WorldWideScience

Sample records for dormant storage effects

  1. Acceleration of dormant storage effects to address the reliability of silicon surface micromachined Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, James V.; Candelaria, Sam A.; Dugger, Michael Thomas; Duesterhaus, Michelle Ann; Tanner, Danelle Mary; Timpe, Shannon J.; Ohlhausen, James Anthony; Skousen, Troy J.; Jenkins, Mark W.; Jokiel, Bernhard, Jr.; Walraven, Jeremy Allen; Parson, Ted Blair

    2006-06-01

    Qualification of microsystems for weapon applications is critically dependent on our ability to build confidence in their performance, by predicting the evolution of their behavior over time in the stockpile. The objective of this work was to accelerate aging mechanisms operative in surface micromachined silicon microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) with contacting surfaces that are stored for many years prior to use, to determine the effects of aging on reliability, and relate those effects to changes in the behavior of interfaces. Hence the main focus was on 'dormant' storage effects on the reliability of devices having mechanical contacts, the first time they must move. A large number ({approx}1000) of modules containing prototype devices and diagnostic structures were packaged using the best available processes for simple electromechanical devices. The packaging processes evolved during the project to better protect surfaces from exposure to contaminants and water vapor. Packages were subjected to accelerated aging and stress tests to explore dormancy and operational environment effects on reliability and performance. Functional tests and quantitative measurements of adhesion and friction demonstrated that the main failure mechanism during dormant storage is change in adhesion and friction, precipitated by loss of the fluorinated monolayer applied after fabrication. The data indicate that damage to the monolayer can occur at water vapor concentrations as low as 500 ppm inside the package. The most common type of failure was attributed to surfaces that were in direct contact during aging. The application of quantitative methods for monolayer lubricant analysis showed that even though the coverage of vapor-deposited monolayers is generally very uniform, even on hidden surfaces, locations of intimate contact can be significantly depleted in initial concentration of lubricating molecules. These areas represent defects in the film prone to adsorption of

  2. Failure analysis for the dual input quad NAND fate CD4011 under dormant storage conditions.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorensen, Neil Robert

    2004-11-01

    Several groups of plastic molded CD4011 were electrically tested as part of an Army dormant storage program. For this test, parts had been in storage in missile containers for 4.5 years. Eight of the parts (out of 1200) failed the electrical tests and were subsequently analyzed to determine the cause of the failures. The root cause was found to be corrosion of the unpassivated Al bondpads. No significant attack of the passivated Al traces was found. Seven of the eight failures occurred in parts stored on a preposition ship (Jeb Stuart), suggesting a link between the external environment and observed corrosion.

  3. Failure analysis for the dual input quad NAND gate CD4011 under dormant storage conditions.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorensen, Neil Robert

    2007-05-01

    Several groups of plastic molded CD4011s were electrically tested as part of an Army dormant storage program. These parts had been in storage in missile containers for 4.5 years, and were electrically tested annually. Eight of the parts (out of 1200) failed the electrical tests and were subsequently analyzed to determine the cause of the failures. The root cause was found to be corrosion of the unpassivated Al bondpads. No significant attack of the passivated Al traces was found. Seven of the eight failures occurred in parts stored on a pre-position ship (the Jeb Stuart), suggesting a link between the external environment and observed corrosion.

  4. Short versus long term effects of cyanide on sugar metabolism and transport in dormant walnut kernels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerivani, Zahra; Vashaee, Elham; Sadeghipour, Hamid Reza; Aghdasi, Mahnaz; Shobbar, Zahra-Sadat; Azimmohseni, Majid

    2016-11-01

    Tree seed dormancy release by cold stratification accompanies with the embryo increased gluconeogenesis competence. Cyanide also breaks seed dormancy however, integrated information about its effects on carbon metabolism is lacking. Accordingly, the impacts of HCN on germination, lipid gluconeogenesis and sugar transport capacity of walnut (Juglans regia L.) kernels were investigated during 10-days period prior to radicle protrusion. HCN increased walnut kernel germination and within four days of kernel incubation, hastened the decline of starch, reducing and non-reducing sugars and led to greater activities of alkaline invertase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase. From four days of kernel incubation onwards, starch and non-reducing sugars accumulated only in the HCN treated axes. Cyanide also increased the activities of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and glyoxysomal succinate oxidase and led to greater acid invertase activity during the aforementioned period. The expressions of both sucrose transporter (JrSUT1) and H(+)-ATPase (JrAHA1) genes especially in cotyledons and H(+)-ATPase activity in kernels were significantly enhanced by exposure to cyanide. Thus in short-term HCN led to prevalence of carbohydrate catabolic events such as oxidative pentose phosphate pathway and possibly glycolysis in dormant walnut kernels. Long-term effects however, are increased gluconeogenesis and enhanced sugar transport capacity of kernels as a prerequisite for germination. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The Effect of Endophytic Fungi on Nematode Populations in Summer-dormant and Summer-active Tall Fescue

    OpenAIRE

    Rogers, James K.; Walker, Nathan R.; Young, Carolyn A.

    2016-01-01

    Summer-active (continental) and summer-dormant (Mediterranean) tall fescue morphotypes are each adapted to different environmental conditions. Endophyte presence provides plant parasitic nematode resistance, but not with all endophyte strains and cultivar combinations. This study sought to compare effects of four nematode genera on continental and Mediterranean cultivars infected with common toxic or novel endophyte strains. A 6-mon greenhouse study was conducted with continental cultivars, K...

  6. Effects of hot water treatments on dormant grapevine propagation materials used for grafted vine production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soltekin Oguzhan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Agrobacterium vitis is responsible for the crown gall disease of grapevine which breaks the grapevine trunk vascular system. Nutrient flow is prevented by crown gall and it leads to weak growth and death of the plants. It can be destructive disease often encountered in vineyards and it can be spread in cuttings for propagation. Thermotherapy treatment is an alternative method for eradicating A. vitis from grapevine cuttings but effects of thermotherapy treatments on dormant vine tissue, bud vitality, rooting and shooting of the propagation materials are not yet fully understood. In this research, it is aimed to determine the effects of thermotherapy treatment (Hot water treatment on callus formation (at the basal part and grafting point, grafted vine quality (shoot length, shoot width, root number, shooting and rooting development, fresh and dry weight of shoots and roots and final take in the grafted vine production. Experiment was conducted in the nursery of Manisa Viticultural Research Institute. Rootstocks (Kober 5BB, Couderc 1613 and 41B and scions (Sultan 7 and Manisa sultanı were hot-water treated at 50∘C for 30 minutes which is the most common technique against Agrobacterium vitis. After thermotherapy treatment, all rootstocks were grafted with Sultan 7 and Manisa sultanıvarieties. They were kept for 22 days in callusing room for callus development and then they were planted in polyethlyene bags for rooting. At the end of the study, significant treatment x rootstock interaction were observed for the final take of Sultan 7 variety. Thermotherapy treated of 1613C/Sultan 7 combinations had more final take than the control (untreated group. For instance, hot water treated cuttings of 1613C/Sultan 7 combinations had 75% final take while the control group had the 70%. Also there were not observed any adverse effects of HWT on bud and tissue vitality.

  7. Controlling strategy of dormant Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gan Yiling; Guo Shuliang

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to review the available literatures on control of latent tuberculosis (TB) infection and propose a new control strategy to shorten the course of TB chemotherapy.Data sources The data used in this review were mainly obtained from articles listed in PubMed.The search terms were "therapy (treatment) of tuberculosis," "therapy (treatment) of latent TB infection," and "vaccine of TB."Study selection Articles regarding treatment and vaccine of TB were selected and reviewed.Results The most crucial reason causing the prolonged course of TB chemotherapy is the dormant state of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tuberculosis).Nevertheless,there are,to date,no effective drugs that can directly kill the dormant cells of M.tuberculosis in clinical therapy.In accordance with the growth cycle of dormant M.tuberculosis in the body,the methods for controlling dormant M.tuberculosis include direct killing with drugs,prevention of dormant M.tuberculosis resuscitation with vaccines,and resuscitating dormant M.tuberculosis with preparations or drugs and then thoroughly killing these resuscitated M.tuberculosis by using anti-TB therapy.Conclusions The comprehensive analysis of the above three methods suggests that the drugs directly killing dormant cells are in clinical trials,TMC207 is the most beneficial for controlling TB.Because the side effect of vaccines is less and their action period is long,prevention of dormant cells resuscitation with vaccines is promising.The last control method makes it probable that when a huge number of active cells of M.tuberculosis have been killed and eradicated after 1-month short chemotherapy,only a strong short-term subsequent chemotherapy can completely kill and eradicate the remaining M.tuberculosis.This control strategy is expected to significantly shorten the course of TB chemotherapy and bring a new change and breakthrough in TB treatment.

  8. Dormant Masculinity: Moderating Effects of Acute Alcohol Intoxication on the Relation Between Male Role Norms and Antigay Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, Ruschelle M.; Parrott, Dominic J.

    2014-01-01

    Acute alcohol intoxication was examined as a moderator of the association between men’s adherence to traditional gender norms and aggression towards a gay male. Participants were 164 heterosexual drinking men between the ages of 21–30. Participants completed a battery of questionnaires that included a measure of adherence to male role norms (i.e., status, toughness, antifemininity), were randomly assigned to consume an alcohol or no-alcohol control beverage, and completed the Taylor Aggression Paradigm in which electric shocks were administered to, and received from, a fictitious gay or heterosexual male opponent. Results indicated a greater adherence to both the toughness (β = .50, p = .002) and antifeminine (β = .37, p = .023) norms predicted high levels of aggression towards a gay man only among participants who were intoxicated. This interaction effect was not detected for the status norm. Consistent with previous research, findings suggest that adherence to the toughness norm does not increase sober men’s risk of aggression toward gay men. However, this is the first study to demonstrate that alcohol intoxication may activate concepts of toughness, and thus influence men to act in line with this facet of the masculine concept. Importantly, these data support the view that men’s adherence to various dimensions of masculinity may be dormant in some contexts, only to be activated, and subsequently demonstrated, in other contexts. PMID:25750591

  9. A multi-refuge study to evaluate the effectiveness of growing-season and dormant-season burns to control cattail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleason, Robert A.; Tangen, Brian A.; Laubhan, Murray K.; Lor, Socheata

    2012-01-01

    Proliferation of invasive cattails (for example, Typha x glauca, T. angustifolia) is a concern of wetland managers across the country, and numerous methods have been used to control the spatial extent and density of the plant. To date, however, no single method has proven widely or consistently effective at reducing the long-term growth and spread of these species. We performed a multi-refuge study to evaluate the relative effects of growing-season and dormant-season prescribed burns on cattail production and to gain insight on variables such as soil moisture, groundwater, and biomass that affect the efficacy of burning as a control method. Results indicate total cattail cover recovers to pre-burn levels within 1 year regardless of whether the controlled burn was implemented during the growing season or dormant season. Growing-season burns, however, did result in lower aboveground and belowground cattail biomass 1-year post-burn, whereas no significant change in biomass was detected for dormant-season burns. Study results support the premise that burns implemented during the growing season should have a greater effect on nutrient reserves and cattail re-growth. Results from this and other studies suggest long-term research that incorporates multiple management strategies will be required to evaluate the potential of prescribed burning as a method to control cattail.

  10. Expose-R experiment on effects of open space condition on survivorship in dormant stages of aquatic invertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alekseev, Victor; Novikova, Nataliya; Levinskikh, Margarita; Sychev, Vladimir; Yusoff, Fatimah; Azuraidi, Osman

    2012-07-01

    Dormancy protects animals and plants in harsh environmental conditions from months up to hundred years. This phenomenon is perspective for space researches especially for interplanetary missions. Direct experiments in open space BYORYSK supported in principle the fact of survivorship of bacteria, fungi spores, seed of plants and crustacean dormant cysts. Even though the rate of survivorship in long-term treatments was low but good enough to conclude that biological invasion even to Mars is a real danger. As soon as the BYORYSK lunch was made of metal the possibility for resting stages to survive under UV treatment in vacuum without some protection was not clear. To test it an ESA and RSA equipment titled EXPOSE-R was applied. The EXPOSE-R facility was an external facility attached to the outside of the Zvezda Service Module in ISS in the end of November 2008. It had glace windows transparent for UV-radiation and possibility to measure temperature, space- and UV-radiation. Among a number of experiments requiring exposure to the open space environment it had a biological launch containing resting stages of terrestrial and aquatic organisms. These stages included dried ephippia of cladoceran Daphnia magna differentiated on size, dormant eggs of ostracode Eucypris ornate, cysts of fair-shrimp Streptocephalus torvicornis ( all from hemi desert Caspian area) and Artemis salina from salt lake Crimean populations. All dormant stages were kept in transparent to UV plastic bags placed in three layers. After about two years of exposing in open space dormant stages of 3 species A. salina, D. magna, S. torvicornis successfully survived at different scales but in second and third layers only . The highest level of survivorship was found in A. salina cysts. In preliminary land experiments that imitated land EXPOSE imitation of outside space station UV and vacuum conditions survivorship in resting eggs of D .magna, S. torvicornis and E. ornate was tested also. The total UV dose of

  11. The recurrence pattern following delayed breast reconstruction after mastectomy for breast cancer suggests a systemic effect of surgery on occult dormant micrometastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillekås, Hanna; Demicheli, Romano; Ardoino, Ilaria; Jensen, Svein A H; Biganzoli, Elia; Straume, Oddbjørn

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the recurrence dynamics in breast cancer patients after delayed reconstruction. We hypothesized that surgical reconstruction might stimulate dormant micrometastases and reduce time to recurrence. All mastectomy breast cancer patients with delayed surgical reconstruction at Haukeland University Hospital, between 1977 and 2007, n = 312, were studied. Our control group consisted of 1341 breast cancer patients without reconstruction. For each case, all patients in the control group with identical T and N stages and age ±2 years were considered. A paired control was randomly selected from this group. 10 years after primary surgery, 39 of the cases had relapsed, compared to 52 of the matched controls. The reconstructed group was analyzed for relapse dynamics after mastectomy; the first peak in relapses was similarly timed, but smaller than for the controls, while the second peak was similar in time and size. Second, the relapse pattern was analyzed with reconstruction as the starting point. A peak in recurrences was found after 18 months, and a lower peak at the 5th-6th year. The height of the peak correlated with the extent of surgery and initial T and N stages. Timing of the peak was not affected, neither was the cumulative effect. The relapse pattern, when time origin is placed both at mastectomy and at reconstruction, is bimodal with a peak position at the same time points, at 2 years and at 5-6 years. The timing of the transition from dormant micrometastases into clinically detectable macrometastases might be explained by an enhancing effect of surgery.

  12. EFFECT OF STORAGE TIME ON ALFALFA SEED QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tihomir ČUPIĆ

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. is a crop characterised by presence of hard (dormant seed that are viable but do not germinate in seed quality testing. In Republic of Croatia seed are frequently stored for three to four years due to low needs for seed of alfalfa and considerable import. The share of hard seed is decreased by storage time, temperature and air moisture changes and therefore directly keeps the level of seed germination in a longer period of storage.

  13. 77 FR 13322 - Termination of Dormant Proceedings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-06

    ... COMMISSION Termination of Dormant Proceedings AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Notice... comment on whether certain docketed Commission proceedings should be terminated as dormant. The Commission... Proceedings as Dormant, document DA 12-220, released on February 15, 2012 in CG Docket No. 12-39. The...

  14. 76 FR 35892 - Termination of Dormant Proceedings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-20

    ... Dormant Proceedings AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: In this document... certain docketed Commission proceedings should be terminated as dormant. The Commission's procedural and... Proceedings as Dormant, document DA 11-992, released on June 3, 2011 in CG Docket No. 11-99. The full text...

  15. Proteomics analysis reveals distinct involvement of embryo and endosperm proteins during seed germination in dormant and non-dormant rice seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Heng-Heng; Liu, Shu-Jun; Song, Shun-Hua; Wang, Rui-Xia; Wang, Wei-Qing; Song, Song-Quan

    2016-06-01

    Seed germination is a complex trait which is influenced by many genetic, endogenous and environmental factors, but the key event(s) associated with seed germination are still poorly understood. In present study, the non-dormant cultivated rice Yannong S and the dormant Dongxiang wild rice seeds were used as experimental materials, we comparatively investigated the water uptake, germination time course, and the differential proteome of the effect of embryo and endosperm on germination of these two types of seeds. A total of 231 and 180 protein spots in embryo and endosperm, respectively, showed a significant change in abundance during germination. We observed that the important proteins associated with seed germination included those involved in metabolism, energy production, protein synthesis and destination, storage protein, cell growth and division, signal transduction, cell defense and rescue. The contribution of embryo and endosperm to seed germination is different. In embryo, the proteins involved in amino acid activation, sucrose cleavage, glycolysis, fermentation and protein synthesis increased; in endosperm, the proteins involved in sucrose cleavage and glycolysis decreased, and those with ATP and CoQ synthesis and proteolysis increased. Our results provide some new knowledge to understand further the mechanism of seed germination.

  16. Effect of Supplemental Corn Dried Distillers Grains with Solubles Fed to Beef Steers Grazing Native Rangeland during the Forage Dormant Season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murillo, M.; Herrera, E.; Ruiz, O.; Reyes, O.; Carrete, F. O.; Gutierrez, H.

    2016-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of the level of corn dry distillers grains with solubles (CDDGS) supplementation on growing performance, blood metabolites, digestion characteristics and ruminal fermentation patterns in steers grazing dormant forage. In Exp. 1, of growth performance, 120 steers (204±5 kg initial body weight [BW]) were distributed randomly into 3 groups (each of 40 steers), which were provided with the following levels of CDDGS supplement: 0%, 0.25%, or 0.50% BW. All groups of steers were grazed for 30 days in each of 3 grazing periods (March, April, and May). Approximately 1,000 ha of the land was divided with electric fencing into 3 equally sized pastures (333 ha in size). Blood samples were collected monthly from 20 steers in each grazing group for analysis of glucose (G), urea-nitrogen (UN) and non-esterified fatty acids. Final BW, average daily gain (ADG) and supplement conversion (CDDGS-C) increased with increasing levels of CDDGS supplementation (p<0.05).The CDDGS supplementation also increased the plasma G and UN concentrations (p<0.05). In Exp. 2, of digestive metabolism, 9 ruminally cannulated steers (BW = 350±3 kg) were distributed, following a completely randomized design, into groups of three in each pasture. The ruminally cannulated steers were provided the same levels of CDDGS supplementation as in the growing performance study (0%, 0.25%, and 0.50% BW), and they grazed along with the other 40 steers throughout the grazing periods. The dry matter intake, crude protein intake, neutral detergent fiber intake (NDFI), apparent digestibility of dry matter (ADDM), crude protein (ADCP) and neutral detergent fiber (ADNDF) increased with increasing levels of CDDGS supplementation (p<0.05). The ruminal degradation rates of CP (kdCP), NDF (kdNDF) and passage rate (kp) also increased with increasing levels of CDDGS supplementation (p<0.05). Ruminal ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) and propionate concentrations also increased with

  17. 77 FR 60934 - Termination of Certain Proceedings as Dormant

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-05

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 0 Termination of Certain Proceedings as Dormant AGENCY: Federal Communications... the Consumer and Governmental Affairs Bureau (CGB) terminates, as dormant, certain docketed Commission... the Commission's Order, Termination of Certain Proceedings as Dormant, document DA 12- 1545,...

  18. In vitro storage of synthetic seeds: Effect of different storage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2010-08-30

    Aug 30, 2010 ... encapsulation, and then stored in artificial endosperm solution at cold (4°C) and room storage (21 ± ... plant regeneration from synthetic seeds has been reported in several plant species ... For study of temperature effects, re-growth potential of ... 1°C under 16 h light (2,000 lux) with white fluorescent tubes.

  19. TARGETING DORMANT BACILLI TO FIGHT TUBERCULOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lanfranco Fattorini

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB is an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb, which kills about 2 million people annually. Furthermore, 2 billion people worldwide are latently infected with this organism, with 10% of them reactivating to active TB due to re-growth of nonreplicating (dormant Mtb residing in their tissues. Because of the huge reservoir of latent TB it is important to find novel drugs/drug combinations killing dormant bacilli (microaerophiles, anaerobes and drug-tolerant persisters surviving for decades in a wide spectrum of granulomatous lesions in the lungs of TB patients. Antibiotic treatment of drug-susceptible TB requires administration of isoniazid, rifampin, pyrazinamide, ethambutol for 2 months, followed by isoniazid and rifampin for 4 months. To avoid reactivation of dormant Mtb to active pulmonary TB, up to 9 months of treatment with isoniazid is required. Therefore, a strategy to eliminate dormant bacilli needs to be developed to shorten therapy of active and latent TB and reduce the reservoir of people with latent TB. Finding drugs with high rate of penetration into the caseous granulomas and understanding the biology of dormant bacilli and in particular of persister cells, phenotypically resistant to antibiotics, will be essential to eradicate Mtb from humans. In recent years unprecedented efforts have been done in TB drug discovery, aimed at identifying novel drugs and drug combinations killing both actively replicating and nonreplicating Mtb in vitro, in animal models and in clinical trials in humans.

  20. Supplemental protein for beef cattle grazing dormant intermediate wheatgrass pasture: effects on nutrient quality, forage intake, digesta kinetics, grazing behavior, ruminal fermentation, and digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, B W; Park, K K; Krysl, L J; Judkins, M B; McCracken, B A; Hanks, D R

    1994-08-01

    Sixteen ruminally cannulated yearling beef cattle (British x British; average BW = 295 +/- 25 kg; three steers and one heifer per treatment) grazing dormant intermediate wheatgrass (Thinopyrum intermedium Host) were allotted to four treatments: 1) no supplement (CON); 2) alfalfa hay (ALF; .52% of BW); 3) cottonseed meal (CSM; .22% of BW); and 4) corn gluten meal-wheat bran feed (CGMWBF; .36% of BW). Supplements were formulated (DM basis) so that intakes were isonitrogenous and were provided once daily (0700). Sampling periods were in February (FEB; .96% N in masticate), March (MAR; 1.06% N in masticate), and April (APR; 1.12% N in masticate) following an initial 21-d adaptation period. Daily grazing time was 1.1 to 1.5 h longer (P .15) by supplemental protein; however, total OMI was greater (P spent grazing-1) was greater (P .10) by type of supplemental protein. Ruminal NH3 N concentration exhibited a treatment x sampling time interaction (P < .05). Type of protein supplement did not seem to affect most digestion measures; however, harvesting efficiency was influenced by supplement type.

  1. Sprouting of dormant buds on border trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    G.R., Jr. Trimble; H. Clay Smith; H. Clay Smith

    1970-01-01

    As part of an evaluation of silvicultura1 systems used in managing Appalachian hardwoods, we are studying degrade of border trees surrounding harvest-cut openings made in the patch cutting and group selection systems. One facet of this research dealt with determining what portion of visually evident dormant buds on border tree boles sprouted when the openings were cut...

  2. Effective hydrogen storage: a strategic chemistry challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, William I F

    2011-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the current status and future potential of hydrogen storage from a chemistry perspective and is based on the concluding presentation of the Faraday Discussion 151--Hydrogen Storage Materials. The safe, effective and economical storage of hydrogen is one of the main scientific and technological challenges in the move towards a low-carbon economy. One key sector is transportation where future vehicles will most likely be developed around a balance of battery-electric and hydrogen fuel-cell electric technologies. Although there has been a very significant research effort in solid-state hydrogen storage, high-pressure gas storage combined with conventional metal hydrides is still seen as the current intermediate-term candidate for car manufacturers. Significant issues have arisen in the search for improved solid-state hydrogen storage materials; for example, facile reversibility has been a major challenge for many recently studied complex hydrides while physisorption in porous structures is still restricted to cryogenic temperatures. However, many systems fulfil the majority of necessary criteria for improved hydrogen storage--indeed, the discovery of reversibility in multicomponent hydride systems along with recent chemistry breakthroughs in off-board and solvent-assisted regeneration suggest that the goal of both improved on-board reversible and off-board regenerated hydrogen storage systems can be achieved.

  3. 76 FR 70902 - Termination of Certain Proceedings as Dormant

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-16

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 0 Termination of Certain Proceedings as Dormant AGENCY: Federal Communications... the Consumer and Governmental Affairs Bureau (CGB), terminates, as dormant, certain docketed... INFORMATION: This is a synopsis of the Commission's Order, Termination of Certain Proceedings as...

  4. Evidence supporting a role for dormant bacteria in the pathogenesis of spondylarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthelot, Jean-Marie; de la Cochetière, Marie-France; Potel, Gilles; Le Goff, Benoît; Maugars, Yves

    2013-03-01

    Spondylarthritis is still viewed as a reaction to infectious agents, as opposed to an infection by persistent bacteria, for several reasons: (a) an infection is considered proven only when the organism can be cultured; (b) no studies have identified dormant bacteria in the tissues targeted by spondylarthritis; (c) the bacterial persistence hypothesis has no therapeutic implications at the time being, since antibiotics are effective neither on dormant bacteria nor on the manifestations of spondylarthritis; and (d) the high prevalence of borderline disorders combining features of spondylarthritis and of psoriatic arthritis, or even rheumatoid arthritis (RA), would indicate a role for dormant bacteria in these last two diseases. However, recent data on dormant bacteria have rekindled interest in the bacterial persistence hypothesis. Dormant bacteria cannot be cultured, because they express only a small group of genes, known as the regulon, which includes genes for transcription factors that block the expression of the usual bacterial genes. Certain forms of cell stress, such as molecule misfolding, promote the entry of bacteria into a state of dormancy, which induces the low-level release by the host cells of cytokines such as TNF. Whether HLA-B27 misfolding facilitates the persistence of dormant bacteria within spondylarthritis tissue targets remains to be determined. If it does, then treatments that reactivate dormant bacteria might make these organisms susceptible to appropriate antibiotics and might therefore serve as useful adjuncts to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and TNFα antagonists. TNFα antagonists rarely reactivate dormant bacteria, with the exception of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which, together with metastatic cells, is the most extensively studied latency model to date.

  5. Acetone Powder From Dormant Seeds of Ricinus communis L

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcanti, Elisa D. C.; Maciel, Fábio M.; Villeneuve, Pierre; Lago, Regina C. A.; Machado, Olga L. T.; Freire, Denise M. G.

    The influence of several factors on the hydrolytic activity of lipase, present in the acetone powder from dormant castor seeds (Ricinus communis) was evaluated. The enzyme showed a marked specificity for short-chain substrates. The best reaction conditions were an acid medium, Triton X-100 as the emulsifying agent and a temperature of 30°C. The lipase activity of the acetone powder of different castor oil genotypes showed great variability and storage stability of up to 90%. The toxicology analysis of the acetone powder from genotype Nordestina BRS 149 showed a higher ricin (toxic component) content, a lower 2S albumin (allergenic compound) content, and similar allergenic potential compared with untreated seeds.

  6. Effective energy storage from a triboelectric nanogenerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zi, Yunlong; Wang, Jie; Wang, Sihong; Li, Shengming; Wen, Zhen; Guo, Hengyu; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2016-03-01

    To sustainably power electronics by harvesting mechanical energy using nanogenerators, energy storage is essential to supply a regulated and stable electric output, which is traditionally realized by a direct connection between the two components through a rectifier. However, this may lead to low energy-storage efficiency. Here, we rationally design a charging cycle to maximize energy-storage efficiency by modulating the charge flow in the system, which is demonstrated on a triboelectric nanogenerator by adding a motion-triggered switch. Both theoretical and experimental comparisons show that the designed charging cycle can enhance the charging rate, improve the maximum energy-storage efficiency by up to 50% and promote the saturation voltage by at least a factor of two. This represents a progress to effectively store the energy harvested by nanogenerators with the aim to utilize ambient mechanical energy to drive portable/wearable/implantable electronics.

  7. Effective energy storage from a triboelectric nanogenerator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zi, Yunlong; Wang, Jie; Wang, Sihong; Li, Shengming; Wen, Zhen; Guo, Hengyu; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2016-03-11

    To sustainably power electronics by harvesting mechanical energy using nanogenerators, energy storage is essential to supply a regulated and stable electric output, which is traditionally realized by a direct connection between the two components through a rectifier. However, this may lead to low energy-storage efficiency. Here, we rationally design a charging cycle to maximize energy-storage efficiency by modulating the charge flow in the system, which is demonstrated on a triboelectric nanogenerator by adding a motion-triggered switch. Both theoretical and experimental comparisons show that the designed charging cycle can enhance the charging rate, improve the maximum energy-storage efficiency by up to 50% and promote the saturation voltage by at least a factor of two. This represents a progress to effectively store the energy harvested by nanogenerators with the aim to utilize ambient mechanical energy to drive portable/wearable/implantable electronics.

  8. [Smallpox is a dormant volcano].

    Science.gov (United States)

    L'vov, D K; Zverev, V V; Gintsburg, A L; Marennikova, S S; Pal'tsev, M A

    2008-01-01

    The presence of rodent-associated natural foci containing at least 6 of the known 11 viruses belonging to the genus Orthopoxvirus (Poxviridae, Chordopoxvirinae) within the equatorial, tropical, subtropical, temperate, and subarctic climatic zones; the increasing aggravation of the monkey pox epidemic situation in equatorial Africa with an increase in human mortality by an average of 9.8% with a possibility of 2 to 8 passages in 30-70% of patients; the possible persistence of a virus in the human cadavers buried in the permafrost of Eurasia and America; bioterrorism threat due to the unaccounted viral reserves persisting somewhere or somebody; no postvaccinal human immunity since vaccination and vaccine manufacture stopped 30 years ago as recommended by the WHO, make the risk of the deteriorating epidemic situation with disastrous effects greater now and in the foreseeable future than it was 20-30 years ago. Health care academic circles and bodies do not know methods for rapid diagnosis in the field conditions of species-specific identification smallpox virus or preventive (low-reactogenic, effective vaccines, and those accessible for mass production) and therapeutic (nontoxic drugs, those satisfactory for mass production, inexpedient, effective ones when orally used) agents. Basic studies of biodiversity, functional properties of viral DNA and proteins, pathogenesis, and evolution are required. Live smallpox virus should be used at certain and particularly final stages for these studies that are of scientific and applied significance.

  9. The dormant property of hypericum perforatum seed and effect of light on germination%贯叶连翘种子休眠特性及光对种子萌发的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李惠民

    2012-01-01

    Taking the hypericum perforatum seeds as material,using relieving dormancy method,the dormaney property of bypericum perforatum seed and the effect of different light condition on the seed germination were studied. It is found that the seed germination has light-degendence after the dormaney relieved,the impact is produced at the existed factors;continual illumination in and dark interruption in different luminous intensity,illumination and light nature in different absorption time. It is also showed that hypericum perforatum seed has dormant property and light-dependence. The light has restraining effect when light quantity is over 14.904mol · m-2. The light acceptor of seed is the photo sensitive pigment and the seeds light sensitive period is in 12h.%以贯叶连翘种子为材料,探讨贯叶连翘种子的休眠特性及不同光照条件对其种子萌发的影响.采取体眠解除及不同光照条件的种子萌发实验,结果发现,当休眠解除后该种子萌发仍需要光,不同光强下连续光照/光暗间断、光量,不同吸涨时间下光照、光质均能对该种子的萌发产生影响.表明贯叶连翘种子具有休眠特性和需光性,光量超过14.904rmol·m-2后,光照具有抑制效应.该种子的光敏感期在12h以内.其光受体为光敏色素.

  10. Data Center Storage Cost-Effective Strategies, Implementation, and Management

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Hubbert

    2011-01-01

    We overspend on data center storage ! yet, we fall short of business requirements. It's not about the technologies. It's about the proper application of technologies to deliver storage services efficiently and affordably. It's about meeting business requirements dependent on data center storage. Spend less, deliver more. Data Center Storage: Cost-Effective Strategies, Implementation, and Management provides an industry insider's insight on how to properly scope, plan, evaluate, and implement storage technologies to maximize performance, capacity, reliability, and power savings. It provides bus

  11. Effect of Polythene-covering on Above-ground tuberization and storage roots yield in Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullahi N

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Present study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of polythene-covering on activation of dormant auxiliary buds on the stem for lateral tuber formation and the resultant effect on total storage roots yield. Three time intervals i.e. 1 day after planting, 30 days after planting and 60 days after planting used as treatment, and uncovered stem used as control. Treatments were tested in randomized complete block design with three replications. Regardless of the variety, stem polythene-covering at day 1 after planting showed the highest effect with respect to storage roots production and yield components tested. However, the effect of stem polythene-covering at day 1 after planting in terms of dry mass partitioning to storage roots was the lowest across all the treatments (25.50 to 27.37% of the biomass compared to that of stem covering at day 60 after planting (33.10 to 37.20%. This study opens new perspectives in cassava yield improvement which hitherto has not been exploited.

  12. Desiccation tolerance of dormant buds from selected Prunus species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dormant buds of woody plant species present a convenient material for backing-up of germplasm in liquid nitrogen. Routinely, this type of material is used in long-term preservation of only a few species (e.g. apple and sour cherry). Cryopreservation procedures of dormant buds are species dependent, ...

  13. Dormant barley aleurone shows heterogeneity and a specific cytodifferentiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuurink, R.C.; Bakhuizen, R.; Libbenga, K.R.; Boulanger, F.; Sinjorgo, K.M.C.

    1997-01-01

    In response to gibberellic acid, aleurone layers isolated from dormant barley (Hordeum distichum L. cv. Triumph) kernels produced significantly less alpha-amylase than aleurones from non-dormant kernels. Light microscopical investigations using the dye acridine orange as well as electron microscopic

  14. Dormant ascospores of Talaromyces macrosporus are activated to germinate after treatment with ultra high pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijksterhuis, J; Teunissen, P G M

    2004-01-01

    AIMS: Ascospores of Talaromyces macrosporus are constitutively dormant and germinate after a strong external shock, classically a heat treatment. This fungus is used as a model system to study heat resistance leading to food spoilage after pasteurization. This study evaluates the effect of high pres

  15. Dormant ascospores of Talaromyces macrosporus are activated to germinate after treatment with ultra high pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijksterhuis, G.B.; Teunissen, P.G.M.

    2004-01-01

    Aims: Ascospores of Talaromyces macrosporus are constitutively dormant and germinate after a strong external shock, classically a heat treatment. This fungus is used as a model system to study heat resistance leading to food spoilage after pasteurization. This study evaluates the effect of high pres

  16. Dormant cells of Staphylococcus aureus are resuscitated by spent culture supernatant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Pascoe

    Full Text Available We describe the first in vitro model of dormancy in Staphylococcus aureus, showing that cells are generated which can be resuscitated by addition of spent medium supernatant taken from cultures of the same organism. Over 30 days, culturable counts in dormant cultures of S. aureus SH1000 fell from 10(6-10(7 cfu/ml to 600-fold increase in bacterial growth. Resuscitation was a specific effect, greatly reduced by boiling or addition of trypsin to the spent supernatant. Supernatant also effected a reduction in lag phase of dormant cultures. SEM demonstrated the presence of small coccoid cells in dormant cultures. The results are similar to those seen with resuscitation promoting factors (Rpfs in actinobacteria. This is the first time resuscitation has been demonstrated in Staphylococcus aureus, which is an important human pathogen. A better understanding of control and reactivation of dormant cells could lead to major improvements in managing staphylococcal infections; resuscitation could be an important step in restoring susceptibility to antibiotic treatment.

  17. Chemical Effects during Storage of Frozen Foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powrie, W. D.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses (1) characteristics, interrelationships, and distribution of food constituents (including water) in unfrozen food systems; (2) the freezing process; and (3) chemical changes in food during frozen storage. Protein alterations and lipid oxidation are emphasized. (JN)

  18. An Effective Cache Algorithm for Heterogeneous Storage Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern storage environment is commonly composed of heterogeneous storage devices. However, traditional cache algorithms exhibit performance degradation in heterogeneous storage systems because they were not designed to work with the diverse performance characteristics. In this paper, we present a new cache algorithm called HCM for heterogeneous storage systems. The HCM algorithm partitions the cache among the disks and adopts an effective scheme to balance the work across the disks. Furthermore, it applies benefit-cost analysis to choose the best allocation of cache block to improve the performance. Conducting simulations with a variety of traces and a wide range of cache size, our experiments show that HCM significantly outperforms the existing state-of-the-art storage-aware cache algorithms.

  19. Effective Data Backup System Using Storage Area Network Solution

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. OLIVER OSUAGWA

    2015-06-01

    Jun 1, 2015 ... Abstract. One of the most crucial benefits of the computer system is its ability to manage data send to it for ... Keywords: Backup, Storage area network, Data, Effective and Data loss ... network can use existing communication.

  20. Dark Side of the Standard Model: Dormant New Physics Awaken

    CERN Document Server

    Matsuzaki, Shinya; Yamawaki, Koichi

    2016-01-01

    We find that the standard model as it stands possesses a dark matter candidate, dormant "dark-standard model-skyrmion", which is stabilized by the dynamical gauge boson of the hidden local symmetry, "standard-model rho meson", hidden in the standard model.

  1. Dormant Comets in the Near-Earth Asteroid Population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mommert, Michael; Harris, Alan W.; Mueller, Michael; Hora, Joseph L.; Trilling, David E.; Knight, Matthew; Bottke, William F.; Thomas, Cristina; Delbo', Marco; Emery, Josh P.; Fazio, Giovanni; Smith, Howard A.

    2015-01-01

    The population of near-Earth objects comprises active comets and asteroids, covering a wide range of dynamical parameters and physical properties. Dormant (or extinct) comets, masquerading as asteroids, have long been suspected of supplementing the near-Earth asteroid (NEA) population. We present a

  2. Testing the Effect of Refrigerated Storage on Testate Amoeba Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazei, Yuri; Chernyshov, Viktor; Tsyganov, Andrey N; Payne, Richard J

    2015-11-01

    Samples for analysis of testate amoebae and other protists frequently need to be stored for many months before microscopy. This storage commonly involves refrigeration, but we know that testate amoebae can live and reproduce in these conditions. This raises the question: do communities change during storage and how might this effect the data produced? We analysed Sphagnum samples over a 16-week period to address this question. Our results show no evidence for detectable change. This is a reassuring result supporting much current practice although we suggest that frozen storage or the addition of a fixative may be worthwhile precautions where feasible.

  3. Eruption chronology of Ciomadul, a long dormant dacitic volcanic system in the Eastern Carpathians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnár, Kata; Harangi, Szabolcs; Dunkl, István; Lukács, Réka; Kiss, Balázs; Schmitt, Axel K.; Seghedi, Ioan

    2016-04-01

    During the last decade, the zircon (U-Th)/He geochronology has become a promising method for dating eruption histories even in case of very young (Quaternary) volcanic products. It is proved to be particularly applicable when other dating methods such as radiocarbon, K/Ar, and 40Ar/39Ar techniques encounter analytical or interpretational difficulties often caused by a lack of appropriate materials for dating. Zircon (U-Th)/He method can be used to infer the date of the rapid cooling of the erupted magma, i.e. the eruption age. However, when the crystals formed less than ~350 ka, correction for U-series disequilibrium is necessary. The effect of the secular disequilibrium can be corrected by the U-Th zircon dates, which provides additional information also about the timescale of the magma storage. Here, we provide a detailed zircon (U-Th)/He dating approach to refine the eruption chronology of the Ciomadul dacite volcanic complex, found at the East Carpathians, eastern-central Europe. It is characterized by an intermittent precursor lava dome activity with extrusion of 0.1-0.6 km3 dacitic magma, followed by the build-up of a massive lava dome complex with two explosion craters. The erupted products are fairly homogeneous dacite with similar mineral cargo. During the field campaigns we focused on the volcanic products of the Ciomadul lava dome complex and sampled all the known localities to cover the whole volcanic period and avoid sampling bias. According to the new (U-Th)/He results the precursor lava domes were formed between ~1000 and 300 ka, during several intermittent eruption events which were separated by long repose times: Bába Laposa: 950±50 ka, Delaul Mare: 840±12 ka, Puturosul: 710±50 ka, Bálványos: 580±20 ka and Turnul Apor: 330±40 ka. After another long quiescence, volcanic activity renewed at about 200 ka and became more productive. Numerous lava domes were developed between ca. 160 and 100 ka, which form the 10-12 km3 central lava dome edifice

  4. Effect of Vacuum Packaging on Storage Quality of Peanut

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anjian WANG; Shuaiping GAO; Guangrui TIAN; Lina LIU

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to investigate the effect of vacuum packaging on storage quality of peanut. The acid value,peroxide value,relative conductivity,mildew rate and germination rate of peanut were examined in both vacuum-packed bags and control packaging bags.The results showed that the acid value,peroxide value,relative conductivity and mildew rate of peanut were maintained at a lower level and germination rate was maintained at a higher level in vacuum-packed bags than in control packaging bags. The storage quality of peanut in vacuum-packed bags was better than in control packaging bags. The order of different vacuum degree of vacuum-packed bags from good to bad according to storage quality of peanut was- 0. 06 MPa >- 0. 09 MPa >- 0. 03 MPa,and- 0. 06 MPa was the most beneficial vacuum degree for the peanut storage.

  5. Measurement of Metabolic Activity in Dormant Spores of Bacillus Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-14

    SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: Spores of Bacillus megaterium and Bacillus subtilis were harvested shortly after release from sporangia, incubated under...Dec-2014 Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited Final Report: Measurement of Metabolic Activity in Dormant Spores of Bacillus Species...Research Office P.O. Box 12211 Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211 spores, Bacillus , spore dormancy, 3-phosphoglycerate REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE 11

  6. PUMPED STORAGE ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS: ASSESSMENT OF RESEARCH NEEDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DH. Fickeisen

    1979-09-01

    Pumped storage hydroelectric systems convert large quantities of electrical energy to a form that may be stored and efficiently reconverted to electricity. Water is pumped from a lower reservoir to an upper reservoir during periods of low power demand. The stored water is then used to generate additional power when demand peaks. Since the basic requirements of the system are simple, the design of individual plants and their locations vary widely. These variations make assessment of the generic environmental impact of the pumped storage systems difficult. In addition, most studies have not examined the impacts of an operating plant comprehensively. Assessment of the environmental effects of development and operation of a pumped storage plant requires an extensive set of baseline information, which is deficient in several aspects at the present state of the art. Additional research is needed to: • identify species groups likely to survive and reproduce in pumped storage reservoirs, their relationships and habitat preferences, and the basis for their production; • characterize anticipated reservoir ecosystem community development and relate it to physical characteristics of pumped storage reservoirs; • define effects of plant design and operating parameters on transport of organisms through the pump/turbine facility, accounting for behavior of the organisms potentially impacted; • access the mortality rate of organisms likely to pass through pump-turbines; • identify the relative advantages and disadvantages of screening intake structures to prevent passage of large organisms through the plant; • assess the effects of currents and water withdrawal on migration and movement of aquatic species; • investigate the effects of fluctuating water levels on the littoral zone and riparian communities, effects of stranding on entrapment of fishes, and effects on fish spawning; and • review the applicability of water quality and ecosystem models to pumped storage

  7. Immune Effects of RBC Storage in Critically Ill Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    serious thrombotic events and nosocomial infections , and ICU and hospital length of stay. Prospective clinical studies investigating the mechanisms...specifically at risk of adverse effects resulting from the use of RBCs of increased storage age. A large multicenter randomized controlled trial in 30...units will affect both inflammation and coagulation factors in critically ill patients and these parameters will be positively associated with

  8. Thermofluid effect on energy storage in fluidized bed reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahfoudi, Nadjiba; El Ganaoui, Mohammed; Moummi, Abdelhafid

    2016-05-01

    The development of innovative systems of heat storage is imperative to improve the efficiency of the existing systems used in the thermal solar energy applications. Several techniques were developed and realized in this context. The technology of the sand fluidized bed (sandTES) offers a promising alternative to the current state-of-the-art of the heat storage systems, such as fixed bed using a storage materials, as sand, ceramic, and stones, etc. Indeed, the use of the fluidization technique allows an effective heat transfer to the solid particles. With the sand, an important capacity of storage is obtained by an economic and ecological material [N. Mahfoudi, A. Moummi, M. El Ganaoui, Appl. Mech. Mater. 621, 214 (2014); N. Mahfoudi, A. Khachkouch, A. Moummi B. Benhaoua, M. El Ganaoui, Mech. Ind. 16, 411 (2015); N. Mahfoudi, A. Moummi, M. El Ganaoui, F. Mnasri, K.M. Aboudou, 3e Colloque internationale Francophone d"énergétique et mécanique, Comores, 2014, p. 91]. This paper presents a CFD simulation of the hydrodynamics and the thermal transient behavior of a fluidized bed reactor of sand, to determine the characteristics of storage. The simulation shows a symmetry breaking that occurs and gave way to chaotic transient generation of bubble formation after 3 s. Furthermore, the predicted average temperature of the solid phase (sand) increases gradually versus the time with a gain of 1 °C in an interval of 10 s. Contribution to the topical issue "Materials for Energy Harvesting, Conversion and Storage (ICOME 2015) - Elected submissions", edited by Jean-Michel Nunzi, Rachid Bennacer and Mohammed El Ganaoui

  9. Regeneration of Blue Honeysuckle via Dormant Axillary Buds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QU Guiqin; HUANG Longshuang; HUO Junwei

    2008-01-01

    The optimum medium for dormant axillary buds culture of blue honeysuckle was screened according to the growth rate and elongation rate by inoculating the buds on culture medium with various 6-BA and iron-salt concentration. About 35 days, the stretched stem buds were divided into strong root system after inoculated on 1/2 MS+1.0 mg·L-1 IBA rooting medium. Amount of qualified tissue-cultured young plants could be obtained by the stretched stem buds reproduction.

  10. Ethics and Revitalization of Dormant Languages: The Mutsun Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha Warner

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Language revitalization (either increasing the use of an endangered language or bringing back a language with no speakers brings up many ethical issues, beginning with whether it is even legitimate to attempt such revitalization. Language communities and linguists must address these issues if revitalization is to succeed in any of its goals. In this paper, we discuss the ethical issues we have encountered and the choices we have made about them during revitalization work with the Mutsun language (a dormant Costanoan language of California. We argue that language revitalization is a useful and legitimate application of linguistic knowledge.

  11. Irradiation and storage effect on some characteristics of soy seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez Ascheri, Diego Palmiro; Devilla, Ivano Alessandro [Universidade Estadual de Goias (UEG/UnUCET), Anapolis, GO (Brazil). Unidade Universitaria de Ciencias Exatas e Tecnologicas; Ramirez Ascheri, Jose Luis [EMBRAPA Agroindustria de Alimentos (CTAA), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The irradiation has been applied frequently in seeds conservation to obtain reduction of losses caused by physiologic processes, besides reducing the microbial load. However, the irradiation process for X-rays is not a common practice in seeds; for that, it is necessary to study that process, in order to know irradiation effect on the soy seeds quality. The objective of this work was to verify the irradiation effect of X-rays and the storage period on the water, oil and protein contends of soy seeds (Glycine max L.) variety Emgopa 302. The experiment was represented by the combination of two factors: X-rays dosage with four irradiation levels [0, 50, 65 and 70 kV] and storage period in laboratory atmosphere with five levels (0, 15, 30, 45 and 60 days). The water content, oil and protein in seeds were assayed in the beginning and every 15 days of storage. The results showed the seeds quality stayed unaffected in irradiation function in the beginning of the experience, with alterations after 15 days, was verified a quality decreasing with the increasing of the X-rays dosage. The soy seeds irradiated had reduced quality in elapsing of the storage period. (author)

  12. Antioxidative effect of purple corn extracts during storage of mayonnaise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chun-Ying; Kim, Hee-Woong; Li, He; Lee, Deug-Chan; Rhee, Hae-Ik

    2014-01-01

    Anthocyanin is a powerful natural antioxidant. Purple corn husk is rich in anthocyanin. In this paper the antioxidative effect of anthocyanin-rich purple corn husk extract (PCHE) in mayonnaise during storage was studied. The antioxidative effect of the mayonnaise containing PCHE was evaluated by measuring peroxide values, p-anisidine values, total oxidation values, acid values, and iodine values at time intervals for 10 weeks. The antioxidative effect of the mayonnaise containing PCHE was higher than that of mayonnaise with chemical antioxidants BHT and EDTA as positive control. The mayonnaise containing 0.4 g/kg PCHE showed the strongest antioxidative performance during storage. This study suggests that PCHE could be used as natural antioxidant in high fat food and as a substitute to chemical antioxidant with its purplish colour marking its difference from ordinary mayonnaise. Such colour difference will tell consumers that their food contains natural antioxidants. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Storage duration effect on deformation recovery of repacked alginates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Sunarintyas

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Manufacturers supply alginate impression materials as a powder that is packaged in bulk and in individual container. Some Indonesian dental suppliers often repackage the bulk alginate into individual plastic packages which are not tied tightly and stored in the display room without air conditioner. It is known that critical factors to the shelf life of alginate includer avoidance of moisture contamination which may lead to premature setting of the alginate and avoidance of high temperature which may cause depolymerization of the alginate. Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine storage duration effect of repacked alginates on deformation recovery. Methods: Two brands of alginates (Tulip®TU, and Aroma Fine DF III®AF were repacked into 120 plastic containers. The samples were stored in room condition (temperature 29° C ± 1° C, relative humidity 60% ± 10% for 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 weeks. The alginates setting time and recovery from deformation were measured according to the ANSI/ADA specification number 18 (ISO 1563. result: The results revealed that there was decreased setting time during 5 weeks but there was slight decreased in deformation recovery after 3 weeks storage. The ANOVA showed there was no significant difference of alginates deformation recovery among the storage times (p > 0.05. Conclusion: Storage duration of repacked alginates in plastic containers during 5 weeks in room condition do not influence the alginate deformation recovery.

  14. Significance of dormant forms of Helicobacter pylori in ulcerogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reshetnyak, Vasiliy Ivanovich; Reshetnyak, Tatiana Magomedalievna

    2017-01-01

    Nearly half of the global population are carriers of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), a Gram-negative bacterium that persists in the healthy human stomach. H. pylori can be a pathogen and causes development of peptic ulcer disease in a certain state of the macroorganism. It is well established that H. pylori infection is the main cause of chronic gastritis and peptic ulcer disease (PUD). Decontamination of the gastric mucosa with various antibiotics leads to H. pylori elimination and longer remission in this disease. However, the reasons for repeated detection of H. pylori in recurrent PUD after its successful eradication remain unclear. The reason for the redetection of H. pylori in recurrent PUD can be either reinfection or ineffective anti-Helicobacter therapy. The administration of antibacterial drugs can lead not only to the emergence of resistant strains of microorganisms, but also contribute to the conversion of H. pylori into the resting (dormant) state. The dormant forms of H. pylori have been shown to play a potential role in the development of relapses of PUD. The paper discusses morphological H. pylori forms, such as S-shaped, C-shaped, U-shaped, and coccoid ones. The authors proposes the classification of H. pylori according to its morphological forms and viability. PMID:28785141

  15. Significance of dormant forms of Helicobacter pylori in ulcerogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reshetnyak, Vasiliy Ivanovich; Reshetnyak, Tatiana Magomedalievna

    2017-07-21

    Nearly half of the global population are carriers of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), a Gram-negative bacterium that persists in the healthy human stomach. H. pylori can be a pathogen and causes development of peptic ulcer disease in a certain state of the macroorganism. It is well established that H. pylori infection is the main cause of chronic gastritis and peptic ulcer disease (PUD). Decontamination of the gastric mucosa with various antibiotics leads to H. pylori elimination and longer remission in this disease. However, the reasons for repeated detection of H. pylori in recurrent PUD after its successful eradication remain unclear. The reason for the redetection of H. pylori in recurrent PUD can be either reinfection or ineffective anti-Helicobacter therapy. The administration of antibacterial drugs can lead not only to the emergence of resistant strains of microorganisms, but also contribute to the conversion of H. pylori into the resting (dormant) state. The dormant forms of H. pylori have been shown to play a potential role in the development of relapses of PUD. The paper discusses morphological H. pylori forms, such as S-shaped, C-shaped, U-shaped, and coccoid ones. The authors proposes the classification of H. pylori according to its morphological forms and viability.

  16. Relationship between reactive oxygen species and autophagy in dormant mouse blastocysts during delayed implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hyejin; Choi, Soyoung; Lim, Hyunjung Jade

    2014-09-01

    Under estrogen deficiency, blastocysts cannot initiate implantation and enter dormancy. Dormant blastocysts live longer in utero than normal blastocysts, and autophagy has been suggested as a mechanism underlying the sustained survival of dormant blastocysts during delayed implantation. Autophagy is a cellular degradation pathway and a central component of the integrated stress response. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are produced within cells during normal metabolism, but their levels increase dramatically under stressful conditions. We investigated whether heightened autophagy in dormant blastocysts is associated with the increased oxidative stress under the unfavorable condition of delayed implantation. To visualize ROS production, day 8 (short-term dormancy) and day 20 (long-term dormancy) dormant blastocysts were loaded with 1-µM 5-(and-6)-chloromethyl-2', 7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate, acetyl ester (CM-H2DCFDA). To block autophagic activation, 3-methyladenine (3-MA) and wortmannin were used in vivo and in vitro, respectively. We observed that ROS production was not significantly affected by the status of dormancy; in other words, both dormant and activated blastocysts showed high levels of ROS. However, ROS production was higher in the dormant blastocysts of the long-term dormancy group than in those of the short-term group. The addition of wortmannin to dormant blastocysts in vitro and 3-MA injection in vivo significantly increased ROS production in the short-term dormant blastocysts. In the long-term dormant blastocysts, ROS levels were not significantly affected by the treatment of the autophagy inhibitor. During delayed implantation, heightened autophagy in dormant blastocysts may be operative as a potential mechanism to reduce oxidative stress. Further, ROS may be one of the potential causes of compromised developmental competence of long-term dormant blastocysts after implantation.

  17. Internal target effects in ion storage rings with beam cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gostishchev, Vitaly

    2008-06-15

    The accurate description of internal target effects is important for the prediction of operation conditions which are required for experiments in the planned storage rings of the FAIR facility. The BETACOOL code developed by the Dubna group has been used to evaluate beam dynamics in ion storage rings, where electron cooling in combination with an internal target is applied. Systematic benchmarking experiments of this code were carried out at the ESR storage ring at GSI. A mode with vanishing dispersion in the target position was applied to evaluate the influence of the dispersion function on the parameters when the target is heating the beam. The influence of the internal target on the beam parameters is demonstrated in the present work. A comparison of experimental results with simple models describing the energy loss of the beam particles in the target as well as with more sophisticated simulations with the BETACOOL code is given. In order to study the conditions which can be achieved in the proposed experiments the simulation results were quantitatively compared with experimental results and simulations for the ESR. The results of this comparison are discussed in the present thesis. BETACOOL simulations of target effects were performed for the NESR and the HESR of the future FAIR facility in order to predict the beam parameters for the planned experiments. (orig.)

  18. Effect of glutathione during bottle storage of sparkling wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, Vanessa; Dutra, Sandra Valduga; Spinelli, Fernanda Rodrigues; Carnieli, Gilberto João; Cardozo, Alejandro; Vanderlinde, Regina

    2017-02-01

    Reduced glutathione (GSH) is an efficient antioxidant on limiting browning, losing varietal aromas and off-flavor formation. Therefore, this study aims to evaluate the effect of GSH addition (10, 20 and 30mgL(-1)) after the disgorging of the sparkling wine during storage. The sparkling wines were analyzed at 1, 6, 12 and 18months of storage according to the color index, concentration of the free SO2, phenolic compounds, catechin, epicatechin, caffeic acid, coumaric acid, acetaldehyde, total and reduced glutathione. The results show that GSH concentration decreased to the level of the control sparkling wine during the first 6months, and the total glutathione gradually declined up to 12months. The GSH reduces browning and acetaldehyde formation for up to 12months. However, the presence of glutathione had low or no influence on the concentration of free SO2, total phenolics, catechin, epicatechin, caffeic and coumaric acids. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of preincubation heating of broiler hatching eggs during storage, flock age, and length of storage period on hatchability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gucbilmez, M; Ozlü, S; Shiranjang, R; Elibol, O; Brake, J

    2013-12-01

    The effects of heating of eggs during storage, broiler breeder age, and length of egg storage on hatchability of fertile eggs were examined in this study. Eggs were collected from Ross 344 male × Ross 308 broiler breeders on paper flats, held overnight (1 d) at 18°C and 75% RH, and then transferred to plastic trays. In experiment 1, eggs were obtained at 28, 38, and 53 wk of flock age. During a further 10 d of storage, eggs either remained in the storage room (control) or were subjected to a heat treatment regimen of 26°C for 2 h, 37.8°C for 3 h, and 26°C for 2 h in a setter at d 5 of storage. In experiment 2, eggs from a flock at 28 wk of age were heated for 1 d of a 6-d storage period. Eggs from a 29-wk-old flock were either heated at d 1 or 5 of an 11-d storage period in experiment 3. In experiment 4, 27-wk-old flock eggs were heated twice at d 1 and 5 of an 11-d storage period. Control eggs stored for 6 or 11 d were coincubated as appropriate in each experiment. Heating eggs at d 5 of an 11-d storage period increased hatchability in experiment 1. Although no benefit of heating 28-wk-old flock eggs during 6 d of storage in experiment 2 was observed, heating eggs from a 29-wk-old flock at d 1 or 5 of an 11-d storage period increased hatchability in experiment 3. Further, heating eggs from a 27-wk-old flock twice during 11 d of storage increased hatchability in experiment 4. These effects were probably due to the fact that eggs from younger flocks had been reported to have many embryos at a stage of development where the hypoblast had not yet fully developed (less than EG-K12 to EG-K13), such that heating during extended storage advanced these embryos to a more resistant stage.

  20. [Diverse morphological types of dormant cells and conditions for their formation in Azospirillum brasilense].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muliukin, A L; Suzina, N E; Pogorelova, A Iu; Antoniuk, L P; Duda, V I; El'-Registan, G I

    2009-01-01

    Differences in generation of dormant forms (DF) were revealed between two strains of non-sporeforming gram-negative bacteria Azospirillum brasilense, Sp7 (non-endophytic) and Sp245 (endophytic strain). In post-stationary ageing bacterial cultures grown in a synthetic medium with a fivefold decreased initial nitrogen content, strain Sp7 formed two types of cyst-like resting cells (CRC). Strain Sp245 did not form such types of DF under the same conditions. CRC of the first type were formed in strain Sp245 only under phosphorus deficiency (C > P). The endophytic strain was also shown to form structurally differentiated cells under complete starvation, i.e. at a transfer of early stationary cultures, grown in the media with C > N unbalance, to saline solution (pH 7.2). These DF had a complex structure similar to that of azotobacter cysts. The CRC, which are generated by both azospirilla strains and belong to distinct morphological types, possessed the following major features: absence of division; specific ultrastructural organization; long-term maintenance of viability (for 4 months and more); higher heat resistance (50-60 degrees C, 10 min) as compared with vegetative cells, i.e. the important criteria for dormant prokaryotic forms. However, CRC of non-endophytic strain Sp7 had higher heat resistance (50, 55, 60 degrees C). The viability maintenance and the portion of heat-resistant cells depended on the conditions of maturation and storage of CRC populations. Long-term storage (for 4 months and more) of azospirilla DF populations at -20 degrees C was optimal for maintenance of their colony-forming ability (57% of the CFU number in stationary cultures), whereas the largest percentage of heat-resistant cells was in CRC suspensions incubated in a spent culture medium (but not in saline solution) at room temperature. The data on the intraspecies diversity of azospirilla DF demonstrate the relation between certain type DF formation to the type of interaction (non

  1. Pesticide exposure impacts not only hatching of dormant eggs, but also hatchling survival and performance in the water flea Daphnia magna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navis, Sabine; Waterkeyn, Aline; Voet, Tom; De Meester, Luc; Brendonck, Luc

    2013-07-01

    Laboratory ecotoxicity tests and biomonitoring in aquatic systems are currently based on the active component of invertebrate communities. Even though dormant egg banks are crucial for the long term survival and community dynamics of many aquatic organisms, the effects of anthropogenic activities on dormant egg bank dynamics have rarely been studied. In this study we investigated the effects of two pesticides with a different mode of action (carbaryl and fenoxycarb) on hatching of Daphnia magna dormant eggs (ephippia) as well as on survival, growth and reproduction of the hatched neonates. Dormant eggs were exposed to the pesticides simultaneously to incubation under conditions that induce hatching (long daylight and 20 °C). Carbaryl had no negative effects on embryonic development or hatching rate up to concentrations almost 1,000 times the median effect concentration (EC50) of neonate survival in acute tests. Fenoxycarb, however, had a significant dose-related effect by delaying or completely stopping the hatching process and caused severe abnormalities in developing individuals. Both pesticides had significant negative effects on survival and reproduction of the hatchlings. These results indicate that, in addition to inducing mortality of active individuals, pesticides can affect zooplankton communities by altering hatching dynamics and life history traits of hatched individuals. We briefly discuss how such pollution induced changes in the benthic-pelagic coupling could translate into trans-generational effects impacting ecological and evolutionary dynamics.

  2. DNA extraction protocols from dormant buds of twelve woody plant genera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standard plant DNA extraction protocols call for samples of newly expanding leaves and shoots yet analysis is sometimes needed when plants are dormant. We evaluated three DNA extraction protocols using dormant buds from 40 species and four hybrids of 12 genera. Two protocols were from ready-to-use ...

  3. Effect of Processing and Subsequent Storage on Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perchonok, Michele H.

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation includes the following objectives: 1) To determine the effects of thermal processing, freeze drying, irradiation, and storage time on the nutritional content of food; 2) To evaluate the nutritional content of the food items currently used on the International Space Station and Shuttle; and 3) To determine if there is a need to institute countermeasures. (This study does not seek to address the effect of processing on nutrients in detail, but rather aims to place in context the overall nutritional status at the time of consumption).

  4. Respiratory Response of Dormant Nectarine Floral Buds on Chilling Deficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAN Yue; GAO Dong-sheng; LI Ling; CHEN Xiu-de; XU Ai-hong

    2010-01-01

    Changes in main biochemical respiratory pathways in dormant nectarine floral buds were studied with nectarine trees (Prunus persica.var,nectariana cv.Shuguang) in order to determine the function of respiration in dormancy release.Oxygen-electrode system and respiratory inhibitors were used to measure total respiratory rates and rates of respiratory pathways.Results showed that chilling deficiency blocked the transition of respiratory mode,and made buds stay in a state of high level pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) and low level tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA).The decline of PPP and activation of TCA occurred synchronously with the release of dormancy.In addition,the inhibition of PPP stimulated a respiration increase related with TCA.It could be concluded that the function of PPP activation in dormancy release might be limited and PPP declination inducing TCA activation might be part of respiration mode transition mechanism during bud sprouting.

  5. Effects of Hypobaric Storage on Physiological and Biochemical Changes in Postharvest Dong Jujube Fruit During Cold Storage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUE Meng-lin; ZHANG Ping; ZHANG Ji-shu; WANG Li

    2003-01-01

    Effects of hypobaric storage on physiological and biochemical changes in Dong jujube fruit wereinvestigated. Hypobaric storage significantly delayed the decrease in firmness and maintained content of ascor-bic acid, reduced accumulation of ethanol and acetaldehyde in pulp and respiration, inhibited activities of as-corbic acid oxidase and alcohol dehydrogenase and slowed down the rate of ethylene production, but had littleeffect on flesh browning of the fruit.

  6. Effective onion leaf fleck management and variability of storage pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasiukevičiūtė Neringa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Botrytis spp. cause several diseases in Allium crops and depending on meteorological conditions economic losses can exceed 50%. Forecasting models improve plant protection and sometimes reduce consumption of fungicides, because applications are made precisely during the favourable periods for disease development. Our aim was to evaluate the iMETOS®sm B. cinerea forecasting model as an effective onion leaf fleck management system and estimate the variability of onion bulb pathogens during storage. Assessment of forecasting model data showed that favourable conditions for leaf fleck development arise in July, but greatly depend on that year’s meteorological conditions. During an experimental year the first sprayings with fungicides were applied as forecasted from the model, which resulted in application 19, 6 and 23 days earlier than conventional treatment application times. In 2012-2014 iMETOS®sm treatment yield increased by 3.51 t ha-1, 3.87 t ha-1 and3.40 t ha-1 relative to the control. During storage most frequent injuries were fungal (44% and bacterial (41%, followed by insects (7% and physiological (9%. The highest prevalence of injuries was detected after 2 months of storage.

  7. Effect of buckwheat seed storage duration on its quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jevđović Radosav

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of buckwheat seed storage duration on major indices of the quality was analyzed. Seed collected in 1996 and stored for 30 days (analyzed in 1996, seed stored for one year (analyzed in 1997, seed stored for two years (analyzed in 1998, seed stored for three years (analyzed in 1999 seed stored for four years (analyzed in 2000, seed stored for five years (analyzed in 2001 and seed stored for six years (analyzed in 2002 were investigated. The results of investigation have shown that seed stored up to two years had preserved its good production traits. Seed stored longer than two years have shown poor quality traits, and seed stored over three years could not be used - its production traits (germination energy and total germination confirmed that such seed could not be used for planting. Seed stored over five years, regardless of storage conditions, had no qualitative traits, and therefore no value. It was also observed that longer storage duration induced decrease of seed mass. In regard to fractions, it was observed that smaller fractions lost their quality more quickly than medium fractions.

  8. Beam fanning effect and image storage in Ce: KNSBN crystal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI PanLai; GUO QingLin; WANG ZhiJun; PANG LiBin; LIANG BaoLai

    2007-01-01

    A non-synchronously-numerating experimental system is applied in this research. The effect of the incident beam intensity Ⅰ and the beam incident angle θ on beam fanning effect is investigated with a singular beam incident on Ce:KNSBN crystal. The results show that the beam fanning effect strongly depends on Iand θ. The threshold effect of/for the beam fanning in Ce:KNSBN crystal is observed, and the threshold intensity of incident beam keeps the same value of 38.2 mW/cm2 for different θ, and the steady beam fanning intensity Ifsat reaches a peak at θ=15° under the same Ⅰ. In addition, the effect of the incident beam modulated on the beam fanning noise and holographic storage in Ce:KNSBN crystal is studied. And the results suggest that the beam fanning noise is effectively suppressed, and the quality of the reappearance image is greatly improved.

  9. EFFECTS OF HYDROGEOMORPHIC REGION, WATERSHED STORAGE, AND FOREST FRAGMENTATION ON WATERSHED EXPORTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turbidity was highest for South Shore streams overall, but exhibited a significant HGM x storage x fragmentation effect, with highest levels observed in South Shore low storage/high fragmentation watersheds.

  10. Immunomodulating effect of blood transfusion: is storage time important?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mynster, T; Dybkjoer, E; Kronborg, Gitte

    1998-01-01

    to the stored blood, were used in a culture system with LPS and PHA as stimulators of TNF-alpha and IL-2 release. The effect of added supernatants, from either stored whole blood or SAGM blood, on cytokine release was evaluated compared to saline as control. TNF-alpha concentration was analyzed by ELISA after...... culture for 24 h and IL-2 after 72 h, respectively. RESULTS: Supernatants from both stored whole blood and SAGM blood showed a significant decrease in both LPS- and PHA-stimulated TNF-alpha release that was dependent on storage time. IL-2 was not detected in response to LPS stimulation. PHA-stimulated IL...

  11. Immunomodulating effect of blood transfusion: is storage time important?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mynster, T; Dybkjoer, E; Kronborg, Gitte;

    1998-01-01

    in stimulating TNF-alpha and IL-2 release in an ex vivo assay. METHODS: Supernatants of 10 units of whole blood and 10 units of SAGM blood were collected after 1, 21 and 35 days of standard blood bank storage. Heparinized blood from 20 healthy volunteers (as 'recipients'), corresponding in ABO and Rh type...... to the stored blood, were used in a culture system with LPS and PHA as stimulators of TNF-alpha and IL-2 release. The effect of added supernatants, from either stored whole blood or SAGM blood, on cytokine release was evaluated compared to saline as control. TNF-alpha concentration was analyzed by ELISA after...

  12. Drotaverine hydrochloride degradation using cyst-like dormant cells of Rhodococcus ruber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivshina, Irena B; Mukhutdinova, Anna N; Tyumina, Helena A; Vikhareva, Helena V; Suzina, Nataliya E; El'-Registan, Galina I; Mulyukin, Andrey L

    2015-03-01

    This work has a focus on adaptive capabilities of the actinobacterium Rhodococcus ruber IEGM 326 to cope with drotaverine hydrochloride (DH), a known pharmaceutical pollutant. Cultivation of R. ruber in a nitrogen-limited medium with incubation at the ambient temperature resulted in the formation of cyst-like dormant cells (CLDCs). They maintained viability for 2-7 months, possessed the undetectable respiratory activity and elevated resistance to heating, and had a specific morphology. CLDCs are regarded to ensure long-term survival in various habitats and may be used as storage formulations. R. ruber IEGM 326 was tolerant to DH (MIC, 200 mg/l) and displayed different abilities to degrade this compound, depending on inoculum, temperature, and the presence of glucose as co-oxidized substrate. Thus, the loss of DH (20 mg/l) over 48 h at the optimal temperature (27 ± 2 °C) was 5-8 % in the absence of glucose after inoculating with vegetative cells. The addition of glucose (5 g/l) increased DH degradation up to 46 %. Noteworthy, CLDCs as inoculum were advantageous over vegetative cells to degrade DH at the non-optimal temperature (35 ± 2 °C) at reduced bulk respiratory activity. The obtained results are promising to improve the biodegrading capabilities of other Rhodococcus strains.

  13. Lactose in dairy ingredients: Effect on processing and storage stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huppertz, Thom; Gazi, Inge

    2016-08-01

    Lactose is the main carbohydrate in the milk of most species. It is present in virtually all dry dairy ingredients, with levels ranging from lactose powders. The presence of lactose has a strong effect on ingredient processing and stability. Lactose can negatively influence powder properties and lead to undesirable effects, such as the stickiness of powder resulting in fouling during drying, or caking and related phenomena during storage. In addition, being a reducing carbohydrate, lactose can also participate in the Maillard reaction with free amino groups of proteins, peptides, and free AA. In this review, the influence of the presence (or absence) of lactose on physiochemical properties of dairy ingredients is reviewed, with particular emphasis on behavior during processing and storage. Particularly important features in this respect are whether lactose is in the (glassy) amorphous phase or in the crystalline phase, which is strongly affected by precrystallization conditions (e.g., in lactose, permeate, and whey powders) and by drying conditions. Furthermore, the moisture content and water activity of the ingredients are important parameters to consider, as they determine both mobility and reactivity, influencing Maillard reactions and concomitant browning, the crystallization of amorphous lactose during storage of dairy ingredients, glass transitions temperatures, and associated stickiness and caking phenomena. For the stickiness and caking, a crucial aspect to take into account is powder particle surface composition in relation to the bulk powder. Lactose is typically underrepresented at the powder surface, as a result of which deviations between observed lactose-induced caking and stickiness temperatures, and determined glass transition temperatures arise. By considering lactose as an integral part of ingredient composition along with all other compositional and environmental properties, lactose behavior in dairy ingredients can be understood, controlled, and

  14. Effect of different extenders on ram sperm traits during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdeňka Hegedűšová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to test commercial extenders used for short-term and long-term sperm preservation. Semen was collected in the reproduction season, i.e. from June to December. The ejaculates were obtained from single services and the routine analysis of the semen was performed immediately after the collection. The examination included semen volume, colour and texture, sperm concentration and motility, ejaculate turbulence and percentage of sperm with abnormal morphology. The semen was diluted with an extender in the ratio of 1:4. The processed semen was transported in an insulated container at 16–18 °C to the laboratory and stored in a stationary thermostat under the same temperature. Sperm motility tests were performed 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours after the placement in to thermostat. Ejaculates diluted with Ovipro, Optidyl, Triladyl and Andromed CSS gave very good results of viability (81.23 %–83.41 % after 24 hours of storage. After 48 hours, Ovipro, Andromed, Optidyl and Triladyl gave values above 75 %. The Triladyl extender proved to be a good stabilizing agent, showing consistent results during a long-term storage. It was chosen as a control one for overall assessment. Other preservation media did not show any improving or worsening effects. The extender Ovipro showed a high motility effect in the first 48 hours only, and hence it appears to be the best solution for the short-term preservation.

  15. Effect of Storage Time and Temperature on Rheological and Microstructural Properties of Gluten

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nicolas, Y.; Smit, R.J.M.; Aalst, van H.; Esselink, F.J.; Weegels, P.L.; Agterof, W.G.M.

    2003-01-01

    To investigate the effects of frozen storage on the rheological and microstructural properties of gluten, two model systems were investigated: System A, gluten and water; System B, gluten, water, and NaCl. The storage time was varied from 1 to 16 weeks and the storage temperature was varied from -5

  16. Effect of storage time and temperature on the rheological and microstructural properties of gluten

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nicolas, Y.; Smit, R.J.M.; van Aalst, H.; Esselink, F.J.; Weegels, P.L.; Agterof, W.G.M.

    2003-01-01

    To investigate the effects of frozen storage on the rheological and microstructural properties of gluten, two model systems were investigated: System A, gluten and water; System B, gluten, water, and NaCl. The storage time was varied from 1 to 16 weeks and the storage temperature was varied from -5

  17. Effect of semen extender and storage temperature on ram sperm motility over time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storage of ram semen for long period of time depends on a number of factors, including type of extender and storage temperature. A study compared the effect of semen extender and storage temperature on motility of ram semen stored for 72 h. Semen collected via electroejaculator from 5 mature Katahd...

  18. Glycemic index: effect of food storage under low temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Cassab Carreira

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to evaluate the influence of food storage under low temperature (-20ºC and the resistant starch formation, both on the glycemic index (GI. The GI of only cooked and cooked and stored foods under -20ºC for 30 days was evaluated in short-term tests with humans. Significant increase on the RS content was evidenced for all the stored foods. The food storage resulted in a significant decrease on the GI of beans and chick-peas; the GI of pasta remained the same and the GI of corn meal increased. Thus, the RS formation showed reduced influence on the glycemic index. The storage of starchy foods under low temperature can collaborate to the RS intake but its effect on the GI will depend on the characteristics of the carbohydrates of each food.O estudo foi realizado para avaliar a influência do armazenamento de alimentos sob baixa temperatura e a formação de amido resistente sobre o índice glicêmico (IG. O IG de alimentos cozidos ou cozidos e armazenados a -20ºC por 30 dias foi avaliado em ensaios de curta duração com humanos. Aumento significativo no conteúdo de AR foi evidenciado para todos os alimentos armazenados. O armazenamento dos alimentos resultou em significativa redução no IG do feijão e do grão de bico. O IG do macarrão foi o mesmo e da polenta sofreu aumento. Desta forma, a evidenciada formação de AR mostrou reduzida influência no IG. O armazenamento de alimentos fonte de amido sob baixa temperatura pode colaborar com a ingestão de AR, mas o efeito sobre o IG vai depender das características dos carboidratos de cada alimento.

  19. Effect of storage period on the accuracy of elastomeric impressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Batista Franco

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available AIMS: To investigate the effect of the storage period on the accuracy of recently developed elastomeric materials. METHODS: Simultaneous impressions of a steel die were taken using a polyether (I: Impregum Soft Heavy and Light body, 3M ESPE and vinyl polysiloxane (P: Perfectim Blue Velvet and Flexi-Velvet, J.Morita. The trays were loaded with the heavy-bodied impression materials while the light-bodied impression materials were simultaneously spread on the steel die. The impressions were poured after 2 hours, 24 hours, and 7 days. Impressions were stored at approximately 55% relative humidity and room temperature. Ten replicas were produced for each experimental condition (n=60. Accuracy of the stone dies was assessed with a depth-measuring microscope. The difference in height between the surface of the stone die and a standard metallic ring was recorded in micrometers at four demarcated points, by two independent examiners. Data were submitted to two-way ANOVA and Tukey test (a = 0.05. RESULTS: Significant differences were found among the groups. Smaller discrepancies were observed when pouring was performed up to 24 hours (I-2h= 65.0 ± 15.68 µm; I-24h= 81.6 ± 11.13 µm for the polyether, and up to 7 days for the vinyl polysiloxane (P-2h= 79.1 ± 13.82 µm; P-24h= 96.8 ± 6.02 µm; P-7d= 81.4 ± 4.3 µm. Significant dimensional discrepancies, however, were observed when polyether was stored for 7 days (I-7d= 295.3 ± 17.4 µm. CONCLUSION: Storage may significantly affect the dimensional accuracy of impressions and, thus, a maximum period and storage condition should be specified for the recently developed materials.

  20. Optimisation of a storage facility used to effect power control in the PBMR power cycle

    OpenAIRE

    Mathews, Edward A; Pelzer, Ruaan; Matimba, A

    2008-01-01

    This article presents the optimization of a gas storage facility used to effect power control in South Africa's PBMR power cycle. It was shown in the article, a multitank storage facility to affect power control in the PBMR power cyclel, that a multi tank design with heat capacitance improves storage effictiveness, which could make the system cheaper. This storage facility is known as the Inventory Control System (ICS). The focus in this article is to determine an optimum numbe...

  1. Cancer Dormancy: A Regulatory Role for Endogenous Immunity in Establishing and Maintaining the Tumor Dormant State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin N. Baxevanis

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The significant contribution of host immunity in early tumorigenesis has been recently recognized as a result of our better understanding of the molecular pathways regulating tumor cell biology and tumor-lymphocyte interactions. Emerging evidence suggests that disseminated dormant tumor cells derived from primary tumors before or after immune surveillance, are responsible for subsequent metastases. Recent trends from the field of onco-immunology suggest that efficiently stimulating endogenous anticancer immunity is a prerequisite for the successful outcome of conventional cancer therapies. Harnessing the immune system to achieve clinical efficacy is realistic in the context of conventional therapies resulting in immunogenic cell death and/or immunostimulatory side effects. Targeted therapies designed to target oncogenic pathways in tumor cells can also positively regulate the endogenous immune response and tumor microenvironment. Identification of T cell inhibitory signals has prompted the development of immune checkpoint inhibitors, which specifically hinder immune effector inhibition, reinvigorating and potentially expanding the preexisting anticancer immune response. This anticancer immunity can be amplified in the setting of immunotherapies, mostly in the form of vaccines, which boost naturally occurring T cell clones specifically recognizing tumor antigens. Thus, a promising anticancer therapy will aim to activate patients’ naturally occurring anticancer immunity either to eliminate residual tumor cells or to prolong dormancy in disseminated tumor cells. Such an endogenous anticancer immunity plays a significant role for controlling the balance between dormant tumor cells and tumor escape, and restraining metastases. In this review, we mean to suggest that anticancer therapies aiming to stimulate the endogenous antitumor responses provide the concept of the therapeutic management of cancer.

  2. 高温和单氰胺对油桃休眠花芽呼吸代谢的影响%Effects of high temperature and hydrogen cyanamide on dormant nectarine' s floral bud respiratory metabolism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭钺; 冷传远; 李玲; 徐臣善; 陈修德; 高东升

    2012-01-01

    以3年生盆栽‘曙光’油桃为材料,研究油桃自然休眠过程中50℃高温和单氰胺对花芽呼吸代谢的影响.结果表明:高温和单氰胺均可以打破油桃的自然休眠,导致休眠花芽呼吸代谢显著下降,其呼吸代谢的衰减可持续数小时.主要呼吸途径三羧酸循环(TCA)和磷酸戊糖途径(PPP)的运行均受到影响.未经破眠处理的花芽TCA和PPP均呈衰减趋势,而高温和单氰胺诱导了早期呼吸衰减结束后PPP的迅速活化.高温还表现出对TCA恢复的诱导,而单氰胺在96 h内未表现出这种作用.在高温和单氰胺打破自然休眠的机制中,呼吸衰减和随后出现的PPP活化可能是重要的组成部分.%Taking 3-year old potted ' Shuguang' nectarine (Prunus persica var. nectariana cv. Shuguang) as test material, this paper studied the effects of high temperature (50℃ , HT) and hydrogen cyanamide (HC) on the floral bud respiratory metabolism of the tree during its natural dormancy. Both HT and HC could break the natural dormancy of the tree, and lead to a significant decrease in the respiratory metabolism of floral buds for several hours. The main respiratory pathways, tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA) and pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) , were affected. For the buds not received dormancy-breaking treatments, both the TCA and the PPP decreased, while treating with HT and HC induced a rapid recovery of PPP after the early respiratory attenuation. HT also induced the recovery of TCA, but HC did not show this effect in 96 hours. Therefore, respiratory attenuation and the following PPP activation could be the important part in the floral bud respiratory mechanism of HT- and HC-induced dormancy release.

  3. Proteolysis in salmon ( Salmo salar ) during cold storage : Effects of storage time and smoking process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, K.E.; Nielsen, Henrik Hauch

    2001-01-01

    Changes in free amino acids (FAAs), small peptides and myofibrillar proteins were investigated in salmon (Salmo salar) muscle stored at OC for up to 23 days and after the stored salmon was smoked. Storage time and smoking process did not increase the formation of FAAs and small peptides indicating...... change of myosin and no change of alpha -actinin and actin were observed. The smoking process itself enhances the intensity of bands, but does not change the pattern markedly except for the appearance of a 25 and 70 kDa band. Degradation pattern after smoking was not affected by storage time....

  4. Ion-Trapping Effect in UVSOR Storage Ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasuga, Toshio; Yonehara, Hiroto; Kinoshita, Toshio; Hasumoto, Masami

    1985-09-01

    UVSOR is an electron-stage ring dedicated to vacuum ultraviolet synchrotron radiation research. The first beam was stored in the ring in November 1983, and from that time on, efforts have been devoted to improving the performance of the ring. Some inconvenient phenomena have been found during the accelerator studies. One of the most serious problems is the growth of the vertical size of the electron beam. This phenomenon is explained by the ion-trapping effect, in which the ions trapped in the electron beam change the operating point of the storage ring and enhance the coupling between horizontal and vertical oscillations, resulting in a considerable increase in the vertical beam size. This ion trapping was successfully cured by the RF knockout method, which excited the betatron oscillation.

  5. Immunomodulating effect of blood transfusion: is storage time important?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mynster, T; Dybkjoer, E; Kronborg, Gitte;

    1998-01-01

    in stimulating TNF-alpha and IL-2 release in an ex vivo assay. METHODS: Supernatants of 10 units of whole blood and 10 units of SAGM blood were collected after 1, 21 and 35 days of standard blood bank storage. Heparinized blood from 20 healthy volunteers (as 'recipients'), corresponding in ABO and Rh type......OBJECTIVES: TNF-alpha and IL-2 are important cytokines in macrophage and T-lymphocyte activity against infection and dissemination of malignant cells. We studied the influence of supernatants from stored whole blood and buffy-coat-depleted SAGM (saline, adenine, glucose and mannitol) blood...... to the stored blood, were used in a culture system with LPS and PHA as stimulators of TNF-alpha and IL-2 release. The effect of added supernatants, from either stored whole blood or SAGM blood, on cytokine release was evaluated compared to saline as control. TNF-alpha concentration was analyzed by ELISA after...

  6. Effect of Annealing on Rare Earth Based Hydrogen Storage Alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Jinhua

    2004-01-01

    Rare earth-based hydrogen storage alloy used as negative electrode materials for nickel-metal hydride (Ni-MH) batteries are used commercially.The effect of annealing treatment with different annealing temperature and time on the MLNi3.68 Co0.78 Mn0.35 Al0.27 and MMNi3.55 Co0.75 Mn0.40 Al0.30 alloys were investigated.The crystal microstructure,pressure-composition-isotherms (p-C-T) and electrochemical properties of alloys were examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), automatic PCI monitoring system and electrical performance testing instruments.The optimum annealing treatment conditions of two kinds of alloys were determined.

  7. Long-term storage effects-up-date

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, W. R.

    1977-01-01

    The long-term effects of storing batteries over a period of years prior to their use in a synchronous orbit application are discussed. A previous experiment is discussed where life testing was performed on cells after having stored the battery for a period of three years with the cell shorted and at a temperature on the order of 5-10 C. The test consisted of performing a sequence of 10 simulated eclipse seasons (equivalent in cycling of five years in synchronous orbit). Results of this test indicated very little degradation and change in the physical and chemical conditions of the cell. The program was extended for an additional year (battery was stored for four years) under the same conditions and testing. The results of the four year storage (one exception) indicate that no further change occurred that is significant from the three year test.

  8. Effects of corm size and storage period on allocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mehdi nasiry mahalati

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to correlate corm size and storage period of corms to allocation of assimilates in different parts of the plant an experiment was conducted during growth period of 2004 and 2005 in Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad. Treatments were four groups of corm size (3-6, 6-9, 9-12 and 12-15 g either stored for a period of time before planting or sown directly without storage. Experiment was conducted in a Complete Randomized Block design with three replications. Results indicated that storing corms before planting had a negative effect on number, area, length and width of leaf and also on weight of leaf, weight of main shoot, weight of leaves of lateral shoots and total weight of plant. However, weight of corm, number and weight of lateral shoots and area of lateral leaf was not affected by storing the corms. Nevertheless, in the second year, number, length and weight of leaf on main shoot, number of cormlet, number, area and weight of leaf on lateral shoots, total weight of plant, corm weight, weight of main shoot and weight of lateral buds was reduced while leaf width were not affected. Effect of corm size on almost all measured parameters was positive and with increasing corm weight an increasing trend was observed in the above parameters. No flower was observed on corms which were stored, while corms which planted after lifting produced flowers and Larger corms of 9-12 and 12-15 g were superior in terms of number of flowers per unit area and also weight of flower and stigma per unit area. Corms with 9-15 grams planted immediately after lifting the corms produced higher yield.

  9. A Dormant Microbial Component in the Development of Preeclampsia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kell, Douglas B.; Kenny, Louise C.

    2016-01-01

    Preeclampsia (PE) is a complex, multisystem disorder that remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in pregnancy. Four main classes of dysregulation accompany PE and are widely considered to contribute to its severity. These are abnormal trophoblast invasion of the placenta, anti-angiogenic responses, oxidative stress, and inflammation. What is lacking, however, is an explanation of how these themselves are caused. We here develop the unifying idea, and the considerable evidence for it, that the originating cause of PE (and of the four classes of dysregulation) is, in fact, microbial infection, that most such microbes are dormant and hence resist detection by conventional (replication-dependent) microbiology, and that by occasional resuscitation and growth it is they that are responsible for all the observable sequelae, including the continuing, chronic inflammation. In particular, bacterial products such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS), also known as endotoxin, are well known as highly inflammagenic and stimulate an innate (and possibly trained) immune response that exacerbates the inflammation further. The known need of microbes for free iron can explain the iron dysregulation that accompanies PE. We describe the main routes of infection (gut, oral, and urinary tract infection) and the regularly observed presence of microbes in placental and other tissues in PE. Every known proteomic biomarker of “preeclampsia” that we assessed has, in fact, also been shown to be raised in response to infection. An infectious component to PE fulfills the Bradford Hill criteria for ascribing a disease to an environmental cause and suggests a number of treatments, some of which have, in fact, been shown to be successful. PE was classically referred to as endotoxemia or toxemia of pregnancy, and it is ironic that it seems that LPS and other microbial endotoxins really are involved. Overall, the recognition of an infectious component in the etiology of PE mirrors that for

  10. Model analysis of the effects of atmospheric drivers on storage water use in Scots pine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Verbeeck

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Storage water use is an indirect consequence of the interplay between different meteorological drivers through their effect on water flow and water potential in trees. We studied these microclimatic drivers of storage water use in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. growing in a temperate climate. The storage water use was modeled using the ANAFORE model, integrating a dynamic water flow and – storage model with a process-based transpiration model. The model was calibrated and validated with sap flow measurements for the growing season of 2000 (26 May–18 October.

    Because there was no severe soil drought during the study period, we were able to study atmospheric effects. Incoming radiation and vapour pressure deficit (VPD were the main atmospheric drivers of storage water use. The general trends of sap flow and storage water use are similar, and follow more or less the pattern of incoming radiation. Nevertheless, considerable differences in the day-to-day pattern of sap flow and storage water use were observed. VPD was determined to be one of the main drivers of these differences. During dry atmospheric conditions (high VPD storage water use was reduced. This reduction was higher than the reduction in measured sap flow. Our results suggest that the trees did not rely more on storage water during periods of atmospheric drought, without severe soil drought. The daily minimum tree water content was lower in periods of high VPD, but the reserves were not completely depleted after the first day of high VPD, due to refilling during the night.

    Nevertheless, the tree water content deficit was a third important factor influencing storage water use. When storage compartments were depleted beyond a threshold, storage water use was limited due to the low water potential in the storage compartments. The maximum relative contribution of storage water to daily transpiration was also constrained by an increasing tree water content

  11. Death by desiccation: Effects of hermetic storage on cowpea bruchids

    KAUST Repository

    Murdock, Larry L.

    2012-04-01

    When cowpea grain is stored in airtight containers, destructive populations of the cowpea bruchid (. Callosobruchus maculatus) don\\'t develop even though the grain put into the store is already infested with sufficient . C. maculatus to destroy the entire store within a few months. The surprising effectiveness of hermetic storage for preserving grain against insect pests has long been linked with the depletion of oxygen in the hermetic container and with the parallel rise in carbon dioxide. With . C. maculatus, low oxygen (hypoxia) leads to cessation of larval feeding activity, whereas elevated levels of carbon dioxide (hypercarbia) have little or no effect on feeding. Cessation of feeding arrests the growth of the insects, which don\\'t mature and don\\'t reproduce. As a result, population growth ceases and damaging infestations don\\'t develop. . C. maculatus eggs, larvae, and pupae subjected to hypoxia eventually die after exposures of various duration. The cause of death is desiccation resulting from an inadequate supply of water. We demonstrate that blocking the supply of oxygen interdicts the main supply of water for . C. maculatus. This leads to inactivity, cessation of population growth, desiccation and eventual death. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Effects of insertion device on SSRF storage ring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility (SSRF), one of the third generation light sources, aims to produce high brightness and/or high flux X-ray source for users; therefore insertion devices (IDs) are important magnetic elements for SSRF. In this paper, the linear perturbations due to IDs toward its storage ring lattice, such as beta function distortions, tune shifts, emittance growths, and energy spreads are estimated by using analytical formulae, and the nonlinear effects from IDs, especially dynamic aperture, are simulated by using Racetrack code. The results show that (a) the reduction of dynamic aperture from single undulator is negligible, since electron beam energy of 3.5 GeV is high and ID's magnetic field is low, and the beta functions in the middle of straight sections, where ID is located, are well optimized; (b) however, the reduction from single wigglers, especially super-conducting wiggler, is visible, because of its higher magnetic field; (c) effects of each ID on emittance growths and energy spreads are less than 7%.

  13. [Effects of storage time on quality of Desmodium styracifolium seeds].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Quan; Tang, Xiao-min; Pan, Hai-yun; Mei, Ling-feng; Zhang, Chun-rong; Cheng, Xuan-xuan; Huang, Lu-qi

    2015-10-01

    The dynamic changes of germination percentage, germination potential, thousand-seed weight, antioxidase activity in Desmodium styracifolium seeds with different storage time were tested, and electrical conductivity, contents of soluble sugar, soluble protein, starch in seed leach liquor were also determined in order to reveal the mechanism of seed deterioration. The results as the following. (1) The germination percentage, germination potential and thousand-seed weight of D. styracifolium seeds declined, while the seed coat color darkened with the extension of storage time. (2) The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) decreased with the prolongation of storage period. The SOD activity declined fastest in 1,095-1,185 d of storage, while the POD activity declined significantly in 365-395 d of storage. (3) The electrical conductivity and the contents of soluble sugar, starch in seed leach liquor increased, while the content of soluble protein declined with the extension of storage time. (4) Correlation analysis indicated that the germination percentage, germination potential and thousand-seed weight of D. styracifolium seeds have a significantly positive correlation with SOD and POD activity, while have a significantly negative correlation with the electrical conductivity, contents of soluble sugar and starch. It can be concluded that during the storage of D. styracifolium seeds, physiological and biochemical changes including decrease in antioxidase activity, rise in electrical conductivity, degradation effluent of soluble sugar and starch, degradation of soluble protein were the main factors leading to the seed deterioration.

  14. The Effects of Packaging conditions on the Sensory Quality of Trail Mix after Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-09-01

    To determine the effects of vacuum packaging versus oxygen scavengers on the stability of nut raisin trail mix, samples were assessed by sensory...samples agglomerated upon storage, especially with increased storage temperatures and increased raisins. Vacuum packaging may have deleterious effects that

  15. Effect of storage of pheromone lures for Amyelois transitella: field performance and compound ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Experiments during the flight of the overwintering generation of navel orangeworm revealed that Suterra NOW Biolure pheromone lures held in storage at -20°C increased significantly in field effectiveness with time in storage over a period of 0-2 years. This increase in field effectiveness coincided ...

  16. Somatic cells initiate primordial follicle activation and govern the development of dormant oocytes in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hua; Risal, Sanjiv; Gorre, Nagaraju; Busayavalasa, Kiran; Li, Xin; Shen, Yan; Bosbach, Benedikt; Brännström, Mats; Liu, Kui

    2014-11-03

    The majority of oocytes in the mammalian ovary are dormant oocytes that are enclosed in primordial follicles by several somatic cells, which we refer to as primordial follicle granulosa cells (pfGCs). Very little is known, however, about how the pfGCs control the activation of primordial follicles and the developmental fates of dormant oocytes. By targeting molecules in pfGCs with several mutant mouse models, we demonstrate that the somatic pfGCs initiate the activation of primordial follicles and govern the quiescence or awakening of dormant oocytes. Inhibition of mTORC1 signaling in pfGCs prevents the differentiation of pfGCs into granulosa cells, and this arrests the dormant oocytes in their quiescent states, leading to oocyte death. Overactivation of mTORC1 signaling in pfGCs accelerates the differentiation of pfGCs into granulosa cells and causes premature activation of all dormant oocytes and primordial follicles. We further show that pfGCs trigger the awakening of dormant oocytes through KIT ligand (KITL), and we present an essential communication network between the somatic cells and germ cells that is based on signaling between the mTORC1-KITL cascade in pfGCs and KIT-PI3K signaling in oocytes. Our findings provide a relatively complete picture of how mammalian primordial follicles are activated. The microenvironment surrounding primordial follicles can activate mTORC1-KITL signaling in pfGCs, and these cells trigger the awakening of dormant oocytes and complete the process of follicular activation. Such communication between the microenvironment, somatic cells, and germ cells is essential to maintaining the proper reproductive lifespan in mammals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of temperature, light, desiccation and cold storage on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    oyaide

    2015-03-25

    Mar 25, 2015 ... Chinese medicine on the edge of extinction, were investigated for the first time in attempt to interpret their storage ..... According to a compendium (Hong et al., 1996), among investigated ... Technologies and strategies for ex.

  18. Effect of processing methods and storage environment on moisture ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... methods and storage environment on moisture adsorption characteristics of ... to provide information for the prediction of shelf life and selection of packaging ... The experimental design was split plot comprising six processing methods ...

  19. Welfare effects of unbundling gas storage and distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breton, M. [Montreal Univ., PQ (Canada). Ecole des Hautes Etudes Commerciales]|[Montreal Univ., PQ (Canada). Groupe d' etudes et de recherche en analyse des decisions; Kharbach, M. [Montreal Univ., PQ (Canada). Ecole des Hautes Etudes Commerciales

    2006-02-15

    The creation of inventories and stockpiles can help to reduce price and production fluctuations. This paper presented the results of a simulation of market architectures using a 2 period model. The aim of the paper was to provide insights on the merits of a gas unbundling policy recently adopted in many gas markets. In terms of market architecture, it was first assumed that one of the gas firms owned the storage facility and was mandated to give a second firm access to it. It was then assumed that an independent third firm was responsible for the storage activity so that the other 2 firms competed in the downstream gas market and bought storage services from the independent firm. High and low price periods in a single year were considered. The first architecture assumed an Open Access framework which introduced a Stackelberg competition component in the downstream market through the storage participation in the final goods offering. The second architecture assumed an independent storage activity, and a Cournot component was present. Seasonal storage facilities were filled during the low price period and emptied during the high price period. Results of the simulation indicated that total welfare and consumer welfare were maximized in the case of the integrated firm owning the storage facilities and operating in the downstream market. Success was attributed to the Open Access framework and the Stackelberg competition component in the downstream market. The bundled architecture led to higher consumer surplus than the unbundled architecture. It was concluded that regulatory reforms in North American and European gas sectors that foster separating storage and merchant activities can not be justified based on welfare arguments. 12 refs., 1 tab.

  20. Effect of Packed Red Blood Cell Cryopreservation on Development of the Storage Lesion and Inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    liquid storage on development of the biochemical, metabolic, and morphologic changes collectively known as the red blood cell storage lesion is unknown...adjunct to standard blood banking techniques. The post-thaw characteristics are markedly different than fresh packed red blood cells, and the...Drug Administration currently restricts their use to 14 days after thawing. The effect of longer term liquid storage on development of the

  1. Effects of Different Storage Conditions on the Nutritional Qualities of Barley and Maize

    OpenAIRE

    POLAT, Havva Eylem

    2015-01-01

    The effects of different types of storage on nutritional quality values of barley and maize are examined. For this purpose, 3 different storage types, including horizontal-reinforced concrete storage, vertical-reinforced concrete silo and verticalsteel silo were taken into consideration. Nutritional quality values (dry matter, crude protein, crude fat, crude fiber, crude ash, and metabolizable energy) of samples were analyzed in the laboratory in four replicates. Total of 438 samples were col...

  2. Computer predictions of ground storage effects on performance of Galileo and ISPM generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmielewski, A.

    1983-01-01

    Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTG) that will supply electrical power to the Galileo and International Solar Polar Mission (ISPM) spacecraft are exposed to several degradation mechanisms during the prolonged ground storage before launch. To assess the effect of storage on the RTG flight performance, a computer code has been developed which simulates all known degradation mechanisms that occur in an RTG during storage and flight. The modeling of these mechanisms and their impact on the RTG performance are discussed.

  3. Effect of Storage Period on the Physicochemical, Sensory and Microbiological Quality of Bakery Flavoured Ice Cream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arashdeep Singh

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Storage conditions were known to bring about some physicochemical changes in frozen foods. The present investigation was therefore carried out to examine the effect of storage period on the physicochemical, sensory and microbiological quality of bakery flavoured ice cream. Bakery flavoured ice cream incorporating cookies (plain and chocolate and cakes (vanilla and chocolate at 10 per cent level were prepared and subjected to 60 days of frozen storage and evaluated periodically at intervals of 15 days. With the progress in the storage period total solids, acidity and specific gravity of all ice cream samples increased significantly (p<0.01 during the storage, while pH, antioxidant activity and overrun decreased significantly (p<0.01. Protein, fibre and ash content do not show any significant change during storage. The decrease in total phenolic content was found to be non significant with increase in storage period from 0 to 60 days. Storage period had significant (p<0.01 on L and a*colour attributes of ice cream samples. First dripping time increased while melting rate decreased in all samples. The mean sensory scores of all ice cream samples decreased significantly with progress in storage period at -18±1o C. There was a significant decline in Standard Plate Count (SPC and increase in psychrophillic count with progress in storage period.

  4. [Chemo- and endocrino-therapy of breast carcinoma xenografts in the dormant or exponential growth phase].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, T

    1995-06-01

    In case of concerning about recurrence case after operative treatment of breast cancer, we must suppose existence of dormant breast cancer cell. To elucidate a rational treatment of the breast cancer in the dormant stage, we have developed a new treatment model using human breast carcinoma xenografts (MCF-7, R-27 and Br-10) in nude mice. After the sc inoculation of the tumors, the treatment was initiated with or without the previous estradiol (E2) stimulation. While MCF-7 was sensitive to mitomycin C (6 mg/kg i.p.) and and tamoxifen pellet (2.5 mg/mouse s.c.) in the dormant and exponential growth phase, R-27 and Br-10 were sensitive to the drugs only in the exponential growth phase but not in the dormant stage. These results suggested that the sensitivity of human breast carcinoma cells in the dormant stage is rather low, however some strain would be also sensitive to the treatment. This model seems to be useful in evaluating the adjuvant therapy of breast carcinoma after surgery.

  5. ExploreNEOs. VIII. Dormant Short-period Comets in the Near-Earth Asteroid Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mommert, M.; Harris, A. W.; Mueller, M.; Hora, J. L.; Trilling, D. E.; Bottke, W. F.; Thomas, C. A.; Delbo, M.; Emery, J. P.; Fazio, G.; Smith, H. A.

    2015-10-01

    We perform a search for dormant comets, asteroidal objects of cometary origin, in the near-Earth asteroid (NEA) population based on dynamical and physical considerations. Our study is based on albedos derived within the ExploreNEOs program and is extended by adding data from NEOWISE and the Akari asteroid catalog. We use a statistical approach to identify asteroids on orbits that resemble those of short-period near-Earth comets (NECs) using the Tisserand parameter with respect to Jupiter, the aphelion distance, and the minimum orbital intersection distance with respect to Jupiter. From the sample of NEAs on comet-like orbits, we select those with a geometric albedo pV ≤ 0.064 as dormant comet candidates, and find that only ˜50% of NEAs on comet-like orbits also have comet-like albedos. We identify a total of 23 NEAs from our sample that are likely to be dormant short-period NECs and, based on a de-biasing procedure applied to the cryogenic NEOWISE survey, estimate both magnitude-limited and size-limited fractions of the NEA population that are dormant short-period comets. We find that 0.3%-3.3% of the NEA population with H ≤ 21, and ({9}-5+2)% of the population with diameters d ≥ 1 km, are dormant short-period NECs.

  6. Effect of storage media on human periodontal ligament cell apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamorro, Mónica M; Regan, John D; Opperman, Lynne A; Kramer, Phillip R

    2008-02-01

    The ability of storage media to preserve periodontal ligament (PDL) cell vitality has been previously evaluated. However, the mechanisms by which different storage conditions alter the functional status of PDL cells have not been determined. The purpose of the present study was to investigate, in vitro, the level of programed cell death or apoptosis in a population of PDL cells following storage under different conditions. Primary human PDL cells were plated into 24-well-culture plates and allowed to attach for 24 h. Cells were then exposed for 1 h to milk, Hank's balanced salt solution (HBSS), Soft Wear contact lens solution or Gatorade at room temperature or on ice. Culture medium was used as a negative control. Apoptosis was evaluated at 24, 48, and 72 h after treatment on quadruplicate samples by using the ST 160 ApopTag Fluorescein Direct In Situ Detection Kit. The total number of cells and the total number of apoptotic cells were counted. The results indicated that at 24 and 72 h, PDL treated with Gatorade and the contact lens solution displayed the highest percentages of apoptotic cells when compared with the other treatment groups at room temperature. Overall, cells treated on ice showed significantly lower levels of apoptosis when compared with treatments at room temperature. In conclusion, the results indicated that apoptosis plays a major role in cell death in cells treated with Gatorade and contact lens solutions in comparison to other storage solutions and that storage on ice can inhibit programed cell death.

  7. Effect of Frozen Storage Temperature on the Quality of Premium Ice Cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung Hee; Jo, Yeon-Ji; Chun, Ji-Yeon; Hong, Geun-Pyo; Davaatseren, Munkhtugs; Choi, Mi-Jung

    2015-01-01

    The market sales of premium ice cream have paralleled the growth in consumer desire for rich flavor and taste. Storage temperature is a major consideration in preserving the quality attributes of premium ice cream products for both the manufacturer and retailers during prolonged storage. We investigated the effect of storage temperature (-18℃, -30℃, -50℃, and -70℃) and storage times, up to 52 wk, on the quality attributes of premium ice cream. Quality attributes tested included ice crystal size, air cell size, melting resistance, and color. Ice crystal size increased from 40.3 μm to 100.1 μm after 52 wk of storage at -18℃. When ice cream samples were stored at -50℃ or -70℃, ice crystal size slightly increased from 40.3 μm to 57-58 μm. Initial air cell size increased from 37.1 μm to 87.7 μm after storage at -18℃ for 52 wk. However, for storage temperatures of -50℃ and -70℃, air cell size increased only slightly from 37.1 μm to 46-47 μm. Low storage temperature (-50℃ and -70℃) resulted in better melt resistance and minimized color changes in comparison to high temperature storage (-18℃ and -30℃). In our study, quality changes in premium ice cream were gradually minimized according to decrease in storage temperature up to-50℃. No significant beneficial effect of -70℃ storage was found in quality attributes. In the scope of our experiment, we recommend a storage temperature of -50℃ to preserve the quality attributes of premium ice cream.

  8. Short communication: The effect of liquid storage on the flavor of whey protein concentrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Curtis W; Parker, Megan; Drake, MaryAnne

    2016-06-01

    Unit operations in dried dairy ingredient manufacture significantly influence sensory properties and, consequently, their use and consumer acceptance in a variety of ingredient applications. In whey protein concentrate (WPC) manufacture, liquid can be stored as whey or WPC before spray drying. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of storage, composition, and bleaching on the flavor of spray-dried WPC80. Liquid whey was manufactured and subjected to the following treatments: bleached or unbleached and liquid whey or liquid WPC storage. The experiment was replicated 3 times and included a no-storage control. All liquid storage was performed at 4°C for 24h. Flavor of the final spray-dried WPC80 was evaluated by a trained panel and volatile compound analyses. Storage of liquids increased cardboard flavor, decreased sweet aromatic flavor, and resulted in increased volatile lipid oxidation products. Bleaching altered the effect of liquid storage. Storage of unbleached liquid whey decreased sweet aromatic flavor and increased cardboard flavor and volatile lipid oxidation products compared with liquid WPC80 and no storage. In contrast, storage of bleached liquid WPC decreased sweet aromatic flavor and increased cardboard flavor and associated volatile lipid oxidation products compared with bleached liquid whey or no storage. These results confirm that liquid storage increases off-flavors in spray-dried protein but to a variable degree, depending on whether bleaching has been applied. If liquid storage is necessary, bleached WPC80 should be stored as liquid whey and unbleached WPC80 should be stored as liquid WPC to mitigate off-flavors.

  9. effects of hatching egg weight and length of storage period on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    metinpetek

    Effects of egg weight and length of storage on hatchability and subsequent ... Long egg storage periods affect the pH of the albumen due to loss of carbon dioxide (Dawes, .... gain) and mortality were calculated for the 42 days of growth period.

  10. Effects of anaerobic digestion and aerobic treatment on gaseous emissions from dairy manure storages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effects of anaerobic digestion and aerobic treatment on the reduction of gaseous emissions from dairy manure storages were evaluated in this study. Screened dairy manure containing 3.5% volatile solids (VS) was either anaerobically digested or aerobically treated prior to storage in air-tight vessel...

  11. Effects of Starter Culture and Storage Temperature on Functional, Microbial and Sensory Characteristics of Kefir during Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayyebeh Sarlak

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of starters and storage temperature (4 ºC, 25 ºC on microbiological and physicochemical properties, volatile compounds and sensory evaluation of kefir. Kefirs produced by KFA and Chr. Hansen starters were stored at 4 ºC and 25 ºC for 40 days. pH and acidity at 4 ºC did not change (p ≥ 0.05, while at 25 ºC pH and total solid decreased as well as acidity. Concentrations of acetaldehyde and ethanol increased (p < 0.05. No significant differences (p ≥ 0.05 were observed in protein and non-protein-nitrogen for both samples. Sensory evaluation revealed that storage did not affect texture and color of samples at 4 ºC. Kefir produced by Chr. Hansen starter stored at 4 ºC had the highest acceptability until 40-day storage and was preferred by the panelists.

  12. Refrigerated storage of ram sperm in presence of Trolox and GSH antioxidants: effect of temperature, extender and storage time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata-Campuzano, María; Álvarez-Rodríguez, Manuel; Tamayo-Canul, Julio; López-Urueña, Elena; de Paz, Paulino; Anel, Luis; Martínez-Pastor, Felipe; Álvarez, Mercedes

    2014-12-30

    Antioxidants have a potential to improve the quality and fertility of refrigerated-stored ram semen. Reduced glutathione (GSH) and Trolox (0.2, 1 and 5mM) were evaluated in ram semen preserved at 15 and 5°C up to 48 and 96h, respectively. Extenders were also evaluated (15°C: Tris-citrate-fructose, TCF, without lipids, and TES-Tris-fructose 10% egg yolk, TTF-EY; 5°C: TTF-EY and 3.5% soybean lecithin, TTF-SL; INRA96 at both temperatures). Storage at 5°C resulted in poorer quality than 15°C up to 48h, while allowing acceptable quality at 96h. Antioxidants had few effects on sperm quality, with use of Trolox resulting in reduced motility and viability in TCF. Storage at 15°C in the TCF extender resulted in decreased motility, viability and mitochondrial activity compared with use of TTF-EY. Sperm quality when storage was at 5°C was similar, but storage in TTF-SL resulted in decreased motility and mitochondrial activity. Acrosomal status was only slightly affected by extender and antioxidant. Mitochondrial activity was improved by antioxidants in TTF-SL, and GSH at 5mM when semen was stored at 5°C in TTF-EY. A preliminary artificial insemination trial indicated that supplementation with GSH has the potential for improving lambing (Pram semen. Use of Trolox negatively impacted sperm quality and GSH had some positive impacts. The use of soybean lecithin requires further research to assess its impact on mitochondria.

  13. Dormant Comets Among the Near-Earth Object Population: A Meteor-Based Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Ye, Quan-Zhi; Pokorný, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Dormant comets in the near-Earth object (NEO) population are thought to be involved in the terrestrial accretion of water and organic materials. Identification of dormant comets is difficult as they are observationally indistinguishable from their asteroidal counterparts, however they may have produced dust during their final active stages which potentially are detectable today as weak meteor showers at the Earth. Here we present the result of a reconnaissance survey looking for dormant comets using 13~567~542 meteor orbits measured by the Canadian Meteor Orbit Radar (CMOR). We simulate the dynamical evolution of the hypothetical meteoroid streams originated from 407 near-Earth asteroids in cometary orbits (NEACOs) that resemble orbital characteristics of Jupiter-family comets (JFCs). Out of the 44 hypothetical showers that are predicted to be detectable by CMOR, we identify 5 positive detections that are statistically unlikely to be chance associations, including 3 previously known associations. This transla...

  14. An efficient regeneration and rapid micropropagation protocol for Almond using dormant axillary buds as explants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Ravish; Chaudhury, Rekha; Malik, Surendra Kumar; Sharma, Kailash Chandra

    2015-07-01

    An efficient in vitro protocol was standardized for Almond (Prunus dulcis) propagation using dormant axillary buds as explants. Explants were cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) and woody plant medium (WPM) supplemented with different concentration/combination(s) of phytohormones. MS basal medium showed lowest shoot induction and took longest duration for shoot initiation. Multiple shoots were induced in MS medium supplemented with the combination of BAP (0.5 mgL(-1)). Cultures showed poor response for rooting in all combinations of plant growth regulators (PGRs) and took 90 days for initiation. Rooting was higher in half strength of MS than in full-strength. The highest root induction (33.33%) was recorded in half MS medium supplemented with 0.1 mgL(-1) IBA (indole-3-butyric acid) followed by full strength of MS medium (20%) supplemented with IBA (0.1 mgL(-1)). α-Naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) was less effective for rooting than IBA. The highest root induction (25%) was found in half strength of MS medium supplemented with 0.1 mgL(-1) NAA followed by full strength of MS medium (20%). The protocol developed would be of use in mass propagation of almond and also support in vitro conservation.

  15. Discovery of the Onset of Rapid Accretion by a Dormant Massive Black Hole

    CERN Document Server

    Burrows, D N; Ghisellini, G; Mangano, V; Zhang, B; Page, K L; Eracleous, M; Romano, P; Sakamoto, T; Falcone, A D; Osborne, J P; Campana, S; Beardmore, A P; Breeveld, A A; Chester, M M; Corbet, R; Covino, S; Cummings, J R; D'Avanzo, P; D'Elia, V; Esposito, P; Evans, P A; Fugazza, D; Gelbord, J M; Hiroi, K; Holland, S T; Huang, K Y; Im, M; Israel, G; Jeon, Y; Jeon, Y -B; Kawai, N; Krimm, H A; Mészáros, P; Negoro, H; Omodei, N; Park, W -K; Perkins, J S; Sugizaki, M; Sung, H -I; Tagliaferri, G; Troja, E; Ueda, Y; Urata, Y; Usui, R; Antonelli, L A; Barthelmy, S D; Cusumano, G; Giommi, P; Marshall, F E; Melandri, A; Perri, M; Racusin, J L; Sbarufatti, B; Siegel, M H; Gehrels, N

    2011-01-01

    Massive black holes are believed to reside at the centres of most galaxies. They can be- come detectable by accretion of matter, either continuously from a large gas reservoir or impulsively from the tidal disruption of a passing star, and conversion of the gravitational energy of the infalling matter to light. Continuous accretion drives Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN), which are known to be variable but have never been observed to turn on or off. Tidal disruption of stars by dormant massive black holes has been inferred indirectly but the on- set of a tidal disruption event has never been observed. Here we report the first discovery of the onset of a relativistic accretion-powered jet in the new extragalactic transient, Swift J164449.3+573451. The behaviour of this new source differs from both theoretical models of tidal disruption events and observations of the jet-dominated AGN known as blazars. These differences may stem from transient effects associated with the onset of a powerful jet. Such an event in th...

  16. Respiratory Response of Dormant Nectarine Vegetative Buds to High Temperature Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAN Yue; LI Ling; LENG Chuan-yuan; LI Dong-mei; CHEN Xiu-de; GAO Dong-sheng

    2013-01-01

    High temperature stress (HT) is efficient in breaking endo-dormancy of perennial trees. The effects of HT (50°C) on the respiration of dormant nectarine (Prunus persica var. nectariana cv. Shuguang) vegetative buds were evaluated in the research. We found that bud respiration was transiently inhibited by HT and the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) and the cytochrome C pathway (CYT) were significantly affected. On the substrate level, PPP was activated in the HT-treated buds compared with the control group. However, the activation did mot occur until hours after HT treatment. The tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA) in both the HT-treated buds and in the control group proceeded at a low level most of the time compared with total respiration. On the electron transfer level, CYT was transiently inhibited by HT but became significantly active in the later stage. CYT operation in the control group exhibited an attenuation process. The alternative pathway (ALT) fluctuated both in the HT-treated samples and in the control. The results suggest that the temporary CYT inhibition and the following PPP activation may be involved in HT-induced bud dormancy release and budburst mechanisms.

  17. [Effect of pretreatment on storage and biogas production of baling wheat straw].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hui-Juan; Chen, Guang-Yin; Du, Jing; Chang, Zhi-Zhou; Ye, Xiao-Mei

    2013-08-01

    Long-term storage of crop straw is very important for biogas plant while pretreatment is always used to improve biogas production of crop straw. Feasibility of integrating the storage with pretreatment of baling wheat straw was studied. Changes of physicochemical properties and the biogas productivity of wheat straw obtained before and after 120 days storage were analyzed. The results showed that it was feasible to directly bale wheat straw for storage (control) and storage treatment had little effect on the physicochemical properties, structure and biogas productivity of wheat straw. After 120 day's storage, biogas production potential of the surface wheat straw of pile was decreased by 7.40%. Integrating NaOH pretreatment with straw storage was good for biogas production of wheat straw and the total solid (TS) biogas yield was increased by 7.02%-8.31% (compared to that of wheat straw without storage) and 5.68% -16.96% (compared to that of storage without alkaline pretreatment), respectively. Storage with urea treatment was adverse to biogas production of wheat straw and the contents of cellulose and hemicellulose of wheat straw were decreased by 18.25%-27.22% and 5.31%-16.15% and the TS biogas yield was decreased by 2.80%-7.71% after 120 day's storage. Exposing wheat straw to the air during the storage process was adverse to the conserving of organic matter and biogas utilization of wheat straw, but the influence was very slight and the TS biogas yield of wheat straw obtained from pile surface of control and urea treatment was decreased by 7.40% and 4.25%, respectively.

  18. Drying and storage effects on poly(ethylene glycol) hydrogel mechanical properties and bioactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luong, P T; Browning, M B; Bixler, R S; Cosgriff-Hernandez, E

    2014-09-01

    Hydrogels based on poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) are increasingly used in biomedical applications because of their ability to control cell-material interactions by tuning hydrogel physical and biological properties. Evaluation of stability after drying and storage are critical in creating an off-the-shelf biomaterial that functions in vivo according to original specifications. However, there has not been a study that systematically investigates the effects of different drying conditions on hydrogel compositional variables. In the first part of this study, PEG-diacrylate hydrogels underwent common processing procedures (vacuum-drying, lyophilizing, hydrating then vacuum-drying), and the effect of this processing on the mechanical properties and swelling ratios was measured. Significant changes in compressive modulus, tensile modulus, and swelling ratio only occurred for select processed hydrogels. No consistent trends were observed after processing for any of the formulations tested. The effect of storage conditions on cell adhesion and spreading on collagen- and streptococcal collagen-like protein (Scl2-2)-PEG-diacrylamide hydrogels was then evaluated to characterize bioactivity retention after storage. Dry storage conditions preserved bioactivity after 6 weeks of storage; whereas, storage in PBS significantly reduced bioactivity. This loss of bioactivity was attributed to ester hydrolysis of the protein linker, acrylate-PEG-N-hydroxysuccinimide. These studies demonstrate that these processing methods and dry storage conditions may be used to prepare bioactive PEG hydrogel scaffolds with recoverable functionality after storage.

  19. Effect of Temperature on the Storage Life of Polysulfide Sealants

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    leading to material of higher molecular weight and eventual polymerisation at the surface. Removal of the skin provided access to acceptable...procurement. At current usage rates, storage in freezers would be expected to provide cost savings (f the order of $500,000 per annum. 19 5. REFERENCES

  20. The effect of long-term storage on nanoleakage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H P; Burrow, M F; Tyas, M J

    2001-01-01

    To evaluate the durability of dentin bonding over time, the nanoleakage of four dentin bonding systems (Single Bond, Stae, Clearfil SE Bond and PermaQuik) over 24 hours, three months, six months and 12 months, was investigated. Flat occlusal dentin surfaces from extracted human molars were finished with wet 600-grit silicon carbide paper and bonded with one of the dentin bonding systems following manufacturers' instructions. The bonded surface was covered with Lex disks after initial 24-hour storage. At the end of each storage time, the surrounding tooth surfaces except for 1 mm adjacent to the restoration were coated with nail varnish. The samples were immersed in a 50% w/v solution of silver nitrate for 24 hours, placed in photodeveloping solution and exposed to fluorescent light for eight hours. The samples were cut longitudinally and buccoligually, polished, mounted on stubs, carbon coated and observed in a Field Emission-SEM using backscattered electron mode. The results showed that systems using phosphoric acid as the etchant had a line of silver deposition at the base of the hybrid layer. Silver deposition increased in all systems over 12-months storage, with PermaQuik changing the least. Nanoleakage of the dentin bonding systems increased slightly during the 12-month storage period, indicating that they may be subject to hydrolytic attack over time.

  1. Antioxidants in yacon products and effect of long term storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Castro

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius (Poepp. and Endl. H. Robinson is a storage root originally grown in the Andean highlands. The fresh roots are perishable and quickly turn brown during handling and processing. Aiming to prolong shelf-life and to preserve the antioxidant compounds in yacon roots, 3 mm thick yacon slices were dried in a drying cabinet at 40, 50, and 60 ºC to a moisture content of 10-14%, and yacon strips were sun dried to a moisture content of 15-20%. The total phenolic content was measured by the Folin-Ciocalteu method, and the quenching capacity was evaluated by measuring the amount of DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-pidrylhydrazyl inhibited in samples after drying and after 7 months of storage. The results showed that it is possible to preserve the antioxidant capacity in yacon after cabinet or sun drying. Both yacon chips and strips presented total phenolic content values similar to those of fresh yacon roots. Both products also showed a high inhibition capacity of DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-pidrylhydrazyl. A significant decrease in the phenolic content was observed in the yacon chips after storage, which indicates that the sun dried strips are more suitable for storage.

  2. EFFECT OF YAM STORAGE TECHNIQUES USAGE ON FARM ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IBUKUN

    Agrosearch (2017) 17 No. 1: 54– 65 ... 1Department of Agricultural Economics and Farm Management, Faculty of Agriculture, P.M.B.. 1515, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, ... storage techniques on farm income in Kwara State, Nigeria. Data were ...

  3. Effect of home-refrigerator storage temperature on tomato quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farneti, B.; Zhang, W.; Witkowska, I.M.; Woltering, E.J.

    2010-01-01

    Postharvest storage, handling and distribution of fruit at low temperatures is the most common and manageable approach to control ripening and subsequent deterioration and to maximize product shelf-life. However, tomatoes, as many other subtropical fruits, are susceptible to develop symptoms of chil

  4. Persistency of larvicidal effects of plant oil extracts under different storage conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amer, Abdelkrim; Mehlhorn, Heinz

    2006-09-01

    The persistency of larvicidal effects of 13 oils (camphor, thyme, amyris, lemon, cedarwood, frankincense, dill, myrtle, juniper, black pepper, verbena, helichrysum, and sandalwood) was examined by storage of 50-ppm solutions under different conditions (open, closed, in the light, and in the dark) for 1 month after the preparation of the solutions. The stored solutions were tested against Aedes aegypti larvae for four times during the storage period. Some oils under some conditions stayed effective until the last test, while some solutions had lost their toxicity during a short time after preparation. Thus, the mode of storage is absolutely important for the larvicidal effects. The fresh preparations were always the best.

  5. Spatial profile of charge storage in organic field-effect transistor nonvolatile memory using polymer electret

    Science.gov (United States)

    She, Xiao-Jian; Liu, Jie; Zhang, Jing-Yu; Gao, Xu; Wang, Sui-Dong

    2013-09-01

    Spatial profile of the charge storage in the pentacene-based field-effect transistor nonvolatile memories using poly(2-vinyl naphthalene) electret is probed. The electron trapping into the electret after programming can be space dependent with more electron storage in the region closer to the contacts, and reducing the channel length is an effective approach to improve the memory performance. The deficient electron supply in pentacene is proposed to be responsible for the inhomogeneous electron storage in the electret. The hole trapping into the electret after erasing is spatially homogeneous, arising from the sufficient hole accumulation in the pentacene channel.

  6. Effect of frozen storage on the foaming properties of wheat gliadin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pei; Tao, Han; Wu, Fengfeng; Yang, Na; Chen, Feng; Jin, Zhengyu; Xu, Xueming

    2014-12-01

    In this study, the effect of frozen storage on the foaming properties of wheat gliadin was investigated and further elucidated by evaluating its physicochemical changes. The foaming volumes of gliadin solution decreased while the foaming stability increased during the frozen storage. This was directly attributed to decreased gliadin content and increased foam density and protein concentration involved in the foams. A more rigid conformation was observed when the frozen storage time increased: the α-helix structure increased at the cost of β-sheet and unordered structure with the decreased surface hydrophobicity and increased surface tension of gliadin aqueous solutions. The percentage of γ-gliadin within gliadin foams gradually decreased, indicating that γ-gliadin was the most sensitive to freezing and the main contributor to the weakened foaming properties during the frozen storage. This study extended the knowledge of gliadin deterioration upon frozen storage and might contribute to the better understanding of frozen dough quality loss.

  7. Effect of storage temperature on quality of light and full-fat ice cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buyck, J R; Baer, R J; Choi, J

    2011-05-01

    Ice cream quality is dependent on many factors including storage temperature. Currently, the industry standard for ice cream storage is -28.9 °C. Ice cream production costs may be decreased by increasing the temperature of the storage freezer, thus lowering energy costs. The first objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of 4 storage temperatures on the quality of commercial vanilla-flavored light and full-fat ice cream. Storage temperatures used were -45.6, -26.1, and -23.3 °C for the 3 treatments and -28.9 °C as the control or industry standard. Ice crystal sizes were analyzed by a cold-stage microscope and image analysis at 1, 19.5, and 39 wk of storage. Ice crystal size did not differ among the storage temperatures of light and full-fat ice creams at 19.5 or 39 wk. An increase in ice crystal size was observed between 19.5 and 39 wk for all storage temperatures except -45.6 °C. Coldness intensity, iciness, creaminess, and storage/stale off-flavor of the light and full-fat ice creams were evaluated at 39 wk of storage. Sensory evaluation indicated no difference among the different storage temperatures for light and full-fat ice creams. In a second study, light and full-fat ice creams were heat shocked by storing at -28.9 °C for 35 wk and then alternating between -23.3 and -12.2 °C every 24h for 4 wk. Heat-shocked ice creams were analyzed at 2 and 4 wk of storage for ice crystal size and were evaluated by the sensory panel. A difference in ice crystal size was observed for light and full-fat ice creams during heat-shock storage; however, sensory results indicated no differences. In summary, storage of light or full-fat vanilla-flavored ice creams at the temperatures used within this research did not affect quality of the ice creams. Therefore, ice cream manufacturers could conserve energy by increasing the temperature of freezers from -28.9 to -26.1 °C. Because freezers will typically fluctuate from the set temperature, usage of -26.1

  8. Effect of water storage on the bonding effectiveness of 6 adhesives to Class I cavity dentin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Munck, Jan; Shirai, Kenichi; Yoshida, Yasuhiro; Inoue, Satoshi; Van Landuyt, Kirsten; Lambrechts, Paul; Suzuki, Kazuomi; Shintani, Hideaki; Van Meerbeek, Bart

    2006-01-01

    Adhesive-dentin interfaces degrade with time. This study determined the effect water storage may have on the bonding effectiveness of adhesives to occlusal Class I cavity-bottom dentin. Six adhesives, all representing contemporary classes of adhesives, were applied: a 3-step (OptiBond FL, Kerr) and 2-step (Scotchbond 1*, 3M ESPE) etch-and-rinse adhesive, a 2-step (Clearfil SE, Kuraray) and 1-step (Adper prompt, 3M ESPE) self-etch adhesive and a 2-step (FujiBond LC, GC) and 1-step (Reactmer, Shofu) resin-modified glass-ionomer adhesive. Bonding effectiveness was assessed by microtensile bond strength testing (MTBS) and electron microscopy (Feg-SEM and TEM). The MTBS was determined after 1 day and 1 year water storage of the entire restored cavity (indirect exposure of the adhesive-dentin interface to water) and prepared microTBS-beams (direct exposure of the adhesive-dentin interface to water). The hypotheses tested were: (1) resin-dentin bonds formed at the bottom of Class I cavities resist 1-year water storage and (2) an adjacent composite-enamel bond protects the composite-dentin bond against degradation. Non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis analysis statistically analyzed the microTBSs. The first hypothesis was rejected, as only the microTBS of OptiBond FL and Clearfil SE did not significantly decrease after 1-year direct and/or indirect water storage. The second hypothesis was corroborated, as the bonding effectiveness of most simplified adhesives (Scotchbond 1, Adper Prompt, FujiBond LC and Reactmer) approached 0 (because of the frequent pre-testing failures) after 1-year direct water exposure. The second hypothesis concluded that the 3-step etch-and-rinse adhesive must still be regarded the "gold standard." Though microTBS decreased significantly, Clearfil SE, as a 2-step self-etch adhesive, was the only simplified adhesive to perform reliably after 1-year direct water exposure.

  9. Effects of Long-Term Storage Time and Original Sampling Month on Biobank Plasma Protein Concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enroth, Stefan; Hallmans, Göran; Grankvist, Kjell; Gyllensten, Ulf

    2016-10-01

    The quality of clinical biobank samples is crucial to their value for life sciences research. A number of factors related to the collection and storage of samples may affect the biomolecular composition. We have studied the effect of long-time freezer storage, chronological age at sampling, season and month of the year and on the abundance levels of 108 proteins in 380 plasma samples collected from 106 Swedish women. Storage time affected 18 proteins and explained 4.8-34.9% of the observed variance. Chronological age at sample collection after adjustment for storage-time affected 70 proteins and explained 1.1-33.5% of the variance. Seasonal variation had an effect on 15 proteins and month (number of sun hours) affected 36 proteins and explained up to 4.5% of the variance after adjustment for storage-time and age. The results show that freezer storage time and collection date (month and season) exerted similar effect sizes as age on the protein abundance levels. This implies that information on the sample handling history, in particular storage time, should be regarded as equally prominent covariates as age or gender and need to be included in epidemiological studies involving protein levels.

  10. A co-opted hormonal cascade activates dormant adventitious root primordia upon flooding in solanum dulcamara

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dawood, Thikra; Yang, Xinping; Visser, Eric J.W.; Beek, Te Tim A.H.; Kensche, Philip R.; Cristescu, Simona M.; Lee, Sangseok; Floková, Kristýna; Nguyen, Duy; Mariani, Celestina; Rieu, Ivo

    2016-01-01

    Soil flooding is a common stress factor affecting plants. To sustain root function in the hypoxic environment, flooding-tolerant plants may form new, aerenchymatous adventitious roots (ARs), originating from preformed, dormant primordia on the stem. We investigated the signaling pathway behind AR

  11. Dormant comets among the near-Earth object population: a meteor-based survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Quan-Zhi; Brown, Peter G.; Pokorný, Petr

    2016-11-01

    Dormant comets in the near-Earth object (NEO) population are thought to be involved in the terrestrial accretion of water and organic materials. Identification of dormant comets is difficult as they are observationally indistinguishable from their asteroidal counterparts, however, they may have produced dust during their final active stages which potentially are detectable today as weak meteor showers at the Earth. Here we present the result of a reconnaissance survey looking for dormant comets using 13 567 542 meteor orbits measured by the Canadian Meteor Orbit Radar (CMOR). We simulate the dynamical evolution of the hypothetical meteoroid streams originated from 407 near-Earth asteroids in cometary orbits that resemble orbital characteristics of Jupiter-family comets (JFCs). Out of the 44 hypothetical showers that are predicted to be detectable by CMOR, we identify five positive detections that are statistically unlikely to be chance associations, including three previously known associations. This translates to a lower limit to the dormant comet fraction of 2.0 ± 1.7 per cent in the NEO population and a dormancy rate of ˜10-5 yr-1 per comet. The low dormancy rate confirms disruption and dynamical removal as the dominant end state for near-Earth JFCs. We also predict the existence of a significant number of meteoroid streams whose parents have already been disrupted or dynamically removed.

  12. Alternaria alternata, causal agent of dead (dormant) flower bud disease of pear

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wenneker, M.; Tjou-Tam-Sin, L.T.; Bruggen, van A.S.; Vink, P.

    2006-01-01

    Dead (dormant) flower buds of pear are an important phenomenon in pear production in the Netherlands. Vigourous or unbalanced tree growth and Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae are mentioned as likely causes of dead flower buds. Several tree growth control treatments including ethephon, Regalis (Proh

  13. ExploreNEOs. VIII. Dormant Short-period Comets in the Near-Earth Asteroid Population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mommert, M.; Harris, A. W.; Mueller, M.; Hora, J. L.; Trilling, D. E.; Bottke, W. F.; Thomas, C. A.; Delbo, M.; Emery, J. P.; Fazio, G.; Smith, H. A.

    2015-01-01

    We perform a search for dormant comets, asteroidal objects of cometary origin, in the near-Earth asteroid (NEA) population based on dynamical and physical considerations. Our study is based on albedos derived within the ExploreNEOs program and is extended by adding data from NEOWISE and the Akari as

  14. Gall mite inspection on dormant black currant buds using machine vision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, M. R.; Stigaard Laursen, Morten; Jonassen, M. S.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a novel machine vision-based approach detecting and mapping gall mite infection in dormant buds on black currant bushes. A vehicle was fitted with four cameras and RTK-GPS. Results compared automatic detection to human decisions based on the images, and by mapping the results ...

  15. ExploreNEOs. VIII. Dormant Short-period Comets in the Near-Earth Asteroid Population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mommert, M.; Harris, A. W.; Müller, M.; Hora, J. L.; Trilling, D. E.; Bottke, W. F.; Thomas, C. A.; Delbo, M.; Emery, J. P.; Fazio, G.; Smith, H. A.

    2015-01-01

    We perform a search for dormant comets, asteroidal objects of cometary origin, in the near-Earth asteroid (NEA) population based on dynamical and physical considerations. Our study is based on albedos derived within the ExploreNEOs program and is extended by adding data from NEOWISE and the Akari

  16. Design Considerations for Spacecraft Operations During Uncrewed Dormant Phases of Human Exploration Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams-Byrd, Julie; Antol, Jeff; Jefferies, Sharon; Goodliff, Kandyce; Williams, Phillip; Ambrose, Rob; Sylvester, Andre; Anderson, Molly; Dinsmore, Craig; Hoffman, Stephen; Lawrence, James; Seibert, Marc; Schier, Jim; Frank, Jeremy; Alexander, Leslie; Ruff, Gary; Soeder, Jim; Guinn, Joseph; Stafford, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    NASA is transforming human spaceflight. The Agency is shifting from an exploration-based program with human activities in low Earth orbit (LEO) and targeted robotic missions in deep space to a more sustainable and integrated pioneering approach. However, pioneering space involves daunting technical challenges of transportation, maintaining health, and enabling crew productivity for long durations in remote, hostile, and alien environments. Subject matter experts from NASA's Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate (HEOMD) are currently studying a human exploration campaign that involves deployment of assets for planetary exploration. This study, called the Evolvable Mars Campaign (EMC) study, explores options with solar electric propulsion as a central component of the transportation architecture. This particular in-space transportation option often results in long duration transit to destinations. The EMC study is also investigating deployed human rated systems like landers, habitats, rovers, power systems and ISRU system to the surface of Mars, which also will involve long dormant periods when these systems are staged on the surface. In order to enable the EMC architecture, campaign and element design leads along with system and capability development experts from HEOMD's System Maturation Team (SMT) have identified additional capabilities, systems and operation modes that will sustain these systems especially during these dormant phases of the mission. Dormancy is defined by the absence of crew and relative inactivity of the systems. For EMC missions, dormant periods could range from several months to several years. Two aspects of uncrewed dormant operations are considered herein: (1) the vehicle systems that are placed in a dormant state and (2) the autonomous vehicle systems and robotic capabilities that monitor, maintain, and repair the vehicle and systems. This paper describes the mission stages of dormancy operations, phases of dormant

  17. Pulse testing in the presence of wellbore storage and skin effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogbe, D.O.; Brigham, W.E.

    1984-08-01

    A pulse test is conducted by creating a series of short-time pressure transients in an active (pulsing) well and recording the observed pressure response at an observation (responding) well. Using the pressure response and flow rate data, the transmissivity and storativity of the tested formation can be determined. Like any other pressure transient data, the pulse-test response is significantly influenced by wellbore storage and skin effects. The purpose of this research is to examine the influence of wellbore storage and skin effects on interference testing in general and on pulse-testing in particular, and to present the type curves and procedures for designing and analyzing pulse-test data when wellbore storage and skin effects are active at either the responding well or the pulsing well. A mathematical model for interference testing was developed by solving the diffusivity equation for radial flow of a single-phase, slightly compressible fluid in an infinitely large, homogeneous reservoir. When wellbore storage and skin effects are present in a pulse test, the observed response amplitude is attenuated and the time lag is inflated. Consequently, neglecting wellbore storage and skin effects in a pulse test causes the calculated storativity to be over-estimated and the transmissivity to be under-estimated. The error can be as high as 30%. New correlations and procedures are developed for correcting the pulse response amplitude and time lag for wellbore storage effects. Using these correlations, it is possible to correct the wellbore storage-dominated response amplitude and time lag to within 3% of their expected values without wellbore storage, and in turn to calculate the corresponding transmissivity and storativity. Worked examples are presented to illustrate how to use the new correction techniques. 45 references.

  18. Effect of frozen storage on the anthocyanins and phenolic components of pomegranate juice

    OpenAIRE

    Mirsaeedghazi, Hossein; Emam-Djomeh, Zahra; Ahmadkhaniha, Reza

    2011-01-01

    Pomegranate juice’s valuable nutritional components may be reduced during its processing or storage. This work examined the effect of frozen storage at −25 °C on some chemical characteristics of pomegranate juice. Total anthocyanin content of pomegranate juice, which was measured using the pH differential method, decreased by 11% after 20 days of frozen storage. Phenolic components, measured using a Folin and Ciocalteu assay by means of a UV–vis spectrophotometer, decreased by 29% after 20 da...

  19. THE EFFECT OF COOKING AND STORAGE ON FLORFENICOL AND FLORFENICOL AMINE RESIDUES IN EGGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayhan Filazi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of storage conditions (room temperature, refrigerator and cooking methods (frying, boiling on florfenicol (FF and florfenicol amine (FFA residue levels in eggs. Without any significant difference between storage conditions at 20˚C and +4˚C, residue levels decreased within days, but were still present on day 28. Frying and boiling for 1 and 5 min yielded similar results to the storage conditions just described; there was a significant decrease in residue levels, but still not enough for decomposing. These findings indicate that FF and FFA residues are heat-labile.

  20. Time of daily supplementation for steers grazing dormant intermediate wheatgrass pasture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, R K; Krysl, L J; Judkins, M B; Holcombe, D W; Broesder, J T; Gunter, S A; Beam, S W

    1992-02-01

    To compare the effects of time of daily protein supplementation on grazing behavior, forage intake, digesta kinetics, ruminal fermentation, and serum hormones and metabolites, 12 ruminally cannulated Holstein steers (449 and 378 kg average initial and final BW, respectively) were allotted to three groups. Treatments consisted of CON = no supplement, AM = cottonseed meal (.25% of BW) at 0600, and PM = cottonseed meal (.25% of BW) at 1200. Steers grazed a dormant (1.1% N) intermediate wheatgrass (Thinopyrum intermedium Host) pasture. Sampling trials occurred in December, January, and February. Supplementation altered (P = .01) time spent grazing; CON steers grazed approximately 1.5 h longer than supplemented steers. Supplemented steers lost less (P = .02) BW (-40 kg) than CON steers (-75 kg) did. Supplementation did not alter (P greater than .15) forage OM intake; however, total OM intake was greater (P = .01) for supplemented steers (22.3 g/kg of BW) than for CON (18.4 g/kg of BW) steers. Supplementation did not affect (P greater than .15) digesta kinetics. Extent of in situ NDF (96 h) and rate (%/h) of disappearance for supplemented steers was greater (P = .01) than for CON steers. Across all periods, ruminal NH3 N and total VFA concentrations were lower (P = .01) for CON steers than for supplemented steers. Serum insulin (ng/mL) concentration was lower (P = .03) and concentration of serum growth hormone (ng/mL) was higher (P = .02) for CON steers than for supplemented steers. Cottonseed meal supplementation enhanced utilization of intermediate wheatgrass; however, supplementation time had minimal effects on the variables measured.

  1. Simulation of thermal effects during high and low frequency gas storage operations in porous formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilmann Pfeiffer, Wolf; Wang, Bo; Bauer, Sebastian

    2017-04-01

    Increasing the share of energy production from renewable sources will result in shortages in power supply on various timescales and magnitudes. Besides other options, porous media storage of chemical energy in the form of gases such as hydrogen (H2) or synthetic methane (CH4) as well as mechanical energy, i.e. in the form of a compressed air energy storage (CAES) could be employed to mitigate such shortages. A key difference between these storage options are the potential storage operation schemes in which they are used as a result of the different effective energy density in the subsurface. While CAES would most likely be employed in a high flow rate, high frequency storage scheme with daily cycles, H2 and CH4 storage sites are also suitable for longer, up to seasonal, withdrawal cycles with a lower periodicity. The aim of this work is to compare different thermal effects as a result of H2, CH4, and compressed air energy storage operations. Besides advective-conductive heat transport in the fluid and solid phases, also the Joule-Thomson effect as a result of gas flow through the porous formation is analysed for the different storage options. For this the Joule-Thomson effect is implemented in the open source simulation software OpenGeoSys and numerical simulations of the different storage options are performed. For the simulations, synthetic but realistically parameterized storage sites are used. Besides using OpenGeoSys, the simulations are also compared to results obtained with the ECLIPSE reservoir simulator (© Schlumberger). The simulations show that the heat introduced into the system by the gas injections is transported away from the injection wells mainly through heat conduction. Thus, the thermal perturbation is also present in the caprocks above and below the storage formation. Because of the low heat capacity of the injected gas, thermal effects are confined to the near well region. Temperature changes of more than 1 K are thus found within the first

  2. Effect of wellbore storage on the analysis of multiphase-flow-pressure data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatzignatiou, D.G. (Univ. of Alaska, Fairbanks, AK (United States)); Peres, A.M.M. (Petrobras S.A., Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)); Reynolds, A.C. (Univ. of Tulsa, OK (United States))

    1994-09-01

    This paper investigates the effect of wellbore storage on the analysis of pressure drawdown data obtained at a well producing a solution-gas-drive reservoir. Wellbore storage effects are incorporated by specifying a sandface oil flow rate that increases exponentially from zero to the specified constant value of the oil flow rate at the surface. Use of new computational equations derived here shows that effective oil permeability as a pointwise function of pressure can be computed directly from the measured values of the flowing wellbore pressure, provided the sandface oil flow rate is measured and incorporated into the analysis. If the sandface flow rate is unknown, effective permeability can be computed only after wellbore storage effects become negligible. In all cases, a semilog plot of wellbore pressure squared vs. time is shown to be a viable method for estimating effective oil permeability at initial conditions, effective oil permeability at the final flowing wellbore pressure value, and mechanical skin factor.

  3. Effect of roughness geometry on heat transfer and friction characteristics of PCM storage unit for night coolness storage in summer season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shukla Shailndra Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a theoretical analysis of thermal storage unit using phase change material (PCM as storage medium. Storage unit consists of parallel rectangular channels for the air flow which are separated by phase change storage material. The purpose of storage unit is to absorb the night coolness and to provide cooled air at comfort temperature during day time in summer season. MATLsimulation tool has been used to compute the air temperature variation with location as well as time, charging and discharging time of storage unit. Phase change material used for analysis is selected in such a way that it’s Melting point lies between comfort temperature and minimum night ambient temperatures. The air flow rate needed for charging of PCM is approximately four times greater than the flow rate required during day time to achieve comfort temperature for approximately eight hours, due to limited summer night time (only eight hours. The length of storage unit for which NTU value is greater than or equal to five will give the exit air temperature equal to PCM temperature for the case of latent heat utilization. It is found that artificial roughness on the duct surface effectively reduces the length of storage unit in the cost of some extra pressure drop across the duct.

  4. Effect of short-term air storage after removal from controlled-atmosphere storage on apple and fresh-cut apple quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toivonen, Peter M A; Wiersma, Paul A; Hampson, Cheryl; Lannard, Brenda

    2010-03-15

    One of the realities of apple distribution for long-term stored fruit is that a controlled-atmosphere (CA) storage room will be unsealed and fruit held in air storage and marketed over several weeks. This work was conducted to determine the effect of post-CA air storage of whole fruit on potential shelf life for fresh-cut apple slices. Fresh-cut slices of 'Spartan' and 'Delicious' apples held in post-CA air storage for 2 or 4 weeks showed the least changes in cut surface color as compared with those made from apples immediately on removal from CA. Shelf life was most improved by post-CA air storage in the 'Spartan' apples, which were more advanced in maturity as compared with the 'Delicious' apples. Internal ethylene concentration, firmness, and respiration changed significantly with post-CA air storage, suggesting a relationship between physiological status of the whole fruit and shelf life of slices made from that fruit. The results support the hypothesis that apples had suppressed physiological activity in CA storage and are susceptible to accelerated deterioration upon cutting. Holding fruit for 2 weeks in air storage allowed recovery of physiological activity, which resulted in greater resistance to deterioration in response to fresh-cut processing.

  5. Storage and Aging Effects on Spherical Resorcinol-Formaldehyde Resin Ion Exchange Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiskum, Sandra K.; Arm, Stuart T.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Steele, Marilyn J.; Thomas, Kathie K.

    2007-09-10

    Bechtel National, Inc. (BNI) is evaluating the alternate Cs ion exchanger, spherical resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF), for use in the River Protection Project-Waste Treatment Plant (RPP-WTP).( ) Previous test activities with spherical RF indicate that it has adequate capacity, selectivity, and kinetics to perform in the plant according to the flowsheet needs. It appears to have better elution and hydraulic properties than the existing alternatives: ground-gel RF and SuperLig® 644 (SL 644).( ) To date, the spherical RF performance testing has been conducted on freshly manufactured resin (within ~2 months of manufacture). The ion exchange resins will be manufactured and shipped to the WTP up to 1 year before being used in the plant. Changes in the resin properties during storage could reduce the capacity of the resin to remove Cs from low-activity waste solutions. Active sites on organic SL-644 resin have been shown to degrade during storage (Arm et al. 2004). Additional testing was needed to study the effects of storage conditions and aging on spherical RF ion exchange performance. Variables that could have a significant impact on ion exchange resins during storage include storage temperature, medium, and time. Battelle—Pacific Northwest Division (PNWD) was contracted to test the effects of various storage conditions on spherical RF resin. Data obtained from the testing will be used by the WTP operations to provide direction for suitable storage conditions and manage the spherical RF resin stock. Storage test conditions included wet and dry resin configurations under nitrogen at three temperatures. Work was initially conducted under contract number 24590-101-TSA-W000-00004 satisfying the needs defined in Appendix C of the Research and Technology Plan( ) TSS A-219 to evaluate the impact of storage conditions on RF resin performance. In February 2007, the contract mechanism was switched to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Operating Contract DE-AC05-76RL

  6. Effects of semen storage and separation techniques on sperm DNA fragmentation

    OpenAIRE

    Robert E. Jackson; Bormann, Charles L.; Hassun, Pericles A.; Rocha, Andre M.; Motta, Eduardo L. A.; Serafini, Paulo C.; Smith, Gary D.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effect of semen storage and separation techniques on sperm DNA fragmentation.Design: Controlled clinical study.Setting: An assisted reproductive technology laboratory.Patient(s): Thirty normoozospermic semen samples obtained from patients undergoing infertility evaluation.Intervention(s): One aliquot from each sample was immediately prepared (control) for the sperm chromatin dispersion assay (SCD). Aliquots used to assess storage techniques were treated in the foll...

  7. Numerical Investigation of Effective Heat Conductivity of Fluid in Charging Process of Thermal Storage Tank

    OpenAIRE

    Taheri, H.; Schmidt, F. P.; Gabi, M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a numerical case study of heat transfer mechanisms during the charging process of a stratified thermal storage tank applied in a specific adsorption heat pump cycle. The effective thermal conductivity of the heat transfer fluid during the charging process is analyzed through CFD simulations using Unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations (URANS). The aim of the study is to provide an equivalent thermal conductivity for a one-dimensional storage tank model to be us...

  8. Effect of storage on physical and functional properties of extracellular vesicles derived from neutrophilic granulocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ákos M. Lőrincz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To carry out a systematic study on the effect of different storage conditions on the number as well as the physical and functional properties of antibacterial extracellular vesicles (EVs derived from human neutrophilic granulocytes. Methods: Production of EVs with antibacterial properties was initiated by opsonized Zymosan A particles. The number of released fluorescent EVs was determined by flow cytometry following careful calibration. Physical properties and size of EVs were investigated by flow cytometry, dynamic light scattering and electron microscopy. Functional properties of EVs were tested by bacterial survival assay. Results: Storage at +20°C or +4°C resulted in a significant decrease of EV number and antibacterial effect after 1 day. Storage at −20°C did not influence the EV number up to 28 days, but induced a shift in EV size and almost complete loss of antibacterial function by 28 days. Storage at −80°C had no significant effect either on EV number or size and allowed partial preservation of the antibacterial function up to 28 days. Snap-freezing did not improve the results, whereas the widely used cryoprotectants induced EV lysis. Conclusion: Storage significantly alters both the physical and functional properties of EVs even if the number of EVs stays constant. If storage is needed, EVs should be kept at −80°C, preferably not longer than 7 days. For functional tests, freshly prepared EVs are recommended.

  9. Effect of harvest date on the nutritional quality and antioxidant capacity in 'Hass' avocado during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meng; Zheng, Yusheng; Khuong, Toan; Lovatt, Carol J

    2012-11-15

    The effect of harvest date on nutritional compounds and antioxidant activity (AOC) in avocado (Persea americana Mill. cv Hass) fruit during storage was determined. The fruits were harvested at seven different dates and ripened at 25 °C following 21 or 35 days of cold storage. The results indicated that the phenolic and glutathione contents were increased and the ascorbic acid content was not significantly different in early harvested fruit (January to March), and the phenolic, ascorbic acid and glutathione contents were increased slightly and then decreased on late harvested fruit (April to June). Similar trends were observed in the changes of AOC. Furthermore, AOC in early harvested fruit after storage for 35 days was much higher than that in late harvested fruit after storage for 21 days. Therefore, avocado can be harvested earlier for economic benefits according to the market and can keep high nutritional value for human health benefits.

  10. Effects of headspace and oxygen level on off-gas emissions from wood pellets in storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Xingya; Shankar, Tumuluru Jaya; Sokhansanj, Shahab; Lim, C Jim; Bi, Xiaotao T; Melin, Staffan

    2009-11-01

    Few papers have been published in the open literature on the emissions from biomass fuels, including wood pellets, during the storage and transportation and their potential health impacts. The purpose of this study is to provide data on the concentrations, emission factors, and emission rate factors of CO(2), CO, and CH(4) from wood pellets stored with different headspace to container volume ratios with different initial oxygen levels, in order to develop methods to reduce the toxic off-gas emissions and accumulation in storage spaces. Metal containers (45 l, 305 mm diameter by 610 mm long) were used to study the effect of headspace and oxygen levels on the off-gas emissions from wood pellets. Concentrations of CO(2), CO, and CH(4) in the headspace were measured using a gas chromatograph as a function of storage time. The results showed that the ratio of the headspace ratios and initial oxygen levels in the storage space significantly affected the off-gas emissions from wood pellets stored in a sealed container. Higher peak emission factors and higher emission rates are associated with higher headspace ratios. Lower emissions of CO(2) and CO were generated at room temperature under lower oxygen levels, whereas CH(4) emission is insensitive to the oxygen level. Replacing oxygen with inert gases in the storage space is thus a potentially effective method to reduce the biomass degradation and toxic off-gas emissions. The proper ventilation of the storage space can also be used to maintain a high oxygen level and low concentrations of toxic off-gassing compounds in the storage space, which is especially useful during the loading and unloading operations to control the hazards associated with the storage and transportation of wood pellets.

  11. Towards Cost-Effective Storage Provisioning for DBMSs

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Ning; Patel, Jignesh M; Hacıgümüş, Hakan

    2012-01-01

    Data center operators face a bewildering set of choices when considering how to provision resources on machines with complex I/O subsystems. Modern I/O subsystems often have a rich mix of fast, high performing, but expensive SSDs sitting alongside with cheaper but relatively slower (for random accesses) traditional hard disk drives. The data center operators need to determine how to provision the I/O resources for specific workloads so as to abide by existing Service Level Agreements (SLAs), while minimizing the total operating cost (TOC) of running the workload, where the TOC includes the amortized hardware costs and the run time energy costs. The focus of this paper is on introducing this new problem of TOC-based storage allocation, cast in a framework that is compatible with traditional DBMS query optimization and query processing architecture. We also present a heuristic-based solution to this problem, called DOT. We have implemented DOT in PostgreSQL, and experiments using TPC-H and TPC-C demonstrate sig...

  12. Mucolipidosis type IV: the effect of increased lysosomal pH on the abnormal lysosomal storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogot-Levin, Aviram; Zeigler, Marsha; Ornoy, Asher; Bach, Gideon

    2009-06-01

    Mucolipidosis type IV (MLIV) is a neurodegenerative channelopathy that is caused by the deficiency of TRPML1 activity, a nonselective cation channel. TRPML1 is a lysosomal membrane protein, and thus, MLIV is a lysosomal storage disorder. The basic, specific function of TRPML1 has not been yet clarified. A recent report (Soyombo AA, Tjon-Kon-Sang S, Rbaibi Y, Bashllari E, Bisceglia J, Muallem S, Kiselyov K: J Biol Chem 281:7294-7301, 2006) indicated that TRPML1 functions as an outwardly proton channel whose function is the prevention of overacidification of these organelles. Thus, in MLIV the lysosomal pH is lower than normal. Furthermore, attempts by these investigators to increase slightly the lysososmal pH with either Nigericin or Chloroquine suggested corrective effect of the abnormal storage in MLIV cells. We investigated this approach using these agents with cultured fibroblasts from severely affected and milder patients. Our data indicated that there was no reduction in the total number of storage vesicles by either agent, although Nigericin resulted in a change in the nature of the storage materials, reducing the presence of lamellated substances (lipids) so that the storage vesicles contained predominantly granulated substances. On the other hand, transfection with the normal MCOLN1 cDNA (the gene coding for TRPML1) resulted in the removal of almost all the storage materials.

  13. The Effect of Seed Maturity, Temperature and Storage Period on Vigor of Picrasma javanica Bl. Seedling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NINIK SETYOWATI

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A study on the effect of seed maturity, temperature and period of storage on vigor of Picrasma javanica Bl. seedling was conducted at the Macropropagation Laboratory, Research Centre of Biology, LIPI, Cibinong, from March to September 2008. The research was arranged using Randomized Block Design with 3 factors and 3 replications, in which each replication had 20 samples. The first factor was stage of seed maturation with 2 levels i.e. pre-mature and mature stage; the second factor was storage temperature with 3 levels i.e. ambient temperature (28±1ºC, 20ºC and 5ºC; and the third factor was storage period with 4 levels i.e. 0, 1, 2, 3 months. The result showed that the germination time of Picrasma javanica seed was varies between 11-23 days. The mature seeds had better growth as compared to pre-mature seeds. Storage on the ambient temperature (28±1ºC caused decrease of seed vigor, so is not suggested to seeds store in the ambient temperature. The storage under lower temperature (5ºC and 20ºC was able to maintain seed vigor until 3 months storage.

  14. Effect of Different Storage Periods and Temperatures on the Hatchability of Broiler Breeder Eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mahmud*, M. Z. U. Khan1, Saima1 and M. A. Javed

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Temperature and humidity have been the two most common variables used to manipulate the storage environment of hatching eggs. To ascertain the effects of different egg storage periods and temperatures on hatchability; 400 eggs were obtained from a broiler breeder flock of 32 weeks of age on a single day collection basis. These eggs were randomly divided into 5 equal groups of 80 eggs each. After collection these were cleaned, fumigated and stored on four temperatures viz 4oC, 16oC, room temperature (25oC and ambient temperature (29oC. Each group was further subdivided into 4 replicates having 20 eggs each. Eggs of Group A (control were set in incubator with temperature of 37.5oC and relative humidity 60% after the storage of one day. Eggs of rest of the four groups were set in the incubator after the storage of 3, 6, 9 and 12 days. Subsequently, these were shifted to hatchers on 18th day where the temperature and humidity were maintained at 36.5oC and 75%, respectively. The data on hatchability and dead-in-shell embryos for various groups were recorded. The results revealed that as the storage period increased at different temperatures, the hatchability decreased significantly (P<0.01. Similarly, as the storage time increased, the percentage of dead-in-shell embryos increased (P<0.01.

  15. Effect of cold storage and packaging material on the major aroma components of sweet cream butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano, Patricio R; Miracle, Evan R; Krause, Andrea J; Drake, Maryanne; Cadwallader, Keith R

    2007-09-19

    The major aroma compounds of commercial sweet cream AA butter quarters were analyzed by GC-olfactometry and GC-MS combined with dynamic headspace analysis (DHA) and solvent-assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE). In addition, the effect of long-term storage (0, 6, and 12 months) and type of wrapping material (wax parchment paper vs foil) on the aroma components and sensory properties of these butters kept under refrigerated (4 degrees C) and frozen (-20 degrees C) storage was evaluated. The most intense compounds in the aroma of pasteurized AA butter were butanoic acid, delta-octalactone, delta-decalactone, 1-octen-3-one, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, dimethyl trisulfide, and diacetyl. The intensities of lipid oxidation volatiles and methyl ketones increased as a function of storage time. Refrigerated storage caused greater flavor deterioration compared with frozen storage. The intensity and relative abundance of styrene increased as a function of time of storage at refrigeration temperature. Butter kept frozen for 12 months exhibited lower styrene levels and a flavor profile more similar to that of fresh butter compared to butter refrigerated for 12 months. Foil wrapping material performed better than wax parchment paper in preventing styrene migration into butter and in minimizing the formation of lipid oxidation and hydroxyl acid products that contribute to the loss of fresh butter flavor.

  16. Glycol cold thermal energy storage systems : performance and the effect of varying environment temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakan, K.; Dincer, I.; Rosen, M.A. [Univ. of Ontario Inst. of Technology, Oshawa, ON (Canada). Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science

    2006-07-01

    This paper examined the effect of varying ambient temperatures on glycol cold thermal energy storage (CTES) systems. When glycol thermal storage is incorporated into a new or existing building, a low temperature chilled-water supply allows the use of low-temperature air distribution and smaller fans and ducts. A reduction and shift in peak electric power demand can be realized through the use of glycol CTES as it permits the storage of night-time electric power. This study investigated the thermodynamic system parameters of: storage temperature; storage heat load; exergy destructions; and energy and exergy efficiencies. A storage tank with a capacity of 150,000 kg was used in the investigation. The air-conditioning cycle was simulated using the commercial software package Engineering Equation Solver (EES). Exergy analyses considered quantities of exergy, energy and mass. It was concluded that the exergy efficiency of the system was approximately 46 per cent less than energy efficiency due to irreversibilities. Results indicated that maximum energy efficiency was 75 per cent, and the corresponding exergy efficiency was 40 per cent for a 50 degrees C ambient air temperature. 13 refs., 5 figs.

  17. Switchgrass storage effects on the recovery of carbohydrates after liquid hot water pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Julie Carrier

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Perennial grasses that would be used for bioenergy and bioproducts production will need to be stored for various periods of time to ensure a continual feedstock supply to a bioprocessing facility. The effects of storage practices on grass composition and the response of grasses to subsequent bioprocesses such as pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis needs to be understood to develop the most efficient storage protocols. This study examined the effect of outdoor storage of round switchgrass bales on composition before and after liquid hot water pretreatment (LHW and enzymatic hydrolysis. This study also examined the effect of washing LHW pretreated biomass prior to enzymatic hydrolysis. It was determined that switchgrass composition after baling was stable. As expected, glucan and lignin contents increased after LHW due to decreases in xylan and galactan. Washing biomass prior to enzymatic hydrolysis reduced saccharification, especially in samples from the interior of the bale, by at least 5%.

  18. Land Use Effects on Carbon Storage in Thailand Tropical Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kai, F.; Tostado, E.; Chidthaisong, A.; Tyler, S. C.

    2004-12-01

    Measurements of stable isotopes of C have proved to be of value in estimating soil organic C turnover times and in partitioning soil organic carbon (SOC) from different sources. Typically, the contrast between sources and estimates of C turnover have been studied in ecosystems where C-3 photosynthetic plants such as hardwoods have been replaced by C-4 photosynthetic plants from agriculture such as corn or sugarcane. Here we report concentrations and stable C isotope ratios of SOC from Thailand coastal mangrove forests and intrusive coastal aquaculture in the form of shrimp and wastewater treatment ponds. There are clear changes in both magnitude and 13C/12C of SOC at former mangrove sites which have been altered to make ponds for shrimp farming and wastewater treatment. For instance, total per cent C from 0-40 cm soil depth (average of four 10 cm layers at 2 sites) was 6.2±2.8% for mature mangrove, while it was only 0.5±0.4% for a 10-year old shrimp pond and 1.3±0.4% for an 8-year old water treatment pond. Previous studies of mangrove organic C balance have indicated that these inter-tidal forest ecosystems are a sink for C and that significant C is vested in both above- and below-ground biomass and stored in sediments. Mangrove forest disturbance by human activities clearly has the potential to affect C storage. Our data indicates that stable C isotope tracing will be of value in tracking changes in coastal forest-aquaecosystems just as it has been for forest-agroecosystems

  19. Effect of methyl paraben, propyl paraben and formalin preserved milk on chemical composition during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suvartan Ranvir

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to check the preserving effectiveness of methyl paraben and propyl paraben in comparison with formalin in milk for analytical purpose. The pooled raw cow milk were collected from the institute cattle yard and the milk samples were preserved with methyl paraben at conc. 0.1 % , propyl paraben 0.1 % and formalin 0.4% and it was analysed for Fat, Acidity, Total Solid, Lactose and Protein. The result of this analysis shows that milk is preserved with 0.1% methyl paraben and 0.1 % propyl paraben observed no significant effect on fat, total solids and protein contents but lactose content was significantly decreases during storage and it is also found that percentage acidity increases after nine day of storage. Sample preserved with methyl paraben and propyl paraben found that slightly higher total solid content as compared to control and formalin preserved milk samples. The milk sample preserved with 0.4 % formalin observed that there is no effect on total solids and protein content, but it shows that an immediate increase percentage acidity on first day, however during storage it remains constant and found decrease level of fat content. The finding of this experiment is concluded that, methyl and propyl paraben have poor preserving ability as compared to formalin for long term storage period but for short storage it act as a good alternative preservative of formalin for analytical purpose.

  20. Chk1 inhibits replication factory activation but allows dormant origin firing in existing factories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Xin Quan

    2010-01-01

    Replication origins are licensed by loading MCM2-7 hexamers before entry into S phase. However, only ∼10% of licensed origins are normally used in S phase, with the others remaining dormant. When fork progression is inhibited, dormant origins initiate nearby to ensure that all of the DNA is eventually replicated. In apparent contrast, replicative stress activates ataxia telangiectasia and rad-3–related (ATR) and Chk1 checkpoint kinases that inhibit origin firing. In this study, we show that at low levels of replication stress, ATR/Chk1 predominantly suppresses origin initiation by inhibiting the activation of new replication factories, thereby reducing the number of active factories. At the same time, inhibition of replication fork progression allows dormant origins to initiate within existing replication factories. The inhibition of new factory activation by ATR/Chk1 therefore redirects replication toward active factories where forks are inhibited and away from regions that have yet to start replication. This minimizes the deleterious consequences of fork stalling and prevents similar problems from arising in unreplicated regions of the genome. PMID:21173116

  1. Metabolomic profiling of beer reveals effect of temperature on non-volatile small molecules during short-term storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuberger, Adam L; Broeckling, Corey D; Lewis, Matthew R; Salazar, Lauren; Bouckaert, Peter; Prenni, Jessica E

    2012-12-01

    The effect of temperature on non-volatile compounds in beer has not been well characterised during storage. Here, a metabolomics approach was applied to characterise the effect of storage temperature on non-volatile metabolite variation after 16weeks of storage, using fresh beer as a control. The metabolite profile of room temperature stored (RT) and cold temperature stored (CT) beer differed significantly from fresh, with the most substantial variation observed between RT and fresh beer. Metabolites that changed during storage included prenylated flavonoids, purines, and peptides, and all showed reduced quantitative variation under the CT storage conditions. Corresponding sensory panel observations indicated significant beer oxidation after 12 and 16weeks of storage, with higher values reported for RT samples. These data support that temperature affected beer oxidation during short-term storage, and reveal 5-methylthioadenosine (5-MTA) as a candidate non-volatile metabolite marker for beer oxidation and staling.

  2. Effect of storage conditions on compaction behavior of two grades of spray-dried lactose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atassi, Faraj; Almaya, Ahmad; Aburub, Aktham

    2008-01-01

    In this work we examine the effect of storage conditions (moisture exposure) on the compression behavior of 2 grades of spray-dried lactose (Pharmatose DCL 11 and Pharmatose DCL 14) under 2 different circumstances. The first was to expose powder samples to moisture, then compress them. The second was to expose precompressed tablets to moisture. We clearly show that the effect of moisture exposure and amorphous content crystallization in spray-dried lactoses on compaction behavior depends on whether this moisture exposure takes place before or after compression. In addition, the impact of storage conditions depends on the grade of spray-dried lactose.

  3. Effect of chitosan-based edible coating on preservation of white shrimp during partially frozen storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shengjun

    2014-04-01

    Chitosan and chitooligosaccharides are preservatives with proven antibacterial activity, while glutathione has antioxidant activity. This study investigated the effects of chitosan coating combined with chitooligosaccharides and glutathione (0.8% glutathione+1% chitooligosaccharides+1% chitosan) on preservation of white shrimp (Penaeus vannamei) during partially frozen storage. Chitosan-based coating treatments effectively inhibited bacterial growth, reduced total volatile basic nitrogen and malondialdehyde, and basically maintained the sensory properties of white shrimp (P. vannamei) during partially frozen storage. Therefore, chitosan-based edible coating combined with chitooligosaccharides and glutathione could be a promising antimicrobial and oxidant method to prevent metamorphism of white shrimp with extended shelf life.

  4. L-carnitine effectively improves the metabolism and quality of platelet concentrates during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deyhim, Mohammad Reza; Mesbah-Namin, Seyed Alireza; Yari, Fatemeh; Taghikhani, Mohammad; Amirizadeh, Naser

    2015-04-01

    Human platelets undergo structural and biochemical alternations during storage which are collectively called platelet storage lesion (PSL). PSL is characterized as metabolic and functionally changes. It causes decrease in platelet recovery and survival. Here, we evaluated the effect of L-carnitine (LC) on the metabolism, function, and mitochondrial metabolic activity of platelet during storage. Platelet-rich plasma was used to prepare platelet concentrate (PC) in Iranian Blood Transfusion Organization. For this purpose, ten PC bags from healthy donors were stored at 22 °C with gentle agitation in the presence or absence of LC. The effects of LC (15 mM) on the platelet quality were assessed by analyzing the levels of glucose, lactate, ATP, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity. Platelet aggregations induced by arachidonate and ristocetin were analyzed by aggregometer. Platelet mitochondrial melablolic activity was measured by tetrazolium salt 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5 diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay; platelet count and mean platelet volume were also determined by a hematology analyzer during 5 days of PC storage. The results indicated that LC could significantly decrease lactate concentration and glucose consumption accompanied with the increased oxygen consumption in stored PC. LDH activity also less significantly increased in LC-treated PC on days 2 and 5 of storage. Platelet aggregation in response to the ristocetin and arachidonate was significantly higher in LC-treated PC than that in untreated PC on day 5 of storage. Finally, platelet mitochondrial metabolic activity less significantly decreased in LC-treated PC compared to the control group on days 2 and 5 of storage. It seems that LC would be a good additive to reduce PSL and improve the platelet metabolism and quality of the stored PC for platelet transfusion therapy.

  5. Effect of pomegranate peel extract on lipid and protein oxidation in beef meatballs during refrigerated storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turgut, Sebahattin Serhat; Soyer, Ayla; Işıkçı, Fatma

    2016-06-01

    Antioxidant effect of pomegranate peel extract (PE) to retard lipid and protein oxidation was investigated in meatballs during refrigerated storage at 4±1°C. Concentrated lyophilised water extract of pomegranate peel was incorporated into freshly minced beef meat at 0.5% and 1% concentrations and compared with 0.01% butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) as a reference and control (without any antioxidant). PE showed high phenolic content and antioxidant activity. In PE added samples, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) value, peroxide formation, loss of sulfhydryl groups and formation of protein carbonyls were lower than control (P<0.01) after 8 days of storage. Sensory evaluation with respect to colour and rancid odour revealed that PE incorporation in meatballs prolonged the refrigerated storage up to 8 days. Addition of both 0.5 and 1% PE in meatballs reduced lipid and protein oxidation and improved sensory scores. These results indicated that PE was effective on retarding lipid and protein oxidation.

  6. Effects of Sugars on the Light Transmittance of Tapioca Starch Pastes during Cold Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyu Zhang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to study the influence of sugars (glucose, sucrose and trehalose on the light transmittance of Tapioca Starch (TS gels during cold storage. The effects of sugars on the light transmittance of TS gels were investigated at the concentration of starch 2% (w:w during cold storage. The results showed the light transmittance of TS gels could be improved by sugar addition, according to the sugar type and concentration. The light transmittance increased with the increase of the concentration of the same kind of sugar. And the improvement of light transmittance with the sugar type was according to the order: trehalose>sucrose>glucose. Whether addition of sugar or not, light transmittance decreased with the extension of storage days. Therefore, light transmittance experiment is a simple and inexpensive method to study the effects of sugars on the retrogradation of starch gels with low-concentration.

  7. Effect of storage media on the proliferation of periodontal ligament fibroblasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauer, H.C.; Mueller, J.G.; Gross, J.; Horster, M.F.

    1987-07-01

    The effect of storage media, which are routinely used in replantation, upon the proliferative capacity of periodontal ligament fibroblasts, was compared with the effect of a tissue culture medium. The periodontal tissue was obtained from mandibular central incisors of White New Zealand rabbits. The experiments were performed in fibroblasts derived during second subculture. The storage media were physiologic salt solution, Ringer's solution and Rivanol; the tissue culture medium was alpha-minimum essential medium without nucleosides. The incubation period was 1 hour. (/sup 3/H)-thymidine incorporation and cell counts were taken to indicate changes in the proliferative capacity of the fibroblasts. The tissue culture experiments showed that the proliferative ability of the periodontal ligament fibroblasts was dependent upon the composition of the storage medium. Physiologic salt solution, Ringer's solution and Rivanol were unable to maintain the metabolism of the fibroblasts. alpha-MEM medium, however, was capable of stimulating proliferation of the periodontal ligament fibroblasts.

  8. Two effective approaches to reduce data storage in reverse time migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Weijia; Fu, Li-Yun

    2013-07-01

    Prestack reverse time migration (RTM) requires extensive data storage since it computes wavefields in forward time and accesses wavefields in reverse order. We first review several successful schemes that have been proposed to reduce data storage, but require more computational redundancies. We propose two effective strategies to reduce data storage during RTM. The first strategy is based on the Nyquist sampling theorem, which involves no extra computational cost. The fact is that the time sampling intervals required by numerical algorithms or given by field records is generally several times smaller than that satisfied by the Nyquist sampling theorem. Therefore, we can correlate the source wavefields with the receiver wavefields at the Nyquist time step, which helps decrease storage of time history. The second strategy is based on a lossless compression algorithm, which is widely used in computer science and information theory. The compression approach reduces storage significantly at a little computational cost. Numerical examples show that the two proposed strategies are effective and efficient.

  9. Antioxidant effect of mango seed extract and butylated hydroxytoluene in bologna-type mortadella during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lúcia Fernandes Pereira

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The effects of mango seed extract (MSE and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT on pH, lipid oxidation, and color of Bologna-type mortadella during refrigerated storage for 21 days were studied. Bologna-type mortadella samples were formulated to contain 0.1% MSE, 0.2% MSE, or 0.01% BHT. After 14 days of storage, the products containing MSE 0.1 or 0.2% had higher pH values than those containing BHT 0.01%. Lipid oxidation values increased with storage time but were not affected by the type of antioxidant. The highest values for color parameter L* were observed for mortadella containing BHT 0.01% after 7, 14, and 21 days of storage. Values for the color parameters a* and b* tended to decrease during mortadella storage. Products containing 0.1 or 0.2% MSE showed higher values for color parameter a* and lower values for color parameter b* compared to those containing 0.01% BHT. It can be concluded that MSE can be used in 0.1 or 0.2% levels in Bologna-type mortadella with similar or better antioxidant effects than those of BHT 0.01%.

  10. Consensus micro RNAs governing the switch of dormant tumors to the fast-growing angiogenic phenotype.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nava Almog

    Full Text Available Tumor dormancy refers to a critical stage in cancer development in which tumor cells remain occult for a prolonged period of time until they eventually progress and become clinically apparent. We previously showed that the switch of dormant tumors to fast-growth is angiogenesis dependent and requires a stable transcriptional reprogramming in tumor cells. Considering microRNAs (miRs as master regulators of transcriptome, we sought to investigate their role in the control of tumor dormancy. We report here the identification of a consensus set of 19 miRs that govern the phenotypic switch of human dormant breast carcinoma, glioblastoma, osteosarcoma, and liposarcoma tumors to fast-growth. Loss of expression of dormancy-associated miRs (DmiRs, 16/19 was the prevailing regulation pattern correlating with the switch of dormant tumors to fast-growth. The expression pattern of two DmiRs (miR-580 and 190 was confirmed to correlate with disease stage in human glioma specimens. Reconstitution of a single DmiR (miR-580, 588 or 190 led to phenotypic reversal of fast-growing angiogenic tumors towards prolonged tumor dormancy. Of note, 60% of angiogenic glioblastoma and 100% of angiogenic osteosarcoma over-expressing miR190 remained dormant during the entire observation period of ∼ 120 days. Next, the ability of DmiRs to regulate angiogenesis and dormancy-associated genes was evaluated. Transcriptional reprogramming of tumors via DmiR-580, 588 or 190 over-expression resulted in downregulation of pro-angiogenic factors such as TIMP-3, bFGF and TGFalpha. In addition, a G-CSF independent downregulation of Bv8 was found as a common target of all three DmiRs and correlated with decreased tumor recruitment of bone marrow-derived CD11b+ Gr-1+ myeloid cells. In contrast, antiangiogenic and dormancy promoting pathways such as EphA5 and Angiomotin were upregulated in DmiR over-expressing tumors. This work suggests novel means to reverse the malignant tumor phenotype

  11. Untangling the effects of urban development on subsurface storage in Baltimore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaskar, Aditi S.; Welty, Claire; Maxwell, Reed M.; Miller, Andrew J.

    2015-02-01

    The impact of urban development on surface flow has been studied extensively over the last half century, but effects on groundwater systems are still poorly understood. Previous studies of the influence of urban development on subsurface storage have not revealed any consistent pattern, with results showing increases, decreases, and negligible change in groundwater levels. In this paper, we investigated the effects of four key features that impact subsurface storage in urban landscapes. These include reduced vegetative cover, impervious surface cover, infiltration and inflow (I&I) of groundwater and storm water into wastewater pipes, and other anthropogenic recharge and discharge fluxes including water supply pipe leakage and well and reservoir withdrawals. We applied the integrated groundwater-surface water-land surface model ParFlow.CLM to the Baltimore metropolitan area. We compared the base case (all four features) to simulations in which an individual urban feature was removed. For the Baltimore region, the effect of infiltration of groundwater into wastewater pipes had the greatest effect on subsurface storage (I&I decreased subsurface storage 11.1% relative to precipitation minus evapotranspiration after 1 year), followed by the impact of water supply pipe leakage and lawn irrigation (combined anthropogenic discharges and recharges led to a 7.4% decrease) and reduced vegetation (1.9% increase). Impervious surface cover led to a small increase in subsurface storage (0.56% increase) associated with decreased groundwater discharge as base flow. The change in subsurface storage due to infiltration of groundwater into wastewater pipes was largest despite the smaller spatial extent of surface flux modifications, compared to other features.

  12. Effect of storage temperature on egg quality traits in table eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aygün, Ali; Narinç, Doǧan

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to establish the effects of storage temperature on some egg quality in table eggs during 28 days. A total of 100 fresh eggs were obtained from laying hens (Nick chick) that were raised on a local commercial farm. All eggs were collected over a 24 h period. A total of 100 eggs randomly divided into 2 treatments (5 °C and 22 °C; 10 replicates each) with 50 eggs examined in each. Ten eggs from each group were analyzed for eggs weight loss, specific gravity, albumen height, Haugh unit, yolk index, and albumen pH after 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days of storage at 5 and 22 °C. All eggs were individually marked and weighed at the beginning of the experiment to calculate egg weight loss. The egg weight loss in eggs stored at 5 °C significantly (Peggs stored at 22 °C group for the entire storage period. The eggs stored at 5 °C showed higher levels of specific gravity than eggs stored at 22 °C throughout 28 days of storage (Peggs stored at 5 °C was significantly (Peggs stored at 22 °C during the storage periods. The albumen pH of eggs stored at 5 °C was significantly (Peggs stored at 22 °C during storage period. The results indicated that the eggs stored at 5 °C are better off in terms of protecting quality compared to the eggs stored at 22 °C throughout 28 days of storage.

  13. Cluster analysis reveals a binary effect of storage on boar sperm motility function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning, Heiko; Petrunkina, Anna M; Harrison, Robin A P; Waberski, Dagmar

    2014-06-01

    Storage of liquid-preserved boar spermatozoa is associated with a loss of fertilising ability of the preserved spermatozoa, which standard semen parameters barely reflect. Monitoring responses to molecular effectors of sperm function (e.g. bicarbonate) has proven to be a more sensitive approach to investigating storage effects. Bicarbonate not only initiates capacitation in spermatozoa, but also induces motility activation. This occurs at ejaculation, but also happens throughout passage through the oviduct. In the present study we tested whether the specific response of boar sperm subpopulations to bicarbonate, as assessed by motility activation, is altered with the duration of storage in vitro. Three ejaculates from each of seven boars were diluted in Beltsville thawing solution and stored at 17°C. Only minor changes in the parameters of diluted semen were revealed over a period of 72h storage. For assessment of bicarbonate responses, subsamples of diluted spermatozoa were centrifuged through a discontinuous Percoll gradient after 12, 24 and 72h storage. Subsequently, spermatozoa were incubated in two Ca2+-free variants of Tyrode's medium either without (TyrControl) or with (TyrBic) 15mM bicarbonate, and computer-aided sperm analysis motility measurements were made. Cluster analysis of imaging data from motile spermatozoa revealed the presence of five major sperm subpopulations with distinct motility characteristics, differing between TyrBic and TyrControl at any given time (Psperm motility function descriptors to storage: although the quantitative descriptor (percentage of motile spermatozoa) declines in washed semen samples, the qualitative descriptor (percentage of spermatozoa stimulated into fast linear motion by bicarbonate) is sustained independent of the duration of storage.

  14. EFFECTS OF PRE-GERMINATION TREATMENTS AND STORAGE ON GERMINATION OF Astronium fraxinifolium SCHOTT (ANACARDIACEAE DIASPORES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lílian de Lima Braga

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to evaluate the germination and the storage capacity of Astronium fraxinifolium diaspores. Six pre-germination treatments were used in the experiment: control treatment (intact diaspores; diaspores immersed in water at room temperature (25º C for 5 min; diaspores immersed in water at 70° C for 5 min; diaspores immersed in water at 100° C for 5 min; diaspores immersed in sodium hypochlorite solution (1:1000 for 2 min; and diaspores mechanically scarified with sandpaper #80. To evaluate storage conditions, we tested two different types of packaging (permeable paper bag and transparent glass jar and two environmental conditions (cold chamber and room conditions, resulting in four treatments. The germination tests were performed for zero (control and 60, 120, 180, 240, 300 and 360 days after storage. The effects of different treatments on germination and storage of diaspores were evaluated by ANOVA, followed by Tukey test. Regarding to pre-germination treatments, high germination rates were observed in the hypochlorite (98.0 ± 4.22%, control (97.0 ± 4.83%, water at room temperature (96.0 ± 6.99% and water at 70º C (83.0 ± 29.08% treatments. Thus, Astronium fraxinifolium diaspores do not present dormancy. During storage, the diaspores remained viable throughout the study period with high germination rates, except for the treatment in paper bags placed in the cold chamber, in which the diaspores lost their viability in the eighth month of storage. Therefore, this is not a recommended storage method for this species.

  15. EFFECTS OF PRE-GERMINATION TREATMENTS AND STORAGE ON GERMINATION OF Astronium fraxinifolium SCHOTT (ANACARDIACEAE DIASPORES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lílian de Lima Braga

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509814577The goal of this study was to evaluate the germination and the storage capacity of Astronium fraxinifolium diaspores. Six pre-germination treatments were used in the experiment: control treatment (intact diaspores; diaspores immersed in water at room temperature (25º C for 5 min; diaspores immersed in water at 70° C for 5 min; diaspores immersed in water at 100° C for 5 min; diaspores immersed in sodium hypochlorite solution (1:1000 for 2 min; and diaspores mechanically scarified with sandpaper #80. To evaluate storage conditions, we tested two different types of packaging (permeable paper bag and transparent glass jar and two environmental conditions (cold chamber and room conditions, resulting in four treatments. The germination tests were performed for zero (control and 60, 120, 180, 240, 300 and 360 days after storage. The effects of different treatments on germination and storage of diaspores were evaluated by ANOVA, followed by Tukey test. Regarding to pre-germination treatments, high germination rates were observed in the hypochlorite (98.0 ± 4.22%, control (97.0 ± 4.83%, water at room temperature (96.0 ± 6.99% and water at 70º C (83.0 ± 29.08% treatments. Thus, Astronium fraxinifolium diaspores do not present dormancy. During storage, the diaspores remained viable throughout the study period with high germination rates, except for the treatment in paper bags placed in the cold chamber, in which the diaspores lost their viability in the eighth month of storage. Therefore, this is not a recommended storage method for this species.

  16. Effects of CSR Generated from Upstream Bends in a Laser Plasma Storage Ring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, C.; Qiang, J.; Venturini, M.

    2013-08-28

    The recent proposal [1] of a Laser Plasma Storage Ring (LPSR) envisions the use of a laser-plasma (LP) acceleration module to inject an electron beam into a compact 500 MeV storage ring. Electron bunches generated by LP methods are naturally very short (tens of femtoseconds), presenting peak currents on the order of 10 kA or higher. Of obvious concern is the impact of collective effects and in particular Coherent Synchrotron Radiation (CSR) on the beam dynamics in the storage ring. Available simulation codes (e.g. Elegant [2]) usually include transient CSR effects but neglect the contribution of radiation emitted from trailing magnets. In a compact storage ring, with dipole magnets close to each other, cross talking between different magnets could in principle be important.In this note we investigate this effect for the proposed LPSR and show that, in fact, this effect is relatively small. However our analysis also indicates that CSR effects in general would be quite strong and deserve a a careful study.

  17. Effects of CSR Generated from Upstream Bends in a Laser Plasma Storage Ring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, C.; Qiang, J.; Venturini, M.

    2013-08-28

    The recent proposal [1] of a Laser Plasma Storage Ring (LPSR) envisions the use of a laser-plasma (LP) acceleration module to inject an electron beam into a compact 500 MeV storage ring. Electron bunches generated by LP methods are naturally very short (tens of femtoseconds), presenting peak currents on the order of 10 kA or higher. Of obvious concern is the impact of collective effects and in particular Coherent Synchrotron Radiation (CSR) on the beam dynamics in the storage ring. Available simulation codes (e.g. Elegant [2]) usually include transient CSR effects but neglect the contribution of radiation emitted from trailing magnets. In a compact storage ring, with dipole magnets close to each other, cross talking between different magnets could in principle be important.In this note we investigate this effect for the proposed LPSR and show that, in fact, this effect is relatively small. However our analysis also indicates that CSR effects in general would be quite strong and deserve a a careful study.

  18. Methods to promote germination of dormant Setaria viridis seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian, Jose; Wong, Mandy Ka; Tang, Evan; Dinneny, José R

    2014-01-01

    Setaria viridis has recently emerged as a promising genetic model system to study diverse aspects of monocot biology. While the post-germination life cycle of S. viridis is approximately 8 weeks long, the prolonged dormancy of freshly harvested seeds can more than double the total time required between successive generations. Here we describe methods that promote seed germination in S. viridis. Our results demonstrate that treating S. viridis seeds with liquid smoke or a GA3 and KNO3 solution improves germination rates to 90% or higher even in seeds that are 6 days post-harvest with similar results obtained whether seeds are planted in soil or on gel-based media. Importantly, we show that these treatments have no significant effect on the growth of the adult plant. We have tested these treatments on diverse S. viridis accessions and show variation in their response. The methods described here will help advance research using this model grass species by increasing the pace at which successive generations of plants can be analyzed.

  19. Methods to promote germination of dormant Setaria viridis seeds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Sebastian

    Full Text Available Setaria viridis has recently emerged as a promising genetic model system to study diverse aspects of monocot biology. While the post-germination life cycle of S. viridis is approximately 8 weeks long, the prolonged dormancy of freshly harvested seeds can more than double the total time required between successive generations. Here we describe methods that promote seed germination in S. viridis. Our results demonstrate that treating S. viridis seeds with liquid smoke or a GA3 and KNO3 solution improves germination rates to 90% or higher even in seeds that are 6 days post-harvest with similar results obtained whether seeds are planted in soil or on gel-based media. Importantly, we show that these treatments have no significant effect on the growth of the adult plant. We have tested these treatments on diverse S. viridis accessions and show variation in their response. The methods described here will help advance research using this model grass species by increasing the pace at which successive generations of plants can be analyzed.

  20. Effects of Rest Grazing on Organic Carbon Storage in Stipa grandis Steppe in Inner Mongolia, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yu-jie; ZHU Yan; ZHAO Jian-ning; LI Gang; WANG Hui; LAI Xin; YANG Dian-lin

    2014-01-01

    This study was aimed to evaluate the potential effects of rest grazing on organic carbon storage in Stipa grandis steppe of Inner Mongolia, China. Using potassium dichromate heating method, we analyzed the organic carbon storage of plant and soil in Stipa grandis steppe after rest grazing for 3, 6, and 9 yr. The results indicated that as the rest grazing ages prolonged, the biomass of aboveground parts, litter and belowground plant parts (roots) of the plant communities all increased, meanwhile the C content of the biomass increased with the rest grazing ages prolonging. For RG0, RG3a, RG6a, and RG9a, C storage in aboveground vegetation were 60.7, 76.9, 82.8 and 122.2 g Cm-2, respectively;C storage of litter were 5.1, 5.8, 20.4 and 25.5 g Cm-2, respectively;C storage of belowground roots (0-100 cm) were 475.2, 663.0, 1 115.0 and 1 867.3 g Cm-2, respectively;C storage in 0-100 cm soil were 13.97, 15.76, 18.60 and 32.41 kg Cm-2, respectively. As the rest grazing ages prolonged, the organic C storage in plant communities and soil increased. The C storage of belowground roots and soil organic C was mainly concentrated in 0-40 cm soil body. The increased soil organic C for RG3a accounted for 89.8% of the increased carbon in vegetation-soil system, 87.2%for RG6a, and 92.6%for RG9a. From the perspective of C sequestration cost, total cost for RG3a, RG6a, and RG9a were 2 903.4, 5 806.8 and 8 710.2 CNY ha-1, respectively. The cost reduced with the extension of rest grazing ages, 0.15 CNY kg-1 C for RG3a, 0.11 CNY kg-1 C for RG6a and 0.04 CNY kg-1 C for RG9a. From the growth characteristics of grassland plants, the spring was one of the two avoided grazing periods, timely rest grazing could effectively restore and update grassland vegetation, and was beneifcial to the sustainable use of grassland. Organic C storage for RG9a was the highest, while the cost of C sequestration was the lowest. Therefore, spring rest grazing should be encouraged because it was proved to be a very

  1. Effect of temperature and seven storage media on human periodontal ligament fibroblast viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Beatriz Dulcineia Mendes; Bortoluzzi, Eduardo Antunes; Reyes-Carmona, Jessie; Dos Santos, Luciane Geanini Pena; Simões, Claudia Maria de Oliveira; Felippe, Wilson Tadeu; Felippe, Mara Cristina Santos

    2017-04-01

    Natural resources, such as coconut water, propolis, and egg whites, have been examined as possible storage media for avulsed teeth. However, there is a lack of research focused on the efficacy of these three products together compared with Hank's balanced salt solution and milk. The aim of this study was to evaluate the capacity of seven storage media to maintain the viability of human periodontal ligament fibroblasts (PDLFs). PDLFs were kept at 5°C and 20°C, in skimmed milk (SMilk), whole milk (WMilk), recently prepared Hank's balanced salt solution (HBSS), Save-A-Tooth(®) system's HBSS (Save), natural coconut water (Coconut), Propolis, and egg white (Egg) for 3, 6, 24, 48, 72, 96, and 120 h, through the analysis of tetrazolium salt-based colorimetric (MTT) assay. At 5°C, SMilk and WMilk were better than HBSS in maintaining cell viability, from 24 h onward. At 20°C, HBSS was the best storage medium at 96 and 120 h. At both temperatures, from 6 h onward, Coconut, Propolis and Egg were less effective than SMilk, WMilk, and HBSS. In general, the performance of Coconut, Propolis and Egg were not influenced by storage temperature. However, the lowest temperature undermined the effectiveness of HBSS from 24 h and favored SMilk and WMilk, from 96 and 48 h onward, respectively. Save and water were the worst storage media. SMilk was the best storage medium, followed by WMilk and HBSS. Coconut, Propolis, and Egg can be indicated for the conservation of PDLF up to 3 h. The lower temperature (5°C) undermined the effectiveness of HBSS and favored SMilk and WMilk. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. The effects of storage conditions on the viability of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAKA DANIEL

    2015-01-07

    Jan 7, 2015 ... after one month from samples at these temperatures. ... were then made and packaged in cryovials and Eppendorf tubes. Each stool sample and .... Laboratory medicine in Africa: a barrier to effective health care. Clin. Infect.

  3. Study of Magnetic Hysteresis Effects in a Storage Ring Using Precision Tune Measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Wei; Mikhailov, Stepan F; Xu, Wei; Li, Jing-Yi; Li, Wei-Min; Wu, Ying K

    2016-01-01

    With advances in accelerator science and technology in the recent decades, the accelerator community has focused on the development of next-generation light sources, for example the diffraction-limited storage rings (DLSRs), which requires precision control of the electron beam energy and betatron tunes. This work is aimed at understanding magnet hysteresis effects on the electron beam energy and lattice focusing in the circular accelerators, and developing new methods to gain better control of these effects. In this paper, we will report our recent experimental study of the magnetic hysteresis effects and their impacts on the Duke storage ring lattice using the transverse feedback based precision tune measurement system. The major magnet hysteresis effects associated with magnet normalization and lattice ramping are carefully studied to determine an effective procedure for lattice preparation while maintaining a high degree of reproducibility of lattice focusing. The local hysteresis effects are also studied...

  4. Effect of frozen storage on the anthocyanins and phenolic components of pomegranate juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirsaeedghazi, Hossein; Emam-Djomeh, Zahra; Ahmadkhaniha, Reza

    2014-02-01

    Pomegranate juice's valuable nutritional components may be reduced during its processing or storage. This work examined the effect of frozen storage at -25 °C on some chemical characteristics of pomegranate juice. Total anthocyanin content of pomegranate juice, which was measured using the pH differential method, decreased by 11% after 20 days of frozen storage. Phenolic components, measured using a Folin and Ciocalteu assay by means of a UV-vis spectrophotometer, decreased by 29% after 20 days of frozen storage. Antioxidant activity, measured based on the radical scavenging properties of the juice using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl method, decreased by 50% after 20 days of frozen storage. Pomegranate juice has 5 major anthocyanins, including Cyanidin 3-glucoside, Cyanidin 3,5-diglucoside, Delphinidin 3-glucoside, Pelargonidin 3-glucoside and Pelargonidin 3,5-diglucoside are 5 major anthocyanins of pomegranate juice. They were measured using the LC-MS method and results showed that Pelargonidin 3,5- diglucoside had the greatest decrease. Also, the LC-MS method showed that ellagic acid decreased by 15%.

  5. Storage effects on the Cole-Cole parameters of erythrocyte suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sezdi, M; Bayik, M; Ulgen, Y

    2006-07-01

    Chemical alterations of red blood cells (RBCs) during storage eventually affect the electrical properties of blood. In this study, the physiological parameters such as extracellular (SAGM + CPD + residual plasma) Na(+), K(+), Cl(-), pH, 2,3-DPG and ATP together with the Cole-Cole parameters were measured using erythrocyte suspensions from 51 male donors (31 donors form the training set and 20 donors are used for testing), on the 0th, 10th, 21st, 35th and 42nd days of storage. During storage, while the surrounding fluid resistance (R(e)) and the effective cell membrane capacitance (C(m)) increased progressively with time, the intracellular fluid resistance (R(i)) has decreased. Storage of RBCs resulted in a rise in K(+) and a fall in Na(+), Cl(-), pH, 2,3-DPG and ATP. Accordingly, electrical parameters were all correlated with Na(+), K(+), Cl(-), pH and ATP at varying levels. By applying multi-regression analysis, it is concluded that R(i), R(e) and C(m) are appropriate for modeling Na(+), K(+), Cl(-), pH and ATP during storage.

  6. Effects of Energy Storage Systems Grid Code Requirements on Interface Protection Performances in Low Voltage Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Bignucolo

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The ever-growing penetration of local generation in distribution networks and the large diffusion of energy storage systems (ESSs foreseen in the near future are bound to affect the effectiveness of interface protection systems (IPSs, with negative impact on the safety of medium voltage (MV and low voltage (LV systems. With the scope of preserving the main network stability, international and national grid connection codes have been updated recently. Consequently, distributed generators (DGs and storage units are increasingly called to provide stabilizing functions according to local voltage and frequency. This can be achieved by suitably controlling the electronic power converters interfacing small-scale generators and storage units to the network. The paper focuses on the regulating functions required to storage units by grid codes currently in force in the European area. Indeed, even if such regulating actions would enable local units in participating to network stability under normal steady-state operating conditions, it is shown through dynamic simulations that they may increase the risk of unintentional islanding occurrence. This means that dangerous operating conditions may arise in LV networks in case dispersed generators and storage systems are present, even if all the end-users are compliant with currently applied connection standards.

  7. Effects of Psychrophilic Storage on Manures as Substrate for Anaerobic Digestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenche Bergland

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The idea that storage can enhance manure quality as substrate for anaerobic digestion (AD to recover more methane is evaluated by studying storage time and temperature effects on manure composition. Volatile fatty acids (VFA and total dissolved organics (CODs were measured in full scale pig manure storage for a year and in multiple flasks at fixed temperatures, mainly relevant for colder climates. The CODs generation, influenced by the source of the pig manure, was highest initially (0.3 g COD L−1d−1 gradually dropping for 3 months towards a level of COD loss by methane production at 15°C. Methane emission was low ( 10°C in the full scale storage and almost no generation at lower temperatures (4–6°C. CODs consisted mainly of VFA, especially acetate. All VFAs were present at almost constant ratios. The naturally separated manure middle layer without sediment and coarser particles is suitable for sludge bed AD and improved further during an optimal storage time of 1–3 month(s. This implies that high rate AD can be integrated with regular manure slurry handling systems to obtain efficient biogas generation.

  8. The impact of image storage organization on the effectiveness of PACS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindel, R

    1990-11-01

    Picture archiving communication system (PACS) requires efficient handling of large amounts of data. Mass storage systems are cost effective but slow, while very fast systems, like frame buffers and parallel transfer disks, are expensive. The image traffic can be divided into inbound traffic generated by diagnostic modalities and outbound traffic into workstations. At the contact points with medical professionals, the responses must be fast. Archiving, on the other hand, can employ slower but less expensive storage systems, provided that the primary activities are not impeded. This article illustrates a segmentation architecture meeting these requirements based on a clearly defined PACS concept.

  9. Effect of frozen storage temperature on quality-related changes in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burgaard, Maria Garver; Jørgensen, Bo M.

    2011-01-01

    The effect of frozen storage temperature on quality-related parameters of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) muscle was studied in the interval from -10 to -80°C on samples stored for 1 to 18 months. The following quantities were measured: drip loss, water holding capacity and water distribution...... compared to -30°C or higher resulted in a reduced level of secondary lipid oxidation (TBARS). No advantage was gained by using temperatures below -40°C for frozen storage of trout regarding any of the properties investigated....

  10. Lactobacillus plantarum: Effect of a protective biofilm on the surface of olives during storage

    OpenAIRE

    Kachouri Faten; Ksontini Hamida; El Abed Soumya; Ibn Souda Koraichi Saad; Meftah Hasna; Latrache Hassan; Hamdi Moktar

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of Lactobacillus plantarum adhesion to the surface of olives during storage through studying the interaction between the surfaces of the olives and L. plantarum. The results showed that the total number of adherent L. plantarum increased exponentially from 1.2 × 106 to 1.3 × 108 cfu/g. Images obtained using environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) after 4 days of storage revealed that the olive surface was covered wi...

  11. Effects of Lower Drying-Storage Temperature on the Ductility of High-Burnup PWR Cladding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Billone, M. C. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Burtseva, T. A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-08-30

    The purpose of this research effort is to determine the effects of canister and/or cask drying and storage on radial hydride precipitation in, and potential embrittlement of, high-burnup (HBU) pressurized water reactor (PWR) cladding alloys during cooling for a range of peak drying-storage temperatures (PCT) and hoop stresses. Extensive precipitation of radial hydrides could lower the failure hoop stresses and strains, relative to limits established for as-irradiated cladding from discharged fuel rods stored in pools, at temperatures below the ductile-to-brittle transition temperature (DBTT).

  12. The effects of Aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis) coating on the quality of shrimp during cold storage

    OpenAIRE

    Soltanizadeh, Nafiseh; Mousavinejad, Mohsen S.

    2015-01-01

    Green tiger shrimp (Penaeus semisulcatus) is an important aquaculture species worldwide. Its perishable nature, however, needs preservation methods to ensure its quality and shelf life. In this study, the effects of Aloe vera coating on the quality and shelf life of shrimps during cold storage were investigated. Shrimp samples were dipped in aqueous solutions containing 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% Aloe vera gel before storage at 4 °C for 7 days. Drip loss, pH, TBA, TVB-N, and texture of both the ...

  13. Effects of CO2 gas as leaks from geological storage sites on agro-ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patil, Ravi; Colls, Jeremy J; Steven, Michael D

    2010-01-01

    Carbon capture and storage in geological formations has potential risks in the long-term safety because of the possibility of CO2 leakage. Effects of leaking gas, therefore, on vegetation, soil, and soil-inhabiting organisms are critical to understand. An artificial soil gassing and response...

  14. Effect of storage period and chemical treatment on sunflower parents lines seedling dry matter content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrđa Jelena

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In modern agricultural production, high quality seed which germinates quickly and evenly in different environments is the main requirement for high yields. The research was carried out in the Laboratory for Seed Testing in Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops in Novi Sad. Two cytoplasmic male sterile lines L-1 and L-2 were used for the research. Seed treatments with fungicides (benomil, metalaxyl and fludioxonil and insecticides (tiametoxam and imidacloprid were applied to evaluate effects of chemical treatments and storage duration on seedlings dry matter content. This treated seed was kept in a storage facility where all commercial seed is stored. The first assessment was done after the treatments and had been repeated every three months. Analysis of variance of the tested parameters showed statistically significant effects of chemical treatments and storage duration on seedling dry matter content in L-1 line. In line L-2, statistically significant effect of chemical treatment on seedling dry matter content was observed, whereas the effect of storage duration on seedlings dry matter content was highly significant. Double interactions were highly significant. .

  15. Renal Function in Glycogen Storage Disease Type I, Natural Course, and Renopreservative Effects of ACE Inhibition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martens, Danielle H. J.; Rake, Jan Peter; Navis, Gerjan; Fidler, Vaclav; van Dael, Catharina M. L.; Smit, G. Peter A.

    2009-01-01

    Background and objectives: Renal failure is a major complication in glycogen storage disease type I (GSD I). We studied the natural course of renal function in GSD I patients. We studied differences between patients in optimal and nonoptimal metabolic control and possible renoprotective effects of a

  16. Effect of baking and storage on the fatty acid composition of cookies with chia seed meal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seed is an ancient crop of the Aztecs that has recently gained interest as a functional food. Chia seeds are a good source of polyphenolic compounds with antioxidant activity. However, the effect of baking and storage on the antioxidant properties of chia seed meal is not ...

  17. Effects of Anxiety on Memory Storage and Updating in Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visu-Petra, Laura; Cheie, Lavinia; Benga, Oana; Alloway, Tracy Packiam

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between trait anxiety and memory functioning in young children was investigated. Two studies were conducted, using tasks tapping verbal and visual-spatial short-term memory (Study 1) and working memory (Study 2) in preschoolers. On the verbal storage tasks, there was a detrimental effect of anxiety on processing efficiency…

  18. Effect of storage conditions on losses and crop utilization of nitrogen from solid cattle manure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shah, G.M.; Shah, G.A.; Groot, J.C.J.; Oenema, O.; Raza, A.S.; Lantinga, E.A.

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of the present study were to quantify the effects of contrasting methods for storing solid cattle manure on: (i) total carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) balances during storage, and (ii) crop apparent N recovery (ANR) following manure application to arable land, with maize as a test crop

  19. The effect of storage on the nutritional quality of meat and bone meal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, W.H.; Cottam, Y.H.; Thomas, D.V.

    2006-01-01

    The effect of storage on the nutritional quality of meat and bone meal was investigated. Three meat and bone meal samples were stored for 1, 2, 3, 6 and 9 months, with or without the addition of the antioxidants (butylatedhydroxytoluene and butylatedhydroxyanisole). Gross composition, thiobarbituric

  20. Effect of biodiesel addition on microbial community structure in a simulated fuel storage system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restrepo-Flórez, Juan-Manuel; Bassi, Amarjeet; Rehmann, Lars; Thompson, Michael R

    2013-11-01

    Understanding changes in microbial structure due to biodiesel storage is important both for protecting integrity of storage systems and fuel quality management. In this work a simulated storage system was used to study the effect of biodiesel (0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100%) on a microbial population, which was followed by community level physiological profiling (CLPP), 16s rDNA analysis and plating in selective media. Results proved that structure and functionality were affected by biodiesel. CLPP showed at least three populations: one corresponding to diesel, one to biodiesel and one to blends of diesel and biodiesel. Analysis of 16s rDNA revealed that microbial composition was different for populations growing in diesel and biodiesel. Genera identified are known for degradation of hydrocarbons and emulsifier production. Maximum growth was obtained in biodiesel; however, microbial counts in standard media were lower for this samples. Acidification of culture media was observed at high biodiesel concentration.

  1. Military ration chocolate: the effect of simulated tropical storage on sensory quality, structure and bloom formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Lan T T; Coad, Ross

    2014-10-01

    A storage trial was conducted to observe the effect of typical northern Australia climatic conditions on a military ration chocolate (RC). The results indicate that sensory quality decreased during storage; after seven days the chocolate was no longer of acceptable appearance. Deterioration in RC sensory quality was strongly correlated with decreases in visual acceptance (appearance) and increases in degree of blooming. Instrumental colour measurements were also strongly correlated with sensory ratings. Visual and microscopic observations provide evidence for movement of fat to and across the surface of the RC, behaviour that may be explained in terms of the phase transition theory of fat blooming. DSC thermographs provide evidence of a shift from predominantly polymorph form V in a fresh RC sample to a greater proportion of form VI in bloomed storage samples. The study provides a baseline against which efforts to improve the quality of RC may be evaluated.

  2. The Effect of Packaging Materials on the Quality Attributes of Crayfish During Cold Storage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajala, A.S

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the effects of packaging materials on the quality attributes of crayfish preserved in cold storage. This was done in order to ascertain the suitability of the different packaging materials on keeping the quality attributes of crayfish in cold storage. The “red claw” crayfish was harvested fresh, beheaded, washed, cleaned and packaged in different packaging materials of low-density polyethylene (LDPE, high-density polyethylene (HDPE, aluminum foil and plastic. The crayfish were stored for a period of eight weeks, and samples were taken for analysis every two weeks. The analyses carried out were proximate, mineral (calcium, iron and phosphorus and microbial (yeast, mould, coliform and total viable counts. There were significant reduction changes in the proximate, minerals and microbiological analysis in respect to the packaging materials and storage period.

  3. Scaling up effects of Mg hydride in a temperature and pressure-controlled hydrogen storage device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verga, M.; Armanasco, F.; Guardamagna, C.; Valli, C. [CESI RICERCA S.p.A., Via Rubattino 54, 20134 Milano (Italy); Bianchin, A.; Lo Russo, S. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Padova, via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); Agresti, F.; Maddalena, A.; Principi, G. [Settore Materiali, Dipartimento di Ingegneria Meccanica, via Marzolo 9, 35131 Padova (Italy)

    2009-05-15

    A research program addressed to evaluate the magnesium hydride storage scaling up effects is being developed by CESI RICERCA, Milano, and the Hydrogen Group of Padova University. A storage device containing 500 g of magnesium hydride powder (manufactured by Venezia Tecnologie S.p.A. using high-energy ball milling) has been designed and tested in different operating conditions. A number of absorption and desorption cycles at different temperatures and pressures has been carried out in order to see if the results are comparable with laboratory data obtained on small amounts (fractions of grams) of powder samples. A sensible performance degradation that reduced the overall storage capacity of about 50% has been noticed after 20 cycles, presumably due to local powder heating, fragmentation and subsequent compaction. Further tests on a smaller tank equipped also with a porous baffle gave useful indications for the design of an improved large hydrogen reservoir. (author)

  4. Effects of alloying side B on Ti-based AB2 hydrogen storage alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王家淳; 于荣海; 刘庆

    2004-01-01

    Ti-based AB2-type hydrogen storage alloys are a group of promising materials, which will probably replace the prevalent rare earth-based AB5-type alloys and be adopted as the main cathode materials of nickelmetal hydride (Ni-MH) batteries in the near future. Alloying in side B is a major way to improve the performance of Ti-based AB2-type alloys. Based on recent studies, the effects of alloying elements in side B upon the performance of Ti-based AB2 -type hydrogen storage alloys are systematically reviewed here. These performances are divided into two categories, namely PCI characteristics, including hydrogen storage capacity (HSC), plateau pressure (PP), pressure hysteresis (PH) and pressure plateau sloping (PPS) , and electrochemical properties, including discharge capacity (DC), activation property (AP), cycling stability (CS) and high-rate dischargeability (HRD). Furthermore, the existing problems in these investigations and some suggestions for future research are proposed.

  5. The effects of storage temperature on the growth of Vibrio parahaemolyticus and organoleptic properties in oysters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meshack eMudoh

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available During harvesting and storage, microbial pathogens and natural spoilage flora may grow, negatively affecting the composition and texture of oysters and posing a potential health threat to susceptible consumers. A solution to these problems would mitigate associated damaging effects on the seafood industry. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of storage temperature on growth of Vibrios as well as other microbial, sensory and textural characteristics of post-harvest shellstock Eastern oysters (Crassostrea virginica. Oysters harvested from the Chesapeake Bay, Maryland, during summer months (June, July, and August, 2010 were subjected to three storage temperatures (5, 10, and 20ºC over a 10 day period. At selected time intervals (0, 1, 3, 7, 10 days two separate samples of 6 oysters each were homogenated and analyzed for pH, halophilic plate counts (HPC, total Vibrios, and Vibrio parahaemolyticus (Vp. Oyster meats shucked after storage were also organoleptically evaluated (acceptability, appearance, and odor. Texture analysis was performed using a texture analyzer on meats shucked from oysters held under the same conditions. The pH of the oyster homogenates showed no consistent pattern with storage time and temperature. The HPC (4.5 to 9.4log CFU/g were highest on day 7 at 20C while olfactory acceptance reduced with time and increasing storage temperatures. The Vp counts increased over time from 3.5 to7.5 log MPN/g by day10. Loss of freshness as judged by appearance and odor was significant over time (p

  6. The effect of storage temperature on mechanical properties of gutta-percha and resilon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedigheh Khedmat

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available To compare the mechanical properties of Resilon and gutta-percha cones after storing at three different temperatures.One-hundred standardized size 40/02 gutta-percha cones and 100 Resilon cones were randomly divided into four groups. The first group of the materials were tested immediately after receipt as the control group. The other three were stored in their packages at -12°C, 4± 1°C and 22± 2°C for three months. Then, obturating cones were loaded by a tensile force at the rate of 5mm/min. Physical integrity of gutta-percha and Resilon cones were also evaluated according to ISO6877. The data were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance, post hoc and t-test. A p-value <0.05 was considered significant.The elasticity modulus of gutta-percha reduced significantly after three months storage at -12°C, while storage at 4±1°C and 22± 2°C had no effect on its modulus of elasticity. In addition, the tensile strength of gutta-percha did not change after three months of storing. The modulus of elasticity of Resilon reduced significantly in all storage conditions; however, its tensile strength did not change. The storage conditions did not have a significant effect on the elongation rate of gutta-percha and Resilon. Eighty percent of gutta-percha cones lost their physical integrity after storage in 4 °±1C and 22±2°C. However, storage conditions had no impact on the physical integrity of Resilon cones.Storing gutta-percha at -12°C can benefit its properties, while keeping Resilon at both refrigerated and room conditions can preserve its mechanical properties.

  7. An Effective Storage Mechanism for High Performance Computing (HPC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatima El Jamiy

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available All over the process of treating data on HPC Systems, parallel file systems play a significant role. With more and more applications, the need for high performance Input-Output is rising. Different possibilities exist: General Parallel File System, cluster file systems and virtual parallel file system (PVFS are the most important ones. However, these parallel file systems use pattern and model access less effective such as POSIX semantics (A family of technical standards emerged from a project to standardize programming interfaces software designed to operate on variant UNIX operating system., which forces the MPI-IO implementations to use inefficient techniques based on locks. To avoid this synchronization in these techniques, we ensure that the use of a versioning-based file system is much more effective.

  8. The effect of structural and energetic parameters of MOFs and COFs towards the improvement of their hydrogen storage properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tylianakis, Emmanuel; Klontzas, Emmanouel; Froudakis, George E

    2009-05-20

    Open-framework materials have been proposed as potential materials for hydrogen storage. Metal-organic framework (MOF) and covalent-organic framework (COF) materials are under extensive study to discover their storage abilities. In particular the IRMOF family of materials have been considered as ideal to study the effect of different factors that affect the hydrogen storage capacity. In this paper, we analyse the effect of different factors such as surface area, pore volume and the interaction of hydrogen with the molecular framework on the hydrogen uptake of such materials. Through this analysis we propose guidelines to enhance hydrogen storage capacity of already synthesized materials and recommend advanced materials for this application.

  9. The effect of structural and energetic parameters of MOFs and COFs towards the improvement of their hydrogen storage properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tylianakis, Emmanuel; Klontzas, Emmanouel; Froudakis, George E.

    2009-05-01

    Open-framework materials have been proposed as potential materials for hydrogen storage. Metal-organic framework (MOF) and covalent-organic framework (COF) materials are under extensive study to discover their storage abilities. In particular the IRMOF family of materials have been considered as ideal to study the effect of different factors that affect the hydrogen storage capacity. In this paper, we analyse the effect of different factors such as surface area, pore volume and the interaction of hydrogen with the molecular framework on the hydrogen uptake of such materials. Through this analysis we propose guidelines to enhance hydrogen storage capacity of already synthesized materials and recommend advanced materials for this application.

  10. Effect of Glutathione and Storage Time on Rheological Properties of Per-proofed Frozen Dough

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J Uriyapongson; C L Goad; P Rayas-Duarte

    2006-01-01

    The effect of reduced glutathione (GSH) on fresh and pre-proofed frozen dough rheological properties wereinvestigated using dynamic stress rheometry and small scale extensibility with the addition of three levels (80 × 10-6, 160 ×10-6 and 240 × 10-6 GSH) and six storage times (0 and 1 day, 2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks). Three relaxation times (1, 13 and 26min)after loading the dough in the rheometer were used to determine storage (G') and loss (G") moduli. Correlations for G' (r=0.678and 0.622 at 0.05, and 10Hz, respectively) and G" (r=0.699, and 0.690 at 0.05, and 10Hz, respectively) were observed withthe area under the extension curve at 26 min relaxation time. The addition of GSH to fresh dough reduced G' (16.4% to 55.9%)and G" (13.7% to 52.2%). Freezing and frozen storage caused increase in G' and G". The addition of GSH reduced doughstrength indicated by the reduction in maximum resistance to extension (Rmax) and the ratio of maximum resistance to extensibility(Rmax/E). The reduction in Rmax across all relaxation times ranged from 16.2% to 59.4%. An increase in dough extension (E) wasobserved with 240 × 10-6 GSH at all frozen storage and rest period times. Addition of GSH caused an increase of liquid phase(30.6% to 35.3%) in fresh dough and frozen dough (10.3% to 20.7%) after one day frozen storage. Negative correlations of watercontent in the solid phase with dough extensibility and area under the extensibility curve were found (r= - 0.594 and - 0.563,respectively, p < 0.001). This suggests a loss of dough extensibility and strength as the water holding capacity of the doughcomponents changes during frozen storage.

  11. Effects of field storage method on E. coli concentrations measured in storm water runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmel, Daren; Wagner, Kevin; Martin, Emily; Smith, Doug; Wanjugi, Pauline; Gentry, Terry; Gregory, Lucas; Hendon, Tina

    2016-03-01

    Storm water runoff is increasingly assessed for fecal indicator organisms (e.g., Escherichia coli, E. coli) and its impact on contact recreation. Concurrently, use of autosamplers along with logistic, economic, technical, and personnel barriers is challenging conventional protocols for sample holding times and storage conditions in the field. A common holding time limit for E. coli is 8 h with a 10 °C storage temperature, but several research studies support longer hold time thresholds. The use of autosamplers to collect E. coli water samples has received little field research attention; thus, this study was implemented to compare refrigerated and unrefrigerated autosamplers and evaluate potential E. coli concentration differences due to field storage temperature (storms with holding times ≤24 h) and due to field storage time and temperature (storms >24 h). Data from 85 runoff events on four diverse watersheds showed that field storage times and temperatures had minor effects on mean and median E. coli concentrations. Graphs and error values did, however, indicate a weak tendency for higher concentrations in the refrigerated samplers, but it is unknown to what extent differing die-off and/or regrowth rates, heterogeneity in concentrations within samples, and laboratory analysis uncertainty contributed to the results. The minimal differences in measured E. coli concentrations cast doubt on the need for utilizing the rigid conventional protocols for field holding time and storage temperature. This is not to say that proper quality assurance and quality control is not important but to emphasize the need to consider the balance between data quality and practical constraints related to logistics, funding, travel time, and autosampler use in storm water studies.

  12. Oxylipins, endocannabinoids, and related compounds in human milk: Levels and effects of storage conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Junfang; Gouveia-Figueira, Sandra; Domellöf, Magnus; Zivkovic, Angela M; Nording, Malin L

    2016-01-01

    The presence of fatty acid derived oxylipins, endocannabinoids and related compounds in human milk may be of importance to the infant. Presently, clinically relevant protocols for storing and handling human milk that minimize error and variability in oxylipin and endocannabinoid concentrations are lacking. In this study, we compared the individual and combined effects of the following storage conditions on the stability of these fatty acid metabolites in human milk: state (fresh or frozen), storage temperature (4 °C, -20 °C or -80 °C), and duration (1 day, 1 week or 3 months). Thirteen endocannabinoids and related compounds, as well as 37 oxylipins were analyzed simultaneously by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. Twelve endocannabinoids and related compounds (2-111 nM) and 31 oxylipins (1.2 pM-1242 nM) were detected, with highest levels being found for 2-arachidonoylglycerol and 17(R)hydroxydocosahexaenoic acid, respectively. The concentrations of most endocannabinoid-related compounds and oxylipins were dependent on storage condition, and especially storage at 4 °C introduced significant variability. Our findings suggest that human milk samples should be analyzed immediately after, or within one day of collection (if stored at 4 °C). Storage at -80 °C is required for long-term preservation, and storage at -20 °C is acceptable for no more than one week. These findings provide a protocol for investigating the oxylipin and endocannabinoid metabolome in human milk, useful for future milk-related clinical studies.

  13. Effects of Coleus forskohlii on fat storage in ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Li-Kun; Morimoto, Chie; Yu, Rong-Hai; Okuda, Hiromichi

    2005-05-01

    The antiobesity effects of Coleus forskohlii were investigated in ovariectomized (ovx) rats. Eight-week-old female Wistar rats were assigned to four groups: a sham-operated group fed the control diet (MF, sham-m) ; an ovx-m group fed the control diet; a sham-operated group fed the control diet containing 50 g/kg of Coleus forskohlii extract (sham-c) ; and an ovx-c group fed the control diet containing 50 g/kg of Coleus forskohlii extract. The body weight, adipose tissues, and cell diameter were investigated in ovx rats after Coleus forskohlii extract treatment. Administration of Coleus forskohlii extracts reduced body weight, food intake, and fat accumulation in ovx rats. Our results suggest that Coleus forskohlii may be useful in the treatment of obesity.

  14. The Pasteur effect in human platelets: implications for storage and metabolic control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guppy, M; Abas, L; Arthur, P G; Whisson, M E

    1995-11-01

    The Pasteur effect and the associated acidosis have long been considered a major cause of platelet death during storage. We have investigated this phenomenon using a defined platelet preparation and a system whereby the oxidative and glycolytic contributions to total ATP production can be measured over a range of oxygen concentrations from saturating (pO2 = 158 mmHg) to anoxic (pO2 = 0 mmHg). Platelets do not show a Pasteur effect until the pO2 decreases to Pasteur effect is therefore not a likely cause of platelet death during storage where pO2 in a storage bag typically drops to no less than 50 mmHg. The data also have implications for the role of oxygen diffusion in oxidative metabolism, and for the compensatory nature of the Pasteur effect. As platelets are relatively small cells, and the onset of the Pasteur effect occurs at a relatively low oxygen concentration, diffusion may limit the rate of oxygen consumption in most other (larger) cells. The Pasteur effect is only fully compensative if the P/O2 ratio used for the calculations is lower than the conventional one. Since recent research strongly suggests that the conventional P/O2 ratio is too high, examples of fully compensative Pasteur effects may be more common than the literature suggests.

  15. The effect of cryo-storage on the beta 2-adrenoceptor density and responsiveness in intact human lymphocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahlquist, P; Johansen, Torben; Friis, U G

    1994-01-01

    This study evaluates the effect of cryo-storage on beta 2-adrenoceptor number and formation of adenosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) in intact human lymphocytes as a measure of the beta 2-adrenoceptor responsiveness. Cryo-storage at -196 degrees C up to 12 months caused no significant...... results indicate that the method should be further modified in order to preserve the lymphocyte responsiveness after cryo-storage....

  16. Effect of Nitric Oxide on Alcoholic Fermentation and Qualities of Chinese Winter Jujube During Storage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Li-na; LIU Meng-chen; ZHU Shu-hua; ZHOU Jie; WANG Ming-lin

    2007-01-01

    This article investigates the effects of nitric oxide (NO) on alcoholic fermentation and the qualities of Chinese Winter Jujube during storage, and explores the action mechanisms of browning and softening of fruits to provide theoretical proofs for using NO in the storage of Chinese Winter Jujube. Chinese Winter Jujube fruits were fumigated with different concentrations of NO gas (0, 10, 20, 30 μL L-1) under anaerobic conditions and stored at 22 ± 1 ℃ and 4 ± 1 ℃. The changes in appearance qualities, the contents of pyruvate, ethanol, acetaldehyde, and the activities of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were investigated. The contents of pyruvate, ethanol, and acetaldehyde were significantly reduced, and the peak of pyruvate content was delayed by 20 μL L-1 NO. The activities of ADH and LDH in 20 μL L-1 NO treated fruits were also significantly inhibited. However, the alcoholic fermentation and softening of Chinese Winter Jujube fruits were promoted by 30 μL L-1 NO during storage. The results indicated that 20 μL L-1 NO could mitigate the injury of ethanol on Chinese Winter Jujube and effectively delay the browning and softening of fruits during storage.

  17. Effect of partial sodium replacement on physicochemical parameters of smoked sea bass during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, A; Fernández-Segovia, I; Serra, J A; Barat, J M

    2012-06-01

    The objective of this work was to study the effect of partial sodium replacement by potassium and packaging conditions on the physicochemical properties of smoked sea bass during cold storage. Sea bass fillets were salted with 100% NaCl (Na samples) or with 50% NaCl-50% KCl (Na:K samples), smoked, packaged under three different conditions (air, vacuum and modified atmosphere) and stored at 4 °C for 42 days. Physicochemical parameters, color and texture were periodically determined in the raw material and in smoked samples during cold storage. The smoking process led to a reduction in moisture, pH and a(w) values, and an increase in water holding capacity, ash and mineral contents. Smoked fish exhibited significant differences in color and texture as compared to fresh fish. The type of packaging had an effect on the pH, water holding capacity and texture. Samples in air exhibited the highest pH values and water holding capacity in these samples gradually decreased during storage. Textural parameters decreased during storage in samples packaged in vacuum and modified atmosphere. The pH of Na samples was initially higher than in Na:K samples, and this difference remained over the rest of the study. The type of salt did not affect the texture or other physicochemical parameters.

  18. Effects of storage time and temperature on lipid oxidation of egg powders enriched with natural antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matumoto-Pintro, Paula Toshimi; Murakami, Alice Eiko; Vital, Ana Carolina Pelaes; Croge, Camila; da Silva, Denise Felix; Ospina-Roja, Ivan Camilo; Guerra, Ana Flávia Quiles Garcia

    2017-08-01

    The lipid fraction of egg powder may be affected by storage conditions due to the development of oxidative rancidity caused by polyunsaturated fatty acids. This study evaluated egg powders enriched with antioxidants [tocopherol, catechin, lycopene, and butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA)] for conjugated dienes (during a 90-day period) and for malonaldehydes (during a 210-day period) at 25±2 and 4±1°C. The presence of lycopene and BHA increases the total phenolic compounds in the enriched egg powders, and BHA exhibits the most antioxidant activity, as quantified by an ABTS assay. Egg powders enriched with antioxidants do not show any reduction in conjugate diene production compared to controls, and no effect of storage temperature is observed; however, in the production of malonaldehyde, greater stability is observed at 4°C, and catechin is more effective in reducing oxidation during storage. The results show that natural antioxidants can be used in egg powder instead of synthetic compounds to reduce malonaldehyde production during storage.

  19. Ultraviolet Irradiation Effect on Apple Juice Bioactive Compounds during Shelf Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmundo Juarez-Enriquez

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Clarified and standardized apple juice was ultraviolet-irradiated to inactivate polyphenol oxidase enzyme and microbiota, and its effect on bioactive compounds and stability during storage was also evaluated. Apple juice was irradiated with 345.6 J/cm2 and treatment effect was evaluated in terms of color, antioxidant capacity, polyphenol content, pH, titratable acidity and total soluble solids. Using a linear regression design, inactivation kinetic of polyphenol oxidase enzyme was also described. In addition, a repeated measures design was carried out to evaluate apple juice during 24 days of storage at 4 °C and 20 °C. After irradiation, reduction of antioxidant capacity was observed while during storage, ascorbic acid content decreased up to 40% and total polyphenol content remain stable. Ultraviolet irradiation achieved a complete inactivation of polyphenol oxidase enzyme and microbiota, keeping apple juice antioxidants during ultraviolet treatment and storage available until juice consumption. UV-treated apple juice can be used as a regular beverage, ensuring antioxidant intake.

  20. Ultraviolet Irradiation Effect on Apple Juice Bioactive Compounds during Shelf Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juarez-Enriquez, Edmundo; Salmerón, Ivan; Gutierrez-Mendez, Nestor; Ortega-Rivas, Enrique

    2016-01-01

    Clarified and standardized apple juice was ultraviolet-irradiated to inactivate polyphenol oxidase enzyme and microbiota, and its effect on bioactive compounds and stability during storage was also evaluated. Apple juice was irradiated with 345.6 J/cm2 and treatment effect was evaluated in terms of color, antioxidant capacity, polyphenol content, pH, titratable acidity and total soluble solids. Using a linear regression design, inactivation kinetic of polyphenol oxidase enzyme was also described. In addition, a repeated measures design was carried out to evaluate apple juice during 24 days of storage at 4 °C and 20 °C. After irradiation, reduction of antioxidant capacity was observed while during storage, ascorbic acid content decreased up to 40% and total polyphenol content remain stable. Ultraviolet irradiation achieved a complete inactivation of polyphenol oxidase enzyme and microbiota, keeping apple juice antioxidants during ultraviolet treatment and storage available until juice consumption. UV-treated apple juice can be used as a regular beverage, ensuring antioxidant intake. PMID:28231106

  1. Effect of storage on physicochemical, microbial and antioxidant properties of pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata candy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabeera Muzzaffar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata is highly nutritious and antioxidant-rich vegetable widely grown all over the world. Present study reports the effect of storage on physicochemical, microbial, and antioxidant properties of pumpkin candy. Pumpkin and its candy were analyzed for the physicochemical characteristics like moisture content, ash, total soluble solids (TSS, titrable acidity, total sugar, reducing sugar, and color. Beta-carotene and vitamin-C content of pumpkin and its candy were also studied. Antioxidant properties like 1, 1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP, total phenolic content (TPC, reducing power, and lipid peroxidation of methanolic extracts of pumpkin and processed candy were evaluated. During storage, a significant increase in TSS while a non-significant increase in titrable acidity, reducing and total sugars was observed. Beta-carotene, vitamin C, color, and antioxidant properties (DPPH, FRAP, TPC, reducing power, and lipid peroxidation also showed a non-significant decrease during storage at ambient temperature. Microbial load of pumpkin candy (1.74–3.2 log cfu/g suggested that candies were safe for human consumption during storage. Hence, candy preparation from pumpkin could be an effective method for preservation of pumpkin and retention of its bioactive components.

  2. The effects of kaolin, bentonite and zeolite dietary supplementation on broiler chickens meat quality during storage

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    Mohsen Safaei

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted to determine the effects of broiler chickens dietary kaolin, bentonite and zeolite supplementations on broiler thigh meat water holding capacity (WHC, lipid oxidation (TBARS, pH, and meat color during frozen storage. A total of 448-dayold sexed broiler cockerels were randomly assigned into 28 experimental units. A cornsoybean meal basal diet with 0, 15 and 30 g/kg kaolin, bentonite and zeolite as feed additive were added to control and 6 dietary treatments. Chickens were slaughtered and the left thighs kept at −20°C and analyzed after 1 and 150 days of storage. Experimental treatments had no effect on meat WHC, pH and color. Freezing at −20°C for 150 days impaired meat quality and caused chicken rancidity; however, lipid oxidation measured by TBARS value was significantly lower in chickens received diets including 15 g/kg bentonite and kaolin comparing to control diet after 150 days of frozen storage (P<0.05. It was concluded that though adding silicate minerals did not significantly influence WHC, pH and color in experimental treatments, they had influenced lipid oxidation and decreased chicken meat rancidity during frozen storage period

  3. Phenotypically Dormant and Immature Leukaemia Cells Display Increased Ribosomal Protein S6 Phosphorylation.

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    Monica Pallis

    Full Text Available Mechanistic/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR activity drives a number of key metabolic processes including growth and protein synthesis. Inhibition of the mTOR pathway promotes cellular dormancy. Since cells from patients with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML can be phenotypically dormant (quiescent, we examined biomarkers of their mTOR pathway activity concurrently with Ki-67 and CD71 (indicators of cycling cells by quantitative flow cytometry. Using antibodies to phosphorylated epitopes of mTOR (S2448 and its downstream targets ribosomal protein S6 (rpS6, S235/236 and 4E-BP1 (T36/45, we documented that these phosphorylations were negligible in lymphocytes, but evident in dormant as well as proliferating subsets of both mobilised normal stem cell harvest CD34+ cells and AML blasts. Although mTOR phosphorylation in AML blasts was lower than that of the normal CD34+ cells, p-4E-BP1 was 2.6-fold higher and p-rpS6 was 22-fold higher. Moreover, in contrast to 4E-BP1, rpS6 phosphorylation was higher in dormant than proliferating AML blasts, and was also higher in the immature CD34+CD38- blast subset. Data from the Cancer Genome Atlas show that rpS6 expression is associated with that of respiratory chain enzymes in AML. We conclude that phenotypic quiescence markers do not necessarily predict metabolic dormancy and that elevated rpS6 ser235/236 phosphorylation is characteristic of AML.

  4. Simulation of an apodizer's effect for high-density optical storage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiumin Gao; Wendong Xu; Fuxi Gan

    2005-01-01

    @@ The effect of an apodizer with two parallel taper refractive surfaces is theoretically investigated for highdensity optical storage. The apodizer may modulate an incident Gaussian beam into an annular beam. Simulation shows that with the increasing inner radius of the modulated beam, the focal spot shrinks obviously. The depolarization effect gets strong simultaneously, which induces the circular symmetry loss of the focal spot. In this process, pattern density of the orthogonal and longitudinal diffractive fields increases remarkably.

  5. Phenotypic Plasticity Promotes Balanced Polymorphism in Periodic Environments by a Genomic Storage Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulisija, Davorka; Kim, Yuseob; Plotkin, Joshua B

    2016-04-01

    Phenotypic plasticity is known to evolve in perturbed habitats, where it alleviates the deleterious effects of selection. But the effects of plasticity on levels of genetic polymorphism, an important precursor to adaptation in temporally varying environments, are unclear. Here we develop a haploid, two-locus population-genetic model to describe the interplay between a plasticity modifier locus and a target locus subject to periodically varying selection. We find that the interplay between these two loci can produce a "genomic storage effect" that promotes balanced polymorphism over a large range of parameters, in the absence of all other conditions known to maintain genetic variation. The genomic storage effect arises as recombination allows alleles at the two loci to escape more harmful genetic backgrounds and associate in haplotypes that persist until environmental conditions change. Using both Monte Carlo simulations and analytical approximations we quantify the strength of the genomic storage effect across a range of selection pressures, recombination rates, plasticity modifier effect sizes, and environmental periods.

  6. Effect of Storage Temperature on Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill. Viability on Several Carriers

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    Sri Sukamto

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available One of the entomopatogenous fungus types commonly observed and showed potency as myco-insectiside is Beauveria bassiana(Bals. Vuill.In order to support effectiveness and patogenous activity of B. bassiana, it is necessary to add a carrying agent that protects its spores from ultra violet ray. This study aims to investigate the effect of storage temperature on viability of B. Bassianaspores on the carrier material. The observation was carried out in the Laboratory of Plant Diseases, Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute. The research was arranged in completely randomized design by three factors. The first factor was carrier (C, that consists of C1 = rice flour, C2 = maize flour and C3 = tapioca flour. The second factor was dosage (D, that consists of D1 = 1 g B. bassiana+ 1 g carrier; D2 = 1 g B. bassiana+ 5 g carrier and D3 = 1 g B. bassiana+ 10 g carrier. The third factor was temperature of the storage (T,that consists of T1 = 5oC; T2 = 23oC and T3 = 29oC. Viability of B. Bassiana spores was examined by observing development of 100 blastopores randomly and determined under light microscope with 400 times magnification. Observation was conducted in two replicates after the spores of B. bassiana were kept in the storage for 2, 4, 8 and 16 weeks. The result showed that by adding 1 g tapioca flour and temperature of storage of 5oC was potentiall in keeping viability of B. bassianaspores at least for 2 months. It was due to that tapioca flour gave better effect than rice and maize flours in keeping the storage and appropriate low temperature. Viability of B. bassianaspores decreased with increasing carrier dosage, temperature and duration of the storage. Whereas, storage at 5oC was found to be a better condition in keeping viability of dry pure B. bassianaspores longer than conditions of 23o and 29oC. Key word:Beauveria bassiana, temperature, viability,carrier.

  7. Long-term storage effect on chemical composition, nutritional value and quality of Greek onion landrace "Vatikiotiko".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petropoulos, S A; Ntatsi, G; Fernandes, Â; Barros, L; Barreira, J C M; Ferreira, I C F R; Antoniadis, V

    2016-06-15

    The effect of storage at two temperatures (5±1 and 25±1 °C and 60-70±5% RH for both temperatures) on marketability and quality features of dry bulbs of local landrace "Vatikiotiko", "Sivan F1", "Red Cross F1" and "Creamgold" was examined. During storage measurements for fresh and dry weight of bulbs, tunic and flesh color, bulb firmness, nutritional value and mineral composition were taken at regular intervals. Storage concluded when either bulbs lost marketable quality or sprouting occurred. "Vatikiotiko" onion can be stored for at least 7months at 25±1 °C, whereas at 5±1 °C storage could be prolonged without significant marketability and quality loss. The fact that "Vatikiotiko" landrace can be considered a "storage" onion has to be capitalized in order to increase total production and yield, since storage could cover the market needs that arise throughout the year.

  8. Nitrogen atmosphere and natural antioxidants effect on muesli oxidation during long-time storage

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    Dorota Klensporf-Pawlik

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The effects of natural antioxidants from raspberry and black currant seeds and modified atmosphere packaging on muesli oxidative stability measured by monitoring volatile lipid oxidation products were evaluated. The effectiveness toward lipid oxidation was investigated during 10 months storage at ambient temperature. Both ethanolic extracts as well as nitrogen atmosphere influenced lipid oxidation rate in muesli measured by volatile compounds content. The most abundant lipid derived volatile compounds was hexanal. After storage, its concentration changed from 802 µg/kg to 9.8 mg/kg in muesli stored in air atmosphere, whereas in muesli stored in nitrogen atmosphere with raspberry seed extract addition it raised to 3.1 mg/kg. Although, both natural antioxidants rich in phenolic compounds, were effective towards lipid oxidation, the strongest inhibiting effect had modified atmosphere packaging. The addition of ethanolic extracts did not fortify its positive effect. Total concentration of volatile compounds in muesli after 10 months of storage was 19.6 mg/kg when stored in air and 13.7 and 11.8 mg/kg when stored with raspberry and black currant seeds extract addition respectively, while 9.8 mg/kg when stored in nitrogen atmosphere without antioxidants, and 9.7 and 9.9 mg/kg when stored with antioxidants mentioned above.

  9. Effect of storage duration on the rheological properties of goose liquid egg products and eggshell membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumbar, V; Nedomova, S; Trnka, J; Buchar, J; Pytel, R

    2016-07-01

    In practice, goose eggs are increasingly used and, therefore, the rheological properties have to be known for processing. The eggs of geese (Landes Goose, Anser anser f. domestica) were stored for one, 2, 3, 4, 6, and 8 wk at a constant temperature 4°C. First of all, the egg quality parameters were described in terms of egg weight, egg weight loss, egg shape index, yolk height, albumen height, yolk index, albumen index, and Haugh units. In the next step the rheological behavior of liquid egg products (egg yolk, albumen, and whole liquid egg) was studied using a concentric cylinder viscometer. Flow curves of all liquid egg products exhibited non-Newtonian shear thinning behavior. This behavior can be described using the Herschel-Bulkley model and for technical application using the Ostwald-de Waele model. The effect of the storage duration on the rheological behavior is different for the different liquid egg products. With the exception of very low shear rates, the viscosity of the egg yolk as well as of the whole liquid egg decreases with storage time. At lower shear rates there is a tendency toward increased albumen viscosity with storage duration. The storage duration also affects the mechanical properties of the eggshell membrane. This effect has been evaluated in terms of the ultimate tensile strength, fracture strain, and fracture toughness. All these parameters increased with the loading rate, but decreased during the egg storage. These mechanical phenomena should be respected, namely in the design of the egg model for the numerical simulation of the egg behavior under different kinds of the mechanical loading.

  10. [Effect of leukocyte contamination on storage of platelet concentrates from buffy coats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klüter, H; Klinger, M; Bauhaus, M; Kirchner, H

    1994-01-01

    We examined the effect of white cell contamination on thrombocytes prepared from pooled buffy coats over a storage period of 8 days. Using this novel technique, a leukocyte depletion filter can be easily integrated during PC preparation. In a paired study (n = 14) eight ABO-identical BC were pooled in a 2-liter PVC bag within 8 h after whole-blood donation, thoroughly mixed and divided into two identical fractions. After soft-spin centrifugation the platelet-rich plasma (PRP) was transferred either (fraction A) using a leukocyte filter (PL 50-HF, Pall) or (fraction B) directly into the storage bag (Pl-732, Baxter), and stored under routine conditions. On days 1, 3, 5, and 8, aliquots of PC were withdrawn for determination of cell count and different biochemical parameters and for morphometric analyses of platelet ultrastructure by electron microscopy. Results showed a lower thrombocyte yield and white cell count (p < 0.01) in fraction A (268 x 10(9) vs. 240 x 10(9); 51.1 x 10(6) vs. 0.04 x 10(6)), whereas no differences between the preparations could be detected by analysis of pH, pCO2, bicarbonate, and in LDH release over the storage period of 8 days. These results were supported in the study on the ultrastructural level where a good morphological integrity of the platelets was observed during the whole storage period in both fractions. In conclusion, storage lesions on platelets due to leukocyte effects are unlikely to occur in PC with white cell counts lower than 10(8)/l.

  11. Effect of blood storage on erythrocyte/wall interactions: implications for surface charge and rigidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godin, C; Caprani, A

    1997-01-01

    In this report, we study, under flow conditions, the interactions of stored erythrocytes with an artificial surface: a microelectrode whose charge density ranges from -15 to +27 microC/cm2. Interactions consist of red cells slowly circulating on the microelectrode and exerting a real contact with the electrode. Interaction is detected and measured by transient fluctuations of the electrolyte resistance obtained by impedance measurement of the microelectrode. Effects of aging induced by storage of whole blood at 4 degrees C show that the surface charge of erythrocytes rapidly decreases when blood is stored for more than 6 days under our experimental conditions. In comparison with trypsin-treated erythrocytes, an eight day storage induces a 60% decrease in the surface charge of red cells. After two weeks of storage, red cells are no longer negatively charged, presumably because of removal of sialic acid. Cells rigidity is significant after 6 days of storage and influences the electrical contact. Membrane rigidity increase could arise from the surface charge decrease. Finally the surface charge decrease could be importance in the use of stored blood.

  12. Effect of dual substrate environment on the formation of intracellular storage biopolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciggin, Asli Seyhan; Majone, Mauro; Orhon, Derin

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the effect of a starch/acetate mixture on the formation of intracellular storage biopolymers compared with system behaviour where these compounds served as a single organic substrate. Three laboratory-scale sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) were operated at steady state with a sludge age of 8 days, one fed with acetate, another with starch and the third with a starch/acetate mixture. The SBR operation involved six cycles per day and continuous feeding during each cycle. Both acetate and starch generated storage biopolymers under continuous feeding. A poly-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) or glycogen pool was formed depending on the selected single substrate. In addition, around 18% of the acetate fed within each cycle was converted to PHB, while the remaining 82% was directly utilized for microbial growth. A higher glycogen formation of 44% was observed for starch. Substrate storage as PHB and glycogen continued with the feeding of the acetate/starch mixture. This observation, supported by microbiological analyses, indicated that the acclimated biomass in the corresponding SBR system sustained microbial fractions capable of performing metabolic functions associated with the formation of the two storage biopolymers. PHB accumulation was reduced as acetate could be more readily used for direct microbial growth in the presence of starch.

  13. Modeling the effect of water activity and storage temperature on chemical stability of coffee brews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzocco, Lara; Nicoli, Maria Cristina

    2007-08-08

    This work was addressed to study the chemical stability of coffee brew derivatives as a function of water activity (aw) and storage temperature. To this purpose, coffee brew was freeze-dried, equilibrated at increasing aw values, and stored for up to 10 months at different temperatures from -30 to 60 degrees C. The chemical stability of the samples was assessed by measuring H3O+ formation during storage. Independently of storage temperature, the rate of H3O+ formation was considerably low only when aw was reduced below 0.5 (94% w/w). Beyond this critical boundary, the rate increased, reaching a maximum value at ca. 0.8 aw (78% w/w). Further hydration up to the aw of the freshly prepared beverage significantly increased chemical stability. It was suggested that mechanisms other than lactones' hydrolysis, probably related to nonenzymatic browning pathways, could contribute to the observed increase in acidity during coffee staling. The temperature dependence of H3O+ formation was well-described by the Arrhenius equation in the entire aw range considered. However, aw affected the apparent activation energy and frequency factor. These effects were described by simple equations that were used to set up a modified Arrhenius equation. This model was validated by comparing experimental values, not used to generate the model, with those estimated by the model itself. The model allowed efficient prediction of the chemical stability of coffee derivatives on the basis of only the aw value and storage temperature.

  14. Effect of various temperature and storage duration on setting time of OREGA sealer

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    Bambang Sunarko

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Choosing the right rigid material and root canal paste are crucial in the success of root canal obturation. N2 is a root canal paste containing formaldehyde, which is toxic and carcinogenic. Whilst zinc oxide, resorcin, eugenol, glycerin, and hydrochloric acid, abbreviated as OREGA, are considered a safer root canal paste. In order to perform good obturation, root canal paste’s setting time plays an important role. This is connected with how long and in what temperature the paste’s substances are stored. Purpose: This experiment was performed to find out the effect of various temperature and storage duration on the setting time of OREGA sealer. Method: OREGA and N 2sealers were used as samples. Eighty sealer samples were produced for both sealers providing 10 samples foe each testing category. Each of these samples were stored in 27°C room temperature, 4°C refrigerator temperature, and put into storage for the duration of 0, 1, 2, and 3 months. After these treatments, the samples were tested and analyzed. Result: Data collected were analyzed by two-way ANOVA, showing no significant difference of the setting time among temperature and storage duration (p> 0.05. Conclusion: Temperature and storage duration do not affect the setting time of OREGA root canal paste.

  15. The effect of long-term storage on the quality of sterilized processed cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubelová, Zuzana; Tremlová, Bohuslava; Buňková, Leona; Pospiech, Matej; Vítová, Eva; Buňka, František

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this work is to evaluate the effect three different storage temperatures (6, 23 and 40 °C) on the sterilized processed cheese quality during 24-month storage. Sterilized processed cheese (SPC) is a product with extended shelf life (up to 2 years). The samples of SPC were subjected to basic chemical analyses, i.e. pH-values, dry matter, fat, crude protein and ammonia content, and microbiological analyses, i.e. total number of microorganisms, number of coliforms, colony forming units of yeasts and/or moulds and spore-forming microorganisms. Furthermore, amino acid content (ion-exchange chromatography), protein profile (SDS-PAGE) and fat globules size (image analysis of microscopic technique) were monitored and sensory analysis (scale test and pair comparative test) was implemented, too. Increasing storage temperature and length evoked decrease of total amino acid content and protein nutrition value, increase of ammonia amount, protein changes, enlargement of fat globule size and deterioration of sensory properties of SPC. All the changes grew expressive with increasing storage temperature and time.

  16. Effect of sample storage time on detection of hybridization signals in Checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Nascimento, Cássio; Muller, Katia; Sato, Sandra; Albuquerque Junior, Rubens Ferreira

    2012-04-01

    Long-term sample storage can affect the intensity of the hybridization signals provided by molecular diagnostic methods that use chemiluminescent detection. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different storage times on the hybridization signals of 13 bacterial species detected by the Checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization method using whole-genomic DNA probes. Ninety-six subgingival biofilm samples were collected from 36 healthy subjects, and the intensity of hybridization signals was evaluated at 4 different time periods: (1) immediately after collecting (n = 24) and (2) after storage at -20 °C for 6 months (n = 24), (3) for 12 months (n = 24), and (4) for 24 months (n = 24). The intensity of hybridization signals obtained from groups 1 and 2 were significantly higher than in the other groups (p  0.05). The Checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization method was suitable to detect hybridization signals from all groups evaluated, and the intensity of signals decreased significantly after long periods of sample storage.

  17. Rod internal pressure of spent nuclear fuel and its effects on cladding degradation during dry storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ju-Seong; Hong, Jong-Dae; Yang, Yong-Sik; Kook, Dong-Hak

    2017-08-01

    Temperature and hoop stress limits have been used to prevent the gross rupture of spent nuclear fuel during dry storage. The stress due to rod internal pressure can induce cladding degradation such as creep, hydride reorientation, and delayed hydride cracking. Creep is a self-limiting phenomenon in a dry storage system; in contrast, hydride reorientation and delayed hydride cracking are potential degradation mechanisms activated at low temperatures when the cladding material is brittle. In this work, a conservative rod internal pressure and corresponding hoop stress were calculated using FRAPCON-4.0 fuel performance code. Based on the hoop stresses during storage, a study on the onset of hydride reorientation and delayed hydride cracking in spent nuclear fuel was conducted under the current storage guidelines. Hydride reorientation is hard to occur in most of the low burn-up fuel while some high burn-up fuel can experience hydride reorientation, but their effect may not be significant. On the other hand, delayed hydride cracking will not occur in spent nuclear fuel from pressurized water reactor; however, there is a lack of confirmatory data on threshold intensity factor for delayed hydride cracking and crack size distribution in the fuel.

  18. Effect of temperature and storage time of wheat germ on the oil tocopherol concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Capitani

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Wheat germ represents approximately 3% of the grain and it contains 8-14% oil, which is a rich source of tocopherols (vitamin E and polyunsaturated fatty acids, mainly linoleic acid. The present work shows the influence of temperature (27ºC and 45ºC and storage time (maximum 35 days of the wheat germ on the concentration of tocopherol in the oil. Their effect on other quality parameters was also investigated. Results indicated that oil oxidation and free fatty acid formation increased markedly with temperature and storage time. The initial sample contained 3134 µg/g total tocopherol, of which 67% was α-tocopherol and, in a lower proportions, β-tocopherol and Γ-tocopherol (30.5% and 2.4%, respectively. In the temperature range studied, tocopherols decreased as a function of storage time following first-order kinetics. The rate constant k for β-tocopherol increased with temperature. The fatty acid composition was not affected by the storage conditions applied.

  19. A Simple Data Analysis Method for a Pumping Test with Skin and Wellbore Storage Effects

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    Chia-Shyun Chen and Chuan-Gui Lan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In a pumping test conducted in a con fined aquifer in northern Taiwan, drawdown in the observation well was subject to wellbore storage of its own and the combined effect of wellbore storage and skin of the nearby pumping well. For such a complicated pumping test condition, the appropriate well hydraulics solutions are complicated in mathematics and involve five unknown a priori parameters; namely, the aquifer transmissivity, the aquifer storage coefficient, the skin factor of the pumping well, and the wellbore storage co efficients of the pumping and observation wells. The conventional trial-and-er ror procedure for a simul taneous determination of these five parameters is not easy to apply. Here, a simple data analysis method is de veloped, which takes advantage of the late-time characteristics of drawdown data and the late-time asymptotic behavior of the appropriate wellhy draulics solutions. As a re sult, some currently available graphic techniques are proven us ful for the determination of these parameters. Validity of this approach is verified by the excellent agree ment between the calculated drawdown using the appropriate well hydraulics solutions with the parameter estimates obtained from the field drawdown data.

  20. Effect of Storage Time on Nutrient Composition and Quality Parameters of Corn Silage

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    Betül Zehra Sarıçiçek

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine the effects of storage duration on nutrient composition and silage quality parameters. Corn was used as silage material. Corn (31.41% dry matter was harvested at the dough stage and fermented for 90, 104, 118, 132, 146, 160, 174, 188 and 202 days in three trench silos. The samples were brought to laboratory every 14 days. This process was repeated 9 times. After the 132th day, whereas silage crude protein (CP, ether extract (EE, ash and crude fiber (CF contents decreased, nitrogen free extract (NFE content increased. Lactic acid concentration of corn silage increased until the 118th day but decreased between the 118th and the 160th days. On the contrary, of decrease in LA concentration, acetic acid concentration increased depending on storage time. Ammonia nitrogen and CO2 concentration of silage increased decreased with progressing time. Storage time had significant influence on Flieg scores. The lowest score was found between days the 104th-118th. In this research, it was observed that there was a change in silage nutrient contents and fermentation characteristics with increasing storage time.

  1. Effect of liquid retentate storage on flavor of spray-dried whey protein concentrate and isolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitson, M; Miracle, R E; Bastian, E; Drake, M A

    2011-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of holding time of liquid retentate on flavor of spray-dried whey proteins: Cheddar whey protein isolate (WPI) and Mozzarella 80% whey protein concentrate (WPC80). Liquid WPC80 and WPI retentate were manufactured and stored at 3°C. After 0, 6, 12, 24, and 48h, the product was spray-dried (2kg) and the remaining retentate held until the next time point. The design was replicated twice for each product. Powders were stored at 21°C and evaluated every 4 mo throughout 12 mo of storage. Flavor profiles of rehydrated proteins were documented by descriptive sensory analysis. Volatile components were analyzed with solid phase microextraction coupled with gas chromatography mass spectrometry. Cardboard flavors increased in both spray-dried products with increased retentate storage time and cabbage flavors increased in WPI. Concurrent with sensory results, lipid oxidation products (hexanal, heptanal, octanal) and sulfur degradation products (dimethyl disulfide, dimethyl trisulfide) increased in spray-dried products with increased liquid retentate storage time, whereas diacetyl decreased. Shelf stability was decreased in spray-dried products from longer retentate storage times. For maximum quality and shelf life, liquid retentate should be held for less than 12h before spray drying.

  2. Effects of storage period and mass on seed germination of the Carabao mango

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Altafin Galli

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The mango is a species that produces recalcitrant seeds, which can be difficult to store. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of storage period and mass on the germination of Carabao mango seeds. The fruits were picked and the pits were dried. The seeds were weighed and separated in two classes: I with a mass up to 19.0g, and II above 19.0g. The seeds were treated with 60% thiabendazol, wrapped in perforated transparent polyethylene bags, maintained in a laboratory, and germinated directly in the plastic bags. The statistical analysis used a randomized block design, with four repetitions, that consisted of five storage periods: 0 (zero, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days. A regression analysis was made. Due to the small number of seeds with a mass less than 19.0g, the germination tests using two classes were done only for the periods of zero and the first seven days of storage. It was found that the seeds of Carabao mango, when treated with fungicide, performed best when sown after seven days of storage in polyethylene bags, and that the mass of the seeds positively influenced germination.

  3. Germination Potential of Dormant and Nondormant Arabidopsis Seeds Is Driven by Distinct Recruitment of Messenger RNAs to Polysomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basbouss-Serhal, Isabelle; Soubigou-Taconnat, Ludivine; Bailly, Christophe; Leymarie, Juliette

    2015-07-01

    Dormancy is a complex evolutionary trait that temporally prevents seed germination, thus allowing seedling growth at a favorable season. High-throughput analyses of transcriptomes have led to significant progress in understanding the molecular regulation of this process, but the role of posttranscriptional mechanisms has received little attention. In this work, we have studied the dynamics of messenger RNA association with polysomes and compared the transcriptome with the translatome in dormant and nondormant seeds of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) during their imbibition at 25 °C in darkness, a temperature preventing germination of dormant seeds only. DNA microarray analysis revealed that 4,670 and 7,028 transcripts were differentially abundant in dormant and nondormant seeds in the transcriptome and the translatome, respectively. We show that there is no correlation between transcriptome and translatome and that germination regulation is also largely translational, implying a selective and dynamic recruitment of messenger RNAs to polysomes in both dormant and nondormant seeds. The study of 5' untranslated region features revealed that GC content and the number of upstream open reading frames could play a role in selective translation occurring during germination. Gene Ontology clustering showed that the functions of polysome-associated transcripts differed between dormant and nondormant seeds and revealed actors in seed dormancy and germination. In conclusion, our results demonstrate the essential role of selective polysome loading in this biological process.

  4. Effect of dentin location and long-term water storage on bonding effectiveness of dentin adhesives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Munck, Jan; Mine, Atsushi; Vivan Cardoso, Marcio; De Almeida Neves, Aline; Van Landuyt, Kirsten L; Poitevin, André; Van Meerbeek, Bart

    2011-01-01

    Dentin is a variable substrate with properties that change considerable in a single surface. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the bonding effectiveness to these different dentin locations and evaluate these differences over time. After bonding procedures with five different adhesives, small micro-tensile bond strength (µTBS) beams were prepared and dichotomously divided in 'center' and 'periphery' dentin specimens. After 1 week, 3, 6 and 12 months of water storage the µTBS of specimens of each group was determined, enabling a paired study design. The bond strengths of both etch&rinse adhesives were insensitive to regional variability. For the two-step self-etch adhesives, a marked increase in bond strengths was observed with increasing amount of intertubular dentin. Regional variability did not affect the long-term bonding effectiveness for any of the adhesives tested. In conclusion, only for the mild self-etch adhesives, µTBS to 'periphery' dentin was higher than for the 'center' specimens.

  5. Effect of ageing on rheological properties of storage-stable SBS/sulfur-modified asphalts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feng; Yu, Jianying; Wu, Shaopeng

    2010-10-15

    Oxidative ageing as an inevitable process in practical road paving has a great effect on the properties of polymer-modified asphalts (PMAs). In this article, the effect of short-term and long-term oxidative ageing on the rheological, physical properties and the morphology of the styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS)- and storage-stable SBS/sulfur-modified asphalts was studied, respectively. The analysis on the rheological and physical properties of the PMAs before and after ageing showed the two major effects of ageing. On one hand, ageing prompted the degradation of polymer and increased the viscous behaviour of the modified binders, on the other, ageing changed the asphalt compositions and improved the elastic behaviour of the modified binders. The final performance of the aged binders depended on the combined effect. After ageing, the storage-stable SBS/sulfur-modified asphalts showed an obvious viscous behaviour compare with the SBS-modified asphalts and this led to an improved low-temperature creep property. The rutting resistance of the SBS-modified asphalts declined by the addition of sulfur due to the structural instability of the SBS/sulfur-modified asphalts. The rheological properties of the modified binders before and after ageing also depended strongly on the structural characteristics of SBS. The observation by using optical microscopy showed the compatibility between asphalt and SBS was improved with further ageing, especially for the storage-stable SBS/sulfur-modified asphalts.

  6. Effects of antioxidant combinations on shelf stability of irradiated chicken sausage during storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Ko-Eun; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Song, Dong-Heon; Kim, Yong-Jae; Ham, Yun-Kyung; Lee, Ju-Woon; Choi, Yun-Sang; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted in order to investigate the combined effects of gamma irradiation (0, 2.5, and 5 kGy) and antioxidant combination, mugwort extract (ME) and ascorbic acid (Aa), on the pH, total color difference (ΔE), hue angle (H°), 2-thiobarbituricacid-reactive substances (TBARS) values, residual nitrite contents, and sensory evaluation in chicken sausage during storage. The pH values and sensory properties, except for color, of chicken sausage were not significantly affected by adding ME or treating irradiation during storage. However, ΔE, and H° values of samples containing ME (either alone or with Aa) were higher than that of control, whereas irradiation had no significant effect during storage. A combination of ME+Aa (0.2% ME+0.05% Aa) was effective at delaying lipid oxidation in irradiated chicken sausage. In addition, nitrite contents were reduced by gamma ray as a dose dependent manner and, particularly in ME+Aa was most effective in decreasing the residual nitrite. Our results suggested that gamma irradiation combined with an antioxidant mixture is a useful technology for reducing the residual nitrite and retarding the lipid oxidation in chicken sausage.

  7. Effect of storage temperature in a Cambodian field setting on the fatty acid composition in whole blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nurhasan, Mulia; Roos, Nanna; Aristizabal Henao, J J

    2015-01-01

    Fatty acid analysis requires standardized collection and storage of samples, which can be a challenge under field conditions. This study describes the effect of storage temperature on fatty acid composition in two sets of whole blood samples collected from 66 children in a rural area in Cambodia...

  8. Bacterial transmission from lens storage cases to contact lenses - Effects of lens care solutions and silver impregnation of cases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeltfoort, Pit B. J.; Hooymans, Johanna M. M.; Busscher, Henk J.; van der Mei, Henny C.

    2008-01-01

    The killing efficacies of multipurpose lens care solutions on planktonic and biofilm bacteria grown in polypropylene contact lens storage cases with and without silver impregnation and effects on bacterial transmission from storage cases to silicone hydrogel contact lenses were investigated. For tra

  9. Effect of high-oxygen atmosphere packaging on oxidative stability and sensory quality of two chicken muscles during chill storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jongberg, Sisse; Wen, Jinzhu; Tørngren, Mari Ann;

    2014-01-01

    of secondary lipid oxidation products. However, while breast stored in MAP-O clearly scored lower in tenderness and higher in rancidity compared to breast in non-oxygen storage, the effect of MAP-O for the sensory quality of thigh was negligible. These results show that thigh is more suitable for storage...

  10. Neuro-fuzzy modeling to predict physicochemical and microbiological parameters of partially dried cherry tomato during storage: effects on water activity, temperature and storage time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Yang; Li, Yong; Zhou, Ruiyun; Chu, Dinh-Toi; Su, Lijuan; Han, Yongbin; Zhou, Jianzhong

    2016-10-01

    In the study, osmotically dehydrated cherry tomatoes were partially dried to water activity between 0.746 and 0.868, vacuum-packed and stored at 4-30 °C for 60 days. Adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) was utilized to predict the physicochemical and microbiological parameters of these partially dried cherry tomatoes during storage. Satisfactory accuracies were obtained when ANFIS was used to predict the lycopene and total phenolic contents, color and microbial contamination. The coefficients of determination for all the ANFIS models were higher than 0.86 and showed better performance for prediction compared with models developed by response surface methodology. Through ANFIS modeling, the effects of storage conditions on the properties of partially dried cherry tomatoes were visualized. Generally, contents of lycopene and total phenolics decreased with the increase in water activity, temperature and storage time, while aerobic plate count and number of yeasts and molds increased at high water activities and temperatures. Overall, ANFIS approach can be used as an effective tool to study the quality decrease and microbial pollution of partially dried cherry tomatoes during storage, as well as identify the suitable preservation conditions.

  11. The effect of radioactive waste storage in Andreev Bay on contamination of the Barents Sea ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matishov, G. G.; Ilyin, G. V.; Usyagina, I. S.; Moiseev, D. V.; Dahle, Salve; Kasatkina, N. E.; Valuyskaya, D. A.

    2017-02-01

    The effect of temporary radioactive waste storage on the ecological status of the sea and biota in the littoral of Andreev and Malaya Andreev bays and near the shore of Motovskii Gulf (including the mouth part of the Zapadnaya Litsa Bay) was analyzed. The littoral sediments contaminated by the 137Cs, 90Sr, 238Pu, and 239,240Pu isotopes are located in the zones of constant groundwater discharge on the shores of Andreev and Malaya Andreev bays. The littoral slopes and bottom depressions of the bays accumulate finely dispersed terrigenous material and 137Cs. The investigations have shown that the storage does not exert a significant adverse effect on the radioactive conditions and the status of the sea ecosystems beyond Andreev Bay.

  12. High-capacity electrode materials for electrochemical energy storage: Role of nanoscale effects

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jagjit Nanda; Surendra K Martha; Ramki Kalyanaraman

    2015-06-01

    This review summarizes the current state-of-the art electrode materials used for high-capacity lithium-ion-based batteries and their significant role towards revolutionizing the electrochemical energy storage landscape in the area of consumer electronics, transportation and grid storage application. We discuss the role of nanoscale effects on the electrochemical performance of high-capacity battery electrode materials. Decrease in the particle size of the primary electrode materials from micron to nanometre size improves the ionic and electronic diffusion rates significantly. Nanometre-thick solid electrolyte (such as lithium phosphorous oxynitride) and oxides (such as Al2O3, ZnO, TiO2 etc.) material coatings also improve the interfacial stability and rate capability of a number of battery chemistries. We elucidate these effects in terms of different high-capacity battery chemistries based on intercalation and conversion mechanism.

  13. Environmental assessment of the potential effects of aquifer thermal energy storage systems on microorganisms in groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hicks, R.J.; Stewart, D.L.

    1988-03-01

    The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the potential environmental effects (both adverse and beneficials) of aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) technology pertaining to microbial communities indigenous to subsurface environments (i.e., aquifers) and the propagation, movement, and potential release of pathogenic microorganisms (specifically, Legionella) within ATES systems. Seasonal storage of thermal energy in aquifers shows great promise to reduce peak demand; reduce electric utility load problems; contribute to establishing favorable economics for district heating and cooling systems; and reduce pollution from extraction, refining, and combustion of fossil fuels. However, concerns that the widespread implementation of this technology may have adverse effects on biological systems indigeneous to aquifers, as well as help to propagate and release pathogenic organisms that enter thee environments need to be resolved. 101 refs., 2 tabs.

  14. Effectiveness of sucrose during the frozen storage of arazá (Eugenia stipitata Mc. Vaugh pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Johanna Silva-Bustos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of sucrose on the quality of frozen arazá pulp were investigated. Five levels of sucrose (0, 5, 10, 20, and 30% were evaluated in combination with freezing at low speed, storage during one month, and thawing at two different speeds. Sensory quality and water loss after centrifugation (WLAC were evaluated in the samples. Before freezing sucrose addition (5-30% to the pulp did not affect the sensory quality of the samples, but a negative effect on WLAC at 5-10% sucrose was observed. Furthermore, addition of 20-30% sucrose to arazá pulp, in combination with low speed-freezing, frozen storage, and low-speed-thawing, can be a useful technique to preserve the texture of arazá pulp. The described treatment gave results comparable to those obtained for the fresh pulp and much better than those obtained when freezing was done at high speed

  15. Effects of probiotics feeding on meat quality of chicken breast during postmortem storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H W; Yan, F F; Hu, J Y; Cheng, H W; Kim, Y H B

    2016-06-01

    This study evaluated the effects of dietary probiotic supplement and postmortem storage on meat quality of chicken breast during retail display. A total of 35 birds were randomly obtained from 3 feeding groups (control without probiotic supplement, 250 ppm Sporulin, and 500 ppm PoultryStar). The probiotic supplement had no influence on feed conversion ratio and body weight gain, as well as body weight at 29 and 44 d (P > 0.05). After slaughter, each side of the breast muscles (M. Pectoralis major) was assigned to either one d or 5 d of postmortem storage. Probiotic supplement had no influence on the rate of pH decline of chicken breast muscles during the initial 6 h postmortem (P > 0.05). No interactions between probiotic supplement and postmortem storage on meat quality were found (P > 0.05). Postmortem storage decreased drip loss from 25.30 to 18.05% (P Probiotics-fed chicken groups, particularly PoultryStar treatment, had a higher myofibrillar fragmentation index than the control group (P probiotic treatments. Decreases in color and lipid stabilities of breast muscles were found during display (P probiotic supplement (P > 0.05). Our result suggests that probiotic supplement had no adverse impacts on proteolysis and oxidative changes during 5 d postmortem display storage. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Poultry Science Association 2016. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  16. Effect of a phenolic extract from olive vegetation water on fresh salmon steak quality during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dino Miraglia

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the antioxidant and antimicrobial effects of a phenolic extract from olive vegetation water on fresh salmon steaks stored at 4°C under modified atmosphere. Twenty-four salmon steaks were respectively immersed in solutions of the diluted phenolic extract at 1.5 g/L (A, 3 g/L (B, and water only as a control (CTR, packaged within a protective atmosphere (70% carbon dioxide, 25% nitrogen and 5% oxygen and then stored at 4°C. After 2 h, and 3 and 6 days of storage, the fish samples were analysed for the total viable count, Enterobacteriaceae count, pH, colour (CIE L*a*b* colour system, phenolic composition, α- tocopherol content, antioxidant activity by 2,2- diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH˙ assay, and thiobarbituric reactive substances (TBARS. A 3 g/L phenolic extract contributed positively to the hygienic quality of the salmon by reducing the microbial growth during storage. The treated samples were slightly yellower than the CTR but only at the beginning of storage. The flesh contained 6.2% of the total polyphenols present in the initial solutions, with various percentages of the single fractions. After 6 days storage, the α- tocopherol content in the CTR and A samples was statistically lower than the B group that also showed the lowest DPPH˙ and TBARS values. In conclusion, the phenolic extract increased the microbiological quality and antioxidant concentration and decreased the lipid oxidation of salmon steaks during storage at 4°C under modified atmosphere.

  17. EFFECTS OF HEAT TREATMENT AND CALCIUM ON POSTHARVEST STORAGE OF ATEMOYA FRUITS*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIZ MARIA ABI RACHED TORRES

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of postharvest warm dipping with calcium chloride (CaCl2 on atemoya fruit (Annona cherimola Mill x Annona squamosa L. storage. Fruits were immersed in 6% CaCl2 solution at 20 and 40°C for 20 min followed by storage at room temperature. The effectiveness of the treatment was assessed in terms of its impact on peel and fl esh appearance, weight loss, total soluble solids (TSS, total titratable acidity (TTA, pH, ascorbic acid content, total phenolics, and enzyme activities of polyphenoloxidase (PPO and peroxidase (POD. Treatment at 40°C preserved eatable conditions up to 6 days, although calcium affected the appearance of the peel as soon as 4 days. Flesh browning was detected only on the 8th day in untreated fruits, after an increase in PPO and POD activities and total phenolics, and a decrease in ascorbic acid content. The weight loss was continuous throughout the storage period, with no signifi cant difference between treatments. TTA and TSS contents increased and pH decreased during the experiment. Results suggest that CaCl2 dipping had a positive effect on fl esh browning, which was reduced, while heat treatment showed a synergic effect, which could be related broadly with a fall in PPO activity. The variations in ascorbic acid content during storage suggest that the warm dipping combined with CaCl2, contributed to the antioxidant capacity of the fruit.

  18. Effects of topsoil storage during surface mining on the viability of VA mycorrhiza

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rives, C.S. (Illinois State Univ., Normal); Bajwa, M.I.; Liberta, A.E.; Miller, R.M.

    1980-04-01

    Storing topsoil for 3 years was shown to reduce substantially the levels of viable inocula relative to levels in adjacent, undisturbed prairie soils. The detrimental effect of storage on VA mycorrhiza is associated with the loss of viability of mycorrhizal fragments occurring in the stored soil. Data are also presented supporting an interaction between infected root segments and roots of uninfected plants as a major means of spreading mycorrhiza in these soils.

  19. Energy Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, William W.

    Described are technological considerations affecting storage of energy, particularly electrical energy. The background and present status of energy storage by batteries, water storage, compressed air storage, flywheels, magnetic storage, hydrogen storage, and thermal storage are discussed followed by a review of development trends. Included are…

  20. Effect of storage levels of nitric oxide derivatives in blood components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schechter, Alan N

    2012-01-01

    Background: Potential deleterious effects of red blood cell (RBC) transfusions, especially from blood kept at length, have been ascribed to biochemical changes during storage, including those of nitric oxide (NO) metabolism. Study methods and design: In this study, NO metabolites, nitrite and nitrate, were quantified in RBCs and whole blood with time of storage. Whole blood (WB), leukoreduced (LR), and non-leukoreduced (NLR) components were obtained from healthy volunteer donors and stored in polyvinyl chloride bags for 42 days. Nitrite and nitrate were measured using reductive gas-phase chemiluminescence. Results: Nitrite concentrations initially decreased rapidly from about 150nmol/L, but stabilized at about 44nmol/L in room air for up to 42 days. Nitrate concentrations remained stable during storage at about 35µmol/L. Cells from bags maintained in an argon chamber showed decreased nitrite levels compared to those maintained in room air. Inhibition of enzymes implicated in the NO cycle did not alter nitrite levels. Conclusion: As erythrocytes may contribute to the control of blood flow and oxygen delivery through reduction of nitrite to NO under hypoxic conditions, the present findings provide insight into possible effects of blood transfusion. These measurements may explain some adverse effects of RBC transfusion and suggest ways of optimizing the preservation of stored blood. PMID:24358838

  1. The effects of Aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis) coating on the quality of shrimp during cold storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltanizadeh, Nafiseh; Mousavinejad, Mohsen S

    2015-10-01

    Green tiger shrimp (Penaeus semisulcatus) is an important aquaculture species worldwide. Its perishable nature, however, needs preservation methods to ensure its quality and shelf life. In this study, the effects of Aloe vera coating on the quality and shelf life of shrimps during cold storage were investigated. Shrimp samples were dipped in aqueous solutions containing 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% Aloe vera gel before storage at 4 °C for 7 days. Drip loss, pH, TBA, TVB-N, and texture of both the control and treated shrimp samples were analyzed periodically. There were significant differences between coated shrimps and the control group in all parameters evaluated. Aloe vera at 75% and 100% concentrations was able to prevent lipid oxidation and drip loss properly; however, coatings containing 25% Aloe vera did not have the desired effects on these characteristics. Shrimps coated with higher concentrations of Aloe vera had better textural properties during cold storage. Results also indicated the positive effects of Aloe vera coating on the sensory quality of shrimp.

  2. Waking up dormant tumor suppressor genes with zinc fingers, TALEs and the CRISPR/dCas9 system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Bloj, Benjamin; Moses, Colette; Sgro, Agustin; Plani-Lam, Janice; Arooj, Mahira; Duffy, Ciara; Thiruvengadam, Shreyas; Sorolla, Anabel; Rashwan, Rabab; Mancera, Ricardo L.; Leisewitz, Andrea; Swift-Scanlan, Theresa; Corvalan, Alejandro H.; Blancafort, Pilar

    2016-01-01

    The aberrant epigenetic silencing of tumor suppressor genes (TSGs) plays a major role during carcinogenesis and regaining these dormant functions by engineering of sequence-specific epigenome editing tools offers a unique opportunity for targeted therapies. However, effectively normalizing the expression and regaining tumor suppressive functions of silenced TSGs by artificial transcription factors (ATFs) still remains a major challenge. Herein we describe novel combinatorial strategies for the potent reactivation of two class II TSGs, MASPIN and REPRIMO, in cell lines with varying epigenetic states, using the CRISPR/dCas9 associated system linked to a panel of effector domains (VP64, p300, VPR and SAM complex), as well as with protein-based ATFs, Zinc Fingers and TALEs. We found that co-delivery of multiple effector domains using a combination of CRISPR/dCas9 and TALEs or SAM complex maximized activation in highly methylated promoters. In particular, CRISPR/dCas9 VPR with SAM upregulated MASPIN mRNA (22,145-fold change) in H157 lung cancer cells, with accompanying re-expression of MASPIN protein, which led to a concomitant inhibition of cell proliferation and induction of apoptotic cell death. Consistently, CRISPR/dCas9 VP64 with SAM upregulated REPRIMO (680-fold change), which led to phenotypic reprogramming in AGS gastric cancer cells. Altogether, our results outlined novel sequence-specific, combinatorial epigenome editing approaches to reactivate highly methylated TSGs as a promising therapy for cancer and other diseases. PMID:27528034

  3. Waking up dormant tumor suppressor genes with zinc fingers, TALEs and the CRISPR/dCas9 system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Bloj, Benjamin; Moses, Colette; Sgro, Agustin; Plani-Lam, Janice; Arooj, Mahira; Duffy, Ciara; Thiruvengadam, Shreyas; Sorolla, Anabel; Rashwan, Rabab; Mancera, Ricardo L; Leisewitz, Andrea; Swift-Scanlan, Theresa; Corvalan, Alejandro H; Blancafort, Pilar

    2016-09-13

    The aberrant epigenetic silencing of tumor suppressor genes (TSGs) plays a major role during carcinogenesis and regaining these dormant functions by engineering of sequence-specific epigenome editing tools offers a unique opportunity for targeted therapies. However, effectively normalizing the expression and regaining tumor suppressive functions of silenced TSGs by artificial transcription factors (ATFs) still remains a major challenge. Herein we describe novel combinatorial strategies for the potent reactivation of two class II TSGs, MASPIN and REPRIMO, in cell lines with varying epigenetic states, using the CRISPR/dCas9 associated system linked to a panel of effector domains (VP64, p300, VPR and SAM complex), as well as with protein-based ATFs, Zinc Fingers and TALEs. We found that co-delivery of multiple effector domains using a combination of CRISPR/dCas9 and TALEs or SAM complex maximized activation in highly methylated promoters. In particular, CRISPR/dCas9 VPR with SAM upregulated MASPIN mRNA (22,145-fold change) in H157 lung cancer cells, with accompanying re-expression of MASPIN protein, which led to a concomitant inhibition of cell proliferation and induction of apoptotic cell death. Consistently, CRISPR/dCas9 VP64 with SAM upregulated REPRIMO (680-fold change), which led to phenotypic reprogramming in AGS gastric cancer cells. Altogether, our results outlined novel sequence-specific, combinatorial epigenome editing approaches to reactivate highly methylated TSGs as a promising therapy for cancer and other diseases.

  4. Effects of season and storage period on accumulation of individual carotenoids in pumpkin flesh (Cucurbita moschata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaswir, Irwandi; Shahidan, Norshazila; Othman, Rashidi; Has-Yun Hashim, Yumi Zuhanis; Octavianti, Fitri; bin Salleh, Mohammad Noor

    2014-01-01

    Carotenoids are antioxidants with pharmaceutical potential. The major carotenoids important to humans are α-carotene, β-carotene, lycopene, lutein, zeaxanthin, and β-cryptoxanthin. Some of the biological functions and actions of these individual carotenoids are quite similar to each other, whereas others are specific. Besides genotype and location, other environmental effects such as temperature, light, mineral uptake, and pH have been found affect carotenoid development in plant tissues and organs. Therefore, this research investigated the effects of the season and storage periods during postharvest handling on the accumulation of carotenoid in pumpkin. This study shows that long-term storage of pumpkins resulted in the accumulation of lutein and β-carotene with a slight decrease in zeaxanthin. The amounts of β-carotene ranged from 174.583±2.105 mg/100g to 692.871±22.019 mg/100g, lutein from 19.841±9.693 mg/100g to 59.481±1.645 mg/100g, and zeaxanthin from not detected to 2.709±0.118 mg/100g. The pumpkins were collected three times in a year; they differed in that zeaxanthin was present only in the first season, while the amounts of β-carotene and lutein were the highest in the second and third seasons, respectively. By identifying the key factors among the postharvest handling conditions that control specific carotenoid accumulations, a greater understanding of how to enhance the nutritional values of pumpkin and other crops will be gained. Postharvest storage conditions can markedly enhance and influence the levels of zeaxanthin, lutein, and β-carotene in pumpkin. This study describes how the magnitudes of these effects depend on the storage period and season.

  5. Efeito da temperatura e estocagem em ovos Effect of temperature and storage of eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Socorro Vieira dos Santos

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A pesquisa foi desenvolvida objetivando avaliar o efeito da temperatura e período de estocagem de ovos de poedeiras comerciais submetidas a dietas à base de milho, soja e óleo vegetal com nível de energia de 2.850 kcal EM/kg e proteína de 18%. O ensaio envolveu um plantel com 224 poedeiras comerciais da linhagem Hy-line W-36, com 23 semanas de idade, dividido em 5 ciclos de 28 dias. Foi avaliado o efeito isolado e a interação de dois fatores: temperatura de conservação (ambiente e de refrigeração e período de estocagem (7, 14 e 21 dias. As variáveis estudadas foram: perda de peso dos ovos (%, percentagem de gema, percentagem de clara, percentagem de casca, gravidade específica, unidades Haugh e escore de coloração da gema crua. O aumento do período de estocagem, independente da temperatura de conservação, ocasionou perda de peso dos ovos e reduções na gravidade específica, nas unidades Haugh e na coloração da gema crua. Os ovos mantidos em temperatura de refrigeração apresentaram (p The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of temperature and period of storage on the quality of eggs of commercial laying hens submitted to diets with corn, soy, and vegetal oils with energy level of 2850 kcal ME/kg and 18% of protein. The experimental procedure involved 224 commercial laying hens of the HY-LINE W-36 line, which were 23 weeks of age, divided into 5 cycles of 28 days. The isolated effect and the interaction of storage temperature (ambient and refrigeration and storage period (7, 14 e 21 day were evaluated. The variables studied were loss of weight, percentage of the yolk, percentage of the white, specific gravity, Haugh units, and coloration of raw egg yolk. The increase in the period of the storage of eggs, independent of the maintenance temperature, caused egg weight loss and reduced the specific gravity, Haugh unit values, and coloration of the raw egg yolk. The eggs kept under refrigeration presented (p 0

  6. C storage in Amazonia pastures, effects of age, climate and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klumpp, Katja; Stahl, Clement; Blanfort, Vincent; Fontaine, Sebstien; Burban, Benoit; Darsonville, Olivier

    2016-04-01

    The Amazonian region is one of the major C storing areas, with 36-60% of ecosystem C being stored in forest soils. During last decades, more than 15% of Amazonian tropical forest has been converted to pastures. A number of studies provide evidence that soil C stocks of topsoil (0-20 cm) can be higher in grasslands than in native forests after more than 20 years after conversion (e.g. Don et al 2011). As for younger pastures (stock. The absence of a clear pattern was mostly explained due to conjoined changes following deforestation, such as climate conditions and pasture management. Accordingly, the question remains whether tropical permanent pastures can restore soil C stocks after deforestation and what is the capacity of tropical pastures to initiate a recurrent C storage. Pastures are largely affected by agricultural practices, influencing their carbon balance, in interaction with climate effect. In the past 10 years two major droughts (in 2005 and 2010 [2]) were reported for the Amazonian area. A better insight on effects of climatic variability and agricultural management on carbon storage is, thus, valuable to improve/maintain C storage of pastures in tropical regions. Here we like to assess whether tropical permanent pastures i) can restore soil C stocks after deforestation; ii) and to what extend and iii) which role play management practices with respect to climate variability to maintain a recurrent C storage. To establish reliable estimates of soil C storage in Amazonian region, the net C balance of pastures and native forests was quantified by two independent and complementary studies in French Guiana: a chronosequence study including a soil inventory of soil C stocks (0-100 cm depth) in 24 pastures of various ages (i.e. 0 to 42 yrs after deforestation) and 4 native forests, and 5 years of eddy covariance flux measurements (EC) for a young intensively used pasture (established in 2008) and an old extensively used pasture (established in 1978

  7. The dormant and the fully competent oocyte: comparing the transcriptome of human oocytes from primordial follicles and in metaphase II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøndahl, Marie Louise; Borup, Rehannah; Vikeså, Jonas

    2013-01-01

    Oocytes become enclosed in primordial follicles during fetal life and remain dormant there until activation followed by growth and meiotic resumption. Current knowledge about the molecular pathways involved in oogenesis is incomplete. This study identifies the specific transcriptome of the human...... oocyte in the quiescent state and at the pinnacle of maturity at ovulation. In silico bioinformatic comparisons were made between the transcriptome of human oocytes from dormant primordial follicles and that of human metaphase II (MII) oocytes and granulosa cells and unique gene expression profiles were...

  8. Effects of in-stream structures and channel flow rate variation on transient storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, S. M. Masud; Scott, Durelle T.; Hester, Erich T.

    2017-05-01

    In-stream structures can potentially enhance surface and subsurface solute retention. They form naturally in small streams and their installation has gained popularity in stream restoration for multiple purposes, including improved water quality. Yet few studies have quantified the cumulative effect of multiple structures on solute transport at the reach scale, nor how this varies with changing stream flow. We built a series of weirs in a small stream to simulate channel spanning structures such as natural debris dams and stream restoration log dams and boulder weirs. We conducted constant rate conservative (NaCl) tracer injections to quantify the effect of the weirs on solute transport at the reach scale. We used a one dimensional solute transport model with transient storage to quantify the change of solute transport parameters with increasing number of weirs. Results indicate that adding weirs significantly increased the cross-sectional area of the surface stream (A) and transient storage zones (As) while exchange with transient storage (α) decreased. The increase in A and As is due to backwater behind weirs and increased hydrostatically driven hyporheic exchange induced by the weirs, while we surmise that the reduction in α is due at least in part to reduced hydrodynamically driven hyporheic exchange in bed ripples drowned by the weir backwater. In order for weir installation to achieve net improvement in solute retention and thus water quality, cumulative reactions in weir backwater and enhanced hydrostatically driven hyporheic exchange would have to overcome the reduced hydrodynamically driven exchange. Analysis of channel flow variation over the course of the experiments indicated that weirs change the relationship between transient storage parameters and flow, for example the trend of increasing α with flow without weirs was reversed in the presence of weirs. Effects of flow variation were substantial, indicating that transient storage measurements at a

  9. The year-class phenomenon and the storage effect in marine fishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secor, David H.

    2007-02-01

    Factors contributing to population growth through strong year-class formation have driven a century of directed research in fisheries science. A central discovery of Hjort's paradigm was that multiple generations overlap and longevity is matched with frequency of strong recruitments. Here, I elaborate on this tenet by examining how intra-population modalities in spawning and early habitat use favour population resiliency. A modern theory that has application is the storage effect [Warner, R.R., Chesson, P.L., 1985. Coexistence mediated by recruitment fluctuations - a field guide to the storage effect. Am. Nat. 125, 769-787], whereby spawning stock biomass accumulates each year so that when early survival conditions are favourable, stored egg production can result in explosive population growth. I review two early life history behaviours that contribute to the storage effect: split cohorts (i.e., seasonal pulses of eggs and larvae) and contingent behaviour (i.e., dispersive and retentive patterns in early dispersal). Episodic and pulsed production of larvae is a common feature for marine fishes, well documented through otolith microstructure and hatch-date analyses. In temperate and boreal fishes, early and late spawned cohorts of larvae and juveniles may have differing fates dependent upon seasonal and inter-annual fluctuations in weather and climate. Often, a coastal fish may spawn for a protracted period, yet only a few days' egg production will result in successful recruitment. In these and other instances, it is clear that diversity in spawning behaviour can confer resilience against temporal variations in early survival conditions. Although many factors contribute to intra-population spawning modalities, size and age structure of adults play an important role. Contingent structure, an idea dating to Hjort (herring contingents) and Gilbert (salmon contingents), has been resurrected to describe the diversity of intra-population modalities observed through

  10. Effect of buffer systems and disaccharides concentration on Podoviridae coliphage stability during freeze drying and storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dini, C; de Urraza, P J

    2013-06-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the stability of Podoviridae coliphage CA933P during lyophilization and storage in different media, and to establish similarities between the results obtained and those expected through mechanisms described for proteins stabilization during freeze-drying. PBS and SM buffer were assayed as lyophilization media. The effect of inorganic salts concentration as well as the addition of disaccharides on phage stability during freeze-drying and storage was also studied. The addition of low sucrose concentration (0.1 mol l⁻¹) to SM buffer stabilized phage during freezing and drying steps of the lyophilization process, but higher sugar concentrations were detrimental to phage stability during freeze-drying. Sucrose stabilized phage during storage for at least 120 days. The lyoprotective effect of low concentrations of disaccharides during the drying step of the lyophilization of proteins as well as the stabilization of the freeze-dried product in time correlated with the results obtained for phage CA933P.

  11. Study on effectiveness of continuous solar dryer integrated with desiccant thermal storage for drying cocoa beans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sari Farah Dina

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The main objective is to assess effectiveness of continuous solar dryer integrated with desiccant thermal storage for drying cocoa beans. Two type of desiccants were tested, molecular sieve 13× (Na86 [(AlO286·(SiO2106]·264H2O as an adsorbent type and CaCl2 as an absorbent type. The results revealed that during sunshine hours, the maximum temperature within the drying chamber varied from 40 °C to 54 °C. In average, it was 9–12 °C higher than ambient temperature. These temperatures are very suitable for drying cocoa beans. During off-sunshine hours, humidity of air inside the drying chamber was lower than ambient because of the desiccant thermal storage. Drying times for intermittent directs sun drying, solar dryer integrated with adsorbent, and solar dryer integrated with absorbent were 55 h, 41 h, and 30 h, respectively. Specific energy consumptions for direct sun drying, solar dryer integrated with adsorbent, and solar dryer integrated with absorber were 60.4 MJ/kg moist, 18.94 MJ/kg moist, and 13.29 MJ/kg moist, respectively. The main conclusion can be drawn here is that a solar dryer integrated with desiccant thermal storage makes drying using solar energy more effective in term of drying time and specific energy consumption.

  12. Effects of process conditions on chlorine generation and storage stability of electrolyzed deep ocean water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoo-Shyng Wang Hsu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Electrolyzed water is a sustainable disinfectant, which can comply with food safety regulations and is environmentally friendly. We investigated the effects of platinum plating of electrode, electrode size, cell potential, and additional stirring on electrolysis properties of deep ocean water (DOW and DOW concentration products. We also studied the relationships between quality properties of electrolyzed DOW and their storage stability. Results indicated that concentrating DOW to 1.7 times increased chlorine level in the electrolyzed DOW without affecting electric and current efficiencies of the electrolysis process. Increasing magnesium and potassium levels in DOW decreased chlorine level in the electrolyzed DOW as well as electric and current efficiencies of the electrolysis process. Additional stirring could not increase electrolysis efficiency of small electrolyzer. Large electrode, high electric potential and/or small electrolyzing cell increased chlorine production rate but decreased electric and current efficiencies. High electrolysis intensity decreased storage stability of the electrolyzed seawater and the effects of electrolysis on DOW gradually subsided in storage. DOW has similar electrolysis properties to surface seawater, but its purity and stability are better. Therefore, electrolyzed DOW should have better potential for applications on postharvest cleaning and disinfection of ready-to-eat fresh produce.

  13. Effect of refrigeration and frozen storage on the Campylobacter jejuni recovery from naturally contaminated broiler carcasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maike T. Maziero

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter jejuni is the most common thermophilic Campylobacter associated with human enteritis in many countries. Broilers and their by-products are the main sources for human enteritis. Refrigeration and freezing are used to control bacterial growth in foods. The effect of these interventions on survival of Campylobacter jejuni is yet not quite understood. This study evaluated the effect of storage temperature on the survival of C. jejuni in chicken meat stored for seven days at 4ºC and for 28 days at -20ºC. The influence of selective enrichment on recovery of Campylobacter was also evaluated. Thirty fresh chicken meat samples were analyzed and 93.3% was contaminated with termotolerant Campylobacter spp. with average count of 3.08 Log10 CFU/g on direct plating. After refrigeration, 53.3% of the analyzed samples tested positive for Campylobacter and the average count was 1.19 Log10 CFU/g. After storage at -20ºC, 36.6% of the samples were positive with a verage count of 0.75 Log10 CFU/g. C. jejuni was detected after enrichment, respectively, in 50% of the fresh, 36.7% of the refrigerated and 33.3% of the frozen meat samples analyzed. No difference was detected for the recovery of C. jejuni from fresh, refrigerated or frozen samples after selective enrichment, showing that this microorganism can survive under the tested storage conditions.

  14. Effect of propionic acid on Campylobacter jejuni attached to chicken skin during refrigerated storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Fandos, Elena; Maya, Naiara; Pérez-Arnedo, Iratxe

    2015-09-01

    The ability of propionic acid to reduce Campylobacter jejuni on chicken legs was evaluated. Chicken legs were inoculated with Campylobacter jejuni. After dipping legs in either water (control), 1% or 2% propionic acid solution (vol/vol), they were stored at 4ºC for 8 days. Changes in C. jejuni, psychrotrophs and Pseudomonas counts were evaluated. Washing in 2% propionic acid significantly reduced C. jejuni counts compared to control legs, with a decrease of about 1.62 log units after treatment. Treatment of chicken legs with 1 or 2% propionic acid significantly reduced numbers of psychrotrophs 1.01 and 1.08 log units and Pseudomonas counts 0.75 and 0.96 log units, respectively, compared to control legs. The reduction in psychrotrophs and Pseudomonas increased throughout storage. The highest reductions obtained for psychrotrophs and Pseudomonas counts in treated legs were reached at the end of storage, day 8, being 3.3 and 2.93 log units, respectively, compared to control legs. Propionic acid treatment was effective in reducing psychrotrophs and Pseudomonas counts on chicken legs throughout storage. It is concluded that propionic acid is effective for reducing C. jejuni populations in chicken.

  15. Water uptake, priming, drying and storage effects inCassia excelsa Schrad seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeller H.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to evaluate the effects of osmotic potential on the water uptake curvein Cassia excelsa seeds and use the results to analyze the effects of dehydration and storage on primed seed germination. Seeds were imbibed in distillad water and polyethylene glicol (PEG 6000 osmotic solutions at -0.2, -0.4, and -0.6 MPa, at 20ºC. The radicle emergence and seed moisture content were evaluated at 6-hour intervals during 240 hours. Afterwards, seeds were primed in distillad water and PEG 6000 solutions at -0.2, -0.4, and -0.6 MPa for 48, 72, 96, and 168 hours at 20ºC, followed by air drying and storage for 15 days at 5ºC. The lower the osmotic potential, the higher the time required for priming. The osmoconditioning yields benefits with PEG solutions at 0.0 and -0.2 MPa; seed improvements were maintained during storage for 15 days at 5ºC, but were reverted by seed drying.

  16. An XPath-based OWL storage model for effective ontology management in Semantic Web environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinhyung KIM; Dongwon JEONG; Doo-kwon BAIK

    2009-01-01

    With the rapid growth of the Web, the volume of information on the Web is increasing exponentially. However,information on the current Web is only understandable to humans, and this makes precise information retrieval difficult. To solve this problem, the Semantic Web was proposed. We must use ontology languages that can assign data the semantics for realizing the Semantic Web. One of the representative ontology languages is the Web ontology language OWL, adopted as a recommendation by the World-Wide Web Consortium (W3C). OWL includes hierarchical structural information between classes or properties. Therefore, an efficient OWL storage model that considers a hierarchical structure for effective information retrieval on the Semantic Web is required. In this paper we suggest an XPath-based OWL storage (XPOS) model, which includes hierarchical information between classes or properties in XPath form, and enables intuitive and effective information retrieval. Also, we show the comparative evaluation results for the performance of the XPOS model, Sesame, and the XML file system-based storage (XFSS) model, in terms of query processing and ontology updating.

  17. Carotenoid stability in fruits, vegetables and working standards - effect of storage temperature and time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, M Graça; Camões, M Filomena G F C; Oliveira, Luísa

    2014-08-01

    The effects of freezing and storage temperature on the mass fraction of α- and β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lutein, lycopene and zeaxanthin in minimally processed fresh food products, were evaluated after sample preparation, extraction and saponification (only when strictly necessary). Effects of freezing and long-term stability were studied at two temperatures, -20 and -70°C, using high performance liquid chromatography (reversed phase columns, UV-Vis diode array detector) at time points during storage; measurement uncertainty was included in the evaluation. Stability of working standard solutions was also examined. Freezing did not affect the carotenoid mass fraction under the conditions studied. Carotenoids in orange, cherry, peach, apple, and kale were stable (except α-carotene and zeaxanthin in peach) for 13, 9.7, 5.7, 2.5 and 7.5months, respectively. For these food sample matrices, no significant difference between the freezing/storage at -20 and -70°C was observed. Standard solutions (0.05-5μg/mL) were stable for at least 6months at -70°C, except lycopene which at 0.05μg/mL was apparently stable only for six weeks.

  18. Assessment of the effects of decontamination and storage methods on the structural integrity of human enamel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Rodrigues de FREITAS

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The storage of teeth for use in research is a controversial issue with no consensus on the most appropriate treatment method for this purpose. Objective The aim of this study was analyze the effectiveness and the influence of different methods of decontamination and storage of human enamel samples, in order to maintain their integrity. Material and method The sample consisted of 124 molars distributed randomly into three groups according to the method: control - distilled water, 0.1% thymol and 0.02% sodium azide. The tests performed were laser fluorescence, surface microhardness and profilometry analysis (0, 15 and 30 days and Microbiological test (7, 15 and 30 days. Data were analyzed by the ANOVA and Tukey tests (P 0.05. The surface microhardness analysis showed loss of tooth structure in all methods, and sodium azide led to a lower level of tooth loss. Profilometry analysis showed loss of mass in all groups whereas sodium azide showed the greatest loss. None of the methods was able to inhibit bacterial growth. Conclusion Among the processing methods analyzed none was able to combine effective decontamination and storage with maintenance of the structural integrity of the human enamel.

  19. Effect of gas environment and sorbate addition on flavor characteristics of irradiated apple cider during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crook, Loretta R; Boylston, Terri D; Glatz, Bonita A

    2004-11-17

    Apple cider, with (0.1%) and without potassium sorbate, was packaged in polystyrene containers and exposed to three different gas environments: oxygen flush, nitrogen flush, and atmospheric air. To evaluate the effects of irradiation (2 kGy) and storage on flavor and microbial quality, these irradiated apple cider samples were compared to a control, unirradiated sample exposed to atmospheric air. Volatile compounds, soluble solids, titratable acidity, and microbiological counts were determined weekly throughout 7 weeks of refrigerated (4 degrees C) storage. Cider irradiated and stored in atmospheric air or nitrogen-flush environments had lower rates of loss for characteristic flavor volatiles compared to unirradiated apple cider and cider irradiated and stored in an oxygen-flush environment. The addition of potassium sorbate to the apple cider resulted in lower counts of yeasts and aerobic microorganisms, reduced fermentation of sugars to organic acids, and improved retention of volatile compounds characteristic of apple cider.

  20. Effect of Storage Temperature on the Quality of Fresh-cut Cattail

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hesheng HUANG; Haiping WANG; PianPian ZHANG

    2015-01-01

    Fresh-cut cattail was extremely not resistant to store at room temperature. In the first day, it began to etiolate and rot, the fiber content increased, but the vi-tamin C content and reducing sugar content decreased. The aerobic bacterial count increased, the weight loss rate sharply increased, and the sensory quality and food value were gradual y lost. Low temperature storage could decrease the loss of vita-min C and reducing sugar of fresh-cut cattail, reduce the weight loss rate and delay the increase of fiber content, maintain the water and nutrient of fresh-cut cattail, and the storage effect of 0 ℃ was better than 4 ℃.

  1. Effects of gamma irradiation and storage time on ostrich meat tenderness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Jouki

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study effects of gamma irradiation and storage time on the Appearance and Texture changes of fresh ostrich meat stored at 4˚C were evaluated. Ostrich meat irradiated at 0.0, 1.0 and 3.0 kGy. Analysis of variance showed that aging of meat affected SF in all treatments. There were significant differences among radiation doses at any of the times. Sensory panel results were in general agreement with the mechanical changes, suggesting that the gamma irradiation at 1.0 kGy had a significant impact on the quality of refrigerated ostrich meat. Air-packaged samples irradiated at 1.0 kGy were acceptable under refrigerated storage for 9 days, compared to 7 and 5 days for non irradiated and samples irradiated at 3.0 kGy, respectively.

  2. The effects of feed composition on the sensory quality of organic rainbow trout during ice storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green-Pedersen, Ditte; Hyldig, Grethe; Jacobsen, Charlotte;

    fishmeal and a mixture of protein from organic vegetable, while the lipid sources were fish oil and organic oil from linseed, sunflower, rapeseed and grape seed. Sensory analysis was performed after 3, 5, 7 and 14 days of storage in ice. The results showed that both protein and lipid source in the feed can......The focus of this work was to study which effects the type of protein and lipid source in the feed for organic Rainbow trout influences had on the sensory quality of final product. Two and four different protein and lipid sources were used in the experiment respectively. The protein sources were...... after 14 days of storage, indicating that vegetable protein in the feed increases the self-life of organic rainbow trout....

  3. On the effectiveness of recoding-based repair in network coded distributed storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sipos, Marton A.; Braun, Patrik J.; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani

    2017-01-01

    recovery node gets connected to a given subset of the operating nodes and receives a part of the stored data. The objective of this paper is to investigate data survival for Random Linear Network Coding (RLNC) as a function of topology and communication overhead, dened by the number of connections...... and the number of transmitted packets to the recovery node, respectively. The paper includes two main contributions. First, a sufficient set of conditions for quasi-infinite longevity of the stored data is derived. Second, a comparison using experimental results shows that RLNC can be up to 50% more effective......High capacity storage systems distribute less across several storage devices (nodes) and apply an erasure code to meet availability and reliability requirements. Since devices can lose network connectivity or fail permanently, a dynamic repair mechanism must be put in place. In such cases a new...

  4. Effects of cattle slurry acidification on ammonia and methane evolution during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Søren O; Andersen, Astrid J; Eriksen, Jørgen

    2012-01-01

    Slurry acidification before storage is known to reduce NH(3) emissions, but recent observations have indicated that CH(4) emissions are also reduced. We investigated the evolution of CH(4) from fresh and aged cattle slurry during 3 mo of storage as influenced by pH adjustment to 5.5 with sulfuric acid. In a third storage experiment, cattle slurry acidified with commercial equipment on two farms was incubated. In the manipulation experiments, effects of acid and sulfate were distinguished by adding hydrochloric acid and potassium sulfate separately or in combination, rather than sulfuric acid. In one experiment sulfur was also added to slurry as the amino acid methionine in separate treatments. In each treatment 20-kg portions of slurry (n = 4) were stored for 95 d. All samples were subsampled nine to 10 times for determination of NH(3) and CH(4) evolution rates using a 2-L flow-through system. In all experiments, the pH of acidified cattle slurry increased gradually to between 6.5 and 7. Acidification of slurry reduced the evolution of CH(4) by 67 to 87%. The greatest reduction was observed with aged cattle slurry, which had a much higher potential for CH(4) production than fresh slurry. Sulfate and methionine amendment to cattle slurry without pH adjustment also significantly inhibited methanogenesis, probably as a result of sulfide production. The study suggests that complex microbial interactions involving sulfur transformations and pH determine the potential for CH(4) emission during storage of cattle slurry, and that slurry acidification may be a cost-effective greenhouse gas mitigation option. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  5. Effect of medium additives during liquid storage on developmental competence of in vitro matured bovine oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suttirojpattana, Tayita; Somfai, Tamas; Matoba, Satoko; Parnpai, Rangsun; Nagai, Takashi; Geshi, Masaya

    2017-02-01

    Our aim was to improve the developmental competence of bovine oocytes during their liquid storage by using additives. In vitro matured oocytes were stored for 20 h at 25°C in HEPES buffered TCM 199 medium (base medium). After storage, in vitro embryo development after in vitro fertilization was compared to those of non-stored (control) ones. Addition of 10% (v/v) newborn calf serum or 10.27 mmol/L pyruvate alone to the base medium did not improve blastocyst formation rates in stored oocytes; however, their simultaneous addition significantly improved the rate compared with those stored in base medium (P < 0.05). Supplementation of the holding medium with dithiothreitol (DTT) at any concentrations did not improve embryo development from stored oocytes. Although supplementation with cyclosporine A (CsA) significantly reduced apoptosis and membrane damage rates during storage, it did not improve the developmental competence of oocytes. 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy) ethane N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid tetrakis-acetoxymethyl ester and ruthenium red had no effect on oocyte apoptotic rates. Blastocyst formation rates in all stored groups remained significantly lower than that of the control. In conclusion, pyruvate and serum had a synergic effect to moderate the reduction of oocyte quality during storage, whereas mitochondrial membrane pore inhibitor CsA and the antioxidant DTT did not affect their developmental competence. © 2016 The Authors. Animal Science Journal published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  6. Antioxidant and antimicrobial effect of some natural plant extracts added to lamb patties during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim, Hayam M.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Natural plants are considered an important target to investigate in order to provide a new source of natural antioxidants and/or antimicrobial agents. The optimum concentrations of some natural plant (jojoba, jatropha, ginseng and ginger extracts were determined and added to lamb patties. Some chemical and microbial characteristics of the prepared patties during storage for 9 days at 4°C were evaluated. Both the addition of these extracts and storage time had a significant effect on the patties throughout the storage period. The effectiveness of the tested natural extracts can be listed in the following order of decreasing Thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS values: ginseng > jatropha > jojoba > ginger. Aerobic plate count, mould and yeast counts decreased significantly with addition of the extracts during the storage period. Also, the addition of the extracts was significantly effective in reducing histamine, tyramine and putrescine formation during the storage period. Compared to control patties, the addition of these natural extracts was effective as antioxidant and antimicrobial agents for improving the properties of lamb patties.

    Las plantas naturales están consideradas como un importante producto donde buscar y encontrar nuevas fuentes de antioxidantes naturales y/o agentes antimicrobianos. La concentración óptima de algunos extractos de plantas naturales (jojoba, jatropha, ginseng y jengibre fueron determinado y añadidas a pasteles de cordero. Algunas características químicas y microbiológicas de los pasteles preparados y almacenados durante 9 días a 4°C fueron evaluados. Tanto la adición de estos extractos como el tiempo de almacenamiento tuvieron un efecto significativo en los pasteles en el periodo de almacenamiento. La efectividad de los extractos naturales ensayados puede ser enumerada en el siguiente orden decreciente de valores de substancias reactivas con el ácido tiobarbitúrico (TBARS: ginseng

  7. Study of magnetic hysteresis effects in a storage ring using precision tune measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Hao, Hao; Mikhailov, Stepan F.; Xu, Wei; Li, Jing-Yi; Li, Wei-Min; Wu, Ying. K.

    2016-12-01

    With the advances in accelerator science and technology in recent decades, the accelerator community has focused on the development of next-generation light sources, for example diffraction-limited storage rings (DLSRs), which require precision control of the electron beam energy and betatron tunes. This work is aimed at understanding magnet hysteresis effects on the electron beam energy and lattice focusing in circular accelerators, and developing new methods to gain better control of these effects. In this paper, we will report our recent experimental study of the magnetic hysteresis effects and their impacts on the Duke storage ring lattice using the transverse feedback based precision tune measurement system. The major magnet hysteresis effects associated with magnet normalization and lattice ramping are carefully studied to determine an effective procedure for lattice preparation while maintaining a high degree of reproducibility of lattice focusing. The local hysteresis effects are also studied by measuring the betatron tune shifts which result from adjusting the setting of a quadrupole. A new technique has been developed to precisely recover the focusing strength of the quadrupole by returning it to a proper setting to overcome the local hysteresis effect. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11175180, 11475167) and US DOE (DE-FG02-97ER41033)

  8. Effects of Domestic Storage and Thawing Practices on Salmonella in Poultry-Based Meat Preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roccato, Anna; Uyttendaele, Mieke; Cibin, Veronica; Barrucci, Federica; Cappa, Veronica; Zavagnin, Paola; Longo, Alessandra; Catellani, Paolo; Ricci, Antonia

    2015-12-01

    Among consumer food handling practices, time-temperature abuse has been reported as one of the most common contributory factors in salmonellosis outbreaks where the evidence is strong. The present study performed storage tests of burgers, sausages, and kebabs and investigated (i) the effect of refrigerator temperatures (4°C versus 8 or 12°C, which were the temperatures recorded in 33 and 3%, respectively, of domestic refrigerators in Italy), with or without prior temperature abuse (25°C for 2 h, simulating transport of meats from shop to home), and (ii) the impact of the thawing method (overnight in the refrigerator at 8°C versus on the kitchen countertop at 23°C) on the presence and numbers of Salmonella bacteria. Storage tests were carried out on naturally or artificially (Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium at ca. 10 CFU/g) contaminated products, while freezing-thawing tests were conducted only on artificially contaminated products (Salmonella Typhimurium at ca. 10, 100, and 1,000 CFU/g). The results from the artificially contaminated products showed significant (P 710 MPN/g) in kebabs after 7 and 10 days but more moderate growth in sausages (i.e., from ca. 14 MPN/g to a maximum of 96 MPN/g after 9 days of storage). Storage of naturally contaminated burgers or sausages (contamination at or below 1 MPN/g) at 4, 8, or 12°C and a short time of temperature abuse (2 h at 25°C) did not facilitate an increase in the presence and numbers of Salmonella bacteria. Thawing overnight in the refrigerator led to either a moderate reduction or no change of Salmonella Typhimurium numbers in burgers, sausages, and kebabs. Overall, this study showed that domestic storage and thawing practices can affect food safety and that time-temperature abuse can cause a substantial increase of Salmonella numbers in some types of poultry-based meat preparations, highlighting that efforts for the dissemination of consumer guidelines on the correct storage and handling of meats need

  9. Effect of various storage conditions on the stability of quinolones in raw milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Meixia; Wen, Fang; Wang, Hui; Zheng, Nan; Wang, Jiaqi

    2016-07-01

    Research on the storage stability of antibiotic residues in milk is important for method development or validation, milk quality control and risk assessment during screening, confirmation, qualitative or quantitative analysis. This study was conducted using UPLC-MS/MS to determine the stability of six quinolones - ciprofloxacin (CIP), danofloxacin (DAN), enrofloxacin (ENR), sarafloxacin (SAR), difloxacin (DIF) and flumequine (FLU) - in raw milk stored under various conditions to investigate if quinolones degrade during storage of milk, and finally to determine optimal storage conditions for analysis and scientific risk assessment of quinolone residues in raw milk. The storage conditions included different temperatures and durations (4°C for 4, 8, 24 and 48 h; -20°C for 1, 7 and 30 days; -80°C for 1, 7 and 30 days), thawing temperatures (25, 40 and 60°C), freeze-thaw cycles (1-5), and the addition of different preservatives (sodium thiocyanate, sodium azide, potassium dichromate, bronopol and methanal). Most quinolones exhibited high stability at 4°C for up to 24 h, but began to degrade after 48 h. In addition, no degradation of quinolones was seen when milk samples were stored at -20°C for up to 7 days; however, 30 days of storage at -20°C resulted in a small amount of degradation (about 30%). Similar results were seen when samples were stored at -80°C. Moreover, no losses were observed when frozen milk samples were thawed at 25, 40 or 60°C. All the quinolones of interest, except sarafloxacin, were stable when milk samples were thawed at 40°C once and three times, but unstable after five freeze-thaw cycles. Preservatives affected the stability of quinolones, but the effects differed depending on the preservative and quinolone. The results of this study indicate optimum storage protocols for milk samples, so that residue levels reflect those at the time of initial sample analysis, and should improve surveillance programmes for quinolones in raw milk.

  10. Th.P-19. Collisional effects and dynamic aperture in high-intensity storage rings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benedetti, C. [Dipartimento di Fisica Universita di Bologna and INFN, Via Irnerio 46, Bologna 40126 (Italy)]. E-mail: benedetti@bo.infn.it; Rambaldi, S. [Dipartimento di Fisica Universita di Bologna and INFN, Via Irnerio 46, Bologna 40126 (Italy); Turchetti, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica Universita di Bologna and INFN, Via Irnerio 46, Bologna 40126 (Italy)

    2005-05-21

    We analyze the dynamic aperture in the presence of strong sextupolar errors for a high-intensity beam. The scaling laws for the short-term dynamic aperture are examined and its dependence on the perveance is discussed in a mean field approximation for a coasting beam. The collisional effects of Coulombian interaction are estimated for a linear lattice using a scaling law for the relaxation time. The collisional effects on the long-time dynamic aperture are discussed by comparing the results of full Hamiltonian integration with a mean field theory. An application to a storage ring with the HIDIF parameters is briefly outlined.

  11. Effect of drying, freezing and storage of dried and frozen onion (Allium cepa L.) on its pungency

    OpenAIRE

    Marcin Horbowicz; Józef Bąkowski

    2013-01-01

    The paper contains results of studies of drying and freezing effects, as well as storage of dried and frozen onion on its pungency. The effect of onion bulbs preparation on pungency was estimated as well. The pungency measurements were based on determination of pyruvate produced enzymatically by alliinase. Storage at 20°C of skinned onion decreases sligthly pungency, however three weeks storage at 0-2°C did not change it. Other results indicate that freezing at -25°C, and followed thawing led...

  12. Germination induction of dormant Avena fatua caryopses by KAR(1) and GA(3) involving the control of reactive oxygen species (H2O2 and O2(·-)) and enzymatic antioxidants (superoxide dismutase and catalase) both in the embryo and the aleurone layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cembrowska-Lech, Danuta; Koprowski, Marek; Kępczyński, Jan

    2015-03-15

    Avena fatua L. caryopses did not germinate at 20 °C in darkness because they were dormant. However, they were able to germinate in the presence of karrikinolide (KAR1), a key bioactive compound present in smoke, and also in the presence of gibberellin A3 (GA3), a commonly known stimulator of seed germination. The aim of this study was to collect information on a possible relationship between the above regulators and abscisic acid (ABA), reactive oxygen species (ROS) and ROS scavenging antioxidants in the regulation of dormant caryopses germination. KAR1 and GA3 caused complete germination of dormant A. fatua caryopses. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), compounds generating the superoxide (O2(·-)), i.e. menadione (MN), methylviologen (MV) and an inhibitor of catalase activity, aminotriazole (AT), induced germination of dormant caryopses. KAR1, GA3, H2O2 and AT decreased ABA content in embryos. Furthermore, KAR1, GA3, H2O2, MN, MV and AT increased α-amylase activity in caryopses. The effect of KAR1 and GA3 on ROS (H2O2, O2(·-)) and activities of the superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were determined in caryopses, embryos and aleurone layers. SOD was represented by four isoforms and catalase by one. In situ localization of ROS showed that the effect of KAR1 and GA3 was associated with the localization of hydrogen peroxide mainly on the coleorhiza. However, the superoxide was mainly localized on the surface of the scutellum. Superoxide was also detected in the protruding radicle. Germination induction of dormant caryopses by KAR1 and GA3 was related to an increasing content of H2O2, O2(·-)and activities of SOD and CAT in embryos, thus ROS homeostasis was probably required for the germination of dormant caryopses. The above regulators increased the content of ROS in aleurone layers and decreased the activities of SOD and CAT, probably leading to the programmed cell death. The presented data provide new insights into the germination induction of A. fatua dormant

  13. The effects of structural properties on the lithium storage behavior of mesoporous TiO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Liang; Meng, Wen; Wang, Shiyao; Liu, Dan; Qu, Deyu; Xie, Zhizhong; Deng, Bohua; Liu, Jinping

    2017-06-01

    Understanding the effects of structural properties on the lithium storage behavior of mesoporous TiO2 is crucial for further optimizing its performance through rational structure design. To achieve this, herein, the surface area and the grain size of the prepared mesoporous TiO2 are intentionally adjusted by controlling the calcination temperatures. It is found that the capacities of the mesoporous TiO2 contain both the lithium-ion insertion into the bulk phase (Q in) and the additional surface lithium storage (Q as). The Q in gradually increases with grain sizes to a steady level and then slightly drops. By contrast, the Q as is directly proportional to the specific surface area of the mesoporous TiO2 and is ascribed to the capacity originated from the lithium-ion insertion into the surface layer. The experimental comparison and analysis demonstrate that the fast kinetics of the Q as ensure both the better rate performance and capacity retention of mesoporous TiO2 than bulk ones. Specially, the mesoporous TiO2 calcinated at 350 °C shows the highest reversible specific capacity of 250.2 mA h g-1, the best rate capability (132.5 mA h g-1 at 2C) and good cycling stability. Our findings shed great light on the design of high-performance nanostructured TiO2 with surface lithium storage.

  14. Effects of vinylene carbonate on high temperature storage of high voltage Li-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Ji-Yong; Jung, In-Ho; Lee, Jong-Hoon

    The effects of vinylene carbonate (VC) on high temperature storage of high voltage Li-ion batteries are investigated. 1.3 M of LiPF 6 dissolved in ethylene carbonate (EC), ethylmethyl carbonate (EMC) and dimethyl carbonate (DMC) of 3:3:4 volume ratio is used as original electrolyte for 18650 cylindrical cells with LiCoO 2 cathode and graphite anode. VC is then added to electrolyte. At the initial stage of the high temperature storage, higher open-circuit voltage (OCV) is maintained when increasing the VC concentration. As the storage time increases, OCV of higher VC concentration drops gradually, and then the gas evolution takes place abruptly. Gas analysis shows methane (CH 4) decreases with increase of the VC concentration due to formation of stable solid electrolyte interface (SEI) layer on the graphite. Since the residual VC after formation of the SEI layer decomposes on the cathode surface, carbon dioxide (CO 2) dramatically increases on the cathode with the VC concentration, leaving poly(VC) film at the anode surface, as suggested by XPS test results.

  15. The effect of storage and thermocycling on the shear bond strength of three dentinal adhesives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lino Carracho, A J; Chappell, R P; Glaros, A G; Purk, J H; Eick, J D

    1991-09-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the effects of time of storage and thermocycling on the shear bond strength of three dentinal adhesives. The shear bond strength of Mirage Bond was significantly greater than that of Scotchbond 2, which was significantly greater than that of Scotchbond Dual Cure (P less than or equal to .05). Thermocycling significantly lowered the shear bond strength of Scotchbond Dual Cure and Scotchbond 2, but not that of Mirage Bond (P less than or equal to .05). Time of storage did not affect the shear bond strength of the other adhesives, but Mirage Bond had a significantly greater shear bond strength after 1 month of storage (P less than or equal to .05). Scanning electron microscopic observations showed that the fracture patterns were all at the smear layer-adhesive interface for Scotchbond Dual Cure, the majority of the fractures were at the primer-adhesive interface for Scotchbond 2, and most of the fractures were cohesive in the bonding agent for Mirage Bond.

  16. Effects of storage and cooking on the antioxidant capacity of laying hen eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimalaratne, Chamila; Schieber, Andreas; Wu, Jianping

    2016-03-01

    The aromatic amino acids and carotenoids are the major contributors to the antioxidant properties of egg yolk. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of simulated retail storage and domestic cooking on the antioxidant activity as well as on the aromatic amino acid and carotenoid contents in ordinary table eggs, omega 3/lutein (n-3/lutein) enriched eggs, and eggs from heritage chicken breeds. The oxygen radical scavenging capacity (ORAC) was the highest in n-3/lutein enriched eggs (161.4μmolTE/gsample), while eggs from heritage white leghorns (HW) showed the lowest levels (127.6μmolTE/gsample). Six weeks of storage at refrigerated temperature did not change the ORAC values, as well as the contents of free amino acid, carotenoid, and malondialdehyde (MDA) in egg yolk. Boiling and frying however, significantly reduced the ORAC value, and the contents of free amino acid, lutein and zeaxanthin, and increased the MDA content in eggs. Our results showed that the antioxidant activity is stable during six weeks of simulated retail storage.

  17. Theoretical Investigation of Substituent Effects on the Dihydroazulene/Vinylheptafulvene Photoswitch: Increasing the Energy Storage Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Mia Harring; Elm, Jonas; Olsen, Stine T; Gejl, Aske Nørskov; Storm, Freja E; Frandsen, Benjamin N; Skov, Anders B; Nielsen, Mogens Brøndsted; Kjaergaard, Henrik G; Mikkelsen, Kurt V

    2016-12-15

    We have investigated the effects of substituents on the properties of the dihydroazulene/vinylheptafulvene photoswitch. The focus is on the changes of the thermochemical properties by placing electron withdrawing and donating groups on the monocyano and dicyano structures of the parent dihydroazulene and vinylheptafulvene compounds. We wish to increase the energy storage capacity, that is, the energy difference between the dihydroazulene and vinylheptafulvene isomers, of the photoswitch by computational molecular design and have performed over 9000 electronic structure calculations using density functional theory. Based on these calculations, we obtain design rules for how to increase the energy storage capacity of the photoswitch. Furthermore, we have investigated how the activation energy for the thermally induced vinylheptafulvene to dihydroazulene conversion depends on the substitution pattern, and based on these results, we have outlined molecular design considerations for obtaining new desired target structures exhibiting long energy storage times. Selected candidate systems have also been investigated in terms of optical properties to elucidate how sensitive the absorption maxima are to the functionalizations.

  18. Effects of sample collection and storage methods on antipneumococcal immunoglobulin A in saliva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurkka, A; Obiero, J; Käyhty, H; Scott, J A G

    2003-05-01

    Saliva contains components of both the mucosal and systemic immune systems. Variable flow rates, immunoglobulin proteases, and variation in collection and storage methods all introduce differences in the estimated concentrations of antibodies. We evaluated the effect of four collection methods and three storage protocols on the concentrations of immunoglobulin A (IgA) antibodies to pneumococcal capsular antigens 1, 5, 6B, and 14 and to pneumococcal surface adhesin A (PsaA) in saliva. Specimens were collected from 30 healthy Kenyan adults by collecting drool, by pipette suction, and with two commercial kits, OraSure and Oracol. Aliquots from each specimen were snap-frozen with glycerol in liquid nitrogen or stored for 4 to 8 h at +4 degrees C either with or without the addition of protease enzyme inhibitors prior to storage at -70 degrees C. Anticapsular IgA concentrations were not significantly different with different collection methods, but snap-freezing the specimens in liquid nitrogen led to concentrations 41 to 47% higher than those of specimens stored by the other methods (P < 0.0005).

  19. Pure Nanoscale Morphology Effect Enhancing the Energy Storage Characteristics of Processable Hierarchical Polypyrrole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wannapob, Rodtichoti; Vagin, Mikhail Yu; Jeerapan, Itthipon; Mak, Wing Cheung

    2015-11-03

    We report a new synthesis approach for the precise control of wall morphologies of colloidal polypyrrole microparticles (PPyMPs) based on a time-dependent template-assisted polymerization technique. The resulting PPyMPs are water processable, allowing the simple and direct fabrication of multilevel hierarchical PPyMPs films for energy storage via a self-assembly process, whereas convention methods creating hierarchical conducting films based on electrochemical polymerization are complicated and tedious. This approach allows the rational design and fabrication of PPyMPs with well-defined size and tunable wall morphology, while the chemical composition, zeta potential, and microdiameter of the PPyMPs are well characterized. By precisely controlling the wall morphology of the PPyMPs, we observed a pure nanoscale morphological effect of the materials on the energy storage performance. We demonstrated by controlling purely the wall morphology of PPyMPs to around 100 nm (i.e., thin-walled PPyMPs) that the thin-walled PPyMPs exhibit typical supercapacitor characteristics with a significant enhancement of charge storage performance of up to 290% compared to that of thick-walled PPyMPs confirmed by cyclic voltametry, galvanostatic charge-discharge, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. We envision that the present design concept could be extended to different conducting polymers as well as other functional organic and inorganic dopants, which provides an innovative model for future study and understanding of the complex physicochemical phenomena of energy-related materials.

  20. Effect of storage time and temperature on the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of commercial apricot jam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touati, Noureddine; Tarazona-Díaz, Martha Patricia; Aguayo, Encarna; Louaileche, Hayette

    2014-02-15

    Storage conditions are important factors for jam quality. The objective of this study was to monitor the physicochemical stability and sensorial profile of apricot jam during storage for 60 days at 5 °C, 25 °C and 37 °C. For that purpose, special attention was paid to total soluble solids (TSS), titratable acidity (TA), colour, free amino acids (FAA), total sugars (TS) and hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF). The decreasing parameter for jam at the end of storage under 5 °C, 25 °C and 37 °C, respectively, were 16.81%, 34.30% and 56.01% for FAA, and 5.52%, 9.02% and 7.46% for TS; likewise, the increasing were 19.81%, 22.94% and 25.07% for TA, 3.15%, 4.08% and 4.47% for TSS, 15.96%, 112.76% and 150% for HMF. Jam stability was better at 5 °C than 25 °C and 37 °C. The interaction time-temperature factor had significant effects on pH, TS, FAA and HMF, unlike TA, TSS and sensorial profile.

  1. Effect of adrenergic receptor ligands on metaiodobenzylguanidine uptake and storage in neuroblastoma cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babich, J.W. [Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)]|[Department of Radiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Graham, W. [Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Fischman, A.J. [Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)]|[Department of Radiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    1997-05-01

    The effects of adrenergic receptor ligands on uptake and storage of the radiopharmaceutical [{sup 125}I]metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) were studied in the human neuroblastoma cell line SK-N-SH. For uptake studies, cells were with varying concentrations of {alpha}-agonist (clonidine, methoxamine, and xylazine), {alpha}-antagonist (phentolamine, tolazoline, phenoxybenzamine, yohimbine, and prazosin), {beta}-antagonist (propranolol, atenolol), {beta}-agonist (isoprenaline and salbutamol), mixed {alpha}/{beta} antagonist (labetalol), or the neuronal blocking agent guanethidine, prior to the addition of [{sup 125}I]MIBG (0.1 {mu}M). The incubation was continued for 2 h and specific cell-associated radioactivity was measured. For the storage studies, cells were incubated with [{sup 125}I]MIBG for 2 h, followed by replacement with fresh medium with or without drug (MIBG, clonidine, or yohimbine). Cell-associated radioactivity was measured at various times over the next 20 h. Propanolol reduced [{sup 125}I]MIBG uptake by approximately 30% (P<0.01) at all concentrations tested, most likely due to nonspecific membrane changes. In conclusion, the results of this study establish that selected adrenergic ligands can significantly influence the pattern of uptake and storage of MIBG in cultured neuroblastoma cells, most likely through inhibition of uptake or through noncompetitive inhibition. The potential inplications of these findings justify further study. (orig./VHE). With 4 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Effect of bottling and storage on the migration of plastic constituents in Spanish bottled waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guart, Albert; Bono-Blay, Francisco; Borrell, Antonio; Lacorte, Silvia

    2014-08-01

    Bottled water is packaged in either glass or, to a large extent, in plastic bottles with metallic or plastic caps of different material, shape and colour. Plastic materials are made of one or more monomers and several additives that can eventually migrate into water, either during bottle manufacturing, water filling or storage. The main objective of the present study was to carry out a comprehensive assessment of the quality of the Spanish bottled water market in terms of (i) migration of plastic components or additives during bottling and during storage and (ii) evaluation of the effect of the packaging material and bottle format on the migration potential. The compounds investigated were 5 phthalates, diethylhexyl adipate, alkylphenols and bisphenol A. A set of 362 bottled water samples corresponding to 131 natural mineral waters and spring waters sources and 3 treated waters of several commercial brands were analysed immediately after bottling and after one-year storage (a total of 724 samples). Target compounds were detected in 5.6% of the data values, with diethyl hexyl phthalate and bisphenol A being the most ubiquitous compounds detected. The total daily intake was estimated and a comparison with reference values was indicated.

  3. Effect of storage and processing of Brazilian flaxseed on lipid and lignan contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renée Leão Simbalista

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Flaxseed has been widely studied around the world; its incorporation into products habitually consumed by human populations has been stimulated due to its unique nutritional value. The objective of this study was to evaluate the chemical composition of Brazilian flaxseed, to analyze the stability of lipids present in whole flaxseed flour (WFF or partially defatted flaxseed flour (DFF stored under several temperatures, and to investigate the effect of bread making on a product containing flaxseed. Whole flaxseed flour presented (g.100 g-1 25.7 of insoluble fiber, 10.7 of soluble fiber, 38.9 of lipids, and 2.65 of lignan. Defatted flaxseed flour presented 65% less lipids, 36% more fiber and 56% more lignan than whole flaxseed flour. The fatty acid profile was maintained in the defatted flaxseed flour, and it presented a stable composition during storage under ambient temperature, refrigeration, and freezing. The fatty acid profile was similar in the bread containing defatted flaxseed flour after dough development, baking, and storage at room temperature or refrigerated. After baking, 89% of the lignan content was kept in bread. Results show that Brazilian flaxseed has an interesting chemical composition, and that defatted flaxseed, by-product of lipid extraction, presents a good stability to grind and storage under several temperatures. Thus, defatted flaxseed flour can be incorporated in bread, increasing its nutritional and functional value.

  4. EFFECTS OF PRE-INCUBATION STORAGE TIME OF OSTRICH EGGS ON THEIR INCUBATION AND HATCHING RESULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lumturi Sena

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The research was carried out in the “ANOC” ostrich farm in Patos/Albania, in order to determine the effects of storage period on the hatchability of 197 ostrich (Struthio camelus eggs. One egg setting was monitored, through dividing the eggs into three groups according to their age, as following: 20-30, 10-20 and 1-10 days old, containing respectively 49, 80 and 68 eggs/group. During the hatching process, the respective parameters, such as: fecundity, embryonic mortality, weight egg loss and hatchability were recorded and monitored. After two weeks, the average weight loss of the all eggs resulted to be 0.5% more than the standard, referred as such, the instructions given by the Dutch company PAS REFORM, producer of the ostrich eggs incubation and hatching machines. The reason of the high embryonic mortality (40.7% mainly relates with the long pre-incubation storage time. Higher sterility (42.6% might especially relate with the high temperature stress in the farm, considering the fact that the animals were just transferred from the Netherlands to Albania. The hatching rate (29.9%, compared to the total number of the set eggs is comparable with the same parameter achieved in the UK. Out of these results, it is concluded that: the shorter the egg storage time before the setting the better will the hatching results be.

  5. Storage Effects on Sample Integrity of Environmental Surface Sampling Specimens with Bacillus anthracis Spores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, K Allison; O'Connell, Heather A; Rose, Laura J; Noble-Wang, Judith A; Arduino, Matthew J

    The effect of packaging, shipping temperatures and storage times on recovery of Bacillus anthracis. Sterne spores from swabs was investigated. Macrofoam swabs were pre-moistened, inoculated with Bacillus anthracis spores, and packaged in primary containment or secondary containment before storage at -15°C, 5°C, 21°C, or 35°C for 0-7 days. Swabs were processed according to validated Centers for Disease Control/Laboratory Response Network culture protocols, and the percent recovery relative to a reference sample (T0) was determined for each variable. No differences were observed in recovery between swabs held at -15° and 5°C, (p ≥ 0.23). These two temperatures provided significantly better recovery than swabs held at 21°C or 35°C (all 7 days pooled, p ≤ 0.04). The percent recovery at 5°C was not significantly different if processed on days 1, 2 or 4, but was significantly lower on day 7 (day 2 vs. 7, 5°C, 10(2), p=0.03). Secondary containment provided significantly better percent recovery than primary containment, regardless of storage time (5°C data, p ≤ 0.008). The integrity of environmental swab samples containing Bacillus anthracis spores shipped in secondary containment was maintained when stored at -15°C or 5°C and processed within 4 days to yield the optimum percent recovery of spores.

  6. Effect of storage of shelled Moringa oleifera seeds from reaping time on turbidity removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golestanbagh, M; Ahamad, I S; Idris, A; Yunus, R

    2011-09-01

    Moringa oleifera is an indigenous plant to Malaysia whose seeds are used for water purification. Many studies on Moringa oleifera have shown that it is highly effective as a natural coagulant for turbidity removal. In this study, two different methods for extraction of Moringa's active ingredient were investigated. Results of sodium chloride (NaCl) and distilled water extraction of Moringa oleifera seeds showed that salt solution extraction was more efficient than distilled water in extracting Moringa's active coagulant ingredient. The optimum dosage of shelled Moringa oleifera seeds extracted by the NaCl solution was comparable with that of the conventional chemical coagulant alum. Moreover, the turbidity removal efficiency was investigated for shelled Moringa oleifera seeds before drying in the oven under different storage conditions (i.e. open and closed containers at room temperature, 27 °C) and durations (fresh, and storage for 2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks from the time the seeds were picked from the trees). Our results indicate that there are no significant differences in coagulation efficiencies and, accordingly, turbidity removals between the examined storage conditions and periods.

  7. Effect of egg storage length on hatchability and weight loss in incubation of egg and meat type Japanese quails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JM Romao

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The quail raising in Brazil has increased through the last years and the incubation procedures are important to maintenance and improvement of quail egg production. To obtain a sufficient number of eggs to fill an incubator, eggs are usually accumulated in storage over a period from 1 day up to 3 weeks before incubation. The objective of this research was to verify the effect of egg storage on hatchability and egg weight loss for two lineages of Japanese quails. Sixty four Japanese quails were divided in two groups: G1 (n=32 for meat production and G2 (n=32 for egg production. They were used for serial egg collections that were performed every day, during 15 consecutively days, totaling 600 eggs. After collection they were placed in refrigerated room (20°C and 60% of relative humidity and submitted to different periods of storage, from 0 day until 14 days, according to their collection day. The incubation occurred at 37.6°C and 60% RH. The weight measurements were done during storage, incubation and hatching. The results showed that for Meat type and Egg type quails, the egg hatchability was around 84% until 10 days of storage, and then this rate decreased significantly. Both types of quail eggs presented similar weight loss during storage and incubation. The research showed that quail eggs present great hatchability until 10 days of storage and that eggs submitted to storage present a reduced weight loss during incubation.

  8. Study of the effectiveness of propolis extract as a storage medium for avulsed teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casaroto, Ana Regina; Hidalgo, Mirian Marubayashi; Sell, Ana Maria; Franco, Selma Lucy; Cuman, Roberto Kenji Nakamura; Moreschi, Eduardo; Victorino, Fausto Rodrigo; Steffens, Vânia Antunes; Bersani-Amado, Ciomar Aparecida

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of propolis extract in maintaining the viability of human periodontal ligament (PDL) cells, and to radiographically analyze tooth replantation and the adjacent periodontium in dogs after storage in this extract. Human PDL cells were incubated with the experimental media propolis, milk, saliva, Hank's balanced salt solution (HBSS), and Dulbecco's modified Eagles medium (DMEM, positive controls), and distilled water (negative control). Cell viability was determined 0, 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24 h later by colorimetric MTT assay. Thirty incisors from dogs were divided into two storage time blocks (1 and 3 h) and were maintained in the experimental media. HBSS served as a positive control, and dry teeth (on gauze) as a negative control. The replanted teeth were radiographed once per month for 6 months. The radiographic images were standardized by the shortening/lengthening factor, and were both qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed. The in vitro results showed that the efficacy of propolis in maintaining functional viability of PDL cells was similar to that of milk. Propolis and milk were significantly better than controls from the 6-h time period. The in vivo results showed that teeth maintained in propolis medium exhibited replacement resorption with significant reduction in tooth length, similar to teeth maintained in saliva and dried teeth. This resorption was less intense with the 3-h storage time than the 1-h storage time. Conditions close to normal were found in teeth maintained in milk, similar to the HBSS control. Therefore, although propolis was effective in maintaining the viability of human PDL cells, resorption of the tooth replantation in dogs occurred under these experimental conditions.

  9. Lactobacillus plantarum: Effect of a protective biofilm on the surface of olives during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faten, Kachouri; Hamida, Ksontini; Soumya, El Abed; Saad, Ibn Souda Koraichi; Hasna, Meftah; Hassan, Latrache; Moktar, Hamdi

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of Lactobacillus plantarum adhesion to the surface of olives during storage through studying the interaction between the surfaces of the olives and L. plantarum. The results showed that the total number of adherent L. plantarum increased exponentially from 1.2×10(6) to 1.3×10(8)cfu/g. Images obtained using environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) after 4 days of storage revealed that the olive surface was covered with a uniform and compact biofilm constituted of L. plantarum and yeast. Physicochemical analysis of surface of L. plantarum revealed that it was hydrophilic (Giwi>0mJ/m(2)). The surface of the olives also appeared to be hydrophilic (Giwi=3.28mJ/m(2)). The electron-donor characteristics of the surfaces of L. plantarum and olive were γ(-)=53.1mJ/m(2) and γ(-)=28.1mJ/m(2), respectively. The formation of a protective biofilm of L. plantarum increased the hydrophilicity (from 3.28 to 46.14mJ/m(2)) and the electron-donor capacity (from 28.1 to 67.2mJ/m(2)) of the olive surface by 1 day of storage. Analysis of the impact of the biofilm that formed on the surface of the olives during storage showed a reduction in the content of undesirable planktonic microorganisms, such as fungi, which could have occurred due to competition for nutrients and oxygen or modifications in the physicochemical properties of the olives. Thus, coating the surface of olives with a natural material, such as L. plantarum, may be a first step in developing strategies to prevent their microbial colonization.

  10. Lactobacillus plantarum: Effect of a protective biofilm on the surface of olives during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kachouri Faten

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of Lactobacillus plantarum adhesion to the surface of olives during storage through studying the interaction between the surfaces of the olives and L. plantarum. The results showed that the total number of adherent L. plantarum increased exponentially from 1.2 × 106 to 1.3 × 108 cfu/g. Images obtained using environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM after 4 days of storage revealed that the olive surface was covered with a uniform and compact biofilm constituted of L. plantarum and yeast. Physicochemical analysis of surface of L. plantarum revealed that it was hydrophilic (Giwi > 0 mJ/m2. The surface of the olives also appeared to be hydrophilic (Giwi = 3.28 mJ/m2. The electron-donor characteristics of the surfaces of L. plantarum and olive were γ− = 53.1 mJ/m2 and γ− = 28.1 mJ/m2, respectively. The formation of a protective biofilm of L. plantarum increased the hydrophilicity (from 3.28 to 46.14 mJ/m2 and the electron-donor capacity (from 28.1 to 67.2 mJ/m2 of the olive surface by 1 day of storage. Analysis of the impact of the biofilm that formed on the surface of the olives during storage showed a reduction in the content of undesirable planktonic microorganisms, such as fungi, which could have occurred due to competition for nutrients and oxygen or modifications in the physicochemical properties of the olives. Thus, coating the surface of olives with a natural material, such as L. plantarum, may be a first step in developing strategies to prevent their microbial colonization.

  11. Effect of Biopreservatives on Storage Life of Papaya (Carica papaya L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatema H. Brishti

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE In this experiment the effect on post-harvest preservation of papaya (Carica papaya L. fruit coated with either Aloe gel (AG; 100% or papaya leaf extract with Aloe gel (PLEAG; 1:1 was studied. To evaluate the role of coating on ripening behavior and quality of papaya the uncoated and coated fruits were stored and ripened at room temperature (25 °C-29 °C and 82-84% relative humidity. Physico-chemical properties were analyzed at 4 day intervals during the storage period. The incidence of disease attack was also visually observed. The overall results showed the superiority of AG and PLEAG coating in lengthening the shelf-life of papaya fruit compared to controls which showed significant decay from 6th day onward and complete decay within 12 days of storage. The AG and PLEAG coated fruits maintained their shelf life for 12 days and decayed at 16th day. The coated fruits also maintained their color, flavor and firmness up to 12 days of storage. An increase in ascorbic acid content (120.2 mg/100 g was also found in coated fruits in contrast to the control (59 mg/100 g. Only 27% disease incidence was observed in AG and 13% in PLEAG coated fruits as compared to control (100% during the storage period. The results of this study show that both AG and PLEAG coatings have excellent potential to be used on fresh produce to maintain quality and extend shelf-life.

  12. The evolutionary time machine: forecasting how populations can adapt to changing environments using dormant propagules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsini, Luisa; Schwenk, Klaus; De Meester, Luc; Colbourne, John K.; Pfrender, Michael E.; Weider, Lawrence J.

    2013-01-01

    Evolutionary changes are determined by a complex assortment of ecological, demographic and adaptive histories. Predicting how evolution will shape the genetic structures of populations coping with current (and future) environmental challenges has principally relied on investigations through space, in lieu of time, because long-term phenotypic and molecular data are scarce. Yet, dormant propagules in sediments, soils and permafrost are convenient natural archives of population-histories from which to trace adaptive trajectories along extended time periods. DNA sequence data obtained from these natural archives, combined with pioneering methods for analyzing both ecological and population genomic time-series data, are likely to provide predictive models to forecast evolutionary responses of natural populations to environmental changes resulting from natural and anthropogenic stressors, including climate change. PMID:23395434

  13. Effects of glutathione on sperm quality during liquid storage in boars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Gang; Liu, Qi; Wang, Li-Qiang; Yang, Gong-She; Hu, Jian-Hong

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of different concentrations of glutathione in Modena on boar sperm quality during liquid storage at 17°C. Boar semen samples were collected and diluted with Modena containing different concentrations (0, 1, 5, 10, 15 mmol/L) of glutathione. Sperm motility, effective survival period, plasma membrane integrity, acrosome integrity, total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) activity, malondialdehyde (MDA) content and hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) content were measured and analyzed. The results showed that Modena supplemented with 1, 5 and 10 mmol/L glutathione improved sperm motility, effective survival period, plasma membrane integrity and T-AOC, and decreased MDA content and H2 O2 content. Meanwhile, the semen sample diluted with Modena containing 1 mmol/L glutathione achieved optimum effect, and effective survival period was 6.1 days. After 5 days preservation, sperm motility, plasma membrane integrity and T-AOC of the group treated with 1 mmol/L glutathione were all higher than that of other groups. Meanwhile, MDA content and H2 O2 content were lower than that of other groups. In conclusion, Modena supplemented with glutathione decreased the oxidative stress and improved the quality of boar semen during liquid storage at 17°C, and 1 mmol/L concentration was the optimum concentration. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  14. Metastatic growth from dormant cells induced by a col-I-enriched fibrotic environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkan, Dalit; El Touny, Lara H; Michalowski, Aleksandra M; Smith, Jane Ann; Chu, Isabel; Davis, Anne Sally; Webster, Joshua D; Hoover, Shelley; Simpson, R Mark; Gauldie, Jack; Green, Jeffrey E

    2010-07-15

    Breast cancer that recurs as metastatic disease many years after primary tumor resection and adjuvant therapy seems to arise from tumor cells that disseminated early in the course of disease but did not develop into clinically apparent lesions. These long-term surviving, disseminated tumor cells maintain a state of dormancy, but may be triggered to proliferate through largely unknown factors. We now show that the induction of fibrosis, associated with deposition of type I collagen (Col-I) in the in vivo metastatic microenvironment, induces dormant D2.0R cells to form proliferative metastatic lesions through beta1-integrin signaling. In vitro studies using a three-dimensional culture system modeling dormancy showed that Col-I induces quiescent D2.0R cells to proliferate through beta1-integrin activation of SRC and focal adhesion kinase, leading to extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)-dependent myosin light chain phosphorylation by myosin light chain kinase and actin stress fiber formation. Blocking beta1-integrin, Src, ERK, or myosin light chain kinase by short hairpin RNA or pharmacologic approaches inhibited Col-I-induced activation of this signaling cascade, cytoskeletal reorganization, and proliferation. These findings show that fibrosis with Col-I enrichment at the metastatic site may be a critical determinant of cytoskeletal reorganization in dormant tumor cells, leading to their transition from dormancy to metastatic growth. Thus, inhibiting Col-I production, its interaction with beta1-integrin, and downstream signaling of beta1-integrin may be important strategies for preventing or treating recurrent metastatic disease.

  15. Managing aging effects on dry cask storage systems for extended long-term storage and transportation of used fuel - rev. 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chopra, O.K.; Diercks, D.; Fabian, R.; Ma, D.; Shah, V.; Tam, S.W.; Liu, Y. (Decision and Information Sciences); ( EVS); ( NE)

    2012-07-06

    The cancellation of the Yucca Mountain repository program in the United States raises the prospect of extended long-term storage (i.e., >120 years) and deferred transportation of used fuel at operating and decommissioned nuclear power plant sites. Under U.S. federal regulations contained in Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 72.42, the initial license term for an Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation (ISFSI) must not exceed 40 years from the date of issuance. Licenses may be renewed by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) at the expiration of the license term upon application by the licensee for a period not to exceed 40 years. Application for ISFSI license renewals must include the following: (1) Time-limited aging analyses (TLAAs) that demonstrate that structures, systems, and components (SSCs) important to safety will continue to perform their intended function for the requested period of extended operation; and (2) a description of the aging management program (AMP) for management of issues associated with aging that could adversely affect SSCs important to safety. In addition, the application must also include design bases information as documented in the most recent updated final safety analysis report as required by 10 CFR 72.70. Information contained in previous applications, statements, or reports filed with the Commission under the license may be incorporated by reference provided that those references are clear and specific. The NRC has recently issued the Standard Review Plan (SRP) for renewal of used-fuel dry cask storage system (DCSS) licenses and Certificates of Compliance (CoCs), NUREG-1927, under which NRC may renew a specific license or a CoC for a term not to exceed 40 years. Both the license and the CoC renewal applications must contain revised technical requirements and operating conditions (fuel storage, surveillance and maintenance, and other requirements) for the ISFSI and DCSS that address aging effects that

  16. Effect of Genetic Conditions, Foliar Fertilisation with Magnesium and Storage on the Content of Nitrates (V and (III in the Storage Roots in Carrot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wszelaczyńska Elżbieta

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available During 2007-2009, studies were undertaken to determine the effect of genetic factors, magnesium fertilisation and storage on the content of nitrates (V and (III in carrot roots. After harvest as well as after storage, the cultivar ‘Perfekcja’ was characterised by the lowest content of NO3− and NO2−, while the greatest amounts were found in cultivar ‘Flacoro’. Magnesium was applied in doses of 0, 45 and 90 kg MgO ha-1 - in the form of 3% spraying during the vegetation season. The research items were cultivars: ‘Berjo’, Flacoro’, ‘Karotan’, ‘Koral’ and ‘Perfekcja’.

  17. Effect of calcium chloride treatments on calcium content, anthracnose severity and antioxidant activity in papaya fruit during ambient storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madani, Babak; Mirshekari, Amin; Yahia, Elhadi

    2016-07-01

    There have been no reports on the effects of preharvest calcium application on anthracnose disease severity, antioxidant activity and cellular changes during ambient storage of papaya, and therefore the objective of this study was to investigate these effects. Higher calcium concentrations (1.5 and 2% w/v) increased calcium concentration in the peel and pulp tissues, maintained firmness, and reduced anthracnose incidence and severity. While leakage of calcium-treated fruit was lower for 1.5 and 2% calcium treatments compared to the control, microscopic results confirmed that pulp cell wall thickness was higher after 6 days in storage, for the 2% calcium treatment compared to the control. Calcium-treated fruit also had higher total antioxidant activity and total phenolic compounds during storage. Calcium chloride, especially at higher concentrations, is effective in maintaining papaya fruit quality during ambient storage. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. The effect of priming solutions and storage time on plasticizer migration in different PVC tubing types--implications for wet storage of ECMO systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horne, David C; Torrance, Ida; Modine, Thomas; Gourlay, Terence

    2009-12-01

    The wet priming of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation systems and storage of these systems for rapid deployment is common practice in many clinical centers. This storage policy is, however, seen by many to be controversial due to the potential adverse effects associated with the migration of the di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate plasticizer (DEHP) from the polyvinyl chloride (PVC) circuit tubing and issues surrounding the maintenance of sterility. This study was performed to evaluate the effects of both short and long-term storage and priming fluid type on plasticizer migration from four commonly used PVC tubes in extracorporeal membrane oxygenation therapy circuits. The four tubes incorporating three plasticizers, two DEHP, one tri(2-ethylhexyl) trimellitate (TOTM), and one dioctyl adipate (DOA) were exposed to each of the three priming fluids for a period of 28 days. Samples were taken at time intervals of 1, 4, 8, 24, and 48 hours, followed by samples at 7, 14, and 28 days. Each sample was processed using a spectrophotomer and the concentration of plasticizer leaching into each solution at each time-point determined. There was a time dependent increase in plasticizer leached from each tube. The migration was greatly affected by both the priming fluid and tubing type. The migration of DEHP was higher than that of TOTM and DOA over both the short and long-term exposure levels. Plasticizer migration occurs from all of the tubes tested over the long term. The TOTM and DOA tubes performed better than the DEHP counterparts in the short term. Selection of priming fluid has a major bearing on plasticizer migration with significant lipid and protein containing fluids promoting higher migration than simple sodium chloride .9% solution prime. The results suggest that DOA tubing and sodium chloride. 9% solution priming fluid should be selected if wet primed perfusion circuits are to be used over short terms of storage.

  19. Dormant season grazing may decrease wildfire probability by increasing fuel moisture and reducing fuel amount and continuity

    Science.gov (United States)

    1. Wildfire is an ecological and economic risk for many semi-arid rangelands across the globe. This coupled with extreme wildfire seasons and mega-fires over the last decade have resulted in a call for more pre-suppression management actions. Dormant season grazing has been suggested as a treatment...

  20. Dormant origins licensed by excess Mcm2-7 are required for human cells to survive replicative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Xin Quan; Jackson, Dean A; Blow, J Julian

    2007-12-15

    In late mitosis and early G1, Mcm2-7 complexes are loaded onto DNA to license replication origins for use in the upcoming S phase. However, the amount of Mcm2-7 loaded is in significant excess over the number of origins normally used. We show here that in human cells, excess chromatin-bound Mcm2-7 license dormant replication origins that do not fire during normal DNA replication, in part due to checkpoint activity. Dormant origins were activated within active replicon clusters if replication fork progression was inhibited, despite the activation of S-phase checkpoints. After lowering levels of chromatin-bound Mcm2-7 in human cells by RNA interference (RNAi), the use of dormant origins was suppressed in response to replicative stress. Although cells with lowered chromatin-bound Mcm2-7 replicated at normal rates, when challenged with replication inhibitors they had dramatically reduced rates of DNA synthesis and reduced viability. These results suggest that the use of dormant origins licensed by excess Mcm2-7 is a new and physiologically important mechanism that cells utilize to maintain DNA replication rates under conditions of replicative stress. We propose that checkpoint kinase activity can preferentially suppress initiation within inactive replicon clusters, thereby directing new initiation events toward active clusters that are experiencing replication problems.

  1. Fatty acid synthesis and pyruvate metabolism pathways remain active in dihydroartemisinin-induced dormant ring stages of Plasmodium falciparum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Nanhua; LaCrue, Alexis N; Teuscher, Franka; Waters, Norman C; Gatton, Michelle L; Kyle, Dennis E; Cheng, Qin

    2014-08-01

    Artemisinin (ART)-based combination therapy (ACT) is used as the first-line treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria worldwide. However, despite high potency and rapid action, there is a high rate of recrudescence associated with ART monotherapy or ACT long before the recent emergence of ART resistance. ART-induced ring-stage dormancy and recovery have been implicated as possible causes of recrudescence; however, little is known about the characteristics of dormant parasites, including whether dormant parasites are metabolically active. We investigated the transcription of 12 genes encoding key enzymes in various metabolic pathways in P. falciparum during dihydroartemisinin (DHA)-induced dormancy and recovery. Transcription analysis showed an immediate downregulation for 10 genes following exposure to DHA but continued transcription of 2 genes encoding apicoplast and mitochondrial proteins. Transcription of several additional genes encoding apicoplast and mitochondrial proteins, particularly of genes encoding enzymes in pyruvate metabolism and fatty acid synthesis pathways, was also maintained. Additions of inhibitors for biotin acetyl-coenzyme A (CoA) carboxylase and enoyl-acyl carrier reductase of the fatty acid synthesis pathways delayed the recovery of dormant parasites by 6 and 4 days, respectively, following DHA treatment. Our results demonstrate that most metabolic pathways are downregulated in DHA-induced dormant parasites. In contrast, fatty acid and pyruvate metabolic pathways remain active. These findings highlight new targets to interrupt recovery of parasites from ART-induced dormancy and to reduce the rate of recrudescence following ART treatment.

  2. Effect of natural antioxidants on the stability of ostrich meat during storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abou-Arab, E. A.; Abu-Salem, F. M.

    2010-07-01

    Meat from the ostrich is becoming increasingly popular throughout the world. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the effects of different antioxidants such as ascorbic acid (AA), {alpha}-tocopherol (Toc) and rosemary herb (Ros) on the stability of ostrich meat during storage. The chemical composition of ostrich meat showed low fat content (1.5 %) combined with high protein content (22.4 %). The combination of AA Ros, Toc Ros and AA Toc was more effective in reducing the thiobarbituric acid (TBA) and peroxide values. The antioxidant showed insignificant effects on acidity as oleic acid. The addition of the efficient role of AA, Toc and Ros showed an improvement in the color stability of ostrich steaks and the combined treatment was more effective in color stability. In conclusion, the addition of AA, Toc and Ros had a positive effect on aroma quality, rancidity and discoloration of refrigerated ostrich meat. (Author) 41 refs.

  3. Effect of storage and drying temperature on the gelation behavior and structural characteristics of sericin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Yoon Nam; Park, Byung-Dae; Um, In Chul

    2015-11-01

    Owing to unique properties, including the wound healing effect, sericin gel and films have attracted significant attention in the biomedical and cosmetic fields. The structural characteristics and properties of sericin gels and films are especially important owing to their effect on the performance of sericin in biomedical and cosmetic applications. In the present study, the effect of temperature on the gelation behavior, gel disruption, and sol-gel transition of sericin was examined using rheometry. In addition, the effect of the drying temperature on the structural characteristics of the sericin film was determined via Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The strength of the sericin gel increased and the gelation process was prolonged with decreasing storage temperatures. FTIR and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) results also revealed that the crystallinity and the thermal decomposition temperature of the sericin film increased with decreasing drying temperature. The sericin gels were disrupted at a storage time of 40min when they were stored at temperatures higher than 50°C, and the corresponding gel strength decreased with increasing temperature. Furthermore, the thermo-reversible nature of gel-sol transition of sericin was confirmed by rheological and FTIR measurements.

  4. A novel instrument to delineate varietal and harvest effects on blueberry fruit texture during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Changying; Luo, Jiawei; MacLean, Dan

    2011-07-01

    Firmness is an important quality index for blueberries. It is the major factor that determines consumer acceptability, storability and resistance to injury and diseases during storage and fresh marketing. Blueberry cultivars vary in their firmness, with southern highbush cultivars usually softer than Rabbiteye blueberries. In this study, varietal and harvest effects on blueberry firmness were measured by the Firmtech II and laser air-puff instruments. This was the first time that the laser air-puff, a non-contact food firmness tester, had been used for firmness testing of small fruit, such as blueberry. Two southern highbush cultivars (Sweet Crisp and Emerald) and two Rabbiteye cultivars (Vernon and Savory) were used for varietal effect measurement, while a Rabbiteye cultivar (Premier) that was both machine and hand harvested was used for harvest effect observation. Fifty berry samples per replicate and four replicates were tested by two instruments at harvest and after 7, 14, or 21 days of storage. The laser air-puff tester successfully delineated the difference in firmness due to cultivar characteristics and harvest methods, as well as the firmness loss over 21 days of postharvest cold storage (4 °C). The firmness index derived from the laser air-puff tester achieved a significant correlation with the firmness values measured by the Firmtech (R(2)=0.80). A new texture index, springiness, was developed from the laser air-puff, which largely reflects the varietal differences in elasticity of fruit. This study demonstrated the efficacy of the laser air-puff instrument for blueberry firmness measurement. This non-contact instrument not only provides an alternative method of firmness measurement, but also offers a new index for fruit elasticity evaluation and better texture evaluation for blueberries. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Effect of Tropical Peat Swamp Forest Clearing on Soil Carbon Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad S.M. Nuri

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem Statement: Forest clearing in Tropical Peat Swamp Forest (TPSF will affect forest soil carbon storage. Thus this study is essential to determine whether the effect of clearing of forest does to the nature of soil forest concentrating on soil carbon storage. The objectives of this study were to analyze carbon storage values in logged and clear cut TPSF and to compare these values to see whether clearing of forest will affect its soil in terms of carbon storage. Approach: Soil sampling was conducted in July 2009 on two different plots at Batang Igan, Sibu, Sarawak, Malaysia. The plots are secondary TPSF where this area has been logged but not been cleared while another plot is the clear cut area where the forest has been cut down and cleared for other land use. Soil samples were taken in each plot in the depth of 0-15 cm. Every sample was taken randomly by peat auger using bulking method. The soils were air dried, pounded using mortar and sieved. The bulk densities were determined by coring method. Total Carbon (TC, total Organic Matter (OM, Total Nitrogen (TN and stable C estimation per hectare were determined from bulk density. The soil pH was determined using pH meter by using water and KCl. SOM, TC and stable C in Humic Acid (HA were determined by loss-on ignition method. TN was determined using Micro-Kjeldahl method followed by steam distillation and titration. HA was extracted and purified using distilled water. Then, the HA were oven dried in 40oC. The E4/E6 ratio by using spectrometer was used. Total acidity of HA which consists of carboxylic (-COOH and phenolic (-OH functional group were analyzed. The statistical analysis and comparison was using t-test to compare between two means. Results: The variables that showing the significant differences between two plots were pH water and KCl, soil OM, total C and HA yield. The insignificant differences were bulk density, total N, C/N ratio, E4/E6, phenol, carboxyl

  6. Uptake of and Resistance to the Antibiotic Berberine by Individual Dormant, Germinating and Outgrowing Bacillus Spores as Monitored by Laser Tweezers Raman Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shiwei; Yu, Jing; Suvira, Milomir; Setlow, Peter; Li, Yong-qing

    2015-01-01

    Berberine, an alkaloid originally extracted from the plant Coptis chinensis and other herb plants, has been used as a pharmacological substance for many years. The therapeutic effect of berberine has been attributed to its interaction with nucleic acids and blocking cell division. However, levels of berberine entering individual microbial cells minimal for growth inhibition and its effects on bacterial spores have not been determined. In this work the kinetics and levels of berberine accumulation by individual dormant and germinated spores were measured by laser tweezers Raman spectroscopy and differential interference and fluorescence microscopy, and effects of berberine on spore germination and outgrowth and spore and growing cell viability were determined. The major conclusions from this work are that: (1) colony formation from B. subtilis spores was blocked ~ 99% by 25 μg/mL berberine plus 20 μg/mL INF55 (a multidrug resistance pump inhibitor); (2) 200 μg/mL berberine had no effect on B. subtilis spore germination with L-valine, but spore outgrowth was completely blocked; (3) berberine levels accumulated in single spores germinating with ≥ 25 μg/mL berberine were > 10 mg/mL; (4) fluorescence microscopy showed that germinated spores accumulated high-levels of berberine primarily in the spore core, while dormant spores accumulated very low berberine levels primarily in spore coats; and (5) during germination, uptake of berberine began at the time of commitment (T1) and reached a maximum after the completion of CaDPA release (Trelease) and spore cortex lysis (Tlysis).

  7. Managing aging effects on dry cask storage systems for extended long-term storage and transportation of used fuel - rev. 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chopra, O.K.; Diercks, D.; Fabian, R.; Ma, D.; Shah, V.; Tam, S.W.; Liu, Y. (Decision and Information Sciences); ( EVS); ( NE)

    2012-07-06

    The cancellation of the Yucca Mountain repository program in the United States raises the prospect of extended long-term storage (i.e., >120 years) and deferred transportation of used fuel at operating and decommissioned nuclear power plant sites. Under U.S. federal regulations contained in Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 72.42, the initial license term for an Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation (ISFSI) must not exceed 40 years from the date of issuance. Licenses may be renewed by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) at the expiration of the license term upon application by the licensee for a period not to exceed 40 years. Application for ISFSI license renewals must include the following: (1) Time-limited aging analyses (TLAAs) that demonstrate that structures, systems, and components (SSCs) important to safety will continue to perform their intended function for the requested period of extended operation; and (2) a description of the aging management program (AMP) for management of issues associated with aging that could adversely affect SSCs important to safety. In addition, the application must also include design bases information as documented in the most recent updated final safety analysis report as required by 10 CFR 72.70. Information contained in previous applications, statements, or reports filed with the Commission under the license may be incorporated by reference provided that those references are clear and specific. The NRC has recently issued the Standard Review Plan (SRP) for renewal of used-fuel dry cask storage system (DCSS) licenses and Certificates of Compliance (CoCs), NUREG-1927, under which NRC may renew a specific license or a CoC for a term not to exceed 40 years. Both the license and the CoC renewal applications must contain revised technical requirements and operating conditions (fuel storage, surveillance and maintenance, and other requirements) for the ISFSI and DCSS that address aging effects that

  8. The Effects of Drying Methods, Packaging Atmosphere and Storage Time on Dried Pomegranate Aril Quality

    OpenAIRE

    GÖLÜKCÜ, Muharrem

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of drying methods, packaging atmosphere, and storage time in preserving the quality of dried pomegranate aril on total phenolic matter, total anthocyanin, antioxidant activity, and CIE L, a*, b*, C, h colour values. The highest contents of phenolic matter (5580 mg kg-1), anthocyanin (679.76 mg kg-1), antioxidant capacity (IC50, 26.16 mg g-1) and CIE a* colour value (10.73) were observed in freeze dried sample, followed by vacuum, convective, an...

  9. Study on effectiveness of continuous solar dryer integrated with desiccant thermal storage for drying cocoa beans

    OpenAIRE

    Sari Farah Dina; Himsar Ambarita; Farel H. Napitupulu; Hideki Kawai

    2015-01-01

    The main objective is to assess effectiveness of continuous solar dryer integrated with desiccant thermal storage for drying cocoa beans. Two type of desiccants were tested, molecular sieve 13× (Na86 [(AlO2)86·(SiO2)106]·264H2O) as an adsorbent type and CaCl2 as an absorbent type. The results revealed that during sunshine hours, the maximum temperature within the drying chamber varied from 40 °C to 54 °C. In average, it was 9–12 °C higher than ambient temperature. These temperatures are very ...

  10. The Effect of Serial Culture and Storage on the Protective Potential of a Competitive Exclusion Preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almeida WAF

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The competitive exclusion method (EC was used to protect day-old birds against colonisation of the intestinal tract by Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (SE. The culture prepared in nutrient broth incubated at 37ºC/24 h inhibited SE growth in the caecal contents. The beneficial effect was also observed after serial passage of the feces culture for up to 14 times. The material obtained after 12 serial sub-cultures after storage for 28 days at 4-6ºC also kept its action on SE.

  11. Effectiveness of rf phase modulation for increasing bunch length in electron storage rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsini; Mosnier

    2000-04-01

    Aiming at increasing the apparent bunch length and hence the beam lifetime in electron storage rings, rf phase modulation near one parametric resonance has been experimentally investigated. Since the possible benefit of this technique depends greatly on the ring parameters, we studied the effect of such a modulation for different rf parameters on the longitudinal emittance. Theoretical predictions and results of simulations are compared and discussed. It is shown that synchrotron radiation tends to spoil the parametric resonance. In particular, a criterion for island survival has been found.

  12. Aging Effects on the Hydrogen Storage Characteristics of Li-Mg-B-N-H Complex Hydrides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Sesha; Vickers, Eric; Mulharan, James; Darkazalli, Gazi; Goswami, Yogi; Stefanakos, Elias; FLPoly-CERC Collaboration

    2015-03-01

    The aging effects on the hydrogen storage characteristics and chemical formulations of the complex hydrides are discussed in this study. The aging effects due to atmospheric events such as oxygen and moisture coverage and self-decomposition are currently under investigation. The candidate material chosen for this study is Lithium/Magnesium based complex hydride LiBH4/LiNH2/MgH2. These materials were prepared using high energy ball milling under Ar/H2 atmosphere with different milling durations. The chemical, structural and microstructural characteristics of the synthesized and aged materials were compared and investigated using TGA/DSC, FTIR, XRD, BET and SEM analytical tools. Hydrogen storage properties such as hydrogen sorption kinetics, cycle life and pressure-composition isotherm (PCI) was examined via high pressure, high temperature Sievert's type apparatus. This current study will shed light to compare and contrast the above mentioned characteristics for the aged samples practically at the same experimental conditions. Furthermore, we have investigated the relationship between the aging effects with respect to the crystallite sizes of the candidate compounds and their nano-dopant variants. We acknowledge the grant from Florida Energy Systems Consortium and support from Florida Polytechnic University.

  13. Effect of fungal infection on phenolic compounds during the storage of coffee beans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal, A. A.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aims: This work was undertaken to study the effect of Aspergillus infection on phenolic compounds in beans from four cultivars of the coffee plant (Coffea arabica L.. The effects of storage conditions of the coffee beans were also examined. Methodology and results: Beans from four varieties of coffee were artificially infected with three species of Aspergillus: A. niger, A. melleus and A. alliacus, and stored at 0, 8 and 25 ± 2 °C. After 3, 6 and 9 months, the contents of phenolic compounds in the beans were determined using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Conclusion, significance and impact study: The results of this study showed that phenolic compounds were qualitatively and quantitatively higher in the inoculated beans as compared with the uninfected control beans, reflecting a possible induced defense mechanism in the infected beans. Increased storage periods resulted in higher levels of phenols, but the average total, bound and free phenols did not differ between the cultivars tested. Effective control of Apergillus infection in coffee beans can prevent such changes in phenolics that may affect their commercial value.

  14. Effect of curing ingredients and vacuum packaging on the physicochemical and storage quality of ready-to-eat Vawksa rep (smoked pork product during refrigerated storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepshikha Deuri

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was conducted for the development of ready-to-eat Vawksa rep (smoked pork product and to study the synergistic effect of curing ingredients and vacuum packaging on the physico-chemical and storage quality during refrigerated storage at (4°C±1°C for 15 days. Materials and Methods: Four different batches of Vawksa rep samples were prepared, i.e., T-1 (uncured, first cooked at 121°C for 15 min, and then smoked at 120°C for 30 min, T-2 (uncured, cooked, and smoked simultaneously at 120°C for 45 min, T-3 (cured, first cooked at 121°C for 15 min, and then smoked at 120°C for 30 min, and T-4 (cured, cooked, and smoked simultaneously at 120°C for 45 min. Results: Cooking yield was significantly higher (p<0.05 for the T-4. The pH of T-3 and T-4 samples was significantly higher (p<0.05 on day 15. The tyrosine value of all the samples increased significantly (p<0.05 among the different days of analysis. Thiobarbituric acid value was significantly (p<0.05 lower in T-3 sample both at the beginning and at the end of storage period. In microbiological profile, total plate count was lower in T-3 and T-4 than T-1 and T-2. However, Escherichia coli count was negative for T-3 and T-4 samples throughout the storage period. Among sensory attributes, T-3 and T-4 samples registered superior scores for color, flavor, texture, juiciness, and overall acceptability. Conclusion: Furthermore, Vawksa rep (smoked pork product could be prepared easily with little technology up-gradation and with a negligible escalation of production cost.

  15. The effects of postharvest application of lecithin to improve storage potential and quality of fresh goji (Lycium barbarum L.) berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jatoi, Mushtaque Ahmed; Jurić, Slaven; Vidrih, Rajko; Vinceković, Marko; Vuković, Marko; Jemrić, Tomislav

    2017-09-01

    To enhance storage life and post-storage quality of fresh goji berries, three treatments with lecithin (1, 5, 10g·L(-1)) and two storage times (8, 16days) were evaluated. The significant effects on the physiological and biochemical parameters were varied. 1g·L(-1) lecithin showed its main effects after 8days of storage by reduction in total weight loss and decay, SSC/TA ratio (also at 16days), and chlorophyll content and with highest scores of sensory attributes (also at 16days). 5g·L(-1) lecithin showed its main effects after 16days of storage: highest SSC, highest TA (also at 8days), highest TPC, only significant reduction in DPPH antioxidant activity, and highest total flavonoid content. 10g·L(-1) lecithin showed its main effects after 8days of storage with highest SSC, chlorophyll content, total flavonoid, DPPH, and ABTS antioxidant activity (also at 16days), but with least scores of sensory attributes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of freezing rate and storage time on shelf-life quality of hot boned and conventionally boned ground beef

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gapud, V.G.; Schlimme, D.V.

    1986-01-01

    Commercially processed, 80% lean, chub packaged ground beef (both conventionally boned and hot boned) was frozen to O F (-18/sup 0/C) at three rates: 72, 96, and 120 hours before storage at O F (-18/sup 0/C). The meat was examined after 0, 1.5, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months storage for the following attributes: psychrophile and aerobic plate counts, free fatty acid (FFA) and thiobarbituric acid (TBA) values, niacin content, raw and cooked color, moisture, fat and protein contents, and cook shrink and texture of cooked patties. Freezing rates had no significant effect on microbial load, niacin content, color, or cook shrink and texture. Freezing rate had a significant effect upon TBA and FFA values. Niacin, cook shrink and moisture values declined and TBA and FFA values increased with storage. Raw meat Hunter L value increased and Hunter a/b value declined during storage. Substantial quality differences between meat types were found.

  17. Effect of drying, freezing and storage of dried and frozen onion (Allium cepa L. on its pungency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Horbowicz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains results of studies of drying and freezing effects, as well as storage of dried and frozen onion on its pungency. The effect of onion bulbs preparation on pungency was estimated as well. The pungency measurements were based on determination of pyruvate produced enzymatically by alliinase. Storage at 20°C of skinned onion decreases sligthly pungency, however three weeks storage at 0-2°C did not change it. Other results indicate that freezing at -25°C, and followed thawing led to large losses - reaching 75% of pungency found in the onion taken to the process. Storage of the frozen onion caused further decrease its pungency. Decrease of pungency during drying was depended on temperature of the process. Low drying temperature (40 and 50°C, 20 hours caused only 15-20% decline of pungency. Higher temperature drying (60°C resulted in 50% losses of onion pungency.

  18. Effects of Material Choice on Biocide Loss in Orion Water Storage Tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, William T.; Castro-Wallace, Sarah L.; Kuo, C. K. Mike; Loh, Leslie J.; Hudson, Edgar; Gazda, Daniel B.; Lewis, John F.

    2016-01-01

    When preparing for long-duration spaceflight missions, maintaining a safe supply of potable water is of the utmost importance. A major risk factor, potentially jeopardizing the safety of the water supply, is the presense of microorganisms. Historically, the challenge of controlling microbial proliferation has been addressed through the maintenance of residual biocide levels. While chemical biocides are effective, their use requires carefeul consideration towards materials selection for the water storage containers, as surface reactions can reduce biocide concentrations below their effective range. In the water storage system baselined for the Orion vehicle, the primary wetted materials are passivated stainless steel (316 L) and a titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V). Previous testing with these materials has shown that the biocide selected for use in the system, ionic silver, will plate out rapidly upon initial wetting. One potential approach for maintaining an adequate biocide concentration is to spike the water supply with high levels of biocide in an attempt to passivate the surface. To evaluate this hypothesis, samples of the wetted materials were tested individually and together to determine the relative loss of biocide under representative surface area-to-volume ratios after 24 hours. Additionally, we have analyzed the efficacy of disinfecting a system containing these materials by measuring reductions in bacterial counts in the same test conditions. Preliminary results indicate that the use of titanium alloy, either individually or in combination with stainless steel, can result in over 95% loss of biocide, while less than 5% is lost when using stainless steel. In bacterial testing, viable organisms were recovered from samples exposed to the titanium coupons after 24 hours. By comparison, no organisms were recovered from the test vessels containing only stainless steel. These results indicate that titanium alloys, while possessing some favorable attributes, may pose

  19. Effects of Storage and Exogenous Ga3 on Lychee Seed Germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Orika Ono

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of storage time and exogenous gibberellic acid on lychee seeds germination were studied. The seeds were removed from ripe fruits, washed, dried, stored at 8°C for 0, 15 and 30 days, and soaked during 24 hours in water and GA3 at 50, 100 and 200 mg.L-1 solutions. As the storage period increased, the germination capacity was lost, and the seeds had a short germinability after 30-day storage period. Gibberellic acid had not significant effect on enhancing both the germination percentage and rate.O trabalho teve como objetivo estudar os efeitos do tempo de armazenamento e de tratamentos com ácido giberélico, no processo germinativo de sementes de lichieira (Litchi chinensis Sonn.. As sementes foram retiradas de frutos maduros, lavadas, secas à sombra e colocadas para germinar imediatamente ou então, armazenadas em geladeira (8°C por 15 e 30 dias. Os tratamentos corresponderam à imersão das sementes por 24 horas nas seguintes soluções com aeração: água, GA3 a 50, 100 e 200 mg.L-1. Através dos resultados obtidos, observou-se que as sementes perderam o poder germinativo, à medida que aumentou-se o tempo de armazenamento, sendo a porcentagem de germinação muito baixa (7% aos 30 dias de armazenamento. O tempo médio de germinação foi menor após 15 dias de armazenamento.

  20. Compressed air energy storage in depleted natural gas reservoirs: effects of porous media and gas mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldenburg, C. M.; Pan, L.

    2015-12-01

    Although large opportunities exist for compressed air energy storage (CAES) in aquifers and depleted natural gas reservoirs, only two grid-scale CAES facilities exist worldwide, both in salt caverns. As such, experience with CAES in porous media, what we call PM-CAES, is lacking and we have relied on modeling to elucidate PM-CAES processes. PM-CAES operates similarly to cavern CAES. Specifically, working gas (air) is injected through well(s) into the reservoir compressing the cushion gas (existing air in the reservoir). During energy recovery, high-pressure air from the reservoir flows first into a recuperator, then into an expander, and subsequently is mixed with fuel in a combustion turbine to produce electricity, thereby reducing compression costs. Energy storage in porous media is complicated by the solid matrix grains which provide resistance to flow (via permeability in Darcy's law); in the cap rock, low-permeability matrix provides the seal to the reservoir. The solid grains also provide storage capacity for heat that might arise from compression, viscous flow effects, or chemical reactions. The storage of energy in PM-CAES occurs variably across pressure gradients in the formation, while the solid grains of the matrix can release/store heat. Residual liquid (i.e., formation fluids) affects flow and can cause watering out at the production well(s). PG&E is researching a potential 300 MW (for ten hours) PM-CAES facility in a depleted gas reservoir near Lodi, California. Special considerations exist for depleted natural gas reservoirs because of mixing effects which can lead to undesirable residual methane (CH4) entrainment and reactions of oxygen and CH4. One strategy for avoiding extensive mixing of working gas (air) with reservoir CH4 is to inject an initial cushion gas with reduced oxygen concentration providing a buffer between the working gas (air) and the residual CH4 gas. This reduces the potential mixing of the working air with the residual CH4

  1. Effect of Heat Treatment on Quality of Sweet Potato in Wrapper Type Cold Store during Long-term Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Wenzhong; Tanaka, Shun-ichiro; Hori, Yoshiaki

    2004-01-01

    The effects of hot water treatment on the sprouting inhibition and spoilage of sweet potato roots were evaluated in Wrapper Type Cold Store (WTCS) during long-term storage. The changes in quality attribute were also determined. The results indicated that hot water treatment significantly inhibited sprouting and decay of sweet optato for the storage period. It also showed that there were no significant differences ni starch properties in terms of pasting properties, enthalpy and temperatures o...

  2. The Effect of Different Storage Conditions on the Physical Properties of Pigmented Medical Grade I Silicone Maxillofacial Material

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Objective. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of different storage solutions that simulate acidic, alkaline, and sebum conditiions on the physical properties of pigmented (colorant elastomer) cosmesil M511 maxillofacial prosthetic material. Materials and Methods. Sixty specimens were prepared according to the manufacturer's instructions and were tested before and after immersion of different storage conditions for six months at 37 °C. The following tests were performed: color changes (gr...

  3. Effect of processing and storage methods on the shelf life and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... storage methods on the shelf life and incidence of insect pests on smoked fish. ... The other sample (Tilapia and Clarias) obtained fresh and hygienically smoked ... Keywords: processing, packaging materials, infestation, storage methods.

  4. Effects of breeder age and pre-incubation storage of eggs on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    S..

    hatched chicks was influenced by the storage period x breeder age ... liver weight as a percentage of live weight was higher when eggs obtained from 10 ... and it remains unclear how these storage conditions affect water vapour loss during.

  5. Effect of curd freezing and packaging methods on the organic acid contents of goat cheeses during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pınar Balkir

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Effects of freezing and packaging methods on organic acid content of goat cheese during 12 weeks of storage were determined. Goat cheese milk curds were divided into two batches; one of the batches was directly processed in to goat cheese while the other was frozen at -18 °C and stored for six months and processed into cheese after being thawed. Cheese samples were packed in three parts and stored at 4 °C refrigerated control sample and at -18 °C for six months frozen experimental samples. Cheese samples were packed in three different packaging methods: aerobic, vacuum or modified atmosphere. Citric, malic, fumaric, acetic, lactic, pyruvic and propionic acids were analyzed using HPLC method after 1st, 3rd, 6th, 9th and 12th week of storage period. Lactic acid was the main organic acids while pyruvic acid had the lowest content in all cheese samples. Citric and fumaric acid levels of frozen samples increased during storage whereas malic, acetic, pyruvic and propionic acid amounts were decreased compared to the beginning of storage. Packaging methods and freezing process also effected lactic acid levels statistically (p<0.05. Fumaric, acetic and lactic acid concentration of refrigerated samples were increased but citric, malic and propionic acids decreased during storage. Pyruvic acid level did not change significantly. It was determined that organic acid concentrations were effected by freezing process, storage time and packaging methods significantly (p<0.05.

  6. Chemical and Physical Reactions of Wellbore Cement under CO2 Storage Conditions: Effects of Cement Additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutchko, B. G.; Strazisar, B. R.; Huerta, N.; Lowry, G. V.; Dzombak, D. A.; Thaulow, N.

    2008-12-01

    Sequestration of CO2 into geologic formations requires long-term storage and low leakage rates to be effective. Active and abandoned wells in candidate storage formations must be evaluated as potential leakage points. Wellbore integrity is an important part of an overall integrated assessment program being developed at NETL to assess potential risks at CO2 storage sites. Such a program is needed for ongoing policy and regulatory decisions for geologic carbon sequestration. The permeability and integrity of the cement in the well is a primary factor affecting its ability to prevent leakage. Cement must be able to maintain low permeability over lengthy exposure to reservoir conditions in a CO2 injection and storage scenario. Although it is known that cement may be altered by exposure to CO2, the results of ongoing research indicate that cement curing conditions, fluid properties, and cement additives play a significant role in the rate of alteration and reaction. The objective of this study is to improve understanding of the factors affecting wellbore cement integrity for large-scale geologic carbon sequestration projects. Due to the high frequency use of additives (pozzolan) in wellbore cement, it is also essential to understand the reaction of these cement-pozzolan systems upon exposure to CO2 under sequestration conditions (15.5 MPa and 50°C). Laboratory experiments were performed to determine the physical and chemical changes, as well as the rate of alteration of commonly used pozzolan-cement systems under simulated sequestration reservoir conditions, including both supercritical CO2 and CO2-saturated brine. The rate of alteration of the cement-pozzolan systems is considerably faster than with neat cement. However, the alteration of physical properties is much less significant with the pozzolanic blends. Permeability of a carbonated pozzolanic cement paste remains sufficiently small to block significant vertical migration of CO2 in a wellbore. All of the

  7. [Effects of revegetation on organic carbon storage in deep soils in hilly Loess Plateau region of Northwest China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jin; Xu, Ming-Xiang; Wang, Zheng; Ma, Xin-Xin; Qiu, Yu-Jie

    2012-10-01

    Taking the Robinia pseudoacacia woodlands, Caragana korshinskii shrublands, and abandoned croplands with different years of revegetation in the hilly Loess Plateau region of Northwest China as test objects, this paper studied the profile distribution and accumulation dynamics of organic carbon storage in deep soil (100-400 cm), with those in 0-100 cm soil profile as the control. In 0-100 cm soil profile, the organic carbon storage decreased significantly with the increase of soil depth; while in deep soil, the organic carbon storage had a slight fluctuation. The total organic carbon storage in 100-400 cm soil profile was considerably high, accounting for approximately 60% of that in 0-400 cm soil profile. The organic carbon storage in 80-100 cm soil layer had a significant linear correlation with that in 100-200 and 200-400 cm soil layers, and among the organic carbon storages in the five layers in 0-100 cm soil profile, the organic carbon storage in 80-100 cm soil layer had the strongest correlation with that in 100-400 cm soil profile, being able to be used to estimate the organic carbon storage in deep soil in this region. The organic carbon storage in 0-20 cm soil layer in the three types of revegetation lands was significantly higher than that in slope croplands, but the organic carbon storage in deep soil had no significant difference among the land use types. The organic carbon storage in deep soil increased with the increasing years of revegetation. In R. pseudoacacia woodlands and C. korshinskii shrub lands, the average increasing rate of the organic carbon storage in 100-400 cm soil layer was 0.14 and 0.19 t x hm(-2) x a(-1), respectively, which was comparable to that in the 0-100 cm soil layer in C. korshinskii shrublands. It was suggested that in the estimation of the soil carbon sequestration effect of revegetation in hilly Loess Plateau region, the organic carbon accumulation in deep soil should be taken into consideration. Otherwise, the effect of

  8. Effect of butylated hydroxytoluene on dog sperm longevity in chilling storage and cryopreservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahashi, Yu; Otsuki, Tsubasa; Higaki, Shogo; Nagano, Masashi; Yamashita, Yasuhisa; Hishinuma, Mitsugu

    2011-07-01

    This study evaluated the effect of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), a lipid-soluble antioxidant, on dog sperm in chilling storage and cryopreservation. In Experiment 1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8 and 1.6 mM BHT were added to egg yolk Tris extender (EYT), and sperm were stored at 4°C for 96 hr. Sperm motility, viability, acrosomal integrity and morphological abnormality in the BHT treatment groups were not different from those of the control (0 mM BHT). In Experiment 2, the effect of BHT in EYT containing 0.75% Equex STM paste and 5% glycerol on survivability of cryopreserved sperm was examined after culture at 39°C for 3 hr. Sperm motility, viability and acrosomal integrity in the 0.2 to 0.8 mM BHT treatment groups were not different from those of the control. However, sperm motility, viability and acrosomal integrity decreased when 1.6 mM BHT was added to the extender (PBHT did not affect characteristics of dog sperm in chilling storage and cryopreservation. Supplementation of 1.6 mM BHT did not affect characteristics of chilled sperm but impaired longevity of cryopreserved sperm in the dog.

  9. Occurrence of 6-methoxymellein in fresh and processed carrots and relevant effect of storage and processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Girolamo, Annalisa; Solfrizzo, Michele; Vitti, Carolina; Visconti, Angelo

    2004-10-20

    The occurrence of 6-methoxymellein (6-MM) in fresh and conventionally processed carrot products (for a total of 176 samples) marketed in European locations and the effect of Alternaria spp. infection and storage conditions on 6-MM accumulation were investigated. 6-MM was found in 78% of tested samples with levels ranging from 0.02 to 76.00 microg/g, with only 1 of 79 fresh carrots exceeding the "just noticeable difference" level for 6-MM. Storage of carrots at 1 degree C was suitable to maintain low levels of 6-MM for a period of at least 17 weeks. No effect of Alternaria spp. infection was observed on 6-MM occurrence. The fate of 6-MM during carrot juice processing was also investigated by using different enzyme formulations for maceration and blanching procedures. Levels of 6-MM in blanched carrots obtained by boiling water or steam treatment were reduced by 69 or 33%, respectively, as compared to fresh carrots. No decrease in 6-MM levels was observed after maceration with pectinolytic enzyme preparations (Rapidase Carrot Juice and Ultrazym AFP-L). A reduction of 6-MM by 85 or 94% was obtained after the entire cycle of carrot juice processing, depending on the blanching procedure used.

  10. Effects of storage temperature on the mechanical properties of porcine kidney estimated using shear wave elastography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ternifi, R; Gennisson, J-L; Tanter, M; Beillas, P

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of different conservation techniques on the mechanical properties of the ex vivo porcine kidney in order to select an appropriate conservation protocol to use prior to mechanical testing. Five groups of eight kidneys each were subjected to different methods of conservation: storage at 4°C, -18°C, -34°C and -71°C, for 7 days, or storage at 20°C for 2 days only (as the tissues degraded quickly). Their shear modulus as a function of depth in the organ was evaluated before (fresh) and after conservation using shear wave elastography. Results obtained on fresh kidneys were collected within 6h of death. Freezing lead to a significant decrease (p0.05) in the properties of the renal cortex when stored at 4°C or 20°C. The average moduli in the central region of the kidney (medulla) were much higher than in the cortex and exhibited also exhibited larger specimen to specimen variations. The effects of the conservation method on the central region were not significant. Overall, the results suggest that kidney tissues should not be frozen prior to biomechanical characterization and that inhomogeneity may be important to consider for in biomechanical models.

  11. Effects of alpha-tocopherol on lactones in beef headspace during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, A; Imanari, M; Higuchi, M; Shiba, N; Yonai, M

    2010-01-01

    We studied the effect of alpha-tocopherol (alpha-Toc) on the production of lactones, a desirable flavor in Wagyu beef (Japanese Black Cattle), in meat headspace. Fresh beef was minced and divided into 4 groups containing different alpha-Toc levels (1.9, 2.7, 6.1, and 10.7 mg/kg) or packed with oxygen absorber. After 10 d of storage at 2 °C, these samples were cooked in distilled water and rendered fat was collected. The headspace of the fat was analyzed with solid-phase microextraction combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The DB-17MS capillary column led to good separation of aliphatic lactones. Oxygen was important for the development of all lactones during storage. The amounts of gamma-octalactone and gamma-nonalactone decreased linearly with increasing alpha-Toc levels. The effect of alpha-Toc on delta-decalactone, delta-undecalactone, and delta-tetoradecalactone was weaker, and that on delta-hexadecalactone was ambiguous. These observations suggest that oxidation was necessary to develop the flavor of Wagyu beef, and warn that an excessive increase of alpha-Toc could reduce levels of positive flavor components, gamma-octalactone and gamma-nonalactone, in the headspace of Wagyu beef. © 2010 Institute of Food Technologists®

  12. Effect of Chitosan Coating on Fruit Quality and Storage Life of Sweet Lime (Citrus limetta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SH. GHeysarbigi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays use of the edible coatings has been increased because customers tend to buy horticultural products that retain their freshness. The benefits of edible coatings are biodegradability, inhibition of respiratory gas exchange, inhibition of exchange of aromatic and flavorful compounds, and product protection against mechanical damage. The aim of this investigation was to study the effect of chitosan on preservation of quality and storage life of sweet lime by measuring physic-chemical properties of fruits. The measured parameters in the study were firmness, TSS, titrable acid, pH, vitamin C, weight loss and chlorophyll content. The experiment consisted four treatments of chitosan solution (control, 0.5, 1 and 2%. The results showed that chitosan had significant effects on all measured parameters (p<0.01. Chitosan-treated fruit had firmness, vitamin C and titrable acids more than those of the non-treated control group during cold storage. The highest firmness was observed in 2% chitosan treatment and the lowest firmness was recorded for the control treatment. Fresh sweet lime fruit treated with chitosan 2% had the lowest percentage of weight loss (5.95 % and the highest TSS (10.6 g/100 ml, titrable acids (0.077 g /100 ml and vitamin C (44/59 mg/100ml. According to the results of this study, it could be suggested that 2% chitosan increases the shelf life of this fruit.

  13. Effects of Edible Chitosan Coating on Quality and Increasing Storage Life of Cucumber cv.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ghasemi Tavallaiy

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Chitosan, is non-toxic, biodegradable and biocompatible material, which can be used as edible coatings to maintain quality and enhance postharvest life of fruits and vegetables. In this study, the effect of chitosan at 0, 0.5, 1 and 2% concentrations on storage life of cucumber cv. "Zomorod" was investigated. After treatment and keeping in an incubator at 12 °C and 90% relative humidity, the fruits were assessed in 5-days intervals to determine parameters such as firmness, weight loss, vitamin C, titratable acidity, soluble solids and chlorophyll content. Experiment was performed as a split-plot design in time in a completely randomized design with three replications. The results of the experiment showed that chitosan coating, had a significant effect on all traits except titrable acidity. The lowest weight loss and the highest firmness were recorded with 1% chitosan treatment which significantly differed from the control. It is appeared that chitosan coatings could be used to increase the storage life of cucumber fruit and to maintain its quality for a longer period.

  14. Fuel storage systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donakowski, T.D.; Tison, R.R.

    1979-08-01

    Storage technologies are characterized for solid, liquid, and gaseous fuels. Emphasis is placed on storage methods applicable to Integrated Community Energy Systems based on coal. Items discussed here include standard practice, materials and energy losses, environmental effects, operating requirements, maintenance and reliability, and cost considerations. All storage systems were found to be well-developed and to represent mature technologies; an exception may exist for low-Btu gas storage, which could have materials incompatability.

  15. Effect of storage time on the characteristics of corn and efficiency of its utilization in broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dafei Yin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Corn is one of the staple food and feed ingredients in China, therefore its storage is of particular importance. Corn is typically stored for 2 or more years in national barns before it is sold as a food or feed ingredient. However, the effects of stored corn in national barns on the animal performance and nutrient utilization have not been investigated thus far. This study attempted to determine the effects of storage time on the chemical and physical characteristics of corn and its nutritional value, broiler growth performance, and meat quality. Corn grains used in the present study were stored for 4 different periods, from 2 to 5 yr, under the same conditions in a building at the Beijing National Grain Storage Facility. A total of 240 birds in Exp. 1 and 90 birds in Exp. 2 were used to compare the effects of storage time on the utilization of nutrients of corn, the performance, and meat quality of broilers. The content of starch, crude protein, amino acids, fatty acids, and test weight generally decreased with increasing storage time. Corn stored for over 4 yr showed decreased catalase (CAT and peroxidase (POD activities and increased fat acidity. Body weight gain (BWG and European production index (EPI of broilers from 0 to 3 wk tended to decrease linearly with storage time (0.05  0.05. The digestibility of histidine and arginine, and C18:2 and C18:3 changed quadratically with storage time (P < 0.05. Collectively, the results suggest that the use of corn stored for 4 yr in animal feed decreased the performance and meat quality of broilers. Fat acidity, CAT, and POD activities can be used as indexes for evaluating the storage quality of corn.

  16. Effects of Material Choice on Biocide Loss in Orion Water Storage Tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, W. T.; Wallace, S. L.; Gazda, D. B.; Lewis, J. F.

    2016-01-01

    When preparing for long-duration spaceflight missions, maintaining a safe supply of potable water is of the utmost importance. One major aspect of that is ensuring that microbial growth is minimized. Historically, this challenge has been addressed through the use of biocides. When using biocides, the choice of materials for the storage containers is important, because surface reactions can reduce biocide concentrations below their effective range. In the water storage system baselined for the Orion vehicle, the primary wetted materials are stainless steel (316 L) and a titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V). Previous testing with these materials has shown that the biocide selected for use in the system (ionic silver) will plate out rapidly upon initial wetting of the system. One potential approach for maintaining an adequate biocide concentration is to spike the water supply with high levels of biocide in an attempt to passivate the surface. To evaluate this hypothesis, samples of the wetted materials were tested individually and together to determine the relative loss of biocide under representative surface area-to-volume ratios after 24 hours. Additionally, we have analyzed the efficacy of disinfecting a system containing these materials by measuring reductions in bacterial counts in the same test conditions. Preliminary results indicate that the use of titanium, either individually or in combination with stainless steel, can result in over 95% loss of biocide, while less than 5% is lost when using stainless steel. In bacterial testing, viable organisms were recovered from samples exposed to the titanium coupons after 24 hours. By comparison, no organisms were recovered from the test vessels containing only stainless steel. These results indicate that titanium, while possessing some favorable attributes, may pose additional challenges when used in water storage tanks with ionic silver biocide.

  17. Effects of Enterobacter cloacae on boar sperm quality during liquid storage at 17°C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto-Martínez, Noelia; Bussalleu, Eva; Garcia-Bonavila, Estela; Bonet, Sergi; Yeste, Marc

    2014-07-01

    Contamination of fresh and extended boar sperm often occurs in farms and artificial insemination (AI) centres during semen collection, processing and storage. The presence of bacteria produces detrimental effects on boar sperm quality, which may cause economic losses in reproductive centres. The present study has evaluated for the first time how the presence of Enterobacter cloacae affects the preservation of boar spermatozoa in liquid storage at 15-17 °C for an 11-day period. With this purpose, extended semen samples from seven healthy post-pubertal boars were artificially contaminated with different sperm:bacterium ratios (2:1; 1:1; 1:5 and 1:10) of E. cloacae. The 1:0 ratio (non-inoculated) served as a negative control. The most infective ratios (i.e. 1:5 and 1:10) significantly damaged sperm motility and membrane integrity, increased sperm agglutination, and decreased the osmotic resistance of spermatozoa. In contrast, the negative impact that the lowest bacterial concentration (2:1) had on boar sperm quality was clearly lower. In addition, other parameters such as pH were also more affected at the highest infective ratios (i.e. 1:5 and 1:10), despite no damage being observed on sperm morphology. In conclusion, the present work shows that damage inflicted by the presence of E. cloacae in boar sperm during liquid storage at 15-17 °C compromises the longevity and fertilising ability of seminal doses when bacterial concentration is higher than a 1:1 ratio. Further research is warranted to address by which mechanism E. cloacae impairs boar sperm quality.

  18. Effect of Storage and Cooking Time on the Antioxidant Properties of Two Commonly Used Ghanaian Vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.K. Anderson

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Green leafy vegetables are good sources of antioxidants. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of storage and cooking time on the antioxidant properties of two commonly used Ghanaian vegetables: Corchorus olitorius and Solanum macrocarpon locally known as “adeimey” and “gboma” respectively. The storage conditions were: Left to stand overnight at room temperature, refrigerated for one day and refrigerated for one week, and cooked for ten and thirty minutes at 100ºC. The reducing power and the total carotenoid content were determined by measuring absorbance using a Shimadzu UV-120-02 spectrophotometer at 700 nm and 450 nm respectively. The free radical scavenging activity was determined by the 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazil (DPPH method. The antioxidant activity (AOA ranged from 91.59 to 38.42%. The total carotenoid content (TCC varied from 5.10 to 27.30 mg/100 g. The reducing power ranged from 9.52 to 50.59%. The results show that Solanum macrocarpon and Corchorus olitorius are good sources of antioxidants with the later exhibiting higher antioxidant properties than the former. However the AOA, TCC and reducing power decreased drastically when the vegetables were refrigerated for one day and one week and cooked for thirty minutes at 100ºC. Similarly the AOA, TCC and reducing power decreased slightly when the stored vegetables were cooked for ten minutes. These findings suggest modification in the storage and cooking practices of these green leafy vegetables to ensure retention of antioxidants for the best nutritional value and health benefit. The results also indicate that in areas where refrigeration is not possible, vegetables can be left overnight at room temperature to preserve the antioxidants in them.

  19. A Development Path to the Efficient and Cost-Effective Bulk Storage of Electrical Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Post, R F

    2009-09-24

    Efficient and cost-effective means for storing electrical energy is becoming an increasing need in our electricity-oriented society. For example, for electric utilities an emerging need is for distributed storage systems, that is, energy storage at substations, at solar or wind-power sites, or for load-leveling at the site of major consumers of their electricity. One of the important consequences of distributed storage for the utilities would be the reduction in transmission losses that would result from having a local source of load-leveling power. For applications such as these there are three criteria that must be satisfied by any new system that is developed to meet such needs. These criteria are: (1) high 'turn-around' efficiency, that is, high efficiency of both storing and recovering the stored energy in electrical form, (2) long service life (tens of years), with low maintenance requirements, and, (3) acceptably low capital cost. An additional requirement for these particular applications is that the system should have low enough standby losses to permit operation on a diurnal cycle, that is, storing the energy during a portion of a given day (say during sunlight hours) followed several hours later by its use during night-time hours. One answer to the spectrum of energy storage needs just outlined is the 'electromechanical battery'. The E-M battery, under development for several years at the Laboratory and elsewhere in the world, has the potential to solve the above energy storage problems in a manner superior to the electro-chemical battery in the important attributes of energy recovery efficiency, cycle lifetime, and amortized capital cost. An electromechanical battery is an energy storage module consisting of a high-speed rotor, fabricated from fiber composite, and having an integrally mounted generator/motor. The rotor operates at high speed, in vacuo, inside of a hermetically sealed enclosure, supported by a 'magnetic bearing

  20. Genotype × environment interaction effects on early fresh storage root yield and related traits in cassava

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Robooni; Tumuhimbise; Rob; Melis; Paul; Shanahan; Robert; Kawuki

    2014-01-01

    Cassava(Manihot esculenta Crantz) is an important root crop worldwide. It exhibits substantial differential genotypic responses to varying environmental conditions, a phenomenon termed genotype × environment interaction(GEI). A significant GEI presents challenges in the selection of superior genotypes. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of genotype,environment and GEI on early fresh storage root yield(FSRY) and related traits in cassava.Accordingly, 12 cassava genotypes were evaluated in a randomised complete block design at three contrasting locations(Jinja, Nakasongola and Namulonge) in Uganda. Trials were harvested nine months after planting and the data collected were analysed using the additive main effects and multiplicative interaction(AMMI) model. The AMMI analysis of variance showed significant variation among genotypes for early FSRY and all other traits assessed.Locations were significantly different for all traits except for cassava brown streak disease root necrosis. The GEI effect was non-significant for early FSRY, but significant for other traits. For early FSRY, 48.5% of the treatment sum of squares was attributable to genotypes, 27.3% to environments, and 24.1% to GEI, indicating a predominance of genotypic variation for this trait.Predominance of genotypic variation was also observed for all the other traits. A majority of the genotypes(67%) had low interaction effects with locations for early FSRY, with Akena, CT2, CT4 and NASE14 being the most stable genotypes for the trait. Significant negative correlation was observed between cassava mosaic disease severity and early FSRY and storage root number,indicating significant negative effects of cassava mosaic disease on early FSRY and stability in cassava. The information generated will inform future selection initiatives for superior early-yielding cassava genotypes combining resistance to cassava mosaic and brown streak diseases in Uganda.

  1. Genotype × environment interaction effects on early fresh storage root yield and related traits in cassava

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robooni Tumuhimbise

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz is an important root crop worldwide. It exhibits substantial differential genotypic responses to varying environmental conditions, a phenomenon termed genotype × environment interaction (GEI. A significant GEI presents challenges in the selection of superior genotypes. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of genotype, environment and GEI on early fresh storage root yield (FSRY and related traits in cassava. Accordingly, 12 cassava genotypes were evaluated in a randomised complete block design at three contrasting locations (Jinja, Nakasongola and Namulonge in Uganda. Trials were harvested nine months after planting and the data collected were analysed using the additive main effects and multiplicative interaction (AMMI model. The AMMI analysis of variance showed significant variation among genotypes for early FSRY and all other traits assessed. Locations were significantly different for all traits except for cassava brown streak disease root necrosis. The GEI effect was non-significant for early FSRY, but significant for other traits. For early FSRY, 48.5% of the treatment sum of squares was attributable to genotypes, 27.3% to environments, and 24.1% to GEI, indicating a predominance of genotypic variation for this trait. Predominance of genotypic variation was also observed for all the other traits. A majority of the genotypes (67% had low interaction effects with locations for early FSRY, with Akena, CT2, CT4 and NASE14 being the most stable genotypes for the trait. Significant negative correlation was observed between cassava mosaic disease severity and early FSRY and storage root number, indicating significant negative effects of cassava mosaic disease on early FSRY and stability in cassava. The information generated will inform future selection initiatives for superior early-yielding cassava genotypes combining resistance to cassava mosaic and brown streak diseases in Uganda.

  2. Massive Storage Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dan Feng; Hai Jin

    2006-01-01

    To accommodate the explosively increasing amount of data in many areas such as scientific computing and e-Business, physical storage devices and control components have been separated from traditional computing systems to become a scalable, intelligent storage subsystem that, when appropriately designed, should provide transparent storage interface, effective data allocation, flexible and efficient storage management, and other impressive features. The design goals and desirable features of such a storage subsystem include high performance, high scalability, high availability, high reliability and high security. Extensive research has been conducted in this field by researchers all over the world, yet many issues still remain open and challenging. This paper studies five different online massive storage systems and one offline storage system that we have developed with the research grant support from China. The storage pool with multiple network-attached RAIDs avoids expensive store-and-forward data copying between the server and storage system, improving data transfer rate by a factor of 2-3 over a traditional disk array. Two types of high performance distributed storage systems for local-area network storage are introduced in the paper. One of them is the Virtual Interface Storage Architecture (VISA) where VI as a communication protocol replaces the TCP/IP protocol in the system. VISA's performance is shown to achieve better than that of IP SAN by designing and implementing the vSCSI (VI-attached SCSI) protocol to support SCSI commands in the VI network. The other is a fault-tolerant parallel virtual file system that is designed and implemented to provide high I/O performance and high reliability. A global distributed storage system for wide-area network storage is discussed in detail in the paper, where a Storage Service Provider is added to provide storage service and plays the role of user agent for the storage system. Object based Storage Systems not only

  3. Medium-term effect of perennial energy crops on soil organic carbon storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Ceotto

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The scope of this study was to evaluate the effect of perennial energy crops on soil organic carbon (SOC storage. A field experiment was undertaken in 2002 at Anzola dell’Emilia in the lower Po Valley, Northern Italy. Five perennial energy crops were established on a land area which had been previously cultivated with arable crops for at least 20 years. The compared crops are: the herbaceous perennials giant reed and miscanthus, and the woody species poplar, willow and black locust, managed as short rotation coppice (SRC. SOC was measured in 2009, seven years after the start of the experiment, on an upper soil layer of 0.0-0.2 m and a lower soil layer of 0.2-0.4 m. The study aimed to compare the SOC storage of energy crops with alternative land use. Therefore, two adjacent areas were sampled in the same soil layers: i arable land in steady state, cultivated with rainfed annual crops; ii natural meadow established at the start of the experiment. The conversion of arable land into perennial energy crops resulted in SOC storage, in the upper soil layer (0.0-0.2 m ranging from 1150 to 1950 kg C ha-1 year-1 during the 7-year period. No significant differences were detected in SOC among crop species. We found no relationship between the harvested dry matter and the SOC storage. The conversion of arable land into perennial energy crops provides a substantial SOC sequestration benefit even when the hidden C cost of N industrial fertilizers is taken into account. While the SOC increased, the total N content in the soil remained fairly constant. This is probably due to the low rate of nitrogen applied to the perennial crops. However, our data are preliminary and the number of years in which the SOC continues to increase needs to be quantified, especially for the herbaceous species giant reed and miscanthus, with a supposedly long duration of the useful cropping cycle of 20 years or longer.

  4. Effects of processing methods and commercial storage conditions on the extra virgin olive oil quality indexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiritsakis, A.

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of machinery groups, packing materials and light intensities was ascertained on indices of oxidative deterioration, peroxide value, and extinction coefficient K232 and K270 of extra virgin olive oil for one season of olive harvesting in an effort to simulate commercial storage conditions. It was revealed that during the storage of olive oil the peroxide value was significantly affected by the type of extraction machinery, packing material and light intensity. It is significant that oil exposed to diffused daylight and artificial light attained maximum PV in the second or third month of storage and de creased thereafter, while samples stored in the dark attained their maximum PV during the sixth month of storage. Oil samples extracted using the centrifugal type of machines and kept in glass containers in the dark had higher peroxide values than those extracted by the classic method. The rate of changes of the PV and the two indices K232 and K270 was also affected similarly by the type of machinery, packing material and light intensity.El efecto de la maquinaria, el material de envasado y la intensidad de luz fue relacionado con los índices de deterioración oxidativa, índice de peróxidos (IP y coeficientes de extinción K232 y K270 del aceite de oliva virgen extra durante una campaña de cosecha de aceituna en un esfuerzo por simular las condiciones de almacenamiento comercial. Esto reveló que durante el almacenamiento del aceite de oliva el índice de peróxidos fue afectado significativamente por el tipo de maquinaria de extracción, el material de envasado y la intensidad de luz. Es significativo que el aceite expuesto a la luz diaria difusa y a la artificial alcanzara el máximo IP en el segundo o tercer mes de almacenamiento, decreciendo a partir de este momento, mientras que las muestras almacenadas en oscuridad no alcanzaban su máximo IP hasta el sexto mes de conservación. Las muestras de aceite extraídas con centr

  5. The effect that energy storage and return feet have on the propulsion of the body: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crimin, Anthony; McGarry, Anthony; Harris, Elena Jane; Solomonidis, Stephan Emanuel

    2014-09-01

    A variety of energy storage and return prosthetic feet are currently available for use within lower limb prostheses. Designs claim to provide a beneficial energy return during push-off, but the extent to which this occurs remains disputed. Techniques currently used to measure energy storage, dissipation and return within the structure of the prosthetic foot are debatable, with limited evidence to support substantial elastic energy storage and return from existing designs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of energy storage and return foot designs through considering the ankle power during push-off and the effect on body centre of mass propulsion. To achieve this aim, the gait patterns of six trans-tibial prosthetic users wearing different designs of energy storage and return feet were analysed while ascending a ramp. Three examples of energy storage and return feet (suitable for moderate activity) were selected and randomly evaluated: the Blatchford's Epirus, Össur Assure and College Park Tribute feet. The power at the anatomical and mechanical ankle joints was integrated to evaluate the work done over the gait cycle. The direction of the inertial force, and therefore propulsion of the body centre of mass, was used to indicate the effect of the energy return by the energy storage and return feet. Results indicate that although energy storage and return feet may provide energy return, the work done around the prosthetic ankle indicates net power absorption. Therefore, the prosthetic limb is unable to contribute to the body centre of mass propulsion to the same extent as the biological limb.

  6. Effect of temperatures and cold storage on performance of Tetrastichus brontispae (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), a parasitoid of Brontispa longissima (Coleptera: Chrysomelidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kui; Fu, Buli; Lin, Jiangrong; Fu, Yueguan; Peng, Zhengqiang; Jin, Qi'an

    2014-01-01

    Laboratory studies were conducted to determine the effect of temperature and cold storage on the performance of Tetrastichus brontispae (Ferriere) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), one of the major endoparasitoids against coconut hispine beetle, Brontispa longissima (Gestro) (Coleptera: Chrysomelidae). The results revealed that T. brontispae could successfully parasitize host pupae under all seven tested temperatures, but no adult emergence was observed at 32°C. It was also revealed that temperatures between 24 and 26°C appeared to be the optimum temperatures for parasitism, as these temperatures resulted in the most parasitized pupae and a significantly higher emergence rate and progeny production. These measurements significantly declined at 20, 30, and 32°C. This study confirmed developmental periods of parasitoid progeny decreased as the temperature increased, and sex ratio of this female-biased parasitoid was not affected by rearing temperatures. More importantly, this study indicated that cold storage of parasitized pupae could extend up to 30 d at 10°C, and a longer storage period had a significant adverse effect on mean adult emergence and parasitism performance. Ten days might be the optimum cold-storage period at 10°C, as parasitism performance, emergence rate, and progeny production at this storage period were similar to the control of 26°C. Furthermore, the developmental period, emergence rate, and sex ratio of progeny that emerged from cold-stored parasitized pupae were not influenced by storage periods, whereas parasitism performance of progeny decreased as storage period increased. This study suggests that about 24-26°C would be the optimal temperature for mass production and release of T. brontispae for biological control of B. longissima. These results also provide novel findings that a period of 10 d at 10°C may be more suitable and acceptable for ideal cold storage of parasitized pupae of T. brontispae.

  7. The Effects of Storage on Germination Characteristics and Enzyme Activity of Sorghum Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azadi M.S.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Seed moisture content (MC and storage temperature are the most important factors affecting seed longevity and vigor. Exposure to warm, moist air is principally responsible for this. Proper storage and optimum seed moisture content can affect the grain quality significantly. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the different storage treatments on seed quality of sorghum. The seed materials were fresh without any storage period. For storage treatments, 3 seed moisture contents (6, 10, 14 % were stored for 8 month in 0.5 L capacity sealed aluminum foil packet in 0.3 bar inside incubators set at 4 temperatures (5, 15, 25, 35 °C. After storage time, the higher the storage temperature, the lower was the grain quality of sorghum. The highest germination percentage, germination index, normal seedling percentage were achieved in control conditions (0 day of storage. Our results showed that increasing storage duration resulted higher reduction in germination characteristics. Also our results showed that, germination percentage, means time to germination, germination index, normal seedling percentage decrease significantly by storage. Enzyme activity decrease significantly by increased in storage.

  8. Study of the effects of 1-MCP to blueberry under cold storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Shenchen; Chu, Huailiang; Chen, Xiaomin; Yuan, Huwei; Qiu, Lingling; Zhao, Liang; Yan, Daoliang; Zheng, Bingsong

    2017-04-01

    Blueberry is one of the thinnest exocarp fruits in the world, which is difficult to keep fresh due to the special structure of its skin. 1-Methlcyclopropene (1-MCP) is able to combine with ethylene(ETH) receptor. In this study we investigated the effect of 1-MCP on rotting rate, weight loss ratio, soluble sugar content, titratable acid content, antioxidant enzyme activities and malondialdehyde (MDA) content in blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosun ‘O Neal’ and ‘North Road’) under cold storage. 1-MCP reduced the rotting rate, weight loss ratio and MDA content, while keeping high-leveled stability in antioxidant enzyme activities, soluble sugar content and titratable acid content. These results showed the role of 1-MCP in alleviating the negative effects of blueberry and suggested that 1-MCP could be used as a preservative for keeping thin exocarp fruit in fresh.

  9. Effects of vertical girder realignment in the Argonne APS storage ring.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lessner, E.

    1999-04-14

    The effects of vertical girder misalignments on the vertical orbit of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) storage ring are studied. Partial sector-realignment is prioritized in terms of the closed-orbit distortions due to misalignments of the corresponding girders in the sectors. A virtual girder-displacement (VGD) method is developed that allows the effects of a girder realignment to be tested prior to physically moving the girder. The method can also be used to anticipate the corrector strengths needed to restore the beam orbit after a realignment. Simulation results are compared to experimental results and found to reproduce the latter quite closely. Predicted corrector strengths are also found to be close to the actual local corrector strengths after a proof-of-principle two-sector realignment was performed.

  10. Hydrogen isotope effect on storage behavior of U2Ti and UZr2.3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jat, Ram Avtar; Sawant, S. G.; Rajan, M. B.; Dhanuskar, J. R.; Kaity, Santu; Parida, S. C.

    2013-11-01

    U2Ti and UZr2.3 alloys were prepared by arc melting method, vacuum annealed and characterized by XRD, SEM and EDX methods. Hydrogen isotope effect on the storage behavior of these alloys were studied by measuring the hydrogen/deuterium desorption pressure-composition-temperature (PCT) profiles in the temperature range of 573-678 K using a Sievert's type volumetric apparatus. It was observed that, in the temperature and pressure range of investigation, all the isotherms show a single desorption plateau. The PCT data reveals that both U2Ti and UZr2.3 alloys had normal isotope effects on hydrogen/deuterium desorption at all experimental temperatures. Thermodynamic parameters for dehydrogenation and dedeuteration reactions of the corresponding hydrides and deuterides of the above alloys were deduced from the PCT data.

  11. The Effect of Ventilation, Filtration and Passive Sorption on Indoor Air Quality in Museum Storage Rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryhl-Svendsen, M.; Clausen, Geo

    2009-01-01

    A study was conducted in five storage rooms at the National Museum of Denmark, in which the effect on indoor air quality of mechanical ventilation, filtration and passive sorption was investigated. Mechanical ventilation and recirculation/filtration was initiated by introducing new ventilation...... and filtration units. Passive sorption was initiated by hanging sheets of sorptive materials oil walls. The control strategies were evaluated in terms of their ability to lower the concentration of internally, generated pollutants, and the indoor-to-outdoor concentration ratio of outdoor pollutants. The overall...... environmental impact for each method was evaluated by the use of material dosimeters. It was found that passive sorption performed better in a small room compared to a large room. Mechanical ventilation and filtration with activated charcoal gave a high protection against ozone, but were less effective...

  12. Effects of chemical coating with Ni on electrochemical properties of Mg2Ni hydrogen storage alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The effects of nickel coating on the electrochemical properties of Mg2Ni hydrogen storage alloys are presented in this paper. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) techniques were employed to examine the crystal structure and surface morphologies of the bare and Ni-coated Mg2Ni alloys. The electrochemical properties of alloys were characterized by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The results showed that Ni coating not only decreased the charge transfer resistance, but also decreased the H atom diflusion resistance for Mg2Ni alloys. It was also found that Ni coating effectively improved the discharge capacity, but decreased the cycling performance of the as-synthesized Ni-coated Mg2Ni alloys. The discharge current has a great impact on the cycling performance of the as-synthesized Ni-coated Mg2Ni alloys.

  13. Modelling the Colour of Strawberry Spread During Storage, Including Effects of Technical Variations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadivec Mirta

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The colour of freshly processed strawberry spread changes relatively rapidly from a bright red to a dull red, which then makes its appearance generally less acceptable for consumers. The colours of strawberry spreads following several processing conditions were measured under different storage conditions. Additional sugar and colorant had only slight effects on the colour decay, while exclusion of oxygen and daylight did not affect this process. The only condition that clearly maintained the freshly processed appearance was storage at 4°C. Hexagonal bottles were filled with the strawberry spreads and their colour was repeatedly measured at the six sides of the bottles, using a Minolta chroma meter. Data were analysed using non-linear indexed regression analysis based on a logistic function for the three colour aspect of a*, b* and L*. This technology allowed the determination of the variation in these data in terms of improved reliability (R2adj, >90%. It also allowed better interpretation of the processes involved. All variations in the data could be attributed to technical variation.

  14. How Soil Water Storage Moderates Climate Change's Effects on Transpiration Across the Critical Zone Observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckman, C.; Tague, N.

    2016-12-01

    While the atmospheric water demand is predicted to increase under a warmer climate, actual evapotranspiration (AET) will be moderated by the supply of water available to vegetation. A key question is how will plant accessible water storage capacity (PAWSC) effect the partitioning of precipitation between AET and runoff. Our results indicate that whether and by how much AET increases or decreases with moderate warming is significantly based upon interactions between PAWSC and characteristics of precipitation such as the amount, frequency, and skew as well the partitioning between rain and snow. In snow dominated climates, if PAWSC cannot make up for the loss of storage as snowpack then AET may decrease despite warming temperatures. Even in rain dominated climates, PAWSC could significantly limit the increase in AET associated with higher atmospheric demand. Changes in AET will have significant impacts for forests vulnerability to drought, insect out breaks, and fire as well as for the amount of runoff that flows downstream for our use and management. Due to the highly heterogeneous nature of PAWSC and the difficulty of measuring it across large scales, we use a well-tested hydrologic model to estimate the impacts from a range of PAWSC on the partitioning of precipitation between runoff and AET. We completed this analysis for the range of precipitation and vegetation characteristics found across the 9 Critical Zone Observatories of the United States.

  15. Effects of gamma radiation and storage on cooked pine seed (Araucaria angustifollia)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Lucia A.C.S.; Modolo, Debora M.; Martinez, Patricia; Piero, Edson A. di; Bigide, Priscila; Arthur, Valter, E-mail: lcasilva@cena.usp.br, E-mail: arthur@cena.usp.br [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Laboratorio de Radiobiologia e Ambiente, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Harder, Marcia N.C.; Arthur, Paula B. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The Araucaria angustifolia, is known as the Pinheiro-do-Parana Brazilian pine, Pine, Pine Tree Monkey, emerges as the main representative of the Rain Forest, also known as Araucaria Forest, part of the Atlantic Forest biome (Decree Law 750/1993). Despite being appreciated nutritious food, the gear has been widely used in Brazilian cook as other seeds, and its consumption in the more usual way roasted or boiled, however, certain foods have been developed, such as flour, pine seeds, artisan produced only due to poor commercial expression. Because of this, the aim of this work was to study the effect of storage under vacuum and gamma radiation on samples cooked pinion. Pine seeds after cooking were stored in vacuum packaging and polypropylene irradiated with 0 (control), 0.5, 1.0 and 3.0 kGy. Later they were stored at a temperature of 6 degree C. Analyzes were performed to characterize physical (weight, temperature, percentage of losses) and proximate composition (Humidity, fat, protein, ash and weight loss) of A. angustifolia (Bert.) pine seed after three months of storage. The results indicated that there was no significant difference between treatments at protein parameter. About the other parameters there was an increase humidity and decrease with ash and fat with the treatments. (author)

  16. Effect of propolis on survival of periodontal ligament cells: new storage media for avulsed teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozan, Fatih; Polat, Zübeyde Akin; Er, Kürsat; Ozan, Ulkü; Değer, Orhan

    2007-05-01

    Propolis is a multifunctional material used by bees in the construction and maintenance of their hives. Propolis possesses several biologic activities such as anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antioxidant, antifungal, antiviral, and tissue regenerative, among others. The purpose of this study was to determine the ability of propolis to serve as a temporary storage medium for the maintenance of periodontal ligament (PDL) cell viability of avulsed teeth. PDL cells were obtained from healthy third molars and cultured in Dulbecco's Modified Eagles Medium (DMEM). Cultures were subjected to 10% propolis solution, 20% propolis solution, long-shelf life light milk with lower fat content (milk), Hank's Balanced Salt Solution, tap water as the negative control, and DMEM as the positive control. Tissue culture plates were incubated with experimental media at 37 degrees C for 1, 3, 6, 12, or 24 hours. PDL cell viability was assessed by trypan blue exclusion. Statistical analysis of the data was accomplished by using one-way analysis of variance complemented by the Tukey test. The level of significance was 5% (ppropolis was a more effective storage medium than other groups. In conclusion, propolis can be recommended as a suitable transport medium for avulsed teeth.

  17. Effects of Formulation Variables and Storage Conditions on Light Protected Vitamin B12 Mixed Parenteral Formulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farnaz Monajjemzadeh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In this research the effect of vitamin B1 and B6 on cyanocobalamin stability in commercial light protected parenteral formulations and upon adding stabilizing agents will be investigated and best formulation composition and proper storage condition will be introduced. Methods: In this research some additives such as co solvents and tonicity adjusters, surfactants, antioxidants and chelating agents as well as buffer solutions, were used to improve the stability of the parenteral mixed formulations of B12 in the presence of other B vitamins (B1 and B6. Screening tests and accelerated stability tests were performed according to ICH guidelines Q1A (R2. Results: Shelf life evaluation revealed the best formulation and the proper storage condition. The results indicated the first kinetic models for all tested formulations and the optimum pH value was determined to be 5.8. There was no evidence of B12 loss when mixed with B1 and B6 in a medical syringe at room temperature for maximum of 8 hours. Conclusion: It is necessary to formulate vitamin B12 mixed parenteral solutions using proper phosphate buffers (pH=5.8 and to indicate “Store in refrigerator” on the mixed parenteral formulations of vitamin B12 with other B vitamins, which has not been expressed on the label of tested Brand formulations at the time of this study.

  18. Deleterious effects of interruption followed by reintroduction of enzyme replacement therapy on a lysosomal storage disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Ana Paula; Matte, Ursula; Pasqualim, Gabriela; Tavares, Angela Maria Vicente; Mayer, Fabiana Quoos; Martinelli, Barbara; Ribas, Graziela; Vargas, Carmen Regla; Giugliani, Roberto; Baldo, Guilherme

    2016-10-01

    Temporary interruption of enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) in patients with different lysosomal storage disorders may happen for different reasons (adverse reactions, issues with reimbursement, logistic difficulties, and so forth), and the impact of the interruption is still uncertain. In the present work, we studied the effects of the interruption of intravenous ERT (Laronidase, Genzyme) followed by its reintroduction in mice with the prototypical lysosomal storage disorder mucopolysaccharidosis type I, comparing to mice receiving continuous treatment, untreated mucopolysaccharidosis type I mice, and normal mice. In the animals which treatment was temporarily interrupted, we observed clear benefits of treatment in several organs (liver, lung, heart, kidney, and testis) after reintroduction, but a worsening in the thickness of the aortic wall was detected. Furthermore, these mice had just partial improvements in behavioral tests, suggesting some deterioration in the brain function. Despite worsening is some disease aspects, urinary glycosaminoglycans levels did not increase during interruption, which indicates that this biomarker commonly used to monitor treatment in patients should not be used alone to assess treatment efficacy. The deterioration observed was not caused by the development of serum antienzyme antibodies. All together our results suggest that temporary ERT interruption leads to deterioration of function in some organs and should be avoided whenever possible.

  19. Effect of freezing time on the quality of Indian mackerel (Rastrelliger kanagurta) during frozen storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmisha, I P; Ravishankar, C N; Ninan, G; Mohan, C O; Gopal, T K S

    2008-09-01

    The present study aims to find the effect of freezing methods on the quality of mackerel (Rastrelliger kanagurta) in commercial plate and air blast freezers during freezing and subsequent frozen storage (-18 degrees C). Total time for freezing was significantly different (P frozen samples compared to plate freezer where protein content decreased in both the samples. Upon freezing and during frozen storage, lipid oxidation products (peroxide value, thiobarbutiric acid value, and free fatty acid value) and volatile bases (total volatile base nitrogen and trimethyl amine nitrogen) showed an increasing trend in both the samples with values slightly higher in air blast frozen samples compared to plate frozen samples. The total plate counts showed a significantly (P frozen samples compared to plate frozen samples. The taste and overall acceptability was significantly different (P frozen samples compared to air blast frozen samples on 3rd month. Both samples were in acceptable condition up to 3 mo but the plate frozen samples quality was slightly better than the air blast frozen samples.

  20. Effect of the storage time and temperature on phenolic compounds of sorghum grain and flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Kênia Grasielle de; Queiroz, Valéria Aparecida Vieira; Carlos, Lanamar de Almeida; Cardoso, Leandro de Morais; Pinheiro-Sant'Ana, Helena Maria; Anunciação, Pamella Cristine; Menezes, Cícero Beserra de; Silva, Ernani Clarete da; Barros, Frederico

    2017-02-01

    This study evaluated the effect of storage temperature (4, 25 and 40°C) and time on the color and contents of 3-deoxyanthocyanins, total anthocyanins, total phenols and tannins of sorghum stored for 180days. Two genotypes SC319 (grain and flour) and TX430 (bran and flour) were analyzed. The SC319 flour showed luteolinidin and apigeninidin contents higher than the grain and the TX430 bran had the levels of all compounds higher than the flour. The storage temperature did not affect most of the analyzed variables. The content of most of the compounds reduced during the first 60days when they became stable. At day 180, the retention of the compounds in the genotypes SC319 and TX430 ranged from 56.1-77.9% and 67.3-80.1% (3-deoxyanthocyanins), 88.4-93.8% and 84.6-96.8% (total anthocyanins) and 86.7-86.8 and 89.4-100% (phenols) respectively. The retention of tannins ranged from 56.6 to 85.3%. The color of samples remained stable for 120days.

  1. Investigating and modeling of the effects of condensate storage tank fire in a refinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Kamaei

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background & objective: Oil storage tanks are major industrial facilities which always pose risks of toxic substance release, fires and explosions. Fire has been recognized as the most common risk associated with such facilities, while explosion is the most important one in terms of ability to claim human lives and damage property. The current study aimed at investigating and modeling the effects of fires occurring in a gas condensate tank farm, according to which the level of possible emergencies were specified using the guidelines provided by the Center for Chemical Process Safety. Lastly, control measures were recommended. Methods: In the present study, the release and leakage of gas condensate from floating roof tanks were assessed using HAZOP method. Then, using PHAST software, the amount of radiation intensity received by the surrounding environment was determined, safe boundaries were computed, and according to the CCPS standard the emergency levels were determined. Results: modeling was performed based on the maximum capacity of tanks for both cold and hot seasons. The results revealed that safe distance for a maximum amount of irradiation density (4 KW/m2 related to a sudden release were 60 and 140 meters, respectively. Conclusion: according to the current condition of the plants and storage tanks, a plan was recommended for emergency management and practical suggestions were provided to improve the reliability and consistency.

  2. Effect of nisin and butylated hydroxy anisole on storage stability of buffalo meat sausage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sureshkumar, S; Kalaikannan, A; Dushyanthan, K; Venkataramanujam, V

    2010-06-01

    The water activity of buffalo meat sausage was adjusted to 0.88 using humectants and by heat treatment. Nisin and butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) were added to study the shelf life of sausage. The treatments were nisin 100 ppm + BHA 100 ppm (T3); nisin 100 ppm (T2); BHA 100 ppm (T1) and control (T0) without nisin and BHA. The sausages were vacuum packaged in polyethylene terephthalate (PET-poly) pouch and stored for 7 days at ambient conditions (35 ± 2°C, 70-80% RH). The pH of sausage increased during storage whereas the moisture content was higher in treatment T1. Tyrosine value was lowest (18.1 mg%) in T3. There was no significant difference among T0 and T1. The thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) number of T1 and T3 were lower than that of T0 and T2. Nisin and BHA together exhibited a significant inhibitory effect on total viable count, staphylococcal, streptococcal and anaerobic counts. There was no significant difference in the yeast and mould counts among T1-T3. T3 had a better appearance, flavour, texture and overall acceptability scores up to 5 days. The product (T3) was acceptable up to 5(th) day of storage at 35 ± 2°C and 70-80% RH.

  3. Effects of homeostatic constraints on associative memory storage and synaptic connectivity of cortical circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio eChapeton

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The impact of learning and long-term memory storage on synaptic connectivity is not completely understood. In this study, we examine the effects of associative learning on synaptic connectivity in adult cortical circuits by hypothesizing that these circuits function in a steady-state, in which the memory capacity of a circuit is maximal and learning must be accompanied by forgetting. Steady-state circuits should be characterized by unique connectivity features. To uncover such features we developed a biologically constrained, exactly solvable model of associative memory storage. The model is applicable to networks of multiple excitatory and inhibitory neuron classes and can account for homeostatic constraints on the number and the overall weight of functional connections received by each neuron. The results show that in spite of a large number of neuron classes, functional connections between potentially connected cells are realized with less than 50% probability if the presynaptic cell is excitatory and generally a much greater probability if it is inhibitory. We also find that constraining the overall weight of presynaptic connections leads to Gaussian connection weight distributions that are truncated at zero. In contrast, constraining the total number of functional presynaptic connections leads to non-Gaussian distributions, in which weak connections are absent. These theoretical predictions are compared with a large dataset of published experimental studies reporting amplitudes of unitary postsynaptic potentials and probabilities of connections between various classes of excitatory and inhibitory neurons in the cerebellum, neocortex, and hippocampus.

  4. Effect of Storage Period on Dimensional Stability of Alginplus and Hydrogum 5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shima Aalaei

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of storage period on dimensional stability of Alginplus and Hydrogum 5.Materials and Methods: In this in vitro experimental study, 60 impressions were taken of an upper jaw typodont, including 10 impressions for each storage period to be tested (12 minutes, 24 and 120 hours for each type of alginate. Then, the impressions were stored in an incubator with stable temperature and humidity, and poured using a type III dental stone. Subsequently, the mesiodistal dimension, occlusogingival height, and interarch distance were measured using a digital caliper with an accuracy of 0.01mm. The data were analyzed using ANOVA and t-test (P<0.05.Results: Alginplus and Hydrogum 5 impressions were not significantly different from the master model after 12 minutes and 24 hours in terms of dimensions (P>0.05. After 120 hours, all dimensions measured on casts were significantly different from those measured on the master model, except for the mesiodistal dimension of the Hydrogum 5 impressions.Conclusions: At a consistent temperature and humidity, the Alginplus and Hydrogum 5 impressions were dimensionally stable for at least 24 hours.Keywords: Dimensional Measurement Accuracy; Dental Impression Materials; Alginic Acid

  5. Data on the recurrence of breast tumors fit a model in which dormant cells are subject to slow attrition but can randomly awaken to become malignant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stein, Wilfred D; Litman, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    We successfully modeled the recurrence of tumors in breast cancer patients, assuming that: (i) A breast cancer patient is likely to have some circulating metastatic cells, even after initial surgery. (ii) These metastatic cells are dormant. (iii) The dormant cells are subject to attrition...... by the body's immune system, or by random apoptosis or senescence. (iv) Recurrence suppressor mechanisms exist. (v) When such genes are disabled by random mutations, the dormant metastatic cell is activated, and will develop to a cancer recurrence. The model was also fitted to data on the survival...

  6. Bleaching effect and nonvola-tile holographic storage in doubly doped LiNbO3:Fe:Cu crystals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The bleaching effect, i. e. the crystal shows that decoloration after it is illuminated by ultraviolet light, has been observed in congruent LiNbO3:Fe :Cu crystals. Based on this bleaching effect, a new technique including the reco rding phase by two interfering red beams and fixing phase by both UV light and a coherent red beam has been experimentally investigated to realize nonvolatile holographic storage in LiNbO3:Fe:Cu. The results of proof-of-concept experiments confirm that bleaching effect becomes an alternative physical mechanism for nonv olatile holographic storage with high recording sensitivity and weak light-induced scattering noise.

  7. Effect of organic selenium on turkey semen quality during liquid storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrov, S G; Atanasov, V K; Surai, P F; Denev, S A

    2007-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of dietary organic selenium on the turkey semen during storage. Twenty males (BUT, Big 6, 40 weeks of age) were divided into control (n=10) and experimental group (n=10). The turkeys in the both groups were fed with a commercial diet containing 0.1 ppm Se in the form of sodium selenite. The experimental birds were additionally supplied with 0.3 ppm organic Se in the form Sel-Plex (Alltech, Inc.). After 30 days of feeding, the semen samples were collected twice a week for the 3 weeks of the study and diluted 1+1(v/v) with TUR-2 diluent, and stored in a water bath (+10 to 15 degrees C) for 6 h. The percentage of motile spermatozoa, the sperm viability (live/dead spermatozoa), total lipids, phospholipids and total cholesterol were assessed in fresh and stored semen. The fertilizing ability of semen was assessed by artificial insemination of 30 hens per group with dose containing 200x10(6) spermatozoa weekly. After 6 h of semen storage, the motility of spermatozoa decreased significantly in the control group (by 8.7 relative percent, P0.05) in experimental group reflecting a protective effect of dietary Se supplementation. The proportion of live spermatozoa was higher in fresh semen and significantly lower in stored semen. The positive effect of Se supplementation was observed on the lipid composition of stored semen: the concentration of the total lipids and phospholipids in the seminal plasma from control group significantly increased, while in the experimental group remained constant. Better semen integrity in the experimental group was associated with an improved fertilizing ability of spermatozoa: the fertility rate of stored spermatozoa in the control group was 88%, while in the experimental group was 90.5%.

  8. Ecological and biomedical effects of effluents from near-term electric vehicle storage battery cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-05-01

    An assessment of the ecological and biomedical effects due to commercialization of storage batteries for electric and hybrid vehicles is given. It deals only with the near-term batteries, namely Pb/acid, Ni/Zn, and Ni/Fe, but the complete battery cycle is considered, i.e., mining and milling of raw materials, manufacture of the batteries, cases and covers; use of the batteries in electric vehicles, including the charge-discharge cycles; recycling of spent batteries; and disposal of nonrecyclable components. The gaseous, liquid, and solid emissions from various phases of the battery cycle are identified. The effluent dispersal in the environment is modeled and ecological effects are assessed in terms of biogeochemical cycles. The metabolic and toxic responses by humans and laboratory animals to constituents of the effluents are discussed. Pertinent environmental and health regulations related to the battery industry are summarized and regulatory implications for large-scale storage battery commercialization are discussed. Each of the seven sections were abstracted and indexed individually for EDB/ERA. Additional information is presented in the seven appendixes entitled; growth rate scenario for lead/acid battery development; changes in battery composition during discharge; dispersion of stack and fugitive emissions from battery-related operations; methodology for estimating population exposure to total suspended particulates and SO/sub 2/ resulting from central power station emissions for the daily battery charging demand of 10,000 electric vehicles; determination of As air emissions from Zn smelting; health effects: research related to EV battery technologies. (JGB)

  9. Optical and Near-Infrared Polarimetry for a Highly Dormant Comet 209P/LINEAR

    CERN Document Server

    Kuroda, Daisuke; Watanabe, Makoto; Akitaya, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Jun; Hasegawa, Sunao; Ui, Takahiro; Kanda, Yuka; Takaki, Katsutoshi; Itoh, Ryosuke; Moritani, Yuki; Imai, Masataka; Goda, Shuhei; Takagi, Yuhei; Morihana, Kumiko; Honda, Satoshi; Arai, Akira; Hanayama, Hidekazu; Nagayama, Takahiro; Nogami, Daisaku; Sarugaku, Yuki; Murata, Katsuhiro; Morokuma, Tomoki; Saito, Yoshihiko; Oasa, Yumiko; Sekiguchi, Kazuhiro; Watanabe, Jun-ichi

    2015-01-01

    We conducted an optical and near-infrared polarimetric observation of the highly dormant Jupiter-Family Comet, 209P/LINEAR. Because of its low activity, we were able to determine the linear polarization degrees of the coma dust particles and nucleus independently, that is $P_n$=30.3$^{+1.3}_{-0.9}$% at $\\alpha$=92.2$^\\circ$ and $P_n$=31.0$^{+1.0}_{-0.7}$% at $\\alpha$=99.5$^\\circ$ for the nucleus, and $P_c$=28.8$^{+0.4}_{-0.4}$% at $\\alpha$=92.2$^\\circ$ and 29.6$^{+0.3}_{-0.3}$% at $\\alpha$=99.5$^\\circ$ for the coma. We detected no significant variation in $P$ at the phase angle coverage of 92.2$^\\circ$-99.5$^\\circ$, which may imply that the obtained polarization degrees are nearly at maximum in the phase-polarization curves. By fitting with an empirical function, we obtained the maximum values of linear polarization degrees $P_\\mathrm{max}$=30.8% for the nucleus and $P_\\mathrm{max}$=29.6% for the dust coma. The $P_\\mathrm{max}$ of the dust coma is consistent with those of dust-rich comets. The low geometric a...

  10. Optical and Near-infrared Polarimetry for a Highly Dormant Comet 209P/LINEAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Daisuke; Ishiguro, Masateru; Watanabe, Makoto; Akitaya, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Jun; Hasegawa, Sunao; Ui, Takahiro; Kanda, Yuka; Takaki, Katsutoshi; Itoh, Ryosuke; Moritani, Yuki; Imai, Masataka; Goda, Shuhei; Takagi, Yuhei; Morihana, Kumiko; Honda, Satoshi; Arai, Akira; Hanayama, Hidekazu; Nagayama, Takahiro; Nogami, Daisaku; Sarugaku, Yuki; Murata, Katsuhiro; Morokuma, Tomoki; Saito, Yoshihiko; Oasa, Yumiko; Sekiguchi, Kazuhiro; Watanabe, Jun-ichi

    2015-12-01

    We conducted an optical and near-infrared polarimetric observation of the highly dormant Jupiter-Family Comet, 209P/LINEAR. Because of its low activity, we were able to determine the linear polarization degrees of the coma dust particles and nucleus independently, that is Pn = {30.3}-0.9+1.3% at α = 92.°2 and Pn = {31.0}-0.7+1.0% at α = 99.°5 for the nucleus, and Pc = {28.8}-0.4+0.4% at α = 92.°2 and {29.6}-0.3+0.3% at α = 99.°5 for the coma. We detected no significant variation in P at the phase angle coverage of 92.°2-99.°5, which may imply that the obtained polarization degrees are nearly at maximum in the phase-polarization curves. By fitting with an empirical function, we obtained the maximum values of linear polarization degrees Pmax = 30.8% for the nucleus and Pmax = 29.6% for the dust coma. The Pmax of the dust coma is consistent with those of dust-rich comets. The low geometric albedo of Pv = 0.05 was derived from the slope-albedo relationship and was associated with high {P}{max}. We examined Pmax-albedo relations between asteroids and 209P, and found that the so-called Umov law seems to be applicable on this cometary surface.

  11. Role of calcium and vesicle-docking proteins in remobilising dormant neuromuscular junctions in desert frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavidis, Nickolas A; Hudson, Nicholas J; Choy, Peng T; Lehnert, Sigrid A; Franklin, Craig E

    2008-01-01

    Despite prolonged immobility the desert frog, Cyclorana alboguttata, suffers little impairment in muscle function. To determine compensatory mechanisms at neuromuscular junctions, transmitter release was examined along primary terminals in C. alboguttata iliofibularis muscle. Using extracellular recording we found the amplitudes of evoked endplate currents were significantly smaller in dormant frogs. In active frogs we identified two negatively sloping proximal-distal gradients of transmitter frequency and quantal content; a shallow proximal-distal gradient with low probability of transmitter release (0.6). During aestivation, only a shallow gradient was identified. The high probability release sites in control frogs were inhibited during aestivation by a mechanism that could be reversed by (1) increasing the extracellular calcium concentration, and (2) increasing the frequency of stimulation. This suggests that transmitter vesicles are available during aestivation but not released. We quantified expression of messenger RNA transcripts coding for the transmitter vesicle-docking proteins synaptotagmin 1, syntaxin 1B and UNC-13. All three were rare transcripts maintained at control values during aestivation. Neuromuscular remobilisation after dormancy in C. alboguttata is more likely a product of rapidly reversible physiologic mechanisms than reorganisations of the neuromuscular transcriptome.

  12. Effects of frozen storage and vacuum packaging on free fatty acid and volatile composition of Turkish Motal cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andic, S; Tuncturk, Y; Javidipour, I

    2011-08-01

    Effects of vacuum packaging and frozen storage were studied on the formation of free fatty acids (FFAs), volatile compounds and microbial counts of Motal cheese samples stored for a period of 180 days. The FFA concentration of Motal cheese samples increased throughout the storage period of 180 days. However, the FFA contents of samples stored at -18 °C showed considerably lower values than those of the samples stored at 4 °C. Palmitic (C16:0) and oleic (C18:1) acids were the most abundant FFAs in all the treatments. The volatile compounds detected by headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) profile of Motal cheese consisted of 16 esters, 10 acids, 6 ketones, 4 alcohols, 3 aldehydes, styrene, p-cresol and m-cresol. Results showed that storage at -18 °C can limit the excessive volatile compound formation. Samples stored at 4°C with vacuum packaging showed comparatively high concentration of esters, ketones and alcohols. Samples stored without vacuum packaging at 4°C showed 2-nonanone as the most abundant volatile compound toward the end of storage period. Storage at 4°C under vacuum packaging decreased the mold-yeast counts of samples. Frozen storage could be a suitable method for storing the Motal cheese.

  13. Monitoring the effects of storage in caviar from farmed Acipenser transmontanus using chemical, SEM, and NMR methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gussoni, Maristella; Greco, Fulvia; Vezzoli, Alessandra; Paleari, Maria Antonietta; Moretti, Vittorio Maria; Beretta, Giuseppe; Caprino, Fabio; Lanza, Barbara; Zetta, Lucia

    2006-09-06

    The effects of storage at 4 degrees C on the quantity and quality of chemical components in the caviar from farmed Acipenser transmontanus have been analyzed by SEM, chemical methods, and NMR and MRI techniques. Particular attention has been focused on the lipid components, the distribution and mobility of which were strongly affected by the storage time. MRI and relaxation data indicated that lipids are endowed with two different mobility regimes, one slow (short T1) and one fast (long T1), both lengthening with the storage time. Chemical analysis assessed a total fat content that remained practically unchanged and a constant fatty acid composition during the total storage time. The combination of the two methods allowed one (a) to suppose that a mechanism of lipid hydrolysis (faster in unsalted than in salted eggs) is still occurring during storage of caviar at 4 degrees C for up to approximately 4 months and (b) to exclude that an intensive oxidative process is active in the same storage period.

  14. Processing and storage effects on monomeric anthocyanins, percent polymeric color, and antioxidant capacity of processed black raspberry products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hager, A; Howard, L R; Prior, R L; Brownmiller, C

    2008-08-01

    This study evaluated the effects of processing and 6 mo of storage on total monomeric anthocyanins, percent polymeric color, and antioxidant capacity of black raspberries that were individually quick-frozen (IQF), canned-in-syrup, canned-in-water, pureed, and juiced (clarified and nonclarified). Total monomeric anthocyanins, percent polymeric color, and ORAC(FL) were determined 1 d postprocessing and after 1, 3, and 6 mo of storage. Thermal processing resulted in marked losses in total anthocyanins ranging from 37% in puree to 69% to 73% in nonclarified and clarified juices, respectively, but only the juices showed substantial losses (38% to 41%) in ORAC(FL). Storage at 25 degrees C of all thermally processed products resulted in dramatic losses in total anthocyanins ranging from 49% in canned-in-syrup to 75% in clarified juices. This coincided with marked increases in percent polymeric color values of these products over the 6-mo storage. ORAC(FL) values showed little change during storage, indicating that the formation of polymers compensated for the loss of antioxidant capacity due to anthocyanin degradation. Total anthocyanins and ORACFL of IQF berries were well retained during long-term storage at -20 degrees C.

  15. Effect of egg shell color on some egg quality in table eggs during storage at refrigerator temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aygün, Ali; Narinç, Doǧan

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to establish the effects of white shell color eggs and brown shell color eggs on some egg quality in table eggs during 28 days of storage at 5 °C. A total of 100 fresh eggs (60-65 g) were obtained from laying hens (Nick chick) that were raised on a local commercial farm. All eggs were collected over a 24 h period. A total of 100 eggs randomly divided into 2 treatments (10 replicates each) with 50 eggs examined in each. Ten eggs from each group were analyzed for eggs weight loss, specific gravity, albumen height, Haugh unit, yolk index, and albumen pH after 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days of storage. All eggs were individually marked and weighed at the beginning of the experiment to calculate egg weight loss. The egg weight loss in brown shell color eggs significantly (Peggs at 21 days of storage, but no significant differences were observed among groups other storage periods. The brown shell color eggs showed lower levels of specific gravity than white shell color eggs at day 7, 14, and 21, but there were no significant differences between white shell color eggs and brown shell color eggs at day 28. The albumen height and Haugh unit of white shell color eggs was significantly (Peggs during the storage periods. There were no significant differences in yolk index and albumen pH between white shell color eggs and brown shell color eggs during the storage periods. The yolk pH of white shell color eggs was significantly (Peggs at day 7, 14, and 21 of storage period. The results indicated that the white shell color eggs showed better quality than brown shell color eggs at 5 °C for the entire storage period.

  16. Effects of various storage conditions and alterations of antioxidant contents on chromatic aberration of hydroquinone ointment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubayashi, Teruhisa; Sakaeda, Toshiyuki; Kita, Tomoko; Nakamura, Tsutomu; Kakumoto, Mikio; Funasaka, Yoko; Ichihashi, Masamitsu; Fujita, Takuya; Kamiyama, Fumio; Yamamoto, Akira; Nordlund, James J; Kaneko, Masafumi; Iida, Akira; Okumura, Katsuhiko

    2003-01-01

    Ointments of the skin depigmentation agent hydroquinone (HQ) have been prepared by extemporaneous nonsterile compounding in our hospital. The HQ ointments were highly effective in the treatment of various types of skin pigmentations; however, various problems have emerged including chromatic aberration of the ointments, a relatively large variability of efficacy, and mild side effects. Chromatic aberration is expected to induce non-compliance, and this may be the reason for the relatively large variability in efficacy. In this paper, the effects of various storage conditions on the chromatic aberration and HQ content of HQ ointments were evaluated, and it was suggested that the chromatic aberration was accelerated by exposure to high temperature, air and light, although these had no effect on the HQ content. In addition, various types of HQ ointments were prepared to find a formulation to minimize chromatic aberration, and it was found that the concentrations of antioxidants, Na(2)SO(3) and L(+)-ascorbic acid (AsA), seemed to be too high, and that the protective effect of AsA on chromatic aberration was mainly due to its acidifying effect.

  17. Effect of chlorophyllin on normothermic storage of human periodontal ligament cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Won-Gyun; Lee, Eun Ju; Lee, Seung-Jong; Lee, Seung-Ae; Kim, Jin

    2004-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate whether chlorophyllin could serve as an effective constituent of a storage medium to enhance the human periodontal ligament (PDL) cell viability. Freshly isolated PDL cells from premolars extracted from healthy people were stored at 37 degrees C for 6 h in various solutions: F-medium and Hank's balanced salt solution (HBSS), supplemented with chlorophyllin. From MTT viability assays, the highest cell viability was found in the PDL cells stored in HBSS supplemented with 500 nM chlorophyllin, and the chlorophyllin-treated cells showed a dose-dependent response to concentration. Additionally, the results from flow cytometry showed that 77 to 80% of the PDL cells were in the G0/G1 phases of the cell cycle, which suggested that most were in a stable stage. These result showed that HBSS, supplemented with chlorophyllin, may be a useful solution for preserving the viability of PDL cells.

  18. Effects of dyes and initiators on the holographic data storage properties of photopolymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Qiaoxia; Wang, Sulian; Huang, Mingju; Dong, Yong; Gan, Fuxi

    2005-09-01

    Effects of dyes and initiators in the photopolymer on the holographic storage properties are studied. Diffraction efficiency of photopolymer with Erythrosin B (ErB) as dye is significantly larger than that the same photopolymer with Eosin Y (EY), Rose Bengal (RsB), Rodamine B (RoB) and Fluorescein (F) as dyes under the same conditions. The maximum absorption of ErB is closer to 514nm than the others, and the photobleaching rate constant of the initiating system is higher than the others. Compared with the holographic properties with triethanolamine(TEA) as initiator, diffraction efficiency of the photopolymer with N-phenylglycine(NPG) as initiator is lower, but the photopolymer shows higher stability.

  19. Effect of pasteurization on the protein composition and oxidative stability of beer during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Marianne N; Hoff, Signe; Berner, Torben S; Lametsch, René; Andersen, Mogens L

    2012-12-19

    The impacts of pasteurization of a lager beer on protein composition and the oxidative stability were studied during storage at 22 °C for 426 days in the dark. Pasteurization clearly improved the oxidative stability of beer determined by ESR spectroscopy, whereas it had a minor negative effect on the volatile profile by increasing volatile compounds that is generally associated with heat treatment and a loss of fruity ester aroma. A faster rate of radical formation in unpasteurized beer was consistent with a faster consumption of sulfite. Beer proteins in the unpasteurized beer were more degraded, most likely due to proteolytic enzyme activity of yeast remnants and more precipitation of proteins was also observed. The differences in soluble protein content and composition are suggested to result in differences in the contents of prooxidative metals as a consequence of the proteins ability to bind metals. This also contributes to the differences in oxidative stabilities of the beers.

  20. Effect of ultrasound on survival and growth of Escherichia coli in cactus pear juice during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelly del Socorro Cruz-Cansino

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of ultrasound as a conservation method for the inactivation of Escherichia coli inoculated into cactus pear juices (green and purple. Total soluble solids, pH, titratable acidity, and the kinetics of E. coli in cactus pear juices treated by ultrasound (60%, 70%, 80% and 90% amplitude levels for 1, 3 and 5 min were evaluated over 5 days. Total inactivation was observed in both fruit juices after 5 min of ultrasound treatment at most amplitude levels (with the exception of 60% and 80%. After one and two days of storage, the recovery of bacteria counts was observed in all cactus pear juices. Ultrasound treatment at 90% amplitude for 5 min resulted in non-detectable levels of E. coli in cactus pear juice for 2 days. The parameters of pH, titratable acidity and soluble solids were unaffected.

  1. Combined Effect of Honey and O2 Absorber Packaging on Storage Quality of Chocolate Sponge Cake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usamas Jariyawaranugoon

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to investigate the combined effect of honey and O2 absorber on physicochemical and sensory properties of chocolate sponge cakes stored at room temperature (30±2°C for 12 days. Four sponge cake treatments included sucrose cake packed without O2 absorber (T1, sucrose cake packed with O2 absorber (T2, honey cake packed without O2 absorber (T3 and honey cake packed with O2 absorber (T4 were examined. The pH values of sucrose and honey cakes packed without O2 absorber were significantly decreased (p0.05. All cake treatments showed significant decrease (p0.05 in all attributes scores. After the 3rd day of storage, the cake containing honey significantly showed (p>0.05 no alteration in all sensory attributes while the decrease in flavor was evident (p<0.05 in the sucrose cake.

  2. Hole burning, Stark effect, and data storage: 2: holographic recording and detection of spectral holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caro, C D; Renn, A; Wild, U P

    1991-07-10

    The properties of holographic recording and detection of spectral holes in the frequency and electric-field dimension are investigated. To optimize the storage properties of optical memory devices, based on spectral hole burning and holography, cross-talk effects between adjacent holograms have to be minimized. These interactions depend on the relative phases of the holograms chosen during the recording stage. Using free-base chlorin (2,3-dihydroporphyrin) in polyvinyl butyral as host at a temperature of 1.7 K, the influence of the relative phase difference between holograms is demonstrated in both the frequency and the electric-field dimension. Experimental results are presented for rows and columns of holograms stored either in the laser frequency or the electric-field dimension and compared to transmission data. Using both dimensions a 10 x 10 matrix of holograms has been stored within the range of a single wave number.

  3. Effects of harvesting date and storage on the amounts of polyacetylenes in carrots, Daucus carota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjellenberg, Lars; Johansson, Eva; Gustavsson, Karl-Erik; Olsson, Marie E

    2010-11-24

    The amounts of three main polyacetylenes in carrots; falcarinol, falcarindiol, and falcarindiol-3-acetate, were determined by HPLC, during three seasons, in carrots harvested several times per season and at different locations in Sweden. The amounts of falcarindiol first decreased from a relatively high level and then increased later in the harvest season. The amounts of falcarindiol-3-acetate showed similar variations, whereas the amounts of falcarinol did not exhibit any significant variation during the harvest season. During storage the amount of polyacetylenes leveled off, increasing in samples initially low and decreasing in samples initially high in polyacetylenes. The amounts of all polyacetylenes varied significantly due to external factors and between stored and fresh samples. This variation opens up possibilities to achieve a chemical composition of polyacetylenes at harvest that minimizes the risk of bitter off-taste and maximizes the positive health effects reported in connection with polyacetylenes in carrots.

  4. Effect of ultrasound on survival and growth of Escherichia coli in cactus pear juice during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Cansino, Nelly Del Socorro; Reyes-Hernández, Isidro; Delgado-Olivares, Luis; Jaramillo-Bustos, Diana Pamela; Ariza-Ortega, José Alberto; Ramírez-Moreno, Esther

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of ultrasound as a conservation method for the inactivation of Escherichia coli inoculated into cactus pear juices (green and purple). Total soluble solids, pH, titratable acidity, and the kinetics of E. coli in cactus pear juices treated by ultrasound (60%, 70%, 80% and 90% amplitude levels for 1, 3 and 5min) were evaluated over 5 days. Total inactivation was observed in both fruit juices after 5min of ultrasound treatment at most amplitude levels (with the exception of 60% and 80%). After one and two days of storage, the recovery of bacteria counts was observed in all cactus pear juices. Ultrasound treatment at 90% amplitude for 5min resulted in non-detectable levels of E. coli in cactus pear juice for 2 days. The parameters of pH, titratable acidity and soluble solids were unaffected.

  5. Effects of packaging techniques, freezing temperature and storage time on beef shelf life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Di Giacomo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Modified atmosphere packaging (MAP is well-known as a method to extend the shelf life of a variety of foods including fresh red meat (Luño et al., 2000. Atmospheres combine oxygen (O2, carbon dioxide (CO2, and nitrogen (N2 to maintain the quality of fresh red meat. CO2 is known for its inhibitory effect on microbial growth (Silliker and Wolfe, 1980; nevertheless atmospheres with high levels of CO2 (low O2 can cause meat discoloration (Silliker et al., 1977. In the present research physical characteristics and oxidative stability have been checked on Maremmana crossbreed Longissimus thoracis muscle after packaging under vacuum and in modified atmosphere and then storage at three temperatures for three different times.

  6. Fast stack activation procedure and effective long-term storage for high-performance polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Seung Yong; Seo, Dong-Jun; Kim, Myeong-Ri; Seo, Min Ho; Hwang, Sun-Mi; Jung, Yong-Min; Kim, Beom-Jun; Yoon, Young-Gi; Han, Byungchan; Kim, Tae-Young

    2016-10-01

    Time-saving stack activation and effective long-term storage are one of most important issues that must be resolved for the commercialization of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). Herein, we developed the cost-effective stack activation method to finish the whole activation within 30 min and the long-term storage method by using humidified N2 without any significant decrease in cell's performance for 30 days. Specifically, the pre-activation step with the direct injection of DI water into the stack and storage at 65 or 80 °C for 2 h increases the distinctive phase separation between the hydrophobic and hydrophilic regions in Nafion membrane, which significantly reduces the total activation time within 30 min. Additionally, the long-term storage with humidified N2 has no effect on the Pt oxidation and drying of Nafion membrane for 30 days due to its exergonic reaction in the cell. As a result, the high water content in Nafion membrane and the decrease of Pt oxidation are the critical factors that have a strong influence on the activation and long-term storage for high-performance PEMFC.

  7. Dormant investment disputes legal issues to explore%隐名出资纠纷法律问题探究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖信平

    2015-01-01

    the new form of today ’ s investment constantly , in our country , as a new form of investment , the dormant investment because of the particularity of the “silent”, sought after by investors .Dormant invest-ment like a double-edged sword , however , that bring the investment convenient at the same time , also has caused many legal problems .Legal issues for dormant investment disputes , the supreme people's court on De-cember 6 , 2010 , the “company law” to explain ( 3 ) , within the framework of the judicial interpretation , in this paper , the possible legal risks dormant investment and relevant prevention measures and other issues to be discussed .%如今投资形式不断推陈出新,在我国,作为一种新型投资形式,隐名出资因其“隐名”的特殊性,受到投资者的追捧。然而,隐名出资像一把双刃剑,在给人们带来投资便利的同时,也引起了许多法律困扰。针对隐名出资纠纷法律问题,最高人民法院于2010年12月6日公布了《公司法》解释(三),在该司法解释的框架内,文章就隐名出资可能存在的法律风险以及相关防范对策等问题予以探讨。

  8. Effect of Edible Coatings, Storage Time and Maturity Stage on Overall Quality of Tomato Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge E.J, Davila-Avina

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. is one of the most widely consumed fresh vegetables in the world; however, its highly perishable nature limits its postharvest life. Major losses in tomato quality and quantity occur between harvest and consumption. Therefore, the application of new technologies to extend the postharvest life of this commodity is needed. The use of edible coatings appears to be a good alternative. Approach: We evaluated the effect of carnauba and mineral oil coatings on the postharvest quality of tomato fruits (cv. Grandela. Stafresh 2505 (carnauba and Stafresh 151 (mineral oil coatings were applied on fresh tomatoes at two maturity stages (breaker and pink. The quality of tomatoes was evaluated periodically at 0, 5, 10, 15, 21 and 28 days of storage at 10°C, plus 2 days at 20°C. For respiration rate analysis, tomatoes were kept at 20°C for 16 days. Results: At the beginning of the study, CO2 production was reduced by 38 and 46% when applying the mineral oil coating on breaker and pink tomatoes, respectively. In addition, early during the study, the mineral oil coating showed suppression of ethylene biosynthesis at both maturity stages. Both coatings reduced 30% PG activity of tomato tissue. At the end of storage, mineral oil coatings delayed color changes and reduced weight losses for up 70 and 46% at the breaker and pink stages, respectively. Conclusion/Recommendations: Respiration rate, color, weight loss and enzyme activity were positively affected by mineral oil coating at both maturity stages. No effects on firmness, titratable acidity and pH were found by the coating application. We concluded that mineral oil coating could be a good alternative to preserve the quality and extend the postharvest life of tomato fruit.

  9. Effects of Juice Matrix and Pasteurization on Stability of Black Currant Anthocyanins during Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, Gary; McDougall, Gordon J; Stewart, Derek; Cubero, Miguel Ángel; Karjalainen, Reijo O

    2017-01-01

    The effects of juice matrix and pasteurization on the stability of total phenols and especially total and individual anthocyanins were examined in black currant (BC) juice and mixtures with apple, persimmon, and peach juices at 4 °C and 20 °C. Total phenol content decreased in all juices at both temperatures but there was a trend to lower levels in unpasteurized over pasteurized juices. Differences in the decline of total anthocyanins between pasteurized and unpasteurized juices varied according to the juice type and the storage temperature. At 4 °C storage, anthocyanins declined in all juices according to pseudo 1st-order kinetics and there were only small differences in the rates between pasteurized and unpasteurized juices. However, at 20 °C, although pasteurized and unpasteurized BC juices and pasteurized mixed juices followed pseudo 1st-order kinetics, there was a different pattern in unpasteurized mixed juices; a rapid initial decline was followed by a slowing down. The effect of the added juice on anthocyanin decline was also different at either temperature. At 4 °C, the anthocyanins decreased faster in mixed juices than BC juice alone, but at 20 °C, at least in pasteurized mixed juices, the decline was similar or even slower than in BC juice; there were only small differences among the 3 mixed juices. At 20 °C, in pasteurized and unpasteurized BC juices, the rate of decrease was essentially the same for all 4 individual anthocyanins but in the mixed juices the 2 glucosides decreased significantly faster than the 2 rutinosides. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  10. The influence of heavy doping effects on the reverse recovery storage time of a diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, S. C.; Van Overstraeten, R. J.

    1983-05-01

    During the reverse recovery process in a modern Si p- n junction diode, the value of JEO/ JBO (the ratio of emitter to base dark saturation currents) increases and the recombination of carriers in the emitter becomes important due to heavy doping effects. A theory is developed to take these effects into account. The emitter and the base components of the current during the reverse recovery phase are found to vary with time. However, their sum remains equal to the constant reverse current JR, which flows in the external circuit. The ratio of the total quantity of charge present in the base to that present in the emitter is found to increase rapidly with time. Values of the storage time ts for different values of JEO/ JBO are calculated. In a typical case, the storage time is reduced by a factor 5 in a diode with JEO/ JBO = 2. In such cases, the values of lifetime τB calculated using measured ts values and the Kingston's formula, become inaccurate. Theoretical expression for the total charge QBS left in the base at t = ts in a base dominated diode is derived. An earlier semi-empirical formula known as Kuno's formula is derived theoretically. It is found that the formula is valid both for the base dominated diode as well as in a diode with large contribution of the emitter but only when JR/ JF is small. According to this formula ts vs 1n(1 + JF/ JR) plot is approximately a straight line with slope approximately equal to τB in both cases. For large values of JR/ JF when ts values are small, the correct formula shows that the plot is highly curved. An analysis of this part of the curve yields a value of JEO/ JBO.

  11. Effects of brine migration on waste storage systems. Final report. [Thermomechanical effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaffney, E.S.; Nickell, R.E.

    1979-05-15

    Processes which can lead to mobilization of brine adjacent to spent fuel or nuclear waste canisters and some of the thermomechanical consequences have been investigated. Velocities as high as 4 x 10/sup -7/ m s/sup -1/ (13 m y/sup -1/) are calculated at the salt/canister boundary. As much as 40 liters of pure NaCl brine could accumulate around each canister during a 10-year storage period. Accumulations of bittern brines would probably be less, in the range of 2 to 5 liters. With 0.5% water, NaCl brine accumulation over a 10-year storage cycle around a spent fuel canister producing 0.6 kW of heat is expected to be less than 1 liter for centimeter-size inclusions and less than 0.5 liter for millimeter-size inclusions. For bittern brines, about 25 years would be required to accumulate 0.4 liter. The most serious mechanical consequence of brine migration would be the increased mobility of the waste canister due to pressure solution. In pressure solution enhanced deformation, the existence of a thin film of fluid either between grains or between media (such as between a canister and the salt) provides a pathway by which the salt can be redistributed leading to a marked increase in strain rates in wet rock relative to dry rock. In salt, intergranular water will probably form discontinuous layers rather than films so that they would dominate pressure solution. A mathematical model of pressure solution indicates that pressure solution will not lead to appreciable canister motions except possibly in fine grained rocks (less than 10/sup -4/ m). In fine grained salts, details of the contact surface between the canister and the salt bed may lead to large pressure solution motions. A numerical model indicates that heat transfer in the brine layer surrounding a spent fuel canister is not conduction dominated but has a significant convective component.

  12. Translatome profiling in dormant and nondormant sunflower (Helianthus annuus) seeds highlights post-transcriptional regulation of germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layat, Elodie; Leymarie, Juliette; El-Maarouf-Bouteau, Hayat; Caius, José; Langlade, Nicolas; Bailly, Christophe

    2014-12-01

    Seed dormancy, which blocks germination in apparently favourable conditions, is a key regulatory control point of plant population establishment. As germination requires de novo translation, its regulation by dormancy is likely to be related to the association of individual transcripts to polysomes. Here, the polysome-associated mRNAs, that is, the translatome, were fractionated and characterized with microarrays in dormant and nondormant sunflower (Helianthus annuus) embryos during their imbibition at 10°C, a temperature preventing germination of dormant embryos. Profiling of mRNAs in polysomal complexes revealed that the translatome differs between germinating and nongerminating embryos. Association of transcripts with polysomes reached a maximum after 15 h of imbibition; at this time-point 194 polysome-associated transcripts were specifically found in nondormant embryos and 47 in dormant embryos only. The proteins corresponding to the polysomal mRNAs in nondormant embryos appeared to be very pertinent for germination and were involved mainly in transport, regulation of transcription or cell wall modifications. This work demonstrates that seed germination results from a timely regulated and selective recruitment of mRNAs to polysomes, thus opening novel fields of investigation for the understanding of this developmental process. © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  13. Effect of curing ingredients and vacuum packaging on the physico-chemical and storage quality of ready-to-eat Vawksa rep (smoked pork product) during refrigerated storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deuri, Deepshikha; Hazarika, Pragati; Singh, Tarun Pal; Chhangte, Lalchamliani; Singh, Parminder; Talukder, Suman

    2016-06-01

    The present study was conducted for the development of ready-to-eat Vawksa rep (smoked pork product) and to study the synergistic effect of curing ingredients and vacuum packaging on the physico-chemical and storage quality during refrigerated storage at (4°C±1°C) for 15 days. Four different batches of Vawksa rep samples were prepared, i.e., T-1 (uncured, first cooked at 121°C for 15 min, and then smoked at 120°C for 30 min), T-2 (uncured, cooked, and smoked simultaneously at 120°C for 45 min), T-3 (cured, first cooked at 121°C for 15 min, and then smoked at 120°C for 30 min), and T-4 (cured, cooked, and smoked simultaneously at 120°C for 45 min). Cooking yield was significantly higher (pproduct) could be prepared easily with little technology up-gradation and with a negligible escalation of production cost.

  14. Storage effect on the analysis of pharmaceuticals and personal care products in wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorova, Ganna; Golovko, Oksana; Randak, Tomas; Grabic, Roman

    2014-09-01

    In this study, the stability of 124 target analytes in influent and effluent wastewater samples during short-term (4°C) and long-term (-18°C) storage was assessed. The most common storage scenario was considered, in which samples were frozen immediately after sampling without any pre-treatment. During short-term storage more analytes remained stable (concentration during storage was in the range of 60-120% of the initial concentration) at 4°C than at -18°C. During long-term storage (-18°C), three types of behavior were observed: constant concentrations throughout the experimental period, decreasing concentrations with time, and loss of the compound from the sample after freezing. Differences between effluent and influent samples were observed for 50 out of 124 tested PPCPs. The amount of stable analytes decreased with time during long-term storage. 72% and 56% of the target compounds in the effluent and influent wastewater, respectively, remained stable during 60days of storage. The number of stable compounds decreased to 57 (46%) and 46 (37%) in the effluent and influent, respectively, over 120days. 15 Pharmaceuticals were lost after freezing/thawing cycle. The results stress the importance of storage factors during analysis of pharmaceuticals in wastewater. The stability of target compounds in the samples under the planned storage conditions should be checked before starting the experiment to obtain reliable data. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of argan oil on liquid storage of ram semen in Tris or skim milk based extenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allai, Larbi; Druart, Xavier; Contell, Jesus; Louanjli, Noureddine; Moula, Anass Ben; Badi, Abdelmoughit; Essamadi, Abdelkhalid; Nasser, Boubker; El Amiri, Bouchra

    2015-09-01

    Due to its high antioxidant content, the argan oil could play a beneficial role in liquid storage of ram semen. The aim of this study was to investigate effects of different concentration of argan oil (ARO) on spermatologic parameters, lipid peroxidation and DNA fragmentation during liquid storage of ram semen until 48 h. Also effects of extenders and temperature on same parameters were assessed. For these aims, semen samples were collected from Boujaâd rams, extended with Tris egg yolk or skim milk extenders without (control) or supplemented with different concentrations of ARO (1%, 2%, 5% and 10% v/v) at a final concentration of 0.8 × 10(9) sperm/mL and stored until 48 h at 5 °C or 15 °C. The sperm quality assessments were performed at different intervals during storage (0, 8, 24 and 48 h). Sperm progressive motility started to decrease after 8h of storage in all temperatures--extenders combinations and dropped steadily during the 8-48 h interval. However, sperm viability, progressive motility and membrane integrity were markedly higher in ARO groups (especially in 1% in Tris and 5% in skim milk) until 24h and 48 h storage at both temperatures compared to controls. The argan oil also decreased the level of spontaneous and induced malondialdehyde (MDA) and the sperm DNA fragmentation until 48 h storage. In conclusion, it was determined that addition of argan oil to conventional extenders may improve the quality of ram semen during liquid storage in different temperatures.

  16. Antimicrobial Effect of Mentha spicata and Mentha pulegium Essential Oils in Two Storage Temperatures on the Survival of Debaryomyces hansenii in Iranian Doogh

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Guity Karim; Mahzad Aghazadeh Meshgi; Rahim Karimi Ababil; Saeed Bokaie

    2016-01-01

    .... In the current study, the antimicrobial effect of Mentha spicata and Mentha pulegium essential oils on the survival of Debaryomyces hansenii was evaluated in two different storage temperatures...

  17. Effect of pullulan on the water distribution, microstructure and textural properties of rice starch gels during cold storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Long; Tian, Yaoqi; Tong, Qunyi; Zhang, Zipei; Jin, Zhengyu

    2017-01-01

    The effects of pullulan on the water distribution, microstructure and textural properties of rice starch gels during cold storage were investigated by low field-nuclear magnetic resonance (LF-NMR), scanning electron microscope (SEM), and texture profile analysis (TPA). The addition of pullulan reduced the transversal relaxation time of rice starch gels during cold storage. The microstructure of rice starch gel with 0.5% pullulan was denser and more uniform compared with that of rice starch without pullulan in each period of storage time. With regard to textural properties, 0.01% pullulan addition did not significantly change the texture of rice starch gels, while 0.5% pullulan addition appeared to reduce the hardness and retain the springiness of rice starch gels (P⩽0.05). The restriction effects of pullulan on water mobility and starch retrogradation were hypothesized to be mainly responsible for the water retention, gel structure maintenance, and modification of the textural attributes of rice starch gels.

  18. Anti- and pro-oxidative effect of fresh and freeze-dried vegetables during storage of mayonnaise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raikos, Vassilios; Neacsu, Madalina; Morrice, Philip; Duthie, Garry

    2015-12-01

    Mayonnaise was supplemented with vegetables (5 % w/w) and the effect of storage time at 4 °C on the oxidative stability of the dispersed phase was investigated. Results indicated that mayonnaise is prone to lipid oxidation during storage under refrigerator conditions. The type of vegetable used for mayonnaise reformulation was critical in inhibiting oxidation and followed the order beetroot > carrot ≈ onion with respect to antioxidant capacity. Broccoli induced a pro-oxidant effect and the rate of oxidation by the end of the storage period was 42 times higher compared with the control. The addition of beetroot, either fresh or freeze-dried, improved the oxidative stability of mayonnaise significantly. The process of freeze-drying affected adversely the ability of vegetables to decrease oil oxidation of the emulsions. This may reflect loss of important natural antioxidants during the drying procedure.

  19. Residual effect of storage in an elevated carbon dioxide atmosphere on the microbial flora of rock cod (Sebastes spp. )

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, M.Y.; Ogrydziak, D.M.

    1986-10-01

    A residual inhibitory effect on microbial growth due to modified-atmosphere (MA) storage (MA, 80% CO/sub 2/-20% air) was demonstrated for rock cod fillets stored in MA and transferred to air at 4/sup 0/C. Results of measurements of CO/sub 2/ concentrations of the fillets suggested that the residual effect after transfer from MA to air was not due to retention of CO/sup 2/ at the surface of the fillets but was probably due to the microbial ecology of the system. Lactobacillus spp. and tan Alteromonas spp. (TAN) predominated after 7 and 14 days of storage in MA. During storage in MA, Pseudomonas spp. were inhibited or killed. Following transfer from MA to air, the percentage of the total flora represented by Lactobacillus spp. and TAN bacteria decreased, and 6 days after transfer Pseudomonas spp. were again dominant.

  20. Effects of grape pomace extract on the quality and shelf life of silver carp (Hypophthalmicthys molitrix fillets during chill storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirin Hasani

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The effects of grape pomace extract (0, 2 and 4% on quality and shelf life of silver carp (Hypophthalmicthys molitrix fillets during chill storage (4°C were investigated. The control and the treated fillets were analyzed periodically for microbiological (TVC and PTC, chemical (TVB-N, and sensory characteristics. The results showed that grape pomace-treated samples have lower TVB-N (24.2 and 21.2 mg N/100 g, respectively, TVC (7.33 and 7.09 log cfu/g, respectively and PTC (7.26 and 7.03 log cfu/g, respectively at the end of the storage period. The results revealed that the addition of grape pomace extract has a positive effect on the sensory quality of silver carp fillets by retaining proper quality characteristics for a longer time and extends their shelf life during chill storage.

  1. Effects of Different Drying Methods and Storage Time on Free Radical Scavenging Activity and Total Phenolic Content of Cosmos Caudatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mediani, Ahmed; Abas, Faridah; Tan, Chin Ping; Khatib, Alfi

    2014-05-07

    The present study was conducted to determine the effect of air (AD), oven (OD) and freeze drying (FD) on the free radical scavenging activity and total phenolic content (TPC) of Cosmos caudatus and the effect of storage time by the comparison with a fresh sample (FS). Among the three drying methods that were used, AD resulted in the highest free radical scavenging activity against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) (IC50 = 0.0223 mg/mL) and total phenolic content (27.4 g GAE/100 g), whereas OD produced the lowest scavenging activity and TPC value. After three months of storage, the dried samples showed a high and consistent free radical scavenging activity when compared to stored fresh material. The drying methods could preserve the quality of C. caudatus during storage and the stability of its bioactive components can be maintained.

  2. Solar Thermoelectricity via Advanced Latent Heat Storage: A Cost-Effective Small-Scale CSP Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glatzmaier, Greg C.; Rea, J.; Olsen, Michele L.; Oshman, C.; Hardin, C.; Alleman, Jeff; Sharp, J.; Weigand, R.; Campo, D.; Hoeschele, G.; Parilla, Philip A.; Siegel, N. P.; Toberer, Eric S.; Ginley, David S.

    2017-06-27

    We are developing a novel concentrating solar electricity-generating technology that is both modular and dispatchable. Solar ThermoElectricity via Advanced Latent heat Storage (STEALS) uses concentrated solar flux to generate high-temperature thermal energy, which directly converts to electricity via thermoelectric generators (TEGs), stored within a phase-change material (PCM) for electricity generation at a later time, or both allowing for simultaneous charging of the PCM and electricity generation. STEALS has inherent features that drive its cost-competitive scale to be much smaller than current commercial concentrating solar power (CSP) plants. Most obvious is modularity of the solid-state TEG, which favors smaller scales in the kilowatt range as compared to CSP steam turbines, which are minimally 50 MWe for commercial power plants. Here, we present techno-economic and market analyses that show STEALS can be a cost-effective electricity-generating technology with particular appeal to small-scale microgrid applications. We evaluated levelized cost of energy (LCOE) for STEALS and for a comparable photovoltaic (PV) system with battery storage. For STEALS, we estimated capital costs and the LCOE as functions of the type of PCM including the use of recycled aluminum alloys, and evaluated the cost tradeoffs between plasma spray coatings and solution-based boron coatings that are applied to the wetted surfaces of the PCM subsystem. We developed a probabilistic cost model that accounts for uncertainties in the cost and performance inputs to the LCOE estimation. Our probabilistic model estimated LCOE for a 100-kWe STEALS system that had 5 hours of thermal storage and 8-10 hours of total daily power generation. For these cases, the solar multiple for the heliostat field varied between 1.12 and 1.5. We identified microgrids as a likely market for the STEALS system. We characterized microgrid markets in terms of nominal power, dispatchability, geographic location, and

  3. Solar thermoelectricity via advanced latent heat storage: A cost-effective small-scale CSP application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glatzmaier, G. C.; Rea, J.; Olsen, M. L.; Oshman, C.; Hardin, C.; Alleman, J.; Sharp, J.; Weigand, R.; Campo, D.; Hoeschele, G.; Parilla, P. A.; Siegel, N. P.; Toberer, E. S.; Ginley, D. S.

    2017-06-01

    We are developing a novel concentrating solar electricity-generating technology that is both modular and dispatchable. Solar ThermoElectricity via Advanced Latent heat Storage (STEALS) uses concentrated solar flux to generate high-temperature thermal energy, which directly converts to electricity via thermoelectric generators (TEGs), stored within a phase-change material (PCM) for electricity generation at a later time, or both allowing for simultaneous charging of the PCM and electricity generation. STEALS has inherent features that drive its cost-competitive scale to be much smaller than current commercial concentrating solar power (CSP) plants. Most obvious is modularity of the solid-state TEG, which favors smaller scales in the kilowatt range as compared to CSP steam turbines, which are minimally 50 MWe for commercial power plants. Here, we present techno-economic and market analyses that show STEALS can be a cost-effective electricity-generating technology with particular appeal to small-scale microgrid applications. We evaluated levelized cost of energy (LCOE) for STEALS and for a comparable photovoltaic (PV) system with battery storage. For STEALS, we estimated capital costs and the LCOE as functions of the type of PCM including the use of recycled aluminum alloys, and evaluated the cost tradeoffs between plasma spray coatings and solution-based boron coatings that are applied to the wetted surfaces of the PCM subsystem. We developed a probabilistic cost model that accounts for uncertainties in the cost and performance inputs to the LCOE estimation. Our probabilistic model estimated LCOE for a 100-kWe STEALS system that had 5 hours of thermal storage and 8-10 hours of total daily power generation. For these cases, the solar multiple for the heliostat field varied between 1.12 and 1.5. We identified microgrids as a likely market for the STEALS system. We characterized microgrid markets in terms of nominal power, dispatchability, geographic location, and

  4. Effects of Anti-Caries Antibodies on Lactobacillus GG in Its Fermentation and Storage Periods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Objective To investigate how antibodies influence the fermentation of Lactobacillus GG and how Lactobacillus GG influences the biological properties of antibodies during the fermentation and storage periods. Methods Anti-caries immune colostrum powder (IP) and control colostrum powder (CP), skimmed milk powder (SP) at concentrations of 1%, 2.5%, 5% and 10% (w/v) were added to MRS and 50mM Hepes buffer system was used in the milk, the growth curves of Lactobacillus GG including viable cells, lactic acid concentatrion and pH, and also the titer of specific antibodies were determined during the fermentation and storage periods. Results In MRS, SP could improve the growth of Lactobacillus GG in all periods of fermentation, especially at the concentrations of 5% and 10%. CP at the concentrations of 1% and 2.5% had a good initial velocity at the beginning and CP (1%, 2.5%, 5%, 10%) in all the groups could reach a high viable cell concentration at the end of fermentation, which suggested that there were some growth factors for Lactobacillus GG in CP overcoming the inhibition of unspecific antibodies. IP at 1%, 2.5%, 5% and 10% could inhibit the growth of Lactobacillus GG in all the fermentation periods, the critical concentration point was between 2.5%-5%, and there was a competition between growth factors and the inhibition of specific antibodies. In pasteurized milk, the influence of Hepes could help the fermentation start quickly and reach the log phase earlier than in the control group; however, when combined with 5% IP, the growth of Lactobacillus GG was strongly inhibited during all the fermentation periods. The fermentation of Lactobacillus GG had no significant effect on the titer change of anti-caries antibodies during the fermentation and storage periods. Conclusion SP and CP is beneficial to the growth of Lactobacillus GG in MRS, whereas there is a competition between growth factors and the inhibition of specific antibodies to the growth of Lactobacillus GG

  5. Effect of Modified Atmosphere Packaging and Vacuum Packaging on Quality Characteristics of Low Grade Beef during Cold Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, S J; Jin, S K; Park, J H; Jung, S W; Lyu, H J

    2013-12-01

    Many studies have been carried out with respect to packaging methods and temperature conditions of beef. However, the effects of packaging methods and temperature conditions on the quality characteristics have not been extensively studied in low-grade beef. Low-grade beef samples were divided into 3 groups (C: ziplock bag packaging, T1: vacuum packaging, and T2: modified atmosphere packaging (MAP), CO2/N2 = 3:7) and samples were stored at 4°C for 21 days. The water-holding capacity (WHC) was significantly lower in T1 than in the other samples up to 14 days of storage. The thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and volatile basic nitrogen values were significantly lower in T1 and T2 than in C after 7 to 14 days of storage. The total bacterial counts were significantly lower in T1 and T2 than in C after 14 days of storage. In a sensory evaluation, tenderness and overall acceptability were significantly higher in T1 and T2 than in C at the end of the storage period (21 days). We propose that the MAP method can improve beef quality characteristics of low-grade beef during cold storage. However, the beneficial effects did not outweigh the cost increase to implement MAP.

  6. Quality changes of the Mediterranean horse mackerel (Trachurus mediterraneus) during chilled storage: The effect of low-dose gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mbarki, Raouf [Institut National des Sciences et Technologies de la Mer, La Goulette 2060 (Tunisia); Sadok, Saloua [Institut National des Sciences et Technologies de la Mer, La Goulette 2060 (Tunisia)], E-mail: salwa.sadok@instm.rnrt.tn; Barkallah, Insaf [Centre National des Sciences et Technologies Nucleaires, Sidi-Thabet 2020 (Tunisia)

    2009-04-15

    Pelagic fishes represent the main Mediterranean fisheries in terms of quantity. However, waste and spoilage of pelagic fish are substantial for a variety of reasons, such as their high perishability and the lack or inadequate supply of ice and freezing facilities. In this work, fresh Mediterranean horse mackerel (Trachurus mediterraneus) were irradiated at 1 and 2 kGy and stored in ice for 18 days. Quality changes during storage were followed by the determination of microbial counts, trimethylamine (TMA) and volatile basic nitrogen contents. Similarly, lipid composition and sensory analysis were carried out. Irradiation treatment was effective in reducing total bacterial counts throughout storage. Total basic volatile nitrogen content (TVB-N) and TMA levels increased in all lots with storage time, their concentrations being significantly reduced by irradiation, even when the lower level (1 kGy) was used. According to the quality index method, the control lot had a sensory shelf-life of 4 days, whereas those of the irradiated lots were extended by 5 days. Also, low-dose irradiation had no adverse effect on the nutritionally important polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) of Mediterranean horse mackerel. In the same way, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances values increased with irradiation during the first day, but these values were lower at the end of storage, compared to the control. Results confirm the practical advantages of using {gamma} irradiation as an additional process to chilled storage to enhance the microbiological quality and to extend the shelf-life of small pelagic species.

  7. Quality changes of the Mediterranean horse mackerel ( Trachurus mediterraneus) during chilled storage: The effect of low-dose gamma irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbarki, Raouf; Sadok, Saloua; Barkallah, Insaf

    2009-04-01

    Pelagic fishes represent the main Mediterranean fisheries in terms of quantity. However, waste and spoilage of pelagic fish are substantial for a variety of reasons, such as their high perishability and the lack or inadequate supply of ice and freezing facilities. In this work, fresh Mediterranean horse mackerel ( Trachurus mediterraneus) were irradiated at 1 and 2 kGy and stored in ice for 18 days. Quality changes during storage were followed by the determination of microbial counts, trimethylamine (TMA) and volatile basic nitrogen contents. Similarly, lipid composition and sensory analysis were carried out. Irradiation treatment was effective in reducing total bacterial counts throughout storage. Total basic volatile nitrogen content (TVB-N) and TMA levels increased in all lots with storage time, their concentrations being significantly reduced by irradiation, even when the lower level (1 kGy) was used. According to the quality index method, the control lot had a sensory shelf-life of 4 days, whereas those of the irradiated lots were extended by 5 days. Also, low-dose irradiation had no adverse effect on the nutritionally important polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) of Mediterranean horse mackerel. In the same way, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances values increased with irradiation during the first day, but these values were lower at the end of storage, compared to the control. Results confirm the practical advantages of using γ irradiation as an additional process to chilled storage to enhance the microbiological quality and to extend the shelf-life of small pelagic species.

  8. Effects of storage conditions on quality characteristics of commercial aquafeeds and growth of African catfish Clarias gariepinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomon Shola Gabriel

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the effect of storage conditions on the quality of feed and the aftermath effect of feeding fish with such feeds. Three commercial diets used for this study included Coppens®, Multifeed® and Vital feed®. Feed was stored either by opening the bag to the atmosphere (WO, the bag opened with neck tied using a rubber ring to prevent exposure to the atmosphere (OT or sealed (SC until the start of the feeding trials. The feed was stored under these conditions for six months. Nutrient analyses revealed significant changes in feeds held under the WO condition when compared with other storage conditions. Nutritive changes also varied with commercial feed type. Mould infestation of the feed was noticeable more in the WO condition of storage compared to the SC condition. After feeding C. gariepinus for fifty-six days, lesions were observed on fish fed mouldy feed held under the WO condition, which led to mass mortalities. Growth performance was higher in all fish fed SC stored feed, and for those fed Coppens® and Multifeed® under OT storage conditions. It is advised that storage of fish feeds up to six months should be undertaken with considerable care and attention.

  9. Effect of Storage Time and Temperature on Dimensional Stability of Impressions Made with Zinc Oxide Impression Paste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sareh Habibzadeh

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed to assess the effect of storage time and temperature on dimensional stability of impressions made with Cavex Outline zinc oxide impression paste.Materials and Methods: A round stainless steel mold with five grooves (three horizontal and two vertical was used in this in-vitro experimental study. Cavex Outline impression paste was prepared according to the manufacturer’s instructions and applied to the mold. The mold was placed on a block and stored at 35°C and 100% humidity for setting. The impressions were poured with stone immediately and also after 30, 120, 240 and 420 minutes and 24 hours. The distance between the vertical lines on the casts was measured and compared with that in the immediately poured cast.Results: Storage in a refrigerator and at room temperature for zero to seven hours had no significant effect on dimensional stability of the impressions; however, 24 hours of storage in a refrigerator or at room temperature decreased the dimensional stability of Cavex Outline (P=0.001. Also, a significant association was found between dimensional changes following 24 hours of storage in a refrigerator (4°C and at room temperature (23°C; P<0.01.Conclusions: The optimal pouring time of Cavex Outline impressions with stone is between zero to seven hours, and 24 hours of storage significantly decreases the dimensional stability.Keywords: Dental Impression Materials; Zinc Oxide; Cavex

  10. The effect of initial purity on the stability of solutions in storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popa-Burke, Ioana; Novick, Steven; Lane, Charles A; Hogan, Robin; Torres-Saavedra, Pedro; Hardy, Brian; Ray, Brenda; Lindsay, Melissa; Paulus, Iris; Miller, Luke

    2014-02-01

    Many modern compound-screening technologies are highly miniaturized, resulting in longer-lasting solution stocks in compound management laboratories. As the ages of some stocks stretch into years, it becomes increasingly important to ensure that the DMSO solutions remain of high quality. It can be a burden to check the quality of a large library of compound solutions continuously, and so a study was devised to link the effects of initial compound purity and physicochemical properties of the compounds with the current purity of DMSO solutions. Approximately 5000 compounds with initial purity of at least 80% were examined. Storage conditions were held or observed to be relatively constant and so were eliminated as potential predictors. This allowed the evaluation of the effects of other factors on the stability of solutions, such as initial purity, number of freeze-thaw cycles, age of the solution, and multiple calculated physicochemical parameters. Of all the factors investigated, initial purity was the only one that had a clear effect on stability. None of the other parameters investigated (physicochemical properties, number of freeze-thaw cycles, age of solutions) had a statistically significant effect on stability.

  11. Can the structure of dormant cambium and the widths of phloem and xylem increments be used as indicators for tree vitality?

    OpenAIRE

    Gričar, Jožica; Jagodic, Špela; Šefc, Bogoslav; Trajković, Jelena; Eler, Klemen

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the structure and width of the dormant cambium and of the increments of phloem and xylem of Quercus robur to estimate their potential as indicators for tree vitality. The samples were taken from three woodlands, two in Slovenia [Krakovo forest (KRA) and Murska Suma (MUS)] and one in Croatia [Kobiljak (KOB)], with reported tree decline. The number of dormant cells seems to reflect the initial capacity of the cambium to accomplish cell division. With the exception of two trees a...

  12. The effects of hybrid, maturity, and length of storage on the composition and nutritive value of corn silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Der Bedrosian, M C; Nestor, K E; Kung, L

    2012-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of hybrid, maturity at harvest [dry matter (DM) content], and length of storage on the composition and nutritive value of corn silage. The plants used in this study included a normal (NORM) and a brown midrib (BMR) hybrid, harvested at 32 or 41% DM and ensiled for various lengths of time (0 to 360 d) without inoculation. Measurements included nutrient analysis, fermentation end products, in vitro digestion of NDF (NDF-D, 30 h), and in vitro digestion of starch (7h). The concentration of acetic acid increased with length of storage for all treatments, specifically increasing as much as 140% between d 45 to 360 for 32% DM BMR silage. Small changes in lactic acid and ethanol were noted but varied by DM and hybrid. When averaged across maturities and length of storage, compared with NORM, BMR silage was lower in concentrations of lignin, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, and acid detergent fiber, but higher in starch. On average, NDF-D of both hybrids was not affected by length of storage between 45 and 270 d. The NDF-D was markedly greater for BMR than NORM after all times of storage. Increasing maturity at harvest generally did not affect the NDF-D of NORM, with the exception that it was slightly lower for the more mature plants at 270 and 360 d. In contrast, the NDF-D of BMR was lower in more mature silage by approximately 5 percentage units from 45 to 360 d. The concentration of starch for 32% DM NORM was lower (21%) than other treatments (31±3%; mean±SD) at harvest. This finding was probably the cause for starch digestibility to be highest in 32% DM NORM samples atd 0 (about 80%) and lower (65 to 68%) for other treatments. Concentrations of soluble N and ammonia-N increased with length of storage, indicating that proteolytic mechanisms were active beyond 2 to 3 mo of storage. The in vitro digestion of starch generally increased with length of storage, probably as a result of proteolysis. Although

  13. The effect of dust emissions from open storage piles to particle ambient concentration and human exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalvatzaki, E; Aleksandropoulou, V; Glytsos, T; Lazaridis, M

    2012-12-01

    The current study focus on the determination of dust emissions from piles in open storage yards of a municipal solid waste (MSW) composting site and the subsequent atmospheric dust dispersion. The ISC3-ST (Industrial Source Complex Version 3 - Short Term) model was used for the evaluation of the PM(10) ambient concentrations associated with the dispersion of MSW compost dust emissions in air. Dust emission rates were calculated using the United States Environmental Protection Agency proposed dust resuspension formulation from open storage piles using local meteorological data. The dispersion modelling results on the spatial distribution of PM(10) source depletion showed that the maximum concentrations were observed at a distance 25-75 m downwind of the piles in the prevailing wind direction. Sensitivity calculations were performed also to reveal the effect of the compost pile height, the friction velocity and the receptor height on the ambient PM(10) concentration. It was observed that PM(10) concentrations (downwind in the prevailing wind direction) increased with increasing the friction velocity, increasing the pile height (for distances greater than 125 m from the source) and decreasing the receptor height (for distances greater than 125 m from the source). Furthermore, the results of ISC3-ST were analysed with the ExDoM (Exposure Dose Model) human exposure model. The ExDoM is a model for calculating the human exposure and the deposition dose, clearance, and finally retention of aerosol particles in the human respiratory tract (RT). PM(10) concentration at the composting site was calculated as the sum of the concentration from compost pile dust resuspension and the background concentration. It was found that the exposure to PM(10) and deposited lung dose for an adult Caucasian male who is not working at the composting site is less by 20-74% and 29-84%, respectively, compared to those for a worker exposed to PM concentrations at the composting site.

  14. Effects of storage conditions on forensic examinations of blood samples and bloodstains stored for 20 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, M; Nakanishi, H; Yoneyama, K; Saito, K; Takada, A

    2016-01-01

    The effects of various storage conditions on blood identification tests, DNA degradation, and short tandem repeat (STR) typing were evaluated. Bloodstains stored at room temperature, 4 °C, -20 °C, and -80 °C for 20 years; blood samples stored at -20 °C and -80 °C for 20 years; and fresh blood samples were analyzed. Leuco-malachite-green testing, anti-human hemoglobin (Hb) testing (using immunochromatography), and tests for hemoglobin-beta (HBB) mRNA were performed as blood identification tests. DNA degradation was evaluated by quantifying the ratios of 305 and 129 base pair (bp) fragments to 41 bp fragments. STR typing was performed using an AmpFlSTR® Identifiler™ Plus PCR Amplification Kit. All samples were positive in leuco-malachite-green staining and anti-human Hb assays. HBB was not detected in blood samples stored at -20 °C or -80 °C, although this marker was detected in all bloodstains. As indicated by the ratio of 129:41 bp and 305:41 bp DNA fragments, DNA from bloodstains stored at room temperature or 4 °C were significantly degraded compared to DNA from all other samples. STR typing analyses revealed that a portion of the loci was undetected in bloodstains stored at room temperature. Therefore, to prevent DNA degradation during long-term storage, it is recommended that bloodstains and blood be stored at below -20 °C. In addition, because bloodstains are more suitable for detection of blood-specific mRNAs than blood sample, it is desirable that blood is stored as bloodstain for this method.

  15. Effects of water extract of propolis on fresh shibuta (Barbus grypus) fillets during chilled storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duman, Muhsine; Özpolat, Emine

    2015-12-15

    The present study examined the effects of water extract of propolis on the chemical, microbiological and sensory quality in vacuum-packed fresh shibuta (Barbus grypus) fillets during storage at 2°C. Treatments in the study included the following: control (P0) without extract of propolis, 0.1 (P1), 0.3 (P3) and 0.5 (P5) % (v/w) the water extract of propolis, respectively. After 24 days of storage, the total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N) values were 57.76, 44.66, 42.23 and 36.5mg/100g, and total viable counts (TVC) were 8.9, 8.3, 7.96 and 6.95logcfu/g, for water extract of propolis additions of 0.1 (P1), 0.3 (P3), 0.5 (P5) and 0 (control; P0) % (v/w), respectively. The highest acceptable TVB-N value was adopted as 30 mg/100g, corresponding to shelf lives of 9, 15, 18 and 21 days for P0, P1, P3 and P5, respectively. Addition of 0.1% water extract of propolis extended the product's shelf-life by approximately 6 days, whereas the 0.5% water extract of propolis resulted in a significant shelf-life extension of the shibuta fillets, i.e. by approximately 12 days, according to sensory data, as compared to the control sample. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Use Of Amino Acid Racemization To Investigate The Metabolic Activity Of ?Dormant? Microorganisms In Siberian Permafrost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsapin, A.; McDonald, G.

    2002-12-01

    Permafrost occupies a significant part of North America and Eurasia, and accounts for around 20% of Earth?s land surface. Permafrost represents a temperature-stable environment that allows the prolonged survival of microbial lineages at subzero temperatures. Microorganisms from ancient permafrost have been revived and isolated in pure cultures. Permafrost is a unique environment serving as a "natural gene bank", with many species frozen in time (i.e. preserved in an unchanging evolutionary state). Permafrost presents a golden niche for future biotechnology, and is also a unique environment for studying longevity and survivability microorganisms (pro- and eukaryotes). Permafrost, alone among cold environments, offers a sedimentary column in which, in one borehole made in the thick permafrost, we can observe in the preserved genetic material the history of biological evolution during the last several hundred thousand or maybe even a few million years. A thorough study of the phylogenetic relationships of organisms at each depth, as well as comparisons between different depths of permafrost, using molecular evolution techniques, will give us a unique window into the process of evolution of microbial communities over geologic time. The longevity of (micro)organisms in cold environments is of great interest to astrobiology since cryospheres are common phenomena in the solar system, particularly on satellites, comets and asteroids, and on some of the planets. Recent data from the Mars Global Surveyor mission suggest the possibility of permafrost or perhaps even liquid water under the Martian surface. The probability of finding life on Mars, if it exists, is probably higher in such environments. In addition, the evaluation of the possibility of transfer of living organisms between planets via impact ejecta needs the information on the maximum time over which microorganisms in cold environments can remain dormant and subsequently revive and reproduce. Our strategy for the

  17. Dormant state in bacteria: Conceptions and implications for terrestrial biogeoscience and astrobiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulyukin, A.

    2003-04-01

    Gaining insight into strategies and mechanisms that ensure long term-preservation of microorganisms in various environments, including cold habitats, is a very important issue for terrestrial biogeoscience and astrobiology. This communication has a focus on the analysis of the published and our experimental data regarding the dormant state of different microorganisms, with an emphasis on non-spore-forming bacteria, which are widely spread in numerous ecological niches (e.g. permafrost sediments). Albeit it is recognized that one of the strategies to endure environmental stresses is entering of non-spore-forming bacteria into the viable-but-non-culturable state, a question of whether these microorganisms have the resting stage remains unclear. However, our previous studies showed that non-spore-forming bacteria and yeast could form cyst-like cells that possess many attributes of constitutively resting cells. As applied to the survival strategy of non-spore-forming bacteria in permafrost sediments, recognizing a very important role of the viable-but-nonculturable state in asporogenous bacteria, we however believe that their long-term maintenance in such habitats is due to the formation of cyst-like cells. Interestingly, bacterial isolates from permafrost sediments showed a greater productivity of autoregulatory factors, favoring the transition of cells into the resting state, and a more elevated resistance to some stresses than closely related collection strains. This suggests a greater potentiality of the permafrost isolates to enter the resting stage and thereby to survive for millennia years in natural habitats. However, it is known that only a little part of microorganisms that are present in environmental samples can be enumerated by standard plating on agar media, and a discrepancy between the total number of cells and those capable of forming colonies is a rather common case. Such a discrepancy can be due to either the actual non-culturability of microbial

  18. Duddingtonia flagrans chlamydospores in nutritional pellets: effect of storage time and conditions on the trapping ability against Haemonchus contortus larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitz-Aranda, J A; Mendoza-de-Gives, P; Torres-Acosta, J F J; Liébano-Hernández, E; López-Arellano, M E; Sandoval-Castro, C A; Quiroz-Romero, H

    2015-01-01

    The study evaluated the effect of storage time and conditions of nutritional pellets (NP) containing Duddingtonia flagrans chlamydospores on its in vitro trapping ability against Haemonchus contortus L3 larvae. The treated batch (200 NP) contained 4 × 106 chlamydospores of the FTH0-8 strain, whereas the control batch (200 NP) was produced without spores. Both NP batches were exposed to four experimental storage conditions: (T1) shelves (indoors); (T2) refrigeration (4°C); (T3) outdoors under a roof; and (T4) 100% outdoors. Each group comprised 48 NP with spores and 48 NP without spores (control). The ability of D. flagrans spores to trap H. contortus L3 larvae was evaluated for 8 weeks for each storage condition. For that purpose, six randomly selected NP with spores were compared to their respective control NP. Each NP was individually crushed. The crushed material (1 g) was placed on the surface of a 2% water agar plate with 200 H. contortus L3 larvae. Plates were sealed and were incubated at room temperature for 8 days. The whole content of every plate was transferred to a Baermann apparatus to recover the remaining larvae. There was a clear larval reduction in the NP with spores, compared to the respective control NP in the four storage conditions (P< 0.05). The mean reductions ( ± SEM) of the storage conditions were 67 ± 4.9 (T2), 77 ± 6.1 (T1), 81.5 ± 3.8 (T4) and 82.1 ± 2.5 (T3). Larval reductions were similar at all times and were not affected by storage conditions or storage time (R 20.05). The long-term shelf-life of the chlamydospores in the NP suggests that this spore dosage technology is a viable option.

  19. The effect of storage temperature and time on total phenolics and enzymatic activity of sapodilla (Achras sapota L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo Mercado Camargo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The tropical fruits are sensitive to low storage temperatures, so optimal parameters have been searched for storage and transport for the purpose of maintaining its overall quality as long as possible to the consumer. The effect of different storage temperatures (6, 10, 15, 21 and 27 ºC and storage durations (0 to 20 d on total phenolics and enzymatic activity of peroxidase (POD, catalase (CAT, and polyphenol oxidase (PPO on sapodilla (Achras sapota L. fruit was investigated. The extraction and quantitation of protein and phenols from fruit was performed, then the enzymatic activity of PPO, POD and CAT was determined. The concentration of total phenolics decreased in the control fruit. POD activity was 3268.7 ± 1.4 U g-1 in ripening and senescence of sapodilla stored at 27 °C. CAT activity reached a peak of 34.0 ± 0.25 U g-1 in senescence in control fruit. PPO activity remained unchanged in the ripening stage and until consumption. The best storage temperatures to prolong the post-harvest life of the sapodilla fruit were 6 °C and 10 °C when storage was at low temperatures. POD activity was inactivated during sapodilla storage at low temperatures (6 and 10 °C and after being transferred to 27 °C the activity was reactivated. Likewise of fruits stored at 21 °C after being transferred to 27 °C the POD activity was reactive with a maximum value of 46.3 ± 0.012 U g-1. Enzyme activity decreased at low temperatures, which contributed to the preservation of the fruit, showing that the cold retards the maturation processes.

  20. Effects of Storage Time on the Stability of Tomato Puree Produced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Agricultural Research and Development ... 8,830cfu/g within the first eight weeks of storage still below the recommended level for human ... Fungi were absent in the sample within the first five weeks of storage but became visible at ...

  1. MIXING IN DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM STORAGE TANKS: ITS EFFECT ON WATER QUALITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nearly all distribution systems in the US include storage tanks and reservoirs. They are the most visible components of a wate distribution system but are generally the least understood in terms of their impact on water quality. Long residence times in storage tanks can have nega...

  2. Effects of the concrete crack on radiation shielding in spent fuel dry storage facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chang Min

    2007-02-15

    The saturation of South Korea's at-reactor (AR) spent fuel storage pools has created necessity for additional spent fuel storage capacity. The Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Company is planning to construct a MACSTOR-400 composed of reinforced concrete. In concrete structures, cracks occur due to thermal stress, hydration heat, weather, load and other reasons, and shielding performance changes according to the crack width. However, there are no design criteria providing the allowable crack size for shielding. This research presents to estimate the effect of concrete cracking on gamma-ray shielding performance in MACSTOR-400. In order to estimate the crack effect on spent fuel storage facility, this research assume the two cases : crack effect on surface dose rate and crack effect on dose rate in site boundary. For estimating the surface dose rate according to the event by crack, two cases were assumed. One is a 'Normal State,' which is based upon the assumption that crack is formed. The other is a 'Abnormal State,' which assumes that spalling by reinforcement corrosion occurs. Normal state is based on deduction of a correlation between intensity and crack width through experiments. For the experiment, the measuring system is designed and fabricated. With this system, test is carried out and the accuracy is estimated through comparing result of simulation with result of experiment. It is confirmed that result of simulation and experiment has a similar trend with 5% error. The surface dose rate increased logarithmically according to the increase in crack width. According to the results, if the thickness of shield is over 30cm and the crack width is 0.4mm, crack effect is under 10%. If the thickness of wall is 90cm and the crack width is 0.4mm in MACSTOR-400, because it is estimated that surface dose rate exceed the design criteria, the proper measures are demanded. The present results are used to formulate an attenuation equation for gamma

  3. Environmental factors unveil dormant developmental capacities in multipotent progenitors of the trunk neural crest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho-Aguiar, Juliana M; Le Douarin, Nicole M; Dupin, Elisabeth

    2013-12-01

    The neural crest (NC), an ectoderm-derived structure of the vertebrate embryo, gives rise to the melanocytes, most of the peripheral nervous system and the craniofacial mesenchymal tissues (i.e., connective, bone, cartilage and fat cells). In the trunk of Amniotes, no mesenchymal tissues are derived from the NC. In certain in vitro conditions however, avian and murine trunk NC cells (TNCCs) displayed a limited mesenchymal differentiation capacity. Whether this capacity originates from committed precursors or from multipotent TNCCs was unknown. Here, we further investigated the potential of TNCCs to develop into mesenchymal cell types in vitro. We found that, in fact, quail TNCCs exhibit a high ability to differentiate into myofibroblasts, chondrocytes, lipid-laden adipocytes and mineralizing osteoblasts. In single cell cultures, both mesenchymal and neural cell types coexisted in TNCC clonal progeny: 78% of single cells yielded osteoblasts together with glial cells and neurons; moreover, TNCCs generated heterogenous clones with adipocytes, myofibroblasts, melanocytes and/or glial cells. Therefore, alike cephalic NCCs, early migratory TNCCs comprised multipotent progenitors able to generate both mesenchymal and melanocytic/neural derivatives, suggesting a continuum in NC developmental potentials along the neural axis. The skeletogenic capacity of the TNC, which was present in the exoskeletal armor of the extinct basal forms of Vertebrates and which persisted in the distal fin rays of extant teleost fish, thus did not totally disappear during vertebrate evolution. Mesenchymal potentials of the TNC, although not fulfilled during development, are still present in a dormant state in Amniotes and can be disclosed in in vitro culture. Whether these potentials are not expressed in vivo due to the presence of inhibitory cues or to the lack of permissive factors in the trunk environment remains to be understood. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Weed control in dormant alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. with active ingredients’ metribuzin, imazetapyr and pronamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zvonko Pacanoski

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Field trials were conducted during 2008 – 2010 to evaluate weed control in dormant alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. with metribuzin, imazetapyr and pronamide. The weed population in all experimental years was consisted mainly of annual winter and spring grass and broadleaf weeds, and some perennial weeds. The number of weed species and weed density increased with the years of alfalfa growing, from second to the fourth year. Weed density in the untreated control plots was 201.0, 217.2 and 240.5 plants per m2 in 2008, 2009 and 2010, respectively. The most dominant weeds were Anthemis cotula, Capsell bursa-pastoris and Taraxacum officinale in 2008, Alopecurus myosuroides and Poa pratensis in 2009 and Millium vernale and Arabidopsis thaliana in 2010. Efficacy of herbicides in control of weeds was ranged of 91.8% (pronamide to 98.4% (metribuzin 1.0 kg*ha-1 in 2008, 93.1% (imazetapyr to 97.3% (metribuzin 1.0 kg*ha-1 in 2009 and 92.1% (imazetapyr to 97.3% (metribuzin 1.0 kg*ha-1 in 2010, respectively. Efficacy of herbicides in control of prevailing weeds during the 3 years field trial period was ranged of 48.5% to 100.0%. No visual alfalfa injured was determined by any rates during the experimental period, and consequently, none of the applied herbicides reduced first-harvest alfalfa yields. Alfalfa yield was markedly affected by herbicide efficacy in all experimental years, particularly in the second year, where yields of herbicide treatments were similar to that of the weed free control.

  5. Redirecting valvular myofibroblasts into dormant fibroblasts through light-mediated reduction in substrate modulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huan; Haeger, Sarah M; Kloxin, April M; Leinwand, Leslie A; Anseth, Kristi S

    2012-01-01

    Fibroblasts residing in connective tissues throughout the body are responsible for extracellular matrix (ECM) homeostasis and repair. In response to tissue damage, they activate to become myofibroblasts, which have organized contractile cytoskeletons and produce a myriad of proteins for ECM remodeling. However, persistence of myofibroblasts can lead to fibrosis with excessive collagen deposition and tissue stiffening. Thus, understanding which signals regulate de-activation of myofibroblasts during normal tissue repair is critical. Substrate modulus has recently been shown to regulate fibrogenic properties, proliferation and apoptosis of fibroblasts isolated from different organs. However, few studies track the cellular responses of fibroblasts to dynamic changes in the microenvironmental modulus. Here, we utilized a light-responsive hydrogel system to probe the fate of valvular myofibroblasts when the Young's modulus of the substrate was reduced from ~32 kPa, mimicking pre-calcified diseased tissue, to ~7 kPa, mimicking healthy cardiac valve fibrosa. After softening the substrata, valvular myofibroblasts de-activated with decreases in α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) stress fibers and proliferation, indicating a dormant fibroblast state. Gene signatures of myofibroblasts (including α-SMA and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF)) were significantly down-regulated to fibroblast levels within 6 hours of in situ substrate elasticity reduction while a general fibroblast gene vimentin was not changed. Additionally, the de-activated fibroblasts were in a reversible state and could be re-activated to enter cell cycle by growth stimulation and to express fibrogenic genes, such as CTGF, collagen 1A1 and fibronectin 1, in response to TGF-β1. Our data suggest that lowering substrate modulus can serve as a cue to down-regulate the valvular myofibroblast phenotype resulting in a predominantly quiescent fibroblast population. These results provide insight in designing

  6. Redirecting valvular myofibroblasts into dormant fibroblasts through light-mediated reduction in substrate modulus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan Wang

    Full Text Available Fibroblasts residing in connective tissues throughout the body are responsible for extracellular matrix (ECM homeostasis and repair. In response to tissue damage, they activate to become myofibroblasts, which have organized contractile cytoskeletons and produce a myriad of proteins for ECM remodeling. However, persistence of myofibroblasts can lead to fibrosis with excessive collagen deposition and tissue stiffening. Thus, understanding which signals regulate de-activation of myofibroblasts during normal tissue repair is critical. Substrate modulus has recently been shown to regulate fibrogenic properties, proliferation and apoptosis of fibroblasts isolated from different organs. However, few studies track the cellular responses of fibroblasts to dynamic changes in the microenvironmental modulus. Here, we utilized a light-responsive hydrogel system to probe the fate of valvular myofibroblasts when the Young's modulus of the substrate was reduced from ~32 kPa, mimicking pre-calcified diseased tissue, to ~7 kPa, mimicking healthy cardiac valve fibrosa. After softening the substrata, valvular myofibroblasts de-activated with decreases in α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA stress fibers and proliferation, indicating a dormant fibroblast state. Gene signatures of myofibroblasts (including α-SMA and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF were significantly down-regulated to fibroblast levels within 6 hours of in situ substrate elasticity reduction while a general fibroblast gene vimentin was not changed. Additionally, the de-activated fibroblasts were in a reversible state and could be re-activated to enter cell cycle by growth stimulation and to express fibrogenic genes, such as CTGF, collagen 1A1 and fibronectin 1, in response to TGF-β1. Our data suggest that lowering substrate modulus can serve as a cue to down-regulate the valvular myofibroblast phenotype resulting in a predominantly quiescent fibroblast population. These results provide insight in

  7. The effects of temperature on the crystalline properties and resistant starch during storage of white bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, William R; Hughes, Jeff G; Cockman, Russell W; Small, Darryl M

    2017-08-01

    Resistant starch (RS) can form during storage of foods, thereby bestowing a variety of potential health benefits. The purpose of the current study has been to determine the influence of storage temperature and time on the crystallinity and RS content of bread. Loaves of white bread were baked and stored at refrigeration, frozen and room temperatures with analysis over a period of zero to seven days. RS determination and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to evaluate the influence of storage temperature and time on total crystallinity and RS content. The rate of starch recrystallisation was affected by storage temperature and time, where refrigeration temperatures accelerated RS formation and total crystallinity more than storage time at both frozen and room temperature. A strong statistical model has been established between RS formation in bread and XRD patterns, having a 96.7% fit indicating the potential of XRD to measure RS concentrations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of growth regulators on 'Brookfield' apple gas diffusion and metabolism under controlled atmosphere storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auri Brackmann

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of growth regulators on gas diffusion and on metabolism of 'Brookfield' apple, and to determine their correlation with quality characteristics of fruit stored in controlled atmosphere. A completely randomized design was used with four replicates. After eight months of storage, the effects of water (control, aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG, AVG + ethephon, AVG + naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA, ethephon + NAA, sole NAA, 1-MCP, ethylene absorption by potassium permanganate (ABS, AVG + ABS, and of AVG + 1-MCP - applied at different rates and periods - were evaluated on: gas diffusion rate, ethylene production, respiratory rate, internal ethylene concentration, internal CO2 content, mealiness, and intercellular space. Fruit from the control and sole NAA treatments had the highest mealiness occurrence. Growth regulators significantly changed the gaseous diffusion through the pulp of 'Brookfield' apple, mainly in the treatment AVG + ABS, which kept the highest gas diffusion rate. NAA spraying in the field, with or without another growth regulator, increased ripening metabolism by rising ethylene production and respiration rate, and reduced gas diffusion during shelf life. AVG spraying cannot avoid the ethephon effect during the ripening process, and reduces both the internal space and mealiness incidence, but it is not able to induce ethylene production or to increase respiration rates.

  9. Potential effects of landscape change on water supplies in the presence of reservoir storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guswa, Andrew J.; Hamel, Perrine; Dennedy-Frank, P. James

    2017-04-01

    This work presents a set of methods to evaluate the potential effects of landscape changes on water supplies. Potential impacts are a function of the seasonality of precipitation, losses of water to evapotranspiration and deep recharge, the flow-regulating ability of watersheds, and the availability of reservoir storage. For a given reservoir capacity, simple reservoir simulations with daily precipitation and streamflow enable the determination of the maximum steady supply of water for both the existing watershed and a hypothetical counter-factual that has neither flow-regulating benefits nor any losses. These two supply values, representing land use end-members, create an envelope that defines the water-supply service and bounds the effect of landscape change on water supply. These bounds can be used to discriminate between water supplies that may be vulnerable to landscape change and those that are unlikely to be affected. Two indices of the water-supply service exhibit substantial variability across 593 watersheds in the continental United States. Rcross, the reservoir capacity at which landscape change is unlikely to have any detrimental effect on water supply has an interquartile range of 0.14-4% of mean-annual-streamflow. Steep, forested watersheds with seasonal climates tend to have greater service values, and the indices of water-supply service are positively correlated with runoff ratios during the months with lowest flows.

  10. Effect of Chemical Corrosion on the Mechanical Characteristics of Parent Rocks for Nuclear Waste Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tielin Han

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Long-term immersion was adopted to explore the damage deterioration and mechanical properties of granite under different chemical solutions. Here, granite was selected as the candidate of parent rocks for nuclear waste storage. The physical and mechanical properties of variation regularity immersed in various chemical solutions were analyzed. Meanwhile, the damage variable based on the variation in porosity was used in the quantitative analysis of chemical damage deterioration degree. Experimental results show that granite has a significant weakening tendency after chemical corrosion. The fracture toughness KIC, splitting tensile strength, and compressive strength all demonstrate the same deteriorating trend with chemical corrosion time. However, a difference exists in the deterioration degree of the mechanical parameters; that is, the deterioration degree of fracture toughness KIC is the greatest followed by those of splitting tensile strength and compressive strength, which are relatively smaller. Strong acid solutions may aggravate chemical damage deterioration in granite. By contrast, strong alkaline solutions have a certain inhibiting effect on chemical damage deterioration. The chemical solutions that feature various compositions may have different effects on chemical damage degree; that is, SO42- ions have a greater effect on the chemical damage in granite than HCO3- ions.

  11. Effects of different storage temperature on fresh-cut lettuce during storage period%贮藏温度对鲜切莴笋品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨霞; 舒晓斌; 吴广辉; 毕韬韬; 高愿军

    2011-01-01

    以莴笋为原料,研究贮藏温度(2,8,25℃)对鲜切莴笋贮藏期间失重率、呼吸强度、PPO活性、ΔE值、Vc含量、菌落总数和感官指标等理化指标的影响.结果表明,鲜切莴笋在2℃和8℃的低温下贮藏能有效降低失重率,抑制呼吸作用和Vc损失,降低PPO活性,减轻酶促褐变,控制微生物的生长和繁殖,贮藏12d后仍具有良好的感官指标,其中2℃下贮藏保鲜效果最好.%Fresh cut lettuces were used to study the effects of three different storage temperature (2,8 and 25 ℃) on physiology indexes such as weight lose? Respiration intensity* FPO activity, △E value, content of Vc, the total of bacteria and sensory indexes of fresh cut lettuce during storage period. The results showed that: it could inhibit the weight lose, respiration intensity, PPO activity, enzymatic browning, oxidization of Vc, growth and reproduction of microbial, when the fresh-cut lettuces were stored under a lower temperature (2 and 8℃). And they still had good sensory indexes after storing for 12 day. It had the best effect of fresh keeping, when the fresh-cut lettuces were stored under 2 ℃

  12. Effect of blood bank storage on the rheological properties of male and female donor red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Amanda; Raval, Jay S; Waters, Jonathan H; Yazer, Mark H; Kameneva, Marina V

    2014-01-01

    It was previously demonstrated that red blood cell (RBC) deformability progressively decreases during storage along with other changes in RBC mechanical properties. Recently, we reported that the magnitude of changes in RBC mechanical fragility associated with blood bank storage in a variety of additive solutions was strongly dependent on the donor gender [15]. Yet, the potential dependence of changes in the deformability and relaxation time of stored blood bank RBCs on donor gender is not known. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of donor gender and blood bank storage on RBC deformability and relaxation time through the measurement of RBC suspension viscoelasticity. Packed RBC units preserved in AS-5 solution from 12 male and 12 female donors (three from each ABO group) were obtained from the local blood center and tested at 1, 4 and 7 weeks of storage at 1-6°C. At each time point, samples were aseptically removed from RBC units and hematocrit was adjusted to 40% before assessment of cell suspension viscoelasticity. RBC suspensions from both genders demonstrated progressive increases (p blood bank storage may reduce tissue perfusion and RBC lifespan in patients receiving blood bank RBCs.

  13. Processing and storage effects on monomeric anthocyanins, percent polymeric color, and antioxidant capacity of processed blueberry products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownmiller, C; Howard, L R; Prior, R L

    2008-06-01

    This study evaluated the effects of processing and 6 mo of storage on total monomeric anthocyanins, percent polymeric color, and antioxidant capacity of blueberries that were canned in syrup (CS), canned in water (CW), pureed, and juiced (clarified and nonclarified). Total monomeric anthocyanins, percent polymeric color, and oxygen radical absorbing capacity (ORAC) assay using fluorescein (ORAC(FL)) were determined postprocessing after 1 d, and 1, 3, and 6 mo of storage. Thermal processing resulted in marked losses in total anthocyanins (28% to 59%) and ORAC(FL) values (43% to 71%) in all products, with the greatest losses occurring in clarified juices and the least in nonclarified juices. Storage at 25 degrees C for 6 mo resulted in dramatic losses in total anthocyanins, ranging from 62% in berries CW to 85% in clarified juices. This coincided with marked increases in percent polymeric color values of these products over the 6-mo storage. The ORAC(FL) values showed little change during storage, indicating that the formation of polymers compensated for the loss of antioxidant capacity due to anthocyanin degradation. Methods are needed to retain anthocyanins in thermally processed blueberries.

  14. Investigation of the effects of storage time on the dimensional accuracy of impression materials using cone beam computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE The storage conditions of impressions affect the dimensional accuracy of the impression materials. The aim of the study was to assess the effects of storage time on dimensional accuracy of five different impression materials by cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). MATERIALS AND METHODS Polyether (Impregum), hydrocolloid (Hydrogum and Alginoplast), and silicone (Zetaflow and Honigum) impression materials were used for impressions taken from an acrylic master model. The impressions were poured and subjected to four different storage times: immediate use, and 1, 3, and 5 days of storage. Line 1 (between right and left first molar mesiobuccal cusp tips) and Line 2 (between right and left canine tips) were measured on a CBCT scanned model, and time dependent mean differences were analyzed by two-way univariate and Duncan's test (α=.05). RESULTS For Line 1, the total mean difference of Impregum and Hydrogum were statistically different from Alginoplast (P<.05), while Zetaflow and Honigum had smaller discrepancies. Alginoplast resulted in more difference than the other impressions (P<.05). For Line 2, the total mean difference of Impregum was statistically different from the other impressions. Significant differences were observed in Line 1 and Line 2 for the different storage periods (P<.05). CONCLUSION The dimensional accuracy of impression material is clinically acceptable if the impression material is stored in suitable conditions. PMID:27826388

  15. Effects of oral dosage form and storage period on the antioxidant properties of four species used in traditional herbal medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Rafaela; Barreira, João C M; Barros, Lillian; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2011-04-01

    Herbal infusions and decoctions in water are some of the most commonly consumed beverages in the world. Although water is not a good solvent for many of the active components in herbs, liquid preparations are rich in several bioactive compounds. Most of them have powerful antioxidant activity and have been related to medicinal herbs' properties. Herein, decoctions and infusions in water of lemon-verbena (Aloysia citrodora) aerial parts and leaves, fennel (Foeniculum vulgare), pennyroyal (Mentha pulegium) and spearmint (Mentha spicata) aerial parts with different periods of storage (0, 30, 60 and 120 days), were prepared. The effects of the method of preparation and storage period on their antioxidant properties were analysed. For all the analysed species, infusions gave better results than the corresponding decoctions. Spearmint infusions showed the highest antioxidant properties, at all the storage periods, probably due to the highest levels and synergy between phenolics, flavonoids and ascorbic acid found in this sample. Linear discriminant analysis confirmed that the length of storage period has a significant influence on the antioxidant activity and antioxidant content. Flavonoids and reducing sugars proved to be the parameters that most highly contributed to cluster individual groups according to different periods of storage.

  16. Effects of Storage Time and Condition on Mineral Contents of Grape Pekmez Produced by Vacuum and Classical Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Kayisoglu

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the effect of storage period and conditions on chemical properties of boiled grape juice (pekmez produced from the grape variety of Kınalı Yapıncak using classical and vacuum methods. Pekmez samples were stored in 250 cc volumed jars. Products obtained using two different production methods were stored for 10 months in room conditions and at +4 ºC temperature. Starting from the beginning of the storage, mineral analyses were repeated in every two months. Average copper, manganese, phosphorus, and sodium contents in pekmez samples produced by vacuum method were higher than by classical method at the end of storage period. But, calcium content in pekmez samples produced by classical method was higher than that of the other. Zinc, iron, and potassium contents in either vacuum method or classical method were not significantly different. In conclusion; in general, mineral contents were better in pekmez produced by vacuum method than classical method. Phosphor, sodium, potassium, calcium, copper, zinc and manganese contents were affected significantly by storage period, but iron was not. In addition, storage condition did not affect sodium, zinc and iron contents.

  17. Effect of radurization on the extention of storage life of horse mackerel ''trachurus trachurus''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oztasiran, I.; Aksut, G.; Ersen, S.; Kargici, B. (Lalahan Nuclear Research Institute in Animal Health, Ankara (Turkey))

    1983-12-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the effect of radurization on the extension of storage time of horse mackerel. The fresh fish samples obtained from the fish market in Ankara, were irradiated at 1, 2 and 3 kGy doses. Microbiological, chemical and organoleptic analyses were done on unirradiated and irradiated fish samples kept in the cold-room at +3 +-1 degC. It was observed that irradiation doses of 2 and 3 kGy significantly extended the storage life of horse mackerel and a dose of 2 kGy was found to be preferable.

  18. Blister pouches for effective reagent storage and release for low cost point-of-care diagnostic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Suzanne; Sewart, Rene; Land, Kevin; Roux, Pieter; Gärtner, Claudia; Becker, Holger

    2016-03-01

    Lab-on-a-chip devices are often applied to point-of-care diagnostic solutions as they are low-cost, compact, disposable, and require only small sample volumes. For such devices, various reagents are required for sample preparation and analysis and, for an integrated solution to be realized, on-chip reagent storage and automated introduction are required. This work describes the implementation and characterization of effective liquid reagent storage and release mechanisms utilizing blister pouches applied to various point-of-care diagnostic device applications. The manufacturing aspects as well as performance parameters are evaluated.

  19. The effect of Cinnamomum zeylanicum essential oil on chemical characteristics of Lyoner- type sausage during refrigerated storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminzare, Majid; Aliakbarlu, Javad; Tajik, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    The effect of Cinnamomum zeylanicum essential oil (CZEO) at two concentrations (0.02% and 0.04% v/w) on chemical composition, pH, water activity (aw), lipid oxidation, color stability and sensory characteristics of Lyoner-type sausage stored at 4 ˚C for 40 days was investigated. The moisture content of the control sample was higher (p 0.05). The water activity content fell in Lyoners with added CZEO during the storage. Incorporation of CZEO retard lipid oxidation process at the end of storage (p sausages.

  20. Semiconductor/Solid Electrolyte Junctions for Optical Information Storage. Electrochromic Effects on Heptylviologen Incorporated within a Solid Polymer Electrolyte Cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-05-15

    cathode5 . Electrochromic devices based upon these electrochemically reversible viologen redox couples would greatly benefit by their incorporation...electrolyte analogs. Here we wish to discuss some recent work from our laboratory on solid- state electrochromic cells in which heptyl viologen (HV2+) was...OPTICAL INFORMATION STORAGE. ELECTROCHROMIC EFFECTS QN HEPTYLVIOLOGEN INCORPORATED WITHIN A SOLID POLYMER ELECTROLYTE CELL By Anthony F. Sammells and

  1. The Effect of Storage and Extraction Methods on Amplification of Plasmodium falciparum DNA from Dried Blood Spots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwartz, A.; Baidjoe, A.Y.; Rosenthal, P.J.; Dorsey, G.; Bousema, T.; Greenhouse, B.

    2015-01-01

    Extraction and amplification of DNA from dried blood spots (DBS) collected in field studies is commonly used for detection of Plasmodium falciparum. However, there have been few systematic efforts to determine the effects of storage and extraction methods on the sensitivity of DNA amplification. We

  2. Effects of cutting and maturity on lycopene concentration of fresh-cut tomatoes during storage at different temperatures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moreira Lana, M.; Dekker, M.; Linssen, R.F.A.; Kooten, van O.

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the changes in lycopene concentration of fresh-cut tomato during storage, tomato fruits at different stages of maturity were cut into 7 mm slices and stored at temperatures varying from 2°C to 16°C. To assess the effect of cutting, intact fruit were stored in an additional experiment

  3. Effects of cutting and maturity on lycopene concentration of fresh-cut tomatoes during storage at different temperatures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moreira Lana, M.; Dekker, M.; Linssen, R.F.A.; Kooten, van O.

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the changes in lycopene concentration of fresh-cut tomato during storage, tomato fruits at different stages of maturity were cut into 7 mm slices and stored at temperatures varying from 2°C to 16°C. To assess the effect of cutting, intact fruit were stored in an additional experiment

  4. Long-term effects of drying conditions on the essential oil and color of tarragon leaves during storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ArabHosseini, A.; Boxtel, van A.J.B.; Huisman, W.; Muller, J.

    2007-01-01

    The effect of storage on the essential oil content and color of French Tarragon (Artemisia dracunculus L.) leaves is studied. Tarragon leaves were dried at temperatures 45, 60 and 90 °C with, respectively, the relative humidity levels 17%, 7% and 2.5%. At 60 °C also a relative humidity level of 18%

  5. Residual effects of low oxygen storage of mature green fruit on ripening processes and ester biosynthesis during ripening in bananas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mature green banana (Musa sapientum L. cv. Cavendish) fruit were stored in 0.5%, 2 %, or 21% O2 for 7 days at 20 °C before ripening was initiated by ethylene. Residual effects of low O2 storage in mature green fruit on ripening and ester biosynthesis in fruit were investigated during ripening period...

  6. Physicochemical effects of discrete CO2-SO2 mixtures on injection and storage in a sandstone aquifer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waldmann, S.; Hofstee, C.; Koenen, M.; Loeve, D.

    2016-01-01

    Geological storage of captured CO2, which typically will contain certain amounts of impurities, in salineaquifers is of potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions into the atmosphere. The co-injection of theimpurity SO2has an effect on the chemical reactivity of the fluid and solid phases as well

  7. A model on the effect of temperature and moisture on pollen longevity in air-dry storage environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hong, T.D.; Ellis, R.H.; Buitink, J.; Walters, J.; Hoekstra, F.A.; Crane, J.

    1999-01-01

    Data on the survival of pollen ofTypha latifoliaL. stored for up to 261 d over seven different saturated salt solutions (providing 0.5 to 66% relative humidity) and six different constant temperatures (from −5 to +45 °C) were analysed to quantify the effect of air-dry storage environment on pollen l

  8. Effects of pH and storage time on the adhesive and rheological properties of cottonseed meal-based products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhesive bonding is a key factor for efficiently utilizing timber and other lignocellulosic resources. To increase the basic knowledge of cottonseed meal-based adhesives and optimize the operational parameters for practical applications, in this study, we investigated the effects of pH and storage t...

  9. Effects of storage time and straw content of cattle slurry on the mineralization of nitrogen and carbon in soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, P.

    1998-01-01

    to a sandy and a sandy loam soil. After 1 week, the preceding storage period (0-20 weeks) and temperature (5 degrees C or 15 degrees C) had no significant effect on the net release of inorganic N from the slurry in soil. Thus, the increased NH4+ content in the slurry after storage was followed by increased...... net N immobilization in soil. Additional straw in the slurry caused increased net N immobilization only in the sandy loam soil. Following anaerobic storage, 8-14% of slurry C was released in gaseous form, and the net mineralization of slurry C after 12 weeks in soil amounted to 54-63%. The extra net...

  10. Effects of reducing temperatures on the hydrogen storage capacity of double-walled carbon nanotubes with Pd loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Qu; Wu, Huimin; Wexler, David; Liu, Huakun

    2014-06-01

    The effects of different temperatures on the hydrogen sorption characteristics of double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWCNTs) with palladium loading have been investigated. When we use different temperatures, the particle sizes and specific surface areas of the samples are different, which affects the hydrogen storage capacity of the DWCNTs. In this work, the amount of hydrogen storage capacity was determined (by AMC Gas Reactor Controller) to be 1.70, 1.85, 2.00, and 1.93 wt% for pristine DWCNTS and for 2%Pd/DWCNTs-300 degrees C, 2%Pd/DWCNTs-400 degrees C, and 2%Pd/DWCNTs-500 degrees C, respectively. We found that the hydrogen storage capacity can be enhanced by loading with 2% Pd nanoparticles and selecting a suitable temperature. Furthermore, the sorption can be attributed to the chemical reaction between atomic hydrogen and the dangling bonds of the DWCNTs.

  11. Effect of VFe addition on hydrogen storage behavior of TiMn1.5-based alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuebin Yu; Zhu Wu; Baojia Xia; Taizhong Huang; Jinzhou Chen; Naixin Xu

    2004-01-01

    The hydrogen absorption and desorption behavior of TiMn1.25Cr0.25 alloys with Vfe substitution for partial Mn was investigated at 273, 293 and 313 K. It is found that Vfe substitution increases their hydrogen storage capacity, decreases the plateau pressure and the hysteresis factor of their pressure-composition-temperature (PCT) curves. After annealing treatment at 1223 K for 6 h,TiMn0.95Cr0.25(Vfe)0.3 alloy exhibits a lower hydrogen desorption plateau pressure (0.27 Mpa at 313 K) and a smaller hysteresis factor (0.13 at 313 K); the maximum and effective hydrogen storage capacities (mass fraction) are 2.03% and 1.12% respectively, which can satisfy the demand of hydrogen storage tanks for proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC).

  12. Effect of Caesalpinia sappan L. extract on physico-chemical properties of emulsion-type pork sausage during cold storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Sang-Keun; Ha, So-Ra; Choi, Jung-Seok

    2015-12-01

    This study was performed to investigate the effect of extract from heart wood of Caesalpinia sappan on the physico-chemical properties and to find the appropriate addition level in the emulsion-type pork sausage during cold storage. The pH of treatments with C. sappan extract was significantly lower than control and T1 during cold storage periods (Psausages containing C. sappan extract were decreased compared to control. Inclusion of the C. sappan extract in sausages resulted in lower lightness and higher yellowness, chroma and hue values. However, the antioxidant, antimicrobial activity, and volatile basic nitrogen in the emulsion-type pork sausages with C. sappan extract showed increased quality characteristics during cold storage. In conclusion, the proper addition level of C. sappan extract was 0.1% on the processing of emulsion-type pork sausage.

  13. Histochemical Effects of “Verita WG” on Glycogen and Lipid Storage in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L. Liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elenka Georgieva

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We aimed in the present work is to study the effects of fosetyl-Al and fenamidone based fungicide (“Verita WG” on glycogen storage and expression of lipid droplets in common carp (Cyprinus carpio, L. liver. Concentrations of the test chemical were 30 mg/L, 38 mg/L and 50 mg/L under laboratory conditions. We used PAS-reaction for detection of glycogen storage and Sudan III staining for detection of lipid droplets in common carp hepatocytes. Hence, we found that the amount of glycogen and the fat storage in the liver increased proportionally with the increased fungicide concentrations. We also found conglomerates of accumulated glycogen in certain hepatocytes at all used concentrations. Overall, the results demonstrated enhanced glyconeogenesis and fat accumulation in the common carp liver, exposed to the test chemical.

  14. The effects of controls and controllable and storage loads on the performance of stand-alone photovoltaic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cull, R. C.; Eltimsahy, A. H.

    1981-01-01

    Stand-alone photovoltaic systems have been modeled and analyzed from sunlight in to consumer product out. By including the consumer product in the analysis, concepts such as 'product storage' (a storage tank for water or cold-plates for refrigeration) and loads controllable by the system controller have been added to the system analysis. From a controls analysis viewpoint, this adds state variables to the system. The result is that the system controller can make operating control decisions on the energy flow between these various system elements to optimize system performance and reduce system cost. The effects on system performance of various control schemes employing these concepts are presented. Analysis of water pumping and/or refrigeration systems show possible performance improvements of greater than 15% with the addition of controllable loads with product storage.

  15. Immature pea seeds: effect of storage under modified atmosphere packaging and sanitation with acidified sodium chlorite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado, Elena; Venzke Klug, Tâmmila; Martínez-Sánchez, Ascensión; Artés-Hernandez, Francisco; Aguayo, Encarna; Artés, Francisco; Fernández, Juan A; Gómez, Perla A

    2017-10-01

    Appropriate sanitation is a priority for extending the shelf life and promoting the consumption of immature pea seeds, as processing accelerates quality deterioration and microbial growth. The combined effect of disinfection with acidified sodium chlorite (ASC) or sodium hypochlorite (SH) and packaging under a passive modified atmosphere (MAP) at 1 or 4 °C on quality was analysed. After 14 days, greenness and vitamin C had decreased, especially in the SH-disinfected samples. Total phenols and antioxidant capacity were not affected by disinfection. Proteins levels fell by around 27%, regardless of the sanitizer and storage temperature. Compared with the initial microbial load, samples stored at 1 °C showed an increase of 1 log CFU g(-1) in psychrophiles when treated with SH, whereas no increase of note occurred with ASC. In general, microbial counts were always below 3 log CFU g(-1) for all the treatments. Immature pea seeds could be stored for 14 days at 1-4 °C under MAP with only minor quality changes. Disinfection with ASC resulted in better sensory quality, higher content of vitamin C and lower psychrophile counts. More research is needed to analyse the effect of these treatments on other quality parameters. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Effects of Natural Gas Compositions on CNG Fast Filling Process for Buffer Storage System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh-Gord M.

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The accurate modeling of the fast-fill process occurring in Compressed Natural Gas (CNG fuelled vehicle storage cylinders is a complex process and should be thoroughly studied. Final in-cylinder conditions should meet appropriate cylinder safety standards. The composition of natural gas plays an important role on its thermodynamic properties and consequently, on the fast-fill process and the final conditions. Here, a theoretical analysis has been developed to study the effects of the natural gas composition on the filling process of an onboard Natural Gas Vehicle (NGV cylinder. The cylinder is assumed as a lumped system. The analysis is based on laws of thermodynamics and mass balance. Based on AGA8 Equation of State (EOS and thermodynamics relationships, the required properties of natural gas mixtures have been calculated. The results are presented for an adiabatic system. The results show that the compositions of natural gas have great effects on the filling process and final in-cylinder conditions. Furthermore, the gas with less methane percentage in its composition is more suitable for the filling process.

  17. Enhanced charge storage by the electrocatalytic effect of anodic TiO2 nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guoge; Huang, Chuanjun; Zhou, Limin; Ye, Lin; Li, Wenfang; Huang, Haitao

    2011-10-01

    Ordered titania nanotube (TNT) arrays were fabricated by anodization of titanium with a very fast voltage ramp speed. Co(OH)2/TNT nanocomposite was synthesized by cathodic deposition using the as-anodized TNT as the substrate. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to characterize the morphology, crystalline structure and chemical state. The capacitive characteristics were investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV), charge-discharge tests, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Thanks to the electrocatalytic effect of the as-anodized TNTs on the reduction of Co(OH)2, the Co(OH)2/TNT composite electrode exhibits a significantly enhanced charge storage capacity (an increase of 73%) when compared with Co(OH)2/Ti (titanium as the deposition substrate). The occurrence of such an electrocatalytic effect is suggested to be related to the nano-sized TiO2 crystals (rutile) embedded in organized amorphous TNTs. Co(OH)2/TNT demonstrates enhanced specific energy, high rate capability and good cyclability, and can be a potential electrode of choice for supercapacitors.

  18. Enhanced charge storage by the electrocatalytic effect of anodic TiO₂ nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guoge; Huang, Chuanjun; Zhou, Limin; Ye, Lin; Li, Wenfang; Huang, Haitao

    2011-10-05

    Ordered titania nanotube (TNT) arrays were fabricated by anodization of titanium with a very fast voltage ramp speed. Co(OH)(2)/TNT nanocomposite was synthesized by cathodic deposition using the as-anodized TNT as the substrate. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to characterize the morphology, crystalline structure and chemical state. The capacitive characteristics were investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV), charge-discharge tests, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Thanks to the electrocatalytic effect of the as-anodized TNTs on the reduction of Co(OH)(2), the Co(OH)(2)/TNT composite electrode exhibits a significantly enhanced charge storage capacity (an increase of 73%) when compared with Co(OH)(2)/Ti (titanium as the deposition substrate). The occurrence of such an electrocatalytic effect is suggested to be related to the nano-sized TiO(2) crystals (rutile) embedded in organized amorphous TNTs. Co(OH)(2)/TNT demonstrates enhanced specific energy, high rate capability and good cyclability, and can be a potential electrode of choice for supercapacitors.

  19. EFFECTS OF REVERSIBLE INACTIVATION OF BILATERAL ACCUMBENS NUCLEI ON MEMORY STORAGE: ANIMAL STUDY IN RAT MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.A ALAEI

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Memory and learning play an important role in human"s life that will become problematic in case disability is weak for any reason. There are many factors that facilitate process of mamory and learning of which accumbens nucleus plays an important role. Accumbens nucleus, which is a part of the limbic system, is one of many nuclei found of the septum in the mesencephalon. This study was performed to determine the effects of reversible Inactivation of a accumbens nuclei by lidocaein on memory storage in rat. Method s. Male wistar rats were surgically implancted with cannulae at the accumbens nuclei (Acb bilaterally one weak later they recived one trial PAL (1 mA 1.S sec and exactly at times zero, 60 and 120 minutes after posttraining, lidocaine was infused into the Acb. Retention was tested two days after training. Latency period before entering into the dark part of the shuttle box and duration of time in darkness were index for evaluation of retention. Results. A significant impaired retention performance was at zero and 60 minutes after posttrianing infusion of lidocaine into the Acb. Infusion administered 120 minutes after training had no effect. Discussion. This study has shown that Accumbens nucleus plays major role in praimary learning and memory and it is probable that by blocking this nucleus dopamine release is diminished which causes the learning process to be delayed consequently.

  20. Effect of electron beam radio sterilization on cyclic olefin copolymers used as pharmaceutical storage materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barakat, Hala; Aymes-Chodur, Caroline; Saunier, Johanna; Yagoubi, Najet

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this work was to study the effect of radio-sterilization on cyclo olefin copolymers (COC), that can be used as pharmaceutical storage materials, both on the surface and in the volume of the material, and to investigate the impact of the presence of a lubricant. A cyclo olefin copolymer (TOPAS® 8007) was treated with an electron beam radio-sterilization at different doses ranging from 25 to 150 kGy. Polymer structure and bulk properties were evaluated by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Size Exclusion Chromatography (SEC). A good correlation between those analytical techniques was observed: oxidation products were formed and crosslinking of chains occured. Although these modifications were important, the effect on the thermal properties was weak. The analysis by Reversed Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography (RP-HPLC) of extraction's solutions of COC after irradiation showed both a remarkable decrease of the extractable amount of polyphenolic antioxidant (Irganox 1010®) initially present in the matrix, and a generation of an important number of degradation products that represent potential migrants for pharmaceutical formulations. Surface modifications were evidenced by both (FTIR/ATR) and contact angle measurements of COC films. An increase in surface polarity of COC after radio-sterilization was observed.

  1. Effect of Recipe and Production Technology of Chocolate Products on Their Quality During Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka Machálková

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of four storage temperature modes (6, 12, 20 and 30 °C on sensory properties of chocolate products and their colour changes in the experiment over a period of 6 months. The results were evaluated with regard to the production technology and composition of chocolate products. The experiment was performed on filled milk chocolate product called Orion Pistachio made in four versions such as a standard containing cocoa mass of 35 % referred to retempered variant (RS and not treated by retempering (NS variant and with higher proportion of cocoa mass (45 % stated as retempered variant (R45 and not treated by retempering (N45 variant. Retempering means the exposure of products for 24 hours at 24 °C immediately after the production and packaging. The results show that the technology of retempering can effectively increase the resistance of chocolate products to the fat bloom as reflected in the improved colour stability. Sensory most acceptable products were stored at 6 and 12 °C throughout the experiment.

  2. Effects of anthropogenic fragmentation on primary productivity and soil carbon storage in temperate mountain grasslands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cojoc, Emilia Ionela; Postolache, Carmen; Olariu, Bogdan; Beierkuhnlein, Carl

    2016-11-01

    Habitat fragmentation is one of the most severe anthropogenic pressures exerted on ecosystem's biodiversity. Empirical studies to date focused with an overriding interest on the effects of habitat loss or habitat fragmentation per se on species richness patterns detrimental to biogeochemical processes. To account for changes in ecosystem fluxes, we investigated how anthropogenic fragmentation affects primary productivity and carbon storage in temperate mountain grasslands. A field study was conducted to assess the influence of grassland isolation on soil carbon stocks, N availability, species biomass, and plant functional groups distribution. We tested the hypothesis that increased isolation of grassland, within the land cover, decreases soil carbon stocks, and available N nutrient as well as aboveground biomass. Soil carbon concentration decreased with isolation but increased near the forest edge. We found significant differences in aboveground biomass distribution and relative contribution of plant functional groups between isolation conditions. The magnitude of edge effect on carbon stocks, N availability, and primary productivity intensified with increasing isolation as a consequence of the additive influence of edges. Our study reveals that the potential creation of artificially isolated patches diminished primary productivity, N availability, and C stocks. However, in highly managed landscapes, grazing pressure is an additional factor that changes biomass and nutrients patterns. We emphasize that spatial configuration of the landscape has a major role in modulating ecological flows and ecosystem service supply, in addition to changes in species richness.

  3. Effect Of 1-MCP Treatment On Storage Potential Of Tomato Fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wrzodak Anna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Tomato fruit cv. ’Faustine’ F1 were harvested at mature green and full-red stages and treated with 1 or 2 µl·l−1 of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP at 20 °C and 85-90% RH, for 21 hours to investigate the ability to delay ripening. Treated and control fruit were stored at 12.5 and 20 °C and 85-90% RH. Ethylene production, rate of respiration, weight loss, market value and storage life were determined after 4-week storage. Exposure of tomato fruit to 1-MCP reduced ethylene production and respiration rate of the fruit harvested at mature-green and full-red stages of maturity. Storage life and market value of tomato fruit depended on the treatment with 1-MCP, stage of maturity and storage temperature. Untreated fruits were characterized by the shortest storage life in comparison with the fruit treated with 1-MCP. The lowest market value was observed for tomato fruit harvested as a mature green, untreated with 1-MCP and stored at 20 °C. Treatment of tomato fruit with 1-MCP resulted in the reduction of natural weight loss during storage. These results suggest that 1-MCP treatment can be used in a commercial storage and trading system for tomatoes due to its ability to delay fruit ripening.

  4. Effect of polyethylene glycol 6000 and storage period on seed quality of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astiti Rahayu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Increased productivity of cocoa needs high quality of cocoa seeds which are generally provided by certified seed gardens located far from smallholders farm, where seed delivery takes long time and may reduce physiological quality of seeds. One effort to maintain the seed quality is by treatment the seeds with polyethylene glycol6000 (PEG 6000. This study was aimed to study the interaction of PEG 6000 concentration and storage period on cocoa seed quality, and to determine the best concentration of PEG 6000 and storage period to maintain cocoa seed quality. The research was conducted in seed storage room, seed laboratory and green houseof PPPPTK, Cianjur. The experimental design used was a factorial completely randomized design and each combination treatment repeated three times. The first factor was concentration of PEG 6000 of 0%, 20%, 40%, and 60%, and the second factor was the storage period of 3 weeks, 6 weeks, 9 weeks, and 12 weeks. The results showed that concentration of PEG 60% with three weeks storage period was able to minimize the number of moldy seeds. The concentration of PEG 20%, 40%, and 60% were able to prevent seed germination in storage until six weeks. Concentration of PEG 6000 20% was able to maintain moisture content, seed germination, and germination rate.Key words:cocoa seed, storage, recalcitrant, PEG

  5. Microbial community responses to 17 years of altered precipitation are seasonally dependent and coupled to co-varying effects of water content on vegetation and soil C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, Patrick O.; Germino, Matthew J.; Feris, Kevin P.

    2013-01-01

    Precipitation amount and seasonal timing determine the duration and distribution of water available for plant and microbial activity in the cold desert sagebrush steppe. In this study, we sought to determine if a sustained shift in the amount and timing of precipitation would affect soil microbial diversity, community composition, and soil carbon (C) storage. Field plots were irrigated (+200 mm) during the dormant or growing-season for 17 years. Microbial community responses were assessed over the course of a year at two depths (15–20 cm, 95–100 cm) by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP), along with co-occurring changes in plant cover and edaphic properties. Bacterial richness, Shannon Weaver diversity, and composition in shallow soils (15–20 cm) as well as evenness in deep soils (95–100 cm) differed across irrigation treatments during July. Irrigation timing affected fungal community diversity and community composition during the dormant season and most strongly in deep soils (95–100 cm). Dormant-season irrigation increased the ratio of shrubs to forbs and reduced soil C in shallow soils by 16% relative to ambient conditions. It is unclear whether or not soil C will continue to decline with continued treatment application or if microbial adaptation could mitigate sustained soil C losses. Future changes in precipitation timing will affect soil microbes in a seasonally dependent manner and be coupled to co-varying effects of water content on vegetation and soil C.

  6. Warm storage for arc magmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barboni, Mélanie; Boehnke, Patrick; Schmitt, Axel K; Harrison, T Mark; Shane, Phil; Bouvier, Anne-Sophie; Baumgartner, Lukas

    2016-12-06

    Felsic magmatic systems represent the vast majority of volcanic activity that poses a threat to human life. The tempo and magnitude of these eruptions depends on the physical conditions under which magmas are retained within the crust. Recently the case has been made that volcanic reservoirs are rarely molten and only capable of eruption for durations as brief as 1,000 years following magma recharge. If the "cold storage" model is generally applicable, then geophysical detection of melt beneath volcanoes is likely a sign of imminent eruption. However, some arc volcanic centers have been active for tens of thousands of years and show evidence for the continual presence of melt. To address this seeming paradox, zircon geochronology and geochemistry from both the frozen lava and the cogenetic enclaves they host from the Soufrière Volcanic Center (SVC), a long-lived volcanic complex in the Lesser Antilles arc, were integrated to track the preeruptive thermal and chemical history of the magma reservoir. Our results show that the SVC reservoir was likely eruptible for periods of several tens of thousands of years or more with punctuated eruptions during these periods. These conclusions are consistent with results from other arc volcanic reservoirs and suggest that arc magmas are generally stored warm. Thus, the presence of intracrustal melt alone is insufficient as an indicator of imminent eruption, but instead represents the normal state of magma storage underneath dormant volcanoes.

  7. Potential impacts on groundwater resources of deep CO2 storage: natural analogues for assessing potential chemical effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lions, J.; Gale, I.; May, F.; Nygaard, E.; Ruetters, H.; Beaubien, S.; Sohrabi, M.; Hatzignatiou, D. G.; CO2GeoNet Members involved in the present study Team

    2011-12-01

    Carbon dioxide Capture and Storage (CCS) is considered as one of the promising options for reducing atmospheric emissions of CO2 related to human activities. One of the main concerns associated with the geological storage of CO2 is that the CO2 may leak from the intended storage formation, migrate to the near-surface environment and, eventually, escape from the ground. This is a concern because such leakage may affect aquifers overlying the storage site and containing freshwater that may be used for drinking, industry and agriculture. The IEA Greenhouse Gas R&D Programme (IEAGHG) recently commissioned the CO2GeoNet Association to undertake a review of published and unpublished literature on this topic with the aim of summarizing 'state of the art' knowledge and identifying knowledge gaps and research priorities in this field. Work carried out by various CO2GeoNet members was also used in this study. This study identifies possible areas of conflict by combining available datasets to map the global and regional superposition of deep saline formations (DSF) suitable for CO2 storage and overlying fresh groundwater resources. A scenario classification is developed for the various geological settings where conflict could occur. The study proposes two approaches to address the potential impact mechanisms of CO2 storage projects on the hydrodynamics and chemistry of shallow groundwater. The first classifies and synthesizes changes of water quality observed in natural/industrial analogues and in laboratory experiments. The second reviews hydrodynamic and geochemical models, including coupled multiphase flow and reactive transport. Various models are discussed in terms of their advantages and limitations, with conclusions on possible impacts on groundwater resources. Possible mitigation options to stop or control CO2 leakage are assessed. The effect of CO2 pressure in the host DSF and the potential effects on shallow aquifers are also examined. The study provides a review of

  8. Volume 9 No. 4 2009 June 2009 1091 EFFECT OF TWO STORAGE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dept. of Crop Science, College of Agric. & Consumer ..... Southeastern Nigeria African Crop Science Journal 1999; 7( 1):1-7. 6. ... Chilled Storage Technology. ... and polyethylene on the green life span and culinary qualities of mature plantain.

  9. Effects of temperature and supplementation with skim milk powder on microbial and proteolytic properties during storage of cottage cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Nam Su; Lee, Hyun Ah; Myung, Jae Hee; Joung, Jae Yeon; Lee, Ji Young; Shin, Yong Kook; Baick, Seung Chun

    2014-06-28

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of temperature and supplementation with skim milk powder (SMP) on the microbial and proteolytic properties during the storage of cottage cheese. Cottage cheese was manufactured using skim milk with 2% SMP and without SMP as the control, and then stored at 5°C or 12°C during 28 days. The chemical composition of the cottage cheese and the survival of the cheese microbiota containing starter lactic acid bacteria (SLAB) and non-starter culture lactic acid bacteria (NSLAB) were evaluated. In addition, changes in the concentration of lactose and lactic acid were analyzed, and proteolysis was evaluated through the measurement of acid soluble nitrogen (ASN) and nonprotein nitrogen (NPN), as well as electrophoresis profile analysis. The counts of SLAB and NSLAB increased through the addition of SMP and with a higher storage temperature (12°C), which coincided with the results of the lactose decrease and lactic acid production. Collaborating with these microbial changes, of the end of storage for 28 days, the level of ASN in samples at 12°C was higher than those at 5°C. The NPN content was also progressively increased in all samples stored at 12°C. Taken together, the rate of SLAB and NSLAB proliferation during storage at 12°C was higher than at 5°C, and consequently it led to increased proteolysis in the cottage cheese during storage. However, it was relatively less affected by SMP fortification. These findings indicated that the storage temperature is the important factor for the quality of commercial cottage cheese.

  10. The effect of high hydrostatic pressure on the microbiological quality and safety of carrot juice during refrigerated storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Margaret F; McKay, Alan M; Connolly, Malachy; Linton, Mark

    2012-05-01

    The microbial quality of untreated and pressure-treated carrot juice was compared during storage at 4, 8 and 12 °C. High pressure treatment at 500 MPa and 600 MPa (1 min/20 °C) reduced the total counts by approximately 4 log CFU ml⁻¹ and there was very little growth of the survivors during storage at 4 °C for up to 22 days. Total counts increased during storage of pressure-treated juice at 8 °C and 12 °C but took significantly longer to reach maximum levels compared to the untreated juice. The microflora in the untreated juice consisted predominantly of Gram-negative bacteria, identified as mostly Pantoea spp., Erwinia spp. and Pseudomonas spp. Initially the pressure-treated juice contained low numbers of spore-forming bacteria (Bacillus spp. and Paenibacillus spp.) and Gram-positive cocci; the spore-formers continued to dominate during storage. When irradiation-sterilised juice was inoculated with a cocktail of Listeria monocytogenes, numbers decreased during storage at 4 °C and 8 °C by 1.50 and 0.56 log CFU ml⁻¹ respectively. When the inoculated carrot juice was pressure treated (500 MPa/1 min/20 °C) no L. monocytogenes were found immediately after pressure treatment or during storage at 4, 8 and 12 °C (>6 log inactivation). In contrast, pressure treatment in TSBYE only resulted in 1.65 log inactivation and survivors grew rapidly. This suggests that the antilisterial effect of carrot juice is enhanced by HPP. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of different doses of phosphorus during cultivation and length of subsequent storage on the cooking time of beans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano Garcia Bertoldo

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to verify the cooking times for beans cultivated under different doses of phosphorus and submitted to various periods of storage. The experiment was conducted in the experimental area of Molecular Genetics and Breeding Institute (IMEGEM at UDESC, in Lages, SC, during the harvest of 2006/07. The sowing density was 200,000 plants per hectare. The experimental unit consisted of six rows of 5x3m in length, 0.5m apart, with a useful area of 12m2 per batch. The experimental delineation employed was that of random blocks in a 4x3x3 factorial scheme with three repetitions. Four genotypes of beans (Pérola, Iapar 81, IPR Uirapuru and IPR Chopim were planted and added three doses of phosphorus (0, 100 and 200kg.ha-1 of P2O5 in the sowing line. After harvesting, storage times of 0, 45 and 90 days were tested. The evaluation of the cooking time of the grains was carried out using a Mattson cooker, adapted by Proctor and Watts (1987. The analysis of variance disclosed a significant effect over the cooking time response for the triple interaction between the factors cultivar (C, dose of phosphorus (P and time of storage (A (CxPxA. The time of storage had a strong influence on the time of cooking: the longer the storage, the greater the cooking time required. However, the use of phosphorus for fertilization was not significant in reducing the cooking time, with the exception of cultivar Iapar 81 that was treated with a dose of 100kg.ha-1 of P2O5, followed by storage of 45 days. This significant exception merits further study.

  12. Weed Flora and Dormant-season cover crops have no effects on arbuscular mycorrhizae of grapevine

    Science.gov (United States)

    We tested the hypotheses that mycorrhizal colonization of a perennial crop increases with a high frequency of mycorrhizal hosts within the plant community, and that a high diversity of mycorrhizal hosts is associated with a high diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) on the perennial crop. ...

  13. Self-enhancement effect during nonvolatile holographic storage in photochromic LiNbO3∶Fe∶Mn crystals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Through theoretical investigation on the nonvolatile holographic storage in photochromic LiNbO3∶Fe∶Mn, we have found self-enhancement effect caused by beam-coupling effect during both recording and optical fixing phases, and proceeded a steady-state analysis and a numerical simulation about the effect. The experimental results obtained by self-enhancement and self-depletion are consistent with the theoretical analysis. From the theoretical and experimental studies, it is seen that the highest diffraction efficiency available from the self-enhancement during both the recording and fixing phases may be twice as large as the lowest one from the self-depletion. It demonstrates that self-enhancement effect has to be considered and utilized in practical applications for nonvolatile holographic storage. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first time to report the relevant results.

  14. Effect of the waste products storage on the environmental pollution by toxic organic compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Lewkiewicz-Małysa

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available A permanent deposition of industrial wastes is a method of its neutralization. A storage yard for toxic materials must meet specific site and construction conditions. The storage place region of toxic organic waste materials has to be monitored. The environmental impact of this waste on the groundwater quality, especially the migration of persistent organic pollutants, was discussed on the example of a chemical plant.

  15. Effects of Different Management Regimes for Cutover Areas on Soil Carbon Storage in Chinese Fir Plantations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang Xi; Tian Dalun; Xiang Wenhua

    2006-01-01

    Based on data collected (through local observations) for several consecutive years,comparative analyses of Chinese fir plantations in Huitong,Hunan,were made.Results show that,before harvesting,carbon storage in forest soils in these 22-year-old plantations (0-60 cm)amounted to 160.38 t/hm2;1 year after a 100%clearcutting,loss of carbon storage in the soil (0-60 cm) of cutover areas was 35.00%;2 years later,the rate was 44.65%;and,after 3 years,the rate was 43.93%compared with a control area of a standing forest.Three years after 50%thinning and 100%clear-cutting,the loss of carbon storage in the soil (0-60 cm) of cutover areas was 16.14 and 45.15%,respectively.There existed an evident difference in carbon storage in the soil (0-60 cm) of cutover areas in four kinds of management regimes,which followed the order:closed Chinese fir forests (108.20 t/hm2)>fallow lands after farming (92.68 t/hm )>commercial forests (85.80 t/hm2)>naturally regenerated forestlands after harvesting.Carbon storage in unbumt soil(0-45 cm) reached 73.36 t/hm2,which was 15.20 t/hm2 higher than that in the soil of burnt areas.A total of 20.7%of carbon storage in the soil (0-45 cm) of burnt areas was lost 40 days after burning.Carbon storage in surface soil (0-15 cm) was higher than in the lower soil layer,which amounted to 30.04%(0-60 cm) and 53.52%(0-30 cm) of total carbon storage in the soil.

  16. Effects of sodium benzoate on storage stability of previously improved beverage from tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeola, Abiodun A; Aworh, Ogugua C

    2014-01-01

    The effect of sodium benzoate on the quality attributes of improved tamarind beverage during storage was investigated. Tamarind beverages were produced according to a previously reported improved method, with or without chemical preservatives (100 mg/100 mL sodium benzoate). Tamarind beverage produced according to traditional processing method served as the control. The tamarind beverages were stored for 4 months at room (29 ± 2°C) and refrigerated (4-10°C) temperatures. Samples were analyzed, at regular intervals, for chemical, sensory, and microbiological qualities. Appearance of coliforms or overall acceptability score of 5.9 was used as deterioration index. The control beverages deteriorated by 2nd and 10th days at room and refrigerated temperatures, respectively. Improved tamarind beverage produced without the inclusion of sodium benzoate was stable for 3 and 5 weeks at room and refrigerated temperatures, respectively. Sodium benzoate extended the shelf life of the improved tamarind beverage to 6 and 13 weeks, respectively, at room and refrigerated temperatures.

  17. Thermodynamics of MgH2 hydrogen storage materials: nanoparticle size and topological structure effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, Jason; Wang, Linlin; Johnson, Duane

    2011-03-01

    Via plane-wave-based Density Functional Theory calculations, we investigate H-desorption from (110) rutile Mg H2 , a surface step, and surfaces of nanoscale Mg 30 XH62 clusters having catalytic dopants (X=Mg, Ti, or Fe). All calculated desorption enthalpies are endothermic, in contrast to results in the literature, and no particle size effect is found for desorption of H singly, doubly, or triply-bonded to metal atoms, indicating only local bond energy is relevant. In contrast to recent results, we show that exothermic results are not obtained when initial cluster structures are carefully relaxed globally via simulated annealing, in which amorphous structures are found to be favored. A topological feature is identified that offers potential utility for using nanostructured Mg H2 as a hydrogen-storage solution. Work supported in part by the DoE, BES Catalysis (DEFG02-03ER15476), Energy (DEFC36-05GO15064) with Sandia MHCoE, BES Materials (DEFG02-03ER46026), and Ames Laboratory (DE-AC02-07CH11358) operated by Iowa State University.

  18. The effect of plant water storage on water fluxes within the coupled soil-plant system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Cheng-Wei; Domec, Jean-Christophe; Ward, Eric J; Duman, Tomer; Manoli, Gabriele; Parolari, Anthony J; Katul, Gabriel G

    2017-02-01

    In addition to buffering plants from water stress during severe droughts, plant water storage (PWS) alters many features of the spatio-temporal dynamics of water movement in the soil-plant system. How PWS impacts water dynamics and drought resilience is explored using a multi-layer porous media model. The model numerically resolves soil-plant hydrodynamics by coupling them to leaf-level gas exchange and soil-root interfacial layers. Novel features of the model are the considerations of a coordinated relationship between stomatal aperture variation and whole-system hydraulics and of the effects of PWS and nocturnal transpiration (Fe,night) on hydraulic redistribution (HR) in the soil. The model results suggest that daytime PWS usage and Fe,night generate a residual water potential gradient (Δψp,night) along the plant vascular system overnight. This Δψp,night represents a non-negligible competing sink strength that diminishes the significance of HR. Considering the co-occurrence of PWS usage and HR during a single extended dry-down, a wide range of plant attributes and environmental/soil conditions selected to enhance or suppress plant drought resilience is discussed. When compared with HR, model calculations suggest that increased root water influx into plant conducting-tissues overnight maintains a more favorable water status at the leaf, thereby delaying the onset of drought stress.

  19. Effects of solid-liquid separation and storage on monensin attenuation in dairy waste management systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafner, Sarah C.; Watanabe, Naoko; Harter, Thomas; Bergamaschi, Brian; Parikh, Sanjai J.

    2017-01-01

    Environmental release of veterinary pharmaceuticals has been of regulatory concern for more than a decade. Monensin is a feed additive antibiotic that is prevalent throughout the dairy industry and is excreted in dairy waste. This study investigates the potential of dairy waste management practices to alter the amount of monensin available for release into the environment. Analysis of wastewater and groundwater from two dairy farms in California consistently concluded that monensin is most present in lagoon water and groundwater downgradient of lagoons. Since the lagoons represent a direct source of monensin to groundwater, the effect of waste management, by mechanical screen separation and lagoon aeration, on aqueous monensin concentration was investigated through construction of lagoon microcosms. The results indicate that monensin attenuation is not improved by increased solid-liquid separation prior to storage in lagoons, as monensin is rapidly desorbed after dilution with water. Monensin is also shown to be easily degraded in lagoon microcosms receiving aeration, but is relatively stable and available for leaching under typical anaerobic lagoon conditions.

  20. Effects of ensilage on storage and enzymatic degradability of sugar beet pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yi; Yu, Chaowei; Cheng, Yu-Shen; Zhang, Ruihong; Jenkins, Bryan; VanderGheynst, Jean S

    2011-01-01

    Ensiling was investigated for the long-term storage of Sugar Beet Pulp (SBP). Eight strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and a non-inoculated control were screened based on their ability to rapidly reduce pH, produce a large amount of lactic acid and inhibit undesirable fermentations. Lactobacillus brevis B-1836 (LAB #120), Lactobacillus fermentum NRRL B-4524 (LAB #137) and a non-inoculated control were selected for further research to determine the effects of LAB inoculation level and packing density on SBP silage quality and sugar yield upon enzymatic hydrolysis. Both SBP preservation and prevention of cellulose and hemicellulose loss were better when SBP was treated with LAB #137 compared to LAB #120 and the non-inoculated control. Additionally, the ensiling process was found to significantly improve the enzymatic digestibility of SBP by as much as 35%. The results suggest that ensiling may be a promising technology for SBP stabilization and pretreatment for bioconversion to products. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.