhancing their burst duration and spontaneous firing rate. These results suggest that zolmitriptan may exert its antispastic effect on the burst neurons via activation of 5-HT1B/1D receptors, whereas activation of NMDA receptors may facilitate the burst neurons in contributing to muscle spasm mechanisms following SCI. PMID:27486104

  2. Firing characteristics of deep dorsal horn neurons after acute spinal transection during administration of agonists for 5-HT1B/1D and NMDA receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaweerattanasinp, Theeradej; Heckman, Charles J; Tysseling, Vicki M

    2016-10-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) results in a loss of serotonin (5-HT) to the spinal cord and a loss of inhibition to deep dorsal horn (DDH) neurons, which produces an exaggerated excitatory drive to motoneurons. The mechanism of this excitatory drive could involve the DDH neurons triggering long excitatory postsynaptic potentials in motoneurons, which may ultimately drive muscle spasms. Modifying the activity of DDH neurons with drugs such as NMDA or the 5-HT 1B/1D receptor agonist zolmitriptan could have a large effect on motoneuron activity and, therefore, on muscle spasms. In this study, we characterize the firing properties of DDH neurons after acute spinal transection in adult mice during administration of zolmitriptan and NMDA, using the in vitro sacral cord preparation and extracellular electrophysiology. DDH neurons can be categorized into three major types with distinct evoked and spontaneous firing characteristics: burst (bursting), simple (single spiking), and tonic (spontaneously tonic firing) neurons. The burst neurons likely contribute to muscle spasm mechanisms because of their bursting behavior. Only the burst neurons show significant changes in their firing characteristics during zolmitriptan and NMDA administration. Zolmitriptan suppresses the burst neurons by reducing their evoked spikes, burst duration, and spontaneous firing rate. Conversely, NMDA facilitates them by enhancing their burst duration and spontaneous firing rate. These results suggest that zolmitriptan may exert its antispastic effect on the burst neurons via activation of 5-HT 1B/1D receptors, whereas activation of NMDA receptors may facilitate the burst neurons in contributing to muscle spasm mechanisms following SCI. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  3. Reactive oxygen species enhance excitatory synaptic transmission in rat spinal dorsal horn neurons by activating TRPA1 and TRPV1 channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishio, N; Taniguchi, W; Sugimura, Y K; Takiguchi, N; Yamanaka, M; Kiyoyuki, Yasukuni; Yamada, H; Miyazaki, N; Yoshida, M; Nakatsuka, T

    2013-09-05

    Central neuropathic pain (CNP) in the spinal cord, such as chronic pain after spinal cord injury (SCI), is an incurable ailment. However, little is known about the spinal cord mechanisms underlying CNP. Recently, reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been recognized to play an important role in CNP of the spinal cord. However, it is unclear how ROS affect synaptic transmission in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord. To clarify how ROS impact on synaptic transmission, we investigated the effects of ROS on synaptic transmission in rat spinal cord substantia gelatinosa (SG) neurons using whole-cell patch-clamp recordings. Administration of tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BOOH), an ROS donor, into the spinal cord markedly increased the frequency and amplitude of spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs) in SG neurons. This t-BOOH-induced enhancement was not suppressed by the Na(+) channel blocker tetrodotoxin. However, in the presence of a non-N-methyl-D-aspartate glutamate receptor antagonist, 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione, t-BOOH did not generate any sEPSCs. Furthermore, in the presence of a transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) channel antagonist (HC-030031) or a transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) channel antagonist (capsazepine or AMG9810), the t-BOOH-induced increase in the frequency of sEPSCs was inhibited. These results indicate that ROS enhance the spontaneous release of glutamate from presynaptic terminals onto SG neurons through TRPA1 and TRPV1 channel activation. Excessive activation of these ion channels by ROS may induce central sensitization in the spinal cord and result in chronic pain such as that following SCI. Copyright © 2013 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Neurokinin-1 (NK-1 receptor and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF gene expression is differentially modulated in the rat spinal dorsal horn and hippocampus during inflammatory pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCarson Kenneth E

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Persistent pain produces complex alterations in sensory pathways of the central nervous system (CNS through activation of various nociceptive mechanisms. However, the effects of pain on higher brain centers, particularly the influence of the stressful component of pain on the limbic system, are poorly understood. Neurokinin-1 (NK-1 receptors and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, known neuromediators of hyperalgesia and spinal central sensitization, have also been implicated in the plasticity and neurodegeneration occurring in the hippocampal formation during exposures to various stressors. Results of this study showed that injections of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA into the hind paw increased NK-1 receptor and BDNF mRNA levels in the ipsilateral dorsal horn, supporting an important role for these nociceptive mediators in the amplification of ascending pain signaling. An opposite effect was observed in the hippocampus, where CFA down-regulated NK-1 receptor and BDNF gene expression, phenomena previously observed in immobilization models of stress and depression. Western blot analyses demonstrated that in the spinal cord, CFA also increased levels of phosphorylated cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB, while in the hippocampus the activation of this transcription factor was significantly reduced, further suggesting that tissue specific transcription of either NK-1 or BDNF genes may be partially regulated by common intracellular transduction mechanisms mediated through activation of CREB. These findings suggest that persistent nociception induces differential regional regulation of NK-1 receptor and BDNF gene expression and CREB activation in the CNS, potentially reflecting varied roles of these neuromodulators in the spinal cord during persistent sensory activation vs. modulation of the higher brain structures such as the hippocampus.

  5. Chronic at-level thermal hyperalgesia following rat cervical contusion spinal cord injury is accompanied by neuronal and astrocyte activation and loss of the astrocyte glutamate transporter, GLT1, in superficial dorsal horn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putatunda, Rajarshi; Hala, Tamara J; Chin, Jeannie; Lepore, Angelo C

    2014-09-18

    Neuropathic pain is a form of pathological nociception that occurs in a significant portion of traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) patients, resulting in debilitating and often long-term physical and psychological burdens. While many peripheral and central mechanisms have been implicated in neuropathic pain, central sensitization of dorsal horn spinothalamic tract (STT) neurons is a major underlying substrate. Furthermore, dysregulation of extracellular glutamate homeostasis and chronic astrocyte activation play important underlying roles in persistent hyperexcitability of these superficial dorsal horn neurons. To date, central sensitization and astrocyte changes have not been characterized in cervical SCI-induced neuropathic pain models, despite the fact that a major portion of SCI patients suffer contusion trauma to cervical spinal cord. In this study, we have characterized 2 rat models of unilateral cervical contusion SCI that behaviorally result in chronic persistence of thermal hyperalgesia in the ipsilateral forepaw. In addition, we find that STT neurons are chronically activated in both models when compared to laminectomy-only uninjured rats. Finally, persistent astrocyte activation and significantly reduced expression of the major CNS glutamate transporter, GLT1, in superficial dorsal horn astrocytes are associated with both excitability changes in STT neurons and the neuropathic pain behavioral phenotype. In conclusion, we have characterized clinically-relevant rodent models of cervical contusion-induced neuropathic pain that result in chronic activation of both STT neurons and astrocytes, as well as compromise in astrocyte glutamate transporter expression. These models can be used as important tools to further study mechanisms underlying neuropathic pain post-SCI and to test potential therapeutic interventions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Painful Cervical Facet Joint Injury Is Accompanied by Changes in the Number of Excitatory and Inhibitory Synapses in the Superficial Dorsal Horn That Differentially Relate to Local Tissue Injury Severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ita, Meagan E; Crosby, Nathan D; Bulka, Ben A; Winkelstein, Beth A

    2017-06-15

    Immunohistochemistry labeled pre- and postsynaptic structural markers to quantify excitatory and inhibitory synapses in the spinal superficial dorsal horn at 14 days after painful facet joint injury in the rat. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between pain and synapse density in the spinal cord after facet injury. Neck pain is a major contributor to disability and often becomes chronic. The cervical facet joints are susceptible to loading-induced painful injury, initiating spinal central sensitization responses. Although excitatory synapse plasticity has been reported in the superficial dorsal horn early after painful facet injury, whether excitatory and/or inhibitory synapse density is altered at a time when pain is maintained is unknown. Rats underwent either a painful C6/C7 facet joint distraction or sham surgery. Mechanical hyperalgesia was measured and immunohistochemistry techniques for synapse quantification were used to quantify excitatory and inhibitory synapse densities in the superficial dorsal horn at day 14. Logarithmic correlation analyses evaluated whether the severity of facet injury correlated with either behavioral or synaptic outcomes. Facet joint injury induces pain that is sustained until day 14 (P Injury severity is significantly correlated with pain at days 1 (P = 0.0011) and 14 (P = 0.0002), but only with inhibitory, not excitatory, synapse density (P = 0.0025) at day 14. This study demonstrates a role for structural plasticity in both excitatory and inhibitory synapses in the maintenance of facet-mediated joint pain, and that altered inhibitory, but not excitatory, synapse density correlates to the severity of painful joint injury. Understanding the functional consequences of this spinal structural plasticity is critical to elucidate mechanisms of chronic joint pain. N /A.

  7. Enhancement by interleukin-1β of AMPA and NMDA receptor-mediated currents in adult rat spinal superficial dorsal horn neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tao; Jiang, Chang-Yu; Fujita, Tsugumi; Luo, Shi-Wen; Kumamoto, Eiichi

    2013-03-28

    Proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β (IL-1β) released from spinal microglia plays an important role in the maintenance of acute and chronic pain states. However, the cellular basis of this action remains poorly understood. Using whole-cell patch-clamp recordings, we examined the action of IL-1β on AMPA- and NMDA-receptor-mediated currents recorded from substantia gelatinosa (SG) neurons of adult rat spinal cord slices which are key sites for regulating nociceptive transmission from the periphery. AMPA- and NMDA-induced currents were increased in peak amplitude by IL-1β in a manner different from each other in SG neurons. These facilitatory actions of IL-1β were abolished by IL-1 receptor (IL-1R) antagonist (IL-1ra), which by itself had no detectable effects on AMPA- and NMDA-induced currents. The AMPA- but not NMDA-induced current facilitated by IL-1β was recovered to control level 30 min after IL-1β washout and largely depressed in Na+-channel blocker tetrodotoxin-containing or nominally Ca2+-free Krebs solution. Minocycline, a microglia inhibitor, blocked the facilitatory effect of IL-1β on AMPA- but not NMDA-induced currents, where minocycline itself depressed NMDA- but had not any effects on AMPA-induced currents. IL-1β enhances AMPA and NMDA responses in SG neurons through IL-1R activation; the former but not latter action is reversible and due to an increase in neuronal activity in a manner dependent on extracellular Ca2+ and minocycline. It is suggested that AMPA and NMDA receptors are positively modulated by IL-1β in a manner different from each other; the former but not latter is mediated by a neurotransmitter released as a result of an increase in neuronal activity. Since IL-1β contributes to nociceptive behavior induced by peripheral nerve or tissue injury, the present findings also reveal an important cellular link between neuronal and glial cells in the spinal dorsal horn.

  8. [Effects of blockade of 5-HT2A receptors in inflammatory site on complete Freund's adjuvant-induced chronic hyperalgesia and neuropeptide Y expression in the spinal dorsal horn in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Bing-Qing; Wu, Bing; Hong, Yanguo; Hu, Wei

    2015-10-25

    5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) released in inflammatory tissues plays a pivotal role in pain hypersensitivity. However, it is not clear whether 5-HT2A receptors in the inflamed tissues mediate this effect. The present study investigated the contribution of 5-HT2A receptors in the periphery to chronic inflammatory pain. Complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) was injected subcutaneously in the hindpaw of rats. The selective 5-HT2A receptor antagonist ketanserin was given in the inflamed site. Paw withdrawal latency responding to heat or mechanical stimuli was measured. Expression of neuropeptide Y (NPY) in the spinal dorsal horn and dorsal root ganglia (DRG) was assayed using immunohistochemistry technique. The results showed that ketanserin administered in the inflamed site inhibited thermal hyperalgesia in a dose-dependent manner (20, 40 and 80 µg) induced by the intraplantar injection of CFA. Ketanserin given once per day at a dose of 80 µg abolished heat hyperalgesia and also attenuated mechanical allodynia on the third day. CFA injection increased the expression of NPY in superficial laminae of the spinal cord, but not in the DRG. The local treatment of ketanserin completely inhibited CFA-induced increase in NPY expression in superficial laminae of the spinal cord. These results indicated that activation of 5-HT2A receptors in the inflamed tissues was involved in the pathogenesis of inflammatory pain and the blockade of 5-HT2A receptors in the periphery could relieve pain hypersensitivity and normalize the cellular disorder in the spinal dorsal horn associated with pathological pain. The present study suggests that the peripheral 5-HT2A receptors can be a promising target for pharmaceutical therapy to treat chronic inflammatory pain without central nervous system side effects.

  9. The Toll-Dorsal Pathway Is Required for Resistance to Viral Oral Infection in Drosophila

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, Álvaro Gil; Naylor, Huw; Esteves, Sara Santana; Pais, Inês Silva; Martins, Nelson Eduardo; Teixeira, Luis

    2014-01-01

    Pathogen entry route can have a strong impact on the result of microbial infections in different hosts, including insects. Drosophila melanogaster has been a successful model system to study the immune response to systemic viral infection. Here we investigate the role of the Toll pathway in resistance to oral viral infection in D. melanogaster. We show that several Toll pathway components, including Spätzle, Toll, Pelle and the NF-kB-like transcription factor Dorsal, are required to resist or...

  10. Lack of evidence for sprouting of Aβ afferents into the superficial laminas of the spinal cord dorsal horn after nerve section

    OpenAIRE

    Hughes, D.I.; Scott, D.T.; Todd, A.J.; Riddell, J.S.

    2003-01-01

    The central arborizations of large myelinated cutaneous afferents normally extend as far dorsally as the ventral part of lamina II in rat spinal cord. Woolf et al. (1992) reported that after nerve injury some of these afferents sprouted into lamina I and the dorsal part of lamina II, and it has been suggested that this could contribute to allodynia associated with neuropathic pain. Part of the evidence for sprouting was on the basis of the use of cholera toxin B subunit as a selective tracer ...

  11. The Toll-dorsal pathway is required for resistance to viral oral infection in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Álvaro Gil; Naylor, Huw; Esteves, Sara Santana; Pais, Inês Silva; Martins, Nelson Eduardo; Teixeira, Luis

    2014-12-01

    Pathogen entry route can have a strong impact on the result of microbial infections in different hosts, including insects. Drosophila melanogaster has been a successful model system to study the immune response to systemic viral infection. Here we investigate the role of the Toll pathway in resistance to oral viral infection in D. melanogaster. We show that several Toll pathway components, including Spätzle, Toll, Pelle and the NF-kB-like transcription factor Dorsal, are required to resist oral infection with Drosophila C virus. Furthermore, in the fat body Dorsal is translocated from the cytoplasm to the nucleus and a Toll pathway target gene reporter is upregulated in response to Drosophila C Virus infection. This pathway also mediates resistance to several other RNA viruses (Cricket paralysis virus, Flock House virus, and Nora virus). Compared with control, viral titres are highly increased in Toll pathway mutants. The role of the Toll pathway in resistance to viruses in D. melanogaster is restricted to oral infection since we do not observe a phenotype associated with systemic infection. We also show that Wolbachia and other Drosophila-associated microbiota do not interact with the Toll pathway-mediated resistance to oral infection. We therefore identify the Toll pathway as a new general inducible pathway that mediates strong resistance to viruses with a route-specific role. These results contribute to a better understanding of viral oral infection resistance in insects, which is particularly relevant in the context of transmission of arboviruses by insect vectors.

  12. Risk factors for progressive neuromuscular scoliosis requiring posterior spinal fusion after selective dorsal rhizotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravindra, Vijay M; Christensen, Michael T; Onwuzulike, Kaine; Smith, John T; Halvorson, Kyle; Brockmeyer, Douglas L; Walker, Marion L; Bollo, Robert J

    2017-11-01

    OBJECTIVE Selective dorsal rhizotomy (SDR) via limited laminectomy is an effective treatment of lower-extremity spasticity in the pediatric population. Children with spasticity are also at risk for neuromuscular scoliosis; however, specific risk factors for progressive spinal deformity requiring posterior spinal fusion (PSF) after SDR are unknown. The authors' goal was to identify potential risk factors. METHODS The authors performed a retrospective cohort study of patients who underwent SDR via limited laminectomy between 2003 and 2014 and who had at least 1 year of follow-up. They analyzed demographic, clinical, and radiographic variables to elucidate risk factors for progressive neuromuscular scoliosis. The primary outcome was need for PSF. RESULTS One hundred thirty-four patients underwent SDR and had at least 12 months of follow-up (mean 65 months); 48 patients (36%) had detailed pre- and postoperative radiographic data available. The mean age at surgery was 10 years (SD 5.1 years). Eighty-four patients (63%) were ambulatory before SDR, 109 (82%) underwent a single-level laminectomy, and a mean of 53% of the dorsal rootlets from L-1 to S-1 were sectioned. Fifteen patients (11.2%) subsequently required PSF for progressive deformity. Nonambulatory status (p 30° (p = 0.003) were significantly associated with PSF on univariate analysis, but no statistically significant correlation was found with any clinical or radiographic variable and PSF after SDR on multivariate regression analysis. CONCLUSIONS Patients with preoperative nonambulatory status and Cobb angle > 30° may be at risk for progressive spinal deformity requiring PSF after SDR. These are well-known risk factors for progressive deformity in children with spasticity in general. Although our analysis suggests SDR via limited laminectomy may not significantly accelerate the development of neuromuscular scoliosis, further case-control studies are critical to elucidate the impact of SDR on spinal deformity.

  13. “Three Methods and Three Points” regulates p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord in a rat model of sciatic nerve injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Guo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuina is a traditional Chinese treatment for sensory disturbances caused by peripheral nerve injury and related diseases. Our previous studies showed that tuina regulates relevant regions and indices of the spinal dorsal horn using the Dian, Bo, and Rou method in Yinmen (BL37, Yanglingquan (GB34, and Weizhong (BL40. Treatment prevents muscle atrophy, protects spinal cord neurons, and promotes sciatic nerve repair. The mechanisms of action of tuina for treating peripheral nerve injury remain poorly understood. This study established rat models of sciatic nerve injury using the crushing method. Rats received Chinese tuina in accordance with the principle of “Three Methods and Three Points,” once daily for 20 days. Tuina intervention reduced paw withdrawal latency and improved wet weight of the gastrocnemius muscle, as well as promoting morphological recovery of sciatic nerve fibers, Schwann cells, and axons. The protein expression levels of phospho-p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interleukin-1β also decreased. These findings indicate that “Three Methods and Three Points” promoted morphological recovery and improved behavior of rats with peripheral nerve injury.

  14. The Toll-dorsal pathway is required for resistance to viral oral infection in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Gil Ferreira

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Pathogen entry route can have a strong impact on the result of microbial infections in different hosts, including insects. Drosophila melanogaster has been a successful model system to study the immune response to systemic viral infection. Here we investigate the role of the Toll pathway in resistance to oral viral infection in D. melanogaster. We show that several Toll pathway components, including Spätzle, Toll, Pelle and the NF-kB-like transcription factor Dorsal, are required to resist oral infection with Drosophila C virus. Furthermore, in the fat body Dorsal is translocated from the cytoplasm to the nucleus and a Toll pathway target gene reporter is upregulated in response to Drosophila C Virus infection. This pathway also mediates resistance to several other RNA viruses (Cricket paralysis virus, Flock House virus, and Nora virus. Compared with control, viral titres are highly increased in Toll pathway mutants. The role of the Toll pathway in resistance to viruses in D. melanogaster is restricted to oral infection since we do not observe a phenotype associated with systemic infection. We also show that Wolbachia and other Drosophila-associated microbiota do not interact with the Toll pathway-mediated resistance to oral infection. We therefore identify the Toll pathway as a new general inducible pathway that mediates strong resistance to viruses with a route-specific role. These results contribute to a better understanding of viral oral infection resistance in insects, which is particularly relevant in the context of transmission of arboviruses by insect vectors.

  15. Therapeutic effect of Tat-LK15-mediated the interference of siRNA with nNOS expression in the spinal dorsal horn on neuropathic pain in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun RAO

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the therapeutic effect of cell penetrating peptide Tat-LK15 mediating small interfering RNA (siRNA interference with the expression of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS in rat spinal dorsal horn on neuropathic pain. Methods The transfection reagent, Tat-LK15, was used to mediate the transfection of rat spinal dorsal horn (SDH neuronal cells with carboxyfluorescein (FAM, and then the transfection effect was observed under inverted fluorescence microscope. Fifty healthy male SD rats were randomly divided into 5 groups (n=10: control group, sham operation group (sham group, neuropathic pain group (SNL group, Tat-LK15-nNOS siRNA group (TS group and Tat-LK15-NC siRNA group (TN group. Neuropathic pain was induced by spinal nerve ligation (SNL, rats in control group did not receive operation and only the spinal nerve was exposed in sham group. Groups SNL, TS and TN were made into the models by SNL and implanted intrathecal catheter, intrathecal administration was performed from the 7th day after model establishment, and 10μl normal saline, 10μl TS complex (including 5μg siRNA and 10μl TN (including 5μg siRNA were injected intrathecally each day for 7 days. Paw withdrawal mechanical threshold (PWMT and paw withdrawal thermal latency (PWTL were measured at 1 day before (baseline and 3, 7, 10 and 14 days after model establishment. Then animals were sacrificed on the 14th day after the operation and the lumbar segment (L4-6 of the spinal cord was removed to detect the expressions of nNOS mRNA and protein using q-PCR and Western blotting analysis. Results Tat-LK15 effectively mediated FAM-siRNA into SDH neuronal cells. Compared with sham group, SNL significantly decreased PWMT and PWTL and increased expressions of nNOS mRNA and protein from the 3rd day (P<0.01, but there was no significant difference between the sham and control group. Tat-LK15-nNOS siRNA complex significantly increased PWMT and PWTL and down-regulated n

  16. Acquisition of heroin conditioned immunosuppression requires IL-1 signaling in the dorsal hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebonville, Christina L; Jones, Meghan E; Hutson, Lee W; Cooper, Letty B; Fuchs, Rita A; Lysle, Donald T

    2016-08-01

    Opioid users experience increased incidence of infection, which may be partially attributable to both direct opiate-immune interactions and conditioned immune responses. Previous studies have investigated the neural circuitry governing opioid conditioned immune responses, but work remains to elucidate the mechanisms mediating this effect. Our laboratory has previously shown that hippocampal IL-1 signaling, specifically, is required for the expression of heroin conditioned immunosuppression following learning. The current studies were designed to further characterize the role of hippocampal IL-1 in this phenomenon by manipulating IL-1 during learning. Experiment 1 tested whether hippocampal IL-1 is also required for the acquisition of heroin conditioned immunosuppression, while Experiment 2 tested whether hippocampal IL-1 is required for the expression of unconditioned heroin immunosuppression. We found that blocking IL-1 signaling in the dorsal hippocampus with IL-1RA during each conditioning session, but not on interspersed non-conditioning days, significantly attenuated the acquisition of heroin conditioned immunosuppression. Strikingly, we found that the same IL-1RA treatment did not alter unconditioned immunosuppression to a single dose of heroin. Thus, IL-1 signaling is not a critical component of the response to heroin but rather may play a role in the formation of the association between heroin and the context. Collectively, these studies suggest that IL-1 signaling, in addition to being involved in the expression of a heroin conditioned immune response, is also involved in the acquisition of this effect. Importantly, this effect is likely not due to blocking the response to the unconditioned stimulus since IL-1RA did not affect heroin's immunosuppressive effects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. asunder is required for dynein localization and dorsal fate determination during Drosophila oogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitaram, Poojitha; Merkle, Julie A; Lee, Ethan; Lee, Laura A

    2014-02-01

    We previously showed that asunder (asun) is a critical regulator of dynein localization during Drosophila spermatogenesis. Because the expression of asun is much higher in Drosophila ovaries and early embryos than in testes, we herein sought to determine whether ASUN plays roles in oogenesis and/or embryogenesis. We characterized the female germline phenotypes of flies homozygous for a null allele of asun (asun(d93)). We find that asun(d93) females lay very few eggs and contain smaller ovaries with a highly disorganized arrangement of ovarioles in comparison to wild-type females. asun(d93) ovaries also contain a significant number of egg chambers with structural defects. A majority of the eggs laid by asun(d93) females are ventralized to varying degrees, from mild to severe; this ventralization phenotype may be secondary to defective localization of gurken transcripts, a dynein-regulated step, within asun(d93) oocytes. We find that dynein localization is aberrant in asun(d93) oocytes, indicating that ASUN is required for this process in both male and female germ cells. In addition to the loss of gurken mRNA localization, asun(d93) ovaries exhibit defects in other dynein-mediated processes such as migration of nurse cell centrosomes into the oocyte during the early mitotic divisions, maintenance of the oocyte nucleus in the anterior-dorsal region of the oocyte in late-stage egg chambers, and coupling between the oocyte nucleus and centrosomes. Taken together, our data indicate that asun is a critical regulator of dynein localization and dynein-mediated processes during Drosophila oogenesis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Neutrino horn

    CERN Multimedia

    1967-01-01

    View of the new neutrino horn installed in its blockhouse from the target end. Protons pass through the 2mm hole in the centre of the small fluorescent screen, hitting the target immediately behind it. The circular tubes carry pressurized cooling water.

  19. Focusing horn

    CERN Multimedia

    1980-01-01

    This was the first magnetic horn developed by Simon Van der Meer to collect antiprotons in the AD complex. It was used for the AA (antiproton accumulator). Making an antiproton beam took a lot of time and effort. Firstly, protons were accelerated to an energy of 26 GeV/c (protons at 26GeV/c, antiprotons at 3.6GeV/c) in the PS and ejected onto a metal target. From the spray of emerging particles, a magnetic horn picked out 3.6 GeV antiprotons for injection into the AA through a wide-aperture focusing quadrupole magnet. For a million protons hitting the target, just one antiproton was captured, 'cooled' and accumulated. It took 3 days to make a beam of 3 x 10^11 -, three hundred thousand million - antiprotons. The development of this technology was a key step to the functioning of CERN's Super Proton Synchrotron as a proton - antiproton collider.

  20. magnetic horn

    CERN Multimedia

    Neutrinos and antineutrinos are ideal for probing the weak force because it is effectively the only force they feel. How were they made? Protons fired into a metal target produce a tangle of secondary particles. A magnetic horn like this one, invented by Simon Van der Meer, selected pions and focused them into a sharp beam. Pions decay into muons and neutrinos or antineutrinos. The muons were stopped in a wall of 3000 tons of iron and 1000 tons of concrete, leaving the neutrinos or antineutrinos to reach the Gargamelle bubble chamber. A simple change of magnetic field direction on the horn flipped between focusing positively- or negatively-charged pion beams, and so between neutrinos and antineutrinos.

  1. Anterior Horn Cell Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merve Firinciogullari

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The anterior horn cells control all voluntary movement. Motor activity, respiratory, speech, and swallowing functions are dependent upon signals from the anterior horn cells. Diseases that damage the anterior horn cells, therefore, have a profound impact. Symptoms of anterior horn cell loss (weakness, falling, choking lead patients to seek medical attention. In this article, anterior horn diseases were reviewed, diagnostic criteria and management were discussed in detail. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2016; 25(3.000: 269-303

  2. The Folded Horn Antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farr, E. G.; Bowen, L. H.; Baum, C. E.; Prather, W. D.

    Antennas for radiating high-power mesoband (medium-bandwidth) electromagnetic signals are critical to the mission of upsetting electronics at a distance. When operated at frequencies of a few hundred megahertz, RF weapons require highly efficient antennas that can fit into a small volume. Most of the existing antennas, such as pyramidal horns, are too large to fit onto certain platforms of interest. To address this challenge, we investigate the folded horn, which has aperture dimensions of 0.5 × 2 wavelengths, and a depth of 1.5-2 wavelengths. This antenna has a nearly focused aperture field, due to a parabolic fold in the H-plane. We report here on the fabrication and testing of the first folded horn, operating at 3 GHz. After a number of iterations, we obtained a realized gain of at least 10 dBi over 3-5 GHz, an aperture efficiency of 80%, and a return loss below -10 dB over 2.8-3.35 GHz. This design could be adapted to high-voltages, and it could work well in a two-antenna array, with two antennas positioned back to back, driven by a differential source.

  3. Real-Time Prediction of Observed Action Requires Integrity of the Dorsal Premotor Cortex: Evidence From Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brich, Louisa F M; Bächle, Christine; Hermsdörfer, Joachim; Stadler, Waltraud

    2018-01-01

    Studying brain mechanisms underlying the prediction of observed action, the dorsal premotor cortex (PMd) has been suggested a key area. The present study probed this notion using repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to test whether interference in this area would affect the accuracy in predicting the time course of object directed actions performed with the right hand. Young and healthy participants observed actions in short videos. These were briefly occluded from view for 600 ms and resumed immediately afterwards. The task was to continue the action mentally and to indicate after each occlusion, whether the action was resumed at the right moment (condition in-time) or shifted. In a first run, single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (sTMS) was delivered over the left primary hand-area during occlusion. In the second run, rTMS over the left PMd was applied during occlusion in half of the participants [experimental group (EG)]. The control group (CG) received sham-rTMS over the same area. Under rTMS, the EG predicted less trials correctly than in the sTMS run. Sham-rTMS in the CG had no effects on prediction. The interference in PMd interacted with the type of manipulation applied to the action's time course occasionally during occlusion. The performance decrease of the EG was most pronounced in conditions in which the continuations after occlusions were too late in the action's course. The present results extend earlier findings suggesting that real-time action prediction requires the integrity of the PMd. Different functional roles of this area are discussed. Alternative interpretations consider either simulation of specific motor programming functions or the involvement of a feature-unspecific predictor.

  4. Real-Time Prediction of Observed Action Requires Integrity of the Dorsal Premotor Cortex: Evidence From Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louisa F. M. Brich

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Studying brain mechanisms underlying the prediction of observed action, the dorsal premotor cortex (PMd has been suggested a key area. The present study probed this notion using repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS to test whether interference in this area would affect the accuracy in predicting the time course of object directed actions performed with the right hand. Young and healthy participants observed actions in short videos. These were briefly occluded from view for 600 ms and resumed immediately afterwards. The task was to continue the action mentally and to indicate after each occlusion, whether the action was resumed at the right moment (condition in-time or shifted. In a first run, single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (sTMS was delivered over the left primary hand-area during occlusion. In the second run, rTMS over the left PMd was applied during occlusion in half of the participants [experimental group (EG]. The control group (CG received sham-rTMS over the same area. Under rTMS, the EG predicted less trials correctly than in the sTMS run. Sham-rTMS in the CG had no effects on prediction. The interference in PMd interacted with the type of manipulation applied to the action’s time course occasionally during occlusion. The performance decrease of the EG was most pronounced in conditions in which the continuations after occlusions were too late in the action’s course. The present results extend earlier findings suggesting that real-time action prediction requires the integrity of the PMd. Different functional roles of this area are discussed. Alternative interpretations consider either simulation of specific motor programming functions or the involvement of a feature-unspecific predictor.

  5. Horn Fly, (L.), Overwintering

    OpenAIRE

    Allan T. Showler; Weste L.A. Osbrink; Kimberly H. Lohmeyer

    2014-01-01

    The horn fly, Haematobia irritans irritans (L.), is an ectoparasitic blood feeder mainly on cattle. Its cosmopolitan distribution extends from boreal and grassland regions in northern and southern latitudes to the tropics. Stress and blood loss from horn flies can reduce cattle weight gain and milk production. Horn flies show substantial plasticity in their response to winter. Populations in warmer, lower latitudes have been reported to overwinter in a state of dormancy, but most overwinter a...

  6. The planarian TCF/LEF factor Smed-tcf1 is required for the regeneration of dorsal-lateral neuronal subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, David D R; Molinaro, Alyssa M; Pearson, Bret J

    2018-01-15

    The adult brain of the planarian Schmidtea mediterranea (a freshwater flatworm) is a dynamic structure with constant cell turnover as well as the ability to completely regenerate de novo. Despite this, function and pattern is achieved in a reproducible manner from individual to individual in terms of the correct spatial and temporal production of specific neuronal subtypes. Although several signaling molecules have been found to be key to scaling and cell turnover, the mechanisms by which specific neural subtypes are specified remain largely unknown. Here we performed a 6 day RNAseq time course on planarians that were regenerating either 0, 1, or 2 heads in order to identify novel regulators of brain regeneration. Focusing on transcription factors, we identified a TCF/LEF factor, Smed-tcf1, which was required to correctly pattern the dorsal-lateral cell types of the regenerating brain. The most severely affected neurons in Smed-tcf1(RNAi) animals were the dorsal GABAergic neurons, which failed to regenerate, leading to an inability of the animals to phototaxis away from light. Together, Smed-tcf1 is a critical regulator, required to pattern the dorsal-lateral region of the regenerating planarian brain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Horn Fly, (L., Overwintering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan T. Showler

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The horn fly, Haematobia irritans irritans (L., is an ectoparasitic blood feeder mainly on cattle. Its cosmopolitan distribution extends from boreal and grassland regions in northern and southern latitudes to the tropics. Stress and blood loss from horn flies can reduce cattle weight gain and milk production. Horn flies show substantial plasticity in their response to winter. Populations in warmer, lower latitudes have been reported to overwinter in a state of dormancy, but most overwinter as active adults in normal or reduced numbers. As latitudes increase, winters are generally colder, and correspondingly, larger percentages of horn fly populations become dormant as pharate adults (a post-pupal, pre-emergent stage or die. Reports on the effect of elevation on horn fly dormancy at high elevations were contradictory. When it occurs, dormancy takes place beneath cattle dung pats and in the underlying soil. The horn fly's mode of dormancy is commonly called diapause, but the collective research on horn fly diapause (behavioral and biochemical is not conclusive. Understanding the horn fly's overwintering behaviors can lead to development of pre-dormancy insecticide spray strategies in colder latitudes while other strategies must be determined for warmer regions.

  8. Zygotic LvBMP5-8 is required for skeletal patterning and for left-right but not dorsal-ventral specification in the sea urchin embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piacentino, Michael L; Chung, Oliver; Ramachandran, Janani; Zuch, Daniel T; Yu, Jia; Conaway, Evan A; Reyna, Arlene E; Bradham, Cynthia A

    2016-04-01

    Skeletal patterning in the sea urchin embryo requires coordinated signaling between the pattern-dictating ectoderm and the skeletogenic primary mesenchyme cells (PMCs); recent studies have begun to uncover the molecular basis for this process. Using an unbiased RNA-Seq-based screen, we have previously identified the TGF-ß superfamily ligand, LvBMP5-8, as a skeletal patterning gene in Lytechinus variegatus embryos. This result is surprising, since both BMP5-8 and BMP2/4 ligands have been implicated in sea urchin dorsal-ventral (DV) and left-right (LR) axis specification. Here, we demonstrate that zygotic LvBMP5-8 is required for normal skeletal patterning on the left side, as well as for normal PMC positioning during gastrulation. Zygotic LvBMP5-8 is required for expression of the left-side marker soxE, suggesting that LvBMP5-8 is required for left-side specification. Interestingly, we also find that LvBMP5-8 knockdown suppresses serotonergic neurogenesis on the left side. While LvBMP5-8 overexpression is sufficient to dorsalize embryos, we find that zygotic LvBMP5-8 is not required for normal DV specification or development. In addition, ectopic LvBMP5-8 does not dorsalize LvBMP2/4 morphant embryos, indicating that, in the absence of BMP2/4, BMP5-8 is insufficient to specify dorsal. Taken together, our data demonstrate that zygotic LvBMP5-8 signaling is essential for left-side specification, and for normal left-side skeletal and neural patterning, but not for DV specification. Thus, while both BMP2/4 and BMP5-8 regulate LR axis specification, BMP2/4 but not zygotic BMP5-8 regulates DV axis specification in sea urchin embryos. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Modified dorsal root entry zone lesioning for intractable pain relief in patients with root avulsion injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takai, Keisuke; Taniguchi, Makoto

    2017-08-01

    disappeared within 1 month in 2 patients. In the other patient, new pain persisted and required analgesics. CONCLUSIONS These preliminary results demonstrated that total and persistent global pain relief was achieved with the modified DREZ lesioning procedure in 90% of patients without major neurological deficits. The clinical improvements achieved by this modified surgical procedure support the hypothesis that not only the superficial layers, but also deeper layers of the spinal dorsal horn are associated with intractable pain due to root avulsion injury.

  10. Prurigo Nodularis With Cutaneous Horn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thadeus Joseph

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous horns are rare horny excrescences which occur in various dermatoses. We report a girl with prurigo nodularis who developed a horn on one of the nodules. This unique association has not been reported so far.

  11. Research progress of dorsal root entry zone lesioning for the treatment of pain after brachial plexus avulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing-jun LIU

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Pain after brachial plexus avulsion (BPA is a clinically common drug-refractory neuropathic pain. Overactive spontaneous potential due to deafferentation in the neurons of spinal dorsal horn is the main pathogenesis of pain after BPA. Dorsal root entry zone (DREZ lesioning is one way that damages overactive spontaneous potential neurons in spinal dorsal horn through radio-frequency electrode or bipolar coagulation so as to achieve pain relief. Dorsal root entry zone lesioning is a safe and effective treatment approach for pain after BPA. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2015.08.014

  12. Iterative Specialisation of Horn Clauses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Christoffer Rosenkilde; Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    2008-01-01

    We present a generic algorithm for solving Horn clauses through iterative specialisation. The algorithm is generic in the sense that it can be instantiated with any decidable fragment of Horn clauses, resulting in a solution scheme for general Horn clauses that guarantees soundness and termination...

  13. 9 CFR 95.12 - Bones, horns, and hoofs; importations permitted subject to restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bones, horns, and hoofs; importations... ENTRY INTO THE UNITED STATES § 95.12 Bones, horns, and hoofs; importations permitted subject to restrictions. Bones, horns, and hoofs offered for importation which do not meet the conditions or requirements...

  14. Magnetic Focusing Horn

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    This magnetic focusing horn was used for the AA (antiproton accumulator). Its development was an important step towards using CERN's Super Proton Synchrotron as a proton - antiproton collider. This eventually led to the discovery of the W and Z particles in 1983. Making an antiproton beam took a lot of time and effort. Firstly, protons were accelerated to an energy of 26 GeV in the PS and ejected onto a metal target. From the spray of emerging particles, a magnetic horn picked out 3.6 GeV antiprotons for injection into the AA through a wide-aperture focusing quadrupole magnet. For a million protons hitting the target, just one antiproton was captured, 'cooled' and accumulated. It took 3 days to make a beam of 3 x 10^11 -, three hundred thousand million - antiprotons.

  15. Horn installed in CNGS tunnel

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2005-01-01

    The horn is installed for the CERN Neutrinos to Gran Sasso (CNGS) project. Protons collide with a graphite target producing charged particles that are focussed by the magnetic field in the horn. These particles will then pass into a decay tube where they decay into neutrinos, which travel towards a detector at Gran Sasso 732 km away in Italy.

  16. Ruptured Noncommunicating Rudimentary Horn Pregnancy at 19 Weeks with Previous Cesarean Delivery: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sita Thakur

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Unicornuate uterus with noncommunicating rudimentary horn occurs due to incomplete fusion of mullerian ducts. Pregnancy in this horn is a rare phenomenon usually resulting in rupture during second trimester of pregnancy. Prerupture diagnosis of pregnancy in rudimentary horn with ultrasonography is technically difficult, with sensitivity of 30%. We report a case of ruptured non-communicating rudimentary horn at 19 weeks in a woman with previous Cesarean delivery. She had a routine malformation scan in which diagnosis was missed. Later she presented to emergency in shock, with massive hemoperitoneum and ruptured horn. So a high index of suspicion is required to save this catastrophic event and associated maternal morbidity and mortality. In our opinion, routine excision of rudimentary horn should be undertaken during nonpregnant state laparoscopically. However, those women who refuse should be adequately counseled regarding potential complications and if pregnancy occurs in rudimentary horn, first trimester laparoscopic excision should be done.

  17. Determination of the dietary lysine requirement by measuring plasma free lysine concentrations in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss after dorsal aorta cannulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeonho Yun

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study evaluated the dietary lysine requirement by measuring the plasma free lysine concentrations in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss after dorsal aorta cannulation. A basal diet containing 36.6 % crude protein (29.6 % crystalline amino acids mixture, 5 % casein and 2 % gelatin was formulated to one of the seven L-amino acid based diets containing graded levels of lysine (0.72, 1.12, 1.52, 1.92, 2.32, 2.72 or 3.52 % dry diet. A total of 35 fish averaging 512 ± 6.8 g (mean ± SD were randomly distributed into seven groups with five fish in each group. After 48 h of feed deprivation, each group of fish was fed one of the experimental diets by intubation at 1 % body weight. Blood samples were taken at 0, 5 and 24 h after intubation. Post-prandial plasma free lysine concentrations (PPlys, 5 h after intubation of fish fed diets containing ≥ 2.32 % lysine were higher than those of fish fed diets containing ≤ 1.92 % lysine. Post-absorptive free lysine concentrations (PAlys, 24 h after intubation of fish fed diets containing 2.32 and 3.52 % lysine were higher than those of fish fed diets containing ≤ 1.52 % lysine. The broken-line regression analysis on the basis of PPlys and PAlys indicated that the lysine requirement of rainbow trout could be 2.34 and 2.20 % in diet. Therefore, these results strongly suggested that the dietary lysine requirement based on the broken-line model analyses of PPlys and PAlys could be greater than 2.2 but less than 2.34 % (corresponding to be 6.01 % ≤, but ≤ 6.39 % in dietary protein basis, respectively in rainbow trout. Also, these results shown that the quantitative estimation of lysine requirement by using PPlys and PAlys could be an acceptable method in fish.

  18. Ancient celtic horns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Murray

    2002-11-01

    There is considerable evidence from iconographic and documentary sources that musical lip-reed instruments were important in the early celtic communities of Scotland and Ireland. In recent years several studies have been undertaken with the aim of gaining a better understanding of the musical nature of these ancient horns, and of their place in the life and culture of the time. A valuable source of tangible evidence is to be found in the archaeological remains deposited across Scotland and the whole of Ireland. A project is now under way, under the auspices of the Kilmartin House Trust and the general direction of John Purser, which has brought together an international team of musicians, craftsmen, archaeologists, musicologists and physicists with the aim of analyzing ancient musical artifacts, reconstructing some of the original instruments, and analyzing the sounds they produce. This paper describes acoustical studies carried out on a number of recent reconstructions of wooden and bronze instruments, and discusses the role of acoustics in this type of investigation. [Work supported by Sciart and EPSRC.

  19. Primary afferent terminal sprouting after a cervical dorsal rootlet section in the macaque monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darian-Smith, Corinna

    2004-03-01

    We examined the role of primary afferent neurons in the somatosensory cortical "reactivation" that occurs after a localized cervical dorsal root lesion (Darian-Smith and Brown [2000] Nat. Neurosci. 3:476-481). After section of the dorsal rootlets that enervate the macaque's thumb and index finger (segments C6-C8), the cortical representation of these digits was initially silenced but then re-emerged for these same digits over 2-4 postlesion months. Cortical reactivation was accompanied by the emergence of physiologically detectable input from these same digits within dorsal rootlets bordering the lesion site. We investigated whether central axonal sprouting of primary afferents spared by the rhizotomy could mediate this cortical reactivation. The cortical representation of the hand was mapped electrophysiologically 15-25 weeks after the dorsal rootlet section to define this reactivation. Cholera toxin subunit B conjugated to horseradish peroxidase was then injected into the thumb and index finger pads bilaterally to label the central terminals of any neurons that innervated these digits. Primary afferent terminal proliferation was assessed in the spinal dorsal horn and cuneate nucleus at 7 days and 15-25 postlesion weeks. Labeled terminal bouton distributions were reconstructed and the "lesion" and control sides compared within each monkey. Distributions were significantly larger on the side of the lesion in the dorsal horn and cuneate nucleus at 15-25 weeks after the dorsal rootlet section, than those mapped only 7 days postlesion. Our results provide direct evidence for localized sprouting of spared (uninjured) primary afferent terminals in the dorsal horn and cuneate nucleus after a restricted dorsal root injury. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Horn of Africa food crisis

    CERN Multimedia

    Association du personnel

    2011-01-01

    Dear colleagues, As many of you are already aware, the Horn of Africa is experiencing an extremely severe food crisis as a result of one of the toughest droughts since the early 1950s. A total of over 12 million people in Djibouti, Ethiopia, Somalia, Kenya and Uganda are severely affected by this devastating crisis and the UN has officially declared famine in these regions. In addition, children are the most vulnerable victims, with more than a half million children at risk of imminent death from severe malnutrition and an estimated 2.3 million children already malnourished. An immediate, determined mobilization is required in order to avert an imminent humanitarian catastrophe and to prevent millions of people from being robbed of a future through the scourge of hunger and malnutrition. CERN has decided to join this international mobilization by specifically opening an account for those who want to make a donation to help the drought- and famine-affected populations in the region. Children being the first...

  1. A Giant Cutaneous Horn Projecting from Verrucous Carcinoma of Buccal Mucosa: A Rare Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathani, Dipesh; Ranjan, Shashi; Issar, Rashmi

    2017-01-01

    Cutaneous horn is conical shape of compact keratin that resembles a miniature animal horn. Though morphologically similar to horns in animals they are histologically very different from them. It is a circumscribed, conical, hyperkeratotic dense protrusion with epithelial cornification above the skin surface in response to a wide range of underlying benign and malignant pathological changes. Though benign, a cutaneous horn holds the potential to be premalignant or malignant. In India till now six cases has been reported with cutaneous horn at various unusual sites. We report a unique case of 52-year-old woman with a giant cutaneous horn at left oral commissure with underlying verrucous carcinoma of left buccal mucosa which is a very rare location for such lesion. Considering its malignant potential, adequate therapy requires wide excision with a tumour-free margin of at least 1 cm, particularly in the facial region where the incidence of malignancy is higher. PMID:28511519

  2. Peripheral nerve injury induces trans-synaptic modification of channels, receptors and signal pathways in rat dorsal spinal cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liang; Zhang, Fang-Xiong; Huang, Fen; Lu, Yin-Jing; Li, Guo-Dong; Bao, Lan; Xiao, Hua-Sheng; Zhang, Xu

    2004-02-01

    Peripheral tissue injury-induced central sensitization may result from the altered biochemical properties of spinal dorsal horn. However, peripheral nerve injury-induced modification of genes in the dorsal horn remains largely unknown. Here we identified strong changes of 14 channels, 25 receptors and 42 signal transduction related molecules in Sprague-Dawley rat dorsal spinal cord 14 days after peripheral axotomy by cDNA microarray. Twenty-nine genes were further confirmed by semiquantitative RT-PCR, Northern blotting, in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. These regulated genes included Ca2+ channel alpha1E and alpha2/delta1 subunits, alpha subunits for Na+ channel 1 and 6, Na+ channel beta subunit, AMAP receptor GluR3 and 4, GABAA receptor alpha5 subunit, nicotinic acetylcholine receptor alpha5 and beta2 subunits, PKC alpha, betaI and delta isozymes, JNK1-3, ERK2-3, p38 MAPK and BatK and Lyn tyrosine-protein kinases, indicating that several signal transduction pathways were activated in dorsal spinal cord by peripheral nerve injury. These results demonstrate that peripheral nerve injury causes phenotypic changes in spinal dorsal horn. Increases in Ca2+ channel alpha2/delta1 subunit, GABAA receptor alpha5 subunit, Na+ channels and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in both dorsal spinal cord and dorsal root ganglia indicate their potential roles in neuropathic pain control.

  3. Alpine ibex males grow large horns at no survival cost for most of their lifetime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toïgo, Carole; Gaillard, Jean-Michel; Loison, Anne

    2013-12-01

    Large horns or antlers require a high energy allocation to produce and carry both physiological and social reproductive costs. Following the principle of energy allocation that implies trade-offs among fitness components, growing large weapons early in life should thus reduce future growth and survival. Evidence for such costs is ambiguous, however, partly because individual heterogeneity can counterbalance trade-offs. Individuals with larger horns or antlers may be of better quality and thus have a greater capacity to survive. We investigated trade-offs between male early horn growth and future horn growth, baseline mortality, onset of actuarial senescence, and rate of ageing in an Alpine ibex (Capra ibex ibex) population. Horn growth of males in early life was positively correlated to their horn length throughout their entire life. Cohort variation and individual heterogeneity both accounted for among-individual variation in horn length, suggesting both long-lasting effects of early life conditions and individual-specific horn growth trajectories. Early horn growth did not influence annual survival until 12 years of age, indicating that males do not invest in horn growth at survival costs over most of their lifetime. However, males with fast-growing horns early in life tended to have lower survival at very old ages. Individual heterogeneity, along with the particular life-history tactic of male ibex (weak participation to the rut until an old age after which they burn out in high mating investment), are likely to explain why the expected trade-off between horn growth and survival does not show up, at least until very old ages.

  4. Computational modeling and experimental studies of the dynamic performance of ultrasonic horn profiles used in plastic welding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roopa Rani, M; Rudramoorthy, R

    2013-03-01

    Ultrasonic horns are tuned components designed to vibrate in a longitudinal mode at ultrasonic frequencies. Reliable performance of such horns is normally decided by the uniformity of vibration amplitude at the working surface and the stress developed during loading condition. The horn design engineer must pay particular attention to designing a tool that will produce the desired amplitude without fracturing. The present work discusses horn configurations which satisfy these criteria and investigates the design requirements of horns in ultrasonic system. Different horn profiles for ultrasonic welding of thermoplastics have been characterized in terms of displacement amplitude and von-Mises stresses using modal and harmonic analysis. To validate the simulated results, five different horns are fabricated from Aluminum, tested and tuned to the operating frequency. Standard ABS plastic parts are welded using these horns. Temperature developed during the welding of ABS test parts using different horns is recorded using sensors and National Instruments (NIs) data acquisition system. The recorded values are compared with the predicted values. Experimental results show that welding using a Bezier horn has a high interface temperature and the welded joints had higher strength as compared to the other horn profiles. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Kamillo Horn und das Melodram

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bajgarová, Jitka

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 12, - (2010), s. 229-237 ISSN 1212-1193. [Zdeněk Fibich, středoevropský skladatel konce 19. století. Olomouc, 19.05.2010–21.05.2010] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z90580513 Keywords : Kamillo Horn * concert melodrama Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage

  6. Adenylyl Cyclase 1 Is Required for Ethanol-Induced Locomotor Sensitization and Associated Increases in NMDA Receptor Phosphorylation and Function in the Dorsal Medial Striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosse, Kelly E; Oginsky, Max F; Susick, Laura L; Ramalingam, Sailesh; Ferrario, Carrie R; Conti, Alana C

    2017-11-01

    Neuroadaptive responses to chronic ethanol, such as behavioral sensitization, are associated with N -methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) recruitment. Ethanol enhances GluN2B-containing NMDAR function and phosphorylation (Tyr-1472) of the GluN2B-NMDAR subunit in the dorsal medial striatum (DMS) through a protein kinase A (PKA)-dependent pathway. Ethanol-induced phosphorylation of PKA substrates is partially mediated by calcium-stimulated adenylyl cyclase 1 (AC1), which is enriched in the dorsal striatum. As such, AC1 is poised as an upstream modulator of ethanol-induced DMS neuroadaptations that promote drug responding, and thus represents a therapeutic target. Our hypothesis is that loss of AC1 activity will prevent ethanol-induced locomotor sensitization and associated DMS GluN2B-NMDAR adaptations. We evaluated AC1's contribution to ethanol-evoked locomotor responses and DMS GluN2B-NMDAR phosphorylation and function using AC1 knockout (AC1KO) mice. Results were mechanistically validated with the AC1 inhibitor, NB001. Acute ethanol (2.0 g/kg) locomotor responses in AC1KO and wild-type (WT) mice pretreated with NB001 (10 mg/kg) were comparable to WT ethanol controls. However, repeated ethanol treatment (10 days, 2.5 g/kg) failed to produce sensitization in AC1KO or NB001 pretreated mice, as observed in WT ethanol controls, following challenge exposure (2.0 g/kg). Repeated exposure to ethanol in the sensitization procedure significantly increased pTyr-1472 GluN2B levels and GluN2B-containing NMDAR transmission in the DMS of WT mice. Loss of AC1 signaling impaired ethanol-induced increases in DMS pGluN2B levels and NMDAR-mediated transmission. Together, these data support a critical and specific role for AC1 in striatal signaling that mediates ethanol-induced behavioral sensitization, and identify GluN2B-containing NMDARs as an important AC1 target. Copyright © 2017 by The Author(s).

  7. Folded Resonant Horns for Power Ultrasonic Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Askins, Stephen; Gradziel, Michael; Bao, Xiaoqi; Chang, Zensheu; Dolgin, Benjamin; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Peterson, Tom

    2003-01-01

    Folded horns have been conceived as alternatives to straight horns used as resonators and strain amplifiers in power ultrasonic systems. Such systems are used for cleaning, welding, soldering, cutting, and drilling in a variety of industries. In addition, several previous NASA Tech Briefs articles have described instrumented drilling, coring, and burrowing machines that utilize combinations of sonic and ultrasonic vibrational actuation. The main advantage of a folded horn, relative to a straight horn of the same resonance frequency, is that the folded horn can be made shorter (that is, its greatest linear dimension measured from the outside can be made smaller). Alternatively, for a given length, the resonance frequency can be reduced. Hence, the folded-horn concept affords an additional degree of design freedom for reducing the length of an ultrasonic power system that includes a horn.

  8. Obstetric morbidity and the diagnostic dilemma in pregnancy in rudimentary horn: retrospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopra, Seema; Keepanasseril, Anish; Rohilla, Meenakshi; Bagga, Rashmi; Kalra, Jaswinder; Jain, Vanita

    2009-12-01

    Pregnancy in rudimentary horn of uterus, a form of ectopic gestation, is associated with significant rates of morbidity and mortality. Despite the recent advances in the ultrasonography, diagnosis of cornual pregnancy still remains elusive; with confirmatory diagnosis usually made during laparotomy. The aim of the present study is to analyze the obstetric implications and the diagnostic dilemma of rudimentary horn pregnancy. Records of women diagnosed with ectopic pregnancy in the rudimentary horn, during the years 2004 to 2008, managed in a referral hospital in northern India; were reviewed for their diagnostic difficulties and the associated morbidity. During the four year study period, rudimentary horn pregnancies accounted for 12 pregnancies. Non communicating horn accounted for 75% of the cases. The mean age of women at presentation was 26 +/- 5.11 years and the period of gestation at diagnosis varied between 10 and 34 weeks. Preruputure diagnosis was possible only in two cases and sensitivity of ultrasonographic diagnosis was 33.3%. Laprotomy with excision of rudimentary horn and salpingectomy was done in all cases. Multiple blood transfusions were required in 83.3% of women. Management of pregnancy in a rudimentary uterine horn continues to be a challenge to this day. Maintaining a higher degree of alertness, especially in high risk groups by emergency staff is required to prevent the morbidity, as they may present with acute uterine rupture in pregnancy.

  9. Generation of microbubbles from hollow cylindrical ultrasonic horn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makuta, Toshinori; Suzuki, Ryodai; Nakao, Takaaki

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we found that microbubbles with diameters of less than 100μm can be easily generated by using a hollow cylindrical ultrasonic horn. Consecutive images of bubbles obtained by using high-speed and high-resolution cameras reveal that a capillary wave is formed on the gas-liquid interface under weak ultrasonic irradiation and that the wave head is detached in the form of bubbles by the fragmentation of the interface as the power of ultrasonic irradiation increases. Moreover, consecutive images of the bubble interface obtained by an ultra-high-speed camera indicate that the breakup of bubbles oscillating harmonically with the ultrasonic irradiation generates many microbubbles that are less than 100μm in diameter. With regard to the orifice diameter of the horn end, we found that its optimum value varies with the ultrasonic power input. When the orifice diameter is small, the capillary wave generated from the horn end easily propagates all over the gas-liquid interface, thereby starting the generation of microbubbles at a lower ultrasonic power input. When the orifice diameter is large, the capillary wave is attenuated because of viscosity and surface tension. Hence, in this case, microbubble generation from the horn requires a higher ultrasonic power input. Furthermore, the maximum yield of microbubbles via primary and secondary bubble generation can be increased by increasing the gas flow rate. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. AA, sandwich line with magnetic horn

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1980-01-01

    Continuation from 8010293: Finally, the sandwich line with the horn is placed on the ground, for the horn to be inspected and, if needed, exchanged for a new one. The whole procedure was trained with several members of the AA team, for quick and safe handling, and to share the radiation dose amongst them.

  11. Elaborate horns in a giant rhinoceros beetle incur negligible aerodynamic costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, Erin L; Tobalske, Bret W

    2013-05-07

    Sexually selected ornaments and weapons are among nature's most extravagant morphologies. Both ornaments and weapons improve a male's reproductive success; yet, unlike ornaments that need only attract females, weapons must be robust and functional structures because they are frequently tested during male-male combat. Consequently, weapons are expected to be particularly costly to bear. Here, we tested the aerodynamic costs of horns in the giant rhinoceros beetle, Trypoxylus dichotomus. We predicted that the long, forked head horn would have three main effects on flight performance: increased body mass, an anterior shift in the centre of mass and increased body drag. We found that the horns were surprisingly lightweight, and therefore had a trivial effect on the male beetles' total mass and mass distribution. Furthermore, because beetles typically fly at slow speeds and high body angles, horns had little effect on total body drag. Together, the weight and the drag of horns increased the overall force required to fly by less than 3 per cent, even in the largest males. Because low-cost structures are expected to be highly evolutionarily labile, the fact that horns incur very minor flight costs may have permitted both the elaboration and diversification of rhinoceros beetle horns.

  12. Non-communicating Rudimentary Uterine Horn Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Upadhyaya

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancy in a non-communicating rudimentary horn is an extremely rare form of ectopic gestation. The rudimentary horn may or may not communicate with the uterine cavity with the majority of cases being non-communicating. The patient exhibits features of acute abdomen and carries a high risk of maternal death. Even modern scans remain elusive whereas laparatomy remains the confi rmatory procedure for the diagnosis. Because of the varied muscular constitution in the thickness and distensibility of the wall of the rudimentary horn, pregnancy is accommodated for a variable period of gestation. Here, we report three cases of pregnancy in a non-communicating rudimentary horn of the uterus in different periods of gestation, their outcome and a review of the available literature. Keywords: Mullerian anomalies, non-communicating rudimentary horn pregnancy, surgical management.

  13. Horn growth patterns in Alpine chamois.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corlatti, Luca; Gugiatti, Alessandro; Imperio, Simona

    2015-06-01

    The analysis of horn growth may provide important information about the allocation of metabolic resources to secondary sexual traits. Depending on the selective advantages offered by horn size during intra- and inter-specific interactions, ungulates may show different investment in horn development, and growth variations within species may be influenced by several parameters, such as sex, age, or resource availability. We investigated the horn growth patterns in two hunted populations of Alpine chamois (Rupicapra r. rupicapra) in the Central Italian Alps. We tested the role of individual heterogeneity on the growth pattern and explored the variation in annulus length as a function of different factors (sex, age, hunting location, cohort). We then investigated the mechanisms underlying horn growth trajectories to test for the occurrence of compensatory or recovery growth and their potential differences between sexes and populations. Annulus length varied as a function of sex, age of individuals and, marginally, hunting location; no effect of cohort or individual heterogeneity was detected. Male and female chamois showed compensatory horn growth within the first 5½ years of life, though the partial convergence of horn trajectories in chamois suggests that this mechanisms would best be described as 'recovery growth'. Compensation rates were greater in males than in females, while only compensatory growth rates up to 2½ years of age were different in the two populations. Besides confirming the sex- and age-dependent pattern of horn development, our study suggests that the mechanism of recovery growth supports the hypothesis of horn size as a weakly selected sexual trait in male and female chamois. Furthermore, the greater compensation rates in horn growth shown by male chamois possibly suggest selective effects of hunting on age at first reproduction, while different compensation rates between populations may suggest the occurrence of some plasticity in resource

  14. Pyrosequencing-based analysis of the microbiome associated with the horn fly, Haematobia irritans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palavesam, Azhahianambi; Guerrero, Felix D; Heekin, Andrew M; Wang, Ju; Dowd, Scot E; Sun, Yan; Foil, Lane D; Pérez de León, Adalberto A

    2012-01-01

    The horn fly, Haematobia irritans, is one of the most economically important pests of cattle. Insecticides have been a major element of horn fly management programs. Growing concerns with insecticide resistance, insecticide residues on farm products, and non-availability of new generation insecticides, are serious issues for the livestock industry. Alternative horn fly control methods offer the promise to decrease the use of insecticides and reduce the amount of insecticide residues on livestock products and give an impetus to the organic livestock farming segment. The horn fly, an obligatory blood feeder, requires the help of microflora to supply additional nutrients and metabolize the blood meal. Recent advancements in DNA sequencing methodologies enable researchers to examine the microflora diversity independent of culture methods. We used the bacterial 16S tag-encoded FLX-titanium amplicon pyrosequencing (bTEFAP) method to carry out the classification analysis of bacterial flora in adult female and male horn flies and horn fly eggs. The bTEFAP method identified 16S rDNA sequences in our samples which allowed the identification of various prokaryotic taxa associated with the life stage examined. This is the first comprehensive report of bacterial flora associated with the horn fly using a culture-independent method. Several rumen, environmental, symbiotic and pathogenic bacteria associated with the horn fly were identified and quantified. This is the first report of the presence of Wolbachia in horn flies of USA origin and is the first report of the presence of Rikenella in an obligatory blood feeding insect.

  15. Pyrosequencing-based analysis of the microbiome associated with the horn fly, Haematobia irritans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azhahianambi Palavesam

    Full Text Available The horn fly, Haematobia irritans, is one of the most economically important pests of cattle. Insecticides have been a major element of horn fly management programs. Growing concerns with insecticide resistance, insecticide residues on farm products, and non-availability of new generation insecticides, are serious issues for the livestock industry. Alternative horn fly control methods offer the promise to decrease the use of insecticides and reduce the amount of insecticide residues on livestock products and give an impetus to the organic livestock farming segment. The horn fly, an obligatory blood feeder, requires the help of microflora to supply additional nutrients and metabolize the blood meal. Recent advancements in DNA sequencing methodologies enable researchers to examine the microflora diversity independent of culture methods. We used the bacterial 16S tag-encoded FLX-titanium amplicon pyrosequencing (bTEFAP method to carry out the classification analysis of bacterial flora in adult female and male horn flies and horn fly eggs. The bTEFAP method identified 16S rDNA sequences in our samples which allowed the identification of various prokaryotic taxa associated with the life stage examined. This is the first comprehensive report of bacterial flora associated with the horn fly using a culture-independent method. Several rumen, environmental, symbiotic and pathogenic bacteria associated with the horn fly were identified and quantified. This is the first report of the presence of Wolbachia in horn flies of USA origin and is the first report of the presence of Rikenella in an obligatory blood feeding insect.

  16. Horn of Africa food crisis

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2011-01-01

    YOU ARE WONDERFUL, THANK YOU! As we have indicated previously, the Horn of Africa is experiencing an extremely severe food crisis as a result of one of the toughest droughts since the early 1950s. A total of over 12 million people in Djibouti, Ethiopia, Somalia, Kenya and Uganda are severely affected by this devastating crisis and the UN has officially declared famine in these regions. In addition, children are the most vulnerable victims, with more than half a million children at risk of imminent death from severe malnutrition and an estimated 2.3 million children already malnourished. At the beginning of August we opened an account to receive your donations. We are pleased to announce that the funds received are 30’500 CHF, the total sum of which will be transferred to UNICEF. We would like to thank all those who have contributed to this important cause. Rolf Heuer Director-General Michel Goossens President of the Staff Association

  17. 12MW Horns Rev experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Peña, A.; Mikkelsen, Torben

    The 12MW project with the full title ‘12 MW wind turbines: the scientific basis for their operation at 70 to 270 m height offshore’ has the goal to experimentally investigate the wind and turbulence characteristics between 70 and 270 m above sea level and thereby establish the scientific basis...... relevant for the next generation of huge 12 MW wind turbines operating offshore. The report describes the experimental campaign at the Horns Rev offshore wind farm at which observations from Doppler Laser LIDAR and SODAR were collected from 3 May to 24 October 2006. The challenges for mounting...... profile. Further studies on this part of the work are on-going. Technical detail on LIDAR and SODAR are provided as well as theoretical work on turbulence and atmospheric boundary layer flow. Selected results from the experimental campaign are reported....

  18. The SeaHorn Verification Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurfinkel, Arie; Kahsai, Temesghen; Komuravelli, Anvesh; Navas, Jorge A.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present SeaHorn, a software verification framework. The key distinguishing feature of SeaHorn is its modular design that separates the concerns of the syntax of the programming language, its operational semantics, and the verification semantics. SeaHorn encompasses several novelties: it (a) encodes verification conditions using an efficient yet precise inter-procedural technique, (b) provides flexibility in the verification semantics to allow different levels of precision, (c) leverages the state-of-the-art in software model checking and abstract interpretation for verification, and (d) uses Horn-clauses as an intermediate language to represent verification conditions which simplifies interfacing with multiple verification tools based on Horn-clauses. SeaHorn provides users with a powerful verification tool and researchers with an extensible and customizable framework for experimenting with new software verification techniques. The effectiveness and scalability of SeaHorn are demonstrated by an extensive experimental evaluation using benchmarks from SV-COMP 2015 and real avionics code.

  19. AA, sandwich line with magnetic horn

    CERN Document Server

    CERN PhotoLab

    1980-01-01

    The magnetic horn, focusing the antiprotons emanating from the target, was affixed to a sandwich line through which the 150 kA pulses were supplied. Expecting to have to change from time to time the fragile horn (inner conductor only 0.7 mm thick), the assembly was designed for quick exchange. At the lower end of the sandwich line we see the connectors for the high-current cables, at the upper end the magnet horn. It has just been lifted from the V-supports which held it aligned downstream of the target. Continue with 8010293.

  20. An Annotated Guide and Interactive Database for Solo Horn Repertoire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schouten, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Given the horn's lengthy history, it is not surprising that many scholars have examined the evolution of the instrument from the natural horn to the modern horn and its expansive repertoire. Numerous dissertations, theses, and treatises illuminate specific elements of the horn's solo repertoire; however, no scholar has produced a…

  1. Neutrophilic dermatosis of dorsal hands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Kaur

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sweet′s syndrome is characterized by erythematous tender nodules and plaques over face and extremities. Fever, leukocytosis with neutrophilia, and a neutrophilic infiltrate in the dermis are characteristic features. Neutrophilic dermatosis of dorsal hands is a rare localized variant of Sweet′s syndrome occurring predominantly over dorsa of hands. Various degrees of vascular damage may be observed on histopathology of these lesions. Both Sweet′s syndrome and its dorsal hand variant have been reported in association with malignancies, inflammatory bowel diseases, and drugs. We report a patient with neutrophilic dermatoses of dorsal hands associated with erythema nodosum. He showed an excellent response to corticosteroids and dapsone.

  2. Removing Unnecessary Variables from Horn Clause Verification Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuele De Angelis

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Verification conditions (VCs are logical formulas whose satisfiability guarantees program correctness. We consider VCs in the form of constrained Horn clauses (CHC which are automatically generated from the encoding of (an interpreter of the operational semantics of the programming language. VCs are derived through program specialization based on the unfold/fold transformation rules and, as it often happens when specializing interpreters, they contain unnecessary variables, that is, variables which are not required for the correctness proofs of the programs under verification. In this paper we adapt to the CHC setting some of the techniques that were developed for removing unnecessary variables from logic programs, and we show that, in some cases, the application of these techniques increases the effectiveness of Horn clause solvers when proving program correctness.

  3. Next steps in propositional horn contraction

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Booth, R

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available not opted for this choice.) Our start- ing point for defining Horn e-contraction is in terms of Del- grande’s definition of e-remainder sets. Definition 3.1 (Horn e-Remainder Sets) For a belief setH , X ∈ H ↓e Φ iff (i) X ⊆ H , (ii) X 6|= Φ, and (iii...) for every X ′ s.t. X ⊂ X ′ ⊆ H , X ′ |= Φ. We refer to the elements of H ↓eΦ as the Horn e-remainder sets of H w.r.t. Φ. It is easy to verify that all Horn e-remainder sets are belief sets. Also, H ↓eΦ = ∅ iff |= Φ. We now proceed to define selection...

  4. Pediatric Periocular Keratin Horns: A Case Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachdev, Amun; Shafi, Fariha; Mehta, Purnima; Ahluwalia, Harpreet

    There are very few published cases of periocular keratin horns that have been reported in children. This study reports 2 pediatric cases of periocular keratin horns. The authors describe a 7-year-old male child who developed a keratin horn on the right lower eyelid and a 16-year-old female who developed a caruncular keratin horn. Both cases underwent excision biopsy, and subsequent histology confirmed that there was no evidence of malignancy. However, on the basis of the current evidence in adults and the difficulty in drawing firm conclusions from the small number of reported pediatric cases, the authors suggest that these lesions should be carefully managed due to the possibility of premalignant or malignant change at the base of the lesion.

  5. Assembly of the magnetic horns under way

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2003-01-01

    Ahmed Cherif of the EST Division's Metrology Service checks the straightness of the inner conductor of the first magnetic horn for CNGS. The tolerance is less than one millimetre over a length of approximately 6.5 metres.

  6. Follicular infundibulum tumour presenting as cutaneous horn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayaraman M

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Tumour of follicular infundibulum is an organoid tumour with a plate like growth attached to the epidermis with connection from the follicular epithelium. We are reporting such a case unusually presenting as cutaneous horn.

  7. Identification and mechanism of regulation of the zebrafish dorsal determinant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Fu-I; Thisse, Christine; Thisse, Bernard

    2011-09-20

    In vertebrates, the animal-vegetal axis is determined during oogenesis and at ovulation, the egg is radially symmetric. In anamniotes, following fertilization, a microtubule-dependent movement leads to the displacement of maternal dorsal determinants from the vegetal pole to the future dorsal side of the embryo, providing the initial breaking of radial symmetry [Weaver C, Kimelman D (2004) Development 131:3491-3499]. These dorsal determinants induce β-catenin nuclear translocation in dorsal cells of the blastula. Previous work in amphibians has shown that secreted Wnt11/5a complexes, regulated by the Wnt antagonist Dkk-1, are required for the initiation of embryonic axis formation [Cha et al. (2009) Curr Biol 29:1573-1580]. In the current study, we determined that the vegetal maternal dorsal determinant in fish is not the Wnt11/5a complex but the canonical Wnt, Wnt8a. Translation of this mRNA and secretion of the Wnt8a protein result in a dorsal-to-ventral gradient of Wnt stimulation, extending across the entire embryo. This gradient is counterbalanced by two Wnt inhibitors, Sfrp1a and Frzb. These proteins are essential to restrict the activation of the canonical Wnt pathway to the dorsal marginal blastomeres by defining the domain where the Wnt8a activity gradient is above the threshold value necessary for triggering the canonical β-catenin pathway. In summary, this study establishes that the zebrafish maternal dorsal determinant, Wnt8a, is required to localize the primary dorsal center, and that the extent of this domain is defined by the activity of two maternally provided Wnt antagonists, Sfrp1a and Frzb.

  8. Distribution of α-synuclein in the spinal cord and dorsal root ganglia in an autopsy cohort of elderly persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumikura, Hiroyuki; Takao, Masaki; Hatsuta, Hiroyuki; Ito, Shinji; Nakano, Yuta; Uchino, Akiko; Nogami, Akane; Saito, Yuko; Mochizuki, Hideki; Murayama, Shigeo

    2015-09-15

    Lewy body-related α-synucleinopathy (LBAS, the abnormal accumulation of pathologic α-synuclein) is found in the central and peripheral nervous systems, including the spinal cord, dorsal root ganglia, and sympathetic ganglia, of Parkinson's disease patients. However, few studies have focused on the distribution of LBAS in the spinal cord, primary sensory neurons, and preganglionic sympathetic nerves. We analyzed 265 consecutive subjects with LBAS who underwent autopsy at a general geriatric hospital. LBAS in the spinal cord was significantly associated with that in the lower brainstem regions that are directly connected to the spinal cord (i.e., the medullary reticular formation and locus ceruleus), but it was not associated with the olfactory bulb-amygdala system, which is not directly connected to the spinal cord, suggesting that the lower brainstem is a key structure regarding the spread of LBAS to the spinal cord. In the primary sensory neurons, most subjects with LBAS in the dorsal root ganglia had LBAS in the dorsal root, and all subjects with LBAS in the dorsal root also had LBAS in the dorsal horn, suggesting that LBAS spreads retrogradely from the axonal terminals of the dorsal horn to the somata of the dorsal root ganglia via the dorsal root. In the preganglionic sympathetic nerves, the LBAS in the sympathetic ganglia preceded that in the nucleus of the intermediolateral column of the thoracic cord, suggesting that LBAS spreads retrogradely through the preganglionic sympathetic nerves. LBAS in the spinal cord was associated with the lower regions of the brainstem, but not with the olfactory bulb or amygdala. LBAS may spread centrifugally along the primary sensory neurons, whereas it may spread centripetally along the preganglionic sympathetic nerves.

  9. Modulation of AMPA excitatory postsynaptic currents in the spinal cord dorsal horn neurons by insulin

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Špicarová, Diana; Paleček, Jiří

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 166, č. 1 (2010), s. 305-311 ISSN 0306-4522 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA305/06/1115; GA ČR GA305/09/1228; GA MŠk(CZ) LC554 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : pain * synaptic modulation * insulin Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 3.215, year: 2010

  10. Solving non-linear Horn clauses using a linear Horn clause solver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kafle, Bishoksan; Gallagher, John Patrick; Ganty, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we show that checking satisfiability of a set of non-linear Horn clauses (also called a non-linear Horn clause program) can be achieved using a solver for linear Horn clauses. We achieve this by interleaving a program transformation with a satisfiability checker for linear Horn...... clauses (also called a solver for linear Horn clauses). The program transformation is based on the notion of tree dimension, which we apply to a set of non-linear clauses, yielding a set whose derivation trees have bounded dimension. Such a set of clauses can be linearised. The main algorithm...... dimension. We constructed a prototype implementation of this approach and performed some experiments on a set of verification problems, which shows some promise....

  11. The rams horn in western history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubman, David

    2003-10-01

    The shofar or rams horn-one of the most ancient of surviving aerophones-may have originated with early Neolithic herders. The shofar is mentioned frequently and importantly in the Hebrew bible and in later biblical and post-biblical literature. Despite its long history, contemporary ritual uses, and profound symbolic significance to western religion, no documentation of shofar acoustical properties was found. Since ancient times, shepherds of many cultures have fashioned sound instruments from the horns of herd animals for practical and musical uses. Shepherd horns of other cultures exhibit an evolution of form and technology (e.g., the inclusion of finger holes). The shofar is unique in having retained its primitive form. It is suggested that after centuries of practical use, the shofar became emblematic of the shepherd culture. Ritual use then developed, which froze its form. A modern ritual rams horn played by an experienced blower was examined. This rather short horn was determined to have a source strength of 92 dB (A) at 1 m, a fundamental frequency near 420 Hz, and maximum power output between 1.2 and 1.8 kHz. Sample sounds and detection range estimates are provided.

  12. The presence of nuclear cactus in the early Drosophila embryo may extend the dynamic range of the dorsal gradient.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D O'Connell

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In a developing embryo, the spatial distribution of a signaling molecule, or a morphogen gradient, has been hypothesized to carry positional information to pattern tissues. Recent measurements of morphogen distribution have allowed us to subject this hypothesis to rigorous physical testing. In the early Drosophila embryo, measurements of the morphogen Dorsal, which is a transcription factor responsible for initiating the earliest zygotic patterns along the dorsal-ventral axis, have revealed a gradient that is too narrow to pattern the entire axis. In this study, we use a mathematical model of Dorsal dynamics, fit to experimental data, to determine the ability of the Dorsal gradient to regulate gene expression across the entire dorsal-ventral axis. We found that two assumptions are required for the model to match experimental data in both Dorsal distribution and gene expression patterns. First, we assume that Cactus, an inhibitor that binds to Dorsal and prevents it from entering the nuclei, must itself be present in the nuclei. And second, we assume that fluorescence measurements of Dorsal reflect both free Dorsal and Cactus-bound Dorsal. Our model explains the dynamic behavior of the Dorsal gradient at lateral and dorsal positions of the embryo, the ability of Dorsal to regulate gene expression across the entire dorsal-ventral axis, and the robustness of gene expression to stochastic effects. Our results have a general implication for interpreting fluorescence-based measurements of signaling molecules.

  13. Little Big Horn River Water Quality Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bad Bear, D.J.; Hooker, D. [Little Big Horn Coll., Crow Agency, MT (United States)

    1995-10-01

    This report summarizes the accomplishments of the Water Quality Project on the Little Big horn River during the summer of 1995. The majority of the summer was spent collecting data on the Little Big Horn River, then testing the water samples for a number of different tests which was done at the Little Big Horn College in Crow Agency, Montana. The intention of this study is to preform stream quality analysis to gain an understanding of the quality of selected portion of the river, to assess any impact that the existing developments may be causing to the environment and to gather base-line data which will serve to provide information concerning the proposed development. Citizens of the reservation have expressed a concern of the quality of the water on the reservation; surface waters, ground water, and well waters.

  14. RARE PRESENTATION OF RUPTURED RUDIMENTARY HORN PREGNANCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shergill Harbhajan K, Grover Suparna, Chhabra Ajay

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available It is a rare occurrence for the rudimentary horn of uterus to harbour a pregnancy and the usual outcome is devastating leading to a spontaneous rupture in second trimester with the patient presenting in shock with massive intra-peritoneal haemorrhage and if appropriate management is not instituted in time it may lead to high rate of mortality. We report an unusual case of rupture rudimentary horn pregnancy who presented as a chronic ectopic with an adnexal mass and surprisingly with no sign of shock. Diagnosis is often difficult in such a situation which puts the treating gynaecologist in dilemma. High clinical suspicion supplemented with radiological findings helped clinch the diagnosis and laparotomy was performed followed by resection of the rudimentary horn to prevent future complications.

  15. Constraint specialisation in Horn clause verification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kafle, Bishoksan; Gallagher, John Patrick

    2017-01-01

    We present a method for specialising the constraints in constrained Horn clauses with respect to a goal. We use abstract interpretation to compute a model of a query–answer transformed version of a given set of clauses and a goal. The constraints from the model are then used to compute...... underlying the clauses. Experimental results on verification problems show that this is an effective transformation, both in our own verification tools (based on a convex polyhedra analyser) and as a pre-processor to other Horn clause verification tools....

  16. AA, Inner Conductor of Magnetic Horn

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1979-01-01

    Antiprotons emerging at large angles from the production target (hit by an intense 26 GeV proton beam from the PS), were focused into the acceptance of the injection line of the AA by means of a "magnetic horn" (current-sheet lens). Here we see an early protype of the horn's inner conductor, machined from solid aluminium to a thickness of less than 1 mm. The 1st version had to withstand pulses of 150 kA, 15 us long, every 2.4 s. See 8801040 for a later version.

  17. Ectopic pregnancy in non communicating rudimentary horn of uterus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.; Soomro, N.

    2001-01-01

    Rudimentary horn ectopic pregnancy occurs very infrequently in gynecological practice. A case of rudimentary horn ectopic pregnancy, managed with salvage of the patient, is presented here in this report. (author)

  18. Horn's Biologically Active Substances - Can We Replace Horns of Critically Endangered Species (Saiga) by Horns of More Abundant Animals?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mikšík, Ivan; Romanov, O.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 1 (2017), s. 3-11 ISSN 2210-3155 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-01948S Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : biologically active compounds * horn * rhinoceros * saiga * traditional Chinese medicine Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation OBOR OECD: Analytical chemistry

  19. Functional genomics of the horn fly, Haematobia irritans (Linnaeus, 1758)

    OpenAIRE

    Torres, Lorena; Almazán, Consuelo; Ayllón, Nieves; Galindo, Ruth C; Rosario-Cruz, Rodrigo; Quiroz-Romero, Héctor; de la Fuente, José

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The horn fly, Haematobia irritans (Linnaeus, 1758) (Diptera: Muscidae) is one of the most important ectoparasites of pastured cattle. Horn flies infestations reduce cattle weight gain and milk production. Additionally, horn flies are mechanical vectors of different pathogens that cause disease in cattle. The aim of this study was to conduct a functional genomics study in female horn flies using Expressed Sequence Tags (EST) analysis and RNA interference (RNAi). Results A c...

  20. Computed tomography of the temporal horns at Alzheimer's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerber, U.; Vogel

    1989-01-01

    In the literature there are different opinions referring to the involvement of the temporal lobes or horns at Alzheimer's disease. Conventionally computed tomogram of the head does not include the temporal horn in its full length. A simple method to demonstrate the temporal horns after cranial computer tomography is described. It allows the evaluation of temporal lobe and temporal horn if questionable alterations at Alzheimer's disease are to be discussed. (orig.) [de

  1. Squamous cell carcinoma presenting as cutaneous horn in diabetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... not the horn itself, which is just dead keratin, but rather the nature of the underlying disease, although the horns are usually benign and that's why the case is reported. Keywords: Cutaneous horn; Cornu cutaneum; Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Diabetes Mellitus. Sudanese Journal of Dermatology Vol. 4 (2) 2006: pp. 86-91 ...

  2. A case of rudimentary horn pregnancy diagnosed after failed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-04-26

    Apr 26, 2016 ... horn does not communicate with the uterus; in “class IIc” the rudimentary horn does not have a cavity, ... the endometrium in the rudimentary horn is rarely functional and is not always synchronous with the ... scan, a useful radiologic tool in the diagnosis and planning of surgical treatment in uncertain cases.

  3. Gemelligraviditet i et horn af bicorn uterus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maagaard, Mathilde; Langhoff-Roos, Jens

    2009-01-01

    Bicornuate uterus is associated with early foetal loss and extremely preterm delivery. A patient with dichorionic twins in a single horn of a bicornuate uterus was admitted in week 24 + 6 with preterm labour. Long-term treatment with a combination of tocolytics, atosiban and diclofenac inhibited...

  4. TERRITORIAL BEHAVIOUR IN CERTAIN HORNED UNGULATES ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TERRITORIAL BEHAVIOUR IN CERTAIN HORNED UNGULATES, WITH SPECIAL. REFERENCE TO THE EXAMPLES OF THOMSON'S AND GRANT'S GAZELLES. FRITZ R. WALTHER. Department of Wildlife and Fisheries Sciences, Texas A & M University,. College Station, Texas 77843. ABSTRACT. An attempt has been ...

  5. Population dynamics of Prostephanus truncatus (Horn) and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of three maize varieties and two storage seasons on the population dynamics of Prostephanus truncates (Horn) and Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky were observed in the traditional `Ewe' barn in the field. Two local varieties, Dzolokpuita and Abutia and an improved variety, Abeleehi, were stored with the husk on ...

  6. The orthopaedic management of myelomeningocele | Horn | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The orthopaedic management of myelomeningocele. A Horn, S Dix-Peek, S Mears, EB Hoffman. Abstract. Despite improvement in antenatal care and screening, myelomeningocele remains the most common congenital birth defect, with a reported incidence of 1 - 2.5/1000 patients in the Western Cape, South Africa.

  7. Assembly of the magnetic horns under way

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    One of the key components of the CNGS facility is the system of magnetic lenses, known as horns, which are to point the pions and kaons that will decay into muons and muon-neutrinos in the direction of the Gran Sasso Laboratory. Positioned at the end of the target, which produces the pions and kaons, the system comprises two of these horns. The first focuses the positively charged pions and kaons, which have an energy of approximately 35 GeV, and defocuses the negative particles. Unfortunately, it has a tendency to cause excessive deflection of particles that have energies of less than 35 GeV and insufficient deflection of those with energies of more than 35 GeV. These negative effects are corrected by the second horn (also known as the reflector), which is positioned 40 metres from the first. Ahmed Cherif of the EST Division's Metrology Service checks the straightness of the inner conductor of the first magnetic horn for CNGS. The tolerance is less than one millimetre over a length of approximately 6.5 metre...

  8. Comparison of dorsal and volar approaches to the proximal radius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Jessica D; White, Jeffery A; Johnson, Anthony E; Blair, James A; Hsu, Joseph R

    2011-01-01

    Proximal radius exposure may be acquired by either the dorsal or volar approach depending on surgical requirements. The dorsal approach is traditionally recommended for fracture fixation of the proximal radius because of theoretically improved exposure and because the dorsal aspect of the bone is the tensile surface. The posterior interosseous nerve can be visualized and protected using this approach. The volar approach is preferred for biceps repair and boasts a distal extensile approach with adequate soft tissue coverage. Impingement on the bicipital tuberosity and biceps tendon, in addition to positioning on the compression side of the bone, makes the anterior or anterolateral position for plate placement less desirable. The goal of this study was to quantify and compare in a cadaver model the area of bone exposed using both approaches. We hypothesized that equivalent exposures can be obtained and the posterior interosseous nerve can be identified with either the Thompson or Henry approach. Standard dorsal and volar approaches were performed on 10 fresh-frozen adult cadaveric upper-limb specimens. Cross-sectional area of exposure was quantified from digital photographs using software. The 2 approaches did not result in a significant difference in area exposed. Depending on case requirements, either the dorsal or volar approach will provide adequate exposure to the proximal radius. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  9. Fighting Piracy: Experiences in Southeast Asia and off the Horn of Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Robert M. Farley, Ph.D.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent surge in acts of maritime piracy in the waters off the Horn of Africa stands in sharp contrast to a steep decline of such acts in Southeast Asia. In this study, we compare the development of the problem of piracy in both Southeast Asia and the Horn of Africa. We find that four main elements contributed to the recent decline in piracy in Southeast Asia: U.S. hegemonic interests, existing and emergent international institutions, bilateral relations among regional actors, and the density of naval forces in the region. Unfortunately, not all of these conditions are present in the Horn of Africa. Thus, the problem of piracy in that region will require new and innovative solutions.

  10. Mechanical support and transport system used for the neutrino horn system at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, J.C.; Carroll, A.S.; Leonhardt, W.

    1987-01-01

    The study of neutrinos at the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS), Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), requires hardware for their initiation and control. The basics consist of a target, two horns and three collimators. This paper describes the installation, support and positioning of these components within a settling concrete blockhouse

  11. Constraint Specialisation in Horn Clause Verification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kafle, Bishoksan; Gallagher, John Patrick

    2015-01-01

    -down and propagate answer constraints bottom-up. Our approach does not unfold the clauses at all; we use the constraints from the model to compute a specialised version of each clause in the program. The approach is independent of the abstract domain and the constraints theory underlying the clauses. Experimental......We present a method for specialising the constraints in constrained Horn clauses with respect to a goal. We use abstract interpretation to compute a model of a query-answer transformation of a given set of clauses and a goal. The effect is to propagate the constraints from the goal top...... results on verification problems show that this is an effective transformation, both in our own verification tools (convex polyhedra analyser) and as a pre-processor to other Horn clause verification tools....

  12. Ultrasonic horn design for ultrasonic machining technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naď M.

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Many of industrial applications and production technologies are based on the application of ultrasound. In many cases, the phenomenon of ultrasound is also applied in technological processes of the machining of materials. The main element of equipments that use the effects of ultrasound for machining technology is the ultrasonic horn – so called sonotrode. The performance of ultrasonic equipment, respectively ultrasonic machining technologies depends on properly designed of sonotrode shape. The dynamical properties of different geometrical shapes of ultrasonic horns are presented in this paper. Dependence of fundamental modal properties (natural frequencies, mode shapes of various sonotrode shapes for various geometrical parameters is analyzed. Modal analyses of the models are determined by the numerical simulation using finite element method (FEM design procedures. The mutual comparisons of the comparable parameters of the various sonotrode shapes are presented.

  13. AA, inner conductor of a magnetic horn

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1981-01-01

    At the start-up of the AA and during its initial operation, magnetic horns focused the antiprotons emanating from the production target. These "current-sheet lenses" had a thin inner conductor (for minimum absorption of antiprotons), machined from aluminium to wall thicknesses of 0.7 or 1 mm. The half-sine pulses rose to 150 kA in 8 microsec. The angular acceptance was 50 mrad.

  14. Functional genomics of the horn fly, Haematobia irritans (Linnaeus, 1758).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Lorena; Almazán, Consuelo; Ayllón, Nieves; Galindo, Ruth C; Rosario-Cruz, Rodrigo; Quiroz-Romero, Héctor; de la Fuente, José

    2011-02-10

    The horn fly, Haematobia irritans (Linnaeus, 1758) (Diptera: Muscidae) is one of the most important ectoparasites of pastured cattle. Horn flies infestations reduce cattle weight gain and milk production. Additionally, horn flies are mechanical vectors of different pathogens that cause disease in cattle. The aim of this study was to conduct a functional genomics study in female horn flies using Expressed Sequence Tags (EST) analysis and RNA interference (RNAi). A cDNA library was made from whole abdominal tissues collected from partially fed adult female horn flies. High quality horn fly ESTs (2,160) were sequenced and assembled into 992 unigenes (178 contigs and 814 singlets) representing molecular functions such as serine proteases, cell metabolism, mitochondrial function, transcription and translation, transport, chromatin structure, vitellogenesis, cytoskeleton, DNA replication, cell response to stress and infection, cell proliferation and cell-cell interactions, intracellular trafficking and secretion, and development. Functional analyses were conducted using RNAi for the first time in horn flies. Gene knockdown by RNAi resulted in higher horn fly mortality (protease inhibitor functional group), reduced oviposition (vitellogenin, ferritin and vATPase groups) or both (immune response and 5'-NUC groups) when compared to controls. Silencing of ubiquitination ESTs did not affect horn fly mortality and oviposition while gene knockdown in the ferritin and vATPse functional groups reduced mortality when compared to controls. These results advanced the molecular characterization of this important ectoparasite and suggested candidate protective antigens for the development of vaccines for the control of horn fly infestations.

  15. Actively adjustable step-type ultrasonic horns in longitudinal vibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shuyu; Guo, Hao; Xu, Jie

    2018-04-01

    Actively adjustable longitudinal step-type ultrasonic horns are proposed and studied. The horn is composed of a traditional ultrasonic horn and piezoelectric material. In practical applications, this kind of step-type ultrasonic horn is mechanically excited by an ultrasonic transducer and the piezoelectric material is connected to an adjustable electric impedance. In this research, the effects of the electric impedance and of the location of the piezoelectric material on the performance of the horn are studied. It is shown that when the electric resistance is increased, the resonance frequency of the horn is increased; the displacement magnification is increased when the piezoelectric material is located in the large end and decreased when the piezoelectric material is located in the small end of the horn. The displacement magnification for the piezoelectric material in the large end is larger than that for the piezoelectric material in the small end of the horn. Some step-type ultrasonic horns are designed and manufactured; the resonance frequency and the displacement magnification are measured by means of POLYTEC Laser Scanning vibrometer. It is shown that the theoretical resonance frequency and the displacement magnification are in good agreement with the measured results. It is concluded that by means of the insertion of the piezoelectric material in the longitudinal horn, the horn performance can be adjusted by changing the electric impedance and the location of the piezoelectric material in the horn. It is expected that this kind of adjustable ultrasonic horns can be used in traditional and potential ultrasonic technologies where the vibrational performance adjustment is needed.

  16. LS1 Report: Thank you magnetic horn!

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso & Katarina Anthony

    2014-01-01

    Experiments at the Antimatter Decelerator (AD) have been receiving beams since the beginning of this week. There is a crucial element at the heart of the chain that prepares the antiproton beam: the so-called magnetic horn, a delicate piece of equipment that had to be refurbished during LS1 and that is now showing just how well it can perform.   View from the top of the target and horn trolley, along the direction of the beam. Antiprotons for the AD are produced by smashing a beam of protons from the PS onto an iridium target. However, the particles produced by the nuclear interactions are emitted at very wide angles; without a focussing element, all these precious particles would be lost. “A magnetic horn is placed at the exit of the target to focus back a large fraction of the negative particles, including antiprotons, parallel to the beam line and with the right momentum,” explains Marco Calviani, physicist in the EN Department and the expert in charge of the AD targe...

  17. Effect of biotin supplementation on claw horn growth in young, clinically healthy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Luiz Antônio Franco; Franco, Leandro Guimarães; Atayde, Ingrid Bueno; da Cunha, Paulo Henrique Jorge; de Moura, Maria Ivete; Goulart, Daniel Silva

    2010-06-01

    The effects of orally administered biotin supplementation on the growth of claw horn in young, clinically healthy cattle were analyzed. Twelve, 1-year-old Girolando cattle were randomly assigned to receive either 12.5 mg of diluted powdered biotin (GI) or a control treatment (GII) for 40 consecutive days. Cattle in the GI group showed an average hoof growth of 11.3 +/- 0.72 mm, while those in GII had an average hoof growth of 7.2 +/- 0.78 mm. The results confirmed the positive effect of biotin supplementation on the growth of angle and length of the dorsal hoof wall, hoof sole length, and on resistance to wearing, in young cattle extensively managed.

  18. Application and Research of Ultrasonic Horn in Ultrasonic Ranging System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju Xiaotao

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at the problem that echo signal is hard to recognize caused by ultrasonic energy’s overquick dispersion and attenuation, a kind of ultrasonic horn is designed. According to the acoustic theory analysis, the ultrasonic horn can increase its radiation energy by improving impedance matching. The ultrasonic horn can make the directivity of sound source sharper and energy more centralized because of the large outlet. The simulation calculation and experiment results prove the effectiveness of ultrasonic horn to improve the scope of ultrasonic ranging.

  19. More on Descriptive Complexity of Second-Order HORN Logics

    OpenAIRE

    Feng, Shiguang; Zhao, Xishun

    2014-01-01

    This paper concerns Gradel's question asked in 1992: whether all problems which are in PTIME and closed under substructures are definable in second-order HORN logic SO-HORN. We introduce revisions of SO-HORN and DATALOG by adding first-order universal quantifiers over the second-order atoms in the bodies of HORN clauses and DATALOG rules. We show that both logics are as expressive as FO(LFP), the least fixed point logic. We also prove that FO(LFP) can not define all of the problems that are i...

  20. Efficiency of partial treatment of cattle infested with horn fly using 40% diazinon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Alves de Almeida

    Full Text Available The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the efficiency of partial treatment of animals infested with horn flies. Forty-five Guzerat cows between 4 and 7 years of age were divided into three groups (15 cows per group. The treatments were as follows: in groups G33 and G100, 33.3 and 100% of the cows were treated with one insecticide-impregnated ear tag/animal (40% diazinon, respectively, while in the group GC, the cows were not treated (control. The flies on the cervico-dorsal-lumbar region of the cows, in all three groups, were counted every 14 days. The experiment lasted from September 2006 to September 2009. Over this period, six four-month ear tag treatments, with intervals of one to two months, were conducted on both treated groups. The animals of group G33 had a higher infection than those of group G100, and the number of flies ranged from 12 to 27 (group G33 and from 3 to 11 (group G100. However, groups G33 and G100 had lower infection levels than group GC, which presented from 45 to 87 flies. Partial treatment of cattle infested with horn flies using 40% diazinon insecticide is an efficient alternative for controlling this ectoparasite.

  1. Efficiency of partial treatment of cattle infested with horn fly using 40% diazinon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Fabiana Alves; Alari, Fernando de Oliveira; Seno, Maria Conceição Zocoller; de Lima, Marco Monteiro; Nascimento, Sheila Tavares; Chiquitelli Neto, Marcos

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the efficiency of partial treatment of animals infested with horn flies. Forty-five Guzerat cows between 4 and 7 years of age were divided into three groups (15 cows per group). The treatments were as follows: in groups G33 and G100, 33.3 and 100% of the cows were treated with one insecticide-impregnated ear tag/animal (40% diazinon), respectively, while in the group GC, the cows were not treated (control). The flies on the cervico-dorsal-lumbar region of the cows, in all three groups, were counted every 14 days. The experiment lasted from September 2006 to September 2009. Over this period, six four-month ear tag treatments, with intervals of one to two months, were conducted on both treated groups. The animals of group G33 had a higher infection than those of group G100, and the number of flies ranged from 12 to 27 (group G33) and from 3 to 11 (group G100). However, groups G33 and G100 had lower infection levels than group GC, which presented from 45 to 87 flies. Partial treatment of cattle infested with horn flies using 40% diazinon insecticide is an efficient alternative for controlling this ectoparasite.

  2. Preliminary design note for a direct coupled 200,000 amp neutrino horn power supply with energy recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visser, A.T.

    1995-03-01

    The availability of high current, (several thousand amperes) silicon controlled rectifiers and high current, low loss capacitors make it practical to design a direct coupled energy discharge power supply for the neutrino horns in the proposed NuMI facility at Fermilab. The neutrino horns require a continuous pulse train of 200,000 A and 1 msec duration at a pulse period of 1.5 seconds. This high current pulse train yields a system load current of about 9,000 A rms. Using a high power coupling transformer between the energy stored in a capacitor bank and the horns is very expensive because the transformer secondary winding would have to be rated for 9,000 A rms at about 1,400 Vpk. The transformer would also add leakage inductance to the discharge circuit, take up a substantial amount of floor space and make stored energy recovery from the horns less effective or maybe even impractical. The transformer would need a reset winding to remove the high remnant magnet field in the transformer steel which is caused by the unipolar discharge pulses. A coupling transformer is practical for high voltage loads, but the horns operate at a relatively low voltage of about 1,400 V, which makes direct coupling very attractive. This note describes a preliminary design for a direct coupled system. From the design notes the authors can conclude that direct coupling is economical, practical, relatively simple, can use energy recovery and does not require materials or equipment that is hard to obtain. The charging power supply could be two standard (Fermilab) 240 kW beamline power supplies connected in series and grounded at the midpoint. The capacitor bank, switches, transmission line and controls can be most economically assembled in house. They may conclude that it is desirable to build a direct coupled neutrino horn power supply system and to connect both horns in series

  3. Geology of outer Horns Rev, Danish North Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Joern B.; Gravesen, P.; Lomholt, S. (Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland, Copenhagen (Denmark))

    2008-07-15

    In 2006, Dong Energy initiated the development of the Horns Rev II offshore wind farm in the North Sea. In order to evaluate and map the characteristics of the surface features of the sea bed and to characterise the subsurface in the wind farm area, the Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS) conducted a geophysical survey of the area. The survey utilised a variety of instruments: sparker, side-scan sonar, marine caesium magnetometer and a multibeam echo-sounder. In addition, information on the subsurface sediments was obtained by cone penetration tests (CPT) and by drilling to 30-50 m below the sea bottom. Geological correlation of the CPT results with the other survey results was extremely complicated but was required in order to understand the architecture of the ice marginal glaciotectonic complex. Information on the geology is crucial for evaluation of the geotechnical problems of the region. (au)

  4. Development of large size NC trepanning and horning machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wada, Yoshiei; Aono, Fumiaki; Siga, Toshihiko; Sudo, Eiichi; Takasa, Seiju; Fukuyama, Masaaki; Sibukawa, Koichi; Nakagawa, Hirokatu

    2010-01-01

    Due to the recent increase in world energy demand, construction of considerable number of nuclear and fossil power plant has been proceeded and is further planned. High generating capacity plant requires large forged components such as monoblock turbine rotor shafts and the dimensions of them tend to increase. Some of these components have center bore for material test, NDE and other use. In order to cope with the increase in production of these large forgings with center bores, a new trepanning machine, which exclusively bore a deep hole, was developed in JSW taking account of many accumulated experiences and know-how of experts. The machine is the world largest 400t trepanning and horning machine with numerical control and has many advantage in safety, the machining precision, machining efficiency, operability, labor-saving, and energy saving. Furthermore, transfer of the technical skill became easy through concentrated monitoring system based on numerically analysed experts' know-how. (author)

  5. Amnioserosa cell constriction but not epidermal actin cable tension autonomously drives dorsal closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasakarnis, Laurynas; Frei, Erich; Caussinus, Emmanuel; Affolter, Markus; Brunner, Damian

    2016-11-01

    Tissue morphogenesis requires coordination of multiple force-producing components. During dorsal closure in fly embryogenesis, an epidermis opening closes. A tensioned epidermal actin/MyosinII cable, which surrounds the opening, produces a force that is thought to combine with another MyosinII force mediating apical constriction of the amnioserosa cells that fill the opening. A model proposing that each force could autonomously drive dorsal closure was recently challenged by a model in which the two forces combine in a ratchet mechanism. Acute force elimination via selective MyosinII depletion in one or the other tissue shows that the amnioserosa tissue autonomously drives dorsal closure while the actin/MyosinII cable cannot. These findings exclude both previous models, although a contribution of the ratchet mechanism at dorsal closure onset remains likely. This shifts the current view of dorsal closure being a combinatorial force-component system to a single tissue-driven closure event.

  6. On the Suitability of a Solenoid Horn for the ESS Neutrino Superbeam

    CERN Document Server

    Olvegård, Maja; Ruber, R; Ziemann, R; Koutchouk, J -P

    2015-01-01

    The European Spallation Source (ESS), now under construction in Lund, Sweden, offers unique opportunities for experimental physics, not only in neutron science but potentially in particle physics. The ESS neutrino superbeam project plans to use a 5 MW proton beam from the ESS linac to generate a high intensity neutrino superbeam, with the final goal of detecting leptonic CP-violation in an underground megaton Cherenkov water detector. The neutrino production requires a second target station and a complex focusing system for the pions emerging from the target. The normal-conducting magnetic horns that are normally used for these applications cannot accept the 2.86 ms long proton pulses of the ESS linac, which means that pulse shortening in an accumulator ring would be required. That, in turn, requires H- operation in the linac to accommodate the high intensity. As an attractive alternative, we investigate the possibility of using superconducting solenoids for the pion focusing. This solenoid horn system needs ...

  7. Wave propagation inside the Agbo horn | Nwachukwu | Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... comparable to that of modern horns and other musical instruments in emitting harmonious vibrations of even and odd harmonics when excited. This investigation has further shown that the “agbo” horns can be used for fourier analysis and amplitude modulation. They also have characteristics similar to violin, piano, oboe, ...

  8. AFP Algorithm and a Canonical Normal Form for Horn Formulas

    OpenAIRE

    Majdoddin, Ruhollah

    2014-01-01

    AFP Algorithm is a learning algorithm for Horn formulas. We show that it does not improve the complexity of AFP Algorithm, if after each negative counterexample more that just one refinements are performed. Moreover, a canonical normal form for Horn formulas is presented, and it is proved that the output formula of AFP Algorithm is in this normal form.

  9. Contraction core for horn belief change: preliminary report

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Booth, R

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the authors continue recent investigations into belief change for Horn logic. The main contribution is a result which shows that the construction method for Horn contraction for belief sets based on infraremainder sets, as recently...

  10. Toward a Regional Security Architecture for the Horn of Africa ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Toward a Regional Security Architecture for the Horn of Africa - Phase II. The Horn of Africa region has endured decades of destruction and human suffering due to long and interrelated wars. Moreover, conflict in one country tends to affect its neighbours, mainly through the flow of refugees and weapons. Building on work ...

  11. The natural horn as an efficient sound radiating system ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results obtained showed that the locally made horn are efficient sound radiating systems and are therefore excellent for sound production in local musical renditions. These findings, in addition to the portability and low cost of the horns qualify them to be highly recommended for use in music making and for other purposes ...

  12. Occupational cow horn eye injuries in Ibadan, Nigeria | Ibrahim ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This case series aims to describe the clinical features, management, and outcome of occupational eye injuries caused by cow horns and to recommend possible preventive measures. A review of patients with cow horn inflicted eye injuries seen at the University College Hospital, Ibadan between January 2006, and ...

  13. A Demographic Model to Evaluate Population Declines in the Endangered Streaked Horned Lark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaine F. Camfield

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The Streaked Horned Lark (Eremophila alpestris strigata is listed as endangered by the State of Washington, USA and by Canada under the Species at Risk Act and is also classified as a federal candidate for listing under the Endangered Species Act in the USA. A substantial portion of Streaked Horned Lark habitat has been lost or degraded, and range contraction has occurred in Oregon, Washington, and British Columbia. We estimate the vital rates (fecundity, adult and juvenile survival and population growth rate (λ for Streaked Horned Larks breeding in Washington, USA and conduct a Life-Stage Simulation Analysis (LSA to evaluate which vital rate has the greatest influence on λ. We simulated changes in the three vital rates to examine how much they would need to be adjusted either independently or in concert to achieve a stable Streaked Horned Lark population (λ = 1. We also evaluated which fecundity component (the number of fledglings per egg laid or renesting interval had the greatest impact on λ. The estimate of population growth suggests that Streaked Horned Larks in Washington are declining rapidly (λ = 0.62 ± 0.10 and that local breeding sites are not sustainable without immigration. The LSA results indicate that adult survival had the greatest influence on λ, followed by juvenile survival and fecundity. However, increases in vital rates led to λ = 1 only when adult survival was raised from 0.47 to 0.85, juvenile survival from 0.17 to 0.58, and fecundity from 0.91 to 3.09. Increases in breeding success and decreases in the renesting interval influenced λ similarly; however, λ did not reach 1 even when breeding success was raised to 100% or renesting intervals were reduced to 1 day. Only when all three vital rates were increased simultaneously did λ approach 1 without requiring highly unrealistic increases in each vital rate. We conclude that conservation activities need to target all or multiple vital rates to be successful. The

  14. A rapid chemical odour profiling method for the identification of rhinoceros horns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueland, Maiken; Ewart, Kyle; Troobnikoff, Amanda N; Frankham, Greta; Johnson, Rebecca N; Forbes, Shari L

    2016-09-01

    Illegal poaching causes great harm to species diversity and conservation. A vast amount of money is involved in the trade of illegal or forged animal parts worldwide. In many cases, the suspected animal part is unidentifiable and requires costly and invasive laboratory analysis such as isotopic fingerprinting or DNA testing. The lack of rapid and accurate methods to identify wildlife parts at the point of detection represents a major hindrance in the enforcement and prosecution of wildlife trafficking. The ability of wildlife detector dogs to alert to different wildlife species demonstrates that there is a detectable difference in scent profile of illegally traded animal parts. This difference was exploited to develop a rapid, non-invasive screening method for distinguishing rhinoceros horns of different species. The method involved the collection of volatile organic compounds (VOC) by headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and analysis by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography - time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC-TOFMS). It was hypothesised that the use of the specific odour profile as a screening method could separate and differentiate geographic origin or exploit the difference in diets of different species within a family (such as white rhinoceros and black rhinoceros from the Rhinocerotidae family). Known black and white rhinoceros horn samples were analysed using HS-SPME-GC×GC-TOFMS and multivariate statistics were applied to identify groupings in the data set. The black rhinoceros horn samples were distinctly different from the white rhinoceros horn samples. This demonstrated that seized rhinoceros horn samples can be identified based on their distinct odour profiles. The chemical odour profiling method has great potential as a rapid and non-invasive screening method in order to combat and track illegal trafficking of wildlife parts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Single nucleotide polymorphisms concordant with the horned/polled trait in Holsteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nissing Nick J

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cattle that naturally do not grow horns are referred to as polled, a trait inherited in a dominant Mendelian fashion. Previous studies have localized the polled mutation (which is unknown to the proximal end of bovine chromosome 1 in a region approximately 3 Mb in size. While a polled genetic test, Tru-Polled™, is commercially available from MetaMorphix Inc., Holsteins are not a validated breed for this test. Findings Approximately 160 kb were sequenced within the known polled region from 12 polled and 12 horned Holsteins. Analysis of the polymorphisms identified 13 novel single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs that are concordant with the horned/polled trait. Three of the 13 SNPs are located in gene coding or regulatory regions (e.g., the untranslated region, or UTR where one is located in the 3'UTR of a gene and the other two are located in the 5'UTR and coding region (synonymous SNP of another gene. The 3'UTR of genes have been shown to be targets of microRNAs regulating gene expression. In silico analysis indicates the 3'UTR SNP may disrupt a microRNA target site. Conclusion These 13 novel SNPs concordant with the horned/polled trait in Holsteins represent a test panel for the breed and this is the first report to the authors' knowledge of SNPs within gene coding or regulatory regions concordant with the horned/polled trait in cattle. These SNPs will require further testing for verification and further study to determine if the 3'UTR SNP may have a functional effect on the polled trait in Holsteins.

  16. Insecticide resistance in the horn fly: alternative control strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyarzún, M P; Quiroz, A; Birkett, M A

    2008-09-01

    The horn fly, Haematobia irritans (Linnaeus 1758) (Diptera: Muscidae) is one of the most widespread and economically important pests of cattle. Although insecticides have been used for fly control, success has been limited because of the development of insecticide resistance in all countries where the horn fly is found. This problem, along with public pressure for insecticide-free food and the prohibitive cost of developing new classes of compounds, has driven the investigation of alternative control methods that minimize or avoid the use of insecticides. This review provides details of the economic impact of horn flies, existing insecticides used for horn fly control and resistance mechanisms. Current research on new methods of horn fly control based on resistant cattle selection, semiochemicals, biological control and vaccines is also discussed.

  17. Giant cutaneous horn in an African woman: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nthumba Peter M

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction A cutaneous horn is a conical projection of hyperkeratotic epidermis. Though grossly resembling an animal horn, it lacks a bony core. These lesions have been well described in Caucasian patients, as well as in a number of Arabic and Asian patients. Case presentation A young female presented with a large 'horn' of five-year duration, arising from a burn scar. Excision and scalp reconstruction were performed. Histology was reported as verrucoid epidermal hyperplasia with cutaneous horn. Conclusion This may be the first documentation of this lesion in a black African. Although likely rare, it should be considered in the differential diagnosis of dermatologic lesions. Up to 40% of cutaneous horns occur as part of a premalignant or malignant lesion, and surgical extirpation with histological examination is thus more important than the curiosity surrounding these lesions.

  18. Inflammatory mediators potentiate high affinity GABA(A) currents in rat dorsal root ganglion neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kwan Yeop; Gold, Michael S

    2012-06-19

    Following acute tissue injury action potentials may be initiated in afferent processes terminating in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord that are propagated back out to the periphery, a process referred to as a dorsal root reflex (DRR). The DRR is dependent on the activation of GABA(A) receptors. The prevailing hypothesis is that DRR is due to a depolarizing shift in the chloride equilibrium potential (E(Cl)) following an injury-induced activation of the Na(+)-K(+)-Cl(-)-cotransporter. Because inflammatory mediators (IM), such as prostaglandin E(2) are also released in the spinal cord following tissue injury, as well as evidence that E(Cl) is already depolarized in primary afferents, an alternative hypothesis is that an IM-induced increase in GABA(A) receptor mediated current (I(GABA)) could underlie the injury-induced increase in DRR. To test this hypothesis, we explored the impact of IM (prostaglandin E(2) (1 μM), bradykinin (10 μM), and histamine (1 μM)) on I(GABA) in dissociated rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons with standard whole cell patch clamp techniques. IM potentiated I(GABA) in a subpopulation of medium to large diameter capsaicin insensitive DRG neurons. This effect was dependent on the concentration of GABA, manifest only at low concentrations (emergence of injury-induced DRR. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Neonatal intraperitoneal or intravenous injections of recombinant adeno-associated virus type 8 transduce dorsal root ganglia and lower motor neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foust, Kevin D; Poirier, Amy; Pacak, Christina A; Mandel, Ronald J; Flotte, Terence R

    2008-01-01

    Targeting lower motor neurons (LMNs) for gene delivery could be useful for disorders such as spinal muscular atrophy and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. LMNs reside in the ventral gray matter of the spinal cord and send axonal projections to innervate skeletal muscle. Studies have used intramuscular injections of adeno-associated virus type 2 (AAV2) to deliver viral vectors to LMNs via retrograde transport. However, treating large areas of the spinal cord in a human would require numerous intramuscular injections, thereby increasing viral titer and risk of immune response. New AAV serotypes, such as AAV8, have a dispersed transduction pattern after intravenous or intraperitoneal injection in neonatal mice, and may transduce LMNs by retrograde transport or through entry into the nervous system. To test LMN transduction after systemic injection, we administered recombinant AAV8 (rAAV8) carrying the green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene by intravenous or intraperitoneal injection to neonatal mice on postnatal day 1. Tissues were harvested 5 and 14 days postinjection and analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction and GFP immunohistochemistry to assess the presence of AAV genomes and GFP expression, respectively. Spinal cords were positive for AAV genomes at both time points. GFP immunohistochemistry revealed infrequent labeling of LMNs across all time points and injection routes. Somewhat surprisingly, there was extensive labeling of fibers in the dorsal horns and columns, indicating dorsal root ganglion transduction across all time points and injection routes. Our data suggest that systemic injection of rAAV8 is not an effective delivery route to target lower motor neurons, but could be useful for targeting sensory pathways in chronic pain.

  20. Functional genomics of the horn fly, Haematobia irritans (Linnaeus, 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quiroz-Romero Héctor

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The horn fly, Haematobia irritans (Linnaeus, 1758 (Diptera: Muscidae is one of the most important ectoparasites of pastured cattle. Horn flies infestations reduce cattle weight gain and milk production. Additionally, horn flies are mechanical vectors of different pathogens that cause disease in cattle. The aim of this study was to conduct a functional genomics study in female horn flies using Expressed Sequence Tags (EST analysis and RNA interference (RNAi. Results A cDNA library was made from whole abdominal tissues collected from partially fed adult female horn flies. High quality horn fly ESTs (2,160 were sequenced and assembled into 992 unigenes (178 contigs and 814 singlets representing molecular functions such as serine proteases, cell metabolism, mitochondrial function, transcription and translation, transport, chromatin structure, vitellogenesis, cytoskeleton, DNA replication, cell response to stress and infection, cell proliferation and cell-cell interactions, intracellular trafficking and secretion, and development. Functional analyses were conducted using RNAi for the first time in horn flies. Gene knockdown by RNAi resulted in higher horn fly mortality (protease inhibitor functional group, reduced oviposition (vitellogenin, ferritin and vATPase groups or both (immune response and 5'-NUC groups when compared to controls. Silencing of ubiquitination ESTs did not affect horn fly mortality and ovisposition while gene knockdown in the ferritin and vATPse functional groups reduced mortality when compared to controls. Conclusions These results advanced the molecular characterization of this important ectoparasite and suggested candidate protective antigens for the development of vaccines for the control of horn fly infestations.

  1. Distribution of horn flies on individual cows as a percentage of the total horn fly population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruett, J H; Steelman, C D; Miller, J A; Pound, J M; George, J E

    2003-10-20

    Twenty-three mixed-breed herd cows were phenotyped for their ability to serve as a suitable host for Haematobia irritans, the horn fly. Based upon consistent observations within the lower quartile or upper quartile of individual fly counts, four cows were phenotyped as low carriers and five cows were phenotyped as high carriers of horn flies. The cows designated as low carriers consistently carried levels of flies below the economic threshold. However, during a period of fly population explosion, low carriers harbored flies well above the economic threshold. Although the number of flies counted on these low carrying cattle increased as the population increased, the relative percentage of the population that they carried changed very little. A hypothesis is proposed to explain this observation, and future studies are suggested.

  2. Horn belief change: A contraction core

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Booth, R

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available e-contractions. The argument is based on the observation that the convexity result for full propositional logic [2, Proposition 2.1] does not hold for Horn logic. Example 1 Let H = CnHL(fp! q; q ! rg). Then, for the e- contraction of H with p ! r..., and the Failure postulate. (H e 6) If 2 H n (H ’), then there exists an X s.t.T (H?e’) X H and X 6j= ’, but X [ f g j= ’ (H e 7) If j= ’, then H e ’ = H (Failure) (H e 6) resembles the Relevance postulate for base contraction. Also, it is an unusual...

  3. On the origin of Ammon's horn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iniesta, I

    2014-10-01

    Greek and Roman worship of their gods and myths go back to Ancient Egyptian times. Images engraved in Greco-Roman coinage range from references to the assassination of Caesar and legendary stories like the arrival of a snake shaped demi-god Aesculapius to save the Romans from the plague, to invocations of major deities including Apollo the physician or Ammon the protector. Depicted with the horns of a ram, Ammon was adopted by the Greeks as an epithet of Zeus and later incorporated by the Romans as Jupiter. References to the cult of Ammon appear on tetradrachms minted for Alexander The Great and on provincial Roman coins struck under Claudius. It is thrilling to hold a coin depicting Marcus Aurelius with Salus on the reverse and think that it could have been handed to Galen in payment for his services. However, it is rare to find figures other than rulers on coins and the physician of Pergamum is no exception. Inspired by the Renaissance school of Padua, French anatomists in the Enlightenment (Garengeot in 1742 and Flurant in 1752) continued reviving ancient myths and named the curve-shaped-inner portion of the temporal lobe Ammon's horn. Outstanding scholars who studied this primitive structure of the brain included Lorente de Nó and his mentor Cajal, whose portrait appeared on fifty-pesetas notes issued in 1935. As primary sources of great archaeological and artistic value, Greco-Roman coins provide information about the origins of the myths and gods of classical antiquity and continue to inspire the arts and sciences to this day. Copyright © 2011 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  4. EST and microarray analysis of horn development in Onthophagus beetles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang Zuojian

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The origin of novel traits and their subsequent diversification represent central themes in evo-devo and evolutionary ecology. Here we explore the genetic and genomic basis of a class of traits that is both novel and highly diverse, in a group of organisms that is ecologically complex and experimentally tractable: horned beetles. Results We developed two high quality, normalized cDNA libraries for larval and pupal Onthophagus taurus and sequenced 3,488 ESTs that assembled into 451 contigs and 2,330 singletons. We present the annotation and a comparative analysis of the conservation of the sequences. Microarrays developed from the combined libraries were then used to contrast the transcriptome of developing primordia of head horns, prothoracic horns, and legs. Our experiments identify a first comprehensive list of candidate genes for the evolution and diversification of beetle horns. We find that developing horns and legs show many similarities as well as important differences in their transcription profiles, suggesting that the origin of horns was mediated partly, but not entirely, by the recruitment of genes involved in the formation of more traditional appendages such as legs. Furthermore, we find that horns developing from the head and prothorax differ in their transcription profiles to a degree that suggests that head and prothoracic horns are not serial homologs, but instead may have evolved independently from each other. Conclusion We have laid the foundation for a systematic analysis of the genetic basis of horned beetle development and diversification with the potential to contribute significantly to several major frontiers in evolutionary developmental biology.

  5. Formal verification of communication protocols using quantized Horn clauses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balu, Radhakrishnan

    2016-05-01

    The stochastic nature of quantum communication protocols naturally lends itself for expression via probabilistic logic languages. In this work we describe quantized computation using Horn clauses and base the semantics on quantum probability. Turing computable Horn clauses are very convenient to work with and the formalism can be extended to general form of first order languages. Towards this end we build a Hilbert space of H-interpretations and a corresponding non commutative von Neumann algebra of bounded linear operators. We demonstrate the expressive power of the language by casting quantum communication protocols as Horn clauses.

  6. Everard Home, John Hunter, and cutaneous horns: a historical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondeson, J

    2001-08-01

    A cutaneous horn is a protrusion from the skin made up of cornified material. These horns can be derived from a variety of epidermal lesions, both benign and malignant. This historical article reviews a number of early instances of cutaneous horns, some reported in the 16th and 17th centuries. The Danish anatomist Thomas Bartholin was the first to have a correct theory of the ethiology of these horny growths, and the English surgeons John Hunter and Everard Home confirmed his findings in the late 18th century.

  7. The role of the dorsal visual processing stream in tool identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Jorge; Mahon, Bradford Z; Caramazza, Alfonso

    2010-06-01

    The dorsal visual processing stream subserves object-directed action, whereas the ventral visual processing stream subserves visual object recognition. Little is known about how information computed by dorsal-stream structures influences object recognition. We used continuous flash suppression to functionally separate information computed by the dorsal stream from that computed by the ventral stream. We show that information originating from the dorsal stream influences not only decisions requiring the selection of superordinate category labels, but also decisions that entail the selection of a basic-level object. We further show that information computed by the dorsal stream does not carry specific functional information about objects. Our results indicate that the dorsal stream, in isolation from the ventral stream, is agnostic as to the identity of the objects that it processes. We suggest that structures within the dorsal visual processing stream compute motor-relevant information (e.g., graspability), which influences the identification of manipulable objects, and is not either about the function of the object or function-specific.

  8. Inner conductor of the magnetic double-horn for the neutrino oscillation experiment with BEBC

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1982-01-01

    In 1980 renewed interest arose in probing for neutrino non-zero masses and associated neutrino oscillations. Low-energy muon-neutrino beams (produced with a proton beam from the PS) were directed towards the SPS neutrino detectors, BEBC, WA1 and WA18 (Annual Report 1982, p.43, Fig.13). Experiments PS169 (WA1) and PS181 (WA18) were "disappearence" experiments and used a "bare" production target, whereas experiment PS180 (BEBC), looked for electron-neutrino "appearence" and used a horn-focused beam. The manufacture of the inner conductor of the double-horn (a particular breed of current-sheet lens) required exceedingly delicate machining. For further pictures see 8304055 and Annual Report 1982, p.137; and p.43 for a description of the experiments.

  9. Cutaneous horn and thermal keratosis in erythema AB igne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sood Apra

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A 46 - year - old Kashmiri lady developed erythema ab igne on both legs. She subsequently developed multiple keratoses and a cutaneous horn in the involved skin. An uncommon association of these three clinical conditions is being presented.

  10. Application of TEM horn antenna in radiating NEMP simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yun; Chen, Yongguang; Wang, Qingguo

    2013-01-01

    In order to design a small radiating nuclear electromagnetic pulse simulator with fast rise time, we have investigated the application of TEM horn antenna in this kind of simulator. The TEM horn antenna is excitated by the integral double exponential pulse. Farfield response in time domain is analyzed based on the step response formula which is derived from the equivalent transmission line model of TEM horn antenna. Principle of antenna parameters selection is determined. The results of numerical calculation give a show of the radiation waveform and some problems. Then experiments are implemented and results are compared with the radiation waveforms generated by double exponential pulse excitation. It suggests that the TEM horn antenna can be used as radiating antenna in the NEMP simulator, which can radiate double-exponent-like pulse with the integral double exponential pulse as excitation. Meanwhile, impedance loading can improve farfield waveforms and enhance the low-frequency radiating ability of antenna.

  11. The issue of ventral versus dorsal approach in bulbar urethral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    E. Palminteri

    increased over time the use of Ventral Graft and decreased the use of dorsal graft [7]. From surgical point of view, the Barbagli Dorsal Grafting by Dor- sal approach ... seems reduce the risk of fistula; in reality there is a similar rate of fistula with both ventral and dorsal grafting. The disadvantage of the dorsal approach is that it ...

  12. Attempts to conduct fatigue analysis of horn structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozien, Marek S.; Nieslony, Adam

    2018-01-01

    In the article, the problem of estimating the lifespan of the magnetic lens' (horns) structure, is discussed. Due to pulse-type excitation by current flow, the relatively broad frequency band of stress component function is obtained. Moreover, due to repetition, the problem of pulse resonance can be obtained. The fatigue life prediction is done on the spectral attempt. The analysis was performed for two types of horn structures: the CERN NuFACT one and the EUROnu designed one.

  13. Fabrication and Testing of Pyramidal X- Band Standard Horn Antenna

    OpenAIRE

    Hasan F. Khazaal; Haider Th. Salim Alrikabi; Anwar N. Mohammed Ali; Kadhim A. Neamah; Ali S. Shanan

    2017-01-01

    Standard horn antennas are an important device to evaluate many types of antennas, since they are used as a reference to any type of antennas within the microwave frequency bands. In this project the fabrication process and tests of standard horn antenna operating at X-band frequencies have been proposed. The fabricated antenna passed through multi stages of processing of its parts until assembling the final product. These stages are (milling, bending, fitting and welding). The assembled ante...

  14. Combating Rhino Horn Trafficking: The Need to Disrupt Criminal Networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy C Haas

    Full Text Available The onslaught on the World's wildlife continues despite numerous initiatives aimed at curbing it. We build a model that integrates rhino horn trade with rhino population dynamics in order to evaluate the impact of various management policies on rhino sustainability. In our model, an agent-based sub-model of horn trade from the poaching event up through a purchase of rhino horn in Asia impacts rhino abundance. A data-validated, individual-based sub-model of the rhino population of South Africa provides these abundance values. We evaluate policies that consist of different combinations of legal trade initiatives, demand reduction marketing campaigns, increased anti-poaching measures within protected areas, and transnational policing initiatives aimed at disrupting those criminal syndicates engaged in horn trafficking. Simulation runs of our model over the next 35 years produces a sustainable rhino population under only one management policy. This policy includes both a transnational policing effort aimed at dismantling those criminal networks engaged in rhino horn trafficking-coupled with increases in legal economic opportunities for people living next to protected areas where rhinos live. This multi-faceted approach should be the focus of the international debate on strategies to combat the current slaughter of rhino rather than the binary debate about whether rhino horn trade should be legalized. This approach to the evaluation of wildlife management policies may be useful to apply to other species threatened by wildlife trafficking.

  15. Combating Rhino Horn Trafficking: The Need to Disrupt Criminal Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Timothy C; Ferreira, Sam M

    2016-01-01

    The onslaught on the World's wildlife continues despite numerous initiatives aimed at curbing it. We build a model that integrates rhino horn trade with rhino population dynamics in order to evaluate the impact of various management policies on rhino sustainability. In our model, an agent-based sub-model of horn trade from the poaching event up through a purchase of rhino horn in Asia impacts rhino abundance. A data-validated, individual-based sub-model of the rhino population of South Africa provides these abundance values. We evaluate policies that consist of different combinations of legal trade initiatives, demand reduction marketing campaigns, increased anti-poaching measures within protected areas, and transnational policing initiatives aimed at disrupting those criminal syndicates engaged in horn trafficking. Simulation runs of our model over the next 35 years produces a sustainable rhino population under only one management policy. This policy includes both a transnational policing effort aimed at dismantling those criminal networks engaged in rhino horn trafficking-coupled with increases in legal economic opportunities for people living next to protected areas where rhinos live. This multi-faceted approach should be the focus of the international debate on strategies to combat the current slaughter of rhino rather than the binary debate about whether rhino horn trade should be legalized. This approach to the evaluation of wildlife management policies may be useful to apply to other species threatened by wildlife trafficking.

  16. Human dorsal striatum encodes prediction errors during observational learning of instrumental actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Jeffrey C; Dunne, Simon; Furey, Teresa; O'Doherty, John P

    2012-01-01

    The dorsal striatum plays a key role in the learning and expression of instrumental reward associations that are acquired through direct experience. However, not all learning about instrumental actions require direct experience. Instead, humans and other animals are also capable of acquiring instrumental actions by observing the experiences of others. In this study, we investigated the extent to which human dorsal striatum is involved in observational as well as experiential instrumental reward learning. Human participants were scanned with fMRI while they observed a confederate over a live video performing an instrumental conditioning task to obtain liquid juice rewards. Participants also performed a similar instrumental task for their own rewards. Using a computational model-based analysis, we found reward prediction errors in the dorsal striatum not only during the experiential learning condition but also during observational learning. These results suggest a key role for the dorsal striatum in learning instrumental associations, even when those associations are acquired purely by observing others.

  17. Restoration of the Golden Horn Estuary (Halic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Heather M; Kanat, Gurdal; Aydinol Turkdogan, F Ilter

    2009-12-01

    Restoration of the iconic Golden Horn Estuary in Istanbul, Turkey was a substantial political, logistical, ecological, and social challenge. Forty years of uncontrolled industrial and urban growth resulted in thick layers of anoxic sediment, toxic bacteria, strong hydrogen sulfide odor, and ecologically unlivable conditions. The major components of restoration, spanning two decades, have included (1) demolition and relocation of industries and homes along the shore, (2) creation of wastewater infrastructure, (3) removal of anoxic sludge from the estuary, (4) removal of a floating bridge that impeded circulation, and (5) creation of cultural and social facilities. Although Turkey is not known as an environmental leader in pollution control, the sum of these efforts was largely successful in revitalizing the area through dramatic water quality improvement. Consequently, the estuary is once again inhabitable for aquatic life as well as amenable to local resource users and foreign visitors, and Istanbul has regained a lost sense of cultural identity. This paper focuses on literature review and personal interviews to discuss the causes of degradation, solutions employed to rehabilitate the estuary, and subsequent physicochemical, ecological, and social changes.

  18. TRPV1 receptors contribute to mediate paclitaxel-induced c-Fos expression in spinal cord dorsal horn neurons

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kalynovska, Nataliia; Adámek, Pavel; Paleček, Jiří

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 66, č. 3 (2017), s. 549-532 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-11138S; GA MŠk(CZ) LH15279; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : c-Fos * paclitaxel * TRPV1 * neuropathy * spinal cord Subject RIV: FH - Neurology OBOR OECD: Neurosciences (including psychophysiology Impact factor: 1.461, year: 2016

  19. SPINAL DEFORMITIES AFTER SELECTIVE DORSAL RHIZOTOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PATRICIO PABLO MANZONE

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: Selective dorsal rhizotomy (SDR used for spasticity treatment could worsen or develop spinal deformities. Our goal is to describe spinal deformities seen in patients with cerebral palsy (CP after being treated by SDR. Methods: Retrospective study of patients operated on (SDR between January/1999 and June/2012. Inclusion criteria: spinal Rx before SDR surgery, spinography, and assessment at follow-up. We evaluated several factors emphasizing level and type of SDR approach, spinal deformity and its treatment, final Risser, and follow-up duration. Results: We found 7 patients (6 males: mean age at SDR 7.56 years (4.08-11.16. Mean follow-up: 6.64 years (2.16-13, final age: 14.32 years (7.5-19. No patient had previous deformity. GMFCS: 2 patients level IV, 2 level III, 3 level II. Initial walking status: 2 community walkers, 2 household walkers, 2 functional walkers, 1 not ambulant, at the follow-up, 3 patients improved, and 4 kept their status. We found 4 TL/L laminotomies, 2 L/LS laminectomies, and 1 thoracic laminectomy. Six spinal deformities were observed: 2 sagittal, 3 mixed, and 1 scoliosis. There was no association among the type of deformity, final gait status, topographic type, GMFCS, age, or SDR approach. Three patients had surgery indication for spinal deformity at skeletal maturity, while those patients with smaller deformities were still immature (Risser 0 to 2/3 although with progressive curves. Conclusions: After SDR, patients should be periodically evaluated until they reach Risser 5. The development of a deformity does not compromise functional results but adds morbidity because it may require surgical treatment.

  20. Neglected dorsal dislocation of the scaphoid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amaravati Rajkumar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Isolated dislocation of the scaphoid is very rare. A 45-year old male, industrial worker reported two and half months after injury with wrist pain and swelling on the dorsum of left wrist. He was diagnosed as neglected dorsal dislocation of scaphoid. Proximal row carpectomy with capsular interposition was done stabilizing the distal carpus on the radius using Kirschner wires. At-12 months follow-up the patient had good wrist function and was satisfied with the outcome of the treatment. We hereby report this neglected dorsal dislocation of scaphoid in view of rarity and discuss the various options for management.

  1. Wave power plant at Horns Rev. Screening[Denmark]; Boelgekraftanlaeg ved Horns Rev. Screening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soerensen, Hans C.; Nielsen, Kim; Steenstrup, P.R.; Friis-Madsen, E.; Wigant, L.

    2005-12-15

    The objective for the analysis has been to establish data for the sea at Horns Rev wind farm in the North Sea in order to assess the opportunity for using the site as test site for demonstration of wave energy devices exemplified by three different devices under development in Denmark. For comparison alternative sites like Hanstholm, Samsoe and Nissum Bredning are also assessed as well as the test centre EMEC at the Orkney Islands and the proposed test site Wave Hub at the north coast of Cornwall. The analysis shows that it is possible without major technical problems to connect 2-4 MW power generated by 3 different wave energy devices (AquaBuOY, Wave Star Energy and Wave Dragon) to the wind farm at Horns Rev (www.hornsrev.dk). The expenses for connection and regulation within the wind farm is about 200,000 DKK (30,00 EURO). On top of this comes the cost for individual sub sea cable connection to the wave devices, pull in of the sub sea cable through the existing J-tube in turbine T04 and the necessary regulation/control system in the individual wave devices to avoid damaging the power system in case of too high production. The analysis of the co-production of wind and wave power is dealt with in a separate report which shows that over a time period of half to one hour the time variation for wind generated electricity is 3 times as large as for wave energy generated power based on the actual measurement at Horns Rev. Further on the analysis shows that the wave generated power is more predictable than wind energy generated power as the power from the waves first is present about 2 hours after the wind is acting and last for 3 to 6 hours after the wind dies out; 6 to 12 hours with wind from west. The time is off course strongly depending of the direction of the wind i.e. the fetch. As this special report has a more general scope than the analysis as such it is reported in English (Annex Report II). The analysis shows that it is up to the individual device developer

  2. Neuronal calcium-binding proteins 1/2 localize to dorsal root ganglia and excitatory spinal neurons and are regulated by nerve injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Ming Dong; Tortoriello, Giuseppe; Hsueh, Brian

    2014-01-01

    /2 neurons are much more abundant in DRGs than the Ca2+-binding proteins (parvalbumin, calbindin, calretinin, and secretagogin) studied to date. In the spinal cord, the NECAB1/2 distribution is mainly complementary. NECAB1 labels interneurons and a plexus of processes in superficial layers of the dorsal horn......Neuronal calcium (Ca2+)-binding proteins 1 and 2 (NECAB1/2) are members of the phylogenetically conserved EF-hand Ca2+-binding protein superfamily. To date, NECABs have been explored only to a limited extent and, so far, not at all at the spinal level. Here, we describe the distribution, phenotype....... In the dorsal horn, most NECAB1/2 neurons are glutamatergic. Both NECAB1/2 are transported into dorsal roots and peripheral nerves. Peripheral nerve injury reduces NECAB2, but not NECAB1, expression in DRG neurons. Our study identifies NECAB1/2 as abundant Ca2+-binding proteins in pain-related DRG neurons...

  3. The Main Symptoms in Dorsal Sleep Apnea - Hypopnea Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Alexandra POP

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available OSAHS is a chronic, multifactorial disease, accompanied by significant and complex symptoms. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between OSAHS and dorsal AHI in order to improve early diagnosis of dorsal sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome. There were significant statistical differences between: the dorsal AHI Mean of the group without excessive daytime sleepiness as opposed to the dorsal AHI Mean of the group with excessive daytime sleepiness; the dorsal AHI Mean of the group without snoring as opposed to the dorsal AHI Mean of the group with snoring; the dorsal AHI Mean of the group without restless sleep as opposed to the dorsal AHI Mean of the group with restless sleep; the dorsal AHI Mean of the group without dyspnea as opposed to the dorsal AHI Mean of the group with dyspnea; the dorsal AHI Mean of the group without night sweats as opposed to the dorsal AHI Mean of the group with night sweats; the dorsal AHI Mean of the group without irritability as opposed to the dorsal AHI Mean of the group with irritability and the dorsal AHI Mean of the group without nightmares as opposed to the dorsal AHI Mean of the group with nightmares. Through this study we highlighted that excessive daytime sleepiness and snoring are prevalent symptoms in dorsal OSAHS. The presence of these symptoms in patients with sleep disorders may improve early diagnosis and the choice of an appropriate treatment for dorsal sleep apnea- hypopnea syndrome, thus participating in improving the patient’s life quality

  4. Neuroimmune and Neuropathic Responses of Spinal Cord and Dorsal Root Ganglia in Middle Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbavy, William; Kaczocha, Martin; Puopolo, Michelino; Liu, Lixin; Rebecchi, Mario J.

    2015-01-01

    Prior studies of aging and neuropathic injury have focused on senescent animals compared to young adults, while changes in middle age, particularly in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG), have remained largely unexplored. 14 neuroimmune mRNA markers, previously associated with peripheral nerve injury, were measured in multiplex assays of lumbar spinal cord (LSC), and DRG from young and middle-aged (3, 17 month) naïve rats, or from rats subjected to chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the sciatic nerve (after 7 days), or from aged-matched sham controls. Results showed that CD2, CD3e, CD68, CD45, TNF-α, IL6, CCL2, ATF3 and TGFβ1 mRNA levels were substantially elevated in LSC from naïve middle-aged animals compared to young adults. Similarly, LSC samples from older sham animals showed increased levels of T-cell and microglial/macrophage markers. CCI induced further increases in CCL2, and IL6, and elevated ATF3 mRNA levels in LSC of young and middle-aged adults. Immunofluorescence images of dorsal horn microglia from middle-aged naïve or sham rats were typically hypertrophic with mostly thickened, de-ramified processes, similar to microglia following CCI. Unlike the spinal cord, marker expression profiles in naïve DRG were unchanged across age (except increased ATF3); whereas, levels of GFAP protein, localized to satellite glia, were highly elevated in middle age, but independent of nerve injury. Most neuroimmune markers were elevated in DRG following CCI in young adults, yet middle-aged animals showed little response to injury. No age-related changes in nociception (heat, cold, mechanical) were observed in naïve adults, or at days 3 or 7 post-CCI. The patterns of marker expression and microglial morphologies in healthy middle age are consistent with development of a para-inflammatory state involving microglial activation and T-cell marker elevation in the dorsal horn, and neuronal stress and satellite cell activation in the DRG. These changes, however, did not

  5. An Unexpected Near Term Pregnancy in a Rudimentary Uterine Horn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabete Gonçalves

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Unicornuate uterus occurs due to a complete or partial nondevelopment of one Mullerian duct; sometimes it is associated with a rudimentary horn, which can communicate or not with uterine cavity or contain functional endometrium. Pregnancy in a rudimentary horn is rare and the outcome almost always unfavorable, usually ending in rupture during the first or second trimester with significant morbidity and mortality. Despite the availability and advances on imagiologic procedures, recognition of this ectopic pregnancy is frequently made at laparotomy after abdominal pain and collapse. The authors describe a case of a primigravida with 34 weeks of gestation admitted with a preeclampsia with severity criteria. A cesarean for fetal malpresentation was done and, unexpectedly, a rudimentary horn pregnancy was found with a live newborn. In the literature, few reports of a horn pregnancy reaching the viability with a live newborn are described, enhancing the clinical importance of this case. A review of literature concerning the epidemics, clinical presentation, and appropriate management of uterine horn pregnancies is made.

  6. A case of dorsal oblique fingertip amputation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Shinsuke; Tatebe, Masahiro; Morita, Akimasa; Yoneda, Hidemasa; Iwatsuki, Katsuyuki; Hirata, Hitoshi

    2017-01-01

    This study reports successful finger replantation in a patient with a dorsal oblique fingertip amputation. When repairing this unique type of injury, an evaluation of the remaining vessels is more useful for successful replantation than the anatomical zone classification. We propose that Kasai's classification is appropriate for guiding treatment.

  7. A case of dorsal oblique fingertip amputation

    OpenAIRE

    Takeda, Shinsuke; Tatebe, Masahiro; Morita, Akimasa; Yoneda, Hidemasa; Iwatsuki, Katsuyuki; Hirata, Hitoshi

    2017-01-01

    Abstract This study reports successful finger replantation in a patient with a dorsal oblique fingertip amputation. When repairing this unique type of injury, an evaluation of the remaining vessels is more useful for successful replantation than the anatomical zone classification. We propose that Kasai?s classification is appropriate for guiding treatment.

  8. Neuroradiological evaluation of dorsal cyst malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utsunomiya, Hidetsuna; Hayashi, Takashi; Hashimoto, Takeo; Matsuishi, Toyojiro; Okudera, Toshio.

    1988-01-01

    We discussed six cases with dorsal cyst malformations listing their neuroradiological observations and proposed to differentiate between the holosphere and hemisphere as defined by Yokota (1984). The cases were divided into holospheric and hemispheric groups depending on the continuity of their frontal lobe midlines. Cases 1, 2 and 3 were placed in the holospheric group because of their unseparated frontal lobe sbeneath the partially formed anterior interhemispheric fissures. Cases 4, 5 and 6 were grouped in the hemisphere due to the completion of the interhemispheric fissures. There has been a tendency in recent years for most cases of cerebral malformations having an endogenous dorsal cyst with monoventricular configuration to be diagnosed as holoprosencephaly. However, we believe that only patients who have a dorsal cyst in the holospheric brain should be included, and the others in the hemispheric brain, which is capable of completing hemispheric cleavage, should not. Therefore, we emphasize the importance of correctly identifying the holospheric state in the dorsal cyst malformations for diagnosing holoprosencephaly. (author)

  9. Detection of target site resistance to pyrethroids and organophosphates in the horn fly using multiplex polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foil, L D; Guerrero, F D; Bendele, K G

    2010-09-01

    The horn fly, Haematobia irritans L., is an obligate blood-feeding fly and the primary insect pest parasitizing cattle in the United States. Pesticide resistance has become a substantial problem for cattle producers, and although several mechanisms of resistance are possible, target site resistance is the most important mechanism preventing control of this fly in the United States and possibly other countries. We developed a multiplex polymerase chain reaction assay to detect the known target site, pyrethroid resistance-associated mutation in the horn fly and a recently reported G262A mutation in the horn fly acetylcholinesterase, the target site for organophosphates. As expected, the pyrethroid resistance target site mutation was found in fly populations from Texas, Louisiana, Washington, Georgia, Mexico, and Brazil. This mutation was found to have a gender bias as it was more prevalent in females than males. The G262A acetylcholinesterase mutation was found in Texas, Louisiana, Washington, Georgia, and Mexico, but not Brazil. There was no gender bias in the occurrence of this mutation, and there was no correlation between the occurrence of the kdr and the G262A mutations. Unlike the case with the pyrethroid target site mutation, the presence of G262A did not appear to exclusively provide the level of resistance required to account for bioassay results. It is likely an additional mutation(s) occurs in the target site and/or a metabolic resistance mechanism exists in organophosphate-resistant horn fly populations.

  10. Assembly techniques used in construction of neutrino horns at BNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sims, W.P.; Carroll, A.; Leonhardt, W.

    1987-01-01

    This paper will describe the techniques used in the assembly of the neutrino focusing horns which were installed in the fast extracted beam at the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron. The horns are coaxial magnetic lenses that are pulsed to a maximum of 14 kV and 300 kA. The materials and techniques used are further complicated by the fact that the horn must survive in a high radiation environment. We will describe both the techniques and materials that were used in making the high current electrical connections. This will include the silver plating of aluminum, methods for handling thermal expansion and large magnetic forces, and the fabrication of rigid coaxial conductors. The techniques described in this paper can be used in the assembly of any pulsed high current device

  11. Assembly techniques used in construction of neutrino horns at BNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sims, W.P.; Carroll, A.; Leonhardt, W.; Monaghan, R.; Pearson, C.; Pendzick, A.; Ryan, G.; Sandberg, J.; Smith, G.; Stillman, P.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes the techniques used in the assembly of the neutrino focusing horns which were installed in the fast extracted beam at the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron. The horns are coaxial magnetic lenses that are pulsed to a maximum of 14 kV and 300 kA. The materials and techniques used are further complicated by the fact that the horn must survive in a high radiation environment. The authors describe both the techniques and materials that were used in making the high current electrical connections. This includes the silver plating of aluminum, methods for handling thermal expansion and large magnetic forces, and the fabrication of rigid coaxial conductors. The techniques described in this paper can be used in the assembly of any pulsed high current device

  12. Methylglyoxal Requires AC1 and TRPA1 to Produce Pain and Spinal Neuron Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan B. Griggs

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Methylglyoxal (MG is a metabolite of glucose that may contribute to peripheral neuropathy and pain in diabetic patients. MG increases intracellular calcium in sensory neurons and produces behavioral nociception via the cation channel transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1. However, rigorous characterization of an animal model of methylglyoxal-evoked pain is needed, including testing whether methylglyoxal promotes negative pain affect. Furthermore, it remains unknown whether methylglyoxal is sufficient to activate neurons in the spinal cord dorsal horn, whether this requires TRPA1, and if the calcium-sensitive adenylyl cyclase 1 isoform (AC1 contributes to MG-evoked pain. We administered intraplantar methylglyoxal and then evaluated immunohistochemical phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (p-ERK and multiple pain-like behaviors in wild-type rats and mice and after disruption of either TRPA1 or AC1. Methylglyoxal produced conditioned place avoidance (CPA (a measure of affective pain, dose-dependent licking and lifting nociceptive behaviors, hyperalgesia to heat and mechanical stimulation, and p-ERK in the spinal cord dorsal horn. TRPA1 knockout or intrathecal administration of a TRPA1 antagonist (HC030031 attenuated methylglyoxal-evoked p-ERK, nociception, and hyperalgesia. AC1 knockout abolished hyperalgesia but not nociceptive behaviors. These results indicate that intraplantar administration of methylglyoxal recapitulates multiple signs of painful diabetic neuropathy found in animal models of or patients with diabetes, including the activation of spinal nociresponsive neurons and the potential involvement of a TRPA1-AC1 sensitization mechanism. We conclude that administration of MG is a valuable model for investigating both peripheral and central components of a MG-TRPA1-AC1 pathway that contribute to painful diabetic neuropathy.

  13. Holocene Evolution and Sediment Provenance of Horn Island, Mississippi, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, N.; Wallace, D. J.; Miner, M. D.

    2017-12-01

    As one of the most stable islands in the Mississippi-Alabama barrier island chain, Horn Island provides critical habitat, plays an important role in regulating estuarine conditions in the Mississippi Sound, and helps to attenuate wave energy and storm surge for the mainland. The provenance of sediments comprising Horn Island is largely unknown and has implications for mode of island genesis and evolution. The existing literature proposes that island chain formation was initiated by bar emergence from a subaqueous spit that grew laterally westward from Dauphin Island in the east. Decelerating sea level rise 4,000 to 5,000 years ago facilitated island formation. This proposed mode of formation is supported by a lone radiocarbon date from lagoonal sediments below Horn Island, suggesting the system formed after 4,615 ± 215 years BP. Rivers supplying suspended sediment include the Mississippi, Pascagoula, Mobile and Apalachicola, but the variable nature of their paths and sediment supply means that Horn Island has received differing amounts of sediment from these proximal rivers throughout the Holocene. To analyze the stratigraphy and sediment characteristics of Horn Island, we will utilize 24 vibracores (up to 6 meters in length) from offshore Horn Island that were obtained by the United States Geological Survey (USGS) and 9 onshore drill cores (up to 28 meters in length) from the Mississippi Department of Environmental Quality. High-resolution LiDAR data collected by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration in 2010 will be used to describe modern geomorphic barrier environments. We will employ down-core x-ray diffraction and x-ray fluorescence analyses to identify mineralogical and chemical signatures that potentially correspond to unique signatures of the fluvial sources of proximal rivers. New radiocarbon ages will be used to constrain the timing of island formation and alterations in sediment supply. High-resolution shallow geophysical data will provide

  14. [Gene expression profile of spinal ventral horn in ALS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Masahiko; Tanaka, Fumiaki; Sobue, Gen

    2007-10-01

    The causative pathomechanism of sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is not clearly understood. Using microarray technology combined with laser-captured microdissection, gene expression profiles of degenerating spinal motor neurons as well as spinal ventral horn from autopsied patients with sporadic ALS were examined. Spinal motor neurons showed a distinct gene expression profile from the whole spinal ventral horn. Three percent of genes examined were significantly downregulated, and 1% were upregulated in motor neurons. In contrast with motor neurons, the total spinal ventral horn homogenates demonstrated 0.7% and 0.2% significant upregulation and downregulation of gene expression, respectively. Downregulated genes in motor neurons included those associated with cytoskeleton/axonal transport, transcription and cell surface antigens/receptors, such as dynactin 1 (DCTN1) and early growth response 3 (EGR3). In particular, DCTN1 was markedly downregulated in most residual motor neurons prior to the accumulation of pNF-H and ubiquitylated protein. Promoters for cell death pathway, death receptor 5 (DR5), cyclins C (CCNC) and A1 (CCNA), and caspases were upregulated, whereas cell death inhibitors, acetyl-CoA transporter (ACATN) and NF-kappaB (NFKB) were also upregulated. In terms of spinal ventral horn, the expression of genes related to cell surface antigens/receptors, transcription and cell adhesion/ECM were increased. The gene expression resulting in neurodegenerative and neuroprotective changes were both present in spinal motor neurons and ventral horn. Moreover, Inflammation-related genes, such as belonging to the cytokine family were not, however, significantly upregulated in either motor neurons or ventral horn. The sequence of motor neuron-specific gene expression changes from early DCTN1 downregulation to late CCNC upregulation in sporadic ALS can provide direct information on the genes leading to neurodegeneration and neuronal death, and are helpful

  15. A ruptured rudimentary horn of a unicornuate uterus at 18 weeks ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    76000 pregnancies. Rupture of the horn in pregnancy is considered the most serious and common complication of rudimentary horns. The investigation of choice is considered to be magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Evaluation of renal tract ...

  16. Identification of policies for a sustainable legal trade in rhinoceros horn based on population projection and socioeconomic models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Minin, Enrico; Laitila, Jussi; Montesino-Pouzols, Federico; Leader-Williams, Nigel; Slotow, Rob; Goodman, Peter S; Conway, Anthony J; Moilanen, Atte

    2015-04-01

    Between 1990 and 2007, 15 southern white (Ceratotherium simum simum) and black (Diceros bicornis) rhinoceroses on average were killed illegally every year in South Africa. Since 2007 illegal killing of southern white rhinoceros for their horn has escalated to >950 individuals/year in 2013. We conducted an ecological-economic analysis to determine whether a legal trade in southern white rhinoceros horn could facilitate rhinoceros protection. Generalized linear models were used to examine the socioeconomic drivers of poaching, based on data collected from 1990 to 2013, and to project the total number of rhinoceroses likely to be illegally killed from 2014 to 2023. Rhinoceros population dynamics were then modeled under 8 different policy scenarios that could be implemented to control poaching. We also estimated the economic costs and benefits of each scenario under enhanced enforcement only and a legal trade in rhinoceros horn and used a decision support framework to rank the scenarios with the objective of maintaining the rhinoceros population above its current size while generating profit for local stakeholders. The southern white rhinoceros population was predicted to go extinct in the wild rhinoceros population above its current size was to provide a medium increase in antipoaching effort and to increase the monetary fine on conviction. Without legalizing the trade, implementing such a scenario would require covering costs equal to approximately $147,000,000/year. With a legal trade in rhinoceros horn, the conservation enterprise could potentially make a profit of $717,000,000/year. We believe the 35-year-old ban on rhinoceros horn products should not be lifted unless the money generated from trade is reinvested in improved protection of the rhinoceros population. Because current protection efforts seem to be failing, it is time to evaluate, discuss, and test alternatives to the present policy. © 2014 The Authors. Conservation Biology published by wiley

  17. An internationally standardized species identification test for use on suspected seized rhinoceros horn in the illegal wildlife trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewart, Kyle M; Frankham, Greta J; McEwing, Ross; Webster, Lucy M I; Ciavaglia, Sherryn A; Linacre, Adrian M T; The, Dang Tat; Ovouthan, Kanitia; Johnson, Rebecca N

    2018-01-01

    Rhinoceros (rhino) numbers have dwindled substantially over the past century. As a result, three of the five species are now considered to be critically endangered, one species is vulnerable and one species is near-threatened. Poaching has increased dramatically over the past decade due to a growing demand for rhino horn products, primarily in Asia. Improved wildlife forensic techniques, such as validated tests for species identification of seized horns, are critical to aid current enforcement and prosecution efforts and provide a deterrent to future rhino horn trafficking. Here, we present an internationally standardized species identification test based on a 230 base pair cytochrome-b region. This test improves on previous nested PCR protocols and can be used for the discrimination of samples with rhino horn' substitute, but to exclude human DNA, a common contaminant. Phylogenetic analyses using this partial cytochrome-b region resolved the five extant rhino species. Testing successfully returned a sequence and correct identification for all of the known rhino horn samples and vouchered rhino samples from museum and zoo collections, and provided species level identification for 47 out of 52 unknown samples from seizures. Validation and standardization was carried out across five different laboratories, in four different countries, demonstrating it to be an effective and reproducible test, robust to inter laboratory variation in equipment and consumables (such as PCR reagents). This is one of the first species identification tests to be internationally standardized to produce data for evidential proceedings and the first published validated test for rhinos, one of the flagship species groups of the illegal wildlife trade and for which forensic tools are urgently required. This study serves as a model for how species identification tests should be standardized and disseminated for wildlife forensic testing. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B

  18. A novel function for the IκB inhibitor Cactus in promoting Dorsal nuclear localization and activity in the Drosophila embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Maira Arruda; Fontenele, Marcio; Lim, Bomyi; Bisch, Paulo Mascarello; Shvartsman, Stanislav Y; Araujo, Helena Marcolla

    2017-08-15

    The evolutionarily conserved Toll signaling pathway controls innate immunity across phyla and embryonic patterning in insects. In the Drosophila embryo, Toll is required to establish gene expression domains along the dorsal-ventral axis. Pathway activation induces degradation of the IκB inhibitor Cactus, resulting in a ventral-to-dorsal nuclear gradient of the NFκB effector Dorsal. Here, we investigate how cactus modulates Toll signals through its effects on the Dorsal gradient and on Dorsal target genes. Quantitative analysis using a series of loss- and gain-of-function conditions shows that the ventral and lateral aspects of the Dorsal gradient can behave differently with respect to Cactus fluctuations. In lateral and dorsal embryo domains, loss of Cactus allows more Dorsal to translocate to the nucleus. Unexpectedly, cactus loss-of-function alleles decrease Dorsal nuclear localization ventrally, where Toll signals are high. Overexpression analysis suggests that this ability of Cactus to enhance Toll stems from the mobilization of a free Cactus pool induced by the Calpain A protease. These results indicate that Cactus acts to bolster Dorsal activation, in addition to its role as a NFκB inhibitor, ensuring a correct response to Toll signals. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  19. 77 FR 47011 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Reclassifying the Straight-Horned Markhor With...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-07

    ...; Reclassifying the Straight-Horned Markhor With Special Rule AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION... reclassify the straight-horned markhor (Capra falconeri jerdoni) from endangered to threatened under the... the status of the straight-horned markhor. This proposal constitutes our 12-month finding on the...

  20. PIV quantification of the flow induced by an ultrasonic horn and numerical modeling of the flow and related processing times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenker, M C; Pourquié, M J B M; Eskin, D G; Boersma, B J

    2013-01-01

    The flow in a confined container induced by an ultrasonic horn is measured by Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). This flow is caused by acoustic streaming and highly influenced by the presence of cavitation. The jet-like experimentally observed flow is compared with the available theoretical solution for a turbulent free round jet. The similarity between both flows enables a simplified numerical model to be made, whilst the phenomenon is very difficult to simulate otherwise. The numerical model requires only two parameters, i.e. the flow momentum and turbulent kinetic energy at the position of the horn tip. The simulated flow is used as a basis for the calculation of the time required for the entire liquid volume to pass through the active cavitation region. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Spontaneous Rupture of Gravid Horn of Bicornuate Uterus at Term ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We report a case of a 28 year old secondigravida with uterus bicornis unicollis who had spontaneous rupture of one of the uteri in pregnancy, had excision of one horn of the double uterus and was able to carry a subsequent pregnancy to term and achieve a live birth. The literature on double uterus was also reviewed.

  2. Littoral Encounters : The Shore as Cultural Interface in King Horn

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sobecki, Sebastian

    2006-01-01

    1. III * Later Medieval: Excluding Chaucer -- Brown et al., 10.1093 ... ... between the Saracens and the londisse men allied to the protagonist (' Littoral Encounters: the Shore as Cultural Interface in King Horn', Al-Mas a ... www.ywes.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/full/man0092 2.Murray, Alan V.

  3. Acute Renal Failure Following the Saharan Horned Viper (Cerastes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: The Saharan horned viper (Cerastes cerastes) is a common snake in the sandy and rocky regions in the south of Morocco. Although nearly all snakes with medical relevance can induce acute renal failure (ARF), it's unusual except with bites by some viper species. ARF has very rarely been reported following ...

  4. Marketing of hooves and horns in Maiduguri metropolitan area of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Marketing of hooves and horns in Maiduguri metropolitan area of Borno State, Nigeria. M Goni, IM Sulumbe, M Sabo. Abstract. No Abstract. Global Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol. 7 (1) 2008: pp.141-144. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  5. Ruptured rudimentary horn at 22 weeks | Dhar | Nigerian Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... horn pregnancy at 22 weeks presented to Nizwa regional referral hospital in shock with features of acute abdomen. Chances of rupture in first or second trimester are increased with catastrophic haemorrhage leading to increased maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. Management of such cases is a challenge till ...

  6. Toward a Regional Security Architecture for the Horn of Africa ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Moreover, conflict in one country tends to affect its neighbours, mainly through the flow of refugees and weapons. Building on work carried out during Phase I ... Extrants. Rapports. Towards Developing a Regional Security Architecture for the Horn of Africa: Developing Responses to Human (In) Security-Phase Two ...

  7. Ion temperature profiles in the horns of the plasma sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suszcynsky, D. M.; Gosling, J. T.; Thomsen, M. F.

    1993-01-01

    The plasma sheet horns are the low-altitude extensions of the plasma sheet that lie poleward of the plasmasphere and equatorward of the tail lobes. Within the horns, magnetic field lines of increasing geomagnetic latitudes map to increasing distances into the downtail plasma sheet. Plasma data from the fast plasma experiment on ISEE 2 have been analyzed for 11 outbound crossings of the horns in the premidnight sector of the magnetosphere at typical altitudes of 2-4 R(E). These crossings typically occurred on time scales of less than 1 hour, providing almost instantaneous snapshots of plasma gradients within the horns. Ion temperatures observed during these crossings generally decreased by a factor of four to eight as magnetic field lines of increasing geomagnetic latitude were traversed. If we make the reasonable assumption that the ion temperatures are constant along the field lines within the plasma sheet, then this result implies that the ion temperatures in the downtail plasma sheet also commonly decrease by this same factor over the radial range extending from the inner edge of the plasma sheet at the plasmapause boundary to the outer edge at a neutral line in the distant tail.

  8. Brain, memory and development : the imprint of Gabriel Horn

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolhuis, Johan J; Brown, Malcolm W; Johnson, Mark H

    2015-01-01

    This special issue of Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews is dedicated to the memory of Sir Gabriel Horn, who died on 2nd August 2012. In his impressive career that spanned more than 50 years (Bolhuis and Johnson, 2012; Brown, 2013), Horn’s contributions to cognitive neuroscience consistently

  9. Book Review Winnicott's children By Ann Horn and Monica Lanyado ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Remember me, or Register. DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Subscription or Fee Access. Book Review Winnicott's children. By Ann Horn and Monica Lanyado (2012). Rod Anderson. Abstract. Routledge, London and New York 206 pages. Paperback, ISBN 978-0-415-67291-7. ZAR 503.00

  10. Learning to recognize horn and whistle sounds for humanoid robots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Backer, N.; Visser, A.

    2014-01-01

    The efficiency and accuracy of several state-of-the-art algorithms for real-time sound classification on a NAO robot are evaluated, to determine how accurate they are at distinguishing horn and whistle sounds in both optimal conditions, and a noisy environment. Each approach uses a distinct

  11. Response of False horn plantain to different plant densities and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study, which was carried out at the Crops Research Institute, Kumasi, Ghana, from April 1992 to March 1995, aimed at determining (i) the optimum plant density of False horn plantain for maximum yield, and (ii) the optimum frequency of handweeding for economic returns. Results indicated that the optimum plant density ...

  12. Past and future rainfall in the Horn of Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tierney, Jessica E; Ummenhofer, Caroline C; deMenocal, Peter B

    2015-10-01

    The recent decline in Horn of Africa rainfall during the March-May "long rains" season has fomented drought and famine, threatening food security in an already vulnerable region. Some attribute this decline to anthropogenic forcing, whereas others maintain that it is a feature of internal climate variability. We show that the rate of drying in the Horn of Africa during the 20th century is unusual in the context of the last 2000 years, is synchronous with recent global and regional warming, and therefore may have an anthropogenic component. In contrast to 20th century drying, climate models predict that the Horn of Africa will become wetter as global temperatures rise. The projected increase in rainfall mainly occurs during the September-November "short rains" season, in response to large-scale weakening of the Walker circulation. Most of the models overestimate short rains precipitation while underestimating long rains precipitation, causing the Walker circulation response to unrealistically dominate the annual mean. Our results highlight the need for accurate simulation of the seasonal cycle and an improved understanding of the dynamics of the long rains season to predict future rainfall in the Horn of Africa.

  13. Issues in treating depression in primary care | Horn | Continuing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Issues in treating depression in primary care. NR Horn. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL ...

  14. Horn fly (Diptera: Muscidae) saliva targets thrombin action in hemostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cupp, M S; Zhang, D; Cupp, E W

    2000-05-01

    The horn fly, Hematobia irritans (L.), is an important pest of livestock because the adult stage of both sexes are aggressive blood-feeders. Remarkably, even though horn fly adults feed recurrently on their hosts as ectoparasites, these flies lack the ADP-responsive antiplatelet aggregation and vasodilatory antihemostatic systems described for other blood-feeding Diptera. Horn fly salivary gland extracts do interfere with the normal coagulation process as demonstrated by the recalcification time assay. Using this as a baseline, the effects of saliva on recalcification time, activated partial thromboplastin time, prothrombin time, and thrombin time were measured to determine which arm(s) of the coagulation cascade might be impacted. Factor-deficient plasma assays also were used to measure possible perturbations in clotting. Gland-free saliva delayed the recalcification time as well as the activated partial thromboplastin time, prothrombin time, and thrombin time. Saliva also further delayed clotting times of plasmas deficient in factor V, factor VIII, and factor XIII, indicating that other factors in the coagulation cascade were inhibited. Although horn fly saliva did not alter the ability of deficient plasma reconstituted with factor X to clot, it did inhibit deficient plasma reconstituted with factor II (thrombin). Antithrombin activity in saliva was confirmed by its ability to interfere with thrombin hydrolysis of fibrinogen, its normal substrate, and by its inhibition of thrombin action on a chromagenic substrate that mimics the hydrolytic site of fibrinogen. Thus, horn fly saliva contains a factor that specifically targets thrombin, a key component in the coagulation cascade. While the biochemical mechanisms of inhibition may vary, this antihemostatic characteristic is shared with other zoophilic Diptera such as black flies, Simulium spp., and tsetse, Glossina morsitans morsitans Westwood, that feed on ungulates.

  15. Direct dorsal hippocampal-prelimbic cortex connections strengthen fear memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xiaojing; Kapeller-Libermann, Dana; Travaglia, Alessio; Inda, M Carmen; Alberini, Cristina M

    2017-01-01

    The ability to regulate the consolidation and strengthening of memories for threatening experiences is critical for mental health, and its dysregulation may lead to psychopathologies. Re-exposure to the context in which the threat was experienced can either increase or decrease fear response through distinct processes known, respectively, as reconsolidation or extinction. Using a context retrieval-dependent memory-enhancement model in rats, we report that memory strengthens through activation of direct projections from dorsal hippocampus to prelimbic (PL) cortex and activation of critical PL molecular mechanisms that are not required for extinction. Furthermore, while sustained PL brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression is required for memory consolidation, retrieval engages PL BDNF to regulate excitatory and inhibitory synaptic proteins neuroligin 1 and neuroligin 2, which promote memory strengthening while inhibiting extinction. Thus, context retrieval-mediated fear-memory enhancement results from a concerted action of mechanisms that strengthen memory through reconsolidation while suppressing extinction.

  16. Carcinoma Buccal Mucosa Underlying a Giant Cutaneous Horn: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous horn is a conical, dense, and hyperkeratotic protrusion that often appears similar to the horn of an animal. Giant cutaneous horns are rare; no incidence or prevalence has been reported. The significance of cutaneous horns is that they occur in association with, or as a response to, a wide variety of underlying benign, premalignant, and malignant cutaneous diseases. A case of giant cutaneous horn of left oral commissure along with carcinoma left buccal mucosa is reported here as an extremely rare oral/perioral pathology.

  17. Horn clause verification with convex polyhedral abstraction and tree automata-based refinement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kafle, Bishoksan; Gallagher, John Patrick

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we apply tree-automata techniques to refinement of abstract interpretation in Horn clause verification. We go beyond previous work on refining trace abstractions; firstly we handle tree automata rather than string automata and thereby can capture traces in any Horn clause derivations...... underlying the Horn clauses. Experiments using linear constraint problems and the abstract domain of convex polyhedra show that the refinement technique is practical and that iteration of abstract interpretation with tree automata-based refinement solves many challenging Horn clause verification problems. We...... compare the results with other state-of-the-art Horn clause verification tools....

  18. Tree automata-based refinement with application to Horn clause verification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kafle, Bishoksan; Gallagher, John Patrick

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we apply tree-automata techniques to refinement of abstract interpretation in Horn clause verification. We go beyond previous work on refining trace abstractions; firstly we handle tree automata rather than string automata and thereby can capture traces in any Horn clause derivations...... underlying the Horn clauses. Experiments using linear constraint problems and the abstract domain of convex polyhedra show that the refinement technique is practical and that iteration of abstract interpretation with tree automata-based refinement solves many challenging Horn clause verification problems. We...... compare the results with other state of the art Horn clause verification tools....

  19. Harbour porpoises on Horns Reef - Effects of the Horns Reef wind farm. Annual status report 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tougaard, J.; Carstensen, J.; Wisz, M.S.; Teilmann, J.; Bech, N.I.; Skov, H.; Henriksen, Oluf D.

    2005-01-01

    This report describes the monitoring of harbour porpoises at Horns Reef Offshore Wind Farm, Denmark, with emphasis on data collected in 2004. Three 2-day surveys with line transect observations of porpoises were conducted in 2004 and data from acoustic data loggers (TPODs) were collected from January through July. Although new data from 2004 was included in the analysis there were no significant additions to conclusions from previous years' reports. On the contrary, the general conclusions regarding effects of construction and operation of the wind farm on porpoise abundance inside and outside the wind farm area have been weakened somewhat compared to previous reports. The specific conclusions regarding short-time effects of construction activities (especially pile drivings) has not been changed, however. Modelling of the spatial distribution of porpoises in the area demonstrated very weak correlations with static environmental variables (water depth, change in water depth and distance to 6 m depth contour). This highlights the importance of dynamic environmental variables, in particular tide and salinity, in determining the fine-scale distribution of porpoises and their prey in the area. a strong correlation between tide and porpoise abundance observed in the T-POD data on some parts of the reef (high abundance at high tide, low at low tide) supports the importance of this variable. Tide and salinity will be included in a forthcoming analysis of the entire dataset from the monitoring program. (au)

  20. Harbour porpoises on Horns Reef - Effects of the Horns Reef wind farm. Annual status report 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tougaard, J.; Carstensen, J.; Henriksen, Oluf. D.; Teilmann, J.; Rye Hansen, J.

    2004-06-01

    Occurrence and distribution of harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) in and around the off-shore wind farm on Horns Reef, Denmark, was investigated. This report describes data collected in 2003 as part of an ongoing monitoring program, covering a period before construction of the wind farm (baseline), the construction period in 2002 and one year following construction of the wind farm. Data from acoustic dataloggers (T-PODs) and visual surveys conducted from ships confirmed the presence of harbour porpoises inside the wind farm area during all periods investigated. Comparison with baseline data from 1999-2001 and with control areas outside the wind farm did not show a statistical significant change in sighting rates inside the wind farm area in the first year following construction relative to baseline. T-POD data showed a pronounced effect of the construction of the wind farm on the indicators 'encounter duration' (measure of how long porpoises remain close to the POD) and 'waiting time' (measure of time interval between porpoise encounters). Both parameters seem to indicate higher levels of porpoise activity during construction (encounter duration went up, waiting time went down) compared to baseline. A partial return to baseline levels was seen for these two indicators in 2003. (au)

  1. Harbour porpoises on Horns Reef - Effects of the Horns Reef wind farm. Annual status report 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tougaard, J.; Carstensen, J.; Henriksen, Oluf. D.; Teilmann, J. [National Environmental Research Inst., Roskilde (Denmark); Rye Hansen, J. [DDH Consulting A/S, Roskilde (Denmark)

    2004-06-15

    Occurrence and distribution of harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) in and around the off-shore wind farm on Horns Reef, Denmark, was investigated. This report describes data collected in 2003 as part of an ongoing monitoring program, covering a period before construction of the wind farm (baseline), the construction period in 2002 and one year following construction of the wind farm. Data from acoustic dataloggers (T-PODs) and visual surveys conducted from ships confirmed the presence of harbour porpoises inside the wind farm area during all periods investigated. Comparison with baseline data from 1999-2001 and with control areas outside the wind farm did not show a statistical significant change in sighting rates inside the wind farm area in the first year following construction relative to baseline. T-POD data showed a pronounced effect of the construction of the wind farm on the indicators 'encounter duration' (measure of how long porpoises remain close to the POD) and 'waiting time' (measure of time interval between porpoise encounters). Both parameters seem to indicate higher levels of porpoise activity during construction (encounter duration went up, waiting time went down) compared to baseline. A partial return to baseline levels was seen for these two indicators in 2003. (au)

  2. Harbour porpoises on Horns Reef - Effects of the Horns Reef wind farm. Annual status report 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tougaard, J.; Carstensen, J.; Wisz, M.S.; Teilmann, J.; Bech, N.I. [National Environmental Res. Inst., Roskilde (Denmark); Skov, H. [DHI - Water and Environment, Hoersholm (Denmark); Henriksen, Oluf, D. [DDH-Consulting A/S, Roskilde (Denmark)

    2005-07-15

    This report describes the monitoring of harbour porpoises at Horns Reef Offshore Wind Farm, Denmark, with emphasis on data collected in 2004. Three 2-day surveys with line transect observations of porpoises were conducted in 2004 and data from acoustic data loggers (TPODs) were collected from January through July. Although new data from 2004 was included in the analysis there were no significant additions to conclusions from previous years' reports. On the contrary, the general conclusions regarding effects of construction and operation of the wind farm on porpoise abundance inside and outside the wind farm area have been weakened somewhat compared to previous reports. The specific conclusions regarding short-time effects of construction activities (especially pile drivings) has not been changed, however. Modelling of the spatial distribution of porpoises in the area demonstrated very weak correlations with static environmental variables (water depth, change in water depth and distance to 6 m depth contour). This highlights the importance of dynamic environmental variables, in particular tide and salinity, in determining the fine-scale distribution of porpoises and their prey in the area. a strong correlation between tide and porpoise abundance observed in the T-POD data on some parts of the reef (high abundance at high tide, low at low tide) supports the importance of this variable. Tide and salinity will be included in a forthcoming analysis of the entire dataset from the monitoring program. (au)

  3. Dorsal stabilization of atlantoaxial subluxation using non-absorbable sutures in toy breed dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Masian, D; Luján-Feliu-Pascual, A; Font, C; Mascort, J

    2014-01-01

    To describe a novel dorsal technique for stabilization of atlantoaxial subluxation in toy breed dogs using 3-metric nylon suture. Retrospective study. Fifteen toy breed dogs with a body weight of 2 kg or less with atlantoaxial subluxation. The atlantoaxial joint of each dog was surgically stabilized through a dorsal approach by placing a double strand of non-absorbable, 3-metric, nylon suture material between the dorsal muscles of the atlanto-occipital and the atlantoaxial joint muscles. Pre- and postoperative neurological status, diagnostic imaging, and complications were reviewed. Clinical follow-up examination was performed at six months. For long-term assessment, a telephone follow-up was performed. No intra-operative complications were observed. Functional improvement occurred in 12 dogs. One dog did not improve and four dogs required revision surgery. In two of those four cases, suture material breakage was proven and it was suspected in the other two. Two cases underwent a second dorsal approach with the same suture material and two cases underwent a ventral approach (transarticular fixation and multiple implants embedded with polymethylmethacrylate). Dorsal stabilization using 3-metric nylon may be adequate as a safe, effective, and simple alternative technique for atlantoaxial stabilization in toy breed dogs of ≤1.5 kg of weight, in which the use of ventral screws and pins is challenging.

  4. Human Dorsal Striatum Encodes Prediction Errors during Observational Learning of Instrumental Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Jeffrey C.; Dunne, Simon; Furey, Teresa; O'Doherty, John P.

    2012-01-01

    The dorsal striatum plays a key role in the learning and expression of instrumental reward associations that are acquired through direct experience. However, not all learning about instrumental actions require direct experience. Instead, humans and other animals are also capable of acquiring instrumental actions by observing the experiences of…

  5. Identification of microorganisms in partially fed female horn flies, Haematobia irritans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Lorena; Almazán, Consuelo; Ayllón, Nieves; Galindo, Ruth C; Rosario-Cruz, Rodrigo; Quiroz-Romero, Héctor; Gortazar, Christian; de la Fuente, José

    2012-09-01

    The horn fly Haematobia irritans (Linnaeus, 1758) (Diptera: Muscidae) is one of the most important ectoparasites of cattle. The parasitism of horn flies interferes with cattle feeding, thus reducing weight gain and milk production. Additionally, horn flies are mechanical vectors of pathogens that cause disease in cattle. The aims of this study were to identify microorganisms in partially fed female horn flies through mining of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) and to characterize microorganism prevalence using real-time RT-PCR. Seven unigenes containing 24 ESTs were homologous to infectious agents. Microorganisms identified in partially fed female horn flies ESTs included Nora virus (3 unigenes; 8 ESTs), Wolbachia endosymbionts (3 unigenes; 3 ESTs), and Mycobacterium bovis (1 unigene; 13 ESTs). These results expanded the repertoire of microorganisms that could cause persistent infections or be mechanically transmitted by horn flies and support further studies on the role of horn flies in the epidemiology of these pathogens in Mexico.

  6. Milk production traits of beef cows as affected by horn fly count and sire breed type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mays, A R; Brown, M A; von Tunglen, D L; Rosenkrans, C F

    2014-03-01

    Horn fly infestations negatively impact economic traits of beef cattle. Our objective was to determine the impact of horn flies on beef cattle milk yield and quality. Cows (n = 53) were derived from Brangus dams and sired by Bonsmara (n = 7), Brangus (n = 13), Charolais (n = 8), Gelbvieh (n = 5), Hereford (n = 12), and Romosinuano (n = 8) bulls. Horn fly counts and estimates of milk yield and quality were recorded monthly from May through October on individual cows. Data for milk yield and quality and horn fly count were analyzed by mixed model least squares using a linear model including sire breed, cow in sire breed, month, and month × sire breed. Effects of horn fly count on milk yield and quality were estimated by analysis of covariance using log horn fly count and log horn fly count × sire breed. Horn fly counts varied by month (P flies) and peaked in August (520 flies). Bonsmara and Gelbvieh sired cows had greater (P fly count differed (P horn fly count in Gelbvieh and Bonsmara sired cows. Regression coefficient for milk yield on log horn fly count was reduced (P fly count were associated with decreases (P fly numbers depending on month of lactation and interaction with log horn fly count. In May, June, and July milk yield was reduced 0.72, 0.68, and 0.71 kg/d per unit increase in log horn fly count. Our results indicate that horn fly infestations reduce milk yield and quality of spring-calving beef cows depending on sire breed and month of lactation. Development of sustainable beef production systems may include selecting breed types whose milk yield and quality is less influenced by horn flies, allowing for better expression of genetic potential for milk yield in nutritionally challenging environments.

  7. Dorsal forearm muscles: US anatomy Pictorial Essay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Precerutti, M.; Garioni, E.; Ferrozzi, G.

    2010-01-01

    The dorsal compartment of the forearm contains nine muscles: four belong to the superficial group (extensor digitorum communis, extensor digiti minimi, extensor carpi ulnaris and anconeus) and five to the deep group (supinator, abductor longus, extensor pollicis brevis, extensor pollicis longus, and extensor indices). Of these nine muscles the following details are considered: origin, course, distal insertion and their anatomical connection with those structures which are most often affected by pathologies. The radiologist must have a thorough knowledge of this complex topographic anatomy in order to perform ultrasound (US) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations and correctly interpret the images. PMID:23396199

  8. Anatomy and muscle activity of the dorsal fins in bamboo sharks and spiny dogfish during turning maneuvers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, Anabela; Wilga, Cheryl D

    2013-11-01

    Stability and procured instability characterize two opposing types of swimming, steady and maneuvering, respectively. Fins can be used to manipulate flow to adjust stability during swimming maneuvers either actively using muscle control or passively by structural control. The function of the dorsal fins during turning maneuvering in two shark species with different swimming modes is investigated here using musculoskeletal anatomy and muscle function. White-spotted bamboo sharks are a benthic species that inhabits complex reef habitats and thus have high requirements for maneuverability. Spiny dogfish occupy a variety of coastal and continental shelf habitats and spend relatively more time cruising in open water. These species differ in dorsal fin morphology and fin position along the body. Bamboo sharks have a larger second dorsal fin area and proportionally more muscle insertion into both dorsal fins. The basal and radial pterygiophores are plate-like structures in spiny dogfish and are nearly indistinguishable from one another. In contrast, bamboo sharks lack basal pterygiophores, while the radial pterygiophores form two rows of elongated rectangular elements that articulate with one another. The dorsal fin muscles are composed of a large muscle mass that extends over the ceratotrichia overlying the radials in spiny dogfish. However, in bamboo sharks, the muscle mass is divided into multiple distinct muscles that insert onto the ceratotrichia. During turning maneuvers, the dorsal fin muscles are active in both species with no differences in onset between fin sides. Spiny dogfish have longer burst durations on the outer fin side, which is consistent with opposing resistance to the medium. In bamboo sharks, bilateral activation of the dorsal in muscles could also be stiffening the fin throughout the turn. Thus, dogfish sharks passively stiffen the dorsal fin structurally and functionally, while bamboo sharks have more flexible dorsal fins, which result from a

  9. PROJECTIONS OF DORSAL AND MEDIAN RAPHE NUCLEI TO DORSAL AND VENTRAL STRIATUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. R. Hassanzadeh G. Behzadi

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The ascending serotonergic projections are derived mainly from mesencephalic raphe nuclei. Topographical projections from mesencephalic raphe nuclei to the striatum were examined in the rat by the retrograde transport technique of HRP (horseradish peroxidase. In 29 rats stereotaxically injection of HRP enzyme were performed in dorsal and ventral parts of striatum separately. The extent of the injection sites and distribution of retrogradely labeled neuronal cell bodies were drawed on representative sections using a projection microscope. Following ipsilateral injection of HRP into the dorsal striatum, numerous labeled neurons were seen in rostral portion of dorsal raphe (DR nucleus. In the same level the cluster of labeled neurons were hevier through caudal parts of DR. A few neurons were also located in lateral wing of DR. More caudally some labeled neurons were found in lateral, medial line of DR. In median raphe nucleus (MnR the labeled neurons were scattered only in median portion of this nucleus. The ipsilateral injection of HRP into the ventral region of striatum resulted on labeling of numerous neurons in rostral, caudal and lateral portions of DR. Through the caudal extension of DR on 4th ventricle level, a large number of labeled neurons were distributed along the ventrocaudal parts of DR. In MnR, labeled neurons were observed only in median part of this nucleus. These findings suggest the mesencephalic raphe nuclei projections to caudo-putamen are topographically organized. In addition dorsal and median raphe nuclei have a stronger projection to the ventral striatum.

  10. Isolated dorsal dislocation of the tarsal naviculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaziz Hamdi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Isolated dislocation of the tarsal naviculum is an unusual injury, scarcely reported in the literature. The naviculum is surrounded by the rigid bony and ligamentous support hence fracture dislocation is more common than isolated dislocation. The mechanism and treatment options remain unclear. In this case report, we describe a 31 year old man who sustained an isolated dorsal dislocation of the left tarsal naviculum, without fracture, when he was involved in a motor vehicle collision. The reported mechanism of the dislocation is a hyper plantar flexion force applied to the midfoot, resulting in a transient disruption of the ligamentous support of the naviculum bone, with dorsal displacement of the bone. The patient was treated with open reduction and Krischner-wire fixation of the navicular after the failure of closed reduction. The wires were removed after 6 weeks postoperatively. Physiotherapy for stiffness and midfoot pain was recommended for 2 months. At 6 months postoperatively, limping, midfoot pain and weakness were reported, no X-ray abnormalities were found. The patient returned to his obvious activities with a normal range of motion.

  11. Isolated dorsal dislocation of the tarsal naviculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdi, Kaziz; Hazem, Ben Ghozlen; Yadh, Zitoun; Faouzi, Abid

    2015-01-01

    Isolated dislocation of the tarsal naviculum is an unusual injury, scarcely reported in the literature. The naviculum is surrounded by the rigid bony and ligamentous support hence fracture dislocation is more common than isolated dislocation. The mechanism and treatment options remain unclear. In this case report, we describe a 31 year old man who sustained an isolated dorsal dislocation of the left tarsal naviculum, without fracture, when he was involved in a motor vehicle collision. The reported mechanism of the dislocation is a hyper plantar flexion force applied to the midfoot, resulting in a transient disruption of the ligamentous support of the naviculum bone, with dorsal displacement of the bone. The patient was treated with open reduction and Krischner-wire fixation of the navicular after the failure of closed reduction. The wires were removed after 6 weeks postoperatively. Physiotherapy for stiffness and midfoot pain was recommended for 2 months. At 6 months postoperatively, limping, midfoot pain and weakness were reported, no X-ray abnormalities were found. The patient returned to his obvious activities with a normal range of motion.

  12. Interpolant tree automata and their application in Horn clause verification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kafle, Bishoksan; Gallagher, John Patrick

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the combination of abstract interpretation over the domain of convex polyhedra with interpolant tree automata, in an abstraction-refinement scheme for Horn clause verification. These techniques have been previously applied separately, but are combined in a new way in this ......This paper investigates the combination of abstract interpretation over the domain of convex polyhedra with interpolant tree automata, in an abstraction-refinement scheme for Horn clause verification. These techniques have been previously applied separately, but are combined in a new way...... clause verification problems indicates that the combination of interpolant tree automaton with abstract interpretation gives some increase in the power of the verification tool, while sometimes incurring a performance overhead....

  13. Ultrasensitive displacement sensor based on tunable horn-shaped resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Ying; Wu, Jiong; Yu, Le; Yang, Helin; Huang, Xiaojun

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we proposed a novel double-deck displacement sensor with a high linearity based on tunable horn-shaped resonators. The designed sensor included two substrate layers etched with copper metallization in various shapes. When the upper trip-type resonator layer has a relative displacement to the bottom horn-shaped resonator layer, the resonance frequency of the sensor is redshift. High sensitivity of the sensor is around 207.2 MHz mm‑1 with 4 mm linear dynamic range. We fabricate the sample of the proposed displacement sensor, in addition the simulated results are verified by experiment. The proposed displacement sensor is appropriate for using MEMS technology in further miniaturization.

  14. Foreign aid and extremism in the Horn of Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farah, Abdulkadir Osman

    2014-01-01

    -religious extremists. Such securitization approaches imposed terror and counter terror warfare on peaceful civil society efforts (Kaldor, 2013). In the Horn of Africa, Africans fight each other in proxy wars apparently sponsored by external actors. The approach therefore undermined civic constituents trying to re......This paper discusses foreign aid complexities and understanding the war on terrorism. In the past decade the US strategically integrated foreign aid with the fight against extremism, particularly in war torn regions like the Horn of Africa. In analysing the Somali case the paper contends the 911......-state actors such as warlord militias and religious extremists. Such fragmented conflicting factions- most of them without clear national vision and project- have since received external aid. By instrumentally focusing and dealing with such divisive elements, donor countries aimed and hoped for potentially...

  15. Preparation of briquettes from the Golden Horn bottom sediments by hydro-thermal agglomeration process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Ozlem; Elbeyli, iffet Yakar

    2004-04-01

    The Golden Horn (GH) sediments, which consist mainly of clay, organic substances and heavy metals, are formed with the contribution of industrial and domestic wastes released in the Golden Horn Estuary. On account of their mineralogical and chemical composition, these sediments may be regarded as a suitable raw material for briquette production. In this study, the utilization of GH dredged bottom sediments was investigated for preparation of briquettes. Dried GH sediments were mixed with lime and sand in different percentages, moulded at various squeezing pressures and hardened under several steam pressure values by autoclaving. The briquettes produced through these different process conditions were tested for compressive strength according to the Turkish standards (TS705). It was found that variations in compressive strength were dependent on the amount of lime (Ca(OH)2) and sand (SiO2) added. Results show that the compressive strength increased with increasing lime and decreasing sand in the mixtures prepared for briquettes. It is concluded that briquettes with a compressive strength value of 294 kgf cm(-2) can be produced. This allows the GH sediments to be taken into account as a raw material in brick production, as far as compressive strength requirements are concerned. This possibility may represent an important way either for reducing environmental pollution or for recycling waste materials in industrial applications.

  16. Gene discovery in the horned beetle Onthophagus taurus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Youngik

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Horned beetles, in particular in the genus Onthophagus, are important models for studies on sexual selection, biological radiations, the origin of novel traits, developmental plasticity, biocontrol, conservation, and forensic biology. Despite their growing prominence as models for studying both basic and applied questions in biology, little genomic or transcriptomic data are available for this genus. We used massively parallel pyrosequencing (Roche 454-FLX platform to produce a comprehensive EST dataset for the horned beetle Onthophagus taurus. To maximize sequence diversity, we pooled RNA extracted from a normalized library encompassing diverse developmental stages and both sexes. Results We used 454 pyrosequencing to sequence ESTs from all post-embryonic stages of O. taurus. Approximately 1.36 million reads assembled into 50,080 non-redundant sequences encompassing a total of 26.5 Mbp. The non-redundant sequences match over half of the genes in Tribolium castaneum, the most closely related species with a sequenced genome. Analyses of Gene Ontology annotations and biochemical pathways indicate that the O. taurus sequences reflect a wide and representative sampling of biological functions and biochemical processes. An analysis of sequence polymorphisms revealed that SNP frequency was negatively related to overall expression level and the number of tissue types in which a given gene is expressed. The most variable genes were enriched for a limited number of GO annotations whereas the least variable genes were enriched for a wide range of GO terms directly related to fitness. Conclusions This study provides the first large-scale EST database for horned beetles, a much-needed resource for advancing the study of these organisms. Furthermore, we identified instances of gene duplications and alternative splicing, useful for future study of gene regulation, and a large number of SNP markers that could be used in population

  17. The magnetic horn being installed in the CNGS target chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2006-01-01

    The magnetic system that focuses the beam of particles arising from the graphite target of the CERN Neutrinos to Gran Sasso project (CNGS) has been installed in its final position in the tunnel.The CNGS secondary beam magnetic system consists of two elements: the horn and the reflector, both acting as focusing lenses for the positively-charged pions and kaons produced by proton interactions in the target.

  18. Understanding recent eastern Horn of Africa rainfall variability and change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebmann, Brant; Hoerling, Martin P.; Funk, Christopher C.; Blade, Ileana; Dole, Randall M.; Allured, Dave; Quan, Xiaowei; Eischeid, Jon K.

    2014-01-01

    Observations and sea surface temperature (SST)-forced ECHAM5 simulations are examined to study the seasonal cycle of eastern Africa rainfall and its SST sensitivity during 1979–2012, focusing on interannual variability and trends. The eastern Horn is drier than the rest of equatorial Africa, with two distinct wet seasons, and whereas the October–December wet season has become wetter, the March–May season has become drier.

  19. Dorsal-Ventral Patterning and Neural Induction in Xenopus Embryos

    OpenAIRE

    De Robertis, Edward M.; Kuroda, Hiroki

    2004-01-01

    We review the current status of research in dorsal-ventral (D-V) patterning in vertebrates. Emphasis is placed on recent work on Xenopus, which provides a paradigm for vertebrate development based on a rich heritage of experimental embryology. D-V patterning starts much earlier than previously thought, under the influence of a dorsal nuclear β-Catenin signal. At mid-blastula two signaling centers are present on the dorsal side: The prospective neuroectoderm expresses bone morphogenetic protei...

  20. Measles--Horn of Africa, 2010-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-31

    Member states of the World Health Organization (WHO) African (AFR) and Eastern Mediterranean (EMR) regions have set goals for measles elimination by 2020 and 2015, respectively. The two WHO regions include AFR member states Ethiopia and Kenya, and EMR member state Somalia. All three countries are in the Horn of Africa, where measles remains endemic, with periodic outbreaks despite efforts to achieve elimination goals. This report describes outbreaks that occurred in the Horn of Africa during 2010-2011. The outbreaks were exacerbated by a complex humanitarian emergency in Somalia, with an influx of an estimated 600,000 refugees into camps in Kenya and Ethiopia near the borders with Somalia. During 2010-2011, a total of 9,756 measles cases were reported in Ethiopia and 2,566 in Kenya, with wide age distributions, and 16,135 were reported in Somalia, with 78% occurring among children aged response immunization (ORI) strategies were implemented; however, outbreaks continued. To reach AFR and EMR measles elimination targets, uniform high coverage with 2 doses of measles-containing vaccine (MCV) must be achieved and maintained in Horn of Africa countries, including in refugee camps.

  1. Fabrication and Testing of Pyramidal X- Band Standard Horn Antenna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan F. Khazaal

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Standard horn antennas are an important device to evaluate many types of antennas, since they are used as a reference to any type of antennas within the microwave frequency bands. In this project the fabrication process and tests of standard horn antenna operating at X-band frequencies have been proposed. The fabricated antenna passed through multi stages of processing of its parts until assembling the final product. These stages are (milling, bending, fitting and welding. The assembled antenna subjected to two types of tests to evaluate its performance. The first one is the test by two port network analyzer to point out S & Z parameters, input resistance, and the voltage standing wave ratio of the horn, while the second test was done using un-echoic chamber to measure the gain, side lobes level and the half power beam width. The results of testing come nearly as a theoretical value of the most important of antenna parameters, like; gain, side lobe level, -3 dB beam width, return loss and voltage standing wave ratio "VSWR", input Impedance.

  2. Animal health constraints to livestock exports from the Horn of Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, B; Yousif, M A; Nur, H M

    2014-12-01

    The Horn of Africa (Djibouti, Ethiopia, Somalia, Eritrea) is home to the largest population of livestock in Africa and is the historic centre of the livestock trade to the Middle East and northern Africa. The recent resumption of livestock exports from the region has resulted in the handling of over one million head of cattle, sheep, goats and camels at one quarantine facility during a single year. Several of the importing countries for which the facility operates have differing hygiene requirements for the same diseases. Most of the animals handled in the facility come from pastoralist areas, which lack state Veterinary Services. The pathological conditions encountered during one year of monitoring were recorded and the impacts of some of the endemic diseases are discussed, together with particular import-limiting hygiene requirements on this trade.

  3. Discrimination of the hard keratins animal horn and chelonian shell using attenuated total reflection-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biscardi, Brianna; Welsh, Wendy; Kennedy, Anthony

    2012-05-01

    The ability to discriminate between objects manufactured from animal horn and chelonian (turtle, tortoise, or terrapin) shell is important from a cultural and archeological perspective such that it may allow conservators to determine the appropriate treatment and long-term care solution. It would also aid curators in identifying and cataloging items manufactured from these materials. Discrimination and classification is also a valuable tool for those involved in tracking the illegal trade in restricted materials of this nature. Attenuated total reflection infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy, using a single reflection diamond internal reflection element (IRE), coupled with discrimination analysis was used to analyze a total of thirty-nine samples (29 calibration samples, 10 validation samples). A discrimination analysis model was constructed using Mahalanobis distances to classify spectra into one of two classes. The model was then subsequently used to successfully classify all validation samples and correctly identify them as animal horn or chelonian shell based on second-derivative spectra of the amide I and II regions. This technique requires minimal to no sample preparation and may be used to nondestructively identify very small samples successfully without performing detailed secondary structural curve-fitting routines. This model should be a valuable resource to museums, conservators, and wildlife management programs for rapidly and reliably discriminating between animal horn and chelonian shell.

  4. Identification of Early RET+ Deep Dorsal Spinal Cord Interneurons in Gating Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Lian; Miao, Xuerong; Liang, Lingli; Abdus-Saboor, Ishmail; Olson, William; Fleming, Michael S; Ma, Minghong; Tao, Yuan-Xiang; Luo, Wenqin

    2016-01-01

    The gate control theory (GCT) of pain proposes that pain- and touch-sensing neurons antagonize each other through spinal cord dorsal horn (DH) gating neurons. However, the exact neural circuits underlying the GCT remain largely elusive. Here, we identified a new population of deep layer DH (dDH) inhibitory interneurons that express the receptor tyrosine kinase Ret neonatally. These early RET+ dDH neurons receive excitatory as well as polysynaptic inhibitory inputs from touch- and/or pain-sensing afferents. In addition, they negatively regulate DH pain and touch pathways through both pre- and postsynaptic inhibition. Finally, specific ablation of early RET+ dDH neurons increases basal and chronic pain, whereas their acute activation reduces basal pain perception and relieves inflammatory and neuropathic pain. Taken together, our findings uncover a novel spinal circuit that mediates crosstalk between touch and pain pathways and suggest that some early RET+ dDH neurons could function as pain “gating” neurons. PMID:27545714

  5. Interlimb Dynamic after Unilateral Focal Lesion of the Cervical Dorsal Corticospinal Tract with Endothelin-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walther A. Carvalho

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Handedness is one of the most recognized lateralized behavior in humans. Usually, it is associated with manual superiority regarding performance proficiency. For instance, more than 90% of the human population is considered more skilled with the right hand, which is controlled by the left hemisphere, than with the left. However, during the performance of bimanual tasks, the two hands usually assume asymmetric roles, with one hand acting on objects while the other provides support, stabilizing the object. Traditionally, the role of the two hands is viewed as fixed. However, several studies support an alternate view with flexible assignments for the two hands depending on the task. The supporting role of the hand depends on a closed loop pathway based on proprioceptive inputs from the periphery. The circuit’s efferent arm courses through the dorsal corticospinal tract (dCST in rodents and terminate on spinal cord interneurons which modulate the excitability of motoneurons in the ventral horn. In the present work, we developed an experimental model of unilateral lesion targeting the cervical dCST with microinjections of the vasoconstrictor endothelin-1 (ET-1 to evaluate the degree of flexibility of forelimb assignment during a food manipulation task. Our results show that just 3 days after unilateral corticospinal tract (CST injury in the cervical region, rats display severe motor impairment of the ipsilateral forepaw together with a remarkable reversal of motor assignment between the forelimbs.

  6. Chemokine CCL2 and its receptor CCR2 in the dorsal root ganglion contribute to oxaliplatin-induced mechanical hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illias, A M; Gist, A C; Zhang, H; Kosturakis, A K; Dougherty, P M

    2018-03-15

    Activation of innate immune mechanisms within the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and spinal dorsal horn has been shown to play a key role in the development of neuropathic pain including paclitaxel-related chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN). Here we tested whether similar mechanisms are generalizable to oxaliplatin-induced CIPN. After a single intraperitoneal injection of 3mg/kg oxaliplatin, mechanical withdrawal threshold and the expression of C-C chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2) and its receptor, CCR2 in the DRG were measured by behavioral testing and immunohistochemical (IHC) staining, respectively. Mechanical responsiveness increased from the first day after oxaliplatin injection and persisted until day 15, the last day of this experiment. IHC showed that the expression of CCL2/CCR2 started to increase by 4hrs after oxaliplatin treatment, was significantly increased at day 4, and then both signals became normalized by day15. Co-treatment with intrathecal anti-CCL2 antibodies prevented the development of oxaliplatin-induced mechanical hyper-responsiveness, and transiently reversed established hyperalgesia when given 1 week after chemotherapy. This is the first study to demonstrate CCL2/CCR2 signaling in a model of oxaliplatin-related CIPN; and it further shows that blocking of this signal can attenuate the development of oxaliplatin-induced mechanical hyperalgesia. Activation of innate immune mechanisms may therefore be a generalized basis for CIPN irrespective of the specific class of agent.

  7. Susceptibility of the horn fly, Haematobia irritans irritans (Diptera: Muscidae), to insecticides in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Barros,Antonio Thadeu Medeiros; Saueressig,Thelma Maria; Gomes,Alberto; Koller,Wilson Werner; Furlong,John; Girão,Eneide Santiago; Pinheiro,Alfredo da Cunha; Alves-Branco,Francisco de Paula Jardim; Sapper,Maria de Fátima Munhós; Braga,Ramayana Menezes; Oliveira,Amaury Apolonio de

    2012-01-01

    Since horn fly populations became established throughout Brazil, complaints regarding control failure have increased around the country. A broad survey to evaluate the susceptibility of horn flies to both organophosphate (OP) and pyrethroid insecticides was conducted from October 2000 to April 2003. Bioassays using filter papers impregnated with cypermethrin, permethrin or diazinon were conducted on 154 horn fly populations in 14 states and 78 municipalities. Resistance to cypermethrin, the a...

  8. Pyrosequencing-Based Analysis of the Microbiome Associated with the Horn Fly, Haematobia irritans

    OpenAIRE

    Palavesam, Azhahianambi; Guerrero, Felix D.; Heekin, Andrew M.; Wang, Ju; Dowd, Scot E.; Sun, Yan; Foil, Lane D.; Pérez de León, Adalberto A.

    2012-01-01

    The horn fly, Haematobia irritans, is one of the most economically important pests of cattle. Insecticides have been a major element of horn fly management programs. Growing concerns with insecticide resistance, insecticide residues on farm products, and non-availability of new generation insecticides, are serious issues for the livestock industry. Alternative horn fly control methods offer the promise to decrease the use of insecticides and reduce the amount of insecticide residues on livest...

  9. The issue of ventral versus dorsal approach in bulbar urethral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    E. Palminteri

    From surgical point of view, the Barbagli Dorsal Grafting by Dor- sal approach [8] gives a good support for the graft; Barbagli stated that his technique offers a wider augmentation than ventral or dorsal grafting using the ventral approach. The good spongiosum covering seems reduce the risk of fistula; in reality there is a ...

  10. Selective dorsal column stimulation in SCS, using conditioning pulses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holsheimer, J.

    2004-01-01

    A system and method is described for preferentially stimulating dorsal column fibers while avoiding stimulation of dorsal root fibers. The invention applies hyperpolarizing (anodic) pre-pulses (HPP) and depolarizing (cathodic) pre-pulses (DPP) to neural tissue, such as spinal cord tissue, through a

  11. Selective dorsal column stimulation in SCS, using conditioning pulses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holsheimer, J.

    2003-01-01

    A system and method is described for preferentially stimulating dorsal column fibers while avoiding stimulation of dorsal root fibers. The invention applies hyperpolarizing pre-pulses and depolarizing pre-pulses to neural tissue, such as spinal cord tissue, through a lead placed over the spinal cord

  12. A radiologic study on the urinary bladder following dorsal and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sokoto Journal of Veterinary Sciences ... Pneumocystography and positive contrast cystography using solutrast® were carried out immediately after surgery and on the second operative day following dorsal ... The obvious dorsal indentation observed is most probably due to the inflammatory response of the surgical wound.

  13. Body Scars and Dorsal Fin Disfigurements as Indicators Interaction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (Peponocephala electra) and short-finned pilot whales (Globicephala macrorhynchus). Injuries on the dorsal region (especially the dorsal fin) were characterised and related to fisheries or intra-/inter-specific interactions (with sharks and other cetacean species). The results suggest interactions with fisheries involving the ...

  14. Transcription profiling provides insights into gene pathways involved in horn and scurs development in cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lehnert Sigrid A

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Two types of horns are evident in cattle - fixed horns attached to the skull and a variation called scurs, which refers to small loosely attached horns. Cattle lacking horns are referred to as polled. Although both the Poll and Scurs loci have been mapped to BTA1 and 19 respectively, the underlying genetic basis of these phenotypes is unknown, and so far, no candidate genes regulating these developmental processes have been described. This study is the first reported attempt at transcript profiling to identify genes and pathways contributing to horn and scurs development in Brahman cattle, relative to polled counterparts. Results Expression patterns in polled, horned and scurs tissues were obtained using the Agilent 44 k bovine array. The most notable feature when comparing transcriptional profiles of developing horn tissues against polled was the down regulation of genes coding for elements of the cadherin junction as well as those involved in epidermal development. We hypothesize this as a key event involved in keratinocyte migration and subsequent horn development. In the polled-scurs comparison, the most prevalent differentially expressed transcripts code for genes involved in extracellular matrix remodelling, which were up regulated in scurs tissues relative to polled. Conclusion For this first time we describe networks of genes involved in horn and scurs development. Interestingly, we did not observe differential expression in any of the genes present on the fine mapped region of BTA1 known to contain the Poll locus.

  15. Ruptured rudimentary horn pregnancy with a history of an uneventful vaginal delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Nitin; Yadav, Nitin; Koshiya, Darshan; Jhanwar, Vikas

    2015-01-01

    Pregnancy in a rudimentary uterine horn is a rare event with an estimated incidence of 1 in 76,000 to 1 in 1,40,000 pregnancies. Unicornuate uterus with a rudimentary horn has a high incidence of obstetric and gynecological complications. Ruptured ectopic pregnancy in the rudimentary horn is one of the most dreaded complications, which can have grave consequences for both mother and fetus. In the majority of the cases, it is detected after rupture of the horn, usually during the first or second trimester of pregnancy. An ultrasonographic diagnosis made prior to rupture of the rudimentary horn may prevent this catastrophic outcome. We report a case of a G2 P1 L1 with a ruptured left rudimentary horn pregnancy at 16 weeks of gestation that was misdiagnosed as a pregnancy in the left uterine horn of a bicornuate uterus on prior prenatal ultrasound. The patient presented to our hospital with abdominal pain and vaginal bleeding. A diagnosis of ruptured left rudimentary horn pregnancy was made on the basis of emergency ultrasound and was later confirmed on laparotomy. The left rudimentary horn along with the ipsilateral fallopian tube was excised.

  16. The relationship between human security, demand for arms and disarmament in the horn of Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebrewold, Kiflemariam

    2002-01-01

    The drive to find security through possession of weapons is linked to the history and culture of a social group. Amongst pastoralists in the Horn of Africa there is a failure of security through state systems such as police and the recent replacement of less-lethal traditional weapons by small arms and other light weapons. A warrior or vendetta culture with these arms leads to violent inter-clan clashes with many casualties, although traditional methods of weapons control still seem operational within clans. Understanding the drive to seek weapons is essential in finding ways to control their use. Improving the capacities of the police must come hand in hand with human rights training and an end to corruption. Further work is required on how traditional methods of arms control can be co-operatively linked with state controls.

  17. Management of Second Trimester Fetal Demise in a Noncommunicating Uterine Horn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Tyler Hillman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Müllerian anomalies are uncommon but when present they can increase the risk of obstetrical complications. Anomalies such as bicornuate and unicornuate uterus can also increase the surgical risks of pregnancy termination. The diagnostic approach and surgical management must be individualized for each patient so that the termination procedure is safe and preserves fertility. We present a case of a patient with a 17-week pregnancy with fetal demise in a noncommunicating right uterine horn. Laparotomy and hysterotomy were required for evacuation of the fetus. The use of appropriate imaging studies to diagnose suspected uterine anomalies and a flexible and individualized operative strategy are essential for reducing complications associated with the termination of abnormal or unintended pregnancies in women with Müllerian anomalies.

  18. Species identification of rhinoceros horns using the cytochrome b gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Hsing-Mei; Huang, Li-Hung; Tsai, Li-Chin; Kuo, Yi-Chen; Meng, Hsien-Huei; Linacre, Adrian; Lee, James Chun-I

    2003-09-09

    Material suspected of originating from species of Rhinoceros is frequently seized by forensic organizations investigating trade in endangered species. At present identification of the species is possible by DNA sequencing of the material, such as powdered rhinoceros horns. The unambiguous identification of rhino products using a 402 bp fragment of cytochrome b gene was investigated. This DNA sequence may not only assist in the identification of the unknown sample, but can be used to determine the phylogenetic relationships of rhinoceros species. Sequences of suspect rhinoceros horns were compared with the sequences registered in GenBank. The maximum value of genetic distance among white rhinoceros was 0.0176, and 0.0333 among black rhinoceros. In the comparison among rhinoceros species, the greatest genetic distance was between black and Indian rhinoceros (0.1564). The rhinoceros sequences extracted from GenBank and 13 samples in this study were clustered and separated from other mammals. Holstein cow was used as an out-group and was clustered with cattle in the phylogenetic tree. The results of this phylogenetic study also showed that there were four major branches among rhinoceros species from a common origin. The amplification of the 402 bp fragment of the cytochrome b gene was found to be able to detect rhinoceros DNA even in the ratio of 1:19 with Holstein cow DNA. In the initial identification of species from unknown powdered material, all the unknown samples were found to be from rhinoceroses. In phylogenetic analysis, the results supported the morphological hypothesis. The method used in this study can be applied in the identification of processed products of rhinoceros horns, such as sculptures, daggers, powders or even mixture powdered prescriptions.

  19. Fiscal year 1996 groundwater sampling for the Horn Rapids Landfill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemp, C.J.; Ford, B.H.

    1996-10-01

    The Horn Rapids Landfill is contained within the 1100-EM-1 Operable Unit immediately north of Richland, Washington. The landfill is a 20 hectare size area and was placed on the National Priorities List in July 1989. The landfill was used primarily to dispose of office and construction waste, asbestos, sewage sludge, and fly ash. The remedial investigation/feasibility study for the operable unit identified some polychlorinated biphenol-contaminated soil in the landfill. The operable unit record of decision included excavation of the PCB-contaminated soil and placing a soil cap over the landfill in April 1995

  20. Decomposition by tree dimension in Horn clause verification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kafle, Bishoksan; Gallagher, John Patrick; Ganty, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the use of the concept of tree dimension in Horn clause analysis and verification. The dimension of a tree is a measure of its non-linearity - for example a list of any length has dimension zero while a complete binary tree has dimension equal to its height. We apply...... that decomposition by tree dimension is a potentially useful proof technique. We also investigate the use of existing automatic proof tools to prove some interesting properties about dimension(s) of feasible derivation trees of a given program....

  1. A strange horn between Paolo Mantegazza and Charles Darwin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbarino, Carla; Mazzarello, Paolo

    2013-09-01

    During the preparation of an exhibition in Pavia dedicated to the centennial anniversary of the death of the Italian Pathologist Paolo Mantegazza, a strange cheratinic horn was found at the Museum for the History of the University of Pavia labelled as 'spur of a cock transplanted into an ear of a cow.' After some historical investigation, we found this strange object was at the centre of a scientific correspondence between Mantegazza and Charles Darwin, who made reference to it in his book The Variation of Animals and Plants under Domestication. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Asymmetric multipartite Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states and Bell inequalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gosal, Darwin; Oh, C.H.; Kaszlikowski, Dagomir; Kwek, L.C.; Zukowski, M.

    2004-01-01

    We study the multiparticle generalized GHZ states. It has been shown that for an odd number of qubits and for a specific range of parameters, they do not violate any Bell inequality for correlation functions. We show here both analytically and numerically that, nevertheless, such states violate local realism, once a more detailed analysis of the correlations is made than the one allowed by correlation functions. The results imply that multiparticle Clauser-Horne-type inequalities involving probabilities are stronger tools for analyzing violations of local realism in multiparticle systems than inequalities involving the correlation functions

  3. File list: ALL.Lar.10.AllAg.Dorsal_mesothoracic_disc [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Lar.10.AllAg.Dorsal_mesothoracic_disc dm3 All antigens Larvae Dorsal mesothorac...barchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/ALL.Lar.10.AllAg.Dorsal_mesothoracic_disc.bed ...

  4. File list: ALL.Lar.50.AllAg.Dorsal_mesothoracic_disc [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Lar.50.AllAg.Dorsal_mesothoracic_disc dm3 All antigens Larvae Dorsal mesothorac...barchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/ALL.Lar.50.AllAg.Dorsal_mesothoracic_disc.bed ...

  5. File list: ALL.Lar.05.AllAg.Dorsal_mesothoracic_disc [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Lar.05.AllAg.Dorsal_mesothoracic_disc dm3 All antigens Larvae Dorsal mesothorac...barchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/ALL.Lar.05.AllAg.Dorsal_mesothoracic_disc.bed ...

  6. File list: ALL.Lar.20.AllAg.Dorsal_mesothoracic_disc [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Lar.20.AllAg.Dorsal_mesothoracic_disc dm3 All antigens Larvae Dorsal mesothorac...barchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/ALL.Lar.20.AllAg.Dorsal_mesothoracic_disc.bed ...

  7. Findings in osteosarcoma of the dorsal spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Dayem, H.

    1998-01-01

    A 60-year-old male had a left pneumonectomy four-and-a-half-years ago to remove a carcinoma of the lung; the surgery was followed by radiation therapy. In September 1997, he complained of back pain. When the back pain was investigated, a malignant tumor was found in the upper dorsal spine. Tumor decompression was performed in November 1997. Pathologic examination confirmed the presence of radiation bone sarcoma and he was treated with postoperative chemotherapy. In April 1998, the patient had another surgery in which three ribs were removed from the upper left chest wall posteriorly and most of the tumor was removed from the left side of the spine. A second surgery was planned to remove tumor from the right side of the spine. An 18 FDG study was requested to determine the extent of the tumor prior to the second operation. It is concluded that adding attenuation correction to the ADAC Solus Molecular Co-incidence Detection (MCD) gamma-camera, markedly improved the quality of the 18 FDG images and the accuracy of the anatomical distribution of uptake

  8. Findings in osteosarcoma of the dorsal spine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdel-Dayem, H. [Saint Vincents Hospital and Medical Centre, New York (United States)

    1998-09-01

    A 60-year-old male had a left pneumonectomy four-and-a-half-years ago to remove a carcinoma of the lung; the surgery was followed by radiation therapy. In September 1997, he complained of back pain. When the back pain was investigated, a malignant tumor was found in the upper dorsal spine. Tumor decompression was performed in November 1997. Pathologic examination confirmed the presence of radiation bone sarcoma and he was treated with postoperative chemotherapy. In April 1998, the patient had another surgery in which three ribs were removed from the upper left chest wall posteriorly and most of the tumor was removed from the left side of the spine. A second surgery was planned to remove tumor from the right side of the spine. An {sup 18}FDG study was requested to determine the extent of the tumor prior to the second operation. It is concluded that adding attenuation correction to the ADAC Solus Molecular Co-incidence Detection (MCD) gamma-camera, markedly improved the quality of the {sup 18}FDG images and the accuracy of the anatomical distribution of uptake

  9. Neural correlates of auditory recognition memory in the primate dorsal temporal pole

    OpenAIRE

    Ng, Chi-Wing; Plakke, Bethany; Poremba, Amy

    2013-01-01

    Temporal pole (TP) cortex is associated with higher-order sensory perception and/or recognition memory, as human patients with damage in this region show impaired performance during some tasks requiring recognition memory (Olson et al. 2007). The underlying mechanisms of TP processing are largely based on examination of the visual nervous system in humans and monkeys, while little is known about neuronal activity patterns in the auditory portion of this region, dorsal TP (dTP; Poremba et al. ...

  10. Satellite tracking of harbour seals on Horns Reef - Use of the Horns Reef wind farm area and the North Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tougaard, J.; Tougaard, S.; Jensen, Thyge [Fisheries and Maritime Museum Esbjerg (Denmark); Ebbesen, I. [Univ. of Sourthern Denmark, Inst. of Biology, Odense (Denmark); Teilmann, J. [NationL Environmental Res. Inst., Roskidle (Denmark)

    2003-03-15

    Ten harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) caught on the Danish Wadden Sea island Roemoe were equipped with satellite linked time depth recorders. The animals were caught on three separate occasions (Jan. 4th, Feb. 18th and May 6th, 2002). The transmitters worked between 49 and 100 days, relaying positional and dive information back via the ARGOS satellite service until beginning of July. Background for the studies is the construction of the Worlds largest off shore wind farm on Horns Reef. Based on previous studies using VHF-transmitters, it was expected that the seals would spend considerable time on Horns Reef. The VHF-telemetry studies showed that the preferred direction for seals leaving the Danish Wadden Sea is NW from Graedyb tidal area outside Esbjerg, the direction directly towards the wind farm area. The previously used VHF-transmitters had a limited detection range and it was decided to equip a number of seals from the same area as before with satellite transmitters. This allows for positioning of the seals in the entire North Sea as well as providing dive summary information, as a transmitter with a depth transducer was chosen for the study. Positional information revealed that animals move about more extensively than previously believed. Substantial variation between animals was observed and each seal seemed to have adopted its own foraging strategy. Some animals travelled to the centre of the North Sea on foraging trips and spent considerable time close to the bottom at 30-70 meters depth. Other seals remained in the German Bight and yet others spent considerable time on and around Horns Reef. The area of Horns reef wind farm constitutes a negligible fraction of the total area visited by the tagged seals. The reef as a whole however, appears to be important to the seals both for foraging and as transit area to other feeding grounds further off shore. The resolution in positional information is not sufficiently high to allow for a detailed study of the effects

  11. Satellite tracking of harbour seals on Horns Reef - Use of the Horns Reef wind farm area and the North Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tougaard, J.; Tougaard, S.; Jensen, Thyge; Ebbesen, I.; Teilmann, J.

    2003-03-01

    Ten harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) caught on the Danish Wadden Sea island Roemoe were equipped with satellite linked time depth recorders. The animals were caught on three separate occasions (Jan. 4th, Feb. 18th and May 6th, 2002). The transmitters worked between 49 and 100 days, relaying positional and dive information back via the ARGOS satellite service until beginning of July. Background for the studies is the construction of the Worlds largest off shore wind farm on Horns Reef. Based on previous studies using VHF-transmitters, it was expected that the seals would spend considerable time on Horns Reef. The VHF-telemetry studies showed that the preferred direction for seals leaving the Danish Wadden Sea is NW from Graedyb tidal area outside Esbjerg, the direction directly towards the wind farm area. The previously used VHF-transmitters had a limited detection range and it was decided to equip a number of seals from the same area as before with satellite transmitters. This allows for positioning of the seals in the entire North Sea as well as providing dive summary information, as a transmitter with a depth transducer was chosen for the study. Positional information revealed that animals move about more extensively than previously believed. Substantial variation between animals was observed and each seal seemed to have adopted its own foraging strategy. Some animals travelled to the centre of the North Sea on foraging trips and spent considerable time close to the bottom at 30-70 meters depth. Other seals remained in the German Bight and yet others spent considerable time on and around Horns Reef. The area of Horns reef wind farm constitutes a negligible fraction of the total area visited by the tagged seals. The reef as a whole however, appears to be important to the seals both for foraging and as transit area to other feeding grounds further off shore. The resolution in positional information is not sufficiently high to allow for a detailed study of the effects

  12. Wind Farm Wake: The 2016 Horns Rev Photo Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Bay Hasager

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Offshore wind farm wakes were observed and photographed in foggy conditions at Horns Rev 2 on 25 January 2016 at 12:45 UTC. These new images show highly contrasting conditions regarding the wind speed, turbulence intensity, atmospheric stability, weather conditions and wind farm wake development as compared to the Horns Rev 1 photographs from 12 February 2008. The paper examines the atmospheric conditions from satellite images, radiosondes, lidar and wind turbine data and compares the observations to results from atmospheric meso-scale modelling and large eddy simulation. Key findings are that a humid and warm air mass was advected from the southwest over cold sea and the dew-point temperature was such that cold-water advection fog formed in a shallow layer. The flow was stably stratified and the freestream wind speed was 13 m/s at hub height, which means that most turbines produced at or near rated power. The wind direction was southwesterly and long, narrow wakes persisted several rotor diameters downwind of the wind turbines. Eventually mixing of warm air from aloft dispersed the fog in the far wake region of the wind farm.

  13. 12MW Horns Rev experiment[Wind farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasager, C.B.; Pena, A; Mikkelsen, T.; Courtney, M.; Antoniou, I.; Gryning, S.-E.; Hansen, P. [Risoe National Lab., DTU, Wind Energy Dept. (Denmark); Soerensen, P.B. [DONG Energy (Denmark)

    2007-10-15

    The 12MW project with the full title '12 MW wind turbines: the scientific basis for their operation at 70 to 270 m height offshore' has the goal to experimentally investigate the wind and turbulence characteristics between 70 and 270 m above sea level and thereby establish the scientific basis relevant for the next generation of huge 12 MW wind turbines operating offshore. The report describes the experimental campaign at the Horns Rev offshore wind farm at which observations from Doppler Laser LIDAR and SODAR were collected from 3 May to 24 October 2006. The challenges for mounting and operating the instruments on the transformer platform at Horns Rev were overcome by a close collaboration between DONG energy and Risoe National Laboratory DTU. The site is presented. In particular, three tall offshore meteorological masts, up to 70 m tall, provided a useful source of meteorological data for comparison to the remotely sensed wind and turbulence observations. The comparison showed high correlation. The LIDAR and SODAR wind and turbulence observations were collected far beyond the height of the masts (up to 160 m above sea level) and the extended profiles were compared to the logarithmic wind profile. Further studies on this part of the work are on-going. Technical detail on LIDAR and SODAR are provided as well as theoretical work on turbulence and atmospheric boundary layer flow. Selected results from the experimental campaign are reported. (au)

  14. The Many Faces of Compliance: The Supreme Court's Decision in "Horne v. Flores"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thro, William E.

    2009-01-01

    At first blush, the Supreme Court's recent decision in "Horne v. Flores" (2009) appears to be about the proper standard for determining when to modify a previous judgment, a topic that would interest only civil procedure geeks. Yet, on closer examination, "Horne" is about giving local and state officials discretion to solve education problems and,…

  15. Giant scalp cutaneous horn in black Malawian adult: A case report ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Histology showed compacted keratin lying on a craten form base with papillomatosis and cutenous horn formation. No evidence of malignancy. Conclusion: Clinicians in our environment should be aware of the fact that Cutenous horn or cornu cutaneum does exist in black African populations and should be thought of when ...

  16. Horn fly population dynamics as prediction tool for the fixation of pesticide resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    This research project was conducted to establish the population dynamics of the horn fly. Two cattle herds were monitored to establish if contrasting climatic regional conditions, in addition to temperature and precipitation, related to the number of rainy days as a factor influencing horn fly infes...

  17. Application of impedance boundary conditions to numerical solution of corrugated circular horns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iskander, K; Shafai, L; Frandsen, Aksel

    1982-01-01

    An integral equation method is used to formulate the problem of scattering by rotationally symmetric horn antennas. The excitation is assumed to be due to an infinitesimal dipole antenna, while the secondary field is obtained by assuming anisotropic impedance boundary conditions on the horn surfa...

  18. Modelling of horn-type loudspeakers for outdoor sound reinforcement systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schuhmacher, Andreas; Rasmussen, Karsten Bo

    1999-01-01

    A waveguide oriented numerical simulation model for horn loudspeakers has been developed. The model is able to predict the output from horns with square openings under general conditions. The primary resonance of the driver is included in the simulations and comparison with measurements on two ho...

  19. Associations among heat shock protein 70 genotype, forage system, and horn fly infestation of beef cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn fly infestations negatively impact economic traits of beef cattle. The impact of horn flies on beef cattle milk yield and quality was evaluated in cows sired by Bonsmara (BONS; n = 7), Brangus (BRAN; n = 13), Charolais (CHAR; n = 8), Gelbvieh (GELV; n = 5), Hereford (HERF; n = 12), and Romosin...

  20. Managing the horn fly (Diptera: Muscidae) using an electric walk-through fly trap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, D W; Stringham, S M; Denning, S S; Washburn, S P; Poore, M H; Meier, A

    2002-10-01

    An electric walk-through fly trap was evaluated for the management of the horn fly, Hematobia irritans (L.), on dairy cattle in North Carolina over 2 yr. The trap relies on black lights and electrocution grids to attract and kill flies that are brushed from the cattle passing through. During the first season, horn fly densities were reduced from >1,400 to flies per animal. Horn fly density averaged 269.2 +/- 25.8 on cattle using the walk-through fly trap twice daily, and 400.2 +/- 43.5 on the control group during the first year. The second year, seasonal mean horn fly density was 177.3 +/- 10.8 on cattle using the walk-through fly trap compared with 321.1 +/- 15.8 on the control group. No insecticides were used to control horn flies during this 2-yr study.

  1. Cutaneous horn arising from an area of discoid lupus erythematosus on the scalp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatani, Mohammad Ibrahim; Hussain, Waleed Mohd; Baltow, Badee; Alsharif, Sahar

    2014-01-01

    A cutaneous horn is a rare clinical condition characterised by a conical projection of hyperkeratotic epidermis. Cutaneous horns most commonly arise from sun-exposed skin in elderly men, but may arise from any part of the body at any age in men and women. When a cutaneous horn forms, it is important to determine the underlying cause. Various skin diseases may present with cutaneous horns including viral warts, actinic keratosis, keratoacanthoma, seborrhoeic keratosis, pyogenic granuloma, discoid lupus erythematosus, verruca vulgaris, Bowen's disease, basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. The underlying pathology is benign in 61.1% of cases, premalignant in 23.2% of cases and malignant in 15.7% of cases. We report a patient with a cutaneous horn arising from an area of discoid lupus erythematosus on the scalp. PMID:24700037

  2. Discovery, Development, and Evaluation of a Horn Fly-Isolated (Diptera: Muscidae) Beauveria bassiana (Hypocreales: Cordyciptaceae) Strain From Florida, USA

    OpenAIRE

    Holderman, Christopher J.; Wood, Lois A.; Geden, Christopher J.; Kaufman, Phillip E.

    2017-01-01

    The horn fly, Haematobia irritans (L.) is an important cattle pest and traditionally has been managed using insecticides; however, many horn fly populations are insecticide-resistant in United States. Use of alternative control techniques has been limited because of the challenges of managing a fly pest on pastured cattle. After the discovery of a wild horn fly infected with Beauveria bassiana in Florida, the fungus was cultured and evaluated for efficacy against laboratory-reared horn flies....

  3. Diversification of doublesex function underlies morph-, sex-, and species-specific development of beetle horns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kijimoto, Teiya; Moczek, Armin P; Andrews, Justen

    2012-12-11

    Sex-specific trait expression is frequently associated with highly variable, condition-dependent expression within sexes and rapid divergence among closely related species. Horned beetles are an excellent example for studying the molecular basis of these phenomena because horn morphology varies markedly among species, between sexes, and among alternative, nutritionally-cued morphs within sexes. In addition, horns lack obvious homology to other insect traits and provide a good opportunity to explore the molecular basis of the rapid diversification of a novel trait within and between species. Here we show that the sex-determination gene doublesex (dsx) underlies important aspects of horn development, including differences between sexes, morphs, and species. In male Onthophagus taurus, dsx transcripts were preferentially expressed in the horns of the large, horned morph, and RNAi-mediated knockdown of dsx dramatically altered male horn allometry by massively reducing horn development in large males, but not in smaller males. Conversely, dsx RNAi induced ectopic, nutrition-sensitive horn development in otherwise hornless females. Finally, in a closely related species (Onthophagus sagittarius) that has recently evolved a rare reversed sexual dimorphism, dsx RNAi revealed reversed as well as novel dsx functions despite an overall conservation of dsx expression. This suggests that rapid evolution of dsx functions has facilitated the transition from a regular sexual dimorphism to a reversed sexual dimorphism in this species. Our findings add beetle horns to existing examples of a close relationship between dsx and sexual trait development, and suggest that dsx function has been coopted to facilitate both the evolution of environmentally-cued intrasexual dimorphisms and rapid species divergences in a novel trait.

  4. The effects of selection for size in cattle on horn fly population density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steelman, C D; Brown, C J; McNew, R W; Gbur, E E; Brown, M A; Tolley, G

    1996-04-01

    Statistically significant differences were observed in the population density of the horn fly, Haematobia irritans irritans L., on Angus cows having significantly different frame sizes. Angus cows, averaging horn flies than Angus cows that measured 112.5-117.5 cm, 117.5-120 cm, 120-126 cm and > 126 cm in height at the hip. The Angus I cows ( 126 cm). The estimated heritability (h2) of horn fly resistance was 0.43 +/- 0.07 and 0.95 +/- 0.31 for 1989 and 1990, respectively. Horn fly counts on the Angus I herd ( horn flies per cow (PBV = 26.9 flies per cow in 1989) and from 75.9 (PBV = -29.1) to 134.5 (PBV = 29.5) flies per cow in 1990. Angus I bulls had PBV = -23.7 to 13.4 and from -26.5 to 14.75 in 1989 and 1990, respectively. The Angus II cows had horn fly counts that ranged from 159.6 (PBV of -23.5) to 208.1 (PBV of 25) per cow in 1989 and from 232.3 (PBV of -56.2) to 378.7 (PBV of 90) per cow in 1990. Angus II bulls had PBVs that ranged from -17.1 to 18.9 in 1989 and from -28.1 to 48.8 in 1990. The Angus I cows had significantly (P horn flies (mean of 63.8 horn flies per m2) than the small, medium or large Angus II cows (mean of 129.4, 149.6 and 145.5 horn flies per m2, respectively). The data indicated that some specific factor(s) associated with cow size contribute(s) to innate resistance of cattle to the horn fly.

  5. 49 CFR 222.23 - How does this regulation affect sounding of a horn during an emergency or other situations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How does this regulation affect sounding of a horn... regulation affect sounding of a horn during an emergency or other situations? (a)(1) Notwithstanding any... sounded, or installation of wayside horns within quiet zones, this part does not preclude the sounding of...

  6. 78 FR 73173 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing the Straight-Horned Markhor as Threatened...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-05

    ...; Listing the Straight-Horned Markhor as Threatened With Special Rule AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service... straight-horned markhor (Capra falconeri jerdoni) from endangered to threatened. We propose to combine the straight-horned markhor (Capra falconeri jerdoni) and the Kabul markhor (Capra falconeri megaceros) into...

  7. Dorsal defect on a multi-partite patella: imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mellado, J.M.; Salvado, E.; Ramos, A.; Camins, A.; Sauri, A. [Institut de Diagnostic per la Imatge, Centre de Ressonancia Magnetica, Hospital Joan XXIII, Tarragona (Spain)

    2001-07-01

    Coincidence of dorsal defect on a multipartite patella constitutes a rare cause of anterior knee pain in the first decades of life. Imaging findings of this uncommon symptomatic skeletal variant are discussed, with emphasis on MR features. (orig.)

  8. Functional connectivity of the dorsal striatum in female musicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoji eTanaka

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The dorsal striatum (caudate/putamen is a node of the cortico-striato-pallido-thalamo-cortical (CSPTC motor circuit, which plays a central role in skilled motor learning, a critical feature of musical performance. The dorsal striatum receives input from a large part of the cerebral cortex, forming a hub in the cortical-subcortical network. This study sought to examine how the functional network of the dorsal striatum differs between musicians and nonmusicians.Resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI data were acquired from female university students majoring in music and nonmusic disciplines. The data were subjected to graph theoretical analysis and functional connectivity analysis. The graph theoretical analysis of the entire brain revealed that the degree, which represents the number of connections, of the bilateral putamen was significantly lower in musicians than in nonmusicians. The functional connectivity analysis indicated that compared with nonmusicians, musicians had significantly decreased connectivity between the left putamen and bilateral frontal operculum and between the left caudate nucleus and cerebellum. In conclusion, compared with nonmusicians, female musicians have a smaller functional network of the dorsal striatum, with decreased connectivity. These data are consistent with previous anatomical studies reporting a reduced volume of the dorsal striatum in musicians and ballet dancers. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study suggesting that long-term musical training results in a less extensive or selective functional network of the dorsal striatum.

  9. Functional Connectivity of the Dorsal Striatum in Female Musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Shoji; Kirino, Eiji

    2016-01-01

    The dorsal striatum (caudate/putamen) is a node of the cortico-striato-pallido-thalamo-cortical (CSPTC) motor circuit, which plays a central role in skilled motor learning, a critical feature of musical performance. The dorsal striatum receives input from a large part of the cerebral cortex, forming a hub in the cortical-subcortical network. This study sought to examine how the functional network of the dorsal striatum differs between musicians and nonmusicians. Resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data were acquired from female university students majoring in music and nonmusic disciplines. The data were subjected to functional connectivity analysis and graph theoretical analysis. The functional connectivity analysis indicated that compared with nonmusicians, musicians had significantly decreased connectivity between the left putamen and bilateral frontal operculum (FO) and between the left caudate nucleus and cerebellum. The graph theoretical analysis of the entire brain revealed that the degrees, which represent the numbers of connections, of the bilateral putamen were significantly lower in musicians than in nonmusicians. In conclusion, compared with nonmusicians, female musicians have a smaller functional network of the dorsal striatum with decreased connectivity. These data are consistent with previous anatomical studies reporting a reduced volume of the dorsal striatum in musicians and ballet dancers, suggesting that long-term musical training reshapes the functional network of the dorsal striatum to be less extensive or selective.

  10. Differential roles of the dorsal and ventral hippocampus in predator odor contextual fear conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Melissa E; Fraize, Nicolas P; Yin, Linda; Yuan, Robin K; Petsagourakis, Despina; Wann, Ellen G; Muzzio, Isabel A

    2013-06-01

    The study of fear memory is important for understanding various anxiety disorders in which patients experience persistent recollections of traumatic events. These memories often involve associations of contextual cues with aversive events; consequently, Pavlovian classical conditioning is commonly used to study contextual fear learning. The use of predator odor as a fearful stimulus in contextual fear conditioning has become increasingly important as an animal model of anxiety disorders. Innate fear responses to predator odors are well characterized and reliable; however, attempts to use these odors as unconditioned stimuli in fear conditioning paradigms have proven inconsistent. Here we characterize a contextual fear conditioning paradigm using coyote urine as the unconditioned stimulus. We found that contextual conditioning induced by exposure to coyote urine produces long-term freezing, a stereotypic response to fear observed in mice. This paradigm is context-specific and parallels shock-induced contextual conditioning in that it is responsive to extinction training and manipulations of predator odor intensity. Region-specific lesions of the dorsal and ventral hippocampus indicate that both areas are independently required for the long-term expression of learned fear. These results in conjunction with c-fos immunostaining data suggest that while both the dorsal and ventral hippocampus are required for forming a contextual representation, the ventral region also modulates defensive behaviors associated with predators. This study provides information about the individual contributions of the dorsal and ventral hippocampus to ethologically relevant fear learning. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Changes in galanin immunoreactivity in rat lumbosacral spinal cord and dorsal root ganglia after spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvarova, K; Murray, E; Vizzard, M A

    2004-08-02

    Alterations in the expression of the neuropeptide galanin were examined in micturition reflex pathways 6 weeks after complete spinal cord transection (T8). In control animals, galanin expression was present in specific regions of the gray matter in the rostral lumbar and caudal lumbosacral spinal cord, including: (1) the dorsal commissure; (2) the superficial dorsal horn; (3) the regions of the intermediolateral cell column (L1-L2) and the sacral parasympathetic nucleus (L6-S1); and (4) the lateral collateral pathway in lumbosacral spinal segments. Densitometry analysis demonstrated significant increases (P < or = 0.001) in galanin immunoreactivity (IR) in these regions of the S1 spinal cord after spinal cord injury (SCI). Changes in galanin-IR were not observed at the L4-L6 segments except for an increase in galanin-IR in the dorsal commissure in the L4 segment. In contrast, decreases in galanin-IR were observed in the L1 segment. The number of galanin-IR cells increased (P < or = 0.001) in the L1 and S1 dorsal root ganglia (DRG) after SCI. In all DRG examined (L1, L2, L6, and S1), the percentage of bladder afferent cells expressing galanin-IR significantly increased (4-19-fold) after chronic SCI. In contrast, galanin expression in nerve fibers in the urinary bladder detrusor and urothelium was decreased or eliminated after SCI. Expression of the neurotrophic factors nerve growth factor (NGF) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) was altered in the spinal cord after SCI. A significant increase in BDNF expression was present in spinal cord segments after SCI. In contrast, NGF expression was only increased in the spinal segments adjacent and rostral to the transection site (T7-T8), whereas spinal segments (T13-L1; L6-S1), distal to the transection site exhibited decreased NGF expression. Changes in galanin expression in micturition pathways after SCI may be mediated by changing neurotrophic factor expression, particularly BDNF. These changes may contribute to

  12. A preliminary study of the sensory distribution of the penile dorsal and ventral nerves: implications for effective penile block for circumcision.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Long, Ronan M

    2012-01-31

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the sensory innervation of the penis, as regional anaesthesia is often used either for postoperative analgesia or as the sole anaesthetic technique for circumcision. Since first described in 1978 the dorsal penile nerve block has become the standard technique, but some blocks are ineffective; a better understanding of the sensory innervation of the penis might improve the efficacy of the dorsal penile block technique. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In 13 men undergoing circumcision with local anaesthetic, cutaneous sensation was tested before and after infiltration of the dorsal aspect of the penis, and then again after infiltration of the ventral aspect. The area of anaesthesia was mapped using pin-prick sensation. RESULTS: Ten of the 13 patients showed a similar pattern of sensory distribution. After the dorsal block, the dorsal aspect of the shaft of the penis and glans penis became insensate. The ventral aspect of the shaft remained sensate up to and including the frenulum. After successful ventral infiltration all sensate areas became insensate and circumcision proceeded. In one case the frenulum and distal ventral foreskin was anaesthetized after the dorsal block and ventral infiltration was not required. No patient experienced pain during circumcision. CONCLUSION: For consistently successful regional anaesthesia of the foreskin in circumcision, a dorsal block must be used. This should be combined with ventral infiltration at the site of incision. This method will avoid inconsistencies and allow pain-free circumcision using local anaesthesia in most men.

  13. Redefining ecological ethics: science, policy, and philosophy at Cape Horn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frodeman, Robert

    2008-12-01

    In the twentieth century, philosophy (especially within the United States) embraced the notion of disciplinary expertise: philosophical research consists of working with and writing for other philosophers. Projects that involve non-philosophers earn the deprecating title of "applied" philosophy. The University of North Texas (UNT) doctoral program in philosophy exemplifies the possibility of a new model for philosophy, where graduate students are trained in academic philosophy and in how to work with scientists, engineers, and policy makers. This "field" (rather than "applied") approach emphasizes the inter- and transdisciplinary nature of the philosophical enterprise where theory and practice dialectically inform one another. UNT's field station in philosophy at Cape Horn, Patagonia, Chile is one site for developing this ongoing experiment in the theory and practice of interdisciplinary philosophic research and education.

  14. Quantum Steganography via Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger GHZ4 State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Allati, A.; Hassouni, Y.; Medeni, M.B. Ould

    2012-01-01

    A quantum steganography communication scheme via Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger GHZ 4 state is constructed to investigate the possibility of remotely transferred hidden information. Moreover, the multipartite entangled states are become a hectic topic due to its important applications and deep effects on aspects of quantum information. Then, the scheme consists of sharing the correlation of four particle GHZ 4 states between the legitimate users. After insuring the security of the quantum channel, they begin to hide the secret information in the cover of message. Comparing the scheme with the previous quantum steganographies, capacity and imperceptibility of hidden message are good. The security of the present scheme against many attacks is also discussed. (general)

  15. Tongue adhesion in the horned frog Ceratophrys sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinteich, Thomas; Gorb, Stanislav N.

    2014-06-01

    Frogs are well-known to capture elusive prey with their protrusible and adhesive tongues. However, the adhesive performance of frog tongues and the mechanism of the contact formation with the prey item remain unknown. Here we measured for the first time adhesive forces and tongue contact areas in living individuals of a horned frog (Ceratophrys sp.) against glass. We found that Ceratophrys sp. generates adhesive forces well beyond its own body weight. Surprisingly, we found that the tongues adhered stronger in feeding trials in which the coverage of the tongue contact area with mucus was relatively low. Thus, besides the presence of mucus, other features of the frog tongue (surface profile, material properties) are important to generate sufficient adhesive forces. Overall, the experimental data shows that frog tongues can be best compared to pressure sensitive adhesives (PSAs) that are of common technical use as adhesive tapes or labels.

  16. Effects of early horn growth on reproduction and hunting mortality in female chamois.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rughetti, Marco; Festa-Bianchet, Marco

    2011-03-01

    1. Environmental conditions during early development can affect the growth patterns of vertebrates, influencing future survival and reproduction. In long-lived mammals, females that experience poor environmental conditions early in life may delay primiparity. In female bovids, annual horn growth increments may provide a record of age-specific reproduction and body growth. Horn length, however, may also be a criterion used by hunters in selecting animals to harvest, possibly leading to artificial selection. 2. We studied three populations of chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra) in the western Alps to explore the relationships between female horn length and early growth, age of primiparity and age-specific reproduction. We also compared the risk of harvest to reproductive status and horn length. 3. Early horn growth was positively correlated with body mass in pre-reproductive females and with reproduction in very young and senescent adults. Females with strong early horn growth attained primiparity at an earlier age than those with weak early growth. Horn length did not affect hunter selection, but we found a strong hunter preference for nonlactating females. 4. Our research highlights the persistent effects of early development on reproductive performance in mammals. Moderate sport harvests are unlikely to affect the evolution of phenotypic traits and reproductive strategies in female chamois. A policy of penalizing hunters that harvest lactating females, however, may increase the harvest of 2-year-old females, which have high reproductive potential. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 British Ecological Society.

  17. Novel Insights into the Bovine Polled Phenotype and Horn Ontogenesis in Bovidae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allais-Bonnet, Aurélie; Grohs, Cécile; Medugorac, Ivica; Krebs, Stefan; Djari, Anis; Graf, Alexander; Fritz, Sébastien; Seichter, Doris; Baur, Aurélia; Russ, Ingolf; Bouet, Stéphan; Rothammer, Sophie; Wahlberg, Per; Esquerré, Diane; Hoze, Chris; Boussaha, Mekki; Weiss, Bernard; Thépot, Dominique; Fouilloux, Marie-Noëlle; Rossignol, Marie-Noëlle; van Marle-Köster, Este; Hreiðarsdóttir, Gunnfríður Elín; Barbey, Sarah; Dozias, Dominique; Cobo, Emilie; Reversé, Patrick; Catros, Olivier; Marchand, Jean-Luc; Soulas, Pascal; Roy, Pierre; Marquant-Leguienne, Brigitte; Le Bourhis, Daniel; Clément, Laetitia; Salas-Cortes, Laura; Venot, Eric; Pannetier, Maëlle; Phocas, Florence; Klopp, Christophe; Rocha, Dominique; Fouchet, Michel; Journaux, Laurent; Bernard-Capel, Carine; Ponsart, Claire; Eggen, André; Blum, Helmut; Gallard, Yves; Boichard, Didier; Pailhoux, Eric; Capitan, Aurélien

    2013-01-01

    Despite massive research efforts, the molecular etiology of bovine polledness and the developmental pathways involved in horn ontogenesis are still poorly understood. In a recent article, we provided evidence for the existence of at least two different alleles at the Polled locus and identified candidate mutations for each of them. None of these mutations was located in known coding or regulatory regions, thus adding to the complexity of understanding the molecular basis of polledness. We confirm previous results here and exhaustively identify the causative mutation for the Celtic allele (PC) and four candidate mutations for the Friesian allele (PF). We describe a previously unreported eyelash-and-eyelid phenotype associated with regular polledness, and present unique histological and gene expression data on bovine horn bud differentiation in fetuses affected by three different horn defect syndromes, as well as in wild-type controls. We propose the ectopic expression of a lincRNA in PC/p horn buds as a probable cause of horn bud agenesis. In addition, we provide evidence for an involvement of OLIG2, FOXL2 and RXFP2 in horn bud differentiation, and draw a first link between bovine, ovine and caprine Polled loci. Our results represent a first and important step in understanding the genetic pathways and key process involved in horn bud differentiation in Bovidae. PMID:23717440

  18. Susceptibility of the horn fly, Haematobia irritans irritans (Diptera: Muscidae), to insecticides in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Antonio Thadeu Medeiros; Saueressig, Thelma Maria; Gomes, Alberto; Koller, Wilson Werner; Furlong, John; Girão, Eneide Santiago; Pinheiro, Alfredo da Cunha; Alves-Branco, Francisco de Paula Jardim; Sapper, Maria de Fátima Munhós; Braga, Ramayana Menezes; Oliveira, Amaury Apolonio de

    2012-01-01

    Since horn fly populations became established throughout Brazil, complaints regarding control failure have increased around the country. A broad survey to evaluate the susceptibility of horn flies to both organophosphate (OP) and pyrethroid insecticides was conducted from October 2000 to April 2003. Bioassays using filter papers impregnated with cypermethrin, permethrin or diazinon were conducted on 154 horn fly populations in 14 states and 78 municipalities. Resistance to cypermethrin, the active ingredient present in most insecticide products for horn fly control in Brazil, was detected in 98.46% of the populations, with resistance ratios (RR) ranging from 2.5 to 719.9. Resistance to permethrin (RRs horn fly populations, with frequencies greater than 87% in all regions of the country. The status of susceptibility of horn fly populations in Brazil to insecticides can be characterized by high susceptibility to OPs and widespread resistance to pyrethroids, potentially compromising the efficacy of pyrethroid products in most cases. Although some partial results have previously been presented, a general picture of horn fly susceptibility in Brazil is presented here for the first time.

  19. Effect of horn fly (Haematobia irritans) control on growth and reproduction of beef heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeRouen, S M; Foil, L D; MacKay, A J; Franke, D E; Sanson, D W; Wyatt, W E

    2003-10-01

    The influence of horn fly control with commercially available ear tags was studied on beef replacement heifers (n = 670) for growth and reproductive performance. The study was conducted at five sites in Louisiana over 3 yr. Heifers used were yearling replacement females that were exposed to fertile bulls during a limited spring breeding season that coincided with the horn fly season. In mid to late May of each year, heifers were randomly assigned to one of two horn fly treatments: untreated and treated for horn fly control. The trial continued each year until September or October at the end of fly season. Pregnancy status was determined by rectal palpation. Horn fly populations were controlled on the treated heifers at moderate levels (84%). Total weight gain of treated heifers was 14% greater than for untreated heifers. Horn fly treatment had no effect on pregnancy rate (78% and 75% for untreated and treated heifers, respectively). Treatment differences for weight gain were of greater magnitude for heifers failing to conceive than for heifers that became pregnant. Weight gains of nonpregnant treated heifers were 33% greater than for nonpregnant untreated heifers, whereas weight gains of pregnant treated heifers were 8% greater than for pregnant untreated heifers. In conclusion, horn fly control on yearling beef replacement heifers improved weight gain but had no effect on first exposure reproduction.

  20. MR imaging of displaced meniscal tears of the knee. Importance of a 'disproportional posterior horn sign'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, H.C.; Hsu, C.Y.; Shih, T.T.F.; Huang, K.M.; Li, Y.W.

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: Meniscal tears associated with displaced fragments are clinically significant. We propose the 'disproportional posterior horn sign' as a supportive criterion to identify a posterocentrally displaced meniscal fragment on MR imaging studies. If the meniscal posterior horn in the central portion appears larger than that in the peripheral section, it is considered positive for 'disproportional posterior horn sign'. Material and Methods: MR images obtained in 42 patients with 43 lesions, confirmed to have displaced meniscal tears, were included in this study. The MR images were retrospectively evaluated for the presence of the 'disproportional posterior horn sign', as well as the other known signs. Results: The 'disproportional posterior horn sign' was seen in 9 (20.9%) of 43 lesions, including 1 lateral discoid meniscal tear, 5 lateral meniscal tears and 3 medial meniscal tears. Five of them also had other signs of a displaced meniscal fragment. However, the remaining 4 cases only exhibited the 'disproportional posterior horn sign'. For the other MR signs, the 'absent bow tie sign' was detected in 40 (93%) of 43 lesions, the 'flipped meniscus sign' in 27 (62.8%) of 43 lesions, the 'double posterior cruciate ligament sign' in 17 (39.5%) of 43 lesions and the 'notch fragment sign' in 22 (51.2%) of 43 lesions. Conclusion: The 'disproportional posterior horn sign' is helpful in demonstrating a posterocentrally displaced meniscal fragment, especially when other characteristic signs are unremarkable or absent

  1. Diagnosis of radial tear of posterior horn of medial meniscus by MR imaging. Prospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motoyama, Tatsuo; Ihara, Hidetoshi; Kawashima, Mahito

    2002-01-01

    It is not easy to detect radial tears of the posterior horn of the medial meniscus (torn posterior horn) under arthroscopy if the surgeon does not notice the tear before arthroscopy. Occasionally the tear goes undetected or is missed during arthroscopy. The sagittal view of MR imaging is very useful for diagnosing torn posterior horns. The normal posterior horn of the medial meniscus appears as an image of low intensity triangle of the sagittal MRI medial slice next to the PCL. On the contrary, the image of the torn posterior horn shows a high intensity triangle, so we refer to the feature as a white meniscus sign. We prospectively examined the accuracy of white meniscus sign of MRI. Forty-two knees in 41 patients were studied. They were over 40 years of age, diagnosed with medial meniscus tear and had undergone MRI before arthroscopy. Before arthroscopy, we predicted the existence of torn posterior horn by the white meniscus sign and examined the accuracy of the MRI after arthroscopy. Total accuracy rate was 90.5%, sensitivity was 94.1%, and specificity was 88.0%. We concluded that the white meniscus sign on MRI is very useful for defecting torn posterior horn of the medial meniscus. (author)

  2. Analytical evaluation of a cup-horn sonoreactor used for ultrasound-assisted extraction of trace metals from troublesome matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    De La Calle, Inmaculada; Cabaleiro, Noelia; Lavilla, Isela; Bendicho, Carlos

    2009-09-01

    In this work, a sample preparation method based on ultrasound-assisted extraction of trace metals from a variety of biological and environmental matrices using a cup-horn sonoreactor is described. Diluted acids (HNO 3, HCl and HF) and oxidants (H 2O 2) were tried for extraction, the extracts being directly analyzed by electrothermal-atomic absorption spectrometry. The cup-horn sonoreactor combines the advantages of probe and bath sonicators, allowing a variety of conditions to be used for metal extraction from troublesome matrices. This system facilitates the use of HF to destroy the silicate lattice, application of simultaneous treatments of up to six samples and short treatment times. Quantitative metal recoveries are achieved from different matrices (animal and vegetal tissues, soil, sediment, fly ash, sewage sludge) under a set of extraction conditions ranging from the use of 3 min sonication time and 3% volume/volume HNO 3 for some animal tissues to 40 min sonication time along with 5% volume/volume HNO 3 + 20% volume/volume HF for sediment. Vegetal matter required the use of 5% volume/volume HNO 3 + 5% volume/volume HF for extraction of some elements. Ultrasound-assisted extraction of Cd, Mn, Pb, Ni and Cr from 16 certified reference materials representing a variety of biological and environmental matrices using the cup-horn sonoreactor is evaluated. Cd, Pb and Mn are more easily extracted from most certified reference materials (CRMs) than Cr and Ni and less stringent conditions can be chosen for the former metals. Metal extractability follows the order of difficulty: animal tissue fly ash, sewage sludge < sediment.

  3. Analytical evaluation of a cup-horn sonoreactor used for ultrasound-assisted extraction of trace metals from troublesome matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De La Calle, Inmaculada; Cabaleiro, Noelia; Lavilla, Isela; Bendicho, Carlos

    2009-01-01

    In this work, a sample preparation method based on ultrasound-assisted extraction of trace metals from a variety of biological and environmental matrices using a cup-horn sonoreactor is described. Diluted acids (HNO 3 , HCl and HF) and oxidants (H 2 O 2 ) were tried for extraction, the extracts being directly analyzed by electrothermal-atomic absorption spectrometry. The cup-horn sonoreactor combines the advantages of probe and bath sonicators, allowing a variety of conditions to be used for metal extraction from troublesome matrices. This system facilitates the use of HF to destroy the silicate lattice, application of simultaneous treatments of up to six samples and short treatment times. Quantitative metal recoveries are achieved from different matrices (animal and vegetal tissues, soil, sediment, fly ash, sewage sludge) under a set of extraction conditions ranging from the use of 3 min sonication time and 3% volume/volume HNO 3 for some animal tissues to 40 min sonication time along with 5% volume/volume HNO 3 + 20% volume/volume HF for sediment. Vegetal matter required the use of 5% volume/volume HNO 3 + 5% volume/volume HF for extraction of some elements. Ultrasound-assisted extraction of Cd, Mn, Pb, Ni and Cr from 16 certified reference materials representing a variety of biological and environmental matrices using the cup-horn sonoreactor is evaluated. Cd, Pb and Mn are more easily extracted from most certified reference materials (CRMs) than Cr and Ni and less stringent conditions can be chosen for the former metals. Metal extractability follows the order of difficulty: animal tissue < vegetal tissue < soil, fly ash, sewage sludge < sediment.

  4. Clinical significance of neonatal parafrontal horn cysts detected by cranial sonography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, Jeong Joo [Eulji University of Medicine, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Myung Ja [Sanggye Paik Hospital, Inje University of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Eun Ryung [Sungae General Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-15

    The describe the significance, incidence and characteristics of sonographic findings and long term outcomes of parafrontal horn cysts detected by screening cranial sonography done within the first week following birth. 2122 first cranial ultrasound scans performed over a five year period were retrospectively evaluated and 23 neonates with parafrontal horn cysts were found (which are different from secondary cystic lesions). 17 cases had a birth weight of < 2400 gm with gestation between 30 and 35 weeks, 6 cases had a birth weight of > 2400 gm with gestation between 34 and 41 weeks. The size, shape and location of the parafrontal horn cysts and other associated abnormalities shown on the cranial sonogram were evaluated and sequential ultrasound study, maternal records, neonatal events and neurodevelopmental evaluations were retrospectively assessed. Of the 23 subjects, 21 had isolated parafrontal horn cysts and 2 had subependymal hemorrhages. There was no record of any abnormal perinatal history. The cysts were bilateral in 20 neonates and unilateral in the others. The size of the cysts ranged from 3 to 18 mm in diameter (mean 9 mm). Sonographic features of the parafrontal horn cysts were distinctive morphology (elliptical, thin walled) and location (adjacent to the tip of the frontal horn). In 17 of the cases a follow-up cranial sonography was performed, and all parafrontal horn cysts disappeared within 3 to 6 months. Neurodevelopmental outcomes were normal in those 17 cases. Screening cranial sonography of neonates discovers isolated parafrontal horn cyst. The incidence of parafrontal horn cysts in neonates in our study was 1.1%. They are present in the first week following birth and resolve themselves without medical treatment within a few months. In addition, they show normal neurodevelopment. The parafrontal cysts are suspected to be a benign variant of normal neurodevelopment.

  5. Clinical significance of neonatal parafrontal horn cysts detected by cranial sonography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, Jeong Joo; Jung, Myung Ja; Kim, Eun Ryung

    2005-01-01

    The describe the significance, incidence and characteristics of sonographic findings and long term outcomes of parafrontal horn cysts detected by screening cranial sonography done within the first week following birth. 2122 first cranial ultrasound scans performed over a five year period were retrospectively evaluated and 23 neonates with parafrontal horn cysts were found (which are different from secondary cystic lesions). 17 cases had a birth weight of 2400 gm with gestation between 34 and 41 weeks. The size, shape and location of the parafrontal horn cysts and other associated abnormalities shown on the cranial sonogram were evaluated and sequential ultrasound study, maternal records, neonatal events and neurodevelopmental evaluations were retrospectively assessed. Of the 23 subjects, 21 had isolated parafrontal horn cysts and 2 had subependymal hemorrhages. There was no record of any abnormal perinatal history. The cysts were bilateral in 20 neonates and unilateral in the others. The size of the cysts ranged from 3 to 18 mm in diameter (mean 9 mm). Sonographic features of the parafrontal horn cysts were distinctive morphology (elliptical, thin walled) and location (adjacent to the tip of the frontal horn). In 17 of the cases a follow-up cranial sonography was performed, and all parafrontal horn cysts disappeared within 3 to 6 months. Neurodevelopmental outcomes were normal in those 17 cases. Screening cranial sonography of neonates discovers isolated parafrontal horn cyst. The incidence of parafrontal horn cysts in neonates in our study was 1.1%. They are present in the first week following birth and resolve themselves without medical treatment within a few months. In addition, they show normal neurodevelopment. The parafrontal cysts are suspected to be a benign variant of normal neurodevelopment

  6. Insulation Coordination of Arcing Horns on HVDC Electrode Lines: Protection Performance Evaluation, Influence Factors and Improvement Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiandong Li

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Arcing horns are widely used in high voltage overhead lines to protect insulator strings from being destroyed by the free burning arcs caused by lightening faults. In this paper, we focus on the insulation coordination of arcing horns on the electrode lines of a 5000 MW, ±800 kV high voltage direct current (HVDC system. The protection performance of arcing horns are determined by the characteristics of not only the external system but also the fault arc. Therefore, the behaviors and characteristics of long free burning arcs are investigated by the experiments at first. In order to evaluate the protection performance of arcing horns, the static stability criterion U-I characteristic method is introduced. The influence factors on the protection performance of arcing horns are analyzed theoretically. Finally, the improvement methods for the protection performance of arcing horns are proposed, and the diversified configuration strategy of arcing horns is recommended for cost saving.

  7. Survival, ovarian development and bloodmeal size for the horn fly Haematobia irritans irritans reared in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuramochi, K

    2000-06-01

    Horn flies, Haematobia irritans irritans (Linneaus) (Diptera: Muscidae) were reared in vitro using cattle, pig, horse, rabbit, sheep, goat or chicken blood. The highest survival, bloodmeal size and rate of ovarian development were recorded for both female and male flies fed cattle blood. Flies fed pig, rabbit, sheep and goat blood showed intermediate survival. Flies fed chicken blood showed the lowest survival rates, ingested the smallest bloodmeals and did not develop ovaries. The relationship between dietary factors and host specificity of the horn fly, and the efficiency of vertebrate blood source of several animals for laboratory colonization of horn fly are discussed.

  8. Evaluation of alternative tactics for management of insecticide-resistant horn flies (Diptera: Muscidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steelman, C D; McNew, R W; Simpson, R B; Rorie, R W; Phillips, J M; Rosenkrans, C F

    2003-06-01

    A 3-yr study was conducted to determine the efficacy of tactics that could be used to manage populations of insecticide-resistant horn flies, Hematobia irritans irritans (L.). Insecticide spray, spot-on or pour-on formulations and two IGRs in bolus formulation, 1.3- and 3.2-ha pasture rotations on different rotation schedules, 0-50% Brahman breeding, selected fly-resistant cows, and a mechanical trap were evaluated singly and in combination. Concentration-mortality tests indicated that horn flies collected from cows used in the current study were significantly less susceptible to diazinon, coumaphos, and methoxychlor than horn flies from cows at the same locations previously used to determine baseline susceptibility. During the 3-yr study at the Southeast Research and Extension Center (SEREC), the IGR-bolus significantly reduced (P management treatments. All tactics and tactic-combinations used at SWREC on cattle having no Brahman breeding failed to significantly reduce insecticide-resistant horn fly numbers. However, the combination of Brahman breeding with the IGR-Bolus and mechanical trap significantly reduced horn fly numbers and resulted in significant increases in calf weaning weight. In addition, mean horn fly numbers decreased significantly as the percentage Brahman breeding increased with 50% Brahman breeding reducing horn fly numbers by 140 flies per cow. No significant difference was found between the mean fly numbers on the fly-resistant purebred group and the cows that had no Brahman breeding but received the IGR-Bolus or used the mechanical trap. The use of synergized zeta-cypermethrin pour-on treatment successfully complimented the use of IGR-bolus and mechanical traps in reducing insecticide-resistant horn fly numbers. Neither 1.3- nor 3.2-ha size paddocks and stocking rates used in the rotation graze regimens at SEREC and SWREC, respectively, significantly reduced horn fly numbers when compared with continuously grazed paddocks. Data indicated the

  9. Elsam. Offshore Wind Farm. Horns Rev. Annual status report for the environmental monitoring programme 1. January 2001 - 31. December 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-10-15

    As a result of the Danish Government's Energy Plan 21 a target of 5,500 MW wind power is to be erected in Denmark by 2030. 4,000 MW of these are to be placed offshore in special pointed areas with minimal impacts on the environment. In 1998 the Danish Ministry of Environment and Energy ordered two power companies, Elsam and Energi E2, to establish each a demonstration wind farm at one of the five pointed areas. The intention was to follow the environmental impacts from the wind farm and to evaluate the possibility of setting up about 1,500 MW in each area with as little impact on the environment as possible. In 1999 the two power companies were given approval to begin pre-studies of each of the two wind farms and the work on the site construction as well as the environmental impact assessment related hereto was initiated. The authorities made a number of requirements for the EIA surveys according to the EU-directive for preparation of EIA reports. In the summer of 2000 the EIA report with project description was submitted to the authorities and the project was approved in the spring of 2001. During the summer and autumn of 2001 orders were placed for the components for the wind farm, i.e. foundations, towers, wind turbines, cables etc. After having finalised the EIA, monitoring programmes of the wind farms were initiated on basis of the results of the surveys carried out during the EIA. This means that continuous surveys have been implemented for most of the environmental parameters from 1999 and till today. This annual status report for 2001 is to present the results from the annual environmental monitoring programme (the baseline studies) at Horns Rev, which form part of the monitoring programme set up for the Horns Rev project. To get a complete picture of the Danish monitoring programme for the national demonstration wind farm project it is necessary to see the report for Horns Rev and for Roedsand as a whole. The report comprises a description of the wind

  10. The Onecut Transcription Factors Regulate Differentiation and Distribution of Dorsal Interneurons during Spinal Cord Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina U. Kabayiza

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available During embryonic development, the dorsal spinal cord generates numerous interneuron populations eventually involved in motor circuits or in sensory networks that integrate and transmit sensory inputs from the periphery. The molecular mechanisms that regulate the specification of these multiple dorsal neuronal populations have been extensively characterized. In contrast, the factors that contribute to their diversification into smaller specialized subsets and those that control the specific distribution of each population in the developing spinal cord remain unknown. Here, we demonstrate that the Onecut transcription factors, namely Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor-6 (HNF-6 (or OC-1, OC-2 and OC-3, regulate the diversification and the distribution of spinal dorsal interneuron (dINs. Onecut proteins are dynamically and differentially distributed in spinal dINs during differentiation and migration. Analyzes of mutant embryos devoid of Onecut factors in the developing spinal cord evidenced a requirement in Onecut proteins for proper production of a specific subset of dI5 interneurons. In addition, the distribution of dI3, dI5 and dI6 interneuron populations was altered. Hence, Onecut transcription factors control genetic programs that contribute to the regulation of spinal dIN diversification and distribution during embryonic development.

  11. Selective Entrainment of Theta Oscillations in the Dorsal Stream Causally Enhances Auditory Working Memory Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albouy, Philippe; Weiss, Aurélien; Baillet, Sylvain; Zatorre, Robert J

    2017-04-05

    The implication of the dorsal stream in manipulating auditory information in working memory has been recently established. However, the oscillatory dynamics within this network and its causal relationship with behavior remain undefined. Using simultaneous MEG/EEG, we show that theta oscillations in the dorsal stream predict participants' manipulation abilities during memory retention in a task requiring the comparison of two patterns differing in temporal order. We investigated the causal relationship between brain oscillations and behavior by applying theta-rhythmic TMS combined with EEG over the MEG-identified target (left intraparietal sulcus) during the silent interval between the two stimuli. Rhythmic TMS entrained theta oscillation and boosted participants' accuracy. TMS-induced oscillatory entrainment scaled with behavioral enhancement, and both gains varied with participants' baseline abilities. These effects were not seen for a melody-comparison control task and were not observed for arrhythmic TMS. These data establish theta activity in the dorsal stream as causally related to memory manipulation. VIDEO ABSTRACT. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Thrombostasin isoform frequency in a Central Texas field population of the horn fly, Haematobia irritans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Untalan, Pia M; Pruett, John H; Atteberry, Heather N; Steelman, C Dayton

    2006-12-20

    Thrombostasin is an anti-thrombin factor that plays a role in successful feeding of the horn fly, Haematobia irritans. It has been isolated and characterized from saliva, and polymorphisms in the gene coding sequence have been previously reported. In the present study, the thrombostasin gene was analyzed from 60, field-collected flies from Camp Stanley, Texas and the allele and genotype frequencies were compared with previously published data for an Alabama field collection and a Texas in vitro colony-reared collection. Significant differences in genotype frequency and extent of genotypic diversity observed between the Alabama and Camp Stanley field collections may be attributable to host genetic differences. In addition, bull calves that were phenotyped as either high- or low-carriers were parasitized by horn flies that displayed a significantly different genotype distribution, supporting a possible explanation for horn fly host selection behavior, as evidenced by thrombostasin sequence analysis of 95 additional horn flies collected from respective hosts.

  13. Giant Cutaneous Horn Overlying A Verruca at an Uncommon Site: Medical Marvel vs Superstitious Dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanjeeva, Karthik Kathladka; Ali, Puttur Sainuddin Mohammed Ameer; Pinto, Malcolm; Rao, Srikar; Rai, Arvind Shivram

    2015-04-01

    Cutaneous horn has been a matter of discussion to mankind since time immemorial and a subject of fascination for the layman. There have been instances where certain groups saw it with angst and disgust, with a person having a large cutaneous horn on an exposed area getting a dismal look. We present a case of a 64-year-old man with a giant cutaneous horn over his left gluteal region. Cutaneous horns more commonly present in the sun-exposed areas. In our case it has presented in an uncommon site. The patient had delayed and denied medical treatment due to his superstitious beliefs, after having sought advice from faith healers leading to progression of the disease. This case has been presented for its giant size (rare variety), its location being over the gluteal region (photo-protected site) and its benign histopathology suggestive of wart in spite of the giant size.

  14. First Trimester Ultrasonographic Diagnosis of Unruptured Rudimentary Horn Pregnancies in Two Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derya Akdağ Cırık

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancy in a woman with unicornuate uterus with non-communicating uterine horn is a considerably rare condition with an incidence of one in 100.000 cases. Fertilization occurs by transperitoneal migration of sperm and, uterine rupture is a considerably frequent complication of those pregnancies. Therefore, early diagnosis is of great importance due to the potential risk of maternal mortality. Herein, we present two cases of rudimentary horn pregnancy diagnosed by ultrasonography in the first trimester, and treated with laparoscopic approach. These two patients attended the hospital in the sixth and twelfth gestational weeks respectively, and the first case was misdiagnosed with tubal ectopic pregnancy in the emergency unit. After detailed transvaginal ultrasonographic examination, a gestational sac separate from the uterus and surrounded by myometrium was seen and the final diagnosis was the rudimentary horn pregnancy. The diagnosis was also confirmed after laparoscopy in both cases, and the patients underwent excision of the rudimentary horn.

  15. Combined Joint Task Force-Horn of Africa: Winning the War on Terror with Information Engagement

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Garcia, Michelle M

    2007-01-01

    ...) to win the Global War on Terrorism (GWOT) in the Horn of Africa. Because of the mission, the resources available to the task force, and the nature of the conflict, the command chose a COA that uses Information Operations (IO...

  16. Posterior horn medial meniscal root tear: the prequel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umans, H. [Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY (United States); Lenox Hill Radiology and Imaging Associates, New York, NY (United States); Morrison, W. [Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia, PA (United States); DiFelice, G.S. [Hospital for Special Surgery, New York, NY (United States); Vaidya, N. [Crystal Run Healthcare, Middletown, NY (United States); Winalski, C.S. [Cleveland Clinic, Imaging Institute, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Lerner Research Institute, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2014-06-15

    To determine whether subarticular marrow changes deep to the posterior horn medial meniscal root anchor might predict subsequent medial meniscal root tear. Fifteen patients with MR-diagnosed posterior horn medial meniscal root (PHMMR) tear and a knee MRI antecedent to the tear were identified at three imaging centers over a 7-year period. The pre- and post-tear MR images were evaluated for marrow signal changes deep to the root anchor, meniscal root signal intensity, medial compartment articular cartilage thinning, and meniscal body extrusion. Images of 29 age- and gender-matched individuals with two MRIs of the same knee were reviewed as a control group. MRI in 11 of 15 (73 %) cases with subsequent PHMMR tear demonstrated linear subcortical marrow edema deep to the meniscal root anchor on the antecedent MRI compared to only 1 of 29 (3 %) non-tear controls (p < 0.0001). The abnormal signal resolved on post-tear MRI in all but two patients. Cyst-like changes deep to the PHMMR were present on initial MRI in three of 15 (23 %) cases and three of 29 (10 %) controls, persisting in all but one case on follow-up imaging. The PHMMR was gray on the initial MRI in seven of 15 (47 %) of cases that developed tears compared to four of 29 (14 %) controls (p < 0.0001). There was medial meniscal extrusion (MME) prior to tear in two of 15 (13 %) patients and in ten of 15 (67 %) patients after PHMMR failure. In the control group, MME was present in one (3 %) and three (10 %) of 29 subjects on the initial and follow-up MRIs, respectively. Articular cartilage loss was noted in two of 15 (15 %) cases before tear and nine of 15 (69 %) on follow-up imaging, as compared to one (3 %) and four (14 %) of 29 subjects in the control group. Subcortical marrow edema deep to the PHMMR may result from abnormal stresses and thus be a harbinger of meniscal root failure. This hypothesis is supported by resolution of these marrow signal changes after root tear. Following tear, extrusion of the

  17. Report on EU conflict prevention and peacebuilding in the Horn of Africa and Western Balkans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Annemarie, Peen Rodt; Tvilling, Johannes; Zartsdahl, Peter Horne

    Deliverable 5.1 is a report on EU conflict prevention and peacebuilding in the Horn of Africa and the Western Balkans. It appraises the EU’s Common Security and Defence Policy missions individually within and comparatively across both regions.......Deliverable 5.1 is a report on EU conflict prevention and peacebuilding in the Horn of Africa and the Western Balkans. It appraises the EU’s Common Security and Defence Policy missions individually within and comparatively across both regions....

  18. High chromosomal variation in wild horn fly Haematobia irritans (Linnaeus) (Diptera, Muscidae) populations

    OpenAIRE

    Forneris,Natalia; Otero,Gabriel; Pereyra,Ana; Repetto,Gustavo; Rabossi,Alejandro; Quesada-Allué,Luis; Basso Abraham,Alicia

    2015-01-01

    The horn fly, Haematobiairritans is an obligate haematophagous cosmopolitan insect pest. The first reports of attacks on livestock by Haematobiairritans in Argentina and Uruguay occurred in 1991, and since 1993 it is considered an economically important pest. Knowledge on the genetic characteristics of the horn fly increases our understanding of the phenotypes resistant to insecticides that repeatedly develop in these insects. The karyotype of Haematobiairritans, as previously described using...

  19. Case Report of Ruptured Non-Communicating Right Rudimentary Horn Pregnancy: An Acute Emergency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Che Hasnura Che Hassan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ruptured pregnancy in the rudimentary horn of women who have had a vaginal delivery is rare and unpredictable. However, when undiagnosed, this condition could lead to maternal morbidity and mortality. We report a pregnancy at 19 weeks gestation presented with acute abdomen and hypovolemic shock. She was initially thought to have an intrauterine pregnancy with the provisional diagnosis of a ruptured uterus. Intraoperatively, a ruptured non-communicating right rudimentary horn with ex utero pregnancy was discovered.

  20. Resistance to Root-knot Nematodes in Cucumber and Horned Cucumber

    OpenAIRE

    Wehner, Todd C.; Walters, S. Alan; Barker, Kenneth R.

    1991-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted in the greenhouse. In one experiment, cucumber (Cucumis sativus) and horned cucumber (C. metuliferus) cultigens were evaluated for resistance to four root-knot nematode species (Meloidogyne arenaria, M. hapla, M. incognita, and M. javanica), and, in a second experiment, a standard (12-week) test was compared with a rapid (6-week) test. In the first experiment, horned cucumber cultigens varied in response to the Meloidogyne species. 'Sumter' cucumber was more sus...

  1. [The dorsal nerve of the clitoris: surgical applications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaya, V; Aubin, A; Rogez, J-M; Douard, R; Delmas, V

    2014-03-01

    To describe the course of the dorsal nerve of the clitoris (DNC) to better define its anatomy in the human adult and to help surgeons to avoid iatrogenic injury during surgical procedures. An extensive review of the current literature was done on Medline via PubMed by using the following keywords: "anatomie du clitoris", "anatomy of clitoris", "nerf dorsal du clitoris", "dorsal nerve of clitoris", "réparation clitoridienne", "transposition clitoridienne", "surgery of the clitoris", "clitoridoplasty". This review analyzed dissection, magnetic resonance imaging, 3-dimensional sectional anatomy reconstruction and immuno-histochemical studies. The DNC comes from the pudendal nerve. He travels from under the inferior pubis ramus to the posterosuperior edge of the clitoral crus. The DNC reappears under the pubic symphysis and enters the deep component of the suspensory ligament. He runs on the dorsal face of the clitoral body at 11 and 1 o'clock. Distally, he gives many nervous ramifications, runs along the tunica and enters the glans. The NDC might be surgically injured (i) under the pubic symphysis, at the union of the two crus of clitoris and (ii) on the dorsal surface of the clitoral body. The pathway of the DNC on the dorsal face of the clitoris permits to approach the ventral face of the clitoris without risk of iatrogenic injuries. The distance between the pubic symphysis and the DNC implies that the incision should be done just under the pubic symphysis. Distally, the dissection of the DNC next the glands appears as dangerous and impossible, considering that the DNC is too close to the glandular tissues. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Agenesis of the dorsal mesentery presenting in an adolescent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anith Chacko

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Agenesis of the dorsal mesentery is a rare occurrence that usually presents in children. It is associated with proximal small bowel malrotation as well as high jejunal atresia with discontinuity of the small bowel. We present a case report of an adolescent presenting with clinical features of proximal small bowel obstruction (confirmed on imaging as well as acute pancreatitis. At laparotomy, he was found to have no dorsal mesentery, without small bowel atresia, and the duodenum was fixed to the posterior abdominal wall. The patient recovered well and remained symptom-free.

  3. Complete dorsal pancreatic agenesis and unilateral renal agenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Adriana; Carvalho, André; Portugal, Inês; Jesus, José Miguel

    2018-02-01

    Dorsal pancreatic agenesis is a very rare congenital anomaly. Unilateral renal agenesis, on the other hand, is a relatively common congenital anomaly, although its etiology is not fully understood. Renal and pancreatic embryologic development appears to be nonrelated. We report a case of a 34-year-old man who was referred to our hospital for evaluation of cholestasis and microalbuminuria. Ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging examinations showed empty right renal fossa and absence of the pancreatic neck, body, and tail. Our case report is the second case of a dorsal pancreatic agenesis and unilateral renal agenesis in a young male patient.

  4. Ruptured Rudimentary Horn Pregnancy Diagnosed by Preoperative Magnetic Resonance Imaging Resulting in Fetal Salvage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silja A. Pillai

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancy in a rudimentary horn is very rare. The rupture of the horn during pregnancy is an obstetric emergency which can be life-threatening for both the mother and fetus. Preoperative diagnosis of such pregnancies can be challenging and they are usually diagnosed intraoperatively. We report a unique case of a 31-year-old multiparous woman who presented to the Sultan Qaboos University Hospital in Muscat, Oman, in January 2013 at 32 gestational weeks with abdominal pain. Ultrasonography was inconclusive. A rudimentary horn pregnancy was subsequently diagnosed via magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. An emergency laparotomy revealed haemoperitoneum and a ruptured rudimentary horn pregnancy. A live baby with an Apgar score of 2 at one minute and 7 at five minutes was delivered. The rudimentary horn with the placenta in situ was excised and a left salpingooophorectomy was performed. The postoperative period was uneventful. The authors recommend MRI as an excellent diagnostic modality to confirm rudimentary horn pregnancies and to expedite appropriate management.

  5. a Design of the Driver Airbag Module with Floating Horn Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Chang-Min; Lee, Young-Hoon; Suh, Duck-Young

    The driver airbag system is designed as a supplemental restraint system in addition to the seatbelt, and is designed to protect the driver's head and chest against severe injury by a device that is actuated in case of vehicle's fronted impact. Deployment of an airbag module with floating horn assembly is a highly dynamic process. The concept of driver airbag module with floating horn assembly and aluminum emblem is presented as a useful parameter when the airbag deploys and the energy is evaluated as performance factor in airbag module. Floating horn assembly is also one of the major factors for driver airbag module design to perform its horn function and check the package between driver airbag module and steering wheel. This study on the design of driver airbag module with floating horn assembly proved the feasibility as a new safety device. However, the system level study is needed for decrease of passenger injury. This study can be used for the implementation of a prototype of DABM with floating horn device.

  6. Textural Poaching Twin Peaks: The Audrey Horne Sweater Girl GIFs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Gillan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to widen the lens of analysis of participatory culture inspired by long-arc serials like Twin Peaks. It considers GIF creation as a form of textural poaching, a new reception practice involving skimming off and repurposing top-of-the-mind content: the most arresting elements of costuming, set design, and dialogue. This behavior has become more popular as more series rely on textural storytelling and are filled with moments of excess that feel separate from the story. After an introduction to GIFs and GIF creation, it contrasts the impression of the character and series conveyed by Audrey Horne GIFs and the actual dynamics in the “Audrey’s Dance” scene. It establishes that Audrey’s look is most visually aligned with the Sweater Girl type, but as an allusive characterization it creates excess and calls attention to itself. Part of the “cool pop” reputation of the series may stem from the wider circulation of iconic moments of excess especially given that the GIFs detach the images from the series’ uneven storytelling and its challenging surrealist sensibility.

  7. Tsirelson bounds for generalized Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wehner, Stephanie

    2006-01-01

    Quantum theory imposes a strict limit on the strength of nonlocal correlations. It only allows for a violation of the Clauser, Horne, Shimony, and Holt (CHSH) inequality up to the value 2√(2), known as Tsirelson's bound. In this paper, we consider generalized CHSH inequalities based on many measurement settings with two possible measurement outcomes each. We demonstrate how to prove Tsirelson bounds for any such generalized CHSH inequality using semidefinite programming. As an example, we show that for any shared entangled state and observables X 1 ,...,X n and Y 1 ,...,Y n with eigenvalues ±1 we have | 1 Y 1 >+ 2 Y 1 >+ 2 Y 2 >+ 3 Y 2 >+···+ n Y n >- 1 Y n >|≤2n cos[π/(2n)]. It is well known that there exist observables such that equality can be achieved. However, we show that these are indeed optimal. Our approach can easily be generalized to other inequalities for such observables

  8. Effects of the Horns Reef wind farm on harbour porpoises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tougaard, J.; Teilmann, J.; Rye Hansen, J.

    2004-09-01

    Horns Reef offshore wind farm was established in 2002. It consists of 80 2 MW wind turbines, mounted on steel monopile foundations. A harbour porpoise monitoring program was set up in connection with the environmental impact assessment (EIA) of the wind farm project. This monitoring program started in 1999 with collection of baseline data and has continued though construction and operational period. The program continues through 2005. Baseline studies showed that harbour porpoises are abundant in the area, including the area where the wind farm is now located. Significant effects on behaviour and distribution of the porpoises were observed during the construction of the wind farm. Changes could be linked to pile driving operations, where monopile foundations were rammed into the seabed. This procedure produced high levels of underwater noise and mitigation procedures in the form of a ramp up procedure and deployment of acoustic alarms were employed. During the construction period very few animals were observed inside the wind farm area. Acoustic monitoring data showed a significant increase in waiting time between porpoise encounters in connection with pile driving operations, followed by a rapid return to levels normal for the construction period as a whole. However, when the entire construction period was considered as a whole, T-POD activity increased relative to baseline. Observations during operation of the wind farm in 2003 showed a return to baseline levels on most of the indicators derived from the acoustic monitoring and animals were again seen inside the wind farm area. (au)

  9. Metamorphosis and gonad maturation in the horn fly Haematobia irritans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso, Alicia L; Forneris, Natalia S; Filiberti, Adrián; Argaraña, Carlos E; Rabossi, Alejandro; Quesada-Allué, Luis A

    2011-01-01

    The bloodsucking horn fly, Haematobia irritans (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae), is one of the most damaging pests of pasture cattle in many areas of the world. Both male and female imagoes spend their adult stage on the host, while immature stages develop in dung. Our goal was to determine if the progress of H. irritans gonad maturation can be correlated with eye and cuticle pigmentation events that occur during development of the imago within the puparium. The progression of germline cell divisions in immature gonads was analyzed from the beginning of the third larval instar (48 hours after egg hatch) until imago ecdysis. In the developing male larval gonad, meiosis began 72 hours after egg hatch, whereas in females oogonia were premeiotic at 72 hours. Meiosis was not detected in females until the mid-pharate adult stage, 120 hours after puparium formation. Therefore, gonad maturation in females appears to be delayed 144 hours with respect to that in males. In the stages within the puparium, the timing of germline cell division events was correlated with the progress of pigmentation of the eyes and cuticle as external markers.

  10. New acoustical technology of sound absorption based on reverse horn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong Yan; Wu, Jiu Hui; Cao, Song Hua; Cao, Pei; Zhao, Zi Ting

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, a novel reverse horn’s sound-absorption mechanism and acoustic energy focusing mechanism for low-frequency broadband are presented. Due to the alternation of the reverse horn’s thickness, the amplitude of the acoustic pressure propagated in the structure changes, which results in growing energy focused in the edge and in the reverse horn’s tip when the characteristic length is equal to or less than a wavelength and the incident wave is compressed. There are two kinds of methods adopted to realize energy dissipation. On the one hand, sound-absorbing materials are added in incident direction in order to overcome the badness of the reverse horn’s absorption in high frequency and improve the overall high-frequency and low-frequency sound-absorption coefficients; on the other hand, adding mass and film in its tip could result in mechanical energy converting into heat energy due to the coupled vibration of mass and the film. Thus, the reverse horn with film in the tip could realize better sound absorption for low-frequency broadband. These excellent properties could have potential applications in the one-dimensional absorption wedge and for the control of acoustic wave.

  11. Wind Farm Wake: The Horns Rev Photo Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre-Elouan Réthoré

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to examine the nowadays well-known wind farm wake photographs taken on 12 February 2008 at the offshore Horns Rev 1 wind farm. The meteorological conditions are described from observations from several satellite sensors quantifying clouds, surface wind vectors and sea surface temperature as well as ground-based information at and near the wind farm, including Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA data. The SCADA data reveal that the case of fog formation occurred 12 February 2008 on the 10:10 UTC. The fog formation is due to very special atmospheric conditions where a layer of cold humid air above a warmer sea surface re-condensates to fog in the wake of the turbines. The process is fed by warm humid air up-drafted from below in the counter-rotating swirl generated by the clock-wise rotating rotors. The condensation appears to take place primarily in the wake regions with relatively high axial velocities and high turbulent kinetic energy. The wind speed is near cut-in and most turbines produce very little power. The rotational pattern of spiraling bands produces the large-scale structure of the wake fog.

  12. Study of the pulse power supply unit for the four-horn system of the CERN to Fréjus neutrino super beam

    CERN Document Server

    Baussan, E; Dracos, M; Gaudiot, G; Osswald, F; Poussot, P; Vassilopoulos, N; Wurtz, J; Zeter, V

    2013-01-01

    The power supply studies for the four-horn system for the CERN to Fréjus neutrino Super Beam oscillation experiment are discussed here. The power supply is being studied to meet the physics potential and the mega-watt (MW) power requirements of the proton driver of the Super Beam. A one-half sinusoid current waveform with a 350 kA maximum current and pulse length of 100 \\mu s at 50 Hz frequency is generated and distributed to four-horns. In order to provide the necessary current needed to focus the charged mesons producing the neutrino beam, a bench of capacitors is charged at 50 Hz frequency to a +12 kV reference voltage and then discharged through a large switch to each horn via a set of strip-lines at the same rate. A current recovery stage allows to invert rapidly the negative voltage of the capacitor after the discharging stage in order to recuperate large part of the injected energy and thus to limit the power consuption. The energy recovery efficiency of that system is very high at 97%. For feasibilit...

  13. Preputial skin free graft as dorsal onlay urethroplasty: Our experience of 73 patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivadeo S Bapat

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To present the outcome of dorsal onlay urethroplasty in 73 patients for stricture urethra over a period of eight years. Materials and Methods: Seventy-three patients of stricture urethra have undergone dorsal onlay urethroplasty from July 1998 to February 2006. Age distribution: 14-58 years. Etiology: Trauma 20/73 (27.39%, Balanitis Xerotica Obliterans 2/73 (2.73%, Iatrogenic 26/73(35.61%, Infection 3/73 (4.10%, Idiopathic 22/73 (30.13%. Site: Penobulbar-25/73, bulbar-38/73, membranous-8/73 and long length-2/73. Suprapubic catheter was inserted preoperatively: 21/73 patients. Preputial / distal penile skin was used in all patients. Buccal mucosa was not used in any patient. Hospitalization was for four to five days. Catheter was removed after 21 days. All patients had their first endoscopic checkup after three months. Subsequently they were followed up by uroflometry. Routine imaging of urethra for follow-up was not carried out. Results: 63/73 (86.30% patients had satisfactory outcome not requiring any further treatment, 8/73 (10.95% developed anastomotic stricture (3/8-optical internal urethrotomy, 5/8 dilatation alone. 2/73 (2.75% developed external meatal stenosis. None had urinary fistula and required repeat urethroplasty. Follow-up ranged from three months to eight years. Conclusion: Dorsal onlay urethroplasty using preputial/distal penile skin is a satisfactory procedure. Preputial/distal penile skin is devoid of hair and fat and hence an ideal graft material. Even in circumscribed patients distal penile skin can be harvested. Long-term follow-up is required in judging results of patients with stricture urethra.

  14. Patterning of the dorsal-ventral axis in echinoderms: insights into the evolution of the BMP-chordin signaling network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Lapraz

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Formation of the dorsal-ventral axis of the sea urchin embryo relies on cell interactions initiated by the TGFbeta Nodal. Intriguingly, although nodal expression is restricted to the ventral side of the embryo, Nodal function is required for specification of both the ventral and the dorsal territories and is able to restore both ventral and dorsal regions in nodal morpholino injected embryos. The molecular basis for the long-range organizing activity of Nodal is not understood. In this paper, we provide evidence that the long-range organizing activity of Nodal is assured by a relay molecule synthesized in the ventral ectoderm, then translocated to the opposite side of the embryo. We identified this relay molecule as BMP2/4 based on the following arguments. First, blocking BMP2/4 function eliminated the long-range organizing activity of an activated Nodal receptor in an axis rescue assay. Second, we demonstrate that BMP2/4 and the corresponding type I receptor Alk3/6 functions are both essential for specification of the dorsal region of the embryo. Third, using anti-phospho-Smad1/5/8 immunostaining, we show that, despite its ventral transcription, the BMP2/4 ligand triggers receptor mediated signaling exclusively on the dorsal side of the embryo, one of the most extreme cases of BMP translocation described so far. We further report that the pattern of pSmad1/5/8 is graded along the dorsal-ventral axis and that two BMP2/4 target genes are expressed in nested patterns centered on the region with highest levels of pSmad1/5/8, strongly suggesting that BMP2/4 is acting as a morphogen. We also describe the very unusual ventral co-expression of chordin and bmp2/4 downstream of Nodal and demonstrate that Chordin is largely responsible for the spatial restriction of BMP2/4 signaling to the dorsal side. Thus, unlike in most organisms, in the sea urchin, a single ventral signaling centre is responsible for induction of ventral and dorsal cell fates. Finally

  15. PI3K/Akt Pathway is Required for Spinal Central Sensitization in Neuropathic Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Lv, Yanling; Ren, Facheng

    2018-04-01

    Phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) has been identified in the expression of central sensitization after noxious inflammatory stimuli. However, its contribution in neuropathic pain remains to be determined. Here we address the role of PI3K signaling in central sensitization in a model of neuropathic pain, and propose a novel potential drug target for neuropathic pain. Chronic constriction injury (CCI) rat model was used in the study as the model for neuropathic pain. Western blotting, whole-cell patch clamp, and von Frey assay were performed to study biochemical, electrical, and behavioral changes in CCI rats, respectively. A steroid metabolite of the fungi (wortmannin) was used to block PI3K signaling and its effects on CCI rats were tested. PI3K/Akt signaling increased in the spinal cord L4-L6 sections in the CCI rats. CCI also facilitated miniature excitatory postsynaptic potential of dorsal horn substantia gelatinosa neurons, increased phosphorylation of glutamate receptor subunit GluA1 and synapsin at the synapse, and induced mechanic allodynia. Wortmannin reversed biochemical, electrical, and behavioral changes in CCI rats. This study is the first to show PI3K/Akt signaling is required for spinal central sensitization in the CCI neuropathic pain model.

  16. Agenesis of the dorsal mesentery presenting in an adolescent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Agenesis of the dorsal mesentery is a rare occurrence that usually presents in children. It is associated with proximal small-bowel malrotation as well as high jejunal atresia with discontinuity of the small bowel. We present a case report of an adolescent presenting with clinical features of proximal small-bowel obstruction ...

  17. Upright or dorsal? childbirth positions among antenatal clinic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    women gave birth in the squatting position. Home delivery was the norm, and this was usually supervised either by the matriarch of the household or by a traditional birth attendant.[9,10]. Over the years, however, the utilization of these indigenous childbirth positions has been substantially eroded by the dorsal and lithotomy ...

  18. The right dorsal premotor mosaic: Organization, functions, and connectivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Genon, S.; Li, H.; Fan, L.; Müller, V.I.; Cieslik, E.C.; Hoffstaedter, F.; Reid, A.T.; Langner, R.; Grefkes, C.; Fox, P.T.; Moebus, S.; Caspers, S.; Amunts, K.; Jiang, T.; Eickhoff, S.B.

    2017-01-01

    The right dorsal premotor cortex (PMd) of humans has been reported to be involved in a broad range of motor and cognitive functions. We explored the basis of this behavioral heterogeneity by performing a connectivity-based parcellation using meta-analytic approach applied to PMd coactivations. We

  19. Dorsal striatal dopamine, food preference and health perception in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wallace, D.L.; Aarts, E.; Dang, L.C.; Greer, S.M.; Jagust, W.J.; D'Esposito, M.

    2014-01-01

    To date, few studies have explored the neurochemical mechanisms supporting individual differences in food preference in humans. Here we investigate how dorsal striatal dopamine, as measured by the positron emission tomography (PET) tracer [(18)F]fluorometatyrosine (FMT), correlates with food-related

  20. Treatment of acute and subacute dorsal perilunate fracture dislocations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levent Kucuk

    2014-04-01

    Outcomes: Results of the perilunate fracture dislocations treated in acute or subacute phase by open reduction and internal fixation via dorsal approach are satisfactory. There is a strong demand for prospective, randomized studies to compare the results of different treatment modalities. [Hand Microsurg 2014; 3(1.000: 1-7

  1. The split notochord syndrome with dorsal enteric fistula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, C H; Dietrich, R B; Pais, M J; Demos, D S; Pribram, H F

    1993-01-01

    Split notochord syndrome with dorsal enteric fistula is an extremely rare congenital anomaly that may be associated with meningomyelocele or meningocele, and genitourinary anomalies. This case presented with an additional finding of bladder exstrophy, raising the possibility of a relationship between this syndrome and the OEIS complex.

  2. Attention modulates the dorsal striatum response to love stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langeslag, Sandra J E; van der Veen, Frederik M; Röder, Christian H

    2014-02-01

    In previous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies concerning romantic love, several brain regions including the caudate and putamen have consistently been found to be more responsive to beloved-related than control stimuli. In those studies, infatuated individuals were typically instructed to passively view the stimuli or to think of the viewed person. In the current study, we examined how the instruction to attend to, or ignore the beloved modulates the response of these brain areas. Infatuated individuals performed an oddball task in which pictures of their beloved and friend served as targets and distractors. The dorsal striatum showed greater activation for the beloved than friend, but only when they were targets. The dorsal striatum actually tended to show less activation for the beloved than the friend when they were distractors. The longer the love and relationship duration, the smaller the response of the dorsal striatum to beloved-distractor stimuli was. We interpret our findings in terms of reinforcement learning. By virtue of using a cognitive task with a full factorial design, we show that the dorsal striatum is not activated by beloved-related information per se, but only by beloved-related information that is attended. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Dorsal hand coverage with free serratus fascia flap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fotopoulos, Peter; Holmer, Per; Leicht, Pernille

    2003-01-01

    in the flap, leaving the long thoracic nerve intact on the serratus muscle. Coverage of the flap with split-thickness skin graft is done immediately. The free serratus fascia flap is an ideal flap for dorsal hand coverage when the extensor tendons are exposed, especially because of low donor-site morbidity....

  4. The role of dorsal columns pathway in visceral pain

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Paleček, Jiří

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 53, Suppl. 1 (2004), s. S125-S130 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA309/03/0752 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : dorsal columns * myelotomy * cancer pain Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 1.140, year: 2004

  5. Syntabulin, a motor protein linker, controls dorsal determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nojima, Hideaki; Rothhämel, Sophie; Shimizu, Takashi; Kim, Cheol-Hee; Yonemura, Shigenobu; Marlow, Florence L; Hibi, Masahiko

    2010-03-01

    In amphibian and teleost embryos, the dorsal determinants (DDs) are believed to be initially localized to the vegetal pole and then transported to the prospective dorsal side of the embryo along a microtubule array. The DDs are known to activate the canonical Wnt pathway and thereby promote the expression of genes that induce the dorsal organizer. Here, by identifying the locus of the maternal-effect ventralized mutant tokkaebi, we show that Syntabulin, a linker of the kinesin I motor protein, is essential for dorsal determination in zebrafish. We found that syntabulin mRNA is transported to the vegetal pole during oogenesis through the Bucky ball (Buc)-mediated Balbiani body-dependent pathway, which is necessary for establishment of animal-vegetal (AV) oocyte polarity. We demonstrate that Syntabulin is translocated from the vegetal pole in a microtubule-dependent manner. Our findings suggest that Syntabulin regulates the microtubule-dependent transport of the DDs, and provide evidence for the link between AV and dorsoventral axis formation.

  6. Neuromuscular diversity in archosaur deep dorsal thigh muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatesy, S M

    1994-01-01

    The living members of the clade Archosauria, crocodilians and birds, differ markedly in the morphology of their deep dorsal thigh muscles. To investigate whether this diversity is accompanied by differences in motor pattern and muscle function, the hindlimbs of representative archosaurs were studied by electromyography and cineradiography during terrestrial locomotion. In a crocodilian, Alligator, the iliofemoralis and pubo-ischio-femoralis internus part 2 are both active during the swing phase of the stride cycle. This appears to be the primitive motor pattern for archosaurs. There are four avian homologues of these muscles in the helmeted guineafowl, Numida. These are primarily active in the propulsive phase (iliotrochantericus caudalis and iliotrochantericus medius), the swing phase (iliotrochantericus cranialis) and a speed-dependent combination of the propulsive and/or swing phases (iliofemoralis externus). Differences between Alligator and Numida in the number and attachment of deep dorsal muscles are associated with dissimilar motor patterns and functions. Evolutionary modifications of neuromuscular control must be recognized when evaluating avian locomotor history, but are rarely considered by paleontologists. Even within the deep dorsal thigh muscles of Numida, developmentally and anatomically similar muscles are active out-of-phase. Therefore, although the actions of two adjacent muscles appear equivalent, their functions may differ dramatically. The diversity of deep dorsal thigh muscles in modern birds may be a good model for studying the relationship between activity pattern and peripheral morphology.

  7. Generalization of the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger algebraic proof of nonlocality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clifton, R.K.; Redhead, M.L.G.; Butterfield, J.N.

    1991-01-01

    The authors further develop a recent new proof (by Greenberger, Horne, and Zeilinger - GHZ) that local deterministic hidden-variable theories are inconsistent with certain strict correlations predicted by quantum mechanics. First, they generalize GHZ's proof so that it applied to factorable stochastic theories in which apparatus hidden variables are casually relevant to measurement results, and theories in which the hidden variables evolve indeterministically prior to the particle-apparatus interactions. Then they adopt a more general measure-theoretic approach which requires that GHZ's argument be modified in order to produce a valid proof. Finally, they motivate the more general proof's assumptions in a somewhat different way from previous authors in order to strengthen the implications of the proof as much as possible. After developing GHZ's proof along these lines, they then consider the analogue, for their proof, of Bohr's reply to the EPR argument, and conclude (pace GHZ) that in at least one respect (viz, that of most concern to Bohr) the proof is no more powerful than Bell's. Nevertheless, they point out some new advantages of their proof over Bell's, and over other algebraic proofs of nonlocality. And they conclude by giving a modified version of their proof that, like Bell's does not rely on experimentally unrealizable strict correlations, but still leads to a testable quasi-algebraic locality inequality

  8. Long-Term Trend of Climate Change and Drought Assessment in the Horn of Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihretab G. Ghebrezgabher

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate change due to global warming is a world concern, particularly in Africa. In this study, precipitation and temperature variables are taken as a proxy to assess and quantify the long-term climate change and drought in the Horn of Africa (HOA (1930–2014. We adapted a simple linear regression and interpolation to analyze, respectively, the trend and spatial distribution of the mean annual precipitation and temperature. In addition, standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index (SPEI was applied to evaluate the drought condition of the HOA. The results revealed that statistically the trend of precipitation decreased insignificantly; the trend of temperature was observed to drop very significantly between 1930 and 1969, but it was dramatically elevated very significantly from 1970 to 2014. The SPEI showed that the HOA experienced from mild to moderate drought throughout the study period with severe to extreme drought in some regions, particularly in 1943, 1984, 1991, and 2009. The drought was a very serious environmental problem in the HOA in the last 85 years. Thus, an immediate action is required to tackle drought and hence poverty and famine in the HOA.

  9. A Special Tear Pattern of Anterior Horn of the Lateral Meniscus: Macerated Tear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jiapeng; Zhai, Wenliang; Li, Qiang; Jia, Qianxin; Lin, Dasheng

    2017-01-01

    We describe a special, interesting phenomenon found in the anterior horn of the lateral meniscus (AHLM): most tear patterns in the AHLM are distinctive, with loose fibers in injured region and circumferential fiber bundles were separated. We name it as macerated tear. The goal of this study was to bring forward a new type of meniscal tear in the AHLM and investigate its clinical value. AHLM tears underwent arthroscopic surgery from January 2012 to December 2014 were included. Data regarding the integrity of AHLM were prospectively recorded in a data registry. Tear morphology and treatment received were subsequently extracted by 2 independent reviewers from operative notes and arthroscopic surgical photos. A total of 60 AHLM tears in 60 patients (mean age 27.1 years) were grouped into horizontal tears (n = 15, 25%), vertical tears (n = 14, 23%), complex tears (n = 6, 10%), and macerated tears (n = 25, 42%). There were 6 patients with AHLM cysts in macerated tear group and one patient in vertical tear group. 60 patients were performed arthroscopic meniscus repairs and were followed-up with averaged 18.7 months. Each group had significant postoperative improvement in Lysholm and IKDC scores (p 0.05). This study demonstrated that the macerated tear is common in the tear pattern of AHLM. However, feasibility of the treatment of this type of meniscal tear, especially the meniscus repairs still requires further study.

  10. Offshore wind farms in the local environment - an examination at Horns Rev Offshore Wind Farm. Background report; Havvindmoeller i lokalomraadet - en undersoegelse ved Horns Rev Havmoellepark. Baggrundsrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuehn, Susanne

    2005-07-01

    Horns Rev Offshore Wind Farm was built in 2002. A presentation is made of a sociological, qualitative survey on the local community's reception of the offshore wind farm. The survey aims at identifying attitudes towards the farm before and after the construction, with a view to identifying possible changes in attitudes, and explain the reasons for these (ml)

  11. Spinal cord stimulation of dorsal columns in a rat model of neuropathic pain: evidence for a segmental spinal mechanism of pain relief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smits, H; van Kleef, M; Joosten, E A

    2012-01-01

    Although spinal cord stimulation (SCS) of the dorsal columns is an established method for treating chronic neuropathic pain, patients still suffer from a substantial level of pain. From a clinical perspective it is known that the location of the SCS is of pivotal importance, thereby suggesting a segmental spinal mode of action. However, experimental studies suggest that SCS acts also through the modulation of supraspinal mechanisms, which might suggest that the location is unimportant. Here we investigated the effect of the rostrocaudal location of SCS stimulation and the effectiveness of pain relief in a rat model of chronic neuropathic pain. Adult male rats (n=45) were submitted to a partial ligation of the sciatic nerve. The majority of animals developed tactile hypersensitivity in the nerve lesioned paw. All allodynic rats were submitted to SCS (n=33) for 30 minutes (f=50 Hz; pulse width 0.2 ms). In one group (n=16) the electrodes were located at the level where the injured sciatic nerve afferents enter the spinal cord (T13), and in a second group (n=17) the electrodes were positioned at more rostral levels (T11) as verified by X-ray. A repositioning experiment of electrodes from T12 to T13 was performed in 2 animals. Our data demonstrate that SCS of the dorsal columns at the level where the injured fibers enter the spinal cord dorsal horn result in a much better pain-relieving effect than SCS at more rostral levels. From this we conclude that SCS in treatment of neuropathic pain acts through a segmental spinal site of action. Copyright © 2011 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Analysing the isotopic life history of the alpine ungulates Capra ibex and Rupicapra rupicapra rupicapra through their horns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Inês C R; Kley, Maximiliane; Schäufele, Rudi; Auerswald, Karl; Schröder, Wolf; Filli, Flurin; Hertwig, Stefan; Schnyder, Hans

    2009-08-01

    The horn of ungulate grazers offers a valuable isotopic record of their diet and environment. However, there have been no reports of the spatio-temporal variation of the isotopic composition of horns. We investigated patterns of carbon (delta(13)C) and nitrogen (delta(15)N) isotopic composition along and perpendicular to the horn axis in Capra ibex and Rupicapra rupicapra rupicapra to assess the effects of animal age, within-year (seasonal) and inter-annual variation, natural contamination and sampling position on horn isotope composition. Horns of male C. ibex (n = 23) and R. r. rupicapra (n = 1) were sampled longitudinally on the front (only R. r. rupicapra) and back side and on the surface and sub-surface. The sides of the R. r. rupicapra horn did not differ in delta(13)C. In both species, the horn surface had a 0.15 per thousand lower delta(13)C and a higher carbon-to-nitrogen (C/N) ratio than the sub-surface. Washing the horn with water and organic solvents removed material that caused these differences. With age, the delta(15)N of C. ibex horns increased (+0.1 per thousand year(-1)), C/N ratio increased, and (13)C discrimination relative to atmospheric CO(2) ((13)Delta) increased slightly (+0.03 per thousand year(-1)). Geostatistical analysis of one C. ibex horn revealed systematic patterns of inter-annual and seasonal (13)C changes, but (15)N changed only seasonally. The work demonstrates that isotopic signals in horns are influenced by natural contamination (delta(13)C), age effects ((13)Delta and delta(15)N), and seasonal (delta(13)C and delta(15)N) and inter-annual variation (delta(13)C). The methods presented allow us to distinguish between these effects and thus allow the use of horns as isotopic archives of the ecology of these species and their habitat. Copyright (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Dorsal Phalloplasty to Preserve Penis Length after Penile Prosthesis Implantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osama Shaeer

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Following penile prosthesis implantation (PPI, patients may complain of a decrease in visible penis length. A dorsal phalloplasty defines the penopubic junction by tacking pubic skin to the pubis, revealing the base of the penis. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of a dorsal phalloplasty in increasing the visible penis length following PPI. Methods: An inflatable penile prosthesis was implanted in 13 patients with severe erectile dysfunction (ED at the Kamal Shaeer Hospital, Cairo, Egypt, from January 2013 to May 2014. During the surgery, nonabsorbable tacking sutures were used to pin the pubic skin to the pubis through the same penoscrotal incision. Intraoperative penis length was measured before and after the dorsal phalloplasty. Overall patient satisfaction was measured on a 5-point rating scale and patients were requested to subjectively compare their postoperative penis length with memories of their penis length before the onset of ED. Results: Intraoperatively, the dorsal phalloplasty increased the visible length of the erect penis by an average of 25.6%. The average length before and after tacking was 10.2 ± 2.9 cm and 13.7 ± 2.8 cm, respectively (P <0.002. Postoperatively, seven patients (53.8% reported a longer penis, five patients (38.5% reported no change in length and one patient (7.7% reported a slightly shorter penis. The mean overall patient satisfaction score was 4.9 ± 0.3. None of the patients developed postoperative complications. Conclusion: A dorsal phalloplasty during PPI is an effective method of increasing visible penis length, therefore minimising the impression of a shorter penis after implantation.

  14. Salivary gland thrombostasin isoforms differentially regulate blood uptake of horn flies fed on control- and thrombostasin-vaccinated cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cupp, Mary S; Cupp, Eddie W; Navarre, Christine; Zhang, Dunhua; Yue, Xin; Todd, Latora; Panangala, Victor

    2010-07-01

    Thrombostasin (TS) is an anticlotting protein found in saliva of Haematobia irritans (horn flies). The polymorphic nature of the ts gene was first associated with success of horn flies blood feeding on a laboratory host, New Zealand White rabbits. In this study, we report results of similar studies testing blood uptake of horn flies feeding on a natural host, cattle. These studies confirmed the association of ts genotype with blood uptake of horn flies and showed that it was host species specific. In contrast to rabbits, blood uptake volumes of homozygous ts10 horn flies were lower than those of other ts genotypes when fed on control (ovalbumin-vaccinated) cattle. Cattle vaccinated with recombinant protein isoforms, rTS9 or rTB8, resisted horn fly feeding by yielding lower blood volumes compared with flies feeding on control cattle. The specific impact of vaccination, however, varied by ts genotype of flies. Cattle vaccinated with isoform rTS9 resisted flies of ts2, ts9, and tb8 genotype. Vaccination with isoform rTB8 produced resistance to ts8, ts9, and tb8 genotype flies. Horn flies of genotype ts10 were not affected by vaccination with either TS isoform and fed as well on rTS9- and rTB8-vaccinated as on control-vaccinated cattle. These experimental results confirm the efficacy of vaccines targeting horn fly salivary proteins and provide new insight into the dynamics of horn fly-cattle interactions in nature.

  15. Vegetation change, malnutrition and violence in the Horn of Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowhani, P.; Degomme, O.; Linderman, M.; Guha-Sapir, D.; Lambin, E.

    2008-12-01

    In certain circumstances, climate change in association with a broad range of social factors may increase the risk of famines and subsequently, violent conflict. The impacts of climate change on society will be experienced both through changes in mean conditions over long time periods and through increases in extreme events. Recent studies have shown the historical effects of long term climate change on societies and the importance of short term climatic triggers on armed conflict. However, most of these studies are at the state level ignoring local conditions. Here we use detailed information extracted from wide-swath satellite data (MODIS) to analyze the impact of climate variability change on malnutrition and violent conflict. More specifically, we perform multivariate logistic regression analysis in order to explain the geographical distribution of malnutrition and conflict in the Horn of Africa on a sub-national level. This region, constituted by several unstable and poor states, has been affected by droughts, floods, famines, and violence in the past few years. Three commonly used nutrition and mortality indicators are used to characterize the health situation (CE-DAT database). To map violence we use the georeferenced Armed Conflicts dataset developed by the Center for the Study of Civil War. Explanatory variables include several socio-economic variables and environmental variables characterizing land degradation, vegetation activity, and interannual variability in land-surface conditions. First results show that interannual variability in land-surface conditions is associated with malnutrition but not with armed conflict. Furthermore, land degradation seems not to be associated with either malnutrition or armed conflict.

  16. Volar versus dorsal fixed-angle fixation of dorsally unstable extra-articular distal radius fractures: a biomechanic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCall, Todd A; Conrad, Bryan; Badman, Brian; Wright, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate and compare the biomechanic rigidity and strength of 3 fixed-angle plates used to treat extra-articular distal radius fractures that are dorsally unstable. Volar fixed-angle plates were compared with a dorsal fixed-angle nail plate. Three plate constructs were tested: the dorsal nail plate (DNP), distal volar radius (DVR) plate, and locking compression plate (LCP) volar distal radius plate. With anatomic, third-generation, artificial composite radii, dorsally unstable extra-articular distal radius fracture models were made by cutting a wedge osteotomy with an 8-mm dorsal gap 1 cm from the articular surface. These models were then fixed with the 3 implants by the method recommended by the manufacturer. The proximal radii of each specimen were attached to the base of a materials testing machine with a probe centered at the radial side of the lunate fossa. The specimens were loaded at a constant rate to failure under axial compression. Load and displacement were plotted graphically, and the resulting rigidities and strengths of each plate were assessed statistically. The DVR group had significantly greater stiffness than the LCP group. The DVR group had significantly higher maximum loads than both the DNP and LCP groups. There were no significant differences in yield loads. Both the DNP and DVR groups had significantly less displacement at yield than the LCP group. These 3 groups had similar yield loads. However, the LCP was less stiff than the DVR and had more displacement at yield than both the DVR and DNP. The yield load of all 3 implants was much higher than previously described loads for active wrist and finger motion.

  17. Sedimentary processes and depositional environments of the Horn River Shale in British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Seok-Hoon; Koh, Chang-Seong; Joe, Young-Jin; Woo, Ju-Hwan; Lee, Hyun-Suk

    2017-04-01

    The Horn River Basin in the northeastern British Columbia, Canada, is one of the largest unconventional gas accumulations in North America. It consists mainly of Devonian shales (Horn River Formation) and is stratigraphically divided into three members, the Muskwa, Otterpark and Evie in descending order. This study focuses on sedimentary processes and depositional environments of the Horn River shale based on sedimentary facies analysis aided by well-log mineralogy (ECS) and total organic carbon (TOC) data. The shale formation consists dominantly of siliceous minerals (quartz, feldspar and mica) and subordinate clay mineral and carbonate materials, and TOC ranging from 1.0 to 7.6%. Based on sedimentary structures and micro texture, three sedimentary facies were classified: homogeneous mudstone (HM), indistinctly laminated mudstone (ILM), and planar laminated mudstone (PLM). Integrated interpretation of the sedimentary facies, lithology and TOC suggests that depositional environment of the Horn River shale was an anoxic quiescent basin plain and base-of-slope off carbonate platform or reef. In this deeper marine setting, organic-rich facies HM and ILM, dominant in the Muskwa (the upper part of the Horn River Formation) and Evie (the lower part of the Horn River Formation) members, may have been emplaced by pelagic to hemipelagic sedimentation on the anoxic sea floor with infrequent effects of low-density gravity flows (turbidity currents or nepheloid flows). In the other hand, facies PLM typifying the Otterpark Member (the middle part of the Horn River Formation) suggests more frequent inflow of bottom-hugging turbidity currents punctuating the hemipelagic settling of the background sedimentation process. The stratigraphic change of sedimentary facies and TOC content in the Horn River Formation is most appropriately interpreted to have been caused by the relative sea-level change, that is, lower TOC and frequent signal of turbidity current during the sea

  18. Investigation the Amplitude Uniformity on the Surface of the Wide-Blade Ultrasonic Plastic Welding Horn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hai Nguyen, Thanh; Thanh Quang, Quang; Luat Tran, Cong; Loc Nguyen, Huu

    2017-10-01

    Ultrasonic welding has been applied for joining thermoplastic components due to their advantages such as clean, fast and reliable. The basic principle is to use the mechanical energy of ultrasonic frequency vibration to produce the molten pool at the interface of the joined components under high pressure to create solid-state welding joints. Depending on the specific application, the ultrasonic horn is designed to generate suitable amplitudes on the surface of the welding zone. Uniformity of the amplitudes can be a challenge as the welding area increases. Therefore, design a welding horn in order to obtain the uniform amplitudes at the large area is significant difficult. This work presents a method for obtaining the uniform amplitudes at the working surface of the stepped wide-blade horn. Finite element method is used to analyze the amplitude distribution at the horn surface of 250 × 34 mm2 with working frequency of 15 kHz and aluminum alloy 7075. The uniformity of amplitude is obtained by changing the shape of the horn.

  19. Long-horned Ceratopsidae from the Foremost Formation (Campanian of southern Alberta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caleb M. Brown

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The horned Ceratopsidae represent one of the last radiations of dinosaurs, and despite a decade of intense work greatly adding to our understanding of this diversification, their early evolution is still poorly known. Here, two postorbital horncores from the upper Foremost Formation (Campanian of Alberta are described, and at ∼78.5 Ma represent some of the geologically oldest ceratopsid material. The larger of these specimens is incorporated into a fused supraorbital complex, and preserves a massive, straight, postorbital horncore that is vertical in lateral view, but canted dorsolaterally in rostral view. Medially, the supracranial sinus is composed of a small, restricted caudal chamber, and a large rostral chamber that forms the cornual diverticulum. This morphology is distinct from that of the long-horned Chasmosaurinae, and similar to, but still different from, those of younger Centrosaurinae taxa. The smaller specimen represents an ontogenetically younger individual, and although showing consistent morphology to the larger specimen, is less taxonomically useful. Although not certain, these postorbital horns may be referable to a long-horned basal (i.e., early-branching, non-pachyrhinosaurini, non-centrosaurini centrosaurine, potentially the contemporaneous Xenoceratops, largely known from the parietosquamosal frill. These specimens indicate the morphology of the supracranial sinus in early, long-horned members of the Ceratopsidae, and add to our understanding of the evolution of the cranial display structures in this iconic dinosaur clade.

  20. Evolutionary allometry reveals a shift in selection pressure on male horn size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tidière, M; Lemaître, J-F; Pélabon, C; Gimenez, O; Gaillard, J-M

    2017-10-01

    How selection pressures acting within species interact with developmental constraints to shape macro-evolutionary patterns of species divergence is still poorly understood. In particular, whether or not sexual selection affects evolutionary allometry, the increase in trait size with body size across species, of secondary sexual characters, remains largely unknown. In this context, bovid horn size is an especially relevant trait to study because horns are present in both sexes, but the intensity of sexual selection acting on them is expected to vary both among species and between sexes. Using a unique data set of sex-specific horn size and body mass including 91 species of bovids, we compared the evolutionary allometry between horn size and body mass between sexes while accounting for both the intensity of sexual selection and phylogenetic relationship among species. We found a nonlinear evolutionary allometry where the allometric slope decreased with increasing species body mass. This pattern, much more pronounced in males than in females, suggests either that horn size is limited by some constraints in the largest bovids or is no longer the direct target of sexual selection in very large species. © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  1. Excitation of dorsal root fibers in spinal cord stimulation: a theoretical study

    OpenAIRE

    Struijk, J.J.; Struijk, Johannes J.; Holsheimer, J.; Boom, H.B.K.

    1993-01-01

    In epidural spinal cord stimulation it is likely not only that dorsal column fibers are activated, but also that dorsal root fibers will be involved as well. In this investigation a volume conductor model of the spinal cord was used and dorsal root fibers were modeled by an electrical network including fiber excitation. The effects of varying some geometric fiber characteristics, as well as the influence of the dorsal cerebrospinal fluid layer and the electrode configuration on the threshold ...

  2. Predicting Early Reading Skills from Pre-Reading Measures of Dorsal Stream Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevan, Alison; Pammer, Kristen

    2009-01-01

    It is well documented that good reading skills may be dependent upon adequate dorsal stream processing. However, the degree to which dorsal stream deficits play a causal role in reading failure has not been established. This study used coherent motion and visual frequency doubling to examine whether dorsal stream sensitivity measured before the…

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  18. Excitation of dorsal root fibers in spinal cord stimulation: a theoretical study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Struijk, J.J.; Struijk, Johannes J.; Holsheimer, J.; Boom, H.B.K.

    1993-01-01

    In epidural spinal cord stimulation it is likely not only that dorsal column fibers are activated, but also that dorsal root fibers will be involved as well. In this investigation a volume conductor model of the spinal cord was used and dorsal root fibers were modeled by an electrical network

  19. Dorsal finger texture recognition: Investigating fixed-length SURF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartung, Daniel; Kückelhahn, Jesper

    2012-01-01

    We seek to create fixed-length features from dorsal finger skin images extracted by the SURF interest point detector to combine it in the privacy enhancing helper data scheme. The source of the biometric samples is the GUC45 database which features finger vein, fingerprint and dorsal finger skin...... images for modality fusion. First, the region of interest (ROI) is extracted, after which SURF features are extracted, and finally two different approaches for creating fixed length feature vectors are applied. SURF performance on the ROI is comparable to the PolyU database reported in the literature...... the complexity of the SURF matching scheme, a reduction in run-time of 75%–80% has been achieved, with only minimal precision loss; EER increases from 0.74% to 1%. The complexity of the matching can be reduced from O(n2) to constant time, but at a higher precision cost and resulting in an EER of 16.51%....

  20. A Way to Avoid Muscular Fibrosis in the First Dorsal Interosseous Muscle after Acupuncture Injection Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiu Ming Wong

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Fibrosis of skeletal muscle following acupuncture is an iatrogenic disorder. The present case illustrates a patient with a unilateral fibrotic formation on a thumb muscle after acupuncture injection therapy with red sage. The patient in the present case was a counter-terrorism police officer with right-handedness; he noted a palpable nodule three months after injection therapy at his left first dorsal interosseous in which the acupuncture point LI4 (He Gu is located. He also found a reduction in the strength of his left pinch grip that noticeably affected his left handgun marksmanship. However, being ambidextrous in single-hand pistol shooting is an essential requirement for counter-terrorism police officers. Based on the patient’s medical history and claims, no underlying disease or trauma was found to be associated with his current complaint. During physical examination, a fibrotic formation in his left first dorsal interosseous muscle was visualized by using diagnostic ultrasound; also, as confirmed with dynamometry, the strength of his left pinch grip was significantly lower than that of the right counterpart. Because acupuncture injection therapy has three components, antiseptic practices, the mechanical action of syringe insertion, and the pharmacological effect of the sterile herb extract, any one of the components may have contributed to the present adverse event. The first dorsal interosseous muscle is small in dimension and rather vascular; thus, it is not an ideal site for intramuscular injection. When a clinician needs to treat a patient by performing acupuncture at the LI4 acupoint and injecting a herbal extract simultaneously, the clinician should only mechanically stimulate the LI4 acupoint while injecting the herbal medicine into the LI14 (Bi Noe acupoint on the same meridian, the LI14 acupoint being located in the distal portion of the deltoid muscle and being fairly close to the universally agreed upon site on the upper arm

  1. Spontaneous second-trimester ruptured pregnancy of rudimentary horn: a case report in Yaounde, Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouelifack, Florent Ymele; Fouogue, Jovanny Tsuala; Messi, John Owoudou; Kamga, Danielle Tiako; Fouedjio, Jeanne Hortence; Sando, Zacharie

    2014-01-01

    Rudimentary uterine horn pregnancy is rare and, to our knowledge, has not been previously reported in Cameroon. We herein report the case of a 22 year old second gravida referred for acute abdominal pain at 17 weeks of gestation. Physical examination revealed hemoperitoneum with hypovolemic shock. After resuscitation, an emergency exploratory laparotomy was done and we found hemoperitoneum of 3,500 milliliters, a bicornuate uterus with a ruptured right rudimentary communicating horn containing a non viable foetus. There were no other abnormalities. We performed an excision of the rudimentary horn with ipsilateral salpingectomy. Post-operative course was uneventful and the woman was discharged seven days later. This case emphasizes the importance of good antenatal care to avoid complications.

  2. Susceptibility to diazinon in populations of the horn fly, Haematobia irritans (Diptera: Muscidae), in Central Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Antonio Thadeu M; Gomes, Alberto; Ismael, Ana Paula K; Koller, Wilson W

    2002-09-01

    From October 2000 to April 2001, insecticide bioassays were conducted in 18 ranches from 10 counties in the states of Mato Grosso and Mato Grosso do Sul, in Central Brazil. Horn flies from wild populations were exposed to diazinon-impregnated filter papers immediately after collection on cattle, and mortality was recorded after 2 h. A high susceptibility to diazinon was observed in all tested populations. The LC50s ranged from 0.15 to 0.64 micro g/cm2, and resistance ratios were always lower than one (ranging 0.1-0.6). Pyrethroid products, most applied by backpack sprayers, have been used since the horn fly entered the region, about 10 years ago. The high susceptibility observed to diazinon indicates that this insecticide (as probably other organophosphate insecticides) represents an useful tool for horn fly control and resistance management, particularly in pyrethroid-resistant populations.

  3. Ovipositional behavior of the horn fly (Diptera: Muscidae) in the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuramochi, K

    2000-05-01

    In the field, the female horn fly obtained blood meals from the bovine host before oviposition. The female flies moved to the lower portion of the hind legs as the legs were spread, and the tail was raised before excretion. Females deposited their eggs on the manure after excretion. The fly flew onto the manure pat for oviposition as the cow walked forward after excretion. It appeared that flies located on the belly received some stimuli for oviposition from the cow just before excretion. The horn fly deposited most of its eggs during the day with occasional deposition at night. Egg deposition increased at 10 degrees C. Fewer flies were observed on manure pats that contained >90% or horn flies on the cow and environmental factors associated with oviposition in the field are discussed.

  4. Susceptibility to diazinon in populations of the horn fly, Haematobia irritans (Diptera: Muscidae, in Central Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barros Antonio Thadeu M

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available From October 2000 to April 2001, insecticide bioassays were conducted in 18 ranches from 10 counties in the states of Mato Grosso and Mato Grosso do Sul, in Central Brazil. Horn flies from wild populations were exposed to diazinon-impregnated filter papers immediately after collection on cattle, and mortality was recorded after 2 h. A high susceptibility to diazinon was observed in all tested populations. The LC50s ranged from 0.15 to 0.64 µg/cm², and resistance ratios were always lower than one (ranging 0.1-0.6. Pyrethroid products, most applied by backpack sprayers, have been used since the horn fly entered the region, about 10 years ago. The high susceptibility observed to diazinon indicates that this insecticide (as probably other organophosphate insecticides represents an useful tool for horn fly control and resistance management, particularly in pyrethroid-resistant populations.

  5. Effect of horn fly and internal parasite control on growth of beef heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanson, D W; DeRosa, A A; Oremus, G R; Foil, L D

    2003-11-28

    The effects of horn fly and gastrointestinal nematode control on body weight gain of yearling Angus-Brangus cross heifers were evaluated in three separate studies during the years 1999, 2000 and 2002. In each year, the studies started in late May and lasted for 150, 148 and 123 days, respectively. In all three studies, the tag treatment (10% lambdacyhalothrin+13% piperonyl butoxide impregnated ear tags) provided excellent horn fly control. In the three studies, the average weekly horn fly counts for tagged heifers were 1, 3, and 0 flies per side while the average on untreated heifers was 52, 163 and 90 flies per side. In studies 1 and 2, there was no difference (P>0.1) in weight gain between tagged and untreated heifers, but in study 3, tagged heifers gained 50% more weight (P0.1) between the main treatment effects of fly control and gastrointestinal nematode control.

  6. Ectopic pregnancy within a rudimentary horn in a case of unicornuate uterus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smolders, D.; Pouillon, M.; Deckers, F.; Vanderheyden, T.; Vanderheyden, J.; De Schepper, A.

    2002-01-01

    We report the MRI features of two cases of unicornuate uterus and occluded rudimentary horn. In one patient pregnancy had occurred in the occluded horn, prompting to urgent resection. The second patient illustrates more conventional findings in occluded rudimentary horn. In both cases MRI was able to correctly characterise the nature of the developmental anomaly. Furthermore, on the basis of signal intensities, differentiation between distended lumen due to blood accumulation and amniotic sac in the case of pregnancy could be made. Because of its high accuracy in determining the type of anomaly present, the lack of ionizing radiation, and the ability to evaluate, with the exception of the fallopian tubes, the entire genitourinary tract, MR imaging is essential and plays a key role in the evaluation of women who are consulting for infertility. (orig.)

  7. The flora of woody plants and vegetation on the Horn of Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ib

    2017-01-01

    There are about one thousand species of woody plants that occur naturally on the Horn of Africa, including trees and large shrubs, and they have many functions in the highly varied ecosystem on the Horn, including soil conservation and the prevention of flooding during tropical rainstorms....... For historical reasons, the woody flora and the vegetation types they form have been less studied than in most other parts of Africa, and new species of even rather large shrubs or trees are still discovered, named and described. This project, which is part of an involvement with the flora and vegetation...... on the Horn since 1970, aims at describing and mapping the woody plants, the vegetation types they form, and the ways in which the local population interacts with them. The nearer aims are to produce manuals and scientific publications on the flora, including an improved map of the vegetation. Due to long...

  8. Resistance to Root-knot Nematodes in Cucumber and Horned Cucumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehner, Todd C.; Walters, S. Alan; Barker, Kenneth R.

    1991-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted in the greenhouse. In one experiment, cucumber (Cucumis sativus) and horned cucumber (C. metuliferus) cultigens were evaluated for resistance to four root-knot nematode species (Meloidogyne arenaria, M. hapla, M. incognita, and M. javanica), and, in a second experiment, a standard (12-week) test was compared with a rapid (6-week) test. In the first experiment, horned cucumber cultigens varied in response to the Meloidogyne species. 'Sumter' cucumber was more susceptible than the horned cucumber to Meloidogyne incognita, M. javanica, and M. arenaria. All cultigens were more resistant to M. hapla than to the other root-knot nematode species. In the second experiment, best results were obtained when the test was run for 12 weeks rather than 6 weeks after planting (or 10 and 4 weeks after inoculation, respectively). All cultigens were more resistant to M. arenaria than to either M. incognita or M. javanica. PMID:19283171

  9. Complete dorsal pancreatic agenesis and unilateral renal agenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Moreira, Adriana; Carvalho, André; Portugal, Inês; Jesus, José Miguel

    2017-01-01

    Dorsal pancreatic agenesis is a very rare congenital anomaly. Unilateral renal agenesis, on the other hand, is a relatively common congenital anomaly, although its etiology is not fully understood. Renal and pancreatic embryologic development appears to be nonrelated. We report a case of a 34-year-old man who was referred to our hospital for evaluation of cholestasis and microalbuminuria. Ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging examinations showed empty right renal fossa and absence of the ...

  10. Complete dorsal pancreatic agenesis and unilateral renal agenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Adriana Moreira, MD; André Carvalho, MD; Inês Portugal, MD; José Miguel Jesus, MD

    2018-01-01

    Dorsal pancreatic agenesis is a very rare congenital anomaly. Unilateral renal agenesis, on the other hand, is a relatively common congenital anomaly, although its etiology is not fully understood. Renal and pancreatic embryologic development appears to be nonrelated. We report a case of a 34-year-old man who was referred to our hospital for evaluation of cholestasis and microalbuminuria. Ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging examinations showed empty right renal fossa and absence of the ...

  11. Self-Mutilation in Young Rats after Dorsal Rhizotomy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vaculín, Š.; Franěk, M.; Andrey, Ladislav; Rokyta, R.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 1 (2005), s. 25-28 ISSN 0172-780X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA305/02/1487 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : self-mulitation * young rat * dorsal rhizotomy * neuropathic pain * single unit activity Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition Impact factor: 1.005, year: 2005

  12. Mitotic activity in dorsal epidermis of Rana pipiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Arce, H.; Mizell, S.

    1972-01-01

    Study of statistically significant rhythms of mitotic division in dorsal epidermis of frogs, Rana pipiens, exposed to a 12:12 light:dark environment for 14 days. The results include the findings that (1) male animals have a primary period of 22 hr in summer and 18 hr in winter, (2) female animals have an 18 hr period, and (3) parapinealectomy and blinding abolish the rhythm.

  13. Neural dynamics of phonological processing in the dorsal auditory stream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebenthal, Einat; Sabri, Merav; Beardsley, Scott A; Mangalathu-Arumana, Jain; Desai, Anjali

    2013-09-25

    Neuroanatomical models hypothesize a role for the dorsal auditory pathway in phonological processing as a feedforward efferent system (Davis and Johnsrude, 2007; Rauschecker and Scott, 2009; Hickok et al., 2011). But the functional organization of the pathway, in terms of time course of interactions between auditory, somatosensory, and motor regions, and the hemispheric lateralization pattern is largely unknown. Here, ambiguous duplex syllables, with elements presented dichotically at varying interaural asynchronies, were used to parametrically modulate phonological processing and associated neural activity in the human dorsal auditory stream. Subjects performed syllable and chirp identification tasks, while event-related potentials and functional magnetic resonance images were concurrently collected. Joint independent component analysis was applied to fuse the neuroimaging data and study the neural dynamics of brain regions involved in phonological processing with high spatiotemporal resolution. Results revealed a highly interactive neural network associated with phonological processing, composed of functional fields in posterior temporal gyrus (pSTG), inferior parietal lobule (IPL), and ventral central sulcus (vCS) that were engaged early and almost simultaneously (at 80-100 ms), consistent with a direct influence of articulatory somatomotor areas on phonemic perception. Left hemispheric lateralization was observed 250 ms earlier in IPL and vCS than pSTG, suggesting that functional specialization of somatomotor (and not auditory) areas determined lateralization in the dorsal auditory pathway. The temporal dynamics of the dorsal auditory pathway described here offer a new understanding of its functional organization and demonstrate that temporal information is essential to resolve neural circuits underlying complex behaviors.

  14. Diagnosis of dorsal inter osseous pseudotumours by magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peh, W.C.G.; Wong, L.L.S. [The University of Hong Kong, Queen Mary Hospital, (Hong Kong). Hand Surgery Division, Department of Diagnotic Radiology; Ip, W.Y. [The University of Hong Kong, Queen Mary Hospital, (Hong Kong). Hand Surgery Division, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery

    1999-08-01

    Two middle-aged-patients each presenting with a progressively enlarging mass in the first dorsal web space of their hands are reported. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated the cause to be a hypertrophic first dorsal inter osseous muscle, with normal T1, T2 and post-gadopentetate dimeglumine signal characteristics. The ability of MRI to diagnose anatomical variants of hand muscles is important in the clinical management of patients with these pseudotumours. The usefulness of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in evaluation of soft tissue tumours of the musculoskeletal system is now widely accepted. Its ability to maximize contrast between tumour and adjacent normal tissue in a multiplanar manner makes it the imaging modality of choice in pre-operative staging of soft tissue masses. In the hand and wrist, where benign tumours predominate, MRI may provide a specific diagnosis. We describe two cases in which MRI demonstrated the cause of a hand pseudotumour to be due to hypertrophy of the first dorsal inter osseous muscle. Copyright (1999) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd 20 refs., 3 figs.

  15. Bulbar urethroplasty using the dorsal approach: current techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbagli Guido

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The use of flaps or grafts is mandatory in patients with longer and complex strictures. In 1995-96 we described a new dorsal onlay graft urethroplasty. Over time, our original technique was better defined and changed. Now this procedure (also named Barbagli technique has been greeted with a fair amount of enthusiasm in Europe and in the United States. SURGICAL TECHNIQUE: The patient is placed in normal lithotomy position, and a midline perineo-scrotal incision is made. The bulbar urethra is then free from the bulbo-cavernous muscles, and is dissected from the corpora cavernosa. The urethra is completely mobilized from the corpora cavernosa, it is rotated 180 degrees, and is incised along its dorsal surface. The graft (preputial skin or buccal mucosa or the flap is fixed and quilted to the tunica albuginea of the corporal bodies. The right mucosal margin of the opened urethra is sutured to the right side of the patch-graft. The urethra is rotated back into its original position. The left urethral margin is sutured to the left side of the patch graft and to the corporal bodies, and the grafted area is entirely covered by the urethral plate. The bulbo-cavernous muscles are approximated over the grafted area. A 16F silicone Foley catheter is left in place. COMMENTS: Dorsal onlay graft urethroplasty is a versatile procedure that may be combined with various substitute materials like preputial skin, buccal mucosa grafts or pedicled flaps.

  16. Dorsal inlay inner preputial graft for primary hypospadias repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra B. Nerli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The most commonly performed operation to repair distal hypospadias is the Tubularised incised plate (TIP repair. The key step is midline incision of the urethral plate, which widens a narrow plate and converts a flat into a deep plate groove, ensuring a vertical, slit neomeatus and a normal-calibre neourethra. At times in cases of proximal hypospadias, the urethral plate is very narrow and needs to be augmented or substituted for further tubularisation. We report our experience with primary single stage dorsal inlay urethroplasty using preputial skin grafts. Patients and Methods: Children with proximal hypospadias with a narrow urethral plate formed the study group. Children needing transection of the urethral plate, having undergone circumcision/hypospadias repair previously or having an inadequate prepuce was excluded. Results: Twelve children with a mean age of 48.83 months underwent primary dorsal inlay preputial graft urethroplasty for proximal hypospadias with a very narrow urethral plate. At an average follow-up of 42.16 months, 2 (16.66% children had a breakdown of ventral shaft skin. None of the children had meatal stenosis, and none of these 12 children developed urethrocutaneous fistula. Conclusion: Primary dorsal inlay inner preputial graft urethroplasty successfully fulfills all traditional hypospadias repair criteria. It offers a viable, safe, rapid and easy option in the management of proximal hypospadias with a narrow urethral plate.

  17. Dorsal prevertebral lesions in Wegener granulomatosis: report on four cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreto, Paulo; Pagnoux, Christian; Luca, Luminata; Aouizerate, Jessie; Ortigueira, Isabel; Cohen, Pascal; Muller, Géraldine; Guillevin, Loïc

    2011-01-01

    Retroperitoneal fibrosis has been reported in several patients with Wegener granulomatosis (WG), but only three isolated cases of dorsal prevertebral lesions, closely resembling fibrosing mediastinitis, have been published so far. We describe four new WG patients (two men, two women), 49-59 years old at diagnosis, with dorsal prevertebral lesions, mainly right-sided, and with adjacent pleural thickening in two. These lesions were detected on computed-tomography scans at diagnosis in two patients, and occurred later in the two others. Only one of them had mild back pain. Two patients' lesions were biopsied, revealing granulomatous inflammation. In one patient, the lesion regressed under WG treatment. Lesion size did not change in the remainings. Intralesional calcifications appeared in two. None of the patients had local bone erosion, vascular or neurological complications. These prevertebral lesions might represent a dorsal form of retroperitoneal fibrosis in WG, but usually with a more benign presentation and course. WG should be included in the differential diagnosis of fibrosing mediastinitis (with tuberculosis, neoplastic diseases, sarcoidosis, histiocytosis and inflammatory pseudotumor), which may have a similar radiological appearance. Copyright © 2010 Société française de rhumatologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Compound dorsal dislocation of lunate with trapezoid fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bong-Sung Kim

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We report about a dorsal dislocation of the lunate accompanied by a trapezoid fracture in a 41-year old male patient after a motorcycle accident. The lunate dislocation with no dorsal or volar intercalated segment instability (DISI, VISI was diagnosed by x-ray whereas the trapezoid fracture was only diagnosable by computed tomography. A closed reduction and internal fixation of the lunate by two Kirschner wires was performed, the trapezoid fracture was conservatively treated. Surgery was followed by immobilization, intense physiotherapy and close follow-up. Even though complaints such as swelling and pain subsided during the course of rehabilitation, partial loss of strength and range of motion remained even after 16 months. In conclusion, a conservative treatment of trapezoid fractures seems to be sufficient in most cases. Closed reduction with Kwire fixation led to an overall satisfactory result in our case. For dorsal lunate dislocations in general, open reduction should be performed when close reduction is unsuccessful or DISI/VISI are observed in radiographs after attempted close reduction.

  19. Alzheimer disease: functional abnormalities in the dorsal visual pathway.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bokde, Arun L W

    2012-02-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate whether patients with Alzheimer disease (AD) have altered activation compared with age-matched healthy control (HC) subjects during a task that typically recruits the dorsal visual pathway. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was performed in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki, with institutional ethics committee approval, and all subjects provided written informed consent. Two tasks were performed to investigate neural function: face matching and location matching. Twelve patients with mild AD and 14 age-matched HC subjects were included. Brain activation was measured by using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Group statistical analyses were based on a mixed-effects model corrected for multiple comparisons. RESULTS: Task performance was not statistically different between the two groups, and within groups there were no differences in task performance. In the HC group, the visual perception tasks selectively activated the visual pathways. Conversely in the AD group, there was no selective activation during performance of these same tasks. Along the dorsal visual pathway, the AD group recruited additional regions, primarily in the parietal and frontal lobes, for the location-matching task. There were no differences in activation between groups during the face-matching task. CONCLUSION: The increased activation in the AD group may represent a compensatory mechanism for decreased processing effectiveness in early visual areas of patients with AD. The findings support the idea that the dorsal visual pathway is more susceptible to putative AD-related neuropathologic changes than is the ventral visual pathway.

  20. Is visual processing in the dorsal stream accessible to consciousness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner, A D

    2012-06-22

    There are two highly interconnected clusters of visually responsive areas in the primate cortex. These two clusters have relatively few interconnections with each other, though those interconnections are undoubtedly important. One of the two main clusters (the dorsal stream) links the primary visual cortex (V1) to superior regions of the occipito-parietal cortex, while the other (the ventral stream) links V1 to inferior regions of the occipito-temporal cortex. According to our current understanding of the functional anatomy of these two systems, the dorsal stream's principal role is to provide real-time 'bottom-up' visual guidance of our movements online. In contrast, the ventral stream, in conjunction with top-down information from visual and semantic memory, provides perceptual representations that can serve recognition, visual thought, planning and memory offline. In recent years, this interpretation, initially based chiefly on studies of non-human primates and human neurological patients, has been well supported by functional MRI studies in humans. This perspective presents empirical evidence for the contention that the dorsal stream governs the visual control of movement without the intervention of visual awareness.

  1. Fluvial sediments characterization of Hornád river in its chosen parts (preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stela Hanigovská

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of main river sedimentary characteristics is very important source of information for next study or potentialcommercial usage of fluvial sediments. In paper is shown characterization of sediment distribution in chosen part of the river Hornád.Three main facial types were studied and described – gravel, sand and clay. Model created in this study shows that Hornád is a riverwith predominant gravel transport. This model also shows a sufficient amount of gravel for commercial use in some parts of the river.

  2. Study of Saiga Horn Using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography with Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateřina Mikulíková

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The saiga horns have been investigated the using of modern analytic methods. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC with mass-spectrometric (MS and MS/MS detection and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE were used. It could be concluded that basic proteins of the saiga horns are keratins and collagen. The basic representation protein in all samples is keratin type I microfibrillar (from sheep, keratin type II microfibrillar (from sheep, collagen type I (α1 (from bovine and collagen type I (α2 (from bovine. Free amino acids we determined in all samples are nontreated by enzyme.

  3. Maximal violation of the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality for two qutrits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Li-Bin; Zhao, Xian-Geng; Chen, Jing-Ling

    2003-01-01

    The Bell-Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt (BCHSH) inequality (in terms of correlation functions) of two qutrits is studied in detail by employing tritter measurements. A uniform formula for the maximum value of this inequality for tritter measurements is obtained. Based on this formula, we show that nonmaximally entangled states violate the BCHSH inequality more strongly than the maximally entangled one. This result is consistent with what was obtained by Acin et al. [Phys. Rev. A 65, 052325 (2002)] using the Bell-Clauser-Horne inequality (in terms of probabilities)

  4. Isolation and characterization of polymorphic microsatellite loci for the horn fly, Haematobia irritans (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    DA Rosa, Aline Coelho; Lessinger, Ana Cláudia; DE Azeredo-Espin, Ana Maria Lima; Torres, Tatiana Teixeira

    2008-09-01

    The horn fly, Haematobia irritans (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae), is a cosmopolitan livestock pest that has caused a great negative impact on the animal production sector throughout the world. Here, we describe 10 polymorphic microsatellite loci isolated from H. irritans. The number of alleles found ranged from two to eight per locus and the expected heterozygosity from 0.1421 to 0.7702. These loci are potentially useful for the fine-scale genetic characterization of horn fly populations and provide fundamental information for pest management and planning of control programs. © 2008 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2008 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Investigations of migratory birds during operation of Horns Rev offshore wind farm. Annual status report 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kjaer Christensen, T.; Hounisen, J.P. [NERI, Dept. of Wildlife Ecology and Biodiversity, Roskilde (Denmark)

    2005-07-01

    The aim of the project is to assess the collision risk between birds and wind turbines at the Horns Rev wind farm. The study focused on describing bird movements in relation to the wind farm and to identify the species-specific behavioural responses towards the wind turbines shown by migrating and staging bird species. The study was based on data from spring 2004. The Horns Rev area lies in a region known to be of importance for substantial water bird migration as well as holding internationally important numbers of several wintering and staging water bird species. (au)

  6. Empirical investigation of wind farm blockage effects in Horn Rev 1 offshore wind farm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitraszewski, Karol; Hansen, Kurt Schaldemose; Nygaard, Nicolai

    We present an empirical study of wind farm blockage effects based on Horns Rev 1 SCADA data. The mean inflow non-uniformities in wind speed are analyzed by calculating the mean power outputs of turbines located along the outer edges of the farm for different wind directions, wind speeds and stabi......We present an empirical study of wind farm blockage effects based on Horns Rev 1 SCADA data. The mean inflow non-uniformities in wind speed are analyzed by calculating the mean power outputs of turbines located along the outer edges of the farm for different wind directions, wind speeds...

  7. Investigations of migratory birds during operation of Horns Rev offshore wind farm. Annual status report 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kjaer Christensen, T.; Hounisen, J.P.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the project is to assess the collision risk between birds and wind turbines at the Horns Rev wind farm. The study focused on describing bird movements in relation to the wind farm and to identify the species-specific behavioural responses towards the wind turbines shown by migrating and staging bird species. The study was based on data from spring 2004. The Horns Rev area lies in a region known to be of importance for substantial water bird migration as well as holding internationally important numbers of several wintering and staging water bird species. (au)

  8. Importance of prairie wetlands and avian prey to breeding Great Horned Owls (Bubo virginianus) in Northwestern North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard K. Murphy

    1997-01-01

    Prey use by Great Horned Owls (Bubo virginianus) is documented widely in North America, but not in the vast northern Great Plains. During spring through early summer 1986-1987, I recorded 2,900 prey items at 22 Great Horned Owl nesting areas in the prairie pothole farm- and rangelands of northwestern North Dakota. The owls relied heavily on wetland-...

  9. Discovery, Development, and Evaluation of a Horn Fly-Isolated (Diptera: Muscidae) Beauveria bassiana (Hypocreales: Cordyciptaceae) Strain From Florida, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holderman, Christopher J; Wood, Lois A; Geden, Christopher J; Kaufman, Phillip E

    2017-01-01

    The horn fly, Haematobia irritans (L.) is an important cattle pest and traditionally has been managed using insecticides; however, many horn fly populations are insecticide-resistant in United States. Use of alternative control techniques has been limited because of the challenges of managing a fly pest on pastured cattle. After the discovery of a wild horn fly infected with Beauveria bassiana in Florida, the fungus was cultured and evaluated for efficacy against laboratory-reared horn flies. This fungal strain was selected for increased virulence by passage through laboratory-reared horn fly hosts to shorten interval from infection to fly death and subsequent conidia formation, properties important to future use of the fungus as a biological control agent against horn flies. After seven passages through horn fly hosts, fly mortality was not significantly accelerated as evaluated through LT50 values, but conidia were readily produced from these killed flies. Although further development is needed to improve fungal efficacy, this fungal strain holds promise as a biological control agent for inclusion in horn fly integrated pest management programs. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  10. Comparisons of antifeedancy and spatial repellency of three natural product repellents against horn flies, Haematobia irritans (Diptera: Muscidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND: Horn flies are among the most important biting fly pests of cattle in the United States. Horn fly management is largely dependent upon pesticides, which ultimately leads to the rapid development of insecticide resistance. Alternative control strategies, including repellents, have shown p...

  11. Mutual mortality of great horned owl and southern black racer: a potential risk of raptors preying on snakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger W. Perry; Raymond E. Brown; D. Craig Rudolph

    2001-01-01

    We encountered a dead southern black racer snake (Coluber constrictor priapus) coiled around a dead Great Horned Owl (Bubo virginianus). We suggest the owl was strangled by the snake before the snake did of wounds inflicted by the owl. There are previous reports of intense physical struggle between Great Horned Owls (and...

  12. Ruptured non-communicating rudimentary horn of unicornuate uterus at 14 weeks of pregnancy: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Kumar

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Rudimentary horn is one of the rarest congenital uterine anomalies and consists of a relatively normal appearing uterus on one side with a rudimentary horn on the other side. Pregnancy in the rudimentary horn of the uterus is a rare form of ectopic pregnancy of which most of the patients present in second trimester in haemorrhagic shock and severe anaemia due to rupture. We report a case of ruptured rudimentary horn at 14 weeks of pregnancy with shock and severe anaemia. A 30 yr old G2P1L1 with last child birth 4 yrs back reported to casualty with acute abdominal pain since 3 hrs, bleeding PV and vomiting since one hr. Ultrasound done showed haemoperitoneum with fetus of 14 weeks. Emergency laparotomy was done with excision of the rudimentary horn was done.

  13. The Ste20 kinase misshapen regulates both photoreceptor axon targeting and dorsal closure, acting downstream of distinct signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Y C; Maurel-Zaffran, C; Treisman, J E; Skolnik, E Y

    2000-07-01

    We have previously shown that the Ste20 kinase encoded by misshapen (msn) functions upstream of the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) mitogen-activated protein kinase module in Drosophila. msn is required to activate the Drosophila JNK, Basket (Bsk), to promote dorsal closure of the embryo. A mammalian homolog of Msn, Nck interacting kinase, interacts with the SH3 domains of the SH2-SH3 adapter protein Nck. We now show that Msn likewise interacts with Dreadlocks (Dock), the Drosophila homolog of Nck. dock is required for the correct targeting of photoreceptor axons. We have performed a structure-function analysis of Msn in vivo in Drosophila in order to elucidate the mechanism whereby Msn regulates JNK and to determine whether msn, like dock, is required for the correct targeting of photoreceptor axons. We show that Msn requires both a functional kinase and a C-terminal regulatory domain to activate JNK in vivo in Drosophila. A mutation in a PXXP motif on Msn that prevents it from binding to the SH3 domains of Dock does not affect its ability to rescue the dorsal closure defect in msn embryos, suggesting that Dock is not an upstream regulator of msn in dorsal closure. Larvae with only this mutated form of Msn show a marked disruption in photoreceptor axon targeting, implicating an SH3 domain protein in this process; however, an activated form of Msn is not sufficient to rescue the dock mutant phenotype. Mosaic analysis reveals that msn expression is required in photoreceptors in order for their axons to project correctly. The data presented here genetically link msn to two distinct biological events, dorsal closure and photoreceptor axon pathfinding, and thus provide the first evidence that Ste20 kinases of the germinal center kinase family play a role in axonal pathfinding. The ability of Msn to interact with distinct classes of adapter molecules in dorsal closure and photoreceptor axon pathfinding may provide the flexibility that allows it to link to distinct

  14. Ventral and dorsal streams for choosing word order during sentence production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thothathiri, Malathi; Rattinger, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    Proficient language use requires speakers to vary word order and choose between different ways of expressing the same meaning. Prior statistical associations between individual verbs and different word orders are known to influence speakers’ choices, but the underlying neural mechanisms are unknown. Here we show that distinct neural pathways are used for verbs with different statistical associations. We manipulated statistical experience by training participants in a language containing novel verbs and two alternative word orders (agent-before-patient, AP; patient-before-agent, PA). Some verbs appeared exclusively in AP, others exclusively in PA, and yet others in both orders. Subsequently, we used sparse sampling neuroimaging to examine the neural substrates as participants generated new sentences in the scanner. Behaviorally, participants showed an overall preference for AP order, but also increased PA order for verbs experienced in that order, reflecting statistical learning. Functional activation and connectivity analyses revealed distinct networks underlying the increased PA production. Verbs experienced in both orders during training preferentially recruited a ventral stream, indicating the use of conceptual processing for mapping meaning to word order. In contrast, verbs experienced solely in PA order recruited dorsal pathways, indicating the use of selective attention and sensorimotor integration for choosing words in the right order. These results show that the brain tracks the structural associations of individual verbs and that the same structural output may be achieved via ventral or dorsal streams, depending on the type of regularities in the input. PMID:26621706

  15. HRensembleHR. High resolution ensemble for Horns Rev. Final project report; Offshore wind power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-03-15

    The wind farm output of an offshore-farm such as Horns Rev changes between nearly constant output to highly variable power output. A balance responsible will therefore benefit from knowing the variability of a wind farm in advance. Some understanding of the observed variability and the corresponding forecast error on offshore wind farms had been gathered in the past few years, while a large fraction (about 60%) of the error still lacked understanding and required further intense research. This was the outset at the beginning of the HREnsemble project. Results from the wave study, variability study, ocean coupling, findings from the sensitivity experiments, the iEnKF short-term forecast and finally the demonstration phase have given significant synergy. The most basic research result in the project is that the two empirical mode decomposition approaches, Hilbert-Huang and later the Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition (EEMD). Both approaches confirmed that significant variability exists in offshore conditions. It was found that the variability of the short time-scales (24 minutes) are either not explicitly visible in the grid-scale of the NWP models or in the best case significantly smoothed out in all of the tested model configurations. If we interpret 2/3 of the variability due to vertical waves not present in the mean flow and 1/3 of the variability due to meso-scale weather, then the model results and EEMD are consistent. We can however not verify this theory. At present we do not know if EEMD counts neither the events correct nor whether the ensemble forecast suppresses variability. The existence of variability above the time-scale related to friction between ocean waves and air can in fact explain some of the inconsistent results published in the literature and set a question mark behind the correctness of the calculation of friction in wave, ocean and weather modelling. (LN)

  16. Spontaneous and Evoked Activity from Murine Ventral Horn Cultures on Microelectrode Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan J. Black

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Motor neurons are the site of action for several neurological disorders and paralytic toxins, with cell bodies located in the ventral horn (VH of the spinal cord along with interneurons and support cells. Microelectrode arrays (MEAs have emerged as a high content assay platform for mechanistic studies and drug discovery. Here, we explored the spontaneous and evoked electrical activity of VH cultures derived from embryonic mouse spinal cord on multi-well plates of MEAs. Primary VH cultures from embryonic day 15–16 mice were characterized by expression of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT by immunocytochemistry. Well resolved, all-or-nothing spontaneous spikes with profiles consistent with extracellular action potentials were observed after 3 days in vitro, persisting with consistent firing rates until at least day in vitro 19. The majority of the spontaneous activity consisted of tonic firing interspersed with coordinated bursting across the network. After 5 days in vitro, spike activity was readily evoked by voltage pulses where a minimum amplitude and duration required for excitation was 300 mV and 100 μs/phase, respectively. We characterized the sensitivity of spontaneous and evoked activity to a host of pharmacological agents including AP5, CNQX, strychnine, ω-agatoxin IVA, and botulinum neurotoxin serotype A (BoNT/A. These experiments revealed sensitivity of the cultured VH to both agonist and antagonist compounds in a manner consistent with mature tissue derived from slices. In the case of BoNT/A, we also demonstrated intoxication persistence over an 18-day period, followed by partial intoxication recovery induced by N- and P/Q-type calcium channel agonist GV-58. In total, our findings suggest that VH cultures on multi-well MEA plates may represent a moderate throughput, high content assay for performing mechanistic studies and for screening potential therapeutics pertaining to paralytic toxins and neurological disorders.

  17. Calcium channel alpha-2-delta-1 protein upregulation in dorsal spinal cord mediates spinal cord injury-induced neuropathic pain states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boroujerdi, Amin; Zeng, Jun; Sharp, Kelli; Kim, Donghyun; Steward, Oswald; Luo, Z David

    2011-03-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) commonly results in the development of neuropathic pain, which can dramatically impair the quality of life for SCI patients. SCI-induced neuropathic pain can be manifested as both tactile allodynia (a painful sensation to a non-noxious stimulus) and hyperalgesia (an enhanced sensation to a painful stimulus). The mechanisms underlying these pain states are poorly understood. Clinical studies have shown that gabapentin, a drug that binds to the voltage-gated calcium channel alpha-2-delta-1 subunit (Ca(v)α2δ-1) proteins is effective in the management of SCI-induced neuropathic pain. Accordingly, we hypothesized that tactile allodynia post SCI is mediated by an upregulation of Ca(v)α2δ-1 in dorsal spinal cord. To test this hypothesis, we examined whether SCI-induced dysregulation of spinal Ca(v)α2δ-1 plays a contributory role in below-level allodynia development in a rat spinal T9 contusion injury model. We found that Ca(v)α2δ-1 expression levels were significantly increased in L4-6 dorsal, but not ventral, spinal cord of SCI rats that correlated with tactile allodynia development in the hind paw plantar surface. Furthermore, both intrathecal gabapentin treatment and blocking SCI-induced Ca(v)α2δ-1 protein upregulation by intrathecal Ca(v)α2δ-1 antisense oligodeoxynucleotides could reverse tactile allodynia in SCI rats. These findings support that SCI-induced Ca(v)α2δ-1 upregulation in spinal dorsal horn is a key component in mediating below-level neuropathic pain states, and selectively targeting this pathway may provide effective pain relief for SCI patients. Spinal cord contusion injury caused increased calcium channel Ca(v)α2δ-1 subunit expression in dorsal spinal cord that contributes to neuropathic pain states. Copyright © 2010 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Rib Diced Cartilage-Fascia Grafting in Dorsal Nasal Reconstruction: A Randomized Clinical Trial of Wrapping With Rectus Muscle Fascia vs Deep Temporal Fascia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    As'adi, Kamran; Salehi, Seyed Hamid; Shoar, Saeed

    2014-08-01

    Rib cartilage is an abundant source for cartilage grafts when significant dorsal nasal augmentation or structural support is indicated. Diced cartilage wrapped in fascia was developed to counteract warping, visibility, and displacement of rib cartilage as a dorsal solid graft. The technique for wrapping diced cartilage has evolved during the past several years. The authors compared 2 distinct fascial sleeves for wrapping rib diced cartilage in the treatment of patients who required major dorsal nasal augmentation. Thirty-six patients who planned to undergo major dorsal nasal reconstruction with diced costal rib cartilage were assigned randomly to 1 of 2 groups: the intervention group, which received grafts wrapped with rectus muscle fascia from the rib cartilage harvesting site, or the control group, which received deep temporal fascia harvested separately. Outcomes were compared between the groups. Patients in the intervention group had significantly shorter operating times, significantly higher average satisfaction scores, and significantly shorter postoperative hospital stays than did patients in the control group. Harvesting rectus muscle fascia for wrapping diced rib cartilage is a feasible and reliable technique in dorsal nasal reconstruction surgery. It is associated with favorable outcomes and a high level of patient satisfaction. 4. © 2014 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc.

  19. p38 MAPK as an essential regulator of dorsal-ventral axis specification and skeletogenesis during sea urchin development: a re-evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Maria Dolores; Quirin, Magali; Haillot, Emmanuel; Jimenez, Felipe; Chessel, Aline; Lepage, Thierry

    2017-06-15

    Dorsal-ventral axis formation in the sea urchin embryo relies on the asymmetrical expression of the TGFβ Nodal. The p38-MAPK pathway has been proposed to be essential for dorsal-ventral axis formation by acting upstream of nodal expression. Here, we report that, in contrast to previous studies that used pharmacological inhibitors of p38, manipulating the activity of p38 by genetic means has no obvious impact on morphogenesis. Instead, we discovered that p38 inhibitors strongly disrupt specification of all germ layers by blocking signalling from the Nodal receptor and by interfering with the ERK pathway. Strikingly, while expression of a mutant p38 that is resistant to SB203580 did not rescue dorsal-ventral axis formation or skeletogenesis in embryos treated with this inhibitor, expression of mutant Nodal receptors that are resistant to SB203580 fully restored nodal expression in SB203580-treated embryos. Taken together, these results establish that p38 activity is not required for dorsal-ventral axis formation through nodal expression nor for skeletogenesis. Our results prompt a re-evaluation of the conclusions of several recent studies that linked p38 activity to dorsal-ventral axis formation and to patterning of the skeleton. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  20. Elsam. Offshore Wind Turbines. Horns Rev. Annual status report for the environmental monitoring programme 1. January 2004 - 31. December 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-07-01

    In 2001, the former Ministry of the Environment and Energy granted Elsam A/S and Eltra A.m.b.A. approval to establish a wind farm capable of producing 160 MW of electric power, at Horns Rev, west of Blaevandshuk at the west coast of Jutland. According to the conditions of the approval, Elsam and Eltra were required to monitor the environmental effects of the wind farm by performing monitoring before, during and after construction of the wind farm. The environmental monitoring programme is financed through Public Service Obligation (PSO). Analogue to the Horns Rev wind farm another offshore demonstrational wind farm was established in the Baltic sea south of Lolland by Energi E2 the Nysted 165 MW offshore wind farm. To coordinate the environmental monitoring at the two demonstration wind farms at Nysted and Horns Rev within the framework of the approved budget, the Environmental Group of Danish Offshore Wind Farm Demonstration Projects was set up. The group consists of representatives from the Danish Forest and Nature Agency, the Danish Energy Authority, Elsam and Energi E2. The Environmental Group initiates, monitors and evaluates the environmental programmes continuously with respect to possible improvements and intensifications to ensure that the design of the individual programmes is optimal. After evaluation, the monitoring programmes are proposed by the Environmental Group and carried out after final approval by the Danish Energy Authority. The Environmental Group considers if there is reason to adjust the issues and priorities of the programmes based on previous experience or other inputs eg from the international expert panel, IAPEME (International Advisory Panel of Experts on Marine Ecology). IAPEME evaluates the environmental monitoring programmes and makes valuable suggestions and recommendations to the Environmental Group. The programmes have concentrated on the monitoring of possible impacts before, during and after construction to investigate and

  1. Elsam. Offshore Wind Turbines. Horns Rev. Annual status report for the environmental monitoring programme 1. January 2004 - 31. December 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-15

    In 2001, the former Ministry of the Environment and Energy granted Elsam A/S and Eltra A.m.b.A. approval to establish a wind farm capable of producing 160 MW of electric power, at Horns Rev, west of Blaevandshuk at the west coast of Jutland. According to the conditions of the approval, Elsam and Eltra were required to monitor the environmental effects of the wind farm by performing monitoring before, during and after construction of the wind farm. The environmental monitoring programme is financed through Public Service Obligation (PSO). Analogue to the Horns Rev wind farm another offshore demonstrational wind farm was established in the Baltic sea south of Lolland by Energi E2 the Nysted 165 MW offshore wind farm. To coordinate the environmental monitoring at the two demonstration wind farms at Nysted and Horns Rev within the framework of the approved budget, the Environmental Group of Danish Offshore Wind Farm Demonstration Projects was set up. The group consists of representatives from the Danish Forest and Nature Agency, the Danish Energy Authority, Elsam and Energi E2. The Environmental Group initiates, monitors and evaluates the environmental programmes continuously with respect to possible improvements and intensifications to ensure that the design of the individual programmes is optimal. After evaluation, the monitoring programmes are proposed by the Environmental Group and carried out after final approval by the Danish Energy Authority. The Environmental Group considers if there is reason to adjust the issues and priorities of the programmes based on previous experience or other inputs eg from the international expert panel, IAPEME (International Advisory Panel of Experts on Marine Ecology). IAPEME evaluates the environmental monitoring programmes and makes valuable suggestions and recommendations to the Environmental Group. The programmes have concentrated on the monitoring of possible impacts before, during and after construction to investigate and

  2. Failed induction in a rudimentary horn of uterus with sacculation: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pregnancy in a non-communicating horn of the uterus, though rare should always be suspected in cases of failed ripening/induction of labour. This case revealed the significant morbidity that such patients may go through in vain attempts to deliver them vaginally. Despite the repeat Ultrasound scan and Doppler ...

  3. Melanotic paraganglioma arising in the temporal horn following Langerhans cell histiocytosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Jeong Hyun; Rivera, Andreana; Naeini, Ramin M.; Yedururi, Sireesha; Megahead, Hatem; Bayindir, Petek; Fuller, Gregory N.; Suh, Jeong Soo; Adesina, Adekunle M.; Hunter, Jill V.

    2008-01-01

    Intracerebral paragangliomas are rare because of the lack of paraganglial cells in the cerebral tissue. We report a rare case of melanotic paraganglioma arising from the temporal horn of the lateral ventricle in a patient with prior Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) treated with chemotherapy and radiation. (orig.)

  4. Counter-Terrorism in the Greater Horn of Africa 2004-2010 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The resilient anarchy in Somalia seems to have worsened the picture. Six years after the formation of the Transitional Federal Government in October 2004, Somalia is yet to have a fully operational government. This state of affairs, coupled with similar regional challenges made the Greater Horn an easy target for global ...

  5. Foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype SAT 3 in long-horned Ankole calf, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhikusooka, Moses Tefula; Tjørnehøj, Kirsten; Ayebazibwe, Chrisostom; Namatovu, Alice; Ruhweza, Simon; Siegismund, Hans Redlef; Wekesa, Sabenzia Nabalayo; Normann, Preben; Belsham, Graham J

    2015-01-01

    After a 16-year interval, foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype SAT 3 was isolated in 2013 from an apparently healthy long-horned Ankole calf that grazed close to buffalo in Uganda. The emergent virus strain is ≈20% different in nucleotide sequence (encoding VP1 [viral protein 1]) from its closest relatives isolated previously from buffalo in Uganda.

  6. Analysis of long distance wakes of Horns Rev I using actuator disc approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, O.; Mikkelsen, Robert Flemming; Hansen, Kurt Schaldemose

    2014-01-01

    The wake recovery behind the Horns Rev wind farm is analysed to investigate the applicability of Large Eddy Simulations (LES) in combination with an actuator disc method (ACD) for farm to farm interaction studies. Periodic boundary conditions on the lateral boundaries are used to model the wind...

  7. The genetics of primary and secondary sexual character trade-offs in a horned beetle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    House, C M; Simmons, L W

    2012-09-01

    When structures compete for shared resources, this may lead to acquisition and allocation trade-offs so that the enlargement of one structure occurs at the expense of another. Among the studies of morphological trade-offs, their importance has been demonstrated primarily through experimental manipulations and comparative analyses. Relatively, a few studies have investigated the underlying genetic basis of phenotypic patterns. Here, we use a half-sibling breeding design to determine the genetic underpinnings of the phenotypic trade-off between head horns and the male copulatory organ or aedeagus that has been found in the dung beetle Onthophagus taurus. Instead of the predicted negative genetic covariance among characters that trade-off, we find positive genetic covariance between absolute horn and aedeagus length and zero genetic covariance between relative horn and aedeagus length. Therefore, although the genetic covariance between absolute horn and aedeagus length would constrain the independent evolution of primary and secondary sexual characters in this population, there was no evidence of a trade-off. We discuss alternative hypotheses for the observed patterns of genetic correlation between traits that compete for resources and the implications that these have for selection and the evolution of such traits. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2012 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  8. Inclusions of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-linked superoxide dismutase in ventral horns, liver, and kidney

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonsson, P.A.; Bergemalm, D.; Andersen, P.M.

    2008-01-01

    Mutant superoxide dismutases type 1 (SOD1s) cause amyotrophic lateral sclerosis by an unidentified toxic property. In a patient carrying the G127X truncation mutation, minute amounts of SOD1 were found in ventral horns using a mutant-specific antibody. Still, both absolute levels and ratios versus...

  9. Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Serotype SAT 3 in Long-Horned Ankole Calf, Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dhikusooka, Moses Tefula; Tjørnehøj, Kirsten; Ayebazibwe, Chrisostom

    2015-01-01

    After a 16-year interval, foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype SAT 3 was isolated in 2013 from an apparently healthy long-horned Ankole calf that grazed close to buffalo in Uganda. The emergent virus strain is ≈20% different in nucleotide sequence (encoding VP1 [viral protein 1]) from its closest...

  10. High levels of insecticide resistance in introduced horn fly (Diptera: Muscidae) populations and implications for management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyarzún, M P; Li, A Y; Figueroa, C C

    2011-02-01

    The horn fly, Haematobia irritans (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae), was introduced to Chile in the beginning of the 1990s. Since its introduction, farmers have controlled this pest almost exclusively with insecticides. To understand the consequences of different control strategies on the development of insecticide resistance and their persistence, a field survey was conducted at eight farms in the south of Chile to characterize insecticide resistance in field populations and resistance mechanisms. Horn fly samples were assayed to determine levels of resistance to pyrethroids and diazinon, genotyped for kdr and HialphaE7 mutations, and tested for general esterase activity. All field populations, including ones that were not treated with insecticides for the past 5 yr, showed high levels of cypermethrin resistance and high frequencies of the kdr mutation. None of the fly populations demonstrated resistance to diazinon and the HialphaE7 mutation was not detected in any of the fly samples. Esterase activities in all populations were comparable to those found in the susceptible reference strain. The findings of high frequencies of homozygous resistant and heterozygous individuals both in insecticide treated horn fly populations and in the untreated fly populations suggests complex interactions among field populations of the horn fly in Chile.

  11. Expressed cDNAS from embryonic and larval stages of the horn fly (Diptera: Muscidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, F D; Dowd, S E; Nene, V M; Foil, L D

    2008-07-01

    We used an expressed sequence tag approach to initiate a study of the genome of the horn fly, Hematobia irritans (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae). Two normalized cDNA libraries were synthesized from RNA isolated from embryos and first instars from a field population of horn flies. Approximately 10,000 clones were sequenced from both the 5' and 3' directions. Sequence data from each library was assembled into a database of tentative consensus sequences (TCs) and singletons and used to search public protein databases and annotate the sequences. Additionally, the sequences from both the egg and larval libraries were combined into a single database consisting of 16,702 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) assembling into 2886 TCs and 1,522 singleton entries. Several sequences were identified that may have roles in the horn fly's resistance to insecticides. The availability of this database will facilitate the design of microarray and other experiments to study horn fly gene expression on a larger scale than previously possible. This would include studies designed to investigate metabolic-based insecticide resistance, identify novel antigens for vaccine-based control approaches, and discover new proteins to serve as targets for new pesticide development.

  12. Influence of permethrin, diazinon and ivermectin treatments on insecticide resistance in the horn fly (Diptera: Muscidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byford, R L; Craig, M E; DeRouen, S M; Kimball, M D; Morrison, D G; Wyatt, W E; Foil, L D

    1999-01-01

    The history of insecticide resistance in the horn fly, Haematobia irritans, and the relationship between the characteristics of horn fly biology and insecticide use on resistance development is discussed. Colonies of susceptible horn flies were selected for resistance with six insecticide treatment regimens: continuous single use of permethrin, diazinon and ivermectin: permethrin-diazinon (1:2) mixture; and permethrin-diazinon and permethrin-ivermectin rotation (4-month cycle). Under laboratory conditions, resistance developed during generations 21, 31 and 30 to permethrin, diazinon and ivermectin, respectively. The magnitude of resistance ranged from horn-fly season resulted in product failure within 3-4 years for pyrethroids and organophosphates, respectively. In laboratory studies, use of alternating insecticides or a mixture of insecticides delayed the onset of resistance for up to 12 generations and reduced the magnitude of pyrethroid resistance. In field studies, yearly alternated use of pyrethroids and organophosphates did not slow or reverse pyrethroid resistance (Barros et al., unpublished data), while a 2-year alternated use with organophosphates resulted in partial reversion of pyrethroid resistance. When pyrethroid and organophosphate ear tags were used in a mosaic strategy at two different locations, efficacy of products did not change during a 3-year period.

  13. Private Security Contractors: A Way of Combating Piracy in the Horn of Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-22

    civil war. The capital city of Mogadishu is seeing dramatic results with its rebuilding efforts. The building of hotels , shopping areas, and the re...industry. The Gulf is named after the seaport of Aden, in southern Yemen, and is situated between the coasts of Arabia and the Horn of Africa.53 The

  14. Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt violation and the entropy-concurrence plane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derkacz, Lukasz; Jakobczyk, Lech

    2005-01-01

    We characterize violation of Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt (CHSH) inequalities for mixed two-qubit states by their mixedness and entanglement. The class of states that have maximum degree of CHSH violation for a given linear entropy is also constructed

  15. Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger correlation and Bell-type inequality seen from a moving frame

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    You Hao; Wang Anmin; Yang Xiaodong; Niu Wanqing; Ma Xiaosan; Xu Feng

    2004-01-01

    The relativistic version of the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger experiment with massive particles is proposed. We point out that, in the moving frame, GHZ correlations of spins in original directions transfer to different directions due to the Wigner rotation. Its effect on the degree of violation of Bell-type inequality is also discussed

  16. Dissonus pastinum n. sp. (Siphonostomatoida: Dissonidae), a copepod parasitic on a horn shark from Japan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deets, Gregory B.; Dojiri, Masahiro

    1990-01-01

    A new species of siphonostomatoid copepod, Dissonus pastinum, is described from the horn shark, Heterodontus japonicus (Dumeril), from Awa, Japan. The new species differs from all congeners except D. ruvetti Nunes-Ruivo & Fourmanoir, 1956 and D. nudiventris Kabata, 1965 by the presence of the

  17. Bush encroachment dynamics and rangeland management implications in the Horn of Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangelands in the Horn of Africa have been undergoing a rapid shift from herbaceous to woody plant dominance in the past decades, threatening subsistence livestock herding and pastoral food security. Despite of significant rangeland management implications, quantification of the spatial extent of en...

  18. Laminitis and interdigital dermatitis and heel horn erosion. A European perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterse, D J

    1985-03-01

    Laminitis is one of the most important claw disorders in dairy herds. Nutrition, calving, burdening of the lateral claw of the rear feet, and hereditary susceptibility are all contributing factors. Interdigital dermatitis in cattle may be a result of infection by Bacteroides nodosus and Fusobacterium necrophorum. If this infection becomes chronic, heel horn erosion is its consequence.

  19. Convex polyhedral abstractions, specialisation and property-based predicate splitting in Horn clause verification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kafle, Bishoksan; Gallagher, John Patrick

    2014-01-01

    We present an approach to constrained Horn clause (CHC) verification combining three techniques: abstract interpretation over a domain of convex polyhedra, specialisation of the constraints in CHCs using abstract interpretation of query-answer transformed clauses, and refinement by splitting pred...

  20. Culturally Appropriate Mentoring for Horn of African Young People in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Megan; Sawrikar, Pooja; Muir, Kristy

    2009-01-01

    Little is known about how to appropriately adapt mentoring programs for young people from the Horn of Africa, even though they have been arriving in Australia in significantly increasing numbers. These young people face unique challenges as a result of their age, ethnicity, migration and direct/indirect trauma experiences. The results of this…

  1. 76 FR 53295 - Unexpected Urgent Refugee and Migration Needs Related to the Horn of Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-25

    ...-12 of August 8, 2011--Unexpected Urgent Refugee and Migration Needs Related to the Horn of Africa...) of the Migration and Refugee Assistance Act of 1962 (the ``Act''), as amended, (22 U.S.C. 2601(c)(1... Emergency Refugee and Migration Assistance Fund, for the purpose of meeting unexpected and urgent refugee...

  2. Pregnancy in a non-communicating rudimentary uterine horn in an obese woman

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munck, Dorete Frydshou; Markauskas, Algirdas; Lamont, Ronald Francis

    2013-01-01

    We would like to report the rare occurrence of a pregnancy in a non-communicating rudimentary uterine horn in an obese woman which evaded diagnosis, ruptured, and resulted in major intra-abdominal hemorrhage. A nulliparous woman, with a BMI of 36, presented at 21-weeks gestation with a history...

  3. 9 CFR 95.11 - Bones, horns, and hoofs for trophies or museums; disinfected hoofs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... or museums; disinfected hoofs. 95.11 Section 95.11 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT..., OFFERED FOR ENTRY INTO THE UNITED STATES § 95.11 Bones, horns, and hoofs for trophies or museums..., and sinew and are offered for entry as trophies or for consignment to museums may be imported without...

  4. The neutrino horn 300 kiloampere pulsed power supply at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandberg, J.; Smith, G.A.; Carroll, A.S.

    1987-01-01

    A 300 Kiloampere pulsed power system used to energize the Brookhaven focusing neutrino horn is described. The constant current switching section, coaxial power feed and low level control system are presented. Calculations determining system performance are compared with measured values. Plans for future systems are discussed

  5. Horn antenna design studies. Citations from the International Aerospace Abstract data base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, M. K.

    1980-01-01

    These citations from the international literature describe the antenna radiation patterns, polarization characteristics, wave propagation, noise temperature, wave diffraction, and wideband communication of various horn antennas. This updated bibliography contains 217 citations, 63 of which are new entries to the previous edition.

  6. Study of Saiga Horn Using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography with Mass Spectrometry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mikulíková, Kateřina; Romanov, O.; Mikšík, Ivan; Eckhardt, Adam; Pataridis, Statis; Sedláková, Pavla

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 2012, č. 2012 (2012), ID759604 ISSN 1537-744X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA203/08/1428 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : saiga * horn * collagen Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 1.730, year: 2012

  7. Numerical Modelling of Large-Diameter Steel Piles at Horns Rev

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Augustesen, Anders Hust; Brødbæk, K. T.; Møller, M.

    2009-01-01

    as foundation for a wind turbine at Horns Rev located in the Danish sector of the North Sea. The outer diameter of the pile is 4 m and the subsoil at the location consists primarily of sand. The behaviour of the pile is investigated under realistic loading conditions by means of a traditional Winkler...

  8. Rare patterns of dorsal puncture in Pterostichus oblongopunctatus (Coleoptera: Carabidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axel Schwerk

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background The carabid beetle species Pterostichus oblongopunctatus is common in different types of forests in Poland and Europe. With respect to this species, some unclarities exist concerning the morphological feature of punctures on the elytra. P. oblongopunctatus has dorsal pits in the third interval of the elytra, the available identification keys, however, provide inconsistent information concerning the puncture in other intervals. During long-term studies at different study sites in Poland, the first author rarely but regularly discovered individuals with unusual dorsal puncture patterns, i.e., pits in the fifth and even in the seventh interval of the elytra. Since such rare patterns might be connected with special habitat characteristics, and thus have a potential as an indicator, the aim of the study was to test if they are connected with specific subpopulations (interaction groups, if they are related to the sex or size of the beetles, and if they are related to specific habitat conditions. Material and Methods We counted the pits on the elytra, determined the sex, and measured the length of the right elytron of individuals of P. oblongopunctatus collected at numerous study sites located within the borders of the Regional Directory of National Forests in Piła (Western Poland over the period 2014–2016. Results Altogether, 1,058 individuals of P. oblongopunctatus were subjected to statistical analysis. Almost 19% of the individuals had a dorsal puncture in the fifth interval of the elytra and about 0.7% had a dorsal puncture in the seventh interval of the elytra. In 2014 and 2015, significantly more females exhibited such unusual patterns of dorsal puncture than males. Even if not statistically significant, in 2016 also relatively more females showed such a pattern. Neither males nor females of the analysed individuals with usual puncture patterns showed a significant difference in the length of the right elytron from those with

  9. Dorsal scapular nerve neuropathy: a narrative review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muir, Brad

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this paper is to elucidate this little known cause of upper back pain through a narrative review of the literature and to discuss the possible role of the dorsal scapular nerve (DSN) in the etiopathology of other similar diagnoses in this area including cervicogenic dorsalgia (CD), notalgia paresthetica (NP), SICK scapula and a posterolateral arm pain pattern. Dorsal scapular nerve (DSN) neuropathy has been a rarely thought of differential diagnosis for mid scapular, upper to mid back and costovertebral pain. These are common conditions presenting to chiropractic, physiotherapy, massage therapy and medical offices. The methods used to gather articles for this paper included: searching electronic databases; and hand searching relevant references from journal articles and textbook chapters. One hundred-fourteen articles were retrieved. After removing duplicates, there were 57 articles of which 29 were retrieved. There were 26 articles and textbook chapters retrieved by hand searching equaling 55 articles retrieved of which 47 relevant articles were used in this report. The anatomy, pathway and function of the dorsal scapular nerve can be varied and exceptionally rarely may include a sensory component. The signs and symptoms, therefore, may include pain, atrophy, scapular winging, and dysesthesia. The mechanism of injury to the DSN is also quite varied ranging from postural to overuse in overhead work and sport. Other conditions in this area, including CD, NP, SICK scapula and a posterolateral arm pain pattern bear a striking resemblance to DSN neuropathy. DSN neuropathy should be included in the list of common differential diagnoses of upper and mid-thoracic pain, stiffness, dysesthesia and dysfunction. The study also brings forward interesting connections between DSN neuropathy, CD, NP, SICK scapula and a posterolateral arm pain pattern.

  10. Shape representations in the primate dorsal visual stream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom eTheys

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The primate visual system extracts object shape information for object recognition in the ventral visual stream. Recent research has demonstrated that object shape is also processed in the dorsal visual stream, which is specialized for spatial vision and the planning of actions. A number of studies have investigated the coding of 2D shape in the anterior intraparietal area (AIP, one of the end-stage areas of the dorsal stream which has been implicated in the extraction of affordances for the purpose of grasping. These findings challenge the current understanding of area AIP as a critical stage in the dorsal stream for the extraction of object affordances. The representation of three-dimensional (3D shape has been studied in two interconnected areas known to be critical for object grasping: area AIP and area F5a in the ventral premotor cortex (PMv, to which AIP projects. In both areas neurons respond selectively to 3D shape defined by binocular disparity, but the latency of the neural selectivity is approximately 10 ms longer in F5a compared to AIP, consistent with its higher position in the hierarchy of cortical areas. Furthermore F5a neurons were more sensitive to small amplitudes of 3D curvature and could detect subtle differences in 3D structure more reliably than AIP neurons. In both areas, 3D-shape selective neurons were co-localized with neurons showing motor-related activity during object grasping in the dark, indicating a close convergence of visual and motor information on the same clusters of neurons.

  11. Automatic phoneme category selectivity in the dorsal auditory stream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevillet, Mark A; Jiang, Xiong; Rauschecker, Josef P; Riesenhuber, Maximilian

    2013-03-20

    Debates about motor theories of speech perception have recently been reignited by a burst of reports implicating premotor cortex (PMC) in speech perception. Often, however, these debates conflate perceptual and decision processes. Evidence that PMC activity correlates with task difficulty and subject performance suggests that PMC might be recruited, in certain cases, to facilitate category judgments about speech sounds (rather than speech perception, which involves decoding of sounds). However, it remains unclear whether PMC does, indeed, exhibit neural selectivity that is relevant for speech decisions. Further, it is unknown whether PMC activity in such cases reflects input via the dorsal or ventral auditory pathway, and whether PMC processing of speech is automatic or task-dependent. In a novel modified categorization paradigm, we presented human subjects with paired speech sounds from a phonetic continuum but diverted their attention from phoneme category using a challenging dichotic listening task. Using fMRI rapid adaptation to probe neural selectivity, we observed acoustic-phonetic selectivity in left anterior and left posterior auditory cortical regions. Conversely, we observed phoneme-category selectivity in left PMC that correlated with explicit phoneme-categorization performance measured after scanning, suggesting that PMC recruitment can account for performance on phoneme-categorization tasks. Structural equation modeling revealed connectivity from posterior, but not anterior, auditory cortex to PMC, suggesting a dorsal route for auditory input to PMC. Our results provide evidence for an account of speech processing in which the dorsal stream mediates automatic sensorimotor integration of speech and may be recruited to support speech decision tasks.

  12. Surgical anatomy of the dorsal nerve of the clitoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginger, Van Anh T; Cold, Christopher J; Yang, Claire C

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the distal pathway of the dorsal nerve of the clitoris (DNC) from gross anatomical and histological studies of cadaver specimens. We performed dissections on 14 intact adult cadaver vulva specimens using 2× loupe magnification and microscopy. The DNC was identified by gross dissection and confirmed histologically by staining with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E), Masson's trichrome (MT), and S100 antibody. The DNC pathway and its branches were followed from the pubic rami to the glans clitoris. The DNC travels inferior to the inferior pubic ramus along the superior/posterior edge of the clitoral crus. At the angle of the clitoral body, inferior to the pubic symphysis, the DNC enters the deep component of the suspensory ligament, which attaches to the clitoral body and to the pubic symphysis. The dorsal nerves, at the angle of the clitoral body, travel along the dorsal aspect of the clitoral body at the 11 and 1 o'clock positions. At the base of the clitoral body, the DNC is suspended superiorly away from the tunica. Distally along the clitoral body, the DNC descends and runs along the tunica and enters the glans. Within the glans, the terminal fibers are widely dispersed, and numerous receptors populate the supporting tissue of the glans beneath the epithelium. The detailed description of the distal course of the nerve presented here has not been previously described in adult humans and is pertinent for surgical procedures involving the clitoris. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Keyhole interlaminar dorsal rhizotomy for spastic diplegia in cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindou, Marc; Georgoulis, George

    2015-07-01

    The efficiency and safety of dorsal rhizotomies for cerebral palsy lie in the accuracy of radicular identification together with selectivity of root sectioning. Two different exposures are currently in use. The first is extended laminotomy/laminectomy from the upper lumbar level to the sacrum, which allows accurate identification of all L2-S2 roots/rootlets. The second is limited laminotomy exposing the conus/cauda equina at the thoracolumbar junction; this less invasive method limits accessibility to the roots. To optimize the accuracy and selectivity while minimizing invasiveness, the authors developed a tailored interlaminar procedure targeting the radicular levels involved in the harmful components of spasticity directly and individually. Six patients with spastic diplegia at different levels of the Gross Motor Functional Classification System were selected. In each patient, two to three interlaminar spaces, preselected according to planning, were enlarged in the "keyhole" fashion, respecting the spinous processes and interspinous ligaments. Ventral root stimulation identified the radicular level. Dorsal root stimulation evaluated its implication in the hyperactive segmental circuits, helping quantify the percentage of rootlets to be cut. There were neither wound-related nor general complications. At 1 year of follow-up, X-ray examination did not reveal kyphosis or instability. In all children, the excess of spasticity was reduced. The Ashworth score decreased from 3.2 on average to 0.6 postoperatively (range: 2-4 to 0-2). Regarding the functional status at 1 year of follow-up for the three ambulatory children, the Gillette ability-to-walk score increased from 3/10 on average to 7.3/10 postoperatively (range: 2-4 to 7-8). For the three non-ambulatory children, abnormal postures, painful contractures and ease of care were much improved. Keyhole interlaminar dorsal rhizotomy (KIDr) offers direct intradural access to each of the ventral/dorsal roots, thus

  14. Dorsal dimelia in patau syndrome: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattah, A; Pickford, M A

    2007-10-01

    We present a case of a child with Patau syndrome that exhibits features consistent with congenital palmar nail syndrome. The literature is reviewed and evidence presented to demonstrate that this is a defect in the dorso-ventral patterning of the limb and thus a form of dorsal dimelia. In order to differentiate this from other instances of ectopic nail tissue we suggest congenital palmar nail syndrome should be more specifically defined as duplicated nails, absent flexion creases, non-glabrous skin on the palmar surface, reduced movement at the interphalangeal joints and hypoplastic terminal phalanges.

  15. Hard bottom substrate monitoring Horns Rev offshore wind farm. Annual status report 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonhard, S.B.; Pedersen, John

    2004-05-15

    Elsam and Eltra built the offshore demonstration wind farm at Horns Rev in the North Sea. Elsam is the owner and is responsible for the operation of the wind farm. Eltra is responsible for the connection of the wind farm to the national onshore grid. In the summer months of 2002, Elsam constructed the world's largest offshore wind farm off the Danish west coast. The wind farm is sited 14-20 km into the North Sea, west of Blaevands Huk. The first wind turbine was erected in May 2002 and the last wind turbine tower of a total of 80 was in place by August 2002. The construction work was completed with the last connecting cables sluiced down in September 2002. All the wind turbines were in production by December 2002. The expected impact of the wind farm will primarily be an alternation of habitats due to the introduction of hard bottom substrates as wind turbine towers and scour protections. A continuous development in the epifouling communities will be expected together with an introduction of new or alien species in the area. The indigenous benthic community in the area of Horns Rev can be characterised by infauna species belonging to the Goniadella-Spisula community. This community is typical of sandbanks in the North Sea area, although communities in such areas are very variable and site-specific. Character species used as indicators for environmental changes in the Horns Rev area are the bristle worms Goniadella bobretzkii, Ophelia borealis, Psione remota and Orbinia sertulata and the mussels Goodallia triangularis and Spisula solida. In connection with the implementation of the monitoring programme concerning the ecological impact of the introduction of hard substrate related to the Horns Rev Wind Farm, surveys on hard bottom substrate was conducted in March 2003 and in September 2003. This report describes the first year results of surveys on hard substrate after the completion of the offshore wind farm at Horns Rev. (au)

  16. Comparing Visual and Digital Counting Methods to Estimate Horn Fly (Diptera: Muscidae) Populations on Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smythe, B G; Urias, S; Wise, M E; Scholljegerdes, E J; Summers, A F; Bailey, D W

    2017-07-01

    Horn fly, Haematobia irritans (L.), population estimates often serve as a diagnostic tool prior to implementing managerial control options available to researchers and producers. Digital photographs taken of cattle infested with horn flies have been suggested to provide similarly accurate population estimates as compared with traditional visual assessments. The objective of this study was to compare visual and digital techniques used to estimate horn fly populations. Sixteen Angus × Hereford yearling heifers artificially infested with four levels of horn flies (Low = 0 flies; Medium = 250 flies; High = 500 flies; Extreme = 1,000 flies) were evaluated. Population estimates were taken visually by experienced (VE1) and inexperienced (VE2) technicians, as well as digitally, with photographs taken on both lateral sides of the south-facing animal. Horn flies were counted in both photographs and combined (CDC) for full body estimates. In addition, the highest photographed side population times two (DDC) was used for comparison. Estimations were made at 0700, 1200, and 1900 h the day following infestation. A time of observation × infestation level interaction (P < 0.01) was detected. On average, VE1 population estimates were greater (P < 0.01) than any other counting method observed. Morning estimates were greater (P < 0.05) than those taken at noon or in the early evening regardless of counting method. Further research regarding the standardization of these techniques to ensure more accurate population estimates is needed before these methods can be incorporated into integrated pest management programs. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. A new horned dinosaur reveals convergent evolution in cranial ornamentation in Ceratopsidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Caleb M; Henderson, Donald M

    2015-06-15

    Ceratopsid (horned) dinosaurs are an iconic group of large-bodied, quadrupedal, herbivorous dinosaurs that evolved in the Late Cretaceous and were largely restricted to western North America [1-5]. Ceratopsids are easily recognized by their cranial ornamentation in the form of nasal and postorbital horns and frill (capped by epiossifications); these structures show high morphological disparity and also represent the largest cranial display structures known to have evolved [2, 4]. Despite their restricted occurrence in time and space, this group has one of the best fossil records within Dinosauria, showing a rapid diversification in horn and frill morphology [1]. Here a new genus and species of chasmosaurine ceratopsid is described based on a nearly complete and three-dimensionally preserved cranium recovered from the uppermost St. Mary River Formation (Maastrichtian) of southwestern Alberta. Regaliceratops peterhewsi gen. et sp. nov. exhibits many unique characters of the frill and is characterized by a large nasal horncore, small postorbital horncores, and massive parietal epiossifications. Cranial morphology, particularly the epiossifications, suggests close affinity with the late Campanian/early Maastrichian taxon Anchiceratops, as well as with the late Maastrichtian taxon Triceratops. A median epiparietal necessitates a reassessment of epiossification homology and results in a more resolved phylogeny. Most surprisingly, Regaliceratops exhibits a suite of cranial ornamentations that are superficially similar to Campanian centrosaurines, indicating both exploration of novel display morphospace in Chasmosaurinae, especially Maastrichtian forms, and convergent evolution in horn morphology with the recently extinct Centrosaurinae. This marks the first time that evolutionary convergence in horn-like display structures has been demonstrated between dinosaur clades, similar to those seen in fossil and extant mammals [6]. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  18. Use of electroporation as an option to transform the horn fly, Haematobia irritans: a species recalcitrant to microinjection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qiang; Guerrero, Felix D; Palavesam, Azhahianambi; Pérez de León, Adalberto A

    2016-08-01

    The horn fly, Haematobia irritans, is a serious pest of cattle in North America. The control of horn flies has primarily relied on insecticides. However, the heavy use of insecticides has led to the development of insecticide resistance in horn flies. Novel methods to control horn flies are greatly needed. Transgenic technology is an effective tool to genetically modify insects and may lead to novel methods of pest control based on genomic approaches. Here we report a piggyBac-mediated transformation of the horn fly via electroporation. Transformation with a DsRed fluorescent marker protein coding region was verified by PCR analysis of individual fly bodies and pupal cases and sequencing of PCR products. However, Southern blot analysis failed to indicate the DsRed gene was integrated into the horn fly genome. Thus, the electroporation protocol may have caused the DsRed gene to be integrated into bacterial symbionts of the horn fly. © 2015 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  19. Hydrodynamic function of dorsal fins in spiny dogfish and bamboo sharks during steady swimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, Anabela; Lauder, George V; Wilga, Cheryl D

    2017-11-01

    A key feature of fish functional design is the presence of multiple fins that allow thrust vectoring and redirection of fluid momentum to contribute to both steady swimming and maneuvering. A number of previous studies have analyzed the function of dorsal fins in teleost fishes in this context, but the hydrodynamic function of dorsal fins in freely swimming sharks has not been analyzed, despite the potential for differential functional roles between the anterior and posterior dorsal fins. Previous anatomical research has suggested a primarily stabilizing role for shark dorsal fins. We evaluated the generality of this hypothesis by using time-resolved particle image velocimetry to record water flow patterns in the wake of both the anterior and posterior dorsal fins in two species of freely swimming sharks: bamboo sharks ( Chiloscyllium plagiosum ) and spiny dogfish ( Squalus acanthias ). Cross-correlation analysis of consecutive images was used to calculate stroke-averaged mean longitudinal and lateral velocity components, and vorticity. In spiny dogfish, we observed a velocity deficit in the wake of the first dorsal fin and flow acceleration behind the second dorsal fin, indicating that the first dorsal fin experiences net drag while the second dorsal fin can aid in propulsion. In contrast, the wake of both dorsal fins in bamboo sharks displayed increased net flow velocity in the majority of trials, reflecting a thrust contribution to steady swimming. In bamboo sharks, fluid flow in the wake of the second dorsal fin had higher absolute average velocity than that for first dorsal fin, and this may result from a positive vortex interaction between the first and second dorsal fins. These data suggest that the first dorsal fin in spiny dogfish has primarily a stabilizing function, while the second dorsal fin has a propulsive function. In bamboo sharks, both dorsal fins can contribute thrust and should be considered as propulsive adjuncts to the body during steady

  20. Are polytetrafluoroethylene (Gore-Tex) implants an alternative material for nasal dorsal augmentation in Asians?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Joon Pio; Yoon, Ji Young; Choi, Jong Woo

    2010-11-01

    Augmentation rhinoplasty is a relatively common procedure in Korea. Alloplastic materials such as silicone, supramid mesh, Proplast, Mersiline, Medpor, and hydroxyapatite are frequently used for dorsal augmentation. Alloplastic implants have advantages, such as ready availability and no donor-site morbidity, but are associated with higher infection and extrusion rates than are autogenous materials. Although polytetrafluoroethylene (Gore-Tex) implants have recently been introduced, such implants are yet to be established as an alternative for nasal augmentation because of a lack of relevant reports. From March 1998 to March 2007, we operated on 873 nasal dorsum augmentation patients using hard-type Gore-Tex implants. The patients were all of Korean ethnicity. There were 826 female and 47 male patients and aged ranging from 18 to 57 years (mean, 24 y). The Gore-Tex implant thicknesses were 3.1 to 4.9 mm (used in 59% of cases), 2 to 3 mm (8%), or 5 to 6 mm (33%). The Gore-Tex implants were used only for dorsal augmentation, whereas conchal or septal cartilage was used for nasal tip plasty. Of the total of 873 patients, 257 received long-term follow-up (mean follow-up, 34 mo). Apart from 34 patients with revision, no patient reported dissatisfaction, and there were no reports of problems with nasal contour, implant migration, or resorption of the implant material. The overall complication rate was 3.8%. Of the 257 long-term follow-up patients, 34 (13.5%) required revision. Four of these patients involved minor complications that were managed conservatively, whereas 30 patients required implant removal and revision procedures. These 30 cases included irregularity, infection, deviation, unfavorable dorsum height, and apparent implant silhouette, in addition to obvious supratip deformity. A review of the literature revealed that Gore-Tex implants seemed to have a lower implant removal rate than silicone implants. However, the overall complication rates seemed to be