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Sample records for doppler tissue imaging

  1. Cardiac tissue Doppler imaging in sports medicine.

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    Krieg, Anne; Scharhag, Jürgen; Kindermann, Wilfried; Urhausen, Axel

    2007-01-01

    The differentiation of training-induced cardiac adaptations from pathological conditions is a key issue in sports cardiology. As morphological features do not allow for a clear delineation of early stages of relevant pathologies, the echocardiographic evaluation of left ventricular function is the technique of first choice in this regard. Tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) is a relatively recent method for the assessment of cardiac function that provides direct, local measurements of myocardial velocities throughout the cardiac cycle. Although it has shown a superior sensitivity in the detection of ventricular dysfunction in clinical and experimental studies, its application in sports medicine is still rare. Besides technical factors, this may be due to a lack in consensus on the characteristics of ventricular function in relevant conditions. For more than two decades there has been an ongoing debate on the existence of a supernormal left ventricular function in athlete's heart. While results from traditional echocardiography are conflicting, TDI studies established an improved diastolic function in endurance-trained athletes with athlete's heart compared with controls.The influence of anabolic steroids on cardiac function also has been investigated by standard echocardiographic techniques with inconsistent results. The only TDI study dealing with this topic demonstrated a significantly impaired diastolic function in bodybuilders with long-term abuse of anabolic steroids compared with strength-trained athletes without abuse of anabolic steroids and controls, respectively.Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is the most frequent cause of sudden death in young athletes. However, in its early stages, it is difficult to distinguish from athlete's heart. By means of TDI, ventricular dysfunction in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy can be disclosed even before the development of left ventricular hypertrophy. Also, a differentiation of left ventricular hypertrophy due to hypertrophic

  2. Cardiac Time Intervals by Tissue Doppler Imaging M-Mode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biering-Sørensen, Tor; Mogelvang, Rasmus; de Knegt, Martina Chantal

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: To define normal values of the cardiac time intervals obtained by tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) M-mode through the mitral valve (MV). Furthermore, to evaluate the association of the myocardial performance index (MPI) obtained by TDI M-mode (MPITDI) and the conventional method of obtaining...

  3. Synchronous ultrasonic Doppler imaging of magnetic microparticles in biological tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pyshnyi, Michael Ph. [Institute of Biochemical Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Kosygin St. 4, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Kuznetsov, Oleg A. [Institute of Biochemical Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Kosygin St. 4, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation)], E-mail: kuznetsov_oa@yahoo.com; Pyshnaya, Svetlana V.; Nechitailo, Galina S.; Kuznetsov, Anatoly A. [Institute of Biochemical Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Kosygin St. 4, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation)

    2009-05-15

    We considered applicability of acoustic imaging technology for the detection of magnetic microparticles and nanoparticles inside soft biological tissues. Such particles are widely used for magnetically targeted drug delivery and magnetic hyperthermia. We developed a new method of ultrasonic synchronous tissue Doppler imaging with magnetic modulation for in vitro and in vivo detection and visualization of magnetic ultradisperse objects in soft tissues. Prototype hardware with appropriate software was produced and the method was successfully tested on magnetic microparticles injected into an excised pig liver.

  4. Synchronous ultrasonic Doppler imaging of magnetic microparticles in biological tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyshnyi, Michael Ph.; Kuznetsov, Oleg A.; Pyshnaya, Svetlana V.; Nechitailo, Galina S.; Kuznetsov, Anatoly A.

    2009-01-01

    We considered applicability of acoustic imaging technology for the detection of magnetic microparticles and nanoparticles inside soft biological tissues. Such particles are widely used for magnetically targeted drug delivery and magnetic hyperthermia. We developed a new method of ultrasonic synchronous tissue Doppler imaging with magnetic modulation for in vitro and in vivo detection and visualization of magnetic ultradisperse objects in soft tissues. Prototype hardware with appropriate software was produced and the method was successfully tested on magnetic microparticles injected into an excised pig liver.

  5. Hypercholesterolemia and Myocardial function evaluated via Tissue Doppler Imaging

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    Kotaru Pavan

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To establish a link between hypercholesterolemia and myocardial dysfunction. Background Heart failure is a complex disease involving changes in systolic and diastolic function. Newer echocardiographic imaging modalities may be able to detect discreet changes in myocardial function associated with hypercholesterolemia. Therefore we sought to establish a link between hypercholesterolemia and myocardial dysfunction with tissue Doppler imaging (TDI. Methods Twenty-seven rabbits were studied: 7 were fed normal chow (group 1 and 20 a high cholesterol diet (10 with ezetimibe, 1 mg/kg/day; group 2 and 10 without, group 3. Echocardiographic images were obtained under general anesthesia. Serum cholesterol levels were obtained at baseline, 3 and 6 months and myocardial cholesterol levels measured following euthanasia. Results Doppler measurements, including E/A, E'/A' and S' were significantly lower in group 3 compared to both groups 1 and 2 but no significant differences were noted in chamber sizes or ejection fraction among the groups. Average serum cholesterol was higher in group 3 compared to groups 1 and 2 respectively (495 ± 305 mg/dl vs. 114 ± 95 mg/dl and 87 ± 37 mg/dl; p 2 = 0.17 p = 0.04, r2 = 0.37 p = 0.001 and r2 = 0.24 p = 0.01. Conclusion Cholesterol load in the serum and myocardium was significantly associated with decreased systolic and diastolic function by TDI. Moreover, lipid lowering was protective.

  6. Prognostic value of tissue Doppler imaging for predicting ventricular arrhythmias and cardiovascular mortality in ischaemic cardiomyopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biering-Sørensen, Tor; Olsen, Flemming Javier; Storm, Katrine

    2016-01-01

    AIMS: Only 30% of patients receiving an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) for primary prevention receive appropriately therapy. We sought to investigate the value of tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) to predict ventricular tachycardia (VT), ventricular fibrillation (VF), and cardiovascular...

  7. Ultrasonic colour Doppler imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evans, David H; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Nielsen, Michael Bachmann

    2011-01-01

    Ultrasonic colour Doppler is an imaging technique that combines anatomical information derived using ultrasonic pulse-echo techniques with velocity information derived using ultrasonic Doppler techniques to generate colour-coded maps of tissue velocity superimposed on grey-scale images of tissue...... anatomy. The most common use of the technique is to image the movement of blood through the heart, arteries and veins, but it may also be used to image the motion of solid tissues such as the heart walls. Colour Doppler imaging is now provided on almost all commercial ultrasound machines, and has been...

  8. Ultrasonic colour Doppler imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evans, David H.; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Nielsen, Michael Bachmann

    2011-01-01

    Ultrasonic colour Doppler is an imaging technique that combines anatomical information derived using ultrasonic pulse-echo techniques with velocity information derived using ultrasonic Doppler techniques to generate colour-coded maps of tissue velocity superimposed on grey-scale images of tissue...... anatomy. The most common use of the technique is to image the movement of blood through the heart, arteries and veins, but it may also be used to image the motion of solid tissues such as the heart walls. Colour Doppler imaging is now provided on almost all commercial ultrasound machines, and has been...... vectors. This review briefly introduces the principles behind colour Doppler imaging and describes some clinical applications. It then describes the basic components of conventional colour Doppler systems and the methods used to derive velocity information from the ultrasound signal. Next, a number of new...

  9. The Assessment of Left Ventricular Time-Varying Radius Using Tissue Doppler Imaging

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    Fardin Mirbolouk

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Left ventricular twist/torsion is believed to be a sensitive indicator of systolic and diastolic performance. To obtain circumferential rotation using tissue Doppler imaging, we need to estimate the time-varying radius of the left ventricle throughout the cardiac cycle to convert the tangential velocity into angular velocity. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate accuracy of measured LV radius using tissue Doppler imaging throughout the cardiac cycle compared to two-dimensional (2D imaging. Methods: A total of 35 subjects (47±12 years old underwent transthoracic echocardiographic standard examinations. Left ventricular radius during complete cardiac cycle measured using tissue Doppler and 2D-imaging at basal and apical short axis levels. For this reason, the 2D-images and velocity-time data derived and transferred to a personal computer for off-line analysis. 2D image frames analyzed via a program written in the MATLAB software. Velocity-time data from anteroseptal at basal level (or anterior wall at apical level and posterior walls transferred to a spreadsheet Excel program for the radius calculations. Linear correlation and Bland-Altman analysis were calculated to assess the relationships and agreements between the tissue Doppler and 2D-measured radii throughout the cardiac cycle. Results: There was significant correlation between tissue Doppler and 2D-measured radii and the Pearson correlation coefficients were 0.84 to 0.97 (P<0.05. Bland-Altman analysis by constructing the 95% limits of agreement showed that the good agreements existed between the two methods. Conclusion: It can be concluded from our experience that the tissue Doppler imaging can reasonably estimate radius of the left ventricle throughout the cardiac cycle.

  10. Systolic and Diastolic Function by Tissue Doppler Imaging Predicts Mortality in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dons, Maria; BieringSørensen, Tor; Jensen, Jan Skov

    2015-01-01

    AIM: Tissue Doppler Imaging (TDI) detects early signs of left ventricular dysfunction. The prognostic potential of TDI in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) has, however, not yet been clarified. This study evaluates the prognostic value of TDI in patients with atrial fibrillation. METHODS...

  11. Total average diastolic longitudinal displacement by colour tissue doppler imaging as an assessment of diastolic function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Knegt, Martina Chantal; Biering-Sørensen, Tor; Søgaard, Peter

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The current method for a non-invasive assessment of diastolic dysfunction is complex with the use of algorithms of many different echocardiographic parameters. Total average diastolic longitudinal displacement (LD), determined by colour tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) via the measurement...

  12. Tissue Doppler Imaging in the evaluation of abdominal aortic pulsatility: a useful tool for the neonatologist.

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    Valerio, Enrico; Grison, Alessandra; Capretta, Anna; Golin, Rosanna; Ferrarese, Paola; Bellettato, Massimo

    2017-03-01

    Sonographic cardiac evaluation of newborns with suspected aortic coarctation (AoC) should tend to demonstrate a good phasic and pulsatile flow and the absence of pressure gradient along a normally conformed aortic arch from the modified left parasternal and suprasternal echocardiographic views; these findings, however, may not necessarily rule out a more distal coarctation in the descending aorta. For this reason, the sonographic exam of newborns with suspected AoC should always include a Doppler evaluation of abdominal aortic blood flow from the subcostal view. Occasionally, however, a clearly pulsatile Doppler flow trace in abdominal aorta may be difficult to obtain due to the bad insonation angle existing between the probe and the vessel. In such suboptimal ultrasonic alignment situation, the use of Tissue Doppler Imaging instead of classic Doppler flow imaging may reveal a preserved aortic pulsatility by sampling the aortic wall motion induced by normal flow. We propose to take advantage of the TDI pattern as a surrogate of a normal pulsatile Doppler flow trace in abdominal aorta when the latter is difficult to obtain due to malalignment with the insonated vessel.

  13. Cardiac Time Intervals Measured by Tissue Doppler Imaging M-mode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biering-Sørensen, Tor; Møgelvang, Rasmus; Schnohr, Peter

    2016-01-01

    function was evaluated in 1915 participants by using both conventional echocardiography and tissue Doppler imaging (TDI). The cardiac time intervals, including the isovolumic relaxation time (IVRT), isovolumic contraction time (IVCT), and ejection time (ET), were obtained by TDI M-mode through the mitral......). Additionally, they displayed a significant dose-response relationship, between increasing severity of elevated blood pressure and increasing left ventricular mass index (P

  14. Myocardial response to a triathlon in male athletes evaluated by Doppler tissue imaging and biochemical parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leetmaa, T H; Dam, A; Glintborg, D

    2008-01-01

    (cTnT) and pro-brain natriuretic peptide (pro-BNP)] and echocardiography. Conventional echocardiography techniques and new Doppler tissue imaging (DTI) modalities were applied before and immediately after the competition. Blood samples were drawn 1 week before, immediately after and 12-24 h post...... and systolic velocities decreased, thus suggesting reversible cardiac fatigue. When using cardiac markers and echocardiographic findings, a triathlon was found to have no significant negative effects on left ventricular function or myocardial tissue in male athletes....

  15. Exercise and Cardiac Function by Tissue Doppler Imaging. The Copenhagen City Heart Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joseph, Gowsini; Sogaard, Peter; Nielsen, Gitte

    2016-01-01

    diastolic (e') and late diastolic (a') velocities were measured by color TDI. Longitudinal displacement (LD) was calculated from the velocity curve during ejection. Statistical tests were performed by linear univariate and multivariable regression analyses, in relation to age groups (lt;50years, 50-65 years......Introduction: TDI (Tissue Doppler Imaging) is a sensitive marker of myocardial dysfunction and mortality in heart disease and in the general population. Regular physical activity is associated with risk reduction in coronary heart disease and mortality. There is a need for studies to clarify...

  16. Exercise and Cardiac Function by Tissue Doppler Imaging. The Copenhagen City Heart Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joseph, Gowsini; Sogaard, Peter; Nielsen, Gitte

    diastolic (e') and late diastolic (a') velocities were measured by color TDI. Longitudinal displacement (LD) was calculated from the velocity curve during ejection. Statistical tests were performed by linear univariate and multivariable regression analyses, in relation to age groups (lt;50years, 50-65 years......Introduction: TDI (Tissue Doppler Imaging) is a sensitive marker of myocardial dysfunction and mortality in heart disease and in the general population. Regular physical activity is associated with risk reduction in coronary heart disease and mortality. There is a need for studies to clarify...

  17. Cardiac time intervals by tissue Doppler imaging M-mode echocardiography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biering-Sørensen, Tor

    2016-01-01

    for myocardial myocytes to achieve an LV pressure equal to that of aorta increases, resulting in a prolongation of the isovolumic contraction time (IVCT). Furthermore, the ability of myocardial myocytes to maintain the LV pressure decreases, resulting in reduction in the ejection time (ET). As LV diastolic...... of whether the LV is suffering from impaired systolic or diastolic function. A novel method of evaluating the cardiac time intervals has recently evolved. Using tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) M-mode through the mitral valve (MV) to estimate the cardiac time intervals may be an improved method reflecting global...

  18. Laser doppler perfusion imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waardell, K.

    1992-01-01

    Recording of tissue perfusion is important in assessing the influence of peripheral vascular diseases on the microcirculation. This thesis reports on a laser doppler perfusion imager based on dynamic light scattering in tissue. When a low power He-Ne laser beam sequentally scans the tissue, moving blood cells generate doppler components in the back-scattered light. A fraction of this light is detected by a photodetector and converted into an electrical signal. In the processor, a signal proportional to the tissue perfusion at each measurement site is calculated and stored. When the scanning procedure is completed, a color-coded perfusion image is presented on a monitor. To convert important aspects of the perfusion image into more quantitative parameters, data analysis functions are implemented in the software. A theory describing the dependence of the distance between individual measurement points and detector on the system amplification factor is proposed and correction algorithms are presented. The performance of the laser doppler perfusion imager was evaluated using a flow simulator. A linear relationship between processor output signal and flow through the simulator was demonstrated for blood cell concentrations below 0.2%. The median sampling depth of the laser beam was simulated by a Monte Carlo technique and estimated to 235 μm. The perfusion imager has been used in the clinic to study perfusion changes in port wine stains treated with argon laser and to investigate the intensity and extension of the cutaneous axon reflex response after electrical nerve stimulation. The fact that perfusion can be visualized without touching the tissue implies elimination of sterilization problems, thus simplifying clinical investigations of perfusion in association with diagnosis and treatment of peripheral vascular diseases. 22 refs

  19. Quantitation of stress echocardiography by tissue Doppler and strain rate imaging: a dream come true?

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    Galderisi, Maurizio; Mele, Donato; Marino, Paolo Nicola

    2005-01-01

    Tissue Doppler (TD) is an ultrasound tool providing a quantitative agreement of left ventricular regional myocardial function in different modalities. Spectral pulsed wave (PW) TD, performed online during the examination, measures instantaneous myocardial velocities. By means of color TD, velocity images are digitally stored for subsequent off-line analysis and mean myocardial velocities are measured. An implementation of color TD includes strain rate imaging (SRI), based on post-processing conversion of regional velocities in local myocardial deformation rate (strain rate) and percent deformation (strain). These three modalities have been applied to stress echocardiography for quantitative evaluation of regional left ventricular function and detection of ischemia and viability. They present advantages and limitations. PWTD does not permit the simultaneous assessment of multiple walls and therefore is not compatible with clinical stress echocardiography while it could be used in a laboratory setting. Color TD provides a spatial map of velocity throughout the myocardium but its results are strongly affected by the frame rate. Both color TD and PWTD are also influenced by overall cardiac motion and tethering from adjacent segments and require reference velocity values for interpretation of regional left ventricular function. High frame rate (i.e. > 150 ms) post-processing-derived SRI can potentially overcome these limitations, since measurements of myocardial deformation have not any significant apex-to-base gradient. Preliminary studies have shown encouraging results about the ability of SRI to detect ischemia and viability, in terms of both strain rate changes and/or evidence of post-systolic thickening. SRI is, however, Doppler-dependent and time-consuming. Further technical refinements are needed to improve its application and introduce new ultrasound modalities to overcome the limitations of the Doppler-derived deformation analysis.

  20. Evaluation of left ventricular function in obese children without hypertension by a tissue Doppler imaging study.

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    Ghandi, Yazdan; Sharifi, Mehrzad; Habibi, Danial; Dorreh, Fatemeh; Hashemi, Mojtaba

    2018-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity is increasing worldwide. Obese children without hypertension are becoming an important health challenge. Complications of obesity in adults are well established, but in obese children, cardiac dysfunction has not been reported clinically. The present crosssectional study investigates subclinical systolic and diastolic dysfunction using echocardiographic modalities. Twentyfive youngsters with body mass index (BMI) >30 and 25 healthy children with BMI <25 were assigned into case and control group, respectively. In all participants, complete cardiovascular examination, electrocardiography, and echocardiography were fulfilled. Echocardiography surveys included standard, pulsed wave Doppler (PWD), and tissue Doppler imaging (TDI). SPSS software, version 24. The two groups were matched for age and sex. The resting heart rate and blood pressure were markedly higher in the obese group ( P = 0.0001) though they were within the normal range in either category. Ejection fraction in the two groups was similar. Left ventricular (LV) mass ( P = 0.0001), LV mass index ( P = 0.029), left atrialtoaortic diameter ratio ( P = 0.0001), and LV enddiastolic diameter ( P = 0.008) were significantly greater in the case group, indicating cardiomegaly and subclinical systolic and diastolic dysfunction. Except for the aortic velocity, all PWD variables were considerably lower in the case group, suggesting subclinical diastolic dysfunction. All TDI parameters varied significantly between the two categories. There was a direct correlation between isovolumetric relaxation time and BMI. Obesity in children without hypertension is associated with subclinical systolic and diastolic cardiac dysfunction. We propose the evaluation of blood pressure as well as myocardial performance using PWD and TDI in all obese children without hypertension, regularly.

  1. Tissue Doppler imaging of carotid plaque wall motion: a pilot study

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    Naylor A Ross

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies suggest the physical and mechanical properties of vessel walls and plaque may be of clinical value in the diagnosis and treatment of cardiovascular atherosclerotic disease. The purpose of this pilot study was to investigate the potential clinical application of ultrasound Tissue Doppler Imaging (TDI of Arterial Wall Motion (AWM and to quantify simple wall motion indices in normal and diseased carotid arteries. Methods 224 normal and diseased carotid arteries (0–100% stenoses were imaged in 126 patients (age 25–88 years, mean 68 ± 11. Longitudinal sections of the carotid bifurcation were imaged using a Philips HDI5000 scanner and L12-5 probe under optimized TDI settings. Temporal and spatial AWMs were analyzed to evaluate the vessel wall displacements and spatial gradients at peak systole averaged over 5 cardiac cycles. Results AWM data were successfully extracted in 91% of cases. Within the carotid bifurcation/plaque region, the maximum wall dilation at peak systole ranged from -100 to 750 microns, mean 335 ± 138 microns. Maximum wall dilation spatial gradients ranged 0–0.49, mean 0.14 ± 0.08. The AWM parameters showed a wide variation and had poor correlation with stenoses severity. Case studies illustrated a variety of pertinent qualitative and quantitative wall motion features related to the biophysics of arterial disease. Conclusion Our clinical experience, using a challenging but realistic imaging protocol, suggests the use of simple quantitative AWM measures may have limitations due to high variability. Despite this, pertinent features of AWM in normal and diseased arteries demonstrate the potential clinical benefit of the biomechanical information provided by TDI.

  2. Study on Tei index of right ventricular by tissue doppler imaging and the observation point selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Yinli; Wu Ji; Guo Shenglan; Zhang Di; Li Zhixian

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To explore the right ventricular (RV) Tei index in patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH) by tissue Doppler imaging (TDI), and to explore more accurate observation point to obtain Tei index of right ventricular. Methods: Assessment of RV Tei index values was performed in 95 patients with PH and 32 normal subjects. The 95 patients were grouped into 3 groups according to the severity of PH. Tei index values were obtained by TDI measurement from three observation points, the anterior tricuspid and septal tricuspid attachment points in the apical 4-chamber view and the posterior tricuspid attachment point in parasternal right heart 2-chamber review. Results: (1) RV Tel index values were measured at the three points of PH was higher than the normal significantly (P<0.05). (2) RV Tei index values of the three PH groups at he anterior tricuspid attachment had significant difference each other (P<0.05). RV Tei index values of low-grade and medium-grade PH groups at septal tricuspid and posterior tricuspid had no significant difference, but that of high-grade PH group were higher than the low-grade and medium-grade PH group. Conclusion: RV Tei index value was significantly increased in PH patients. The Tei index value measured by TDI at anterior tricuspid attachment point in apical 4-chamber view was better than that at septal tricuspid attachment point in the apical 4-chamber view and posterior' attachment of parasternal right heart 2-chamber. (authors)

  3. Acute Effects of Hemodialysis on Left and Right Ventricular Function: A Doppler Tissue Imaging Study

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    Tansel Erol

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Doppler tissue imaging (DTI allows noninvasive assessment of both left ventricular (LV and right ventricular (RV function. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of hemodialysis (HD on LV and RV function using DTI. Method: Our study group included 30 patients on chronic HD program (mean age 45 15 years. Myocardial (Sm, Em, Am and annular velocities (Ea, Aa were measured in several cardiac territories before and after HD. Results: After HD, Ea significantly reduced from 10.8 3.4 cm/s to 9.6 2.4 cm/s (p = 0.029. Patients exhibited a lower Em following HD in all measured territories. Em/Am ratio was also reduced for each LV wall investigated after HD in all measured territories. At the RV segments, Sm, Em, and Am decreased significantly in all measured territories. Em of the anterior wall was positively related to ultrafiltration volume (r = 0.25, p = 0.006, whereas the decrease of Sm of RV basal segment correlated with a decrease of diastolic blood pressure (r = 0.23, p < 0.01. Conclusion: Our data indicate that a single HD session is associated with acute changes of systolic and diastolic parameters of LV and RV. [Cukurova Med J 2012; 37(4.000: 215-222

  4. Detection of Early Right Ventricular Dysfunction in Young Patients With Thalassemia Major Using Tissue Doppler Imaging

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    Bornaun, Helen; Dedeoglu, Reyhan; Oztarhan, Kazim; Dedeoglu, Savas; Erfidan, Erkan; Gundogdu, Muge; Aydogan, Gonul; Cengiz, Dicle

    2016-01-01

    Background Myocardial iron overload is the most common cause of mortality in patients with thalassemia major (TM), also known as beta-thalassemia. T2* cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the best way of monitoring cardiac iron, and new echocardiographic techniques can be used to assess cardiac function. Objectives The aim of this study was to assess the systolic and diastolic right ventricular (RV) function of patients with TM using tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) and to determine whether this echocardiographic technique is an adequate diagnostic tool for the screening and detection of subclinical cardiac dysfunction. Patients and Methods Eighty-four patients with TM were evaluated by conventional echocardiography and pulse-wave TDI. The data of the TM group (Group 1) were compared with that of 85 age- and sex-matched healthy controls (Group 2). Cardiovascular T2* MRI examinations were performed in 49 of the 85 patients. Results The patients with TM had significantly lower values for weight, height, body mass index, systolic arterial pressure, deceleration time, E’/A’, and ejection time (ET) than the controls. Group 1 also had significantly higher values for peak early diastolic velocity (E) over peak late diastolic velocity (A), peak early diastolic velocity of TDI (E’), peak late diastolic velocity of TDI (A’), E/E’, isovolumetric relaxation time, isovolumetric contraction time, and RV magnetic perfusion imaging (MPI) than Group 2. Conclusions RV diastolic dysfunction occurs before systolic deterioration in patients with TM and cannot be screened with conventional echocardiographic techniques. In routine practice, TDI measurements, MPI (for global function) and the E/E’ parameter (for diastolic function) can be used to screen and detect early RV dysfunction. PMID:27617076

  5. Clinical and Echocardiographic Evaluation of Regional Systolic Function Detected by Tissue Doppler Imaging in Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy

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    A Sadeghpour

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM is the most common type of the genetic cardiovasculardiseases. Regarding to tremendous heterogeneity in the phenotypic expression of HCM, which is generally unrelatedto genotype, we aimed to study, clinical and echocardiographic parameters such as Tissue Doppler Imaging(TDI in various subtypes of HCM patients and evaluate the influence of race and gender in Iranian patients.Methods: Patients with HCM underwent a complete clinical and echocardiographic study including TDI toassess regional systolic contraction( in the 12 segments and early diastolic annular velocity (Em from theseptal mitral annulus.Results: The study comprised 41 patients (20 women, mean age = 41 ± 15 years with mean LVEF 55%±4.8%and mean maximal septal thickness 2.07cm. Considering LVOT gradient>30mmHg, hypertrophic obstructivecardiomyopathy (HOCM was found in 18 (45%. Asymmetric septal hypertrophy (ASH existed in 27 patients(67%, systolic anterior motion of anterior mitral leaflet (SAM in 25 persons (64%. Nineteen patients (46.3%were included in NYHA function class (FC II and 6 (14.7% in FC III or higher. We found syncope in 10(24.4%, chest pain in 4 (9.8%, atrial fibrilation in 14.6 % and ventricular arrhythmias in (17.1% of patients.History of ICD was seen in 7 (17.1% and PPM in 9 cases. Mean E’ velocity was 5.44± 1.65 cm/sec and S velocity5.70± 1.49 cm/sec with significant lower S velocity and E’ in syncope patients. Overall, HOCM patients hadgrade II diastolic dysfunction with E/É >15(17.54±7.46. Majority (25 of cases (61% were categorized in typeIII of HCM. RV involvement was observed in 11 patients (28.2%.No significant differences existed betweenprevalence of syncope and dysrhythmia among HCM and HOCM patients.Conclusion: In our study, we found lower detection of latent HOCM, compared to other studies, suggestive ofinadequate use of appropriate provocative maneuvers such as exercise stress echocardiography and amyl

  6. Assessment of regional systolic and diastolic myocardial function using tissue Doppler and strain imaging in dogs with dilated cardiomyopathy.

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    Chetboul, Valérie; Gouni, Vassiliki; Sampedrano, Carolina Carlos; Tissier, Renaud; Serres, François; Pouchelon, Jean-Louis

    2007-01-01

    Tissue Doppler Imaging (TDI) or strain (St) imaging could provide sensitive indices for early detection and treatment follow-up of canine dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). Analysis of TDI and St features in dogs with overt DCM is a prerequisite before using these new criteria in prospective screenings of predisposed families or in clinical trials. Radial and longitudinal right and left myocardial motion, assessed by TDI and St variables, is altered in dogs with DCM. Case records for 26 dogs; 14 with DCM and 12 healthy controls of comparable age and weight were reviewed. A retrospective analysis was conducted of conventional echocardiography, 2-dimensional color TDI, and St imaging data. The DCM group was characterized by decreases in radial and longitudinal systolic velocity gradients of the left ventricular free wall (LVFW), radial and longitudinal absolute values of peak systolic St of the LVFW, and longitudinal systolic right ventricular (RV) velocities (all P canine DCM.

  7. Laser Doppler imaging, thermographic imaging, and tissue oxygen saturation measurements detect early skin reactions during breast radiotherapy

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    Harrison, David K.; Harrison, Eileen M.; Newton, David J.; Windsor, Phyllis M.

    2001-05-01

    A range of acute skin reactions, ranging from mild erythema to moist desquamation, can be seen in patients receiving standard fractionated radiotherapy to the breast for conservation therapy of breast carcinoma. In a number of cases these reactions can cause considerable discomfort and seriously affect the patient's quality of life. In previous studies we have used the techniques of laser Doppler imaging, digital thermographic imaging and lightguide spectrophotometry to study oxygen supply and blood flow in inflammatory reactions induced experimentally in forearm skin. The present study is an attempt to use the same techniques to investigate whether any or all of them can detect changes in breast skin very early on in the course of radiotherapy treatment. A further aim of the longer term study is to investigate to what extent these early changes may be able to predict the occurrence later of severe acute or delayed reactions.

  8. Spectral pulsed-wave tissue Doppler imaging lateral-to-septal delay fails to predict clinical or echocardiographic outcome after cardiac resynchronization therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O.I.I. Soliman (Osama Ibrahim Ibrahim); D.A.M.J. Theuns (Dominic); M.L. Geleijnse (Marcel); A. Nemes (Attila); K. Caliskan (Kadir); W.B. Vletter (Wim); L.J.L.M. Jordaens (Luc); F.J. ten Cate (Folkert)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractAims: The current study sought to assess if pre-implantation lateral-to-septal delay (LSD) ≥60 ms assessed by spectral pulsed-wave myocardial tissue Doppler imaging (PW-TDI) could predict successful long-term outcome after cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). Methods and results

  9. Pulsed-wave tissue Doppler imaging of the myocardium of cats with induced thyrotoxicosis Doppler tecidual pulsado do miocárdio de gatos com tirotoxicose induzida

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    Daniel Capucho de Oliveira

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Left ventricular myocardial motion was quantified using pulsed-wave tissue Doppler imaging (PW-TDI in nine adult cats before and after thyrotoxicosis induction. In order to induce thyrotoxicosis, all cats were given 150µg kg-1 of levothyroxine sodium as a single oral dose each day for 10 weeks. PW-TDI examinations were performed immediately before the induction and by the end of the experimental protocol. An increase in myocardial motion velocity was documented at the interventricular septum level, demonstrated by an elevation in systolic (Sa, and early (Ea and late (Aa diastolic waves (PA velocidade de movimentação miocárdica do ventrículo esquerdo foi quantificada por meio de exames ecocardiográficos com Doppler tecidual pulsado (PW-TDI em nove gatos adultos antes e após indução à tirotoxicose. Para indução da tirotoxicose, todos os gatos receberam doses diárias de 150mg kg-1 de levotiroxina sódica, por via oral, durante 10 semanas. Os exames de PW-TDI foram realizados imediatamente antes da indução e ao final do protocolo experimental. Uma elevação na velocidade de movimentação miocárdica foi documentada ao nível do septo interventricular, demonstrado por um aumento das ondas sistólica (Sa e diastólicas (Ea e Aa; P<0,05. No entanto, nenhuma alteração nos valores de Sa, Ea e Aa foi encontrada ao nível da parede livre do ventrículo esquerdo. A frequência cardíaca aumentou significativamente entre os momentos experimentais, sendo que três animais apresentaram fusão das ondas Aa e Ea ao final do experimento. O protocolo experimental utilizado neste estudo causou alterações na velocidade de movimentação do miocárdio ventricular esquerdo, mas sem causar danos à função diastólica do ventrículo esquerdo.

  10. Tissue Doppler Imaging Combined with Advanced 12-Lead ECG Analysis Might Improve Early Diagnosis of Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy in Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Femlund, E.; Schlegel, T.; Liuba, P.

    2011-01-01

    Optimization of early diagnosis of childhood hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is essential in lowering the risk of HCM complications. Standard echocardiography (ECHO) has shown to be less sensitive in this regard. In this study, we sought to assess whether spatial QRS-T angle deviation, which has shown to predict HCM in adults with high sensitivity, and myocardial Tissue Doppler Imaging (TDI) could be additional tools in early diagnosis of HCM in childhood. Methods: Children and adolescents with familial HCM (n=10, median age 16, range 5-27 years), and without obvious hypertrophy but with heredity for HCM (n=12, median age 16, range 4-25 years, HCM or sudden death with autopsy-verified HCM in greater than or equal to 1 first-degree relative, HCM-risk) were additionally investigated with TDI and advanced 12-lead ECG analysis using Cardiax(Registered trademark) (IMED Co Ltd, Budapest, Hungary and Houston). Spatial QRS-T angle (SA) was derived from Kors regression-related transformation. Healthy age-matched controls (n=21) were also studied. All participants underwent thorough clinical examination. Results: Spatial QRS-T angle (Figure/ Panel A) and septal E/Ea ratio (Figure/Panel B) were most increased in HCM group as compared to the HCM-risk and control groups (p less than 0.05). Of note, these 2 variables showed a trend toward higher levels in HCM-risk group than in control group (p=0.05 for E/Ea and 0.06 for QRS/T by ANOVA). In a logistic regression model, increased SA and septal E/Ea ratio appeared to significantly predict both the disease (Chi-square in HCM group: 9 and 5, respectively, p less than 0.05 for both) and the risk for HCM (Chi-square in HCM-risk group: 5 and 4 respectively, p less than 0.05 for both), with further increased predictability level when these 2 variables were combined (Chi-square 10 in HCM group, and 7 in HCM-risk group, p less than 0.01 for both). Conclusions: In this small material, Tissue Doppler Imaging and spatial mean QRS-T angle

  11. Evaluation of tissue doppler echocardiography and T2* magnetic resonance imaging in iron load of patients with thalassemia major.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravi, Mehrdad; Tamadoni, Ahmad; Jalalian, Rozita; Mahmoodi-Nesheli, Hassan; Hojati, Mosatafa; Ramezani, Saeed

    2013-01-01

    Iron-mediated cardiomyopathy is the main complication of thalassemia major (TM) patients. Therefore, there is an important clinical need in the early diagnosis and risk stratification of patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of tissue doppler imaging (TDI) to study cardiac iron overload in patients with TM using T2* magnetic resonance (MR) as the gold-standard non-invasive diagnostic test. A total of 100 TM patients with the mean age of 19±7 years and 100 healthy controls 18.8±7 years were evaluated. Conventional echocardiography, TDI, and cardiac MRI T2* were performed in all subjects. TDI measures included myocardial systolic (Sm), early (Em) and late (Am) diastolic velocities at basal and middle segments of septal and lateral LV wall. The TM patients were also subgrouped according to those with iron load (T2* ≤ 20 ms) and those without (T2* > 20 ms), and also severe (T2* ≤ 10 ms) versus the non-severe (T2* ≤ 10 ms). Using T2* cardiovascular MR, abnormal myocardial iron load (T2* ≤ 20 ms) was detected in 84% of the patients and among these, 50% (42/84) had severe (T2* ≤ 10 ms) iron load. The mean T2* was 11.6±8.6 ms (5-36.7). A negative linear correlation existed between transfusion period of patients and T2* levels (r = -0.53, p=0.02). The following TDI measures were lower in patients than in controls: basal septal Am (p<0.05), mid-septal Em and Am (p<0.05), basal lateral Am (p<0.05), mid-lateral LV wall Sm (p<0.05) and Am (p<0.05). Tissue doppler imaging is helpful in predicting the presence of myocardial iron load in Thalassemia patients. Therefore, it can be used for screening of thalassemia major patients.

  12. TISSUE DOPPLER IMAGING OF LONGITUDINAL MOVEMENT OF A FIBROUS RING OF MITRAL VALVE DURING ISOVOLUMIC PERIODS IN LEFT VENTRICULAR HYPERTROPHY

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    B. Amarjagal

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study change of rate and duration indicators of longitudinal movement of a fibrous ring of mitral valve (MFR during isovolumic contraction (IVC and relaxation (IVR in hypertensive patients with various degree of a left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH.Material and methods. 80 hypertensive patients with moderate LVH (n=40 and severe LVH (n=40 are examined. The control group was presented by 30 healthy volunteers. Transthoracic echocardiography and Tissue Doppler imaging has been performed with ultrasonic tomograph “HDI 5000” (Philips.Results. Increase in LVH (Smm and Е/Еmm associates with reduction in systolic velocity of movement of medial MFR (Smm. There is direct relation with duration of IVC-negative and IVR-positive components and myocardium mass index. Maximal velocity of IVC-positive component increases and maximal velocity of IVR-negative component decreases when LVH is growing.Conclusion. Velocities curves of IVC and IVR were bi-phase both in healthy persons and in hypertensive patients with LVH. Velocity and duration of positive and negative components of IVC and IVR depended on LVH degree.

  13. TISSUE DOPPLER IMAGING OF LONGITUDINAL MOVEMENT OF A FIBROUS RING OF MITRAL VALVE DURING ISOVOLUMIC PERIODS IN LEFT VENTRICULAR HYPERTROPHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Amarjagal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study change of rate and duration indicators of longitudinal movement of a fibrous ring of mitral valve (MFR during isovolumic contraction (IVC and relaxation (IVR in hypertensive patients with various degree of a left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH.Material and methods. 80 hypertensive patients with moderate LVH (n=40 and severe LVH (n=40 are examined. The control group was presented by 30 healthy volunteers. Transthoracic echocardiography and Tissue Doppler imaging has been performed with ultrasonic tomograph “HDI 5000” (Philips.Results. Increase in LVH (Smm and Е/Еmm associates with reduction in systolic velocity of movement of medial MFR (Smm. There is direct relation with duration of IVC-negative and IVR-positive components and myocardium mass index. Maximal velocity of IVC-positive component increases and maximal velocity of IVR-negative component decreases when LVH is growing.Conclusion. Velocities curves of IVC and IVR were bi-phase both in healthy persons and in hypertensive patients with LVH. Velocity and duration of positive and negative components of IVC and IVR depended on LVH degree.

  14. Myocardial left ventricular dysfunction in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus: new insights from tissue Doppler and strain imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buss, Sebastian J; Wolf, David; Korosoglou, Grigorios; Max, Regina; Weiss, Celine S; Fischer, Christian; Schellberg, Dieter; Zugck, Christian; Kuecherer, Helmut F; Lorenz, Hanns-Martin; Katus, Hugo A; Hardt, Stefan E; Hansen, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is associated with high cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Cardiovascular involvement is frequently underestimated by routine imaging techniques. Our aim was to determine if new echocardiographic imaging modalities like tissue Doppler (TDI), strain rate (SRR), and strain (SRI) imaging detect abnormalities in left ventricular (LV) function in asymptomatic patients with SLE. Sixty-seven young patients with SLE (mean age 42 +/- 10 yrs) without typical symptoms or signs of heart failure or angina, and a matched healthy control group (n = 40), underwent standard transthoracic echocardiography, TDI, SRR, and SRI imaging of the LV as well as assessment of disease characteristics. Despite findings within the normal range on routine standard 2-dimensional echocardiography, SLE was associated with significantly impaired systolic and diastolic myocardial velocities of the LV measured by TDI [mean global TDI: systolic (s): 2.9 +/- 0.9 vs 3.9 +/- 0.7 cm/s, p < 0.05; early (e): 4.3 +/- 1.5 vs 6.3 +/- 1.3 cm/s, p < 0.05; late (a): 2.9 +/- 0.8 vs 3.4 +/- 0.8 cm/s, p < 0.05; values +/- SD); SRR (s: -0.8 +/- 0.1 vs -1.1 +/- 0.1 s(-1); e: 1.1 +/- 0.2 vs 1.6 +/- 0.3 s(-1); a: 0.7 +/- 0.1 vs 1.0 +/- 0.2 s(-1); all p < 0.05); and SR (-15.11 +/- 2.2% vs -19.7 +/- 1.9%; p < 0.05) compared to the control group. Further, elevated disease activity, measured with the ECLAM and the SLEDAI score, resulted in significantly lower values for LV longitudinal function measured by SRR and SR, but not by TDI. SLE is associated with a significant impairment of systolic and diastolic LV longitudinal function in patients without cardiac symptoms. New imaging modalities provide earlier insight into cardiovascular involvement in SLE and seem to be superior to standard echocardiography to detect subclinical myocardial disease.

  15. Left ventricular diastolic dyssynchrony assessed with phase analysis of gated myocardial perfusion SPECT: a comparison with tissue Doppler imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boogers, Mark J.; Veltman, Caroline E.; Chen, Ji; Garcia, Ernest V.; Bommel, Rutger J. van; Mooyaart, Eline A.Q.; Wall, Ernst E. van der; Schalij, Martin J.; Bax, Jeroen J.; Delgado, Victoria; Younis, Imad Al; Hiel, Bernies van der; Dibbets-Schneider, Petra

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to evaluate the feasibility of phase analysis on gated myocardial perfusion SPECT (GMPS) for the assessment of left ventricular (LV) diastolic dyssynchrony in a head-to-head comparison with tissue Doppler imaging (TDI). The population consisted of patients with end-stage heart failure of New York Heart Association functional class III or IV with a reduced LV ejection fraction of ≤35%. LV diastolic dyssynchrony was calculated using TDI as the maximal time delay between early peak diastolic velocities of two opposing left ventricle walls (diastolic mechanical delay). Significant LV diastolic dyssynchrony was defined as a diastolic mechanical delay of >55 ms on TDI. Furthermore, phase analysis on GMPS was performed to evaluate LV diastolic dyssynchrony; diastolic phase standard deviation (SD) and histogram bandwidth (HBW) were used as markers of LV diastolic dyssynchrony. A total of 150 patients (114 men, mean age 66.0 ± 10.4 years) with end-stage heart failure were enrolled. Both diastolic phase SD (r = 0.81, p 55 ms) showed significantly larger diastolic phase SD (68.1 ± 13.4 vs. 40.7 ± 14.0 , p < 0.01) and diastolic HBW (230.6 ± 54.3 vs. 129.0 ± 55.6 , p < 0.01) as compared to patients without LV diastolic dyssynchrony on TDI (≤55 ms). Finally, phase analysis on GMPS showed a good intra- and interobserver reproducibility for the determination of diastolic phase SD (ICC 0.97 and 0.88) and diastolic HBW (ICC 0.98 and 0.93). Phase analysis on GMPS showed good correlations with TDI for the assessment of LV diastolic dyssynchrony. (orig.)

  16. Study of the Myocardial Contraction and Relaxation Velocities through Doppler Tissue Imaging Echocardiography: A New Alternative in the Assessment of the Segmental Ventricular Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Carlos Eduardo Suaide

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Doppler tissue imaging (DTI enables the study of the velocity of contraction and relaxation of myocardial segments. We established standards for the peak velocity of the different myocardial segments of the left ventricle in systole and diastole, and correlated them with the electrocardiogram. METHODS: We studied 35 healthy individuals (27 were male with ages ranging from 12 to 59 years (32.9 ± 10.6. Systolic and diastolic peak velocities were assessed by Doppler tissue imaging in 12 segments of the left ventricle, establishing their mean values and the temporal correlation with the cardiac cycle. RESULTS: The means (and standard deviation of the peak velocities in the basal, medial, and apical regions (of the septal, anterior, lateral, and posterior left ventricle walls were respectively, in cm/s, 7.35(1.64, 5.26(1.88, and 3.33(1.58 in systole and 10.56(2.34, 7.92(2.37, and 3.98(1.64 in diastole. The mean time in which systolic peak velocity was recorded was 131.59ms (±19.12ms, and diastolic was 459.18ms (±18.13ms based on the peak of the R wave of the electrocardiogram. CONCLUSION: In healthy individuals, maximum left ventricle segment velocities decreased from the bases to the ventricular apex, with certain proportionality between contraction and relaxation (P<0.05. The use of Doppler tissue imaging may be very helpful in detecting early alterations in ventricular contraction and relaxation.

  17. Usefulness of the myocardial performance index determined by tissue Doppler imaging m-mode for predicting mortality in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biering-Sørensen, Tor; Møgelvang, Rasmus; Haahr-Pedersen, Sune Ammentorp

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the prognostic value of the myocardial performance index (MPI), assessed by color-coded tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) M-mode through the anterior mitral leaflet. Color TDI M-mode through the mitral leaflet is an easy, very fast, and precise method...... ventricular in- and outflow using standard procedures (MPI(conv)) and by color-coded TDI M-mode through the mitral leaflet in the apical 4-chamber view (MPI(TDI)). MPI(TDI) was increased in subjects with coronary heart disease (CHD) compared to controls, even after multivariable adjustment (p

  18. Estimation of left ventricular end diastolic pressure by tissue doppler imaging in patients with acute myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, M.; Abid, A.R.; Rehman, T.A.; Masood, A.; Sohail, S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate sensitivity and specificity of E / Ea > 10 for prediction of LVEDP > 15 mmHg in patients with coronary artery disease undergoing left heart catheterization. Materials and Methods: Sixty patients of acute transmural myocardial infarction at Jinnah Hospital Lahore were enrolled in study from December 2008 to December 2009. Patients with sinus rhythm were included in the study. Patients with valvular heart disease, complete right/left bundle branch block, Pacemaker dependence, Atrial fibrillation and Post mitral valve replacement were excluded. All patients were examined by performing trans thoracic Doppler echocardiography. The trans-mitral LV filling signal was traced manually and the following variables were obtained: peak early (E) and late (A) trans-mitral velocities, and E/A ratio. Tissue - Doppler derived indices were recorded at the lateral mitral annulus. These indices included systolic velocities (S'), early diastolic (Ea) velocities and late diastolic (Aa) velocities. Finally, the dimensionless index of E/Ea was calculated. All were averaged from at least three beats. Cardiac catheterization was performed via trans-femoral / trasradial route using six French (6F) sheaths. Left ventricular diastolic pressure was directly measured by fluid filled pigtail catheter attached to a pressure transducer. Results: Mean age of the study population was 56.8 +- 12.7 years. There were 47 (78.3%) males and 13 (21.7%) females. Diabetes mellitus was present in 12(20%), hypertension in 32 (53.3%), smoking in 35 (58.3%), dyslipidemia in 24 (40%). Anterior wall myocardial infarction occurred in 44 (73.3%) and inferior wall MI in 16 (26.7%). Grade I diastolic dysfunction was present in 22 (36.7%), Grade II in 31 (51.7%) and Grade III in 7 (11.7%) patients. E/E 15 in 9 (15%). Overall 21 patients were true positive, 6 were false positive, 25 were true negative and 8 were false negative. By applying 2 X 2 table sensitivity was 77.7%, specificity was 80

  19. Estimation of left ventricular end diastolic pressure by tissue doppler imaging in patients with acute myocardial infarction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, M; Abid, A R; Rehman, T A; Masood, A; Sohail, S [Allama Iqbal Medical College/Jinnah Hospital, Lahore(Pakistan)

    2010-10-15

    Objective: To evaluate sensitivity and specificity of E / Ea > 10 for prediction of LVEDP > 15 mmHg in patients with coronary artery disease undergoing left heart catheterization. Materials and Methods: Sixty patients of acute transmural myocardial infarction at Jinnah Hospital Lahore were enrolled in study from December 2008 to December 2009. Patients with sinus rhythm were included in the study. Patients with valvular heart disease, complete right/left bundle branch block, Pacemaker dependence, Atrial fibrillation and Post mitral valve replacement were excluded. All patients were examined by performing trans thoracic Doppler echocardiography. The trans-mitral LV filling signal was traced manually and the following variables were obtained: peak early (E) and late (A) trans-mitral velocities, and E/A ratio. Tissue - Doppler derived indices were recorded at the lateral mitral annulus. These indices included systolic velocities (S'), early diastolic (Ea) velocities and late diastolic (Aa) velocities. Finally, the dimensionless index of E/Ea was calculated. All were averaged from at least three beats. Cardiac catheterization was performed via trans-femoral / trasradial route using six French (6F) sheaths. Left ventricular diastolic pressure was directly measured by fluid filled pigtail catheter attached to a pressure transducer. Results: Mean age of the study population was 56.8 +- 12.7 years. There were 47 (78.3%) males and 13 (21.7%) females. Diabetes mellitus was present in 12(20%), hypertension in 32 (53.3%), smoking in 35 (58.3%), dyslipidemia in 24 (40%). Anterior wall myocardial infarction occurred in 44 (73.3%) and inferior wall MI in 16 (26.7%). Grade I diastolic dysfunction was present in 22 (36.7%), Grade II in 31 (51.7%) and Grade III in 7 (11.7%) patients. E/E < 10 was observed in 31 (51.7%), 11 - 15 in 20 (33.3%) and > 15 in 9 (15%). Overall 21 patients were true positive, 6 were false positive, 25 were true negative and 8 were false negative. By

  20. Prognostic value of systolic mitral annular velocity measured with Doppler tissue imaging in patients with chronic heart failure caused by left ventricular systolic dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikitin, N P; Loh, P H; de Silva, R; Ghosh, J; Khaleva, O Y; Goode, K; Rigby, A S; Alamgir, F; Clark, A L; Cleland, J G F

    2006-01-01

    Objective To assess the prognostic value of various conventional and novel echocardiographic indices in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) caused by left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction. Methods 185 patients with a mean (SD) age of 67 (11) years with CHF and LV ejection fraction < 45% despite optimal pharmacological treatment were prospectively enrolled. The patients underwent two dimensional echocardiography with tissue harmonic imaging to assess global LV systolic function and obtain volumetric data. Transmitral flow was assessed with conventional pulse wave Doppler. Systolic (Sm), early, and late diastolic mitral annular velocities were measured with the use of colour coded Doppler tissue imaging. Results During a median follow up of 32 months (range 24–38 months in survivors), 34 patients died and one underwent heart transplantation. Sm velocity (hazard ratio (HR) 0.648, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.463 to 0.907, p  =  0.011), diastolic arterial pressure (HR 0.965, 95% CI 0.938 to 0.993, p  =  0.015), serum creatinine (HR 1.006, 95% CI 1.001 to 1.011, p  =  0.023), LV ejection fraction (HR 0.945, 95% CI 0.899 to 0.992, p  =  0.024), age (HR 1.035, 95% CI 1.000 to 1.071, p  =  0.052), LV end systolic volume index (HR 1.009, 95% CI 0.999 to 1.019, p  =  0.067), and restrictive pattern of transmitral flow (HR 0.543, 95% CI 0.278 to 1.061, p  =  0.074) predicted the outcome of death or transplantation on univariate analysis. On multivariate analysis, only Sm velocity (HR 0.648, 95% CI 0.460 to 0.912, p  =  0.013) and diastolic arterial pressure (HR 0.966, 95% CI 0.938 to 0.994, p  =  0.016) emerged as independent predictors of outcome. Conclusions In patients with CHF and LV systolic dysfunction despite optimal pharmacological treatment, the strongest independent echocardiographic predictor of prognosis was Sm velocity measured with quantitative colour coded Doppler tissue

  1. Prognostic Value of Cardiac Time Intervals by Tissue Doppler Imaging M-Mode in Patients With Acute ST-Segment-Elevation Myocardial Infarction Treated With Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biering-Sørensen, Tor; Mogelvang, Rasmus; Søgaard, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Background- Color tissue Doppler imaging M-mode through the mitral leaflet is an easy and precise method to estimate all cardiac time intervals from 1 cardiac cycle and thereby obtain the myocardial performance index (MPI). However, the prognostic value of the cardiac time intervals and the MPI...... assessed by color tissue Doppler imaging M-mode through the mitral leaflet in patients with ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction (MI) is unknown. Methods and Results- In total, 391 patients were admitted with an ST-segment-elevation MI, treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention...

  2. Utility of Tissue Doppler Imaging in the Echocardiographic Evaluation of Left and Right Ventricular Function in Dogs with Myxomatous Mitral Valve Disease with or without Pulmonary Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron Toaldo, M; Poser, H; Menciotti, G; Battaia, S; Contiero, B; Cipone, M; Diana, A; Mazzotta, E; Guglielmini, C

    2016-05-01

    In human medicine, right ventricular (RV) functional parameters represent a tool for risk stratification in patients with congestive heart failure caused by left heart disease. Little is known about RV alterations in dogs with left-sided cardiac disorders. To assess RV and left ventricular (LV) function in dogs with myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD) with or without pulmonary hypertension (PH). One-hundred and fourteen dogs: 28 healthy controls and 86 dogs with MMVD at different stages. Prospective observational study. Animals were classified as healthy or having MMVD at different stages of severity and according to presence or absence of PH. Twenty-eight morphological, echo-Doppler, and tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) variables were measured and comparison among groups and correlations between LV and RV parameters were studied. No differences were found among groups regarding RV echo-Doppler and TDI variables. Sixteen significant correlations were found between RV TDI and left heart echocardiographic variables. Dogs with PH had significantly higher transmitral E wave peak velocity and higher E/e' ratio of septal (sMV) and lateral (pMV) mitral annulus. These 2 variables were found to predict presence of PH with a sensitivity of 84 and 72%, and a specificity of 71 and 80% at cut-off values of 10 and 9.33 for sMV E/e' and pMV E/e', respectively. No association between variables of RV function and different MMVD stage and severity of PH could be detected. Some relationships were found between echocardiographic variables of right and left ventricular function. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  3. Concordance and reproducibility between M-mode, tissue Doppler imaging, and two-dimensional strain imaging in the assessment of mitral annular displacement and velocity in patients with various heart conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Knegt, Martina Chantal; Biering-Sorensen, Tor; Sogaard, Peter

    2014-01-01

    AIMS: Mitral annular (MA) displacement reflects longitudinal left ventricular (LV) deformation and systolic velocity measurements reflect the rate of contraction; both are valuable in the diagnosis and prognosis of cardiac disease. The aim of this study was to test the agreement and reproducibility...... between motion mode (M-mode), colour tissue Doppler imaging (TDI), and two-dimensional strain imaging (2DSI) when measuring MA displacement and systolic velocity. METHODS AND RESULTS: Using GE Healthcare Vivid 7 and E9 and Echopac BT11 software, MA displacement and velocity measurements by 2DSI, TDI...

  4. Color doppler imaging of subclavian steal phenomenon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Nari Ya; Chung, Tae Sub; Kim, Jai Keun

    1997-01-01

    To evaluate the characteristic color doppler imaging of vertebral artery flow in the subclavian steal phenomenon. The study group consisted of eight patients with reversed vertebral artery flow proved by color Doppler imaging. We classified this flow into two groups:(1) complete reversal;(2) partial reversal, as shown by Doppler velocity waveform. Vertebral angiography was performed in six of eight patients;color Doppler imaging and angiographic findings were compared. On color Doppler imaging, all eight cases with reversed vertebral artery flow showed no signal at the proximal subclavian or brachiocephalic artery. We confirmed shunting of six cases by performing angiography from the contralateral vertebral and basilar artery to the ipsilateral vertebral artery. On the Doppler spectrum, six cases showed complete reversal and two partial reversal. On angiography, one partial reversal case showed complete occlusion of the subclavian artery with abundant collateral circulation of muscular branches of the vertebral artery. On color Doppler imaging, a reversed vertebral artery suggests the subclavian steal phenomenon. In particular, partial reversal waveform may reflect collateral circulation

  5. Correlation between the tissue Doppler, strain rate, strain imaging during the dobutamine infusion and coronary fractional flow reserve during catheterization: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagdelen, Sinan; Yuce, Murat; Emiroglu, Yunus; Ergelen, Mehmet; Pala, Selcuk; Tanalp, Ali Cevat; Izgi, Akin; Kirma, Cevat

    2005-06-22

    Coronary fractional flow reserve (FFR) as an invasive, and dobutamine stress echocardiography (DSE) as a noninvasive technique were used to detect critical coronary stenosis. This study was undertaken to assess correlation between these two techniques by using tissue Doppler, strain rate (SR), and strain imaging (S). In 17 patients (aged 54.9+/-12.6, 4 F), a total of 22 vessels were studied. On dobutamine stress echocardiography, baseline and peak systolic (Sm), early (Em) and late (Am) diastolic myocardial velocities, SR and S were recorded from parasternal view (mid-posterior segment) for radial and apical view (mid-septum) for longitudinal deformation. Then coronary FFR was performed by using intracoronary adenosine infusion, and the value of system were analyzed for longitudinal SR and S values, it had a mild correlation with SR (r = 0.47, p = 0.044) and a good correlation with S (r = 0.66, p = 0.002). The quantification of regional myocardial deformation by using DSE rather than the motion would be more appropriate in detecting the ischemic dysfunctional segment supplied by the critical coronary stenosis. Strain measurement during the dobutamine infusion may provide an information on the FFR results of the culprit vessel.

  6. Influence of detomidine on atrial fibrillation cycle length measured by intracardiac electrogram recording and by colour tissue Doppler imaging in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decloedt, A; de Clercq, D; van der Vekens, N; Verheyen, T; Ven, S; van Loon, G

    2016-01-01

    Shortening of atrial fibrillation cycle length (AFCL) is a marker of atrial electrical remodelling due to atrial fibrillation (AF). To investigate the effect of administration of detomidine on AFCL measured invasively from an intra-atrial electrogram (AFCLEGM) and noninvasively by tissue Doppler imaging (AFCLTDI). We hypothesised that detomidine would have no effect on AFCL but would improve the ease of TDI measurements and facilitate noninvasive AFCL determination. Prospective clinical study. Measurements were performed before and after i.v. administration of 7.5 μg/kg bwt detomidine in 33 episodes of AF in 32 horses (582 ± 64 kg bwt, 10 ± 3 years old) referred for electrical cardioversion. The AFCLEGM was measured from a right atrial intracardiac electrogram. The AFCLTDI was measured from atrial colour tissue velocity curves in 5 atrial wall regions. Mean AFCLEGM and AFCLTDI without and with sedation were compared using a repeated-measures linear mixed model with Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons and calculation of the Bland-Altman mean bias and limits of agreement between AFCLEGM and AFCLTDI. The mean AFCL was significantly increased after sedation, but this increase was very small (mean difference +4 ms). For AFCLTDI measurements, sedation significantly improved the quality of the atrial myocardial velocity curves and the number of AF cycles that could be measured per cardiac cycle. The Bland-Altman bias between AFCLEGM without sedation and AFCLTDI with sedation ranged from -18 to +15 ms depending on wall region. Bland-Altman limits of agreement were similar between AFCLEGM without sedation and AFCLTDI without and with sedation. Therefore, noninvasive AFCLTDI measurements with sedation can be used to estimate the atrial fibrillatory rate. Sedation facilitates noninvasive AFCL measurements but causes a slight increase in AFCL. Noninvasive AFCL measurements can be used as an indicator of atrial electrical remodelling, to study AF

  7. Echocardiographic Assessment of Left Ventricular Function in Healthy Horses and in Horses with Heart Disease Using Pulsed-Wave Tissue Doppler Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, T R; Mitchell, K J; Schwarzwald, C C

    2017-03-01

    Assessment of left ventricular (LV) function by tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) is not well established in horses with heart disease. To describe the use of pulsed-wave (PW) TDI for the assessment of LV function, establish reference intervals, investigate effects of mitral regurgitation (MR), aortic regurgitation (AR), and primary myocardial disease (MD), and provide proof of concept for the use of PW TDI in Warmblood horses with heart disease. Thirty healthy horses, 38 horses with MR, 25 with AR, 8 with MD. Echocardiograms were retrospectively analyzed. Reference intervals were calculated. PW TDI indices of healthy horses and horses with MR, AR, and MD were compared by one-way ANOVA and Dunnett's test. A complete set of PW TDI variables could be obtained in 94 of 101 horses. Variables corresponding to isovolumic intervals were most difficult to measure. Valvular regurgitation influenced variables describing isovolumic contraction and ejection. Horses with MD had significantly shortened ET m (-118.5 [-154.1 to -82.9] ms; mean difference [95% CI of difference of means]), increased PEP m /ET m (0.11 [0.05 to 0.17]), prolonged IMP m (0.28 [0.18 to 0.37]), increased S 1 (8.9 [5.2 to 12.6] cm/s), and decreased E 1 (-2.6 [-4.7 to -0.5] cm/s), E m (-14.2 [-19.9 to -8.5] cm/s), and E m /A m ratio (-1.6 [-2.6 to -0.6]). Pulsed-wave TDI might be useful for detection of LV dysfunction in horses with primary MD. The clinical value of TDI in horses with MR and AR remains uncertain. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  8. Wide Angle Michelson Doppler Imaging Interferometer (WAMDII)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, B.

    1986-01-01

    The wide angle Michelson Doppler imaging interferometer (WAMDII) is a specialized type of optical Michelson interferometer working at sufficiently long path difference to measure Doppler shifts and to infer Doppler line widths of naturally occurring upper atmospheric Gaussian line emissions. The instrument is intended to measure vertical profiles of atmospheric winds and temperatures within the altitude range of 85 km to 300 km. The WAMDII consists of a Michelson interferometer followed by a camera lens and an 85 x 106 charge coupled device photodiode array. Narrow band filters in a filter wheel are used to isolate individual line emissions and the lens forms an image of the emitting region on the charge coupled device array.

  9. ISAR imaging using the instantaneous range instantaneous Doppler method

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wazna, TM

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In Inverse Synthetic Aperture Radar (ISAR) imaging, the Range Instantaneous Doppler (RID) method is used to compensate for the nonuniform rotational motion of the target that degrades the Doppler resolution of the ISAR image. The Instantaneous Range...

  10. Doppler ultrasound imaging techniques for assessment of synovial inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippucci E

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Emilio Filippucci,1 Fausto Salaffi,1 Marina Carotti,2 Walter Grassi1 1Rheumatology Department, Polytechnic University of the Marche, Ancona, Italy; 2Department of Radiology, Polytechnic University of the Marche, Ancona, Italy Abstract: Ultrasound is an evolving technique, and the rapid progress made in ultrasound technology over the past ten years has dramatically increased its range of applications in rheumatology. One of the most exciting advances is the use of Doppler ultrasound imaging in the assessment of blood flow abnormalities at the synovial tissue level in patients with chronic inflammatory arthritis. This review describes the Doppler techniques available and their main applications in patients with inflammatory arthritis, discusses the evidence supporting their use, and outlines the latest advances in hardware and software. Spectral, color, and power Doppler allow sensitive assessment of vascular abnormalities at the synovial tissue level. Use of contrast agents enhances visualization of the small synovial vessels using color or power Doppler ultrasound and allows for accurate characterization of the rheumatoid pannus. Doppler techniques represent a unique method for assessment of synovial inflammation, showing blood flow characteristics in real time. They are safe, noninvasive, cost-effective, and have high sensitivity in revealing and monitoring synovitis. However, several questions still need to be answered. In the near future, the Doppler techniques described here, together with upcoming hardware and software facilities, will be investigated further and a consensus will be reached on their feasibility and appropriate use in daily rheumatologic practice. Keywords: power and color Doppler techniques, ultrasound, contrast media, synovitis, rheumatoid arthritis

  11. Bubble-Induced Color Doppler Feedback for Histotripsy Tissue Fractionation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Ryan M; Zhang, Xi; Maxwell, Adam D; Cain, Charles A; Xu, Zhen

    2016-03-01

    Histotripsy therapy produces cavitating bubble clouds to increasingly fractionate and eventually liquefy tissue using high-intensity ultrasound pulses. Following cavitation generated by each pulse, coherent motion of the cavitation residual nuclei can be detected using metrics formed from ultrasound color Doppler acquisitions. In this paper, three experiments were performed to investigate the characteristics of this motion as real-time feedback on histotripsy tissue fractionation. In the first experiment, bubble-induced color Doppler (BCD) and particle image velocimetry (PIV) analysis monitored the residual cavitation nuclei in the treatment region in an agarose tissue phantom treated with two-cycle histotripsy pulses at [Formula: see text] using a 500-kHz transducer. Both BCD and PIV results showed brief chaotic motion of the residual nuclei followed by coherent motion first moving away from the transducer and then rebounding back. Velocity measurements from both PIV and BCD agreed well, showing a monotonic increase in rebound time up to a saturation point for increased therapy dose. In a second experiment, a thin layer of red blood cells (RBC) was added to the phantom to allow quantification of the fractionation of the RBC layer to compare with BCD metrics. A strong linear correlation was observed between the fractionation level and the time to BCD peak rebound velocity over histotripsy treatment. Finally, the correlation between BCD feedback and histotripsy tissue fractionation was validated in ex vivo porcine liver evaluated histologically. BCD metrics showed strong linear correlation with fractionation progression, suggesting that BCD provides useful quantitative real-time feedback on histotripsy treatment progression.

  12. Variações de parâmetros da função diastólica do ventrículo esquerdo de acordo com a idade através da ecocardiografia com Doppler tissular Changes in the parameters of left ventricular diastolic function according to age on tissue Doppler imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Duarte Pedone

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar a correlação entre as velocidades diastólicas do Doppler tissular com a idade em amostra de adultos saudáveis, e correlacionar a idade com as velocidades do fluxo transmitral e de veias pulmonares. MÉTODOS: Estudados, através da ecocardiografia, 51 indivíduos saudáveis, com idades entre 21 e 69 anos e registradas as velocidades miocárdicas diastólicas ao Doppler tissular e determinadas as velocidades dos fluxos transmitral e venoso pulmonar. RESULTADOS: As velocidades miocárdicas diastólicas iniciais septal basal e lateral basal apresentaram correlação inversa com a idade, com r = - 0,40 (p = 0,004 e r = - 0,60 (p = 0,0001 respectivamente. As velocidades atriogênicas do Doppler tissular foram diretamente correlacionadas com a idade, sendo no segmento septal basal r = 0,56 (p = 0,0001 e no segmento lateral basal r = 0,50 (p = 0,0001. As velocidades do fluxo transmitral e do fluxo venoso pulmonar também mostraram correlação com a idade. CONCLUSÃO: Existe correlação entre a idade e as velocidades miocárdicas diastólicas do Doppler tissular e com as velocidades do fluxo transmitral e fluxo venoso pulmonar, demonstrando em indivíduos saudáveis uma variação de parâmetros da função diastólica do ventrículo esquerdo com a evolução natural da idade.OBJECTIVE: To determine the correlation between diastolic velocities on tissue Doppler imaging and age in a sample of healthy adults and to correlate age with the velocities of transmitral and pulmonary vein flows. METHODS: Echocardiographic assessment of 51 healthy individuals, whose ages ranged from 21 to 69 years. The diastolic myocardial velocities were recorded on tissue Doppler imaging. The velocities of the transmitral and pulmonary vein flows were also determined. RESULTS: The initial basal septal and basal lateral diastolic myocardial velocities showed an inverse correlation with age [r = - 0.40 (P = 0.004, and r = - 0.60 (P = 0.0001, respectively

  13. Tissue Doppler echocardiography reveals impaired cardiac function in patients with reversible ischaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Søren; Mogelvang, Rasmus; Sogaard, Peter

    2011-01-01

    AIMS: To determine if echocardiographic tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) performed at rest detects reduced myocardial function in patients with reversible ischaemia. METHODS AND RESULTS: Eighty-four patients with angina pectoris, no previous history of ischaemic heart disease and normal left ventricu...

  14. Color M-mode and pulsed wave tissue Doppler echocardiography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, J E; Søndergaard, E; Poulsen, S H

    2001-01-01

    To assess the association between color M-mode flow propagation velocity and the early diastolic mitral annular velocity (E(m)) obtained with tissue Doppler echocardiography and to assess the prognostic implications of the indexes, echocardiography was performed on days 1 and 5, and 1 and 3 month...

  15. High-frequency dual mode pulsed wave Doppler imaging for monitoring the functional regeneration of adult zebrafish hearts

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Bong Jin; Park, Jinhyoung; Kim, Jieun; Kim, Hyung Ham; Lee, Changyang; Hwang, Jae Youn; Lien, Ching-Ling; Shung, K. Kirk

    2015-01-01

    Adult zebrafish is a well-known small animal model for studying heart regeneration. Although the regeneration of scars made by resecting the ventricular apex has been visualized with histological methods, there is no adequate imaging tool for tracking the functional recovery of the damaged heart. For this reason, high-frequency Doppler echocardiography using dual mode pulsed wave Doppler, which provides both tissue Doppler (TD) and Doppler flow in a same cardiac cycle, is developed with a 30 ...

  16. Tissue Doppler echocardiography – A case of right tool, wrong use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas George

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The developments in echocardiography or ultrasound cardiography (UCG have improved our clinical capabilities. However, advanced hardware and software capabilities have resulted in UCG facilities of dubious clinical benefits. Is tissue Doppler echocardiography (TDE is one such example? Presentation of the hypothesis TDE has been touted as advancement in the field of echocardiography. The striking play of colors, impressive waveforms and the seemingly accurate velocity values could be deceptive. TDE is a clear case of inappropriate use of technology. Testing the hypothesis To understand this, a comparison between flow Doppler and tissue Doppler is made. To make clinically meaningful velocity measurements with Doppler, we need prior knowledge of the line of motion. This is possible in blood flow but impossible in the complex myocardial motion. The qualitative comparison makes it evident that Doppler is best suited for flow studies. Implications of the hypothesis As of now TDE is going backwards using an indirect method when direct methods are better. The work on TDE at present is only debatable 'research and publication' material and do not translate into tangible clinical benefits. There are several advances like curved M-mode, strain rate imaging and tissue tracking in TDE. However these have been disappointing. This is due to the basic flaw in the application of the principles of Doppler. Doppler is best suited for flow studies and applying it to tissue motion is illogical. All data obtained by TDE is scientifically incorrect. This makes all the published papers on the subject flawed. Making diagnostic decisions based on this faulty application of technology would be unacceptable to the scientific cardiologist.

  17. Tissue doppler echocardiography for evaluating left ventricular functions in obese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mecnun Çetin

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate theimpact of childhood obesity on ventricular functions usingtissue Doppler echocardiography.Materials and methods: The mitral tissue Doppler signalswere recorded in the apical four-chamber view, with thesample volume placed at the lateral walls of mitral annulus.The mitral flow was examined with the sample Pulse Dopplerpositioned parallely to flow just at the orifice of the mitralleaflets. Twenty obese (mean age, 161.5±25.8 monthsand 20 healthy children (mean age, 151.2±33.5 monthswere included to this study.Results: Body mass index (BMI was significantly higherin obese group (30.92±6.87. Isovolumic relaxation time(IVRT which is one of the left ventricular (LV diastolicfunction parameters was 66.10±7.30 ms in obese group,and 58.70±9.06 ms in the control group. IVRT was significantlyhigher in the obese group (p=0.007. In obesegroup, the mitral annulus tissue Doppler E velocity wasdecreased, flow velocity was increased and decrement inEm/Am ratio was significant. We found significant negativecorrelation between BMI and LV Em/Am ratio. Myocardialperformance index (MPI in obese group and control groupwas 0.50±0.07 and 0.41±0.04, respectively (p<0.001.Between MPI and LV Em/Am ratio there was a significantnegative correlation while MPI showed positive correlationwith BMI. In obese group septal and LV posterior wall thicknesswas shown to be significantly increased compared tothe control group (p<0.001.Conclusion: Our findings, may be important for determinationof the relationship between obesity and cardiovascularrisk factors in children. Tissue Doppler echocardiographicimaging may be useful in revealing this relationship.Key words: obesity, doppler echocardiography, ventricular dysfunction

  18. 21 CFR 892.1550 - Ultrasonic pulsed doppler imaging system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... system. (a) Identification. An ultrasonic pulsed doppler imaging system is a device that combines the... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ultrasonic pulsed doppler imaging system. 892.1550... include signal analysis and display equipment, patient and equipment supports, component parts, and...

  19. Assessment of right ventricular systolic function by tissue Doppler echocardiography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Jesper

    2012-01-01

    This thesis summarizes a series of studies performed in order to assess the clinical usefulness of a novel echocardiographic technology that allows non-invasive assessment of regional right ventricular myocardial velocities and deformation: tissue Doppler echocardiography. While the technology...... is a promising tool for improving our understanding of right ventricular hemodynamics, several aspects of the technology must be evaluated. The accuracy and reproducibility of the technology is evaluated in vitro, and normal values, impact of changes in loading of the right ventricle, response to exercise...... on right ventricular hemodynamics: pulmonary embolism, Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy and pulmonary regurgitation, the latter in an animal model. The conclusions of the thesis are: Color tissue Doppler echocardiography accurately measures velocities, SR and strain in vitro. No systematic...

  20. Doppler time-of-flight imaging

    KAUST Repository

    Heidrich, Wolfgang

    2017-02-16

    Systems and methods for imaging object velocity are provided. In an embodiment, at least one Time-of-Flight camera is used to capture a signal representative of an object in motion over an exposure time. Illumination and modulation frequency of the captured motion are coded within the exposure time. A change of illumination frequency is mapped to measured pixel intensities of the captured motion within the exposure time, and information about a Doppler shift in the illumination frequency is extracted to obtain a measurement of instantaneous per pixel velocity of the object in motion. The radial velocity information of the object in motion can be simultaneously captured for each pixel captured within the exposure time. In one or more aspects, the illumination frequency can be coded orthogonal to the modulation frequency of the captured motion. The change of illumination frequency can correspond to radial object velocity.

  1. Doppler time-of-flight imaging

    KAUST Repository

    Heide, Felix

    2015-07-30

    Over the last few years, depth cameras have become increasingly popular for a range of applications, including human-computer interaction and gaming, augmented reality, machine vision, and medical imaging. Many of the commercially-available devices use the time-of-flight principle, where active illumination is temporally coded and analyzed on the camera to estimate a per-pixel depth map of the scene. In this paper, we propose a fundamentally new imaging modality for all time-of-flight (ToF) cameras: per-pixel velocity measurement. The proposed technique exploits the Doppler effect of objects in motion, which shifts the temporal frequency of the illumination before it reaches the camera. Using carefully coded illumination and modulation frequencies of the ToF camera, object velocities directly map to measured pixel intensities. We show that a slight modification of our imaging system allows for color, depth, and velocity information to be captured simultaneously. Combining the optical flow computed on the RGB frames with the measured metric axial velocity allows us to further estimate the full 3D metric velocity field of the scene. We believe that the proposed technique has applications in many computer graphics and vision problems, for example motion tracking, segmentation, recognition, and motion deblurring.

  2. Estimation of diastolic filling pressure with cardiac CT in comparison with echocardiography using tissue doppler imaging: Determination of optimal CT reconstruction parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Ji Sun; Suh, Jon; Lee, Heon [Soonchunhyang University Hospital Bucheon, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Bora [Dept. of Biostatistics, Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Soo Jeong [Terarecon Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jou, Sung Shick [Dept. of Radiology, Soonchunhyang University Hospital Cheonan, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Hyun Kyung [Dept. of Radiology, Soonchunhyang University Hospital Seoul, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-08-01

    To determine the optimal CT image reconstruction parameters for the measurement of early transmitral peak velocity (E), early peak mitral septal tissue velocity (E′), and E / E′. Forty-six patients underwent simultaneous cardiac CT and echocardiography on the same day. Four CT datasets were reconstructed with a slice thickness/interval of 0.9/0.9 mm or 3/3 mm at 10 (10% RR-interval) or 20 (5% RR-interval) RR-intervals. The E was calculated by dividing the peak transmitral flow (mL/s) by the corresponding mitral valve area (cm{sup 2}). E′ was calculated from the changes in the left ventricular length per cardiac phase. E / E′ was then estimated and compared with that from echocardiography. For assessment of E / E′, CT and echocardiography were more strongly correlated (p < 0.05) with a slice thickness of 0.9 mm and 5% RR-interval (r = 0.77) than with 3 mm or 10% RR-interval. The diagnostic accuracy of predicting elevated filling pressure (E / E′ ≥ 13, n = 14) was better with a slice thickness of 0.9 mm and 5% RR-interval (87.0%) than with 0.9 mm and 10% RR-interval (71.7%) (p = 0.123) and significantly higher than that with a slice thickness of 3 mm with 5% (67.4%) and 10% RR-interval (63.0%), (p < 0.05), respectively. Data reconstruction with a slice thickness of 0.9 mm at 5% RR-interval is superior to that with a slice thickness of 3 mm or 10% RR-interval in terms of the correlation of E / E′ between CT and echocardiography. Thin slices and frequent sampling also allow for more accurate prediction of elevated filling pressure.

  3. Right heart function in impaired left ventricular diastolic function: 2D speckle tracking echocardiography-based and Doppler tissue imaging-based analysis of right atrial and ventricular function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Anna; Bathe, Marny; Oertelt-Prigione, Sabine; Seeland, Ute; Rücke, Mirjam; Regitz-Zagrosek, Vera; Stangl, Karl; Knebel, Fabian; Stangl, Verena; Dreger, Henryk

    2018-01-01

    The aim of our study was to describe right atrial (RA) and right ventricular (RV) function, assessed by Doppler tissue imaging and 2D speckle tracking echocardiography (2DSTE), in women with signs of early impaired left ventricular diastolic function (DD). In a cross-sectional trial, standard parameters of diastolic and right heart function were investigated in 438 women of the Berlin Female Risk Evaluation (BEFRI) study. In a subset of women, average peak systolic RA strain (RAS), as well as the average peak systolic RV strain of the free wall (RVS free wall) and of all RV segments (average RV strain; RVS Avg), was analyzed using 2DSTE. Compared to women with normal diastolic function (DD0), RAS, RVS free wall and RVS Avg were significantly reduced in DD (43.1% ± 11.9%, -26.7% ± 5.6%, and -23.3% ± 3.5% in DD0; vs 35.1% ± 10.4%, -23.9% ± 5.5%, and -20.6% ± 3.8% in DD; P right heart function is significantly altered in DD. DTI as well as 2DSTE constitute sensitive echocardiographic tools that enable the diagnosis of impaired right heart mechanics in early-staged DD. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Tissue Doppler echocardiography reveals distinct patterns of impaired myocardial velocities in different degrees of coronary artery disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Soren; Mogelvang, Rasmus; Olsen, Niels Thue

    2010-01-01

    Aim To determine how the left ventricular wall motion assessed by echocardiographic Tissue Doppler Imaging (TDI) is affected by increasing severity of coronary artery disease (CAD) among patients with stable angina pectoris and preserved ejection fraction. METHODS AND RESULTS: This study comprise...

  5. Tissue Doppler echocardiography improves the diagnosis of coronary artery stenosis in stable angina pectoris

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Soren; Jensen, Jan Skov; Iversen, Allan Zeeberg

    2012-01-01

    Aim To determine if colour tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) performed at rest in patients with suspected stable angina pectoris (SAP) is able to predict the presence of significant coronary artery disease (CAD). METHODS AND RESULTS: This study comprises 296 consecutive patients with clinically...... by colour TDI at six mitral annular sites and averaged to provide global estimates. Duke score (DS), including ST depression, chest pain, and exercise capacity, was used as the outcome of the exercise ECG. Patients with an area stenosis of ≥70% in at least one epicardial coronary artery were categorized...

  6. THE DIAGNOSTIC VALUE OF PULSED WAVE TISSUE DOPPLER IMAGING IN ASYMPTOMATIC BETA- THALASSEMIA MAJOR CHILDREN AND YOUNG ADULTS ; RELATION TO CHEMICAL BIOMARKERS OF LEFT VENTRICULAR FUNCTION AND IRON OVERLOAD .

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seham Ragab

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cardiac iron toxicity is the leading cause of death among  β-halassaemia major (TM  patients.  Once  heart failure becomes overt , it will be  difficult to reverse . Objectives: To investigate non overt cardiac dysfunctions  in TM patients using  pulsed wave Tissue Doppler  Imaging (TD I and its relation to the iron overload and brain natruritic peptide (BNP. Methods: Thorough  clinical , conventional echo and  pulsed  wave TDI  parameters were compared between  asymtomatic 25 β-TM  patients  and 20 age and gender matched individuals. Serum ferritin and plasma BNP  levels were assayed by  ELISA .  Results: TM patients had significant higher mitral inflow early diastolic (E wave and  non significant other conventional echo  parameters. Pulsed wave TDI revealed systolic and diastolic dysfunctions in the form of significant higher  isovolumetric contraction time (ICT , ejection time ( E T and  isovolumetric relaxation time (IRT with significantly lower  mitral annulus  early diastolic velocity E` (12.07 ±2.06 vs 15.04±2.65 ,P= 0.003  in patients compared to  controls. Plasma BNP was higher in patients compared to the controls.  Plasma BNP and serum ferritin had significant correlation with each other and with pulsed wave conventional and TDI indices of systolic and diastolic functions.  Patients with E/E` ≥ 8 had  significant higher  serum ferritin  and plasma BNP levels compared to those with E/E` ratio < 8 without difference in Hb levels .Conclusion:  Pulsed wave TDI  is an  important diagnostic tool for latent cardiac dysfunction in iron loaded TM patients and is related to iron overload and BNP .

  7. The Diagnostic Value of Pulsed Wave Tissue Doppler Imaging in Asymptomatic Beta- Thalassemia Major Children and Young Adults; Relation to Chemical Biomarkers of Left Ventricular Function and Iron Overload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragab, Seham M; Fathy, Waleed M; El-Aziz, Walaa FAbd; Helal, Rasha T

    2015-01-01

    Cardiac iron toxicity is the leading cause of death among β-halassaemia major (TM) patients. Once heart failure becomes overt, it is difficult to reverse. To investigate non-overt cardiac dysfunctions in TM patients using pulsed wave Tissue Doppler Imaging (TD I) and its relation to iron overload and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP). Thorough clinical, conventional echo and pulsed wave TDI parameters were compared between asymptomatic 25 β-TM patients and 20 age and gender matched individuals. Serum ferritin and plasma BNP levels were assayed by ELISA. TM patients had significant higher mitral inflow early diastolic (E) wave and non significant other conventional echo parameters. In the patient group, pulsed wave TDI revealed systolic dysfunctions, in the form of significant higher isovolumetric contraction time (ICT), and lower ejection time (E T), with diastolic dysfunction in the form of higher isovolumetric relaxation time (IRT), and lower mitral annulus early diastolic velocity E' (12.07 ±2.06 vs 15.04±2.65, P= 0.003) compared to the controls. Plasma BNP was higher in patients compared to the controls. Plasma BNP and serum ferritin had a significant correlation with each other and with pulsed wave conventional and TDI indices of systolic and diastolic functions. Patients with E/E' ≥ 8 had significant higher serum ferritin and plasma BNP levels compared to those with ratio wave TDI is an important diagnostic tool for latent cardiac dysfunction in iron-loaded TM patients and is related to iron overload and BNP.

  8. Imaging doppler lidar for wind turbine wake profiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossert, David J.

    2015-11-19

    An imaging Doppler lidar (IDL) enables the measurement of the velocity distribution of a large volume, in parallel, and at high spatial resolution in the wake of a wind turbine. Because the IDL is non-scanning, it can be orders of magnitude faster than conventional coherent lidar approaches. Scattering can be obtained from naturally occurring aerosol particles. Furthermore, the wind velocity can be measured directly from Doppler shifts of the laser light, so the measurement can be accomplished at large standoff and at wide fields-of-view.

  9. Doppler time-of-flight imaging

    KAUST Repository

    Heide, Felix; Wetzstein, Gordon; Hullin, Matthias; Heidrich, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Over the last few years, depth cameras have become increasingly popular for a range of applications, including human-computer interaction and gaming, augmented reality, machine vision, and medical imaging. Many of the commercially-available devices

  10. Doppler time-of-flight imaging

    KAUST Repository

    Heidrich, Wolfgang; Heide, Felix; Wetzstein, Gordon; Hullin, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    Systems and methods for imaging object velocity are provided. In an embodiment, at least one Time-of-Flight camera is used to capture a signal representative of an object in motion over an exposure time. Illumination and modulation frequency

  11. Acute Effects of Lateral Thigh Foam Rolling on Arterial Tissue Perfusion Determined by Spectral Doppler and Power Doppler Ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotfiel, Thilo; Swoboda, Bernd; Krinner, Sebastian; Grim, Casper; Engelhardt, Martin; Uder, Michael; Heiss, Rafael U

    2017-04-01

    Hotfiel, T, Swoboda, B, Krinner, S, Grim, C, Engelhardt, M, Uder, M, and Heiss, R. Acute effects of lateral thigh foam rolling on arterial tissue perfusion determined by spectral Doppler and power Doppler ultrasound. J Strength Cond Res 31(4): 893-900, 2017-Foam rolling has been developed as a popular intervention in training and rehabilitation. However, evidence on its effects on the cellular and physiological level is lacking. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of foam rolling on arterial blood flow of the lateral thigh. Twenty-one healthy participants (age, 25 ± 2 years; height, 177 ± 9 cm; body weight, 74 ± 9 kg) were recruited from the medical and sports faculty. Arterial tissue perfusion was determined by spectral Doppler and power Doppler ultrasound, represented as peak flow (Vmax), time average velocity maximum (TAMx), time average velocity mean (TAMn), and resistive index (RI), and with semiquantitative grading that was assessed by 4 blindfolded investigators. Measurement values were assessed under resting conditions and twice after foam rolling exercises of the lateral thigh (0 and 30 minutes after intervention). The trochanteric region, mid portion, and distal tibial insertion of the lateral thigh were representative for data analysis. Arterial blood flow of the lateral thigh increased significantly after foam rolling exercises compared with baseline (p ≤ 0.05). We detected a relative increase in Vmax of 73.6% (0 minutes) and 52.7% (30 minutes) (p power Doppler scores at all portions revealed increased average grading of 1.96 after intervention and 2.04 after 30 minutes compared with 0.75 at baseline. Our results may contribute to the understanding of local physiological reactions to self-myofascial release.

  12. Evaluation of Pulsed Doppler-Versus Tissue Doppler-Derived Tei Index of Right and Left Ventricle in Fetuses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Amoozgar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The myocardial performance index (MPI, also known as the Tei index, was introduced by Tei et al. to evaluate cardiac function in adults with dilated cardiomyopathy. This index is defined as the sum of isovolumic contraction time (ICT and isovolumic relaxation time (IRT, divided by ejection time (ET. Objectives: To determine the correlation between pulsed Doppler (PD- and tissue Doppler imaging (TDI-derived Tei indices in fetuses. Patients and Methods: Right and left ventricle PD and TDI echocardiographic data were obtained from 59 fetuses (11 pregnant women who were positive for anti-SSA-Ro or anti-SSB-La antibodies, 18 women who were referred due to dysrhythmia, and 30 women who had normal clinical findings. Results: Mean fetal gestational age was 27 ± 6.4 weeks. Mean PD Tei index of the mitral and tricuspid valve was 0.58 ± 0.05 and 0.53 ± 0.08, respectively. Mean TDI indices for the mitral and tricuspid valve were 0.56 ± 0.09 and 0.55 ± 0.08, respectively. There were no significant differences between mitral and tricuspid PD- and TDI-derived Tei indices (P = 0.87, P= 0.21, but the Bland-Altman diagrams showed no fine agreement between the indices (the mean difference ± 1 standard deviation of the right ventricular PD- and TDI-derived Tei indices was 0.24 ± 0.02 and 0.29 ± 0.04 for the left ventricle. There were no significant differences in PD- and TDI-derived Tei indexes between groups of evaluated fetuses (Mitral valve: PD-Tei P=0.69, TDI-Tei P=0.49; Tricuspid valve: PD-Tei P=0.41, TDI-Tei P=0.36. Conclusions: Although the mean values of the two indices did not differ significantly, the TDI-derived and PD-derived Tei indices did not have fine agreement.

  13. In-vivo imaging of blood flow in human retinal vessels using color Doppler optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdanfar, Siavash; Rollins, Andrew M.; Izatt, Joseph A.

    1999-04-01

    Quantification of retinal blood flow may lead to a better understanding of the progression and treatment of several ocular disorders, including diabetic retinopathy, age- related macular degeneration, and glaucoma. Current techniques, such as fluorescein angiography and laser Doppler velocimetry are limited, failing to provide sufficient information to the clinician. Color Doppler optical coherence tomography (CDOCT) is a novel technique using coherent heterodyne detection for simultaneous cross- sectional imaging of tissue microstructure and blood flow. This technique is capable of high spatial and velocity resolution imaging in highly scattering media. We implemented CDOCT for retinal blood flow mapping in human subjects. No dilation of the pupil was necessary. CDOCT is demonstrated for determining bidirectional flow in sub- 100micrometers diameter vessels in the retina. Additionally, we calculated Doppler broadening using the variance of depth- resolved spectra to identify regions with large velocity gradients within the Xenopus heart. This technique may be useful in quantifying local tissue perfusion in highly vascular retinal tissue.

  14. Tissue types (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are 4 basic types of tissue: connective tissue, epithelial tissue, muscle tissue, and nervous tissue. Connective tissue supports ... binds them together (bone, blood, and lymph tissues). Epithelial tissue provides a covering (skin, the linings of the ...

  15. Doppler ultrasound for diagnosis of soft tissue sarcoma: efficacy of ultrasound-based screening score

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagano Satoshi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. The utility of ultrasound imaging in the screening of soft-part tumours (SPTs has been reported. We classified SPTs according to their blood flow pattern on Doppler ultrasound and re-evaluated the efficacy of this imaging modality as a screening method. Additionally, we combined Doppler ultrasound with several values to improve the diagnostic efficacy and to establish a new diagnostic tool.

  16. Pulsed-wave tissue Doppler and color tissue Doppler echocardiography: calibration with M-mode, agreement, and reproducibility in a clinical setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Niels Thue; Jons, Christian; Fritz-Hansen, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Myocardial velocities can be measured with both pulsed-wave tissue Doppler (PWTD) and color tissue Doppler (CTD) echocardiography. We aimed to (A) to explore which of the two methods better approximates true tissue motion and (B) to examine the agreement and the reproducibility...... of the two methods in a routine clinical setting. METHODS: For Study A, the displacements of 63 basal myocardial segments from 13 patients were examined with M-mode and compared with the velocity-time integral of PWTD and CTD velocities. For Study B, the basal lateral segments from 58 patients were examined...... with PWTD and CTD, and the peak myocardial velocities during systole (Sm), early diastole (Em), and late diastole (Am) were measured. RESULTS: Study A: CTD-based measurements of displacement were 12% lower than M-mode measurements (95% CI: -18%; -6%). PWTD velocity-time integrals measured at the outer edge...

  17. In-vivo imaging of blood flow dynamics using color Doppler optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdanfar, Siavash; Rollins, Andrew M.; Izatt, Joseph A.

    2000-04-01

    Noninvasive quantitation of blood flow in the retinal micro circulation may elucidate the progression and treatment of ocular disorders including diabetic retinopathy, age-related degeneration, and glaucoma. Color Doppler optical coherence tomography was recently introduced as a technique allowing simultaneous micron-scale resolution cross-sectional imaging of tissue micro structure and blood flow in the human retina. Here, time-resolved imaging of dynamics of blood flow profiles was performed to measure cardiac pulsatility within retinal vessels. Retinal pulsatility has been shown to decrease throughout the progression of diabetic retinopathy.

  18. Bone surface enhancement in ultrasound images using a new Doppler-based acquisition/processing method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xu; Tang, Songyuan; Tasciotti, Ennio; Righetti, Raffaella

    2018-01-01

    Ultrasound (US) imaging has long been considered as a potential aid in orthopedic surgeries. US technologies are safe, portable and do not use radiations. This would make them a desirable tool for real-time assessment of fractures and to monitor fracture healing. However, image quality of US imaging methods in bone applications is limited by speckle, attenuation, shadow, multiple reflections and other imaging artifacts. While bone surfaces typically appear in US images as somewhat ‘brighter’ than soft tissue, they are often not easily distinguishable from the surrounding tissue. Therefore, US imaging methods aimed at segmenting bone surfaces need enhancement in image contrast prior to segmentation to improve the quality of the detected bone surface. In this paper, we present a novel acquisition/processing technique for bone surface enhancement in US images. Inspired by elastography and Doppler imaging methods, this technique takes advantage of the difference between the mechanical and acoustic properties of bones and those of soft tissues to make the bone surface more easily distinguishable in US images. The objective of this technique is to facilitate US-based bone segmentation methods and improve the accuracy of their outcomes. The newly proposed technique is tested both in in vitro and in vivo experiments. The results of these preliminary experiments suggest that the use of the proposed technique has the potential to significantly enhance the detectability of bone surfaces in noisy ultrasound images.

  19. Bone surface enhancement in ultrasound images using a new Doppler-based acquisition/processing method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xu; Tang, Songyuan; Tasciotti, Ennio; Righetti, Raffaella

    2018-01-17

    Ultrasound (US) imaging has long been considered as a potential aid in orthopedic surgeries. US technologies are safe, portable and do not use radiations. This would make them a desirable tool for real-time assessment of fractures and to monitor fracture healing. However, image quality of US imaging methods in bone applications is limited by speckle, attenuation, shadow, multiple reflections and other imaging artifacts. While bone surfaces typically appear in US images as somewhat 'brighter' than soft tissue, they are often not easily distinguishable from the surrounding tissue. Therefore, US imaging methods aimed at segmenting bone surfaces need enhancement in image contrast prior to segmentation to improve the quality of the detected bone surface. In this paper, we present a novel acquisition/processing technique for bone surface enhancement in US images. Inspired by elastography and Doppler imaging methods, this technique takes advantage of the difference between the mechanical and acoustic properties of bones and those of soft tissues to make the bone surface more easily distinguishable in US images. The objective of this technique is to facilitate US-based bone segmentation methods and improve the accuracy of their outcomes. The newly proposed technique is tested both in in vitro and in vivo experiments. The results of these preliminary experiments suggest that the use of the proposed technique has the potential to significantly enhance the detectability of bone surfaces in noisy ultrasound images.

  20. The association between brain natriuretic peptide and tissue Doppler parameters in children with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taliha Öner

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated the association between brain natriuretic peptide (BNP levels and tissue Doppler imaging measurements and also screening for deadly mutations in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM. We enrolled 20 patients diagnosed with HCM (age:10.7±5 years (1-17, 85% male, weight:42.25±23.10 kg, height:141.80±32.45 cm and 20 age, gender and body weight-matched control subjects. We performed electrocardiography, transthoracic echocardiography, and tissue Doppler echocardiography in each group, as well as genetic tests (for Arg403Gln, Arg453Cys, Arg719Trp and Arg719Gln mutations in MYH7 Exons 13, 14, 19 and BNP in the patients. The patients were divided into two groups according to the presence (Group 1 or absence (Group 2 of left ventricular (LV outflow tract obstruction. QTc dispersion and the LV ejection fraction and left atrial (LA volume index were increased in Group 1. The LA volume index and the mitral and septal E/Ea ratio and septum Z-score were increased while the mitral lateral annulus and septal annulus Ea wave velocities and the mitral and tricuspid E/A ratio were decreased in patients with high levels of BNP compared to those with normal BNP levels. There were no mutations that are associated with increased risk of sudden death found in patients included in this study. In the light of our data, we conclude that such parameters BNP levels above the 98 pg/mL, septal thickness Z-score ˃6, and higher mitral and septal E/Ea ratios can be used for management of patients with HCM according to life-threatening conditions.

  1. Evaluation of regional wall motion abnormalities of the heart. Comparison with Doppler tissue echocardiography, MR-tagging and levocardiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kivelitz, D.E.; Enzweiler, C.N.H.; Hamm, B.; Borges, A.C.; Walde, T.; Rutsch, W.; Baumann, G.

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the visual analysis of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with the tagging technique and Doppler tissue echocardiography with invasive ventriculography in detecting and quantifying regional left ventricular wall motion abnormalities. Materials and Methods: Sixteen patients with coronary artery disease and a history of prior myocardial infarction underwent invasive ventriculography. Doppler tissue echocardiography and MR-tagging within one week. Regional wall motion abnormalities (WMA) were detected in all patients. WMA were graded as normal=1; hypokinetic=2; akinetic=3; or dyskinetic=4. For agreement between MRI, echocardiography, and ventriculography the kappa coefficient (κ) according to Cohen was calculated. Results: The kappa coefficient (κ) was 0.962 for agreement between MRI and echocardiography and 0.602 for agreement between MRI and ventriculography as well as between echocardiography and ventriculography. Conclusion: Reliable analysis of regional left ventricular wall motion abnormalities is feasible using visual analysis of MR-tagging. MRI and Doppler tissue echocardiography detect more WMA than invasive ventriculography and grade them as more severe. (orig.)

  2. High-frequency dual mode pulsed wave Doppler imaging for monitoring the functional regeneration of adult zebrafish hearts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Bong Jin; Park, Jinhyoung; Kim, Jieun; Kim, Hyung Ham; Lee, Changyang; Hwang, Jae Youn; Lien, Ching-Ling; Shung, K. Kirk

    2015-01-01

    Adult zebrafish is a well-known small animal model for studying heart regeneration. Although the regeneration of scars made by resecting the ventricular apex has been visualized with histological methods, there is no adequate imaging tool for tracking the functional recovery of the damaged heart. For this reason, high-frequency Doppler echocardiography using dual mode pulsed wave Doppler, which provides both tissue Doppler (TD) and Doppler flow in a same cardiac cycle, is developed with a 30 MHz high-frequency array ultrasound imaging system. Phantom studies show that the Doppler flow mode of the dual mode is capable of measuring the flow velocity from 0.1 to 15 cm s−1 with high accuracy (p-value = 0.974 > 0.05). In the in vivo study of zebrafish, both TD and Doppler flow signals were simultaneously obtained from the zebrafish heart for the first time, and the synchronized valve motions with the blood flow signals were identified. In the longitudinal study on the zebrafish heart regeneration, the parameters for diagnosing the diastolic dysfunction, for example, E/Em < 10, E/A < 0.14 for wild-type zebrafish, were measured, and the type of diastolic dysfunction caused by the amputation was found to be similar to the restrictive filling. The diastolic function was fully recovered within four weeks post-amputation. PMID:25505135

  3. Laser Doppler Blood Flow Imaging Using a CMOS Imaging Sensor with On-Chip Signal Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cally Gill

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The first fully integrated 2D CMOS imaging sensor with on-chip signal processing for applications in laser Doppler blood flow (LDBF imaging has been designed and tested. To obtain a space efficient design over 64 × 64 pixels means that standard processing electronics used off-chip cannot be implemented. Therefore the analog signal processing at each pixel is a tailored design for LDBF signals with balanced optimization for signal-to-noise ratio and silicon area. This custom made sensor offers key advantages over conventional sensors, viz. the analog signal processing at the pixel level carries out signal normalization; the AC amplification in combination with an anti-aliasing filter allows analog-to-digital conversion with a low number of bits; low resource implementation of the digital processor enables on-chip processing and the data bottleneck that exists between the detector and processing electronics has been overcome. The sensor demonstrates good agreement with simulation at each design stage. The measured optical performance of the sensor is demonstrated using modulated light signals and in vivo blood flow experiments. Images showing blood flow changes with arterial occlusion and an inflammatory response to a histamine skin-prick demonstrate that the sensor array is capable of detecting blood flow signals from tissue.

  4. Laser doppler blood flow imaging using a CMOS imaging sensor with on-chip signal processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Diwei; Nguyen, Hoang C; Hayes-Gill, Barrie R; Zhu, Yiqun; Crowe, John A; Gill, Cally; Clough, Geraldine F; Morgan, Stephen P

    2013-09-18

    The first fully integrated 2D CMOS imaging sensor with on-chip signal processing for applications in laser Doppler blood flow (LDBF) imaging has been designed and tested. To obtain a space efficient design over 64 × 64 pixels means that standard processing electronics used off-chip cannot be implemented. Therefore the analog signal processing at each pixel is a tailored design for LDBF signals with balanced optimization for signal-to-noise ratio and silicon area. This custom made sensor offers key advantages over conventional sensors, viz. the analog signal processing at the pixel level carries out signal normalization; the AC amplification in combination with an anti-aliasing filter allows analog-to-digital conversion with a low number of bits; low resource implementation of the digital processor enables on-chip processing and the data bottleneck that exists between the detector and processing electronics has been overcome. The sensor demonstrates good agreement with simulation at each design stage. The measured optical performance of the sensor is demonstrated using modulated light signals and in vivo blood flow experiments. Images showing blood flow changes with arterial occlusion and an inflammatory response to a histamine skin-prick demonstrate that the sensor array is capable of detecting blood flow signals from tissue.

  5. Value of dobutamine stress tissue Doppler in evaluation of LV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Shaimaa Ahmed Mostafa

    2014-12-12

    Dec 12, 2014 ... Prediction of functional recovery, based on the detection of contractile reserve with dobutamine stress echocardiography. (DSE), includes myocardial perfusion imaging, metabolic imaging with conventional scintigraphy and positron emission tomography (PET).12. Dobutamine stress echocardiography is ...

  6. Laser Doppler imaging as a tool in the burn wound treatment protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Venclauskiene, Algirda; Basevicius, Algidas; Zacharevskij, Ernest; Vaicekauskas, Vytautas; Rimdeika, Rytis; Lukosevicius, Saulius

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The main treatment of burns is early excision of injured tissues. Aim To compare two different methods of examination of burned patients: clinical burn depth examination (CDE) and laser Doppler imaging (LDI). Material and methods A prospective randomized study of 57 burn patients treated in 2009–2011 was carried out. The burned patients were randomized into a CDE group and an LDI group. The CDE and LDI scan were performed 72 h after injury, with the second and third CDE and LDI s...

  7. Tissue Harmonic Synthetic Aperture Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Joachim

    The main purpose of this PhD project is to develop an ultrasonic method for tissue harmonic synthetic aperture imaging. The motivation is to advance the field of synthetic aperture imaging in ultrasound, which has shown great potentials in the clinic. Suggestions for synthetic aperture tissue...... system complexity compared to conventional synthetic aperture techniques. In this project, SASB is sought combined with a pulse inversion technique for 2nd harmonic tissue harmonic imaging. The advantages in tissue harmonic imaging (THI) are expected to further improve the image quality of SASB...

  8. Characterization of benign and malignant solid breast masses in harmonic 3D power Doppler imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsiao, Y.-H.; Huang, Y.-L.; Kuo, S.-J.; Liang, W.-M.; Chen, S.-T.; Chen, D.-R.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The authors assessed the characteristics of benign and malignant solid breast tumors in harmonic three-dimensional (3D) power Doppler imaging and proposed decision models to classify benign and malignant breast tumors. Materials and methods: A total of 86 malignant and 97 benign harmonic 3D power Doppler US images were analyzed. All the harmonic 3D power Doppler images were obtained using a Voluson730 US system (GE, Zipf, Austria) equipped with a RSP 6-12 transducer and tissue harmonic imaging modalities. Imaging analysis was performed using the Virtual Organ Computer-aided Analysis (VOCAL)-imaging program. Histogram indices, the vascularization index (VI), flow index (FI) and vascularization-flow index (VFI), were calculated for the intra-tumor and for shells with an outside thickness of 3 mm surrounding the breast tumors. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were calculated to estimate the diagnostic performances. Results: The results revealed that the choice of decision model comprised the parameters of patient age, intra-tumor VI, and tumor volume to classify benign and malignant breast tumors. The area under the ROC curve (Az) was 0.910, accuracy was 81.4%, and sensitivity and specificity were 81.4% and 81.4%, respectively. The parameter intra-tumor VI was the choice for all of the histogram indices in differentiating between malignant and benign lesions. Conclusion: The decision model, which was composed of patient age, tumor volume and intra-tumor VI, and a cut-off value for intra-tumor VI at the upper end of patient age and tumor volume, was recommended in clinical application.

  9. Noninvasive Doppler tissue measurement of pulmonary artery compliance in children with pulmonary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, Karrie; Lanning, Craig; Das, Bibhuti; Lee, Po-Feng; Ivy, D Dunbar; Valdes-Cruz, Lilliam; Shandas, Robin

    2006-04-01

    We have shown previously that input impedance of the pulmonary vasculature provides a comprehensive characterization of right ventricular afterload by including compliance. However, impedance-based compliance assessment requires invasive measurements. Here, we develop and validate a noninvasive method to measure pulmonary artery (PA) compliance using ultrasound color M-mode (CMM) Doppler tissue imaging (DTI). Dynamic compliance (C(dyn)) of the PA was obtained from CMM DTI and continuous wave Doppler measurement of the tricuspid regurgitant velocity. C(dyn) was calculated as: [(D(s) - D(d))/(D(d) x P(s))] x 10(4); where D(s) = systolic diameter, D(d) = diastolic diameter, and P(s) = systolic pressure. The method was validated both in vitro and in 13 patients in the catheterization laboratory, and then tested on 27 pediatric patients with pulmonary hypertension, with comparison with 10 age-matched control subjects. C(dyn) was also measured in an additional 13 patients undergoing reactivity studies. Instantaneous diameter measured using CMM DTI agreed well with intravascular ultrasound measurements in the in vitro models. Clinically, C(dyn) calculated by CMM DTI agreed with C(dyn) calculated using invasive techniques (23.4 +/- 16.8 vs 29.1 +/- 20.6%/100 mm Hg; P = not significant). Patients with pulmonary hypertension had significantly lower peak wall velocity values and lower C(dyn) values than control subjects (P < .01). C(dyn) values followed an exponentially decaying relationship with PA pressure, indicating the nonlinear stress-strain behavior of these arteries. Reactivity in C(dyn) agreed with reactivity measured using impedance techniques. The C(dyn) method provides a noninvasive means of assessing PA compliance and should be useful as an additional measure of vascular reactivity subsequent to pulmonary vascular resistance in patients with pulmonary hypertension.

  10. Adaptation of Dunn Solar Telescope for Jovian Doppler spectro imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Thomas A.; Voelz, David; Schmider, François-Xavier; Jackiewicz, Jason; Dejonghe, Julien; Bresson, Yves; Hull, Robert; Goncalves, Ivan; Gualme, Patrick; Morand, Frédéric; Preis, Olivier

    2017-09-01

    This paper describes instrumentation used to adapt the Dunn Solar Telescope (DST) located on Sacramento Peak in Sunspot, NM for observations using the Doppler Spectro Imager (DSI). The DSI is based on a Mach-Zehnder interferometer and measures the Doppler shift of solar lines allowing for the study of atmospheric dynamics of giant planets and the detection of their acoustic oscillations. The instrumentation is being designed and built through a collaborative effort between a French team from the Observatoire de la Cote d'Azur (OCA) that designed the DSI and a US team at New Mexico State University (NMSU). There are four major components that couple the DSI to the DST: a guider/tracker, fast steering mirror (FSM), pupil stabilizer and transfer optics. The guider/tracker processes digital video to centroid-track the planet and outputs voltages to the DST's heliostat controls. The FSM removes wavefront tip/tilt components primarily due to turbulence and the pupil stabilizer removes any slow pupil "wander" introduced by the telescope's heliostat/turret arrangement. The light received at a science port of the DST is sent through the correction and stabilization components and into the DSI. The FSM and transfer optics designs are being provided by the OCA team and serve much the same functions as they do for other telescopes at which DSI observations have been conducted. The pupil stabilization and guider are new and are required to address characteristics of the DST.

  11. Value of tissue Doppler-derived Tei index and two-dimensional speckle tracking imaging derived longitudinal strain on predicting outcome of patients with light-chain cardiac amyloidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dan; Hu, Kai; Herrmann, Sebastian; Cikes, Maja; Ertl, Georg; Weidemann, Frank; Störk, Stefan; Nordbeck, Peter

    2017-06-01

    Prognosis of patients with light-chain cardiac amyloidosis (AL-CA) is poor. Speckle tracking imaging (STI) derived longitudinal deformation parameters and Doppler-derived left ventricular (LV) Tei index are valuable predictors of outcome in patients with AL-CA. We estimated the prognostic utility of Tei index and deformation parameters in 58 comprehensively phenotyped patients with AL-CA after a median follow-up of 365 days (quartiles 121, 365 days). The primary end point was all-cause mortality. 19 (33%) patients died during follow-up. Tei index (0.89 ± 0.29 vs. 0.61 ± 0.16, p < 0.001) and E to global early diastolic strain rate ratio (E/GLSR dias ) were higher while global longitudinal systolic strain (GLS sys ) was lower in non-survivors than in survivors (all p < 0.05). Tei index, NYHA functional class, GLS sys and E/GLSR dias were independent predictors of all-cause mortality risk, and Tei index ≥0.9 (HR 7.01, 95% CI 2.43-20.21, p < 0.001) was the best predictor of poor outcome. Combining Tei index and GLS sys yielded the best results on predicting death within 1 year (100% with Tei index ≥0.9 and GLS sys ≤13%) or survival (95% with Tei index ≤0.9 and GLS sys ≥13%). We conclude that 1-year mortality risk in AL-CA patients can be reliably predicted using Tei index or deformation parameters, with combined analysis offering best performance.

  12. Color-flow Doppler imaging in suspected extremity venous thrombosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foley, W.D.; Middleton, W.D.; Lawson, T.L.; Hinson, G.W.; Puller, D.R.

    1987-01-01

    Color-flow Doppler imaging (CFDI) (Quanatum, 5 and 7.5 MHz, linear array) has been performed on 23 extremities (nine positive for venous thrombosis, 14 negative) with venographic correlation. CFDI criteria evaluated were venous color-flow respiratory variation, augmentation, compressibility, valve competence, and intraluminal echogenic filling defects. Both CFDI and venography were evaluated independently and prospectively. CFDI and venography agreed in all six cases of femoral vein thrombosis and eight of nine cases of popliteal vein thrombosis. CFDI was negative in one instance of recanalized popliteal vein thrombosis. Recanalized femoral vein thrombosis was documented in three patients by CFDI when the vein was nonopacified on conventional venography. CFDI provides a rapid and accurate assessment of the femoral popliteal venous system and can distinguish an occluded from a recanalized thrombus. Initial experience with auxiliary subclavian venous thrombus has produced equally accurate results

  13. WAMDII: The Wide Angle Michelson Doppler Imaging Interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    As part of an effort to learn more about the upper atmosphere and how it is linked to the weather experienced each day, NASA and NRCC are jointly sponsoring the Wide Angle Michelson Doppler Imaging Interferometer (WAMDII) Mission. WAMDII will measure atmospheric temperature and wind speed in the upper atmosphere. In addition to providing data on the upper atmosphere, the wind speed and temperature readings WAMDII takes will also be highly useful in developing and updating computer simulated models of the upper atmosphere. These models are used in the design and testing of equipment and software for Shuttles, satellites, and reentry vehicles. In making its wind speed and temperature measurements, WAMDII examines the Earth's airglow, a faint photochemical luminescence caused by the influx of solar ultraviolet energy into the upper atmosphere. During periods of high solar flare activity, the amount of this UV energy entering the upper atmosphere increases, and this increase may effect airglow emissions.

  14. Wide angle Michelson Doppler imaging interferometer. [measuring atmospheric emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, G. G.

    1980-01-01

    The optical system, stepping control, phase and modulation depth, array detector, and directions sensor are described for a specialized type of Michelson interferometer which works at sufficiently high resolution to measure the line widths and Doppler shifts of naturally occurring atmospheric emissions. With its imaging capability, the instrument can potentially supply this data independently for each element of the 100 x 100 detector array. The experiment seeks: (1) to obtain vertical profiles of atmospheric winds and temperatures as functions of latitude by observing near the limb; (2) to acquire exploratory wind and temperature data on smaller scale structures in airglow irregularities and in auroral forms; and (3) to collaborate with other Spacelab experiments, such as barium cloud releases, in providing wind and temperature data.

  15. Laser Doppler perfusion imaging with a complimentary metal oxide semiconductor image sensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serov, Alexander; Steenbergen, Wiendelt; de Mul, F.F.M.

    2002-01-01

    We utilized a complimentary metal oxide semiconductor video camera for fast f low imaging with the laser Doppler technique. A single sensor is used for both observation of the area of interest and measurements of the interference signal caused by dynamic light scattering from moving particles inside

  16. Soft tissue tumors - imaging methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arlart, I.P.

    1985-01-01

    Soft Tissue Tumors - Imaging Methods: Imaging methods play an important diagnostic role in soft tissue tumors concerning a preoperative evaluation of localization, size, topographic relationship, dignity, and metastatic disease. The present paper gives an overview about diagnostic methods available today such as ultrasound, thermography, roentgenographic plain films and xeroradiography, radionuclide methods, computed tomography, lymphography, angiography, and magnetic resonance imaging. Besides sonography particularly computed tomography has the most important diagnostic value in soft tissue tumors. The application of a recently developed method, the magnetic resonance imaging, cannot yet be assessed in its significance. (orig.) [de

  17. The image of urachus adenocarcinoma on Doppler ultrasonography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oyar, Orhan E-mail: o_oyar@hotmail.com; Yesildag, Ahmet; Gulsoy, Ufuk Kemal; Perk, Hakki

    2002-10-01

    Malignant urachal lesions are exceedingly rare and occur predominantly in adult life. In this case report, an adult patient with urachal carcinoma is presented with abdominal plain film, intravenous urography, gray-scale ultrasonography (US), Doppler US, and computed tomography (CT). Doppler US successfully showed the neovascularity with low resistive index value in the urachus tumor. We believe that Doppler US examination is helpful in the differential diagnosis of urachal carcinoma.

  18. Dispersed single-phase-step Michelson interferometer for Doppler imaging using sunlight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Xiaoke; Ge, Jian

    2012-09-15

    A Michelson interferometer is dispersed with a fiber array-fed spectrograph, providing 59 Doppler sensing channels using sunlight in the 510-570 nm wavelength region. The interferometer operates at a single-phase-step mode, which is particularly advantageous in multiplexing and data processing compared to the phase-stepping mode of other interferometer spectrometer instruments. Spectral templates are prepared using a standard solar spectrum and simulated interferometer modulations, such that the correlation function with a measured 1D spectrum determines the Doppler shift. Doppler imaging of a rotating cylinder is demonstrated. The average Doppler sensitivity is ~12 m/s, with some channels reaching ~5 m/s.

  19. Imaging of soft tissue sarcomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanel, D.; Le Treut, A.

    1988-01-01

    Modern imaging of soft tissue sarcomas now includes ultrasounds, CT and MRI. These new techniques allow a better evaluation of initial local extension, of the response to treatment and are able to detect local recurrences early [fr

  20. Quaternion-based transformation for extraction of image-generating Doppler for ISAR

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Abdul Gaffar, MY

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available contributing motion that is useful to the ISAR imaging process; the contributing motion consists of the Doppler generating axis and the effective angle of rotation. This letter presents a quaternion-based transformation that converts measured attitude...

  1. Pulsed and Tissue Doppler Echocardiographic Changes in Patients with Thalassemia Major

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taysir S. Garadah

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Doppler echocardiographic studies of left ventricle (LV systolic and diastolic function in patients with β-Thalassemia Major (β-TM had shown different patterns of systolic and diastolic dysfunction. Aim This cross-sectional study was designed to study the LV systolic and diastolic function in patients with β-TM using Pulsed Doppler (PD and Tissue Doppler (TD echocardiography. Methods All patients were evaluated clinically and by echocardiography, The study included patients with β-TM (n = 38, age 15.7 ± 8.9 years compared with an age-matched control group (n = 38, age 15.9 ± 8.9 years. The pulse Doppler indices were normalized for age and heart rate. Results Compared with control patients, M-Mode showed that patients with β-TM have thicker LV septal wall index (0.659 ± 0.23 vs. 0.446 ± 0.219 cm, P ≤ 0.001, posterior wall index (0.659 ± 0.235 vs. 0.437 ± 0.214 cm, P ≤ 0.01, and larger LVEDD index is (3.99 ± 0.48 vs. 2.170 ± 0.57 mm. P = 0.035. Pulsed Doppler showed high LV trans-mitral E wave velocity (70.818 ± 10.139 vs. 57.532 ± 10.139, p = 0.027 and E/A ratio (1.54 vs. 1.23, P ≤ 0.01. The duration of Deceleration time (DT and isovolumic relaxation time (IVRT were significantly shorter in patients with β-TM (150.234 ± 20.0.23 vs. 167.123 ± 19.143 msec, P ≤ 0.01 and (60.647 ± 6.77 vs. 75.474 ± 5.83 msec, P ≤ 0.001, respectively. The ratio of transmitral E wave velocity to the tissue Doppler E wave at the basal septal mitral annulus E/Em – was significantly higher in β-TM group (14.024 ± 2.29 vs. 12.132 ± 1.82, P ≤ 0.01. The Tissue Doppler systolic velocity (Sm and the early diastolic velocity (Em were significantly lower in β-TM group compared to control (4.31 ± 1.2 cm/s vs. 6.95 ± 2.1, P ≤ 0.01 and 4.31 ± 2.7 cm/s vs. 5.82 ± 2.5, P ≤ 0.01 respectively. The tricuspid valve velocity was significantly higher than controls (2.993 ± 0.569 vs. 1.93 ± 0.471 m/sec, respectively, P ≤ 0

  2. Tissue Doppler echocardiography in persons with hypertension, diabetes, or ischaemic heart disease: the Copenhagen City Heart Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogelvang, Rasmus; Sogaard, Peter; Pedersen, Sune A

    2009-01-01

    AIMS: To test the hypothesis that echocardiographic tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) reveals reduced myocardial function in hypertension, diabetes, and ischaemic heart disease (IHD) in the general population. METHODS AND RESULTS: Within a large, community-based population study, cardiac function...... and diastolic cardiac function in hypertension [n = 345; LD 10.1 (+/-standard deviation, SD 2.0 mm), P diabetes [n = 65; LD 9.8 (+/-SD 2.2 mm), P ....001] compared with controls [n = 533; LD 11.4 (+/-SD 2.0 mm); E/e' 9.0 (x/SD 1.3)]. This pattern remained significant after adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, heart rate, and the results of conventional echocardiography. CONCLUSION: In the general population, persons with hypertension, diabetes, or IHD...

  3. Evaluation of left ventricular function by tissue Doppler and speckle-derived strain rate echocardiography after percutaneous ductus closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoogzar, Hamid; Shakiba, Ali Mohammad; Derakhshan, Dorna; Ajami, Gholamhossein; Cheriki, Sirous; Borzouee, Mohammad; Edraki, Mohammad Reza; Mehdizadegan, Nima

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the left ventricular systolic and diastolic function before and after transcatheter percutaneous patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) closure. 21 children (age >6 months old) diagnosed with hemodynamically significant PDA underwent percutaneous PDA closure. Conventional, Doppler and tissue Doppler imaging and speckled-derived strain rate echocardiography were done at pre-closure, 1 day (early) and 1 month (late) post-closure. Mean age of the patients (female/male: 1.3) was 17.54 ± 24.7 months with the mean PDA diameter of 3.6 ± 0.8 mm. Systolic measures (ejection fraction, shortening fraction) reduced significantly early after PDA closure (P closure status. Early and late diastolic flow velocities of mitral (E M and A M) reduced considerably in early and late post-closure time (P closure. After 1 month, E'M increased considerably. (P = 0.01) but E'M/A'M had an insignificant rise (P > 0.05). E M/E'M ratio did not change in early post-closure but it had a considerable reduction in the subsequent month compared with the pre- and early post-closure (P closure (P closure causes a significant decrease in left ventricular performance early after PDA closure which recovers completely within 1 month. Also PDA size can affect post-closure left ventricular function.

  4. Endosonographic and color doppler flow imaging alterations observed within irradiated rectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, Archie A.; Palazzo, Juan P.; Ahmad, Neelofur R.; Liu, J.-B.; Forsberg, Flemming; Marks, John

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: To correlate the endosonographic and color Doppler flow imaging alterations observed in irradiated rectal cancers with the pathologic features of radiation response, and to evaluate the potential impact of altered blood flow on the integrity of the surgical anastamosis. Methods and Materials: Endosonography with color and pulsed wave Doppler was performed on 20 rectal cancer masses before and after high dose preoperative radiation (XRT). Pre- and post-XRT observations included comparing alterations in tumor size, sonographic echotexture, color Doppler flow, and pulsatility indices. Comparisons were made with pathologic findings in the irradiated specimens and with the incidence of anastomotic failure. Results: Compared to pre-XRT observations, irradiated rectal cancers decreased in size and became either mixed in echogenicity with less apparent color Doppler flow (16 of 20) or unchanged in color Doppler flow and echotexture (4 of 20). Those with less flow (16 of 20) were imaged later (mean = 90.2 ± 12.1 days) than those without change in color Doppler flow (mean = 21.7 ± 2.7 days). Pathologically, the group of four without change in color Doppler signal had features of acute inflammation which were not observed in 16 of 20 imaged later. Based on pulsatility index measurements, both high and low resistance vessels were detected and confirmed by immunohistochemical staining, and features of postradiation obliterative vasculitis were observed. Only one primary anastomosis in 14 patients with decreased flow failed. Conclusions: The sonographic and color Doppler flow imaging alterations observed within irradiated rectal cancer correlated with changes of postradiation obliterative vasculitis. The apparent diminished local blood flow within high and low resistance vessels post-XRT did not result in an increased incidence of anastomotic failures

  5. Phylloedes tumor of breast: findings at mammography, sonography and color Doppler imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Kun Choon; Ahn, Sei Hyun; Kim, Young Hwan; Choi, Hye Yong; Baek, Seung Yon; Yoon, Jeong Hyun

    1994-01-01

    The phylloides tumor of the breast is rare. the purposes of this study were to find the characteristic findings at mammography, sonography, and color Doppler imaging and to evaluate the usefulness of color Doppler study as an additional modality in the diagnosis of phylloides tumor and differentiation between benign and malignant varieties. Eight cases, who were pathologically proven as pylloides tumors, were retrospectively studied. The findings at histologic examination suggested benign in five, malignantin two, and borderline in one. We analyzed the mammograms of all eight patients and sonogram and color Doppler images of four patients. Phylloides tumors were seen as dense masses with lobulated margins in mammograms. On sonography, they showed relatively well-defined masses with in homogenous internal echo pattern and central echogenic areas. They were characterized by the presence of arterial and venous flows in the center and periphery of the lesion on color Doppler imaging and spectral analysis. We conclude that mammographic, sonographic and even color Doppler findings are not predictive of benign or malignant nature of the phylloides tumor. However, mammography and sonography with color Doppler interrogation are helpful in the diagnosis of phylloides tumor

  6. Angle-corrected imaging transcranial doppler sonography versus imaging and nonimaging transcranial doppler sonography in children with sickle cell disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krejza, J; Rudzinski, W; Pawlak, M A; Tomaszewski, M; Ichord, R; Kwiatkowski, J; Gor, D; Melhem, E R

    2007-09-01

    Nonimaging transcranial Doppler sonography (TCD) and imaging TCD (TCDI) are used for determination of the risk of stroke in children with sickle cell disease (SCD). The purpose was to compare angle-corrected, uncorrected TCDI, and TCD blood flow velocities in children with SCD. A total of 37 children (mean age, 7.8 +/- 3.0 years) without intracranial arterial narrowing determined with MR angiography, were studied with use of TCD and TCDI at the same session. Depth of insonation and TCDI mean velocities with and without correction for the angle of insonation in the terminal internal carotid artery (ICA) and middle (MCA), anterior (ACA), and posterior (PCA) cerebral arteries were compared with TCD velocities with use of a paired t test. Two arteries were not found on TCDI compared with 15 not found on TCD. Average angle of insonation in the MCA, ACA, ICA, and PCA was 31 degrees , 44 degrees , 25 degrees , and 29 degrees , respectively. TCDI and TCD mean depth of insonation for all arteries did not differ significantly; however, individual differences varied substantially. TCDI velocities were significantly lower than TCD velocities, respectively, for the right and left sides (mean +/- SD): MCA, 106 +/- 22 cm/s and 111 +/- 33 cm/s versus 130 +/- 19 cm/s and 134 +/- 26 cm/s; ICA, 90 +/- 14 cm/s and 98 +/- 27 cm/s versus 117 +/- 18 cm/s and 119 +/- 23 cm/s; ACA, 74 +/- 24 cm/s and 88 +/- 25 cm/s versus 105 +/- 23 cm/s and 105 +/- 31 cm/s; and PCA, 84 +/- 27 cm/s and 82 +/- 21 cm/s versus 95 +/- 23 cm/s and 94 +/- 20 cm/s. TCD and angle-corrected TCDI velocities were not statistically different except for higher angle-corrected TCDI values in the left ACA and right PCA. TCD velocities are significantly higher than TCDI velocities but are not different from the angle-corrected TCDI velocities. TCDI identifies the major intracranial arteries more effectively than TCD.

  7. Importance of Doppler broadening in Compton scatter imaging techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Donepudi V.; Takeda, Tohoru; Itai, Yuji; Seltzer, S. M.; Hubbell, John H.; Zeniya, Tsutomu; Akatsuka, Takao; Cesareo, Roberto; Brunetti, Antonio; Gigante, Giovanni E.

    2001-12-01

    Compton scattering is a potential tool for the determination of bone mineral content or tissue density for dose planning purposes, and requires knowledge of the energy distribution of the X-rays through biological materials of medical interest in the X-ray and (gamma) -ray region. The energy distribution is utilized in a number of ways in diagnostic radiology, for example, in determining primary photon spectra, electron densities in separate volumes, and in tomography and imaging. The choice of the X-ray energy is more related to X-ray absorption, where as that of the scattering angle is more related to geometry. The evaluation of all the contributions are mandatory in Compton profile measurements and is important in X-ray imaging systems in order to achieve good results. In view of this, Compton profile cross-sections for few biological materials are estimated at nineteen K(alpha) X-ray energies and 60 keV (Am-241) photons. Energy broadening, geometrical broadening from 1 to 180 degree(s), FWHM of J(Pz) and FWHM of Compton energy broadening has been evaluated at various incident photon energies. These values are estimated around the centroid of the Compton profile with an energy interval of 0.1 keV and 1.0 keV for 60 keV photons. The interaction cross sections for the above materials are estimated using fractions-by-weight of the constituent elements. Input data for these tables are purely theoretical.

  8. Absorption and scattering coefficient dependence of laser-Doppler flowmetry models for large tissue volumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binzoni, T; Leung, T S; Ruefenacht, D; Delpy, D T

    2006-01-01

    Based on quasi-elastic scattering theory (and random walk on a lattice approach), a model of laser-Doppler flowmetry (LDF) has been derived which can be applied to measurements in large tissue volumes (e.g. when the interoptode distance is >30 mm). The model holds for a semi-infinite medium and takes into account the transport-corrected scattering coefficient and the absorption coefficient of the tissue, and the scattering coefficient of the red blood cells. The model holds for anisotropic scattering and for multiple scattering of the photons by the moving scatterers of finite size. In particular, it has also been possible to take into account the simultaneous presence of both Brownian and pure translational movements. An analytical and simplified version of the model has also been derived and its validity investigated, for the case of measurements in human skeletal muscle tissue. It is shown that at large optode spacing it is possible to use the simplified model, taking into account only a 'mean' light pathlength, to predict the blood flow related parameters. It is also demonstrated that the 'classical' blood volume parameter, derived from LDF instruments, may not represent the actual blood volume variations when the investigated tissue volume is large. The simplified model does not need knowledge of the tissue optical parameters and thus should allow the development of very simple and cost-effective LDF hardware

  9. Structure of a swirl-stabilized spray flame by imaging, laser Doppler velocimetry, and phase Doppler anemometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, C. F.; Rudoff, R. C.

    1991-01-01

    Data are presented which describe the mean structure of a steady, swirl-stabilized, kerosene spray flame in the near-injector region of a research furnace. The data presented include ensemble-averaged results of schlieren, luminosity, and extinction imaging, measurement of the gas phase velocity field by laser Doppler velocimetry, and characterization of the condensed phase velocity by phase Doppler anemometry. The results of these studies define six key regions in the flame: the dense spray region; the rich, two-phase, fuel jet; the main air jet; the internal product recirculation zone; the external product recirculation zone; and the gaseous diffusion flame zone. The first five of these regions form a conical mixing layer which prepares the air and fuel for combustion. The air and fuel jets comprise the central portion of this mixing layer and are bounded on either side by the hot product gases of the internal and external recirculation zones. Entrainment of these product gases into the air/fuel streams provides the energy required to evaporate the fuel spray and initiate combustion. Intermittency of the internal recirculation and spray jet flows accounts for unexpected behavior observed in the aerodynamics of the two phases. The data reported herein are part of the database being accumulated on this spray flame for the purpose of detailed comparison with numerical modeling.

  10. Two-dimensional intraventricular flow mapping by digital processing conventional color-Doppler echocardiography images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Damien; Del Alamo, Juan C; Tanne, David; Yotti, Raquel; Cortina, Cristina; Bertrand, Eric; Antoranz, José Carlos; Perez-David, Esther; Rieu, Régis; Fernandez-Aviles, Francisco; Bermejo, Javier

    2010-10-01

    Doppler echocardiography remains the most extended clinical modality for the evaluation of left ventricular (LV) function. Current Doppler ultrasound methods, however, are limited to the representation of a single flow velocity component. We thus developed a novel technique to construct 2D time-resolved (2D+t) LV velocity fields from conventional transthoracic clinical acquisitions. Combining color-Doppler velocities with LV wall positions, the cross-beam blood velocities were calculated using the continuity equation under a planar flow assumption. To validate the algorithm, 2D Doppler flow mapping and laser particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements were carried out in an atrio-ventricular duplicator. Phase-contrast magnetic resonance (MR) acquisitions were used to measure in vivo the error due to the 2D flow assumption and to potential scan-plane misalignment. Finally, the applicability of the Doppler technique was tested in the clinical setting. In vitro experiments demonstrated that the new method yields an accurate quantitative description of the main vortex that forms during the cardiac cycle (mean error for vortex radius, position and circulation). MR image analysis evidenced that the error due to the planar flow assumption is close to 15% and does not preclude the characterization of major vortex properties neither in the normal nor in the dilated LV. These results are yet to be confirmed by a head-to-head clinical validation study. Clinical Doppler studies showed that the method is readily applicable and that a single large anterograde vortex develops in the healthy ventricle while supplementary retrograde swirling structures may appear in the diseased heart. The proposed echocardiographic method based on the continuity equation is fast, clinically-compliant and does not require complex training. This technique will potentially enable investigators to study of additional quantitative aspects of intraventricular flow dynamics in the clinical setting by

  11. Doppler optical coherence tomography imaging of local fluid flow and shear stress within microporous scaffolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yali; Bagnaninchi, Pierre O.; Yang, Ying; Haj, Alicia El; Hinds, Monica T.; Kirkpatrick, Sean J.; Wang, Ruikang K.

    2009-05-01

    Establishing a relationship between perfusion rate and fluid shear stress in a 3D cell culture environment is an ongoing and challenging task faced by tissue engineers. We explore Doppler optical coherence tomography (DOCT) as a potential imaging tool for in situ monitoring of local fluid flow profiles inside porous chitosan scaffolds. From the measured fluid flow profiles, the fluid shear stresses are evaluated. We examine the localized fluid flow and shear stress within low- and high-porosity chitosan scaffolds, which are subjected to a constant input flow rate of 0.5 ml.min-1. The DOCT results show that the behavior of the fluid flow and shear stress in micropores is strongly dependent on the micropore interconnectivity, porosity, and size of pores within the scaffold. For low-porosity and high-porosity chitosan scaffolds examined, the measured local fluid flow and shear stress varied from micropore to micropore, with a mean shear stress of 0.49+/-0.3 dyn.cm-2 and 0.38+/-0.2 dyn.cm-2, respectively. In addition, we show that the scaffold's porosity and interconnectivity can be quantified by combining analyses of the 3D structural and flow images obtained from DOCT.

  12. Evaluation of renal allograft rejection by Doppler sonography and MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinberg, H.V.; Nelson, R.C.; Murphy, F.B.; Baumgartner, B.R.; Bourke, E.; Delaney, V.B.; Whelchel, J.B.; Bernardino, M.E.

    1986-01-01

    The authors prospectively studies the efficacy of Doppler sonography and MR imaging in evaluating renal allografts, with specific attention to transplant rejection. Based on study findings, we were unable to make a statement with respect to the appearance or accuracy of diagnosing cyclosporin toxicity or acute tubular necrosis by either modality due to concomitant rejection in the few patients so afflicted. Moreover, the ability to predict and diagnose the presence or absence of allograft rejection was not affected by different serum creatinine values. Most important, however, Doppler sonography was shown to be superior to MR imaging in evaluating for allograft rejection, as evidenced by its higher sensitivity (100% vs. 71%), specificity (88% vs. 75%), and accuracy (96% vs. 73%). Thus, because of its low cost and ease of accessibility, Doppler sonography should become the primary modality for renal transplant screening

  13. Validation of color Doppler sonography for evaluating relative displacement between the flexor tendon and subsynovial connective tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tat, Jimmy; Kociolek, Aaron M; Keir, Peter J

    2015-04-01

    A common pathologic finding in carpal tunnel syndrome is fibrosis and thickening of the subsynovial connective tissue. This finding suggests an etiology of excessive shear forces, with relative longitudinal displacement between the flexor tendon and adjacent subsynovial connective tissue. The purpose of this study was to validate color Doppler sonography for measurement of tendon displacement over time. Eight unmatched fresh frozen cadaver arms were used to evaluate color Doppler sonography for measurement of tendon displacement. The middle flexor digitorum superficialis tendon was moved through a physiologic excursion of 20 mm at 3 different tendon velocities (50, 100, and 150 mm/s). We found that color Doppler sonography provided accurate measurement of tendon displacement, with absolute errors of -0.05 mm (50 mm/s), -1.24 mm (100 mm/s), and -2.36 mm (150 mm/s) on average throughout the tendon excursion range. Evaluating relative displacement between the tendon and subsynovial connective tissue during finger flexion-extension movements also offered insight into the gliding mechanism of the subsynovial connective tissue. During flexion, we observed a curvilinear increase in relative displacement, with greater differential motion at the end range of displacement, likely due to the sequential stretch of the fibrils between successive layers of the subsynovial connective tissue. In extension, there was a linear return in relative displacement, suggesting a different unloading mechanism characterized by uniform relaxation of fibrils. We demonstrated the validity of color Doppler displacement for use in the evaluation of relative motion. Color Doppler sonography is useful in our understanding of the behavior of the subsynovial connective tissue during tendon excursion, which may elucidate the role of finger motion in the etiology of shear injury. © 2015 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  14. Screening for stroke in sickle cell anemia: comparison of transcranial Doppler imaging and nonimaging US techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neish, Ariane S; Blews, David E; Simms, Catherine A; Merritt, Robert K; Spinks, Alice J

    2002-03-01

    To determine whether criteria for screening patients with sickle cell anemia for stroke established with a nonimaging transcranial Doppler ultrasonographic (US) technique are applicable to studies performed with a transcranial Doppler US imaging technique. One hundred sixty-eight examinations in 66 children were performed for sickle cell stroke screening. Children were examined with nonimaging and imaging transcranial Doppler US techniques on the same day, for a total of 84 paired examinations. The time-averaged maximum mean velocity (V(mean)) and resistive index (RI) were calculated in the middle cerebral arteries, bifurcations of the distal internal carotid arteries, distal internal carotid arteries, anterior cerebral arteries, posterior cerebral arteries, and basilar arteries. The maximum systolic velocity (V(max)) was evaluated in the distal internal carotid arteries and middle cerebral arteries. V(mean), V(max), and RI measurements were subjected to repeated-measures multivariate analysis of covariance, and the Pearson product moment correlation was used for middle cerebral artery velocity, age, and hemoglobin. V(mean) measurements obtained with nonimaging and imaging techniques varied substantially for the bifurcation of the distal internal carotid artery, the posterior cerebral artery, and the basilar artery. Substantial differences were found in RIs for every vessel. Examination time was shorter with the nonimaging technique. V(mean) measurements in the middle cerebral artery, distal internal carotid artery, and anterior cerebral artery did not vary substantially between nonimaging and imaging transcranial Doppler US. RI data did not yield comparable measurements.

  15. Cost-effectiveness of laser Doppler imaging in burn care in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hop, M.J.; Hiddingh, J.; Stekelenburg, C.; Kuipers, H.C.; Middelkoop, E.; Nieuwenhuis, M.K.; Polinder, S.; van Baar, M.E.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Early accurate assessment of burn depth is important to determine the optimal treatment of burns. The method most used to determine burn depth is clinical assessment, which is the least expensive, but not the most accurate.Laser Doppler imaging (LDI) is a technique with which a more

  16. Cost-effectiveness of laser Doppler imaging in burn care in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J. Hop (M. Jenda); J. Hiddingh (J.); C.M. Stekelenburg (C.); H.C. Kuipers (Hester); E. Middelkoop (Esther); M. Nieuwenhuis (Marianne); S. Polinder (Suzanne); M.E. van Baar (Margriet)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Early accurate assessment of burn depth is important to determine the optimal treatment of burns. The method most used to determine burn depth is clinical assessment, which is the least expensive, but not the most accurate.Laser Doppler imaging (LDI) is a technique with which

  17. Concurrent Reflectance Confocal Microscopy and Laser Doppler Flowmetry to Improve Skin Cancer Imaging: A Monte Carlo Model and Experimental Validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Mowla

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Optical interrogation of suspicious skin lesions is standard care in the management of skin cancer worldwide. Morphological and functional markers of malignancy are often combined to improve expert human diagnostic power. We propose the evaluation of the combination of two independent optical biomarkers of skin tumours concurrently. The morphological modality of reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM is combined with the functional modality of laser Doppler flowmetry, which is capable of quantifying tissue perfusion. To realize the idea, we propose laser feedback interferometry as an implementation of RCM, which is able to detect the Doppler signal in addition to the confocal reflectance signal. Based on the proposed technique, we study numerical models of skin tissue incorporating two optical biomarkers of malignancy: (i abnormal red blood cell velocities and concentrations and (ii anomalous optical properties manifested through tissue confocal reflectance, using Monte Carlo simulation. We also conduct a laboratory experiment on a microfluidic channel containing a dynamic turbid medium, to validate the efficacy of the technique. We quantify the performance of the technique by examining a signal to background ratio (SBR in both the numerical and experimental models, and it is shown that both simulated and experimental SBRs improve consistently using this technique. This work indicates the feasibility of an optical instrument, which may have a role in enhanced imaging of skin malignancies.

  18. Measurement of subcutaneous adipose tissue blood flow in the morbidly obese using a laser Doppler velocimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klassen, Gerald A.; Paton, Barry E.; Maksym, Geoff; Janigan, David; Perey, Bernard

    1992-08-01

    Using a laser Doppler velocimeter (LDV) subcutaneous adipose tissue blood flow (AF) was recorded in the upright and supine positions in the upper and lower abdomen in 22 morbidly obese patients before gastroplasty. Age was 42 +/- 3 (mean +/- SEM), weight 135 +/- 7 kg, and body mass index (BMI) 51 +/- 3. Adipose flow expressed as mV was: supine, upper abdomen 647 +/- 23, lower abdomen 604 +/- 24; upright, upper abdomen 621 +/- 27, lower abdomen 607 +/- 29. AF was significantly more in the upper than lower abdomen (supine position) and AF was significantly lower in the lower abdomen upright than the upper abdomen supine. Regression analysis of age indicates that blood flow decreases in the lower abdomen so that in the supine position the difference between upper and lower abdomen AF increases. Similar analysis of BMI did not indicate significant trends. These data indicate that with morbid obesity there is lower tissue blood flow to the lower abdomen. This may explain why such patients may develop areas of painful ischemic necrosis in the dependent region of their anterior abdominal pannus.

  19. Confocal imaging of butterfly tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunetti, Craig R

    2014-01-01

    To understand the molecular events responsible for morphological change requires the ability to examine gene expression in a wide range of organisms in addition to model systems to determine how the differences in gene expression correlate with phenotypic differences. There are approximately 12,000 species of butterflies, most, with distinct patterns on their wings. The most important tool for studying gene expression in butterflies is confocal imaging of butterfly tissue by indirect immunofluorescence using either cross-reactive antibodies from closely related species such as Drosophila or developing butterfly-specific antibodies. In this report, we describe how indirect immunofluorescence protocols can be used to visualize protein expression patterns on the butterfly wing imaginal disc and butterfly embryo.

  20. Real time 3D structural and Doppler OCT imaging on graphics processing units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylwestrzak, Marcin; Szlag, Daniel; Szkulmowski, Maciej; Gorczyńska, Iwona; Bukowska, Danuta; Wojtkowski, Maciej; Targowski, Piotr

    2013-03-01

    In this report the application of graphics processing unit (GPU) programming for real-time 3D Fourier domain Optical Coherence Tomography (FdOCT) imaging with implementation of Doppler algorithms for visualization of the flows in capillary vessels is presented. Generally, the time of the data processing of the FdOCT data on the main processor of the computer (CPU) constitute a main limitation for real-time imaging. Employing additional algorithms, such as Doppler OCT analysis, makes this processing even more time consuming. Lately developed GPUs, which offers a very high computational power, give a solution to this problem. Taking advantages of them for massively parallel data processing, allow for real-time imaging in FdOCT. The presented software for structural and Doppler OCT allow for the whole processing with visualization of 2D data consisting of 2000 A-scans generated from 2048 pixels spectra with frame rate about 120 fps. The 3D imaging in the same mode of the volume data build of 220 × 100 A-scans is performed at a rate of about 8 frames per second. In this paper a software architecture, organization of the threads and optimization applied is shown. For illustration the screen shots recorded during real time imaging of the phantom (homogeneous water solution of Intralipid in glass capillary) and the human eye in-vivo is presented.

  1. Diagnostic agreement between panoramic radiographs and color doppler images of carotid atheroma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Maria Romano-Sousa

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the agreement between diagnoses of calcified atheroma seen on panoramic radiographs and color Doppler images. Our interest stems from the fact that panoramic images can show the presence of atheroma regardless of the level of obstruction detected by color Doppler images. Panoramic and color Doppler images of 16 patients obtained from the archives of the Health Department of the city of Valença, RJ, Brazil, were analyzed in this study. Both sides of each patient were observed on the images, with a total of 32 analyzed cervical regions. The level of agreement between diagnoses was analyzed using the Kappa statistics. There was a high level of agreement, with a Kappa value of 0.78. In conclusion, panoramic radiographs can help detecting calcifications in the cervical region of patients susceptible to vascular diseases predisposing to myocardial infarction and cerebrovascular accidents. If properly trained and informed, dentists can refer their patients to a physician for a cardiovascular evaluation in order to receive proper and timely medical treatment.

  2. Relevance of tissue Doppler in the quantification of stress echocardiography for the detection of myocardial ischemia in clinical practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sicari Rosa

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the present article we review the main published data on the application of Tissue Doppler Imaging (TDI to stress echocardiography for the detection of myocardial ischemia. TDI has been applied to stress echocardiography in order to overcome the limitations of visual analysis for myocardial ischemia. The introduction of a new technology for clinical routine use should pass through the different phases of scientific assessment from feasibility studies to large multicenter studies, from efficacy to effectiveness studies. Nonetheless the pro-technology bias plays a major role in medicine and expensive and sophisticated techniques are accepted before their real usefulness and incremental value to the available ones is assessed. Apparently, TDI is not exempted by this approach : its applications are not substantiated by strong and sound results. Nonetheless, conventional stress echocardiography for myocardial ischemia detection is heavily criticized on the basis of its subjectivity. Stress echocardiography has a long lasting history and the evidence collected over 20 years positioned it as an established tool for the detection and prognostication of coronary artery disease. The quantitative assessment of myocardial ischemia remains a scientific challenge and a clinical goal but time has not come for these newer ultrasonographic techniques which should be restricted to research laboratories.

  3. Translational and Brownian motion in laser-Doppler flowmetry of large tissue volumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binzoni, T; Leung, T S; Seghier, M L; Delpy, D T

    2004-01-01

    This study reports the derivation of a precise mathematical relationship existing between the different p-moments of the power spectrum of the photoelectric current, obtained from a laser-Doppler flowmeter (LDF), and the red blood cell speed. The main purpose is that both the Brownian (defining the 'biological zero') and the translational movements are taken into account, clarifying in this way what the exact contribution of each parameter is to the LDF derived signals. The derivation of the equations is based on the quasi-elastic scattering theory and holds for multiple scattering (i.e. measurements in large tissue volumes and/or very high red blood cell concentration). The paper also discusses why experimentally there exists a range in which the relationship between the first moment of the power spectrum and the average red blood cells speed may be considered as 'linear' and what are the physiological determinants that can result in nonlinearity. A correct way to subtract the biological zero from the LDF data is also proposed. The findings should help in the design of improved LDF instruments and in the interpretation of experimental data

  4. Imaging of musculoskeletal soft tissue infections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turecki, Marcin B.; Taljanovic, Mihra S.; Holden, Dean A.; Hunter, Tim B.; Rogers, Lee F. [University of Arizona HSC, Department of Radiology, Tucson, AZ (United States); Stubbs, Alana Y. [Southern Arizona VA Health Care System, Department of Radiology, Tucson, AZ (United States); Graham, Anna R. [University of Arizona HSC, Department of Pathology, Tucson, AZ (United States)

    2010-10-15

    Prompt and appropriate imaging work-up of the various musculoskeletal soft tissue infections aids early diagnosis and treatment and decreases the risk of complications resulting from misdiagnosis or delayed diagnosis. The signs and symptoms of musculoskeletal soft tissue infections can be nonspecific, making it clinically difficult to distinguish between disease processes and the extent of disease. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the imaging modality of choice in the evaluation of soft tissue infections. Computed tomography (CT), ultrasound, radiography and nuclear medicine studies are considered ancillary. This manuscript illustrates representative images of superficial and deep soft tissue infections such as infectious cellulitis, superficial and deep fasciitis, including the necrotizing fasciitis, pyomyositis/soft tissue abscess, septic bursitis and tenosynovitis on different imaging modalities, with emphasis on MRI. Typical histopathologic findings of soft tissue infections are also presented. The imaging approach described in the manuscript is based on relevant literature and authors' personal experience and everyday practice. (orig.)

  5. Imaging of musculoskeletal soft tissue infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turecki, Marcin B.; Taljanovic, Mihra S.; Holden, Dean A.; Hunter, Tim B.; Rogers, Lee F.; Stubbs, Alana Y.; Graham, Anna R.

    2010-01-01

    Prompt and appropriate imaging work-up of the various musculoskeletal soft tissue infections aids early diagnosis and treatment and decreases the risk of complications resulting from misdiagnosis or delayed diagnosis. The signs and symptoms of musculoskeletal soft tissue infections can be nonspecific, making it clinically difficult to distinguish between disease processes and the extent of disease. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the imaging modality of choice in the evaluation of soft tissue infections. Computed tomography (CT), ultrasound, radiography and nuclear medicine studies are considered ancillary. This manuscript illustrates representative images of superficial and deep soft tissue infections such as infectious cellulitis, superficial and deep fasciitis, including the necrotizing fasciitis, pyomyositis/soft tissue abscess, septic bursitis and tenosynovitis on different imaging modalities, with emphasis on MRI. Typical histopathologic findings of soft tissue infections are also presented. The imaging approach described in the manuscript is based on relevant literature and authors' personal experience and everyday practice. (orig.)

  6. Doppler coherence imaging of ion dynamics in VINETA.II and ASDEX-upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gradic, Dorothea; Ford, Oliver; Wolf, Robert [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Greifswald (Germany); Lunt, Tilmann [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    In magnetically confining plasma experiments, diagnosis of ion flows is of great importance to measure the plasma response to the magnetic field or the exhaust particle flows in the divertor areas. Doppler coherence imaging spectroscopy (CIS) is a relatively new technique for the observation of plasma bulk ion dynamics. It is a passive optical diagnostic enabling line-integrated measurements to obtain 2D images of the ion flow and ion temperature. The general principle is similar to traditional Doppler spectroscopy, however CIS uses an imaging interferometer to perform narrow-bandwidth Fourier spectroscopy. A major advantage of the coherence imaging technique is the large amount of spatial information recovered. This allows tomographic inversion of the line-integrated measurements. With existing CIS setups, scrape-off-layer and high field side edge impurity flows could be observed in the MAST, core and edge poloidal He II flows in the WEGA stellarator and divertor impurity flows in DIII-D. The main objective of this study is the research of ion dynamics in the small linear plasma experiment VINETA.II and ASDEX-Upgrade. First Doppler CIS measurements from Ar-II plasma discharges in VINETA.II and He-II, C-III divertor flows in ASDEX-Upgrade and their preliminary interpretation will be presented.

  7. Mechanical dyssynchrony evaluated by tissue Doppler cross-correlation analysis is associated with long-term survival in patients after cardiac resynchronization therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risum, Niels; Williams, Eric S; Khouri, Michel G

    2013-01-01

    Aims Pre-implant assessment of longitudinal mechanical dyssynchrony using cross-correlation analysis (XCA) was tested for association with long-term survival and compared with other tissue Doppler imaging (TDI)-derived indices. Methods and results In 131 patients referred for cardiac resynchroniz......Aims Pre-implant assessment of longitudinal mechanical dyssynchrony using cross-correlation analysis (XCA) was tested for association with long-term survival and compared with other tissue Doppler imaging (TDI)-derived indices. Methods and results In 131 patients referred for cardiac......-max was independently associated with improved survival when adjusted for QRS > 150 ms and aetiology {hazard ratio (HR) 0.35 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.16-0.77], P = 0.01}. Maximal activation delay performed significantly better than Yu index, OWD, and the presence of left bundle branch block (P ..., for difference between parameters). In subgroup analysis, patients without dyssynchrony and QRS between 120 and 150 ms showed a particularly poor survival [HR 4.3 (95% CI 1.46-12.59), P

  8. Musculoskeletal colour/power Doppler in sports medicine: image parameters, artefacts, image interpretation and therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesen, M I; Boesen, Mikael; Kønig, Merete Juhl

    2010-01-01

    This review article discusses the aspects of sports medicine where musculoskeletal Doppler ultrasound has valuable contribution in diagnosis and/or treatment of some of the typical musculoskeletal sports injuries. Also, conditions where the Doppler ultrasound has no value are discussed. Some...

  9. Musculoskeletal colour/power Doppler in sports medicine: image parameters, artefacts, image interpretation and therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesen, M I; Boesen, Mikael; Kønig, Merete Juhl

    2011-01-01

    This review article discusses the aspects of sports medicine where musculoskeletal Doppler ultrasound has valuable contribution in diagnosis and/or treatment of some of the typical musculoskeletal sports injuries. Also, conditions where the Doppler ultrasound has no value are discussed. Some...

  10. New Approaches For Asteroid Spin State and Shape Modeling From Delay-Doppler Radar Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raissi, Chedy; Lamee, Mehdi; Mosiane, Olorato; Vassallo, Corinne; Busch, Michael W.; Greenberg, Adam; Benner, Lance A. M.; Naidu, Shantanu P.; Duong, Nicholas

    2016-10-01

    Delay-Doppler radar imaging is a powerful technique to characterize the trajectories, shapes, and spin states of near-Earth asteroids; and has yielded detailed models of dozens of objects. Reconstructing objects' shapes and spins from delay-Doppler data is a computationally intensive inversion problem. Since the 1990s, delay-Doppler data has been analyzed using the SHAPE software. SHAPE performs sequential single-parameter fitting, and requires considerable computer runtime and human intervention (Hudson 1993, Magri et al. 2007). Recently, multiple-parameter fitting algorithms have been shown to more efficiently invert delay-Doppler datasets (Greenberg & Margot 2015) - decreasing runtime while improving accuracy. However, extensive human oversight of the shape modeling process is still required. We have explored two new techniques to better automate delay-Doppler shape modeling: Bayesian optimization and a machine-learning neural network.One of the most time-intensive steps of the shape modeling process is to perform a grid search to constrain the target's spin state. We have implemented a Bayesian optimization routine that uses SHAPE to autonomously search the space of spin-state parameters. To test the efficacy of this technique, we compared it to results with human-guided SHAPE for asteroids 1992 UY4, 2000 RS11, and 2008 EV5. Bayesian optimization yielded similar spin state constraints within a factor of 3 less computer runtime.The shape modeling process could be further accelerated using a deep neural network to replace iterative fitting. We have implemented a neural network with a variational autoencoder (VAE), using a subset of known asteroid shapes and a large set of synthetic radar images as inputs to train the network. Conditioning the VAE in this manner allows the user to give the network a set of radar images and get a 3D shape model as an output. Additional development will be required to train a network to reliably render shapes from delay-Doppler

  11. MR imaging of multiple fibroadenoma in breast: comparison with color doppler images and histologic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Soo Young; Yang, Ik; Park, Hai Jung; Lee, Yul; Chung, Bong Wha; Ahn, Hye Kyung [Hallym Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-10-01

    To understand the different signal intensities seen on contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in multiple fibroadenoma of the breast, and to compare these with color Doppler ultrasonographic (CDUS) and histologic findings. MRI (1.0 Tesla, TIWI, T2WI, 3D-gradient echo dynamic contrast enhancement study) findings of 24 histologically proven cases of fibroadenoma in five patients were evaluated and compared with the histologic components (myxoid, adenomatous, fibrous). In addition, vascular flow, as seen on CDUS and histologic section, was compared. The observed degree of signal intensity waw classified into three groups, as follows: negative, 8.3%, mild to moderate, 54.2%; marked, 37.5%. On histologic section, the greater the fibrotic component, the higher the intensity of MRI enhancement, the greater the glandular component, and the intensity. CDUS showed vascular flow in only one tumor larger than 3cm in diameter. Vascular patterns of tumors on CDUS were dots in mass and detouring pattern, but in this case and in strongly enhanced cases, tumor vascularity-as seen on histologic section-showed no significant increase. Different signal intensities seen on contrast enhanced MRI in multiple fibroadenoma of the breast may be related more to the amount of glandular and fibrotic component than to increased tumor vascularity.

  12. MR imaging of multiple fibroadenoma in breast: comparison with color doppler images and histologic findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Soo Young; Yang, Ik; Park, Hai Jung; Lee, Yul; Chung, Bong Wha; Ahn, Hye Kyung

    1997-01-01

    To understand the different signal intensities seen on contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in multiple fibroadenoma of the breast, and to compare these with color Doppler ultrasonographic (CDUS) and histologic findings. MRI (1.0 Tesla, TIWI, T2WI, 3D-gradient echo dynamic contrast enhancement study) findings of 24 histologically proven cases of fibroadenoma in five patients were evaluated and compared with the histologic components (myxoid, adenomatous, fibrous). In addition, vascular flow, as seen on CDUS and histologic section, was compared. The observed degree of signal intensity waw classified into three groups, as follows: negative, 8.3%, mild to moderate, 54.2%; marked, 37.5%. On histologic section, the greater the fibrotic component, the higher the intensity of MRI enhancement, the greater the glandular component, and the intensity. CDUS showed vascular flow in only one tumor larger than 3cm in diameter. Vascular patterns of tumors on CDUS were dots in mass and detouring pattern, but in this case and in strongly enhanced cases, tumor vascularity-as seen on histologic section-showed no significant increase. Different signal intensities seen on contrast enhanced MRI in multiple fibroadenoma of the breast may be related more to the amount of glandular and fibrotic component than to increased tumor vascularity

  13. Standardised imaging technique for guided M-mode and Doppler echocardiography in the horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, K J; Bonagura, J D; Darke, P G

    1992-05-01

    Eighteen echocardiographic images useful for diagnostic imaging, M-mode echocardiography, and Doppler echocardiography of the equine heart were standardised by relating the position of the axial beam to various intracardiac landmarks. The transducer orientation required for each image was recorded in 14 adult horses by describing the degree of sector rotation and the orientation of the axial beam relative to the thorax. Repeatable images could be obtained within narrow limits of angulation and rotation for 14 of the 18 standardised images evaluated. Twenty-seven National Hunt horses were subsequently examined using this standardised technique. Selected cardiac dimensions were measured from two-dimensional and guided M-mode studies. Satisfactory results were achieved in 26 of the 27 horses. There was no linear correlation between any of the measured cardiac values and bodyweight. There was no significant difference between measurements taken from the left and the right hemithorax. Six horses were imaged on three consecutive days to assess the repeatability of the measurements. No significant difference was found between measurements obtained on different days. This study demonstrates a method for standardised echocardiographic evaluation of the equine heart that is repeatable, valuable for teaching techniques of equine echocardiography, applicable for diagnostic imaging and quantification of cardiac size, and useful for the evaluation of blood-flow patterns by Doppler ultrasound.

  14. Three-dimensional power Doppler sonography: imaging and quantifying blood flow and vascularization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pairleitner, H; Steiner, H; Hasenoehrl, G; Staudach, A

    1999-08-01

    To assess the feasibility of imaging low-velocity blood flow in adnexal masses by transvaginal three-dimensional power Doppler sonography, to analyze three-dimensional power Doppler sonography data sets with a new computer-assisted method and to test the reproducibility of the technique. A commercially available 5-MHz Combison 530 ultrasound system was used to perform three-dimensional power Doppler sonography transvaginally. A cube (= volume of interest) was defined enclosing the vessels of the cyst and the Cartesian characteristics were stored on a hard disk. This cube was analyzed using specially designed software. Five indices representing vascularization (the vascularization index (VI) or blood flow (the flow index (FI)) or both (the vascularization-flow index (VFI)) were calculated. The intraobserver repeatability of cube definition and scan repetition was assessed using Hartley's test for homogeneous variances. Interobserver agreement was assessed by the Pearson correlation coefficient. Imaging of vessels with low-velocity blood flow by three-dimensional power Doppler sonography and cube definition was possible in all adnexal massed studied. In some cases even induced non-vascular flow related to endometriosis was detected. The calculated F value with intraobserver repeated Cartesian file-saving ranged from 0 to 18.8, with intraobserver scan repetition from 4.74 to 24.8 for VI, FI 1, FI 2 and VFI 1; for VFI 2 the calculated F value was 64. The interobserver correlation coefficient ranged between 0.83 and 0.92 for VI, FI 1, FI 2 and VFI 1; for VFI 2 the correlation coefficient was less than 0.75. Vessels with low-velocity blood flow can be imaged using three-dimensional power Doppler sonography. Induced non-vascular flow was detected in endometriotic cyst fluid. Three-dimensional power Doppler sonography combined with the cube method gave reproducible information for all indices except VFI 2. These indices might prove to be a new predictor in all fields of

  15. Synthetic aperture tissue and flow ultrasound imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolov, Svetoslav

    imaging applied to medical ultrasound. It is divided into two major parts: tissue and blood flow imaging. Tissue imaging using synthetic aperture algorithms has been investigated for about two decades, but has not been implemented in medical scanners yet. Among the other reasons, the conventional scanning...... and beamformation methods are adequate for the imaging modalities in clinical use - the B-mode imaging of tissue structures, and the color mapping of blood flow. The acquisition time, however, is too long, and these methods fail to perform real-time three-dimensional scans. The synthetic transmit aperture......, on the other hand, can create a Bmode image with as little as 2 emissions, thus significantly speeding-up the scan procedure. The first part of the dissertation describes the synthetic aperture tissue imaging. It starts with an overview of the efforts previously made by other research groups. A classification...

  16. The Efficacy of Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Color Doppler Ultrasonography in Diagnosis of Salivary Gland Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behrooz Davachi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. Although salivary gland tumors are not very common, early diagnosis and treatment is crucial because of their proximity to vital organs, and therefore, determining the efficacy of new imaging procedures becomes important. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and color doppler ultrasonography parameters in the diagnosis and differentiation of benign and malignant salivary gland tumors. Materials and methods. In this cross-sectional study, color doppler ultrasonography and MRI were performed for 22 patients with salivary gland tumor. Demographic data as well as MRI, color doppler ultrasonography, and surgical parameters including tumor site, signal in MRI images, ultrasound echo, tumor border, lymphadenopathy, invasion, perfusion, vascular resistance index (RI, vascular pulse index (PI were analyzed using Chi-square test, Fisher’s exact test, and independent ttest. Results. The mean age of patients was 46.59±13.97 years (8 males and 14 females. Patients with malignant tumors were older (P < 0.01. The most common tumors were pleomorphic adenoma (36.4%, metastasis (36.4%, and mucoepidermoid carcinoma (9%. Nine tumors (40.9% were benign and 13 (59.1% were malignant. The overall accuracy of MRI and color doppler ultrasonography in determining tumor site was 100% and 95%, respectively. No significant difference observed between RI and PI and the diagnosis of tumor. Conclusion. Both MRI and ultrasonography have high accuracy in the localization of tumors. Well-identified border was a sign of benign tumors. Also, invasion to adjacent structures was a predictive factor for malignancy.

  17. Evaluation of Cardiovascular System in Fibromyalgia Syndrome: Tissue Doppler Echocardiographic Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selma YAZICI

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: We aim to investigate besides the cardiac structures and functions by both conventionalmethods and Tissue Doppler Echocardiography (TDE which is a new and useful method inpatients with Fibromyalgia (FM. Additionally, we evaluated QT parameters (QT maximum,QT minimum and QT dispertion with the use of electrocardiography in order to measure theautonomic dysfunction which is a possible mechanism in the pathogenesis of the disease. Methods: The study was performed on 42 patients (mean age 41 years, 38 female and 38completely healthy subjects (35 female, mean age of 42 years who were admitted to the sameclinic were collected as the control group. All the individuals were undergone a completephysical examination, electrocardiography (recordings were displayed at 50 mm/s speed andechocardiography evaluation (both conventional methods and TDE.Results: Analysis of electrocardiographic recordings revealed mildly increased mean QTdispertion in the patient group, but this difference was statistically insignificant. Analysis ofconventional echocardiographic parameters revealed similar results between the patient groupand the control cases. However, an important finding of this study is that significant diastolicdysfunction was found in the patient group which was recorded with the TDE technique. Emwave velocity and Em/Am ratios were significantly lower in patients with FM compared withcontrols (p<0.005, p<0.01, respectively. Sm and Am waves velocities were similar in bothgroups. Conclusion: In this study, significant left ventricular diastolic dysfunction which was detectedby TDE technique can partly explain several symptoms such as fatigue and dyspnea in FM. Inaddition, fully cardiac evaluation of patients with FM might be obtained supporting findingsthe autonomic dysfunction theory in fibromyalgia pathogenesis.

  18. NMR imaging of soft tissue tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laval-Jeantet, M.; Tobolsk, F.; Delepine, N.; Delepine, G.; Roger, B.; Cabanis, E.A.

    1986-01-01

    Preliminary findings on NMR imaging of 30 soft tissue tumors demonstrated the indispensable value of this examination (particularly when a surface antenna is used) for preoperative investigation and diagnosis of tumoral recurrence when compared with other radiologic techniques. The possible potential of NMR imaging for characterization of tissues, apart from lipoma or liposarcoma, cannot be evaluated at the present time [fr

  19. High PRF ultrafast sliding compound doppler imaging: fully qualitative and quantitative analysis of blood flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jinbum; Jang, Won Seuk; Yoo, Yangmo

    2018-02-09

    Ultrafast compound Doppler imaging based on plane-wave excitation (UCDI) can be used to evaluate cardiovascular diseases using high frame rates. In particular, it provides a fully quantifiable flow analysis over a large region of interest with high spatio-temporal resolution. However, the pulse-repetition frequency (PRF) in the UCDI method is limited for high-velocity flow imaging since it has a tradeoff between the number of plane-wave angles (N) and acquisition time. In this paper, we present high PRF ultrafast sliding compound Doppler imaging method (HUSDI) to improve quantitative flow analysis. With the HUSDI method, full scanline images (i.e. each tilted plane wave data) in a Doppler frame buffer are consecutively summed using a sliding window to create high-quality ensemble data so that there is no reduction in frame rate and flow sensitivity. In addition, by updating a new compounding set with a certain time difference (i.e. sliding window step size or L), the HUSDI method allows various Doppler PRFs with the same acquisition data to enable a fully qualitative, retrospective flow assessment. To evaluate the performance of the proposed HUSDI method, simulation, in vitro and in vivo studies were conducted under diverse flow circumstances. In the simulation and in vitro studies, the HUSDI method showed improved hemodynamic representations without reducing either temporal resolution or sensitivity compared to the UCDI method. For the quantitative analysis, the root mean squared velocity error (RMSVE) was measured using 9 angles (-12° to 12°) with L of 1-9, and the results were found to be comparable to those of the UCDI method (L  =  N  =  9), i.e.  ⩽0.24 cm s -1 , for all L values. For the in vivo study, the flow data acquired from a full cardiac cycle of the femoral vessels of a healthy volunteer were analyzed using a PW spectrogram, and arterial and venous flows were successfully assessed with high Doppler PRF (e.g. 5 kHz at L

  20. High PRF ultrafast sliding compound doppler imaging: fully qualitative and quantitative analysis of blood flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jinbum; Jang, Won Seuk; Yoo, Yangmo

    2018-02-01

    Ultrafast compound Doppler imaging based on plane-wave excitation (UCDI) can be used to evaluate cardiovascular diseases using high frame rates. In particular, it provides a fully quantifiable flow analysis over a large region of interest with high spatio-temporal resolution. However, the pulse-repetition frequency (PRF) in the UCDI method is limited for high-velocity flow imaging since it has a tradeoff between the number of plane-wave angles (N) and acquisition time. In this paper, we present high PRF ultrafast sliding compound Doppler imaging method (HUSDI) to improve quantitative flow analysis. With the HUSDI method, full scanline images (i.e. each tilted plane wave data) in a Doppler frame buffer are consecutively summed using a sliding window to create high-quality ensemble data so that there is no reduction in frame rate and flow sensitivity. In addition, by updating a new compounding set with a certain time difference (i.e. sliding window step size or L), the HUSDI method allows various Doppler PRFs with the same acquisition data to enable a fully qualitative, retrospective flow assessment. To evaluate the performance of the proposed HUSDI method, simulation, in vitro and in vivo studies were conducted under diverse flow circumstances. In the simulation and in vitro studies, the HUSDI method showed improved hemodynamic representations without reducing either temporal resolution or sensitivity compared to the UCDI method. For the quantitative analysis, the root mean squared velocity error (RMSVE) was measured using 9 angles (-12° to 12°) with L of 1-9, and the results were found to be comparable to those of the UCDI method (L  =  N  =  9), i.e.  ⩽0.24 cm s-1, for all L values. For the in vivo study, the flow data acquired from a full cardiac cycle of the femoral vessels of a healthy volunteer were analyzed using a PW spectrogram, and arterial and venous flows were successfully assessed with high Doppler PRF (e.g. 5 kHz at L

  1. Measurement of portal blood flow in healthy individuals: a comparison between magnetic resonance imaging and Doppler ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Juliana Dantas da; Sebastiane, Patricia Moreno; Leao, Alberto Ribeiro de Souza; Santos, Jose Eduardo Mourao; Moulin, Danilo Sales; D'Ippolito, Giuseppe

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the inter-observer agreement between Doppler ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging in the quantification of portal blood flow in healthy individuals, as well as evaluating the reproducibility of both methods. Materials and methods: A prospective, transverse, observational and self-paired study was developed evaluating 20 healthy volunteers whose portal blood flow was measured by means of Doppler ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging performed by two independent observers. Interobserver and inter method agreements were calculated using the intra class and Pearson's correlation coefficients. Results: The agreement between Doppler ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging was low (intra class coefficient: 1.9%-18.2%; Pearson's coefficient: 0.1%-13.7%; p=0.565). Mean values for the portal blood flow measured by Doppler ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging were respectively 0.768 l/min and 0.742 l/min. Interobserver agreement for quantification of the portal blood flow by Doppler ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging was respectively reasonable (intra class coefficient: 43.3%; Pearson's coefficient: 43.0%) and excellent (intra class coefficient: 91.4%; Pearson's coefficient: 93.4%). Conclusion: In the present study, magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated to be a reliable method for quantifying the portal blood flow, with a higher interobserver agreement than Doppler ultrasonography. The inter method agreement was low. (author)

  2. Effects of chronic severe pulmonary regurgitation and percutaneous valve repair on right ventricular geometry and contractility assessed by tissue Doppler echocardiography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaergaard, Jesper; Iversen, Kasper K; Vejlstrup, Niels G

    2010-01-01

    Pulmonary regurgitation (PR) following repair of right ventricular (RV) outflow obstruction is related to slowly progressive RV dilatation and heart failure and will eventually require surgical intervention, but optimal timing of pulmonary valve replacement is challenging. Tissue Doppler based...

  3. SCANDI – an all-sky Doppler imager for studies of thermospheric spatial structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Aruliah

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available A new all-sky Fabry-Perot Interferometer called the Scanning Doppler Imager (SCANDI was built and installed at Longyearbyen in December 2006. Observations have been made of the Doppler shifts and Doppler broadening of the 630 nm airglow and aurora, from which upper thermospheric winds and temperatures are calculated. SCANDI allows measurements over a field-of-view (FOV with a horizontal radius of nearly 600 km for observations at an altitude of 250 km using a time resolution of 8 min. The instrument provides the ability to observe thermospheric spatial structure within a FOV which overlaps that of the EISCAT Svalbard radar and CUTLASS SuperDARN radars. Coordinating with these instruments provides an important opportunity for studying ion-neutral coupling. The all-sky image is divided into several sectors to provide a horizontal spatial resolution of between 100–300 km. This is a powerful extension in observational capability but requires careful calibration and data analysis, as described here. Two observation modes were used: a fixed and a scanning etalon gap. SCANDI results are corroborated using the Longyearbyen single look direction FPI, and ESR measurements of the ion temperatures. The data show thermospheric temperature gradients of a few Kelvins per kilometre, and a great deal of meso-scale variability on spatial scales of several tens of kilometres.

  4. Imaging in cellular and tissue engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Hanry

    2013-01-01

    Details on specific imaging modalities for different cellular and tissue engineering applications are scattered throughout articles and chapters in the literature. Gathering this information into a single reference, Imaging in Cellular and Tissue Engineering presents both the fundamentals and state of the art in imaging methods, approaches, and applications in regenerative medicine. The book underscores the broadening scope of imaging applications in cellular and tissue engineering. It covers a wide range of optical and biological applications, including the repair or replacement of whole tiss

  5. Assessment of sustained effects of levosimendan and dobutamine on left ventricular systolic functions by using novel tissue Doppler derived indices in patients with advanced heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oner, Ender; Erturk, Mehmet; Birant, Ali; Kurtar Mansıroglu, Aslı; Akturk, Ibrahim Faruk; Karakurt, Huseyin; Yalcin, Ahmet Arif; Uzun, Fatih; Somuncu, Mustafa Umut; Yildirim, Aydin

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies comparing levosimendan vs. dobutamine have revealed that levosimendan is better in relieving symptoms. Echocardiographic studies have been done using second measurements immediately following a dobutamine infusion or while it was still being administered. The aim of our study was assessment of sustained effects of 24 h levosimendan and dobutamine infusions on left ventricular systolic functions. A total of 61 patients with acutely decompensated heart failure with New York Heart Association (NYHA) class III or IV symptoms were randomized to receive either levosimendan or dobutamine 2:1 in an open label fashion. Before and 5 days after the initiation of infusions, functional class was assessed, N-terminal prohormone of B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) levels and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), mitral inflow peak E and A wave velocity, and E/A ratios were measured; using tissue Doppler imaging, isovolumic myocardial acceleration (IVA), peak myocardial velocity during isovolumic contraction (IVV), peak systolic velocity during ejection period (Sa), early (E') and late (A') diastolic velocities, and E'/A' and E/E' ratios were measured. The NYHA class improved in both groups, but improvements were prominent in the levosimendan group. NT-proBNP levels were significantly reduced in the levosimendan group. Improvements in LVEF and diastolic indices were significant in the levosimendan group. Tissue Doppler-derived systolic indices of IVV and IVA increased significantly in the levosimendan group. Improvements in left ventricular systolic and diastolic functions continue after a levosimendan infusion.

  6. Reduced systolic performance by tissue Doppler in patients with preserved and abnormal ejection fraction: new insights in chronic heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Edgar H; Perna, Eduardo R; Farías, Eduardo F; Obregón, Ricardo O; Macin, Stella M; Parras, Jorge I; Agüero, Marcelo A; Moratorio, Diego A; Pitzus, Ariel E; Tassano, Eduardo A; Rodriguez, Leonardo

    2006-04-04

    Tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) is useful in the evaluation of systolic and diastolic function. It allows assessment of ventricular dynamics in its longitudinal axis. We sought to investigate the difference in systolic and diastolic longitudinal function in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) with normal and reduced ejection fraction. One hundred ten outpatients with CHF and 68 controls were included. Ejection fraction (EF) was obtained and longitudinal systolic (S) and diastolic (E' and A') wall velocities were recorded from basal septum. Group A (controls) were normal and CHF patients were classified by EF in Group B1: > 45% and B2: < or = 45%. In A, B1 and B2 the mean S peak was 7.74; 5.45 and 4.89 cm/s (p<0.001); the mean E' peak was 8.56; 5.72 and 6.1 cm/s (p<0.001); and the mean A' peak was 10.2; 7.3 and 5.3 cm/s (p<0.001). Also, isovolumic contraction and relaxation time were different among control and CHF groups, (both p<0.001). The most useful parameters for identifying diastolic CHF were IVRT and S peak, with area under ROC curves of 0.93 and 0.89. The cut-off of 115 ms for IVRT and 5.8 cm/s for S peak showed a sensitivity of 94 and 97%, with a specificity of 82 and 73%, respectively. These findings suggest that impairment of left ventricular systolic function is present even in those with diastolic heart failure, and that abnormalities may have an important role to identifying the condition.

  7. Power Doppler ultrasonography and synovitis: correlating ultrasound imaging with histopathological findings and evaluating the performance of ultrasound equipments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koski, J M; Saarakkala, S; Helle, M; Hakulinen, U; Heikkinen, J O; Hermunen, H

    2006-12-01

    To examine the validity of power Doppler ultrasound imaging to identify synovitis, using histopathology as gold standard, and to assess the performance of ultrasound equipments. 44 synovial sites in small and large joints, bursae and tendon sheaths were depicted with ultrasound. A synovial biopsy was performed on the site depicted and a synovial sample was taken for histopathological evaluation. The performance of three ultrasound devices was tested using flow phantoms. A positive Doppler signal was detected in 29 of 35 (83%) of the patients with active histological inflammation. In eight additional samples, histological examination showed other pathological synovial findings and a Doppler signal was detected in five of them. No significant correlation was found between the amount of Doppler signal and histological synovitis score (r = 0.239, p = NS). The amount of subsynovial infiltration of polymorphonuclear leucocytes and surface fibrin correlated significantly with the amount of power Doppler signal: r = 0.397 (pultrasound devices differed in showing the smallest detectable flow. A negative Doppler signal does not exclude the possibility of synovitis. A positive Doppler signal in the synovium is an indicator of an active synovial inflammation in patients. A Doppler signal does not correlate with the extent of the inflammation and it can also be seen in other synovial reactions. It is important that the quality measurements of ultrasound devices are reported, because the results should be evaluated against the quality of the device used.

  8. Dynamics of contrast enhancement in MR imaging and power Doppler ultrasonography of solid breast lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinikainen, H.; Paeaekkoe, E.; Suramo, I.; Paeivaensalo, M.; Rissanen, T.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the dynamics of contrast enhancement in solid breast lesions at contrast-enhanced MR imaging and power Doppler ultrasonography (US) and to compare the methods to histology and to each other. Material and Methods: Forty breast lesions were prospectively examined with dynamic MR and power Doppler US. Time-signal intensity curves of enhancement were obtained for both methods. The shape of the curve was analyzed to be benign, indeterminate or malignant. The curves were also analyzed quantitatively by calculating the slope of the curve and the area under the curve (both methods), relative enhancement (MR), and time to peak (US). The lesions were divided into malignant lesions, fibroadenomas, and other benign lesions. The results were compared to histology. Results: In the subjective analysis of the MR curve in differentiating between benign and malignant lesions the accuracy was 90%. The MR curve also enabled differentiation between fibroadenomas and malignancies. The accuracy of the US curve was 38%. Quantitatively, statistically significant differences were found using all the MR variables, except between malignancies and fibroadenomas. Using the US variables, no significant difference was found between the groups. Conclusion: The dynamics of contrast-enhanced MR were reliable in the differential diagnosis of solid breast lesions, but contrast-enhanced power Doppler US was of limited value

  9. Performance evaluation of an all-fiber image-reject homodyne coherent Doppler wind lidar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abari, Cyrus F.; Pedersen, Anders Tegtmeier; Dellwik, Ebba

    2015-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to evaluate the near-zero wind velocity measurement performance of two separate 1.5 µm all-fiber coherent Doppler lidars (CDLs). The performance characterization is carried out through the presentation of the results from two separate atmospheric field campaigns....... In one campaign, a recently developed continuous wave (CW) CDL benefiting from an image-reject front-end was deployed. The other campaign utilized a different CW CDL, benefiting from a heterodyne receiver with intermediate-frequency (IF) sampling. In both field campaigns the results are compared against...

  10. Comparison of tissue viability imaging and colorimetry: skin blanching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Hongbo; Chan, Heidi P; Farahmand, Sara; Nilsson, Gert E; Maibach, Howard I

    2009-02-01

    Operator-independent assessment of skin blanching is important in the development and evaluation of topically applied steroids. Spectroscopic instruments based on hand-held probes, however, include elements of operator dependence such as difference in applied pressure and probe misalignment, while laser Doppler-based methods are better suited for demonstration of skin vasodilatation than for vasoconstriction. To demonstrate the potential of the emerging technology of Tissue Viability Imaging (TiVi) in the objective and operator-independent assessment of skin blanching. The WheelsBridge TiVi600 Tissue Viability Imager was used for quantification of human skin blanching with the Minolta chromameter CR 200 as an independent colorimeter reference method. Desoximetasone gel 0.05% was applied topically on the volar side of the forearm under occlusion for 6 h in four healthy adults. In a separate study, the induction of blanching in the occlusion phase was mapped using a transparent occlusion cover. The relative uncertainty in the blanching estimate produced by the Tissue Viability Imager was about 5% and similar to that of the chromameter operated by a single user and taking the a(*) parameter as a measure of blanching. Estimation of skin blanching could also be performed in the presence of a transient paradoxical erythema, using the integrated TiVi software. The successive induction of skin blanching during the occlusion phase could readily be mapped by the Tissue Viability Imager. TiVi seems to be suitable for operator-independent and remote mapping of human skin blanching, eliminating the main disadvantages of methods based on hand-held probes.

  11. 2D Doppler backscattering using synthetic aperture microwave imaging of MAST edge plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, D. A.; Brunner, K. J.; Freethy, S. J.; Huang, B. K.; Shevchenko, V. F.; Vann, R. G. L.

    2016-02-01

    Doppler backscattering (DBS) is already established as a powerful diagnostic; its extension to 2D enables imaging of turbulence characteristics from an extended region of the cut-off surface. The Synthetic Aperture Microwave Imaging (SAMI) diagnostic has conducted proof-of-principle 2D DBS experiments of MAST edge plasma. SAMI actively probes the plasma edge using a wide (±40° vertical and horizontal) and tuneable (10-34.5 GHz) beam. The Doppler backscattered signal is digitised in vector form using an array of eight Vivaldi PCB antennas. This allows the receiving array to be focused in any direction within the field of view simultaneously to an angular range of 6-24° FWHM at 10-34.5 GHz. This capability is unique to SAMI and is a novel way of conducting DBS experiments. In this paper the feasibility of conducting 2D DBS experiments is explored. Initial observations of phenomena previously measured by conventional DBS experiments are presented; such as momentum injection from neutral beams and an abrupt change in power and turbulence velocity coinciding with the onset of H-mode. In addition, being able to carry out 2D DBS imaging allows a measurement of magnetic pitch angle to be made; preliminary results are presented. Capabilities gained through steering a beam using a phased array and the limitations of this technique are discussed.

  12. Doppler Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, T. R.

    I review the method of Doppler tomography which translates binary-star line profiles taken at a series of orbital phases into a distribution of emission over the binary. I begin with a discussion of the basic principles behind Doppler tomography, including a comparison of the relative merits of maximum entropy regularisation versus filtered back-projection for implementing the inversion. Following this I discuss the issue of noise in Doppler images and possible methods for coping with it. Then I move on to look at the results of Doppler Tomography applied to cataclysmic variable stars. Outstanding successes to date are the discovery of two-arm spiral shocks in cataclysmic variable accretion discs and the probing of the stream/magnetospheric interaction in magnetic cataclysmic variable stars. Doppler tomography has also told us much about the stream/disc interaction in non-magnetic systems and the irradiation of the secondary star in all systems. The latter indirectly reveals such effects as shadowing by the accretion disc or stream. I discuss all of these and finish with some musings on possible future directions for the method. At the end I include a tabulation of Doppler maps published in refereed journals.

  13. Realistic tissue visualization using photoacoustic image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Seonghee; Managuli, Ravi; Jeon, Seungwan; Kim, Jeesu; Kim, Chulhong

    2018-02-01

    Visualization methods are very important in biomedical imaging. As a technology that understands life, biomedical imaging has the unique advantage of providing the most intuitive information in the image. This advantage of biomedical imaging can be greatly improved by choosing a special visualization method. This is more complicated in volumetric data. Volume data has the advantage of containing 3D spatial information. Unfortunately, the data itself cannot directly represent the potential value. Because images are always displayed in 2D space, visualization is the key and creates the real value of volume data. However, image processing of 3D data requires complicated algorithms for visualization and high computational burden. Therefore, specialized algorithms and computing optimization are important issues in volume data. Photoacoustic-imaging is a unique imaging modality that can visualize the optical properties of deep tissue. Because the color of the organism is mainly determined by its light absorbing component, photoacoustic data can provide color information of tissue, which is closer to real tissue color. In this research, we developed realistic tissue visualization using acoustic-resolution photoacoustic volume data. To achieve realistic visualization, we designed specialized color transfer function, which depends on the depth of the tissue from the skin. We used direct ray casting method and processed color during computing shader parameter. In the rendering results, we succeeded in obtaining similar texture results from photoacoustic data. The surface reflected rays were visualized in white, and the reflected color from the deep tissue was visualized red like skin tissue. We also implemented the CUDA algorithm in an OpenGL environment for real-time interactive imaging.

  14. Tissue Harmonic Synthetic Aperture Ultrasound Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hemmsen, Martin Christian; Rasmussen, Joachim; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2014-01-01

    Synthetic aperture sequential beamforming (SASB) and tissue har- monic imaging (THI) are combined to improve the image quality of medical ultrasound imaging. The technique is evaluated in a compar- ative study against dynamic receive focusing (DRF). The objective is to investigate if SASB combined...... with THI improves the image qual- ity compared to DRF-THI. The major benet of SASB is a reduced bandwidth between the probe and processing unit. A BK Medical 2202 Ultraview ultrasound scanner was used to acquire beamformed RF data for oine evaluation. The acquisition was made interleaved between methods......, and data were recorded with and without pulse inversion for tissue harmonic imaging. Data were acquired using a Sound Technol- ogy 192 element convex array transducer from both a wire phantom and a tissue mimicking phantom to investigate spatial resolution and pen- etration. In-vivo scans were also...

  15. MEMS-based handheld fourier domain Doppler optical coherence tomography for intraoperative microvascular anastomosis imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Huang

    Full Text Available To demonstrate the feasibility of a miniature handheld optical coherence tomography (OCT imager for real time intraoperative vascular patency evaluation in the setting of super-microsurgical vessel anastomosis.A novel handheld imager Fourier domain Doppler optical coherence tomography based on a 1.3-µm central wavelength swept source for extravascular imaging was developed. The imager was minimized through the adoption of a 2.4-mm diameter microelectromechanical systems (MEMS scanning mirror, additionally a 12.7-mm diameter lens system was designed and combined with the MEMS mirror to achieve a small form factor that optimize functionality as a handheld extravascular OCT imager. To evaluate in-vivo applicability, super-microsurgical vessel anastomosis was performed in a mouse femoral vessel cut and repair model employing conventional interrupted suture technique as well as a novel non-suture cuff technique. Vascular anastomosis patency after clinically successful repair was evaluated using the novel handheld OCT imager.With an adjustable lateral image field of view up to 1.5 mm by 1.5 mm, high-resolution simultaneous structural and flow imaging of the blood vessels were successfully acquired for BALB/C mouse after orthotopic hind limb transplantation using a non-suture cuff technique and BALB/C mouse after femoral artery anastomosis using a suture technique. We experimentally quantify the axial and lateral resolution of the OCT to be 12.6 µm in air and 17.5 µm respectively. The OCT has a sensitivity of 84 dB and sensitivity roll-off of 5.7 dB/mm over an imaging range of 5 mm. Imaging with a frame rate of 36 Hz for an image size of 1000(lateral×512(axial pixels using a 50,000 A-lines per second swept source was achieved. Quantitative vessel lumen patency, lumen narrowing and thrombosis analysis were performed based on acquired structure and Doppler images.A miniature handheld OCT imager that can be used for intraoperative evaluation of

  16. Doppler imaging of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy in term neonates on the first day of life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilczynska, M.; Stefanczyk, L.; Zieba, K.; Bieganski, T.; Gulczynska, E.

    2004-01-01

    Hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy (HIE) is the most important neurological cause of mortality and poor neurodevelopmental outcome in neonates and infants. The aim of the study was to perform routine transfontanellar US brain scanning together with doppler evaluation of blood flow in anterior cerebral artery in the group of neonates with perinatal asphyxia studied at the first day of their life. The study group consisted of asphyxiated neonates (n=11), birth weight 3576,0 ± 426,0 g, gestational age 39,4 ± 1,1 weeks, pH of cord arterial blood 6,89 ± 0,45, 1 st minute Apgar score 2 points. The control group were healthy neonates (n=20), , birth weight 3354,0 ± 378,0 g, gestational age 38,9 ± 1,8 weeks, pH of cord arterial blood 7,28 ± 0,41, 1 st minute Apgar score 8 points. As compared to healthy children asphyxiated neonates had significantly decreased RI value (right cerebral artery 0,53 ± 0,02 vs. 0,72 ± 0,02; left cerebral artery 0,55 ± 0,02 vs. 0,73 ± 0,02), despite not all of them had obvious HIE features in routine US examination. None of these neonates lived longer than 10 days. Doppler examination of cerebral blood flow in term neonates born with perinatal asphyxia could be valuable complementary method of US imaging, especially in those patients with very discreet or absent HIE features in routine US scan. Results of doppler imaging could serve as prognostic factor for clinical outcome. (author)

  17. Assessment of strain and strain rate by two-dimensional speckle tracking in mice: comparison with tissue Doppler echocardiography and conductance catheter measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferferieva, V; Van den Bergh, A; Claus, P; Jasaityte, R; La Gerche, A; Rademakers, F; Herijgers, P; D'hooge, J

    2013-08-01

    This study was designed in order to compare the strain and strain rate deformation parameters assessed by speckle tracking imaging (STI) with those of tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) and conductance catheter measurements in chronic murine models of left ventricular (LV) dysfunction. Twenty-four male C57BL/6J mice were assigned to wild-type (n = 8), myocardial infarction (n = 8) and transaortic constriction (n = 8) groups. Echocardiographic and conductance measurements were simultaneously performed at rest and during dobutamine infusion (5 µg/kg/min) in all animals 10 weeks post-surgery. The LV circumferential strain (Scirc) and the strain rate (SRcirc) were derived from grey scale and tissue Doppler data at frame rates of 224 and 375 Hz, respectively. Scirc and SRcirc by TDI/STI correlated well with the preload recruitable stroke work (PRSW) (r = -0.64 and -0.71 for TDI; r = -0.46 and -0.50 for STI, P < 0.05). Both modalities showed a good agreement with respect to Scirc and SRcirc (r = 0.60 and r = 0.63, P < 0.05). During stress, however, TDI-estimated Scirc and SRcirc values were predominantly higher than those measured by STI (P < 0.05). The similarity of Scirc and SRcirc measurements with respect to the STI/TDI data was examined by the Bland-Altman analysis. In mice, the STI- and TDI-derived strain and strain rate deformation parameters relate closely to intrinsic myocardial function. At low heart rate-to-frame rate ratios (HR/FR), both STI and TDI are equally acceptable for assessing the LV function non-invasively in these animals. At HR/FR (e.g. dobutamine challenge), however, these methods cannot be used interchangeably as STI underestimates S and SR at high values.

  18. Imaging the hard/soft tissue interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannerman, Alistair; Paxton, Jennifer Z; Grover, Liam M

    2014-03-01

    Interfaces between different tissues play an essential role in the biomechanics of native tissues and their recapitulation is now recognized as critical to function. As a consequence, imaging the hard/soft tissue interface has become increasingly important in the area of tissue engineering. Particularly as several biotechnology based products have made it onto the market or are close to human trials and an understanding of their function and development is essential. A range of imaging modalities have been developed that allow a wealth of information on the morphological and physical properties of samples to be obtained non-destructively in vivo or via destructive means. This review summarizes the use of a selection of imaging modalities on interfaces to date considering the strengths and weaknesses of each. We will also consider techniques which have not yet been utilized to their full potential or are likely to play a role in future work in the area.

  19. Utilization of laser Doppler flowmetry and tissue spectrophotometry for burn depth assessment using a miniature swine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotter, Oliver; Held, Manuel; Schiefer, Jennifer; Werner, Ole; Medved, Fabian; Schaller, Hans-Eberhard; Rahmanian-Schwarz, Afshin; Jaminet, Patrick; Rothenberger, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Currently, the diagnosis of burn depth is primarily based on a visual assessment and can be dependent on the surgeons' experience. The goal of this study was to determine the ability of laser Doppler flowmeter combined with a tissue spectrophotometer to discriminate burn depth in a miniature swine burn model. Burn injuries of varying depth, including superficial-partial, deep-partial, and full thickness, were created in seven Göttingen minipigs using an aluminium bar (100 °C), which was applied to the abdominal skin for periods of 1, 3, 6, 12, 30, and 60 seconds with gravity alone. The depth of injury was evaluated histologically using hematoxylin and eosin staining. All burns were assessed 3 hours after injury using a device that combines a laser light and a white light to determine blood flow, hemoglobin oxygenation, and relative amount of hemoglobin. The blood flow (41 vs. 124 arbitrary units [AU]) and relative amount of hemoglobin (32 vs. 52 AU) were significantly lower in full thickness compared with superficial-partial thickness burns. However, no significant differences in hemoglobin oxygenation were observed between these depths of burns (61 vs. 60%). These results show the ability of laser Doppler flowmeter and tissue spectrophotometer in combination to discriminate between various depths of injury in the minipig model, suggesting that this device may offer a valuable tool for burn depth assessment influencing burn management. © 2014 by the Wound Healing Society.

  20. Mechanical Dyssynchrony by Tissue Doppler Cross-Correlation is Associated with Risk for Complex Ventricular Arrhythmias after Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tayal, Bhupendar; Gorcsan, John; Delgado-Montero, Antonia

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Tissue Doppler cross-correlation analysis has been shown to be associated with long-term survival after cardiac resynchronization defibrillator therapy (CRT-D). Its association with ventricular arrhythmia (VA) is unknown. METHODS: From two centers 151 CRT-D patients (New York Heart...... Association functional classes II-IV, ejection fraction ≤ 35%, and QRS duration ≥ 120 msec) were prospectively included. Tissue Doppler cross-correlation analysis of myocardial acceleration curves from the basal segments in the apical views both at baseline and 6 months after CRT-D implantation was performed...... with a substantially increased risk for VA (hazard ratio [HR], 4.4; 95% CI, 1.2-16.3; P = .03) and VA or death (HR, 4.0; 95% CI, 1.7-9.6; P = .002) after adjusting for other covariates. Similarly, patients with new dyssynchrony had increased risk for VA (HR, 10.6; 95% CI, 2.8-40.4; P = .001) and VA or death (HR, 5...

  1. Attenuated Vector Tomography -- An Approach to Image Flow Vector Fields with Doppler Ultrasonic Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Qiu; Peng, Qiyu; Huang, Bin; Cheryauka, Arvi; Gullberg, Grant T.

    2008-01-01

    The measurement of flow obtained using continuous wave Doppler ultrasound is formulated as a directional projection of a flow vector field. When a continuous ultrasound wave bounces against a flowing particle, a signal is backscattered. This signal obtains a Doppler frequency shift proportional to the speed of the particle along the ultrasound beam. This occurs for each particle along the beam, giving rise to a Doppler velocity spectrum. The first moment of the spectrum provides the directional projection of the flow along the ultrasound beam. Signals reflected from points further away from the detector will have lower amplitude than signals reflected from points closer to the detector. The effect is very much akin to that modeled by the attenuated Radon transform in emission computed tomography.A least-squares method was adopted to reconstruct a 2D vector field from directional projection measurements. Attenuated projections of only the longitudinal projections of the vector field were simulated. The components of the vector field were reconstructed using the gradient algorithm to minimize a least-squares criterion. This result was compared with the reconstruction of longitudinal projections of the vector field without attenuation. If attenuation is known, the algorithm was able to accurately reconstruct both components of the full vector field from only one set of directional projection measurements. A better reconstruction was obtained with attenuation than without attenuation implying that attenuation provides important information for the reconstruction of flow vector fields.This confirms previous work where we showed that knowledge of the attenuation distribution helps in the reconstruction of MRI diffusion tensor fields from fewer than the required measurements. In the application of ultrasound the attenuation distribution is obtained with pulse wave transmission computed tomography and flow information is obtained with continuous wave Doppler

  2. Current recommendations for the study of carotid stenosis by doppler ultrasound and other imaging techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez Matamoros, Angelica

    2012-01-01

    Ischemic cerebrovascular disease has been one of the most frequent causes of death from chronic disease, as well as cause of long-term disabilities, in both the United States, and in Latin American countries during recent years. It is therefore, important to know about it. An updated review of international recommendations to the Costa Rican health system is performed for carotid imaging study in patients at risk of accidents and ischemic cerebrovascular disease; with special emphasis on carotid Doppler ultrasonography, due to its wide availability in the medical field Costa Rican. Furthermore, certain relevant concepts of other imaging techniques currently available are listed to determine the appropriate choice of each method according to the individual patient's condition, such as conventional angiography and tomographic angiography [es

  3. [Parenchymal complications of the transplanted kidney: the role of color-Doppler imaging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granata, Antonio; Clementi, Silvia; Clementi, Anna; Di Pietro, Fabio; Scarfia, Viviana R; Insalaco, Monica; Aucella, Filippo; Prencipe, Michele; Fiorini, Fulvio; Sicurezza, Elvia

    2012-01-01

    Kidney transplantation is the treatment of choice for end-stage renal disease, given the better quality of life of transplanted patients when compared to patients on maintenance dialysis. In spite of surgical improvements and new immunosuppressive regimens, part of the transplanted grafts still develop chronic dysfunction. Ultrasonography, both in B-mode and with Doppler ultrasound, is an important diagnostic tool in case of clinical conditions which might impair kidney function. Even though ultrasonography is considered fundamental in the diagnosis of vascular and surgical complications of the transplanted kidney, its role is not fully understood in case of parenchymal complications of the graft. The specificity of Doppler ultrasound is low both in case of acute complications such as acute tubular necrosis, drug toxicity and acute rejection, and in case of chronic conditions such as chronic allograft nephropathy. Single determinations of resistance indices present low diagnostic accuracy, which is higher in case of successive measurements performed during the follow-up of the graft. Modern techniques including tissue pulsatility index, maximal fractional area and contrast-enhanced ultrasound increase the diagnostic power of ultrasonography in case of parenchymal complications of the transplanted kidney.

  4. MR imaging of soft-tissue masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimoto, H.; Murakami, K.; Ichikawa, T.; Matsubara, T.; Tsumurai, Y.; Masuda, S.; Terauchi, M.; Ozawa, K.; Arimizu, N.

    1990-01-01

    This paper evaluates the ability of T2*-weighted gradient-field-echo (T2*FE) MR imaging to image soft-tissue masses. The series included 26 cases, including 17 benign tumors, four malignant tumors, and five others. Images were obtained on a 0.5-T magnet with T2*FE imaging (300/22 [repetition time msec/echo time msec], 20 degree). Results were compared with those of T1-weighted spin-echo (SE) images (500/20--40) and T2-weighted SE (T2SE) images (2,000/80). T2*FE images were similar to T2SE images with respect to the signal intensity and internal architecture of the masses in many cases. In some instances, they were superior to T2SE images in depicting special features such as a hemosiderin deposit or in delineating the masses and adjacent fat tissues. Shorter (about one-third or two-thirds) scanning time was required to obtain T2*FE images than to obtain T2SE images

  5. Radionuclide imaging of soft tissue neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chew, F.S.; Hudson, T.M.; Enneking, W.F.

    1981-01-01

    Two classes of radiopharmaceuticals may be used for imaging tumors of the musculoskeletal system. The first is comprised of soft tissue or tumor specific agents such as gallium-67, bleomycin, and radionuclide-labeled antibodies, which may be useful for detecting and localizing these tumors. The other class of tracer is comprised of those with avidity for bone. The 99mTc-labeled-phosphate skeletal imaging compounds have been found to localize in a variety of soft tissue lesions, including benign and malignant tumors. In 1972, Enneking began to include bone scans in the preoperative evaluation of soft tissue masses. Later, he and his associates reported that these scans were useful in planning operative treatment of sarcomas by detecting involvement of bone by the tumors. Nearly all malignant soft tissue tumors take up bone-seeking radiopharmaceuticals, and bone involvement was indicated in two-thirds of the scans we reviewed. About half of benign soft tissue lesions had normal scans, but the other half showed uptake within the lesion and a few also showed bone involvement. Careful, thorough imaging technique is essential to proper evaluation. Multiple, high-resolution static gamma camera images in different projections are necessary to adequately demonstrate the presence or absence of soft tissue abnormality and to define the precise relationship of the tumor to the adjacent bone

  6. Doppler laser imaging predicts response to topical minoxidil in the treatment of female pattern hair loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, J; Kovacevic, M; Situm, M; Stanimirovic, A; Bolanca, Z; Goren, A

    2016-01-01

    Topical minoxidil is the only drug approved by the US FDA for the treatment of female pattern hair loss. Unfortunately, following 16 weeks of daily application, less than 40% of patients regrow hair. Several studies have demonstrated that sulfotransferase enzyme activity in plucked hair follicles predicts topical minoxidil response in female pattern hair loss patients. However, due to patients’ discomfort with the procedure, and the time required to perform the enzymatic assay it would be ideal to develop a rapid, non-invasive test for sulfotransferase enzyme activity. Minoxidil is a pro-drug converted to its active form, minoxidil sulfate, by sulfotransferase enzymes in the outer root sheath of hair. Minoxidil sulfate is the active form required for both the promotion of hair regrowth and the vasodilatory effects of minoxidil. We thus hypothesized that laser Doppler velocimetry measurement of scalp blood perfusion subsequent to the application of topical minoxidil would correlate with sulfotransferase enzyme activity in plucked hair follicles. In this study, plucked hair follicles from female pattern hair loss patients were analyzed for sulfotransferase enzyme activity. Additionally, laser Doppler velocimetry was used to measure the change in scalp perfusion at 15, 30, 45, and 60 minutes, after the application of minoxidil. In agreement with our hypothesis, we discovered a correlation (r=1.0) between the change in scalp perfusion within 60 minutes after topical minoxidil application and sulfotransferase enzyme activity in plucked hairs. To our knowledge, this is the first study demonstrating the feasibility of using laser Doppler imaging as a rapid, non-invasive diagnostic test to predict topical minoxidil response in the treatment of female pattern hair loss.

  7. The utility of ultrasound superb microvascular imaging for evaluation of breast tumour vascularity: comparison with colour and power Doppler imaging regarding diagnostic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, A Y; Seo, B K; Woo, O H; Jung, K S; Cho, K R; Park, E K; Cha, S H; Cha, J

    2018-03-01

    To investigate the utility of superb microvascular imaging (SMI) for evaluating the vascularity of breast masses in comparison with colour or power Doppler ultrasound (US) and the effect on diagnostic performance. A total of 191 biopsy-proven masses (99 benign and 92 malignant) in 166 women with greyscale, colour Doppler, power Doppler, and SMI images were enrolled in this retrospective study. Three radiologists analysed the vascular images using a three-factor scoring system to evaluate the number, morphology, and distribution of tumour vessels. They assessed the Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data System categories for greyscale US alone and combinations of greyscale US and each type of vascular US. The Kruskal-Wallis test was performed and the area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC) measured. On SMI, vascular scores were compared between benign and malignant masses and the optimal cut-off value for the overall score was determined. SMI showed higher vascular scores than colour or power Doppler US and malignant masses had higher scores than benign masses (ppower Doppler US (AUC, 0.815 versus 0.774, 0.789, 0.791; ppower Doppler US for characterising the vascularity in breast masses and improving diagnostic performance. Copyright © 2017 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Clinically low-risk prostate cancer: evaluation with transrectal doppler ultrasound and functional magnetic resonance imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Inês Novis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To evaluate transrectal ultrasound, amplitude Doppler ultrasound, conventional T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging, spectroscopy and dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging in localizing and locally staging low-risk prostate cancer. INTRODUCTION: Prostate cancer has been diagnosed at earlier stages and the most accepted classification for low-risk prostate cancer is based on clinical stage T1c or T2a, Gleason score <6, and prostate-specific antigen (PSA <10 ng/ml. METHODS: From 2005 to 2006, magnetic resonance imaging was performed in 42 patients, and transrectal ultrasound in 26 of these patients. Seven patients were excluded from the study. Mean patient age was 64.94 years and mean serum PSA was 6.05 ng/ml. The examinations were analyzed for tumor identification and location in prostate sextants, detection of extracapsular extension, and seminal vesicle invasion, using surgical pathology findings as the gold standard. RESULTS: Sixteen patients (45.7% had pathologically proven organ-confined disease, 11 (31.4% had positive surgical margin, 8 (28.9% had extracapsular extension, and 3 (8.6% presented with extracapsular extension and seminal vesicle invasion. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV, negative predictive value (NPV and accuracy values for localizing low-risk prostate cancer were 53.1%, 48.3%, 63.4%, 37.8% and 51.3% for transrectal ultrasound; 70.4%, 36.2%, 65.1%, 42.0% and 57.7% for amplitude Doppler ultrasound; 71.5%, 58.9%, 76.6%, 52.4% and 67.1% for magnetic resonance imaging; 70.4%, 58.7%, 78.4%, 48.2% and 66.7% for magnetic resonance spectroscopy; 67.2%, 65.7%, 79.3%, 50.6% and 66.7% for dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging, respectively. Sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV and accuracy values for detecting extracapsular extension were 33.3%, 92%, 14.3%, 97.2% and 89.7% for transrectal ultrasound and 50.0%, 77.6%, 13.7%, 95.6% and 75.7% for magnetic resonance imaging

  9. Semiquantitative Evaluation of Extrasynovial Soft Tissue Inflammation in the Shoulders of Patients with Polymyalgia Rheumatica and Elderly-Onset Rheumatoid Arthritis by Power Doppler Ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Takeshi; Yoshida, Ryochi; Okamoto, Akiko; Seri, Yu

    2017-01-01

    Objectives . To develop a scoring system for evaluating the extrasynovial soft tissue inflammation of the shoulders in patients with polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR) and elderly-onset rheumatoid arthritis with PMR-like onset (pm-EORA) using ultrasound. Methods . We analyzed stored power Doppler (PD) images obtained by the pretreatment examination of 15 PMR patients and 15 pm-EORA patients. A semiquantitative scoring system for evaluating the severity of PD signals adjacent to the anterior aspect of the subscapularis tendon was designed. Results . A four-point scale scoring for the hyperemia on the subscapularis tendon was proposed as follows in brief: 0 = absent or minimal flow, 1 = single vessel dots or short linear-shape signals, 2 = long linear-shape signals or short zone-shape signals, or 3 = long zone-shape signals. This scoring system showed good intra- and interobserver reliability and good correlation to quantitative pixel-counting evaluation. By using it, we demonstrated that inflammation in PMR is dominantly localized in extrasynovial soft tissue as compared with pm-EORA. Conclusions . We proposed a reliable semiquantitative scoring system using ultrasound for the evaluation of extrasynovial soft tissue inflammation of the shoulders in patients with both PMR and pm-EORA. This system is simple to use and can be utilized in future investigations.

  10. Doppler Spectrum-Based NRCS Estimation Method for Low-Scattering Areas in Ocean SAR Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Meng

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The image intensities of low-backscattering areas in synthetic aperture radar (SAR images are often seriously contaminated by the system noise floor and azimuthal ambiguity signal from adjacent high-backscattering areas. Hence, the image intensity of low-backscattering areas does not correctly reflect the backscattering intensity, which causes confusion in subsequent image processing or interpretation. In this paper, a method is proposed to estimate the normalized radar cross-section (NRCS of low-backscattering area by utilizing the differences between noise, azimuthal ambiguity, and signal in the Doppler frequency domain of single-look SAR images; the aim is to eliminate the effect of system noise and azimuthal ambiguity. Analysis shows that, for a spaceborne SAR with a noise equivalent sigma zero (NESZ of −25 dB and a single-look pixel of 8 m × 5 m, the NRCS-estimation precision of this method can reach −38 dB at a resolution of 96 m × 100 m. Three examples are given to validate the advantages of this method in estimating the low NRCS and the filtering of the azimuthal ambiguity.

  11. Cardiovascular assessment of patients with Ullrich-Turner's Syndrome on Doppler echocardiography and magnetic resonance imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castro Ana Valéria Barros de

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the cardiovascular features of Ullrich-Turner's syndrome using echocardiography and magnetic resonance imaging, and to correlate them with the phenotype and karyotype of the patients. The diagnostic concordance between the 2 methods was also assessed. METHODS: Fifteen patients with the syndrome were assessed by echocardiography and magnetic resonance imaging (cardiac chambers, valves, and aorta. Their ages ranged from 10 to 28 (mean of 16.7 years. The karyotype was analyzed in 11 or 25 metaphases of peripheral blood lymphocytes, or both. RESULTS: The most common phenotypic changes were short stature and spontaneous absence of puberal development (100%; 1 patient had a cardiac murmur. The karyotypes detected were as follows: 45,X (n=7, mosaics (n=5, and deletions (n=3. No echocardiographic changes were observed. In regard to magnetic resonance imaging, coarctation and dilation of the aorta were found in 1 patient, and isolated dilation of the aorta was found in 4 patients. CONCLUSION: The frequencies of coarctation and dilation of the aorta detected on magnetic resonance imaging were similar to those reported in the literature (5.5% to 20%, and 6.3% to 29%, respectively. This confirmed the adjuvant role of magnetic resonance imaging to Doppler echocardiography for diagnosing cardiovascular alterations in patients with Ullrich-Turner's syndrome.

  12. Magnetic Doppler imaging considering atmospheric structure modifications due to local abundances: a luxury or a necessity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochukhov, O.; Wade, G. A.; Shulyak, D.

    2012-04-01

    Magnetic Doppler imaging is currently the most powerful method of interpreting high-resolution spectropolarimetric observations of stars. This technique has provided the very first maps of stellar magnetic field topologies reconstructed from time series of full Stokes vector spectra, revealing the presence of small-scale magnetic fields on the surfaces of Ap stars. These studies were recently criticised by Stift et al., who claimed that magnetic inversions are not robust and are seriously undermined by neglecting a feedback on the Stokes line profiles from the local atmospheric structure in the regions of enhanced metal abundance. We show that Stift et al. misinterpreted published magnetic Doppler imaging results and consistently neglected some of the most fundamental principles behind magnetic mapping. Using state-of-the-art opacity sampling model atmosphere and polarized radiative transfer codes, we demonstrate that the variation of atmospheric structure across the surface of a star with chemical spots affects the local continuum intensity but is negligible for the normalized local Stokes profiles except for the rare situation of a very strong line in an extremely Fe-rich atmosphere. For the disc-integrated spectra of an Ap star with extreme abundance variations, we find that the assumption of a mean model atmosphere leads to moderate errors in Stokes I but is negligible for the circular and linear polarization spectra. Employing a new magnetic inversion code, which incorporates the horizontal variation of atmospheric structure induced by chemical spots, we reconstructed new maps of magnetic field and Fe abundance for the bright Ap star α2 CVn. The resulting distribution of chemical spots changes insignificantly compared to the previous modelling based on a single model atmosphere, while the magnetic field geometry does not change at all. This shows that the assertions by Stift et al. are exaggerated as a consequence of unreasonable assumptions and

  13. Computed estimates of maximum temperature elevations in fetal tissues during transabdominal pulsed Doppler examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bly, S H; Vlahovich, S; Mabee, P R; Hussey, R G

    1992-01-01

    Measured characteristics of ultrasonic fields were obtained in submissions from manufacturers of diagnostic ultrasound equipment for devices operating in pulsed Doppler mode. Simple formulae were used with these data to generate upper limits to fetal temperature elevations, delta Tlim, during a transabdominal pulsed Doppler examination. A total of 236 items were analyzed, each item being a console/transducer/operating-mode/intended-use combination, for which the spatial-peak temporal-average intensity, ISPTA, was greater than 500 mW cm-2. The largest calculated delta Tlim values were approximately 1.5, 7.1 and 8.7 degrees C for first-, second- and third-trimester examinations, respectively. The vast majority of items yielded delta Tlim values which were less than 1 degree C in the first trimester. For second- and third-trimester examinations, where heating of fetal bone determines delta Tlim, most delta Tlim values were less than 4 degrees C. The clinical significance of the results is discussed.

  14. Ecocardiografia por Doppler tecidual no diagnóstico de rejeição após transplante cardíaco Ecocardiografía con Doppler tisular en el diagnóstico de rechazo después de transplante cardíaco Tissue doppler echocardiography in the diagnosis of heart transplantation rejection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Valério Coimbra Resende

    2011-07-01

    ,3%, especificidad de 73,8% (p = 0,001. En el análisis multivariado, la a'LAT (p = 0,001, a'SEP (p = 0,002, relación e'/a' LAT (p = 0,006, relación e'Mitral/e'LAT (p = 0,014, SINF (p = 0,009 fueron predictores de RC > 3A. Obtuvimos un escore con sensibilidad de 88,2%, precisión de 79,6%, y valor predictivo negativo de 92.9% para diagnosticar RC > 3A . El Doppler convencional (flujo mitral y pulmonar venoso no fue relevante para predecir la RC > 3A. CONCLUSIÓN: El estudio de IDT agregó información diagnóstica para predecir RC > 3A cuando fue comparado al Doppler convencional. El modelo basado en IDT puede volverse un método en potencial para detectar RC > 3A después de TC.BACKGROUND: Endomyocardial biopsy (EMB is the gold standard method for the diagnosis of cellular rejection (CR after heart transplantation (HT. OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that tissue Doppler imaging (TDI could detect CR > 3A and add diagnostic information compared to conventional Doppler. METHODS: Fifty-four HT patients underwent 129 EMB and a TDI echocardiographic study within 24 hours. We compared HT patients with CR > 3A versus HT patients with CR 3A in 39/129 (30.2% EMB. The best isolated predictor for CR diagnosis was a'LAT, with a sensitivity of 76.3%, specificity of 73.8% (p = 0.001. In the multivariate analysis, a'LAT (p = 0.001, a'SEP (p = 0.002, e'/a' LAT ratio (p = 0.006, e'Mitral/ e'LAT ratio (p = 0.014, SINF (p = 0.009 predicted CR > 3A. We obtained a score with a sensitivity of 88.2%, accuracy of 79.6% and negative predictive value of 92.9% to diagnose CR > 3A. Conventional Doppler (mitral and pulmonary venous flow was not relevant to predict CR > 3A. CONCLUSION: TDI added diagnostic information to predict CR > 3A compared to conventional Doppler. A TDI-based model could become a potential method to detect CR > 3A after Heart Transplantation.

  15. Physics of tissue harmonic imaging by ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Yuan

    Tissue Harmonic Imaging (THI) is an imaging modality that is currently deployed on diagnostic ultrasound scanners. In THI the amplitude of the ultrasonic pulse that is used to probe the tissue is large enough that the pulse undergoes nonlinear distortion as it propagates into the tissue. One result of the distortion is that as the pulse propagates energy is shifted from the fundamental frequency of the source pulse into its higher harmonics. These harmonics will scatter off objects in the tissue and images formed from the scattered higher harmonics are considered to have superior quality to the images formed from the fundamental frequency. Processes that have been suggested as possibly responsible for the improved imaging in THI include: (1) reduced sensitivity to reverberation, (2) reduced sensitivity to aberration, and (3) reduction in side lobes. By using a combination of controlled experiments and numerical simulations, these three reasons have been investigated. A single element transducer and a clinical ultrasound scanner with a phased array transducer were used to image a commercial tissue-mimicking phantom with calibrated targets. The higher image quality achieved with THI was quantified in terms of spatial resolution and "clutter" signals. A three-dimensional model of the forward propagation of nonlinear sound beams in media with arbitrary spatial properties (a generalized KZK equation) was developed. A time-domain code for solving the KZK equation was validated with measurements of the acoustic field generated by the single element transducer and the phased array transducer. The code was used to investigate the impact of aberration using tissue-like media with three-dimensional variations in all acoustic properties. The three-dimensional maps of tissue properties were derived from the datasets available through the Visible Female project. The experiments and simulations demonstrated that second harmonic imaging (1) suffers less clutter associated with

  16. Dobutamine Stress Echocardiography and Tissue Synchronization Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tas, Hakan; Gundogdu, Fuat; Gurlertop, Yekta; Karakelleoglu, Sule

    2008-01-01

    Dobutamine stress echocardiography has emerged as a reliable method for the diagnosis of coronary artery disease and the management of its treatment. Several studies have shown that that this technique works with 80–85% accuracy in comparison with other imaging methods. There are few studies aimed at developing the clinical utility of dobutamine stress echocardiography for the evaluation of normal and abnormal segments that result from dobutamine stress with Tissue Synchronization Imaging. PMID:25610034

  17. Histology and imaging of soft tissue sarcomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kind, Michèle; Stock, Nathalie; Coindre, Jean Michel

    2009-10-01

    Imaging and histology are two complementary morphological techniques which play a fundamental role in the diagnosis and management of soft tissue sarcomas. Imaging allows to identify some pseudosarcomatous benign lesions such as myositis ossificans, intramuscular hemangioma, angiomyolipoma, intramuscular lipoma, giant cell tumour of tendon sheath, desmoid tumour and elastofibroma. There is no formal criterion for diagnosing a sarcoma on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) but malignancy is strongly suspected with the presence of necrosis and vascular, bone or joint invasion. Imaging may also suggest some histological types of sarcoma such as well-differentiated liposarcoma, dedifferentiated liposarcoma, synovial sarcoma or extraskeletal osteosarcoma. Imaging is also extremely helpful in determining the appropriate kind of sampling to carry out and in guiding the performance of a microbiopsy. The appearance observed on imaging should always be taken into consideration for the interpretation of the microbiopsy by the pathologist.

  18. Histology and imaging of soft tissue sarcomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kind, Michele; Stock, Nathalie; Coindre, Jean Michel

    2009-01-01

    Imaging and histology are two complementary morphological techniques which play a fundamental role in the diagnosis and management of soft tissue sarcomas. Imaging allows to identify some pseudosarcomatous benign lesions such as myositis ossificans, intramuscular hemangioma, angiomyolipoma, intramuscular lipoma, giant cell tumour of tendon sheath, desmoid tumour and elastofibroma. There is no formal criterion for diagnosing a sarcoma on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) but malignancy is strongly suspected with the presence of necrosis and vascular, bone or joint invasion. Imaging may also suggest some histological types of sarcoma such as well-differentiated liposarcoma, dedifferentiated liposarcoma, synovial sarcoma or extraskeletal osteosarcoma. Imaging is also extremely helpful in determining the appropriate kind of sampling to carry out and in guiding the performance of a microbiopsy. The appearance observed on imaging should always be taken into consideration for the interpretation of the microbiopsy by the pathologist.

  19. Histology and imaging of soft tissue sarcomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kind, Michele [Departement d' Imagerie Medicale, Institut Bergonie, 229 cours de l' Argonne, 33076 Bordeaux Cedex (France)], E-mail: kind@bergonie.org; Stock, Nathalie; Coindre, Jean Michel [Departement de Pathologie, Institut Bergonie, 229 cours de l' Argonne, 33076 Bordeaux Cedex (France); Universite Victor Segalen Bordeaux 2, 146 rue Leo Saignat, 33076 Bordeaux Cedex (France)

    2009-10-15

    Imaging and histology are two complementary morphological techniques which play a fundamental role in the diagnosis and management of soft tissue sarcomas. Imaging allows to identify some pseudosarcomatous benign lesions such as myositis ossificans, intramuscular hemangioma, angiomyolipoma, intramuscular lipoma, giant cell tumour of tendon sheath, desmoid tumour and elastofibroma. There is no formal criterion for diagnosing a sarcoma on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) but malignancy is strongly suspected with the presence of necrosis and vascular, bone or joint invasion. Imaging may also suggest some histological types of sarcoma such as well-differentiated liposarcoma, dedifferentiated liposarcoma, synovial sarcoma or extraskeletal osteosarcoma. Imaging is also extremely helpful in determining the appropriate kind of sampling to carry out and in guiding the performance of a microbiopsy. The appearance observed on imaging should always be taken into consideration for the interpretation of the microbiopsy by the pathologist.

  20. Doppler-shifted fluorescence imaging of velocity fields in supersonic reacting flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, M. G.; Davis, S. J.; Kessler, W. J.; Sonnenfroh, D. M.

    1992-01-01

    The application of Doppler-shifted fluorescence imaging of velocity fields in supersonic reacting flows is analyzed. Focussing on fluorescence of the OH molecule in typical H2-air Scramjet flows, the effects of uncharacterized variations in temperature, pressure, and collisional partner composition across the measurement plane are examined. Detailed measurements of the (1,0) band OH lineshape variations in H2-air combustions are used, along with single-pulse and time-averaged measurements of an excimer-pumped dye laser, to predict the performance of a model velocimeter with typical Scramjet flow properties. The analysis demonstrates the need for modification and control of the laser bandshape in order to permit accurate velocity measurements in the presence of multivariant flow properties.

  1. Diagnostic accuracy of color Doppler flow imaging and Duplex US in peripheral arterial disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karmel, M.I.; Polak, J.F.; Whittemore, A.D.; Mannick, J.A.; Donaldson, M.C.; O'Leary, D.H.

    1988-01-01

    Color Doppler flow imaging (5 MHz) and Duplex US were used in a prospective examination of 154 arterial segments in the lower extremities of 11 symptomatic patients. Each extremity was divided into seven arterial segments (common femoral, profunda femoral, proximal, middle, and distal superficial femoral, and proximal and distal popliteal arteries). Arterial maps were drawn for each patient and compared with the arteriograms. Seventeen significant stenoses and 18 complete occlusions were predicted and confirmed by means of arteriography. Four significant stenoses and four occlusions were predicted and not confirmed. One hundred nine normal arterial segments were correctly predicted. No significant stenoses or occlusions were missed. Prospective identification of the severity and location of disease can help to optimize both the angiographic approach and hospital services utilization

  2. Particle image and acoustic Doppler velocimetry analysis of a cross-flow turbine wake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strom, Benjamin; Brunton, Steven; Polagye, Brian

    2017-11-01

    Cross-flow turbines have advantageous properties for converting kinetic energy in wind and water currents to rotational mechanical energy and subsequently electrical power. A thorough understanding of cross-flow turbine wakes aids understanding of rotor flow physics, assists geometric array design, and informs control strategies for individual turbines in arrays. In this work, the wake physics of a scale model cross-flow turbine are investigated experimentally. Three-component velocity measurements are taken downstream of a two-bladed turbine in a recirculating water channel. Time-resolved stereoscopic particle image and acoustic Doppler velocimetry are compared for planes normal to and distributed along the turbine rotational axis. Wake features are described using proper orthogonal decomposition, dynamic mode decomposition, and the finite-time Lyapunov exponent. Consequences for downstream turbine placement are discussed in conjunction with two-turbine array experiments.

  3. Cost-effectiveness of laser Doppler imaging in burn care in the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hop M Jenda

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early accurate assessment of burn depth is important to determine the optimal treatment of burns. The method most used to determine burn depth is clinical assessment, which is the least expensive, but not the most accurate. Laser Doppler imaging (LDI is a technique with which a more accurate (>95% estimate of burn depth can be made by measuring the dermal perfusion. The actual effect on therapeutic decisions, clinical outcomes and the costs of the introduction of this device, however, are unknown. Before we decide to implement LDI in Dutch burn care, a study on the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of LDI is necessary. Methods/design A multicenter randomised controlled trial will be conducted in the Dutch burn centres: Beverwijk, Groningen and Rotterdam. All patients treated as outpatient or admitted to a burn centre within 5 days post burn, with burns of indeterminate depth (burns not obviously superficial or full thickness and a total body surface area burned of ≤ 20% are eligible. A total of 200 patients will be included. Burn depth will be diagnosed by both clinical assessment and laser Doppler imaging between 2–5 days post burn in all patients. Subsequently, patients are randomly divided in two groups: ‘new diagnostic strategy’ versus ‘current diagnostic strategy’. The results of the LDI-scan will only be provided to the treating clinician in the ‘new diagnostic strategy’ group. The main endpoint is the effect of LDI on wound healing time. In addition we measure: a the effect of LDI on other patient outcomes (quality of life, scar quality, b the effect of LDI on diagnostic and therapeutic decisions, and c the effect of LDI on total (medical and non-medical costs and cost-effectiveness. Discussion This trial will contribute to our current knowledge on the use of LDI in burn care and will provide evidence on its cost-effectiveness. Trial registration NCT01489540

  4. Investigating the effect of a targets time-varying doppler generating axis of rotation on isar image distortion

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Abdul Gaffar, MY

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available , contributes to ISAR image blurring. Quaternion algebra is used to aid the characterisation of a time-varying Doppler generating axis of rotation on the migration through cross-range cells. Real motion data of a sailing yacht is used to examine the effects of 3...

  5. Perfusion of burn wounds assessed by Laser Doppler Imaging is related to burn depth and healing time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kloppenberg, FWH; Beerthuizen, GIJM; ten Duis, H. J.

    Average perfusion in various burn wounds was assessed using Laser Doppler Imaging (LDI). The time necessary for a complete healing of the wound was compared to the results of the LDI measurements. A certain depth of burn was associated with a typical pattern of perfusion in the course of time. There

  6. Asset of Doppler Vascular Imaging and CTA in Diagnosis of Coagulation Disturbances in Pregnancy and Puerperium - case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leskova, M.; Slobodnikova, J.

    2009-01-01

    Importance of earlier diagnosis of trombophilia. Trombophilia - its impression on development venous trombosis specially in the case of young woman with repeated spontaneous abortions. Value of not-invasive imaging methods (Doppler sonography and CT angiography ) in diagnosis deep phlebotrombosis. (author)

  7. Stokes polarimetry imaging of dog prostate tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jihoon; Johnston, William K., III; Walsh, Joseph T., Jr.

    2010-02-01

    Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of death in the United States in 2009. Radical prostatectomy (complete removal of the prostate) is the most common treatment for prostate cancer, however, differentiating prostate tissue from adjacent bladder, nerves, and muscle is difficult. Improved visualization could improve oncologic outcomes and decrease damage to adjacent nerves and muscle important for preservation of potency and continence. A novel Stokes polarimetry imaging (SPI) system was developed and evaluated using a dog prostate specimen in order to examine the feasibility of the system to differentiate prostate from bladder. The degree of linear polarization (DOLP) image maps from linearly polarized light illumination at different visible wavelengths (475, 510, and 650 nm) were constructed. The SPI system used the polarization property of the prostate tissue. The DOLP images allowed advanced differentiation by distinguishing glandular tissue of prostate from the muscular-stromal tissue in the bladder. The DOLP image at 650 nm effectively differentiated prostate and bladder by strong DOLP in bladder. SPI system has the potential to improve surgical outcomes in open or robotic-assisted laparoscopic removal of the prostate. Further in vivo testing is warranted.

  8. Standardization of the first-trimester fetal cardiac examination using spatiotemporal image correlation with tomographic ultrasound and color Doppler imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turan, S; Turan, O M; Ty-Torredes, K; Harman, C R; Baschat, A A

    2009-06-01

    The challenges of the first-trimester examination of the fetal heart may in part be overcome by technical advances in three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound techniques. Our aim was to standardize the first-trimester 3D imaging approach to the cardiac examination to provide the most consistent and accurate display of anatomy. Low-risk women with normal findings on first-trimester screening at 11 to 13 + 6 weeks had cardiac ultrasound using the following sequence: (1) identification of the four-chamber view; (2) four-dimensional (4D) volume acquisition with spatiotemporal image correlation (STIC) and color Doppler imaging (angle = 20 degrees, sweep 10 s); (3) offline, tomographic ultrasound imaging (TUI) analysis with standardized starting plane (four-chamber view), slice number and thickness; (4) assessment of fetal cardiac anatomy (four-chamber view, cardiac axis, size and symmetry, atrioventricular valves, great arteries and descending aorta) with and without color Doppler. 107 consecutive women (age, 16-42 years, body mass index 17.2-50.2 kg/m(2)) were studied. A minimum of three 3D volumes were obtained for each patient, transabdominally in 91.6%. Fetal motion artifact required acquisition of more than three volumes in 20%. The median time for TUI offline analysis was 100 (range, 60-240) s. Individual anatomic landmarks were identified in 89.7-99.1%. Visualization of all structures in one panel was observed in 91 patients (85%). Starting from a simple two-dimensional cardiac landmark-the four-chamber view-the standardized STIC-TUI technique enables detailed segmental cardiac evaluation of the normal fetal heart in the first trimester. (c) 2009 ISUOG.

  9. Doppler color flow mapping of peripheral vessels: Comparison of angiodynography with conventional duplex US

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merritt, C.R.B.; Bluth, E.I.; Sullivan, M.A.

    1986-01-01

    A new Doppler color flow imager was compared to duplex US in the evaluation of carotid and peripheral vessels in 50 patients. A 7.5-MHz transducer permitted simultaneous high-resolution real-time imaging of Doppler flow and tissue. The system was found to have excellent image quality and Doppler sensitivity. Flow characteristics and velocity measurements obtained with this system correlated well with those obtained using the duplex scanner and were obtained more quickly than with the conventional system, allowing more complete assessment of flow characteristics. Color Doppler flow imaging appears to be an extremely promising method for the rapid and effective evaluation of peripheral vascular flow

  10. Using Non-Invasive Multi-Spectral Imaging to Quantitatively Assess Tissue Vasculature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogel, A; Chernomordik, V; Riley, J; Hassan, M; Amyot, F; Dasgeb, B; Demos, S G; Pursley, R; Little, R; Yarchoan, R; Tao, Y; Gandjbakhche, A H

    2007-10-04

    This research describes a non-invasive, non-contact method used to quantitatively analyze the functional characteristics of tissue. Multi-spectral images collected at several near-infrared wavelengths are input into a mathematical optical skin model that considers the contributions from different analytes in the epidermis and dermis skin layers. Through a reconstruction algorithm, we can quantify the percent of blood in a given area of tissue and the fraction of that blood that is oxygenated. Imaging normal tissue confirms previously reported values for the percent of blood in tissue and the percent of blood that is oxygenated in tissue and surrounding vasculature, for the normal state and when ischemia is induced. This methodology has been applied to assess vascular Kaposi's sarcoma lesions and the surrounding tissue before and during experimental therapies. The multi-spectral imaging technique has been combined with laser Doppler imaging to gain additional information. Results indicate that these techniques are able to provide quantitative and functional information about tissue changes during experimental drug therapy and investigate progression of disease before changes are visibly apparent, suggesting a potential for them to be used as complementary imaging techniques to clinical assessment.

  11. Automated synovium segmentation in doppler ultrasound images for rheumatoid arthritis assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Pak-Hei; Tan, York-Kiat; Xu, Shuoyu

    2018-02-01

    We need better clinical tools to improve monitoring of synovitis, synovial inflammation in the joints, in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) assessment. Given its economical, safe and fast characteristics, ultrasound (US) especially Doppler ultrasound is frequently used. However, manual scoring of synovitis in US images is subjective and prone to observer variations. In this study, we propose a new and robust method for automated synovium segmentation in the commonly affected joints, i.e. metacarpophalangeal (MCP) and metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joints, which would facilitate automation in quantitative RA assessment. The bone contour in the US image is firstly detected based on a modified dynamic programming method, incorporating angular information for detecting curved bone surface and using image fuzzification to identify missing bone structure. K-means clustering is then performed to initialize potential synovium areas by utilizing the identified bone contour as boundary reference. After excluding invalid candidate regions, the final segmented synovium is identified by reconnecting remaining candidate regions using level set evolution. 15 MCP and 15 MTP US images were analyzed in this study. For each image, segmentations by our proposed method as well as two sets of annotations performed by an experienced clinician at different time-points were acquired. Dice's coefficient is 0.77+/-0.12 between the two sets of annotations. Similar Dice's coefficients are achieved between automated segmentation and either the first set of annotations (0.76+/-0.12) or the second set of annotations (0.75+/-0.11), with no significant difference (P = 0.77). These results verify that the accuracy of segmentation by our proposed method and by clinician is comparable. Therefore, reliable synovium identification can be made by our proposed method.

  12. A comparison between 133Xenon washout technique and Laser Doppler flowmetry in the measurement of local vasoconstrictor effects on the microcirculation in subcutaneous tissue and skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kastrup, J.; Buelow, J.; Lassen, N.A.

    1987-01-01

    Changes in skin blood flow measured by Laser Doppler flowmetry and changes in subcutaneous blood flow measured by 133 Xenon washout technique were compared during activation of the local sympathetic mediated veno-arteriolar vaso-constrictor reflex by lowering the area of investigation below heart level. The measurements were performed in tissue with and without sympathetic innervation. In five subjects, who all had been cervically sympathectomized for manual hyperhidrosis, the Laser Doppler and 133 Xenon blood flow measurements were performed simultaneously on the sympathetically denervated forearm, and on the calf with preserved sympathetic nerve supply. The Laser Doppler method registered a 23% reduction in skin blood flow during lowering of the extremities independently of the sympathetic nerve supply to the skin. The 133 Xenon method recorded a 44% decrease in blood flow in innervated and unchanged blood flow in denervated subcutaneous tissue during lowering of the extremities. Our results indicate that the Laser Doppler method and 133 Xenon method are not comparable, and that the Laser Doppler method is not useful in measuring local sympathetic mediated blood flow changes. (author)

  13. Comparison between /sup 133/Xenon washout technique and Laser Doppler flowmetry in the measurement of local vasoconstrictor effects on the microcirculation in subcutaneous tissue and skin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kastrup, J.; Buelow, J.; Lassen, N.A.

    1987-10-01

    Changes in skin blood flow measured by Laser Doppler flowmetry and changes in subcutaneous blood flow measured by /sup 133/Xenon washout technique were compared during activation of the local sympathetic mediated veno-arteriolar vaso-constrictor reflex by lowering the area of investigation below heart level. The measurements were performed in tissue with and without sympathetic innervation. In five subjects, who all had been cervically sympathectomized for manual hyperhidrosis, the Laser Doppler and /sup 133/Xenon blood flow measurements were performed simultaneously on the sympathetically denervated forearm, and on the calf with preserved sympathetic nerve supply. The Laser Doppler method registered a 23% reduction in skin blood flow during lowering of the extremities independently of the sympathetic nerve supply to the skin. The /sup 133/Xenon method recorded a 44% decrease in blood flow in innervated and unchanged blood flow in denervated subcutaneous tissue during lowering of the extremities. Our results indicate that the Laser Doppler method and /sup 133/Xenon method are not comparable, and that the Laser Doppler method is not useful in measuring local sympathetic mediated blood flow changes.

  14. Near-infrared spectroscopic tissue imaging for medical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demos, Stavros [Livermore, CA; Staggs, Michael C [Tracy, CA

    2006-12-12

    Near infrared imaging using elastic light scattering and tissue autofluorescence are explored for medical applications. The approach involves imaging using cross-polarized elastic light scattering and tissue autofluorescence in the Near Infra-Red (NIR) coupled with image processing and inter-image operations to differentiate human tissue components.

  15. Analysis of fetal movements by Doppler actocardiogram and fetal B-mode imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, K; Tatsumura, M; Utsu, M

    1999-12-01

    We have presented that fetal surveillance may be enhanced by use of the fetal actocardiogram and by computerized processing of fetal motion as well as fetal B-mode ultrasound imaging. Ultrasonic Doppler fetal actogram is a sensitive and objective method for detecting and recording fetal movements. Computer processing of the actograph output signals enables powerful, detailed, and convenient analysis of fetal physiologic phenomena. The actocardiogram is a useful measurement tool not only in fetal behavioral studies but also in evaluation of fetal well-being. It reduces false-positive, nonreactive NST and false-positive sinusoidal FHR pattern. It is a valuable tool to predict fetal distress. The results of intrapartum fetal monitoring are further improved by the antepartum application of the actocardiogram. Quantified fetal motion analysis is a useful, objective evaluation of the embryo and fetus. This method allows monitoring of changes in fetal movement, as well as frequency, amplitude, and duration. Furthermore, quantification of fetal motion enables evaluation of fetal behavior states and how these states relate to other measurements, such as changes in FHR. Numeric analysis of both fetal actogram and fetal motion from B-mode images is a promising application in the correlation of fetal activity or behavior with other fetal physiologic measurements.

  16. Tissues segmentation based on multi spectral medical images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ya; Wang, Ying

    2017-11-01

    Each band image contains the most obvious tissue feature according to the optical characteristics of different tissues in different specific bands for multispectral medical images. In this paper, the tissues were segmented by their spectral information at each multispectral medical images. Four Local Binary Patter descriptors were constructed to extract blood vessels based on the gray difference between the blood vessels and their neighbors. The segmented tissue in each band image was merged to a clear image.

  17. In situ monitoring of localized shear stress and fluid flow within developing tissue constructs by Doppler optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yali; Bagnaninchi, Pierre O.; Wang, Ruikang K.

    2008-02-01

    Mechanical stimuli can be introduced to three dimensional (3D) cell cultures by use of perfusion bioreactor. Especially in musculoskeletal tissues, shear stress caused by fluid flow generally increase extra-cellular matrix (ECM) production and cell proliferation. The relationship between the shear stress and the tissue development in situ is complicated because of the non-uniform pore distribution within the cell-seeded scaffold. In this study, we firstly demonstrated that Doppler optical coherence tomography (DOCT) is capable of monitoring localized fluid flow and shear stress in the complex porous scaffold by examining their variation trends at perfusion rate of 5, 8, 10 and 12 ml/hr. Then, we developed the 3D porous cellular constructs, cell-seeded chitosan scaffolds monitored during several days by DOCT. The fiber based fourier domain DOCT employed a 1300 nm superluminescent diode with a bandwidth of 52 nm and a xyz resolution of 20×20×15 μm in free space. This setup allowed us not only to assess the cell growth and ECM deposition by observing their different scattering behaviors but also to further investigate how the cell attachment and ECM production has the effect on the flow shear stress and the relationship between flow rate and shear stress in the developing tissue construct. The possibility to monitor continuously the constructs under perfusion will easily indicate the effect of flow rate or shear stress on the cell viability and cell proliferation, and then discriminate the perfusion parameters affecting the pre-tissue formation rate growth.

  18. Determining the appropriate number and duration of leech therapy in congested tissues using tissue spectrophotometry and laser Doppler flowmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothenberger, Jens; Petersen, Wiebke; Schaller, Hans-Eberhard; Held, Manuel

    2016-11-01

    A universal protocol determining the number of leeches and their application time does not exist. The aim of this study, therefore, is to quantify perfusion dynamics in venous congested tissues after leech application to get more detailed information about changes due to leech-induced skin microcirculation and to evaluate the usability of the Oxygen to See (O2C) device in terms of determining the appropriate number of leeches and the duration of therapy. Twelve patients with the need for leech therapy participated in the study. Perfusion dynamics of the congested tissue was assessed using the O2C device, which determines blood flow (BF), the relative amount of hemoglobin (rHB), and the oxygen saturation (SO2). Measurements were carried out before leech application and on various intervals like 10 minutes, one hour, and three hours after leech application. The leech application effectuated after 10 minutes a nonsignificant perfusion improvement, which further increased after one hour with a significant reduction of the relative amount of hemoglobin and a significant increase of blood flow and oxygen saturation (BF= +56.7%; rHB= -25.5%; SO2= +53.7%). After three hours, the values returned to the levels before leech administration. In two cases, in which further administration of leeches within the measurement period was necessary, no substantial perfusion changes were obtained. The results of this study forms a more precise pattern of microcirculatory changes of leech therapy in congested tissues. According to our measurements a venous drainage improvement can be expected in congested tissue one hour after leech administration. The O2C seems to be a useful method to determine the appropriate number and duration of leech therapy. © 2016 by the Wound Healing Society.

  19. A comparison between 133Xenon washout technique and Laser Doppler flowmetry in the measurement of local vasoconstrictor effects on the microcirculation in subcutaneous tissue and skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kastrup, J; Bülow, J; Lassen, N A

    1987-01-01

    Changes in skin blood flow measured by Laser Doppler flowmetry and changes in subcutaneous blood flow measured by 133Xenon washout technique were compared during activation of the local sympathetic mediated veno-arteriolar vasoconstrictor reflex by lowering the area of investigation below heart...... forearm, and on the calf with preserved sympathetic nerve supply. The Laser Doppler method registered a 23% reduction in skin blood flow during lowering of the extremities independently of the sympathetic nerve supply to the skin. The 133Xenon method recorded a 44% decrease in blood flow in innervated...... level. The measurements were performed in tissue with and without sympathetic innervation. In five subjects, who all had been cervically sympathectomized for manual hyperhidrosis, the Laser Doppler and 133Xenon blood flow measurements were performed simultaneously on the sympathetically denervated...

  20. Dynamic tissue phantoms and their use in assessment of a noninvasive optical plethysmography imaging device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thatcher, Jeffrey E.; Plant, Kevin D.; King, Darlene R.; Block, Kenneth L.; Fan, Wensheng; DiMaio, J. Michael

    2014-05-01

    Non-contact photoplethysmography (PPG) has been studied as a method to provide low-cost and non-invasive medical imaging for a variety of near-surface pathologies and two dimensional blood oxygenation measurements. Dynamic tissue phantoms were developed to evaluate this technology in a laboratory setting. The purpose of these phantoms was to generate a tissue model with tunable parameters including: blood vessel volume change; pulse wave frequency; and optical scattering and absorption parameters. A non-contact PPG imaging system was evaluated on this model and compared against laser Doppler imaging (LDI) and a traditional pulse oximeter. Results indicate non-contact PPG accurately identifies pulse frequency and appears to identify signals from optically dense phantoms with significantly higher detection thresholds than LDI.

  1. SU-E-J-31: Biodynamic Imaging of Cancer Tissue and Response to Chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nolte, D; Turek, J; Childress, M; An, R; Merrill, D; Matei, D

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To measure intracellular motions inside three-dimensional living cancer tissue samples to establish a novel set of biodynamic biomarkers that assess tissue proliferative activity and sensitivity or resistance to chemotherapy. Methods: Biodynamic imaging (BDI) uses digital holography with low-coherence low-intensity light illumination to construct 3D holograms from depths up to a millimeter deep inside cancer tissue models that include multicellular tumor spheroids and ex vivo cancer biopsies from canine non-Hodgkins lymphoma and epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) mouse explants. Intracellular motions modulate the holographic intensity with frequencies related to the Doppler effect caused by the motions of a wide variety of intracellular components. These motions are affected by applied therapeutic agents, and BDI produces unique fingerprints of the action of specific drugs on the motions in specific cell types. In this study, chemotherapeutic agents (doxorubicin for canine lymphoma and oxoplatin for ovarian) are applied to the living tissue models and monitored over 10 hours by BDI. Results: Multicellular spheroids and patient biopsies are categorized as either sensitive or insensitive to applied therapeutics depending on the intracellular Doppler signatures of chemotherapy response. For both lymphoma and EOC there is strong specificity to the two types of sensitivities, with sensitive cell lines and biopsies exhibiting a global cessation of proliferation and strong suppression of metabolic activity, while insensitive cell lines and biopsies show moderate activation of Doppler frequencies associated with membrane processes and possible membrane trafficking. Conclusion: This work supports the hypothesis that biodynamic biomarkers from three-dimensional living tumor tissue, that includes tissue heterogeneity and measured within 24 hours of surgery, is predictive of near-term patient response to therapy. Future work will correlate biodynamic biomarkers with

  2. SU-E-J-31: Biodynamic Imaging of Cancer Tissue and Response to Chemotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nolte, D; Turek, J; Childress, M; An, R; Merrill, D [Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN (United States); Matei, D [Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To measure intracellular motions inside three-dimensional living cancer tissue samples to establish a novel set of biodynamic biomarkers that assess tissue proliferative activity and sensitivity or resistance to chemotherapy. Methods: Biodynamic imaging (BDI) uses digital holography with low-coherence low-intensity light illumination to construct 3D holograms from depths up to a millimeter deep inside cancer tissue models that include multicellular tumor spheroids and ex vivo cancer biopsies from canine non-Hodgkins lymphoma and epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) mouse explants. Intracellular motions modulate the holographic intensity with frequencies related to the Doppler effect caused by the motions of a wide variety of intracellular components. These motions are affected by applied therapeutic agents, and BDI produces unique fingerprints of the action of specific drugs on the motions in specific cell types. In this study, chemotherapeutic agents (doxorubicin for canine lymphoma and oxoplatin for ovarian) are applied to the living tissue models and monitored over 10 hours by BDI. Results: Multicellular spheroids and patient biopsies are categorized as either sensitive or insensitive to applied therapeutics depending on the intracellular Doppler signatures of chemotherapy response. For both lymphoma and EOC there is strong specificity to the two types of sensitivities, with sensitive cell lines and biopsies exhibiting a global cessation of proliferation and strong suppression of metabolic activity, while insensitive cell lines and biopsies show moderate activation of Doppler frequencies associated with membrane processes and possible membrane trafficking. Conclusion: This work supports the hypothesis that biodynamic biomarkers from three-dimensional living tumor tissue, that includes tissue heterogeneity and measured within 24 hours of surgery, is predictive of near-term patient response to therapy. Future work will correlate biodynamic biomarkers with

  3. Soft-tissue tumor differentiation using 3D power Doppler ultrasonography with echo-contrast medium injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiou, Hong-Jen; Chou, Yi-Hong; Chen, Wei-Ming; Chen, Winby; Wang, Hsin-Kai; Chang, Cheng-Yen

    2010-12-01

    We aimed to evaluate the ability of 3-dimensional power Doppler ultrasonography to differentiate soft-tissue masses from blood flow and vascularization with contrast medium. Twenty-five patients (mean age, 44.1 years; range, 12-77 years) with a palpable mass were enrolled in this study. Volume data were acquired using linear and convex 3-dimensional probes and contrast medium injected manually by bolus. Data were stored and traced slice by slice for 12 slices. All patients were scanned by the same senior sonologist. The vascular index (VI), flow index (FI), and vascular-flow index (VFI) were automatically calculated after the tumor was completely traced. All tumors were later confirmed by pathology. The study included 8 benign (mean, 36.5 mL; range, 2.4-124 mL) and 17 malignant (mean, 319.4 mL; range, 9.9-1,179.6 mL) tumors. Before contrast medium injection, mean VI, FI and VFI were, respectively, 3.22, 32.26 and 1.07 in benign tumors, and 1.97, 29.33 and 0.67 in malignant tumors. After contrast medium injection, they were, respectively, 20.85, 37.33 and 8.52 in benign tumors, and 40.12, 41.21 and 17.77 in malignant tumors. The mean differences between with and without contrast injection for VI, FI and VFI were, respectively, 17.63, 5.07 and 7.45 in benign tumors, and 38.15, 11.88 and 16.55 in malignant tumors. Tumor volume, VI, FI and VFI were not significantly different between benign and malignant tumors before and after echo-contrast medium injection. However, VI, FI and VFI under self-differentiation (differences between with and without contrast injection) were significantly different between malignant and benign tumors. Three-dimensional power Doppler ultrasound is a valuable tool for differential diagnosis of soft-tissue tumors, especially with the injection of an echo-contrast medium. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Comparative Analysis of Logistic Regression, Support Vector Machine and Artificial Neural Network for the Differential Diagnosis of Benign and Malignant Solid Breast Tumors by the Use of Three-Dimensional Power Doppler Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Shou Tung; Hsiao, Yi Hsuan; Kuo, Shou Jen; Tseng, Hsin Shun; Wu, Hwa Koon; Chen, Dar Ren; Huang, Yu Len

    2009-01-01

    Logistic regression analysis (LRA), Support Vector Machine (SVM) and a neural network (NN) are commonly used statistical models in computeraided diagnostic (CAD) systems for breast ultrasonography (US). The aim of this study was to clarify the diagnostic ability of the use of these statistical models for future applications of CAD systems, such as three-dimensional (3D) power Doppler imaging, vascularity evaluation and the differentiation of a solid mass. A database that contained 3D power Doppler imaging pairs of non-harmonic and tissue harmonic images for 97 benign and 86 malignant solid tumors was utilized. The virtual organ computer-aided analysis-imaging program was used to analyze the stored volumes of the 183 solid breast tumors. LRA, an SVM and NN were employed in comparative analyses for the characterization of benign and malignant solid breast masses from the database. The values of area under receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, referred to as Az values for the use of non-harmonic 3D power Doppler US with LRA, SVM and NN were 0.9341, 0.9185 and 0.9086, respectively. The Az values for the use of harmonic 3D power Doppler US with LRA, SVM and NN were 0.9286, 0.8979 and 0.9009, respectively. The Az values of six ROC curves for the use of LRA, SVM and NN for non-harmonic or harmonic 3D power Doppler imaging were similar. The diagnostic performances of these three models (LRA, SVM and NN) are not different as demonstrated by ROC curve analysis. Depending on user emphasis for the use of ROC curve findings, the use of LRA appears to provide better sensitivity as compared to the other statistical models

  5. Power Doppler Imaging in Acute Renal Vein Occlusion and Recanalization: a Canine Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, So-Young; Kim, In-One; Kim, Young-Il; Lee, Kyoung Ho; Lee, Min Woo; Youn, Byung Jae; Kim, Woo Sun; Yeon, Kyung Mo [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-04-15

    Objective : To evaluate the dynamic changes of the power Doppler (PD) in acute renal vein occlusion and recanalization in a canine model. Materials and Methods : We performed a PD of the kidney during graded renal vein occlusion and recanalization induced by balloon inflation and deflation in nine dogs. The PD images were transferred to a personal computer, and the PD signals were quantified. Result : We observed the temporal change of the PD signal during renal vein occlusion and recanalization, with a decrease in the PD signal during occlusion and an increase during recanalization. The mean PD signal decreased gradually as the renal vein was occluded, and conversely increased gradually with sequential relief of occlusion. The sequential change of the mean value of the PD signal was statistically significant. Conclusion : The PD can detect a change in renal blood flow during acute renal vein occlusion and recanalization in a canine model. The PD may be used as a helpful tool for the early detection of acute renal vein thrombosis and the monitoring of renal perfusion.

  6. FIRST ZEEMAN DOPPLER IMAGING OF A COOL STAR USING ALL FOUR STOKES PARAMETERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosén, L.; Kochukhov, O.; Wade, G. A.

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic fields are ubiquitous in active cool stars, but they are in general complex and weak. Current Zeeman Doppler imaging (ZDI) studies of cool star magnetic fields chiefly employ circular polarization observations because linear polarization is difficult to detect and requires a more sophisticated radiative transfer modeling to interpret. But it has been shown in previous theoretical studies, and in the observational analyses of magnetic Ap stars, that including linear polarization in the magnetic inversion process makes it possible to correctly recover many otherwise lost or misinterpreted magnetic features. We have obtained phase-resolved observations in all four Stokes parameters of the RS CVn star II Peg at two separate epochs. Here we present temperature and magnetic field maps reconstructed for this star using all four Stokes parameters. This is the very first such ZDI study of a cool active star. Our magnetic inversions reveal a highly structured magnetic field topology for both epochs. The strength of some surface features is doubled or even quadrupled when linear polarization is taken into account. The total magnetic energy of the reconstructed field map also becomes about 2.1–3.5 times higher. The overall complexity is also increased as the field energy is shifted toward higher harmonic modes when four Stokes parameters are used. As a consequence, the potential field extrapolation of the four Stokes parameter ZDI results indicates that magnetic field becomes weaker at a distance of several stellar radii due to a decrease of the large-scale field component

  7. Scanning laser Doppler imaging may predict disease progression of localized scleroderma in children and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, L J; Shipley, J; Newell, E L; Harris, N; Clinch, J G; Lovell, C R

    2013-07-01

    Localized scleroderma is a rare but potentially disfiguring and disabling condition. Systemic treatment should be started early in those with active disease in key functional and cosmetic sites, but disease activity is difficult to determine clinically. Superficial blood flow has been shown to correlate with disease activity in localized scleroderma. To examine whether superficial blood flow measured by laser Doppler imaging (LDI) has the potential to predict disease progression and therefore select patients for early systemic treatment. A group of 20 individuals had clinical assessment and scanning LDI blood-flow measurements of 32 affected body sites. After a mean follow-up of 8.7 months their clinical outcome was compared with the results of the initial LDI assessment. Eleven out of 15 patients with an assessment of active LDI had progressed clinically, and 16 out of the 17 scans with inactive LDI assessment had not progressed, giving a positive predictive value of 73% and a negative predictive value of 94%. We believe that LDI can be a useful tool in predicting disease progression in localized scleroderma, and it may help clinicians to decide which patients to treat early. © 2013 The Authors BJD © 2013 British Association of Dermatologists.

  8. Skin perfusion evaluation between laser speckle contrast imaging and laser Doppler flowmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humeau-Heurtier, Anne; Mahe, Guillaume; Durand, Sylvain; Abraham, Pierre

    2013-03-01

    In the biomedical field, laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) and laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI) are two optical techniques aiming at monitoring - non-invasively - the microvascular blood perfusion. LDF has been used for nearly 40 years whereas LSCI is a recent technique that overcomes some drawbacks of LDF. Both LDF and LSCI give perfusion assessments in arbitrary units. However, the possible relationship existing between perfusions given by LDF and by LSCI over large blood flow values has not been completely studied yet. We therefore herein evaluate the relationship between the LDF and LSCI perfusion values across a broad range of skin blood flows. For this purpose, LDF and LSCI data were acquired simultaneously on the forearm of 12 healthy subjects, at rest, during different durations of vascular occlusion and during reactive hyperemia. For the range of skin blood flows studied, the power function fits the data better than the linear function: powers for individual subjects go from 1.2 to 1.7 and the power is close to 1.3 when all the subjects are studied together. We thus suggest distinguishing perfusion values given by the two optical systems.

  9. Power Doppler Imaging in Acute Renal Vein Occlusion and Recanalization: a Canine Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, So-Young; Kim, In-One; Kim, Young-Il; Lee, Kyoung Ho; Lee, Min Woo; Youn, Byung Jae; Kim, Woo Sun; Yeon, Kyung Mo

    2008-01-01

    Objective : To evaluate the dynamic changes of the power Doppler (PD) in acute renal vein occlusion and recanalization in a canine model. Materials and Methods : We performed a PD of the kidney during graded renal vein occlusion and recanalization induced by balloon inflation and deflation in nine dogs. The PD images were transferred to a personal computer, and the PD signals were quantified. Result : We observed the temporal change of the PD signal during renal vein occlusion and recanalization, with a decrease in the PD signal during occlusion and an increase during recanalization. The mean PD signal decreased gradually as the renal vein was occluded, and conversely increased gradually with sequential relief of occlusion. The sequential change of the mean value of the PD signal was statistically significant. Conclusion : The PD can detect a change in renal blood flow during acute renal vein occlusion and recanalization in a canine model. The PD may be used as a helpful tool for the early detection of acute renal vein thrombosis and the monitoring of renal perfusion

  10. Multispectral imaging of acute wound tissue oxygenation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey Huong

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the appropriate range of values for the transcutaneous blood oxygen saturation (StO2 of granulating tissues and the surrounding tissue that can ensure timely wound recovery. This work has used a multispectral imaging system to collect wound images at wavelengths ranging between 520nm and 600nm with a resolution of 10nm. As part of this research, a pilot study was conducted on three injured individuals with superficial wounds of different wound ages at different skin locations. The StO2 value predicted for the examined wounds using the Extended Modified Lambert–Beer model revealed a mean StO2 of 61±10.3% compared to 41.6±6.2% at the surrounding tissues, and 50.1±1.53% for control sites. These preliminary results contribute to the existing knowledge on the possible range and variation of wound bed StO2 that are to be used as indicators of the functioning of the vasomotion system and wound health. This study has concluded that a high StO2 of approximately 60% and a large fluctuation in this value should precede a good progression in wound healing.

  11. Grey-scale and colour Doppler ultrasound versus magnetic resonance imaging for the prenatal diagnosis of placenta accreta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezk, Mohamed Abd-Allah; Shawky, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    To assess the effectiveness of grey-scale and colour Doppler ultrasound (US) versus magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the prenatal diagnosis of placenta accreta. A prospective observational study including a total of 74 patients with placenta previa and previous uterine scar (n = 74). Grey-scale and colour Doppler US was done followed by MRI by different observers to diagnose adherent placenta. Test validity of US and MRI were calculated. Maternal morbidity and mortality were also assessed. A total of 53 patients confirmed to have placenta accreta at operation. The overall sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of US was 94.34, 91.67, 96.15 and 88% compared to 96.08, 87.50, 94.23 and 91.3% for MRI, respectively. The most relevant US sign was turbulent blood flow by colour Doppler, while dark intra-placental band was the most sensitive MRI sign. Venous thromboembolism (1.3%), bladder injury (29.7%), ureteric injury (18.9%), postoperative fever (10.8%), admission to ICU (50%) and re-operation (31.1%). Placenta accreta can be successfully diagnosed by grey-scale and colour Doppler US. MRI would be more likely suggested for either posteriorly or laterally situated placenta previa in order to exclude placental invasion.

  12. The development of a combined b-mode, ARFI, and spectral Doppler ultrasound imaging system for investigating cardiovascular stiffness and hemodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, Joshua R.; Dumont, Douglas M.; Trahey, Gregg E.

    2011-03-01

    The progression of atherosclerotic disease, caused by the formation of plaques within arteries, is a complex process believed to be a function of the localized mechanical properties and hemodynamic loading associated with the arterial wall. It is hypothesized that measurements of vascular stiffness and wall-shear rate (WSR) may provide important information regarding vascular remodeling, endothelial function, and the growth of soft-lipid filled plaques that could help a clinician better diagnose a patient's risk of clinical events such as stroke. To that end, the approach taken in this work was to combine conventional B-mode, Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse (ARFI), Shear Wave Elasticity Imaging (SWEI), and spectral Doppler techniques into a single imaging system capable of simultaneously measuring the tissue displacements and WSR throughout the cardiac cycle and over several heartbeats. Implemented on a conventional scanner, the carotid arteries of human subjects were scanned to demonstrate the initial in vivo feasibility of the method. Two non-invasive ultrasound based imaging methods, SAD-SWEI and SAD-Gated Imaging, were developed that measure ARF-induced on-axis tissue displacements, off-axis transverse wave velocities, and WSR throughout the cardiac cycle. Human carotid artery scans were performed in vivo on 5 healthy subjects. Statistical differences were observed in both on-axis proximal wall displacements and transverse wave velocities during diastole compared to systole.

  13. Can tissue spectrophotometry and laser Doppler flowmetry help to identify patients at risk for wound healing disorders after neck dissection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohleder, Nils H; Flensberg, Sandra; Bauer, Florian; Wagenpfeil, Stefan; Wales, Craig J; Koerdt, Steffen; Wolff, Klaus D; Hölzle, Frank; Steiner, Timm; Kesting, Marco R

    2014-03-01

    Microcirculation and oxygen supply in cervical skin were measured with an optical, noninvasive method in patients with or without radiotherapy before neck dissection. The course of wound healing was monitored after the surgical procedure to identify predictive factors for postoperative wound healing disorders. Tissue spectrophotometry and laser Doppler flowmetry were used to determine capillary oxygen saturation, hemoglobin concentration, blood flow, and blood velocity at 2-mm and 8-mm depths in the cervical skin of 91 patients before neck dissection in a maxillofacial unit of a university hospital in Munich, Germany. Parameters were evaluated for differences between patients with irradiation (24) and without (67) and patients with wound healing disorders (25) and without (66) (univariate or multivariate statistical analyses). Velocity at 2 mm was lower in irradiated skin (P = .016). Flow at 2 mm was higher in patients with wound healing disorders (P = .018). High flow values could help to identify patients at risk for cervical wound healing disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Power Doppler ultrasonography for assessment of synovitis in the metacarpophalangeal joints of patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a comparison with dynamic magnetic resonance imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szkudlarek, Marcin; Court-Payen, M; Strandberg, C

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of power Doppler ultrasonography (PDUS) for assessing inflammatory activity in the metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joints of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), using dynamic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as a reference method. METHODS: PDUS and dynamic ...

  15. Global-Mode Analysis of Full-Disk Data from the Michelson Doppler Imager and the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Timothy P.; Schou, Jesper

    2018-02-01

    Building upon our previous work, in which we analyzed smoothed and subsampled velocity data from the Michelson Doppler Imager (MDI), we extend our analysis to unsmoothed, full-resolution MDI data. We also present results from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI), in both full resolution and processed to be a proxy for the low-resolution MDI data. We find that the systematic errors that we saw previously, namely peaks in both the high-latitude rotation rate and the normalized residuals of odd a-coefficients, are almost entirely absent in the two full-resolution analyses. Furthermore, we find that both systematic errors seem to depend almost entirely on how the input images are apodized, rather than on resolution or smoothing. Using the full-resolution HMI data, we confirm our previous findings regarding the effect of using asymmetric profiles on mode parameters, and also find that they occasionally result in more stable fits. We also confirm our previous findings regarding discrepancies between 360-day and 72-day analyses. We further investigate a six-month period previously seen in f-mode frequency shifts using the low-resolution datasets, this time accounting for solar-cycle dependence using magnetic-field data. Both HMI and MDI saw prominent six-month signals in the frequency shifts, but we were surprised to discover that the strongest signal at that frequency occurred in the mode coverage for the low-resolution proxy. Finally, a comparison of mode parameters from HMI and MDI shows that the frequencies and a-coefficients agree closely, encouraging the concatenation of the two datasets.

  16. The Contribution of Three-Dimensional Power Doppler Imaging in the Preoperative Assessment of Breast Tumors: A Preliminary Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kalmantis

    2009-01-01

    Methods. One hundred and twenty five women with clinically or mammographically suspicious findings were referred for 3D Power Doppler ultrasound prior to surgery. Histological diagnosis was conducted after surgery and compared with ultrasound findings. Sonographic criteria used for breast cancer diagnosis were based on a system that included morphological characteristics and criteria of the vascular pattern of a breast mass by Power Doppler imaging. Results. Seventy-two lesions were histopathologically diagnosed as benign and 53 tumors as malignant. Three-dimensional ultrasound identified 49 out of 53 histologically confirmed breast cancers resulting in a sensitivity of 92.4% and a specificity of 86.1% in diagnosing breast malignancy (PPV: 0.83, NPV:0.94. Conclusions. 3D ultrasonography is a valuable tool in identifying preoperatively the possibility of a tumor to be malignant.

  17. Modelling Brain Tissue using Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyrby, Tim Bjørn

    2008-01-01

    Diffusion MRI, or diffusion weighted imaging (DWI), is a technique that measures the restricted diffusion of water molecules within brain tissue. Different reconstruction methods quantify water-diffusion anisotropy in the intra- and extra-cellular spaces of the neural environment. Fibre tracking...... models then use the directions of greatest diffusion as estimates of white matter fibre orientation. Several fibre tracking algorithms have emerged in the last few years that provide reproducible visualizations of three-dimensional fibre bundles. One class of these algorithms is probabilistic...... the possibility of using high-field experimental MR scanners and long scanning times, thereby significantly improving the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and anatomical resolution. Moreover, many of the degrading effects observed in vivo, such as physiological noise, are no longer present. However, the post mortem...

  18. Experimental study on blood flow patterns through the phantoms of the intracranial arterial aneurysms using color Doppler imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Tae Sub; Jeong, Eun Kee; Rhim, Yoon Chul; Kim, Sung Bin; Lee, Dong Hoon; Kim, Dae In

    1994-01-01

    The occurrence, growth, thrombosis, and rupture of intracranial saccular aneurysms can be directly related to the effect of hemodynamic forces. We developed the phantom flow models and compared with the computer simulation program to analyse the flow pattern and hemodynamics that might be responsible for the intracranial arterial aneurysms. We designed the arterial phantoms of three major sites of intracranial arterial aneurysm ; 1) basilar artery tip, 2) internal carotid artery bifurcation, 3) curved area of internal carotid artery. Flow patterns in the aneurysmal portion of phantoms were evaluated with color Doppler system on the connection with automatic closed type of circulation system. Then, we compared the results with computer simulation. The hemodynamic characteristics of the phantoms were identical with those obtained by computerisation's. Three distinct zones of flow were identified by color Doppler studies on the aneurysm of the curved area of an internal carotid artery : 1) an inflow zone entering the aneurysm at the distal aspect of its orifice, 2) an outflow zone exiting the aneurysm at the proximal aspect of its orifice, 3) a central slow vortex.However, the phantoms of basilar artery tip and artery bifurcation showed a direct inflow stream at the dome of an aneurysm. Flow dynamics in the various phantoms of the aneurysms can be successfully evaluated with color Doppler imaging, and were consistent with those predicted by computer simulations

  19. The application of color Doppler flow imaging in the diagnosis and therapeutic effect evaluation of erectile dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu-Jun Xuan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We aim to investigate the correlations between hemodynamic parameters, penile rigidity grading, and the therapeutic effects of phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors using color Doppler flow imaging after intracavernosal injection in patients with erectile dysfunction. This study involved 164 patients. After intracavernosal injection with a mixture of papaverine (60 mg, prostaglandin E 1 (10 mg, and lidocaine (2%, 0.5-1 ml, the penile vessels were assessed using color Doppler flow imaging. Penile rigidity was classified based on the Erection Hardness Score system as Grades 4, 3, 2 or 1 (corresponding to Schramek Grades V to II. Then, the patients were given oral sildenafil (50-100 mg and scored according to the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5 questionnaire. The number of patients with penile rigidities of Schramek Grades II to V was 14, 18, 21, and 111, respectively. The IIEF-5 score was positively correlated with the refilling index of the penile cavernosal artery (r = 0.79, P< 0.05, the peak systolic velocity (r = 0.45, P< 0.05, and penile rigidity (r = 0.75, P< 0.05, and was negatively correlated with the end diastolic velocity (r = −0.74, P< 0.05. For patients with erectile dysfunction, both the IIEF-5 score after sildenafil administration, which is correlated with penile rigidity, and the hemodynamic parameters detected using color Doppler flow imaging may predict the effects of phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor treatment and could provide a reasonable model for the targeted-treatment of erectile dysfunction.

  20. POLARIZATION IMAGING AND SCATTERING MODEL OF CANCEROUS LIVER TISSUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DONGZHI LI

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We apply different polarization imaging techniques for cancerous liver tissues, and compare the relative contrasts for difference polarization imaging (DPI, degree of polarization imaging (DOPI and rotating linear polarization imaging (RLPI. Experimental results show that a number of polarization imaging parameters are capable of differentiating cancerous cells in isotropic liver tissues. To analyze the contrast mechanism of the cancer-sensitive polarization imaging parameters, we propose a scattering model containing two types of spherical scatterers and carry on Monte Carlo simulations based on this bi-component model. Both the experimental and Monte Carlo simulated results show that the RLPI technique can provide a good imaging contrast of cancerous tissues. The bi-component scattering model provides a useful tool to analyze the contrast mechanism of polarization imaging of cancerous tissues.

  1. Power Doppler Ultrasonography and Shear Wave Elastography as Complementary Imaging Methods for Suspected Local Breast Cancer Recurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jales, Rodrigo Menezes; Dória, Maira Teixeira; Serra, Kátia Piton; Miranda, Mila Meneguelli; Menossi, Carlos Alberto; Schumacher, Klaus; Sarian, Luis Otávio

    2018-06-01

    To prospectively investigate the diagnostic accuracy and clinical consequences of power Doppler morphologic criteria and shear wave elastography (SWE) as complementary imaging methods for evaluation of suspected local breast cancer recurrence in the ipsilateral breast or chest wall. Thirty-two breast masses with a suspicion of local breast cancer recurrence on B-mode ultrasonography underwent complementary power Doppler and SWE evaluations. Power Doppler morphologic criteria were classified as avascular, hypovascular, or hypervascular. Shear wave elastography was classified according to a 5-point scale (SWE score) and SWE maximum elasticity. Diagnostic accuracy was assessed by the sensitivity, specificity, and area under the curve. A decision curve analysis assessed clinical consequences of each method. The reference standard for diagnosis was defined as core needle or excisional biopsy. Histopathologic examinations revealed 9 (28.2%) benign and 23 (71.8%) malignant cases. Power Doppler ultrasonography (US) had sensitivity of 34.8% (95% confidence interval [CI], 6.6%-62.9%) and specificity of 45.4% (95% CI, 19.3%-71.5%). The SWE score (≥3) had sensitivity of 87.0% (95% CI, 66.4%-97.2%) and specificity of 44.4% (95% CI, 13.7%-78.8%). The SWE maximum elasticity (velocity > 6.5cm/s) had sensitivity of 87% (95% CI, 66.4%-97.2%) and specificity of 77.8% (95% CI, 40.0% to 97.2%). The areas under the curves for the SWE score and SWE maximum elasticity were 0.71 (95% CI, 0.53-0.87) and 0.82 (95% CI, 0.64-0.93), respectively (P = .32). Power Doppler US is unsuitable for discrimination between local breast cancer recurrence and fibrosis. Although the SWE score and SWE maximum elasticity can make this discrimination, the use of these methods to determine biopsy may lead to poorer clinical outcomes than the current practice of performing biopsies of all suspicious masses. © 2017 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  2. Color doppler flow imaging in evaluation of uterine arterial embolization of leiomyoma with KMG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Furong; Guo Yunhuai; Liu Lifang; Liu Jianhua; Guo Yunhuai

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To explore the effectiveness of a new kind of embolization agent-sodium alginate(KMG), and to evaluate the clinical value of 2D color Doppler ultrasound in assessing the therapeutic effect of uterine arterial embolization (UAE) in leiomyomas. Methods: Forty nine patients with symptomatic leiomyomas were undertaken UAE with KMG for the treatment. Sonography was performed at 3-7 days before and, 1, 3, 6 months after UAE with 2D color Doppler for evaluating the 2D echograms and hemodynamics. Results: Forty nine leiomyomas were studied after UAE, showing a marked reduction in the size (35%-90%). No blood flow was demonstrated in the leiomyomas either 3-7 days or 1 month or 3 months after the procedure. The reappearance of blood flow could be seen in only one case. Conclusion: KMG is an efficient embolization agent for the treatment of symptomatic leiomyomas with UAE, and ultrasonography is a useful tool to assess the effectiveness. (authors)

  3. [Vascular complications following kidney transplant: the role of color-Doppler imaging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granata, Antonio; Floccari, Fulvio; Lentini, Paolo; Vittoria, Salvatore; Di Pietro, Fabio; Zamboli, Pasquale; Fiorini, Fulvio; Fatuzzo, Pasquale

    2012-01-01

    The progressive decline in the incidence of graft rejection has made urological, surgical, parenchymal and vascular complications of kidney transplant more frequent. The latter, although accounting for only 5-10% of all post-transplant complications, are a frequent cause of graft loss. Ultrasonography, both in B-mode and with Doppler ultrasound, is an important diagnostic tool in case of clinical conditions which might impair kidney function. Even though ultrasonography is considered fundamental in the diagnosis of parenchymal and surgical complications of the transplanted kidney, its role is not fully understood in case of vascular complications of the graft. The specificity of Doppler ultrasound is very important in case of stenosis of the transplanted renal artery, pseudoaneurysms, arteriovenous fistulas, and thrombosis with complete or partial artery or vein occlusion. Doppler and color determinations present high diagnostic accuracy, which is higher in case of successive measurements performed during the follow-up of the graft. Modern techniques including contrast-enhanced ultrasound increase the diagnostic power of ultrasonography in case of vascular complications of the transplanted kidney, planted kidney.

  4. Using Flow Characteristics in Three-Dimensional Power Doppler Ultrasound Imaging to Predict Complete Responses in Patients Undergoing Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shia, Wei-Chung; Huang, Yu-Len; Wu, Hwa-Koon; Chen, Dar-Ren

    2017-05-01

    Strategies are needed for the identification of a poor response to treatment and determination of appropriate chemotherapy strategies for patients in the early stages of neoadjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer. We hypothesize that power Doppler ultrasound imaging can provide useful information on predicting response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy. The solid directional flow of vessels in breast tumors was used as a marker of pathologic complete responses (pCR) in patients undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Thirty-one breast cancer patients who received neoadjuvant chemotherapy and had tumors of 2 to 5 cm were recruited. Three-dimensional power Doppler ultrasound with high-definition flow imaging technology was used to acquire the indices of tumor blood flow/volume, and the chemotherapy response prediction was established, followed by support vector machine classification. The accuracy of pCR prediction before the first chemotherapy treatment was 83.87% (area under the ROC curve [AUC] = 0.6957). After the second chemotherapy treatment, the accuracy of was 87.9% (AUC = 0.756). Trend analysis showed that good and poor responders exhibited different trends in vascular flow during chemotherapy. This preliminary study demonstrates the feasibility of using the vascular flow in breast tumors to predict chemotherapeutic efficacy. © 2017 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  5. Functional imaging of small tissue volumes with diffuse optical tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klose, Alexander D.; Hielscher, Andreas H.

    2006-03-01

    Imaging of dynamic changes in blood parameters, functional brain imaging, and tumor imaging are the most advanced application areas of diffuse optical tomography (DOT). When dealing with the image reconstruction problem one is faced with the fact that near-infrared photons, unlike X-rays, are highly scattered when they traverse biological tissue. Image reconstruction schemes are required that model the light propagation inside biological tissue and predict measurements on the tissue surface. By iteratively changing the tissue-parameters until the predictions agree with the real measurements, a spatial distribution of optical properties inside the tissue is found. The optical properties can be related to the tissue oxygenation, inflammation, or to the fluorophore concentration of a biochemical marker. If the model of light propagation is inaccurate, the reconstruction process will lead to an inaccurate result as well. Here, we focus on difficulties that are encountered when DOT is employed for functional imaging of small tissue volumes, for example, in cancer studies involving small animals, or human finger joints for early diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis. Most of the currently employed image reconstruction methods rely on the diffusion theory that is an approximation to the equation of radiative transfer. But, in the cases of small tissue volumes and tissues that contain low scattering regions diffusion theory has been shown to be of limited applicability Therefore, we employ a light propagation model that is based on the equation of radiative transfer, which promises to overcome the limitations.

  6. Quantitative image analysis of synovial tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Hall, Pascal O.; Kraan, Maarten C.; Tak, Paul Peter

    2007-01-01

    Quantitative image analysis is a form of imaging that includes microscopic histological quantification, video microscopy, image analysis, and image processing. Hallmarks are the generation of reliable, reproducible, and efficient measurements via strict calibration and step-by-step control of the

  7. Quantification of colour Doppler activity in the wrist in patients with rheumatoid arthritis - the reliability of different methods for image selection and evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard, K.; Torp-Pedersen, S.; Lund, H.

    2008-01-01

    measurements in the wrist of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) using different selection and quantification methods. Materials and Methods: 14 patients with RA had their wrist scanned twice by the same investigator with an interval of 30 Minutes, The images for analysis were selected either......Purpose: The amount Of colour Doppler activity in the inflamed synovium is used to quantity inflammatory activity. The measurements may vary due to image selection, quantification method, and point in cardiac cycle. This study investigated the test-retest reliability Of ultrasound colour Doppler...... was obtained when the images were selected guided by colour Doppler and the Subsequent quantification was (done in an area defined by anatomical Structures. With this method, the intra-class coefficient ICC (2.1) was 0.95 and the within-subject SD (SW) was 0.017, indicating good reliability. In contrast, poor...

  8. Oscillating intensity display of soft tissue lesions in MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmann, A.; Levin, D.N.; Beck, R.N.

    1986-01-01

    A computer-aided tissue characterization scheme is used to separate abnormal from normal tissues on the basis of their intensities on T1- and T2-weighted images. The intensity of an abnormal tissue on a T1-weighted image is then made to oscillate so that the amplitude (or frequency) of oscillation is directly proportional to the difference between the lesion's intensity and the intensities of normal tissues. The result is a ''movie'' in which the abnormal tissue churns or oscillates on the screen, drawing the attention because of the eye's sensitivity to motion

  9. Early detection of left ventricular dysfunction in asymptomatic diabetic patient using strain and strain rate echocardiographic imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rania Gaber

    2014-03-01

    Conclusion: Type 2 diabetes mellitus deteriorate both LV systolic and diastolic performance. Strain and strain rate by tissue Doppler Imaging is superior to conventional Doppler in early detection and evaluation of systolic and diastolic dysfunction in type 2 diabetic patients.

  10. A review of suspension-Scattered particles used in blood-mimicking fluid for doppler ultrasound imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ammar A Oglat

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Doppler ultrasound imaging system description and calibration need blood-mimicking fluids (BMFs for the test target of medical ultrasound diagnostic tools, with known interior features and acoustic and physical properties of this fluid (BMF. Physical and acoustical properties determined in the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC standard are specified as constant values, the materials used in the BMF preparation should have values similar to the IEC standard values. However, BMF is ready-made commercially from a field of medical usage, which may not be appropriate in the layout of ultrasound system or for an estimate of novel imaging mechanism. It is often eligible to have the capability to make sound properties and mimic blood arrangement for specific applications. In this review, sufficient BMF materials, liquids, and measures are described which have been generated by utilizing diverse operation mechanism and materials that have sculptured a range of biological systems.

  11. Medical image of the week: granulation tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganesh A

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A 57 year old woman presented with a tickling sensation in the back of throat and intermittent bleeding from the healing stoma one month after decannulation of her tracheostomy tube. On bronchoscopy a granuloma with surrounding granulation tissue was present in the subglottic space (Figure 1. Argon plasma coagulation (APC was performed to cauterize the granulation tissue (Figure 2. Formation of granulation tissue after tracheostomy is a common complication which can result in tracheal stenosis. APC and electrocautery using flexible bronchoscopy has been shown to safely and effectively remove the granulation tissue.

  12. Magnetic resonance imaging of peripheral soft tissue hemangiomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, M C; Stull, M A; Patt, R H; Freedman, M T [Georgetown Univ., Washington, DC (USA). Dept. of Radiology; Teitelbaum, G P [Georgetown Univ., Washington, DC (USA). Dept. of Radiology University of Southern California, Los Angeles (USA). Dept. of Radiology; Lack, E E [Georgetown Univ., Washington, DC (USA). Dept. of Pathology; Bogumill, G P [Georgetown Univ., Washington, DC (USA). Dept. of Orthopedic Surgery

    1990-10-01

    Ten patients with soft tissue hemangiomas outside the central nervous system were studied with MR imaging. Eight patients were studied at 1.5 Tesla (T) with T{sub 1}-weighted and triple echo T{sub 2}-weighted sequences. Two additional patients were imaged on a 0.5-T system. The MR images were correlated with images from other modalities. It was found that prolonged T{sub 2}-weighted imaging together with standard spin echo T{sub 1} and T{sub 2} pulse sequences is a good substitute for contrast-enhanced CT and arteriographic evaluation of soft tissue hemangiomas. (orig./DG).

  13. Steerable Doppler transducer probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fidel, H.F.; Greenwood, D.L.

    1986-01-01

    An ultrasonic diagnostic probe is described which is capable of performing ultrasonic imaging and Doppler measurement consisting of: a hollow case having an acoustic window which passes ultrasonic energy and including chamber means for containing fluid located within the hollow case and adjacent to a portion of the acoustic window; imaging transducer means, located in the hollow case and outside the fluid chamber means, and oriented to direct ultrasonic energy through the acoustic window toward an area which is to be imaged; Doppler transducer means, located in the hollow case within the fluid chamber means, and movably oriented to direct Doppler signals through the acoustic window toward the imaged area; means located within the fluid chamber means and externally controlled for controllably moving the Doppler transducer means to select one of a plurality of axes in the imaged area along which the Doppler signals are to be directed; and means, located external to the fluid chamber means and responsive to the means for moving, for providing an indication signal for identifying the selected axis

  14. Positron emission tomography and optical tissue imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falen, Steven W [Carmichael, CA; Hoefer, Richard A [Newport News, VA; Majewski, Stanislaw [Yorktown, VA; McKisson, John [Hampton, VA; Kross, Brian [Yorktown, VA; Proffitt, James [Newport News, VA; Stolin, Alexander [Newport News, VA; Weisenberger, Andrew G [Yorktown, VA

    2012-05-22

    A mobile compact imaging system that combines both PET imaging and optical imaging into a single system which can be located in the operating room (OR) and provides faster feedback to determine if a tumor has been fully resected and if there are adequate surgical margins. While final confirmation is obtained from the pathology lab, such a device can reduce the total time necessary for the procedure and the number of iterations required to achieve satisfactory resection of a tumor with good margins.

  15. Automated flow quantification in valvular heart disease based on backscattered Doppler power analysis: implementation on matrix-array ultrasound imaging systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Thomas; Hwang, Shawn M; Plicht, Björn; Mucci, Ronald A; Hunold, Peter; Erbel, Raimund; Levine, Robert A

    2008-06-01

    Cardiac ultrasound imaging systems are limited in the noninvasive quantification of valvular regurgitation due to indirect measurements and inaccurate hemodynamic assumptions. We recently demonstrated that the principle of integration of backscattered acoustic Doppler power times velocity can be used for flow quantification in valvular regurgitation directly at the vena contracta of a regurgitant flow jet. We now aimed to accomplish implementation of automated Doppler power flow analysis software on a standard cardiac ultrasound system utilizing novel matrix-array transducer technology with detailed description of system requirements, components and software contributing to the system. This system based on a 3.5 MHz, matrix-array cardiac ultrasound scanner (Sonos 5500, Philips Medical Systems) was validated by means of comprehensive experimental signal generator trials, in vitro flow phantom trials and in vivo testing in 48 patients with mitral regurgitation of different severity and etiology using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for reference. All measurements displayed good correlation to the reference values, indicating successful implementation of automated Doppler power flow analysis on a matrix-array ultrasound imaging system. Systematic underestimation of effective regurgitant orifice areas >0.65 cm(2) and volumes >40 ml was found due to currently limited Doppler beam width that could be readily overcome by the use of new generation 2D matrix-array technology. Automated flow quantification in valvular heart disease based on backscattered Doppler power can be fully implemented on board a routinely used matrix-array ultrasound imaging systems. Such automated Doppler power flow analysis of valvular regurgitant flow directly, noninvasively, and user independent overcomes the practical limitations of current techniques.

  16. Developments in target micro-Doppler signatures analysis: radar imaging, ultrasound and through-the-wall radar

    OpenAIRE

    Clemente, C.; Balleri, A.; Woodbridge, K.; Soraghan, J. J.

    2013-01-01

    Target motions, other than the main bulk translation of the target, induce Doppler modulations around the main Doppler shift that form what is commonly called a target micro-Doppler signature. Radar micro-Doppler signatures are generally both target and action speci c and hence can be used to classify and recognise targets as well as to identify possible threats. In recent years, research into the use of micro-Doppler signatures for target classi cation to address many defence and security ch...

  17. Teaching the physics of medical imaging: an active learning approach involving imaging of biological tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilhjelm, Jens E.; Pihl, Michael Johannes; Lonsdale, Markus Nowak

    2008-01-01

    Introduction to medical imaging is an experimentally oriented course in the physics of medical imaging, where the students record, process and analyse 3D data of an unknown piece of formalin fixed animal tissue embedded in agar in order to estimate the tissue types present. Planar X-ray, CT, MRI......, ultrasound and SPECT/PET images are recorded, showing the tissue in very different ways. In order for the students to estimate the tissue type, they need to study the physical principles of the imaging modalities. The “true” answer is subsequently revealed by slicing the tissue....

  18. Magnetic resonance imaging of pediatric soft-tissue vascular anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navarro, Oscar M.

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging can be used in the management of pediatric soft-tissue vascular anomalies for diagnosing and assessing extent of lesions and for evaluating response to therapy. MR imaging studies often involve a combination of T1- and T2-weighted images in addition to MR angiography and fat-suppressed post-contrast sequences. The MR imaging features of these vascular anomalies when combined with clinical findings can aid in diagnosis. In cases of complex vascular malformations and syndromes associated with vascular anomalies, MR imaging can be used to evaluate accompanying soft-tissue and bone anomalies. This article reviews the MR imaging protocols and appearances of the most common pediatric soft-tissue vascular anomalies. (orig.)

  19. Color Doppler imaging of the retrobulbar circulation in progressive glaucoma optic neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magureanu, Marineta; Stanila, Adriana; Bunescu, Liviu Valentin; Armeanu, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    It is known that elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) is the primary risk factor for glaucoma. Recently, more and more evidences have shown that the vascular deficit also plays an important role in the pathogenesis and progressions of glaucomatous optic neuropathy. This issue is backed up by glaucomatous optic neuropathy (GON) cases drug compensated in which the progression of the disease in one or both eyes is ascertained despite a normal and relatively constant IOP. The present study evaluated the hemodynamic parameters in the retrobulbar circulation in patients with progressive glaucomatous optic neuropathy in one eye, who received compensated medication. The hemodynamic parameters (PSV, EDV, IR) were measured by using color Doppler ultrasound and progression was evaluated by a repeated automated perimetry. The obtained values were statistically analyzed and compared with those obtained for the stable eye.

  20. Calibrating Doppler imaging of preterm intracerebral circulation using a microvessel flow phantom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fleur A. Camfferman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Preterm infants are born during critical stages of brain development, in which the adaptive capacity of the fetus to extra-uterine environment is limited. Inadequate brain perfusion has been directly linked to preterm brain damage. Advanced high-frequency ultrasound probes and processing algorithms allow visualization of microvessels and depiction of regional variation. To assess whether visualization and flow velocity estimates of preterm cerebral perfusion using Doppler techniques is accurate, we conducted an in vitro experiment using a microvessel flow phantom.Materials and Methods. An in-house developed flow phantom containing two microvessels (inner diameter 200 and 700 microns with attached syringe pumps, filled with blood-mimicking fluid, was used to generate non-pulsatile perfusion of variable flow. Measurements were performed using an Esaote MyLab70 scanner.Results. Microvessel mimicking catheters with velocities as low as 1cm/sec were adequately visualized with a linear ultrasound probe. With a convex probe velocities <2 cm/sec could not be depicted. Within settings, velocity and diameter measurements were highly reproducible (intra class correlation 0.997 (95% CI 0.996-0.998 and 0.914 (0.864-0.946. Overall, mean velocity was overestimated up to 3-fold, especially in high velocity ranges. Significant differences were seen in velocity measurements when using steer angle correction and in vessel diameter estimation (p<0.05.Conclusion. Visualization of microvessel size catheters mimicking small brain vessels is feasible. Reproducible velocity and diameter results can be obtained, although important overestimation of the values is observed. Before velocity estimates of microcirculation can find its use in clinical practice, calibration of the ultrasound machine for any specific Doppler purpose is essential. The ultimate goal is to develop a sonographic tool that can be used for objective study of regional perfusion in routine

  1. Imaging of connective tissue diseases of the head and neck

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    We review the imaging appearance of connective tissue diseases of the head and neck. Bilateral sialadenitis and dacryoadenitis are seen in Sjögren’s syndrome; ankylosis of the temporo-mandibular joint with sclerosis of the crico-arytenoid joint are reported in rheumatoid arthritis and lupus panniculitis with atypical infection are reported in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Relapsing polychondritis shows subglottic stenosis, prominent ear and saddle nose; progressive systemic sclerosis shows osteolysis of the mandible, fibrosis of the masseter muscle with calcinosis of the subcutaneous tissue and dermatomyositis/polymyositis shows condylar erosions and autoimmune thyroiditis. Vascular thrombosis is reported in antiphospholipid antibodies syndrome; cervical lymphadenopathy is seen in adult-onset Still’s disease, and neuropathy with thyroiditis reported in mixed connective tissue disorder. Imaging is important to detect associated malignancy with connective tissue disorders. Correlation of the imaging findings with demographic data and clinical findings are important for the diagnosis of connective tissue disorders. PMID:26988082

  2. Prediction of adverse pregnancy outcomes using uterine artery Doppler imaging at 22-24 weeks of pregnancy: A North Indian experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepti Verma

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the predictive value of uterine artery Doppler imaging at 22-24 weeks of gestation for adverse pregnancy outcomes. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective study in which uterine artery Doppler was performed at 22-24 weeks of gestation in 165 pregnant women with singleton pregnancies. A pulsatility index (PI more than 1.45 or bilateral uterine notching was labeled as abnormal Doppler. The pregnancy outcome was assessed in terms of normal outcome, preeclampsia, fetal growth restriction (FGR, low birth weight, spontaneous preterm delivery, oligohydramnios, fetal loss or at least one adverse outcome. Results: Out of 165 patients, 35 (21.2% had abnormal second trimester uterine artery Doppler. In pregnancies that resulted in preeclampsia (PE, (n=21, FGR, (n=21, and low birth weight (n=39, the median uterine artery PI was higher (1.52, 1.41, and 1.27 respectively. In the presence of abnormal Doppler, the risk of PE [OR=10.7, 95% confidence interval (CI: (3.91-29.1; p<0.001], FGR [OR=4.34, 95% CI: (1.62-11.6; p=0.002], low birth weight [OR=6.39, 95% CI: (3.16-12.9; p<0.001] and the risk of at least one obstetric complication [OR=8.73, 95% CI: (3.5-21.3; p<0.001] was significantly high. The positive predictive value of abnormal uterine artery Doppler was highest for preeclampsia (36.84% among all adverse pregnancy outcomes assessed. Conclusion: Uterine artery Doppler ultrasonography at 22-24 weeks of gestation is a significant predictor of at least one adverse pregnancy outcome, with the highest prediction for preeclampsia.

  3. Combined spectroscopic imaging and chemometric approach for automatically partitioning tissue types in human prostate tissue biopsies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haka, Abigail S.; Kidder, Linda H.; Lewis, E. Neil

    2001-07-01

    We have applied Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic imaging, coupling a mercury cadmium telluride (MCT) focal plane array detector (FPA) and a Michelson step scan interferometer, to the investigation of various states of malignant human prostate tissue. The MCT FPA used consists of 64x64 pixels, each 61 micrometers 2, and has a spectral range of 2-10.5 microns. Each imaging data set was collected at 16-1 resolution, resulting in 512 image planes and a total of 4096 interferograms. In this article we describe a method for separating different tissue types contained within FTIR spectroscopic imaging data sets of human prostate tissue biopsies. We present images, generated by the Fuzzy C-Means clustering algorithm, which demonstrate the successful partitioning of distinct tissue type domains. Additionally, analysis of differences in the centroid spectra corresponding to different tissue types provides an insight into their biochemical composition. Lastly, we demonstrate the ability to partition tissue type regions in a different data set using centroid spectra calculated from the original data set. This has implications for the use of the Fuzzy C-Means algorithm as an automated technique for the separation and examination of tissue domains in biopsy samples.

  4. Ontology-based, Tissue MicroArray oriented, image centered tissue bank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viti Federica

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tissue MicroArray technique is becoming increasingly important in pathology for the validation of experimental data from transcriptomic analysis. This approach produces many images which need to be properly managed, if possible with an infrastructure able to support tissue sharing between institutes. Moreover, the available frameworks oriented to Tissue MicroArray provide good storage for clinical patient, sample treatment and block construction information, but their utility is limited by the lack of data integration with biomolecular information. Results In this work we propose a Tissue MicroArray web oriented system to support researchers in managing bio-samples and, through the use of ontologies, enables tissue sharing aimed at the design of Tissue MicroArray experiments and results evaluation. Indeed, our system provides ontological description both for pre-analysis tissue images and for post-process analysis image results, which is crucial for information exchange. Moreover, working on well-defined terms it is then possible to query web resources for literature articles to integrate both pathology and bioinformatics data. Conclusions Using this system, users associate an ontology-based description to each image uploaded into the database and also integrate results with the ontological description of biosequences identified in every tissue. Moreover, it is possible to integrate the ontological description provided by the user with a full compliant gene ontology definition, enabling statistical studies about correlation between the analyzed pathology and the most commonly related biological processes.

  5. Usefulness of pulse-wave doppler tissue sampling and dobutamine stress echocardiography for identification of false positive inferior wall defects in SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altinmakas, S.; Dagdeviren, B.; Turkmen, M.; Gursurer, M.; Say, B.; Tezel, T.; Ersek, B.

    2000-01-01

    False positive inferior wall perfusion defects restrict the accuracy of SPECT in diagnosis of coronary artery disease (CAD). Pulse-Wave Tissue Doppler (PWTD) has been recently proposed to assess regional wall motion velocities. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the presence of CAD by using PWTD during dobutamine stress echocardiography (DSE) in patients with an inferior perfusion defect detected by SPECT and compare PWTD parameters of normal cases with patients who had inferior perfusion defect and CAD. Sixty-five patients (mean age 58±8 years, 30 men) with a normal LV systolic function at rest according to echocardiographic evaluation with an inferior ischemia determined by SPECT and a control group (CG) of 34 normal cases (mean age 56±7 years, 16 men) were included in this study. All patients underwent a standard DSE (up to 40 μg/kg/min with additional atropine during sub-maximum heart rate responses). Pulse-wave Doppler tissue sampling of inferior wall was performed in the apical 2-chamber view at rest and stress. The coronary angiography was performed within 24 hours. The results were evaluated for the prediction of significant right coronary artery (RCA) and/or left circumflex coronary artery (CX) with narrowing (≥50% diameter stenosis, assessed by quantitative coronary angiography). It was observed that the peak stress mean E/A ratio was lower in patients with CAD when compared to patients without CAD (0.78±0.2 versus 1.29±0.11 p<0.0001). Also the peak stress E/A ratio of normal cases was significantly higher than patients who had CAD (1.19±0.3 versus 0.78±0.2 p<0.0001). When the cut off point for the E/A ratio was determined as 1, the sensitivity and specificity of dobutamine stress PWTD E/A were 89% and 86%, respectively. The peak stress E/A ratio was higher than 1 in all patients with a false positive perfusion defect. Systolic S velocity increase during DSE was significantly lower in patients with CAD (54%±17 versus 99%±24 p=0

  6. Characterization of human breast cancer tissues by infrared imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdonck, M; Denayer, A; Delvaux, B; Garaud, S; De Wind, R; Desmedt, C; Sotiriou, C; Willard-Gallo, K; Goormaghtigh, E

    2016-01-21

    Fourier Transform InfraRed (FTIR) spectroscopy coupled to microscopy (IR imaging) has shown unique advantages in detecting morphological and molecular pathologic alterations in biological tissues. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of IR imaging as a diagnostic tool to identify characteristics of breast epithelial cells and the stroma. In this study a total of 19 breast tissue samples were obtained from 13 patients. For 6 of the patients, we also obtained Non-Adjacent Non-Tumor tissue samples. Infrared images were recorded on the main cell/tissue types identified in all breast tissue samples. Unsupervised Principal Component Analyses and supervised Partial Least Square Discriminant Analyses (PLS-DA) were used to discriminate spectra. Leave-one-out cross-validation was used to evaluate the performance of PLS-DA models. Our results show that IR imaging coupled with PLS-DA can efficiently identify the main cell types present in FFPE breast tissue sections, i.e. epithelial cells, lymphocytes, connective tissue, vascular tissue and erythrocytes. A second PLS-DA model could distinguish normal and tumor breast epithelial cells in the breast tissue sections. A patient-specific model reached particularly high sensitivity, specificity and MCC rates. Finally, we showed that the stroma located close or at distance from the tumor exhibits distinct spectral characteristics. In conclusion FTIR imaging combined with computational algorithms could be an accurate, rapid and objective tool to identify/quantify breast epithelial cells and differentiate tumor from normal breast tissue as well as normal from tumor-associated stroma, paving the way to the establishment of a potential complementary tool to ensure safe tumor margins.

  7. Nanoscale X-Ray Microscopic Imaging of Mammalian Mineralized Tissue

    OpenAIRE

    Andrews, Joy C.; Almeida, Eduardo; van der Meulen, Marjolein C.H.; Alwood, Joshua S.; Lee, Chialing; Liu, Yijin; Chen, Jie; Meirer, Florian; Feser, Michael; Gelb, Jeff; Rudati, Juana; Tkachuk, Andrei; Yun, Wenbing; Pianetta, Piero

    2010-01-01

    A novel hard transmission X-ray microscope (TXM) at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Light-source operating from 5 to 15 keV X-ray energy with 14 to 30 µm2 field of view has been used for high-resolution (30–40 nm) imaging and density quantification of mineralized tissue. TXM is uniquely suited for imaging of internal cellular structures and networks in mammalian mineralized tissues using relatively thick (50 µm), untreated samples that preserve tissue micro- and nanostructure. To test this...

  8. Fetal cardiac stroke volume determination by four-dimensional ultrasound with spatio-temporal image correlation compared with two-dimensional and Doppler ultrasonography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, Giuseppe; Capponi, Alessandra; Cavicchioni, Ottavia; Vendola, Marianne; Arduini, Domenico

    2007-12-01

    To assess the agreement of stroke volume (SV) measured with two-dimensional (2D) ultrasonography with Doppler capability (vs) four-dimensional (4D) with spatiotemporal image correlation (STIC) in normal and growth restricted fetuses. 2D Doppler and 4D STIC were used to measure SV of 40 normal fetuses at 20 to 22 and 28 to 32 weeks, and 16 growth-restricted fetuses at 26 to 34 weeks of gestation. Intraclass correlation was used to evaluate the agreement between left and right SV obtained by the two techniques, and proportionate Bland-Altman plots constructed. The time necessary to obtain SV was analyzed. The intraclass correlation coefficient between 2D Doppler and 4D STIC measurements for the left ventricle were 0.977 and 0.980 for the right ventricle. The proportionate limits of agreement between the two methods were 18.7 to 23.9% for the left ventricle and - 20.9 to 21.7% for the right ventricle. The time necessary to measure SV was significantly shorter with 4D STIC (3.1 (vs) 7.9 min p < 0.0001) than with 2D Doppler. There is a good agreement between SV measured either by 2D Doppler or by 4D STIC. The 4D STIC represents a simple and rapid technique to estimate fetal SV and promises to become the method of choice. Copyright (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Model experiments on imaging subsurface fracture permeability by pulsed Doppler borehole televiewer; Pulse doppler borehole televiewer ni yoru kiretsu tosuisei hyoka ni kansuru model jikken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inagaki, Y; Niitsuma, H [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-05-01

    This paper reports model experiments to evaluate flow rates of fluids passing through a fracture by using a Doppler borehole televiewer (DBHTV). A supersonic transducer disposed on a well axis transmits transmission pulses, and a transducer receives scattered waves generated by particulates in water and waves reflected on a well wall. This signal is applied with time gating to extract only the scattered waves from particulates in the vicinity of the well wall. Deriving spectra in the recorded Doppler signal obtains flow velocity components in the direction of the well radius. A model was made with a polyvinylchloride pipe with a diameter of 14.6 cm to simulate a well, to which an aluminum pipe with an inner diameter of 2 mm is connected to be used as a simulated fracture, and mud water is circulated in the pipe. The result of deriving a passed flow volume in this model by integrating flow rate distribution derived by using the above method to a predetermined range in the vicinity of the fracture showed a good proportional relationship with actual flow rate in the simulated fracture. 1 ref., 7 figs.

  10. Automated assessment of joint synovitis activity from medical ultrasound and power doppler examinations using image processing and machine learning methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafal Cupek

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : Rheumatoid arthritis is the most common rheumatic disease with arthritis, and causes substantial functional disability in approximately 50% patients after 10 years. Accurate measurement of the disease activity is crucial to provide an adequate treatment and care to the patients. The aim of this study is focused on a computer aided diagnostic system that supports an assessment of synovitis severity. Material and methods : This paper focus on a computer aided diagnostic system that was developed within joint Polish–Norwegian research project related to the automated assessment of the severity of synovitis. Semiquantitative ultrasound with power Doppler is a reliable and widely used method of assessing synovitis. Synovitis is estimated by ultrasound examiner using the scoring system graded from 0 to 3. Activity score is estimated on the basis of the examiner’s experience or standardized ultrasound atlases. The method needs trained medical personnel and the result can be affected by a human error. Results : The porotype of a computer-aided diagnostic system and algorithms essential for an analysis of ultrasonic images of finger joints are main scientific output of the MEDUSA project. Medusa Evaluation System prototype uses bone, skin, joint and synovitis area detectors for mutual structural model based evaluation of synovitis. Finally, several algorithms that support the semi-automatic or automatic detection of the bone region were prepared as well as a system that uses the statistical data processing approach in order to automatically localize the regions of interest. Conclusions : Semiquantitative ultrasound with power Doppler is a reliable and widely used method of assessing synovitis. Activity score is estimated on the basis of the examiner’s experience and the result can be affected by a human error. In this paper we presented the MEDUSA project which is focused on a computer aided diagnostic system that supports an

  11. Role of tissue harmonic imaging in characterization of cystic renallesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammed, A.; Sandhu, Manavjit S.; Lal, A.; Sodhi, Kushaljit S.; Sud, K.; Kohli, Harbir S.

    2008-01-01

    Objective was to determine the utility of tissue harmonic imaging inevaluating cystic renal lesions and to compare these findings withconventional ultrasound guidance (USG) and CT. Thirty patients, detected withcystic renal lesions on routine USG (over a period of 18 months from July2004 to December 2005) at the Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education andResearch Chandigarh, Chandigarh, India) were included in this study. Allpatients underwent a conventional gray scale ultrasound study (GSI), followedby tissue harmonic imaging (THI) sonography on the same machine (advancetechnology limited high definition imaging 5000). Computed tomography ofabdomen was carried out within one week of the ultrasound examinations. Allimages were evaluated for size, number and location of lesions. The findingsof THI sonography, conventional USG and CT of abdomen were recorded in theirrespective proformas. The images obtained by GSI, THI and contrast enhancedCT were also evaluated for image, quality, lesion conspicuity and fluid-soliddifferentiation. Tissue harmonic imaging showed better image quality in 27 of34 lesions, improvement in lesion conspicuity was found in 27 of 34 cysticlesions and an improved solid-fluid differentiation in 30 of 34 lesions whencompared to GSI. The THI provided additional information as compared to GSIin 8 patients. The grading of CT scan was significantly higher in overallimage quality (p=0.007) and lesion conspicuity (p=0.004), but wasnon-significant for fluid-solid differentiation (p=0.23). Tissue harmonicimaging provides better image quality, lesion delineation and superiorcharacterization than conventional gray scale sonography. (author)

  12. Continuous wave terahertz reflection imaging of human colorectal tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doradla, Pallavi; Alavi, Karim; Joseph, Cecil S.; Giles, Robert H.

    2013-03-01

    Continuous wave terahertz (THz) imaging has the potential to offer a safe, non-ionizing, and nondestructive medical imaging modality for delineating colorectal cancer. Fresh excisions of normal colon tissue were obtained from surgeries performed at the University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester. Reflection measurements of thick sections of colorectal tissues, mounted in an aluminum sample holder, were obtained for both fresh and formalin fixed tissues. The two-dimensional reflection images were acquired by using an optically pumped far-infrared molecular gas laser operating at 584 GHz with liquid Helium cooled silicon bolometer detector. Using polarizers in the experiment both co-polarized and cross-polarized remittance form the samples was collected. Analysis of the images showed the importance of understanding the effects of formalin fixation while determining reflectance level of tissue response. The resulting co- and cross-polarized images of both normal and formalin fixed tissues showed uniform terahertz response over the entire sample area. Initial measurements indicated a co-polarized reflectance of 16%, and a cross-polarized reflectance of 0.55% from fresh excisions of normal colonic tissues.

  13. Quantitative imaging of single upconversion nanoparticles in biological tissue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annemarie Nadort

    Full Text Available The unique luminescent properties of new-generation synthetic nanomaterials, upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs, enabled high-contrast optical biomedical imaging by suppressing the crowded background of biological tissue autofluorescence and evading high tissue absorption. This raised high expectations on the UCNP utilities for intracellular and deep tissue imaging, such as whole animal imaging. At the same time, the critical nonlinear dependence of the UCNP luminescence on the excitation intensity results in dramatic signal reduction at (∼1 cm depth in biological tissue. Here, we report on the experimental and theoretical investigation of this trade-off aiming at the identification of optimal application niches of UCNPs e.g. biological liquids and subsurface tissue layers. As an example of such applications, we report on single UCNP imaging through a layer of hemolyzed blood. To extend this result towards in vivo applications, we quantified the optical properties of single UCNPs and theoretically analyzed the prospects of single-particle detectability in live scattering and absorbing bio-tissue using a human skin model. The model predicts that a single 70-nm UCNP would be detectable at skin depths up to 400 µm, unlike a hardly detectable single fluorescent (fluorescein dye molecule. UCNP-assisted imaging in the ballistic regime thus allows for excellent applications niches, where high sensitivity is the key requirement.

  14. Photoacoustic imaging in both soft and hard biological tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, T; Dewhurst, R J

    2010-01-01

    To date, most Photoacoustic (PA) imaging results have been from soft biotissues. In this study, a PA imaging system with a near-infrared pulsed laser source has been applied to obtain 2-D and 3-D images from both soft tissue and post-mortem dental samples. Imaging results showed that the PA technique has the potential to image human oral disease, such as early-stage teeth decay. For non-invasive photoacoustic imaging, the induced temperature and pressure rises within biotissues should not cause physical damage to the tissue. Several simulations based on the thermoelastic effect have been applied to predict initial temperature and pressure fields within a tooth sample. Predicted initial temperature and pressure rises are below corresponding safety limits.

  15. What's behind the mask? A look at blood flow changes with prolonged facial pressure and expression using laser Doppler imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van-Buendia, Lan B; Allely, Rebekah R; Lassiter, Ronald; Weinand, Christian; Jordan, Marion H; Jeng, James C

    2010-01-01

    Clinically, the initial blanching in burn scar seen on transparent plastic face mask application seems to diminish with time and movement requiring mask alteration. To date, studies quantifying perfusion with prolonged mask use do not exist. This study used laser Doppler imaging (LDI) to assess perfusion through the transparent face mask and movement in subjects with and without burn over time. Five subjects fitted with transparent face masks were scanned with the LDI on four occasions. The four subjects without burn were scanned in the following manner: 1) no mask, 2) mask on while at rest, 3) mask on with alternating intervals of sustained facial expression and rest, and 4) after mask removal. Images were acquired every 3 minutes throughout the 85-minute study period. The subject with burn underwent a shortened scanning protocol to increase comfort. Each face was divided into five regions of interest for analysis. Compared with baseline, mask application decreased perfusion significantly in all subjects (P mask removal, all regions of the face demonstrated a hyperemic effect with the chin (P = .05) and each cheek (P mask removal. Perfusions remain constantly low while wearing the face mask, despite changing facial expressions. Changing facial expressions with the mask on did not alter perfusion. Hyperemic response occurs on removal of the mask. This study exposed methodology and statistical issues worth considering when conducting future research with the face, pressure therapy, and with LDI technology.

  16. Evaluation of left ventricular function in obese children without hypertension by a tissue Doppler imaging study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yazdan Ghandi

    2018-01-01

    Conclusions : Obesity in children without hypertension is associated with subclinical systolic and diastolic cardiac dysfunction. We propose the evaluation of blood pressure as well as myocardial performance using PWD and TDI in all obese children without hypertension, regularly.

  17. Diastolic myocardial dysfunction by tissue Doppler imaging predicts mortality in patients with cerebral infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Flemming J; Jørgensen, Peter G; Møgelvang, Rasmus

    2015-01-01

    with cerebral infarction. Two hundred forty-four patients with cerebral infarction and subsequent echocardiographic examination in sinus rhythm were identified. Using TDI in three apical projections, longitudinal mitral annular velocities were obtained in six segments. Cox regression models, C...

  18. Total average diastolic longitudinal displacement by colour tissue doppler imaging as an assessment of diastolic function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Knegt, Martina Chantal; Biering-Sørensen, Tor; Søgaard, Peter

    2016-01-01

    of LD during early diastole and atrial contraction, can potentially be used as a simple and reliable alternative. METHODS: In 206 patients, using GE Healthcare Vivid E7 and 9 and Echopac BT11 software, we determined both diastolic LD, measured in the septal and lateral walls in the apical 4-chamber view...... by TDI, and the degree of diastolic dysfunction, based on current guidelines. Of these 206 patients, 157 had cardiac anomalies that could potentially affect diastolic LD such as severe systolic heart failure (n = 45), LV hypertrophy (n = 49), left ventricular (LV) dilation (n = 30), and mitral...... for the general discrimination of patients with or without diastolic dysfunction. Using linear regression, total average diastolic LD was estimated to fall by 2.4 mm for every increase in graded severity of diastolic dysfunction (β = -0.61, p-value

  19. Predicting Paroxysmal Atrial Fibrillation in Cerebrovascular Ischemia Using Tissue Doppler Imaging and Speckle Tracking Echocardiography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Flemming Javier; Jørgensen, Peter Godsk; Møgelvang, Rasmus

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Often the underlying cause of cerebral ischemia (CI) cannot be found during a routine diagnostic investigation, but paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (PAF) could be the culprit. AIM: The objective of the study is to investigate whether advanced echocardiography improves the diagnostic ap...

  20. Images of gravitational and magnetic phenomena derived from two-dimensional back-projection Doppler tomography of interacting binary stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richards, Mercedes T.; Cocking, Alexander S.; Fisher, John G.; Conover, Marshall J.

    2014-01-01

    We have used two-dimensional back-projection Doppler tomography as a tool to examine the influence of gravitational and magnetic phenomena in interacting binaries that undergo mass transfer from a magnetically active star onto a non-magnetic main-sequence star. This multitiered study of over 1300 time-resolved spectra of 13 Algol binaries involved calculations of the predicted dynamical behavior of the gravitational flow and the dynamics at the impact site, analysis of the velocity images constructed from tomography, and the influence on the tomograms of orbital inclination, systemic velocity, orbital coverage, and shadowing. The Hα tomograms revealed eight sources: chromospheric emission, a gas stream along the gravitational trajectory, a star-stream impact region, a bulge of absorption or emission around the mass-gaining star, a Keplerian accretion disk, an absorption zone associated with hotter gas, a disk-stream impact region, and a hot spot where the stream strikes the edge of a disk. We described several methods used to extract the physical properties of the emission sources directly from the velocity images, including S-wave analysis, the creation of simulated velocity tomograms from hydrodynamic simulations, and the use of synthetic spectra with tomography to sequentially extract the separate sources of emission from the velocity image. In summary, the tomography images have revealed results that cannot be explained solely by gravitational effects: chromospheric emission moving with the mass-losing star, a gas stream deflected from the gravitational trajectory, and alternating behavior between stream state and disk state. Our results demonstrate that magnetic effects cannot be ignored in these interacting binaries.

  1. Image-based characterization of foamed polymeric tissue scaffolds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mather, Melissa L; Morgan, Stephen P; Crowe, John A; White, Lisa J; Shakesheff, Kevin M; Tai, Hongyun; Howdle, Steven M; Kockenberger, Walter

    2008-01-01

    Tissue scaffolds are integral to many regenerative medicine therapies, providing suitable environments for tissue regeneration. In order to assess their suitability, methods to routinely and reproducibly characterize scaffolds are needed. Scaffold structures are typically complex, and thus their characterization is far from trivial. The work presented in this paper is centred on the application of the principles of scaffold characterization outlined in guidelines developed by ASTM International. Specifically, this work demonstrates the capabilities of different imaging modalities and analysis techniques used to characterize scaffolds fabricated from poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) using supercritical carbon dioxide. Three structurally different scaffolds were used. The scaffolds were imaged using: scanning electron microscopy, micro x-ray computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and terahertz pulsed imaging. In each case two-dimensional images were obtained from which scaffold properties were determined using image processing. The findings of this work highlight how the chosen imaging modality and image-processing technique can influence the results of scaffold characterization. It is concluded that in order to obtain useful results from image-based scaffold characterization, an imaging methodology providing sufficient contrast and resolution must be used along with robust image segmentation methods to allow intercomparison of results

  2. Detection of Breast Microcalcifications Under Ultrasound Using Power Doppler and Acoustic Resonance Imaging

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Weinstein, Susan

    2003-01-01

    .... Our goal with our current project was to utilize breast sonography coupled with the technique of acoustic resonance to image and evaluate the breast micorcalcifications in patients prior to biopsy...

  3. NMR imaging of cell phone radiation absorption in brain tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gultekin, David H.; Moeller, Lothar

    2013-01-01

    A method is described for measuring absorbed electromagnetic energy radiated from cell phone antennae into ex vivo brain tissue. NMR images the 3D thermal dynamics inside ex vivo bovine brain tissue and equivalent gel under exposure to power and irradiation time-varying radio frequency (RF) fields. The absorbed RF energy in brain tissue converts into Joule heat and affects the nuclear magnetic shielding and the Larmor precession. The resultant temperature increase is measured by the resonance frequency shift of hydrogen protons in brain tissue. This proposed application of NMR thermometry offers sufficient spatial and temporal resolution to characterize the hot spots from absorbed cell phone radiation in aqueous media and biological tissues. Specific absorption rate measurements averaged over 1 mg and 10 s in the brain tissue cover the total absorption volume. Reference measurements with fiber optic temperature sensors confirm the accuracy of the NMR thermometry. PMID:23248293

  4. Thyroid perfusion imaging as a diagnostic tool in Graves' disease. Arterial spin labeling magnetic resonance imaging vs. colour-coded Doppler ultrasound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muessig, K. [University Hospital of Duesseldorf (Germany). Dept. of Metabolic Diseases; Leibniz Center for Diabetes Research, Duesseldorf (Germany). Inst. for Clinical Diabetology; University Hospital of Tuebingen (Germany). Div. of Endocrinology, Diabetes, Nephrology, Angiology, and Clinical Chemistry; Schraml, C.; Schwenzer, N.F. [University Hospital of Tuebingen (Germany). Dept. of Radiology, Section on Experimental Radiology; University Hospital of Tuebingen (Germany). Dept. of Radiology, Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology; Rietig, R.; Balletshofer, B. [University Hospital of Tuebingen (Germany). Div. of Endocrinology, Diabetes, Nephrology, Angiology, and Clinical Chemistry; Martirosian, P.; Haering, H.U.; Schick, F. [University Hospital of Tuebingen (Germany). Dept. of Radiology, Section on Experimental Radiology; Claussen, C.D. [University Hospital of Tuebingen (Germany). Dept. of Radiology, Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology

    2012-12-15

    Purpose: Though increased thyroid perfusion assessed by colour-coded Doppler ultrasound (CDUS) is characteristic of Graves' disease (GD), sometimes perfusion assessment by CDUS is not possible. In these cases, arterial spin labelling (ASL), a novel magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique allowing non-invasive thyroid perfusion quantification, may have additional diagnostic value. We aimed to evaluate the potential of ASL-MRI for assessment of increased blood perfusion in patients with GD compared to CDUS. Materials and Methods: Thyroid perfusion was measured by CDUS (volume flow rate calculated from pulsed wave Doppler signals and vessel diameter) and ASL-MRI at 1.5 T in 7 patients with GD and 10 healthy controls. Results: In patients with GD, average perfusion in both thyroid lobes was markedly increased compared to controls. Both techniques applied for volume related perfusion as well as absolute volume flow in thyroid feeding vessels provided similar results (all p = 0.0008). Using a cut-off value of 22 ml/min for the volume flow rate assessed by CDUS in the four feeding vessels allowed discrimination between patients with GD and controls in all cases. After adjusting thyroid perfusion for the differences in organ volume, both CDUS and ASL revealed also complete discrimination between health and disease. Conclusion: Thyroid perfusion measurement by ASL-MRI reliably discriminate GD from normal thyroid glands. In patients in whom thyroid arteries cannot be depicted by CDUS for technical or anatomical reasons, ASL-MRI may have additional diagnostic value. (orig.)

  5. Interactive classification and content-based retrieval of tissue images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksoy, Selim; Marchisio, Giovanni B.; Tusk, Carsten; Koperski, Krzysztof

    2002-11-01

    We describe a system for interactive classification and retrieval of microscopic tissue images. Our system models tissues in pixel, region and image levels. Pixel level features are generated using unsupervised clustering of color and texture values. Region level features include shape information and statistics of pixel level feature values. Image level features include statistics and spatial relationships of regions. To reduce the gap between low-level features and high-level expert knowledge, we define the concept of prototype regions. The system learns the prototype regions in an image collection using model-based clustering and density estimation. Different tissue types are modeled using spatial relationships of these regions. Spatial relationships are represented by fuzzy membership functions. The system automatically selects significant relationships from training data and builds models which can also be updated using user relevance feedback. A Bayesian framework is used to classify tissues based on these models. Preliminary experiments show that the spatial relationship models we developed provide a flexible and powerful framework for classification and retrieval of tissue images.

  6. A photoacoustic tomography system for imaging of biological tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Yixiong; Zhang Fan; Xu Kexin; Yao Jianquan; Wang, Ruikang K

    2005-01-01

    Non-invasive laser-induced photoacoustic tomography (PAT) is a promising imaging modality in the biomedical optical imaging field. This technology, based on the intrinsic optical properties of tissue and ultrasonic detection, overcomes the resolution disadvantage of pure-optical imaging caused by strong light scattering and the contrast and speckle disadvantages of pure ultrasonic imaging. Here, we report a PAT experimental system constructed in our laboratory. In our system, a Q-switched Nd : YAG pulse laser operated at 532 nm with a 8 ns pulse width is used to generate a photoacoustic signal. By using this system, the two-dimensional distribution of optical absorption in the tissue-mimicking phantom is reconstructed and has an excellent agreement with the original ones. The spatial resolution of the imaging system approaches 100 μm through about 4 cm of highly scattering medium

  7. Imaging of soft tissue malignant fibrous histiocytoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jemni, H.; Bakir, D.; Ben Ahmed, S.; Kraiem, C.; Mrad Dali, K.; Tlili-Graiess, K.; Mnif, Z.; Jeddi, M.

    1996-01-01

    Malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH) is a rare and potentially highly malignant sarcoma. The authors report 6 cases of MFH in various sites : two in the chest wall, one in the pelvis, two in the gluteal zones and one on the scalp. Ultrasonography and computed tomography were the main imaging methods used in the assessment of the structure and extension of the tumor. A poor prognosis was noted in four cases: death within a few months in the two thoracic sites, recurrence in the pelvic and scalp lesions, radical surgery allowed recovery in two cases. A review of the literature showed that MRI and CT are complementary in the initial staging and follow-up these patients. (author)

  8. Fluorescent imaging of cancerous tissues for targeted surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Lihong; Shen, Baozhong; Cheng, Zhen

    2014-01-01

    To maximize tumor excision and minimize collateral damage is the primary goal of cancer surgery. Emerging molecular imaging techniques have to “image-guided surgery” developing into “molecular imaging-guided surgery”, which is termed “targeted surgery” in this review. Consequently, the precision of surgery can be advanced from tissue-scale to molecule-scale, enabling “targeted surgery” to be a component of “targeted therapy”. Evidence from numerous experimental and clinical studies has demonstrated significant benefits of fluorescent imaging in targeted surgery with preoperative molecular diagnostic screening. Fluorescent imaging can help to improve intraoperative staging and enable more radical cytoreduction, detect obscure tumor lesions in special organs, highlight tumor margins, better map lymph node metastases, and identify important normal structures intraoperatively. Though limited tissue penetration of fluorescent imaging and tumor heterogeneity are two major hurdles for current targeted surgery, multimodality imaging and multiplex imaging may provide potential solutions to overcome these issues, respectively. Moreover, though many fluorescent imaging techniques and probes have been investigated, targeted surgery remains at a proof-of-principle stage. The impact of fluorescent imaging on cancer surgery will likely be realized through persistent interdisciplinary amalgamation of research in diverse fields. PMID:25064553

  9. First cosmic-ray images of bone and soft tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrdja, Dusan; Bikit, Istvan; Bikit, Kristina; Slivka, Jaroslav; Hansman, Jan; Oláh, László; Varga, Dezső

    2016-11-01

    More than 120 years after Roentgen's first X-ray image, the first cosmic-ray muon images of bone and soft tissue are created. The pictures, shown in the present paper, represent the first radiographies of structures of organic origin ever recorded by cosmic rays. This result is achieved by a uniquely designed, simple and versatile cosmic-ray muon-imaging system, which consists of four plastic scintillation detectors and a muon tracker. This system does not use scattering or absorption of muons in order to deduct image information, but takes advantage of the production rate of secondaries in the target materials, detected in coincidence with muons. The 2D image slices of cow femur bone are obtained at several depths along the bone axis, together with the corresponding 3D image. Real organic soft tissue, polymethyl methacrylate and water, never seen before by any other muon imaging techniques, are also registered in the images. Thus, similar imaging systems, placed around structures of organic or inorganic origin, can be used for tomographic imaging using only the omnipresent cosmic radiation.

  10. Effects on MR images compression in tissue classification quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santalla, H; Meschino, G; Ballarin, V

    2007-01-01

    It is known that image compression is required to optimize the storage in memory. Moreover, transmission speed can be significantly improved. Lossless compression is used without controversy in medicine, though benefits are limited. If we compress images lossy, where image can not be totally recovered; we can only recover an approximation. In this point definition of 'quality' is essential. What we understand for 'quality'? How can we evaluate a compressed image? Quality in images is an attribute whit several definitions and interpretations, which actually depend on the posterior use we want to give them. This work proposes a quantitative analysis of quality for lossy compressed Magnetic Resonance (MR) images, and their influence in automatic tissue classification, accomplished with these images

  11. Three-dimensional CT imaging of soft-tissue anatomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fishman, E.K.; Ney, D.R.; Magid, D.; Kuhlman, J.E.

    1988-01-01

    Three-dimensional display of computed tomographic data has been limited to skeletal structures. This was in part related to the reconstruction algorithm used, which relied on a binary classification scheme. A new algorithm, volumetric rendering with percentage classification, provides the ability to display three-dimensional images of muscle and soft tissue. A review was conducted of images in 35 cases in which muscle and/or soft tissue were part of the clinical problem. In all cases, individual muscle groups could be clearly identified and discriminated. Branching vessels in the range of 2.3 mm could be identified. Similarly, lymph nodes could be clearly defined. High-resolution three-dimensional images were found to be useful both in providing an increased understanding of complex muscle and soft tissue anatomy and in surgical planning

  12. Imaging of oral pathological tissue using optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canjau, Silvana; Todea, Carmen; Sinescu, Cosmin; Duma, Virgil-Florin; Topala, Florin I.; Podoleanu, Adrian G.

    2014-01-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) constitutes 90% of oral cancer. Early detection is a cornerstone to improve survival. Interaction of light with tissues may highlight changes in tissue structure and metabolism. We propose optical coherence tomography (OCT), as a non-invasive diagnosis method, being a new high-resolution optical technique that permits tri-dimensional (3-D), real-time imaging of near surface abnormalities in complex tissues. In this study half of the excisional biopsy was directed to the pathologist and the other half was assigned for OCT investigation. Histopathology validated the results. Areas of OSCC of the buccal mucosa were identified in the OCT images. The elements obserced included extensive epithelial down-growth, the disruption of the basement membrane, with areas of erosion, an epithelial layer that was highly variable in thickness and invasion into the sub-epithelial layers. Therefore, OCT appears to be a highly promising imaging modality.

  13. Longitudinal microvascularity in achilles tendinopathy (power doppler ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging time-intensity curves and the Victorian Institute of Sport Assessment-Achilles questionnaire): a pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richards, Paula J.; McCall, Iain W.; Day, Christopher; Belcher, John; Maffulli, Nicola

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the imaging of the natural history of Achilles tendinopathy microvascularisation in comparison with symptoms, using a validated disease-specific questionnaire [the Victorian Institute of Sport Assessment-Achilles (VISA-A)]. A longitudinal prospective pilot study of nine patients with post-contrast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), time-intensity curve (TIC) enhancement, ultrasound (US) and power Doppler (PD) evaluation of tendinopathy of the mid-Achilles tendon undergoing conservative management (eccentric exercise) over 1 year. There were five men and four women [mean age 47 (range 30-62) years]. Six asymptomatic tendons with normal US and MRI appearance showed less enhancement than the tibial metaphysis did and showed a flat, constant, but very low rate of enhancement in the bone and Achilles tendon (9-73 arbitrary TIC units). These normal Achilles tendons on imaging showed a constant size throughout the year (mean 4.9 mm). At baseline the TIC enhancement in those with tendinopathy ranged from 90 arbitrary units to 509 arbitrary units. Over time, 11 abnormal Achilles tendons, whose symptoms settled, were associated with a reduction in MRI enhancement mirrored by a reduction in the number of vessels on power Doppler (8.0 to 2.7), with an improvement in morphology and a reduction in tendon size (mean 15-10.6 mm). One tendon did not change its abnormal imaging features, despite improving symptoms. Two patients developed contralateral symptoms and tendinopathy, and one had more abnormal vascularity on power Doppler and higher MRI TIC peaks in the asymptomatic side. In patient with conservatively managed tendinopathy of the mid-Achilles tendon over 1 year there was a reduction of MRI enhancement and number of vessels on power Doppler, followed by morphological improvements and a reduction in size. Vessels per se related to the abnormal morphology and size of the tendon rather than symptoms. Symptoms improve before the Achilles size reduces and the

  14. State-of-the-art HR-US imaging findings of the most frequent musculoskeletal soft-tissue tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widmann, Gerlig; Riedl, Andreas; Schoepf, Daniel; Glodny, Bernhard; Peer, Siegfried; Gruber, Hannes

    2009-01-01

    High resolution ultrasound (HR-US) including color Doppler ultrasound (CD-US), power Doppler ultrasound (PD-US), and spectral wave analysis (SWA), is a broadly available, non-invasive and relatively low-cost modality without ionizing radiation. It is increasingly used for initial assessment of an ambiguous musculoskeletal soft-tissue lesion and for sonographically guided core biopsy. The aim of this review is to provide sonographic findings of the most frequent benign and malign soft-tissue lesions. By this essay, we can show that combined with clinical features, with information on tumor-localization and patient age, many musculoskeletal lesions may be successfully characterized by HR-US. In contrast, a mere morphologic assignment of some fibrous tumors and malignant lesions remains often impossible; however, certain CD-US signs such as anarchic vascular architecture or arteriovenous shunting may be very helpful indicators for malignancy. HR-US offers a simple, quick, and reliable first-line examination of musculoskeletal soft-tissue lesions and may have an important role in the diagnostic work-up followed by magnetic resonance or multimodality imaging and guided core biopsy. (orig.)

  15. Microwave non-contact imaging of subcutaneous human body tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kletsov, Andrey; Chernokalov, Alexander; Khripkov, Alexander; Cho, Jaegeol; Druchinin, Sergey

    2015-10-01

    A small-size microwave sensor is developed for non-contact imaging of a human body structure in 2D, enabling fitness and health monitoring using mobile devices. A method for human body tissue structure imaging is developed and experimentally validated. Subcutaneous fat tissue reconstruction depth of up to 70 mm and maximum fat thickness measurement error below 2 mm are demonstrated by measurements with a human body phantom and human subjects. Electrically small antennas are developed for integration of the microwave sensor into a mobile device. Usability of the developed microwave sensor for fitness applications, healthcare, and body weight management is demonstrated.

  16. Whole slide imaging of unstained tissue using lensfree microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morel, Sophie Nhu An; Hervé, Lionel; Bordy, Thomas; Cioni, Olivier; Delon, Antoine; Fromentin, Catherine; Dinten, Jean-Marc; Allier, Cédric

    2016-04-01

    Pathologist examination of tissue slides provides insightful information about a patient's disease. Traditional analysis of tissue slides is performed under a binocular microscope, which requires staining of the sample and delays the examination. We present a simple cost-effective lensfree imaging method to record 2-4μm resolution wide-field (10 mm2 to 6 cm2) images of unstained tissue slides. The sample processing time is reduced as there is no need for staining. A wide field of view (10 mm2) lensfree hologram is recorded in a single shot and the image is reconstructed in 2s providing a very fast acquisition chain. The acquisition is multispectral, i.e. multiple holograms are recorded simultaneously at three different wavelengths, and a dedicated holographic reconstruction algorithm is used to retrieve both amplitude and phase. Whole tissue slides imaging is obtained by recording 130 holograms with X-Y translation stages and by computing the mosaic of a 25 x 25 mm2 reconstructed image. The reconstructed phase provides a phase-contrast-like image of the unstained specimen, revealing structures of healthy and diseased tissue. Slides from various organs can be reconstructed, e.g. lung, colon, ganglion, etc. To our knowledge, our method is the first technique that enables fast wide-field lensfree imaging of such unlabeled dense samples. This technique is much cheaper and compact than a conventional phase contrast microscope and could be made portable. In sum, we present a new methodology that could quickly provide useful information when a rapid diagnosis is needed, such as tumor margin identification on frozen section biopsies during surgery.

  17. Chromospherically active stars. III - HD 26337 = EI Eri: An RS CVn candidate for the Doppler-imaging technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fekel, Francis C.; Quigley, Robert; Gillies, Kim; Africano, John L.

    1987-01-01

    Spectroscopic observations of the chromospherically active G5 IV single-lined binary HD 26337 = EI Eri are presented. An orbital period of 1.94722 days is found for the star. It has moderately strong Ca II H and K emission and strong ultraviolet emission features, while H-alpha is a weak absorption feature that is variable in strength. The inclination of the system is 46 + or - 12 deg, and the unseen secondary is probably a late K or early M dwarf. The v sin i of the primary is 50 + or - 3 km/s, resulting in a minimum radius of 1.9 + or - 0.1 solar radius. The star is within the required limits for Doppler imaging. The primary is close to filling its Roche lobe, resulting in a strong constraint that the mass ratio is 2.6 or greater, with a primary mass of at least 1.4 solar mass. The distance to the system is estimated at 75 pc.

  18. Study on Water Distribution Imaging in the Sand Using Propagation Velocity of Sound with Scanning Laser Doppler Vibrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Tsuneyoshi; Nakagawa, Yutaka; Shirakawa, Takashi; Sano, Motoaki; Ohaba, Motoyoshi; Shibusawa, Sakae

    2013-07-01

    We propose a method for the monitoring and imaging of the water distribution in the rooting zone of plants using sound vibration. In this study, the water distribution measurement in the horizontal and vertical directions in the soil layer was examined to confirm whether a temporal change in the volume water content of the soil could be estimated from a temporal changes in propagation velocity. A scanning laser Doppler vibrometer (SLDV) is used for measurement of the vibration velocity of the soil surface, because the highly precise vibration velocity measurement of several many points can be carried out automatically. Sand with a uniform particle size distribution is used for the soil, as it has high plasticity; that is, the sand can return to a dry state easily even if it is soaked with water. A giant magnetostriction vibrator or a flat speaker is used as a sound source. Also, a soil moisture sensor, which measures the water content of the soil using the electric permittivity, is installed in the sand. From the experimental results of the vibration measurement and soil moisture sensors, we can confirm that the temporal changes of the water distribution in sand using the negative pressure irrigation system in both the horizontal and vertical directions can be estimated using the propagation velocity of sound. Therefore, in the future, we plan to develop an insertion-type sound source and receiver using the acceleration sensors, and we intend to examine whether our method can be applied even in commercial soil with growing plants.

  19. Ultrasound assessed thickness of burn scars in association with laser Doppler imaging determined depth of burns in paediatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xue-Qing; Mill, Julie; Kravchuk, Olena; Kimble, Roy M

    2010-12-01

    This study describes the ultrasound assessment of burn scars in paediatric patients and the association of these scar thickness with laser Doppler imaging (LDI) determined burn depth. A total of 60 ultrasound scar assessments were conducted on 33 scars from 21 paediatric burn patients at 3, 6 and 9 months after-burn. The mean of peak scar thickness was 0.39±0.032 cm, with the thickest at 6 months (0.40±0.036 cm). There were 17 scald burn scars (0.34±0.045 cm), 4 contact burn scars (0.61±0.092 cm), and 10 flame burn scars (0.42±0.058 cm). Each group of scars followed normal distributions. Twenty-three scars had original burns successfully scanned by LDI and various depths of burns were presented by different colours according to blood perfusion units (PU), with dark blue burns, with the thinnest scars for green coloured burns and the thickest for dark blue coloured burns. Within light blue burns, grafted burns healed with significantly thinner scars than non-grafted burns. This study indicates that LDI can be used for predicting the risk of hypertrophic scarring and for guiding burn care. To our knowledge, this is the first study to correlate the thickness of burns scars by ultrasound scan with burn depth determined by LDI. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  20. Thermospheric winds in the auroral oval: observations of small scale structures and rapid fluctuations by a Doppler imaging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batten, S.; Rees, D.

    1990-01-01

    At high geomagnetic latitudes, thermospheric wind flows are dramatically affected by the combined effects of magnetospheric ion convection and Joule and particle heating. Thermospheric winds have been observed by ground based and space-borne Fabry-Perot interferometers (FPIs). Short period, localized wind fluctuations have always been difficult to resolve with a conventional FPI, due to the limited time and spatial resolution. However, the highest quality wind data obtained by these instruments from the middle and upper thermosphere have implied that thermospheric winds may respond to the combination of strong local ion drag forcing and heating within the auroral oval and polar cap, with spatial scale sizes of 50-500 km, and with time scales as short as 10-30 min. Since the 1982/1983 winter, a prototype Doppler Imaging System (DIS) has been operated at Kiruna (67.84 0 N, 20.42 0 E). This instrument maps thermospheric wind flows over a region some 500 km in diameter centred on Kiruna and has observed many interesting features in the thermospheric wind fields. In particular, strong local wind gradients, rapid wind reversals and small scale structures are regularly observed, particularly during geomagnetically disturbed nights. (author)

  1. Repeatability, Reproducibility and Standardisation of a Laser Doppler Imaging Technique for the Evaluation of Normal Mouse Hindlimb Perfusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Brunetti

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Preclinical perfusion studies are useful for the improvement of diagnosis and therapy in dermatologic, cardiovascular and rheumatic human diseases. The Laser Doppler Perfusion Imaging (LDPI technique has been used to evaluate superficial alterations of the skin microcirculation in surgically induced murine hindlimb ischemia. We assessed the reproducibility and the accuracy of LDPI acquisitions and identified several critical factors that could affect LDPI measurements in mice. Methods. Twenty mice were analysed. Statistical standardisation and a repeatability and reproducibility analysis were performed on mouse perfusion signals with respect to differences in body temperature, the presence or absence of hair, the type of anaesthesia used for LDPI measurements and the position of the mouse body. Results. We found excellent correlations among measurements made by the same operator (i.e., repeatability under the same experimental conditions and by two different operators (i.e., reproducibility. A Bland-Altman analysis showed the absence of bias in repeatability (p = 0.29 or reproducibility (p = 0.89. The limits of agreement for repeatability were –0.357 and –0.033, and for reproducibility, they were –0.270 and 0.238. Significant differences in perfusion values were observed in different experimental groups. Conclusions. Different experimental conditions must be considered as a starting point for the evaluation of new drugs and strategic therapies.

  2. Hard X-ray Microscopic Imaging Of Human Breast Tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung H.; Kim, Hong T.; Kim, Jong K.; Jheon, Sang H.; Youn, Hwa S.

    2007-01-01

    X-ray microscopy with synchrotron radiation will be a useful tool for innovation of x-ray imaging in clinical and laboratory settings. It helps us observe detailed internal structure of material samples non-invasively in air. And, it also has the potential to solve some tough problems of conventional breast imaging if it could evaluate various conditions of breast tissue effectively. A new hard x-ray microscope with a spatial resolution better than 100 nm was installed at Pohang Light Source, a third generation synchrotron radiation facility in Pohang, Korea. The x-ray energy was set at 6.95 keV, and the x-ray beam was monochromatized by W/B4C monochromator. Condenser and objective zone plates were used as x-ray lenses. Zernike phase plate next to condenser zone plate was introduced for improved contrast imaging. The image of a sample was magnified 30 times by objective zone plate and 20 times by microscope objective, respectively. After additional 10 times digital magnification, the total magnifying power was up to 6000 times in the end. Phase contrast synchrotron images of 10-μm-thick female breast tissue of the normal, fibroadenoma, fibrocystic change and carcinoma cases were obtained. By phase contrast imaging, hard x-rays enable us to observe many structures of breast tissue without sample preparations such as staining or fixation.

  3. Hard X-ray Microscopic Imaging Of Human Breast Tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sung H.; Kim, Hong T.; Kim, Jong K.; Jheon, Sang H.; Youn, Hwa S.

    2007-01-01

    X-ray microscopy with synchrotron radiation will be a useful tool for innovation of x-ray imaging in clinical and laboratory settings. It helps us observe detailed internal structure of material samples non-invasively in air. And, it also has the potential to solve some tough problems of conventional breast imaging if it could evaluate various conditions of breast tissue effectively. A new hard x-ray microscope with a spatial resolution better than 100 nm was installed at Pohang Light Source, a third generation synchrotron radiation facility in Pohang, Korea. The x-ray energy was set at 6.95 keV, and the x-ray beam was monochromatized by W/B4C monochromator. Condenser and objective zone plates were used as x-ray lenses. Zernike phase plate next to condenser zone plate was introduced for improved contrast imaging. The image of a sample was magnified 30 times by objective zone plate and 20 times by microscope objective, respectively. After additional 10 times digital magnification, the total magnifying power was up to 6000 times in the end. Phase contrast synchrotron images of 10-μm-thick female breast tissue of the normal, fibroadenoma, fibrocystic change and carcinoma cases were obtained. By phase contrast imaging, hard x-rays enable us to observe many structures of breast tissue without sample preparations such as staining or fixation

  4. Pitfalls in soft tissue sarcoma imaging: chronic expanding hematomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahed, Kiarash; Khazai, Behnaz; Umpierrez, Monica; Subhawong, Ty K; Singer, Adam D

    2018-01-01

    Solid or nodular enhancement is typical of soft tissue sarcomas although high grade soft tissue sarcomas and those with internal hemorrhage often appear heterogeneous with areas of nonenhancement and solid or nodular enhancement. These MRI findings often prompt an orthopedic oncology referral, a biopsy or surgery. However, not all masses with these imaging findings are malignant. We report the multimodality imaging findings of two surgically proven chronic expanding hematomas (CEH) with imaging features that mimicked sarcomas. A third case of nonenhancing CEH of the lower extremity is also presented as a comparison. It is important that in the correct clinical scenario with typical imaging findings, the differential diagnosis of a chronic expanding hematoma be included in the workup of these patients. An image-guided biopsy of nodular tissue within such masses that proves to be negative for malignancy should not necessarily be considered discordant. A correct diagnosis may prevent a morbid unnecessary surgery and may indicate the need for a conservative noninvasive follow-up with imaging.

  5. Experimental and numerical investigation of tissue harmonic imaging (THI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Yuan; Yang, Xinmai; Cleveland, Robin O.

    2003-04-01

    In THI the probing ultrasonic pulse has enough amplitude that it undergoes nonlinear distortion and energy shifts from the fundamental frequency of the pulse into its higher harmonics. Images generated from the second harmonic (SH) have superior quality to the images formed from the fundamental frequency. Experiments with a single element focused ultrasound transducer were used to compare a line target embedded in a tissue phantom using either fundamental or SH imaging. SH imaging showed an improvement in both the axial resolution (0.70 mm vs 0.92 mm) and the lateral resolution (1.02 mm vs 2.70 mm) of the target. In addition, the contrast-to-tissue ratio of the target was 2 dB higher with SH imaging. A three-dimensional model of the forward propagation has been developed to simulate the experimental system. The model is based on a time-domain code for solving the KZK equation and accounts for arbitrary spatial variations in all tissue properties. The code was used to determine the impact of a nearfield layer of fat on the fundamental and second harmonic signals. For a 15 mm thick layer the SH side-lobes remained the same but the fundamental side-lobes increased by 2 dB. [Work supported by the NSF through the Center for Subsurface Sensing and Imaging Systems.

  6. Stellar magnetometry and Zeeman-Doppler imaging in exo-planets research using the radial velocity method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hebrard, Elodie

    2015-01-01

    Forthcoming instruments dedicated to exo-planets detection through the radial velocity method are numerous, and increasingly more accurate. However this method is indirect: orbiting planets are detected and characterised from variations on the spectrum of the host star. We are therefore sensitive to all activity phenomena impacting the spectrum and producing a radial velocity signal (pulsation, granulation, spots, magnetic cycle...). The detection of rocky Earth-like planets around main-sequence stars, and of hot Jupiters into young systems, are currently limited by the intrinsic magnetic activity of the host stars. The radial velocity fluctuations caused by activity (activity jitter) can easily mimic and hide signals from such planets, whose amplitude is of a few m/s and hundreds of m/s, respectively. As a result, the detection threshold of exo-planets is largely set by the stellar activity level. Currently, efforts are invested to overcome this intrinsic limitation. During my PhD, I studied how to take advantage of imaging tomographic techniques (Zeeman-Doppler imaging, ZDI) to characterize stellar activity and magnetic field topologies, ultimately allowing us to filter out the activity jitter. My work is based on spectro-polarimetric observations of a sample of weakly-active M-dwarfs, and young active T Tauri stars. Using a modified version of ZDI, we are able to reconstruct the distribution of active regions, and then model the induced stellar signal allowing us to clean RV curves from the activity jitter. First tests demonstrate that this technique can be efficient enough to recover the planet signal, especially for the more active ones. (author)

  7. Novel instrumentation of multispectral imaging technology for detecting tissue abnormity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Dingrong; Kong, Linghua

    2012-10-01

    Multispectral imaging is becoming a powerful tool in a wide range of biological and clinical studies by adding spectral, spatial and temporal dimensions to visualize tissue abnormity and the underlying biological processes. A conventional spectral imaging system includes two physically separated major components: a band-passing selection device (such as liquid crystal tunable filter and diffraction grating) and a scientific-grade monochromatic camera, and is expensive and bulky. Recently micro-arrayed narrow-band optical mosaic filter was invented and successfully fabricated to reduce the size and cost of multispectral imaging devices in order to meet the clinical requirement for medical diagnostic imaging applications. However the challenging issue of how to integrate and place the micro filter mosaic chip to the targeting focal plane, i.e., the imaging sensor, of an off-shelf CMOS/CCD camera is not reported anywhere. This paper presents the methods and results of integrating such a miniaturized filter with off-shelf CMOS imaging sensors to produce handheld real-time multispectral imaging devices for the application of early stage pressure ulcer (ESPU) detection. Unlike conventional multispectral imaging devices which are bulky and expensive, the resulting handheld real-time multispectral ESPU detector can produce multiple images at different center wavelengths with a single shot, therefore eliminates the image registration procedure required by traditional multispectral imaging technologies.

  8. A comparative study of colour and perfusion between two different post surgical scars. Do the laser Doppler imager and the colorimeter measure the same features of a scar?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mermans, J F; Peeters, W J; Dikmans, R; Serroyen, J; van der Hulst, R R J W; Van den Kerckhove, E

    2013-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of different located post surgical scars on both perfusion and redness. The pattern of change and correlation between perfusion and redness of post surgical scars is also examined. In this study, we measured redness and perfusion of the abdominal and breast scar of 24 women undergoing breast reconstruction with Deep Inferior Epigastric Perforator Free Flap surgery with the Minolta Chromameter CR-400/410 and the Moor Instruments laser Doppler imager 12IR, respectively, at different intervals post-operatively. The laser Doppler imager gives significantly higher values for the abdominal compared with the breast scar. There was no consistent correlation found between perfusion and redness at the different test moments for both locations. The scores of both parameters were significantly associated after 9 months follow-up for both locations. Scars closed with higher mechanical force show higher perfusion and prolonged activity; and more redness is associated with more perfusion for both post surgical scars. Nevertheless, there was no consistent correlation found between these parameters making the laser Doppler imager and the Colorimeter still non-replaceable instruments. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Quantitative Assessment of Synovial Vascularity Using Contrast-Enhanced Power Doppler Ultrasonography: Correlation with Histologic Findings and MR Imaging Findings in Arthritic Rabbit Knee Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Hoon; Shin, Myung Jin; Kim, Seong Moon; Kim, Namkug; Suh, Sang Hyun; Suh, Jin Suck

    2008-01-01

    To validate contrast-enhanced power Doppler ultrasonography (PD US) for the evaluation of synovial vascularity in an arthritic rabbit knee model in correlation with MR and histological findings. Power Doppler ultrasonography was performed for carrageenin-induced arthritic left knee and control right knee of 13 rabbits, first without and then with sonic contrast agent enhancement (Levovist, Schering, Berlin Germany), followed by gadolinium-enhanced MR imaging. Synovial vascularity was quantitatively assessed by calculating the color pixel area in power Doppler sonography using a computer-aided image analysis program and by grading the enhancement on MR images: grade 1, enhancement of knee joint is less than one-third of the area; grade 2, one-third to two-thirds enhancement; and grade 3, more than two-thirds enhancement. Microvessel density (MVD) was measured on slides stained immunohistochemically for CD31 antigen for histological assessment. The mean area of color pixels in PD US changed from 4.37 to 16.42 mm 2 in the arthritic knee after enhancement (p 2 in the control knee (p 0.05). Sonic contrast-enhanced PD US improves the visualization of synovial vascularity and allows quantitative measurement in experimentally induced rabbit arthritic knees

  10. Biochemical imaging of tissues by SIMS for biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Tae Geol; Park, Ji-Won; Shon, Hyun Kyong; Moon, Dae Won; Choi, Won Woo; Li, Kapsok; Chung, Jin Ho

    2008-01-01

    With the development of optimal surface cleaning techniques by cluster ion beam sputtering, certain applications of SIMS for analyzing cells and tissues have been actively investigated. For this report, we collaborated with bio-medical scientists to study bio-SIMS analyses of skin and cancer tissues for biomedical diagnostics. We pay close attention to the setting up of a routine procedure for preparing tissue specimens and treating the surface before obtaining the bio-SIMS data. Bio-SIMS was used to study two biosystems, skin tissues for understanding the effects of photoaging and colon cancer tissues for insight into the development of new cancer diagnostics for cancer. Time-of-flight SIMS imaging measurements were taken after surface cleaning with cluster ion bombardment by Bi n or C 60 under varying conditions. The imaging capability of bio-SIMS with a spatial resolution of a few microns combined with principal component analysis reveal biologically meaningful information, but the lack of high molecular weight peaks even with cluster ion bombardment was a problem. This, among other problems, shows that discourse with biologists and medical doctors are critical to glean any meaningful information from SIMS mass spectrometric and imaging data. For SIMS to be accepted as a routine, daily analysis tool in biomedical laboratories, various practical sample handling methodology such as surface matrix treatment, including nano-metal particles and metal coating, in addition to cluster sputtering, should be studied

  11. Differentiating cancerous from normal breast tissue by redox imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, He N.; Tchou, Julia; Feng, Min; Zhao, Huaqing; Li, Lin Z.

    2015-02-01

    Abnormal metabolism can be a hallmark of cancer occurring early before detectable histological changes and may serve as an early detection biomarker. The current gold standard to establish breast cancer (BC) diagnosis is histological examination of biopsy. Previously we have found that pre-cancer and cancer tissues in animal models displayed abnormal mitochondrial redox state. Our technique of quantitatively measuring the mitochondrial redox state has the potential to be implemented as an early detection tool for cancer and may provide prognostic value. We therefore in this present study, investigated the feasibility of quantifying the redox state of tumor samples from 16 BC patients. Tumor tissue aliquots were collected from both normal and cancerous tissue from the affected cancer-bearing breasts of 16 female patients (5 TNBC, 9 ER+, 2 ER+/Her2+) shortly after surgical resection. All specimens were snap-frozen with liquid nitrogen on site and scanned later with the Chance redox scanner, i.e., the 3D cryogenic NADH/oxidized flavoprotein (Fp) fluorescence imager. Our preliminary results showed that both NADH and Fp (including FAD, i.e., flavin adenine dinucleotide) signals in the cancerous tissues roughly tripled to quadrupled those in the normal tissues (pcancerous tissues than in the normal ones (pcancer and non-cancer breast tissues in human patients and this novel redox scanning procedure may assist in tissue diagnosis in freshly procured biopsy samples prior to tissue fixation. We are in the process of evaluating the prognostic value of the redox imaging indices for BC.

  12. Adaptive online learning based tissue segmentation of MR brain images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damkat, C.

    2007-01-01

    The aging population in the European Union and the US has increased the importance of research in neurodegenerative diseases. Imaging plays an essential role in this endeavor by providing insight to the intricate cellular and inter-cellular processes in living tissues that will otherwise be

  13. Mass Spectrometry Imaging for the Classification of Tumor Tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mascini, N.E.

    2016-01-01

    Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) can detect and identify many different molecules without the need for labeling. In addition, it can provide their spatial distributions as ‘molecular maps’. These features make MSI well suited for studying the molecular makeup of tumor tissue. Currently, there is an

  14. Opto-ultrasound imaging in vivo in deep tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Si, Ke; YanXu; Zheng, Yao; Zhu, Xinpei; Gong, Wei

    2016-01-01

    It is of keen importance of deep tissue imaging with high resolution in vivo. Here we present an opto-ultrasound imaging method which utilizes an ultrasound to confine the laser pulse in a very tiny spot as a guide star. The results show that the imaging depth is 2mm with a resolution of 10um. Meanwhile, the excitation power we used is less than 2mW, which indicates that our methods can be applied in vivo without optical toxicity and optical bleaching due to the excitation power. (paper)

  15. Raman molecular imaging of brain frozen tissue sections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kast, Rachel E; Auner, Gregory W; Rosenblum, Mark L; Mikkelsen, Tom; Yurgelevic, Sally M; Raghunathan, Aditya; Poisson, Laila M; Kalkanis, Steven N

    2014-10-01

    Raman spectroscopy provides a molecular signature of the region being studied. It is ideal for neurosurgical applications because it is non-destructive, label-free, not impacted by water concentration, and can map an entire region of tissue. The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the meaningful spatial molecular information provided by Raman spectroscopy for identification of regions of normal brain, necrosis, diffusely infiltrating glioma and solid glioblastoma (GBM). Five frozen section tissues (1 normal, 1 necrotic, 1 GBM, and 2 infiltrating glioma) were mapped in their entirety using a 300-µm-square step size. Smaller regions of interest were also mapped using a 25-µm step size. The relative concentrations of relevant biomolecules were mapped across all tissues and compared with adjacent hematoxylin and eosin-stained sections, allowing identification of normal, GBM, and necrotic regions. Raman peaks and peak ratios mapped included 1003, 1313, 1431, 1585, and 1659 cm(-1). Tissue maps identified boundaries of grey and white matter, necrosis, GBM, and infiltrating tumor. Complementary information, including relative concentration of lipids, protein, nucleic acid, and hemoglobin, was presented in a manner which can be easily adapted for in vivo tissue mapping. Raman spectroscopy can successfully provide label-free imaging of tissue characteristics with high accuracy. It can be translated to a surgical or laboratory tool for rapid, non-destructive imaging of tumor margins.

  16. Comparison of magnetic resonance imaging and Laser Doppler Anemometry velocity measurements downstream of replacement heart valves: implications for in vivo assessment of prosthetic valve function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaine, A A; Heinrich, R S; Walker, P G; Pedersen, E M; Scheidegger, M B; Boesiger, P; Walton, S P; Yoganathan, A P

    1996-01-01

    The non-invasive, in-vivo assessment of prosthetic valve function is compromised by the lack of accurate measurements of the transvalvular flow fields or hemodynamics by current techniques. Short echo time magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may provide a method for the non-invasive, in vivo assessment of prosthetic valve function by accurately measuring changes in the transvalvular flow fields associated with normal and dysfunctional prosthetic valves. The objectives of these in vitro experiments were to investigate the potential for using MRI as a tool to measure the complex flow fields distal to replacement heart valves, and to assess the accuracy of MRI velocity measurements by comparison with Laser Doppler Anemometry (LDA), a gold standard. The velocity fields downstream of tilting disc, bileaflet, ball and cage, and pericardial tissue valves were measured using both three-component LDA and MRI phase velocity encoding under a steady flow rate of 22.8 l/min, simulating peak systolic flow. The valves were tested under normal and stenotic conditions to assess the MRI capabilities under a wide range of local flow conditions, velocities and turbulence levels. A new short echo time MRI technique (FAcE), which allowed velocity measurements in stenotic jets with high turbulence, was tested. Good overall agreement was obtained between the MRI velocity measurements and the LDA data. The MRI velocity measurements adequately reproduced the spatial structure of the flow fields. In most cases peak velocities were accurately measured to within 15%. The results indicate that the FAcE MRI method has the potential to be used as a diagnostic tool to assess prosthetic valve function.

  17. Laser Doppler imaging of cutaneous blood flow through transparent face masks: a necessary preamble to computer-controlled rapid prototyping fabrication with submillimeter precision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allely, Rebekah R; Van-Buendia, Lan B; Jeng, James C; White, Patricia; Wu, Jingshu; Niszczak, Jonathan; Jordan, Marion H

    2008-01-01

    A paradigm shift in management of postburn facial scarring is lurking "just beneath the waves" with the widespread availability of two recent technologies: precise three-dimensional scanning/digitizing of complex surfaces and computer-controlled rapid prototyping three-dimensional "printers". Laser Doppler imaging may be the sensible method to track the scar hyperemia that should form the basis of assessing progress and directing incremental changes in the digitized topographical face mask "prescription". The purpose of this study was to establish feasibility of detecting perfusion through transparent face masks using the Laser Doppler Imaging scanner. Laser Doppler images of perfusion were obtained at multiple facial regions on five uninjured staff members. Images were obtained without a mask, followed by images with a loose fitting mask with and without a silicone liner, and then with a tight fitting mask with and without a silicone liner. Right and left oblique images, in addition to the frontal images, were used to overcome unobtainable measurements at the extremes of face mask curvature. General linear model, mixed model, and t tests were used for data analysis. Three hundred seventy-five measurements were used for analysis, with a mean perfusion unit of 299 and pixel validity of 97%. The effect of face mask pressure with and without the silicone liner was readily quantified with significant changes in mean cutaneous blood flow (P face masks. Perfusion decreases with the application of pressure and with silicone. Every participant measured differently in perfusion units; however, consistent perfusion patterns in the face were observed.

  18. Artificial neural net system for interactive tissue classification with MR imaging and image segmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, L.P.; Silbiger, M.; Naylor, C.; Brown, K.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on the development of interactive methods for MR tissue classification that permit mathematically rigorous methods for three-dimensional image segmentation and automatic organ/tumor contouring, as required for surgical and RTP planning. The authors investigate a number of image-intensity based tissue- classification methods that make no implicit assumptions on the MR parameters and hence are not limited by image data set. Similarly, we have trained artificial neural net (ANN) systems for both supervised and unsupervised tissue classification

  19. Image standards in Tissue-Based Diagnosis (Diagnostic Surgical Pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vollmer Ekkehard

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Progress in automated image analysis, virtual microscopy, hospital information systems, and interdisciplinary data exchange require image standards to be applied in tissue-based diagnosis. Aims To describe the theoretical background, practical experiences and comparable solutions in other medical fields to promote image standards applicable for diagnostic pathology. Theory and experiences Images used in tissue-based diagnosis present with pathology – specific characteristics. It seems appropriate to discuss their characteristics and potential standardization in relation to the levels of hierarchy in which they appear. All levels can be divided into legal, medical, and technological properties. Standards applied to the first level include regulations or aims to be fulfilled. In legal properties, they have to regulate features of privacy, image documentation, transmission, and presentation; in medical properties, features of disease – image combination, human – diagnostics, automated information extraction, archive retrieval and access; and in technological properties features of image acquisition, display, formats, transfer speed, safety, and system dynamics. The next lower second level has to implement the prescriptions of the upper one, i.e. describe how they are implemented. Legal aspects should demand secure encryption for privacy of all patient related data, image archives that include all images used for diagnostics for a period of 10 years at minimum, accurate annotations of dates and viewing, and precise hardware and software information. Medical aspects should demand standardized patients' files such as DICOM 3 or HL 7 including history and previous examinations, information of image display hardware and software, of image resolution and fields of view, of relation between sizes of biological objects and image sizes, and of access to archives and retrieval. Technological aspects should deal with image

  20. Optoacoustic multispectral imaging of radiolucent foreign bodies in tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Leland; Maswadi, Saher; Glickman, Randolph D

    2013-01-01

    Optoacoustic imaging is an emerging medical technology that uniquely combines the absorption contrast of optical imaging and the penetration depth of ultrasound. While it is not currently employed as a clinical imaging modality, the results of current research strongly support the use of optoacoustic-based methods in medical imaging. One such application is the diagnosis of the presence of soft tissue foreign bodies. Because many radiolucent foreign bodies have sufficient contrast for imaging in the optical domain, laser-induced optoacoustic imaging could be advantageous for the detection of such objects. Common foreign bodies have been scanned over a range of visible and near infrared wavelengths by using an optoacoustic method to obtain the spectroscopic properties of the materials commonly associated with these foreign bodies. The derived optical absorption spectra compared quite closely to the absorption spectra generated when using a conventional spectrophotometer. By using the probe-beam deflection technique, a novel, pressure-wave detection method, we successfully generated optoacoustic spectroscopic plots of a wooden foreign body embedded in a tissue phantom, which closely resembled the spectrum of the same object obtained in isolation. A practical application of such spectra is to assemble a library of spectroscopic data for radiolucent materials, from which specific characteristic wavelengths can be selected for use in optimizing imaging instrumentation and provide a basis for the identification of the material properties of particular foreign bodies.

  1. Comparison of quality of ultrasonographic image of the pancreas: Tissue harmonic image vs. Fundamental image

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Young Lan; Choi, Chul Soon; Kim, Ho Chul; Yoon, Dae Young; Han, Dae Hee; Bae, Sang Hoon

    2002-01-01

    To compare the quality of ultrasonographic (US) images, tissue harmonic image (THI) versus fundamental image (FI), of the pancreas. During a recent 2 month period, forty one patients with the normal pancreas on US were included. All of them were free of abnormal clinical and laboratory findings suggestive of pancreatic disease, US was performed by an abdominal radiologist with a 2.5-5 MHz convex-array transducer (Sequoia 512: Acuson, Mountain View, Calif.U.S.A.). Comparison of THI and FI of the pancreas was done for the following parameters:conspicuity, intermal architecture, and delineation range. Grading was made by the consensus of two abdominal radiologist witha three-point scale. Statistical analysis was done using Wilcox signed rank sum test. For the evaluation of the US image quality of the pancreas THI showed better conspicuity (p=0.0130), clearer internal architecture (p=0.0029) and superior delineation range (p=0.0191) than those of FI. THI appears to show a superior image quality than FI in evaluation of the pancreas.

  2. Comparison of mechanisms involved in image enhancement of Tissue Harmonic Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleveland, Robin O.; Jing, Yuan

    2006-05-01

    Processes that have been suggested as responsible for the improved imaging in Tissue Harmonic Imaging (THI) include: 1) reduced sensitivity to reverberation, 2) reduced sensitivity to aberration, and 3) reduction in the amplitude of diffraction side lobes. A three-dimensional model of the forward propagation of nonlinear sound beams in media with arbitrary spatial properties (a generalized KZK equation) was developed and solved using a time-domain code. The numerical simulations were validated through experiments with tissue mimicking phantoms. The impact of aberration from tissue-like media was determined through simulations using three-dimensional maps of tissue properties derived from datasets available through the Visible Female Project. The experiments and simulations demonstrated that second harmonic imaging suffers less clutter from reverberation and side-lobes but is not immune to aberration effects. The results indicate that side lobe suppression is the most significant reason for the improvement of second harmonic imaging.

  3. Diagnosis of right-sided varicocele: A retrospective comparative study between clinical examination, Doppler findings, US imaging and vascular anatomy at phlebography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cariati, Maurizio; Pieri, Stefano; Agresti, Paolo; Cariati, Massimiliano; Candito, Davide Fabio; Damiani, Giovanni; Marzano, Domenico

    2012-01-01

    Historically varicocele is diagnosed almost exclusively on the left side. The introduction of new imaging techniques has allowed the identification and characterization of right varicocele. This study aims to compare the diagnostic accuracy of various imaging techniques to data obtained using phlebography in the diagnosis of right varicocele. Patients treated for isolated right varicocele between 1992 and 2010 were retrospectively identified. Data from clinical examination, Doppler-USS, Color-Doppler-USS and Retrograde Phlebography were collected for each patient. 133 out of 4305 patients (3.1%) presented with an isolated right varicocele. 34 of these patients (25.6%) presented with palpable right varicocele. Doppler-USS identified various degrees of type I right venous reflux in 90 patients (67.7%). Phlebography showed venous reflux in all the patients (133), although with variability in terms of internal spermatic vein anatomy. Right varicocele is characterized by predictable anatomic features. Identification and characterization of these features is useful in guiding percutaneous treatment, allowing to optimize radiological display and reducing failure rate

  4. Diagnosis of right-sided varicocele: A retrospective comparative study between clinical examination, Doppler findings, US imaging and vascular anatomy at phlebography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cariati, Maurizio, E-mail: davide.candito@libero.it [U.O.C. Radiologia, A.O. San Carlo Borromeo, via Pio II 3, 20153 Milan (Italy); Pieri, Stefano, E-mail: stefano.pieri@scamilloforlanini.rm.it [U.O.C. Diagnostica per Immagini Cardioscienze, A.O. San Camillo - Forlanini, Piazza Carlo Forlanini 1, 00151 Rome (Italy); Agresti, Paolo, E-mail: paolo.agresti@scamilloforlanini.rm.it [U.O.C. Diagnostica per Immagini Cardioscienze, A.O. San Camillo - Forlanini, Piazza Carlo Forlanini 1, 00151 Rome (Italy); Cariati, Massimiliano, E-mail: massimiliano.cariati@kcl.ac.uk [Department of Academic Oncology, King' s College London, 3rd Floor Bermondsey Wing, Guy' s Hospital, Great Maze Pond, London SE1 9RT (United Kingdom); Candito, Davide Fabio, E-mail: davide.candito@yahoo.it [Scuola di Specializzazione in Radiodiagnostica, Facoltà di Medicina e Chirurgia, Università degli studi di Milano, via Festa del Perdono 7, 20122 Milan (Italy); Damiani, Giovanni, E-mail: damiani_giovanni@libero.it [Scuola di Specializzazione in Radiodiagnostica, Facoltà di Medicina e Chirurgia, Università degli studi di Milano, via Festa del Perdono 7, 20122 Milan (Italy); Marzano, Domenico, E-mail: domenico.marzano@scamilloforlanini.rm.it [U.O.C. Urologia, A.O. San Camillo - Forlanini, Piazza Carlo Forlanini 1, 00151 Rome (Italy)

    2012-09-15

    Historically varicocele is diagnosed almost exclusively on the left side. The introduction of new imaging techniques has allowed the identification and characterization of right varicocele. This study aims to compare the diagnostic accuracy of various imaging techniques to data obtained using phlebography in the diagnosis of right varicocele. Patients treated for isolated right varicocele between 1992 and 2010 were retrospectively identified. Data from clinical examination, Doppler-USS, Color-Doppler-USS and Retrograde Phlebography were collected for each patient. 133 out of 4305 patients (3.1%) presented with an isolated right varicocele. 34 of these patients (25.6%) presented with palpable right varicocele. Doppler-USS identified various degrees of type I right venous reflux in 90 patients (67.7%). Phlebography showed venous reflux in all the patients (133), although with variability in terms of internal spermatic vein anatomy. Right varicocele is characterized by predictable anatomic features. Identification and characterization of these features is useful in guiding percutaneous treatment, allowing to optimize radiological display and reducing failure rate.

  5. Feasibility and diagnostic power of transthoracic coronary Doppler for coronary flow velocity reserve in patients referred for myocardial perfusion imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nylander Eva

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI, using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT is a validated method for detecting coronary artery disease. Transthoracic Doppler echocardiography (TTDE of flow at rest and during adenosine provocation has previously been evaluated in selected patient groups. We therefore wanted to compare the diagnostic ability of TTDE in the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD to that of MPI in an unselected population of patients with chest pain referred for MPI. Our hypothesis was that TTDE with high accuracy would identify healthy individuals and exclude them from the need for further studies, enabling invasive investigations to be reserved for patients with a high probability of disease. Methods Sixty-nine patients, 44 men and 25 women, age 61 ± 10 years (range 35–82, with a clinical suspicion of stress induced myocardial ischemia, were investigated. TTDE was performed at rest and during adenosine stress for myocardial scintigraphy. Results We found that coronary flow velocity reserve (CFVR determined from diastolic measurements separated normal from abnormal MPI findings with statistical significance. TTDE identified coronary artery disease, defined from MPI, as reversible ischemia and/or permanent defect, with a sensitivity of 60% and a specificity of 79%. The positive predictive value was 43% and the negative predictive value was 88%. There was an overlap between groups which could be due to abnormal endothelial function in patients with normal myocardial perfusion having either hypertension or diabetes. Conclusion TTDE is an attractive non-invasive method to evaluate chest pain without the use of isotopes, but the diagnostic power is strongly dependent on the population investigated. Even in our heterogeneous clinical cardiac population, we found that CFVR>2 in the LAD excluded significant coronary artery disease detected by MPI.

  6. Comparison of Laser Doppler Imaging (LDI) and clinical assessment in differentiating between superficial and deep partial thickness burn wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan, Saadia Nosheen; Khan, Farid Ahmed; Bashir, Muhammad Mustehsan; Nasir, Muneeb; Ansari, Hamid Hussain; Shami, Hussan Birkhez; Nazir, Umer; Hanif, Asif; Sohail, Muhammad

    2018-03-01

    To compare the accuracy of Laser Doppler Imaging (LDI) and clinical assessment in differentiating between superficial and deep partial thickness burns to decide whether early tangential excision and grafting or conservative management should be employed to optimize burn and patient management. March 2015 to November 2016. Ninety two wounds in 34 patients reporting within 5days of less than 40% burn surface area were included. Unstable patients, pregnant females and those who expired were excluded. The wounds were clinically assessed and LDI done concomitantly Plastic Surgeons blinded to each other's findings. Wound appearance, color, blanching, pain, hair follicle dislodgement were the clinical parameters that distinguished between superficial and deep partial thickness burns. On day 21, the wounds were again assessed for the presence of healing by the same plastic surgeons. The findings were correlated with the initial findings on LDI and clinical assessment and the results statistically analyzed. The data of 92 burn wounds was analyzed using SPSS (ver. 17). Clinical assessment correctly identified the depth of 75 and LDI 83 wounds, giving diagnostic accuracies of 81.52% and 90.21% respectively. The sensitivity of clinical assessment was 81% and of LDI 92.75%, whereas the specificity was 82% for both. The positive predictive value was 93% for clinical assessment and 94% for LDI while the negative predictive value was 59% and 79% respectively. Predictive accuracy of LDI was found to be better than clinical assessment in the prediction of wound healing, the gold standard for wound healing being 21 days. As such it can prove to be a reliable and viable cost effective alternative per se to clinical assessment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  7. Reproducibility of non-invasive assessment of skin endothelial function using laser Doppler flowmetry and laser speckle contrast imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyril Puissant

    Full Text Available Endothelial dysfunction precedes atherosclerosis. Vasodilation induced by acetylcholine (ACh is a specific test of endothelial function. Reproducibility of laser techniques such as laser-Doppler-flowmetry (LDF and Laser-speckle-contrast-imaging (LSCI to detect ACh vasodilation is debated and results expressions lack standardization. We aimed to study at a 7-day interval (i the inter-subject reproducibility, (ii the intra-subjects reproducibility, and (iii the effect of the results expressions over variability.Using LDF and LSCI simultaneously, we performed two different ACh-iontophoresis protocols. The maximal ACh vasodilation (peak-ACh was expressed as absolute or normalized flow or conductance values. Inter-subject reproducibility was expressed as coefficient of variation (inter-CV,%. Intra-subject reproducibility was expressed as within subject coefficients of variation (intra-CV,%, and intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC. Fifteen healthy subjects were included. The inter-subject reproducibility of peak-ACh depended upon the expression of the results and ranged from 55% to 162% for LDF and from 17% to 83% for LSCI. The intra-subject reproducibility (intra-CV/ICC of peak-ACh was reduced when assessed with LSCI compared to LDF no matter how the results were expressed and whatever the protocol used. The highest intra-subject reproducibility was found using LSCI. It was 18.7%/0.87 for a single current stimulation (expressed as cutaneous vascular conductance and 11.4%/0.61 for multiple current stimulations (expressed as absolute value.ACh-iontophoresis coupled with LSCI is a promising test to assess endothelial function because it is reproducible, safe, and non-invasive. N°: NCT01664572.

  8. Power Doppler ultrasonography for assessment of synovitis in the metacarpophalangeal joints of patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a comparison with dynamic magnetic resonance imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szkudlarek, Marcin; Court-Payen, M; Strandberg, C

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of power Doppler ultrasonography (PDUS) for assessing inflammatory activity in the metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joints of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), using dynamic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as a reference method. METHODS: PDUS and dynamic...... MRI were performed on 54 MCP joints of 15 patients with active RA and on 12 MCP joints of 3 healthy controls. PDUS was performed with a LOGIQ 500 unit by means of a 7-13-MHz linear array transducer. Later the same day, MRI was performed with a 1.0T MR unit. A series of 24 coronal T1-weighted images...

  9. Molecular imaging of brown adipose tissue in health and disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauwens, Matthias; Wierts, Roel; Brans, Boudewijn; Royen, Bart van; Backes, Walter; Bucerius, Jan; Mottaghy, Felix

    2014-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) has transformed from an interfering tissue in oncological 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) to an independent imaging research field. This review takes the perspective from the imaging methodology on which human BAT research has come to rely on heavily. This review analyses relevant PubMed-indexed publications that discuss molecular imaging methods of BAT. In addition, reported links between BAT and human diseases such as obesity are discussed, and the possibilities for imaging in these fields are highlighted. Radiopharmaceuticals aiming at several different biological mechanisms of BAT are discussed and evaluated. Prospective, dedicated studies allow visualization of BAT function in a high percentage of human subjects. BAT dysfunction has been implicated in obesity, linked with diabetes and associated with cachexia and atherosclerosis. Presently, 18 F-FDG PET/CT is the most useful tool for evaluating therapies aiming at BAT activity. In addition to 18 F-FDG, other radiopharmaceuticals such as 99m Tc-sestamibi, 123 I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG), 18 F-fluorodopa and 18 F-14(R,S)-[ 18 F]fluoro-6-thia-heptadecanoic acid (FTHA) may have a potential for visualizing other aspects of BAT activity. MRI methods are under continuous development and provide the prospect of functional imaging without ionizing radiation. Molecular imaging of BAT can be used to quantitatively assess different aspects of BAT metabolic activity. (orig.)

  10. Molecular imaging of brown adipose tissue in health and disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauwens, Matthias [MUMC, Department of Medical Imaging, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Maastricht (Netherlands); Maastricht University, Research School NUTRIM, Maastricht (Netherlands); Wierts, Roel; Brans, Boudewijn [MUMC, Department of Medical Imaging, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Maastricht (Netherlands); Royen, Bart van; Backes, Walter [MUMC, Department of Medical Imaging, Division of Radiology, Maastricht (Netherlands); Bucerius, Jan [MUMC, Department of Medical Imaging, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Maastricht (Netherlands); Uniklinikum Aachen, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Aachen (Germany); Maastricht University, Research School CARIM, Maastricht (Netherlands); Mottaghy, Felix [MUMC, Department of Medical Imaging, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Maastricht (Netherlands); Uniklinikum Aachen, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Aachen (Germany)

    2014-04-15

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) has transformed from an interfering tissue in oncological {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) to an independent imaging research field. This review takes the perspective from the imaging methodology on which human BAT research has come to rely on heavily. This review analyses relevant PubMed-indexed publications that discuss molecular imaging methods of BAT. In addition, reported links between BAT and human diseases such as obesity are discussed, and the possibilities for imaging in these fields are highlighted. Radiopharmaceuticals aiming at several different biological mechanisms of BAT are discussed and evaluated. Prospective, dedicated studies allow visualization of BAT function in a high percentage of human subjects. BAT dysfunction has been implicated in obesity, linked with diabetes and associated with cachexia and atherosclerosis. Presently, {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT is the most useful tool for evaluating therapies aiming at BAT activity. In addition to {sup 18}F-FDG, other radiopharmaceuticals such as {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi, {sup 123}I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG), {sup 18}F-fluorodopa and {sup 18}F-14(R,S)-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-6-thia-heptadecanoic acid (FTHA) may have a potential for visualizing other aspects of BAT activity. MRI methods are under continuous development and provide the prospect of functional imaging without ionizing radiation. Molecular imaging of BAT can be used to quantitatively assess different aspects of BAT metabolic activity. (orig.)

  11. Doppler optical cardiogram gated 2D color flow imaging at 1000 fps and 4D in vivo visualization of embryonic heart at 45 fps on a swept source OCT system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariampillai, Adrian; Standish, Beau A; Munce, Nigel R; Randall, Cristina; Liu, George; Jiang, James Y; Cable, Alex E; Vitkin, I A; Yang, Victor X D

    2007-02-19

    We report a Doppler optical cardiogram gating technique for increasing the effective frame rate of Doppler optical coherence tomography (DOCT) when imaging periodic motion as found in the cardiovascular system of embryos. This was accomplished with a Thorlabs swept-source DOCT system that simultaneously acquired and displayed structural and Doppler images at 12 frames per second (fps). The gating technique allowed for ultra-high speed visualization of the blood flow pattern in the developing hearts of African clawed frog embryos (Xenopus laevis) at up to 1000 fps. In addition, four-dimensional (three spatial dimensions + temporal) Doppler imaging at 45 fps was demonstrated using this gating technique, producing detailed visualization of the complex cardiac motion and hemodynamics in a beating heart.

  12. Image-guided urologic surgery: intraoperative optical imaging and tissue interrogation (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Joseph C.

    2017-02-01

    Emerging optical imaging technologies can be integrated in the operating room environment during minimally invasive and open urologic surgery, including oncologic surgery of the bladder, prostate, and kidney. These technologies include macroscopic fluorescence imaging that provides contrast enhancement between normal and diseased tissue and microscopic imaging that provides tissue characterization. Optical imaging technologies that have reached the clinical arena in urologic surgery are reviewed, including photodynamic diagnosis, near infrared fluorescence imaging, optical coherence tomography, and confocal laser endomicroscopy. Molecular imaging represents an exciting future arena in conjugating cancer-specific contrast agents to fluorophores to improve the specificity of disease detection. Ongoing efforts are underway to translate optimal targeting agents and imaging modalities, with the goal to improve cancer-specific and functional outcomes.

  13. Imaging of Brown Adipose Tissue: State of the Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampath, Srihari C; Sampath, Srinath C; Bredella, Miriam A; Cypess, Aaron M; Torriani, Martin

    2016-07-01

    The rates of diabetes, obesity, and metabolic disease have reached epidemic proportions worldwide. In recent years there has been renewed interest in combating these diseases not only by modifying energy intake and lifestyle factors, but also by inducing endogenous energy expenditure. This approach has largely been stimulated by the recent recognition that brown adipose tissue (BAT)-long known to promote heat production and energy expenditure in infants and hibernating mammals-also exists in adult humans. This landmark finding relied on the use of clinical fluorine 18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography, and imaging techniques continue to play a crucial and increasingly central role in understanding BAT physiology and function. Herein, the authors review the origins of BAT imaging, discuss current preclinical and clinical strategies for imaging BAT, and discuss imaging methods that will provide crucial insight into metabolic disease and how it may be treated by modulating BAT activity. (©) RSNA, 2016.

  14. Evaluation of multimodality imaging using image fusion with ultrasound tissue elasticity imaging in an experimental animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paprottka, P M; Zengel, P; Cyran, C C; Ingrisch, M; Nikolaou, K; Reiser, M F; Clevert, D A

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the ultrasound tissue elasticity imaging by comparison to multimodality imaging using image fusion with Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and conventional grey scale imaging with additional elasticity-ultrasound in an experimental small-animal-squamous-cell carcinoma-model for the assessment of tissue morphology. Human hypopharynx carcinoma cells were subcutaneously injected into the left flank of 12 female athymic nude rats. After 10 days (SD ± 2) of subcutaneous tumor growth, sonographic grey scale including elasticity imaging and MRI measurements were performed using a high-end ultrasound system and a 3T MR. For image fusion the contrast-enhanced MRI DICOM data set was uploaded in the ultrasonic device which has a magnetic field generator, a linear array transducer (6-15 MHz) and a dedicated software package (GE Logic E9), that can detect transducers by means of a positioning system. Conventional grey scale and elasticity imaging were integrated in the image fusion examination. After successful registration and image fusion the registered MR-images were simultaneously shown with the respective ultrasound sectional plane. Data evaluation was performed using the digitally stored video sequence data sets by two experienced radiologist using a modified Tsukuba Elasticity score. The colors "red and green" are assigned for an area of soft tissue, "blue" indicates hard tissue. In all cases a successful image fusion and plan registration with MRI and ultrasound imaging including grey scale and elasticity imaging was possible. The mean tumor volume based on caliper measurements in 3 dimensions was ~323 mm3. 4/12 rats were evaluated with Score I, 5/12 rates were evaluated with Score II, 3/12 rates were evaluated with Score III. There was a close correlation in the fused MRI with existing small necrosis in the tumor. None of the scored II or III lesions was visible by conventional grey scale. The comparison of ultrasound tissue elasticity imaging enables a

  15. Polarization image segmentation of radiofrequency ablated porcine myocardial tissue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iftikhar Ahmad

    Full Text Available Optical polarimetry has previously imaged the spatial extent of a typical radiofrequency ablated (RFA lesion in myocardial tissue, exhibiting significantly lower total depolarization at the necrotic core compared to healthy tissue, and intermediate values at the RFA rim region. Here, total depolarization in ablated myocardium was used to segment the total depolarization image into three (core, rim and healthy zones. A local fuzzy thresholding algorithm was used for this multi-region segmentation, and then compared with a ground truth segmentation obtained from manual demarcation of RFA core and rim regions on the histopathology image. Quantitative comparison of the algorithm segmentation results was performed with evaluation metrics such as dice similarity coefficient (DSC = 0.78 ± 0.02 and 0.80 ± 0.02, sensitivity (Sn = 0.83 ± 0.10 and 0.91 ± 0.08, specificity (Sp = 0.76 ± 0.17 and 0.72 ± 0.17 and accuracy (Acc = 0.81 ± 0.09 and 0.71 ± 0.10 for RFA core and rim regions, respectively. This automatic segmentation of parametric depolarization images suggests a novel application of optical polarimetry, namely its use in objective RFA image quantification.

  16. Imaging of the most frequent superficial soft-tissue sarcomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morel, Melanie; Taieb, Sophie; Ceugnart, Luc; Penel, Nicolas; Mortier, Laurent; Vanseymortier, Luc; Robin, Y.M.; Gosset, Pierre; Cotten, Anne

    2011-01-01

    Superficial soft-tissue sarcomas are malignant mesenchymal tumors located within the cutaneous and/or subcutaneous layers. Most superficial soft-tissue sarcomas are low-grade tumors; yet, the risk of local recurrence is high, and initial wide surgery is the main prognostic factor. Some of these superficial sarcomas may grow, following an infiltrative pattern, and their real extent may be underestimated clinically. Imaging techniques are useful to determine precisely the real margins of the tumor, especially in cases of clinically doubtful or recurrent or large superficial lesions. Imaging tools enable one to determine the relationship with the superficial fascia separating the subcutaneous layer from the underlying muscle. In our institution ultrasonographic examination is followed by magnetic resonance (MR) imaging when the size of the lesion exceeds 3-5 cm. Imaging assessment is performed prior to biopsy, enabling optimal surgical management. Imaging features of the main superficial sarcomas are detailed in the following article, according to their major locations: those arising in the epidermis and/or dermis, which are most often diagnosed by dermatologists, and the subcutaneous sarcomas. (orig.)

  17. Tissue discrimination in magnetic resonance imaging of the rotator cuff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meschino, G J; Comas, D S; González, M A; Ballarin, V L; Capiel, C

    2016-01-01

    Evaluation and diagnosis of diseases of the muscles within the rotator cuff can be done using different modalities, being the Magnetic Resonance the method more widely used. There are criteria to evaluate the degree of fat infiltration and muscle atrophy, but these have low accuracy and show great variability inter and intra observer. In this paper, an analysis of the texture features of the rotator cuff muscles is performed to classify them and other tissues. A general supervised classification approach was used, combining forward-search as feature selection method with kNN as classification rule. Sections of Magnetic Resonance Images of the tissues of interest were selected by specialist doctors and they were considered as Gold Standard. Accuracies obtained were of 93% for T1-weighted images and 92% for T2-weighted images. As an immediate future work, the combination of both sequences of images will be considered, expecting to improve the results, as well as the use of other sequences of Magnetic Resonance Images. This work represents an initial point for the classification and quantification of fat infiltration and muscle atrophy degree. From this initial point, it is expected to make an accurate and objective system which will result in benefits for future research and for patients’ health. (paper)

  18. Tissue discrimination in magnetic resonance imaging of the rotator cuff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meschino, G. J.; Comas, D. S.; González, M. A.; Capiel, C.; Ballarin, V. L.

    2016-04-01

    Evaluation and diagnosis of diseases of the muscles within the rotator cuff can be done using different modalities, being the Magnetic Resonance the method more widely used. There are criteria to evaluate the degree of fat infiltration and muscle atrophy, but these have low accuracy and show great variability inter and intra observer. In this paper, an analysis of the texture features of the rotator cuff muscles is performed to classify them and other tissues. A general supervised classification approach was used, combining forward-search as feature selection method with kNN as classification rule. Sections of Magnetic Resonance Images of the tissues of interest were selected by specialist doctors and they were considered as Gold Standard. Accuracies obtained were of 93% for T1-weighted images and 92% for T2-weighted images. As an immediate future work, the combination of both sequences of images will be considered, expecting to improve the results, as well as the use of other sequences of Magnetic Resonance Images. This work represents an initial point for the classification and quantification of fat infiltration and muscle atrophy degree. From this initial point, it is expected to make an accurate and objective system which will result in benefits for future research and for patients’ health.

  19. Imaging of the most frequent superficial soft-tissue sarcomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morel, Melanie; Taieb, Sophie; Ceugnart, Luc [Centre Oscar Lambret, Department of Radiology, Lille (France); Penel, Nicolas [Centre Oscar Lambret, Department of Oncology, Lille (France); Mortier, Laurent [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Lille, Department of Dermatology, Hopital Claude Huriez, Lille (France); Vanseymortier, Luc [Centre Oscar Lambret, Department of Surgery, Lille (France); Robin, Y.M. [Centre Oscar Lambret, Departement of Pathology, Lille (France); Gosset, Pierre [Groupement Hospitalier de l' Institut Catholique-Faculte Libre de Medecine de Lille, Department of Pathology, Hopital Saint-Philibert, Lomme (France); Cotten, Anne [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Lille, Department of Musculoskeletal Radiology, Centre Hopital Roger Salengro, Lille (France)

    2011-03-15

    Superficial soft-tissue sarcomas are malignant mesenchymal tumors located within the cutaneous and/or subcutaneous layers. Most superficial soft-tissue sarcomas are low-grade tumors; yet, the risk of local recurrence is high, and initial wide surgery is the main prognostic factor. Some of these superficial sarcomas may grow, following an infiltrative pattern, and their real extent may be underestimated clinically. Imaging techniques are useful to determine precisely the real margins of the tumor, especially in cases of clinically doubtful or recurrent or large superficial lesions. Imaging tools enable one to determine the relationship with the superficial fascia separating the subcutaneous layer from the underlying muscle. In our institution ultrasonographic examination is followed by magnetic resonance (MR) imaging when the size of the lesion exceeds 3-5 cm. Imaging assessment is performed prior to biopsy, enabling optimal surgical management. Imaging features of the main superficial sarcomas are detailed in the following article, according to their major locations: those arising in the epidermis and/or dermis, which are most often diagnosed by dermatologists, and the subcutaneous sarcomas. (orig.)

  20. High resolution ultrastructure imaging of fractures in human dental tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Sui

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Human dental hard tissues are dentine, cementum, and enamel. These are hydrated mineralised composite tissues with a hierarchical structure and versatile thermo-mechanical properties. The hierarchical structure of dentine and enamel was imaged by transmission electron microscopy (TEM of samples prepared by focused ion beam (FIB milling. High resolution TEM was carried out in the vicinity of a crack tip in dentine. An intricate “random weave” pattern of hydroxyapatile crystallites was observed and this provided a possible explanation for toughening of the mineralized dentine tissue at the nano-scale. The results reported here provide the basis for improved understanding of the relationship between the multi-scale nature and the mechanical properties of hierarchically structured biomaterials, and will also be useful for the development of better prosthetic and dental restorative materials.

  1. Wavelet analysis of biological tissue's Mueller-matrix images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomka, Yu. Ya.

    2008-05-01

    The interrelations between statistics of the 1st-4th orders of the ensemble of Mueller-matrix images and geometric structure of birefringent architectonic nets of different morphological structure have been analyzed. The sensitivity of asymmetry and excess of statistic distributions of matrix elements Cik to changing of orientation structure of optically anisotropic protein fibrils of physiologically normal and pathologically changed biological tissues architectonics has been shown.

  2. Imaging of alkaline phosphatase activity in bone tissue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terence P Gade

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to develop a paradigm for quantitative molecular imaging of bone cell activity. We hypothesized the feasibility of non-invasive imaging of the osteoblast enzyme alkaline phosphatase (ALP using a small imaging molecule in combination with (19Flourine magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging ((19FMRSI. 6, 8-difluoro-4-methylumbelliferyl phosphate (DiFMUP, a fluorinated ALP substrate that is activatable to a fluorescent hydrolysis product was utilized as a prototype small imaging molecule. The molecular structure of DiFMUP includes two Fluorine atoms adjacent to a phosphate group allowing it and its hydrolysis product to be distinguished using (19Fluorine magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((19FMRS and (19FMRSI. ALP-mediated hydrolysis of DiFMUP was tested on osteoblastic cells and bone tissue, using serial measurements of fluorescence activity. Extracellular activation of DiFMUP on ALP-positive mouse bone precursor cells was observed. Concurringly, DiFMUP was also activated on bone derived from rat tibia. Marked inhibition of the cell and tissue activation of DiFMUP was detected after the addition of the ALP inhibitor levamisole. (19FMRS and (19FMRSI were applied for the non-invasive measurement of DiFMUP hydrolysis. (19FMRS revealed a two-peak spectrum representing DiFMUP with an associated chemical shift for the hydrolysis product. Activation of DiFMUP by ALP yielded a characteristic pharmacokinetic profile, which was quantifiable using non-localized (19FMRS and enabled the development of a pharmacokinetic model of ALP activity. Application of (19FMRSI facilitated anatomically accurate, non-invasive imaging of ALP concentration and activity in rat bone. Thus, (19FMRSI represents a promising approach for the quantitative imaging of bone cell activity during bone formation with potential for both preclinical and clinical applications.

  3. An imaging colorimeter for noncontact tissue color mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balas, C

    1997-06-01

    There has been a considerable effort in several medical fields, for objective color analysis and characterization of biological tissues. Conventional colorimeters have proved inadequate for this purpose, since they do not provide spatial color information and because the measuring procedure randomly affects the color of the tissue. In this paper an imaging colorimeter is presented, where the nonimaging optical photodetector of colorimeters is replaced with the charge-coupled device (CCD) sensor of a color video camera, enabling the independent capturing of the color information for any spatial point within its field-of-view. Combining imaging and colorimetry methods, the acquired image is calibrated and corrected, under several ambient light conditions, providing noncontact reproducible color measurements and mapping, free of the errors and the limitations present in conventional colorimeters. This system was used for monitoring of blood supply changes of psoriatic plaques, that have undergone Psoralens and ultraviolet-A radiation (PUVA) therapy, where reproducible and reliable measurements were demonstrated. These features highlight the potential of the imaging colorimeters as clinical and research tools for the standardization of clinical diagnosis and for the objective evaluation of treatment effectiveness.

  4. High-flow-velocity and shear-rate imaging by use of color Doppler optical coherence tomography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, T. G.; Kulkarni, M. D.; Yazdanfar, S.; Rollins, A. M.; Izatt, J. A.

    1999-01-01

    Color Doppler optical coherence tomography (CDOCT) is capable of precise velocity mapping in turbid media. Previous CDOCT systems based on the short-time Fourier transform have been limited to maximum flow velocities of the order of tens of millimeters per second. We describe a technique, based on

  5. Comparison of laser Doppler imaging, fingertip lacticemy test, and nailfold capillaroscopy for assessment of digital microcirculation in systemic sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, Marcelo Ju; Andrade, Luis Ec; Kayser, Cristiane

    2010-01-01

    Laser Doppler imaging (LDI) is a relatively new method for assessing the functional aspect of superficial skin blood flow in systemic sclerosis (SSc) and Raynaud's phenomenon. The present study investigated the dynamic behavior of digital skin microvascular blood flow before and after cold stimulus (CS) in SSc patients and in healthy controls by means of a comprehensive approach of the functional (LDI), morphological (nailfold capillaroscopy (NFC)), and biochemical (fingertip lacticemy (FTL)) microcirculation components. Forty-four SSc patients and 40 healthy controls were included. After acclimatization, all subjects underwent NFC followed by LDI and FTL measurement. NFC was performed with a stereomicroscope under 10× to 20× magnification in the 10 digits of the hands. Skin blood flow of the dorsum of four fingertips (excluding the thumb) of the left hand was measured using LDI at baseline and for 30 minutes after CS. The mean finger blood flow (FBF) of the four fingertips was expressed as arbitrary perfusion units. FTL was determined on the fourth left finger before (pre-CS-FTL) and 10 minutes after CS. LDI showed significantly lower mean baseline FBF in SSc patients as compared with controls (296.9 ± 208.8 vs. 503.6 ± 146.4 perfusion units; P < 0.001) and also at all time points after CS (P < 0.001). There was a significant decrease in mean FBF after CS as compared with baseline in SSc patients and in controls, followed by recovery of the blood flow 27 minutes after CS in healthy controls, but not in SSc patients. FBF tended to be lower in patients with digital scars and previous ulceration/amputation (P = 0.06). There was no correlation between mean baseline FBF and NFC parameters. Interestingly, there was a negative correlation between FTL and FBF measured by LDI in basal conditions and 10 minutes after CS in SSc patients. LDI showed lower digital blood flow in SSc patients when compared with healthy controls and correlated well with FTL both at baseline

  6. Color Doppler imaging and measurements of intraovarian and intrauterine vascularization on basal ultrasound examination in spontaneous ovulatory and anovulatory cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kutlešić Ranko

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Any organs functioning directly depends on vascularization. It applies also to the uterus and ovary which go through changes of vascularization during a menstruation cycle. The aim of this investigation was to determine differences in intrauterine and ovarian stromal arterioral blood flow on basal ultrasound examination (day 2-4 between spontaneous ovulatory and anovulatory cycles. Methods. This prospective clinical investigation included 205 patients divided into two groups: with ovulatory and with anovulatory cycles. Results. Resistance to ovarian arterioral stromal blood flow was significantly lower in the patients with ovulatory cycles (pulsatile index - PI 0.97 ± 0.4 vs 1.93 ± 1.37; p = 0.001737; and (resistance index - RI 0.55 ± 0.12 vs 0.68 ± 0.14; p = 0.040033. There were no statistically significant differences in arcuate arterioral blood flow in the pateints with ovulatory and anovulatory cycles (PI 1.21 ± 0.34 vs 61 ± 0,61 p = 0.136161 and RI 0.64 ± 0.11 vs 0.74 ± 0.07; p = 0.136649. The patients with ovulatory cycles had lower uterine radial arterioral blood flow than the patients with anovulatory cycles (PI 1.001 ± 0.22 vs 1.61 ± 0.23 p = 0.007501 and RI 0.55 ± 0.08 vs 0.71 ± 0.12; p = 0,0460113. The patients with ovulatory cycles had lower subendometrial arterioral blood flow resistance (PI 0.69 ± 0.19 vs 1.385±0.09; p = 0.00622 and RI 0.44 ± 0.09 vs 0.65 ± 0.02; p = 0.027458. Conclusion. Color Doppler ultrasuond imaging and measurements of intrauterine and ovarian stromal arterioral blood flow on basal ultrasound examination (day 2-4, showed lower resistance to blood flow in ovulatory than in anovulatory cycles.

  7. THz near-field imaging of biological tissues employing synchrotronradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schade, Ulrich; Holldack, Karsten; Martin, Michael C.; Fried,Daniel

    2004-12-23

    Terahertz scanning near-field infrared microscopy (SNIM) below 1 THz is demonstrated. The near-field technique benefits from the broadband and highly brilliant coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) from an electron storage ring and from a detection method based on locking onto the intrinsic time structure of the synchrotron radiation. The scanning microscope utilizes conical wave guides as near-field probes with apertures smaller than the wavelength. Different cone approaches have been investigated to obtain maximum transmittance. Together with a Martin-Puplett spectrometer the set-up enables spectroscopic mapping of the transmittance of samples well below the diffraction limit. Spatial resolution down to about lambda/40 at 2 wavenumbers (0.06 THz) is derived from the transmittance spectra of the near-field probes. The potential of the technique is exemplified by imaging biological samples. Strongly absorbing living leaves have been imaged in transmittance with a spatial resolution of 130 mu-m at about 12 wave numbers (0.36 THz). The THz near-field images reveal distinct structural differences of leaves from different plants investigated. The technique presented also allows spectral imaging of bulky organic tissues. Human teeth samples of various thicknesses have been imaged between 2 and 20 wavenumbers (between 0.06and 0.6 THz). Regions of enamel and dentin within tooth samples are spatially and spectrally resolved, and buried caries lesions are imaged through both the outer enamel and into the underlying dentin.

  8. Automatic tissue image segmentation based on image processing and deep learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Zhenglun; Luo, Junyi; Xu, Shengpu; Li, Ting

    2018-02-01

    Image segmentation plays an important role in multimodality imaging, especially in fusion structural images offered by CT, MRI with functional images collected by optical technologies or other novel imaging technologies. Plus, image segmentation also provides detailed structure description for quantitative visualization of treating light distribution in the human body when incorporated with 3D light transport simulation method. Here we used image enhancement, operators, and morphometry methods to extract the accurate contours of different tissues such as skull, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), grey matter (GM) and white matter (WM) on 5 fMRI head image datasets. Then we utilized convolutional neural network to realize automatic segmentation of images in a deep learning way. We also introduced parallel computing. Such approaches greatly reduced the processing time compared to manual and semi-automatic segmentation and is of great importance in improving speed and accuracy as more and more samples being learned. Our results can be used as a criteria when diagnosing diseases such as cerebral atrophy, which is caused by pathological changes in gray matter or white matter. We demonstrated the great potential of such image processing and deep leaning combined automatic tissue image segmentation in personalized medicine, especially in monitoring, and treatments.

  9. Characterization of Soft Tissue Tumors by Diffusion-Weighted Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pekcevik, Yeliz; Kahya, Mehmet Onur; Kaya, Ahmet

    2015-01-01

    Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) is a noninvasive method for investigation of tumor histological content. It has been applied for some musculoskeletal tumors and reported to be useful. The aim of the present study was to prospectively evaluate the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values of benign and malignant soft tissue tumors and to determine if ADC can help differentiate these tumors. DWI was performed on 25 histologically proven soft tissue masses. It was obtained with a single-shot echo-planar imaging technique using a 1.5T magnetic resonance (MR) machine. The mean ADC values were calculated. We grouped soft tissue tumors as benign cystic, benign solid or mixed, malignant cystic and malignant solid or mixed tumors and compared mean ADC values between these groups. There was only one patient with a malignant cystic tumor and was not included in the statistical analysis. The median ADC values of benign and malignant tumors were 2.31 ± 1.29 and 0.90 ± 0.70 (median ± interquartile range), respectively. The mean ADC values were different between benign and malignant tumors (P = 0.031). Benign cystic tumors had significantly higher ADC values than benign solid or mixed tumors and malignant solid or mixed tumors (p values were < 0.001 and 0.003, respectively). Malignant solid or mixed tumors had lower ADC values than benign solid or mixed tumors (P = 0.02). Our preliminary results have shown that although there is some overlap between benign and malignant tumors, adding DWI, MR imaging to routine soft tissue tumor protocols may improve diagnostic accuracy

  10. Tissue harmonic imaging in the evaluation of acute pancreatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garg, Mandeep; Sandhu, Manavjit; Sood, Bimal; Lal, Anupam; Suri, Sudha; Bhasin, Deepak

    2004-01-01

    To evaluate the role of tissue harmonic imaging (THI) in acute pancreatitis, and to compare its findings with conventional grey-scale sonography and contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CECT) scan, we evaluated 25 patients diagnosed with acute pancreatitis on clinical examination and laboratory findings. Conventional grey-scale ultrasound followed by tissue harmonic sonography was done on the same machine followed by a CECT within 12 h of the ultrasound examination. The present study showed that sonograms obtained with THI were of much better quality than those obtained conventionally, especially for the pancreatic tail. The benefits of harmonic imaging were more apparent in obese patients and in others whose body habitus was unfavourable for sonography. In the assessment of pancreatic image quality, grey-scale imaging had an accuracy of 60, 80 and 28% in relation to the head, body and tail, respectively. In comparison, THI had a far higher accuracy of 80, 92 and 60% in relation to the head, body and tail, respectively, with the superiority being most obvious in the pancreatic tail region. There were no cases in which tissue harmonic sonography provided less information than conventional sonography. However, CECT scan remained the best modality in all patients for the evaluation of acute pancreatitis. It showed superior demonstration of all the morphological changes, ranging from minimal pancreatic oedema to extensive fluid collections, necrosis and the haemorrhage that developed in fulminant severe pancreatitis. Our experience thus suggests that THI cannot replace CT scan as the gold standard in the assessment of acute pancreatitis, as it is poor in evaluating the pancreatic tail, cannot clearly distinguish phlegmon from necrosis, and is inferior to CT in the assessment of the complications of acute pancreatitis Copyright (2004) Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd

  11. Two-dimensional power Doppler-three-dimensional ultrasound imaging of a cesarean section dehiscence with utero-peritoneal fistula: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Royo Pedro

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction An imaging diagnosis after an iterative cesarean delivery is reviewed demonstrating a fine ultrasound-pathologic correlation. Case presentation A 33-year-old woman (G3, P3 presented referring intense dysmenorrhea and intermenstrual spotting since her third cesarean delivery, 1 year before. A cesarean section dehiscence with utero-peritoneal fistula was diagnosed by transvaginal ultrasound. Conclusion We can conclude that transvaginal two-dimensional power Doppler and three-dimensional ultrasound are highly accurate in detecting cesarean section dehiscence and uterine fistula.

  12. Cell and Tissue Imaging with Molecularly Imprinted Polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagiotopoulou, Maria; Kunath, Stephanie; Haupt, Karsten; Tse Sum Bui, Bernadette

    2017-01-01

    Advanced tools for cell imaging are of particular interest as they can detect, localize and quantify molecular targets like abnormal glycosylation sites that are biomarkers of cancer and infection. Targeting these biomarkers is often challenging due to a lack of receptor materials. Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) are promising artificial receptors; they can be tailored to bind targets specifically, be labeled easily, and are physically and chemically stable. Herein, we demonstrate the application of MIPs as artificial antibodies for selective labeling and imaging of cellular targets, on the example of hyaluronan and sialylation moieties on fixated human skin cells and tissues. Thus, fluorescently labeled MIP nanoparticles templated with glucuronic acid (MIPGlcA) and N-acetylneuraminic acid (MIPNANA) are respectively applied. Two different fluorescent probes are used: (1) MIPGlcA particles, ~400 nm in size are labeled with the dye rhodamine that target the extracellular hyaluronan on cells and tissue specimens and (2) MIP-coated InP/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) of two different colors, ~125 nm in size that target the extracellular and intracellular hyaluronan and sialylation sites. Green and red emitting QDs are functionalized with MIPGlcA and MIPNANA respectively, enabling multiplexed cell imaging. This is a general approach that can also be adapted to other target molecules on and in cells.

  13. Automatic breast tissue density estimation scheme in digital mammography images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menechelli, Renan C.; Pacheco, Ana Luisa V.; Schiabel, Homero

    2017-03-01

    Cases of breast cancer have increased substantially each year. However, radiologists are subject to subjectivity and failures of interpretation which may affect the final diagnosis in this examination. The high density features in breast tissue are important factors related to these failures. Thus, among many functions some CADx (Computer-Aided Diagnosis) schemes are classifying breasts according to the predominant density. In order to aid in such a procedure, this work attempts to describe automated software for classification and statistical information on the percentage change in breast tissue density, through analysis of sub regions (ROIs) from the whole mammography image. Once the breast is segmented, the image is divided into regions from which texture features are extracted. Then an artificial neural network MLP was used to categorize ROIs. Experienced radiologists have previously determined the ROIs density classification, which was the reference to the software evaluation. From tests results its average accuracy was 88.7% in ROIs classification, and 83.25% in the classification of the whole breast density in the 4 BI-RADS density classes - taking into account a set of 400 images. Furthermore, when considering only a simplified two classes division (high and low densities) the classifier accuracy reached 93.5%, with AUC = 0.95.

  14. Imaging of tissue sections with very slow electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank, L., E-mail: ludek@isibrno.cz [Institute of Scientific Instruments AS CR, v.v.i., Královopolská 147, 61264 Brno (Czech Republic); Nebesářová, J.; Vancová, M. [Biology Centre AS CR, v.v.i., Branišovská 31, 37005 České Budějovice (Czech Republic); Paták, A.; Müllerová, I. [Institute of Scientific Instruments AS CR, v.v.i., Královopolská 147, 61264 Brno (Czech Republic)

    2015-01-15

    The examination of thin sections of tissues with electron microscopes is an indispensable tool. Being composed of light elements, samples of living matter illuminated with electrons at the usual high energies of tens or even hundreds of kiloelectronvolts provide very low image contrasts in transmission or scanning transmission electron microscopes. Therefore, heavy metal salts are added to the specimen during preparation procedures (post-fixation with osmium tetroxide or staining). However, these procedures can modify or obscure the ultrastructural details of cells. Here we show that the energy of electrons used for the scanned transmission imaging of tissue sections can be reduced to mere hundreds or even tens of electronvolts and can produce extremely high contrast even for samples free of any metal salts. We found that when biasing a sufficiently thin tissue section sample to a high negative potential in a scanning transmission electron microscope, thereby reducing the energy of the electrons landing on the sample, and collecting the transmitted electrons with a grounded detector, we obtain a high contrast revealing structure details not enhanced by heavy atoms. Moreover, bombardment with slow electrons sensitively depolymerises the resin in which the tissue is embedded, thereby enhancing the transmitted signal with no observable loss of structure details. The use of low-energy electrons requires ultrathin sections of a thickness of less than 10 nm, but their preparation is now possible. Ultralow energy STEM provides a tool enabling the observation of very thin biological samples without any staining. This method should also be advantageous for examination of 2D crystals, thin films of polymers, polymer blends, etc. - Highlights: • Sections of a thickness below 10 nm were imaged in STEM at hundreds and tens of eV. • Image contrast grows steeply with decreasing electron energy in the STEM. • Very slow electrons provide high contrast for samples free of

  15. Doppler tomography in fusion plasmas and astrophysics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salewski, Mirko; Geiger, B.; Heidbrink, W. W.

    2015-01-01

    Doppler tomography is a well-known method in astrophysics to image the accretion flow, often in the shape of thin discs, in compact binary stars. As accretion discs rotate, all emitted line radiation is Doppler-shifted. In fast-ion Dα (FIDA) spectroscopy measurements in magnetically confined plasma......, the Dα-photons are likewise Doppler-shifted ultimately due to gyration of the fast ions. In either case, spectra of Doppler-shifted line emission are sensitive to the velocity distribution of the emitters. Astrophysical Doppler tomography has lead to images of accretion discs of binaries revealing bright...... and limits, analogies and differences in astrophysical and fusion plasma Doppler tomography and what can be learned by comparison of these applications....

  16. Clinical outcome and imaging changes after intraarticular (IA) application of etanercept or methylprednisolone in rheumatoid arthritis: Magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound-Doppler show no effect of IA injections in the wrist after 4 weeks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesen, M.; Boesen, L.; Jensen, K.E.

    2008-01-01

    Objective. To assess the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and ultrasound (US) changes in the wrist of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) 4 weeks after an US guided intraarticular (IA) injection. Methods. Contrast enhanced MRI and US-Doppler were performed at baseline and 4 weeks after IA....... Conclusion. In contrast to the clinical evaluation, imaging measures of relevance for the estimation of inflammation, US-Doppler, US RI, MRI synovitis, and bone-marrow edema did not change 4 weeks after a single IA injection of either methylprednisolone or etanercept in the wrist. Within the same period...... target joint score (p 4 weeks. Baseline MRI synovitis score was mean 5.08 (range 3-9) and was unchanged at followup in the whole group (p = 0.52) and between treatment groups (p = 0.43). MRI edema score (mean 4.46, range 0...

  17. Soft tissue manifestations of early rheumatic disease. Imaging with MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treitl, M.; Panteleon, A.; Koerner, M.; Becker-Gaab, C.; Reiser, M.; Wirth, S.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate typical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in early rheumatic diseases manifesting at the soft tissues of the hand using a retrospective analysis. A total of 186 MRI examinations of patients with clinical suspicion of a rheumatic disease were evaluated in a consensus reading by two experienced radiologists. All imaging patterns were assessed with respect to their type and localization. Under blinded and non-blinded conditions diagnoses were correlated with final clinical diagnosis. The most frequent diagnoses were rheumatoid arthritis (RA, 45.7%) and psoriatic arthritis (PsA, 15.6%). The mean correlation between clinical and MRI diagnosis (r) was 0.75 in blinded and 0.853 in non-blinded reading (p [de

  18. Imaging of Biological Tissues by Visible Light CDI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpov, Dmitry; Dos Santos Rolo, Tomy; Rich, Hannah; Fohtung, Edwin

    Recent advances in the use of synchrotron and X-ray free electron laser (XFEL) based coherent diffraction imaging (CDI) with application to material sciences and medicine proved the technique to be efficient in recovering information about the samples encoded in the phase domain. The current state-of-the-art algorithms of reconstruction are transferable to optical frequencies, which makes laser sources a reasonable milestone both in technique development and applications. Here we present first results from table-top laser CDI system for imaging of biological tissues and reconstruction algorithms development and discuss approaches that are complimenting the data quality improvement that is applicable to visible light frequencies due to it's properties. We demonstrate applicability of the developed methodology to a wide class of soft bio-matter and condensed matter systems. This project is funded by DOD-AFOSR under Award No FA9550-14-1-0363 and the LANSCE Professorship at LANL.

  19. Extracting morphologies from third harmonic generation images of structurally normal human brain tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Zhiqing; Kuzmin, Nikolay V.; Groot, Marie Louise; de Munck, Jan C.

    2017-01-01

    Motivation: The morphologies contained in 3D third harmonic generation (THG) images of human brain tissue can report on the pathological state of the tissue. However, the complexity of THG brain images makes the usage of modern image processing tools, especially those of image filtering,

  20. Three-dimensional power Doppler sonography in screening for carotid artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keberle, M; Jenett, M; Beissert, M; Jahns, R; Haerten, R; Hahn, D

    2000-01-01

    Color Doppler sonography has gained considerable recognition as a noninvasive method to detect carotid artery disease and to assess the degree of carotid artery stenosis. However, results are highly operator-dependent and cannot be presented as survey images. The purpose of this study was to evaluate real-time 3-dimensional (3D) power Doppler sonography as a method for screening for atherosclerosis in the carotid arteries. We prospectively screened 75 patients for carotid artery disease using both conventional color Doppler sonography and 3D power Doppler sonography, and the results from the 2 modalities were compared. A total of 150 common carotid arteries, 150 internal carotid arteries, and 150 external carotid arteries were examined utilizing a 7.5-MHz linear-array transducer combined with tissue harmonic imaging. Color Doppler sonography detected 297 normal or atherosclerotic arteries without stenosis, 57 arteries with mild (1-49%) stenosis, 41 with moderate (50-69%) stenosis, 32 with severe (70-99%) stenosis, and 9 with occlusions. The degree of stenosis determined by color Doppler sonography correlated with that determined by 3D power Doppler sonography (r = 0.982-0.998). Moreover, there was a good correlation between the measurements for both the length of the lesion and its distance from the bulb as determined by the 3D volume surveys and by color Doppler sonography (r = 0.986). The interobserver variability rate was 3.7% +/- 0.5%. Generally, the acquisition and reconstruction of the 3D data took less than 5 minutes. 3D power Doppler sonography is easy to perform and is an accurate method in screening for atherosclerotic lesions of the carotid arteries. Moreover, it provides excellent 3D volume surveys that may be helpful in the planning of surgical treatment. Copyright 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  1. OCT angiography and Color Doppler Imaging in the study of hemoperfusion in the retina and optic nerve in POAG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. I. Kurysheva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the hemoperfusion of Optic Nerve Disk (OND, peripapillary and macular areas, and retrobulbar blood flow in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma using optical coherence tomography with angiography (OCT-A and Сolor Doppler Imaging (CDI.Patients and Methods: 65 eyes of patients with primary open angle glaucoma (POAG and 22 eyes of age-matched healthy subjects were examined using the SD-OCT-А (RtVue xR Avanti with the AngioVue software. Retinal Thickness and Angio Flow Density (AFD were measured. AFD Disc and Peripapillary Flow Density were measured in OND and in peripapillary area. AFD Retina were evaluated in Macula inсluding Fovea- and Parafovea regions (superficial and deep of the inner retinal layers. Ophthalmic Artery (OA, Central Retinal Artery (CRA, Posterior short Ciliary Arteries (PCA, Central Retinal Vein (CRV and Vortex Vein (VV were measured by CDI. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS version 21 and MASS library of language R. The value of each diagnostic indicator (z-value was calculated with the Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC.Results: Both OCT-A and CDI indicators were reduced in glaucoma compared to healthy eyes. The following indicators had the largest AUC and diagnostic value (z-value to discriminate the early glaucoma from normal eyes: AFD Retina Superficial Whole En Face (z = 3,83, p<0,0001; AUC 0,8 (0,69‑0,90, AFD Retina Deep Whole En Face (z = 3,31, p = 0,0007; AUC 0,76 (0,64‑0,88, Peripapillary Vessel Density (z = 3,2, p = 0,001; AUC 0,75 (0,63‑0,87, end-diastolic flow velocity in AO (z = 3,03, p = 0,002; AUC 0,74 (0,61‑0,86 and in TPCA (z = 2,78, p = 0,005; AUC 0,72 (0,58‑0,86; and to discriminate the early glaucoma from the advanced and far advanced stages: AFD Disc Peripapillary Inferior Temporalis (z = 5,61, p<0,0001; AUC 0,94 (0,86‑1,0 and the mean flow velocity in the CRA (z = 4,16, p<0

  2. Assessment of biological leaf tissue using biospeckle laser imaging technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, M. Z.; Mujeeb, A.; Nirala, A. K.

    2018-06-01

    We report on the application of an optical imaging technique, the biospeckle laser, as a potential tool to assess biological and medicinal plant leaves. The biospeckle laser technique is a non-invasive and non-destructive optical technique used to investigate biological objects. Just after their removal from plants, the torn leaves were used for biospeckle laser imaging. Quantitative evaluation of the biospeckle data using the inertia moment (IM) of the time history speckle pattern, showed that the IM can be utilized to provide a biospeckle signature to the plant leaves. It showed that leaves from different plants can have their own characteristic IM values. We further investigated the infected regions of the leaves that display a relatively lower biospeckle activity than the healthy tissue. It was easy to discriminate between the infected and healthy regions of the leaf tissue. The biospeckle technique can successfully be implemented as a potential tool for the taxonomy of quality leaves. Furthermore, the technique can help boost the quality of ayurvedic medicines.

  3. The role of fat tissues in the diagnosis of musculoskeletal imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sue Yon; Park, Ji Seon; Ryu, Kyung Nam; Jin, Wook

    2007-01-01

    Fat tissue is a unique component of the soft tissue, and this fat tissue lies primarily in the spaces beneath the normal subcutaneous tissue, and within or around the organs. An entire lesion, or just a part of it, can be composed of these fat tissues. Therefore, it plays an important role in the diagnostic workup of suspected musculoskeletal diseases as well as in the differentiation between them. Fat tissue is shown as low density on plain radiographs, decreased attenuation on CT images, high signal intensity on T1-weighted images and it is hypoechoic on sonography. Because of its distinctive features, fat tissue is easy to verify on various modalities. In addition, recent image studies like fat-suppressed imaging and STIR imaging provide more precise information of the lesion that involve fat tissue. In this article, we have reviewed the differentiation of musculoskeletal diseases, including the various tumorous lesion and tumor-like lesions involving the fat tissue

  4. A method to obtain reference images for evaluation of ultrasonic tissue characterization techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, M.S.; Wilhjelm, Jens E.; Sahl, B.

    2002-01-01

    of the macroscopic photograph, due to the histological preparation process. The histological information was "mapped back" into the format of the ultrasound images the following way: On the macroscopic images, outlines were drawn manually which defined the border of the tissue. These outlines were superimposed...... of the various tissue types. Specifically, the macroscopic image revealed the borders between the different tissues, while the histological image identified the four tissue types. A set of 12 reference images based on modified macroscopic outlines was created. The overlap between the ultrasound images...... and the macroscopic images-which are the geometrical basis for the final reference images-was between 77% and 93%. A set of 12 reference images spaced 2.5 mm, identifying spatial location of four different tissue types in porcine muscle has been created. With the reference images, it is possible to quantitatively...

  5. Molecular imaging of lipids in cells and tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borner, Katrin; Malmberg, Per; Mansson, Jan-Eric; Nygren, Hakan

    2007-02-01

    The distribution pattern of lipid species in biological tissues was analyzed with imaging mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS; time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry). The first application shows distribution of a glycosphingolipid, the galactosylceramide-sulfate (sulfatide) with different hydrocarbon chain lengths and the fatty acids palmitate and oleate in rat cerebellum. Sulfatides were seen localized in regions suggested as paranodal areas of rat cerebellar white matter as well as in the granular layer, with highest concentrations at the borders of the white matter. Different distribution patterns could be shown for the fatty acid C16:0 palmitate and C18:1 oleate in rat cerebellum, which seem to origin partly from the hydrocarbon chains of phosphatidylcholine. Results were shown for two different tissue preparation methods, which were plunge-freezing and cryostat sectioning as well as high-pressure freezing, freeze-fracturing and freeze-drying. The second application shows TOF-SIMS analysis on a biological trial of choleratoxin treatment in mouse intestine. The effect of cholera toxin on lipids in the intestinal epithelium was shown by comparing control and cholera toxin treated mouse intestine samples. A significant increase of the cholesterol concentration was seen after treatment. Cholesterol was mainly localized to the brush border of enterocytes of the intestinal villi, which could be explained by the presence of cholesterol-rich lipid rafts present on the microvilli or by relations to cholesterol uptake. After cholera toxin exposure, cholesterol was seen increased in the nuclei of enterocytes and apparently in the interstitium of the villi. We find that imaging TOF-SIMS is a powerful tool for studies of lipid distributions in cells and tissues, enabling the elucidation of their role in cell function and biology.

  6. Immunohistochemical analysis of breast tissue microarray images using contextual classifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen J McKenna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tissue microarrays (TMAs are an important tool in translational research for examining multiple cancers for molecular and protein markers. Automatic immunohistochemical (IHC scoring of breast TMA images remains a challenging problem. Methods: A two-stage approach that involves localization of regions of invasive and in-situ carcinoma followed by ordinal IHC scoring of nuclei in these regions is proposed. The localization stage classifies locations on a grid as tumor or non-tumor based on local image features. These classifications are then refined using an auto-context algorithm called spin-context. Spin-context uses a series of classifiers to integrate image feature information with spatial context information in the form of estimated class probabilities. This is achieved in a rotationally-invariant manner. The second stage estimates ordinal IHC scores in terms of the strength of staining and the proportion of nuclei stained. These estimates take the form of posterior probabilities, enabling images with uncertain scores to be referred for pathologist review. Results: The method was validated against manual pathologist scoring on two nuclear markers, progesterone receptor (PR and estrogen receptor (ER. Errors for PR data were consistently lower than those achieved with ER data. Scoring was in terms of estimated proportion of cells that were positively stained (scored on an ordinal scale of 0-6 and perceived strength of staining (scored on an ordinal scale of 0-3. Average absolute differences between predicted scores and pathologist-assigned scores were 0.74 for proportion of cells and 0.35 for strength of staining (PR. Conclusions: The use of context information via spin-context improved the precision and recall of tumor localization. The combination of the spin-context localization method with the automated scoring method resulted in reduced IHC scoring errors.

  7. MARS spectral molecular imaging of lamb tissue: data collection and image analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Aamir, R; Bateman, C.J.; Butler, A.P.H.; Butler, P.H.; Anderson, N.G.; Bell, S.T.; Panta, R.K.; Healy, J.L.; Mohr, J.L.; Rajendran, K.; Walsh, M.F.; Ruiter, N.de; Gieseg, S.P.; Woodfield, T.; Renaud, P.F.; Brooke, L.; Abdul-Majid, S.; Clyne, M.; Glendenning, R.; Bones, P.J.; Billinghurst, M.; Bartneck, C.; Mandalika, H.; Grasset, R.; Schleich, N.; Scott, N.; Nik, S.J.; Opie, A.; Janmale, T.; Tang, D.N.; Kim, D.; Doesburg, R.M.; Zainon, R.; Ronaldson, J.P.; Cook, N.J.; Smithies, D.J.; Hodge, K.

    2014-01-01

    Spectral molecular imaging is a new imaging technique able to discriminate and quantify different components of tissue simultaneously at high spatial and high energy resolution. Our MARS scanner is an x-ray based small animal CT system designed to be used in the diagnostic energy range (20 to 140 keV). In this paper, we demonstrate the use of the MARS scanner, equipped with the Medipix3RX spectroscopic photon-processing detector, to discriminate fat, calcium, and water in tissue. We present data collected from a sample of lamb meat including bone as an illustrative example of human tissue imaging. The data is analyzed using our 3D Algebraic Reconstruction Algorithm (MARS-ART) and by material decomposition based on a constrained linear least squares algorithm. The results presented here clearly show the quantification of lipid-like, water-like and bone-like components of tissue. However, it is also clear to us that better algorithms could extract more information of clinical interest from our data. Because we ...

  8. Deformable Image Registration with Inclusion of Autodetected Homologous Tissue Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingsong Zhu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel deformable registration algorithm is proposed in the application of radiation therapy. The algorithm starts with autodetection of a number of points with distinct tissue features. The feature points are then matched by using the scale invariance features transform (SIFT method. The associated feature point pairs are served as landmarks for the subsequent thin plate spline (TPS interpolation. Several registration experiments using both digital phantom and clinical data demonstrate the accuracy and efficiency of the method. For the 3D phantom case, markers with error less than 2 mm are over 85% of total test markers, and it takes only 2-3 minutes for 3D feature points association. The proposed method provides a clinically practical solution and should be valuable for various image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT applications.

  9. A method for volumetric retinal tissue oxygen tension imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felder, Anthony E; Wanek, Justin; Teng, Pang-Yu; Blair, Norman P; Shahidi, Mahnaz

    2018-01-01

    Inadequate retinal oxygenation occurs in many vision-threatening retinal diseases, including diabetic retinopathy, retinal vascular occlusions, and age-related macular degeneration. Therefore, techniques that assess retinal oxygenation are necessary to understand retinal physiology in health and disease. The purpose of the current study is to report a method for the three-dimensional (3D) imaging of retinal tissue oxygen tension (tPO 2 ) in rats. Imaging was performed in Long Evans pigmented rats under systemic normoxia (N = 6) or hypoxia (N = 3). A vertical laser line was horizontally scanned on the retina and a series of optical section phase-delayed phosphorescence images were acquired. From these images, phosphorescence volumes at each phase delay were constructed and a 3D retinal tPO 2 volume was generated. Retinal tPO 2 volumes were quantitatively analyzed by generating retinal depth profiles of mean tPO 2 (M tPO2 ) and the spatial variation of tPO 2 (SV tPO2 ). The effects of systemic condition (normoxia/hypoxia) and retinal depth on M tPO2 and SV tPO2 were determined by mixed linear model. Each 3D retinal tPO 2 volume was approximately 500 × 750 × 200 μm (horizontal × vertical × depth) and consisted of 45 en face tPO 2 images through the retinal depth. M tPO2 at the chorioretinal interface was significantly correlated with systemic arterial oxygen tension (P = 0.007; N = 9). There were significant effects of both systemic condition and retinal depth on M tPO2 and SV tPO2 , such that both were lower under hypoxia than normoxia and higher in the outer retina than inner retina (P < 0.001). For the first time, 3D imaging of retinal tPO 2 was demonstrated, with potential future application for assessment of physiological alterations in animal models of retinal diseases.

  10. Multiple foci of splenic tissue autotransplantation: Splenosis in diagnostic imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laskowska, K.; Burzynska-Makuch, M.; Drewa, S.; Lasek, W.; Pilecki, S.; Junik, R.

    2005-01-01

    Splenosis is usually defined as an autotransplantation of lienal tissue in the abdomen or cest following trauma to the spleen and/or splenectomy. The authors present the case of patient 15 years after a splenectomy performed because of extensive abdominal trauma. A new computed tomographic (CT) scan of the abdomen revealed multiple homogenous nodules, different in size, spread in the abdomen. Their density was characteristic of spleen. Ultrasound examination revealed only the largest tumors, located close to the liver and apparently isoechogenic to it. Static scintigraphy and SPECT were performed to prove the presence of splenosis. After treating the patient with colloid sulfide, multiple foci of increased radioisotope accumulation were identified in the abdomen, extrahepatic at the same locations as the masses visible on the CT scans, which were comparable to splenic tissue. Nodules revealed during CT or abdominal US in patients previously treated by splenectomy require further imaging with static scintigraphy of the liver and spleen in order to confirm or exclude splenosis. (author)

  11. High Definition Confocal Imaging Modalities for the Characterization of Tissue-Engineered Substitutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayrand, Dominique; Fradette, Julie

    2018-01-01

    Optimal imaging methods are necessary in order to perform a detailed characterization of thick tissue samples from either native or engineered tissues. Tissue-engineered substitutes are featuring increasing complexity including multiple cell types and capillary-like networks. Therefore, technical approaches allowing the visualization of the inner structural organization and cellular composition of tissues are needed. This chapter describes an optical clearing technique which facilitates the detailed characterization of whole-mount samples from skin and adipose tissues (ex vivo tissues and in vitro tissue-engineered substitutes) when combined with spectral confocal microscopy and quantitative analysis on image renderings.

  12. Detection of light images by simple tissues as visualized by photosensitized magnetic resonance imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Tempel-Brami

    Full Text Available In this study, we show how light can be absorbed by the body of a living rat due to an injected pigment circulating in the blood stream. This process is then physiologically translated in the tissue into a chemical signature that can be perceived as an image by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. We previously reported that illumination of an injected photosynthetic bacteriochlorophyll-derived pigment leads to a generation of reactive oxygen species, upon oxygen consumption in the blood stream. Consequently, paramagnetic deoxyhemoglobin accumulating in the illuminated area induces changes in image contrast, detectable by a Blood Oxygen Level Dependent (BOLD-MRI protocol, termed photosensitized (psMRI. Here, we show that laser beam pulses synchronously trigger BOLD-contrast transients in the tissue, allowing representation of the luminous spatiotemporal profile, as a contrast map, on the MR monitor. Regions with enhanced BOLD-contrast (7-61 fold were deduced as illuminated, and were found to overlap with the anatomical location of the incident light. Thus, we conclude that luminous information can be captured and translated by typical oxygen exchange processes in the blood of ordinary tissues, and made visible by psMRI (Fig. 1. This process represents a new channel for communicating environmental light into the body in certain analogy to light absorption by visual pigments in the retina where image perception takes place in the central nervous system. Potential applications of this finding may include: non-invasive intra-operative light guidance and follow-up of photodynamic interventions, determination of light diffusion in opaque tissues for optical imaging and possible assistance to the blind.

  13. A survey of clearing techniques for 3D imaging of tissues with special reference to connective tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azaripour, Adriano; Lagerweij, Tonny; Scharfbillig, Christina; Jadczak, Anna Elisabeth; Willershausen, Brita; Van Noorden, Cornelis J F

    2016-08-01

    For 3-dimensional (3D) imaging of a tissue, 3 methodological steps are essential and their successful application depends on specific characteristics of the type of tissue. The steps are 1° clearing of the opaque tissue to render it transparent for microscopy, 2° fluorescence labeling of the tissues and 3° 3D imaging. In the past decades, new methodologies were introduced for the clearing steps with their specific advantages and disadvantages. Most clearing techniques have been applied to the central nervous system and other organs that contain relatively low amounts of connective tissue including extracellular matrix. However, tissues that contain large amounts of extracellular matrix such as dermis in skin or gingiva are difficult to clear. The present survey lists methodologies that are available for clearing of tissues for 3D imaging. We report here that the BABB method using a mixture of benzyl alcohol and benzyl benzoate and iDISCO using dibenzylether (DBE) are the most successful methods for clearing connective tissue-rich gingiva and dermis of skin for 3D histochemistry and imaging of fluorescence using light-sheet microscopy. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier GmbH.. All rights reserved.

  14. 4-D flow magnetic resonance imaging: blood flow quantification compared to 2-D phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging and Doppler echocardiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabbour, Maya [Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children' s Hospital of Chicago, Department of Medical Imaging 9, Chicago, IL (United States); Schnell, Susanne [Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Chicago, IL (United States); Jarvis, Kelly [Northwestern University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, McCormick School of Engineering, Evanston, IL (United States); Robinson, Joshua D. [Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children' s Hospital of Chicago, Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Cardiology, Chicago, IL (United States); Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Chicago, IL (United States); Markl, Michael [Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Chicago, IL (United States); Northwestern University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, McCormick School of Engineering, Evanston, IL (United States); Rigsby, Cynthia K. [Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children' s Hospital of Chicago, Department of Medical Imaging 9, Chicago, IL (United States); Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Doppler echocardiography (echo) is the reference standard for blood flow velocity analysis, and two-dimensional (2-D) phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is considered the reference standard for quantitative blood flow assessment. However, both clinical standard-of-care techniques are limited by 2-D acquisitions and single-direction velocity encoding and may make them inadequate to assess the complex three-dimensional hemodynamics seen in congenital heart disease. Four-dimensional flow MRI (4-D flow) enables qualitative and quantitative analysis of complex blood flow in the heart and great arteries. The objectives of this study are to compare 4-D flow with 2-D phase-contrast MRI for quantification of aortic and pulmonary flow and to evaluate the advantage of 4-D flow-based volumetric flow analysis compared to 2-D phase-contrast MRI and echo for peak velocity assessment in children and young adults. Two-dimensional phase-contrast MRI of the aortic root, main pulmonary artery (MPA), and right and left pulmonary arteries (RPA, LPA) and 4-D flow with volumetric coverage of the aorta and pulmonary arteries were performed in 50 patients (mean age: 13.1 ± 6.4 years). Four-dimensional flow analyses included calculation of net flow and regurgitant fraction with 4-D flow analysis planes similarly positioned to 2-D planes. In addition, 4-D flow volumetric assessment of aortic root/ascending aorta and MPA peak velocities was performed and compared to 2-D phase-contrast MRI and echo. Excellent correlation and agreement were found between 2-D phase-contrast MRI and 4-D flow for net flow (r = 0.97, P < 0.001) and excellent correlation with good agreement was found for regurgitant fraction (r = 0.88, P < 0.001) in all vessels. Two-dimensional phase-contrast MRI significantly underestimated aortic (P = 0.032) and MPA (P < 0.001) peak velocities compared to echo, while volumetric 4-D flow analysis resulted in higher (aortic: P = 0.001) or similar (MPA: P = 0.98) peak

  15. Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Morrissey

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. In vivo gene therapy directed at tissues of mesenchymal origin could potentially augment healing. We aimed to assess the duration and magnitude of transene expression in vivo in mice and ex vivo in human tissues. Methods. Using bioluminescence imaging, plasmid and adenoviral vector-based transgene expression in murine quadriceps in vivo was examined. Temporal control was assessed using a doxycycline-inducible system. An ex vivo model was developed and optimised using murine tissue, and applied in ex vivo human tissue. Results. In vivo plasmid-based transgene expression did not silence in murine muscle, unlike in liver. Although maximum luciferase expression was higher in muscle with adenoviral delivery compared with plasmid, expression reduced over time. The inducible promoter cassette successfully regulated gene expression with maximum levels a factor of 11 greater than baseline. Expression was re-induced to a similar level on a temporal basis. Luciferase expression was readily detected ex vivo in human muscle and tendon. Conclusions. Plasmid constructs resulted in long-term in vivo gene expression in skeletal muscle, in a controllable fashion utilising an inducible promoter in combination with oral agents. Successful plasmid gene transfection in human ex vivo mesenchymal tissue was demonstrated for the first time.

  16. Design of a monolithic Michelson interferometer for fringe imaging in a near-field, UV, direct-detection Doppler wind lidar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbst, Jonas; Vrancken, Patrick

    2016-09-01

    The low-biased, fast, airborne, short-range, and range-resolved determination of atmospheric wind speeds plays a key role in wake vortex and turbulence mitigation strategies and would improve flight safety, comfort, and economy. In this work, a concept for an airborne, UV, direct-detection Doppler wind lidar receiver is presented. A monolithic, tilted, field-widened, fringe-imaging Michelson interferometer (FWFIMI) combines the advantages of low angular sensitivity, high thermo-mechanical stability, independence of the specific atmospheric conditions, and potential for fast data evaluation. Design and integration of the FWFIMI into a lidar receiver concept are described. Simulations help to evaluate the receiver design and prospect sufficient performance under different atmospheric conditions.

  17. Comparison of three techniques for evaluating skin erythemal response for determination of sun protection factors of sunscreens: high resolution laser Doppler imaging, colorimetry and visual scoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, K P; Kaspar, K; Funkel, O

    2001-04-01

    Sun protection factor (SPF) measurement is based on the determination of the minimal erythema dose (MED). The ratio of doses required to induce a minimal erythema between product-treated and untreated skin is defined as SPF. The aim of this study was to validate the conventionally used visual scoring with two non-invasive methods: high resolution laser Doppler imaging (HR-LDI) and colorimetry. Another goal was to check whether suberythemal reactions could be detected by means of HR-LDI measurements. Four sunscreens were selected. The measurements were made on the back of 10 subjects. A solar simulator SU 5000 (m.u.t., Wedel, Germany) served as radiation source. For the visual assessment, the erythema was defined according to COLIPA as the first perceptible, clearly defined unambiguous redness of the skin. For the colorimetric determination of the erythema, a Chromameter CR 300 (Minolta, Osaka, Japan) was used. The threshold for the colorimetry was chosen according to the COLIPA recommendation as an increase of the redness parameter delta a* = 2.5. For the non-contact perfusion measurements of skin blood flow, a two-dimensional high resolution laser Doppler imager (HR-LDI) (Lisca, Linköping, Sweden) was used. For the HR-LDI measurements, an optimal threshold perfusion needed to be established. For the HR-LDI measurements basal perfusion +1 standard deviation of all basal measurements was found to be a reliable threshold perfusion corresponding to the minimal erythema. Smaller thresholds, which would be necessary for detection of suberythemal responses, did not provide unambiguous data. All three methods, visual scoring, colorimetry and HR-LDI, produced similar SPFs for the test products with a variability of colorimetry are suitable, reliable and observer-independent methods for MED determination. However, they do not provide greater sensitivity and thus do not result in lower UV dose requirements for testing.

  18. Diffusion weighted imaging demystified. The technique and potential clinical applications for soft tissue imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahlawat, Shivani [The Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, The Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Baltimore, MD (United States); Fayad, Laura M. [The Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, The Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Baltimore, MD (United States); The Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Department of Oncology, Baltimore, MD (United States); The Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2018-03-15

    Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) is a fast, non-contrast technique that is readily available and easy to integrate into an existing imaging protocol. DWI with apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) mapping offers a quantitative metric for soft tissue evaluation and provides information regarding the cellularity of a region of interest. There are several available methods of performing DWI, and artifacts and pitfalls must be considered when interpreting DWI studies. This review article will review the various techniques of DWI acquisition and utility of qualitative as well as quantitative methods of image interpretation, with emphasis on optimal methods for ADC measurement. The current clinical applications for DWI are primarily related to oncologic evaluation: For the assessment of de novo soft tissue masses, ADC mapping can serve as a useful adjunct technique to routine anatomic sequences for lesion characterization as cyst or solid and, if solid, benign or malignant. For treated soft tissue masses, the role of DWI/ADC mapping in the assessment of treatment response as well as recurrent or residual neoplasm in the setting of operative management is discussed, especially when intravenous contrast medium cannot be given. Emerging DWI applications for non-neoplastic clinical indications are also reviewed. (orig.)

  19. Diffusion weighted imaging demystified. The technique and potential clinical applications for soft tissue imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlawat, Shivani; Fayad, Laura M.

    2018-01-01

    Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) is a fast, non-contrast technique that is readily available and easy to integrate into an existing imaging protocol. DWI with apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) mapping offers a quantitative metric for soft tissue evaluation and provides information regarding the cellularity of a region of interest. There are several available methods of performing DWI, and artifacts and pitfalls must be considered when interpreting DWI studies. This review article will review the various techniques of DWI acquisition and utility of qualitative as well as quantitative methods of image interpretation, with emphasis on optimal methods for ADC measurement. The current clinical applications for DWI are primarily related to oncologic evaluation: For the assessment of de novo soft tissue masses, ADC mapping can serve as a useful adjunct technique to routine anatomic sequences for lesion characterization as cyst or solid and, if solid, benign or malignant. For treated soft tissue masses, the role of DWI/ADC mapping in the assessment of treatment response as well as recurrent or residual neoplasm in the setting of operative management is discussed, especially when intravenous contrast medium cannot be given. Emerging DWI applications for non-neoplastic clinical indications are also reviewed. (orig.)

  20. Shear Elasticity and Shear Viscosity Imaging in Soft Tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yiqun

    In this thesis, a new approach is introduced that provides estimates of shear elasticity and shear viscosity using time-domain measurements of shear waves in viscoelastic media. Simulations of shear wave particle displacements induced by an acoustic radiation force are accelerated significantly by a GPU. The acoustic radiation force is first calculated using the fast near field method (FNM) and the angular spectrum approach (ASA). The shear waves induced by the acoustic radiation force are then simulated in elastic and viscoelastic media using Green's functions. A parallel algorithm is developed to perform these calculations on a GPU, where the shear wave particle displacements at different observation points are calculated in parallel. The resulting speed increase enables rapid evaluation of shear waves at discrete points, in 2D planes, and for push beams with different spatial samplings and for different values of the f-number (f/#). The results of these simulations show that push beams with smaller f/# require a higher spatial sampling rate. The significant amount of acceleration achieved by this approach suggests that shear wave simulations with the Green's function approach are ideally suited for high-performance GPUs. Shear wave elasticity imaging determines the mechanical parameters of soft tissue by analyzing measured shear waves induced by an acoustic radiation force. To estimate the shear elasticity value, the widely used time-of-flight method calculates the correlation between shear wave particle velocities at adjacent lateral observation points. Although this method provides accurate estimates of the shear elasticity in purely elastic media, our experience suggests that the time-of-flight (TOF) method consistently overestimates the shear elasticity values in viscoelastic media because the combined effects of diffraction, attenuation, and dispersion are not considered. To address this problem, we have developed an approach that directly accounts for all

  1. Magnetoacoustic Imaging of Electrical Conductivity of Biological Tissues at a Spatial Resolution Better than 2 mm

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Gang; He, Bin

    2011-01-01

    Magnetoacoustic tomography with magnetic induction (MAT-MI) is an emerging approach for noninvasively imaging electrical impedance properties of biological tissues. The MAT-MI imaging system measures ultrasound waves generated by the Lorentz force, having been induced by magnetic stimulation, which is related to the electrical conductivity distribution in tissue samples. MAT-MI promises to provide fine spatial resolution for biological tissue imaging as compared to ultrasound resolution. In t...

  2. Added soft tissue contrast using signal attenuation and the fractal dimension for optical coherence tomography images of porcine arterial tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flueraru, C; Mao, Y; Chang, S; Popescu, D P; Sowa, M G

    2010-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) images of left-descending coronary tissues harvested from three porcine specimens were acquired with a home-build swept-source OCT setup. Despite the fact that OCT is capable of acquiring high resolution circumferential images of vessels, many distinct histological features of a vessel have comparable optical properties leading to poor contrast in OCT images. Two classification methods were tested in this report for the purpose of enhancing contrast between soft-tissue components of porcine coronary vessels. One method involved analyzing the attenuation of the OCT signal as a function of light penetration into the tissue. We demonstrated that by analyzing the signal attenuation in this manner we were able to differentiate two media sub-layers with different orientations of the smooth muscle cells. The other classification method used in our study was fractal analysis. Fractal analysis was implemented in a box-counting (fractal dimension) image-processing code and was used as a tool to differentiate and quantify variations in tissue texture at various locations in the OCT images. The calculated average fractal dimensions had different values in distinct regions of interest (ROI) within the imaged coronary samples. When compared to the results obtained by using the attenuation of the OCT signal, the method of fractal analysis demonstrated better classification potential for distinguishing amongst the tissue ROI.

  3. Thick tissue diffusion model with binding to optimize topical staining in fluorescence breast cancer margin imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaochun; Kang, Soyoung; Navarro-Comes, Eric; Wang, Yu; Liu, Jonathan T. C.; Tichauer, Kenneth M.

    2018-03-01

    Intraoperative tumor/surgical margin assessment is required to achieve higher tumor resection rate in breast-conserving surgery. Though current histology provides incomparable accuracy in margin assessment, thin tissue sectioning and the limited field of view of microscopy makes histology too time-consuming for intraoperative applications. If thick tissue, wide-field imaging can provide an acceptable assessment of tumor cells at the surface of resected tissues, an intraoperative protocol can be developed to guide the surgery and provide immediate feedback for surgeons. Topical staining of margins with cancer-targeted molecular imaging agents has the potential to provide the sensitivity needed to see microscopic cancer on a wide-field image; however, diffusion and nonspecific retention of imaging agents in thick tissue can significantly diminish tumor contrast with conventional methods. Here, we present a mathematical model to accurately simulate nonspecific retention, binding, and diffusion of imaging agents in thick tissue topical staining to guide and optimize future thick tissue staining and imaging protocol. In order to verify the accuracy and applicability of the model, diffusion profiles of cancer targeted and untargeted (control) nanoparticles at different staining times in A431 tumor xenografts were acquired for model comparison and tuning. The initial findings suggest the existence of nonspecific retention in the tissue, especially at the tissue surface. The simulator can be used to compare the effect of nonspecific retention, receptor binding and diffusion under various conditions (tissue type, imaging agent) and provides optimal staining and imaging protocols for targeted and control imaging agent.

  4. In vivo multiphoton tomography and fluorescence lifetime imaging of human brain tumor tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantelhardt, Sven R; Kalasauskas, Darius; König, Karsten; Kim, Ella; Weinigel, Martin; Uchugonova, Aisada; Giese, Alf

    2016-05-01

    High resolution multiphoton tomography and fluorescence lifetime imaging differentiates glioma from adjacent brain in native tissue samples ex vivo. Presently, multiphoton tomography is applied in clinical dermatology and experimentally. We here present the first application of multiphoton and fluorescence lifetime imaging for in vivo imaging on humans during a neurosurgical procedure. We used a MPTflex™ Multiphoton Laser Tomograph (JenLab, Germany). We examined cultured glioma cells in an orthotopic mouse tumor model and native human tissue samples. Finally the multiphoton tomograph was applied to provide optical biopsies during resection of a clinical case of glioblastoma. All tissues imaged by multiphoton tomography were sampled and processed for conventional histopathology. The multiphoton tomograph allowed fluorescence intensity- and fluorescence lifetime imaging with submicron spatial resolution and 200 picosecond temporal resolution. Morphological fluorescence intensity imaging and fluorescence lifetime imaging of tumor-bearing mouse brains and native human tissue samples clearly differentiated tumor and adjacent brain tissue. Intraoperative imaging was found to be technically feasible. Intraoperative image quality was comparable to ex vivo examinations. To our knowledge we here present the first intraoperative application of high resolution multiphoton tomography and fluorescence lifetime imaging of human brain tumors in situ. It allowed in vivo identification and determination of cell density of tumor tissue on a cellular and subcellular level within seconds. The technology shows the potential of rapid intraoperative identification of native glioma tissue without need for tissue processing or staining.

  5. Clinical evaluation of Synthetic Aperture Sequential Beamforming and Tissue Harmonic Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Andreas Hjelm; Hemmsen, Martin Christian; Hansen, Peter Møller

    2014-01-01

    This study determines if the data reduction achieved by the combination Synthetic Aperture Sequential Beamforming (SASB) and Tissue Harmonic Imaging (THI) affects image quality. SASB-THI was evaluated against the combination of Dynamic Received Focusing and Tissue Harmonic Imaging (DRF-THI). A BK...... equally good image quality although a data reduction of 64 times is achieved with SASB-THI.......This study determines if the data reduction achieved by the combination Synthetic Aperture Sequential Beamforming (SASB) and Tissue Harmonic Imaging (THI) affects image quality. SASB-THI was evaluated against the combination of Dynamic Received Focusing and Tissue Harmonic Imaging (DRF-THI). A BK...... liver pathology were scanned to set a clinical condition, where ultrasonography is often performed. A total of 114 sequences were recorded and evaluated by five radiologists. The evaluators were blinded to the imaging technique, and each sequence was shown twice with different left-right positioning...

  6. Comparison of optical and power Doppler ultrasound imaging for non-invasive evaluation of arsenic trioxide as a vascular disrupting agent in tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhasan, Mustafa K; Liu, Li; Lewis, Matthew A; Magnusson, Jennifer; Mason, Ralph P

    2012-01-01

    Small animal imaging provides diverse methods for evaluating tumor growth and acute response to therapy. This study compared the utility of non-invasive optical and ultrasound imaging to monitor growth of three diverse human tumor xenografts (brain U87-luc-mCherry, mammary MCF7-luc-mCherry, and prostate PC3-luc) growing in nude mice. Bioluminescence imaging (BLI), fluorescence imaging (FLI), and Power Doppler ultrasound (PD US) were then applied to examine acute vascular disruption following administration of arsenic trioxide (ATO).During initial tumor growth, strong correlations were found between manual caliper measured tumor volume and FLI intensity, BLI intensity following luciferin injection, and traditional B-mode US. Administration of ATO to established U87 tumors caused significant vascular shutdown within 2 hrs at all doses in the range 5 to 10 mg/kg in a dose dependant manner, as revealed by depressed bioluminescent light emission. At lower doses substantial recovery was seen within 4 hrs. At 8 mg/kg there was >85% reduction in tumor vascular perfusion, which remained depressed after 6 hrs, but showed some recovery after 24 hrs. Similar response was observed in MCF7 and PC3 tumors. Dynamic BLI and PD US each showed similar duration and percent reductions in tumor blood flow, but FLI showed no significant changes during the first 24 hrs.The results provide further evidence for comparable utility of optical and ultrasound imaging for monitoring tumor growth, More specifically, they confirm the utility of BLI and ultrasound imaging as facile assays of the vascular disruption in solid tumors based on ATO as a model agent.

  7. Are microbubbles free flowing tracers through the Myocardium? Comparison of indicator-dilution curves obtained from dye dilution and echo contrast using harmonic power Doppler imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiemann, K; Schlosser, T; Pohl, C; Bimmel, D; Wietasch, G; Hoeft, A; Likungu, J; Vahlhaus, C; Kuntz, S; Nanda, N C; Becher, H; Lüderitz, B

    2000-01-01

    Harmonic power Doppler imaging (H-PDI) has been introduced into the field of contrast echocardiography as a contrast-specific imaging modality. However, there has been considerable skepticism as to whether H-PDI would be quantifiable, because it depends on the destruction of microbubbles and has more complex signal processing than gray scale imaging. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between the concentration of microbubbles and the resulting H-PDI signals even under conditions where bubble destruction is most likely. Furthermore, we evaluated whether microbubbles of Levovist freely pass the microcirculation, which is a prerequisite for the assessment of myocardial blood flow. A strong positive correlation was found between the H-PDI signals and the amount of microbubbles up to the onset of acoustic shadowing (r = 0. 968, Pgreen (ICG) in both a flow phantom and a working heart setup. The mean transit times (MTTs) through the myocardium of both agents were compared after a bolus injection into the left coronary artery. A close correlation was observed between 1/MTT and flow in both setups (r>0.98, Pgreen. We conclude that microbubbles fulfill the prerequisites of free flowing tracers through the myocardium. Furthermore, H-PDI technology allows a reliable assessment of time-concentration curves of air-filled microbubbles up to the onset of acoustic shadowing.

  8. Multispectral fluorescence imaging of human ovarian and Fallopian tube tissue for early stage cancer detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Tyler; Baggett, Brenda; Rice, Photini; Watson, Jennifer; Orsinger, Gabe; Nymeyer, Ariel C.; Welge, Weston A.; Keenan, Molly; Saboda, Kathylynn; Roe, Denise J.; Hatch, Kenneth; Chambers, Setsuko; Black, John; Utzinger, Urs; Barton, Jennifer

    2015-03-01

    With early detection, five year survival rates for ovarian cancer are over 90%, yet no effective early screening method exists. Emerging consensus suggests that perhaps over 50% of the most lethal form of the disease, high grade serous ovarian cancer, originates in the Fallopian tube. Cancer changes molecular concentrations of various endogenous fluorophores. Using specific excitation wavelengths and emissions bands on a Multispectral Fluorescence Imaging (MFI) system, spatial and spectral data over a wide field of view can be collected from endogenous fluorophores. Wavelength specific reflectance images provide additional information to normalize for tissue geometry and blood absorption. Ratiometric combination of the images may create high contrast between neighboring normal and abnormal tissue. Twenty-six women undergoing oophorectomy or debulking surgery consented the use of surgical discard tissue samples for MFI imaging. Forty-nine pieces of ovarian tissue and thirty-two pieces of Fallopian tube tissue were collected and imaged with excitation wavelengths between 280 nm and 550 nm. After imaging, each tissue sample was fixed, sectioned and HE stained for pathological evaluation. Comparison of mean intensity values between normal, benign, and cancerous tissue demonstrate a general trend of increased fluorescence of benign tissue and decreased fluorescence of cancerous tissue when compared to normal tissue. The predictive capabilities of the mean intensity measurements are tested using multinomial logistic regression and quadratic discriminant analysis. Adaption of the system for in vivo Fallopian tube and ovary endoscopic imaging is possible and is briefly described.

  9. Laser Doppler velocimeter measurements and laser sheet imaging in an annular combustor model. M.S. Thesis, Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwenger, Richard Dale

    1995-01-01

    An experimental study was conducted in annular combustor model to provide a better understanding of the flowfield. Combustor model configurations consisting of primary jets only, annular jets only, and a combination of annular and primary jets were investigated. The purpose of this research was to provide a better understanding of combustor flows and to provide a data base for comparison with computational models. The first part of this research used a laser Doppler velocimeter to measure mean velocity and statistically calculate root-mean-square velocity in two coordinate directions. From this data, one Reynolds shear stress component and a two-dimensional turbulent kinetic energy term was determined. Major features of the flowfield included recirculating flow, primary and annular jet interaction, and high turbulence. The most pronounced result from this data was the effect the primary jets had on the flowfield. The primary jets were seen to reduce flow asymmetries, create larger recirculation zones, and higher turbulence levels. The second part of this research used a technique called marker nephelometry to provide mean concentration values in the combustor. Results showed the flow to be very turbulent and unsteady. All configurations investigated were highly sensitive to alignment of the primary and annular jets in the model and inlet conditions. Any imbalance between primary jets or misalignment of the annular jets caused severe flow asymmetries.

  10. Imaging of human breast tissue using polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Y.; Gautam, M.; Divakar Rao, K.; Swami, M. K.; Gupta, P. K.

    2011-12-01

    We report a study on the use of polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (PSOCT) for discriminating malignant (invasive ductal carcinoma), benign (fibroadenoma) and normal (adipocytes) breast tissue sites. The results show that while conventional OCT, that utilizes only the intensity of light back-scattered from tissue microstructures, is able to discriminate breast tissues as normal (adipocytes) and abnormal (malignant and benign) tissues, PS-OCT helps in discriminating between malignant and benign tissue sites also. The estimated values of birefringence obtained from the PSOCT imaging show that benign breast tissue samples have significantly higher birefringence as compared to the malignant tissue samples.

  11. Clinical utility of eco-color-power Doppler ultrasonography and contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging for interpretation and quantification of joint synovitis: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carotti, Marina; Galeazzi, Vittoria; Catucci, Francesca; Zappia, Marcello; Arrigoni, Francesco; Barile, Antonio; Giovagnoni, Andrea

    2018-01-19

    With the introduction of new biologics such as anti-TNF-alpha antibodies and other therapies in the treatment of inflammatory arthritis, capable of halting joint destruction and functional disability, there are new pressures on diagnostic and prognostic imaging. Early demonstration of pre-erosive inflammatory features and monitoring of the long-term effects of treatment are becoming increasingly important. Early detection of synovitis offers advantages in terms of allowing early instigation of therapy and may allow the identification of those patients displaying more aggressive disease who might benefit from early intervention with expensive DMARD therapy. Advanced imaging techniques such as ultrasound (US) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have focussed on the demonstration and quantification of synovitis and allow early diagnosis of inflammatory arthropathies such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and psoriatic arthritis (PsA). Synovitis represents a potential surrogate measure of disease activity that can be monitored using either MRI or US; the techniques have, generally, focused on monitoring synovial volume or quality as assessed by its vascularity. However to achieve these goals, standardisation and validation of US and MRI are required to ensure accurate diagnosis, reproducibility and reliability. Each modality has different strengths and weaknesses and levels of validation. This article aims to increase the awareness of radiologists and rheumatologists about this field and to encourage them to participate and contribute to the ongoing development of these modalities. Without this collaboration, it is unlikely that these modalities will reach their full potential in the field of rheumatological imaging. This review is in two parts. The first part addresses the role of US and colour or power Doppler sonography (PDUS) in the detection and monitoring of synovitis in inflammatory arthropathies. The second part will look at advanced MR imaging and Dynamic contrast

  12. Imaging Amyloid Tissues Stained with Luminescent Conjugated Oligothiophenes by Hyperspectral Confocal Microscopy and Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyström, Sofie; Bäck, Marcus; Nilsson, K Peter R; Hammarström, Per

    2017-10-20

    Proteins that deposit as amyloid in tissues throughout the body can be the cause or consequence of a large number of diseases. Among these we find neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease afflicting primarily the central nervous system, and systemic amyloidosis where serum amyloid A, transthyretin and IgG light chains deposit as amyloid in liver, carpal tunnel, spleen, kidney, heart, and other peripheral tissues. Amyloid has been known and studied for more than a century, often using amyloid specific dyes such as Congo red and Thioflavin T (ThT) or Thioflavin (ThS). In this paper, we present heptamer-formyl thiophene acetic acid (hFTAA) as an example of recently developed complements to these dyes called luminescent conjugated oligothiophenes (LCOs). hFTAA is easy to use and is compatible with co-staining in immunofluorescence or with other cellular markers. Extensive research has proven that hFTAA detects a wider range of disease associated protein aggregates than conventional amyloid dyes. In addition, hFTAA can also be applied for optical assignment of distinct aggregated morphotypes to allow studies of amyloid fibril polymorphism. While the imaging methodology applied is optional, we here demonstrate hyperspectral imaging (HIS), laser scanning confocal microscopy and fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM). These examples show some of the imaging techniques where LCOs can be used as tools to gain more detailed knowledge of the formation and structural properties of amyloids. An important limitation to the technique is, as for all conventional optical microscopy techniques, the requirement for microscopic size of aggregates to allow detection. Furthermore, the aggregate should comprise a repetitive β-sheet structure to allow for hFTAA binding. Excessive fixation and/or epitope exposure that modify the aggregate structure or conformation can render poor hFTAA binding and hence pose limitations to accurate imaging.

  13. Preliminary study of synthetic aperture tissue harmonic imaging on in-vivo data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Joachim Hee; Hemmsen, Martin Christian; Sloth Madsen, Signe

    2013-01-01

    . Results from the image quality study show, that in the current configuration on the UltraView system, where no transmit apodization was applied, SASB-THI and DRF-THI produced equally good images. It is expected that given the use of transmit apodization, SASB-THI could be further improved.......A method for synthetic aperture tissue harmonic imaging is investigated. It combines synthetic aperture sequential beamforming (SASB) with tissue harmonic imaging (THI) to produce an increased and more uniform spatial resolution and improved side lobe reduction compared to conventional B......-mode imaging. Synthetic aperture sequential beamforming tissue harmonic imaging (SASB-THI) was implemented on a commercially available BK 2202 Pro Focus UltraView ultrasound system and compared to dynamic receive focused tissue harmonic imaging (DRF-THI) in clinical scans. The scan sequence...

  14. Principles of doppler tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juhlin, P.

    1992-08-01

    This paper shows how the radon transform can be used to determine vector fields. A scheme to determine the velocity field of a moving fluid by measurements with a continuous doppler signal is suggested. When the flow is confined to a bounded domain, as is the case in most applications, it can be uniquely decomposed into one gradiental and one rotational part. The former vanishes if the fluid is incompressible and source-free, and the latter can be completely reconstructed by the methods proposed in this paper if the domain is simply connected. Special attention is paid to laminar flow in a long cylindrical vessel with circular cross-section. Under such conditions the flow profile becomes parabolic, which makes the vessel recognizable as a typical 'N-shaped' pattern in an image describing the rotation of the velocity field. The vessel yields the same doppler tomographic pattern, no matter how it is sectioned. The ideas presented should be applicable also when studying the flow in blood vessels, even if the flow profile in these is not quite parabolic. The discrepancies only make the 'N-shape' somewhat distorted

  15. Hyperspectral imaging based on compressive sensing to determine cancer margins in human pancreatic tissue ex vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peller, Joseph; Thompson, Kyle J.; Siddiqui, Imran; Martinie, John; Iannitti, David A.; Trammell, Susan R.

    2017-02-01

    Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer death in the US. Currently, surgery is the only treatment that offers a chance of cure, however, accurately identifying tumor margins in real-time is difficult. Research has demonstrated that optical spectroscopy can be used to distinguish between healthy and diseased tissue. The design of a single-pixel imaging system for cancer detection is discussed. The system differentiates between healthy and diseased tissue based on differences in the optical reflectance spectra of these regions. In this study, pancreatic tissue samples from 6 patients undergoing Whipple procedures are imaged with the system (total number of tissue sample imaged was N=11). Regions of healthy and unhealthy tissue are determined based on SAM analysis of these spectral images. Hyperspectral imaging results are then compared to white light imaging and histological analysis. Cancerous regions were clearly visible in the hyperspectral images. Margins determined via spectral imaging were in good agreement with margins identified by histology, indicating that hyperspectral imaging system can differentiate between healthy and diseased tissue. After imaging the system was able to detect cancerous regions with a sensitivity of 74.50±5.89% and a specificity of 75.53±10.81%. Possible applications of this imaging system include determination of tumor margins during surgery/biopsy and assistance with cancer diagnosis and staging.

  16. Miniaturized side-viewing imaging probe for fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM): validation with fluorescence dyes, tissue structural proteins and tissue specimens

    OpenAIRE

    Elson, DS; Jo, JA; Marcu, L

    2007-01-01

    We report a side viewing fibre-based endoscope that is compatible with intravascular imaging and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM). The instrument has been validated through testing with fluorescent dyes and collagen and elastin powders using the Laguerre expansion deconvolution technique to calculate the fluorescence lifetimes. The instrument has also been tested on freshly excised unstained animal vascular tissues.

  17. Automated detection of regions of interest for tissue microarray experiments: an image texture analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karaçali, Bilge; Tözeren, Aydin

    2007-01-01

    Recent research with tissue microarrays led to a rapid progress toward quantifying the expressions of large sets of biomarkers in normal and diseased tissue. However, standard procedures for sampling tissue for molecular profiling have not yet been established. This study presents a high throughput analysis of texture heterogeneity on breast tissue images for the purpose of identifying regions of interest in the tissue for molecular profiling via tissue microarray technology. Image texture of breast histology slides was described in terms of three parameters: the percentage of area occupied in an image block by chromatin (B), percentage occupied by stroma-like regions (P), and a statistical heterogeneity index H commonly used in image analysis. Texture parameters were defined and computed for each of the thousands of image blocks in our dataset using both the gray scale and color segmentation. The image blocks were then classified into three categories using the texture feature parameters in a novel statistical learning algorithm. These categories are as follows: image blocks specific to normal breast tissue, blocks specific to cancerous tissue, and those image blocks that are non-specific to normal and disease states. Gray scale and color segmentation techniques led to identification of same regions in histology slides as cancer-specific. Moreover the image blocks identified as cancer-specific belonged to those cell crowded regions in whole section image slides that were marked by two pathologists as regions of interest for further histological studies. These results indicate the high efficiency of our automated method for identifying pathologic regions of interest on histology slides. Automation of critical region identification will help minimize the inter-rater variability among different raters (pathologists) as hundreds of tumors that are used to develop an array have typically been evaluated (graded) by different pathologists. The region of interest

  18. Magnetic resonance imaging appearance of soft-tissue metastases: our experience at an orthopedic oncology center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sammon, Jennifer; Jain, Abhishek; Bleakney, Robert; Mohankumar, Rakesh

    2017-01-01

    To assess the prevalence and magnetic resonance imaging appearance of metastasis presenting as a soft-tissue mass. A retrospective chart review was performed on 51 patients who presented to an orthopedic oncology center with soft-tissue masses, with a histology-proven diagnosis of soft-tissue metastasis, over a 14-year period. Their magnetic resonance imaging, primary origin, and follow-up have been assessed. Soft-tissue metastasis was identified in patients ranging from 18 to 85 years old. Most (80%) of the masses were located deep to the deep fascia. In our cohort of patients, melanoma was the most common primary malignancy contributing to soft-tissue metastasis (21.8%). Among soft-tissue metastasis from solid organs, breast and lung were the most frequent (9.1% each). Five patients had soft-tissue metastases from an unknown primary. Imaging diagnosis of soft-tissue metastases is challenging as it can demonstrate imaging appearances similar to primary soft-tissue sarcoma. The presence of a known malignancy may not be evident in everyone, and even if available, histopathology will be necessary for diagnosis if this is the only site of recurrence/metastasis to differentiate from a primary soft-tissue sarcoma. Moreover, soft-tissue metastasis may be the initial presentation of a malignancy. Primary malignancies with soft-tissue metastasis carry a poor prognosis; hence, prompt diagnosis and management in essential. (orig.)

  19. Magnetic resonance imaging appearance of soft-tissue metastases: our experience at an orthopedic oncology center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sammon, Jennifer; Jain, Abhishek; Bleakney, Robert; Mohankumar, Rakesh [Mount Sinai Hospital and University of Toronto, Division of Musculoskeletal Imaging, Joint Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2017-04-15

    To assess the prevalence and magnetic resonance imaging appearance of metastasis presenting as a soft-tissue mass. A retrospective chart review was performed on 51 patients who presented to an orthopedic oncology center with soft-tissue masses, with a histology-proven diagnosis of soft-tissue metastasis, over a 14-year period. Their magnetic resonance imaging, primary origin, and follow-up have been assessed. Soft-tissue metastasis was identified in patients ranging from 18 to 85 years old. Most (80%) of the masses were located deep to the deep fascia. In our cohort of patients, melanoma was the most common primary malignancy contributing to soft-tissue metastasis (21.8%). Among soft-tissue metastasis from solid organs, breast and lung were the most frequent (9.1% each). Five patients had soft-tissue metastases from an unknown primary. Imaging diagnosis of soft-tissue metastases is challenging as it can demonstrate imaging appearances similar to primary soft-tissue sarcoma. The presence of a known malignancy may not be evident in everyone, and even if available, histopathology will be necessary for diagnosis if this is the only site of recurrence/metastasis to differentiate from a primary soft-tissue sarcoma. Moreover, soft-tissue metastasis may be the initial presentation of a malignancy. Primary malignancies with soft-tissue metastasis carry a poor prognosis; hence, prompt diagnosis and management in essential. (orig.)

  20. Transvaginal color Doppler imaging of uterine contractions in early pregnancies: Significance of uterine contractions in early pregnancy failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Eun Ju; Han, Chang Jin; Suh, Jung Ho; Kwon, Hyuck Chan

    1999-01-01

    To assess uterine contractions in early pregnancies using transvaginal color Doppler sonography (TVCDS) and to determine the role of uterine contractions in the diagnosis of early pregnancy failure. 76 patients with abnormal pregnancy diagnosed by sonography or histopathology up to 10 weeks of gestation and 38 normal pregnant women as the control group were examines with TVCDS. The presence of uterine contractions was determined by complete or partial disappearance of the color flow signals of vessels within myometrium, and the direction, amplitude (grade 1-3), and interval of uterine contractions were also evaluated. Uterine contractions were identified in 42 (55.3%) of 76 patients with abnormal pregnancy, whereas they were detected only in 2 (5.3%) of 38 normal pregnant women who had initial grade 1 contraction but disappeared in the follow-up study. In 26 patients with blighted ovum or missed abortion, 15 patients (57.7%),showed uterine contraction of grade 1 in 3 cases, grade 2 in 8 cases, and grade 3 in 4 cases and interval from 45 seconds to 5 minutes. In 30 patients with inevitable or incomplete abortion, 23 patients (76.6%) showed uterine contraction of grade 1 in 2 cases, grade 2 in 9 cases, and grade 3 in 12 cases and interval from 1 to 5 minutes. 4 (20%) of 20 patients with threatened abortion had uterine contraction of grade 2 and interval from 2 to 4 minutes. The presence of uterine contractions was significantly different in abnormal pregnancies compared with that of normal and also among the tree different groups of abnormal pregnancies, but the amplitude did not differ.

  1. Transvaginal color Doppler imaging of uterine contractions in early pregnancies: Significance of uterine contractions in early pregnancy failure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eun Ju; Han, Chang Jin; Suh, Jung Ho; Kwon, Hyuck Chan [Aju University SChool of Medicine, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-06-15

    To assess uterine contractions in early pregnancies using transvaginal color Doppler sonography (TVCDS) and to determine the role of uterine contractions in the diagnosis of early pregnancy failure. 76 patients with abnormal pregnancy diagnosed by sonography or histopathology up to 10 weeks of gestation and 38 normal pregnant women as the control group were examines with TVCDS. The presence of uterine contractions was determined by complete or partial disappearance of the color flow signals of vessels within myometrium, and the direction, amplitude (grade 1-3), and interval of uterine contractions were also evaluated. Uterine contractions were identified in 42 (55.3%) of 76 patients with abnormal pregnancy, whereas they were detected only in 2 (5.3%) of 38 normal pregnant women who had initial grade 1 contraction but disappeared in the follow-up study. In 26 patients with blighted ovum or missed abortion, 15 patients (57.7%),showed uterine contraction of grade 1 in 3 cases, grade 2 in 8 cases, and grade 3 in 4 cases and interval from 45 seconds to 5 minutes. In 30 patients with inevitable or incomplete abortion, 23 patients (76.6%) showed uterine contraction of grade 1 in 2 cases, grade 2 in 9 cases, and grade 3 in 12 cases and interval from 1 to 5 minutes. 4 (20%) of 20 patients with threatened abortion had uterine contraction of grade 2 and interval from 2 to 4 minutes. The presence of uterine contractions was significantly different in abnormal pregnancies compared with that of normal and also among the tree different groups of abnormal pregnancies, but the amplitude did not differ.

  2. Breast tissue classification in digital tomosynthesis images based on global gradient minimization and texture features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Xulei; Lu, Guolan; Sechopoulos, Ioannis; Fei, Baowei

    2014-03-01

    Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) is a pseudo-three-dimensional x-ray imaging modality proposed to decrease the effect of tissue superposition present in mammography, potentially resulting in an increase in clinical performance for the detection and diagnosis of breast cancer. Tissue classification in DBT images can be useful in risk assessment, computer-aided detection and radiation dosimetry, among other aspects. However, classifying breast tissue in DBT is a challenging problem because DBT images include complicated structures, image noise, and out-of-plane artifacts due to limited angular tomographic sampling. In this project, we propose an automatic method to classify fatty and glandular tissue in DBT images. First, the DBT images are pre-processed to enhance the tissue structures and to decrease image noise and artifacts. Second, a global smooth filter based on L0 gradient minimization is applied to eliminate detailed structures and enhance large-scale ones. Third, the similar structure regions are extracted and labeled by fuzzy C-means (FCM) classification. At the same time, the texture features are also calculated. Finally, each region is classified into different tissue types based on both intensity and texture features. The proposed method is validated using five patient DBT images using manual segmentation as the gold standard. The Dice scores and the confusion matrix are utilized to evaluate the classified results. The evaluation results demonstrated the feasibility of the proposed method for classifying breast glandular and fat tissue on DBT images.

  3. Aspects of Quantitation in Mass Spectrometry Imaging Investigated on Cryo-Sections of Spiked Tissue Homogenates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Heidi Toft; Janfelt, Christian

    2016-01-01

    for differences in tissue types in, for example, whole-body imaging, a set of tissue homogenates of different tissue types (lung, liver, kidney, heart, and brain) from rabbit was spiked to the same concentration with the drug amitriptyline and imaged in the same experiment using isotope labeled amitriptyline...... for these results range approximately within a factor of 3 (but for other compounds in other tissues could be higher), underscore the importance of preparing the standard curve in the same matrix as the unknown sample whenever possible. In, for example, whole-body imaging where a diversity of tissue types...... are present, this variation across tissue types will therefore add to the overall uncertainty in quantitation. The tissue homogenates were also used in a characterization of various phenomena in quantitative MSI, such as to study how the signal depends of the thickness of the cryo-section, and to assess...

  4. Chondro-osseous differentiation in fat tissue tumors: magnetic resonance imaging with pathological correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orui, Hiroshi; Ishikawa, Akira; Tsuchiya, Takashi; Takahara, Masatoshi; Ogino, Toshihiko; Ito, Masafumi

    2000-01-01

    Chondro-osseous differentiation of three benign or malignant fat tissue tumors - two chondrolipomas and a liposarcoma with cartilaginous metaplasia - was studied with magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and compared with their pathological findings. The results suggest that demarcation of cartilage tisssue can be clearly defined on MR imaging when the size of the cartilaginous area is large. Myxoid matrix, degenerative fat tissue and lipodystrophic change may decrease the delineation of the cartilage tissue. (orig.)

  5. Chondro-osseous differentiation in fat tissue tumors: magnetic resonance imaging with pathological correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orui, Hiroshi; Ishikawa, Akira; Tsuchiya, Takashi; Takahara, Masatoshi; Ogino, Toshihiko [Dept. of Orthopaedic Surgery, Yamagata University School of Medicine (Japan); Ito, Masafumi [1. Dept. of Pathology, Yamagata University School of Medicine, Yamagata (Japan)

    2000-08-01

    Chondro-osseous differentiation of three benign or malignant fat tissue tumors - two chondrolipomas and a liposarcoma with cartilaginous metaplasia - was studied with magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and compared with their pathological findings. The results suggest that demarcation of cartilage tisssue can be clearly defined on MR imaging when the size of the cartilaginous area is large. Myxoid matrix, degenerative fat tissue and lipodystrophic change may decrease the delineation of the cartilage tissue. (orig.)

  6. To assess the intimal thickness, flow velocities, and luminal diameter of carotid arteries using high-resolution B-mode ultrasound doppler imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vemuru, Madhuri; Jabbar, Afzal; Chandra, Suman

    2004-04-01

    Carotid imaging is a Gold Standard test that provides useful information about the structure and functions of carotid arteries. Spectral imaging helps to evaluate the vessel and hemodynamic changes. High resolution B-mode imaging has emerged as one of the methods of choice for determining the anatomic extent of atherosclerosis and its progression and for assessing cardiovascular risks. The measurements made with Doppler correlate well with pathologic measurements. Recent prospective studies have clearly demonstrated that these measurements of carotid intimal thickness are potent predictors of Myocardial Infarction and Stroke. This method appears very attractive as it is non-invasive, extremely safe, well accepted by the patient and relatively inexpensive. It can be performed serially and has the advantage of visualizing the arterial wall in contrast to angiographic techniques which provide only an outline of the arterial lumen. Recently, there has been an interest in the clinical use of this technique in making difficult clinical decisions like deciding on preventive therapies. 30 subjects aged 21-60 years and 30 subjects aged 61-85 years of both sexes are selected after doing a baseline study to exclude Hypertension, Diabetes, Obesity and Hyperlipidemia. The carotid arteries were examined for intimal thickening, blood flow velocities and luminal diameter. With aging there is a narrowing of the carotid vessels and significant increase in intimal thickening with a consequent increase in the blood flow velocities. Inter-observer, intra-observer and instrument variations are seen and there is no significant change in the values when the distal flow pattern is considered for measurements. Aging produces major cardiovascular changes including decreased elasticity and compliance of great arteries leading to structural and functional alterations in heart and vessels. With aging there is increased intimal thickness and increased pulse wave velocity which is clearly

  7. Terahertz pulsed imaging of freshly excised human colonic tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid, Caroline B; Gibson, Adam P [Department of Medical Physics and Bioengineering, University College London, London, WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Fitzgerald, Anthony; Wallace, Vincent P [School of Physics, University of Western Australia, Crawley 6009 (Australia); Reese, George; Tekkis, Paris [Division of Surgery, Chelsea and Westminster Campus, Imperial College London, London (United Kingdom); Goldin, Robert [Centre for Pathology, Imperial College London, St Mary' s Campus, London (United Kingdom); O' Kelly, P S [TeraView Ltd, Platinum Building, St John' s Innovation Park, Cowley Road, Cambridge, CB4 0WS (United Kingdom); Pickwell-MacPherson, Emma, E-mail: c.reid@medphys.ucl.ac.uk [Department of Electronic Engineering, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, NT (Hong Kong)

    2011-07-21

    We present the results from a feasibility study which measures properties in the terahertz frequency range of excised cancerous, dysplastic and healthy colonic tissues from 30 patients. We compare their absorption and refractive index spectra to identify trends which may enable different tissue types to be distinguished. In addition, we present statistical models based on variations between up to 17 parameters calculated from the reflected time and frequency domain signals of all the measured tissues. These models produce a sensitivity of 82% and a specificity of 77% in distinguishing between healthy and all diseased tissues and a sensitivity of 89% and a specificity of 71% in distinguishing between dysplastic and healthy tissues. The contrast between the tissue types was supported by histological staining studies which showed an increased vascularity in regions of increased terahertz absorption.

  8. Terahertz pulsed imaging of freshly excised human colonic tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, Caroline B; Gibson, Adam P; Fitzgerald, Anthony; Wallace, Vincent P; Reese, George; Tekkis, Paris; Goldin, Robert; O'Kelly, P S; Pickwell-MacPherson, Emma

    2011-01-01

    We present the results from a feasibility study which measures properties in the terahertz frequency range of excised cancerous, dysplastic and healthy colonic tissues from 30 patients. We compare their absorption and refractive index spectra to identify trends which may enable different tissue types to be distinguished. In addition, we present statistical models based on variations between up to 17 parameters calculated from the reflected time and frequency domain signals of all the measured tissues. These models produce a sensitivity of 82% and a specificity of 77% in distinguishing between healthy and all diseased tissues and a sensitivity of 89% and a specificity of 71% in distinguishing between dysplastic and healthy tissues. The contrast between the tissue types was supported by histological staining studies which showed an increased vascularity in regions of increased terahertz absorption.

  9. Molecular imaging needles: dual-modality optical coherence tomography and fluorescence imaging of labeled antibodies deep in tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scolaro, Loretta; Lorenser, Dirk; Madore, Wendy-Julie; Kirk, Rodney W.; Kramer, Anne S.; Yeoh, George C.; Godbout, Nicolas; Sampson, David D.; Boudoux, Caroline; McLaughlin, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    Molecular imaging using optical techniques provides insight into disease at the cellular level. In this paper, we report on a novel dual-modality probe capable of performing molecular imaging by combining simultaneous three-dimensional optical coherence tomography (OCT) and two-dimensional fluorescence imaging in a hypodermic needle. The probe, referred to as a molecular imaging (MI) needle, may be inserted tens of millimeters into tissue. The MI needle utilizes double-clad fiber to carry both imaging modalities, and is interfaced to a 1310-nm OCT system and a fluorescence imaging subsystem using an asymmetrical double-clad fiber coupler customized to achieve high fluorescence collection efficiency. We present, to the best of our knowledge, the first dual-modality OCT and fluorescence needle probe with sufficient sensitivity to image fluorescently labeled antibodies. Such probes enable high-resolution molecular imaging deep within tissue. PMID:26137379

  10. Power Doppler sonography and ultrasound contrast agent in assessing rheumatoid synovitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Salaffi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Pannus formation is a fundamental event in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis and its hypervascularisation seems to be crucial to the development of joint damage. High-resolution greyscale ultrasonography is a safe, quick, and inexpensive imaging tool that allows an accurate detection of even minimal morphostructural changes in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, including joint effusion, thickening of synovial membrane and bone erosions. More recently, power Doppler sonography has proved to be a reliable tool for semiquantitative assessment of the vascularity of the synovial tissue. The contrast-enhanced power Doppler sonography seems to be a helpful adjunct in assessing synovitis and the therapeutic response to the different therapies in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. The aim of this radiological vignette was to show a representative example of use of power Doppler sonography with contrast agent in assessing rheumatoid synovitis.

  11. Cardiac dysfunction assessed by echocardiographic tissue Doppler imaging is an independent predictor of mortality in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogelvang, Rasmus; Sogaard, Peter; Pedersen, Sune A

    2009-01-01

    parameters, left ventricular dysfunction by TDI is a powerful and independent predictor of death, especially when systolic performance and diastolic performance are considered together, recognizing their interdependency and their complex relation to deteriorating cardiac function....

  12. Prognostic value of cardiac time intervals measured by tissue Doppler imaging M-mode in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biering-Sørensen, Tor; Mogelvang, Rasmus; Jensen, Jan Skov

    2015-01-01

    : In a large prospective community-based study, cardiac function was evaluated in 1915 participants by both conventional echocardiography and TDI. The cardiac time intervals, including the isovolumic relaxation time (IVRT), isovolumic contraction time (IVCT) and ejection time (ET), were obtained by TDI M...

  13. Patient-exposure data for doppler ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, H.F.; Silvis, P.X.; Smith, S.W.

    1986-01-01

    In recent years ultrasound imaging and Doppler blood flow measurements have become important tools for use in diagnostic medicine. Commercial pulse-echo imaging equipment was first introduced into commerce in 1963. The first commercial continuous wave Doppler unit was introduced to the marketplace in 1966. As equipment improved and applications developed, the industry experienced rapid growth in the 1970s. One of the more recent growth areas in the application of diagnostic ultrasound has been the use of pulsed Doppler equipment for cardiac applications. Prior to 1976, some continuous wave Doppler ultrasound was used for cardiovascular diagnosis. However, only a single manufacturer marketed a pulsed Doppler clinical instrument for cardiac or peripheral vascular diagnosis. Currently, many continuous wave and pulsed Doppler instruments are commercially available for both peripheral vascular and cardiac diagnosis. This chapter (1) briefly reviews current safety guidelines, regulations, and recommendations for diagnostic ultrasound; (2) discusses the patient-exposure intensities associated with Doppler ultrasound medical equipment and compare these levels of exposure with intensities from other medical ultrasound devices; and (3) considers some of the current information as it relates to the safety of diagnostic ultrasound

  14. Vascularization of liver tumors - preliminary results with Coded Harmonic Angio (CHA), phase inversion imaging, 3D power Doppler and contrast medium-enhanced B-flow with second generation contrast agent (Optison).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, E M; Kubale, R; Jungius, K-P; Jung, W; Lenhart, M; Clevert, D-A

    2006-01-01

    To investigate the dynamic value of contrast medium-enhanced ultrasonography with Optison for appraisal of the vascularization of hepatic tumors using harmonic imaging, 3D-/power Doppler and B-flow. 60 patients with a mean age of 56 years (range 35-76 years) with 93 liver tumors, including histopathologically proven hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) [15 cases with 20 lesions], liver metastases of colorectal tumors [17 cases with 33 lesions], metastases of breast cancer [10 cases with 21 lesions] and hemangiomas [10 cases with 19 lesions] were prospectively investigated by means of multislice CT as well as native and contrast medium-enhanced ultrasound using a multifrequency transducer (2.5-4 MHz, Logig 9, GE). B scan was performed with additional color and power Doppler, followed by a bolus injection of 0.5 ml Optison. Tumor vascularization was evaluated with coded harmonic angio (CHA), pulse inversion imaging with power Doppler, 3D power Doppler and in the late phase (>5 min) with B-flow. In 15 cases with HCC, i.a. DSA was performed in addition. The results were also correlated with MRT and histological findings. Compared to spiral-CT/MRT, only 72/93 (77%) of the lesions could be detected in the B scan, 75/93 (81%) with CHA and 93/93 (100%) in the pulse inversion mode. Tumor vascularization was detectable in 43/93 (46%) of lesions with native power Doppler, in 75/93 (81%) of lesions after administering contrast medium in the CHA mode, in 81/93 (87%) of lesions in the pulse inversion mode with power Doppler and in 77/93 (83%) of lesions with contrast-enhanced B-flow. Early arterial and capillary perfusion was best detected with CHA, particularly in 20/20 (100%) of the HCC lesions, allowing a 3D reconstruction. 3D power Doppler was especially useful in investigating the tumor margins. Up to 20 min after contrast medium injection, B-flow was capable of detecting increased metastatic tumor vascularization in 42/54 (78%) of cases and intratumoral perfusion in 17/20 (85

  15. Hierarchical imaging: a new concept for targeted imaging of large volumes from cells to tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wacker, Irene; Spomer, Waldemar; Hofmann, Andreas; Thaler, Marlene; Hillmer, Stefan; Gengenbach, Ulrich; Schröder, Rasmus R

    2016-12-12

    volume data at different levels of resolution can yield comprehensive information, including statistics, morphology and organization of cells and tissue. We predict, that hierarchical imaging will be a first step in tackling the big data issue inevitably connected with volume EM.

  16. Linear-fitting-based similarity coefficient map for tissue dissimilarity analysis in -w magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Shao-De; Wu Shi-Bin; Xie Yao-Qin; Wang Hao-Yu; Wei Xin-Hua; Chen Xin; Pan Wan-Long; Hu Jiani

    2015-01-01

    Similarity coefficient mapping (SCM) aims to improve the morphological evaluation of weighted magnetic resonance imaging However, how to interpret the generated SCM map is still pending. Moreover, is it probable to extract tissue dissimilarity messages based on the theory behind SCM? The primary purpose of this paper is to address these two questions. First, the theory of SCM was interpreted from the perspective of linear fitting. Then, a term was embedded for tissue dissimilarity information. Finally, our method was validated with sixteen human brain image series from multi-echo . Generated maps were investigated from signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and perceived visual quality, and then interpreted from intra- and inter-tissue intensity. Experimental results show that both perceptibility of anatomical structures and tissue contrast are improved. More importantly, tissue similarity or dissimilarity can be quantified and cross-validated from pixel intensity analysis. This method benefits image enhancement, tissue classification, malformation detection and morphological evaluation. (paper)

  17. Excitation-scanning hyperspectral imaging as a means to discriminate various tissues types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deal, Joshua; Favreau, Peter F.; Lopez, Carmen; Lall, Malvika; Weber, David S.; Rich, Thomas C.; Leavesley, Silas J.

    2017-02-01

    Little is currently known about the fluorescence excitation spectra of disparate tissues and how these spectra change with pathological state. Current imaging diagnostic techniques have limited capacity to investigate fluorescence excitation spectral characteristics. This study utilized excitation-scanning hyperspectral imaging to perform a comprehensive assessment of fluorescence spectral signatures of various tissues. Immediately following tissue harvest, a custom inverted microscope (TE-2000, Nikon Instruments) with Xe arc lamp and thin film tunable filter array (VersaChrome, Semrock, Inc.) were used to acquire hyperspectral image data from each sample. Scans utilized excitation wavelengths from 340 nm to 550 nm in 5 nm increments. Hyperspectral images were analyzed with custom Matlab scripts including linear spectral unmixing (LSU), principal component analysis (PCA), and Gaussian mixture modeling (GMM). Spectra were examined for potential characteristic features such as consistent intensity peaks at specific wavelengths or intensity ratios among significant wavelengths. The resultant spectral features were conserved among tissues of similar molecular composition. Additionally, excitation spectra appear to be a mixture of pure endmembers with commonalities across tissues of varied molecular composition, potentially identifiable through GMM. These results suggest the presence of common autofluorescent molecules in most tissues and that excitationscanning hyperspectral imaging may serve as an approach for characterizing tissue composition as well as pathologic state. Future work will test the feasibility of excitation-scanning hyperspectral imaging as a contrast mode for discriminating normal and pathological tissues.

  18. Direct tissue oxygen monitoring by in vivo photoacoustic lifetime imaging (PALI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Qi; Morgounova, Ekaterina; Ashkenazi, Shai

    2014-03-01

    Tissue oxygen plays a critical role in maintaining tissue viability and in various diseases, including response to therapy. Images of oxygen distribution provide the history of tissue hypoxia and evidence of oxygen availability in the circulatory system. Currently available methods of direct measuring or imaging tissue oxygen all have significant limitations. Previously, we have reported a non-invasive in vivo imaging modality based on photoacoustic lifetime. The technique maps the excited triplet state of oxygen-sensitive dye, thus reflects the spatial and temporal distribution of tissue oxygen. We have applied PALI on tumor hypoxia in small animals, and the hypoxic region imaged by PALI is consistent with the site of the tumor imaged by ultrasound. Here, we present two studies of applying PALI to monitor changes of tissue oxygen by modulations. The first study involves an acute ischemia model using a thin thread tied around the hind limb of a normal mouse to reduce the blood flow. PALI images were acquired before, during, and after the restriction. The drop of muscle pO2 and recovery from hypoxia due to reperfusion were observed by PALI tracking the same region. The second study modulates tissue oxygen by controlling the percentage of oxygen the mouse inhales. We demonstrate that PALI is able to reflect the change of oxygen level with respect to both hyperbaric and hypobaric conditions. We expect this technique to be very attractive for a range of clinical applications in which tissue oxygen mapping would improve therapy decision making and treatment planning.

  19. Multifunctional nanoparticles as a tissue adhesive and an injectable marker for image-guided procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Kwangsoo; Choi, Jin Woo; Ko, Giho; Baik, Seungmin; Kim, Dokyoon; Park, Ok Kyu; Lee, Kyoungbun; Cho, Hye Rim; Han, Sang Ihn; Lee, Soo Hong; Lee, Dong Jun; Lee, Nohyun; Kim, Hyo-Cheol; Hyeon, Taeghwan

    2017-07-01

    Tissue adhesives have emerged as an alternative to sutures and staples for wound closure and reconnection of injured tissues after surgery or trauma. Owing to their convenience and effectiveness, these adhesives have received growing attention particularly in minimally invasive procedures. For safe and accurate applications, tissue adhesives should be detectable via clinical imaging modalities and be highly biocompatible for intracorporeal procedures. However, few adhesives meet all these requirements. Herein, we show that biocompatible tantalum oxide/silica core/shell nanoparticles (TSNs) exhibit not only high contrast effects for real-time imaging but also strong adhesive properties. Furthermore, the biocompatible TSNs cause much less cellular toxicity and less inflammation than a clinically used, imageable tissue adhesive (that is, a mixture of cyanoacrylate and Lipiodol). Because of their multifunctional imaging and adhesive property, the TSNs are successfully applied as a hemostatic adhesive for minimally invasive procedures and as an immobilized marker for image-guided procedures.

  20. Use of synchrotron-based diffraction-enhanced imaging for visualization of soft tissues in invertebrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, Donepudi V.; Swapna, Medasani; Cesareo, Roberto; Brunetti, Antonio; Zhong, Zhong; Akatsuka, Takao; Yuasa, Tetsuya; Takeda, Tohoru; Gigante, Giovanni E.

    2010-01-01

    Images of terrestrial and marine invertebrates (snails and bivalves) have been obtained by using an X-ray phase-contrast imaging technique, namely, synchrotron-based diffraction-enhanced imaging. Synchrotron X-rays of 20, 30 and 40 keV were used, which penetrate deep enough into animal soft tissues. The phase of X-ray photons shifts slightly as they traverse an object, such as animal soft tissue, and interact with its atoms. Biological features, such as shell morphology and animal physiology, have been visualized. The contrast of the images obtained at 40 keV is the best. This optimum energy provided a clear view of the internal structural organization of the soft tissue with better contrast. The contrast is higher at edges of internal soft-tissue structures. The image improvements achieved with the diffraction-enhanced imaging technique are due to extinction, i.e., elimination of ultra-small-angle scattering. They enabled us to identify a few embedded internal shell features, such as the origin of the apex, which is the firmly attached region of the soft tissue connecting the umbilicus to the external morphology. Diffraction-enhanced imaging can provide high-quality images of soft tissues valuable for biology.

  1. Use of synchrotron-based diffraction-enhanced imaging for visualization of soft tissues in invertebrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, Donepudi V., E-mail: donepudi_venkateswararao@rediffmail.co [Istituto di Matematica e Fisica, Universita degli Studi di Sassari, Via Vienna 2, 07100 Sassari (Italy); Swapna, Medasani, E-mail: medasanisw@gmail.co [Istituto di Matematica e Fisica, Universita degli Studi di Sassari, Via Vienna 2, 07100 Sassari (Italy); Cesareo, Roberto; Brunetti, Antonio [Istituto di Matematica e Fisica, Universita degli Studi di Sassari, Via Vienna 2, 07100 Sassari (Italy); Zhong, Zhong [National Synchrotron Light Source, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Akatsuka, Takao; Yuasa, Tetsuya [Department of Bio-System Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Yamagata University, Yonezawa-shi, Yamagata-992-8510 (Japan); Takeda, Tohoru [Allied Health Science, Kitasato University 1-15-1 Kitasato, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 228-8555 (Japan); Gigante, Giovanni E. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Roma, La Sapienza, 00185 Roma (Italy)

    2010-09-15

    Images of terrestrial and marine invertebrates (snails and bivalves) have been obtained by using an X-ray phase-contrast imaging technique, namely, synchrotron-based diffraction-enhanced imaging. Synchrotron X-rays of 20, 30 and 40 keV were used, which penetrate deep enough into animal soft tissues. The phase of X-ray photons shifts slightly as they traverse an object, such as animal soft tissue, and interact with its atoms. Biological features, such as shell morphology and animal physiology, have been visualized. The contrast of the images obtained at 40 keV is the best. This optimum energy provided a clear view of the internal structural organization of the soft tissue with better contrast. The contrast is higher at edges of internal soft-tissue structures. The image improvements achieved with the diffraction-enhanced imaging technique are due to extinction, i.e., elimination of ultra-small-angle scattering. They enabled us to identify a few embedded internal shell features, such as the origin of the apex, which is the firmly attached region of the soft tissue connecting the umbilicus to the external morphology. Diffraction-enhanced imaging can provide high-quality images of soft tissues valuable for biology.

  2. Tissue Equivalent Phantom Design for Characterization of a Coherent Scatter X-ray Imaging System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albanese, Kathryn Elizabeth

    Scatter in medical imaging is typically cast off as image-related noise that detracts from meaningful diagnosis. It is therefore typically rejected or removed from medical images. However, it has been found that every material, including cancerous tissue, has a unique X-ray coherent scatter signature that can be used to identify the material or tissue. Such scatter-based tissue-identification provides the advantage of locating and identifying particular materials over conventional anatomical imaging through X-ray radiography. A coded aperture X-ray coherent scatter spectral imaging system has been developed in our group to classify different tissue types based on their unique scatter signatures. Previous experiments using our prototype have demonstrated that the depth-resolved coherent scatter spectral imaging system (CACSSI) can discriminate healthy and cancerous tissue present in the path of a non-destructive x-ray beam. A key to the successful optimization of CACSSI as a clinical imaging method is to obtain anatomically accurate phantoms of the human body. This thesis describes the development and fabrication of 3D printed anatomical scatter phantoms of the breast and lung. The purpose of this work is to accurately model different breast geometries using a tissue equivalent phantom, and to classify these tissues in a coherent x-ray scatter imaging system. Tissue-equivalent anatomical phantoms were designed to assess the capability of the CACSSI system to classify different types of breast tissue (adipose, fibroglandular, malignant). These phantoms were 3D printed based on DICOM data obtained from CT scans of prone breasts. The phantoms were tested through comparison of measured scatter signatures with those of adipose and fibroglandular tissue from literature. Tumors in the phantom were modeled using a variety of biological tissue including actual surgically excised benign and malignant tissue specimens. Lung based phantoms have also been printed for future

  3. Applications of Doppler in the first trimester

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, K.J.W.; Ramirez, B.; Grannum, P.

    1986-01-01

    Fifty patients have been studied by duplex Doppler US imaging in the first trimester. In normal gestations, luteal flow, characterized by a low pulsatility index (PI), can be seen in at least one ovary. Failure to detect luteal flow indicates a nonviable pregnancy. Six ectopic pregnancies demonstrated luteal flow and extrauterine heartbeat, detected by Doppler US. High PI values in the uterine artery are seen in the first trimester. Low PI values in the uterine arteries were found in patients with trophoblastic disease

  4. A high-resolution optical imaging system for obtaining the serial transverse section images of biologic tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Li; Zhang, Bin; Wu, Ping; Liu, Qian; Gong, Hui

    2007-05-01

    A high-resolution optical imaging system was designed and developed to obtain the serial transverse section images of the biologic tissue, such as the mouse brain, in which new knife-edge imaging technology, high-speed and high-sensitive line-scan CCD and linear air bearing stages were adopted and incorporated with an OLYMPUS microscope. The section images on the tip of the knife-edge were synchronously captured by the reflection imaging in the microscope while cutting the biologic tissue. The biologic tissue can be sectioned at interval of 250 nm with the same resolution of the transverse section images obtained in x and y plane. And the cutting job can be automatically finished based on the control program wrote specially in advance, so we save the mass labor of the registration of the vast images data. In addition, by using this system a larger sample can be cut than conventional ultramicrotome so as to avoid the loss of the tissue structure information because of splitting the tissue sample to meet the size request of the ultramicrotome.

  5. Sub-Doppler spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansch, T.W.

    1983-01-01

    This chapter examines Doppler-free saturation spectroscopy, tunable cw sources, and Doppler-free two-photon spectroscopy. Discusses saturation spectroscopy; continuous wave saturation spectroscopy in the ultraviolet; and two-photon spectroscopy of atomic hydrogen 1S-2S. Focuses on Doppler-free laser spectroscopy of gaseous samples. Explains that in saturation spectroscopy, a monochromatic laser beam ''labels'' a group of atoms within a narrow range of axial velocities through excitation or optical pumping, and a Doppler-free spectrum of these selected atoms is observed with a second, counterpropagating beam. Notes that in two-photon spectroscopy it is possible to record Doppler-free spectra without any need for velocity selection by excitation with two counterpropagating laser beams whose first order Doppler shifts cancel

  6. Colorization and automated segmentation of human T2 MR brain images for characterization of soft tissues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Attique

    Full Text Available Characterization of tissues like brain by using magnetic resonance (MR images and colorization of the gray scale image has been reported in the literature, along with the advantages and drawbacks. Here, we present two independent methods; (i a novel colorization method to underscore the variability in brain MR images, indicative of the underlying physical density of bio tissue, (ii a segmentation method (both hard and soft segmentation to characterize gray brain MR images. The segmented images are then transformed into color using the above-mentioned colorization method, yielding promising results for manual tracing. Our color transformation incorporates the voxel classification by matching the luminance of voxels of the source MR image and provided color image by measuring the distance between them. The segmentation method is based on single-phase clustering for 2D and 3D image segmentation with a new auto centroid selection method, which divides the image into three distinct regions (gray matter (GM, white matter (WM, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF using prior anatomical knowledge. Results have been successfully validated on human T2-weighted (T2 brain MR images. The proposed method can be potentially applied to gray-scale images from other imaging modalities, in bringing out additional diagnostic tissue information contained in the colorized image processing approach as described.

  7. Microwave tomography for functional imaging of extremity soft tissues: feasibility assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semenov, Serguei; Kellam, James; Althausen, Peter; Williams, Thomas; Abubakar, Aria; Bulyshev, Alexander; Sizov, Yuri

    2007-01-01

    It is important to assess the viability of extremity soft tissues, as this component is often the determinant of the final outcome of fracture treatment. Microwave tomography (MWT) and sensing might be able to provide a fast and mobile assessment of such properties. MWT imaging of extremities possesses a complicated, nonlinear, high dielectric contrast inverse problem of diffraction tomography. There is a high dielectric contrast between bone and soft tissue in the extremities. A contrast between soft tissue abnormalities is less pronounced when compared with the high bone-soft tissue contrast. The goal of this study was to assess the feasibility of MWT for functional imaging of extremity soft tissues, i.e. to detect a relatively small contrast within soft tissues in closer proximity to high contrast boney areas. Both experimental studies and computer simulation were performed. Experiments were conducted using live pigs with compromised blood flow and compartment syndrome within an extremity. A whole 2D tomographic imaging cycle at 1 GHz was computer simulated and images were reconstructed using the Newton, MR-CSI and modified Born methods. Results of experimental studies demonstrate that microwave technology is sensitive to changes in the soft tissue blood content and elevated compartment pressure. It was demonstrated that MWT is feasible for functional imaging of extremity soft tissues, circulatory-related changes, blood flow and elevated compartment pressure

  8. Visualization and tissue classification of human breast cancer images using ultrahigh-resolution OCT (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Xinwen; Gan, Yu; Chang, Ernest W.; Hibshoosh, Hanina; Feldman, Sheldon; Hendon, Christine P.

    2017-02-01

    We employed a home-built ultrahigh resolution (UHR) OCT system at 800nm to image human breast cancer sample ex vivo. The system has an axial resolution of 2.72µm and a lateral resolution of 5.52µm with an extended imaging range of 1.78mm. Over 900 UHR OCT volumes were generated on specimens from 23 breast cancer cases. With better spatial resolution, detailed structures in the breast tissue were better defined. Different types of breast cancer as well as healthy breast tissue can be well delineated from the UHR OCT images. To quantitatively evaluate the advantages of UHR OCT imaging of breast cancer, features derived from OCT intensity images were used as inputs to a machine learning model, the relevance vector machine. A trained machine learning model was employed to evaluate the performance of tissue classification based on UHR OCT images for differentiating tissue types in the breast samples, including adipose tissue, healthy stroma and cancerous region. For adipose tissue, grid-based local features were extracted from OCT intensity data, including standard deviation, entropy, and homogeneity. We showed that it was possible to enhance the classification performance on distinguishing fat tissue from non-fat tissue by using the UHR images when compared with the results based on OCT images from a commercial 1300 nm OCT system. For invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) and normal stroma differentiation, the classification was based on frame-based features that portray signal penetration depth and tissue reflectivity. The confusing matrix indicated a sensitivity of 97.5% and a sensitivity of 77.8%.

  9. Doppler flowmetry in preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahumensky, J

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to summarize the new published data on the Doppler flowmetry in preeclampsia. We summarize the new published data on the Doppler flowmetry in uteroplacental, fetoplacental and fetal circulation in preeclampsia. The present review summarized the results of clinical research on the Doppler flowmetry in the screening of risk of preclampsia, in the diagnosis of preclampsia and in the fetal risk in preclampsia (Ref. 19). Full Text (Free, PDF) www.bmj.sk.

  10. MR imaging of soft tissue tumors and tumor-like lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laor, Tal [Department of Radiology, Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, 3333 Burnet Avenue, 45229, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2004-01-01

    The evaluation of a soft tissue mass in a child should proceed with a differential diagnosis in mind, based on the clinical history, age of the child, and location of the abnormality. Small, superficial masses can be initially evaluated with sonography. More extensive or deep lesions usually require cross-sectional imaging. With the exception of myositis ossificans, magnetic resonance (MR) imaging has largely replaced the use of computed tomography. MR imaging is used to delineate the extent of a lesion, to evaluate response to therapy, and to monitor postoperative complications. There is great overlap in the MR imaging characteristics of benign and malignant lesions, making tissue sampling imperative for diagnosis. (orig.)

  11. Power and color Doppler ultrasound settings for inflammatory flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torp-Pedersen, Søren; Christensen, Robin; Szkudlarek, Marcin

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine how settings for power and color Doppler ultrasound sensitivity vary on different high- and intermediate-range ultrasound machines and to evaluate the impact of these changes on Doppler scoring of inflamed joints. METHODS: Six different types of ultrasound machines were used....... On each machine, the factory setting for superficial musculoskeletal scanning was used unchanged for both color and power Doppler modalities. The settings were then adjusted for increased Doppler sensitivity, and these settings were designated study settings. Eleven patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA......) with wrist involvement were scanned on the 6 machines, each with 4 settings, generating 264 Doppler images for scoring and color quantification. Doppler sensitivity was measured with a quantitative assessment of Doppler activity: color fraction. Higher color fraction indicated higher sensitivity. RESULTS...

  12. Laser-induced fluorescence imaging of subsurface tissue structures with a volume holographic spatial-spectral imaging system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yuan; Gelsinger-Austin, Paul J; Watson, Jonathan M; Barbastathis, George; Barton, Jennifer K; Kostuk, Raymond K

    2008-09-15

    A three-dimensional imaging system incorporating multiplexed holographic gratings to visualize fluorescence tissue structures is presented. Holographic gratings formed in volume recording materials such as a phenanthrenquinone poly(methyl methacrylate) photopolymer have narrowband angular and spectral transmittance filtering properties that enable obtaining spatial-spectral information within an object. We demonstrate this imaging system's ability to obtain multiple depth-resolved fluorescence images simultaneously.

  13. Preliminary study of synthetic aperture tissue harmonic imaging on in-vivo data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Joachim H.; Hemmsen, Martin C.; Madsen, Signe S.; Hansen, Peter M.; Nielsen, Michael B.; Jensen, Jørgen A.

    2013-03-01

    A method for synthetic aperture tissue harmonic imaging is investigated. It combines synthetic aperture sequen- tial beamforming (SASB) with tissue harmonic imaging (THI) to produce an increased and more uniform spatial resolution and improved side lobe reduction compared to conventional B-mode imaging. Synthetic aperture sequential beamforming tissue harmonic imaging (SASB-THI) was implemented on a commercially available BK 2202 Pro Focus UltraView ultrasound system and compared to dynamic receive focused tissue harmonic imag- ing (DRF-THI) in clinical scans. The scan sequence that was implemented on the UltraView system acquires both SASB-THI and DRF-THI simultaneously. Twenty-four simultaneously acquired video sequences of in-vivo abdominal SASB-THI and DRF-THI scans on 3 volunteers of 4 different sections of liver and kidney tissues were created. Videos of the in-vivo scans were presented in double blinded studies to two radiologists for image quality performance scoring. Limitations to the systems transmit stage prevented user defined transmit apodization to be applied. Field II simulations showed that side lobes in SASB could be improved by using Hanning transmit apodization. Results from the image quality study show, that in the current configuration on the UltraView system, where no transmit apodization was applied, SASB-THI and DRF-THI produced equally good images. It is expected that given the use of transmit apodization, SASB-THI could be further improved.

  14. Hyperspectral Imaging and SPA-LDA Quantitative Analysis for Detection of Colon Cancer Tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, X.; Zhang, D.; Wang, Ch.; Dai, B.; Zhao, M.; Li, B.

    2018-05-01

    Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) has been demonstrated to provide a rapid, precise, and noninvasive method for cancer detection. However, because HSI contains many data, quantitative analysis is often necessary to distill information useful for distinguishing cancerous from normal tissue. To demonstrate that HSI with our proposed algorithm can make this distinction, we built a Vis-NIR HSI setup and made many spectral images of colon tissues, and then used a successive projection algorithm (SPA) to analyze the hyperspectral image data of the tissues. This was used to build an identification model based on linear discrimination analysis (LDA) using the relative reflectance values of the effective wavelengths. Other tissues were used as a prediction set to verify the reliability of the identification model. The results suggest that Vis-NIR hyperspectral images, together with the spectroscopic classification method, provide a new approach for reliable and safe diagnosis of colon cancer and could lead to advances in cancer diagnosis generally.

  15. MR imaging demonstration of peri-articular soft tissues involvement in transient osteoporosis of the hip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leclet, H.; Sutter, B.; Delforge, P.M.

    1995-01-01

    The prospecting NMR imaging of a bigger lot of cases will allow us to know if it's an usual phenomenom in this disease and to study the soft tissues around other bone joints than the hip. 5 refs., 3 figs

  16. Imaging of oxygenation in 3D tissue models with multi-modal phosphorescent probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papkovsky, Dmitri B.; Dmitriev, Ruslan I.; Borisov, Sergei

    2015-03-01

    Cell-penetrating phosphorescence based probes allow real-time, high-resolution imaging of O2 concentration in respiring cells and 3D tissue models. We have developed a panel of such probes, small molecule and nanoparticle structures, which have different spectral characteristics, cell penetrating and tissue staining behavior. The probes are compatible with conventional live cell imaging platforms and can be used in different detection modalities, including ratiometric intensity and PLIM (Phosphorescence Lifetime IMaging) under one- or two-photon excitation. Analytical performance of these probes and utility of the O2 imaging method have been demonstrated with different types of samples: 2D cell cultures, multi-cellular spheroids from cancer cell lines and primary neurons, excised slices from mouse brain, colon and bladder tissue, and live animals. They are particularly useful for hypoxia research, ex-vivo studies of tissue physiology, cell metabolism, cancer, inflammation, and multiplexing with many conventional fluorophors and markers of cellular function.

  17. Giant cell tumor of soft tissue: a case report with emphasis on MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Moon Young; Jee, Won-Hee [The Catholic University of Korea, Department of Radiology, Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, School of Medicine, Seocho-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Chan Kwon [The Catholic University of Korea, Department of Pathology, Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, College of Medicine, Seocho-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Ie Ryung [The Catholic University of Korea, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, College of Medicine, Seocho-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Yang-Guk [The Catholic University of Korea, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, College of Medicine, Seocho-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-03

    Giant cell tumor of soft tissue is a rare neoplasm, histologically resembling giant cell tumor of bone. In this report, we describe a deep and solid giant cell tumor of soft tissue interpreted as a benign soft tissue tumor based on magnetic resonance (MR) findings with hypointense to intermediate signals on T2-weighted images and impeded diffusivity (water movement) on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), which could suggest a giant-cell-containing benign soft tissue tumor, despite the malignancy suggested by {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography in a 35-year-old male. To our knowledge, this report introduces the first deep, solid giant cell tumor of soft tissue with MR features of a giant-cell-containing benign soft tissue tumor, despite the malignancy-mimicking findings on {sup 18}F-FDG PET-CT. (orig.)

  18. Hyperspectral imaging solutions for brain tissue metabolic and hemodynamic monitoring: past, current and future developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannoni, Luca; Lange, Frédéric; Tachtsidis, Ilias

    2018-04-01

    Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) technologies have been used extensively in medical research, targeting various biological phenomena and multiple tissue types. Their high spectral resolution over a wide range of wavelengths enables acquisition of spatial information corresponding to different light-interacting biological compounds. This review focuses on the application of HSI to monitor brain tissue metabolism and hemodynamics in life sciences. Different approaches involving HSI have been investigated to assess and quantify cerebral activity, mainly focusing on: (1) mapping tissue oxygen delivery through measurement of changes in oxygenated (HbO2) and deoxygenated (HHb) hemoglobin; and (2) the assessment of the cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2) to estimate oxygen consumption by brain tissue. Finally, we introduce future perspectives of HSI of brain metabolism, including its potential use for imaging optical signals from molecules directly involved in cellular energy production. HSI solutions can provide remarkable insight in understanding cerebral tissue metabolism and oxygenation, aiding investigation on brain tissue physiological processes.

  19. Direct microCT imaging of non-mineralized connective tissues at high resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naveh, Gili R S; Brumfeld, Vlad; Dean, Mason; Shahar, Ron; Weiner, Steve

    2014-01-01

    The 3D imaging of soft tissues in their native state is challenging, especially when high resolution is required. An X-ray-based microCT is, to date, the best choice for high resolution 3D imaging of soft tissues. However, since X-ray attenuation of soft tissues is very low, contrasting enhancement using different staining materials is needed. The staining procedure, which also usually involves tissue fixation, causes unwanted and to some extent unknown tissue alterations. Here, we demonstrate that a method that enables 3D imaging of soft tissues without fixing and staining using an X-ray-based bench-top microCT can be applied to a variety of different tissues. With the sample mounted in a custom-made loading device inside a humidity chamber, we obtained soft tissue contrast and generated 3D images of fresh, soft tissues with a resolution of 1 micron voxel size. We identified three critical conditions which make it possible to image soft tissues: humidified environment, mechanical stabilization of the sample and phase enhancement. We demonstrate the capability of the technique using different specimens: an intervertebral disc, the non-mineralized growth plate, stingray tessellated radials (calcified cartilage) and the collagenous network of the periodontal ligament. Since the scanned specimen is fresh an interesting advantage of this technique is the ability to scan a specimen under load and track the changes of the different structures. This method offers a unique opportunity for obtaining valuable insights into 3D structure-function relationships of soft tissues.

  20. Aspects of Quantitation in Mass Spectrometry Imaging Investigated on Cryo-Sections of Spiked Tissue Homogenates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Heidi Toft; Janfelt, Christian

    2016-12-06

    Internal standards have been introduced in quantitative mass spectrometry imaging in order to compensate for differences in intensities throughout an image caused by, for example, difference in ion suppression or analyte extraction efficiency. To test how well the internal standards compensate for differences in tissue types in, for example, whole-body imaging, a set of tissue homogenates of different tissue types (lung, liver, kidney, heart, and brain) from rabbit was spiked to the same concentration with the drug amitriptyline and imaged in the same experiment using isotope labeled amitriptyline as internal standard. The results showed, even after correction with internal standard, significantly lower intensities from brain and to some extent also lung tissue, differences which may be ascribed to binding of the drug to proteins or lipids as known from traditional bioanalysis. The differences, which for these results range approximately within a factor of 3 (but for other compounds in other tissues could be higher), underscore the importance of preparing the standard curve in the same matrix as the unknown sample whenever possible. In, for example, whole-body imaging where a diversity of tissue types are present, this variation across tissue types will therefore add to the overall uncertainty in quantitation. The tissue homogenates were also used in a characterization of various phenomena in quantitative MSI, such as to study how the signal depends of the thickness of the cryo-section, and to assess the accuracy of calibration by droplet deposition. For experiments on liver tissue, calibration by spiked tissue homogenates and droplet deposition was found to provide highly similar results and in both cases linearity with R 2 values of 0.99. In the process, a new method was developed for preparation of standard curves of spiked tissue homogenates, based on the drilling of holes in a block of frozen liver homogenate, providing easy cryo-slicing and good quantitative

  1. Imaging cardiomyocytes in intact tissue with a remote focusing microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbett, A. D.; Burton, R. A. B.; Bub, G.; Wilson, T.

    2015-03-01

    In cardiac imaging, the spacing between sub-cellular sarcomere structures is of great importance to physiologists in understanding muscle design and performance. Making accurate measurements of the sarcomere length (SL) presents a significant imaging challenge owing to the size of the SL (~2μm) and its naturally low variability (pathological models of chronic hypertension. As well as improving measurement precision, the distribution of α across the field of view provides additional structural information which can be related to disease morphology. To validate this new imaging protocol, the value ofα calculated from the oblique planes provided the input to a rigid model cell which was used to predict the appearance of the cell in the conventional focal plane. The comparison of the model to the image data provided a confidence metric for our measurements. Finally, by considering the optical transfer function, the range of cell orientations for which the method is valid could be calculated.

  2. Constructing a Computer Model of the Human Eye Based on Tissue Slice Images

    OpenAIRE

    Dai, Peishan; Wang, Boliang; Bao, Chunbo; Ju, Ying

    2010-01-01

    Computer simulation of the biomechanical and biological heat transfer in ophthalmology greatly relies on having a reliable computer model of the human eye. This paper proposes a novel method on the construction of a geometric model of the human eye based on tissue slice images. Slice images were obtained from an in vitro Chinese human eye through an embryo specimen processing methods. A level set algorithm was used to extract contour points of eye tissues while a principle component analysi...

  3. New methods for multimodal MS imaging of histological tissue sections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amstalden Van Hove, E.R.

    2011-01-01

    The insights derived from spatial localization of molecules in tissue sections are of great value for understanding and treating cancer and other diseases. These insights can relate to molecules linked to a disease as well as to drug molecules distributed across organs of interest. Mass spectrometry

  4. Imaging of tissue sections with very slow electrons

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Frank, Luděk; Nebesářová, Jana; Vancová, Marie; Paták, Aleš; Müllerová, Ilona

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 148, JAN 2015 (2015), s. 146-150 ISSN 0304-3991 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TE01020118; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1212 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 ; RVO:60077344 Keywords : Biological STEM * Ultralow energy STEM * Tissue sections * Cathode lens * Depolymerisation Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 2.874, year: 2015

  5. Impact of Computed Tomography Image Quality on Image-Guided Radiation Therapy Based on Soft Tissue Registration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrow, Natalya V.; Lawton, Colleen A.; Qi, X. Sharon; Li, X. Allen

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: In image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT), different computed tomography (CT) modalities with varying image quality are being used to correct for interfractional variations in patient set-up and anatomy changes, thereby reducing clinical target volume to the planning target volume (CTV-to-PTV) margins. We explore how CT image quality affects patient repositioning and CTV-to-PTV margins in soft tissue registration-based IGRT for prostate cancer patients. Methods and Materials: Four CT-based IGRT modalities used for prostate RT were considered in this study: MV fan beam CT (MVFBCT) (Tomotherapy), MV cone beam CT (MVCBCT) (MVision; Siemens), kV fan beam CT (kVFBCT) (CTVision, Siemens), and kV cone beam CT (kVCBCT) (Synergy; Elekta). Daily shifts were determined by manual registration to achieve the best soft tissue agreement. Effect of image quality on patient repositioning was determined by statistical analysis of daily shifts for 136 patients (34 per modality). Inter- and intraobserver variability of soft tissue registration was evaluated based on the registration of a representative scan for each CT modality with its corresponding planning scan. Results: Superior image quality with the kVFBCT resulted in reduced uncertainty in soft tissue registration during IGRT compared with other image modalities for IGRT. The largest interobserver variations of soft tissue registration were 1.1 mm, 2.5 mm, 2.6 mm, and 3.2 mm for kVFBCT, kVCBCT, MVFBCT, and MVCBCT, respectively. Conclusions: Image quality adversely affects the reproducibility of soft tissue-based registration for IGRT and necessitates a careful consideration of residual uncertainties in determining different CTV-to-PTV margins for IGRT using different image modalities.

  6. Impact of Computed Tomography Image Quality on Image-Guided Radiation Therapy Based on Soft Tissue Registration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrow, Natalya V.; Lawton, Colleen A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin (United States); Qi, X. Sharon [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado Denver, Denver, Colorado (United States); Li, X. Allen, E-mail: ali@mcw.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin (United States)

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: In image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT), different computed tomography (CT) modalities with varying image quality are being used to correct for interfractional variations in patient set-up and anatomy changes, thereby reducing clinical target volume to the planning target volume (CTV-to-PTV) margins. We explore how CT image quality affects patient repositioning and CTV-to-PTV margins in soft tissue registration-based IGRT for prostate cancer patients. Methods and Materials: Four CT-based IGRT modalities used for prostate RT were considered in this study: MV fan beam CT (MVFBCT) (Tomotherapy), MV cone beam CT (MVCBCT) (MVision; Siemens), kV fan beam CT (kVFBCT) (CTVision, Siemens), and kV cone beam CT (kVCBCT) (Synergy; Elekta). Daily shifts were determined by manual registration to achieve the best soft tissue agreement. Effect of image quality on patient repositioning was determined by statistical analysis of daily shifts for 136 patients (34 per modality). Inter- and intraobserver variability of soft tissue registration was evaluated based on the registration of a representative scan for each CT modality with its corresponding planning scan. Results: Superior image quality with the kVFBCT resulted in reduced uncertainty in soft tissue registration during IGRT compared with other image modalities for IGRT. The largest interobserver variations of soft tissue registration were 1.1 mm, 2.5 mm, 2.6 mm, and 3.2 mm for kVFBCT, kVCBCT, MVFBCT, and MVCBCT, respectively. Conclusions: Image quality adversely affects the reproducibility of soft tissue-based registration for IGRT and necessitates a careful consideration of residual uncertainties in determining different CTV-to-PTV margins for IGRT using different image modalities.

  7. Doppler ultrasound exam of an arm or leg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peripheral vascular disease - Doppler; PVD - Doppler; PAD - Doppler; Blockage of leg arteries - Doppler; Intermittent claudication - Doppler; Arterial insufficiency of the legs - Doppler; Leg pain and ...

  8. Quantitative segmentation of fluorescence microscopy images of heterogeneous tissue: Approach for tuning algorithm parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Jenna L.; Harmany, Zachary T.; Mito, Jeffrey K.; Kennedy, Stephanie A.; Kim, Yongbaek; Dodd, Leslie; Geradts, Joseph; Kirsch, David G.; Willett, Rebecca M.; Brown, J. Quincy; Ramanujam, Nimmi

    2013-02-01

    The combination of fluorescent contrast agents with microscopy is a powerful technique to obtain real time images of tissue histology without the need for fixing, sectioning, and staining. The potential of this technology lies in the identification of robust methods for image segmentation and quantitation, particularly in heterogeneous tissues. Our solution is to apply sparse decomposition (SD) to monochrome images of fluorescently-stained microanatomy to segment and quantify distinct tissue types. The clinical utility of our approach is demonstrated by imaging excised margins in a cohort of mice after surgical resection of a sarcoma. Representative images of excised margins were used to optimize the formulation of SD and tune parameters associated with the algorithm. Our results demonstrate that SD is a robust solution that can advance vital fluorescence microscopy as a clinically significant technology.

  9. Confocal multispot microscope for fast and deep imaging in semicleared tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Marie-Pierre; Müllenbroich, Marie Caroline; Di Giovanna, Antonino Paolo; Alfieri, Domenico; Silvestri, Ludovico; Sacconi, Leonardo; Pavone, Francesco Saverio

    2018-02-01

    Although perfectly transparent specimens are imaged faster with light-sheet microscopy, less transparent samples are often imaged with two-photon microscopy leveraging its robustness to scattering; however, at the price of increased acquisition times. Clearing methods that are capable of rendering strongly scattering samples such as brain tissue perfectly transparent specimens are often complex, costly, and time intensive, even though for many applications a slightly lower level of tissue transparency is sufficient and easily achieved with simpler and faster methods. Here, we present a microscope type that has been geared toward the imaging of semicleared tissue by combining multispot two-photon excitation with rolling shutter wide-field detection to image deep and fast inside semicleared mouse brain. We present a theoretical and experimental evaluation of the point spread function and contrast as a function of shutter size. Finally, we demonstrate microscope performance in fixed brain slices by imaging dendritic spines up to 400-μm deep.

  10. Quantum dots versus organic fluorophores in fluorescent deep-tissue imaging--merits and demerits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakalova, Rumiana; Zhelev, Zhivko; Gadjeva, Veselina

    2008-12-01

    The use of fluorescence in deep-tissue imaging is rapidly expanding in last several years. The progress in fluorescent molecular probes and fluorescent imaging techniques gives an opportunity to detect single cells and even molecular targets in live organisms. The highly sensitive and high-speed fluorescent molecular sensors and detection devices allow the application of fluorescence in functional imaging. With the development of novel bright fluorophores based on nanotechnologies and 3D fluorescence scanners with high spatial and temporal resolution, the fluorescent imaging has a potential to become an alternative of the other non-invasive imaging techniques as magnetic resonance imaging, positron-emission tomography, X-ray, computing tomography. The fluorescent imaging has also a potential to give a real map of human anatomy and physiology. The current review outlines the advantages of fluorescent nanoparticles over conventional organic dyes in deep-tissue imaging in vivo and defines the major requirements to the "perfect fluorophore". The analysis proceeds from the basic principles of fluorescence and major characteristics of fluorophores, light-tissue interactions, and major limitations of fluorescent deep-tissue imaging. The article is addressed to a broad readership - from specialists in this field to university students.

  11. Prevalence of Soft Tissue Calcifications in CBCT Images of Mandibular Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khojastepour, Leila; Haghnegahdar, Abdolaziz; Sayar, Hamed

    2017-06-01

    Most of the soft tissue calcifications within the head and neck region might not be accompanied by clinical symptoms but may indicate some pathological conditions. The aim of this research was to determine the prevalence of soft tissue calcifications in cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) images of mandibular region. In this cross sectional study the CBCT images of 602 patients including 294 men and 308 women with mean age 41.38±15.18 years were evaluated regarding the presence, anatomical location; type (single or multiple) and size of soft tissue calcification in mandibular region. All CBCT images were acquired by NewTom VGi scanner. Odds ratio and chi-square tests were used for data analysis and p < 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. 156 out of 602 patients had at least one soft tissue calcification in their mandibular region (25.9%. of studied population with mean age 51.7±18.03 years). Men showed significantly higher rate of soft tissue calcification than women (30.3% vs. 21.8%). Soft tissue calcification was predominantly seen at posterior region of the mandible (88%) and most of them were single (60.7%). The prevalence of soft tissue calcification increased with age. Most of the detected soft tissue calcifications were smaller than 3mm (90%). Soft tissue calcifications in mandibular area were a relatively common finding especially in posterior region and more likely to happen in men and in older age group.

  12. Blind source separation of ex-vivo aorta tissue multispectral images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeano, July; Perez, Sandra; Montoya, Yonatan; Botina, Deivid; Garzón, Johnson

    2015-05-01

    Blind Source Separation methods (BSS) aim for the decomposition of a given signal in its main components or source signals. Those techniques have been widely used in the literature for the analysis of biomedical images, in order to extract the main components of an organ or tissue under study. The analysis of skin images for the extraction of melanin and hemoglobin is an example of the use of BSS. This paper presents a proof of concept of the use of source separation of ex-vivo aorta tissue multispectral Images. The images are acquired with an interference filter-based imaging system. The images are processed by means of two algorithms: Independent Components analysis and Non-negative Matrix Factorization. In both cases, it is possible to obtain maps that quantify the concentration of the main chromophores present in aortic tissue. Also, the algorithms allow for spectral absorbance of the main tissue components. Those spectral signatures were compared against the theoretical ones by using correlation coefficients. Those coefficients report values close to 0.9, which is a good estimator of the method's performance. Also, correlation coefficients lead to the identification of the concentration maps according to the evaluated chromophore. The results suggest that Multi/hyper-spectral systems together with image processing techniques is a potential tool for the analysis of cardiovascular tissue.

  13. Differential doppler heterodyning technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lading, Lars

    1971-01-01

    Measuring velocity without disturbing the moving object is possible by use of the laser doppler heterodyning technique. Theoretical considerations on the doppler shift show that the antenna property of the photodetector can solve an apparent conflict between two different ways of calculating...

  14. Doppler ultrasound monitoring technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Docker, M F

    1993-03-01

    Developments in the signal processing of Doppler ultrasound used for the detection of fetal heart rate (FHR) have improved the operation of cardiotocographs. These developments are reviewed and the advantages and disadvantages of the various Doppler and signal processing methods are compared.

  15. The Cognitive Doppler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozoil, Micah E.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the learning needs of students in the concrete operational stage in mathematics. Identifies the phenomenon of reduced cognitive performance in an out-of-class environment as the "Cognitive Doppler." Suggests methods of reducing the pronounced effects of the Cognitive Doppler by capitalizing on the students' ability to memorize…

  16. Ultrasonography with color Doppler and power Doppler in the diagnosis of periapical lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Sumit; Nagendrareddy, Suma Gundareddy; Raju, Manthena Srinivasa; Krishnojirao, Dayashankara Rao Jingade; Rastogi, Rajul; Mohan, Ravi Prakash Sasankoti; Gupta, Swati

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the efficacy of ultrasonography (USG) with color Doppler and power Doppler applications over conventional radiography in the diagnosis of periapical lesions. Materials and Methods: Thirty patients having inflammatory periapical lesions of the maxillary or mandibular anterior teeth and requiring endodontic surgery were selected for inclusion in this study. All patients consented to participate in the study. We used conventional periapical radiographs as well as USG with color Doppler and power Doppler for the diagnosis of these lesions. Their diagnostic performances were compared against histopathologic examination. All data were compared and statistically analyzed. Results: USG examination with color Doppler and power Doppler identified 29 (19 cysts and 10 granulomas) of 30 periapical lesions accurately, with a sensitivity of 100% for cysts and 90.91% for granulomas and a specificity of 90.91% for cysts and 100% for granulomas. In comparison, conventional intraoral radiography identified only 21 lesions (sensitivity of 78.9% for cysts and 45.4% for granulomas and specificity of 45.4% for cysts and 78.9% for granulomas). There was definite correlation between the echotexture of the lesions and the histopathological features except in one case. Conclusions: USG imaging with color Doppler and power Doppler is superior to conventional intraoral radiographic methods for diagnosing the nature of periapical lesions in the anterior jaws. This study reveals the potential of USG examination in the study of other jaw lesions. PMID:22223940

  17. Ultrasonography with color Doppler and power Doppler in the diagnosis of periapical lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goel, Sumit; Nagendrareddy, Suma Gundareddy; Raju, Manthena Srinivasa; Krishnojirao, Dayashankara Rao Jingade; Rastogi, Rajul; Mohan, Ravi Prakash Sasankoti; Gupta, Swati

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of ultrasonography (USG) with color Doppler and power Doppler applications over conventional radiography in the diagnosis of periapical lesions. Thirty patients having inflammatory periapical lesions of the maxillary or mandibular anterior teeth and requiring endodontic surgery were selected for inclusion in this study. All patients consented to participate in the study. We used conventional periapical radiographs as well as USG with color Doppler and power Doppler for the diagnosis of these lesions. Their diagnostic performances were compared against histopathologic examination. All data were compared and statistically analyzed. USG examination with color Doppler and power Doppler identified 29 (19 cysts and 10 granulomas) of 30 periapical lesions accurately, with a sensitivity of 100% for cysts and 90.91% for granulomas and a specificity of 90.91% for cysts and 100% for granulomas. In comparison, conventional intraoral radiography identified only 21 lesions (sensitivity of 78.9% for cysts and 45.4% for granulomas and specificity of 45.4% for cysts and 78.9% for granulomas). There was definite correlation between the echotexture of the lesions and the histopathological features except in one case. USG imaging with color Doppler and power Doppler is superior to conventional intraoral radiographic methods for diagnosing the nature of periapical lesions in the anterior jaws. This study reveals the potential of USG examination in the study of other jaw lesions

  18. Ultrasonography with color Doppler and power Doppler in the diagnosis of periapical lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit Goel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the efficacy of ultrasonography (USG with color Doppler and power Doppler applications over conventional radiography in the diagnosis of periapical lesions. Materials and Methods: Thirty patients having inflammatory periapical lesions of the maxillary or mandibular anterior teeth and requiring endodontic surgery were selected for inclusion in this study. All patients consented to participate in the study. We used conventional periapical radiographs as well as USG with color Doppler and power Doppler for the diagnosis of these lesions. Their diagnostic performances were compared against histopathologic examination. All data were compared and statistically analyzed. Results: USG examination with color Doppler and power Doppler identified 29 (19 cysts and 10 granulomas of 30 periapical lesions accurately, with a sensitivity of 100% for cysts and 90.91% for granulomas and a specificity of 90.91% for cysts and 100% for granulomas. In comparison, conventional intraoral radiography identified only 21 lesions (sensitivity of 78.9% for cysts and 45.4% for granulomas and specificity of 45.4% for cysts and 78.9% for granulomas. There was definite correlation between the echotexture of the lesions and the histopathological features except in one case. Conclusions: USG imaging with color Doppler and power Doppler is superior to conventional intraoral radiographic methods for diagnosing the nature of periapical lesions in the anterior jaws. This study reveals the potential of USG examination in the study of other jaw lesions.

  19. Antiretroviral Tissue Kinetics: In Vivo Imaging Using Positron Emission Tomography▿

    OpenAIRE

    Di Mascio, Michele; Srinivasula, Sharat; Bhattacharjee, Abesh; Cheng, Lily; Martiniova, Lucia; Herscovitch, Peter; Lertora, Juan; Kiesewetter, Dale

    2009-01-01

    Our current knowledge on the antiviral efficacy, dosing, and toxicity of available highly active antiretroviral therapy regimens is mostly derived from plasma or blood kinetics of anti-human immunodeficiency virus (anti-HIV) drugs. However, the blood comprises only 2% of the total target cells in the body. Tissue drug levels may differ substantially from corresponding plasma levels, and drug distribution processes may be characterized by high intertissue variability, leading to suboptimal tar...

  20. MR imaging of skeletal soft tissue infection: utility of diffusion-weighted imaging in detecting abscess formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harish, Srinivasan; Rebello, Ryan; Chiavaras, Mary M.; Kotnis, Nikhil

    2011-01-01

    Our objectives were to assess if diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) can help identify abscess formation in the setting of soft tissue infection and to assess whether abscess formation can be diagnosed confidently with a combination of DWI and other unenhanced sequences. Eight cases of soft tissue infection imaged with MRI including DWI were retrospectively reviewed. Two male and six female patients were studied (age range 23-50 years). Unenhanced MRI including DWI was performed in all patients. Post-contrast images were obtained in seven patients. All patients had clinically or surgically confirmed abscesses. Abscesses demonstrated restricted diffusion. DWI in conjunction with other unenhanced imaging showed similar confidence levels as post-contrast images in diagnosing abscess formation in four cases. In two cases, although the combined use of DWI and other unenhanced imaging yielded the same confidence levels as post-contrast imaging, DWI was more definitive for demonstrating abscess formation. In one case, post-contrast images had a better confidence for suggesting abscess. In one case, DWI helped detected the abscess, where gadolinium could not be administered because of a contraindication. This preliminary study suggests that DWI is a useful adjunct in the diagnosis of skeletal soft tissue abscesses. (orig.)

  1. Medical image of the week: necrotizing soft tissue infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor A

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. A 70-year-old man with a history of coronary artery disease, chronic back pain, and general debilitation presented to the emergency department with complaints of fever, weakness and right buttock discomfort. Physical exam was remarkable for a temperature of 101.7º F, and for moderate erythema of the skin of the right inguinal area and right buttock, with associated tenderness. Laboratory exam was significant for a WBC of 22.7 K/ɥL, erythrocyte sedimentation rate of 82 mm, and serum creatinine phosphokinase of 2856 U/L. CAT of the abdomen and pelvis demonstrated extensive gluteal and perineal soft tissue inflammation with gas formation, consistent with a necrotizing soft tissue infection (Figures 1 and 2. Three basic subsets of necrotizing soft tissue infections (NSTIs have been described. Type I infections are the most common form and are characterized by a polymicrobial process typically involving gram positive cocci, gram negative rods, and anaerobes. Type I infections occur ...

  2. Technical Note: A new phantom design for routine testing of Doppler ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grice, J V; Pickens, D R; Price, R R

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate the principle and operation for a simple, inexpensive, and highly portable Doppler ultrasound quality assurance (QA) phantom intended for routine QA testing. A prototype phantom has been designed, fabricated, and evaluated. The phantom described here is powered by gravity alone, requires no external equipment for operation, and produces a stable fluid velocity useful for quality assurance. Many commercially available Doppler ultrasound testing systems can suffer from issues such as a lengthy setup, prohibitive cost, nonportable size, or difficulty in use. This new phantom design aims to address some of these problems and create a phantom appropriate for assessing Doppler ultrasound stability. The phantom was fabricated using a 3D printer. The basic design of the phantom is to provide gravity-powered flow of a Doppler fluid between two reservoirs. The printed components were connected with latex tubing and then seated in a tissue mimicking gel. Spectral Doppler waveforms were sampled to evaluate variations in the data, and the phantom was evaluated using high frame rate video to find an alternate measure of mean fluid velocity flowing in the phantom. The current system design maintains stable flow from one reservoir to the other for approximately 7 s. Color Doppler imaging of the phantom was found to be qualitatively consistent with laminar flow. Using pulsed spectral Doppler, the average fluid velocity from a sample volume approximately centered in the synthetic vessel was measured to be 56 cm/s with a standard deviation of 3.2 cm/s across 118 measurements. An independent measure of the average fluid velocity was measured to be 51.9 cm/s with a standard deviation of 0.7 cm/s over 4 measurements. The developed phantom provides stable fluid flow useful for frequent clinical Doppler ultrasound testing and attempts to address several obstacles facing Doppler phantom testing. Such an ultrasound phantom can make routine

  3. Functional and morphological evaluation of hand microcirculation with nailfold capillaroscopy and laser Doppler imaging in Raynaud's and Sjögren's syndrome and poly/dermatomyositis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabo, N; Csiki, Z; Szanto, A; Danko, K; Szodoray, P; Zeher, M

    2008-01-01

    Nailfold capillaroscopy is widely used in autoimmune patients to determine capillary morphology. Laser Doppler imaging (LDI) is a relatively new method for measuring the microcirculation of cutaneous perfusion. The aim of this study was to investigate the capillary morphology and microcirculation among patients with Sjögren's syndrome (SS) and poly/dermatomyositis (PM/DM) with these two non-invasive methods and to detect secondary Raynaud's syndrome (SRS) in these autoimmune diseases. Thirty patients with primary SS, 30 patients with PM/DM, 30 patients with primary Raynaud's syndrome (PRS), and 30 healthy volunteers were included in the study. Nailfold capillaroscopy and LDI were performed on each patient. A comprehensive analysis was performed among the patients and healthy individuals. Among SS patients avascularity and among PM/DM patients avascularity and capillary morphology changes were most often detected by capillaroscopy. With LDI the mean steady-state cutaneous perfusion was 1.25 perfusion units (PU) in region of interest 1 (ROI1), 1.22 in ROI2, and 1.49 at the fingertips in PRS patients; the corresponding values were 1.2, 1.03, and 1.48 PU in SS, 0.91, 0.76, and 1.19 PU in PM/DM, and 1.79, 1.62, and 2.2 PU in the controls. The differences were significant between each autoimmune group compared to the control group (pnailfold capillaroscopy, abnormalities in capillary morphology can be detected, and by using LDI, the reduced blood flow in the capillaries can be detected. These investigations can be useful in the detection of SRS, or in distinguishing whether the reduced blood flow is due to primary/systemic autoimmune diseases.

  4. Time-resolved particle image velocimetry and laser doppler anemometry study of the turbulent flow field of bileaflet mechanical mitral prostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akutsu, Toshinosuke; Fukuda, Takamasa

    2005-01-01

    Dynamic particle image velocimetry (PIV) was applied to the study of the flow field associated with prosthetic heart valves. The results were compared with those of laser Doppler anemometry (LDA). Anatomically and antianatomically oriented Jyros (JR) and St. Jude Medical (SJM) valves were compared in the mitral position to study the effects of valve design on the downstream flow field. The experimental program used a dynamic PIV system utilizing high-speed, high-resolution video to map the true time-resolved velocity field inside the simulated ventricle. This system was complemented by a study using the more traditional LDA system for comparison. Based on the experimental data, the following general conclusions can be made. High-resolution dynamic PIV can capture true chronological changes in the velocity and turbulence fields. It also produces very detailed velocity and turbulence information comparable to the LDA results. In the vertical measuring plane that passes both the center of the aortic and mitral valves (A-A section), the two valves (the SJM and the JR) show distinct circulatory flow patterns when the valve is installed in the antianatomical orientation. Small differences in valve design can generate noticeable differences, particularly during the accelerating flow phase. The SJM valve maintains a relatively high velocity through the central orifice; the curved leaflets of the JR valve generate higher velocities with a divergent flow during the accelerating and peak flow phases. In the velocity field directly below the mitral valve and normal to the previous measuring plane (B-B section), where characteristic differences in valve design will be visible, symmetrical twin circulations were observed because of the divergent nature of the flow generated by the two inclined half-disks installed in the antianatomical orientation. The SJM valve, with a central downward flow near the valve, is contrasted with the JR valve, which has a peripheral downward

  5. Color Doppler imaging of the retrobulbar circulation and plasmatic biomarkers of vascular risk in age-related macular degeneration: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fermin Rodrigo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate preliminarily and compare the level of plasmatic biomarkers of vascular risk in patients with and without exudative age-related macular degeneration (ARMD and to relate it to vascular resistance alterations in the ophthalmic artery (OA, central retinal artery (CRA, posterior temporal ciliary artery (PTCA, and posterior nasal ciliary artery (PNCA. Methods: Color Doppler imaging of the OA, CRA, PTCA, and PNCA was performed in 30 eyes of 30 cataract patients (control group as well as in 30 eyes of 30 patients with naive exudative ARMD (study group, measuring the peak systolic velocity, end-diastolic velocity (EDV, and Pourcelot resistive index (RI. Likewise, in both groups, a blood test was performed to determine the plasmatic levels of homocysteine, C-reactive protein (CRP, B12 vitamin, and folic acid. Results: A positive and significant correlation was found between the level of CRP and RI of the OA in the ARMD group (r = 0.498, P = 0.005, with an increased RI in all arteries compared to controls, although differences only reached statistical significance for the PTCA (P = 0.035. Likewise, a significantly lower EDV for the CRA was found in ARMD eyes compared to controls (P = 0.041. In the study group, significantly higher plasmatic levels of homocysteine (P = 0.042 and CRP (P = 0.046 were found. In contrast, no significant differences were found between groups in the levels of folic acid (P = 0.265 and B12 vitamin (P = 0.520. Conclusion: The decrease of the choroidal perfusion related to hyperhomocysteinemia, and increase in the CRP plasmatic levels may play an etiological role on the exudative ARMD. This should be investigated in future studies with larger samples of patients.

  6. Amide proton transfer imaging of high intensity focused ultrasound-treated tumor tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hectors, S.J.C.G.; Jacobs, I.; Strijkers, G.J.; Nicolay, K.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the suitability of amide proton transfer (APT) imaging as a biomarker for the characterization of high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU)-treated tumor tissue was assessed. Methods: APT imaging was performed on tumor-bearing mice before (n=15), directly after (n=15) and at 3

  7. Amide Proton Transfer Imaging of High Intensity Focused Ultrasound-Treated Tumor Tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hectors, Stefanie J. C. G.; Jacobs, Igor; Strijkers, Gustav J.; Nicolay, Klaas

    2014-01-01

    PurposeIn this study, the suitability of amide proton transfer (APT) imaging as a biomarker for the characterization of high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU)-treated tumor tissue was assessed. MethodsAPT imaging was performed on tumor-bearing mice before (n=15), directly after (n=15) and at 3

  8. 3D microscopic imaging and evaluation of tubular tissue architecture

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Janáček, Jiří; Čapek, Martin; Michálek, Jan; Karen, Petr; Kubínová, Lucie

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 63, Suppl.1 (2014), S49-S55 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LH13028; GA ČR(CZ) GA13-12412S Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : confocal microscopy * capillaries * brain * skeletal muscle * image analysis Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 1.293, year: 2014

  9. Optical redox imaging indices discriminate human breast cancer from normal tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, He N.; Tchou, Julia; Feng, Min; Zhao, Huaqing; Li, Lin Z.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. Our long-term goal was to investigate the potential of incorporating redox imaging technique as a breast cancer (BC) diagnosis component to increase the positive predictive value of suspicious imaging finding and to reduce unnecessary biopsies and overdiagnosis. We previously found that precancer and cancer tissues in animal models displayed abnormal mitochondrial redox state. We also revealed abnormal mitochondrial redox state in cancerous specimens from three BC patients. Here, we extend our study to include biopsies of 16 patients. Tissue aliquots were collected from both apparently normal and cancerous tissues from the affected cancer-bearing breasts shortly after surgical resection. All specimens were snap-frozen and scanned with the Chance redox scanner, i.e., the three-dimensional cryogenic NADH/Fp (reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide/oxidized flavoproteins) fluorescence imager. We found both Fp and NADH in the cancerous tissues roughly tripled that in the normal tissues (predox ratio Fp/(NADH + Fp) was ∼27% higher in the cancerous tissues (predox ratio alone could predict cancer with reasonable sensitivity and specificity. Our findings suggest that the optical redox imaging technique can provide parameters independent of clinical factors for discriminating cancer from noncancer breast tissues in human patients. PMID:27896360

  10. Ultrasound Imaging Techniques for Spatiotemporal Characterization of Composition, Microstructure, and Mechanical Properties in Tissue Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Cheri X; Hong, Xiaowei; Stegemann, Jan P

    2016-08-01

    Ultrasound techniques are increasingly being used to quantitatively characterize both native and engineered tissues. This review provides an overview and selected examples of the main techniques used in these applications. Grayscale imaging has been used to characterize extracellular matrix deposition, and quantitative ultrasound imaging based on the integrated backscatter coefficient has been applied to estimating cell concentrations and matrix morphology in tissue engineering. Spectral analysis has been employed to characterize the concentration and spatial distribution of mineral particles in a construct, as well as to monitor mineral deposition by cells over time. Ultrasound techniques have also been used to measure the mechanical properties of native and engineered tissues. Conventional ultrasound elasticity imaging and acoustic radiation force imaging have been applied to detect regions of altered stiffness within tissues. Sonorheometry and monitoring of steady-state excitation and recovery have been used to characterize viscoelastic properties of tissue using a single transducer to both deform and image the sample. Dual-mode ultrasound elastography uses separate ultrasound transducers to produce a more potent deformation force to microscale characterization of viscoelasticity of hydrogel constructs. These ultrasound-based techniques have high potential to impact the field of tissue engineering as they are further developed and their range of applications expands.

  11. Tissue clearing for confocal imaging of native and bio-artificial skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decroix, L; Van Muylder, V; Desender, L; Sampaolesi, M; Thorrez, L

    2015-01-01

    Novel clearing techniques have revolutionized three-dimensional confocal imaging of the brain without the need for physical tissue sectioning. We evaluated three clearing methods, ScaleA2, Clear(T2), and 3DISCO for visualizing native and tissue engineered muscle by confocal microscopy. We found that Clear(T2) treatment improved the depth of visualization of immunohistochemical staining slightly, but did not improve depth of visualization of endogenous green fluorescent protein (GFP). ScaleA2 preserved endogenous GFP signal better and permitted significantly deeper GFP imaging, but it was incompatible with tropomyosin immunohistochemical staining. 3DISCO treatment preserved both endogenous GFP and immunohistochemical staining, and permitted significantly deeper imaging. Clearing time for the 3DISCO procedure is short compared to ScaleA2 and Clear(T2). We suggest that 3DISCO is the preferable clearing method for native and tissue engineered skeletal muscle tissue.

  12. Towards 3D ultrasound image based soft tissue tracking: a transrectal ultrasound prostate image alignment system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Michael; Mozer, Pierre; Daanen, Vincent; Troccaz, Jocelyne

    2007-01-01

    The emergence of real-time 3D ultrasound (US) makes it possible to consider image-based tracking of subcutaneous soft tissue targets for computer guided diagnosis and therapy. We propose a 3D transrectal US based tracking system for precise prostate biopsy sample localisation. The aim is to improve sample distribution, to enable targeting of unsampled regions for repeated biopsies, and to make post-interventional quality controls possible. Since the patient is not immobilized, since the prostate is mobile and due to the fact that probe movements are only constrained by the rectum during biopsy acquisition, the tracking system must be able to estimate rigid transformations that are beyond the capture range of common image similarity measures. We propose a fast and robust multi-resolution attribute-vector registration approach that combines global and local optimization methods to solve this problem. Global optimization is performed on a probe movement model that reduces the dimensionality of the search space and thus renders optimization efficient. The method was tested on 237 prostate volumes acquired from 14 different patients for 3D to 3D and 3D to orthogonal 2D slices registration. The 3D-3D version of the algorithm converged correctly in 96.7% of all cases in 6.5s with an accuracy of 1.41mm (r.m.s.) and 3.84mm (max). The 3D to slices method yielded a success rate of 88.9% in 2.3s with an accuracy of 1.37mm (r.m.s.) and 4.3mm (max).

  13. Terahertz pulse imaging in reflection geometry of human skin cancer and skin tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodward, Ruth M; Cole, Bryan E; Wallace, Vincent P; Pye, Richard J; Arnone, Donald D; Linfield, Edmund H; Pepper, Michael

    2002-01-01

    We demonstrate the application of terahertz pulse imaging (TPI) in reflection geometry for the study of skin tissue and related cancers both in vitro and in vivo. The sensitivity of terahertz radiation to polar molecules, such as water, makes TPI suitable for studying the hydration levels in the skin and the determination of the lateral spread of skin cancer pre-operatively. By studying the terahertz pulse shape in the time domain we have been able to differentiate between diseased and normal tissue for the study of basal cell carcinoma (BCC). Basal cell carcinoma has shown a positive terahertz contrast, and inflammation and scar tissue a negative terahertz contrast compared to normal tissue. In vivo measurements on the stratum corneum have enabled visualization of the stratum corneum-epidermis interface and the study of skin hydration levels. These results demonstrate the potential of terahertz pulse imaging for the study of skin tissue and its related disorders, both in vitro and in vivo

  14. Significance of tissue edema patterns following angioocclusion: Predictability of therapeutic efficacy with MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kauffman, G.W.; Richter, G.M.; Roeren, T.; Friedburg, H.G.; Wenz, W.

    1987-01-01

    In an experimental and clinical study the authors assessed the potential of MR imaging to demonstrate tissue edema after central and capillary embolization. Thirty Wistar rats underwent either central or capillary Ethibloc embolization. MR imaging revealed that tissue edema after capillary embolization started sooner, laster longer, was more intense, and was much more homogeneous than after central occlusion. In addition, total necrosis was found microscopically only after capillary embolization. In six clinical cases of renal tumor embolization with Ethibloc, MR imaging similarly demonstrated a rapidly developing and homogeneous edema that decreased when tumor shrinkage was found. In all these patients complete tumor necrosis was proved with CT

  15. Soft tissue segmentation and 3D display from computerized tomography and magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, R.T.; Trivedi, S.S.; Fellingham, L.L.; Gamboa-Aldeco, A.; Hedgcock, M.W.

    1987-01-01

    Volume calculation and 3D display of human anatomy facilitate a physician's diagnosis, treatment, and evaluation. Accurate segmentation of soft tissue structures is a prerequisite for such volume calculations and 3D displays, but segmentation by hand-outlining structures is often tedious and time-consuming. In this paper, methods based on analysis of statistics of image gray level are applied to segmentation of soft tissue in medical images, with the goal of making segmentation automatic or semi-automatic. The resulting segmented images, volume calculations, and 3D displays are analyzed and compared with results based on physician-drawn outlines as well as actual volume measurements

  16. MR imaging of uncommon soft tissue tumors in the foot: a pictorial essay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Youn Joo; Chun, Kyung Ah; Kim, Jee Young; Sung, Mi Sook; Kim, Ki Tae [The Catholic University of Korea, Uijeongbu (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-06-15

    The large variety of masses occur in the foot. The foot is a comparatively rare site of soft tissue neoplasms. MRI has greatly improved the ability to detect and delineate soft tissue lesions and is now considered the gold-standard imaging technique in their investigation. Recently, we have encountered rare soft tissue tumors of the foot. The presented cases include benign masses such as granuloma annulare, angiomyoma, neural fibrolipoma, and giant cell tumor of tendon sheath, as well as malignant tumors such as melanoma, synovial sarcoma, rhabdomyosarcoma and extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma. We wish to illustrate the MR findings of these uncommon soft tissue mors to aid in their diagnosis.

  17. Investigation of optical coherence tomography as an imaging modality in tissue engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Ying; Dubois, Arnaud; Qin Xiangpei; Li Jian; Haj, Alicia El; Wang, Ruikang K

    2006-01-01

    Monitoring cell profiles in 3D porous scaffolds presents a major challenge in tissue engineering. In this study, we investigate optical coherence tomography (OCT) as an imaging modality to monitor non-invasively both structures and cells in engineered tissue constructs. We employ time-domain OCT to visualize macro-structural morphology, and whole-field optical coherence microscopy to delineate the morphology of cells and constructs in a developing in vitro engineered bone tissue. The results show great potential for the use of OCT in non-invasive monitoring of cellular activities in 3D developing engineered tissues

  18. Measurement of facial soft tissues thickness using 3D computed tomographic images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Ho Gul; Kim, Kee Deog; Shin, Dong Won; Hu, Kyung Seok; Lee, Jae Bum; Park, Hyok; Park, Chang Seo; Han, Seung Ho

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate accuracy and reliability of program to measure facial soft tissue thickness using 3D computed tomographic images by comparing with direct measurement. One cadaver was scanned with a Helical CT with 3 mm slice thickness and 3 mm/sec table speed. The acquired data was reconstructed with 1.5 mm reconstruction interval and the images were transferred to a personal computer. The facial soft tissue thickness were measured using a program developed newly in 3D image. For direct measurement, the cadaver was cut with a bone cutter and then a ruler was placed above the cut side. The procedure was followed by taking pictures of the facial soft tissues with a high-resolution digital camera. Then the measurements were done in the photographic images and repeated for ten times. A repeated measure analysis of variance was adopted to compare and analyze the measurements resulting from the two different methods. Comparison according to the areas was analyzed by Mann-Whitney test. There were no statistically significant differences between the direct measurements and those using the 3D images(p>0.05). There were statistical differences in the measurements on 17 points but all the points except 2 points showed a mean difference of 0.5 mm or less. The developed software program to measure the facial soft tissue thickness using 3D images was so accurate that it allows to measure facial soft tissue thickness more easily in forensic science and anthropology

  19. Measurement of facial soft tissues thickness using 3D computed tomographic images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Ho Gul; Kim, Kee Deog; Shin, Dong Won; Hu, Kyung Seok; Lee, Jae Bum; Park, Hyok; Park, Chang Seo [Yonsei Univ. Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Han, Seung Ho [Catholic Univ. of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-03-15

    To evaluate accuracy and reliability of program to measure facial soft tissue thickness using 3D computed tomographic images by comparing with direct measurement. One cadaver was scanned with a Helical CT with 3 mm slice thickness and 3 mm/sec table speed. The acquired data was reconstructed with 1.5 mm reconstruction interval and the images were transferred to a personal computer. The facial soft tissue thickness were measured using a program developed newly in 3D image. For direct measurement, the cadaver was cut with a bone cutter and then a ruler was placed above the cut side. The procedure was followed by taking pictures of the facial soft tissues with a high-resolution digital camera. Then the measurements were done in the photographic images and repeated for ten times. A repeated measure analysis of variance was adopted to compare and analyze the measurements resulting from the two different methods. Comparison according to the areas was analyzed by Mann-Whitney test. There were no statistically significant differences between the direct measurements and those using the 3D images(p>0.05). There were statistical differences in the measurements on 17 points but all the points except 2 points showed a mean difference of 0.5 mm or less. The developed software program to measure the facial soft tissue thickness using 3D images was so accurate that it allows to measure facial soft tissue thickness more easily in forensic science and anthropology.

  20. CT Imaging of facial trauma. The role of different types of reconstruction. Part II - soft tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myga-Porosilo, J.; Sraga, W.; Borowiak, H.; Jackowska, Z.; Kluczewska, E.; Skrzelewski, S.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Injury to facial soft tissues as a complication of skeleton fractures is an important problem among patients with facial trauma. The aim of this work was to assess the value of multiplanar and three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction computed tomography (CT) images obtained by using multi-detector row technology in spiral data acquisition in patients with facial injuries of soft tissue. Material/Methods: Sixty-seven patients diagnosed with injury to the facial skeleton underwent a CT scan with the use of GE Hispeed Qx/i scanner. For each patient: a two-dimensional (2D) multiplanar reconstruction (MPR), maximum intensity projection (MIP), and 3D volume rendering (VR) were conducted. Post-injury lesions of soft tissues were assessed. During the assessment of the post-injury lesions of soft tissues, the following features were evaluated: Extra ocular muscle and fat tissue herniation through fractures in the medial and inferior orbital walls. Fluid in the sinuses and in the nasal cavity. Subcutaneous tissue emphysema. Results: For subcutaneous emphysema and sinus fluid imaging, both the axial and the 2D image reconstruction proved comparably effective. However, 2D reconstructions were superior to transverse plane images with regard to herniations into fractures of the inferior orbital wall. 3D reconstruction has no importance in diagnosing soft tissue injuries. Conclusions: Multiplanar CT reconstructions increase the effectiveness of imaging of orbital tissue herniations, especially in case of fractures in the inferior orbital wall. In suspected soft tissue herniations, as well as prior to surgical treatment, spiral CT with 2D multiplanar reconstructions should be the method of choice. (authors)

  1. Breast tissue classification in digital breast tomosynthesis images using texture features: a feasibility study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontos, Despina; Berger, Rachelle; Bakic, Predrag R.; Maidment, Andrew D. A.

    2009-02-01

    Mammographic breast density is a known breast cancer risk factor. Studies have shown the potential to automate breast density estimation by using computerized texture-based segmentation of the dense tissue in mammograms. Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) is a tomographic x-ray breast imaging modality that could allow volumetric breast density estimation. We evaluated the feasibility of distinguishing between dense and fatty breast regions in DBT using computer-extracted texture features. Our long-term hypothesis is that DBT texture analysis can be used to develop 3D dense tissue segmentation algorithms for estimating volumetric breast density. DBT images from 40 women were analyzed. The dense tissue area was delineated within each central source projection (CSP) image using a thresholding technique (Cumulus, Univ. Toronto). Two (2.5cm)2 ROIs were manually selected: one within the dense tissue region and another within the fatty region. Corresponding (2.5cm)3 ROIs were placed within the reconstructed DBT images. Texture features, previously used for mammographic dense tissue segmentation, were computed. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was performed to evaluate feature classification performance. Different texture features appeared to perform best in the 3D reconstructed DBT compared to the 2D CSP images. Fractal dimension was superior in DBT (AUC=0.90), while contrast was best in CSP images (AUC=0.92). We attribute these differences to the effects of tissue superimposition in CSP and the volumetric visualization of the breast tissue in DBT. Our results suggest that novel approaches, different than those conventionally used in projection mammography, need to be investigated in order to develop DBT dense tissue segmentation algorithms for estimating volumetric breast density.

  2. 'TISUCROMA': A Software for Color Processing of Biological Tissue's Images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arista Romeu, Eduardo J.; La Rosa Vazquez, Jose Manuel de; Valor, Alma; Stolik, Suren

    2016-01-01

    In this work a software intended to plot and analyze digital image RGB histograms from normal and abnormal regions of biological tissue. The obtained RGB histograms from each zone can be used to show the image in only one color or the mixture of some of them. The Software was developed in Lab View to process the images in a laptop. Some medical application examples are shown. (Author)

  3. Mammogram synthesis using a 3D simulation. I. Breast tissue model and image acquisition simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakic, Predrag R.; Albert, Michael; Brzakovic, Dragana; Maidment, Andrew D. A.

    2002-01-01

    A method is proposed for generating synthetic mammograms based upon simulations of breast tissue and the mammographic imaging process. A computer breast model has been designed with a realistic distribution of large and medium scale tissue structures. Parameters controlling the size and placement of simulated structures (adipose compartments and ducts) provide a method for consistently modeling images of the same simulated breast with modified position or acquisition parameters. The mammographic imaging process is simulated using a compression model and a model of the x-ray image acquisition process. The compression model estimates breast deformation using tissue elasticity parameters found in the literature and clinical force values. The synthetic mammograms were generated by a mammogram acquisition model using a monoenergetic parallel beam approximation applied to the synthetically compressed breast phantom

  4. Power doppler 'blanching' after the application of transducer pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshua, F.; Edmonds, J.; Lassere, M.; De Carle, R.; Rayment, M.; Bryant, C.; Shnier, R.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if transducer pressure modifies power Doppler assessments of rheumatoid arthritis synovium at the metacarpophalangeal joints and metatarsophalangeal joints. Five rheumatoid arthritis patients of varying degrees of 'disease activity' and damage were assessed with power Doppler ultrasound scanning of the dominant hand second to fifth metacarpophalangeal joints. Two rheumatoid arthritis patients had their dominant foot first to fifth metatarsophalangeal joints assessed with power Doppler ultrasound. Ultrasonography was performed with a high frequency transducer (14 MHz) with a colour mode frequency of 10 Mhz, and a standard colour box and gain. In the joint that showed the highest power Doppler signal, an image was made. A further image was taken after transducer pressure was applied. In all patients, there was increased flow to at least one joint. After pressure was applied, power Doppler signal intensity markedly reduced in all images and in some there was no recordable power Doppler signal. Increased transducer pressure can result in a marked reduction or obliteration in power Doppler signal. This power Doppler 'blanching' shows the need for further studies to evaluate sources of error and standardization before power Doppler ultrasound becomes a routine measure of 'disease activity' in rheumatoid arthritis. Copyright (2005) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  5. Texture analysis of speckle in optical coherence tomography images of tissue phantoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gossage, Kirk W; Smith, Cynthia M; Kanter, Elizabeth M; Hariri, Lida P; Stone, Alice L; Rodriguez, Jeffrey J; Williams, Stuart K; Barton, Jennifer K

    2006-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an imaging modality capable of acquiring cross-sectional images of tissue using back-reflected light. Conventional OCT images have a resolution of 10-15 μm, and are thus best suited for visualizing tissue layers and structures. OCT images of collagen (with and without endothelial cells) have no resolvable features and may appear to simply show an exponential decrease in intensity with depth. However, examination of these images reveals that they display a characteristic repetitive structure due to speckle.The purpose of this study is to evaluate the application of statistical and spectral texture analysis techniques for differentiating living and non-living tissue phantoms containing various sizes and distributions of scatterers based on speckle content in OCT images. Statistically significant differences between texture parameters and excellent classification rates were obtained when comparing various endothelial cell concentrations ranging from 0 cells/ml to 25 million cells/ml. Statistically significant results and excellent classification rates were also obtained using various sizes of microspheres with concentrations ranging from 0 microspheres/ml to 500 million microspheres/ml. This study has shown that texture analysis of OCT images may be capable of differentiating tissue phantoms containing various sizes and distributions of scatterers

  6. Progress in reflectance confocal microscopy for imaging oral tissues in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Gary; Zanoni, Daniella K.; Migliacci, Jocelyn; Cordova, Miguel; Rajadhyaksha, Milind; Patel, Snehal

    2016-02-01

    We report progress in development and feasibility testing of reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) for imaging in the oral cavity of humans. We adapted a small rigid relay telescope (120mm long x 14mm diameter) and a small water immersion objective lens (12mm diameter, NA 0.7) to a commercial handheld RCM scanner (Vivascope 3000, Caliber ID, Rochester NY). This scanner is designed for imaging skin but we adapted the front end (the objective lens and the stepper motor that axially translates) for intra-oral use. This adaption required a new approach to address the loss of the automated stepper motor for acquisition of images in depth. A helical spring-like cap (with a coverslip to contact tissue) was designed for approximately 150 um of travel. Additionally other methods for focusing optics were designed and evaluated. The relay telescope optics is being tested in a clinical setting. With the capture of video and "video-mosaicing", extended areas can be imaged. The feasibility of imaging oral tissues was initially investigated in volunteers. RCM imaging in buccal mucosa in vivo shows nuclear and cellular detail in the epithelium and epithelial junction, and connective tissue and blood flow in the underlying lamina propria. Similar detail, including filiform and fungiform papillae, can be seen on the tongue in vivo. Clinical testing during head and neck surgery is now in progress and patients are being imaged for both normal tissue and cancerous margins in lip and tongue mucosa.

  7. Imaging of single cells and tissue using MeV ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watt, F.; Bettiol, A.A.; Kan, J.A. van; Ynsa, M.D.; Ren Minqin; Rajendran, R.; Cui Huifang; Sheu, F.-S.; Jenner, A.M.

    2009-01-01

    With the attainment of sub-100 nm high energy (MeV) ion beams, comes the opportunity to image cells and tissue at nano-dimensions. The advantage of MeV ion imaging is that the ions will penetrate whole cells, or relatively thick tissue sections, without any significant loss of resolution. In this paper, we demonstrate that whole cells (cultured N2A neuroblastoma cells ATCC) and tissue sections (rabbit pancreas tissue) can be imaged at sub-100 nm resolutions using scanning transmission ion microscopy (STIM), and that sub-cellular structural details can be identified. In addition to STIM imaging we have also demonstrated for the first time, that sub-cellular proton induced fluorescence imaging (on cultured N2A neuroblastoma cells ATCC) can also be carried out at resolutions of 200 nm, compared with 300-400 nm resolutions achieved by conventional optical fluorescence imaging. The combination of both techniques offers a potentially powerful tool in the quest for elucidating cell function, particularly when it should be possible in the near future to image down to sub-50 nm.

  8. Positron flight in human tissues and its influence on PET image spatial resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-Crespo, Alejandro; Larsson, Stig A. [Section of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Hospital Physics, Karolinska Hospital, 176 76, Stockholm (Sweden); Medical Radiation Physics, Department of Oncology-Pathology, Stockholm University and Karolinska Institute, Stockholm (Sweden); Andreo, Pedro [Medical Radiation Physics, Department of Oncology-Pathology, Stockholm University and Karolinska Institute, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2004-01-01

    The influence of the positron distance of flight in various human tissues on the spatial resolution in positron emission tomography (PET) was assessed for positrons from carbon-11, nitrogen-13, oxygen-15, fluorine-18, gallium-68 and rubidium-82. The investigation was performed using the Monte Carlo code PENELOPE to simulate the transport of positrons within human compact bone, adipose, soft and lung tissue. The simulations yielded 3D distributions of annihilation origins that were projected on the image plane in order to assess their impact on PET spatial resolution. The distributions obtained were cusp-shaped with long tails rather than Gaussian shaped, thus making conventional full width at half maximum (FWHM) measures uncertain. The full width at 20% of the maximum amplitude (FW20M) of the annihilation distributions yielded more appropriate values for root mean square addition of spatial resolution loss components. Large differences in spatial resolution losses due to the positron flight in various human tissues were found for the selected radionuclides. The contribution to image blur was found to be up to three times larger in lung tissue than in soft tissue or fat and five times larger than in bone tissue. For {sup 18}F, the spatial resolution losses were 0.54 mm in soft tissue and 1.52 mm in lung tissue, compared with 4.10 and 10.5 mm, respectively, for {sup 82}Rb. With lung tissue as a possible exception, the image blur due to the positron flight in all human tissues has a minor impact as long as PET cameras with a spatial resolution of 5-7 mm are used in combination with {sup 18}F-labelled radiopharmaceuticals. However, when ultra-high spatial resolution PET cameras, with 3-4 mm spatial resolution, are applied, especially in combination with other radionuclides, the positron flight may enter as a limiting factor for the total PET spatial resolution - particularly in lung tissue. (orig.)

  9. Positron flight in human tissues and its influence on PET image spatial resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez-Crespo, Alejandro; Larsson, Stig A.; Andreo, Pedro

    2004-01-01

    The influence of the positron distance of flight in various human tissues on the spatial resolution in positron emission tomography (PET) was assessed for positrons from carbon-11, nitrogen-13, oxygen-15, fluorine-18, gallium-68 and rubidium-82. The investigation was performed using the Monte Carlo code PENELOPE to simulate the transport of positrons within human compact bone, adipose, soft and lung tissue. The simulations yielded 3D distributions of annihilation origins that were projected on the image plane in order to assess their impact on PET spatial resolution. The distributions obtained were cusp-shaped with long tails rather than Gaussian shaped, thus making conventional full width at half maximum (FWHM) measures uncertain. The full width at 20% of the maximum amplitude (FW20M) of the annihilation distributions yielded more appropriate values for root mean square addition of spatial resolution loss components. Large differences in spatial resolution losses due to the positron flight in various human tissues were found for the selected radionuclides. The contribution to image blur was found to be up to three times larger in lung tissue than in soft tissue or fat and five times larger than in bone tissue. For 18 F, the spatial resolution losses were 0.54 mm in soft tissue and 1.52 mm in lung tissue, compared with 4.10 and 10.5 mm, respectively, for 82 Rb. With lung tissue as a possible exception, the image blur due to the positron flight in all human tissues has a minor impact as long as PET cameras with a spatial resolution of 5-7 mm are used in combination with 18 F-labelled radiopharmaceuticals. However, when ultra-high spatial resolution PET cameras, with 3-4 mm spatial resolution, are applied, especially in combination with other radionuclides, the positron flight may enter as a limiting factor for the total PET spatial resolution - particularly in lung tissue. (orig.)

  10. THE POTENTIAL VALUE OF ULTRASOUND IN DIAGNOSIS OF SOFT TISSUE SARCOMA (LITERATURE REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. G. Frolova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Literature data on the potential value of ultrasound imaging in diagnosis of soft tissue sarcoma were analyzed. Ultrasound in B-regime was used to assess the extent of soft tissue sarcoma, Doppler ultrasonography was used to study tumor vascularization and sonoelastography was useful to differentiate benign from malignant tumors of soft tissues. The analysis of diagnostic value of ultrasound in detection of soft tissue lesions was carried out.  Criteria characterizing various histological types of tumors were identified.

  11. Tissue characteristics in left ventricular hypertrophy using magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Shigeru; Ueno, Yuji; Arita, Mikio; Nishio, Ichiro; Masuyama, Yoshiaki

    1988-01-01

    For 15 normotensive patients with asymmetric septal hypertrophy (ASH), 10 hypertensive patients with concentric hypertrophy (CH), and five normal subjects (N), we examined changes in myocardial T 1 and T 2 values related to the cardiac cycle. The usefulness of those values in differentiating diseases with left ventricular hypertrophy was evaluated. Left ventricular (LV) short-axis spin echo images and inversion recovery images were obtained at endsystolic and diastolic cardiac phases, and T 1 and T 2 images were calculated. The regional wall thickness (WT) and T 1 and T 2 values were measured in the anterior septum, anterior wall, lateral wall, posterior wall and posterior septum. Myocardial T 1 and T 2 values were significantly decreased in systole (T 1 : 185.6±37.9 msec, T 2 : 24.4±6.3 msec, mean±SD) compared to those in diastole (T 1 : 249.2±56.7 msec, T 2 : 31.7±9.4 msec). In both the ASH and CH groups, significant correlations were observed between diastolic T 1 values and WT (ASH: r = 0.80, p 2 values and WT (ASH: r = 0.58, p 1 values in the ASH group (343.4±40.5 msec) were significantly higher than those of the CH group (247.3±21.4 msec), although the mean wall thickness values were similar in both groups. The T 1 /WT and T 2 /WT were significantly lower in the CH group than those in the ASH and N groups. In conclusion, myocardial T 1 and T 2 values were related not only to the cardiac cycle, but to wall thickness and to types of hypertrophy. The T 1 and T 2 values may be useful for distinguishing hypertrophic cardiomyopathy from hypertrophy due to hypertension. (author)

  12. Segmentation of the tissues from MR images using basic anatomical information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, Nobutoshi; Notoya, Yoshiaki; Nakamura, Toshiyasu; Mochimaru, Masaaki.

    1994-01-01

    Automatic segmentation methods of MR images have been developed for the cardiac surgery and the brain surgery. In these fields, Region Growing method has been used mainly. In this method, the core was inserted manually, and the pixel adjoining the core was judged whether it was homogeneous or not from its features based on image information. The core grew adding the homogeneous pixels, and the region of interest was obtained as the grown core. It is available for orthopedic surgery and biomechanics to obtain the location and the orientation of bones and soft tissues in vivo. However, MR images including them could not be segmented by the former region growing method based on only image information. This is because those tissues had fuzzy boundaries on the image. Thus, we used not only intensity and spatial gradient as image information but also location, size and complexity of the tissue to segment the MR images. The pixel adjoining the core was judged from three local features of the pixel ; its intensity, gradient and location, and two global features of the core region ; its size and complexity. Judgment was performed by Fuzzy Reasoning to allow their fuzzy boundaries. The homogeneous pixel was added into the core region. It grew into normal size and smooth shape under constraint of global anatomical features. Using the present method, as an example, radius, ulna and interosseous membrane were segmented from the multi-sliced MR images of forearm. Segmented tissues agreed with the shape inserted manually by a medical doctor. As s result, three tissues containing different features on the MR image could be segmented by a single algorithm. It takes about 10 sec per slice by using an engineering workstation. (author)

  13. Segmentation of the tissues from MR images using basic anatomical information

    Energy Technology Data