Sample records for doppler examination interest

  1. Sevoflurane Used for Color Doppler Ultrasound Examination in Children. (United States)

    Fan, Conghai; Zhang, Fengchao; Huang, Xiaomei; Wen, Cheng; Shan, Chengjing


    The objective of this study is to investigate the feasibility of sevoflurane inhalation in pediatric color doppler ultrasound examination. In this study, 30 cases of children under 1 year were selected. They were all I or II levels according to American Society of Anesthesiology. Children with severe cyanotic congenital heart disease or severe pneumonia were excluded. All the children received anesthesia with sevoflurane. The University of Michigan Sedation Scale was assessed and bispectral index (BIS) was recorded before induction (T0), after induction (T1), when maintaining (T2), and when waking-up (T3). Blood pressure and heart rate were monitored during the color doppler ultrasound examination, the time to receive sedation examination and anesthesia recovery time were also recorded. (1) Score for UMSS was zero at T0 and 3 at T1; (2) BIS value was 93.18 ± 2.94 at T0 and decreased to 87.6 ± 3.9 at T1; (3) Blood pressure or heart rate did not decline obviously; (4) The time to receive sedation examination was 46.4 ± 13.1 s and anesthesia recovery time was 7.8 ± 5.3 min. In conclusion, sevoflurane can be used in pediatric color doppler ultrasound examination safely and effectively.

  2. CO2 measurements during transcranial Doppler examinations in headache patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, L L; Iversen, Helle Klingenberg


    -tidal pCO2 with a capnograph. When patients are nauseated and vomit, as in migraine, the mask or mouthpiece connected to the capnograph represents a problem. We therefore evaluated whether a transcutaneous pCO2 electrode was as useful as the capnograph for pCO2 measurements in TCD examinations. We...... conclude that this is not the case, and recommend capnographic end-tidal pCO2 measurements during TCD examinations. However, transcutaneous pCO2 measurements may represent a supplement to spot measurements of end-tidal pCO2 in stable conditions when long-term monitoring is needed, and the mask...

  3. An application of the coincidence Doppler spectroscopy for substances of chemical interest: phthalocyanine and acetylacetonate complexes

    CERN Document Server

    Ito, Y


    Coincidence Doppler spectroscopy, which is particularly powerful when one is concerned with high momentum components of positron annihilation gamma-rays, has been applied to two different kinds of organo-metallic ligands: metal phthalocyanines and metal acetylacetonates. The energy (momentum) profiles of the annihilation gamma-rays were the same for metal phthalocyanines indicating that positron and/or positronium are not interacting with the metal ions. However, the profiles for the metal acetylacetonates evidently showed a dependence on the kind of metal ions. Discussion is made on the features of positron interaction which are different for phthalocyanines and acetylacetonates.

  4. Examining Physics Career Interests: Recruitment and Persistence into College (United States)

    Lock, R. M.; Hazari, Z.; Sadler, P. M.; Sonnert, G.


    Compared to the undergraduate population, the number of students obtaining physics degrees has been declining since the 1960s. This trend continues despite the increasing number of students taking introductory physics courses in high school and college. Our work uses an ex-post facto design to study the factors that influence students' decision to pursue a career in physics at the beginning of college. These factors include high school physics classroom experiences, other science-related experiences, and students' career motivations. The data used in this study is drawn from the Persistence Research in Science and Engineering (PRiSE) Project, a large-scale study that surveyed a nationally representative sample of college/university students enrolled in introductory English courses about their interests and prior experiences in science.

  5. Doppler examination and cerebral arterial stricture in patients with ischemic stroke

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shouchun Wang; Yingqi Xing; Fang Deng; Yuerong Cao; Jiachun Feng


    BACKGROUND: With the development of interventional therapy, it is necessary for evaluating cerebral vessels to instruct treatment and determine prognosis of patients with ischemic stroke; however, correlation of distribution of infarction focus and clinical symptoms with degrees of cerebrovasoular stricture is still unclear.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the characteristics of cerebral arterial stricture of patients with ischemic stroke with transcranial Doppler (TCD) and color duplex flow imaging (CDFI) and compare the correlation between distribution of cerebral infarction focus and clinical types with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).DESIGN: Contrast observation.SETTING: Department of Neurology, the First Hospital of Jilin University.PARTICIPANTS: A total of 159 patients with ischemic stroke were selected from the Department of Neurology, the First Hospital of Jilin University from January to December 2005, including 106 males and 53 females aged from 27 to 88 years. Bases on diagnostic criteria of cerebrovascular disease established by Rao et al, clinical manifestations of all patients were evaluated with CT or nuclear magnetic resonance. All patients provided the confirmed consent.METHODS: The accepted patients received TCD and CDFI examination at 1 week after onset of ischemic stroke. Among them, 112 patients received cerebrovascular imaging examination simultaneously. MRI was used to check cerebral infarction focus and cerebrovascular stricture > 50% was regarded as the accepted vessels. In addition, DWI-T2 TCD (Germany) was used to check middle cerebral artery, and degrees of middle cerebral artery were classified into mild, moderate and severe stricture based on blood velocity (140 cm/s,180 cm/s). Stroke was classified based on characteristics of infarction focus and clinical symptoms showed with MRI and correlation with degrees of cerebrovascular stricture was analyzed simultaneously.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Correlation between the characteristics of ischemic

  6. Examining the Mediating Effect of Learning Strategies on the Relationship between Students' History Interest and Achievement (United States)

    Dan, Yongjun; Todd, Reese


    Research into the effect of interest consistently indicated that interest positively related to students' achievement; however, the mechanism through which it affected the learning result remained an open question. This study intended to examine how learning strategies mediated the relationship between interest and achievement in the domain of…

  7. Stability of Interests Across Ethnicity and Gender: A Longitudinal Examination of Grades 8 through 12 (United States)

    Tracey, Terence J. G.; Robbins, Steven B.


    RIASEC interests were assessed in grades 8, 10, and 12 on a large national sample of 69,987 college bound students. Random samples of 1000 were drawn to represent each of the major US ethnic groups (African, Asian, Native, Mexican, Latino (non Mexican), Anglo, and Multiracial Americans) and interests were examined as they varied across time,…

  8. Examining the Application of Holland's Theory to Vocational Interests and Choices of Chinese College Students (United States)

    Tang, Mei


    This study investigates the applicability of Holland's career development theory in cross-cultural settings by examining vocational interests of Chinese college students and the relationship between those interests and their career choices. One hundred sixty five Chinese college students complete a Chinese version of the Self-Directed Search and a…

  9. Examining the Application of Holland's Theory to Vocational Interests and Choices of Chinese College Students (United States)

    Tang, Mei


    This study investigates the applicability of Holland's career development theory in cross-cultural settings by examining vocational interests of Chinese college students and the relationship between those interests and their career choices. One hundred sixty five Chinese college students complete a Chinese version of the Self-Directed Search and a…

  10. Marked discrepancy in pressure gradient between Doppler and catheter examinations on Medtronic Mosaic valve in aortic position. (United States)

    Ito, Toshiaki; Maekawa, Atsuo; Fujii, Genyo; Sawaki, Sadanari; Hoshino, Satoshi; Hayashi, Yasunari


    A 71-year-old woman underwent aortic valve replacement with 23 mm Medtronic Mosaic Ultra valve 4 years ago because of aortic stenosis. Although she had been asymptomatic since the operation, echocardiography showed 4 m/s of transprosthetic valve flow that implied early prosthetic valve failure. Catheter examination revealed that the mean transvalvular pressure gradient during systole was 15.1 mmHg on simultaneous pressure recording, and calculated valve area 1.82 cm(2). Her body surface area was 1.56 m(2). Prosthetic valve failure and prosthesis-patient mismatch were both denied. The discrepancy between Doppler study data and catheter data seemed to be due to fluid dynamical pressure recovery phenomenon. Net pressure difference between the left ventricle and the aorta may be significantly smaller than that estimated using Bernoulli's equation from transvalvular flow speed in some patients after aortic valve replacement.

  11. Paraphilic Interests: An Examination of Sex Differences in a Nonclinical Sample. (United States)

    Dawson, Samantha J; Bannerman, Brittany A; Lalumière, Martin L


    Little research has been conducted to examine paraphilic sexual interests in nonclinical samples. The little that exists suggests that atypical sexual interests are more common in men than in women, but the reasons for this difference are unknown. In this study, we explored the prevalence of paraphilic interests in a nonclinical sample of men and women. We expected that men would report greater arousal (or less repulsion) toward various paraphilic acts than women. We also examined putative correlates of paraphilias in an attempt to explain the sex difference. In all, 305 men and 710 women completed an online survey assessing sexual experiences, sexual interests, as well as indicators of neurodevelopmental stress, sex drive, mating effort, impulsivity, masculinity/femininity, and socially desirable responding. As expected, significant sex differences were found, with men reporting significantly less repulsion (or more arousal) to the majority of paraphilic acts than women. Using mediation analysis, sex drive was the only correlate to significantly and fully mediate the sex difference in paraphilic interests. In other words, sex drive fully accounted for the sex difference in paraphilic interests. The implications of these findings for understanding the etiology of atypical sexual interests are discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.

  12. An Idiothetic Examination of Vocational Interests and Their Relation to Career Decidedness. (United States)

    Tracey, Terence J. G.; Darcy, Maria


    Examines individuals' deviation from Holland's normative circular RIASEC model of organizing interests and determines if deviation is related to career indecision, career certainty, and perceptions of competence. Results revealed that deviation from the normative structure was associated with less career certainty and more career indecision.…

  13. Examining Conformity to Masculinity Norms as a Function of RIASEC Vocational Interests (United States)

    Mahalik, James R.; Perry, Justin C.; Coonerty-Femiano, Aimee; Catraio, Christine; Land, Lee N.


    The authors examined how college men's conformity to an array of masculinity norms varied as a function of their vocational interests to better understand the gendered context of men's vocational development. Three hundred ten mostly Caucasian and heterosexual college men completed the Conformity to Masculine Norms Inventory, and their answer to…

  14. An Idiothetic Examination of Vocational Interests and Their Relation to Career Decidedness. (United States)

    Tracey, Terence J. G.; Darcy, Maria


    Examines individuals' deviation from Holland's normative circular RIASEC model of organizing interests and determines if deviation is related to career indecision, career certainty, and perceptions of competence. Results revealed that deviation from the normative structure was associated with less career certainty and more career indecision.…

  15. Value of Perfusion CT, Transcranial Doppler Sonography, and Neurological Examination to Detect Delayed Vasospasm after Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekkehard Kunze


    Full Text Available Background. If detected in time, delayed cerebral vasospasm after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH may be treated by balloon angioplasty or chemical vasospasmolysis in order to enhance cerebral blood flow (CBF and protect the brain from ischemic damage. This study was conceived to compare the diagnostic accuracy of detailed neurological examination, Transcranial Doppler Sonography (TCD, and Perfusion-CT (PCT to detect angiographic vasospasm. Methods. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of delayed ischemic neurological deterioration (DIND, pathological findings on PCT-maps, and accelerations of the mean flow velocity (MVF were calculated. Results. The accuracy of DIND to predict angiographic vasospasm was 0.88. An acceleration of MFV in TCD (>140 cm/s had an accuracy of 0.64, positive PCT-findings of 0.69 with a higher sensitivity, and negative predictive value than TCD. Interpretation. Neurological assessment at close intervals is the most sensitive and specific parameter for cerebral vasospasm. PCT has a higher accuracy, sensitivity and negative predictive value than TCD. If detailed neurological evaluation is possible, it should be the leading parameter in the management and treatment decisions. If patients are not amenable to detailed neurological examination, PCT at regular intervals is a helpful tool to diagnose secondary vasospasm after aneurysmal SAH.

  16. A Critical Examination of Kant's Hypothesis that Citizens should have an Interest in Avoiding War

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jarvad, Ib Martin

    In the paper I discuss the hypothesis that citizens of any well ordered republic will put their own rational interests before the ambitions of their rulers  suggesting that it is the hub of the entire project for a pacific federation  which lends some power of enforcement behind otherwise unsanct...... unsanctioned contractual international obligations. If so the premises need critical examination for their apparent simplicity is deceptive....

  17. A multimodal examination of sexual interest in children: a comparison of sex offenders and nonsex offenders. (United States)

    Babchishin, Kelly M; Nunes, Kevin L; Kessous, Nicolas


    Research and theoretical models have consistently identified sexual interest in children as a key factor involved in child sexual offending. However, there is only moderate agreement in the diagnosis of pedophilia and different assessment methods identify different offenders as pedophiles. The current study examined the discriminative and convergent validity of three different measures of sexual interest in children. Participants included sex offenders and nonsex offenders recruited from federal prisons (i.e., offenders serving sentences of more than 2 years) in Ontario, Canada. Child molesters' responses (n = 35) were not significantly different from nonsex offenders (n = 21) on an implicit measure of sexual interest in children (Sexual Attraction to Children Implicit Association Test [SAC-IAT] d = 0.44, 95% CI [-0.11, 0.99]), but differed on the self-report (Sexual Interest Profiling System; d = 0.83, 95% CI [0.27, 1.39]) and viewing time (d = 1.15, 95% CI [0.54, 1.75]) measures. Findings did not provide clear support for the superiority of a multimodal approach, possibly due to the relatively small sample. More often than not, convergence between the three measures was observed (n = 74). Findings from the present study are an important step toward understanding the relationship between different measures of sexual interest in children and establishing their validity. © The Author(s) 2013.

  18. Educational and Career Interests in Math: A Longitudinal Examination of the Links between Classroom Environment, Motivational Beliefs, and Interests (United States)

    Wang, Ming-Te


    Drawing on the expectancy-value model, stage-environment fit theory, and self-determination theory, this study examined the longitudinal associations between classroom characteristics, expectancies-values, high school course enrollment, and career aspirations in the domain of math. Data were collected on 3,048 youth who reported on their classroom…

  19. Educational and Career Interests in Math: A Longitudinal Examination of the Links between Classroom Environment, Motivational Beliefs, and Interests (United States)

    Wang, Ming-Te


    Drawing on the expectancy-value model, stage-environment fit theory, and self-determination theory, this study examined the longitudinal associations between classroom characteristics, expectancies-values, high school course enrollment, and career aspirations in the domain of math. Data were collected on 3,048 youth who reported on their classroom…

  20. Strengthening Knowledge Co-Production Capacity: Examining Interest in Community-University Partnerships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen P. Bell


    Full Text Available Building successful, enduring research partnerships is essential for improving links between knowledge and action to address sustainability challenges. Communication research can play a critical role in fostering more effective research partnerships, especially those concerned with knowledge co-production processes. This article focuses on community-university research partnerships and factors that influence participation in the co-production process. We identify specific pathways for improving partnership development through a prospective analytical approach that examines community officials’ interest in partnering with university researchers. Using survey responses from a statewide sample of Maine municipal officials, we conduct a statistical analysis of community-university partnership potential to test a conceptual model of partnership interest grounded in natural resource management theory and environmental communication. Our findings both support and advance prior research on collaborations. Results reveal that belief in the helpfulness of the collaborator to solve problems, institutional proximity, familiarity, perceived problem severity and problem type and trust influence interest in developing community-university partnerships. These findings underscore the benefits of proactively assessing partnership potential prior to forming partnerships and the important roles for communication research within sustainability science, especially with regard to strengthening partnership formation and knowledge co-production processes.

  1. Classification of Oxfordshire community stroke project assisted by transcranial Doppler ultrasound examination for treating acute cerebral infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaohua Xiao; Jie Situ; Tinghui Li; Shaohong Qiu


    BACKGROUND: The early correct diagnosis of acute cerebral infarction (ACI) is very important for choosing therapeutic regimen. The classification of Oxfordshire community stroke project (OCSP) provides guide for easy and rapid diagnosis and choosing therapeutic regimen in clinical practice. But current operation is not satisfied. Only depending on clinical symptoms and body signs do objective evidences lack. Transcranial Doppler ultrasound (TCD) examination may provide hemodynamical evidences for the correct classification of OCSP to some extent. OBJECTIVE: To compare the results of OCSP classification and TCD examination for treating ACI in patients, and analyze the relationship between them as well as the effect of TCD on the correct classification of OCSP. DESIGN: Controlled observation.SETTING: Department of Internal Medicine, Shenzhen Hospital of Prevention and Treatment for Occupational Disease. PARTICIPANTS: Thirty-eight inpatients with ACI including 21 males and 17 females, aged 50 to 81 years, who received treatment in the Department of Internal Medicine, Shenzhen Hospital of Prevention and Treatment for Occupational Disease within 24 hours after onset from October 2002 to October 2005 were involved. The involved inpatients all confirmed to the diagnostic criteria of ACI formulated in the 4th National Cerebrovas- cular Diseases Conference. All the cases received skull computer tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations at 24 hours after onset. Those patients who had no obvious infarct focus in skull CT examination within 24 hours after onset were performed re-examination to verify ACI within 72 hours after onset. Informed consents of examination method were obtained from all the patients. METHODS: According to the classification of OCSP, the patients were assigned into 4 subtypes: lacunar infarction (LACI), total anterior circulation infarction (TACI), part anterior circulation infarction (PACI) and posterior circulation infarction

  2. Educational and career interests in math: a longitudinal examination of the links between classroom environment, motivational beliefs, and interests. (United States)

    Wang, Ming-Te


    Drawing on the expectancy-value model, stage-environment fit theory, and self-determination theory, this study examined the longitudinal associations between classroom characteristics, expectancies-values, high school course enrollment, and career aspirations in the domain of math. Data were collected on 3,048 youth who reported on their classroom experiences in 7th grade, expectancies-values in 6th, 7th, and 10th grades, and career aspirations in 12th grade. Student grades for math courses were collected from school records at 6th, 7th, and 10th grades, and their math course enrollment was collected from 9th through 12th grades. Results indicated that students' math classroom experiences predicted their expectancies and values, which, in turn, predicted the number of high school math courses taken and career aspirations in math. Gender and math ability differences are also discussed.

  3. Relationship between academic achievement and measured career interest: examination of Holland's theory. (United States)

    Henry, P


    The present study was designed to examine Holland's hypothesis that person-environment congruence relates positively to academic achievement. The sample of 157 nontraditional premedical students completed Holland's Self-directed Search interest inventory. The students were enrolled in the Medical/Dental Education Preparatory Program, which is designed to increase the number of qualified applicants who are underrepresented in the medical profession. Using scores on Holland's inventory students were classified as congruent or incongruent. A cumulative grade point average and a science grade point average were calculated for each student. An analysis of variance supported Holland's Congruence-achievement hypothesis. Congruent students did in fact achieve significantly higher cumulative GPA and science GPA than did incongruent students. Implications for counseling and academic advisement as well as further research are discussed.

  4. Examining the Mediating Effect of Learning Strategies on the Relationship between Students' History Interest and Achievement (United States)

    Dan, Yongjun; Todd, Reese


    Research into the effect of interest consistently indicated that interest positively related to students' achievement; however, the mechanism through which it affected the learning result remained an open question. This study intended to examine how learning strategies mediated the relationship between interest and achievement in the domain…

  5. The utility of Google Trends data to examine interest in cancer screening. (United States)

    Schootman, M; Toor, A; Cavazos-Rehg, P; Jeffe, D B; McQueen, A; Eberth, J; Davidson, N O


    We examined the utility of January 2004 to April 2014 Google Trends data from information searches for cancer screenings and preparations as a complement to population screening data, which are traditionally estimated through costly population-level surveys. State-level data across the USA. Persons who searched for terms related to cancer screening using Google, and persons who participated in the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). (1) State-level Google Trends data, providing relative search volume (RSV) data scaled to the highest search proportion per week (RSV100) for search terms over time since 2004 and across different geographical locations. (2) RSV of new screening tests, free/low-cost screening for breast and colorectal cancer, and new preparations for colonoscopy (Prepopik). (3) State-level breast, cervical, colorectal and prostate cancer screening rates. Correlations between Google Trends and BRFSS data ranged from 0.55 for ever having had a colonoscopy to 0.14 for having a Pap smear within the past 3 years. Free/low-cost mammography and colonoscopy showed higher RSV during their respective cancer awareness months. RSV for Miralax remained stable, while interest in Prepopik increased over time. RSV for lung cancer screening, virtual colonoscopy and three-dimensional mammography was low. Google Trends data provides enormous scientific possibilities, but are not a suitable substitute for, but may complement, traditional data collection and analysis about cancer screening and related interests. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to

  6. Declarations, accusations and judgement: examining conflict of interest discourses as performative speech-acts. (United States)

    Mayes, Christopher; Lipworth, Wendy; Kerridge, Ian


    Concerns over conflicts of interest (COI) in academic research and medical practice continue to provoke a great deal of discussion. What is most obvious in this discourse is that when COIs are declared, or perceived to exist in others, there is a focus on both the descriptive question of whether there is a COI and, subsequently, the normative question of whether it is good, bad or neutral. We contend, however, that in addition to the descriptive and normative, COI declarations and accusations can be understood as performatives. In this article, we apply J.L. Austin's performative speech-act theory to COI discourses and illustrate how this works using a contemporary case study of COI in biomedical publishing. We argue that using Austin's theory of performative speech-acts serves to highlight the social arrangements and role of authorities in COI discourse and so provides a rich framework to examine declarations, accusations and judgements of COI that often arise in the context of biomedical research and practice.

  7. Diagnosis of right-sided varicocele: A retrospective comparative study between clinical examination, Doppler findings, US imaging and vascular anatomy at phlebography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cariati, Maurizio, E-mail: [U.O.C. Radiologia, A.O. San Carlo Borromeo, via Pio II 3, 20153 Milan (Italy); Pieri, Stefano, E-mail: [U.O.C. Diagnostica per Immagini Cardioscienze, A.O. San Camillo - Forlanini, Piazza Carlo Forlanini 1, 00151 Rome (Italy); Agresti, Paolo, E-mail: [U.O.C. Diagnostica per Immagini Cardioscienze, A.O. San Camillo - Forlanini, Piazza Carlo Forlanini 1, 00151 Rome (Italy); Cariati, Massimiliano, E-mail: [Department of Academic Oncology, King' s College London, 3rd Floor Bermondsey Wing, Guy' s Hospital, Great Maze Pond, London SE1 9RT (United Kingdom); Candito, Davide Fabio, E-mail: [Scuola di Specializzazione in Radiodiagnostica, Facoltà di Medicina e Chirurgia, Università degli studi di Milano, via Festa del Perdono 7, 20122 Milan (Italy); Damiani, Giovanni, E-mail: [Scuola di Specializzazione in Radiodiagnostica, Facoltà di Medicina e Chirurgia, Università degli studi di Milano, via Festa del Perdono 7, 20122 Milan (Italy); Marzano, Domenico, E-mail: [U.O.C. Urologia, A.O. San Camillo - Forlanini, Piazza Carlo Forlanini 1, 00151 Rome (Italy)


    Historically varicocele is diagnosed almost exclusively on the left side. The introduction of new imaging techniques has allowed the identification and characterization of right varicocele. This study aims to compare the diagnostic accuracy of various imaging techniques to data obtained using phlebography in the diagnosis of right varicocele. Patients treated for isolated right varicocele between 1992 and 2010 were retrospectively identified. Data from clinical examination, Doppler-USS, Color-Doppler-USS and Retrograde Phlebography were collected for each patient. 133 out of 4305 patients (3.1%) presented with an isolated right varicocele. 34 of these patients (25.6%) presented with palpable right varicocele. Doppler-USS identified various degrees of type I right venous reflux in 90 patients (67.7%). Phlebography showed venous reflux in all the patients (133), although with variability in terms of internal spermatic vein anatomy. Right varicocele is characterized by predictable anatomic features. Identification and characterization of these features is useful in guiding percutaneous treatment, allowing to optimize radiological display and reducing failure rate.

  8. An Empirical Examination of the Composition of Vocational Interest in Business Colleges: MIS vs. Other Majors (United States)

    Downey, James


    Given the diminishing number of Management Information Systems (MIS) majors, an understanding of the factors which influence student choice of major is crucial. It has been noted in many previous studies that interest in a major and career significantly influences the student's choice of college major; indeed, in most studies, it is the strongest…

  9. Examination of factors predicting secondary students' interest in tertiary STEM education (United States)

    Chachashvili-Bolotin, Svetlana; Milner-Bolotin, Marina; Lissitsa, Sabina


    Based on the Social Cognitive Career Theory (SCCT), the study aims to investigate factors that predict students' interest in pursuing science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields in tertiary education both in general and in relation to their gender and socio-economic background. The results of the analysis of survey responses of 2458 secondary public school students in the fifth-largest Israeli city indicate that STEM learning experience positively associates with students' interest in pursuing STEM fields in tertiary education as opposed to non-STEM fields. Moreover, studying advanced science courses at the secondary school level decreases (but does not eliminate) the gender gap and eliminates the effect of family background on students' interest in pursuing STEM fields in the future. Findings regarding outcome expectations and self-efficacy beliefs only partially support the SCCT model. Outcome expectations and self-efficacy beliefs positively correlate with students' entering tertiary education but did not differentiate between their interests in the fields of study.

  10. Mind Wandering and Reading Comprehension: Examining the Roles of Working Memory Capacity, Interest, Motivation, and Topic Experience (United States)

    Unsworth, Nash; McMillan, Brittany D.


    Individual differences in mind wandering and reading comprehension were examined in the current study. In particular, individual differences in mind wandering, working memory capacity, interest in the current topic, motivation to do well on the task, and topic experience and their relations with reading comprehension were examined in the current…

  11. Doppler sonographic examination of uterine and placental perfusion in cows in the last month of gestation and effects of epidural anesthesia and isoxsuprine. (United States)

    Kim-Egloff, C; Hässig, M; Bruckmaier, R; Bleul, U


    The massive increase in size of the fetus and uterus in the last trimester is accompanied by an increasing demand for nutrients and oxygen, and it is assumed that this demand is met by increasing uterine and fetal perfusion. The goals of this study were to measure the perfusion of the uterine arteries and the placentomes in the last month of gestation and to investigate the effect of epidural anesthesia and isoxsuprine on perfusion. During the last month of gestation, eight Braunvieh cows underwent nine color Doppler sonographic examinations of the uterine arteries to determine diameter (DM), pulse rate (PR), resistance index, time-averaged maximum blood flow velocity (TAMV), and blood flow volume (BFV), and power-mode Doppler sonography was used to determine perfusion of placentomes. The PR increased (P perfusion and the color pixel grading (Cp) increased by 10.1% (P perfusion and the Cp of the placentomes by 18.1% and 18.3% in the gravid horn and by 10.2% and 24.2% in the nongravid horn. Blood flow variables changed little in the last month of gestation. However, epidural anesthesia and isoxsuprine caused changes in uterine and placentome perfusion that suggest improvement of placental nutrient and oxygen supply to the fetus.

  12. The microscopic (optical and SEM) examination of putrefaction fluid deposits (PFD). Potential interest in forensic anthropology. (United States)

    Charlier, P; Georges, P; Bouchet, F; Huynh-Charlier, I; Carlier, R; Mazel, V; Richardin, P; Brun, L; Blondiaux, J; Lorin de la Grandmaison, G


    This article describes the potential interest in physical and forensic anthropology of the microscopic analysis of residues of putrefaction fluid, a calcified deposit frequently found associated with bone rests. Its sampling and analysis seem straightforward and relatively reproducible. Samples came from archeological material (Monterenzio Vecchia, an Etruscan necropolis from the north of Italy dated between the fifth and third century B.C.; body rests of Agnès Sorel, royal mistress died in 1450 A.D.; skull and grave of French King Louis the XI and Charlotte of Savoy dated from 1483 A.D.). All samples were studied by direct optical microscope and scanning electron microscopy. Many cytological, histological, and elemental analysis were possible, producing precious data for the identification of these remains and, in some cases, the cause of death.

  13. Haemodynamic evaluation of the cerebral circulation by periorbital Doppler examination and cerebral blood flow (CBF) measurement in carotid artery disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sillesen, H; Schroeder, T; Buchardt Hansen, H J


    To assess the haemodynamic significance of an internal carotid artery (ICA) stenosis, angiography or direct ultrasound examination should be supplemented by indirect physiologic testing of the collateral circulation. Among the tests proposed, we used the periorbital flow direction, assessed by Do...

  14. Mind wandering and reading comprehension: examining the roles of working memory capacity, interest, motivation, and topic experience. (United States)

    Unsworth, Nash; McMillan, Brittany D


    Individual differences in mind wandering and reading comprehension were examined in the current study. In particular, individual differences in mind wandering, working memory capacity, interest in the current topic, motivation to do well on the task, and topic experience and their relations with reading comprehension were examined in the current study. Using confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling it was found that variation in mind wandering while reading was influenced by working memory capacity, topic interest, and motivation. Furthermore, these same factors, along with topic experience, influenced individual differences in reading comprehension. Importantly, several factors had direct effects on reading comprehension (and mind wandering), while the relation between reading comprehension (and mind wandering) and other factors occurred via indirect effects. These results suggest that both domain-general and domain-specific factors contribute to mind wandering while reading and to reading comprehension.

  15. Pulse Doppler radar

    CERN Document Server

    Alabaster, Clive


    This book is a practitioner's guide to all aspects of pulse Doppler radar. It concentrates on airborne military radar systems since they are the most used, most complex, and most interesting of the pulse Doppler radars; however, ground-based and non-military systems are also included. It covers the fundamental science, signal processing, hardware issues, systems design and case studies of typical systems. It will be a useful resource for engineers of all types (hardware, software and systems), academics, post-graduate students, scientists in radar and radar electronic warfare sectors and milit

  16. Doppler Tomography

    CERN Document Server

    Marsh, T R


    I review the method of Doppler tomography which translates binary-star line profiles taken at a series of orbital phases into a distribution of emission over the binary. I begin with a discussion of the basic principles behind Doppler tomography, including a comparison of the relative merits of maximum entropy regularisation versus filtered back-projection for implementing the inversion. Following this I discuss the issue of noise in Doppler images and possible methods for coping with it. Then I move on to look at the results of Doppler Tomography applied to cataclysmic variable stars. Outstanding successes to date are the discovery of two-arm spiral shocks in cataclysmic variable accretion discs and the probing of the stream/magnetospheric interaction in magnetic cataclysmic variable stars. Doppler tomography has also told us much about the stream/disc interaction in non-magnetic systems and the irradiation of the secondary star in all systems. The latter indirectly reveals such effects as shadowing by the a...

  17. Doppler imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piskunov, N [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Box 515, S-75120 Uppsala (Sweden)], E-mail:


    In this paper, I present a short review of the history and modern status of Doppler imaging techniques, highlighting their dependence on the knowledge of the fundamental stellar parameters, the quality of stellar atmospheric models and the accuracy of spectral synthesis.

  18. Comparison of detection results of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy at different degrees in infant patients between brain electrical activity mapping, transcranial Doppler sonography and computer tomography examinations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dongruo He; Xiaoying Xu; Yinghui Zhang; Guochao Han


    BACKGROUND; It has been proved that brain electrical activity mapping (BEAM) and transcranial Doppler (TCD) detection can reflect the function of brain cell and its diseased degree of infant patients with moderate to severe hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE).OBJECTIVE: To observe the abnormal results of HIE at different degrees detected with BEAM and TCD in infant patients, and compare the detection results at the same time point between BEAM, TCD and computer tomography (CT) examinations.DESTGN: Contrast observation.SETTING: Departments of Neuro-electrophysiology and Pediatrics, Second Affiliated Hospital of Qiqihar Medical College.PARTICTPANTS: Totally 416 infant patients with HIE who received treatment in the Department of Newborn Infants, Second Affiliated Hospital of Qiqihar Medical College during January 2001 and December 2005. The infant patients, 278 male and 138 female, were at embryonic 37 to 42 weeks and weighing 2.0 to 4.1 kg, and they were diagnosed with CT and met the diagnostic criteria of HIE of newborn infants compiled by Department of Neonatology, Pediatric Academy, Chinese Medical Association. According to diagnostic criteria, 130patients were mild abnormal, 196 moderate abnormal and 90 severe abnormal. The relatives of all the infant patients were informed of the experiment.METHODS: BEAM and TCD examinations were performed in the involved 416 infant patients with HIE at different degrees with DYD2000 16-channel BEAM instrument and EME-2000 ultrasonograph before preliminary diagnosis treatment (within 1 month after birth) and 1,3,6,12 and 24 months after birth, and detected results were compared between BEAM, TCD and CT examinations.MATN OUTCOME MEASURES: Comparison of detection results of HIE at different time points in infant patients between BEAM, TCD and CT examinations. RESULTS: All the 416 infant patients with HIE participated in the result analysis. ① Comparison of the detected results in infant patients with mild HIE at different

  19. [Lumbar disc herniation: Natural history, role of physical examination, timing of surgery, treatment options and conflicts of interests]. (United States)

    Delgado-López, Pedro David; Rodríguez-Salazar, Antonio; Martín-Alonso, Javier; Martín-Velasco, Vicente

    Indication for surgery in lumbar disc herniation (LDH) varies widely depending on the geographical area. A literature review is presented on the natural history, role of physical examination, timing of surgery, evidence-based treatment, and conflicts of interests in LDH. Surgery is shown to provide significant faster relief of pain compared to conservative therapy, although the effect fades after a year. There is no treatment modality better than the rest in terms of pain control and neurological recovery, nor is there a surgical technique clearly superior to simple discectomy. The lack of sound scientific evidence on the surgical indication may contribute to its great geographical variability. Since LDH has a favourable natural history, neuroimaging and surgery should not be considered until after a 6-week period. It is necessary to specify and respect the surgical indications for LDH, avoiding conflicts of interests. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Neurocirugía. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. 彩色多普勒超声诊断甲状腺肿瘤的临床探析%Clinical Investigation on Color Doppler Ultrasound Examination in Diagnosis of Thyroid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    目的:探析甲状腺肿瘤应用彩色多普勒超声诊断的临床价值。方法选取2013年11月~2014年11月间我院收治的甲状腺肿瘤患者44例,分别给予颈部X线与超声检查,比较两组检查结果。结果彩色多普勒超声检查的特异性(95.45%)与灵敏度(81.82%)显著高于颈部X线,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论甲状腺肿瘤应用彩色多普勒超声检查快速、安全、敏感、准确,对疾病诊断、定位与术前评估意义重大,操作简单,值得推广。%Objective To investigate the clinical value of color Doppler ultrasound examination in diagnosis of thyroid tumor. Methods Select 44 thyroid tumor patients who are received and diagnosed in hospital from November 2013 to November 2014 and give these patients with neck X-ray examination and color Doppler ultrasound examination respectively. And then compare examination results of these two groups. Results Color Doppler specificity (95.45%)and its sensitivity(81.82%)are much higher than specificity and sensitivity of X-ray examination,and such a differential has statistic value (P<0.05). Conclusion Color Doppler ultrasound examination is of fast-speed,safety,sensitivity and accuracy in diagnosis of thyroid tumor,and in addition,it is of significance in diagnosis and orientation and preoperative assessment of thyroid tumor;color Doppler ultrasound examination is easy to operate and it is quite worthwhile to be clinical y applied.

  1. Doppler characteristics of sea clutter.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raynal, Ann Marie; Doerry, Armin Walter


    Doppler radars can distinguish targets from clutter if the target's velocity along the radar line of sight is beyond that of the clutter. Some targets of interest may have a Doppler shift similar to that of clutter. The nature of sea clutter is different in the clutter and exo-clutter regions. This behavior requires special consideration regarding where a radar can expect to find sea-clutter returns in Doppler space and what detection algorithms are most appropriate to help mitigate false alarms and increase probability of detection of a target. This paper studies the existing state-of-the-art in the understanding of Doppler characteristics of sea clutter and scattering from the ocean to better understand the design and performance choices of a radar in differentiating targets from clutter under prevailing sea conditions.

  2. The doppler ultrasound. La ecografia Doppler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contreras Cecilia, E.; Lozano Setien, E.; Hernandez Montero, J.; Ganado Diaz, T.; Jorquera Moya, M.; Blasco Pascual, E. (Hospital Universitario San Carlos. Madrid (Spain))


    The discovery and development of Doppler ultrasound has had a great influence on Medical practice since it allows the noninvasive study of vascular pathology, both arterial and venous, as well as the flow patterns of the different parenchyma. This article deals with the principles, limitations and interpretation of the Doppler signal, as well as the different Doppler ultrasound systems routinely employed in Medicine.

  3. An Examination of Middle School Students' STEM Self-Efficacy with Relation to Interest and Perceptions of STEM (United States)

    Brown, Patrick L.; Concannon, James P.; Marx, Donna; Donaldson, Christopher W.; Black, Alicia


    The purpose of this teacher research study is to ascertain students' interest in STEM and beliefs about STEM before and after STEM specific instruction, explore possible differences in STEM self-efficacy by gender, and explore differences in STEM self-efficacy by group role. Our primary data sources include a modified attitudinal survey and…

  4. Color doppler in diagnosis of pathological changes in blood vessels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladenović Saša


    Full Text Available Color Doppler ultrasound is a method that allows noninvasive imaging of blood flow through a blood vessel and analysis of blood vessels, which can be made to flow disturbance and the presence of plaque and narrowing of the blood vessel. Color Doppler ultrasonography allows early detection of pathological changes in blood vessels, which contributes to adequate preventive and therapeutic procedures in the prevention of cerebrovascular disorders. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the importance of color Doppler ultrasound blood vessels in the diagnosis of pathological changes in the blood vessels of the neck. To create a work used the material of the Cabinet of color Doppler ultrasonography of the Health Center in Donja Gusterica in a prospective study of a random sample of 60 patients were reviewed in January 2014. Gender analysis examined patients, women were 32 (53.33% and 28 men (46.67%. Looking at the age of examined patients, we have found that most of them 43 (71.67% over the age of 50 years, while we found 17 (28.33% patients under 50 years. Atherosclerotic plaques were diagnosed in 36, a change in the shape of the carotid arteries in 29 patients. Atherosclerotic plaque, we usually find the bifurcation ACC and the Origin ACI in 23 (63.89%. Duplex sonography shows what angioneurologists and vascular surgeons are most interested in: the morphology of arterial lesions and hemodynamic effects.

  5. Transcranial Doppler, MRA, and MRI as a screening examination for cerebrovascular disease in patients with sickle cell anemia: an 8-year study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seibert, J.J.; Glasier, C.M.; Allison, J.W.; James, C.A.; Kinder, D.L.; Cox, K.S.; Lairry, F.; Graves, R.A. [Arkansas Children`s Hospital, Little Rock, AR (United States). Dept. of Radiology; Kirby, R.S.; Flick, E.L. [Center for Ambulatory Research, Univ. of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR (United States); Becton, D.L.; Jackson, F.J. [Dept. of Hematology, Univ. of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR (United States)


    Objective. The authors previously reported five transcranial Doppler ultrasonography (TCD) findings as significant in detecting clinical cerebrovascular disease in a 4-year study in patients with sickle cell disease. This is a follow-up to evaluate the validity of the original findings over another 4-year period during which the study population doubled. A clinical follow-up of the original asymptomatic sickle cell patients with positive TCD, MRA, and MRI was also made. Results. Of the 4 out of original 46 control patients in 1992 who had positive MRA and TCD, 3 have subsequently had clinical stroke. None of the 9 original patients with positive TCD and positive MRI but negative MRA have developed stroke. All five original TCD indicators of disease were still significant (P<0.05) for detecting clinical disease: maximum velocity in ophthalmic artery (OA)>35 cm/s, mean velocity in middle cerebral artery (MCA) >170 cm/s, resistive index (RI) in OA<50, velocity in OA greater than in MCA, and velocity in posterior cerebral (PCA), vertebral, or basilar arteries greater than in MCA. Four additional factors were also significant: turbulence, PCA or ACA without MCA, RI<30, and maximum velocity in MCA>200 cm/s. (orig.)

  6. Doppler peaks from active perturbations

    CERN Document Server

    Magueijo, J; Coulson, D; Ferreira, P; Magueijo, Joao; Albrecht, Andreas; Coulson, David; Ferreira, Pedro


    We examine how the qualitative structure of the Doppler peaks in the angular power spectrum of the cosmic microwave anisotropy depends on the fundamental nature of the perturbations which produced them. The formalism of Hu and Sugiyama is extended to treat models with cosmic defects. We discuss how perturbations can be ``active'' or ``passive'' and ``incoherent'' or ``coherent'', and show how causality and scale invariance play rather different roles in these various cases. We find that the existence of secondary Doppler peaks and the rough placing of the primary peak unambiguously reflect these basic properties.

  7. 彩色多普勒超声检查乳腺肿块20例分析%Analysis of 20 cases with breast disease examined by Color Doppler Flowing Imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄冬梅; 邹成银


    Objective To analyze the clinical diagnosis value of Color Doppler Flowing Imaging in the diag-nosis of female breast mass ,discuss sonographic features of breast hyperplasia and maeexy dyeplesle .Methods The data of 20 patients with breast disease which diagnosed by Color Doppler Flowing Imaging were retrospectively ana -lyzed,some cases were conducted postoperative pathological examination .Results In all cases,13 cases were breast fibroadenoma(65.0%),6 cases were maeexy dyeplesle (30.0%),1 case was metaplastic squamous cell carcinoma (5.0%).The typical fibroadenoma had regular shape ,clear boundary and homogeneous internal echo ,and were mar-ginated smoothly with a fine echoic capsule and a lateral wall shadowing .Conclusion Color Doppler ultrasonography is an approach for noninvasive and simple examination of breast lesion ,and worthwhile for spreading in clinical prac-tice .Analysis of the ultrasonographic performance of breast fibroadenoma is helpful to the diagnosis and differential di -agnosis of breast disease ,which can also improve the level of diagnosis .%目的:分析乳腺纤维腺瘤与乳腺结构不良症的影像学特征,探讨彩色多普勒超声检查女性乳腺肿块的临床诊断价值。方法回顾性分析20例女性彩色多普勒超声检查资料,部分病例术后病理检查。结果20例患者中,乳腺纤维腺瘤13例(65.0%),乳腺结构不良症6例(30.0%),乳腺化生性癌1例(5.0%)。典型的乳腺纤维腺瘤声像学表现形态规则、境界清晰,内回声均质。结论彩色超声检查乳腺病变简便有效无创,值得临床广泛推广。分析乳腺纤维腺瘤的声像图表现,有助于乳腺病的诊断和鉴别诊断,提高诊断水平。

  8. Interesting Interest Points

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aanæs, Henrik; Dahl, Anders Lindbjerg; Pedersen, Kim Steenstrup


    on spatial invariance of interest points under changing acquisition parameters by measuring the spatial recall rate. The scope of this paper is to investigate the performance of a number of existing well-established interest point detection methods. Automatic performance evaluation of interest points is hard......Not all interest points are equally interesting. The most valuable interest points lead to optimal performance of the computer vision method in which they are employed. But a measure of this kind will be dependent on the chosen vision application. We propose a more general performance measure based...... position. The LED illumination provides the option for artificially relighting the scene from a range of light directions. This data set has given us the ability to systematically evaluate the performance of a number of interest point detectors. The highlights of the conclusions are that the fixed scale...

  9. Color Doppler Thyroid Tumor Contrast Enhanced Ultrasound(CEUS) Examination Clinical Value%甲状腺肿块彩色多普勒增强造影超声(CEUS)检查临床价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Objective Discussion thyroid mass with color Doppler flow imaging (CEUS)examination of clinical value,in order to improve the ultrasound for thyroid tumor diagnosis coincidence rate.Methods Color Doppler ultrasonography for benign and malignant thyroid tumor 97 cases,comparative analysis of ultrasound contrast agent perfusion process and ultrasonic Doppler spectrum of benign and malignant thyroid tumors of each type.Results Spectral Doppler ultrasound of thyroid adenoma showed normal hemodynamic spectrum,ultrasound contrast agent perfusion showed fast and slow annealing process,showed obvious enhancement.Nodular goiter ultrasonic Doppler spectrum showed a systolic blood flow spectrum broadening,peak flow frequency shift,nodular goiter ultrasound contrast agent developing time synchronous or slightly slower than normal thyroid,proliferation of peak intensity is dif erent,with calcification hemorrhage and necrosis can appear the developing unevenly,synchronous dissipated and the sur ounding normal thyroid tissue.Spectral Doppler ultrasound of thyroid cancer showed a systolic peak systolic forward,rising and fal ing speed is faster,reflected in the rise and fal of wave steepness,thyroid cancer,ultrasound contrast agent imaging time was slightly faster than the sur ounding thyroid tissue,were enhanced obviously uneven,partial nodular enhancement,some appear arteriovenous fistula the peak of developing the intensive or low contrast enhancement,thyroid cancer fade faster.Conclusion Color Doppler ultrasound in dif erential diagnosis of thyroid benign and malignant tumors in clinical practice is an important value index.%目的探讨甲状腺肿块彩色多普勒超声造影(CEUS)检查临床价值,以提高超声对甲状腺肿块的良恶性诊断符合率。方法对97例甲状腺良恶性肿块进行彩色多普勒超声造影检测,对甲状腺良恶性肿块各个类型的超声造影剂灌注过程及超声多普勒频谱进行对比分析。结果甲状腺腺

  10. 四维彩超在胎儿先天性畸形中的临床诊断价值%Four-dimensional color Doppler ultrasound in examination in prenatal screening of fetal malformation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    目的 探讨四维彩超在胎儿先天性畸形中的诊断价值.方法 随机观察我院2012年1月至2014年1月孕中晚期孕妇1200例产前常规超声检查结果,所有孕妇均进行了二维超声和四维超声检查,并随访至产后1个月,比较二维超声和四维超声诊断胎儿先天性畸形的准确性.结果 经产后临床证实,共发现先天性胎儿畸形34例,其中神经管畸形10例,心脏畸形8例,唇腭裂7例,泌尿系畸形3例,四肢畸形3例,腹部畸形1例,其他2例.四维超声检出畸形31例,与产后符合率91.17%;漏诊3例,其中多指畸形1例,脊柱裂2例.二维超声检出畸形26例,符合率76.47%;漏诊8例,其中唇腭裂2例,多指畸形2例,脊柱裂3例,足内翻1例.二维和四维超声的诊断符合率比较差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 四维超声更能多方位、多切面观察胎儿宫内发育情况,对诊断胎儿体表畸形具有更直观和准确的判断,具有较高的临床价值.%Objective To investigate the diagnostic value of four-dimensional (4D) color Doppler ultrasound examination in prenatal screening of fetal malformation.Methods 1200 pregnant women were observed and detected by four-dimensional color Doppler and two dimensional ultrasound.The results were compared with the results confirmed by clinical pathology.Results 34 cases were detected with congenital defects; among which,10 got defects in nervous system,8 heart deformity,7 cheilopalatognathus,3 urinary tract malformation,3 limb deformity,1 abdominal deformity,and the other 2 cases.31 cases were detected with deformity by four-dimensional color Doppler,with a postpartum coincidence rate of 91.17%; and 3 cases were misdiagnosed,of which 1 case had polydactyly deformity and 2 cases spina bifida.26 cases were detected with deformity by two-dimensional ultrasony,with a postpartum coincidence rate of 76.47%; and 8 cases were misdiagnosed,of which 2 cases had cleft lip and palate,2 case polydactyly

  11. Ultrasonography with color Doppler and power Doppler in the diagnosis of periapical lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit Goel


    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the efficacy of ultrasonography (USG with color Doppler and power Doppler applications over conventional radiography in the diagnosis of periapical lesions. Materials and Methods: Thirty patients having inflammatory periapical lesions of the maxillary or mandibular anterior teeth and requiring endodontic surgery were selected for inclusion in this study. All patients consented to participate in the study. We used conventional periapical radiographs as well as USG with color Doppler and power Doppler for the diagnosis of these lesions. Their diagnostic performances were compared against histopathologic examination. All data were compared and statistically analyzed. Results: USG examination with color Doppler and power Doppler identified 29 (19 cysts and 10 granulomas of 30 periapical lesions accurately, with a sensitivity of 100% for cysts and 90.91% for granulomas and a specificity of 90.91% for cysts and 100% for granulomas. In comparison, conventional intraoral radiography identified only 21 lesions (sensitivity of 78.9% for cysts and 45.4% for granulomas and specificity of 45.4% for cysts and 78.9% for granulomas. There was definite correlation between the echotexture of the lesions and the histopathological features except in one case. Conclusions: USG imaging with color Doppler and power Doppler is superior to conventional intraoral radiographic methods for diagnosing the nature of periapical lesions in the anterior jaws. This study reveals the potential of USG examination in the study of other jaw lesions.

  12. Power Doppler ultrasonography of painful Achilles tendons and entheses in patients with and without spondyloarthropathy-a comparison with clinical examination and contrast-enhanced MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiell, Charlotte; Szkudlarek, Marcin; Hasselquist, Maria


    The objective of this study was to describe ultrasonography (US) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings at painful Achilles tendons and entheses in patients with and without spondyloarthropathy (SpA and non-SpA) and healthy control persons (CTRLs). Particularly, we aimed to investigate....../or enthesis due to sports-related causes and 10 CTRLs were examined at the Achilles tendons and entheses with US, MRI and clinical assessment. Intratendinous changes, entheseal changes, bursitis and peritendonitis were assessed. An US interobserver substudy was performed in nine persons. US findings showed...

  13. Using therapeutic jurisprudence and preventive law to examine disputants' best interests in mediating cases about physicians' practices: a guide for medical regulators. (United States)

    Ferris, Lorraine E


    Therapeutic jurisprudence (TJ) and preventive law (PL) are used as two theoretical perspectives from which to examine the best interests of parties in mediation because of a dispute about a physician's practice. The focus is mediation provided by and/or for the medical regulator. The paper reviews the literature on TJ and PL, and their relationship to mediation, and demonstrates how medical regulators could benefit by working within a framework reflecting both these perspectives providing it does not involve an egregious matter. A TJ and PL framework would be of particular value in identifying cases for mediation and in evaluating resolutions to mediated disputes.

  14. Methodology study on the examination of superior mesenteric artery by color Doppler ultrasound%肠系膜上动脉彩色多普勒超声检查方法学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨兵; 胡亚飞; 谭必勇; 叶茂; 王开权; 杨淑蓉


    Objective To establish methodology of the superior mesenteric artery( SMA )by color Doppler ultrasound. Methods Color Doppler ultrasound examination of SMA and its branches was performed before and after giving a new type of oral administration contrast agent in 40 normal adults. Results The upper SMA can be displayed in all the study subjects through conventional color Doppler ultrasound examination, nine cases displayed all segments SMA trunk, the branches were not shown. After oral administration of self-made mixed small intestine contrast agent,the SMA trunk with all the branches could be observed in all subjects by color Doppler ultrasound examination. The SMA trunk showed as straight in color Doppler imaging with an heliconia-like end, the branches showed various shapes, mostly are dendroid branched,some are tortuous. The blood flow of SMA are intertwined with a network-like or daisy-like shape. The SMA branch blood flow into the intestinal wall in a ring pattern. After oral administration of mixed small intestine contrast agent,the whole SMA trunk and branches can be observed by color Doppler ultrasound,the artery peak systolic velocity( PS ),resistance index( RI ),pulsatility index( PI )and the diameter,of SMA were measured:male group( 0. 692 ± 0. 059 )cm, female group( 0. 704 ± 0. 094 )cm; artery: male group PS ( 1.089 ±0.328 )m/s,RI( 0. 835 ± 0.045 ),PI( 2.495 ± 0.436 ), female group PS( 1.078 ± 0. 273 )m/s, RI ( 0. 860 ±0.421 ),PI( 2. 889 ±0.702 );artery a branch:male group PS( 0. 520 ±0. 226 )m/s,RI( 0.772 ±0.066 ), PI( 1.956 ± 0. 506 ), female group PS( 0. 645 ± 0. 156 )m/s, RI( 0. 833 ± 0. 070 ), PI( 2. 847 ± 0. 909 ); Artery two branches:the male group PS( 0. 344 ± 0. 143 )m/s, RI( 0. 661 ±0.045 ),PI( 1. 306 ± 0. 268 ). Female group PS( 0. 392 ± 0. 134 )m/s,RI( 0. 781 ±0. 072 ),PI( 2. 185 ±0. 754 );between arterial wall: male group PS( 0. 196 ±0.061 )m/s,RI( 0. 619 ±0.080 ),PI( 1. 101 ±0. 315 ),female group:PS( 0. 224 ± 0

  15. Diagnosis of umbilical cord entanglement in a monochorionic diamniotic twin pregnancy with spontaneous septostomy of the dividing membranes using dual-gate Doppler imaging. (United States)

    Ito, Ayumu; Nakata, Masahiko; Oji, Ayako; Takano, Mayumi; Umemura, Nahomi; Nagasaki, Sumito; Maemura, Toshimitsu; Morita, Mineto


    Umbilical cord entanglement is the leading cause of fetal mortality in monoamniotic twin pregnancies and a pseudo monoamniotic environment. Published methods for detecting this complication include color Doppler and pulsed Doppler sonography; however, no method provides an absolute diagnosis. In this case, we report the diagnosis of umbilical cord entanglement using dual-gate Doppler imaging. A 35-year-old woman was referred to our hospital at 28 weeks of gestation for prenatal management because of diagnosis of a monochorionic diamniotic twin pregnancy with spontaneous septostomy of the dividing membranes. Each fetus displayed normal fetal growth without obvious discordance and anatomical abnormalities. However, the dividing membrane was not detected, and an entangled cord was suspected. Dual-gate Doppler examination was carried out. Two regions of interest were considered at different areas of the umbilical arteries, and when each Doppler image showed two different heart rates at the same time, we considered this to be evidence of umbilical cord entanglement. Cesarean section was performed at 32 weeks of gestation and twins were delivered. The delivered umbilical cords had sixfold entanglement. In this case, dual-gate Doppler seems to have been more accurate than conventional single-gate Doppler for the diagnosis of cord entanglement because we confirmed two different heart rates at the same time with dual-gate Doppler.

  16. Differential doppler heterodyning technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lading, Lars


    Measuring velocity without disturbing the moving object is possible by use of the laser doppler heterodyning technique. Theoretical considerations on the doppler shift show that the antenna property of the photodetector can solve an apparent conflict between two different ways of calculating...... the detected doppler frequency. It is found that the doppler frequency for this particular setup is independent of the direction of detection. Investigations of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) show that the maximum SNR-considering the optical setup-is obtained by measuring the frequency difference between two...

  17. Tendinopathy and Doppler activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesen, M I; Koenig, M J; Torp-Pedersen, S


    Intratendinous Doppler activity has been interpreted as an equivalent of neovessels in the Achilles tendon and as a sign of tendinosis (AT).......Intratendinous Doppler activity has been interpreted as an equivalent of neovessels in the Achilles tendon and as a sign of tendinosis (AT)....

  18. Ultrasonic colour Doppler imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evans, David H.; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Nielsen, Michael Bachmann


    Ultrasonic colour Doppler is an imaging technique that combines anatomical information derived using ultrasonic pulse-echo techniques with velocity information derived using ultrasonic Doppler techniques to generate colour-coded maps of tissue velocity superimposed on grey-scale images of tissue ...

  19. Ultrasonic colour Doppler imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evans, David H; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Nielsen, Michael Bachmann


    anatomy. The most common use of the technique is to image the movement of blood through the heart, arteries and veins, but it may also be used to image the motion of solid tissues such as the heart walls. Colour Doppler imaging is now provided on almost all commercial ultrasound machines, and has been......Ultrasonic colour Doppler is an imaging technique that combines anatomical information derived using ultrasonic pulse-echo techniques with velocity information derived using ultrasonic Doppler techniques to generate colour-coded maps of tissue velocity superimposed on grey-scale images of tissue...... vectors. This review briefly introduces the principles behind colour Doppler imaging and describes some clinical applications. It then describes the basic components of conventional colour Doppler systems and the methods used to derive velocity information from the ultrasound signal. Next, a number of new...

  20. Associations between abnormal ultrasound color Doppler measures and tendon pain symptoms in badminton players during a season

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesen, Anders Ploug; Boesen, Morten Ilum; Torp-Pedersen, Soren


    Color Doppler ultrasound is widely used to examine intratendinous flow in individuals with overuse tendon problems, but the association between color Doppler and pain is still unclear.......Color Doppler ultrasound is widely used to examine intratendinous flow in individuals with overuse tendon problems, but the association between color Doppler and pain is still unclear....

  1. Experiences using laser Doppler vibrometers at Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (United States)

    Yarovoi, Leonid K.; Robur, Lubomir I.; Siegmund, Georg; Tushev, Dmitry


    The implementation of laser vibrometers into various branches of industry solves complex technical problems as well as raising the authority of laser vibrometry as unique measurement tool. From this point of view, the nuclear industry is an interesting and attractive application field with specific and rigorous exploitation conditions of measuring systems. The objective of this work was to evaluate all advantages and disadvantages of the laser Doppler vibrometry with respect to nuclear power plant (NPP) equipment examination. The Chernobyl NPP is the ideal place for these purposes. The diagnostic ability on different Chernobyl NPP systems (e.g. third power unit main circulators, bearing shaft of fifth turbo-generator and various pipelines) has been demonstrated using laser Doppler vibrometers. The measurements performed by laser vibrometers were checked by standard Chernobyl NPP vibration measurement tools. The laser Doppler vibrometers (CLV, Polytec GmbH and LDV, Kiev University) have been tested and have shown full functionality in NPP zone at 0.5 sievert/hour radiation levels, high electromagnetic fields (magnetic component up to 5 kA/m) and significant vibrations.

  2. Doppler ultrasound in obstetrics and gynecology. 2. rev. and enl. ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maulik, D. [Winthrop Univ. Hospital, Mineola, NY (United States). Dept. of Obstetrics and Gynecology; Zalud, I. (eds.) [Kapiolani Medical Center for Women and Children, Honolulu, HI (United States)


    The second edition of Doppler Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology has been expanded and comprehensively updated to present the current standards of practice in Doppler ultrasound and the most recent developments in the technology. Doppler Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology encompasses the full spectrum of clinical applications of Doppler ultrasound for the practicing obstetrician-gynecologist, including the latest advances in 3D and color Doppler and the newest techniques in 4D fetal echocardiography. Written by preeminent experts in the field, the book covers the basic and physical principles of Doppler ultrasound; the use of Doppler for fetal examination, including fetal cerebral circulation; Doppler echocardiography of the fetal heart; and the use of Doppler for postdated pregnancy and in cases of multiple gestation. Chapters on the use of Doppler for gynecologic investigation include ultrasound in ectopic pregnancy, for infertility, for benign disorders and for gynecologic malignancies. (orig.)

  3. Value of color Doppler ultrasound in examining angiography approach before transradial cornary angiography%彩超探查经桡动脉冠状动脉造影入路的应用价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    封淑文; 于华; 黄建新; 王京


    目的:评价彩超探查经桡动脉途径冠状动脉造影( transradial coronary angiography , TRA )入路的应用价值。方法择期行经桡动脉冠状动脉造影患者400例,随机分为术前彩色多普勒超声检查组(实验组)和非多普勒超声检查组(对照组),各200例。主要评价指标包括造影成功率、造影时间、不同直径造影鞘管使用率、术中及术后不良事件(如死亡、急性心肌梗死、局部血肿、假性动脉瘤、骨筋膜室综合征和桡动脉闭塞);次要评价指标包括桡动脉内径、超声下入路解剖变异发生率。结果实验组造影成功率(100%)较对照组(90%)高,但差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)。实验组造影时间比对照组缩短[(10.7±1.0)min vs (12.5±3.5)min,P<0.05]。实验组血管并发症发生率显著低于对照组;两组均未发生死亡、假性动脉瘤、桡动脉闭塞及骨筋膜室综合征。结论 TRA前应用彩超探查造影入路可提高造影成功率,缩短造影时间,减少术中桡动脉痉挛及术后局部并发症。%Objective To explore the value of Color Doppler ultrasound in examining angiography access before transradial coronary angiography ( TRA) .Methods Four hundred consecutive patients undergoing elective transradial cornary angiography were screened.They were randomly divided into ultrasound group (200 cases) and conventional group without ultrasound examination (200 cases).The primary endpoints included success rate , percentage of angiographic catheter use with different diameters ,adverse events during and after the procedure ( such as death , acute myocardial infarction , upper limb haematoma , osteofascial compartment syn-drome ,radial artery pseudoaneurysm or occlusion );the secondary endpoints were the average diameter of radial and anatomic variations of approach.Results The procedural success rates in the study group and conventional

  4. Doppler indicates of uterine artery Doppler velocimetry by placental location

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Sung Shik; Park, Yong Won; Cho, Jae Sung; Kwon, Hye Kyeung; Kim, Jae Wook [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    Our purpose was to investigate the relation between the vascular resistance of uterine artery and placental location and to establish the reference value of Doppler index in uterine artery by placental location. Placental location and flow velocity waveforms of both uterine arteries in 7,016 pregnant women after 18 weeks gestation were examined using color Doppler ultrasonography. Placental location was classified as central and lateral placental and the uterine artery with lateral placental were divided into ipsilateral uterine artery (same side of the placental) and contralateral uterine artery (opposite side of the placenta). The uterine artery with central placental was classified as the central uterine artery. Systolic-Diastolic ratio (S/D ratio) of uterine arteries by gestational weeks were calculated and compared with the placental location and perinatal outcomes. In the lateral placental group, the S/D ratio of the contralateral uterine artery was higher than the ipsilateral one (mean=2.08+0.34 vs 1.89+0.34, p=0.0001). S/D ratio of the uterine artery decreased during second trimester and the ratio after 27 weeks was a tendency to have a constant values(ipsilateral: 1.85+ 0.34, central : 1.96+ 0.40, contralateral: 2.01+0.54). S/D ratio of the uterine artery was affected by placental location. So when we evaluate Doppler spectrum of uterine artery, placental location should be considered and we established the reference value of Doppler index of uterine artery by placental location.

  5. Pulse subtraction Doppler (United States)

    Mahue, Veronique; Mari, Jean Martial; Eckersley, Robert J.; Caro, Colin G.; Tang, Meng-Xing


    Recent advances have demonstrated the feasibility of molecular imaging using targeted microbubbles and ultrasound. One technical challenge is to selectively detect attached bubbles from those freely flowing bubbles and surrounding tissue. Pulse Inversion Doppler is an imaging technique enabling the selective detection of both static and moving ultrasound contrast agents: linear scatterers generate a single band Doppler spectrum, while non-linear scatterers generate a double band spectrum, one being uniquely correlated with the presence of contrast agents and non-linear tissue signals. We demonstrate that similar spectrums, and thus the same discrimination, can be obtained through a Doppler implementation of Pulse Subtraction. This is achieved by reconstructing a virtual echo using the echo generated from a short pulse transmission. Moreover by subtracting from this virtual echo the one generated from a longer pulse transmission, it is possible to fully suppress the echo from linear scatterers, while for non-linear scatterers, a signal will remain, allowing classical agent detection. Simulations of a single moving microbubble and a moving linear scatterer subject to these pulses show that when the virtual echo and the long pulse echo are used to perform pulsed Doppler, the power Doppler spectrum allows separation of linear and non-linear moving scattering. Similar results are obtained on experimental data acquired on a flow containing either microbubble contrast agents or linear blood mimicking fluid. This new Doppler method constitutes an alternative to Pulse Inversion Doppler and preliminary results suggest that similar dual band spectrums could be obtained by the combination of any non-linear detection technique with Doppler demodulation.

  6. The Doppler effect in NMR spectroscopy. (United States)

    Guéron, Maurice


    An NMR sample may be subject to motions, such as those due to sample spinning or to liquid flow. Is the spectrum of such a sample affected by the Doppler effect? The question arises because, instrumental dimensions being much shorter than the wavelength, it is the near-field of the precessing magnetic moment which couples to the receiver coil, rather than the radiated far-field. We expand the near-field into plane propagating waves. For each such wave there is another one with the same amplitude, propagating in the opposite direction. The Doppler shifts are therefore equal and opposite. In the model case of a small fluid sample moving with constant velocity, this leads to a distribution of Doppler shifts which is symmetrical with respect to the unshifted frequency: there is no net spectral shift. We examine the possibility of observing the Doppler distribution in this case. We also consider the case of thermal motion of a gas. We draw attention to the resolved Doppler splitting of molecular rotational transitions in a supersonic burst as observed in a microwave resonator. We also mention briefly the Doppler effect in molecular beam spectroscopy.

  7. Transcranial Doppler velocimetry in aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staalsø, J M; Edsen, T; Romner, B


    -coded transcranial Doppler (TCCD), with the secondary aim of describing prediction of angiographic vasospasm and mortality. METHODS: /st>Sixty patients and 70 healthy controls were each examined in duplicate by alternating operators. A total of 939 measurements divided on 201 examination sets were conducted by four...

  8. Diagnostic Value of Color Doppler Ultrasound in the Examination of Fetal SUA in Mid-Pregnancy%彩色多普勒超声在中孕期胎儿 SUA 中的诊断价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张琳; 钟岚; 罗海炎


    -mensional ultrasound examination showed that in the amniotic fluid,The"品 "-shaped structure of normal umbilical artery was not found in the free section of the umbilical cord,but a"吕"-shaped structure;Color Doppler showed that two vessels ( a thick blue one and an other thin and red )with straight out of shape,and its thread was sparse,S/D was higher than 3.0. Twelve cases of SUA in 54 cases with other parts of the malformation,pregnancy was terminated according to the wishes of their parents.The other 42 cases were diagnosed as pure SUA,followed by ultrasound in 4 weeks,and 6 patients with intrauter-ine growth retardation (IUCR),premature delivery,arrhythmia,amniotic fluid and so on.6 cases occurred in the late trimes-ter of pregnancy (IUCR),premature birth,arrhythmia,amniotic fluid excess and many other complications,The rest 36 ca-ses underwent pregnancy and normal delivery,postpartum follow-up displayed no obvious abnormalities.[Conclusion]Ultra-sonic Doppler prenatal examination can accurately diagnose the fetal SUA and its combined malformation,follow-up review is conducive to the discovery of IUCR,intrauterine hypoxia,arrhythmia and other perinatal complications.

  9. The Value of Color Doppler Ultrasound in Neck Vascular Examination%彩色多普勒超声在颈部血管检查中的价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁莉; 苏金花; 寇海燕; 陶丹丹


    Objective To study the effect of color Doppler ultrasound in cervical vascular examination.Methods The clinical data of 170 patients with hypertension and diabetes( high blood glucose group ) from Beijing General Hospital of Chinese People's Armed Police Forces from March 2010 to September 2012 were reviewed.Their bilateral carotid intima-media and vascular internal atherosclerosis plaque were tested by color Doppler ultrasound, and luminal stenosis and hemodynamic changes caused by the plaque were tested as well.At the same period, 122 cases of healthy persons were selected as control group, the plaque distribution ultrasonography results and carotid atherosclerosis were compared between the two groups.Results Carotid atherosclerotic plaque was mostly seen in carotid artery bifurcation, 86 cases in hyperglycemia group( 50.6% ), followed by the initial segment of internal carotid artery in 16 cases( 9.4% ),vertebral artery seen in 2 cases( 1.2% );in the control group the carotid atherosclerotic plaques were more common in the carotid artery bifurcation, 12 cases( 9.8% ),followed by 2 cases of the initial segment of internal carotid artery( 1.6% ), no plaque was seen in vertebral artery, the difference between the two groups was statistically significant(χ2 = 13.18,12.64,14.91 , P < 0.05 ).As for the analysis of blood flow velocity and luminal stenosis in 104 cases of atherosclerotic plaque in patients with high blood sugar group,when the plaque was not big,there was no obvious change in blood flow velocity, larger plaque causes stenosis and accelerated blood flow.Conclusion The progress of atherosclerotic plaque size can be judged by the color Doppler ultrasound examination, which can discover the neck angiopathy as soon as possible,to provide diagnostic evidence for the clinicians.%目的 研究彩色多普勒超声在颈部血管检查中的作用.方法 回顾性分析北京市武警总医院于2010年3月至2012年9月诊治的170例高血压伴糖尿病患

  10. 彩色多普勒超声与CT在新生儿颅脑检查中的临床价值%Color Doppler Ultrasound and Clinical Value of CT Examination of the Brain in Newborn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Objective Analysis of clinical neonatal brain CT and color Doppler ultrasonography (ultrasound) to check.Methods A retrospective analysis of December 2013 -2014 in December by our hospital 80 cases of neonatal CT and ultrasound examination of the clinical data, observe the clinical value.ResultsBy ultrasonography 16 cases of neonatal intracranial bleeding phenomenon, CT for 12 cases; ultrasonography nine cases of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy category, CT for 12 cases; 20 cases ultrasonography choroid plexus cysts, CT to 0 cases; ultrasonography 0 cases examined under the curtain and under subarachnoid hemorrhage, CT for the four cases; the range of ultrasound and CT wide neonatal lesions consistent sensitivity.Conclusion Using CT and ultrasonography newborn brain disease, lesion type, grade and scope have their advantages, choose the appropriate methods should be combined with the situation, in order to make an accurate rate.%目的:分析新生儿的颅脑采用CT与彩色型多普勒超声(彩超)检查的临床价值。方法回顾性分析2013年12月~2014年12月本院收治的80例经CT与彩超检查的新生儿的临床资料,观察其临床价值。结果经彩超检查16例新生儿的颅内出现出血现象,CT为12例;彩超检查9例缺氧缺血类脑病,CT为12例;彩超检查20例脉络膜丛出现囊肿,CT为0例;彩超检查0例蛛网膜的幕下与下腔出血,CT为4例;彩超与CT对新生儿病灶的范围具有一致的敏感性。结论采用CT与彩超检查新生儿的颅脑疾病,对病变种类、分级及范围等有各自优势,应结合情况选择合适方法,以提高准确率。

  11. Evaluating Peripheral Vascular Injuries: Is Color Doppler Enough for Diagnosis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Lateef Wani


    Full Text Available Background:: Vascular injury poses a serious threat to limb and life. Thus, diagnosis should be made immediately with minimally invasive methods. Doppler is a good aid in diagnosis of vascular injury. Methods:: The present prospective study was conducted on 150 patients who presented with soft signs (the signs which are suggestive but not confirmatory of vascular injury. They were subjected to color Doppler examination before exploration. The patients with the features of vascular injury on color Doppler were subjected to exploration. On the other hand, those who had normal Doppler were subjected to CT- angiography. Then, the findings of the exploration were matched with those of color Doppler. The data were analyzed using the SPSS statistical software. Results:: Out of the 150 Doppler examinations, 110 (73.33% were reported as positive, while 40 were reported as negative for vascular injury. These were subjected to CT-angiography and seven of them had the features of vascular injury on CT-angiography. All the patients with positive Doppler or CT angiography findings were subjected to exploration. Doppler had a sensitivity of 94% and specificity of 82.5% in diagnosis of vascular injury using Binary classification test. Conclusions:: Color Doppler is an easily available, reliable, and handy method of diagnosing a vascular injury. It has a very high sensitivity and specificity in diagnosis of vascular injuries.

  12. Steerable Doppler transducer probes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fidel, H.F.; Greenwood, D.L.


    An ultrasonic diagnostic probe is described which is capable of performing ultrasonic imaging and Doppler measurement consisting of: a hollow case having an acoustic window which passes ultrasonic energy and including chamber means for containing fluid located within the hollow case and adjacent to a portion of the acoustic window; imaging transducer means, located in the hollow case and outside the fluid chamber means, and oriented to direct ultrasonic energy through the acoustic window toward an area which is to be imaged; Doppler transducer means, located in the hollow case within the fluid chamber means, and movably oriented to direct Doppler signals through the acoustic window toward the imaged area; means located within the fluid chamber means and externally controlled for controllably moving the Doppler transducer means to select one of a plurality of axes in the imaged area along which the Doppler signals are to be directed; and means, located external to the fluid chamber means and responsive to the means for moving, for providing an indication signal for identifying the selected axis.

  13. Doppler cooling a microsphere

    CERN Document Server

    Barker, P F


    Doppler cooling the center-of-mass motion of an optically levitated microsphere via the velocity dependent scattering force from narrow whispering gallery mode (WGM) resonances is described. Light that is red detuned from the WGM resonance can be used to damp the center-of-mass motion in a process analogous to the Doppler cooling of atoms. Leakage of photons out of the microsphere when the incident field is near resonant with the narrow WGM resonance acts to damp the motion of the sphere. The scattering force is not limited by saturation, but can be controlled by the incident power. Cooling times on the order of seconds are calculated for a 20 micron diameter silica microsphere trapped within optical tweezers, with a Doppler temperature limit in the microKelvin regime.

  14. Doppler-cancelled response to VLF gravitational waves (United States)

    Caporali, A.


    The interaction of long periodic gravitational waves with a three link microwave system known as the Doppler Cancelling System is discussed. This system, which was developed for a gravitational redshift experiment, uses one-way and two-way Doppler informatin to construct the beat signal of two reference oscillators moving with respect to each other. The geometric optics approximation is used to derive the frequency shift produced on a light signal propagating in a gravitational wave space-time. The signature left on the Doppler-cancelled beat by burst and continuous gravitational waves is analyzed. A comparison is made between the response to gravitational waves of the Doppler Cancelling System and that of a Doppler tracking system which employs two-way, round-trip radio waves. A three-fold repetition of the gravitational wave form is found to be a common feature of the response functions of both systems. These two functions otherwise exhibit interesting differences.

  15. Doppler radar physiological sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Lubecke, Victor M; Droitcour, Amy D; Park, Byung-Kwon; Singh, Aditya


    Presents a comprehensive description of the theory and practical implementation of Doppler radar-based physiological monitoring. This book includes an overview of current physiological monitoring techniques and explains the fundamental technology used in remote non-contact monitoring methods. Basic radio wave propagation and radar principles are introduced along with the fundamentals of physiological motion and measurement. Specific design and implementation considerations for physiological monitoring radar systems are then discussed in detail. The authors address current research and commercial development of Doppler radar based physiological monitoring for healthcare and other applications.

  16. Planetary Doppler Imaging (United States)

    Murphy, N.; Jefferies, S.; Hart, M.; Hubbard, W. B.; Showman, A. P.; Hernandez, G.; Rudd, L.


    Determining the internal structure of the solar system's gas and ice giant planets is key to understanding their formation and evolution (Hubbard et al., 1999, 2002, Guillot 2005), and in turn the formation and evolution of the solar system. While internal structure can be constrained theoretically, measurements of internal density distributions are needed to uncover the details of the deep interior where significant ambiguities exist. To date the interiors of giant planets have been probed by measuring gravitational moments using spacecraft passing close to, or in orbit around the planet. Gravity measurements are effective in determining structure in the outer envelope of a planet, and also probing dynamics (e.g. the Cassini and Juno missions), but are less effective in probing deep structure or the presence of discrete boundaries. A promising technique for overcoming this limitation is planetary seismology (analogous to helioseismology in the solar case), postulated by Vorontsov, 1976. Using trapped pressure waves to probe giant planet interiors allows insight into the density and temperature distribution (via the sound speed) down to the planetary core, and is also sensitive to sharp boundaries, for example at the molecular to metallic hydrogen transition or at the core-envelope interface. Detecting such boundaries is not only important in understanding the overall structure of the planet, but also has implications for our understanding of the basic properties of matter at extreme pressures. Recent Doppler measurements of Jupiter by Gaulme et al (2011) claimed a promising detection of trapped oscillations, while Hedman and Nicholson (2013) have shown that trapped waves in Saturn cause detectable perturbations in Saturn's C ring. Both these papers have fueled interest in using seismology as a tool for studying the solar system's giant planets. To fully exploit planetary seismology as a tool for understanding giant planet structure, measurements need to be made

  17. Doppler-ultralydundersøgelse af underekstremitetsarteriosklerose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rørdam, P; von Jessen, F; Sillesen, H H;


    Arteriography, which requires resources and is not entirely without risk, has hitherto been a prerequisite for reconstructive surgery in cases of symptom-producing arteriosclerosis in the lower limbs. As an alternative, indirect Doppler ultrasonic examination has been employed but does not appear...

  18. Color Doppler ultrasonography evaluation of amblyopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ece Turan-Vural


    Full Text Available AIM: To assess the hemodynamic changes in the extraocular orbital vessels of amblyopic patients in comparison with non-amblyopic fellow eyes, using color Doppler ultrasonography(CDU. METHODS: Thirty-six eyes of 18 pediatric patients were included in the study(20 amblyopic, 16 normal. All eyes underwent color Doppler ultrasonography examination of ophthalmic artery, central retinal artery, and posterior ciliary artery. RESULTS: The only differences between the two groups with regard to color Doppler ultrasonography parameters was the significantly lower peak systolic velocity(32.70±11.60 vs 55.01±11.68, P=0.001and end-diastolic velocity(6.83±1.91 vs 13.99±4.15, P=0.001for ophthalmic artery in amblyopic eyes.CONCLUSION: Our study showed amblyopic eyes may present a decrease in retrobulbar blood flow velocity.

  19. Functional Doppler optical coherence tomography for cortical blood flow imaging (United States)

    Yu, Lingfeng; Liu, Gangjun; Nguyen, Elaine; Choi, Bernard; Chen, Zhongping


    Optical methods have been widely used in basic neuroscience research to study the cerebral blood flow dynamics in order to overcome the low spatial resolution associated with magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography. Although laser Doppler imaging and laser speckle imaging can map out en face cortical hemodynamics and columns, depth resolution is not available. Two-photon microscopy has been used for mapping cortical activity. However, flow measurement requires fluorescent dye injection, which can be problematic. The noninvasive and high resolution tomographic capabilities of optical coherence tomography make it a promising technique for mapping depth resolved cortical blood flow. Here, we present a functional Doppler optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging modality for quantitative evaluation of cortical blood flow in a mouse model. Fast, repeated, Doppler OCT scans across a vessel of interest were performed to record flow dynamic information with a high temporal resolution of the cardiac cycles. Spectral Doppler analysis of continuous Doppler images demonstrates how the velocity components and longitudinally projected flow-volume-rate change over time, thereby providing complementary temporal flow information to the spatially distributed flow information of Doppler OCT. The proposed functional Doppler OCT imaging modality can be used to diagnose vessel stenosis/blockage or monitor blood flow changes due to pharmacological agents/neuronal activities. Non-invasive in-vivo mice experiments were performed to verify the capabilities of function Doppler OCT.

  20. Scanning laser Doppler vibrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøns, Marie; Thomsen, Jon Juel

    With a Scanning Laser Doppler Vibrometer (SLDV) a vibrating surface is automatically scanned over predefined grid points, and data processed for displaying vibration properties like mode shapes, natural frequencies, damping ratios, and operational deflection shapes. Our SLDV – a PSV-500H from...

  1. The Doppler Pendulum Experiment (United States)

    Lee, C. K.; Wong, H. K.


    An experiment to verify the Doppler effect of sound waves is described. An ultrasonic source is mounted at the end of a simple pendulum. As the pendulum swings, the rapid change of frequency can be recorded by a stationary receiver using a simple frequency-to-voltage converter. The experimental results are in close agreement with the Doppler…

  2. Examining the Effects of a STEM Career Video Intervention on the Interests and STEM Professional Identities of Rural, Minority Middle School Students (United States)

    Kier, Meredith Weaver

    National efforts to interest students in STEM careers are intensifying around the globe, due to a shortage of professionals to fill the growing demands in these fields. Although some US studies find high interest in STEM in K-12 students, longitudinal studies show a decline in interest following middle school. Many students, particularly females and minorities, feel that they do not fit the image of a STEM professional. Little is known about perceptions held by students in rural areas, who have limited access to diverse STEM careers. This dissertation study employed an in school STEM career video intervention with eighty-five rural, minority, eighth grade students in a high poverty district in the southeastern US. Research questions explore students' STEM career interests before and after the STEM career video intervention, and analyze how students in this population negotiate a potential identity in STEM. Applying aspects of Lent, Brown, & Hackett's social cognitive career theory (SCCT), students' exploration sheets and video planning sheets were coded to understand positive or negative contributors to STEM career interests. Students' initial explorations were limited to careers to which they had been previously exposed at home or in class, and were influenced by their personal dispositions Over the course of the intervention, increased knowledge of careers increased the diversity of careers selected, attention to educational level, and the influence of more sophisticated career outcomes on interest. Students selected careers based on personal interests and outcome expectations, but were able to identify how their academic strengths, dispositions, and family support systems related to their career goals. Post survey analyses found the presence of role models and high self-efficacy were new predictors of interest. Study results imply that similar interventions can help students gain more sophisticated understandings of careers, can motivate students without

  3. The rise of regulatory capitalism and the decline of auditor independence: A critical and experimental examination of auditors' conflicts of interests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warming-Rasmussen, Bent


    that now promote and diffuse regulatory capitalism worldwide. Regulatory capitalism is further facilitated by the Sarbanes-Oxley Act and the PCAOB that provide interconnections of powerful non-democratic private regulators such as the IFAC and IAASB. An experiment reveals auditors' ethical predisposition....... Moreover the transformed profession has become the transformer but at a price, the loss of public confidence and the decline of auditor independence. Conflicts of interests still abound....

  4. The rise of regulatory capitalism and the decline of auditor independence: A critical and experimental examination of auditors' conflicts of interests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warming-Rasmussen, Bent


    This study investigates the decline of auditor independence coinciding with the rise of regulatory capitalism. A critical analysis supported by experimental evidence reveals regulatory capitalism's influence on auditor independence. Regulatory capitalism began in the United States during the 1970....... Moreover the transformed profession has become the transformer but at a price, the loss of public confidence and the decline of auditor independence. Conflicts of interests still abound....

  5. Results from transcranial Doppler examination on children and adolescents with sickle cell disease and correlation between the time-averaged maximum mean velocity and hematological characteristics: a cross-sectional analytical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Hokazono

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Transcranial Doppler (TCD detects stroke risk among children with sickle cell anemia (SCA. Our aim was to evaluate TCD findings in patients with different sickle cell disease (SCD genotypes and correlate the time-averaged maximum mean (TAMM velocity with hematological characteristics. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional analytical study in the Pediatric Hematology sector, Universidade Federal de São Paulo. METHODS: 85 SCD patients of both sexes, aged 2-18 years, were evaluated, divided into: group I (62 patients with SCA/Sß0 thalassemia; and group II (23 patients with SC hemoglobinopathy/Sß+ thalassemia. TCD was performed and reviewed by a single investigator using Doppler ultrasonography with a 2 MHz transducer, in accordance with the Stroke Prevention Trial in Sickle Cell Anemia (STOP protocol. The hematological parameters evaluated were: hematocrit, hemoglobin, reticulocytes, leukocytes, platelets and fetal hemoglobin. Univariate analysis was performed and Pearson's coefficient was calculated for hematological parameters and TAMM velocities (P < 0.05. RESULTS: TAMM velocities were 137 ± 28 and 103 ± 19 cm/s in groups I and II, respectively, and correlated negatively with hematocrit and hemoglobin in group I. There was one abnormal result (1.6% and five conditional results (8.1% in group I. All results were normal in group II. Middle cerebral arteries were the only vessels affected. CONCLUSION: There was a low prevalence of abnormal Doppler results in patients with sickle-cell disease. Time-average maximum mean velocity was significantly different between the genotypes and correlated with hematological characteristics.

  6. Laser Doppler flowmetry imaging (United States)

    Nilsson, Gert E.; Wardell, Karin


    A laser Doppler perfusion imager has been developed that makes possible mapping of tissue blood flow over surfaces with extensions up to about 12 cm X 12 cm. The He-Ne laser beam scans the tissue under study throughout 4096 measurement sites. A fraction of the backscattered and Doppler broadened light is detected by a photo diode positioned about 20 cm above the tissue surface. After processing, a signal that scales linearly with perfusion is stored in a computer and a color coded image of the spatial tissue perfusion is shown on a monitor. A full format scan is completed in about 4.5 minutes. Algorithms for calculating perfusion profiles and averages as well as substraction of one image from another, form an integral part of the system data analysis software. The perfusion images can also be exported to other software packages for further processing and analysis.

  7. Scanning laser Doppler vibrometry



    With a Scanning Laser Doppler Vibrometer (SLDV) a vibrating surface is automatically scanned over predefined grid points, and data processed for displaying vibration properties like mode shapes, natural frequencies, damping ratios, and operational deflection shapes. Our SLDV – a PSV-500H from Polytec Inc. – was acquired and put to operation in October 2014, paid by a sub-donation of DKK 1,5 mill. of the total VILLUM CASMaT grant. Opening possibilities of measuring complicated vibration shapes...

  8. Holographic laser Doppler ophthalmoscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Simonutti, Manuel; Sahel, J A; Gross, Michel; Samson, Benjamin; Magnain, Caroline; Atlan, Michael; 10.1364/OL.35.001941


    We report laser Doppler ophthalmoscopic fundus imaging in the rat eye with near-IR heterodyne holography. Sequential sampling of the beat of the reflected radiation against a frequency-shifted optical local oscillator is made onto an array detector. Wide-field maps of fluctuation spectra in the 10 Hz to 25 kHz band exhibit angiographic contrasts in the retinal vascular tree without requirement of an exogenous marker.

  9. Laser double Doppler flowmeter (United States)

    Poffo, L.; Goujon, J.-M.; Le Page, R.; Lemaitre, J.; Guendouz, M.; Lorrain, N.; Bosc, D.


    The Laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) is a non-invasive method for estimating the tissular blood flow and speed at a microscopic scale (microcirculation). It is used for medical research as well as for the diagnosis of diseases related to circulatory system tissues and organs including the issues of microvascular flow (perfusion). It is based on the Doppler effect, created by the interaction between the laser light and tissues. LDF measures the mean blood flow in a volume formed by the single laser beam, that penetrate into the skin. The size of this measurement volume is crucial and depends on skin absorption, and is not directly reachable. Therefore, current developments of the LDF are focused on the use of always more complex and sophisticated signal processing methods. On the other hand, laser Double Doppler Flowmeter (FL2D) proposes to use two laser beams to generate the measurement volume. This volume would be perfectly stable and localized at the intersection of the two laser beams. With FL2D we will be able to determine the absolute blood flow of a specific artery. One aimed application would be to help clinical physicians in health care units.

  10. On-Orbit Ephemeris Determination with Radio Doppler Validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dallmann, Nicholas [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Proicou, Michael Chris [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Seitz, Daniel Nathan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Warniment, Adam [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    Multiple CubeSats are often released from the same host spacecraft into virtually the same orbit at nearly the same time. A satellite team needs the ability to identify and track its own satellites as soon as possible. However, this can be a difficult and confusing task with a large number of satellites. Los Alamos National Laboratory encountered this issue during a launch of LANL-designed CubeSats that were released with more than 20 other objects. A simple radio Doppler method used shortly after launch by the Los Alamos team to select its satellites of interest from the list of available tracked ephemerides is described. This method can also be used for automated real time ephemeris validation. For future efforts, each LANL-designed CubeSat will automatically perform orbit determination from the position, velocity, and covariance estimates provided by an added on-board GPS receiver. This self-determined ephemeris will be automatically downlinked by ground stations for mission planning, antenna tracking, Doppler-pre-correction, etc. A simple algorithm based on established theory and well suited for embedded on-board processing is presented. The trades examined in selecting the algorithm components and data formats are briefly discussed, as is the expected performance.

  11. Air Toxics Under the Big Sky: examining the effectiveness of authentic scientific research on high school students' science skills and interest (United States)

    Ward, Tony J.; Delaloye, Naomi; Adams, Earle Raymond; Ware, Desirae; Vanek, Diana; Knuth, Randy; Hester, Carolyn Laurie; Marra, Nancy Noel; Holian, Andrij


    Air Toxics Under the Big Sky is an environmental science outreach/education program that incorporates the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) 8 Practices with the goal of promoting knowledge and understanding of authentic scientific research in high school classrooms through air quality research. This research explored: (1) how the program affects student understanding of scientific inquiry and research and (2) how the open-inquiry learning opportunities provided by the program increase student interest in science as a career path. Treatment students received instruction related to air pollution (airborne particulate matter), associated health concerns, and training on how to operate air quality testing equipment. They then participated in a yearlong scientific research project in which they developed and tested hypotheses through research of their own design regarding the sources and concentrations of air pollution in their homes and communities. Results from an external evaluation revealed that treatment students developed a deeper understanding of scientific research than did comparison students, as measured by their ability to generate good hypotheses and research designs, and equally expressed an increased interest in pursuing a career in science. These results emphasize the value of and need for authentic science learning opportunities in the modern science classroom.

  12. Doppler electron velocimetry : notes on creating a practical tool.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reu, Phillip L.; Milster, Tom (University of Arizona)


    The Doppler electron velocimeter (DEV) has been shown to be theoretically possible. This report attempts to answer the next logical question: Is it a practical instrument? The answer hinges upon whether enough electrons are available to create a time-varying Doppler current to be measured by a detector with enough sensitivity and bandwidth. The answer to both of these questions is a qualified yes. A target Doppler frequency of 1 MHz was set as a minimum rate of interest. At this target a theoretical beam current signal-to-noise ratio of 25-to-1 is shown for existing electron holography equipment. A detector is also demonstrated with a bandwidth of 1-MHz at a current of 10 pA. Additionally, a Linnik-type interferometer that would increase the available beam current is shown that would offer a more flexible arrangement for Doppler electron measurements over the traditional biprism.

  13. Comparisons between PW Doppler system and enhanced FM Doppler system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilhjelm, Jens E.; Pedersen, P. C.


    This paper presents a new implementation of an echo-ranging FM Doppler system with improved performance, relative to the FM Doppler system reported previously. The use of long sweeps provides a significant reduction in peak to average power ratio compared to pulsed wave (PW) emission. A PW Doppler...... system exploits the direct relationship between arrival time of the received signal and range from the transducer. In the FM Doppler systems, a similar relationship exists in the spectral domain of the demodulated received signals, so that range is represented by frequency. Thus, a shift in location...... of moving scatterers between consecutive emissions corresponds to a frequency shift in the spectral signature. The improvement relative to the earlier version of the FM Doppler system is attained by utilizing cross-correlation of real spectra rather than of magnitude spectra for assessing flow velocity...

  14. ANL Doppler flowmeter (United States)

    Karplus, H. B.; Raptis, A. C.; Lee, S.; Simpson, T.


    A flowmeter has been developed for measuring flow velocity in hot slurries. The flowmeter works on an ultrasonic Doppler principle in which ultrasound is injected into the flowing fluid through the solid pipe wall. Isolating waveguides separate the hot pipe from conventional ultrasonic transducers. Special clamp-on high-temperature transducers also can be adapted to work well in this application. Typical flows in pilot plants were found to be laminar, giving rise to broad-band Doppler spectra. A special circuit based on a servomechanism sensor was devised to determine the frequency average of such a broad spectrum. The device was tested at different pilot plants. Slurries with particulates greater than 70 microns (0.003 in.) yielded good signals, but slurries with extremely fine particulates were unpredictable. Small bubbles can replace the coarse particles to provide a good signal if there are not too many. Successful operation with very fine particulate slurries may have been enhanced by the presence of microbubbles.

  15. An examination of aviation accidents in the context of a conflict of interests between law enforcement, insurers, commissions for aircraft accident investigations and other entities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz BALCERZAK


    , resulting in possible or actual damage to persons or property, or damage that seriously compromises the level of aviation safety. All employees in the aviation sector, regardless of their function, have safety-related duties, which are crucial to the security of the entire civil aviation system. The safety of this system requires that as many events that have or may have an impact on security in aviation are reported voluntarily and without delay in order to conduct appropriate analyses and increase the level of safety. “Just Culture” is the basic premise of the effective functioning of event reporting required for all aviation organizations in order to maintain and enhance safety levels. As safety management is based on data, it is necessary to introduce appropriate procedures, which allow for obtaining information, not only about the events that have already occurred, but also about any other events that could potentially cause hazardous conditions. All the procedures and rules of operation relating to the policy of “Just Culture” should be constructed, so that they not only comply with the provisions of applicable law, but are also rational and understandable among all stakeholders, while ensuring a certain level of comfort and confidentiality to those reporting events that affect airline safety. Changes in the existing legal system should be established in cooperation with all concerned institutions: law enforcement, including the courts and public prosecution bodies, insurers aviation, the aircraft accident investigation commission and other entities. Is it possible to reconcile the interests of so-called “Just Culture” in the aviation industry with the requirements of the above-mentioned institutions and traders involved in the implementation of air transport and the exploration of the effects of aerial surveys? The answers to this and similar questions will be fully addressed in this article.

  16. Laser Doppler Imaging of Microflow

    CERN Document Server

    Gross, Michel; Leng, Jacques


    We report a pilot study with a wide-field laser Doppler detection scheme used to perform laser Doppler anemometry and imaging of particle seeded microflow. The optical field carrying the local scatterers (particles) dynamic state, as a consequence of momentum transfer at each scattering event, is analyzed in the temporal frequencies domain. The setup is based on heterodyne digital holography, which is used to map the scattered field in the object plane at a tunable frequency with a multipixel detector. We show that wide-field heterodyne laser Doppler imaging can be used for quantitative microflow diagnosis; in the presented study, maps of the first-order moment of the Doppler frequency shift are used as a quantitative and directional estimator of the Doppler signature of particles velocity.

  17. Clinical significence of orbital color Doppler ultrasound imaging examination for carotid cavemous fistula%颈动脉海绵窦瘘眼眶彩色多普勒超声检查临床意义探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    目的:探讨颈动脉海绵窦瘘(carotid cavemous fistula,CCF)眼眶彩色多普勒超声显像(color Doppler imaging,CDI)检查的声像表现及其诊断价值.方法:对39例39眼CCF患者的CDI超声表现进行回顾性分析.结果:患者39例均表现为反向动脉化血流的眼上静脉扩张,眼下静脉扩张3例,眼外肌增厚2例.压迫患侧颈总动脉,患侧颈内动脉出现不同程度的倒灌血流.结论:CDI检查可以准确显示CCF眶内扩张的血管及血流动力学状态,对CCF的诊断具有重要临床意义.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desai Sanjay


    Full Text Available : Color Doppler ultrasound is a non-invasive, non-ionising and rapid method for scrotal examination. The present study is carried out to evaluate clinically suspected cases of scrotal lesions, the sensitivity, specificity of color doppler. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This prospective study comprises 120 patients of different age groups with clinical suspicion of scrotal lesions. Color doppler ultrasound was done with 7.5MHz transducer. RESULTS: Of the total 120 cases, benign conditions 111 (92.5% is more common than malignant 9 (7.5%. In benign group commonest diagnoses were hydrocele, epididymo-orchitis, varicocele and epididymal cyst. In malignant group teratocarcinoma, choriocarcinoma, seminoma, lymphoma, embryonal cell carcinoma, yolk sac tumor with teratocarcinoma. The sensitivity for diagnosing extratesticular lesions was 83.14% and for testicular lesions 88.57%. CONCLUSION: Color doppler ultrasound is helpful in differentiating extratesticular and intratesticular lesions. It should be performed in all patients with suspected scrotal lesions

  19. Ultralyd farve-Doppler-undersøgelse af arteria carotis. Prospektiv sammenligning med arteriografi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sillesen, H H; Just, S R; Hansen, Linda;


    Eleven hundred and thirty-eight patients suspected of carotid artery disease were examined prospectively by ultrasound-Doppler. In 39 cases, intra-arterial digital subtraction arteriography was performed as well as well and compared to ultrasound Doppler examination. The overall accuracy was 80% ...

  20. 健康体检中应用彩色超声检查早期甲状腺癌的重要意义及护理%The Value of Color Doppler Ultrasound in Diagnosing Early Stage Thyroid Cancer in Health Examination and relative health care

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余红梅; 张颖; 林焕新; 梁卫萍


      目的:在健康体检中应用彩色超声检查,提高甲状腺癌的检出率;对确诊为甲状腺癌的职工进行护理健康宣教,提高康复率.方法:分析我院职工查体最近七年的甲状腺检查资料,以既往6年外科触诊甲状腺检查结果对照,比较2011年增加了彩色超声检查甲状腺的检出情况.并对2011年确诊为甲状腺癌的职工在术前术后进行护理健康宣教.结果:2005~2010年间职工查体9677人次,手术病理证实为甲状腺癌4例,年均甲状腺癌检出率0.04%.2011年职工查体1964人次,增加了甲状腺彩色超声检查后,检出高度怀疑甲状腺癌并建议手术者12例,病理证实甲状腺癌8例,甲状腺癌检出率为0.41%.组间比较有统计学意义.结论:在健康体检中应用彩色超声检查甲状腺,提升了甲状腺癌的早期发现和早期诊断,具有较高的临床应用价值.对确诊为甲状腺癌的职工进行护理健康宣教对其预后和康复起到关键作用%  Objective:To improve the detection rate of thyroid cancer with color Doppler ultrasound in health examination. And to improve the recovery rate by conducting health care education among the employees diagnosed with thyroid cancer. Method:The thyroid examination data of Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center staff in the last seven years was analyzed. We compared the result of thyroid palpation in the past six years with the result using both color Doppler ultrasound and palpation in 2011. And we conducted health care education among the employees diagnosed with thyroid cancer in 2011 before and after operations. Result:From 2005 to 2010 9677 person-time examinations were done, and four cases of thyroid cancer were pathologically confirmed. The average annual thyroid cancer detection rate was 0.04%. In the year 2011, 1964 person-time examinations were performed with both color Doppler ultrasound and palpation, 12 cases with highly suspicion of

  1. Understanding Interest Rate Volatility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Volker, Desi

    This thesis is the result of my Ph.D. studies at the Department of Finance of the Copenhagen Business School. It consists of three essays covering topics related to the term structure of interest rates, monetary policy and interest rate volatility. The rst essay, \\Monetary Policy Uncertainty...... and Interest Rates", examines the role of monetary policy uncertainty on the term structure of interest rates. The second essay, \\A Regime-Switching A ne Term Structure Model with Stochastic Volatility" (co-authored with Sebastian Fux), investigates the ability of the class of regime switching models...... with and without stochastic volatility to capture the main stylized features of U.S. interest rates. The third essay, \\Variance Risk Premia in the Interest Rate Swap Market", investigates the time-series and cross-sectional properties of the compensation demanded for holding interest rate variance risk. The essays...

  2. Dual-Doppler Feasibility Study (United States)

    Huddleston, Lisa L.


    When two or more Doppler weather radar systems are monitoring the same region, the Doppler velocities can be combined to form a three-dimensional (3-D) wind vector field thus providing for a more intuitive analysis of the wind field. A real-time display of the 3-D winds can assist forecasters in predicting the onset of convection and severe weather. The data can also be used to initialize local numerical weather prediction models. Two operational Doppler Radar systems are in the vicinity of Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS); these systems are operated by the 45th Space Wing (45 SW) and the National Weather Service Melbourne, Fla. (NWS MLB). Dual-Doppler applications were considered by the 45 SW in choosing the site for the new radar. Accordingly, the 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS), NWS MLB and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration tasked the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) to investigate the feasibility of establishing dual-Doppler capability using the two existing systems. This study investigated technical, hardware, and software requirements necessary to enable the establishment of a dual-Doppler capability. Review of the available literature pertaining to the dual-Doppler technique and consultation with experts revealed that the physical locations and resulting beam crossing angles of the 45 SW and NWS MLB radars make them ideally suited for a dual-Doppler capability. The dual-Doppler equations were derived to facilitate complete understanding of dual-Doppler synthesis; to determine the technical information requirements; and to determine the components of wind velocity from the equation of continuity and radial velocity data collected by the two Doppler radars. Analysis confirmed the suitability of the existing systems to provide the desired capability. In addition, it is possible that both 45 SW radar data and Terminal Doppler Weather Radar data from Orlando International Airport could be used to alleviate any

  3. Novel instantaneous laser Doppler velocimeter. (United States)

    Avidor, J M


    A laser Doppler velocimeter capable of directly measuring instantaneous velocities is described. The new LDV uses a novel detection technique based on the utilization of a static slightly defocused spherical Fabry-Perot interferometer used in conjunction with a special mask for the detection of instantaneous Doppler frequency shifts. The essential characteristics of this LDV are discussed, and such a system recently developed is described. Results of turbulent flow measurements show good agreement with data obtained using hot wire anemometry.

  4. Genetic interest assessment (United States)

    Doughney, Erin

    Genetics is becoming increasingly integrated into peoples' lives. Different measures have been taken to try and better genetics education. This thesis examined undergraduate students at the University of North Texas not majoring in the life sciences interest in genetic concepts through the means of a Likert style survey. ANOVA analysis showed there was variation amongst the interest level in different genetic concepts. In addition age and lecture were also analyzed as contributing factors to students' interest. Both age and lecture were evaluated to see if they contributed to the interest of students in genetic concepts and neither showed statistical significance. The Genetic Interest Assessment (GIA) serves to help mediate the gap between genetic curriculum and students' interest.

  5. Response of a Doppler canceling system to plane gravitational waves (United States)

    Caporali, A.


    This paper discusses the interaction of long periodic gravitational waves with a three-link microwave system known as the Doppler canceling system. This system, which was developed for a gravitational red-shift experiment, uses one-way and two-way Doppler information to construct the beat signal of two reference oscillators moving with respect to each other. The geometric-optics approximation is used to derive the frequency shift produced on a light signal propagating in a gravitational-wave space-time. The signature left on the Doppler-cancelled beat by bursts and continuous gravitational waves is analyzed. A comparison is made between the response to gravitational waves of the Doppler canceling system and that of a (NASA) Doppler tracking system which employs two-way, round-trip radio waves. A threefold repetition of the gravitational wave form is found to be a common feature of the response functions of both systems. These two functions otherwise exhibit interesting differences.

  6. General principles of carotid Doppler ultrasonography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Whal [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    Carotid Doppler ultrasonography is a popular tool for evaluating atherosclerosis of the carotid artery. Its two-dimensional gray scale can be used for measuring the intima-media thickness, which is very good biomarker for atherosclerosis and can aid in plaque characterization. The plaque morphology is related to the risk of stroke. The ulceration of plaque is also known as one of the strong predictors of future embolic event risk. Color Doppler ultrasonography and pulse Doppler ultrasonography have been used for detecting carotid artery stenosis. Doppler ultrasonography has unique physical properties. The operator should be familiar with the physics and other parameters of Doppler ultrasonography to perform optimal Doppler ultrasonography studies.

  7. Inverse Doppler Effects in Flute

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Xiao P; Liu, Song; Shen, Fang L; Li, Lin L; Luo, Chun R


    Here we report the observation of the inverse Doppler effects in a flute. It is experimentally verified that, when there is a relative movement between the source and the observer, the inverse Doppler effect could be detected for all seven pitches of a musical scale produced by a flute. Higher tone is associated with a greater shift in frequency. The effect of the inverse frequency shift may provide new insights into why the flute, with its euphonious tone, has been popular for thousands of years in Asia and Europe.

  8. Doppler tomography in fusion plasmas and astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Salewski, Mirko; Heidbrink, Bill; Jacobsen, Asger Schou; Korsholm, Soren Bang; Leipold, Frank; Madsen, Jens; Moseev, Dmitry; Nielsen, Stefan Kragh; Rasmussen, Jesper; Stagner, Luke; Steeghs, Danny; Stejner, Morten; Tardini, Giovani; Weiland, Markus


    Doppler tomography is a well-known method in astrophysics to image the accretion flow, often in the shape of thin discs, in compact binary stars. As accretion discs rotate, all emitted line radiation is Doppler-shifted. In fast-ion D-alpha (FIDA) spectroscopy measurements in magnetically confined plasma, the D-alpha-photons are likewise Doppler-shifted ultimately due to gyration of the fast ions. In either case, spectra of Doppler-shifted line emission are sensitive to the velocity distribution of the emitters. Astrophysical Doppler tomography has lead to images of accretion discs of binaries revealing bright spots, spiral structures, and flow patterns. Fusion plasma Doppler tomography has lead to an image of the fast-ion velocity distribution function in the tokamak ASDEX Upgrade. This image matched numerical simulations very well. Here we discuss achievements of the Doppler tomography approach, its promise and limits, analogies and differences in astrophysical and fusion plasma Doppler tomography, and what ...

  9. Doppler Ultrasound: What Is It Used for? (United States)

    ... in your neck (carotid artery stenosis) A Doppler ultrasound can estimate how fast blood flows by measuring the rate of change in its pitch (frequency). During a Doppler ultrasound, a technician trained in ultrasound imaging (sonographer) presses ...

  10. [Color Doppler sonography of focal abdominal lesions]. (United States)

    Licanin, Zoran; Lincender, Lidija; Djurović, V; Salihefendić, Nizama; Smajlović, Fahrudin


    Color Doppler sonography (CDS--spectral, color and power), harmonic imaging techniques (THI, PHI), possibility of 3D analysis of picture, usage of contrast agents, have raised the values of ultrasound as a diagnostic method to a very high level. THI--non-linear gray scale modality, is based on the processing of higher reflected frequencies, that has improved a picture resolution, which is presented with less artifacts and limiting effects of obesity and gases. Ultrasound contrast agents improve analysis of micro and macro circulation of the examined area, and with the assessment of velocity of supply in ROI (wash in), distribution and time of signal weakening (wash out), are significantly increasing diagnostic value of ultrasound. Besides the anatomical and topographic presentation of examined region (color, power), Color Doppler sonography gives us haemodynamic-functional information on vascularisation of that region, as well as on pathologic vascularisation if present. Avascular aspect of a focal pathologic lesion corresponds to a cyst or haematoma, while coloration and positive spectral curve discover that anechogenic lesions actually represents aneurysms, pseudoaneurysms or AVF. In local inflammatory lesion, abscess in an acute phase, CDS shows first increased, and then decreased central perfusion, while in a chronic phase, a pericapsular vascularisation is present. Contribution of CDS in differentiation of hepatic tumors (hemangioma, HCC and metastasis) is very significant. Central color dots along the peripheral blood vessels and the blush phenomenon are characteristics of capillary hemangioma, peritumoral vascular ring "basket" of HCC, and "detour" sign of metastasis. The central artery, RI from 0.45 to 0.60 and radial spreading characterize FNH. Hepatic adenoma is characterized by an intratumoral vein, and rarely by a vascular hallo. Further on, blood velocity in tumor defined by Color Doppler, distinguishes malignant from benign lesion, where 40 cm/s is a

  11. Laser Doppler velocimetry in Microchannels using integrated optical waveguides.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pandraud, G.; van den Berg, Albert; Semenov, S.N.


    The possibility of laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV) in microchannels, where particles are suspended in a liquid, and where oscillating or evanescent guided coherent light wave is present, is examined theoretically. The conditions for the observation of the transverse and longitudinal collective phore

  12. Ultrasonography and color Doppler in juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurell, Louise; Court-Payen, Michel; Nielsen, Susan;


    The wrist region is one of the most complex joints of the human body. It is prone to deformity and functional impairment in juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), and is difficult to examine clinically. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of ultrasonography (US) with Doppler in diagnosis...

  13. Adaptive Spectral Doppler Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gran, Fredrik; Jakobsson, Andreas; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt


    of matched filters (one for each veloc- ity component of interest) and filtering the blood process over slow-time and averaging over depth to find the PSD. The methods are tested using various experiments and simulations. First, controlled flow-rig experiments with steady laminar flow are carried out....... Simulations in Field II for pul- sating flow resembling the femoral artery are also analyzed. The simulations are followed by in vivo measurement on the common carotid artery. In all simulations and experiments it was concluded that the adaptive methods display superior per- formance for short observation...

  14. It's all in the past: Deconstructing the temporal Doppler effect. (United States)

    Aksentijevic, Aleksandar; Treider, John Melvin Gudnyson


    A recent study reported an asymmetry between subjective estimates of future and past distances with passive estimation and virtual movement. The temporal Doppler effect refers to the contraction of future distance judgments relative to past ones. We aimed to replicate the effect using real and imagined motion in both directions as well as different temporal perspectives. To avoid the problem of subjective anchoring, we compared real- and imagined-, ego- and time-moving conditions to a control group. Generally, Doppler-like distortion was only observed in conditions in which the distance between the participant and a frontal target increased. No effects of temporal perspective were observed. The "past-directed temporal Doppler effect" presents a challenge for the current theories of temporal cognition by demonstrating absence of psychological movement into the future. The effect could open new avenues in memory research and serve as a starting point in a systematic examination of how the humans construct future.

  15. Velocity-aligned Doppler spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Z.; Koplitz, B.; Wittig, C.


    The technique of velocity-aligned Doppler spectrosocopy (VADS) is presented and discussed. For photolysis/probe experiments with pulsed initiation, VADS can yield Doppler profiles for nascent photofragments that allow detailed center-of-mass (c.m.) kinetic energy distributions to be extracted. When compared with traditional forms of Doppler spectroscopy, the improvement in kinetic energy resolution is dramatic. Changes in the measured profiles are a consequence of spatial discrimination (i.e., focused and overlapping photolysis and probe beams) and delayed observation. These factors result in the selective detection of species whose velocities are aligned with the wave vector of the probe radiation k/sub pr/, thus revealing the speed distribution along k/sub pr/ rather than the distribution of nascent velocity components projected upon this direction. Mathematical details of the procedure used to model VADS are given, and experimental illustrations for HI, H/sub 2/S, and NH/sub 3/ photodissociation are presented. In these examples, pulsed photodissociation produces H atoms that are detected by sequential two-photon, two-frequency ionization via Lyman-..cap alpha.. with a pulsed laser (121.6+364.7 nm), and measuring the Lyman-..cap alpha.. Doppler profile as a function of probe delay reveals both internal and c.m. kinetic energy distributions for the photofragments. Strengths and weaknesses of VADS as a tool for investigating photofragmentation phenomena are also discussed.

  16. Speckles in laser doppler perfusion imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rajan, Vinayakrishnan


    Laser Doppler Flowmetry (LDF) is a noninvasive diagnostic method to measure blood flow in tissue [1]. The technique is based on measuring the Doppler shift induced by moving red blood cells to the illuminating coherent light. A laser Doppler instrument often gives output signals related to the flux,

  17. Micro-Doppler Analysis of Small UAVs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wit, J.J.M. de; Harmanny, R.I.A.; Prémel Cabic, G.


    Coherent radar measures micro-Doppler properties of moving objects. The micro-Doppler signature depends on parts of an object moving and rotating in addition to the main body motion (e.g. rotor blades) and is therefore characteristic for the type of object. In this study, the micro-Doppler signature

  18. Micro-Doppler Analysis of Small UAVs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wit, J.J.M. de; Harmanny, R.I.A.; Prémel Cabic, G.


    Coherent radar measures micro-Doppler properties of moving objects. The micro-Doppler signature depends on parts of an object moving and rotating in addition to the main body motion (e.g. rotor blades) and is therefore characteristic for the type of object. In this study, the micro-Doppler signature

  19. The Doppler Effect--A New Approach (United States)

    Allen, J.


    Discusses the Doppler effect as it applies to different situations, such as a stationary source of sound with the observer moving, a stationary observer, and the sound source and observer both moving. Police radar, satellite surveillance radar, radar astronomy, and the Doppler navigator, are discussed as applications of Doppler shift. (JR)

  20. Azimuthal Doppler Effect in Optical Vortex Spectroscopy (United States)

    Aramaki, Mitsutoshi; Yoshimura, Shinji; Toda, Yasunori; Morisaki, Tomohiro; Terasaka, Kenichiro; Tanaka, Masayoshi


    Optical vortices (OV) are a set of solutions of the paraxial Helmholtz equation in the cylindrical coordinates, and its wave front has a spiral shape. Since the Doppler shift is caused by the phase change by the movement in a wave field, the observer in the OV, which has the three-dimensional structured wave front, feels a three-dimensional Doppler effect. Since the multi-dimensional Doppler components are mixed into a single Doppler spectrum, development of a decomposition method is required. We performed a modified saturated absorption spectroscopy to separate the components. The OV and plane wave are used as a probe beam and pump beam, respectively. Although the plane-wave pump laser cancels the z-direction Doppler shift, the azimuthal Doppler shift remains in the saturated dip. The spatial variation of the dip width gives the information of the azimuthal Doppler shift. The some results of optical vortex spectroscopy will be presented.

  1. Velocity-aligned Doppler spectroscopy (United States)

    Xu, Z.; Koplitz, B.; Wittig, C.


    The use of velocity-aligned Doppler spectroscopy (VADS) to measure center-of-mass kinetic-energy distributions of nascent photofragments produced in pulsed-initiation photolysis/probe experiments is described and demonstrated. In VADS, pulsed photolysis and probe laser beams counterpropagate through the ionization region of a time-of-flight mass spectrometer. The theoretical principles of VADS and the mathematical interpretation of VADS data are explained and illustrated with diagrams; the experimental setup is described; and results for the photodissociation of HI, H2S, and NH3 are presented in graphs and characterized in detail. VADS is shown to give much higher kinetic-energy resolution than conventional Doppler spectroscopy.

  2. Interest Organisations and European Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Ove K.

    This paper examines the influence of European integration on the relationship between state administration and private interests in the four Nordic countries - Sweden, Denmark, Norway and Finland. By private interests I mean interest organizations, private corporations and independent experts. Th...... level preceding their government's representation of national interests in the European Council of Ministers and other EU organizations. Second is the effect of all this on national democratic systems....

  3. Developments in target micro-Doppler signatures analysis: radar imaging, ultrasound and through-the-wall radar (United States)

    Clemente, Carmine; Balleri, Alessio; Woodbridge, Karl; Soraghan, John J.


    Target motions, other than the main bulk translation of the target, induce Doppler modulations around the main Doppler shift that form what is commonly called a target micro-Doppler signature. Radar micro-Doppler signatures are generally both target and action specific and hence can be used to classify and recognise targets as well as to identify possible threats. In recent years, research into the use of micro-Doppler signatures for target classification to address many defence and security challenges has been of increasing interest. In this article, we present a review of the work published in the last 10 years on emerging applications of radar target analysis using micro-Doppler signatures. Specifically we review micro-Doppler target signatures in bistatic SAR and ISAR, through-the-wall radar and ultrasound radar. This article has been compiled to provide radar practitioners with a unique reference source covering the latest developments in micro-Doppler analysis, extraction and mitigation techniques. The article shows that this research area is highly active and fast moving and demonstrates that micro-Doppler techniques can provide important solutions to many radar target classification challenges.

  4. Doppler ultrasound scoring to predict chemotherapeutic response in advanced breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Tej B


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Doppler ultrasonography (US is increasingly being utilized as an imaging modality in breast cancer. It is used to study the vascular characteristics of the tumor. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy is the standard modality of treatment in locally advanced breast cancer. Histological examination remains the gold standard to assess the chemotherapy response. However, based on the color Doppler findings, a new scoring system that could predict histological response following chemotherapy is proposed. Methods Fifty cases of locally advanced infiltrating duct carcinoma of the breast were studied. The mean age of the patients was 44.5 years. All patients underwent clinical, Doppler and histopathological assessment followed by three cycles of CAF (Cyclophosphamide, Adriamycin and 5-Fluorouracil chemotherapy, repeat clinical and Doppler examination and surgery. The resected specimens were examined histopathologically and histological response was correlated with Doppler findings. The Doppler characteristics of the tumor were graded as 1–4 for 50% and complete disappearance of flow signals respectively. A cumulative score was calculated and compared with histopathological response. Results were analyzed using Chi square test, sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values. Results The maximum Doppler score according to the proposed scoring system was twelve and minimum three. Higher scores corresponded with a more favorable histopathological response. Twenty four patients had complete response to chemotherapy. Sixteen of these 24 patients (66.7% had a cumulative Doppler score more than nine. The sensitivity of cumulative score >5 was 91.7% and specificity was 38.5%. The area under the ROC curve of the cumulative score >9 was 0.72. Conclusion Doppler scoring can be accurately used to objectively predict the response to chemotherapy in patients with locally advanced breast cancer and it correlates well with histopathological

  5. Doppler ultrasound scoring to predict chemotherapeutic response in advanced breast cancer (United States)

    Kumar, Anand; Singh, Seema; Pradhan, Satyajit; Shukla, Ram C; Ansari, Mumtaz A; Singh, Tej B; Shyam, Rohit; Gupta, Saroj


    Background Doppler ultrasonography (US) is increasingly being utilized as an imaging modality in breast cancer. It is used to study the vascular characteristics of the tumor. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy is the standard modality of treatment in locally advanced breast cancer. Histological examination remains the gold standard to assess the chemotherapy response. However, based on the color Doppler findings, a new scoring system that could predict histological response following chemotherapy is proposed. Methods Fifty cases of locally advanced infiltrating duct carcinoma of the breast were studied. The mean age of the patients was 44.5 years. All patients underwent clinical, Doppler and histopathological assessment followed by three cycles of CAF (Cyclophosphamide, Adriamycin and 5-Fluorouracil) chemotherapy, repeat clinical and Doppler examination and surgery. The resected specimens were examined histopathologically and histological response was correlated with Doppler findings. The Doppler characteristics of the tumor were graded as 1–4 for 50% and complete disappearance of flow signals respectively. A cumulative score was calculated and compared with histopathological response. Results were analyzed using Chi square test, sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values. Results The maximum Doppler score according to the proposed scoring system was twelve and minimum three. Higher scores corresponded with a more favorable histopathological response. Twenty four patients had complete response to chemotherapy. Sixteen of these 24 patients (66.7%) had a cumulative Doppler score more than nine. The sensitivity of cumulative score >5 was 91.7% and specificity was 38.5%. The area under the ROC curve of the cumulative score >9 was 0.72. Conclusion Doppler scoring can be accurately used to objectively predict the response to chemotherapy in patients with locally advanced breast cancer and it correlates well with histopathological response. PMID:17725837

  6. Doppler ultrasound spectral enhancement using the Gabor transform-based spectral subtraction. (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Hong


    Most of the important clinical indices of blood flow are estimated from the spectrograms of Doppler ultrasound (US) signals. Any noise may degrade the readability of the spectrogram and the precision of the clinical indiCes, so the spectral enhancement plays an important role in Doppler US signal processing. A new Doppler US spectral enhancement method is proposed in this paper and implemented in three main steps: the Gabor transform is used to compute the Gabor coefficients of a Doppler US signal, the spectral subtraction is performed on the magnitude of the Gabor coefficients, and the Gabor expansion with the spectral subtracted Gabor coefficients is used to reconstruct the denoised Doppler US signal. The different analysis and synthesis windows are examined in the Gabor transform and expansion. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) improvement together with the overall enhancement of spectrograms are examined on the simulated Doppler US signals from a femoral artery. The results show the denoising method based on the orthogonal-like Gabor expansion achieves the best denoising performance. The experiments on some clinical Doppler US signals from umbilical arteries confirm the superior denoising performance of the new method.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available A study of 50 cases was conducted to evaluate the role of Colour Doppler imaging in pregnancy induced hypertension with women over 28 weeks of gestation, the initial scan was performed immediately after the diagnosis of PIH to avoid any influence of treatment on Doppler evaluation. This study was aimed to analyze the blood flow in umbilical artery, maternal uterine artery & fetal middle cerebral artery using Doppler ultrasound.

  8. Role of Doppler Velocimetry in growth restricted fetuses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Khushali Gandhi


    Full Text Available Background Intra Uterine Growth Restriction (IUGR is an important and particularly challenging problem for obstetricians and pediatricians. IUGR is a leading contributor in perinatal morbidity and mortality affecting 23.8% newborns around the world and 75% are born in Asia alone. In India the incidence of low birth weight varies from 15 to 25% and more than 50% of them are IUGR. Methods The present article consists of a study of 100 cases of intrauterine growth restriction with periodic color Doppler during the period of 1st July 2011 to 30 th August, 2013 in Obstetrics and Gynecology Department of a tertiary care center. Detail history taken. General and obstetrical examination was done along with routine hematological and urine investigations. Ultrasound examination was done for growth, liquor and placental localization. Fetal well- being was assessed with Doppler studies and daily fetal movement count. Results In present study moderate to severe pregnancy induced hypertension (53.9% and lack of proper weight gain (23% are found to be the commonest causes of IUGR. Out of 69 IUGR cases having abnormal Doppler, about 63.8% had abnormality in uterine artery flow, 85.5% had abnormality in umbilical artery flow, 88.4% had abnormality in middle cerebral artery flow, 55% had abnormality in uterine and umbilical artery and 75.4% had abnormality in umbilical artery and MCA. Incidence of fetal demise (13% was higher in patients with abnormal Doppler flow compared to normal flow (3.2%. Surgical intervention in form of caesarean was required in 69.6% of patients with abnormal Doppler flow. Cerebro-placental ratio (CPR 1 where fetal demise is 2.6%. Incidence of AEDF/REDF ( Absent End Diastolic flow/Reversed End diastolic flow in IUGR was 8% that resulted in 50% loss of fetus. Conclusions Color Doppler is a useful mode to predict fetal outcome in IUGR. Color Doppler allows better understandings of hemodynamic changes in feto- placental and utero

  9. Gravity theories, Transverse Doppler and Gravitational Redshifts in Galaxy Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Hongsheng; Li, Baojiu


    There is growing interest in testing alternative gravity theories using the subtle Gravitational Redshifts in clusters of galaxies. However, current models all neglect a Transverse Doppler redshift of similar magnitude, and some models are not self-consistent. An equilibrium model would fix the Gravitational and Transverse Doppler velocity shifts to be about 6\\sigma^2/c and 3\\sigma^2/2c in order to fit the observed velocity dispersion \\sigma self-consistently. This result is from the Virial Theorem for a spherical isotropic cluster, and is insensitive to the theory of gravity. In any case, a gravitational redshift signal cannot directly distinguish between the Einsteinian and f(R) gravity theories, because the mass of the cluster dark halo must be treated as an unknown fitting parameter, whose value must vary according to the theory adopted, otherwise the system would be in equilibrium in one gravity theory and out of equilibrium in another.

  10. The impacts of piezoelectric element's defects on color and power doppler images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kyung Sung [Dept. of Radiotechnology, Cheju Halla University, Cheju (Korea, Republic of)


    An ultrasound probe has a big impact on Doppler images even though it has very high risk of frequent function-breakdowns occurring in medical ultrasound scanners. This study experimentally analyses the impacts of an ultrasonic probe’s defected elements on power and color Doppler images. The results show that, the bigger the size of defected probe elements is, and the closer a group of action elements is to the center, the more the brightness of images and the velocity of Doppler diminish. When elements’ defects increase in color and power Doppler images, false images are formed to be mistaken for blood-vessel plaque in neighboring regions. Accordingly, whenever element defects are suspected, we need check-up process in B-mode. From this respective, it is advisable to have primary interest in a probe and carry out continuous probe QA for ultrasonography.

  11. An image-based approach for classification of human micro-doppler radar signatures (United States)

    Tivive, Fok Hing Chi; Phung, Son Lam; Bouzerdoum, Abdesselam


    With the advances in radar technology, there is an increasing interest in automatic radar-based human gait identification. This is because radar signals can penetrate through most dielectric materials. In this paper, an image-based approach is proposed for classifying human micro-Doppler radar signatures. The time-varying radar signal is first converted into a time-frequency representation, which is then cast as a two-dimensional image. A descriptor is developed to extract micro-Doppler features from local time-frequency patches centered along the torso Doppler frequency. Experimental results based on real data collected from a 24-GHz Doppler radar showed that the proposed approach achieves promising classification performance.

  12. Emboli detection using the Doppler ultrasound technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yuanyuan; CHEN Xi; ZHANG Yu; WANG Weiqi


    Embolic detection is very important to the early diagnosis of vessel disease. The Doppler ultrasound technique is one of the common methods to detect the emboli non-invasively. When the emboli pass through the sample volume of the Doppler ultrasound instrument, there exist high intensity transient Doppler signals. Thus the emboli can be detected directly from the variation of Doppler signal amplitude. Since there may be some disturbance in the system, this general detection method has great limitation. To improve the accuracy of emboli auto-detection, several novel methods are studied to obtain the sensitive characteristic of the emboli signals using the new signal processing theories.

  13. Interest Rate Pass‐Through in Mongolia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Doojav, Gan‐Ochir; Kalirajan, Kaliappa


    This study empirically examines the interest rate pass‐through of the money market interest rate to bank lending and bank deposit interest rates in Mongolia using both linear and nonlinear autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) models...

  14. Coronary Flow Velocity Reserve Assessed by Transthoracic Doppler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Marie M; Peña, Adam; Mygind, Naja D


    the feasibility and factors associated with the quality of CFVR obtained in a large prospective study of women suspected of having microvascular disease. METHODS: Women with angina-like chest pain and no obstructive coronary artery disease on coronary angiography (stenosis) were consecutively examined......BACKGROUND: Coronary flow velocity reserve (CFVR) measured by transthoracic Doppler echocardiography is a noninvasive measure of microvascular function, but it has not achieved widespread use, mainly because of concerns of validity and feasibility. The aim of this study was to describe...... by transthoracic Doppler echocardiography of the left anterior descending coronary artery to measure CFVR (n = 947). Quality was evaluated on the basis of (1) identification of the left anterior descending coronary artery, (2) maintained probe position throughout the examination, (3) visibility and configuration...

  15. Laser Doppler flowmetry in endodontics: a review. (United States)

    Jafarzadeh, H


    Vascular supply is the most accurate marker of pulp vitality. Tests for assessing vascular supply that rely on the passage of light through a tooth have been considered as possible methods for detecting pulp vitality. Laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF), which is a noninvasive, objective, painless, semi-quantitative method, has been shown to be reliable for measuring pulpal blood flow. The relevant literature on LDF in the context of endodontics up to March 2008 was reviewed using PubMed and MEDLINE database searches. This search identified papers published between June 1983 and March 2008. Laser light is transmitted to the pulp by means of a fibre optic probe. Scattered light from moving red blood cells will be frequency-shifted whilst that from the static tissue remains unshifted. The reflected light, composed of Doppler-shifted and unshifted light, is returned by afferent fibres and a signal is produced. This technique has been successfully employed for estimating pulpal vitality in adults and children, differential diagnosis of apical radiolucencies (on the basis of pulp vitality), examining the reactions to pharmacological agents or electrical and thermal stimulation, and monitoring of pulpal responses to orthodontic procedures and traumatic injuries. Assessments may be highly susceptible to environmental and technique-related factors. Nonpulpal signals, principally from periodontal blood flow, may contaminate the signal. Because this test produces no noxious stimuli, apprehensive or distressed patients accept it more readily than current methods of pulp vitality assessment. A review of the literature and a discussion of the application of this system in endodontics are presented.

  16. Ultrasonic study (B mode echography and Doppler) of a case of carotid artery obstruction after cervical irradiation. Comparison with peroperative findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berges, O.; Mikol, F.; Monge Straus, M.F.; Vignaud, J. (Fondation A. de Rothschild, 75 - Paris (France))


    A case of an obstruction of the carotid artery by a fibrinous clot, that appeared 3 years after a cervical irradiation, for a cancer of a piriform sinus, is presented. The signs, moderate at Doppler examination and arteriography are more impressive with B mode, real time ultrasound. Surgery confirmed the signs observed with B mode ultrasound. Discussion will deal on the value of each method, and on the interest to combine them. The role of rontgentherapy in the genesis of such fibrinous clots will also be discussed.

  17. Color Doppler Imaging in the Diagnosis and Follow-up of Carotid Cavernous Sinus Fistulas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    This report describes color doppler imaging (CDI) in theevaluation and follow-up of nine patients with carotid cavernous sinusfistulas.The orbits and carotid arteries were examined with CDI.In allcases,the diagnosis was confirmed by angiography.CDI clearlydemonstrated the dilated superior ophthalmic veins (SOVs) with retrogradeflow and low resistance arterial doppler waveform in all nine patients (10eyes).After the study of quantitative hemodynamics,we found that directcarotid cavernous sinus fistulas s...

  18. Modification of the Doppler effect due to the helicity-rotation coupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mashhoon, Bahram


    The helicity-rotation coupling and its current empirical basis are examined. The modification of the Doppler effect due to the coupling of photon spin with the rotation of the observer is considered in detail in connection with its applications in the Doppler tracking of spacecraft. Further implications of this coupling and the possibility of searching for it in the intensity response of a rotating detector are briefly discussed.

  19. Doppler effect in a solid medium: Spin wave emission by a precessing domain wall drifting in spin current (United States)

    Xia, Hong; Chen, Jie; Zeng, Xiaoyan; Yan, Ming


    The Doppler effect is a fundamental physical phenomenon observed for waves propagating in vacuum or various media, commonly gaseous or liquid. Here, we report on the occurrence of a Doppler effect in a solid medium. Instead of a real object, a topological soliton, i.e., a magnetic domain wall (DW) traveling in a current-carrying ferromagnetic nanowire, plays the role of the moving wave source. The Larmor precession of the DW in an external field stimulates emission of monochromatic spin waves (SWs) during its motion, which show a significant Doppler effect, comparable to the acoustic one of a train whistle. This process involves two prominent spin-transfer-torque effects simultaneously, the current-driven DW motion and the current-induced SW Doppler shift. The latter gives rise to an interesting feature, i.e., the observed SW Doppler effect appears resulting from a stationary source and a moving observer, contrary to the laboratory frame.

  20. Short Interest and Stock Returns


    Paul Asquith; Pathak, Parag A.; Jay R. Ritter


    Using a longer time period and both NYSE-Amex and Nasdaq stocks, this paper examines short interest and stock returns in more detail than any previous study and finds that many documented patterns are not robust. While equally weighted high short interest portfolios generally underperform, value weighted portfolios do not. In addition, there is a negative correlation between market returns and short interest over our whole period. Finally, inferences from short time periods, such as 1988-1994...

  1. Doppler tomography in fusion plasmas and astrophysics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salewski, Mirko; Geiger, B.; Heidbrink, W. W.


    Doppler tomography is a well-known method in astrophysics to image the accretion flow, often in the shape of thin discs, in compact binary stars. As accretion discs rotate, all emitted line radiation is Doppler-shifted. In fast-ion Dα (FIDA) spectroscopy measurements in magnetically confined plas...

  2. Radar Doppler Processing with Nonuniform Sampling.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerry, Armin W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    Conventional signal processing to estimate radar Doppler frequency often assumes uniform pulse/sample spacing. This is for the convenience of t he processing. More recent performance enhancements in processor capability allow optimally processing nonuniform pulse/sample spacing, thereby overcoming some of the baggage that attends uniform sampling, such as Doppler ambiguity and SNR losses due to sidelobe control measures.

  3. Doppler tomography in fusion plasmas and astrophysics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salewski, M.; Geiger, B.; Heidbrink, W. W.; Jacobsen, A. S.; Korsholm, S. B.; Leipold, F.; Madsen, J.; Moseev, D.; Nielsen, S.K.; Rasmussen, J.; Stagner, L.; Steeghs, D.; Stejner, M.; Tardini, G.; Weiland, M.; ASDEX Upgrade team,


    Doppler tomography is a well-known method in astrophysics to image the accretion flow, often in the shape of thin discs, in compact binary stars. As accretion discs rotate, all emitted line radiation is Doppler-shifted. In fast-ion D-alpha (FIDA) spectroscopy measurements in magnetically confined pl

  4. Fostering Children's Interests in Gardening (United States)

    Lekies, Kristi S.; Sheavly, Marcia Eames


    Despite the rapidly growing interest in children's gardens and attention to the positive benefits of gardening for children, little is known about the ways in which young people actually form interests in gardening. Using a sample of 9- and 10-year-old children at a school garden site in New York State, this study examined the ways in which…

  5. Inverse Doppler Effects in Broadband Acoustic Metamaterials. (United States)

    Zhai, S L; Zhao, X P; Liu, S; Shen, F L; Li, L L; Luo, C R


    The Doppler effect refers to the change in frequency of a wave source as a consequence of the relative motion between the source and an observer. Veselago theoretically predicted that materials with negative refractions can induce inverse Doppler effects. With the development of metamaterials, inverse Doppler effects have been extensively investigated. However, the ideal material parameters prescribed by these metamaterial design approaches are complex and also challenging to obtain experimentally. Here, we demonstrated a method of designing and experimentally characterising arbitrary broadband acoustic metamaterials. These omni-directional, double-negative, acoustic metamaterials are constructed with 'flute-like' acoustic meta-cluster sets with seven double meta-molecules; these metamaterials also overcome the limitations of broadband negative bulk modulus and mass density to provide a region of negative refraction and inverse Doppler effects. It was also shown that inverse Doppler effects can be detected in a flute, which has been popular for thousands of years in Asia and Europe.

  6. Inverse Doppler Effects in Broadband Acoustic Metamaterials (United States)

    Zhai, S. L.; Zhao, X. P.; Liu, S.; Shen, F. L.; Li, L. L.; Luo, C. R.


    The Doppler effect refers to the change in frequency of a wave source as a consequence of the relative motion between the source and an observer. Veselago theoretically predicted that materials with negative refractions can induce inverse Doppler effects. With the development of metamaterials, inverse Doppler effects have been extensively investigated. However, the ideal material parameters prescribed by these metamaterial design approaches are complex and also challenging to obtain experimentally. Here, we demonstrated a method of designing and experimentally characterising arbitrary broadband acoustic metamaterials. These omni-directional, double-negative, acoustic metamaterials are constructed with ‘flute-like’ acoustic meta-cluster sets with seven double meta-molecules; these metamaterials also overcome the limitations of broadband negative bulk modulus and mass density to provide a region of negative refraction and inverse Doppler effects. It was also shown that inverse Doppler effects can be detected in a flute, which has been popular for thousands of years in Asia and Europe.

  7. Observation of the Zero Doppler Effect (United States)

    Ran, Jia; Zhang, Yewen; Chen, Xiaodong; Fang, Kai; Zhao, Junfei; Chen, Hong


    The normal Doppler effect has well-established applications in many areas of science and technology. Recently, a few experimental demonstrations of the inverse Doppler effect have begun to appear in negative-index metamaterials. Here we report an experimental observation of the zero Doppler effect, that is, no frequency shift irrespective of the relative motion between the wave signal source and the detector in a zero-index metamaterial. This unique phenomenon, accompanied by the normal and inverse Doppler effects, is generated by reflecting a wave from a moving discontinuity in a composite right/left-handed transmission line loaded with varactors when operating in the near zero-index passband, or the right/left-handed passband. This work has revealed a complete picture of the Doppler effect in metamaterials and may lead to potential applications in electromagnetic wave related metrology.

  8. Estimating the Doppler centroid of SAR data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Søren Nørvang


    After reviewing frequency-domain techniques for estimating the Doppler centroid of synthetic-aperture radar (SAR) data, the author describes a time-domain method and highlights its advantages. In particular, a nonlinear time-domain algorithm called the sign-Doppler estimator (SDE) is shown to have...... attractive properties. An evaluation based on an existing SEASAT processor is reported. The time-domain algorithms are shown to be extremely efficient with respect to requirements on calculations and memory, and hence they are well suited to real-time systems where the Doppler estimation is based on raw SAR...... data. For offline processors where the Doppler estimation is performed on processed data, which removes the problem of partial coverage of bright targets, the ΔE estimator and the CDE (correlation Doppler estimator) algorithm give similar performance. However, for nonhomogeneous scenes it is found...

  9. Doppler Assessment of Uterine Blood Flow in Recurrent Pregnancy Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Barzin


    Full Text Available Recurrent spontaneous abortion affects 2%-5% of"ncouples. Uterine perfusion is considered as one of the"nfactors that influences the success of implantation."nDuring the normal menstrual cycle, the impedance"nto uterine artery blood flow diminishes progressively"nduring the luteal phase, reaching the lowest values"nin the period coinciding with the implantation time."nImpedance of uterine arteries is a good indicator of"nthe possibility of a subsequent pregnancy. High blood"nflow resistance is associated with a reduced conception"nrate and women with lower pulsatility index values"nhave the highest possibility of becoming pregnant. An"nimpaired uterine perfusion could play a major role in"nthe pathogenesis of recurrent spontaneous abortion. In"nthis study, we examined sixty women with recurrent"nspontaneous abortion and a control group including"nthirty normal women with at least one previous"nuncomplicated pregnancy and without history of any"nabortion. Transvaginal sonography associated with"nDoppler flow measurement was performed during"nthe midluteal phase of a cycle in all women. The"nmeasurement of the ascending branch of both right"nand left uterine arteries was taken lateral to the cervix"nat the level of the internal os. The pulsatility and"nresistance index of both uterine arteries were calculated"nand compared in both groups. In this presentation we"nreport our finding in two groups. We also explain the"nexact method of study and present some interesting"ncases

  10. Color doppler sonography in thickened gallbladder wall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Sang Suk; Choi, Seok Jin; Seo, Chang Hae; Eun, Choong Ki [Inje Univ. College of Medicine, Kimhae (Korea, Republic of)


    The thickening of the gallbladder wall is a valuable finding for the diagnosis of cholecystitis, but may be seen in non-cholecystic disease as well as in acute or chronic cholecystitis. The purpose of this study is to determine the value of color Doppler sonography in differentiating the causes of thickened gallbladder wall. Ninety eight patients with thickened gallbladder wall(more than 3mm) which was not due to gallbladder cancer were prospectively evaluated with color Doppler sonography. Sixty-six cases, confirmed by pathologic reports and clinical records, were analyzed for correlation between thickened gallbladder wall and color flow signal according to the underlying causes. Of the 66 patients, 28 cases were cholecystitis and 38 cases had non-cholecystic causes such as liver cirrhosis, ascites, hepatitis, pancreatitis, renal failure, and hypoalbuminemia. Of the 28 patients with cholecystitis(12 acute, 16 chronic), 23(82%) had color Doppler flow signals in the thickened gallbladder wall. Of the 38 patients with non-cholecystic causes, eight(21%) had color Doppler flow signals. There was a statistically significant difference of color Doppler flow signals between the cholecystitis and non-cholecystic groups(p=0.0001). No significant difference of color Doppler flow signals was found between cases of acute and chronic cholecystitis. Of the 23 patients with color Doppler flow signals in 28 cases of cholecystitis, 18(78.3%) showed a linear pattern and five(21.7%) showed a spotty pattern. Of the eight patients with color Doppler flow signals in the 38 non-cholecystic cases, four(50%) showed a linear pattern and four(50%) showed a spotty pattern. In cholecystitis, a linear color Doppler flow signal pattern is a much more frequent finding than a spotty pattern. Color Doppler sonography is a useful and adequate method for determining whether a thickened gallbladder wall is the result of cholecystitis or has non-cholecystic causes.

  11. Doppler effect induced spin relaxation boom (United States)

    Zhao, Xinyu; Huang, Peihao; Hu, Xuedong


    We study an electron spin qubit confined in a moving quantum dot (QD), with our attention on both spin relaxation, and the product of spin relaxation, the emitted phonons. We find that Doppler effect leads to several interesting phenomena. In particular, spin relaxation rate peaks when the QD motion is in the transonic regime, which we term a spin relaxation boom in analogy to the classical sonic boom. This peak indicates that a moving spin qubit may have even lower relaxation rate than a static qubit, pointing at the possibility of coherence-preserving transport for a spin qubit. We also find that the emitted phonons become strongly directional and narrow in their frequency range as the qubit reaches the supersonic regime, similar to Cherenkov radiation. In other words, fast moving excited spin qubits can act as a source of non-classical phonons. Compared to classical Cherenkov radiation, we show that quantum dot confinement produces a small but important correction on the Cherenkov angle. Taking together, these results have important implications to both spin-based quantum information processing and coherent phonon dynamics in semiconductor nanostructures.

  12. Ballistics examination of air rifle. (United States)

    Bogiel, G


    The aim of this paper is to determine the velocity, energy, maximum range and distance at which pellets fired from an air rifle of kinetic energy below 17 J can pose a threat to unprotected human skin. Doppler radar equipment and exterior ballistics software were used in this examination.

  13. Ballistics examination of air rifle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Bogiel


    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to determine the velocity, energy, maximum range and distance at which pellets fired from an air rifle of kinetic energy below 17 J can pose a threat to unprotected human skin. Doppler radar equipment and exterior ballistics software were used in this examination.

  14. Ballistics examination of air rifle



    The aim of this paper is to determine the velocity, energy, maximum range and distance at which pellets fired from an air rifle of kinetic energy below 17 J can pose a threat to unprotected human skin. Doppler radar equipment and exterior ballistics software were used in this examination.

  15. Color Doppler sonography and angioscintigraphy in hepatic Hodgkin's lymphoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mirjana V Stojkovi(c); Vera M Artiko; Irena B Radoman; Slavko J Kne(z)evi(c); Snezana M Luki(c); Mirko D Kerkez; Nebojsa S Leki(c); Andrija A Anti(c); Marinko M (Z)vela; Vitomir I Rankovi(c); Milorad N Petrovi(c); Dragana P (S)obi(c); Vladimir B Obradovi(c)


    AIM: To estimate the characteristics of Color Doppler findings and the results of hepatic radionuclide angiography (HRA) in secondary Hodgkin's hepatic lymphoma.METHODS: The research included patients with a diagnosis of Hodgkin's lymphoma with metastatic focal lesions in the liver and controls. Morphologic characteristics of focal liver lesions and hemodynamic parameters were examined by pulsed and Color Doppler in the portal, hepatic and splenic veins were examined. Hepatic perfusion index (HPI) estimated by HRA was calculated.RESULTS: In the majority of patients, hepatomegaly was observed. Lesions were mostly hypoechoic and mixed, solitary or multiple. Some of the patients presented with dilated splenic veins and hepatofugal blood flow. A pulse wave was registered in the centre and at the margins of lymphoma. The average velocity of the pulse wave was higher at the margins ( P >0.05). A continuous venous wave was found only at the margins of lymphoma. There was no linear correlation between lymphoma size and velocity of pulse and continuous wave ( r = 390, P < 0.01). HPI was significantly lower in patients with lymphomas than in controls ( P < 0.05), pointing out increased arterial perfusion in comparison to portal perfusion.CONCLUSION: Color Doppler ultrasonography is a sensitive method for the detection of neovascularization in Hodgkin's hepatic lymphoma and estimation of its intensity. Hepatic radionuclide angiography can additionally help in the assesment of vascularisation of liver lesions.

  16. Doppler findings in chronic ectopic pregnancy: case report. (United States)

    Abramov, Y; Nadjari, M; Shushan, A; Prus, D; Anteby, S O


    Chronic ectopic pregnancy is an uncommon form of tubal pregnancy manifested as a pelvic mass with minimal symptoms and a low or absent titer of human chorionic gonadotropin. For this reason, most of the reported cases have been diagnosed only after explorative laparotomy. The value of Doppler ultrasonography for preoperative diagnosis of this entity has not yet been established. We report on a 36-year-old patient who was admitted for intermittent right lower quadrant abdominal pain of 3 months' duration, and a right adnexal mass found on pelvic examination. On Doppler ultrasonography, a right complex adnexal mass was demonstrated, characterized by extensive external vascularization, aberrant vessels and arteriovenous shunting, but with no internal blood flow. Explorative laparotomy revealed a right tubal mass adherent to the omentum, and covered by numerous enlarged and tortuous blood vessels originating in the omentum. Pathological examination of the mass revealed a chronic ectopic pregnancy. The possible contribution of Doppler-specific characteristics for the diagnosis of chronic ectopic pregnancy is described and discussed.

  17. Doppler radar fall activity detection using the wavelet transform. (United States)

    Su, Bo Yu; Ho, K C; Rantz, Marilyn J; Skubic, Marjorie


    We propose in this paper the use of Wavelet transform (WT) to detect human falls using a ceiling mounted Doppler range control radar. The radar senses any motions from falls as well as nonfalls due to the Doppler effect. The WT is very effective in distinguishing the falls from other activities, making it a promising technique for radar fall detection in nonobtrusive inhome elder care applications. The proposed radar fall detector consists of two stages. The prescreen stage uses the coefficients of wavelet decomposition at a given scale to identify the time locations in which fall activities may have occurred. The classification stage extracts the time-frequency content from the wavelet coefficients at many scales to form a feature vector for fall versus nonfall classification. The selection of different wavelet functions is examined to achieve better performance. Experimental results using the data from the laboratory and real inhome environments validate the promising and robust performance of the proposed detector.

  18. [The value of Doppler ultrasound studies in threatened premature labor]. (United States)

    Jörn, H; Funk, A; Fendel, H


    95 patients were investigated using Doppler ultrasound to evaluate its usefulness during the clinical management of patients with preterm labor, preterm rupture of membranes and incompetent cervix. Cases with additional pregnancy complications as preeclampsia or intrauterine growth retardation or infection of the amnion or the birth canal were excluded from our study. We examined the umbilical artery and the uterine arteries. Predicting preterm birth we found a sensitivity of 31.4% and a specificity of 70% for the former and a sensitivity of 34.3% and a specificity of 83.3% for the latter. As a result of our investigation we have to conclude that Doppler ultrasound is not able to predict sufficiently reliable preterm birth to use it in clinical management. Normal uterine blood flow in cases with preterm labor seems to indicate birth at term in a high degree.

  19. Curvature affects Doppler investigation of vessels: implications for clinical practice. (United States)

    Balbis, S; Roatta, S; Guiot, C


    In clinical practice, blood velocity estimations from Doppler examination of curved vascular segments are normally different from those of nearby straight segments. The observed "accelerations," sometimes considered as a sort of stochastic disturbances, can actually be related to very specific physical effects due to vessel curvature (i.e., the development of nonaxial velocity [NAV] components) and the spreading of the axial velocity direction in the Doppler sample volume with respect to the insonation axis. The relevant phenomena and their dependence on the radius of curvature of the vessels and on the insonation angle are investigated with a beam-vessel geometry as close as possible to clinical setting, with the simplifying assumptions of steady flow, mild vessel curvature, uniform ultrasonic beam and complete vessel insonation. The insonation angles that minimize the errors are provided on the basis of the study results.

  20. Testicular relapse of acute lymphocytic leukemia: Usefulness of color and power Doppler sonography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kwang Hun; Yoon, Choon Sik; Lee, Sung Il; Kim, Myung Joon [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Chang Hyun [Yang Dong Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    To evaluate the usefulness of color and power Doppler sonography in detecting testicular relapse of leukemia. Both gray- scale and color (power) Doppler ultrasound (US) were performed in seven patients. Two additional patients examined by gray-scale US only were included. The patients were 4-14 years old (mean age, 9 years). Ten tests were confirmed to have leukemic relapse, eight by pathology and two by clinical evidence. Gray-scale US showed variable findings: heterogeneous hypoechogenicity (5) and homogeneous isoechogenicity (5). In all seven patients (8 tests) who underwent both color and power Doppler US, diffuse and marked hypervascularity was demonstrated. One case showed enlarged epididymis with heterogeneous echogenicity, which was the same character as the involved testis. Color and power Doppler US are useful methods in the identification of the testicular relapse of leukemia by demonstrating diffuse, marked hypervascularity in the proper clinical settings.

  1. Optical Doppler tomography and spectral Doppler imaging of localized ischemic stroke in a mouse model (United States)

    Yu, Lingfeng; Nguyen, Elaine; Liu, Gangjun; Rao, Bin; Choi, Bernard; Chen, Zhongping


    We present a combined optical Doppler tomography/spectral Doppler imaging modality to quantitatively evaluate the dynamic blood circulation and the artery blockage before and after a localized ischemic stroke in a mouse model. Optical Doppler Tomography (ODT) combines the Doppler principle with optical coherence tomography for noninvasive localization and measurement of particle flow velocity in highly scattering media with micrometer scale spatial resolution. Spectral Doppler imaging (SDI) provides complementary temporal flow information to the spatially distributed flow information of Doppler imaging. Fast, repeated, ODT scans across an entire vessel were performed to record flow dynamic information with high temporal resolution of cardiac cycles. Spectral Doppler analysis of continuous Doppler images demonstrates how the velocity components and longitudinally projected flow-volume-rate change over time for scatters within the imaging volume using spectral Doppler waveforms. Furthermore, vascular conditions can be quantified with various Doppler-angle-independent flow indices. Non-invasive in-vivo mice experiments were performed to evaluate microvascular blood circulation of a localized ischemic stroke mouse model.

  2. Wideband radar micro-doppler applications (United States)

    Tahmoush, Dave


    Wideband radar provides a significant improvement over traditional narrowband radars for micro-Doppler analysis because the high bandwidth can be used to separate many of the signals in range, allowing a simpler decomposition of the micro-Doppler signals. Recent wideband radar work has focused on micro-Doppler, but there is a point where the narrowband approach used to analyze the micro-Doppler signals breaks down. The effect is shown to be independent of frequency, but the error relative to the bandwidth is shown to be inversely proportional to the frequency and proportional to the velocity of the subject. This error can create a smearing effect in the observed Doppler if it is not corrected, leading to reduced signal-to-noise and the appearance of more diffuse targets in Doppler space. In range-space, wideband data can also break the subject into several range bins, affecting the observed signal to noise ratio. The possible applications of wideband micro-Doppler radar are also shown, including the separation of arm movement from human motion which implies that the arms are not encumbered.

  3. Rotational Doppler effect in nonlinear optics (United States)

    Li, Guixin; Zentgraf, Thomas; Zhang, Shuang


    The translational Doppler effect of electromagnetic and sound waves has been successfully applied in measurements of the speed and direction of vehicles, astronomical objects and blood flow in human bodies, and for the Global Positioning System. The Doppler effect plays a key role for some important quantum phenomena such as the broadened emission spectra of atoms and has benefited cooling and trapping of atoms with laser light. Despite numerous successful applications of the translational Doppler effect, it fails to measure the rotation frequency of a spinning object when the probing wave propagates along its rotation axis. This constraint was circumvented by deploying the angular momentum of electromagnetic waves--the so-called rotational Doppler effect. Here, we report on the demonstration of rotational Doppler shift in nonlinear optics. The Doppler frequency shift is determined for the second harmonic generation of a circularly polarized beam passing through a spinning nonlinear optical crystal with three-fold rotational symmetry. We find that the second harmonic generation signal with circular polarization opposite to that of the fundamental beam experiences a Doppler shift of three times the rotation frequency of the optical crystal. This demonstration is of fundamental significance in nonlinear optics, as it provides us with insight into the interaction of light with moving media in the nonlinear optical regime.

  4. Staggered Multiple-PRF Ultrafast Color Doppler. (United States)

    Posada, Daniel; Poree, Jonathan; Pellissier, Arnaud; Chayer, Boris; Tournoux, Francois; Cloutier, Guy; Garcia, Damien


    Color Doppler imaging is an established pulsed ultrasound technique to visualize blood flow non-invasively. High-frame-rate (ultrafast) color Doppler, by emissions of plane or circular wavefronts, allows severalfold increase in frame rates. Conventional and ultrafast color Doppler are both limited by the range-velocity dilemma, which may result in velocity folding (aliasing) for large depths and/or large velocities. We investigated multiple pulse-repetition-frequency (PRF) emissions arranged in a series of staggered intervals to remove aliasing in ultrafast color Doppler. Staggered PRF is an emission process where time delays between successive pulse transmissions change in an alternating way. We tested staggered dual- and triple-PRF ultrafast color Doppler, 1) in vitro in a spinning disc and a free jet flow, and 2) in vivo in a human left ventricle. The in vitro results showed that the Nyquist velocity could be extended to up to 6 times the conventional limit. We found coefficients of determination r(2) ≥ 0.98 between the de-aliased and ground-truth velocities. Consistent de-aliased Doppler images were also obtained in the human left heart. Our results demonstrate that staggered multiple-PRF ultrafast color Doppler is efficient for high-velocity high-frame-rate blood flow imaging. This is particularly relevant for new developments in ultrasound imaging relying on accurate velocity measurements.

  5. Low-frequency high-definition power Doppler in visualizing and defining fetal pulmonary venous connections. (United States)

    Liu, Lin; He, Yihua; Li, Zhian; Gu, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Ye; Zhang, Lianzhong


    The use of low-frequency high-definition power Doppler in assessing and defining pulmonary venous connections was investigated. Study A included 260 fetuses at gestational ages ranging from 18 to 36 weeks. Pulmonary veins were assessed by performing two-dimensional B-mode imaging, color Doppler flow imaging (CDFI), and low-frequency high-definition power Doppler. A score of 1 was assigned if one pulmonary vein was visualized, 2 if two pulmonary veins were visualized, 3 if three pulmonary veins were visualized, and 4 if four pulmonary veins were visualized. The detection rate between Exam-1 and Exam-2 (intra-observer variability) and between Exam-1 and Exam-3 (inter-observer variability) was compared. In study B, five cases with abnormal pulmonary venous connection were diagnosed and compared to their anatomical examination. In study A, there was a significant difference between CDFI and low-frequency high-definition power Doppler for the four pulmonary veins observed (P frequency high-definition power Doppler was higher than that when employing two-dimensional B-mode imaging or CDFI. There was no significant difference between the intra- and inter-observer variabilities using low-frequency high-definition power Doppler display of pulmonary veins (P > 0.05). The coefficient correlation between Exam-1 and Exam-2 was 0.844, and the coefficient correlation between Exam-1 and Exam-3 was 0.821. In study B, one case of total anomalous pulmonary venous return and four cases of partial anomalous pulmonary venous return were diagnosed by low-frequency high-definition power Doppler and confirmed by autopsy. The assessment of pulmonary venous connections by low-frequency high-definition power Doppler is advantageous. Pulmonary venous anatomy can and should be monitored during fetal heart examination.

  6. Normal Doppler velocimetry of renal vasculature in Persian cats. (United States)

    Carvalho, Cibele F; Chammas, Maria C


    Renal diseases are common in older cats. Decreased renal blood flow may be the first sign of dysfunction and can be evaluated by Doppler ultrasound. But previous studies suggest that the resistive index (RI) has a low sensitivity for detecting renal disease. Doppler waveforms of renal and intrarenal arteries demonstrate decreased blood flow before there are any changes in the RI. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the normal Doppler flowmetrics parameters of renal arteries (RAs), interlobar arteries (IAs) and abdominal aorta (AO) in adult healthy, Persian cats. Twenty-five Persian cats (13 females and 12 males with mean age of 30 months and an age range 12-60 months) with normal clinical examinations and biochemical tests and normal systemic blood pressure were given B-mode ultrasonographies in order to exclude all nephropathies, including polycystic kidney disease. All measurements were performed on both kidneys. Both kidneys (n=50) were examined by color mapping of the renal vasculature. Pulsed Doppler was used to examine both RAs, the IAs at cranial, middle and caudal sites, and the AO. The RI was calculated for all of the vessels. Early systolic acceleration (ESA) of RA and IA was obtained with Doppler spectral analysis. Furthermore, the ratio indices between RA/AO, and IA/RA velocities were calculated. The mean values of peak systolic velocity (PSV) and the diameter for AO were 53.17±13.46 cm/s and 0.38±0.08 cm, respectively. The mean RA diameter for all 50 kidneys was 0.15±0.02 cm. Considering the velocimetric values in both RAs, the mean PSV and RI that were obtained were 41.17±9.40 cm/s and 0.54±0.07. The RA had a mean ESA of 1.12±1.14 m/s(2) and the calculated upper limit of the reference value was 3.40 m/s(2). The mean renal-aortic ratio was 0.828±0.296. The IA showed PSV and RI values of 32.16±9.33 cm/s and 0.52±0.06, respectively. The mean ESA of all IAs was 0.73±0.61 m/s(2). The calculated upper limit of the reference value was 2.0m

  7. Power Doppler US patterns of vascularity and spectral Doppler US parameters in predicting malignancy in thyroid nodules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamsel, S. [Departments of Radiology, Ege University School of Medicine, Bornova, Izmir (Turkey)]. E-mail:; Demirpolat, G. [Departments of Radiology, Ege University School of Medicine, Bornova, Izmir (Turkey); Erdogan, M. [Endocrinology, Ege University School of Medicine, Bornova, Izmir (Turkey); Nart, D. [Pathology, Ege University School of Medicine, Bornova, Izmir (Turkey); Karadeniz, M. [Endocrinology, Ege University School of Medicine, Bornova, Izmir (Turkey); Uluer, H. [Biostatistics, Ege University School of Medicine, Bornova, Izmir (Turkey); Ozgen, A.G. [Endocrinology, Ege University School of Medicine, Bornova, Izmir (Turkey)


    Aim: The purpose of this study was to determine whether spectral Doppler ultrasound (US) parameters, including resistive index (RI) and maximal systolic velocity (MSV), or vascular pattern can be used to distinguish malignant from benign thyroid nodules. Materials and methods: We prospectively examined 169 thyroid nodules in 134 patients undergoing sonographically guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB). Vascularity as determined by power Doppler US imaging was defined as absent, perinodular alone, or intranodular. For each nodule, the RI and MSV values were recorded as the average of the recordings obtained. Results of the FNAB and surgical pathological examination, if available, were used as a proof of final diagnosis to categorize all nodules as benign or malignant. Results: Seven nodules were excluded from study because of non-diagnostic FNAB results due to hypocellular or insufficient cytological material. Of the remaining nodules, nine were malignant (all confirmed at surgery) and 153 were benign. Of the 145 nodules with intranodular vascularity, nine (6.2%) were malignant and the remaining 136 (93.8%) were benign. The malignant nodules had a mean RI of 0.60 on intranodular and 0.58 on perinodular arteries. These values were not significantly higher than those associated with benign nodules (RI = 0.57 and RI = 0.56, respectively). Malignant nodules had a mean MSV of 20.4 cm/s on intranodular and 35.3 cm/s on perinodular arteries that were also not significantly different from those associated with benign nodules (p > 0.05). Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that Doppler US characteristics including vascular pattern, RI and MSV are not useful parameters for distinguishing malignant from benign thyroid nodules. Therefore, Doppler US characteristics including vascular pattern, RI and MSV values of thyroid nodules can not be used as a diagnostic method to determine which nodules should undergo FNAB.

  8. Ultrasound colour Doppler is associated with synovial pathology in biopsies from hand joints in rheumatoid arthritis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Martin; Ellegaard, Karen; Hebsgaard, Josephine B


    OBJECTIVES: Little is known regarding the association between ultrasound-determined pathological synovial blood flow and synovial pathology in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We therefore examined the association between colour Doppler ultrasound imaging and synovitis assessed by histopathology...

  9. Doppler backscatter properties of a blood-mimicking fluid for Doppler performance assessment. (United States)

    Ramnarine, K V; Hoskins, P R; Routh, H F; Davidson, F


    The Doppler backscatter properties of a blood-mimickig fluid (BMF) were studied to evaluate its suitability for use in a Doppler flow test object. Measurements were performed using a flow rig with C-flex tubing and BMF flow produced by a roller pump or a gear pump. A SciMed Doppler system was used to measure the backscattered Doppler power with a root-mean-square power meter connected to the audio output. Studies investigated the dependence of the backscattered Doppler power of the BMF with: circulation time; batch and operator preparations; storage; sieve size; flow speed; and pump type. A comparison was made with human red blood cells resuspended in saline. The backscatter properties are stable and within International Electrotechnical Commission requirements. The BMF is suitable for use in a test object for Doppler performance assessment.

  10. [Doppler ultrasound diagnosis in post-term pregnancy]. (United States)

    Jörn, H; Funk, A; Fendel, H


    The capability of Doppler flow velocimetry to predict intrauterine growth retardation is well known. The increased morbidity and mortality rate of postterm newborns is also well known. The aim of our study was to examine if Doppler flow velocimetry is able to indicate foetal jeopardy in the postterm period. Flow velocimetry of the foetal descending aorta, the umbilical artery, the uterine arteries and in 59 cases also the foetal middle cerebral artery was obtained from 167 pregnancies after 40 completed weeks of gestation. We found significant changes of normal values in prolonged pregnancy compared to third trimester normal values, examining the mean velocity of the foetal descending aorta and the S/D-ratio of the umbilical artery. No clinically significant changes were found examining the S/D-ratio of the uterine arteries and the pulsatility index of the foetal middle cerebral artery. Daily examinations of the foetal descending aorta were carried out in 23 and of the umbilical artery in 19 cases during the last four days before delivery, and in 11 cases of the foetal middle cerebral artery during the last three days before delivery. We did not find significant changes in the medians of the mean velocity of the foetal aorta, of the S/D-ratio of the umbilical artery and of the pulsatility index of the foetal middle cerebral artery. Measurement of sensitivity and positive predictive value of the four arteries examined showed, that Doppler ultrasound could not predict small for date infants or Caesarean section because of foetal distress.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. Doppler echocardiography in normal functioning valve prostheses. (United States)

    Cha, R; Yang, S S; Salvucci, T; DiBlasi, S


    Even though there has been some criticism regarding the Doppler evaluation in prosthetic valves because of inter-observer and intra-observer variability, among other factors, and Doppler study has a tendency to have falsely high gradients compared to invasive studies, especially mechanical aortic prostheses, Doppler evaluation can provide reliable hemodynamic information about valve function. This test may be particularly useful if used serially, when baseline values are known. Doppler measurement of gradient and valve area has an expected normal range that is specific for the prosthetic type, size, anatomical position, and chronological age. Clearly, a database involving these aspects is needed to provide a more accurate normal range. This study is intended to provide guidance for echocardiographers.

  12. Teaching the Doppler effect in astrophysics (United States)

    Hughes, Stephen W.; Cowley, Michael


    The Doppler effect is a shift in the frequency of waves emitted from an object moving relative to the observer. By observing and analysing the Doppler shift in electromagnetic waves from astronomical objects, astronomers gain greater insight into the structure and operation of our Universe. In this paper, a simple technique is described for teaching the basics of the Doppler effect to undergraduate astrophysics students using acoustic waves. An advantage of the technique is that it produces a visual representation of the acoustic Doppler shift. The equipment comprises a 40 kHz acoustic transmitter and a microphone. The sound is bounced off a computer fan and the signal collected by a DrDAQ ADC and processed by a spectrum analyser. Widening of the spectrum is observed as the fan power supply potential is increased from 4 to 12 V.

  13. High range resolution micro-Doppler analysis (United States)

    Cammenga, Zachary A.; Smith, Graeme E.; Baker, Christopher J.


    This paper addresses use of the micro-Doppler effect and the use of high range-resolution profiles to observe complex targets in complex target scenes. The combination of micro-Doppler and high range-resolution provides the ability to separate the motion of complex targets from one another. This ability leads to the differentiation of targets based on their micro-Doppler signatures. Without the high-range resolution, this would not be possible because the individual signatures would not be separable. This paper also addresses the use of the micro-Doppler information and high range-resolution profiles to generate an approximation of the scattering properties of a complex target. This approximation gives insight into the structure of the complex target and, critically, is created without using a pre-determined target model.

  14. High Throughput Direct Detection Doppler Lidar Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Lite Cycles, Inc. (LCI) proposes to develop a direct-detection Doppler lidar (D3L) technology called ELITE that improves the system optical throughput by more than...

  15. Student Microwave Experiments Involving the Doppler Effect. (United States)

    Weber, F. Neff; And Others


    Described is the use of the Doppler Effect with microwaves in the measurement of the acceleration due to gravity of falling objects. The experiments described add to the repertoire of quantitative student microwave experiments. (Author/DS)

  16. Inverse Doppler Effects in Broadband Acoustic Metamaterials

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhai, S L; Zhao, X P; Liu, S; Shen, F L; Li, L L; Luo, C R


    .... With the development of metamaterials, inverse Doppler effects have been extensively investigated. However, the ideal material parameters prescribed by these metamaterial design approaches are complex and also challenging to obtain experimentally...

  17. Correlation between manifestations of high frequency color doppler ultrasound and laboratory examination of knee joints lesions in patients with rheumatoid arthritis%类风湿膝关节炎高频彩色多普勒超声表现及其与实验室检查的相关性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周亚丽; 陈东风; 王少春; 何敬海


    Objective:To explore the correlation between manifestations of high frequency color Doppler ultrasound and laboratory examination of knee joints lesions in patients with rheumatoid arthritis(RA).Methods:40 patients of 58 knee joints with rheumatoid arthritis and 30 health adults of 30 knee joints were checked.We observed suprapatellar pouch effusion,synovial membrane and its blood supply,distal femoral articular cartilage and cortical bone changes,with or without popliteal cyst and so on. We analyzed the correlation among the synovial thickness,suprapatellar pouch effusion,erythrocyte sedimantation rate(ESR) and C-reactive protein(CRP).Results:There were different degrees of synovial thickness and suprapatellar pouch effusion in knee joints of patients with RA.By using Spearman analysis,the correlation coefficient was 0.306(P<0.05) between the degree of suprapatellar pouch effusion and erythrocyte sedimantation rate,the correlation coefficient was 0.293(P<0.05) between the degree of suprapatellar pouch effusion and C-reactive protein.Conclusion:The high frequency ultrasound can clearly show the knee joints disease of rheumatoid arthritis,there is a certain relationship between it and laboratory examination,and it can provide the basis for the diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis in a certain extent.%目的:探讨类风湿膝关节炎高频彩色多普勒超声表现与实验室检查的相关性。方法:对40例类风湿患者58个病变膝关节与30例正常人30个正常膝关节行高频彩色多普勒超声检查。观察内容:髌上囊积液、滑膜及其内血供、股骨下端关节软骨及骨皮质变化、有无腘窝囊肿形成等。分析滑膜厚度及髌上囊积液深度与血沉及C反应蛋白的相关性。结果:类风湿患者膝关节出现不同程度滑膜增厚,髌上囊积液增多。采用Spearman相关分析,髌上囊积液深度与血沉相关系数0.306,P<0.05,与C反应蛋白相关系数0.293,P<0.05;滑膜

  18. The role of Doppler ultrasound in rheumatic diseases. (United States)

    Porta, Francesco; Radunovic, Goran; Vlad, Violeta; Micu, Mihaela C; Nestorova, Rodina; Petranova, Tzvetanka; Iagnocco, Annamaria


    The use of Doppler techniques, including power, colour and spectral Doppler, has greatly increased in rheumatology in recent years. This is due to the ability of Doppler US (DUS) to detect pathological vascularization within joints and periarticular soft tissues, thereby demonstrating the presence of active inflammation, which has been reported to be correlated with the local neo-angiogenesis. In synovitis, DUS showed a high correlation with histological and MRI findings, thus it is considered a valid tool to detect pathological synovial vascularization. Moreover, it is more sensitive than clinical examination in detecting active joint inflammation and in the evaluation of response to treatment. In addition, DUS may be considered as a reference imaging modality in the assessment of enthesitis, MRI being not sensitive and histology not feasible. Moreover, it has been demonstrated to be able to detect changes in asymptomatic enthesis. In conclusion, DUS is a useful and sensitive tool in the evaluation and monitoring of active inflammation. Its widespread use in clinical rheumatological practice is recommended. The aim of this article is to review the current literature about the role of DUS in rheumatic diseases, analysing its validity, reliability and feasibility.

  19. Laser Doppler interferometer for vibration of rotating curved surfaces (United States)

    Wu, Giin-Yuan; Lee, Chih-Kung; Lin, San; Wakabayashi, Takenori; Ono, K.


    With the rapid advancement of today's ultra-high performance mechanical or mechatronic system such as magnetic or optical disk drives, improving metrology capabilities to examine the performance characteristics of these system are growing ever more important. The primary tested studied in this paper is an ultra-high precision ball-bearing spindle that possesses non-repeatable runout of less than 100nm. The metrology tool adopted is laser Doppler interferometer system that has Megahertz bandwidth and nanometer resolutions. Experimental data obtained clearly indicates that measuring vertical runout of a spindle motor is a straightforward process. However, a fundamental effect was identified, where the radial runout data was found to drift upward or downward with time, when using the laser Doppler system to measure the radial runout of ultra-high precision rotational systems whose surface profile is not flat. All of the underlying reasons that cause this undesirable effect were proposed and verified. Approaches that can be adopted to circumvent this apparent limitation on adopting the laser Doppler interferometer systems to measure rotational curved surface were implemented to further extend its application horizon. The experimental data realized and the application experience obtained were shown to further advance our measurement capabilities.

  20. Optical Doppler shift with structured light



    When a light beam with a transverse spatially varying phase is considered for optical remote sensing, in addition to the usual longitudinal Doppler frequency shift of the returned signal induced by the motion of the scatter along the beam axis, a new transversal Doppler shift appears associated to the motion of the scatterer in the plane perpendicular to the beam axis. We discuss here how this new effect can be used to enhance the current capabilities of optical measurement system...

  1. with Ultrasound Color Doppler Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin Takayama


    Full Text Available Color Doppler imaging (CDI can be used to noninvasively create images of human blood vessels and quantitatively evaluate blood flow in real-time. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of acupuncture on the blood flow of the peripheral, mesenteric, and retrobulbar arteries by CDI. Statistical significance was defined as P values less than 0.05. Blood flow in the radial and brachial arteries was significantly lower during needle stimulation on LR3 than before in healthy volunteers, but was significantly higher after needle stimulation than before. LR3 stimulation also resulted in a significant decrease in the vascular resistance of the short posterior ciliary artery and no significant change of blood flow through the superior mesenteric artery (SMA during acupuncture. In contrast, ST36 stimulation resulted in a significant increase in blood flow through the SMA and no significant change in the vascular resistance of the retrobulbar arteries. Additionally, acupuncture at previously determined acupoints in patients with open-angle glaucoma led to a significant reduction in the vascular resistance of the central retinal artery and short posterior ciliary artery. Our results suggest that acupuncture can affect blood flow of the peripheral, mesenteric, and retrobulbar arteries, and CDI can be useful to evaluate hemodynamic changes by acupuncture.

  2. Rangifer and human interests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David G. Anderson


    Full Text Available This article reviews biological and anthropological literatute on wild and tame Rangifer to demonstrate the powerful effect that this species has had on the imaginations of biologists, social scientists and local hunters. Through identifying a general 'human interest' in Rangifer, the author argues that there is great potential for these three communities to work together. To demonstrate this idea, the paper reviews several examples of successful and unsuccessful 'alliances' between local peoples and both natural and social scientists which have had a fundamental impact upon the history of these sciences. The paper examines recent theorerical models which suggest that human action is a major factor in the behaviour and ecology of the animals. The paper also analyses the ideas of many indigenous people for whom there is no categorical difference between semi-domesticated, semi-sedentary and migratory Rangifer through comparison with many 'anomalous' texts in English and Russian language wildlife biology. By reviewing the history of scholarly interest in Rangifer, the author argues that contemporary models of Rangifer behaviour and identity could be 'revitalised' and 'recalibrated' through the establishment of that dialogue between scientists and local peoples which so characterised the 19th century. Such a dialogue, it is argued, would help mediate many of the political conflicts now appearing in those districts where Rangifer migrate.

  3. Investigation of retinal vessel autoregulation using real-time spectral domain Doppler optical coherence tomography (United States)

    Bower, Bradley A.; Zhao, Mingtao; Izatt, Joseph A.


    Investigation of the autoregulatory mechanism of human retinal perfusion was conducted with a novel real-time spectral domain Doppler optical coherence tomography (SDOCT) system. Volumetric, time-sequential, and Doppler flow imaging was performed in the superior arcade region on normal healthy subjects breathing normal room air and 100% oxygen. The real-time Doppler SDOCT system displays fully processed, high-resolution [512 (axial) x 1000 (lateral) pixels] B-scans at 17 frames/sec in volumetric and time-sequential imaging modes, and also displays fully processed overlaid color Doppler flow images comprising 512 (axial) x 500 (lateral) pixels at 6 frames/sec. OCT fundus images generated from volumetric datasets updated in real time (up to 2 fundus images/sec for 100 x 100 pixel volumes) were used to image and localize retinal vessels for time-sequential and Doppler flow analysis. In preliminary measurements, data acquired following 5 minutes of 100% oxygen inhalation was compared with that acquired 5 minutes post-inhalation. The same arterial segments examined at both time points exhibit constriction in vessel diameter under pure oxygen inhalation of up to 7% and reduction in peak flow velocity as great as 38%, both of which are in good agreement with previous laser Doppler velocimetry studies.

  4. Development of quantitative Doppler indices for uteroplacental and fetal blood flow during the third trimester. (United States)

    Joern, H; Funk, A; Goetz, M; Kuehlwein, H; Klein, A; Fendel, H


    The aim of our study was to describe the development of uteroplacental and fetal blood flow during the third trimester. Doppler examination was carried out on 393 uncomplicated pregnancies with uncomplicated term delivery. Using a pulsed color Doppler, we calculated the maximum systolic, mean and maximum end-diastolic velocity after correcting the angle of insonation. Patients under tocolysis or other medication influencing blood flow parameters were excluded from this cross-sectional study. Summarizing the results gained by Doppler ultrasound investigation of the uteroplacental and fetal blood vessels, we created quantiles as quantitative Doppler indices for the maximum systolic, mean (TAMX = time averaged maximum velocity) and maximum end-diastolic velocity. The following conclusions could be drawn: (1) resistance to the blood flow in the maternal portion of the placenta does not change during the third trimester; (2) resistance to the blood flow on the fetal side of the placenta decreases up to week 42 of gestation; (3) cerebral vascular resistance decreases constantly up to gestational week 42; and (4) vascular resistance to the blood flow of the kidney decreases only slightly during the third trimester. This study offers clinically important values for quantitative Doppler flow velocimetry for the first time. We hope that our findings improve the usefulness of Doppler ultrasound as a diagnostic tool in obstetrical management.

  5. Significance of color doppler ultrasonography in the assessment of pancreatic carcinoma vascular invasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alempijević Tamara


    Full Text Available Background/Aim. It is highly appreciated to provide exact data on vascular invasion of pancreatic carcinoma relying as much as possible on non-invasive diagnostic procedures. Color Doppler ultrasonography has been proven as an efficient method for clinical staging of pancreatic carcinoma essential for therapeutic decisions. The aim of this study was to provide an analysis of the sensitivity and specificity for color Doppler ultrasonography in patients suffering from pancreatic carcinoma. Methods. We performed color Doppler ultrasonography examination in 43 patients with pancreatic carcinoma prior to the surgery. The findings of ultrasonography on neoplasm vascular invasion were correlated to the findings obtained during the subsequent surgical procedures. An estimation of neoplastic invasion of certain blood vessels including portal vein, celiac trunk, and superior mesenteric artery and vein is critical for decision making regarding surgical treatment. The patients with metastases of pancreatic carcinoma were excluded from the study. Results. Comparing color Doppler and the surgical findings we estimated the sensitivity for detection of neoplastic vascular invasion ranging from 79−93%, whereas the specificity range was from 83−93%. Conclusion. Color Doppler ultrasonography is a sufficiently sensitive and specific method for evaluation of vascular invasion in pancreatic carcinoma patients. Since color Doppler ultrasonography is a non-invasive, radiation free, and inexpensive diagnostic tool, considering also the results of this and similar studies we could strongly recommend its use for an initial presurgical evaluation of vascular invasion in pancreatic carcinoma patients.

  6. Doppler micro sense and avoid radar (United States)

    Gorwara, Ashok; Molchanov, Pavlo; Asmolova, Olga


    There is a need for small Sense and Avoid (SAA) systems for small and micro Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) to avoid collisions with obstacles and other aircraft. The proposed SAA systems will give drones the ability to "see" close up and give them the agility to maneuver through tight areas. Doppler radar is proposed for use in this sense and avoid system because in contrast to optical or infrared (IR) systems Doppler can work in more harsh conditions such as at dusk, and in rain and snow. And in contrast to ultrasound based systems, Doppler can better sense small sized obstacles such as wires and it can provide a sensing range from a few inches to several miles. An SAA systems comprised of Doppler radar modules and an array of directional antennas that are distributed around the perimeter of the drone can cover the entire sky. These modules are designed so that they can provide the direction to the obstacle and simultaneously generate an alarm signal if the obstacle enters within the SAA system's adjustable "Protection Border". The alarm signal alerts the drone's autopilot to automatically initiate an avoidance maneuver. A series of Doppler radar modules with different ranges, angles of view and transmitting power have been designed for drones of different sizes and applications. The proposed Doppler radar micro SAA system has simple circuitry, works from a 5 volt source and has low power consumption. It is light weight, inexpensive and it can be used for a variety of small unmanned aircraft.

  7. The gamma-ray Doppler factor determinations for a Fermi blazar sample

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun-Hui Fan; Jiang-He Yang; Yi Liu; Jing-Yi Zhang


    Observations suggest that γ-ray loud blazars are strongly beamed.The Fermi mission has detected many of blazars,which provide us with a good opportunity to investigate the emission mechanism and the beaming effect in the γ-ray region.We compiled the X-ray observations for 138 Fermi blazars (54 flat spectrum radio quasars,36 low-peaked BL Lacertae objects,and 48 high-peaked BL Lacertae objects) and calculated their Doppler factors,δγ.It is interesting that the calculated Doppler factors,δγ,are strongly correlated with the γ-ray luminosity.

  8. Interest rate derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenstrup, Mikkel

    This Ph.D. thesis consists of four self-contained essays on valuation of interest rate derivatives. In particular derivatives related to management of interest rate risk care are considered.......This Ph.D. thesis consists of four self-contained essays on valuation of interest rate derivatives. In particular derivatives related to management of interest rate risk care are considered....

  9. Contrast biases the autocorrelation phase shift estimation in Doppler tissue imaging. (United States)

    Ressner, Marcus; Jansson, Tomas; Cedefamn, Jonny; Ask, Per; Janerot-Sjoberg, Birgitta


    Quantitative assessment of regional myocardial function at rest and during stress with Doppler tissue imaging (DTI) plays an important role in daily routine echocardiography. However, reliable visual analysis is largely dependent on image quality and adequate border delineation, which still remains a challenge in a significant number of patients. In this respect, an ultrasound contrast agent (UCA) is often used to improve visualization in patients with suboptimal image quality. The knowledge of how DTI measurements will be affected by UCA present in the tissue is therefore of significant importance for an accurate interpretation of local myocardial motion. The aim of this paper was to investigate how signal contribution from UCA and nonlinear wave propagation influence the performance of the autocorrelation phase shift estimator used for DTI applications. Our results are based on model experiments with a clinical 2-D grayscale scanner and computational simulations of the DTI velocity estimator for synthetically-derived pulses, simulated bubble echoes and experimentally-sampled RF data of transmitted pulses and backscattered contrast echoes. The results show that destruction of UCA present in the tissue will give rise to an apparent bidirectional velocity bias of individual velocity estimates, but that spatial averaging of individual velocity measurements within a region-of-interest will result in a negative bias (away from the transducer) of the estimated mean or mean peak velocity. The UCA destruction will also have a significant impact on the measured integrated mean velocity over time, i.e., displacement. To achieve improved visualization with UCA during DTI-examinations, we either recommend that it is performed at low acoustic powers, mechanical index Doppler pulse package is preceded by a destruction burst similar to "Flash imaging" to clear the target area of contrast microbubbles.

  10. The Effect of Doppler Phenomenon on the Speed of Blood Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghaidaa Abdulrahman Khalid


    Full Text Available This research studying the phenomenon of Doppler (frequency Doppler as a method through which the direction and speed of the blood cells flows in blood vessels wear measured. This Doppler frequency is relied upon in medicine for measuring the speed of blood flow, because the blood flow is an important concept from the concepts of medicine. It represents the function and efficient of the heart and blood vessels in the body so any defect in this function will appear as a change in the speed of blood flow from the normal value assumed. As this speed changes alot in cases of disease and morbidity of the heart, so in order to identify the effect of changing the Doppler frequency on the speed of blood flow and the relationship of this frequency with the angles of transitions and receptions and the effect of changing the ultrasound transmitted frequencies on the measured velocities .The Doppler ultrasound system has been used which is more efficient and easier to be widely used as a practical application in Al Yarmouk Teaching Hospital on two subjects. The normal had a natural medical history in the blood vessels, and abnormal had carotid artery stenosis. This device will give the flow velocity of blood in the blood vessels which is useful to the examiner, the equation of Doppler as a mathematical model in the research is adopted the measured speed to clarify the amount of change in the frequency (shift in frequency. This speed was measured in five different blood vessels, large arteries (abdominal aorta and carotid artery in the neck and large veins (the inferior vena cava across the abdomen and the external Jugular vein in the neck and capillaries in the hand and fingers. Then using the measured velocities in these vessels the Doppler frequency was calculated from this mathematical model using MATLAB program, was found that as velocity of the blood increases, so does the Doppler frequency and vice versa. The greater the value of the Doppler angle

  11. Noninvasive monitoring of cardiac function in a chronic ischemic heart failure model in the rat: Assessment with tissue Doppler and non-Doppler 2D strain echocardiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baumann Gert


    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives Feasibility of noninvasive monitoring of cardiac function after surgically induced ischemic cardiomyopathy with tissue Doppler and non-Doppler 2D strain echocardiography in rats. Background The optimal method for quantitative assessment of global and regional ventricular function in rats with chronic heart failure for research purposes remains unclear. Methods 20 rats underwent suture ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery via a left thoracotomy to induce ischemic cardiomyopathy. Echocardiographic examination with estimation of left ventricular wall thickness, diameters, fractional shortening, ejection fraction, wall velocities as well as radial strain were performed before and 4 weeks after surgery. Results Mean LVEF decreased from 70 ± 6% to 40 ± 8% (p Conclusion It is feasible to assess dimensions, global function, and regional contractility with echocardiography in rats suffering from chronic heart failure after myocardial infarction. Particularly regional function can be exactly evaluated if tissue Doppler and 2D strain is used.

  12. [Color Doppler ultrasound of the scalp and hair]. (United States)

    Wortsman, X; Roustan, G; Martorell, A


    Color Doppler ultrasound is an imaging technique that allows the study of frequent diseases of the scalp and hair. This examination provides anatomical and functional information in real time that can reveal the extent, activity or severity of common diseases in a non-invasive way, and allows monitoring of their treatment. Copyright © 2015 Academia Española de Dermatología y Venereología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Doppler study of middle cerebral artery and umbilical artery in biometrically suspected intra uterine growth restricted pregnancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Kuber


    Conclusions: Doppler imaging is of value for monitoring pregnancies complicated with IUGR because it can provide indirect evidence of foetal compromise and is known to improve outcome of high risk pregnancies. Doppler evaluation is complementary to all other surveillance modalities. Because the changes in umbilical, uterine and MCA strongly correlate with pregnancy outcome in growth restricted foetuses the use of foetal biometry and Doppler examination is recommended in all cases of suspected IUGR cases. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(2.000: 403-414

  14. Changes in portal hemodynamics and acute rejection in the first 2 weeks after orthotopic liver transplantation - A prospective Doppler ultrasound study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, T; Slooff, MJH; Peeters, PMJG; Zwaveling, JH; Bijleveld, CMA; GiVanLoon, CETP; Klompmaker, IJ; Haagsma, EB


    RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES. To analyze changes in Doppler ultrasound variables of the portal vein in relation to liver biopsy findings, the authors performed a prospective study of 316 Doppler ultrasound examinations in the first 2 weeks after orthotopic liver transplantation on 23 patients. METHODS.

  15. Development of the doppler electron velocimeter: theory.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reu, Phillip L.


    Measurement of dynamic events at the nano-scale is currently impossible. This paper presents the theoretical underpinnings of a method for making these measurements using electron microscopes. Building on the work of Moellenstedt and Lichte who demonstrated Doppler shifting of an electron beam with a moving electron mirror, further work is proposed to perfect and utilize this concept in dynamic measurements. Specifically, using the concept of ''fringe-counting'' with the current principles of transmission electron holography, an extension of these methods to dynamic measurements is proposed. A presentation of the theory of Doppler electron wave shifting is given, starting from the development of the de Broglie wave, up through the equations describing interference effects and Doppler shifting in electron waves. A mathematical demonstration that Doppler shifting is identical to the conceptually easier to understand idea of counting moving fringes is given by analogy to optical interferometry. Finally, potential developmental experiments and uses of a Doppler electron microscope are discussed.

  16. Effects of respiratory manoeuvres on hepatic vein Doppler waveform and flow velocities in a healthy population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altinkaya, Naime, E-mail: [Department of Radiology, Baskent University Medical School, Adana (Turkey); Baskent University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Adana (Turkey); Koc, Zafer, E-mail: [Department of Radiology, Baskent University Medical School, Adana (Turkey); Baskent University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Adana (Turkey); Ulusan, Serife, E-mail: [Department of Radiology, Baskent University Medical School, Adana (Turkey); Baskent University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Adana (Turkey); Demir, Senay, E-mail: [Department of Radiology, Baskent University Medical School, Adana (Turkey); Baskent University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Adana (Turkey); Gurel, Kamil, E-mail: [Department of Radiology, Baskent University Medical School, Adana (Turkey); Baskent University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Adana (Turkey)


    Objective: This study was performed to determine the variations in Doppler waveforms and flow velocity during respiratory manoeuvres in healthy individuals with no liver disease. Materials and methods: In total, 100 individuals (75 women and 25 men) without known cardiac or liver disease were examined prospectively with duplex Doppler ultrasonography (US). We recorded the Doppler waveforms and peak systolic velocities (V{sub max}) of the middle hepatic vein during normal respiration, during breath-holding after quiet expiration and also during deep inspiration. Doppler waveforms are categorised as triphasic, biphasic or monophasic. Results: During normal respiration, hepatic venous waveforms were triphasic in 93% of subjects, monophasic in 6% and biphasic in 1%. During breath-holding after quiet expiration, the percentages were 91%, 6% and 3%, respectively. During deep inspiration, they were 80%, 18% and 2%, respectively. Although significant differences were noted between rates during deep inspiration and normal respiration, they were quite similar during normal respiration and breath-holding after quiet expiration (P < 0.05). The values of V{sub max} were significantly higher during normal respiration compared to quiet expiration and during quiet expiration compared to deep inspiration (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The velocities and waveforms of hepatic veins varied during respiratory manoeuvres. The status of respiration must be taken into consideration whilst examining the hepatic vein waveforms and velocities with duplex Doppler US.

  17. Colour doppler ultrasound assessment of the normal neonatal hip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz-Neira, C.L. [Dept. of Diagnostic Imaging, Alberta Children' s Hospital, Calgary, Alberta (Canada)], E-mail:; Laffan, E.; Daneman, A. [Dept. of Diagnostic Imaging, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Fong, K. [Dept. of Diagnostic Imaging, Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Roposch, A. [Dept. of Orthopedic Surgery, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Great Ormond Street Hospital, Inst. of Child Health, Univ. College London, London (United Kingdom)


    To determine the morphology and hemodynamic characteristics of the arterial vessels of the proximal femur according to specific anatomic regions in asymptomatic neonates in 2 pediatric-based health care institutions. Forty-three neonates (29 female, 14 male; age range, 2 d-3 mo; median age, 3 d) were enrolled in the study. Thirty-two (37%) of 86 hips were classified as Graf type IIA joints (mean alpha angle, 56.0{sup o} {+-} 2.7{sup o}), and 54 (63%) were classified as type I joints (mean alpha angle, 65.0{sup o} {+-} 4.6{sup o}). Colour and spectral Doppler imaging identified vessels running along the acetabular labrum, epiphyseal vessels, and femoral neck. We showed 4 different patterns of vascularity of the hips: radial, parallel, mixed radial-parallel, and indeterminate, however, they were not related to the hip maturity (P = .3, coronal plane; P = .62, transverse plane) or to the amount of colour pixels identified in each region (P = .35). The mean number of pixels in the ligamentum teres region was significantly higher than that in other regions of interest (P =.03). Except for the acetabular labrum arteries, Doppler spectrum waveforms of proximal femur arteries presented with low resistivity. There was a tendency towards females' acetabular arteries presenting with lower peak systolic velocities than males' acetabular arteries (P =.06). Colour Doppler spectrum waveforms and intensity of vascularity in normal neonatal hips differ according to the anatomic region under evaluation. This observation deserves further investigation on its role on the physiopathogenesis of neonatal hip disorders. (author)

  18. Doppler ultrasound and giant cell arteritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Marina Suelves


    Full Text Available Ana Marina Suelves1, Enrique España-Gregori1,2, Jose Tembl3, Stephanie Rohrweck1, Jose Maria Millán4, Manuel Díaz-Llopis1,4,51Service of Ophthalmology, La Fe University Hospital, Valencia, Spain; 2Department of Optics, University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain; 3Service of Neurology, La Fe University Hospital, Valencia, Spain; 4CIBERER, Ciber de Enfermedades Raras, Valencia, Spain; 5Faculty of Medicine, University of Valencia, Valencia, SpainObjective: To evaluate the utility of ultrasound in aiding the diagnosis of giant cell arteritis (GCA, in monitoring the response to corticotherapy, and in detecting early relapses.Methods: A pilot study, prospective, included 10 patients with suspected GCA. All patients underwent ultrasound examination of both temporal arteries before temporal artery biopsy (TAB, 3 weeks after starting treatment, and 3 months after diagnosis. For this study, the histological findings alone were used to define if patients were suffering from GCA. The findings on ultrasound were compared with the results of biopsy. The best place to perform TAB was observed by ultrasound.Results: All patients with positive biopsy were detected with ultrasound. No false positives were observed on ultrasound. The results presented give a sensibility, specificity, and positive predictive value of 100% for the use of ultrasound in the diagnosis of GCA. Two relapses were detected early by ultrasound during the follow-up.Conclusions: This pilot study suggests that eco-doppler may be a useful tool in diagnosis and clinic follow-up in patients with suspected GCA.Keywords: giant cell arteritis, ultrasound, temporal artery biopsy, optic nerve

  19. Diabetic Nephropathy : Evaluation with Doppler Ultrasonography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sim, Jung Suk; Kim, Seung Hyup; Kang, Heung Sik; Park, Jae Hyung; Han, Man Chung [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    To compare Doppler ultrasonography with laboratory tests in evaluation of diabetic nephropathy. Fifty-five patients (mean age = 60, M : F = 26 : 29) with diabetes mellitus underwent renal Doppler ultrasonography. Resistive indices were compared with degree of proteinuria, serum creatinine level, and creatinine clearance rate. Eighteen patients who showed no proteinuria or microscopic proteinuria had a mean resistive index (RI) of 0.72 (SD, 0.05), 16 patients with macroscopic proteinuria without nephrotic syndrome had a mean RI of 0.82 (SD, 0.13), and 21 patients with nephrotic syndrome had a mean RI of 0.90 (SD, 0.12). Renal RI correlated highly with serum creatinine level (r = 0.62) and creatinine clearance rate (r = -0.43). Renal Doppler ultrasonography provides a useful indication of renal function in diabetic nephropathy but cannot offer an advantage over conventional laboratory test

  20. Wide Angle Michelson Doppler Imaging Interferometer (WAMDII) (United States)

    Roberts, B.


    The wide angle Michelson Doppler imaging interferometer (WAMDII) is a specialized type of optical Michelson interferometer working at sufficiently long path difference to measure Doppler shifts and to infer Doppler line widths of naturally occurring upper atmospheric Gaussian line emissions. The instrument is intended to measure vertical profiles of atmospheric winds and temperatures within the altitude range of 85 km to 300 km. The WAMDII consists of a Michelson interferometer followed by a camera lens and an 85 x 106 charge coupled device photodiode array. Narrow band filters in a filter wheel are used to isolate individual line emissions and the lens forms an image of the emitting region on the charge coupled device array.

  1. Reliability of near-infrared angiography and micro-Doppler sonography for evaluating microvascular anastomoses. (United States)

    Mücke, Thomas; Wolff, Klaus-Dietrich; Wagenpfeil, Stefan; Hölzle, Frank; Scholz, Martin


    Intraoperative fluorescence angiography has been reported to be a promising method, with rapid and high-quality image production at low cost when used for the detection of microvascular complications. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reliability of intraoperative near-infrared indocyanine green angiography compared with microvascular Doppler testing in a standardized model in the rat with different vessel patencies. The carotid, aorta, and femoral vessels of 23 Wistar rats were used. Indocyanine green angiography and microvascular Doppler sonographic testing were performed to assess microanastomosis with a vessel patency randomly narrowed at the anastomosis to an outer patency of 100, 75, 50, 25, and 0 percent. A total of 424 investigations were performed for 68 anastomoses, including both indocyanine green videoangiographic and microvascular Doppler sonographic examinations. The overall sensitivity and specificity of the microvascular Doppler sonographic testing at different degrees of stenoses were 100 and 86.9 percent, respectively. The positive predictive value for all observations was 95.8 percent, and the corresponding negative predictive value was 100 percent. Indocyanine green angiography revealed an overall sensitivity of 95.3 percent and a specificity of 100 percent. The positive predictive value for these observations was 100 percent, and the negative predictive value was 84 percent. Indocyanine green angiography and microvascular Doppler sonography are quick and reliable methods for assessing blood flow in vessels in the laboratory model. The combined use of indocyanine green angiography and microvascular Doppler sonography can increase the accuracy of assessment of microvascular anastomoses intraoperatively. Indocyanine green can be used first, but followed by the microvascular Doppler in cases of a negative result to maximize accuracy.

  2. Observation of the inverse Doppler effect. (United States)

    Seddon, N; Bearpark, T


    We report experimental observation of an inverse Doppler shift, in which the frequency of a wave is increased on reflection from a receding boundary. This counterintuitive effect has been produced by reflecting a wave from a moving discontinuity in an electrical transmission line. Doppler shifts produced by this system can be varied in a reproducible manner by electronic control of the transmission line and are typically five orders of magnitude greater than those produced by solid objects with kinematic velocities. Potential applications include the development of tunable and multifrequency radiation sources.

  3. Reversed Doppler effect in photonic crystals. (United States)

    Reed, Evan J; Soljacić, Marin; Joannopoulos, John D


    Nonrelativistic reversed Doppler shifts have never been observed in nature and have only been speculated to occur in pathological systems with simultaneously negative effective permittivity and permeability. This Letter presents a different, new physical phenomenon that leads to a nonrelativistic reversed Doppler shift in light. It arises when light is reflected from a moving shock wave propagating through a photonic crystal. In addition to reflection of a single frequency, multiple discrete reflected frequencies or a 10 GHz periodic modulation can also be observed when a single carrier frequency of wavelength 1 microm is incident.

  4. Preprocessing of ionospheric echo Doppler spectra

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Liang; ZHAO Zhengyu; WANG Feng; SU Fanfan


    The real-time information of the distant ionosphere can be acquired by using the Wuhan ionospheric oblique backscattering sounding system(WIOBSS),which adopts a discontinuous wave mechanism.After the characteristics of the ionospheric echo Doppler spectra were analyzed,the signal preprocessing was developed in this paper,which aimed at improving the Doppler spectra.The results indicate that the preprocessing not only makes the system acquire a higher ability of target detection but also suppresses the radio frequency interference by 6-7 dB.

  5. Optical Doppler shift with structured light. (United States)

    Belmonte, Aniceto; Torres, Juan P


    When a light beam with a transverse spatially varying phase is considered for optical remote sensing, in addition to the usual longitudinal Doppler frequency shift of the returned signal induced by the motion of the scatter along the beam axis, a new transversal Doppler shift appears associated to the motion of the scatterer in the plane perpendicular to the beam axis. We discuss here how this new effect can be used to enhance the current capabilities of optical measurement systems, adding the capacity to detect more complex movements of scatters.

  6. Magnetic Doppler Imaging of Active Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Kochukhov, O


    We present a new implementation of the magnetic Doppler imaging technique, which aims at self-consistent temperature and magnetic mapping of the surface structures in cool active stars. Our magnetic imaging procedure is unique in its capability to model individual spectral features in all four Stokes parameters. We discuss performance and intrinsic limitations of the new magnetic Doppler imaging method. A special emphasis is given to the simultaneous modelling of the magnetically sensitive lines in the optical and infrared regions and to combining information from both atomic and molecular spectral features. These two techniques may, for the first time, give us a tool to study magnetic fields in the starspot interiors.

  7. Fabrication of Two Flow Phantoms for Doppler Ultrasound Imaging. (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaowei; Kenwright, David A; Wang, Shiying; Hossack, John A; Hoskins, Peter R


    Flow phantoms are widely used in studies associated with Doppler ultrasound measurements, acting as an effective experimental validation system in cardiovascular-related research and in new algorithm/instrumentation development. The development of materials that match the acoustic and mechanical properties of the vascular system is of great interest while designing flow phantoms. Although recipes that meet the flow phantom standard defined by the International Electrotechnical Commission 61685 are already available in the literature, the standard procedure for material preparations and phantom fabrications has not been well established. In this paper, two types of flow phantoms, with and without blood vessel mimic, are described in detail in terms of the material preparation and phantom fabrication. The phantom materials chosen for the two phantoms are from published phantom studies, and their physical properties have been investigated previously. Both the flow phantoms have been scanned by ultrasound scanners and images from different modes are presented. These phantoms may be used in the validation and characterization of Doppler ultrasound measurements in blood vessels with a diameter above 1 mm.

  8. Users Guide to the JPL Doppler Gravity Database (United States)

    Muller, P. M.; Sjogren, W. L.


    Local gravity accelerations and gravimetry have been determined directly from spacecraft Doppler tracking data near the Moon and various planets by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Researchers in many fields have an interest in planet-wide global gravimetric mapping and its applications. Many of them use their own computers in support of their studies and would benefit from being able to directly manipulate these gravity data for inclusion in their own modeling computations. Pubication of some 150 Apollo 15 subsatellite low-altitude, high-resolution, single-orbit data sets is covered. The doppler residuals with a determination of the derivative function providing line-of-sight-gravity are both listed and plotted (on microfilm), and can be ordered in computer readable forms (tape and floppy disk). The form and format of this database as well as the methods of data reduction are explained and referenced. A skeleton computer program is provided which can be modified to support re-reductions and re-formatted presentations suitable to a wide variety of research needs undertaken on mainframe or PC class microcomputers.

  9. Mucosal blood flow measurements using laser Doppler perfusion monitoring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dag Arne Lihaug Hoff; Hans Gregersen; Jan Gunnar Hatlebakk


    Perfusion of individual tissues is a basic physiological process that is necessary to sustain oxygenation and nutrition at a cellular level. Ischemia, or the insufficiency of perfusion, is a common mechanism for tissue death or degeneration, and at a lower threshold, a mechanism for the generation of sensory signalling including pain. It is of considerable interest to study perfusion of peripheral abdominal tissues in a variety of circumstances. Microvascular disease of the abdominal organs has been implicated in the pathogenesis of a variety of disorders, including peptic ulcer disease, inflammatory bowel disease and chest pain. The basic principle of laser Doppler perfusion monitoring (LDPM) is to analyze changes in the spectrum of light reflected from tissues as a response to a beam of monochromatic laser light emitted. It reflects the total local microcirculatory blood perfusion, including perfusion in capillaries, arterioles, venules and shunts. During the last 20-25 years, numerous studies have been performed in different parts of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract using LDPM. In recent years we have developed a multi-modal catheter device which includes a laser Doppler probe, with the intent primarily to investigate patients suffering from functional chest pain of presumed oesophageal origin. Preliminary studies show the feasibility of incorporating LDPM into such catheters for performing physiological studies in the GI tract. LDPM has emerged as a research and clinical tool in preference to other methods; but, it is important to be aware of its limitations and account for them when reporting results.

  10. Differentiation of dysplastic nodule from hepatocellular carcinoma on contrast-enhanced power and pulsed Doppler US

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Jung Hee; Baek, Seung Yon; Kang, Byung Chul; Chung, Hye Kyung [Ewha Womans University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    The purpose of this study was to differentiate dysplastic (DN) from hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with liver cirrhosis on contrast-enhanced power and pulsed Doppler US. Twenty-one patients with liver cirrhosis and a focal lesion were included. They consisted of biopsy proven 12 DNs (mean diameter; 1.8 cm, M : F = 5 :7, mean age 60) and 9 HCCs (mean diameter: 2.3 cm, M : F = 6 : 3,mean age 63). All the patients were prospectively examined with Acusion Computed Sonography 128XP/10 and 4 MHz vector transducer. Gray-scale US was done to assess the echogenicity of the focal lesion. Vascular flow signals within the focal lesion were examined with power Doppler US. After the injection of 7 ml (300 mg/ml) suspension of US contrast agent (Levovist, Schering, Berlin, Germary), vascular flow signals were graded to 4 grades on power Doppler US. Arterial and/or venous flow pattern on pulsed Doppler US were evaluated. Statistical analysis was done using chi-square method. On gray-scale US, 10 (83%) DNs showed hypoechogenicity and the other two (17%) showed hyperechogenicity 7 (78%) HCCs were hypoechoic and two (22%) were hyperechoic. On non-enhanced power Doppler US, all 12 cases (100%) of DNs had no vascular flow signal and four cases of nine HCCs (grade II: three, grade III: one) revealed vascular flow signals (p=0.429). On contrast-enhanced power Doppler US, 11 cases(92%) of DNs and all cases (100%) of HCCs showed increased vascular flow signals. Three (24%) of DNs and 7 (78%) of HCCs showed grade III and IV. There was a statistical difference in the grade of vascular flow signals between two groups (p=0.03). On pulsed Doppler US, the arterial flow was present in 2 (17%) DNs and 8 (89%) HCCs (p=0.002) and venous flow was present in 11 (92%) DNs and 5 (56%) HCCs. Combined flow appeared in 2 cases (16%) of DNs and 4 cases (44%) of HCCs. In differentiating DN from HCC, the higher probability of HCC can be considered if a focal lesion in cirrhotic patients has grade

  11. Power Doppler assessment of the neovascularization during uncomplicated fracture healing of long bones in dogs and cats. (United States)

    Risselada, Marije; Kramer, Martin; Saunders, Jimmy H; Verleyen, Piet; Van Bree, Henri


    The aims of this prospective study were to test the feasibility of assessing neovascularization with power Doppler ultrasonography and to investigate its usefulness to follow fracture healing of long bones in dogs and cats. A total of 51 patients (44 dogs and seven cats) were followed. Fracture types differed from simple to comminuted. Therapy ranged from external coaptation to plate osteosynthesis. Patients were followed with radiography, B-mode real time and power Doppler ultrasonography every 2-4 weeks until the fracture was healed. All fractures healed uneventfully. A semi-quantitative numerical score based on signal intensity, vessel area, and number of Doppler signals was assigned and the mean value was used to compare patients and examinations. Time postoperatively was divided into periods of 10 days. No Doppler signal was present during the first 10 days. The mean of the scores was highest between 11 and 20 days postoperatively and the median of the scores peaked between 21 and 30 days. A gradual decrease was seen thereafter. The mean of the scores was zero at 71-80 days and the median at 51-0 days postoperatively for the grouped results. In all positive power Doppler examinations, signals were present in and close to the callus. In seven patients (five dogs and two cats) signals were also present in the peripheral soft tissues in one of the follow up examinations. The normal healing process of fractured bones can be visualized using power Doppler ultrasonography and follows a distinctive time-dependent pattern.

  12. Operational Bright-Band Snow Level Detection Using Doppler Radar (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A method to detect the bright-band snow level from radar reflectivity and Doppler vertical velocity data collection with an atmospheric profiling Doppler radar. The...

  13. ISAR imaging using the instantaneous range instantaneous Doppler method

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wazna, TM


    Full Text Available In Inverse Synthetic Aperture Radar (ISAR) imaging, the Range Instantaneous Doppler (RID) method is used to compensate for the nonuniform rotational motion of the target that degrades the Doppler resolution of the ISAR image. The Instantaneous Range...

  14. Fish embryo multimodal imaging by laser Doppler digital holography

    CERN Document Server

    Verrier, Nicolas; Picart, Pascal; Gross, Michel


    A laser Doppler imaging scheme combined to an upright microscope is proposed. Quantitative Doppler imaging in both velocity norm and direction, as well as amplitude contrast of either zebrafish flesh or vasculature is demonstrated.

  15. 彩色多普勒超声检测胎儿脐血流在宫内窘迫诊断中的临床价值%Clinical application value of color Doppler ultrasonic examination on fetal umbilical cord blood flow in diagnosis of fetal distress in uterus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈冰; 郭蕾; 李春东


    Objective To investigate the clinical value of color fetal umbilical cord blood flow in diagnosis of fetal distress in uterus,and to analyze the features of umbilical cord blood flow indexes in distress in uteruses.Methods 300 pregnant women were selected.The peak values of umbilical arteries at end-systole (S),the peak values of umbilical arteries at end-diastole (D),the pulsation indexes (PI) and the resistance indexes (RI) were determined.Results The incidence of distress in uterus of the observation group (S/D≥3.0) was 83.33%,that of the control group (S/D<3.0) was 1.98%,and the difference between the two groups was statistically significant (P < 0.05).S/D,PI and RI values of fetuses under distress in uteruses were all significantly higher than those of the fetuses without distress in uteruses,and the differences were all statistically significant (P < 0.05).The differences in umbilical cord blood flow S/D values before birth between the two groups had no statistical significance (P > 0.05) ; in latent phase,active phase and the second stage of labor,the umbilical cord blood flow S/D values of fetuses under distress in uteruses were gradually increased,while those of the fetuses without distress in uteruses changed insignificantly,and the differences between the two groups were statistically significant (P < 0.05).Conclusion Color Doppler ultrasonic examination on fetal umbilical cord blood flow can effectively screen fetal distress in uterus,is beneficial to early diagnosis and therapy,can promote the rehabilitation of the sick babies,and consequently is worthy of clinical generalization and application.%目的 探讨彩色多普勒超声检测胎儿脐血流对宫内窘迫诊断的临床价值,分析宫内窘迫胎儿脐血流指数特征.方法 采用99SOD-Ⅵ多普勒超声脐动脉血流分析仪检测300例分娩孕妇脐动脉收缩末期峰值(S)、舒张末期峰值(D)、搏动指数(PI)和阻力指数(RI),比较宫内窘迫胎儿及

  16. Gray scale and Doppler ultrasound in placenta accreta: Optimization of ultrasound signs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Shawky


    Conclusion: Ultrasound and Doppler examinations of placenta have signs highly suggestive of placenta accreta due to high sensitivity and specificity with placental lacunae of turbulent flow and retro-placental myometrial thickness ⩽1 mm are of the highest specificity.

  17. Contrast-enhanced power Doppler ultrasonography of the metacarpophalangeal joints in rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szkudlarek, Marcin; Court-Payen, Michel; Strandberg, Charlotte;


    The aim of this study was to examine, with dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI as the reference, if contrast-enhanced power Doppler ultrasonography (CE PDUS) of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joints provides additional information for evaluation of synovial inflammation compared...... additional information in selected cases but did not in the present study increase the sensitivity of the method...

  18. The Doppler effect and the three most famous experiments for special relativity (United States)

    Klinaku, Shukri

    Using the general formula for the Doppler effect at any arbitrary angle, the three famous experiments for special theory of relativity will be examined. Explanation of the experiments of Michelson, Kennedy-Thorndike and Ives-Stilwell will be given in a precise and elegant way without postulates, arbitrary assumptions or approximations.

  19. Photoacoustic Doppler flow measurement in optically scattering media (United States)

    Fang, Hui; Maslov, Konstantin; Wang, Lihong V.


    We recently observed the photoacoustic Doppler effect from flowing small light-absorbing particles. Here, we apply the effect to measure blood-mimicking fluid flow in an optically scattering medium. The light scattering in the medium decreases the amplitude of the photoacoustic Doppler signal but does not affect either the magnitude or the directional discrimination of the photoacoustic Doppler shift. This technology may hold promise for a new Doppler method for measuring blood flow in microcirculation with high sensitivity.

  20. Acoustic micro-Doppler radar for human gait imaging. (United States)

    Zhang, Zhaonian; Pouliquen, Philippe O; Waxman, Allen; Andreou, Andreas G


    A portable acoustic micro-Doppler radar system for the acquisition of human gait signatures in indoor and outdoor environments is reported. Signals from an accelerometer attached to the leg support the identification of the components in the measured micro-Doppler signature. The acoustic micro-Doppler system described in this paper is simpler and offers advantages over the widely used electromagnetic wave micro-Doppler radars.

  1. Photoacoustic Doppler effect from flowing small light-absorbing particles. (United States)

    Fang, Hui; Maslov, Konstantin; Wang, Lihong V


    From the flow of a suspension of micrometer-scale carbon particles, the photoacoustic Doppler shift is observed. As predicted theoretically, the observed Doppler shift equals half of that in Doppler ultrasound and does not depend on the direction of laser illumination. This new physical phenomenon provides a basis for developing photoacoustic Doppler flowmetry, which can potentially be used for detecting fluid flow in optically scattering media and especially low-speed blood flow of relatively deep microcirculation in biological tissue.

  2. Utility of Doppler ultrasonography for diagnosing and assessing treatment effects in liver compartment syndrome. (United States)

    Ando, Yusuke; Ishigami, Masatoshi; Ishizu, Yoji; Kuzuya, Teiji; Honda, Takashi; Hayashi, Kazuhiko; Ishikawa, Tetsuya; Goto, Hidemi; Hirooka, Yoshiki


    Liver compartment syndrome is a life-threatening complication of hepatic subcapsular hematoma; diagnosis and assessment of treatment effects are therefore important. We report a rare case of liver compartment syndrome due to spontaneous hepatic subcapsular hematoma without any underlying conditions, in which Doppler ultrasonography (US) proved useful in both diagnosis and assessment of treatment effects. A 32-year-old woman experienced sudden epigastralgia and was diagnosed with hepatic subcapsular hematoma in the right lobe, based on contrast-enhanced computed tomography. Hepatic arteriography showed active hemorrhage and Doppler US showed retrograde flow in the right portal vein. From these findings, we diagnosed hepatic subcapsular hematoma complicated with liver compartment syndrome, and performed embolization of the bleeding point and percutaneous hematoma drainage. After these medical procedures, normalized antegrade flow in the right portal vein was observed on Doppler US. No underlying conditions contributing to hematoma were identified. In this case, Doppler US was useful for both diagnosis and assessment of treatment effects in liver compartment syndrome. When we examine patients with hepatic subcapsular hematoma, Doppler US should be used to diagnose the presence of liver compartment syndrome and assess treatment effects.

  3. Echocardiographic evaluation of external iliac artery Doppler waveform in patients with coronary artery disease. (United States)

    Styczynski, Grzegorz; Szmigielski, Cezary; Kaczynska, Anna; Kuch-Wocial, Agnieszka


    Visual interpretation of the Doppler waveform in the common femoral or distal external iliac artery (EIA) was reported to be useful in screening for proximal peripheral artery occlusive disease (PAOD) in patients with lower limb ischemia. Commonly patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) referred for echocardiography have coexistent arterial pathology. Therefore, we decided to study whether echocardiographic evaluation of the distal EIA flow can be useful for detection of PAOD in patients with CAD. We studied 150 consecutive patients (pts) with CAD referred for echocardiography. At the end of an echocardiographic examination, evaluation of the flow in the distal EIA with an echocardiographic probe was performed. The Doppler waveform was classified as normal-with early diastolic flow reversal or abnormal-without early diastolic flow reversal. Echocardiographic findings were compared in a blinded fashion with the results of the ankle brachial index measurements (ABI). Based on the ABI ≤ 0.9, peripheral artery disease was diagnosed in 54 pts (36%) and abnormal external iliac Doppler waveform was found in 27 pts (18%). Sensitivity of abnormal external iliac Doppler waveform in predicting PAOD was 48%, specificity 99%, positive predictive value (PPV) 96%, and negative predictive value 77%. Peripheral arterial occlusive disease is common in patients with CAD referred for echocardiographic study. Echocardiographic assessment of distal EIA Doppler waveform has low sensitivity, but high specificity and high PPV in the diagnosis of peripheral arterial occlusive disease.

  4. The effect of nonuniform motion on the Doppler spectrum of scattered continuous-wave waveforms (United States)

    Gray, John E.; Addison, Stephen R.


    The Doppler effect is a widely treated phenomena in both radar and sonar for objects undergoing uniform motion. There are many different models (Censor has written a history of the subject) one can use to derive the Doppler effect. The treatment of non-uniform motion is not widely discussed in the literature of radar and sonar. Some authors argue it is negligible, while others refer to work dating back to Kelly in the early sixties. The treatment by Kelly, based on waveform analysis in acoustics, is difficult to justify in electromagnetism. Using the language of waveform analysis it is difficult to determine when approximations are justified by the physics of the waveform interaction and when they aren't. By returning to electromagnetic considerations in the derivation and subsequent analysis, issues associated with the correct physics and proper approximations become transparent. We present a straight forward analysis of the non-uniform Doppler effect based on the relativistic mirror (moving boundary) that is undergoing arbitrary motion. The resultant structure of the scattered waveform provides a simple representation of the effect of non-uniform motion on the scattered waveform that can be more easily analyzed. This work is a continuation of earlier work done by Censor, De Smedt, and Cooper. This analysis is independent of narrow-band assumptions so it is completely general. Non-uniform motion can produce two types of effects associated with the Doppler spectrum, a baseband line that isn't straight and micro-Doppler off of the baseband that produces complicated sideband behavior. Complicated baseband and micro-Doppler are illustrated by using the example of a particular waveform, the continuous wave (CW) which is analyzed for a number of examples of interest to the radar community. Application of this information is then discussed.

  5. Clinical usefulness of doppler ultrasonography before percutaneous transluminal angioplasty immature native arteriovenous fistula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jeong Eun [Dept. of Radiology, Inje University Seoul Paik Hospital, College of Medicine, Inje University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Young Kwon; Sim, Jae Chan; Lee, So Young; Sung, Su Ah; Hwang, Young Hwan [Eulji General Hospital, College of Medicine, Eulji University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    To report the clinical efficacy of preprocedural doppler ultrasound examination for the treatment of immature arteriovenous fistula by means of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) and the efficacy of PTA about its treatment. From November 2008 to May 2013, 28 patients who were diagnosed with immature arteriovenous fistula using doppler ultrasound examination and obtained successful maturation of it after PTA were included in this study. A retrospective comparative analysis was performed according to the findings between doppler ultrasound examination and fistulography during the procedure. The success rate of PTA and patency of fistula were evaluated in each patient Doppler ultrasound examination revealed stenosis in twenty three patients and thrombotic total occlusion in five patients. Stenosis was located in the proximal cephalic vein 2 cm from the anastomosis in 67.8% (19/28). In the five cases of thrombotic total occlusion, the lesions were long lesions from the anastomosis to the entire proximal cephalic vein at the elbow joint level. Fistulography revealed 5 patients with thrombotic total occlusion and 24 stenosis sites in 23 patients, respectively. The location and characteristics of all lesions were consistent on doppler ultrasound examination. Only four cases were observed as non-thrombotic total occlusion on fistulography, which had more than 90% stenosis on doppler ultrasound examination. The initial success rate of PTA for immature arteriovenous fistula was 96.4% (27/28). In three patients, clinical success was obtained after four times of additional PTA. Six additional PTAs were performed during follow-up, no complications related to the procedures were found. The primary patency rate was 92.9% at 3 months, 60.7% at 6 months and 39.3% at 12 months. The estimated mean survival of arteriovenous fistula was 347.9 days and the estimated median survival was 232 days. Also, the 12 months primary patency rates between the stenosis group and occlusion

  6. Tissue Doppler imaging reproducibility during exercise. (United States)

    Bougault, V; Nottin, S; Noltin, S; Doucende, G; Obert, P


    Tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) is an echocardiographic technique used during exercising to improve the accuracy of a cardiovascular diagnostic. The validity of TDI requires its reproducibility, which has never been challenged during moderate to maximal intensity exercising. The present study was specifically designed to assess the transmitral Doppler and pulsed TDI reproducibility in 19 healthy men, who had undergone two identical semi-supine maximal exercise tests on a cycle ergometer. Systolic (S') and diastolic (E') tissue velocities at the septal and lateral walls as well as early transmitral velocities (E) were assessed during exercise up to maximal effort. The data were compared between the two tests at 40 %, 60 %, 80 % and 100 % of maximal aerobic power. Despite upper body movements and hyperventilation, good quality echocardiographic images were obtained in each case. Regardless of exercise intensity, no differences were noticed between the two tests for all measurements. The variation coefficients for Doppler variables ranged from 3 % to 9 % over the transition from rest to maximal exercise. The random measurement error was, on average, 5.8 cm/s for E' and 4.4 cm/s for S'. Overall, the reproducibility of TDI was acceptable. Tissue Doppler imaging can be used to accurately evaluate LV diastolic and/or systolic function for this range of exercise intensity.

  7. Power Doppler sonography of cervical lymphadenopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahuja, Anil; Ying, Michael; Yuen, Yuen Hok; Metreweli, Constantine


    AIMS: The supraclavicular region is a common site for tuberculous and metastatic nodes from infraclavicular carcinomas. Grey scale sonographic features differentiating the two have been previously described. However, as power Doppler sonography is now frequently used in the assessment of neck nodes, power Doppler features that may help to differentiate the two are discussed. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In 78 patients, power Doppler sonograms of nodes involved by metastases from infraclavicular carcinomas (n = 24) and tuberculosis (n = 54) were evaluated. The intranodal distribution of vessels and the intranodal vascular resistance of vessels was assessed and compared. In addition, the power Doppler features of metastatic nodes from infraclavicular carcinomas were compared with metastatic nodes from a head and neck primary (n = 38) such as nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). RESULTS: Tuberculous nodes frequently demonstrated displaced hilar vascularity or avascularity and the intranodal vascular resistance was low. Metastatic nodes from infraclavicular primaries demonstrated capsular or mixed vascularity and their intranodal resistance was significantly (P < 0.05) higher. In general, metastatic nodes from infraclavicular primaries had a higher intranodal vascular resistance compared to metastatic nodes from NPC, but this was not statistically significant. CONCLUSION: In the supraclavicular region, the presence of displaced low resistance hilar vascularity or avascularity in nodes is suggestive of tuberculous nodes. Metastatic nodes from infraclavicular primaries have a capsular or mixed vascularity with high resistance. Ahuja, A. et al. (2001)

  8. Investigations of Near-Zone Doppler Effects. (United States)

    Prouty, Dale Austen

    Far away from an electromagnetic source the normal Doppler shifts in frequency occur--a red shift for receding and a blue shift for approaching. As indicated by previous work with an infinitesimal dipole, different frequency shifts occur when the source and observer move closer together, into the near-zone. These "near-zone Doppler effects" are investigated for general sources and subsequently two specific examples are presented. The general results show that near-zone shifts are similar to far-zone shifts, but the local phase velocity must be used, i.e. (DIAGRAM, TABLE OR GRAPHIC OMITTED...PLEASE SEE DAI). In the far zone the phase velocity is the speed of light; in the near zone it differs. Fundamentally, the distance between surfaces of constant phase in the near zone is changed. The surfaces of constant phase for the waves are no longer spherical, but more ellipsoidal or spheroidal, so that a moving observer sees a different frequency shift. Two specific examples are presented to indicate the actual magnitude of near-zone effects. The examples include a prolate spheroidal antenna and a circular aperture. Once the magnitude of the effects is determined, the measurability of near-zone Doppler effects is discussed. The investigation concentrates on Fresnel zone effects due to the measurement problem. Finally, it is shown that for an electrically large wire antenna (the spheroidal example) near-zone Doppler effects are measurable.

  9. Spectroscopic observation of the rotational Doppler effect. (United States)

    Barreiro, S; Tabosa, J W R; Failache, H; Lezama, A


    We report on the first spectroscopic observation of the rotational Doppler shift associated with light beams carrying orbital angular momentum. The effect is evidenced as the broadening of a Hanle electromagnetically induced transparency coherence resonance on Rb vapor when the two incident Laguerre-Gaussian laser beams have opposite topological charges. The observations closely agree with theoretical predictions.

  10. Method for Canceling Ionospheric Doppler Effect (United States)

    Vessot, R. F. C.


    Unified transponder system with hydrogen-maser oscillators at both stations can compensate for both motional and ionospheric components of Doppler shift. Appropriate choices of frequency shift in output of mixer m3. System exploits proportionality between dispersive component of frequency shift and reciprocal of frequency to achieve cancellation of dispersive component at output.

  11. Calculating "g" from Acoustic Doppler Data (United States)

    Torres, Sebastian; Gonzalez-Espada, Wilson J.


    Traditionally, the Doppler effect for sound is introduced in high school and college physics courses. Students calculate the perceived frequency for several scenarios relating a stationary or moving observer and a stationary or moving sound source. These calculations assume a constant velocity of the observer and/or source. Although seldom…

  12. [Phlegmasia alba dolens diagnosed with Doppler ultrasonography]. (United States)

    Wulff, C; Lorentzen, T; Christensen, E; Pedersen, E B


    Differential diagnostic problems may occur in a patient with a cold, pale and swollen leg. Especially when the peripheral blood pressure is reduced, it is particularly difficult to distinguish cases caused by venous thrombosis from those caused by arterial embolism. Colour-Doppler ultra-sonography might be helpful for establishing the correct diagnosis. A case history is presented.

  13. Doppler Shift Compensation Schemes in VANETs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Nyongesa


    Full Text Available Over the last decade vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V communication has received a lot of attention as it is a crucial issue in intravehicle communication as well as in Intelligent Transportation System (ITS. In ITS the focus is placed on integration of communication between mobile and fixed infrastructure to execute road safety as well as nonsafety information dissemination. The safety application such as emergence alerts lays emphasis on low-latency packet delivery rate (PDR, whereas multimedia and infotainment call for high data rates at low bit error rate (BER. The nonsafety information includes multimedia streaming for traffic information and infotainment applications such as playing audio content, utilizing navigation for driving, and accessing Internet. A lot of vehicular ad hoc network (VANET research has focused on specific areas including channel multiplexing, antenna diversity, and Doppler shift compensation schemes in an attempt to optimize BER performance. Despite this effort few surveys have been conducted to highlight the state-of-the-art collection on Doppler shift compensation schemes. Driven by this cause we survey some of the recent research activities in Doppler shift compensation schemes and highlight challenges and solutions as a stock-taking exercise. Moreover, we present open issues to be further investigated in order to address the challenges of Doppler shift in VANETs.

  14. On acceleration dependence of Doppler effect in light

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sanjay M Wagh


    Using only the geometric relationships of suitable locations, we analyse Doppler effect in light to show how the acceleration of the source also contributes to the Doppler shift. We further propose that an experiment be performed using cyclotron-type devices to determine the acceleration dependence of the Doppler shift.

  15. Radar micro-doppler signatures processing and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Victor C; Miceli, William J


    Radar Micro-Doppler Signatures: Processing and applications concentrates on the processing and application of radar micro-Doppler signatures in real world situations, providing readers with a good working knowledge on a variety of applications of radar micro-Doppler signatures.

  16. Musculoskeletal colour/power Doppler in sports medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesen, M I; Boesen, M; Langberg, Henning


    guidelines and recommendations are based on personal experience since no evidence in literature exists. The basic technical background of Doppler ultrasound and typical artefacts will be discussed, in order to understand and interpret the Doppler result. Recommendations for the Doppler settings are given...

  17. 21 CFR 892.1550 - Ultrasonic pulsed doppler imaging system. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ultrasonic pulsed doppler imaging system. 892.1550... system. (a) Identification. An ultrasonic pulsed doppler imaging system is a device that combines the features of continuous wave doppler-effect technology with pulsed-echo effect technology and is intended...

  18. Solid breast neoplasms: Differential diagnosis with pulsed Doppler ultrasound

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.J.A. Kuijpers (T. J A); A.I.M. Obdeijn (Inge-Marie); Ph.M. Kruyt (Philip); M. Oudkerk (Matthijs)


    textabstractIn this prospective study, duplex Doppler ultrasound was used in 95 consecutive patients with solid breast masses to evaluate the presence of neovascular flow. A positive Doppler signal, i.e., a Doppler shift frequency of more than 1 kHz using a 5 MHz insonating frequency, was found in 3

  19. Real-time and interactive virtual Doppler ultrasound (United States)

    Hirji, Samira; Downey, Donal B.; Holdsworth, David W.; Steinman, David A.


    This paper describes our "virtual" Doppler ultrasound (DUS) system, in which colour DUS (CDUS) images and DUS spectrograms are generated on-the-fly and displayed in real-time in response to position and orientation cues provided by a magnetically tracked handheld probe. As the presence of complex flow often confounds the interpretation of Doppler ultrasound data, this system will serve to be a fundamental tool for training sonographers and gaining insight into the relationship between ambiguous DUS images and complex blood flow dynamics. Recently, we demonstrated that DUS spectra could be realistically simulated in real-time, by coupling a semi-empirical model of the DUS physics to a 3-D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model of a clinically relevant flow field. Our system is an evolution of this approach where a motion-tracking device is used to continuously update the origin and orientation of a slice passing through a CFD model of a stenosed carotid bifurcation. After calibrating our CFD model onto a physical representation of a human neck, virtual CDUS images from an instantaneous slice are then displayed at a rate of approximately 15 Hz by simulating, on-the-fly, an array of DUS spectra and colour coding the resulting spectral mean velocity using a traditional Doppler colour scale. Mimicking a clinical examination, the operator can freeze the CDUS image on-screen, and a spectrogram corresponding to the selected sample volume location is rendered at a higher frame rate of at least 30 Hz. All this is achieved using an inexpensive desktop workstation and commodity graphics card.

  20. The age-related advancement of arterial disease measured by Doppler ultrasound diastolic flow analysis. (United States)

    Terenzi, T; Gallagher, D; DeMeersman, R; Beadle, E; Muller, D


    To quantify by A-mode Doppler sonography the age-related progression of arterial disease so that age dependent normal values may be established for the screening Doppler peripheral arterial exam. Arterial distensibility was assessed by A-mode Doppler diastolic flow analysis as a measure of atherogenesis. These values will increase the sensitivity and decrease the incidence of false-positive results when the Doppler exam is utilized to differentially diagnosis vascular and sciatic neurogenic claudication. The relationship between age and results from the standard ankle/arm index ultrasound pneumatic cuff examination was also analyzed. A two by three analysis of variance with orthogonal Helmert contrast codes and simple linear regression analysis was utilized for this cross-sectionally designed investigation. The dependent measures of diastolic flow analysis and ankle/arm pressure index were obtained within three nested successively increasing age groups. Chiropractic office. Studied were a total of 90 sedentary nonsmoking subjects, aged 23-79 yr, all of whom had normally accepted levels of serum glucose, cholesterol and blood pressure. Subjects were screened for evidence of aortic coarctation, myocardial infarction, tachyarrhythmia, aortic valve stenosis, mitral prolapse, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, diabetes and peripheral occlusive arterial disease. Anthropometric measurements and percent body fat were obtained. A predictive oxygen consumption bike ergometer test was performed to obtain aerobic capacity. The commonly utilized standard ankle/arm index ultrasound pneumatic cuff examination and arterial diastolic flow analysis were performed with A-mode Doppler ultrasound on all subjects. These results demonstrate that a significant inverse linear relationship exists between aging and arterial compliance (p < .0001) in our population. Diastolic flow analysis had a greater sensitivity to arterial disease than the standard ankle/arm index ultrasound pneumatic

  1. Rubidium atomic line filtered (RALF) Doppler velocimetry (United States)

    Fajardo, Mario E.; Molek, Christopher D.; Vesely, Annamaria L.


    We report recent improvements to our Rubidium Atomic Line Filtered (RALF) Doppler velocimetry apparatus [M.E. Fajardo, C.D. Molek, and A.L. Vesely, J. Appl. Phys. 118, 144901 (2015)]. RALF is a high-velocity and high-acceleration adaptation of the Doppler Global Velocimetry method for measuring multi-dimensional velocity vector flow fields, which was developed in the 1990s by aerodynamics researchers [H. Komine, U.S. Patent #4,919,536]. Laser velocimetry techniques in common use within the shock physics community (e.g. VISAR, Fabry-Pérot, PDV) decode the Doppler shift of light reflected from a moving surface via interference phenomena. In contrast, RALF employs a completely different physical principle: the frequency-dependent near-resonant optical transmission of a Rb/N2 gas cell, to encode the Doppler shift of reflected λ0 ≈ 780.24 nm light directly onto the transmitted light intensity. Thus, RALF is insensitive to minor changes to the optical pathlengths and transit times of the Doppler shifted light, which promises a number of practical advantages in imaging velocimetry applications. The single-point RALF proof-of-concept apparatus described here is fiber optic based, and our most recent modifications include the incorporation of a larger bandwidth detection system, and a second 780 nm laser for simultaneous upshifted-PDV (UPDV) measurements. We report results for the laser driven launch of a 10-μm-thick aluminum flyer which show good agreement between the RALF and UPDV velocity profiles, within the limitations of the admittedly poor signal:noise ratio (SNR) RALF data.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welsch, Brian T.; Fisher, George H. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-7450 (United States); Sun, Xudong [W. W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)


    The zero point of measured photospheric Doppler shifts is uncertain for at least two reasons: instrumental variations (from, e.g., thermal drifts); and the convective blueshift, a known correlation between intensity and upflows. Accurate knowledge of the zero point is, however, useful for (1) improving estimates of the Poynting flux of magnetic energy across the photosphere, and (2) constraining processes underlying flux cancellation, the mutual apparent loss of magnetic flux in closely spaced, opposite-polarity magnetogram features. We present a method to absolutely calibrate line-of-sight (LOS) velocities in solar active regions (ARs) near disk center using three successive vector magnetograms and one Dopplergram coincident with the central magnetogram. It exploits the fact that Doppler shifts measured along polarity inversion lines (PILs) of the LOS magnetic field determine one component of the velocity perpendicular to the magnetic field, and optimizes consistency between changes in LOS flux near PILs and the transport of transverse magnetic flux by LOS velocities, assuming that ideal electric fields govern the magnetic evolution. Previous calibrations fitted the center-to-limb variation of Doppler velocities, but this approach cannot, by itself, account for residual convective shifts at the limb. We apply our method to vector magnetograms of AR 11158, observed by the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager aboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory, and find clear evidence of offsets in the Doppler zero point in the range of 50-550 m s{sup -1}. In addition, we note that a simpler calibration can be determined from an LOS magnetogram and Dopplergram pair from the median Doppler velocity among all near-disk-center PIL pixels. We briefly discuss shortcomings in our initial implementation, and suggest ways to address these. In addition, as a step in our data reduction, we discuss the use of temporal continuity in the transverse magnetic field direction to correct apparently

  3. Comparison of foetomaternal circulation in normal pregnancies and pregnancy induced hypertension using color Doppler studies. (United States)

    Gupta, Shikha; Misra, R; Ghosh, U K; Gupta, V; Srivastava, D


    The aim of present study was to assess fetomaternal blood flows in normal and abnormal pregnancies using color Doppler indices. Subjects were divided into two groups as: Group A of 25 subjects of normal pregnancy as controls and group B of 25 subjects of pregnancy induced hypertension. All the subjects were lying in the age-group of 25-35 years and having 28 to 34 weeks of gestation; the patients were evaluated by detailed history and were subjected to complete general examination. Blood pressure was taken on two occasions at least 6 hours apart. Systemic examination and obstetrical examination was done in all subjects. All cases were subjected to pathological tests- Haemogram, Test for proteins in urine. Ultrasound assessment of fetal growth was done by measuring BPD (Biparietal diameter), HC (Head circumference), FL (Femur length) and AC (Abdominal circumference): Average gestational age and effective fetal weight was then calculated by ultrasound machine. Color Doppler was used to assess the various Doppler indices indices: Pulsatility index (PI), Resistive index (RI) and Systolic diastolic ratio (S/D ratio) in bilateral uterine, umbilical and middle cerebral arteries and compared to the standard normograms. Percentage of subjects having abnormal Doppler indices were calculated. Assessment of percentage of SGA (small for gestational age) fetuses was done in all the three groups. Decline in mean values of all Doppler indices was found with advancing gestational age in normal pregnancy suggesting decreased vascular resistance and increased blood flow in fetomaternal circulation. In pregnancy induced hypertensives, the mean values of Doppler indices showed a decline as in normal pregnancy but showed an increase (more than 2 S.D. of the mean) for that gestational age in comparison to the control group suggesting increased impedance to blood flow in uteroplacental and fetomaternal circulation. Umbilical artery Doppler indices were found to be the most sensitive

  4. Fibromatosis colli: findings at high-resolution ultrasound and color Doppler images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Deok Hee; Shin, Myung Jin; Choi, Hye Young; Choi, Soo Na Mi; Kim, Yong Hwan [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)


    Fibromatosis colli is a unique mass of sternocleidomastoid muscle, which usually presents in neonatal period and disappears within one year of age. The diagnosis of this disease is not difficult with the findings of ultrasound and the unique clinical behavior of the mass. The purposes of this study are to evaluate the detailed sonographic features of fibromatosis colli and to find the value of color Doppler studies on the initial examinations and the follow-up of the patients. Twenty-four patients who were diagnosed as fibromatosis colli by the clinical history and ultrasound examination were studied. Among them, 11 patients underwent follow-up studies including color Doppler imaging. We evaluated the size, shape and echogenicity of the mass. The sonographic features and the findings at color Doppler imaging of 11 follow-up studies were compared with those of the initial examinations. Most of the masses were identified at about 3 weeks of age. The mean size of the masses was30x10x15mm. Most of the masses were round (n=13,54%) or fusiform (n=8,33%) in shape. The chogenicity of the mass was iso- (n=15,63%) or slightly hyperechoic (n=9,37%) to that of the surrounding muscles. All 8 cases examined with color Doppler showed branching pattern of arterial signal within the mass at the initial examination. On the follow-up studies, most of the lesions decreased in size and increased in their echogenicity. There was no color Doppler signal on the follow-up study in 7 out of 8 patients in whom both the initial and the follow-up color Doppler imagings were performed. In conclusion, the sonographic findings of fibromatosis coli were more complicated than those described by previous literatures and color Doppler examination could give more information about this disease especially on follow-up studies. A long term follow-up of larger series is required to know the practical significance of the results of follow-up studies

  5. Factors associated with pharmacy student interest in international study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Owen, Chelsea; Breheny, Patrick; Ingram, Richard; Pfeifle, William; Cain, Jeff; Ryan, Melody


      To examine the interest of pharmacy students in international study, the demographic factors and involvement characteristics associated with that interest, and the perceived advantages and barriers...

  6. Transient basilar artery occlusion monitored by transcranial color Doppler presenting with a spectacular shrinking deficit: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Del Sette Massimo


    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction We describe the case of a 79-year-old Caucasian Italian woman with a transient basilar occlusion monitored by transcranial Doppler, with subsequent recanalization and clinical shrinking deficit. This is the first case of transient basilar occlusive disease diagnosed and monitored by transcranial Doppler. This case is important and needs to be reported because transient basilar occlusion may be easily diagnosed if transcranial Doppler is performed. Case presentation A 79-year-old woman affected by chronic atrial fibrillation and not treated with oral anticoagulants, cardioverted to sinus rhythm during a gastric endoscopy. She then showed a sudden-onset loss of consciousness, horizontal and vertical gaze palsy, tetraparesis and bilateral miosis and coma. Two hours later, the symptoms resolved quickly, leaving no residual neurologic deficits. Transcranial Doppler examination showed a dampened flow in the basilar artery in the emergency examination and a restored flow when the symptoms resolved. Conclusion This is the first case of transient basilar occlusive disease diagnosed and monitored by transcranial Doppler. We believe that transcranial Doppler should be performed in all cases of unexplained acute loss of consciousness, in particular, if associated with signs of brainstem dysfunctions.

  7. Practicability of intraoperative microvascular Doppler sonography in aneurysm surgery. (United States)

    Firsching, R; Synowitz, H J; Hanebeck, J


    Inadvertent narrowing of parent or branching vessels is one major cause of unfavorable outcome from aneurysm surgery. Intraoperative micro-Doppler sonography of arterial brain vessels during surgery for cerebral aneurysms of the anterior circulation was performed in 50 patients and compared retrospectively with 50 patients, who were operated upon without micro-Doppler sonography. Intraoperative micro-Doppler sonography demonstrated the need for repositioning of the clip in 12 instances. Outcome after surgery with micro-Doppler sonography appeared slightly better than without. Micro-Doppler sonography is concluded to be a practicable adjunct to routine aneurysm surgery.

  8. Exact classical Doppler effect derived from the photon emission process

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Chyi-Lung; Hsieh, Shang-Lin; Tsai, Chun-Ming


    The concept of photon is not necessary only applied to the relativistic Doppler theory. It may also work well for classical theory. As conservation of momentum and energy are physical laws, if applying these laws gives the exact relativistic Doppler effect, it should also give the exact classical Doppler effect. So far the classical Doppler effect is only obtained by using some approximation, as derived by Fermi in 1932. We show that the exact classical Doppler effect can be derived from the photon emission process in the exact treatment and reveal that these results are the same as those derived from the wave theory of light.

  9. Selection functions in doppler planet searches (United States)

    O'Toole, S. J.; Tinney, C. G.; Jones, H. R. A.; Butler, R. P.; Marcy, G. W.; Carter, B.; Bailey, J.


    We present a preliminary analysis of the sensitivity of Anglo-Australian Planet Search data to the orbital parameters of extrasolar planets. To do so, we have developed new tools for the automatic analysis of large-scale simulations of Doppler velocity planet search data. One of these tools is the two-dimensional Keplerian Lomb-Scargle (LS) periodogram that enables the straightforward detection of exoplanets with high eccentricities (something the standard LS periodogram routinely fails to do). We used this technique to redetermine the orbital parameters of HD20782b, with one of the highest known exoplanet eccentricities (e = 0.97 +/- 0.01). We also derive a set of detection criteria that do not depend on the distribution functions of fitted Keplerian orbital parameters (which we show are non-Gaussian with pronounced, extended wings). Using these tools, we examine the selection functions in orbital period, eccentricity and planet mass of Anglo-Australian Planet Search data for three planets with large-scale Monte Carlo like simulations. We find that the detectability of exoplanets declines at high eccentricities. However, we also find that exoplanet detectability is a strong function of epoch-to-epoch data quality, number of observations and period sampling. This strongly suggests that simple parametrizations of the detectability of exoplanets based on `whole-of-survey' metrics may not be accurate. We have derived empirical relationships between the uncertainty estimates for orbital parameters that are derived from least-squares Keplerian fits to our simulations and the true 99 per cent limits for the errors in those parameters, which are larger than equivalent Gaussian limits by the factors of 5-10. We quantify the rate at which false positives are made by our detection criteria, and find that they do not significantly affect our final conclusions. And finally, we find that there is a bias against measuring near-zero eccentricities, which becomes more significant

  10. FWS Interest Simplified (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These boundaries are simplified from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Real Estate Interest data layer containing polygons representing tracts of land (parcels) in...

  11. FWS Interest Simplified (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These boundaries are simplified from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Real Estate Interest data layer containing polygons representing tracts of land (parcels) in...

  12. Interest Rates and Inflation


    Michael Coopersmith


    A relation between interest rates and inflation is presented using a two component economic model and a simple general principle. Preliminary results indicate a remarkable similarity to classical economic theories, in particular that of Wicksell.

  13. Debenture Interest Rates (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Interest rates to be paid on debentures issued with respect to a loan or mortgage insured by the Federal Housing Commissioner under the provisions of the National...


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Doppler centroid frequency is an essential parameter in the imaging processing of the Scanning mode Synthetic Aperture Radar(ScanSAR).Inaccurate Doppler centroid frequency will result in ghost images in imaging result.In this letter,the principle and algorithms of Doppler centroid frequency estimation are introduced.Then the echo data of ScanSAR system is analyzed.Based on the algorithms of energy balancing and correlation Doppler estimator in the estimation of Doppler centroid fequency in strip mode SAR,an improved method for Doppler centroid frequency estimation in ScanSAR is proposed.The method has improved the accuracy of Doppler centroid fequency estimation in ScanSAR by zero padding between burst data.Finally,the proposed method is validated with the processing of ENVironment SATellite Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar(ENVISAT ASAR)wide swath raw data.

  15. Power and color Doppler ultrasound settings for inflammatory flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torp-Pedersen, Søren; Christensen, Robin; Szkudlarek, Marcin


    OBJECTIVE: To determine how settings for power and color Doppler ultrasound sensitivity vary on different high- and intermediate-range ultrasound machines and to evaluate the impact of these changes on Doppler scoring of inflamed joints. METHODS: Six different types of ultrasound machines were used....... On each machine, the factory setting for superficial musculoskeletal scanning was used unchanged for both color and power Doppler modalities. The settings were then adjusted for increased Doppler sensitivity, and these settings were designated study settings. Eleven patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA......) with wrist involvement were scanned on the 6 machines, each with 4 settings, generating 264 Doppler images for scoring and color quantification. Doppler sensitivity was measured with a quantitative assessment of Doppler activity: color fraction. Higher color fraction indicated higher sensitivity. RESULTS...

  16. Superharmonic microbubble Doppler effect in ultrasound therapy (United States)

    Pouliopoulos, Antonios N.; Choi, James J.


    The introduction of microbubbles in focused ultrasound therapies has enabled a diverse range of non-invasive technologies: sonoporation to deliver drugs into cells, sonothrombolysis to dissolve blood clots, and blood-brain barrier opening to deliver drugs into the brain. Current methods for passively monitoring the microbubble dynamics responsible for these therapeutic effects can identify the cavitation position by passive acoustic mapping and cavitation mode by spectral analysis. Here, we introduce a new feature that can be monitored: microbubble effective velocity. Previous studies have shown that echoes from short imaging pulses had a Doppler shift that was produced by the movement of microbubbles. Therapeutic pulses are longer (>1 000 cycles) and thus produce a larger alteration of microbubble distribution due to primary and secondary acoustic radiation force effects which cannot be monitored using pulse-echo techniques. In our experiments, we captured and analyzed the Doppler shift during long therapeutic pulses using a passive cavitation detector. A population of microbubbles (5  ×  104-5  ×  107 microbubbles ml-1) was embedded in a vessel (inner diameter: 4 mm) and sonicated using a 0.5 MHz focused ultrasound transducer (peak-rarefactional pressure: 75-366 kPa, pulse length: 50 000 cycles or 100 ms) within a water tank. Microbubble acoustic emissions were captured with a coaxially aligned 7.5 MHz passive cavitation detector and spectrally analyzed to measure the Doppler shift for multiple harmonics above the 10th harmonic (i.e. superharmonics). A Doppler shift was observed on the order of tens of kHz with respect to the primary superharmonic peak and is due to the axial movement of the microbubbles. The position, amplitude and width of the Doppler peaks depended on the acoustic pressure and the microbubble concentration. Higher pressures increased the effective velocity of the microbubbles up to 3 m s-1, prior to the onset of

  17. Color Doppler US of the penis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertolotto, Michele (ed.) [Trieste Univ. Ospedale di Cattinara (Italy). Dept. Radiology


    This book provides a comprehensive reference and practical guide on the application of US to penile diseases and conditions. After introductory chapters on technical requirements and penile anatomy, subsequent chapters offer a systematic overview of the diverse applications of color Doppler US. The topics covered include erectile dysfunction, Peyronie's disease, priapism, trauma, tumors, the postoperative penis, inflammation, and fibrosis. Each topic is introduced by a clinical overview with the purpose of clarifying the problems and elucidating what the urologist may expect from color Doppler US. Thereafter, performance of the US study is explained and the pathological anatomy reviewed. High-quality images obtained with high-end US equipment are included. Each chapter also contains a section on the diagnostic information provided by other imaging modalities, and in particular MRI. (orig.)

  18. Renal duplex Doppler ultrasound findings in diabetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shim, Hyang Yee; Kim, Young Geun; Kook, Cheol Keu; Yoon, Chong Hyun; Lee, Shin Hyung; Lee, Chang Joon [National Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    The correlation between clinical-laboratory findings and renal duplex Doppler ultrasound findings was studied in 45 patients with diabetes mellitus to see the role of duplex Doppler ultrasound in the detection of diabetic nephropathy. The resistive indices in patients with elevated serum creatinine, BUN, proteinuria, and systolic blood pressure levels were statistically significantly higher than those in patients with normal levels (p<0.05). Also resistive indics in patients with retinopathy were higher than that in patients without retinopathy (p<0.05). But the ultrasound morphologic changes of kidney such as renal length, cortical eye-catching, and corticomedullarycontrast were not well correlated with clinical-laboratory data and resistive index. The resistive index of the kidney in conjunction with clinical-laboratory data in diabetics may be helpful in the evaluation of diabetic nephropathy

  19. [Color-Doppler semiology in transplanted kidney]. (United States)

    Rivolta, R; Castagnone, D; Burdick, L; Mandelli, C; Mangiarotti, R


    Color-encoded duplex ultrasonography (CEDU) makes a more accurate technique in kidney graft monitoring by combining real-time US with pulsed Doppler studies of renal vasculature. It is a non-invasive and easy technique. Suitable to study the whole renal artery and vein, CEDU also allows the qualitative and quantitative assessment of the intrarenal vasculature and therefore the easy diagnosis of such vessel dysfunctions as arteriovenous fistulas following biopsy. Moreover, Doppler spectral analysis can be used to distinguish among different causes of renal allograft dysfunction--i.e. rejection, cyclosporine nephrotoxicity or acute tubular necrosis. The value of the resistive index for the differential diagnosis is discussed. CEDU allows a more reliable measurement of renal blood flow thanks to the more precise evaluation of renal artery diameter and mean flow velocity.

  20. Transcranial Doppler sonography in familial hemiplegic migraine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierelli, F.; Pauri, F.; Cupini, L.M.; Fiermonte, G.; Rizzo, P.A. (Universita la Sapienza, Roma (Italy))


    A patient affected by familial hemiplegic migraine underwent transcranial Doppler sonography twice: the first during a spontaneous attack with right hemiparesis and aphasia, the second during a headachefree period. During the attack the following haemodynamic changes were seen: (a) bilateral increase in the middle cerebral artery and anterior cerebral artery blood flow velocities (this increase was more pronounced on the left side), (b) decreased systo-diastolic ratio and pulsatility index on the right side, (c) increased systo-diastolic ratio and pulsatility index on the left side. The results indicate that during the attack in this familial hemiplegic migraine patient, a diffuse vasoconstriction of the basal cerebral arteries developed. Moreover, transcranial Doppler sonography data suggest that a prolonged vasoconstriction of the peripheral arterioles could play a role in determining the neurological symptoms in this syndrome. 13 refs., 1 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Evaluation of the thyroid blood flow with Doppler ultrasonography in healthy school-aged children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yazici, Burhan [Department of Radiology, Duzce University School of Medicine, Konuralp, Duzce 81620 (Turkey)], E-mail:; Simsek, Enver [Department of Pediatrics, Duzce University School of Medicine, Konuralp, Duzce (Turkey); Erdogmus, Besir [Department of Radiology, Duzce University School of Medicine, Konuralp, Duzce 81620 (Turkey); Bahcebasi, Talat [Department of Public Health, Duzce University School of Medicine, Konuralp, Duzce (Turkey); Aktas, Alev [Department of Pediatrics, Duzce University School of Medicine, Konuralp, Duzce (Turkey); Buyukkaya, Ramazan [Department of Radiology, Duzce University School of Medicine, Konuralp, Duzce 81620 (Turkey); Uzun, Hakan [Department of Pediatrics, Duzce University School of Medicine, Konuralp, Duzce (Turkey); Safak, Alp Alper [Department of Radiology, Duzce University School of Medicine, Konuralp, Duzce 81620 (Turkey)


    Objective: To determine the relationship between thyroid blood flow and anthropometric measurements, pubertal stage, and thyroid and gonadotropic hormones. Materials and methods: We examined 123 healthy school-aged children prospectively (69 boys (56.1%) and 54 girls (43.9%), 7-17 years old). Their sex, age, body weight, height, body mass index (BMI), and pubertal stage were determined. Serum thyrotropin, free thyroxine, luteinizing hormone, and follicle stimulating hormone were measured in both genders, along with testosterone in boys and estradiol in girls. The peak systolic velocity (PSV), resistance index (RI), and pulsatility index (PI) of the superior thyroid artery were determined. The correlations between the Doppler parameters and these factors were investigated. Results: There were no differences in age, weight, height, BMI, thyroid volume, PSV, RI, or PI between boys and girls (P > 0.05). The PSV and PI showed strong correlations with age, height, weight, puberty stage, thyroid volume, and BMI. The RI showed a strong inverse correlation with age, height, weight, puberty stage, and thyroid volume and a weak inverse correlation with the BMI. Conclusion: Determination of the thyroid arterial flow in normal healthy children is important during a Doppler ultrasound (US) examination. Doppler US parameters and their percentiles should be described in healthy children from different age groups, and these percentiles will aid in interpreting Doppler US in children.

  2. Doppler Lidar Wind Value-Added Product

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newsom, R. K. [DOE ARM Climate Research Facility, Washington, DC (United States); Sivaraman, C. [DOE ARM Climate Research Facility, Washington, DC (United States); Shippert, T. R. [DOE ARM Climate Research Facility, Washington, DC (United States); Riihimaki, L. D. [DOE ARM Climate Research Facility, Washington, DC (United States)


    Wind speed and direction, together with pressure, temperature, and relative humidity, are the most fundamental atmospheric state parameters. Accurate measurement of these parameters is crucial for numerical weather prediction. Vertically resolved wind measurements in the atmospheric boundary layer are particularly important for modeling pollutant and aerosol transport. Raw data from a scanning coherent Doppler lidar system can be processed to generate accurate height-resolved measurements of wind speed and direction in the atmospheric boundary layer.

  3. Colour Doppler ultrasound of the penis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkins, C.J.; Sriprasad, S.; Sidhu, P.S. E-mail:


    Because it is a superficial structure, the penis is ideally suited to ultrasound imaging. A number of disease processes, including Peyronie's disease, penile fractures and penile tumours, are clearly visualized with ultrasound. An assessment of priapism can also be made using spectral Doppler waveform technology. Furthermore, dynamic assessment of cavernosal arterial changes after pharmaco-stimulation allows diagnosis of arterial and venogenic causes for impotence. This pictorial review illustrates the range of diseases encountered with ultrasound of the penis.

  4. Precise Doppler Monitoring of Barnard's Star

    CERN Document Server

    Choi, Jieun; Marcy, Geoffrey W; Howard, Andrew W; Fischer, Debra A; Johnson, John A; Isaacson, Howard; Wright, Jason T


    We present 248 precise Doppler measurements of Barnard's Star (Gl 699), the second nearest star system to Earth, obtained from Lick and Keck Observatories during 25 years between 1987 and 2012. The early precision was 20 \\ms{} but was 2 \\ms{} during the last 8 years, constituting the most extensive and sensitive search for Doppler signatures of planets around this stellar neighbor. We carefully analyze the 136 Keck radial velocities spanning 8 years by first applying a periodogram analysis to search for nearly circular orbits. We find no significant periodic Doppler signals with amplitudes above $\\sim$2 \\ms{}, setting firm upper limits on the minimum mass (\\msini) of any planets with orbital periods from 0.1 to 1000 days. Using a Monte Carlo analysis for circular orbits, we determine that planetary companions to Barnard's Star with masses above 2 \\mearth{} and periods below 10 days would have been detected. Planets with periods up to 2 years and masses above 10 \\mearth{} (0.03 \\mjup) are also ruled out. A sim...

  5. Doppler Lidar for Wind Measurements on Venus (United States)

    Singh, Upendra N.; Emmitt, George D.; Yu, Jirong; Kavaya, Michael J.


    NASA Langley Research Center has a long history of developing 2-micron laser transmitter for wind sensing. With support from NASA Laser Risk Reduction Program (LRRP) and Instrument Incubator Program (IIP), NASA Langley Research Center has developed a state-of-the-art compact lidar transceiver for a pulsed coherent Doppler lidar system for wind measurement. The transmitter portion of the transceiver employs the high-pulse-energy, Ho:Tm:LuLiF, partially conductively cooled laser technology developed at NASA Langley. The transceiver is capable of 250 mJ pulses at 10 Hz. It is very similar to the technology envisioned for coherent Doppler lidar wind measurements from Earth and Mars orbit. The transceiver is coupled to the large optics and data acquisition system in the NASA Langley VALIDAR mobile trailer. The large optics consists of a 15-cm off-axis beam expanding telescope, and a full-hemispheric scanner. Vertical and horizontal vector winds are measured, as well as relative backscatter. The data acquisition system employs frequency domain velocity estimation and pulse accumulation. It permits real-time display of the processed winds and archival of all data. This lidar system was recently deployed at Howard University facility in Beltsville, Mary-land, along with other wind lidar systems. Coherent Doppler wind lidar ground-based wind measurements and comparisons with other sensors will be presented. A simulation and data product for wind measurement at Venus will be presented.

  6. Magnetic resonance imaging of the placenta identifies placental vascular abnormalities independently of Doppler ultrasound. (United States)

    Messerschmidt, A; Baschat, A; Linduska, N; Kasprian, G; Brugger, P C; Bauer, A; Weber, M; Prayer, D


    To evaluate the relationship between placental vascular pathology detected by prenatal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and perinatal outcome. This was a retrospective, hospital-based, cross-sectional study in which all fetal MRI examinations of singleton pregnancies with vascular placental pathology (i.e. infarction with/without hemorrhage, subchorionic thrombi/hemorrhages, intervillous thrombi/hemorrhages, or retroplacental hematoma) in the period 2002-2007 were included. The extent of the pathology was expressed as a percentage of the total placental volume. Abnormalities of umbilical artery Doppler ultrasound examinations within 7 days between MRI and ultrasound examination were noted. Death in utero or postnatally was the primary outcome. Gestational age at MRI and at birth and the occurrence of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) were noted. Logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the impact of gestational age at MRI, extent of the vascular lesion and presence of pathological Doppler ultrasound measurements on the prediction of mortality. Fifty-nine structurally normal singleton pregnancies with placental vascular abnormalities were included in the analysis. Mortality rate was 36%; among the survivors, 87% were born before 37 + 0 gestational weeks and 50% suffered from IUGR. In 55% of the pregnancies pathological umbilical artery Doppler findings were identified, of which 27% were non-survivors. Mortality was predicted by earlier gestational age at fetal MRI for placental pathology (P < 0.05) and increasing extent of the vascular lesion (P < 0.05), but not by the presence of pathological Doppler ultrasound data. Accuracy of the prediction was 82%, sensitivity was 67% and specificity 89%. MRI-detected vascular placental pathologies may help to identify pregnancies at risk for adverse outcome and fetal death independently of umbilical artery Doppler status. Copyright © 2011 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. The Role of Colour Doppler And Spectral Flow Analysis In Pregnancy Induced Hypertension: A Case Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hinal Bhagat


    Full Text Available Background: The use of Doppler ultrasound to study blood flow in Obstetrics is of major importance because fetal inaccessibility precludes many other methods of study of fetal circulation. This study was undertaken to assess the role of Doppler in management of Pregnancy induced Hypertension. Methodology: The present case-control study was conducted in the department of Radiology, Govt. Medical College and New Civil Hospital, Surat. Details of obstetric history, age, last menstrual date and underlying risk factor, Doppler study of umbilical artery, fetal middle cerebral artery, both maternal uterine arteries and Ductus venosus was done. Parameters in form of Resistive index (RI, Pulsatility index (PI and systolic/diastolic ratio (S/D of all four arteries were taken. Results: It was observed that 55% cases with pregnancy induced hypertension developed IUGR fetuses while 2% of the IUGR fetus was present in control group. There were 41 (54% cases with IUGR fetuses. Out of which 28 (68% cases with IUGR had fetoplacental Doppler abnormality. 13 cases had abnormally low PI of MCA with normal umbilical arterial Doppler indices, out of which 12 patients had abnormal fetal outcome. Conclusion: By examining the maternal vessels using Doppler ultrasound it is possible to determine, the risk of complication developing in the course of pregnancy long before clinical signs of preeclampsia appear so that therapeutic measures may be undertaken early. [Natl J Med Res 2015; 5(1.000: 57-60

  8. Gaps in Political Interest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robison, Joshua


    sought to measure respondents’ general interest in politics by asking them how often they follow public affairs. In this article, we uncover novel sources of measurement error concerning this question. We first show that other nationally representative surveys that frequently use this item deliver......Political interest fundamentally influences political behavior, knowledge, and persuasion (Brady, Verba, & Schlozman, 1995; Delli Carpini & Keeter, 1996; Luskin, 1990; Zukin, Andolina, Keeter, Jenkins, & Delli Carpini, 2006). Since the early 1960s, the American National Election Studies (ANES) has...... drastically higher estimates of mass interest. We then use a survey experiment included on a wave of the ANES’ Evaluating Government and Society Surveys (EGSS) to explore the influence of question order in explaining this systemic gap in survey results. We show that placing batteries of political...

  9. Photoacoustic perfusion measurements: a comparison with power Doppler in phantoms (United States)

    Heres, H. M.; Arabul, M. Ü.; Tchang, B. C.; van de Vosse, F. N.; Rutten, M. C.; Lopata, R. G.


    Ultrasound-based measurements using Doppler, contrast, and more recently photoacoustics (PA), have emerged as techniques for tissue perfusion measurements. In this study, the feasibility of in vitro perfusion measurements with a fully integrated, hand-held, photoacoustic probe was investigated and compared to Power Doppler (PD). Three cylindrical polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) phantoms were made (diameter = 15 mm) containing 100, 200 and 400 parallel polysulfone tubes (diameter = 0.2 mm), resulting in a perfused cross-sectional area of 1.8, 3.6 and 7.1% respectively. Each phantom was perfused with porcine blood (15 mL/min). Cross-sectional PA images (λ = 805nm, frame rate = 10Hz) and PD images (PRF = 750Hz) were acquired with a MyLab One and MyLab 70 scanner (Esaote, NL), respectively. Data were averaged over 70 frames. The average PA signal intensity was calculated in a region-of-interest of 4 mm by 6 mm. The percentage of colored PD pixels was measured in the entire phantom region. The average signal intensity of the PA images increased linearly with perfusion density, being 0.54 (+/- 0.01), 0.56 (+/- 0.01), 0.58 (+/- 0.01) with an average background signal of 0.53 in the three phantoms, respectively. For PD, the percentage of colored pixels in the phantom area (1.5% (+/- 0.2%), 4.4% (+/- 0.2%), 13.7% (+/- 0.8%)) also increased linearly. The preliminary results suggest that PA, like PD, is capable of detecting an increase of blood volume in tissue. In the future, in vivo measurements will be explored, although validation will be more complex.

  10. Interest Check List. (United States)

    Bureau of Employment Security (DOL), Washington, DC.

    The original edition of the Department of Labor Interest Check List aims at helping students decide what kinds of work they would like and lists activities that are found in a broad range of industries and occupations. The student is advised to read each of approximately 175 items and indicate how he feels about the activity described by placing a…

  11. Spousal Conflicts of Interest (United States)

    Lewis, Shana R.


    Romantic relationships bud and sometimes bloom in the school district workplace. When those relationships involve a sitting member of a school board or an administrator with responsibility for managing other employees, questions about a conflict of interest will be raised. Most states have laws prohibiting a public official from taking official…

  12. Pronounced Practice & Learners’ Interest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    <正>The present s tudy presents a detailed report of the project implemented to solve the problem that most of my students don’t like doing the oral practice I assign them to do after class. It is hypothesized that learners’ interest in pronunciation after class will be increased by a better organization in this

  13. Doppler broadening thermometry based on cavity ring-down spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Cheng, C -F; Sun, Y R; Tan, Y; Kang, P; Hu, S -M


    A Doppler broadening thermometry (DBT) instrument is built based on cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) for precise determination of the Boltzmann constant. Compared with conventional direct absorption methods, the high-sensitivity of CRDS allows to reach a satisfied precision at lower sample pressures, which also reduces the influence due to collisions. By recording the spectrum of C$_2$H$_2$ at 787 nm, we demonstrate a statistical uncertainty of 6 ppm (part per million) in the determined linewidth values by several hours' measurement at a sample pressure of 1.5 Pa. The influence on the spectroscopy-determined temperatures has been investigated, including the "hidden" weak lines overlapped with the selected transition for DBT measurements. The reproducibility has also been examined to be better than 10 ppm, and it indicates that the instrument is feasible for DBT measurement toward a precision at the ppm level.

  14. [Diagnosis of uterine vascular malformation using Doppler ultrasound]. (United States)

    Deckner, C; Schiesser, M; Bastert, G


    We present the case of a 56-year-old woman, who was admitted to our clinic for diagnostic laparoscopy because of a cystic uterine tumour of uncertain dignity. In the patient's history three curettages due to recurrent acyclic premenopausal vaginal bleeding were reported without specific histological findings. The preceding MRI described the structure as a myoma. During preoperative diagnostics an arteriovenous malformation was suspected by transvaginal Doppler sonography. Consequently the procedure was changed and a laparotomy performed. The sonographic findings were confirmed during surgery and by histological examination. This case points out the important role of transvaginal sonography combined with colour-flow-mapping. By confirming the diagnosis preoperatively and changing the management a low-risk procedure could be ensured.

  15. Response of phase Doppler anemometer systems to nonspherical droplets. (United States)

    Damaschke, N; Gouesbet, G; Gréhan, G; Mignon, H; Tropea, C


    The Phase Doppler Anemometer (PDA) technique measures particle diameter assuming sphericity. A means for detecting nonsphericity has usually been implemented in commercial PDA systems to avoid sizing errors if the sphericity assumption is not valid. In the present research the response of standard and planar PDA systems is examined experimentally in more detail by passing nonspherical droplets of known shape through the measurement volume. The effectiveness of nonsphericity detection schemes can be evaluated, and furthermore the influence of the droplet oscillations on the frequency and phase evolution of individual signals can be quantified. The light scattering from such particles has been simulated by using geometric optics, and the computed response of standard and planar PDA systems agrees well with the experimental observations. We conclude with some remarks concerning the possibilities of characterizing the nonsphericity with PDA systems.

  16. WAMDII: The Wide Angle Michelson Doppler Imaging Interferometer (United States)


    As part of an effort to learn more about the upper atmosphere and how it is linked to the weather experienced each day, NASA and NRCC are jointly sponsoring the Wide Angle Michelson Doppler Imaging Interferometer (WAMDII) Mission. WAMDII will measure atmospheric temperature and wind speed in the upper atmosphere. In addition to providing data on the upper atmosphere, the wind speed and temperature readings WAMDII takes will also be highly useful in developing and updating computer simulated models of the upper atmosphere. These models are used in the design and testing of equipment and software for Shuttles, satellites, and reentry vehicles. In making its wind speed and temperature measurements, WAMDII examines the Earth's airglow, a faint photochemical luminescence caused by the influx of solar ultraviolet energy into the upper atmosphere. During periods of high solar flare activity, the amount of this UV energy entering the upper atmosphere increases, and this increase may effect airglow emissions.

  17. High-efficiency receiver architecture for resonance-fluorescence and Doppler lidars. (United States)

    Smith, John A; Chu, Xinzhao


    A high-efficiency lidar receiver architecture that emphasizes boosting the receiver collection efficiency of resonance-fluorescence and Doppler lidars has opened up new avenues of study for the mesosphere and lower thermosphere-extended (MLT-X) at sites in Boulder, Colorado, USA, and Cerro Pachón, Chile. Described in this work are in-depth considerations in the design, construction, and alignment of Na Doppler lidar receivers that have yielded signal levels typically 5-10 times higher per power-aperture product than any demonstrated in the literature, to these authors' knowledge, making studies of fine-scale MLT turbulence and tenuous thermospheric layers in Na possible with temperature and vertical wind capability for the first time. A lowering of the detection threshold by higher receiver collection efficiency at Cerro Pachón has enabled this Na Doppler lidar to extend its measurement range far higher into the thermosphere, to regions with Na density less than 3  cm(-3). With renewed interest in the MLT-X region prompted by recent lidar discoveries of Fe in the thermosphere reaching 170 km at McMurdo, Antarctica, the receiver optimizations we have made now enable addressing an important need in the community. In addition, the higher spatial and temporal resolutions afforded by high signal-to-noise ratio, down to resolutions of ∼20  s and ∼20  m, promise to make the first direct measurements of eddy flux in the mesopause region possible. Results from deployment of optimized receivers at the Table Mountain Lidar Observatory in Boulder, the Andes Lidar Observatory at Cerro Pachón, and the Arecibo Observatory in Puerto Rico are presented to demonstrate the power and portability of our methods that are readily applicable to other lidar varieties, including, but not limited to, the newly developed Fe Doppler lidar and recently upgraded K Doppler lidar.

  18. Evaluation of the Doppler component contribution in the total backscattered flux for noninvasive medical spectroscopy (United States)

    Lapitan, Denis; Rogatkin, Dmitry


    The widespread introduction of laser noninvasive diagnostic techniques in medicine gave rise interest to theoretical description of light propagation in turbid media. One of the purposes for that is a preliminary simulation of incoming radiation for diagnostic spectrophotometry equipment. For complex diagnostic devices combining the Laser Doppler Flowmetry (LDF) and the tissue reflectance oximetry (TRO) it is necessary to know a ratio of signals in each diagnostic channel for a proper choice of the radiation power of laser sources, sensitivity of photodetectors, etc. In LDF the lightbeating backscattered signal mixed from moving red blood cells and static inhomogeneities inside the tissue is the useful signal, while in TRO both signals from static and moving scatterers are registered in the sum. The aim of our study was an estimation of the ratio between flux with the Doppler shifted signal and the total backscattered flux. For this purpose the simple analytical model describing the backscattered radiation for a two-layered tissue with different levels of blood volume in the second layer was under consideration. The physical model was based on the improved Kubelka-Munk approach. This approach involves an additional parameter of the density of scatterers, so it is useful for the Doppler signal intensity calculation as well. To assess the intensity of the Doppler component the single-scattering approximation inside the tissue's second layer was used. It was found that the fraction of the Doppler component in the total backscattered flux can vary in the range of 1-10% for the blood volume of 1-20%.

  19. Performance bounds on micro-Doppler estimation and adaptive waveform design using OFDM signals (United States)

    Sen, Satyabrata; Barhen, Jacob; Glover, Charles W.


    We analyze the performance of a wideband orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) signal in estimating the micro-Doppler frequency of a target having multiple rotating scatterers (e.g., rotor blades of a helicopter, propellers of a submarine). The presence of rotating scatterers introduces Doppler frequency modulation in the received signal by generating sidebands about the transmitted frequencies. This is called the micro-Doppler effects. The use of a frequency-diverse OFDM signal in this context enables us to independently analyze the micro-Doppler characteristics with respect to a set of orthogonal subcarrier frequencies. Therefore, to characterize the accuracy of micro-Doppler frequency estimation, we compute the Craḿer-Rao Bound (CRB) on the angular-velocity estimate of the target while considering the scatterer responses as deterministic but unknown nuisance parameters. Additionally, to improve the accuracy of the estimation procedure, we formulate and solve an optimization problem by minimizing the CRB on the angular-velocity estimate with respect to the transmitting OFDM spectral coefficients. We present several numerical examples to demonstrate the CRB variations at different values of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and the number of OFDM subcarriers. The CRB values not only decrease with the increase in the SNR values, but also reduce as we increase the number of subcarriers implying the significance of frequency-diverse OFDM waveforms. The improvement in estimation accuracy due to the adaptive waveform design is also numerically analyzed. Interestingly, we find that the relative decrease in the CRBs on the angular-velocity estimate is more pronounced for larger number of OFDM subcarriers.

  20. Performance Bounds on Micro-Doppler Estimation and Adaptive Waveform Design Using OFDM Signals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sen, Satyabrata [ORNL; Barhen, Jacob [ORNL; Glover, Charles Wayne [ORNL


    We analyze the performance of a wideband orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) signal in estimating the micro-Doppler frequency of a target having multiple rotating scatterers (e.g., rotor blades of a helicopter, propellers of a submarine). The presence of rotating scatterers introduces Doppler frequency modulation in the received signal by generating sidebands about the transmitted frequencies. This is called the micro-Doppler effects. The use of a frequency-diverse OFDM signal in this context enables us to independently analyze the micro-Doppler characteristics with respect to a set of orthogonal subcarrier frequencies. Therefore, to characterize the accuracy of micro-Doppler frequency estimation, we compute the Cram er-Rao Bound (CRB) on the angular-velocity estimate of the target while considering the scatterer responses as deterministic but unknown nuisance parameters. Additionally, to improve the accuracy of the estimation procedure, we formulate and solve an optimization problem by minimizing the CRB on the angular-velocity estimate with respect to the transmitting OFDM spectral coefficients. We present several numerical examples to demonstrate the CRB variations at different values of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and the number of OFDM subcarriers. The CRB values not only decrease with the increase in the SNR values, but also reduce as we increase the number of subcarriers implying the significance of frequency-diverse OFDM waveforms. The improvement in estimation accuracy due to the adaptive waveform design is also numerically analyzed. Interestingly, we find that the relative decrease in the CRBs on the angular-velocity estimate is more pronounced for larger number of OFDM subcarriers.

  1. Doppler effect in resonant photoemission from SF6: correlation between Doppler profile and Auger emission anisotropy. (United States)

    Kitajima, M; Ueda, K; De Fanis, A; Furuta, T; Shindo, H; Tanaka, H; Okada, K; Feifel, R; Sorensen, S L; Gel'mukhanov, F; Baev, A; Agren, H


    Fragmentation of the SF6 molecule upon F 1s excitation has been studied by resonant photoemission. The F atomiclike Auger line exhibits the characteristic Doppler profile that depends on the direction of the photoelectron momentum relative to the polarization vector of the radiation as well as on the photon energy. The measured Doppler profiles are analyzed by the model simulation that takes account of the anisotropy of the Auger emission in the molecular frame. The Auger anisotropy extracted from the data decreases with an increase in the F-SF5 internuclear distance.

  2. The Structure of Vocational Interests in Romania (United States)

    Iliescu, Dragos; Ispas, Dan; Ilie, Alexandra; Ion, Andrei


    Using data provided by the Self-Directed Search (SDS) on a sample of 1,519 participants comprising 3 subsamples containing high school students, university students, and working adults, the authors examine the structure of vocational interests in Romania. Three competing structural models of vocational interests (Holland's circumplex model and…

  3. Innovation and social interests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vratuša-Žunjić Vera


    Full Text Available The paper focuses on socially and historically structured circumstances surrounding and moral problems involved in the pragmatic definition of innovation as 'novelty proven useful by its users'. Contending conceptions and strategies of innovation of the organization of social relations in dialectical social systems are compared and socially and historically contextualized in the so-called 'transition countries' on the new Eastern border of the European Union. The conclusion is that the cited pragmatic definition of innovation may be misused for an apology of morally dubious new ends and means in the narrow interest of particular groups of users, often at the expense and against the interest of a majority of other individuals and social groups.

  4. Managing conflicts of interest. (United States)

    Sade, Robert M; Akins, Cary W; Weisel, Richard D


    The more extensive conflict of interest information will permit reviewers and editors to ensure the accuracy, balance,and lack of bias of papers accepted for publication.Therefore, a brief conflict statement will be published on the cover page and a more extensive description will be published at the end of the paper to allow concerned readers to make their own judgments about the quality of the information reported.

  5. Doppler-compensated three-photon electromagnetically induced transparency

    CERN Document Server

    Carr, Christopher; Sargsyan, Armen; Sarkisyan, David; Adams, Charles S; Weatherill, Kevin J


    We demonstrate Doppler-compensated bright and dark states in a resonant four-level atomic system. The spectral features are the result of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) and absorption (EIA) and are sub-Doppler due to the compensation of Doppler shifts with AC Stark shifts. We demonstrate the effect using a three-photon cascade system to Rydberg states in Cs vapor, however, the results apply to any four-level cascade or N-type system.

  6. Influence of Doppler Bin Width on GNSS Detection Probabilities

    CERN Document Server

    Geiger, Bernhard C


    The acquisition stage in GNSS receivers determines Doppler shifts and code phases of visible satellites. Acquisition is thus a search in two continuous dimensions, where the digital algorithms require a partitioning of the search space into cells. We present analytic expressions for the acquisition performance depending on the partitioning of the Doppler frequency domain. In particular, the impact of the number and width of Doppler bins is analyzed. The presented results are verified by simulations.

  7. New insights from inside-out Doppler tomography

    CERN Document Server

    Kotze, Enrico J


    We present preliminary results from our investigation into using an 'inside-out' velocity space for creating a Doppler tomogram. The aim is to transpose the inverted appearance of the Cartesian velocity space used in normal Doppler tomography. In a comparison between normal and inside-out Doppler tomograms of cataclysmic variables, we show that the inside-out velocity space has the potential to produce new insights into the accretion dynamics in these systems.

  8. Analysis on rotational Doppler Effect based on modal expansion method

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, Hailong; Zhang, Pei; Zhang, Xinliang


    We theoretically investigate the optical rotational Doppler Effect using modal expansion method. We find that the frequency shift content is only determined by the surface of spinning object and the reduced Doppler shift is linear to the change of mode index. The theoretical model makes us better understand the physical processes of rotational Doppler Effect. It can provide theoretical guidance for many related applications, such as detection of rotating bodies, detection of OAM and frequency shift.

  9. Range-instantaneous Doppler imaging of inverse synthetic aperture sonar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Jia; JIANG Xingzhou; TANG Jingsong


    Because the existing range-Doppler algorithm in inverse synthetic aperture sonar (ISAS) is based on target model of uniform motion, it may be invalidated for maneuvering targets due to the time-varying changes of both individual scatter′s Doppler and imaging projection plane. To resolve the problem, a new range-instantaneous Doppler imaging method is proposed for imaging maneuvering targets based on time-frequency analysis. The proposed approach is verified using real underwater acoustic data.

  10. Planetary Radio Interferometry and Doppler Experiment (PRIDE) technique: A test case of the Mars Express Phobos fly-by (United States)

    Duev, D. A.; Pogrebenko, S. V.; Cimò, G.; Molera Calvés, G.; Bocanegra Bahamón, T. M.; Gurvits, L. I.; Kettenis, M. M.; Kania, J.; Tudose, V.; Rosenblatt, P.; Marty, J.-C.; Lainey, V.; de Vicente, P.; Quick, J.; Nickola, M.; Neidhardt, A.; Kronschnabl, G.; Ploetz, C.; Haas, R.; Lindqvist, M.; Orlati, A.; Ipatov, A. V.; Kharinov, M. A.; Mikhailov, A. G.; Lovell, J. E. J.; McCallum, J. N.; Stevens, J.; Gulyaev, S. A.; Natush, T.; Weston, S.; Wang, W. H.; Xia, B.; Yang, W. J.; Hao, L.-F.; Kallunki, J.; Witasse, O.


    Context. The closest ever fly-by of the Martian moon Phobos, performed by the European Space Agency's Mars Express spacecraft, gives a unique opportunity to sharpen and test the Planetary Radio Interferometry and Doppler Experiments (PRIDE) technique in the interest of studying planet-satellite systems. Aims: The aim of this work is to demonstrate a technique of providing high precision positional and Doppler measurements of planetary spacecraft using the Mars Express spacecraft. The technique will be used in the framework of Planetary Radio Interferometry and Doppler Experiments in various planetary missions, in particular in fly-by mode. Methods: We advanced a novel approach to spacecraft data processing using the techniques of Doppler and phase-referenced very long baseline interferometry spacecraft tracking. Results: We achieved, on average, mHz precision (30 μm/s at a 10 s integration time) for radial three-way Doppler estimates and sub-nanoradian precision for lateral position measurements, which in a linear measure (at a distance of 1.4 AU) corresponds to ~50 m.

  11. Planetary Radio Interferometry and Doppler Experiment (PRIDE) technique: A test case of the Mars Express Phobos fly-by

    CERN Document Server

    Duev, Dmitry A; Cimò, Giuseppe; Calvés, Guifré Molera; Bahamón, Tatiana M Bocanegra; Gurvits, Leonid I; Kettenis, Mark M; Kania, Joseph; Tudose, Valeriu; Rosenblatt, Pascal; Marty, Jean-Charles; Lainey, Valery; de Vicente, Pablo; Quick, Jonathan; Nickola, Marisa; Neidhardt, Alexander; Kronschnabl, Gerhard; Plötz, Christian; Haas, Rüdiger; Lindqvist, Michael; Orlati, Andrea; Ipatov, Alexander V; Kharinov, Mikhail A; Mikhailov, Andrey G; Lovell, Jim; McCallum, Jamie; Stevens, Jamie; Gulyaev, Sergei A; Natush, Tim; Weston, Stuart; Wang, Weihua; Xia, Bo; Yang, Wenjun; Hao, Long-Fei; Kallunki, Juha; Witasse, Olivier


    The closest ever fly-by of the Martian moon Phobos, performed by the European Space Agency's Mars Express spacecraft, gives a unique opportunity to sharpen and test the Planetary Radio Interferometry and Doppler Experiments (PRIDE) technique in the interest of studying planet - satellite systems. The aim of this work is to demonstrate a technique of providing high precision positional and Doppler measurements of planetary spacecraft using the Mars Express spacecraft. The technique will be used in the framework of Planetary Radio Interferometry and Doppler Experiments in various planetary missions, in particular in fly-by mode. We advanced a novel approach to spacecraft data processing using the techniques of Doppler and phase-referenced very long baseline interferometry spacecraft tracking. We achieved, on average, mHz precision (30 {\\mu}m/s at a 10 seconds integration time) for radial three-way Doppler estimates and sub-nanoradian precision for lateral position measurements, which in a linear measure (at a d...

  12. Doppler spectrum analysis to diagnose rejection during posttransplant acute renal failure. (United States)

    Merkus, J W; Hoitsma, A J; van Asten, W N; Koene, R A; Skotnicki, S H


    During posttransplant acute renal failure (ARF), the diagnosis of allograft rejection constitutes a major problem. We evaluated the value of Doppler ultrasonography in identifying grafts at risk of rejection during ARF. In 184 recipients of a renal allograft, Doppler examinations were performed on the first and fifth postoperative day. Doppler spectra were quantitatively analyzed with a user-written computer program. Doppler findings were not used in clinical decision making. ARF was defined as a diuresis cadaveric grafts (n = 123), while living related donor grafts (n = 20) showed a lower RI (0.55 +/- 0.07; P 4 days (n = 24), RI was not significantly different (0.63 +/- 0.07 vs. 0.68 +/- 0.15; NS). However, the acceleration time of the systolic deflection of the spectrum waveform (Tmax) was shorter in grafts with ARF > 4 days (86 +/- 47 msec vs. 128 +/- 39 msec; P 4 days (n = 24) showed a Tmax or = 90 msec, only 2 rejections occurred (negative predictive value, 13/15 = 87%). For the RI (> 0.85), positive predictive value was 4/5 = 80% and negative predictive value (RI identification of patients at risk for rejection and in the timing of allograft biopsy during ARF. Persistently short Tmax values on the fifth day after transplantation perform better in identifying grafts at risk of rejection than high RI values.

  13. Determination of Doppler Middle Cerebral Artery Waveform Indices in Normal 20 – 40 Weeks Pregnancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Vahdinia


    Full Text Available Background/Objective: The aim of prenatal evaluation is to prevent fetal death. One of the main methods of evaluation of fetus health before delivery is Doppler flow velocity waveform analysis of fetus vessels. Increasing of resistance in fetal circulatory system causes the preferential shunt of blood flow from non-critical organs toward critical organs such as brain. The increase in brain blood flow leads to reduction of brain vessels resistance and results in changes of fetal cerebral arteries Doppler flow velocity indices. Evaluation of Doppler wave of middle cerebral artery can predict most of the at risk fetuses in high-risk pregnancies."nIn this study we tried to obtain normal value (and their changes across the progress of pregnancy of Doppler flow velocity indices (PI, RI, S/D ratio and PSV of middle cerebral artery in 20 - 40 weeks normal pregnancies in an Iranian population and evaluate the effect of fetus heart rate according to the above mentioned indices."nPatients and Methods: In this cross section study, 400 pregnant women with normal pregnancies and gestational age between 20 to 40 weeks were studied about middle cerebral artery Doppler examination. Mothers with preeclampsia, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, abnormal uterine bleeding, induction ovulation, multifetal pregnancy, major fetal anomalies, history of LD or any other OCP usage and intra uterine growth retardation were excluded from the study. All cases were evaluated by gray scale ultrasonography initially and then a Doppler study of middle cerebral artery was done."nResults: According to the results of this study, with progression of pregnancy PI, RI, S/D ratio values decrease and PSV value increases in middle cerebral artery. These changes were statistically significant and were more characteristic during late weeks of pregnancy. In addition, mean fetal heart rate had been significantly reduced with pregnancy progression."nConclusion: Values of RI, PI, S/D ratio and

  14. Security interests under the UNIDROIT Convention on International Interests in Mobile Equipment 2001


    Saidova, Sanam


    This work examines security interests under the Cape Town Convention on International Interests in Mobile Equipment. The main purpose of the Convention is to provide a uniform legal regime for the creation, registration and protection of a creditor’s interests held in high value types of mobile equipment, such as aircraft, railway and space objects. The Convention provides for the creation of an autonomous international interest in these types of equipment and establishes an electronic Intern...

  15. EUV Doppler Imaging for CubeSat Platforms Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Mature the design and fabricate the Flare Initiation Doppler Imager (FIDI) instrument to demonstrate low-spacecraft-resource EUV technology (most notably,...

  16. Reexamination of the Doppler effect through Maxwell's equations. (United States)

    Guo, Wei; Aktas, Yildirim


    In this work, the electric field emitted from a moving source, an electric point dipole, is analyzed for the purpose of illustrating the physics behind the Doppler effect. It is found that if the (translational) motion of the source is nonrelativistic, the Doppler effect is realized in two steps: the motion of the source first causes the dyadic Green function associated with the electric field to acquire an oscillation frequency in the far-field region of the source, and then the frequency leads to the Doppler effect. It is also demonstrated that the Doppler effect is observable only in the far-field region of the source.

  17. Burst Format Design for Optimum Joint Estimation of Doppler-Shift and Doppler-Rate in Packet Satellite Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Giugno


    Full Text Available This paper considers the problem of optimizing the burst format of packet transmission to perform enhanced-accuracy estimation of Doppler-shift and Doppler-rate of the carrier of the received signal, due to relative motion between the transmitter and the receiver. Two novel burst formats that minimize the Doppler-shift and the Doppler-rate Cramér-Rao bounds (CRBs for the joint estimation of carrier phase/Doppler-shift and of the Doppler-rate are derived, and a data-aided (DA estimation algorithm suitable for each optimal burst format is presented. Performance of the newly derived estimators is evaluated by analysis and by simulation, showing that such algorithms attain their relevant CRBs with very low complexity, so that they can be directly embedded into new-generation digital modems for satellite communications at low SNR.

  18. Applications of Doppler optical coherence tomography (United States)

    Xu, Zhiqiang

    A major development in biomedical imaging in the last decade has been optical coherence tomography (OCT). This technique enables microscale resolution, depth resolved imaging of the detailed morphology of transparent and nontransparent biological tissue in a noncontact and quasi-noninvasive way. In the first part of this dissertation, we will describe the development and the performance of our home-made OCT systems working with different wavelength regions based on free-space and optical fiber Michelson interferometers. The second part will focus on Doppler OCT (DOCT), an important extension of OCT, which enables the simultaneous evaluation of the structural information and of the fluid flow distribution at a localized position beneath the sample surface. Much effort has been spent during the past few years in our laboratory aimed at providing more accurate velocity measurements with an extended dynamic range. We also applied our technique in different research areas such as microfluidics and hemodynamics. Investigations on the optical properties of the biological tissues (such as absorption and scattering) corresponding to different center wavelengths, have been performed in our laboratory. We used a 10 femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser centered at about 810 nm associated with a free-space Michelson interferometer. The infrared sources were centered at about 1310 and 1560 nm with all-fiber interferometers. Comparative studies using three different sources for several in vitro biological tissues based on a graphical method illustrated how the optical properties affect the quality of the OCT images in terms of the penetration depth and backscattering intensity. We have shown the advantage of working with 810-nm emission wavelength for good backscattering amplitude and contrast, while sources emitting at 1570 nm give good penetration depth. The 1330-nm sources provide a good compromise between the two. Therefore, the choice of the source will ultimately determine the

  19. Neutral wind results from TIMED Doppler interferometer (United States)

    Killeen, T.; Gablehouse, R.; Gell, D.; Johnson, R.; Niciejewski, R.; Ortland, D.; Wu, Q.; Skinner, W.; Solomon, S.; Kafkalidis, J.


    Since the launch of the NASA Thermosphere-Ionosphere-Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics (TIMED) satellite in December 2001, the TIMED Doppler Interferometer (TIDI) has been collecting lower thermosphere and mesospheric data for over a year. After adjustments to the spectral sampling scheme and operational mode, the instrument has been optimized. Efforts have also been made to improve the instrument performance. Preliminary neutral winds from O2 (0-0) have been analyzed. Tidal features and their seasonal variation are shown clearly in the wind data, which are quantitatively consistent with model prediction. We will report our progress on these efforts.

  20. Mobile fiber-optic laser Doppler anemometer. (United States)

    Stieglmeier, M; Tropea, C


    A laser Doppler anemometer (LDA) has been developed that combines the compactness and low power consumption of laser diodes and avalanche photodiodes with the flexibility and possibility of miniaturization by using fiber-optic probes. The system has been named DFLDA for laser diode fiber LDA and is especially suited for mobile applications, for example, in trains, airplanes, or automobiles. Optimization considerations of fiber-optic probes are put forward and several probe examples are described in detail. Measurement results from three typical applications are given to illustrate the use of the DFLDA. Finally, a number of future configurations of the DFLDA concept are discussed.

  1. Check list Doppler and duplex sonography. 4. rev. ed.; Checkliste Doppler- und Duplexsonografie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopp, Helmut [MED-Facharztzentrum, Mainz (Germany). Praxis fuer Gefaessmedizin; Ludwig, Malte [Benedictus Krankenhaus Tutzing (Germany). Gefaesszentrum


    Check list Doppler and duplex sonography includes 4 parts: (1) Basic information: technical fundamentals, equipment premises, hemodynamics. (2) Flow schemata and pitfalls. (3) Special vascular regions: arteries in the upper and lower extremities, veins in the upper and lower extremities, abdominal arteries, abdominal veins, ex-cranial brain sustaining arteries, intra-cranial brain sustaining arteries. (4) Attachment: diagnostic criteria and case studies.

  2. Two Interesting Southern Objects (United States)

    Gyulbudaghian, A. L.


    Two southern objects are studied. The first, the planetary nebula PK 349-01.1, is of interest because it has a chain of jets ejected from the central star. 12C(1-0) observations of the vicinity of this object reveal red- and blue-shifted molecular outflows. The second object is a star formation region consisting of two groups of IR stars. These groups have a trapezium-like configuration. Two stars in one of these groups are associated with a ring-shaped nebulae. This star formation region is associated with a new radial system of dark globules.

  3. Upgraded Coal Interest Group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evan Hughes


    The Upgraded Coal Interest Group (UCIG) is an EPRI 'users group' that focuses on clean, low-cost options for coal-based power generation. The UCIG covers topics that involve (1) pre-combustion processes, (2) co-firing systems and fuels, and (3) reburn using coal-derived or biomass-derived fuels. The UCIG mission is to preserve and expand the economic use of coal for energy. By reducing the fuel costs and environmental impacts of coal-fired power generation, existing units become more cost effective and thus new units utilizing advanced combustion technologies are more likely to be coal-fired.

  4. Serving the Public Interest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Thomas; Tyran, Jean-Robert

    system is likely to produce good governance. That is, if benevolent candidates are common, if the president has little discretionary power, and if the public sector is effective. We analyze the role of institutions like investigative media and re-election and show that they can improve or further hamper......We present a model of political selection in which voters elect a president from a set of candidates. We assume that some of the candidates are benevolent and that all voters prefer a benevolent president, i.e. a president who serves the public interest. Yet, political selection may fail in our...

  5. Reduction but not disappearance of Doppler signal after two years of treatment for gout. Do we need a more intensive treatment? (United States)

    Peiteado, Diana; Villalba, Alejandro; Martín-Mola, Emilio; de Miguel, Eugenio


    We undertook this study to evaluate the responsiveness of Doppler ultrasound (US) to urate lowering therapy (ULT) in gout patients. Twenty-four consecutive patients were prospectively included from an outpatient clinic. The patients underwent clinical, and US assessment at baseline and after 6, 12 and 24 months of ULT. The US assessment was made by another rheumatologist blinded to the clinical data. Standardised examinations were performed in four joints (both first metatarso-phalangeals and knees) and the patellar tendons. The Doppler signals were scored. The mean and standard deviation were calculated for each parameter. The comparison between the quantitative values was performed by Student's t-test. Sensitivity to change in the US examinations was assessed by estimating the smallest detectable difference (SDD) in the total Doppler score. A Doppler signal was detected in 95.8% of the patients at the baseline. A significant parallel improvement in the serum urate level, clinical parameters and in Doppler scores was found at the follow-up assessment. 62% of the patients had achieved a uric concentration level below 6 mg/dl at one year. At two years, persistence of a Doppler signal was found in 72.7% of the patients. The SDD in the Doppler score at 2 years was 1.92, lower than the difference achieved. The Doppler US findings show significant improvement and responsiveness after ULT in gout patients. The Doppler signal persistence after two years of treatment is marked. This finding introduces a reflection on the accuracy of the current outcome measures and treatments.

  6. Doppler term in the galaxy two-point correlation function: wide-angle, velocity, Doppler lensing and cosmic acceleration effects


    Raccanelli, Alvise; Bertacca, Daniele; Jeong, Donghui; Neyrinck, Mark C.; Szalay, Alexander S.


    We study the parity-odd part (that we shall call Doppler term) of the linear galaxy two-point correlation function that arises from wide-angle, velocity, Doppler lensing and cosmic acceleration effects. As it is important at low redshift and at large angular separations, the Doppler term is usually neglected in the current generation of galaxy surveys. For future wide-angle galaxy surveys such as Euclid, SPHEREx and SKA, however, we show that the Doppler term must be included. The effect of t...

  7. Doppler ultrasound scan during normal gestation: umbilical circulation; Ecografia Doppler en la gestacion normal: circulacion umbilical

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz, T.; Sabate, J.; Martinez-Benavides, M. M.; Sanchez-Ramos, J. [Hospital Virgen Macarena. Sevilla (Spain)


    To determine normal umbilical circulation patterns by means of Doppler ultrasound scan in a healthy gestating population without risk factors and with normal perinatal results, and to evaluate any occurring modifications relative to gestational age by obtaining records kept during pregnancy. One hundred and sixteen pregnant women carrying a single fetus have been studied. These women had no risk factors, with both clinical and analytical controls, as well as ultrasound scans, all being normal. There were performed a total of 193 Doppler ultrasound scans between weeks 15 and 41 of gestation, with blood-flow analysis in the arteries and vein of the umbilical cord. The obtained information was correlated with parameters that evaluate fetal well-being (fetal monitoring and/or oxytocin test) and perinatal result (delivery type, birth weight, Apgar score). Statistical analysis was performed with the programs SPSS 6.0.1 for Windows and EPIINFO 6.0.4. With pulsed Doppler, the umbilical artery in all cases demonstrated a biphasic morphology with systolic and diastolic components and without retrograde blood flow. As the gestation period increased, there was observed a progressive decrease in resistance along with an increase in blood-flow velocity during the diastolic phase. The Doppler ultrasound scan is a non-invasive method that permits the hemodynamic study of umbilical blood circulation. A knowledge of normal blood-flow signal morphology, as well as of the normal values for Doppler indices in relation to gestational age would permit us to utilize this method in high-risk pregnancies. (Author) 30 refs.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivanand S


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES The necessity for scrotal ultrasound scanning is when clinical examination does not identify any significant abnormality. For patients presenting with a scrotal mass, it is critical to determine whether the mass is intra- or extra-testicular. High Resolution Ultrasonography (HRUS combined with Colour Doppler Ultrasonography (CDUS has become the imaging modality of choice for evaluating scrotal diseases. US is helpful in differentiating extra- from intratesticular lesions. US provides excellent anatomic detail; when colour Doppler and power Doppler imaging are added testicular perfusion can be assessed. MATERIALS AND METHODS Data for study was collected from 50 patients attending/referred to Basaveshwara Teaching and General Hospital (BTGH, Gulbarga. The gray scale and colour Doppler sonography routinely performed in all these patients. Subsequently, these cases were followed up and correlated with either surgical findings, response to treatment or follow-up scans wherever applicable. RESULTS Commonest clinical presentation was scrotal swelling with/or without pain. Majority number of patients with scrotal pathologies presented in this study belongs to the age group of 20 to 50, which constitute 50% of all pathologies. Most of the diagnosis were epididymitis or epididymo-orchitis, hydrocele, varicocele, orchitis, testicular torsion, hematocele, pyocele, Fournier’s gangrene. Colour Doppler ultrasonography accurately diagnosed all cases of epididymitis or epididymo-orchitis, testicular torsion, varicocele and hydrocele. Overall, sensitivity of high frequency ultrasonography with colour Doppler in diagnosing scrotal diseases was 95%, while specificity was 66%. High frequency grey scale US with Colour Doppler sonography accurately differentiates between testicular ischemia/torsion from acute inflammatory diseases in acute painful scrotal conditions. CONCLUSION High frequency ultrasonography when supplemented with colour

  9. Power Doppler ultrasonographic assessment of the ankle in patients with inflammatory rheumatic diseases


    Suzuki, Takeshi


    Ankle involvement is frequent in patients with inflammatory rheumatic diseases, but accurate evaluation by physical examination is often difficult because of the complex anatomical structures of the ankle. Over the last decade, ultrasound (US) has become a practical imaging tool for the assessment of articular and periarticular pathologies, including joint synovitis, tenosynovitis, and enthesitis in rheumatic diseases. Progress in power Doppler (PD) technology has enabled evaluation of the st...

  10. Initial Results from the XUV Doppler Telescope (United States)

    Kano, R.; Hara, H.; Kobayashi, K.; Kumagai, K.; Nagata, S.; Sakao, T.; Shimizu, T.; Tsuneta, S.; Yoshida, T.

    We developed a unique telescope to obtain simultaneous XUV images and the velocity maps by measuring the line-of-sight Doppler shifts of the Fe XIV 211A&ring line (T = 1.8 MK): the Solar XUV Doppler Telescope (hereafter XDT). The telescope was launched by the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science with the 22nd S520 rocket on January 31, 1998, and took 14 XUV whole sun images during 5 minutes. Simultaneous observations of XDT with Yohkoh (SXT), SOHO (EIT, CDS, LASCO and MDI) were successfully carried out. The images taken with EIT, XDT and SXT are able to cover the wide temperature ranging from 1 to 10 MK, and clearly show the multi-temperature nature of the solar corona. Indeed, we notice that both the cool (1-2 MK) loops observed with EIT and XDT, and the hot (>3 MK) loops observed with SXT exist in the same active regions but in a spatially exclusive way. The XDT red-blue ratio between longer- and shorter-wavelength bands of Fe XIV 211A&ring line indicates a possible down-flow of 1.8 MK plasma near the footpoints of multiple cool loops

  11. Ventricular synchronicity: observations comparing pulse flow and tissue Doppler assessment in a Chinese healthy adult cohort

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QUAN Xin; ZHU Tian-gang; GUO Shi; MA Jian-xin; WANG Xin; GUO Ji-hong


    Background Mechanical asynchrony is an important parameter in predicting the response to cardiac resynchronization therapy,but detailed knowledge about cardiac timing in healthy persons is scarce.Therefore,in the current study,we sought to investigate the physiological status of interventricular synchronicity using pulse wave flow and tissue Doppler imaging in a healthy Chinese population.Methods Eighty-eight healthy volunteers underwent standard flow and tissue Doppler echocardiographic examinations.Ventricular inflow and outflow pulse wave flow Doppler patterns were recorded together with annulus pulse tissue Doppler imaging.Time intervals from the beginning of the QRS complex to the onset,peak and end of each wave were measured.Results The onsets of systole between left and right ventricles were highly synchronized by both imaging modalities.However,the left ventricle reached the peak flow ejection and peak mechanical contraction earlier than the right ventricle,(165.61±26.23) ms vs.(204.3±34.55) ms (P <0.01) and (133.62±26.19) ms vs.(191.25±38.47) ms (P <0.01).Time to peak early diastolic relaxation was earlier in the left ventricle than in the right heart,(500.23±56.52) me vs.(524.94±47.42) ms (P <0.01).Conclusions Left and right ventricles were well synchronized at the onsets of systole and diastole even though interventricular peak systolic and peak early diastolic dyssynchrony was observed in healthy people by pulse wave Doppler imaging.In addition,diastolic timing events were slightly affected by age and gender.

  12. B-mode and Doppler sonography of the mammary glands in dairy goats for mastitis diagnosis. (United States)

    Santos, V J C; Simplício, K; Sanchez, D; Coutinho, L; Teixeira, P; Barros, F; Almeida, V; Rodrigues, L; Bartlewski, P; Oliveira, M; Feliciano, M; Vicente, W


    This study aimed to evaluate the sonographic characteristics of the udder and teats and to determine the Doppler indexes of mammary artery in healthy and undergoing subclinical and clinical mastitis goats. Thirty animals among Saanen and Alpine Brown goats were arranged in three groups, healthy goats (HG), goats with subclinical mastitis (SMG) and goats with clinical mastitis (CMG). Using the B-mode, the sonographic characteristics (echotexture and echogenicity) and biometry (diameter and area of the udder cistern, diameter and area of the teat cistern and thickness of the teat wall) were evaluated. Using Doppler ultrasonography, the vascular indexes of the mammary artery were obtained. It was observed hyperechogenicity with solid component in the gland cistern when comparing animals with clinical mastitis and healthy mammary tissue. Regarding the echotexture of the breast tissue, there was heterogeneity in the mammary parenchyma on the three groups, for the milk, it was observed homogeneity for animals on HG and SMG and heterogeneity for animals on CMG. Grey-scale quantitative assessment revealed increase in echogenicity (mean value) for all the structures when comparing the three groups. Biometry did not reveal statistical difference between groups, for none of the evaluated structures. Doppler examination of the mammary artery showed the decrease of end diastolic velocity and raise of pulsatility index between groups. The association of B-mode and Doppler ultrasonography is useful for the evaluation of the udder of dairy goats with mastitis. It is a sensitive and specific method for the study of this disease. Doppler mode was unable to establish reliable criteria for diagnosis of subclinical mastitis. Moreover, the quantification of echogenicity is a useful technique for the evaluation of the milk in animals with mastitis; therefore, it is suggested that it can be used as complementary technique for the diagnosis of mastitis in goats. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag

  13. Real interest parity decomposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Luiz Ferreira


    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to investigate the general causes of real interest rate differentials (rids for a sample of emerging markets for the period of January 1996 to August 2007. To this end, two methods are applied. The first consists of breaking the variance of rids down into relative purchasing power pariety and uncovered interest rate parity and shows that inflation differentials are the main source of rids variation; while the second method breaks down the rids and nominal interest rate differentials (nids into nominal and real shocks. Bivariate autoregressive models are estimated under particular identification conditions, having been adequately treated for the identified structural breaks. Impulse response functions and error variance decomposition result in real shocks as being the likely cause of rids.O objetivo deste artigo é investigar as causas gerais dos diferenciais da taxa de juros real (rids para um conjunto de países emergentes, para o período de janeiro de 1996 a agosto de 2007. Para tanto, duas metodologias são aplicadas. A primeira consiste em decompor a variância dos rids entre a paridade do poder de compra relativa e a paridade de juros a descoberto e mostra que os diferenciais de inflação são a fonte predominante da variabilidade dos rids; a segunda decompõe os rids e os diferenciais de juros nominais (nids em choques nominais e reais. Sob certas condições de identificação, modelos autorregressivos bivariados são estimados com tratamento adequado para as quebras estruturais identificadas e as funções de resposta ao impulso e a decomposição da variância dos erros de previsão são obtidas, resultando em evidências favoráveis a que os choques reais são a causa mais provável dos rids.

  14. A novel decision tree approach based on transcranial Doppler sonography to screen for blunt cervical vascular injuries. (United States)

    Purvis, Dianna; Aldaghlas, Tayseer; Trickey, Amber W; Rizzo, Anne; Sikdar, Siddhartha


    Early detection and treatment of blunt cervical vascular injuries prevent adverse neurologic sequelae. Current screening criteria can miss up to 22% of these injuries. The study objective was to investigate bedside transcranial Doppler sonography for detecting blunt cervical vascular injuries in trauma patients using a novel decision tree approach. This prospective pilot study was conducted at a level I trauma center. Patients undergoing computed tomographic angiography for suspected blunt cervical vascular injuries were studied with transcranial Doppler sonography. Extracranial and intracranial vasculatures were examined with a portable power M-mode transcranial Doppler unit. The middle cerebral artery mean flow velocity, pulsatility index, and their asymmetries were used to quantify flow patterns and develop an injury decision tree screening protocol. Student t tests validated associations between injuries and transcranial Doppler predictive measures. We evaluated 27 trauma patients with 13 injuries. Single vertebral artery injuries were most common (38.5%), followed by single internal carotid artery injuries (30%). Compared to patients without injuries, mean flow velocity asymmetry was higher for single internal carotid artery (P = .003) and single vertebral artery (P = .004) injuries. Similarly, pulsatility index asymmetry was higher in single internal carotid artery (P = .015) and single vertebral artery (P = .042) injuries, whereas the lowest pulsatility index was elevated for bilateral vertebral artery injuries (P = .006). The decision tree yielded 92% specificity, 93% sensitivity, and 93% correct classifications. In this pilot feasibility study, transcranial Doppler measures were significantly associated with the blunt cervical vascular injury status, suggesting that transcranial Doppler sonography might be a viable bedside screening tool for trauma. Patient-specific hemodynamic information from transcranial Doppler assessment has the potential to alter


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Ilieva


    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been increased global awareness of Islamic finance. This topic is mainly opened with respect to the great financial crisis that mostly hit the banking system and the financial markets and caused many bank bankruptcies and state interventions. This paper analyzes the basic principles of Islamic banking. The absolute prohibition of receiving and giving interest (Riba and profit-and-loss sharing (PLS paradigms are elaborated in detail; they are primarily based on mudarabah (profit-sharing and musyarakah (joint venture concepts which nowadays are becoming an accepted way of doing business in several Western multinational banks. An overall comparison of the advantages of Islamic vs. conventional banking is also given. Islamic finance technology solutions have matured and they will face various challenges in the following decades, due to conventional banks offering, increasingly, Islamic products. The need for a more comprehensive environment and regulatory framework is emphasized, so that Islamic banking development can be ensured.

  16. Measurement of depth of burns by laser Doppler perfusion imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Droog, E.J.; Droog, E.J.; Steenbergen, Wiendelt; Sjöberg, F.


    Laser Doppler perfusion imaging (LDPI), is a further development in laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF). Its advantage is that it enables assessment of microvascular blood flow in a predefined skin area rather than, as for LDF, in one place. In many ways this method seems to be more promising than LDF in

  17. Micro-Doppler classification of riders and riderless horses (United States)

    Tahmoush, David


    Micro-range Micro-Doppler can be used to isolate particular parts of the radar signature, and in this case we demonstrate the differences in the signature between a walking horse versus a walking horse with a rider. Using micro-range micro-Doppler, we can distinguish the radar returns from the rider as separate from the radar returns of the horse.

  18. A Rayleigh Doppler Frequency Estimator Derived from Maximum Likelihood Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik; Affes, Sofiene; Mermelstein, Paul


    Reliable estimates of Rayleigh Doppler frequency are useful for the optimization of adaptive multiple access wireless receivers.The adaptation parameters of such receivers are sensitive to the amount of Doppler and automatic reconfiguration to the speed of terminalmovement can optimize cell...

  19. Measurement of depth of burns by laser Doppler perfusion imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Droog, E.J.; Steenbergen, W.; Sjöberg, F.


    Laser Doppler perfusion imaging (LDPI), is a further development in laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF). Its advantage is that it enables assessment of microvascular blood flow in a predefined skin area rather than, as for LDF, in one place. In many ways this method seems to be more promising than LDF in

  20. Compressive sensing for high resolution profiles with enhanced Doppler performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anitori, L.; Hoogeboom, P.; Chevalier, F. Le; Otten, M.P.G.


    In this paper we demonstrate how Compressive Sensing (CS) can be used in pulse-Doppler radars to improve the Doppler performance while preserving range resolution. We investigate here two types of stepped frequency waveforms, the coherent frequency bursts and successive frequency ramps, which can be

  1. An elementary approach to the gravitational Doppler shift (United States)

    Wörner, C. H.; Rojas, Roberto


    In college physics courses, treatment of the Doppler effect is usually done far from the first introduction to kinematics. This paper aims to apply a graphical treatment to describe the gravitational redshift, by considering the Doppler effect in two accelerated reference frames and exercising the equivalence principle. This approach seems appropriate to discuss with beginner students and could serve to enrich the didactic processes.

  2. Detection and visualization to Doppler sensitive sonar pulses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bertrand, D.B.; IJsselmuide, S.P. van; Beerens, S.P.


    In anti-submarine warfare, the use of Doppler sensitive sonar pulses is common practice. In particular, the wideband Doppler sensitive PTFM pulse (Pulse Train Frequency Modulation) is a powerful tool for detection in reverberation limited conditions. Nevertheless, this pulse is not operationally

  3. The value of Doppler ultrasound in cirrhosis and portal hypertension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, T; van der Jagt, EJ; Haagsma, EB; Bijleveld, CMA; Jansen, PLM; Boeve, WJ


    Background: Cirrhosis and portal hypertension affect the flow profile of the liver vasculature. In these conditions Doppler ultrasound can provide important information on the hemodynamics of the portal venous system, the hepatic artery and the hepatic veins. Methods: The value of Doppler ultrasound

  4. A Rayleigh Doppler frequency estimator derived from maximum likelihood theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik; Affes, Sofiéne; Mermelstein, Paul


    Reliable estimates of Rayleigh Doppler frequency are useful for the optimization of adaptive multiple access wireless receivers. The adaptation parameters of such receivers are sensitive to the amount of Doppler and automatic reconfiguration to the speed of terminal movement can optimize cell cap...

  5. Colour Doppler evaluation of extracranial carotid artery in patients presenting with features of cerebrovascular disease: A clinical and radiological correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeev Sehrawat


    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the morphological and hemodynamic changes that take place in carotid arteries by colour Doppler in patients presenting with features of stroke. Background and Objectives: Cerebrovascular accidents constitute a major cause of adult mortality. The principal indication for cerebrovascular Doppler examination is stroke prevention. Colour Doppler sonography is a sensitive method for detection of atherosclerotic plaque and provides considerable information about the extent and severity of plaque as well as the resulting diminution of arterial lumen. The main strengths of sonography of carotid arteries are patient comfort, lack of risk and accuracy in detecting carotid stenosis. Material and Methods: A prospective study of Colour Doppler in carotid arteries was carried out for 12 months from 1 st July 2009 to 1 st July 2010. The study was carried out on 40 individuals, suspected of cerebrovascular insufficiency and having one or the other risk factors for cerebrovascular disease. A detailed clinical history, CNS examination findings and evidence of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia and ischemic heart disease were noted. Carotid Doppler evaluation was done by using Siemens Antares Ultrasound system. The data gathered were grey scale and Doppler findings of common carotid artery, internal carotid artery and external carotid arteries. Doppler findings were correlated with clinical features and risk factors. Results: In our study of 40 patients, the commonest lesion found was the atherosclerotic plaque. Highest incidence of plaque was seen in males 41% in the age group of 60-70 years and in females 37% in age group of 70-80 years. Cigarette smoking was the most common risk factor (60% associated with stroke/ Transient Ischaemic Attacks (TIA. Hemiparesis was the most common presenting symptom (35% among the symptomatic cases. Atheromatous plaque was most commonly found in the right carotid system (60%. Most common site for

  6. Use of GPS network data for HF Doppler measurements interpretation

    CERN Document Server

    Petrova, Inna R; Latypov, Ruslan R


    The method of measurement of Doppler frequency shift of ionospheric signal - HF Doppler technique - is one of well-known and widely used methods of ionosphere research. It allows to research various disturbances in the ionosphere. There are some sources of disturbances in the ionosphere. These are geomagnetic storms, solar flashes, metrological effects, atmospheric waves. This method allows to find out the influence of earthquakes, explosions and other processes on the ionosphere, which occur near to the Earth. HF Doppler technique has the high sensitivity to small frequency variations and the high time resolution, but interpretation of results is difficult. In this work we make an attempt to use GPS data for Doppler measurements interpretation. Modeling of Doppler frequency shift variations with use of TEC allows to separate ionosphere disturbances of medium scale.

  7. Embolic Doppler ultrasound signal detection via fractional Fourier transform. (United States)

    Gençer, Merve; Bilgin, Gökhan; Aydın, Nizamettin


    Computerized analysis of Doppler ultrasound signals can aid early detection of asymptomatic circulating emboli. For analysis, physicians use informative features extracted from Doppler ultrasound signals. Time -frequency analysis methods are useful tools to exploit the transient like signals such as Embolic signals. Detection of discriminative features would be the first step toward automated analysis of embolic Doppler ultrasound signals. The most problematic part of setting up emboli detection system is to differentiate embolic signals from confusing similar wave-like patterns such as Doppler speckle and artifacts caused by tissue movement, probe tapping, speaking etc. In this study, discrete version of fractional Fourier transform is presented as a solution in the detection of emboli in digitized Doppler ultrasound signals. An accurate set of parameters are extracted using short time Fourier transform and fractional Fourier transform and the results are compared to reveal detection quality. Experimental results prove the efficiency of fractional Fourier transform in which discriminative features becomes more evident.

  8. One way Doppler extractor. Volume 1: Vernier technique (United States)

    Blasco, R. W.; Klein, S.; Nossen, E. J.; Starner, E. R.; Yanosov, J. A.


    A feasibility analysis, trade-offs, and implementation for a One Way Doppler Extraction system are discussed. A Doppler error analysis shows that quantization error is a primary source of Doppler measurement error. Several competing extraction techniques are compared and a Vernier technique is developed which obtains high Doppler resolution with low speed logic. Parameter trade-offs and sensitivities for the Vernier technique are analyzed, leading to a hardware design configuration. A detailed design, operation, and performance evaluation of the resulting breadboard model is presented which verifies the theoretical performance predictions. Performance tests have verified that the breadboard is capable of extracting Doppler, on an S-band signal, to an accuracy of less than 0.02 Hertz for a one second averaging period. This corresponds to a range rate error of no more than 3 millimeters per second.

  9. Limits on Planetary Companions from Doppler Surveys of Nearby Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Howard, Andrew W


    Most of our knowledge of planets orbiting nearby stars comes from Doppler surveys. For spaced-based, high-contrast imaging missions, nearby stars with Doppler-discovered planets are attractive targets. The known orbits tell imaging missions where and when to observe, and the dynamically-determined masses provide important constraints for the interpretation of planetary spectra. Quantifying the set of planet masses and orbits that could have been detected will enable more efficient planet discovery and characterization. We analyzed Doppler measurements from Lick and Keck Observatories collected by the California Planet Survey. We focused on stars that are likely targets for three space-based planet imaging mission concepts studied by NASA--WFIRST-AFTA, Exo-C, and Exo-S. The Doppler targets are primarily F8 and later main sequence stars, with observations spanning 1987-2014. We identified 76 stars with Doppler measurements from the prospective mission target lists. We developed an automated planet search and a ...

  10. Doplerovi brodski navigacioni brzinomjeri / Maritime navigational Doppler logs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milovan Unković


    Full Text Available Doplerovi navigacioni brodski brzinomjeri rade na principu Doplerovog efekta. Doplerov predajni projektor emituje snop ultrazvučnih vibracija u vodi, a drugi (ili isti projektor prima odbijeni signal od dna ili od sloja vode. U ovom radu opisana je teorija Doplerovog efekta, primjena te teorije na brodskim brzinomjerima, konstrukcija i karakteristike savremenih Doplerovih brzinomjera. / The Doppler maritime navigational logs are based on measurement of the Doppler effect. A Doppler log transmitting transducer emits beam of sound vibration in the water, and a second (or the same transducer receives the echo from the sea bed or -water layer. In this article describes theory of Doppler effect, using this theory in maritime logs, construction and performance of modern Doppler logs.

  11. Tissue-Doppler assessment of cardiac left ventricular function during short-term adjuvant epirubicin therapy for breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appel, Jon M; Sogaard, Peter; Mortensen, Christiane E;


    It has been hypothesized that the extent of acute anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity reflects the risk for late development of heart failure. The aim of this study was to examine if short-term changes in cardiac function can be detected even after low-dose adjuvant epirubicin therapy for breast...... cancer when using Doppler tissue imaging of longitudinal left ventricular function....

  12. Color Doppler measurement of blood flow in the inferior thyroid artery in patients with autoimmune thyroid diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caruso, Giuseppe; Attard, Marco; Caronia, Aurelio; Lagalla, Roberto


    Purpose: The aim of the study is to find out whether the measurement of peak systolic velocity in the inferior thyroid artery (ITA) is a valuable parameter to differentiate autoimmune thyroid diseases (hyper-, normo- or hypofunctional) and to evaluate the efficacy of medical treatment. Material and methods: The ITA of 31 patients (eight with Graves' disease, 23 with subclinical hypothyroidism) was examined with color Doppler and pulsed Doppler. The final diagnosis was obtained by citology and by hormonal and antibodies assays. The patients were monitorized by ultrasound for a period of 8 months. Results: In all the patients with Graves' disease the peak systolic velocity was always over 150 cm/s, while in other autoimmune thyroiditis the peak systolic velocity was within the normal range, and never exceeding 65 cm/s. In the first group, the measurement taken in the ITA showed also the efficacy of the pharmacological treatment earlier and more reliably than the color Doppler pattern obtained in the parenchyma. Conclusions: The color Doppler measurement of the ITA seems to be a promising technique with low-cost and easy approach. In our experience, the color Doppler of the ITA could have a clinical role in the differential diagnosis of diffuse thyroid diseases and in the follow-up of the Graves' disease during medical treatment.

  13. TIMED Doppler Interferometer: Overview and recent results (United States)

    Killeen, T. L.; Wu, Q.; Solomon, S. C.; Ortland, D. A.; Skinner, W. R.; Niciejewski, R. J.; Gell, D. A.


    The Thermosphere-Ionosphere-Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics (TIMED) satellite carries a limb-scanning Fabry-Perot interferometer designed to perform remote-sensing measurements of upper atmosphere winds and temperatures globally. This instrument is called the TIMED Doppler Interferometer, or TIDI. This paper provides an overview of the TIDI instrument design, on-orbit performance, operational modes, data processing and inversion procedures, and a summary of wind results to date. Daytime and nighttime neutral winds in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere/ionosphere (MLTI) are measured on TIDI using four individual scanning telescopes that collect light from various upper atmosphere airglow layers on both the cold and warm sides of the high-inclination TIMED spacecraft. The light is spectrally analyzed using an ultrastable plane etalon Fabry-Perot system with sufficient spectral resolution to determine the Doppler line characteristics of atomic and molecular emissions emanating from the MLTI. The light from all four telescopes and from an internal calibration field passes through the etalon and is combined on a single image plane detector using a Circle-to-Line Interferometer Optic (CLIO). The four geophysical fields provide orthogonal line-of-sight measurements to either side of the satellite's path and these are analyzed to produce altitude profiles of vector winds in the MLTI. The TIDI wind measurements presented here are from the molecular oxygen (0-0) band, covering the altitude region 85-105 km. The unique TIDI design allows for more extended local time coverage of wind structures than previous wind-measuring instruments from high-inclination satellites. The TIDI operational performance has been nominal except for two anomalies: (1) higher than expected background white light caused by a low-level light leak and (2) ice deposition on cold optical surfaces. Both anomalies are well understood and the instrumental modes and data analysis techniques have been

  14. Avaliação dos tumores hepáticos ao Doppler Doppler evaluation of liver tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Martins Machado


    Full Text Available Os avanços recentes na ultra-sonografia têm ampliado a possibilidade de detecção de tumores hepáticos. Isto tem auxiliado na perspectiva de melhora do prognóstico destes pacientes, à medida que novas técnicas terapêuticas têm surgido. Neste artigo os autores relatam achados ao Doppler que podem auxiliar na identificação e caracterização dos tumores hepáticos, avaliando dados do Doppler colorido, pulsado e do Doppler de amplitude ("power Doppler". Fazem, também, referência a novas modalidades de imagem, como o uso da harmônica.Recent advances in ultrasound have optimized the detection of liver tumors and helped to improve the prognosis of patients with this condition as newly developed and improved therapeutic modalities have been established. The authors review important Doppler findings which may help in the identification and characterization of some hepatic tumors through the evaluation of color Doppler, pulsed Doppler and power Doppler features. New imaging methods such as the use of harmonics imaging are also reviewed.

  15. Universal miniaturized signal evaluation for laser doppler anemometers; Universelle Miniatur-Signalauswertung fuer die Laser Doppler Anemometrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wnuck, J. von; Strunck, V.; Dopheide, D.


    A laser doppler anemometer (LDA) is a contactless optical sensor for flow rate measurement. Interference of two laser beams generates a measuring volume with interference lines in the point of intersection. A particle moving through the measuring volume with a current scatters light modulated wiith the doppler frequency, which is received by a detector. The frequency of the doppler-modulated light is proportional to the velocity of the particle. The report describes the technical details of an electronic evaluation system for laser doppler signals in the time range using programmable gate arrays by Xilinix. (orig.) [Deutsch] Ein Laser Doppler Anemometer (LDA) ist ein beruehrungsloser optischer Sensor, der Stroemungsgeschwindigkeiten misst. Die Ueberlagerung zweier Laserstrahlen erzeugt im Schnittpunkt ein Messvolumen mit Inferenzstreifen. Ein Teilchen, das sich mit einer Stroemung durch das Messvolumen bewegt, streut mit der Doppelfrequenz des Doppler moduliertes Licht, das von einem Detektor empfangen wird. Die Frequenz des Doppler-modulierten Lichts ist der Geschwindigkeit des Teilchens proportional. Hier wird die technische Realisierung einer Auswerteelektronik fuer Laser Doppler Signale im Zeitbereich mit programmierbaren Gate-Arrays von Xilinx beschrieben. (orig.)

  16. New procedures for analyzing Doppler-shift attenuation lifetime measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petkov, P., E-mail: [Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, 1784 Sofia (Bulgaria); Dewald, A. [Institut für Kernphysik, Universität zu Köln, D-50937 Köln (Germany); Tonev, D.; Goutev, N.; Asova, G.; Dimitrov, B.; Gavrilov, G.; Mineva, M.N.; Yavahchova, M.S. [Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, 1784 Sofia (Bulgaria)


    A generalization of an earlier proposed version of the Differential decay curve method is presented for the analysis of Doppler-shift attenuation lifetime measurements. The lifetime is derived directly from the line shapes of the depopulating and feeding transitions without any assumptions about or fitting of the time dependence of the population of the corresponding levels except for unobserved feeding when relevant. Fitting of the line shapes is also not necessary. The only approximation involved is related to the continuous treatment of the nuclear scattering events in the Monte Carlo simulation needed. Tests with simulated and real data reveal good reliability of this method. We propose also a new precise procedure where the lifetime is derived by fitting the time dependence of the population of the level of interest using the line shape of the depopulating transition and the difference of the spectra of the depopulating and feeding transitions. Practical application to simulated and real data proves the applicability of the new procedure.

  17. Minimally destructive Doppler measurement of a quantized, superfluid flow (United States)

    Anderson, Neil; Kumar, Avinash; Eckel, Stephen; Stringari, Sandro; Campbell, Gretchen


    Ring shaped Bose-Einstein condensates are of interest because they support the existence of quantized, persistent currents. These currents arise because in a ring trap, the wavefunction of the condensate must be single valued, and thus the azimuthal velocity is quantized. Previously, these persistent current states have only been measured in a destructive fashion via either interference with a phase reference or using the size of a central vortex-like structure that appears in time of flight. Here, we demonstrate a minimally destructive, in-situ measurement of the winding number of a ring shaped BEC. We excite a standing wave of phonon modes in the ring BEC using a perturbation. If the condensate is in a nonzero circulation state, then the frequency of these phonon modes are Doppler shifted, causing the standing wave to precess about the ring. From the direction and velocity of this precession, we can infer the winding number of the flow. For certain parameters, this technique can detect individual winding numbers with approximately 90% fidelity.

  18. Multimodal integration of micro-Doppler sonar and auditory signals for behavior classification with convolutional networks. (United States)

    Dura-Bernal, Salvador; Garreau, Guillaume; Georgiou, Julius; Andreou, Andreas G; Denham, Susan L; Wennekers, Thomas


    The ability to recognize the behavior of individuals is of great interest in the general field of safety (e.g. building security, crowd control, transport analysis, independent living for the elderly). Here we report a new real-time acoustic system for human action and behavior recognition that integrates passive audio and active micro-Doppler sonar signatures over multiple time scales. The system architecture is based on a six-layer convolutional neural network, trained and evaluated using a dataset of 10 subjects performing seven different behaviors. Probabilistic combination of system output through time for each modality separately yields 94% (passive audio) and 91% (micro-Doppler sonar) correct behavior classification; probabilistic multimodal integration increases classification performance to 98%. This study supports the efficacy of micro-Doppler sonar systems in characterizing human actions, which can then be efficiently classified using ConvNets. It also demonstrates that the integration of multiple sources of acoustic information can significantly improve the system's performance.

  19. Diagnostic agreement between panoramic radiographs and color doppler images of carotid atheroma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Maria Romano-Sousa


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the agreement between diagnoses of calcified atheroma seen on panoramic radiographs and color Doppler images. Our interest stems from the fact that panoramic images can show the presence of atheroma regardless of the level of obstruction detected by color Doppler images. Panoramic and color Doppler images of 16 patients obtained from the archives of the Health Department of the city of Valença, RJ, Brazil, were analyzed in this study. Both sides of each patient were observed on the images, with a total of 32 analyzed cervical regions. The level of agreement between diagnoses was analyzed using the Kappa statistics. There was a high level of agreement, with a Kappa value of 0.78. In conclusion, panoramic radiographs can help detecting calcifications in the cervical region of patients susceptible to vascular diseases predisposing to myocardial infarction and cerebrovascular accidents. If properly trained and informed, dentists can refer their patients to a physician for a cardiovascular evaluation in order to receive proper and timely medical treatment.

  20. UV laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy and laser Doppler flowmetry in the diagnostics of alopecia (United States)

    Skomorokha, Diana P.; Pigoreva, Yulia N.; Salmin, Vladimir V.


    Development of optical biopsy methods has a great interest for medical diagnostics. In clinical and experimental studies it is very important to analyze blood circulation quickly and accurately, thereby laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) is widely used. UV laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (UV LIFS) is express highly sensitive and widely-spread method with no destructive impact, high excitation selectivity and the possibility to use in highly scattering media. The goal of this work was to assess a correlation of UV laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy and laser Doppler flowmetry parameters, and a possibility to identify or to differentiate various types of pathological changes in tissues according to their autofluorescence spectra. Three groups of patients with diffuse (symptomatic) alopecia, androgenic alopecia, and focal alopecia have been tested. Each groups consisted of not less than 20 persons. The measurements have been done in the parietal and occipital regions of the sculls. We used the original automated spectrofluorimeter to record autofluorescence spectra, and standard laser Doppler flowmeter BLF-21 (Transonic Systems, Inc., USA) to analyze the basal levels of blood circulation. Our results show that UV LIFS accurately distinguishes the zones with different types of alopecia. We found high correlation of the basal levels of blood circulation and the integrated intensity of autofluorescence in the affected tissue.

  1. Interests in motion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindstrand, Frederik; Frølunde, Lisbeth; Gilje, Øystein


    This chapter examines youth media from a Scandinavian perspective, based on the results of a recent study about learning paths among young filmmakers in Denmark, Norway and Sweden. We deal specifically with how the film medium as a knowledge domain, or a field of practice, is represented through...... the discourses of young Scandinavian filmmakers. The chapter introduces three filmmakers and their submitted films. The analysis – which uses a social semiotic approach to communication and meaning making – is focused on their enclosed descriptions of a scene they felt satisfied with and their motivations...

  2. Color Doppler US of superficial adenopathies; Il color Doppler nelle adenopatie superficiali

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giovagnorio, F. [Rome Univ. (Italy). 1. Cattedra di Radiologia


    Superficial lymph node are frequently involved in different diseases. Their location makes them suitable for effective assessment with high-resolution US and color Doppler has been recently suggested as a tool for increasing sensitivity in lymph node studies. Thus the author investigated the main vascular patterns detectable in abnormal superficial lymph nodes. [Italian] Numerosa malattie con natura differente coinvolgono i linfonodi superficiali: la localizzazione ne consente l'esplorazione con ecografia con alta risoluzione e lo studio mediante eco color Doppler e' stato proposto negli ultimi anni incontrando notevole sviluppo in tempi recenti. Scopo del lavoro e' illustrare il contributo personale nella definizione dei principali quadri riscontrabili nelle diverse adenopatie superficiali.

  3. Learner Interest: An Affective Variable in Iterative Course Design Evaluation (United States)

    Francis, Linda M.


    The study examined interest, a unique affective construct distinct from motivation, as an important instructional design consideration. New interest theory suggests that interest develops along a continuum, and at its earliest stages, may be triggered through intentional use of interesting materials and environments. Instructional designers need…

  4. Fractal fluctuations in transcranial Doppler signals (United States)

    West, B. J.; Zhang, R.; Sanders, A. W.; Miniyar, S.; Zuckerman, J. H.; Levine, B. D.


    Cerebral blood flow (CBF) velocity measured using transcranial Doppler ultrasonography (TCD) is not strictly constant, but has both a systematic and random component. This behavior may indicate that the axial blood flow in the middle cerebral artery is a chaotic process. Herein we use the relative dispersion, the ratio of the standard deviation to the mean, to show by systematically aggregating the data that the correlation in the beat-to-beat CBF time series is a modulated inverse power law. This scaling of the CBF time series indicates the existence of long-time memory in the underlying control process. We argue herein that the control system has allometric properties that enable it to maintain a relatively constant brain perfusion.

  5. Role of transcranial Doppler in cerebrovascular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit A Kulkarni


    Full Text Available Transcranial Doppler (TCD is the only noninvasive modality for the assessment of real-time cerebral blood flow. It complements various anatomic imaging modalities by providing physiological-flow related information. It is relatively cheap, easily available, and can be performed at the bedside. It has been suggested as an essential component of a comprehensive stroke centre. In addition to its importance in acute cerebrovascular ischemia, its role is expanding in the evaluation of cerebral hemodynamics in various disorders of the brain. The “established” clinical indications for the use of TCD include cerebral ischemia, sickle cell disease, detection of right-to-left shunts, subarachnoid hemorrhage, periprocedural or surgical monitoring, and brain death. We present the role of TCD in acute cerebrovascular ischemia, sonothrombolysis, and intracranial stenosis.

  6. The Doppler peaks from a generic defect

    CERN Document Server

    Magueijo, J


    We investigate which of the exotic Doppler peak features found for textures and cosmic strings are generic novelties pertaining to defects. We find that the ``out of phase'' texture signature is an accident. Generic defects, when they generate a secondary peak structure similar to inflation, apply to it an additive shift. It is not necessary for this shift to be ``out of phase''. We also show which factors are responsible for the absence of secondary oscillations found for cosmic strings. Within this general analysis we finally consider the conditions under which topological defects and inflation can be confused. It is argued that only \\Omega=1 inflation and a defect with a horizon size coherence length have a chance to be confused. Any other inflationary or defect model always differ distinctly. (To appear in the proceedings of the XXXIth Moriond meeting, ``Microwave Background Anisotropies'')

  7. Laser Doppler vibrometry: new ENT applications (United States)

    Stasche, Norbert; Baermann, M.; Kempe, C.; Hoermann, Karl; Foth, Hans-Jochen


    Common audiometry often does not really allow a reliable and objective differential diagnosis of hearing disorders such as otosclerosis, adhesive otitis, ossicular interruption or tinnitus, even though several methods might be used complementarily. In recent years, some experimental studies on middle ear mechanics established laser Doppler vibrometry (LDV) as a useful method allowing objective measurement of human tympanic membrane displacement. The present study on LDV investigated the clinical use of this new method under physiological conditions. LDV proved to be a fast, reproducible, non-invasive and very sensitive instrument to characterize ear-drum vibrations in various middle ear dysfunctions, except in tinnitus patients. For future applications, improved optical characteristics of the vibrometer might result in a better differential diagnosis of subjective and objective tinnitus, otoacoustic emissions or Morbus Meniere.

  8. Heartrate variation of umbilical artery Doppler waveforms. (United States)

    Hoskins, P R; Johnstone, F D; Chambers, S E; Haddad, N G; White, G; McDicken, W N


    Umbilical artery Doppler waveforms from 20 patients were used to investigate the dependence of resistance index and pulsatility index on beat to beat pulse length over short time periods for individual patients, and on the usefulness of a common normalisation formula. For individual patients the resistance index and pulsatility index were only partially correlated with pulse length. Changes in both indices occurred independently of pulse length. Use of a common normalisation formula resulted in no significant reduction of the coefficient of variation of the resistance index (p greater than 0.1), and a reduction in the coefficient of variation of the pulsatility index of 10% (p greater than 0.001). It is concluded that short term changes in resistance index and pulsatility index cannot be corrected by a common normalisation formula.

  9. Correlation and Sequential Filtering with Doppler Measurements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGJianguo; HEPeikun; HANYueqiu; WUSiliang


    Two sequential filters are developed for Doppler radar measurements in the presence of correlation between range and range rate measurement errors. Two ideal linear measurement equations with the pseudo measurements are constructed via block-partitioned Cholesky factorization and the practical measurement equationswith the pseudo measurements are obtained through the direction cosine estimation and error compensation. The resulting sequential filters make the position measurement be possibly processed before the pseudo measurement and hence the more accurate direction cosine estimate can be obtained from the filtered position estimate rather than the predicted state estimate. The numerical simulations with different rangerange rate correlation coefficients show thatthe proposed two sequential filters are almost equivalent in performance but both superior to the conventional extended Kalman filter for different correlation coefficients.

  10. Doppler cooling and trapping on forbidden transitions. (United States)

    Binnewies, T; Wilpers, G; Sterr, U; Riehle, F; Helmcke, J; Mehlstäubler, T E; Rasel, E M; Ertmer, W


    Ultracold atoms at temperatures close to the recoil limit have been achieved by extending Doppler cooling to forbidden transitions. A cloud of (40)Ca atoms has been cooled and trapped to a temperature as low as 6 microK by operating a magnetooptical trap on the spin-forbidden intercombination transition. Quenching the long-lived excited state with an additional laser enhanced the scattering rate by a factor of 15, while a high selectivity in velocity was preserved. With this method, more than 10% of precooled atoms from a standard magnetooptical trap have been transferred to the ultracold trap. Monte Carlo simulations of the cooling process are in good agreement with the experiments.

  11. Phase Doppler anemometry as an ejecta diagnostic (United States)

    Bell, D. J.; Chapman, D. J.


    When a shock wave is incident on a free surface, micron sized pieces of the material can be ejected from that surface. Phase Doppler Anemometry (PDA) is being developed to simultaneously measure the sizes and velocities of the individual shock induced ejecta particles; providing an important insight into ejecta phenomena. The results from experiments performed on the 13 mm bore light gas gun at the Institute of Shock Physics, Imperial College London are presented. Specially grooved tin targets were shocked at pressures of up to 14 GPa, below the melt on release pressure, to generate ejecta particles. These experiments are the first time that PDA has been successfully fielded on dynamic ejecta experiments. The results and current state of the art of the technique are discussed along with the future improvements required to optimise performance and increase usability.

  12. Calibration of a cw infrared Doppler lidar. (United States)

    Schwiesow, R L; Cupp, R E


    A moving scattering target used as a transfer standard allows absolute calibration of the response of a cw Doppler lidar to an atmospheric target. The lidar in this study operated at a 10.6-microm wavelength. Consideration of the distribution of radiant energy density near the focus of the lidar transceiver permits measurement of a backscatter coefficient from a distributed array of scatterers, such as atmospheric aerosols, based on the diffuse reflectance of the surface of the transfer standard. The minimum detectable signal for our system with a 5-sec averaging time corresponds to a backscatter coefficient of 2.4 x 10(-12) m (-1) sr (-1) +/- 2.5 dB, which is ~ 9 dB greater than the theoretical threshold. Calibration shows that the lidar response is 5+/-1 dB less than the ideal limit for signal powers well above the minimum detectable signal.

  13. The recondite intricacies of Zeeman Doppler mapping

    CERN Document Server

    Stift, M J; Cowley, C R


    We present a detailed analysis of the reliability of abundance and magnetic maps of Ap stars obtained by Zeeman Doppler mapping (ZDM). It is shown how they can be adversely affected by the assumption of a mean stellar atmosphere instead of appropriate "local" atmospheres corresponding to the actual abundances in a given region. The essenceof the difficulties was already shown by Chandrasekhar's picket-fence model. The results obtained with a suite of Stokes codes written in the Ada programming language and based on modern line-blanketed atmospheres are described in detail. We demonstrate that the high metallicity values claimed to have been found in chemically inhomogeneous Ap star atmospheres would lead to local temperature structures, continuum and line intensities, and line shapes that differ significantly from those predicted by a mean stellar atmosphere. Unfortunately, past applications of ZDM have consistently overlooked the intricate aspects of metallicity with their all-pervading effects. The erroneou...

  14. Position finding using simple Doppler sensors (United States)

    Schelkshorn, S.; Detlefsen, J.


    An increasing number of modern applications and services is based on the knowledge of the users actual position. Depending on the application a rough position estimate is sufficient, e. g. services in cellular networks that use the information about the users actual cell. Other applications, e. g. navigation systems use the GPS-System for accurate position finding. Beyond these outdoor applications a growing number of indoor applications requires position information. The previously mentioned methods for position finding (mobile cell, GPS) are not usable for these indoor applications. Within this paper we will present a system that relies on the simultaneous measurement of doppler signals at four different positions to obtain position and velocity of an unknown object. It is therefore suiteable for indoor usage, extendig already existing wireless infrastructure.

  15. Microscale Heat Conduction Models and Doppler Feedback

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawari, Ayman I. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Ougouag, Abderrafi [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)


    The objective of this project is to establish an approach for providing the fundamental input that is needed to estimate the magnitude and time-dependence of the Doppler feedback mechanism in Very High Temperature reactors. This mechanism is the foremost contributor to the passive safety of gas-cooled, graphite-moderated high temperature reactors that use fuel based on Tristructural-Isotropic (TRISO) coated particles. Therefore, its correct prediction is essential to the conduct of safety analyses for these reactors. Since the effect is directly dependent on the actual temperature reached by the fuel during transients, the underlying phenomena of heat deposition, heat transfer and temperature rise must be correctly predicted. To achieve the above objective, this project will explore an approach that accounts for lattice effects as well as local temperature variations and the correct definition of temperature and related local effects.

  16. Doppler time-of-flight imaging

    KAUST Repository

    Heidrich, Wolfgang


    Systems and methods for imaging object velocity are provided. In an embodiment, at least one Time-of-Flight camera is used to capture a signal representative of an object in motion over an exposure time. Illumination and modulation frequency of the captured motion are coded within the exposure time. A change of illumination frequency is mapped to measured pixel intensities of the captured motion within the exposure time, and information about a Doppler shift in the illumination frequency is extracted to obtain a measurement of instantaneous per pixel velocity of the object in motion. The radial velocity information of the object in motion can be simultaneously captured for each pixel captured within the exposure time. In one or more aspects, the illumination frequency can be coded orthogonal to the modulation frequency of the captured motion. The change of illumination frequency can correspond to radial object velocity.

  17. Analytic radar micro-Doppler signatures classification (United States)

    Oh, Beom-Seok; Gu, Zhaoning; Wang, Guan; Toh, Kar-Ann; Lin, Zhiping


    Due to its capability of capturing the kinematic properties of a target object, radar micro-Doppler signatures (m-DS) play an important role in radar target classification. This is particularly evident from the remarkable number of research papers published every year on m-DS for various applications. However, most of these works rely on the support vector machine (SVM) for target classification. It is well known that training an SVM is computationally expensive due to its nature of search to locate the supporting vectors. In this paper, the classifier learning problem is addressed by a total error rate (TER) minimization where an analytic solution is available. This largely reduces the search time in the learning phase. The analytically obtained TER solution is globally optimal with respect to the classification total error count rate. Moreover, our empirical results show that TER outperforms SVM in terms of classification accuracy and computational efficiency on a five-category radar classification problem.

  18. Widefield laser doppler velocimeter: development and theory.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansche, Bruce David; Reu, Phillip L.; Massad, Jordan Elias


    The widefield laser Doppler velocimeter is a new measurement technique that significantly expands the functionality of a traditional scanning system. This new technique allows full-field velocity measurements without scanning, a drawback of traditional measurement techniques. This is particularly important for tests in which the sample is destroyed or the motion of the sample is non-repetitive. The goal of creating ''velocity movies'' was accomplished during the research, and this report describes the current functionality and operation of the system. The mathematical underpinnings and system setup are thoroughly described. Two prototype experiments are then presented to show the practical use of the current system. Details of the corresponding hardware used to collect the data and the associated software to analyze the data are presented.

  19. Doppler spectral characteristics of infrainguinal vein bypasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Tina G; von Jessen, F; Sillesen, H


    With the aim of assessing the velocity profile of femoropopliteal and femorocrural vein bypasses, 128 patients undergoing infrainguinal vein bypass surgery entered a postoperative Duplex surveillance protocol, which included clinical assessment and Duplex scanning, using Doppler spectral analysis...... of arteriovenous fistulas the initially antegrade diastolic velocity was replaced by a retrograde flow within 3 months, whereas a forward flow in diastole was sustained in grafts with patent fistulas. Abnormal Duplex findings in 31 patients led to angiography and revision in 13 cases. Four revised grafts failed......, while nine remained patent at follow-up 1-12 months later. Ten (56%) of 18 non-revised bypasses with abnormal Duplex findings failed within 9 months compared to 1 (1%) of 76 bypasses with a normal velocity profile (p analysis provides...

  20. Ultrasonic intrusion sensor using the Doppler effect; Choonpa Doppler hoshiki shinnyu sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kani, H.; Iwasaki, N.; Goto, M. [Nippon Soken, Inc., Tokyo (Japan); Tsuzuki, T.; Nakamura, T. [Denso Corp., Aichi (Japan)


    For vehicle anti-theft alarm systems which cope with vehicle and car component theft, EU initiated vehicle security regulations from Jan 1997. Also, the insurance industry has instituted the insurance certification of vehicle anti-theft alarm systems. We have developed an ultrasonic intrusion sensor using the doppler effect for vehicle anti-theft alarm systems specifically for these EU regulations and insurance certification. 2 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  1. ICPD: in whose interest? (United States)

    Shiva, M


    The International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) is set for September 1994. Arms control and control of military interests are as crucial as population control. The expenditure on the military and arms should go to social measures and true socioeconomic development. Women are leading the movement against war and towards peace. Women make up 70% of current refugees of ethnic conflicts. The conquest of free trade with little or no restriction and globalization trends forces developing countries to accept nonessential luxury items which tend to be irrational, hazardous consumer articles and technologies from industrialized countries. The privileged elite in developing countries and the industrialized countries overconsume, while the basic needs of the poor majority are not being met. The rich view the poor as a global threat and a threat for environmental degradation. They believe that free trade will solve all problems, yet it only marginalizes the poor and the vulnerable. The pattern of overconsumption is the threat. The poor are characterized as demons responsible for the population explosion. Women are angry that population control policies are attempts to control women's fertility. Specifically, most contraceptive technologies and most family planning programs target women. Male responsibility is ignored. Religious fundamentalists tell women not to become pregnant, not to use contraception, and not to seek abortion, yet they allow male sex behavior, e.g., sexual violence. This attitude leaves women vulnerable to unwanted pregnancies, sexually transmitted diseases, and AIDS. Developing countries should be concerned about chapter III on Population, Environment, and Development in the ICPD text. Most countries, including India, have formed a consensus on this chapter. The Vatican and some Latin American countries have objections, however. The meeting in Cairo will likely continue to promote the view that the fertility of women in developing

  2. Doppler echocardiography imaging in detecting multi-valvular lesions: a clinical evaluation in children with acute rheumatic fever.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pushpa Shivaram

    Full Text Available RATIONALE: Doppler echocardiography has been demonstrated to be accurate in diagnosing valvular lesions in rheumatic heart disease (RHD when compared to clinical evaluation alone. OBJECTIVE: To perform Doppler echocardiography in children clinically diagnosed by the Jones criteria to have acute rheumatic fever (ARF, and to then compare the effectiveness of echo in detecting single/multi-valvular lesions with that of the initial clinical evaluation. METHODS AND RESULTS: We enrolled 93 children who were previously diagnosed with ARF by clinical examination. Presence of valvular lesions were enlisted, first by clinical auscultation, and then by performing Doppler echocardiography. We found that Doppler echocardiography was a sensitive technique, capable of detecting valvular lesions that were missed by clinical auscultation alone. Echocardiography of patients with carditis revealed mitral regurgitation to be the most common lesion present (53 patients, 56.98%, followed by aortic regurgitation in 21 patients (22.6%. The difference between clinical and echocardiographic diagnosis in ARF children with carditis was statistically significant for mitral regurgitation, aortic regurgitation and tricuspid regurgitation. Clinical auscultation alone revealed 4 cases of mitral stenosis, 39 mitral regurgitation, 14 aortic regurgitation, 9 tricuspid regurgitation; in contrast, echo revealed 5 cases of mitral stenosis, 53 mitral regurgitation, 21 aortic regurgitation, 18 tricuspid regurgitation. CONCLUSION: Doppler echocardiography is a more sensitive technique for detecting valvular lesions. In the setting of ARF, echo enables a 46.9% higher detection level of carditis, as compared to the clinical examination alone. Echo was very significant in detecting regurgitation lesions, especially for cases of tricuspid regurgitation in the setting of multivalvular involvement. The results of our study are in accordance with previous clinical studies, all of which clearly

  3. Regional gray matter correlates of vocational interests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schroeder David H


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have identified brain areas related to cognitive abilities and personality, respectively. In this exploratory study, we extend the application of modern neuroimaging techniques to another area of individual differences, vocational interests, and relate the results to an earlier study of cognitive abilities salient for vocations. Findings First, we examined the psychometric relationships between vocational interests and abilities in a large sample. The primary relationships between those domains were between Investigative (scientific interests and general intelligence and between Realistic (“blue-collar” interests and spatial ability. Then, using MRI and voxel-based morphometry, we investigated the relationships between regional gray matter volume and vocational interests. Specific clusters of gray matter were found to be correlated with Investigative and Realistic interests. Overlap analyses indicated some common brain areas between the correlates of Investigative interests and general intelligence and between the correlates of Realistic interests and spatial ability. Conclusions Two of six vocational-interest scales show substantial relationships with regional gray matter volume. The overlap between the brain correlates of these scales and cognitive-ability factors suggest there are relationships between individual differences in brain structure and vocations.

  4. Blood flow velocity in migraine attacks - a transcranial Doppler study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zwetsloot, C.P.; Caekebeke, J.F.V.; Jansen, J.C.; Odink, J.; Ferrari, M.D. (Rijksuniversiteit Leiden (Netherlands))


    A pulsed Doppler device was used to measure blood flow velocities in the common carotid artery, the extracranial part of the internal carotid artery, the external carotid artery, the middle cerebral artery, and the anterior cerebral artery in 31 migraneurs without aura (n=27) and with aura (n=4), both during and ouside an attack. The aims were to compare blood flow velocity during and between migraine attacks and to study asymmetries of the blood flow velocity. Compared with blood flow velocity values obtained in the attack-free interval, blood flow velocity was lower during attacks without aura in both common carotid arteries, but not in the other extra- and intracranial vessels which were examined. However, during attacks of migraine with aura, blood flow velocity tended to be lower in all examined vessels. There were no asymmetries of the blood flow velocity. It is suggested that during migraine attacks without aura there is a dissociation in blood flow regulation in the common carotid and middle cerebral arteries. 20 refs., 2 tabs.

  5. Diagnostic efficacy of color Doppler ultrasound in evaluation of cervical lymphadenopathy. (United States)

    Misra, Deepankar; Panjwani, Sapna; Rai, Shalu; Misra, Akansha; Prabhat, Mukul; Gupta, Prashant; Talukder, Subrata K


    To evaluate the efficacy of color Doppler ultrasound (CDUS) in differentiating benign and malignant cervical lymph nodes by detecting differences in blood flow patterns. In this cross-sectional prospective study, 25 untreated patients with clinical evidence of cervical lymphadenopathy were evaluated. CDUS was performed for 80 cervical lymph nodes. The gray scale parameters of the lymph node and intranodal perfusion sites were the key CDUS features used to differentiate between reactive and metastatic lymph nodes. Histopathological confirmations were obtained and compared with the results of CDUS. Initially, 53 cervical lymph nodes were evaluated by clinical examination. Twenty-seven additional lymph nodes (53 + 27 = 80) were discovered by CDUS evaluation. Gray scale parameters for lymph nodes such as size of lymph node, shape of lymph node, and presence or absence of hilum revealed highly significant results (P < 0.0001). Color Doppler flow signals revealed that central/hilar flow was characteristic for benign nodes whereas peripheral/mixed flow was characteristic for malignant nodes, the findings were highly significant (P < 0.0001). Gray scale and color Doppler features are used to differentiate benign and malignant nodes. Within the limitations of this study, CDUS evaluation was found to be highly significant with a high sensitivity and specificity over clinical evaluation CDUS examination provides a prospect to reduce the need for biopsy/fine needle aspiration cytology in reactive nodes.

  6. Comparison of discrimination and prognostic value of two US Doppler scoring systems in rheumatoid arthritis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard, Karen; Terslev, Lene; Christensen, Robin


    : RA patients with wrist joint affection treated with TNF-α inhibitor were followed for one year. The wrist was examined with Doppler before initiating therapy and after one year. DAS28 was determined at both visits. One person trained in the SQS system and one in the QS system evaluated the anonymised.......6). A decrease in Doppler activity was seen for both systems after anti-TNF-α therapy. Sensitivity to change was seen, SRM=-0.52 (95%CI; -0.83 to -0.21; QS) and -0.24 (-0.53 to -0.05; SQS). Predictive value was poor (QS rs=-0.24; SQS rs=-0.05). Construct validity was; QS: rs=0.29, SQS: rs=0.23. CONCLUSIONS: Both...

  7. Analysis of Doppler-effeet on satellite constellations with wavelength division multiplexing architectures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qinglong Yang; Liying Tan; Jing Ma


    With the development of optical space communications, a global space-based optical backbone network is currently proposed by using broadband laser inter-satellite links (ISLs) which enable routing traffic through the space. Satellite optical networking techniques based on wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) ISLs can transit significantly high data rates signals. In this letter, a new function of wavelength excursion due to Doppler-effect is developed for the ISLs, considering the conception of pointing ahead mechanism. The characteristic of wavelength excursion induced by Doppler-effect is examined in one of low earth orbit (LEO) satellite constellation networks named the next-generation LEO system (NeLS) with WDM ISLs assumed, and the influence on its communications caused by wavelength excursion is analyzed.

  8. Venous Small Bowel Infarction: Intraoperative Laser Doppler Flowmetry Discriminates Critical Blood Supply and Spares Bowel Length

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Käser


    Full Text Available Introduction. In mesenteric infarction due to arterial occlusion, laser Doppler flowmetry and spectrometry are known reliable noninvasive methods for measuring microvascular blood flow and oxygen utilisation. Case Presentation. As an innovation we used these methods in a patient with acute extensive mesenteric infarction due to venous occlusion, occurring after radical right hemicolectomy. Aiming to avoid short bowel syndrome, we spared additional 110 cm of small bowel, instead of leaving only 80 centimetres of clinically viable small bowel in situ. The pathological examination showed only 5 mm of vital mucosa to be left distal to the dissection margin. No further interventions were necessary. Conclusion. Laser doppler flowmetry and spectrometry are potentially powerful methods to assist the surgeon’s decision-making in critical venous mesenteric perfusion, thus having an important impact on clinical outcome.

  9. Duplex-Doppler spectral analysis in the physiopathology of the temporomandibular joint. (United States)

    Marini, M; Odoardi, G L; Bolle, G; Tartaglia, P


    We introduce a new method of analysis of the normal and abnormal behavior of the TMJ, using a duplex-doppler spectral analysis. The method consists in monitoring the joint movement by means of a study of the Fourier transformed signals, which give information on the velocity distribution of the condylo-meniscal complex during the opening and closing phases of the jaw. Using repeated sampling over short time intervals we get a detailed description of the motion which allows to discriminate the normal and abnormal action of the condylomeniscal complex. We are able to identify various physiopathological conditions, among which opening and/or closing clicks, complex locking conditions and anomalies related to an asymmetrical behavior during the operation cycle. Duplex-doppler spectral analysis is correlated to a clinical examination in order to define various classes of anomalies.

  10. Development of fiber optic laser Doppler velocimeter for measurement of local blood velocity (United States)

    Ohba, Kenkich; Fujiwara, Noboru


    In order to measure the local velocity field in opaque fluid flows like blood flow, a new laser Doppler velocimeter having a pickup consisting of a small distributed index lens attached to the tips of two fibers which are joined side by side in parallel has been newly developed. The distributed index lens is the shape of a truncated cone. The flow field around this sensor has been measured very precisely by means of an ordinary LDV. The effect of turbidity of fluid on the quality of the laser Doppler signal from this sensor has been examined by experiments. As a result, it has been shown that this LDV sensor has a high signal-to-noise ratio, and that the disturbance against flow by the sensor is very small, and it is very promising as a velocity sensor for opaque or semi-opaque fluid flow like blood flow.

  11. Laser Doppler Vibrometer: Application of DOE/Taguchi Methodologies to Pyroshock Response Spectra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J. Litz


    Full Text Available Statistical methodologies were employed for measuring and analyzing the explosively induced transient responses of a flat steel plate excited with shock. The application of design of experiment methodology was made to structure and test a Taguchi L9(32 full factorial experimental matrix (which uses nine tests to study two factors, with each factor examined at three levels in which a helium-neon laser Doppler vibrometer and two piezocrystal accelerometers were used to monitor explosively induced vibrations ranging from 10 to 105 Hz on a 96 × 48 × 0.25 in. flat steel plate. Resulting conclusions were drawn indicating how these techniques aid in understanding the pyroshock phenomenon with respect to the effects and interrelationships of explosive-charge weight and location on the laser Doppler and contract accelerometer recording systems.

  12. Image analysis of placental issues using three-dimensional ultrasound and color power doppler (United States)

    Wang, Qi; Cheng, Qiong; Liu, J. G.


    With the development of birthing-process medical science, and insurance requirement of prepotency, the ultrasound technique is widely used in the application of obstetrics realm, especially on the monitoring of embryo's growth. In the recent decade, the introduction of high resolution three-dimensional ultrasonic and color power Doppler scanner provides a much more direct, sensitive, forerunner method for the monitoring of embryo and gravida's prediction. A novel method that depends on examining images of vasculature of placenta to determine the growth of embryo is introduced in this paper. First, get a set of placenta vascularity images of the pregnant woman, taken by Color Doppler Ultrasonic Scanner, then mark some points in these images, where we get a section image, thus we can observe the internal blood vessel distribution at those points. This method provides an efficient tool for doctors.

  13. [Transfontanellar Doppler ultrasound measurement of cerebral blood velocity before and after surgical treatment of hydrocephalus]. (United States)

    de Assis, M C; Machado, H R


    Twenty-seven children with hydrocephalus of different etiologies diagnosed by clinical examination, neurosonography and computerized brain tomography were submitted to transfontanellar US-Doppler evaluation for measurement of blood flow velocity and for the calculation of resistance index (RI) in the anterior and middle cerebral arteries and internal carotids. All children were submitted to evaluation before surgery and on the 1st, 30th and 60th postoperative days. We conclude that neurosonography and US-Doppler technique is useful for determination of hydrocephalus, indication and control of cerebrospinal fluid shunts and monitoring of changes in RI, comparing data obtained immediately before and after surgery and during the late postoperative period. The results obtained when comparing the RI values for the various arteries during the different stages of the study also permitted us to conclude that the anterior cerebral arteries are representative of the maximal alterations that occur in cerebral vascular resistance in pediatric patients with hydrocephalus.

  14. The value of high-frequency and color Doppler ultrasonography in diagnosing congenital muscular torticollis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Lei


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Congenital muscular torticollis (CMT is a relatively common neck deformity in infancy. The aim of our research was to determine the value of high-frequency and color Doppler ultrasonography in diagnosing CMT. Methods Patients with a clinical suspicion of CMT underwent an ultrasound examination before diagnosis, and the sonographic characteristics were analyzed and compared with the clinical findings. Results The sensitivity and specificity of an ultrasound diagnosis for CMT was 95.83% and 83.33%, respectively. The patients were divided into 2 groups based on the stage of the disease: the early-stage group (age Conclusions Different stage of CMT patients had different sonographic characteristics. High-frequency and color Doppler ultrasonography can serve as adjunct confirmation tool for the diagnosis of CMT.

  15. An interesting septic embolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Funda Uluorman


    Full Text Available Septic pulmonary embolism is a rare disease but mortality and morbidity of it is high. Septic pulmonary emboli comes from infected heart valves, thrombophlebitis, and pulmonary artery catheter or infected pacemaker wires as many sources [1,2]. In recent years, pacemaker is a common treatment of the bradiarrhythmia that is persisted in the etiology of septic embolism, its applications has started to pick up [3]. There is the growing number of patients with pacemaker, according to this the frequency of pacemaker lead infection and the number of patients at risk for right-sided endocarditis increase [4]. The patients don't have specific clinical and radiological features because of this it is very difficult to define, so the diagnosis is often delayed [5]. A detailed medical history, a detailed physical examination in diagnosis and evaluation of good additional imaging methods is very important. Early diagnosis and proper treatment, the implementation of the management, can provide good results.

  16. An interesting septic embolism. (United States)

    Uluorman, Funda; Tanrıverdi, Zülkif; Sevinç, Can; Badak, Özer; Çatalyürek, Hüdai


    Septic pulmonary embolism is a rare disease but mortality and morbidity of it is high. Septic pulmonary emboli comes from infected heart valves, thrombophlebitis, and pulmonary artery catheter or infected pacemaker wires as many sources [1,2]. In recent years, pacemaker is a common treatment of the bradiarrhythmia that is persisted in the etiology of septic embolism, its applications has started to pick up [3]. There is the growing number of patients with pacemaker, according to this the frequency of pacemaker lead infection and the number of patients at risk for right-sided endocarditis increase [4]. The patients don't have specific clinical and radiological features because of this it is very difficult to define, so the diagnosis is often delayed [5]. A detailed medical history, a detailed physical examination in diagnosis and evaluation of good additional imaging methods is very important. Early diagnosis and proper treatment, the implementation of the management, can provide good results.

  17. Does slower growth imply lower interest rates?



    Over the past two years, both monetary and fiscal policy projections have been based on the view that declines in the long-run potential growth rate of the economy will in turn push down interest rates. In contrast, examination of private-sector professional forecasts and historical data provides little evidence of such a linkage. This suggests a greater risk that future interest rates may be higher than expected.

  18. Inquiring Minds: Theorizing Children's Interests (United States)

    Hedges, Helen; Cooper, Maria


    Children's interests are a common foundation for early childhood curricula. Yet, little research is available about the fundamental nature of children's interests and analytical ways to recognize and engage with these. Early work on children's interests adopted a psychological perspective and associated interests with activity choices. Recent work…

  19. Three-Dimensional Wind Profiling of Offshore Wind Energy Areas With Airborne Doppler Lidar (United States)

    Koch, Grady J.; Beyon, Jeffrey Y.; Cowen, Larry J.; Kavaya, Michael J.; Grant, Michael S.


    A technique has been developed for imaging the wind field over offshore areas being considered for wind farming. This is accomplished with an eye-safe 2-micrometer wavelength coherent Doppler lidar installed in an aircraft. By raster scanning the aircraft over the wind energy area (WEA), a three-dimensional map of the wind vector can be made. This technique was evaluated in 11 flights over the Virginia and Maryland offshore WEAs. Heights above the ocean surface planned for wind turbines are shown to be within the marine boundary layer, and the wind vector is seen to show variation across the geographical area of interest at turbine heights.

  20. New Laser Doppler Velocimetry with Wide Dynamic Range and Clear Directional Discrimination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUI Hua-Qiao; L(U) Liang; HE De-Yong; XU Jun; XIE Jian-Ping; ZHAO Tian-Peng; WANG An-Ting; MING Hai


    @@ We present a new laser Doppler velocimetry based on self-mixing effect using a single longitudinal-mode verticalcavity surface-emitting laser modulated by a dynamic triangular current. It can indicate the direction of velocity without ambiguity in a wide dynamic range of 5.2-479.9mm/s. The accuracy of velocity measurement is better than 3.1% in the whole velocity range when a diffusing target is used for measurements. More interestingly, it works very well on different diffusing surfaces, even on a black glossy photographic paper.

  1. Three-dimensional wind profiling of offshore wind energy areas with airborne Doppler lidar (United States)

    Koch, Grady J.; Beyon, Jeffrey Y.; Cowen, Larry J.; Kavaya, Michael J.; Grant, Michael S.


    A technique has been developed for imaging the wind field over offshore areas being considered for wind farming. This is accomplished with an eye-safe 2-μm wavelength coherent Doppler lidar installed in an aircraft. By raster scanning the aircraft over the wind energy area (WEA), a three-dimensional map of the wind vector can be made. This technique was evaluated in 11 flights over the Virginia and Maryland offshore WEAs. Heights above the ocean surface planned for wind turbines are shown to be within the marine boundary layer, and the wind vector is seen to show variation across the geographical area of interest at turbine heights.

  2. Investigating Situational Interest in Primary Science Lessons (United States)

    Loukomies, Anni; Juuti, Kalle; Lavonen, Jari


    Pupils' interest has been one of the major concerns in science education research because it can be seen as a gateway to more personalised forms of interest and motivation. However, methods to investigate situational interest in science teaching and learning are not broadly examined. This study compares the pupils' observed situational interest and their expressed situational interest. One class of Finnish fourth-graders (N = 22, age 9-10 years) participated in a heat transfer lesson. The lesson encompassed an interactive demonstration with a thermal camera, teacher-led discussions and the conduct and presentation of a collaborative inquiry task. Pupils expressed their interest levels (scale: 1 = very boring, 5 = very interesting) by using an electronic response system called a 'clicker'. The measurement took place 15 times during the lesson, with 1 measurement being just a rehearsal. The lesson was video recorded, and visible aspects of interest at the measurement time points were analysed. Reported and observational data were compared. In most cases, the observations did not yield data compatible with the pupils' own evaluations, indicating that most pupils' expressed interest is not easily interpreted through observation of their facial expressions and behaviour. In general, the interest of the group as a whole seems to diminish during the lesson. We argue that in order to maintain and increase pupils' interest, their evaluations should be taken into account in lesson planning. Video-based research might also be further enriched and validated by employing the participants' own expressions. The clicker is a suitable means of collecting primary pupils' experiences concerning their interest levels.

  3. Use of Doppler ultrasound for non-invasive urodynamic diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideo Ozawa


    Full Text Available Objectives: A totally non-invasive transperineal urodynamic technique using Doppler ultrasonography has been developed. Methods: Since normal urine does not have blood cells, urine was thought not to produce the Doppler effects. However, basic studies confirmed that the decrease of pressure at high velocity (Bernouilli effect caused dissolved gas to form microbubbles, which are detected by Doppler ultrasonography. Subjects sat and the probe was advanced via remote control to achieve gentle contact with the perineal skin. The digital uroflow data signals and the color Doppler ultrasound video images were processed on a personal computer. The flow-velocity curves from two sites; the distal prostatic urethra just above the external sphincter (V1 and the sphincteric urethra (V2 were plotted against time. The parameters of both the pressure-flow studies and the Doppler ultrasound urodynamic studies were compared in men who had various degrees of obstruction. Results: Functional cross-sectional area at prostatic urethra (A1, calculated by Q max /V1, was lower in the group of bladder outlet obstruction (BOO vs. control group. Velocity ratio (VR, which was calculated by V1/V2, was the parameter having the best correlation with BOO index, though A1 had a similar correlation. This method is viable to diagnose the degree of BOO. Conclusions: The development of non-invasive Doppler ultrasound videourodynamics (Doppler UDS will dramatically expand the information on voiding function.

  4. Doppler sensitivity and its effect on transatlantic TWSTFT links (United States)

    Zhang, Shengkang; Parker, Thomas; Zhang, Victor


    Some investigations have concluded that the diurnal pattern in the time comparison results of present two way satellite time and frequency transfer (TWSTFT) links may come mainly from Doppler dependent errors in the time of arrival (TOA) measurements made by the receivers of the TWSTFT modems. In this paper, several experiments were carried out to test if there is a Doppler dependent error in the ‘delay’ measurements of the receivers currently used. By simulating quantitative Doppler effects in the time transfer signal both on the carrier and the code, a type of Doppler sensitivity on the code was observed in the receivers, which has about  -0.49 ns offset in ‘delay’ measurement for a 1  ×  10-9 fractional Doppler shift. This sensitivity is basically the same for modems with different serial numbers from the same manufacture. We calculated this Doppler caused diurnal pattern in the time comparison results of the transatlantic TWSTFT link between NIST and PTB and found that it is very small and negligible, because the Doppler dependent error is almost identical in the NIST and PTB measurements and therefore it is nearly canceled in the TWSTFT difference. Commercial products are identified for technical completeness only, and no endorsement by NIST is implied.

  5. Ionospheric observations made by a time-interleaved Doppler ionosonde (United States)

    Lynn, Kenneth J. W.


    Mid-latitude HF observations of ionospheric Doppler velocity as a function of frequency are reported here as observed over a quiet 24-h period by a KEL IPS71 ionosonde operating at a 5-min sampling rate. The unique time-interleaving technique used in this ionosonde provided a Doppler resolution of 0.04 Hz over a Doppler range of ±2.5 Hz at each sounding frequency via FFT processing and is described here for the first time. The time-interleaving technique can be applied to other types of ionosonde as well as to other applications. The measurements described were made at a middle latitude site (Salisbury, South Australia). Doppler variations (rate-of-change of foF2 as predicted by a simple parabolic layer model. The descending cusp in short-period TIDs is shown to mark an abrupt change with increasing frequency from negative towards positive Doppler shift with the greatest change in Doppler shift being observed below the cusp. The “smilergram” is introduced as observed in both F2 and Sporadic E. The characteristic curve in Doppler versus group height at a single frequency is described and related to changes in reflection symmetry, velocity and depth of moving ionospheric inhomogeneities.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Punya Pratap Singh


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Until the mid 1970’s, scrotal examination was limited to palpation and transillumination. Miskin and Bain (1974 first reported the use of Ultrasonography to examine testes and scrotum. With advancement like colour Doppler, ability to assess testicular vascularity increased. Although other radiological investigations have roles in specific situations, present study was undertaken to evaluate the usefulness and accuracy of sonography and colour Doppler in scrotal abnormalities. METHODS The study was conducted in the Department of Radiodiagnosis, Max Super Speciality Hospital, Saket, New Delhi, between May 2012 and May 2013. Prospective study carried out in 100 patients after proper informed and written consent with inclusion criteria of ‘All age patients with clinical suspicion of scrotal pathology’ and exclusion criteria of ‘History of operative or therapeutic procedures on the scrotum with exception of vasectomy.’ These patients’ scrotums were scanned in various plan on “Voluson 730 PRO” (GE Healthcare system and LOGIC E-9 (GE Healthcare using linear probe (As applicable with comparison from asymptomatic side. Relevant other radiological and pathological investigations were done wherever indicated. RESULTS Majority of patients were between 21-40 years of age (62% with commonest presenting complaint was scrotal swelling in 73%. Fluid collections were the commonest abnormality detected on sonography. Hydrocele was the most frequent fluid collection seen in 38 cases (26.3%. In acute inflammation, hypoechogenicity of the testes was most common sonographic feature. In our study, ultrasound showed 99% accuracy to distinguish between Intratesticular and Extratesticular pathology. CONCLUSIONS High-resolution USG with colour Doppler can reliably define the morphological features and vascularity of scrotal lesions. USG is highly accurate in evaluating the consistency of scrotal mass and in localizing scrotal abnormality

  7. Pulsed Doppler echocardiographic analysis of mitral regurgitation after myocardial infarction. (United States)

    Loperfido, F; Biasucci, L M; Pennestri, F; Laurenzi, F; Gimigliano, F; Vigna, C; Rossi, E; Favuzzi, A; Santarelli, P; Manzoli, U


    In 72 patients with previous myocardial infarction (MI), mitral regurgitation (MR) was assessed by pulsed-wave Doppler echocardiography and compared with physical and 2-dimensional echocardiographic findings. MR was found by Doppler in 29 of 42 patients (62%) with anterior MI, 11 of 30 (37%) with inferior MI (p less than 0.01) and in none of 20 normal control subjects. MR was more frequent in patients who underwent Doppler study 3 months after MI than in those who underwent Doppler at discharge (anterior MI = 83% vs 50%, p less than 0.01; inferior MI = 47% vs 27%, p = not significant). Of 15 patients who underwent Doppler studies both times, 3 (all with anterior MI) had MR only on the second study. Of the patients with Doppler MR, 12 of 27 (44%) with a left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (EF) greater than 30% and 1 of 13 (8%) with an EF of 30% or less (p less than 0.01) had an MR systolic murmur. Mitral prolapse or eversion and papillary muscle fibrosis were infrequent in MI patients, whether or not Doppler MR was present. The degree of Doppler MR correlated with EF (r = -0.61), LV systolic volume (r = 0.47), and systolic and diastolic mitral anulus circumference (r = 0.52 and 0.51, respectively). Doppler MR was present in 24 of 28 patients (86%) with an EF of 40% or less and in 16 of 44 (36%) with EF more than 40% (p less than 0.001).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. Limits on Planetary Companions from Doppler Surveys of Nearby Stars (United States)

    Howard, Andrew W.; Fulton, Benjamin J.


    Most of our knowledge of planets orbiting nearby stars comes from Doppler surveys. For spaced-based, high-contrast imaging missions, nearby stars with Doppler-discovered planets are attractive targets. The known orbits tell imaging missions where and when to observe, and the dynamically determined masses provide important constraints for the interpretation of planetary spectra. Quantifying the set of planet masses and orbits that could have been detected will enable more efficient planet discovery and characterization. We analyzed Doppler measurements from Lick and Keck Observatories by the California Planet Survey. We focused on stars that are likely targets for three space-based planet imaging mission concepts studied by NASA—WFIRST-AFTA, Exo-C, and Exo-S. The Doppler targets are primarily F8 and later main sequence stars, with observations spanning 1987-2014. We identified 76 stars with Doppler measurements from the prospective mission target lists. We developed an automated planet search and a methodology to estimate the pipeline completeness using injection and recovery tests. We applied this machinery to the Doppler data and computed planet detection limits for each star as a function of planet minimum mass and semimajor axis. For typical stars in the survey, we are sensitive to approximately Saturn-mass planets inside of 1 au, Jupiter-mass planets inside of ˜3 au, and our sensitivity declines out to ˜10 au. For the best Doppler targets, we are sensitive to Neptune-mass planets in 3 au orbits. Using an idealized model of Doppler survey completeness, we forecast the precision of future surveys of non-ideal Doppler targets that are likely targets of imaging missions. Based on observations obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated jointly by the University of California and the California Institute of Technology. Keck time has been granted by NASA, the University of California, and the University of Hawaii.

  9. Carotid Doppler and transcranial Doppler in diagnosing transient ischemic attack: A healthy control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huiling Chen; Jinhua Qiu; Hongying Liu


    BACKGROUND: If changes of hemodynamics in internal or external cranial artery and stenosis of atherosclerosis are found early, patients with transient ischemic attack (TIA) may be treated at an early phase so as to prevent and decrease the onset of cerebral infarction. Carotid Doppler can analyze carotid canal wall, hemodynamic properties and stenosis, and changes of plaque morphology; however, transcranial Doppler (TCD)can evaluate vascular stenosis and occlusion and judge collateral circulation in cranium through detecting velocity and direction of blood flow. Can the association of them increase the diagnostic rate of TIA?OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of the association of carotid Doppler and TCD on TIA in internal carotid artery.DESIGN: Contrast observational study.SETTING: Department of Neuroelectrophysiology, Central People's Hospital of Huizhou.PARTICIPANTS: A total of 54 patients with TIA in internal carotid artery were selected from the Department of Neurology of Huizhou Central People's Hospital from May 2004 to June 2005. There were 35 males and 24 females aged 46-81 years. The clinical situation was asthenia of single limb, hemiplegia, anaesthesia of single upper or lower limb, hemianesthesia, sensory disorder and aphasia. The symptoms lasted for less than 2 hours. All cases were diagnosed with CT, and those who had pathological changes of acute cerebral infarction and history of cardiac disease were excluded. Additionally, 50 healthy subjects who were regarded as control group were selected from the Department of Neurology of Huizhou Central People's Hospital. There were 30 males and 20 females aged 45-80 years. All subjects were consent.METHODS: HD15000 color Doppler ultrasound (Philips Company, USA) and Muliti-DopX2 TCD (DWL Company, Germany) were used to detect hemodynamics, stenosis and distribution of atherosclerosis in carotid artery and internal carotid artery. Evaluation of marker: Stenosis was calculated by the ratio between the minimal

  10. EDITORIAL: Interesting times (United States)

    Dobson Honorary Editor, Ken


    `May you live in interesting times' - old Chinese curse. First, many thanks to John Avison, the retiring Honorary Editor, for his hard work over the last five years, and the steady development in style and content under his stewardship. I can only hope to live up to the standards that he set. The next five years will take us into a new millenium, an event preceded - in England and Wales at least - by a period of stability, reflection and consolidation in education. Or so we are told - but whether such a self-denying ordinance will actually be maintained by the Government both before and after an election in 1997 remains to be seen. Nevertheless, we shall be thankful for any mercies, however small, that permit forward thinking rather than instant response. One of the things that readers of a journal called Physics Education should be thinking about is the continued decline in the numbers of students studying physics post-16. This is not a purely local phenomenon; most European countries are finding a similar decline. There are exceptions, of course: in Scotland numbers studying physics for Highers are increasing. Is such a decline a good thing or a bad thing? Only a minority of post-16 physics students go on to use the bulk of what they have learned in further studies or vocations. Does a knowledge and understanding of physics contribute to the mental well-being and cultural level - let alone material comfort - of any except those who use physics professionally? Is physics defensible as a contribution to the mental armoury of the educated citizen - compared with chemistry, biology - or Latin, say? Or should one rephrase that last question as `Is physics as we teach it today defensible...?' Such questions, and many others no doubt, may well be in the mind of the new Curriculum Officer appointed by the Institute of Physics `to engage in a wide-ranging consultation throughout the entire physics community on the nature and style of post-16 physics programmes, with a

  11. Ultrasonic Doppler measurement of renal artery blood flow (United States)

    Freund, W. R.; Beaver, W. L.; Meindl, J. D.


    Studies were made of (1) blood flow redistribution during lower body negative pressure (LBNP), (2) the profile of blood flow across the mitral annulus of the heart (both perpendicular and parallel to the commissures), (3) testing and evaluation of a number of pulsed Doppler systems, (4) acute calibration of perivascular Doppler transducers, (5) redesign of the mitral flow transducers to improve reliability and ease of construction, and (6) a frequency offset generator designed for use in distinguishing forward and reverse components of blood flow by producing frequencies above and below the offset frequency. Finally methodology was developed and initial results were obtained from a computer analysis of time-varying Doppler spectra.

  12. Interferometric millimeter wave and THz wave doppler radar (United States)

    Liao, Shaolin; Gopalsami, Nachappa; Bakhtiari, Sasan; Raptis, Apostolos C.; Elmer, Thomas


    A mixerless high frequency interferometric Doppler radar system and methods has been invented, numerically validated and experimentally tested. A continuous wave source, phase modulator (e.g., a continuously oscillating reference mirror) and intensity detector are utilized. The intensity detector measures the intensity of the combined reflected Doppler signal and the modulated reference beam. Rigorous mathematics formulas have been developed to extract bot amplitude and phase from the measured intensity signal. Software in Matlab has been developed and used to extract such amplitude and phase information from the experimental data. Both amplitude and phase are calculated and the Doppler frequency signature of the object is determined.

  13. Processor operated correlator with applications to laser Doppler signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, C.; Johnsen, B.; Hassager, Ole


    A 64-channel correlator is designed with application to the processing of laser Doppler anemometry signals in the range 200 Hz to 250 kHz. The correlator is processor operated to enable the consecutive sampling of 448 correlation functions at a rate up to 500 Hz. Software is described to identify...... a Doppler frequency from each correlation and the system is especially designed for transient flow signals. Doppler frequencies are determined with an accuracy of about 0.1%. Review of Scientific Instruments is copyrighted by The American Institute of Physics....

  14. Mitigating Doppler shift effect in HF multitone data modem (United States)

    Sonlu, Yasar


    Digital communications over High Frequency (HF) radio channels are getting important in recent years. Current HF requirements are for data transmission at rates 2.4 kbps or more to accommodate computer data links and digital secure voice. HF modems which were produced to meet these speeds are, serial modems and parallel modems. On the other hand, the HF sky-wave communication medium, the ionosphere, has some propagation problems such as multipath and Doppler shift. The effect of Doppler shift in a parallel modem which employs Differential Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (DQPSK) modulation is considered and a correction method to mitigate the Doppler Shift effect is introduced.

  15. Computer simulation studies of pulsed Doppler signals from vortices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Sizhong; WANG Yuanyuan; WANG Weiqi


    A computer simulation method for pulsed Doppler signals from vortices was proposed to generate simulated vortex Doppler signals under various given circumstances. The relative waveforms, such as the maximum frequency waveform, the mean frequency waveform and the bandwidth waveform, were obtained using the short time Fourier analysis of those simulated signals. The relations were studied between several spectrum parameters obtained from these waveforms and given simulation conditions, such as the position and the size of the sample volume, the distance between two vortices, the free stream velocity and the maximum tangent velocity of the vortex. The sensitive parameters were found to detect vortices using the pulsed Doppler techniques.

  16. Automatic extraction of disease-specific features from Doppler images (United States)

    Negahdar, Mohammadreza; Moradi, Mehdi; Parajuli, Nripesh; Syeda-Mahmood, Tanveer


    Flow Doppler imaging is widely used by clinicians to detect diseases of the valves. In particular, continuous wave (CW) Doppler mode scan is routinely done during echocardiography and shows Doppler signal traces over multiple heart cycles. Traditionally, echocardiographers have manually traced such velocity envelopes to extract measurements such as decay time and pressure gradient which are then matched to normal and abnormal values based on clinical guidelines. In this paper, we present a fully automatic approach to deriving these measurements for aortic stenosis retrospectively from echocardiography videos. Comparison of our method with measurements made by echocardiographers shows large agreement as well as identification of new cases missed by echocardiographers.

  17. Diagnosis of Pentalogy of Cantrell in the First Trimester Using Transvaginal Sonography and Color Doppler (United States)

    Türkçapar, Ayşe Figen; Sargın Oruc, Ayla; Öksüzoglu, Aysegül; Danışman, Nuri


    We report the prenatal diagnosis of Cantrell syndrome in the first trimester. During a routine transabdominal ultrasonographic examination, a midline supraumbilical abdominal wall defect including herniated liver and ectopia cordis with a large omphalocele containing the intestines and cystic hygroma was incidentally identified at the 12th week of gestation. A transvaginal sonography examination revealed a severe lumbosacral scoliosis in addition to the inability to visualize the abdominal aorta which was indicative of a severe intracardiac defect. The parents opted for pregnancy to be terminated. In this case report, we discuss the complementary role of transvaginal sonography and Doppler imaging in the diagnosis of Cantrell syndrome in early pregnancy. PMID:25802780

  18. Diagnosis of Pentalogy of Cantrell in the First Trimester Using Transvaginal Sonography and Color Doppler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşe Figen Türkçapar


    Full Text Available We report the prenatal diagnosis of Cantrell syndrome in the first trimester. During a routine transabdominal ultrasonographic examination, a midline supraumbilical abdominal wall defect including herniated liver and ectopia cordis with a large omphalocele containing the intestines and cystic hygroma was incidentally identified at the 12th week of gestation. A transvaginal sonography examination revealed a severe lumbosacral scoliosis in addition to the inability to visualize the abdominal aorta which was indicative of a severe intracardiac defect. The parents opted for pregnancy to be terminated. In this case report, we discuss the complementary role of transvaginal sonography and Doppler imaging in the diagnosis of Cantrell syndrome in early pregnancy.

  19. Tissue Doppler echocardiography predicts acute myocardial infarction, heart failure, and cardiovascular death in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogelvang, Rasmus; Biering-Sørensen, Tor; Jensen, Jan Skov


    AIMS: To improve risk prediction of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, we need sensitive markers of cardiac dysfunction; Echocardiographic Tissue Doppler Imaging (TDI) is feasible and harmless and may be ideal for this purpose. METHODS AND RESULTS: Within the community-based Copenhagen City...... by TDI was associated with increased risk of the combined end point, even in the subgroup of persons with a normal conventional echocardiographic examination [per 1 cm/s decrease: s': HR 1.32 (1.12-1.57), P ... in persons with a normal conventional echocardiographic examination....

  20. The Next Generation Airborne Polarimetric Doppler Radar (United States)

    Vivekanandan, J.; Lee, Wen-Chau; Loew, Eric; Salazar, Jorge; Chandrasekar, V.


    NCAR's Electra Doppler radar (ELDORA) with a dual-beam slotted waveguide array using dual-transmitter, dual-beam, rapid scan and step-chirped waveform significantly improved the spatial scale to 300m (Hildebrand et al. 1996). However, ELDORA X-band radar's penetration into precipitation is limited by attenuation and is not designed to collect polarimetric measurements to remotely estimate microphysics. ELDORA has been placed on dormancy because its airborne platform (P3 587) was retired in January 2013. The US research community has strongly voiced the need to continue measurement capability similar to the ELDORA. A critical weather research area is quantitative precipitation estimation/forecasting (QPE/QPF). In recent years, hurricane intensity change involving eye-eyewall interactions has drawn research attention (Montgomery et al., 2006; Bell and Montgomery, 2006). In the case of convective precipitation, two issues, namely, (1) when and where convection will be initiated, and (2) determining the organization and structure of ensuing convection, are key for QPF. Therefore collocated measurements of 3-D winds and precipitation microphysics are required for achieving significant skills in QPF and QPE. Multiple radars in dual-Doppler configuration with polarization capability estimate dynamical and microphysical characteristics of clouds and precipitation are mostly available over land. However, storms over complex terrain, the ocean and in forest regions are not observable by ground-based radars (Bluestein and Wakimoto, 2003). NCAR/EOL is investigating potential configurations for the next generation airborne radar that is capable of retrieving dynamic and microphysical characteristics of clouds and precipitation. ELDORA's slotted waveguide array radar is not compatible for dual-polarization measurements. Therefore, the new design has to address both dual-polarization capability and platform requirements to replace the ELDORA system. NCAR maintains a C-130

  1. Interest Organizations across Economic Sectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berkhout, Joost; Carroll, Brendan; Braun, Caelesta


    on the basis of political and economic institutional factors. Focusing on business interest representation, we show that economic institutions structure the ‘supply’ of interest organizations by affecting the number of potential constituents, the resources available for lobbying and the geographical level....... The European Union interest system is (partially) shaped by economic factors, relatively independent from public policy or institutions.......The number of interest organizations (density) varies across policy domains, political issues and economic sectors. This shapes the nature and outcomes of interest representation. In this contribution, we explain the density of interest organizations per economic sector in the European Union...

  2. Power doppler sonography in early renal transplantation: Does it differentiate acute graft rejection from acute tubular necrosis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haytham M Shebel


    Full Text Available To evaluate the role of power Doppler in the identification and differentiation bet-ween acute renal transplant rejection and acute tubular necrosis (ATN, we studied 67 live donor renal transplant recipients. All patients were examined by spectral and power Doppler sono-graphy. Assessment of cortical perfusion (CP by power Doppler was subjective, using our grading score system: P0 (normal CP; homogenous cortical blush extending to the capsule, P1 (reduced CP; cortical vascular cut-off at interlobular level, P2 (markedly reduced CP; scattered cortical color flow at the interlobar level. Renal biopsies were performed during acute graft dysfunction. Pathological diagnoses were based on Banff classification 1997. The Mann- Whitney test was used to test the difference between CP grades with respect to serum creatinine (SCr, and resistive index (RI. For 38 episodes of acute graft rejection grade I, power Doppler showed that CP was P1 and RI ranging from 0.78 to 0.89. For 21 episodes of acute graft rejection grade II, power Doppler showed that CP was P1, with RI ranging from 0.88 to >1. Only one case of grade III rejection had a CP of P2. Twelve biopsies of ATN had CP of P0 and RI ranging from 0.80 to 0.89 There was a statistically significant correlation between CP grading and SCr (P <0.01 as well as between CP grading and RI (P <0.05. CP grading had a higher sensitivity in the detection of early acute rejection compared with RI and cross-sectional area measurements. We conclude that power Doppler is a non-invasive sensitive technique that may help in the detection and differentiation between acute renal transplant rejection and ATN, particularly in the early post-transplantation period.

  3. Effect of intertrochanteric osteotomy on the proximal femur of rabbits: assessment with power Doppler sonography and scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doria, Andrea S. [University of Toronto (Canada). Hospital for Sick Children. Dept. of Diagnostic Imaging; Cunha, Fabiano G.; Modena; Marcelo; Godoy Junior, Rui de; Bolliger Neto, Raul; Guarniero, Roberto [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas. Dept. of Cirurgia Ortopedica]. E-mail:; Rodrigues, Consuelo Junqueira [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas. Dept. de Patologia; Garcez, Alexandre Teles; Melo, Ivani Bortoleti; Buchpiguel, Carlos; Molnar, Laszlo J. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas. Dept. de Medicina Nuclear


    Objective: In bone injury, repair results in local increased vascularity and bone marrow remodeling. Characterizing the vascular and metabolic imaging patterns of the proximal femur following an intertrochanteric osteotomy may help clinicians decide proper management of the patient. Our objective was to measure Doppler sonography and scintigraphy interval changes in the proximal femur following intertrochanteric osteotomy and compare imaging and histomorphometric measurements in the late post-operative stage (6 weeks after surgery) in a rabbit model of bone injury. Materials and methods: Both hips of 12 adult rabbits were imaged with power Doppler sonography and scintigraphy prior to and after (7 days and 6 weeks) unilateral osteotomy. Accuracy of the imaging methods was evaluated using hip operative status and histomorphometric results (vascular fractional area and number of vessels per area unit) as reference standard measures. Results: A significant difference in the mean number of pixels was noted between operated and non-operated femura in late post-operative power Doppler examinations (P=0.049). Although without reaching statistical significance, the AUC of Doppler measurements (AUC=0.99) was numerically greater than the AUC of scintigraphy measurements (AUC=0.857{+-}0.099) (P=0.15) in differentiating proximal femura with regard to their fractional vascular areas in the late post-operative stage. In contrast, scintigraphy tended to perform better (AUC=0.984{+-}0.022) than Doppler ultrasound (AUC=0.746{+-}0.131) to demonstrate the vascularity intensity per area unit (P=0.07) in the late stage. Conclusion: Our results warrant further investigation to determine the value of different imaging modalities for assessment of pathologic changes following hip surgery. Power Doppler sonography demonstrated larger AUCs (representing higher accuracy) for the discrimination of vascular fractional areas and scintigraphy, for discrimination of the number of vessels per area

  4. Estimation of amputation level with a laser Doppler flowmeter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gebuhr, Peter Henrik; Jørgensen, J P; Vollmer-Larsen, B;


    Leg amputation levels were decided in 24 patients suffering from atherosclerosis, using the conventional techniques of segmental blood pressure and radioisotope skin clearance. The skin microcirculation was measured and recorded before operation with a laser doppler flowmeter. A high correlation ...

  5. Doppler Signatures of the Atmospheric Circulation on Hot Jupiters

    CERN Document Server

    Showman, Adam P; Lewis, Nikole K; Shabram, Megan


    The meteorology of hot Jupiters has been characterized primarily with thermal measurements, but recent observations suggest the possibility of directly detecting the winds by observing the Doppler shift of spectral lines seen during transit. Motivated by these observations, we show how Doppler measurements can place powerful constraints on the meteorology. We show that the atmospheric circulation--and Doppler signature--of hot Jupiters splits into two regimes. Under weak stellar insolation, the day-night thermal forcing generates fast zonal jet streams from the interaction of atmospheric waves with the mean flow. In this regime, air along the terminator (as seen during transit) flows toward Earth in some regions and away from Earth in others, leading to a Doppler signature exhibiting superposed blue- and redshifted components. Under intense stellar insolation, however, the strong thermal forcing damps these planetary-scale waves, inhibiting their ability to generate jets. Strong frictional drag likewise damps...

  6. Doppler bubble detection and decompression sickness: a prospective clinical trial. (United States)

    Bayne, C G; Hunt, W S; Johanson, D C; Flynn, E T; Weathersby, P K


    Decompression sickness in human beings exposed to high ambient pressure is thought to follow from gas bubble formation and growth in the body during return to low pressure. Detection of Doppler-shifted ultrasonic reflections in major blood vessels has been promoted as a noninvasive and sensitive indicator of the imminence of decompression sickness. We have conducted a double-blind, prospective clinical trial of Doppler ultrasonic bubble detection in simulated diving using 83 men, of whom 8 were stricken and treated for the clinical disease. Diagnosis based only on the Doppler signals had no correlation with clinical diagnosis. Bubble scores were only slightly higher in the stricken group. The Doppler technique does not appear to be of diagnostic value in the absence of other clinical information.

  7. Aliasing-tolerant color Doppler quantification of regurgitant jets. (United States)

    Stewart, S F


    Conservation of momentum transfer in regurgitant cardiac jets can be used to calculate the flow rate from color Doppler velocities. In this study, turbulent jets were simulated by finite elements; pseudocolor Doppler images were interpolated from the computations, with aliasing introduced artificially. Jets were also imaged by color Doppler in an in vitro flow system. To suppress aliasing errors, jet velocities were fitted iteratively to a fluid mechanical model constrained to match the orifice velocity (measured without aliasing by continuous-wave Doppler). At each iteration, the model was used to detect aliased velocities, which were excluded during the next iteration. Iteration continued until the flow rate calculated by the model and number of calculated nonaliased pixels were unchanged. The good correlations between measured and calculated flow rates in the experimental (R2 = 0.933) and computational studies (R2 = 0.990) suggest that this may be a clinically useful approach even in aliased images. Published by Elsevier Science Inc.

  8. Micro-Doppler processing for ultra-wideband radar data (United States)

    Smith, Graeme E.; Ahmad, Fauzia; Amin, Moeness G.


    In this paper, we describe an operational pulse Doppler radar imaging system for indoor target localization and classification, and show how a target's micro-Doppler signature (μDS) can be processed when ultra-wideband (UWB) waveforms are employed. Unlike narrowband radars where time-frequency signal representations can be applied to reveal the target time-Doppler frequency signatures, the UWB system permits joint range-time-frequency representation (JRTFR). JRTFR outputs the data in a 3D domain representing range, frequency, and time, allowing both the μDS and high range resolution (HRR) signatures to be observed. We delineate the relationship between the μDS and the HRR signature, showing how they would form a complimentary joint feature for classification. We use real-data to demonstrate the effectiveness of the UWB pulse-Doppler radar, combined with nonstationary signal analyses, in gaining valuable insights into human positioning and motions.

  9. Millimeter-wave micro-Doppler measurements of small UAVs (United States)

    Rahman, Samiur; Robertson, Duncan A.


    This paper discusses the micro-Doppler signatures of small UAVs obtained from a millimeter-wave radar system. At first, simulation results are shown to demonstrate the theoretical concept. It is illustrated that whilst the propeller rotation rate of the small UAVs is quite high, millimeter-wave radar systems are capable of capturing the full micro-Doppler spread. Measurements of small UAVs have been performed with both CW and FMCW radars operating at 94 GHz. The CW radar was used for obtaining micro-Doppler signatures of individual propellers. The field test data of a flying small UAV was collected with the FMCW radar and was processed to extract micro-Doppler signatures. The high fidelity results clearly reveal features such as blade flashes and propeller rotation modulation lines which can be used to classify targets. This work confirms that millimeter-wave radar is suitable for the detection and classification of small UAVs at usefully long ranges.

  10. Extracting and analyzing micro-Doppler from ladar signatures (United States)

    Tahmoush, Dave


    Ladar and other 3D imaging modalities have the capability of creating 3D micro-Doppler to analyze the micro-motions of human subjects. An additional capability to the recognition of micro-motion is the recognition of the moving part, such as the hand or arm. Combined with measured RCS values of the body, ladar imaging can be used to ground-truth the more sensitive radar micro-Doppler measurements and associate the moving part of the subject with the measured Doppler and RCS from the radar system. The 3D ladar signatures can also be used to classify activities and actions on their own, achieving an 86% accuracy using a micro-Doppler based classification strategy.

  11. The Doppler Effect: A Consideration of Quasar Redshifts. (United States)

    Gordon, Kurtiss J.


    Provides information on the calculation of the redshift to blueshift ratio introduced by the transverse Doppler effect at relativistic speeds. Indicates that this shift should be mentioned in discussions of whether quasars are "local" rather than "cosmological" objects. (GS)

  12. Doppler Ambiguity Resolution Based on Random Sparse Probing Pulses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunjian Zhang


    Full Text Available A novel method for solving Doppler ambiguous problem based on compressed sensing (CS theory is proposed in this paper. A pulse train with the random and sparse transmitting time is transmitted. The received signals after matched filtering can be viewed as randomly sparse sampling from the traditional fixed-pulse repetition frequency (PRF echo signals. The whole target echo could be reconstructed via CS recovery algorithms. Through refining the sensing matrix, which is equivalent to increase the sampling frequency of target characteristic, the Doppler unambiguous range is enlarged. In particular, Complex Approximate Message Passing (CAMP algorithm is developed to estimate the unambiguity Doppler frequency. Cramer-Rao lower bound expressions are derived for the frequency. Numerical simulations validate the effectiveness of the proposed method. Finally, compared with traditional methods, the proposed method only requires transmitting a few sparse probing pulses to achieve a larger Doppler frequency unambiguous range and can also reduce the consumption of the radar time resources.

  13. [Postpartal ovarian thrombophlebitis. Value of Doppler ultrasonograph y]. (United States)

    Renaud-Giono, A; Giraud, J R; Poulain, P; Proudhon, J F; Grall, J Y; Moquet, P Y; Darnault, J P


    Thrombophlebitis of the ovarian vein is a well recognized but uncommon complication during the postpartum period. We report a small series and emphasize the contribution of color Doppler and the basic therapeutic measures.

  14. Doppler ultrasound exam of an arm or leg (United States)

    ... page: // Doppler ultrasound exam of an arm or leg To use ... this page, please enable JavaScript. This test uses ultrasound to look at the blood flow in the ...

  15. Analysis of multiple scattering effects in optical Doppler tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yura, H.T.; Thrane, L.; Andersen, Peter E.


    Optical Doppler tomography (ODT) combines Doppler velocimetry and optical coherence tomography (OCT) to obtain high-resolution cross-sectional imaging of particle flow velocity in scattering media such as the human retina and skin. Here, we present the results of a theoretical analysis of ODT where...... multiple scattering effects are included. The purpose of this analysis is to determine how multiple scattering affects the estimation of the depth-resolved localized flow velocity. Depth-resolved velocity estimates are obtained directly from the corresponding mean or standard deviation of the observed...... Doppler frequency spectrum. Thus, in the present analysis, the dependence of the mean and standard deviation of the Doppler shift on the scattering properties of the flowing medium are obtained. Taking the multiple scattering effects into account, we are able to explain previous measurements of depth...

  16. Multiplexed sub-Doppler spectroscopy with an optical frequency comb

    CERN Document Server

    Long, David A; Plusquellic, David F; Hodges, Joseph T


    An optical frequency comb generated with an electro-optic phase modulator and a chirped radiofrequency waveform is used to perform saturation and pump-probe spectroscopy on the $D_1$ and $D_2$ transitions of atomic potassium. With a comb tooth spacing of 200 kHz and an optical bandwidth of 2 GHz the hyperfine transitions can be simultaneously observed. Interferograms are recorded in as little as 5 $\\mu$s (a timescale corresponding to the inverse of the comb tooth spacing). Importantly, the sub-Doppler features can be measured as long as the laser carrier frequency lies within the Doppler profile, thus removing the need for slow scanning or a priori knowledge of the frequencies of the sub-Doppler features. Sub-Doppler optical frequency comb spectroscopy has the potential to dramatically reduce acquisition times and allow for rapid and accurate assignment of complex molecular and atomic spectra which are presently intractable.

  17. The Doppler Effect: A Consideration of Quasar Redshifts. (United States)

    Gordon, Kurtiss J.


    Provides information on the calculation of the redshift to blueshift ratio introduced by the transverse Doppler effect at relativistic speeds. Indicates that this shift should be mentioned in discussions of whether quasars are "local" rather than "cosmological" objects. (GS)

  18. Design of new seismometer based on laser Doppler effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhenhui Du(杜振辉); Fuxiang Huang(黄福祥); Chengzhi Jiang(蒋诚志); Zhifei Tao(陶知非); Hua Gao(高华); Lina Lü(吕丽娜)


    In order to improve the resolution of seismic acquisition, a new seismic acquisition system based on tangential laser Doppler effect with an optimized differential optical configuration is proposed. The relative movement of the inertia object and the immobile frame is measured by laser Doppler effect, which can avoid the electromagnetic and thermometric interference, and the adoption of frequency-modulated (FM)transmission can improve the ability of anti-jamming. The frequency bandwidth is properly determined by analyzing the frequency of the Doppler signal. The velocity, displacement, acceleration, and frequency to be measured can be real-time acquired by frequency/velocity (F/V) converting the FM Doppler signal.A 100-dB dynamic range and the linear frequency range of 1.0 to 1000 Hz are realized.

  19. Doppler Compensation by using of Segmented Match Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nader Ghadimi


    Full Text Available Match filter is one of the important parts of radar receiver. By using of Match Filter, the signal to noise ratio can be maximized so that the probability of detection is increased. Match Filter can be used as a pulse compression filter in radar receiver. Binary phase code is one of the pulse compression methods that, the compression can be down with a Match Filter in the receiver. Doppler effect is one of the problems that degrade the performance of Match Filter. In this paper, two methods “Mixer Array” and “Segmented Match Filter” are proposed for Doppler compensation. The operation of these two methods as Doppler compensation techniques are considered theoretically. The simulation is used to demonstrate the Doppler compensation performance of new techniques compared to conventional methods.

  20. Methodology for obtaining wind gusts using Doppler lidar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suomi, Irene; Gryning, Sven-Erik; O'Connor, Ewan J.


    . This novel method also provides estimates for wind gusts at arbitrary gust durations, including those shorter than the temporal resolution of the Doppler lidar measurements. The input parameters for the scaling method are the measured wind-gust speed as well as the mean and standard deviation...... of the horizontal wind speed. The method was tested using WindCube V2 Doppler lidar measurements taken next to a 100 m high meteorological mast. It is shown that the method can provide realistic Doppler lidar estimates of the gust factor, i.e. the ratio of the wind-gust speed to the mean wind speed. The method...... speed. To assure the data quality in this study, we applied a filtering technique based on spike detection to remove possible outliers in the Doppler lidar data. We found that the spike detection-removal method clearly improved the wind-gust measurements, both with and without the scaling method. Spike...

  1. Contribution of ocular B-mode and triplex Doppler in the evaluation of 10 Poodle dogs with cataracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A.R. Feliciano


    Full Text Available The findings of b-mode and especially triplex Doppler ocular ultrasound in the evaluation of 10 Poodle dogs with cataracts, which bring a contribution not yet reported in veterinary medicine, were reported. Ten Poodle dogs of varied ages and presenting cataracts were used. All animals were evaluated for ophthalmic and ultrasound examination. The ultrasound examination allowed the evaluation of the sonographic anatomy of the eye and measurement of the axial thickness of the lens (ATL. Using the Doppler mode, the blood flow of the ophthalmic artery and its vascular indexes, systolic velocity (SV, resistive index (RI and pulsatility index (PI were measured. Values found for ATL were 5.89±1.05 for the right eye (OD and 6.07±1.32 for the left eye (OS. Values found using Doppler evaluation were SV OD: 26.54±7.05 and SV OS: 29.21±11.18; PI OD: 1.89±0.61 and PI OS: 1.7±0.35; RI OD: 0.76±0.1 and RI OS: 0.72±0.09 (OS. It was concluded that triplex Doppler was important for the determination of vascular indexes of the ophthalmic artery, which can be used for monitoring animals with hemodynamic alterations of the eyes and monitoring the therapy of ocular diseases.

  2. [Diagnosis of placenta previa accreta by two dimensional ultrasonography and color doppler in patients with cesarean section]. (United States)

    Shi, Huafang; Pi, Pixiang; Ding, Yiling


    To determine the accuracy of two dismensional sonography and color doppler in diagnosing placenta previa accreta in patients with previous cesarean section. Forty-one patients with previous cesarean sections were confirmed to have partial or total placenta previa in the current pregnancy and were given ultrasound examinations after the 28th week of gestation. Specific ultrasound features of the placenta and its interphase with the uterus and the bladder for placenta accreta were checked by two-dimensional ultrasonography and color Doppler. All the patients were traced until delivery. The golden standard in diagnosis was the intraoperative finding and the pathologic exam. Twenty-two patients had ultrasonographic evidence of placenta previa, 20 of which were later confirmed placenta previa accreta intraoperatively. Nineteen patients had no ultrasound evidence of placenta previa, and 1 of which was later confirmed placenta previa accreta. The sensitivity and specificity of antenatal ultrasound diagnosis of placenta previa accreta were 95.24% and 94.74% respectively. The most prominent feature to suggest placenta accreta in twodismensional sonography was the presence of multiple lakes that represented dilated vessels extending from the placenta through the myometrium. The most prominent color Doppler feature was the presence of interphase hypervascularity with abnormal vessels linking the placenta to the bladder, and the rate was 95.24%. Placenta previa accreta can be diagnosed made with a thorough two dimensional ultrasonographic and color Doppler examination in patients with previous cesarean scar and placenta previa.

  3. Doppler ultrasound study and venous mapping in chronic venous insufficiency. (United States)

    García Carriazo, M; Gómez de las Heras, C; Mármol Vázquez, P; Ramos Solís, M F


    Chronic venous insufficiency of the lower limbs is very prevalent. In recent decades, Doppler ultrasound has become the method of choice to study this condition, and it is considered essential when surgery is indicated. This article aims to establish a method for the examination, including venous mapping and preoperative marking. To this end, we review the venous anatomy of the lower limbs and the pathophysiology of chronic venous insufficiency and explain the basic hemodynamic concepts and the terminology required to elaborate a radiological report that will enable appropriate treatment planning and communication with other specialists. We briefly explain the CHIVA (the acronym for the French term "cure conservatrice et hémodynamique de l'insuffisance veineuse en ambulatoire"=conservative hemodynamic treatment for chronic venous insufficiency) strategy, a minimally invasive surgical strategy that aims to restore correct venous hemodynamics without resecting the saphenous vein. Copyright © 2015 SERAM. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Photonic Doppler velocimetry of laser-ablated ultrathin metals. (United States)

    Valenzuela, A R; Rodriguez, G; Clarke, S A; Thomas, K A


    Obtaining velocity information from the interaction of a laser pulse on a metal layer provides insight into the rapid dynamics of material removal and plasma plume physics during ablation. A traditional approach involves using a velocity interferometer system for any reflector (VISAR) on a reflective metal surface. However, when the target is a thin metal layer, the cohesion of the surface is quickly lost resulting in a large spread of particle velocities that cannot be easily resolved by VISAR. This is due to material ejection"confusing" the VISAR measurement surface, effectively washing out the spatial fringe visibility in the VISAR interferometer. A new heterodyne-based optical velocimeter method is the photonic Doppler velocimeter (PDV). Because PDV tracks motion in a frequency encoded temporal electro-optical signal, velocity information is preserved and allows for multiple velocity components to be recorded simultaneously. The challenge lies in extracting PDV velocity information at short (nanosecond) laser ablation time scales with rapidly varying heterodyne beats by using electronic, optical, and analytical techniques to recover the velocity information from a fleeting signal. Here we show how we have been able to obtain velocity information on the nanosecond time scale and are able to compare it to hydrodynamic simulations. Also, we examine refinements to our PDV system by increasing the bandwidth, utilizing different probes, and sampling different analysis techniques.

  5. High resolution Doppler imager on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skinner, W.R.; Hays, P.B.; Grassl, H.J.; Gell, D.A.; Burrage, M.D.; Marshall, A.R.; Ortland, D.A. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)


    The High Resolution Doppler Imager (HRDI) on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite has been providing measurements of the wind field in the stratosphere, mesosphere and lower thermosphere since November 1991. Examination of various calibration data indicates the instrument has remained remarkably stable since launch. The instrument has a thermal drift of about 30 m/s/{degree}C (slightly dependent on wavelength) and a long-term temporal drift that has amounted to about 80 m/s since launch. These effects are removed in the data processing leaving an uncertainty in the instrument stability of {minus}2 nVs. The temperature control of the instrument has improved significantly since launch as a new method was implemented. The initial temperature control held the instrument temperature at about {+-}1{degree}C. The improved method, which holds constant the temperature of the optical bench instead of the radiator, keeps the instrument temperature at about 0.2{degree}C. The calibrations indicate very little change in the sensitivity of the instrument. The detector response has shown no degradation and the optics have not changed their transmittance.

  6. Native Americans' Interest in Horticulture. (United States)

    Meyer, Mary Hockenberry


    Focus groups arranged by local Native American Master Gardeners on two Minnesota reservations determined community interest in extension-horticulture programs. Topics of interest included food preservation and historical Native-American uses of plants. (SK)

  7. Evaluation of the Severity of Mitral Valvular Regurgitation with Doppler Echocardiography Using Proximal Flow Convergence Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinjari A. Khayum


    Full Text Available Problem statement: Valvular regurgitation is recognized as the central cause of morbidity and mortality. Even though the clinician can detect the presence of regurgitation by mere physical examination; diagnostic methods become inevitable while estimating the severity of valvular regurgitation and in the transformation of cardiac chambers as in reaction to the volume overload condition. Lately, a promising new technology, the Echocardiography with Doppler is found to facilitate the non-invasive recognition and assessment of the severity and etiology of valvular regurgitation. Accurate measurements of regurgitant volume in patients is of utmost importance since it aids in the estimation of the progression of the disease which in turn is vital for determining the optimal time for surgical repair or replacement. Approach: Color space conversion and anisotropic diffusion segmentation techniques are utilized in this study for the pre-processing stage of the quantification of mitral regurgitation. Flow field measurements are carried out with the aid of proximal flow convergence method. Results: A calculated value of flow rate, regurgitant orifice area, regurgitant fraction and the regurgitant volume for a regurgitant orifice in the cardiovascular system are obtained from the potential Color Doppler visualization of the flow convergence region. Conclusion: The research proposed provides a significant assessment of the echocardiographic and Doppler techniques employed in the evaluation of mitral valvular regurgitation in the patients. Additionally it also proffers the estimation of mildness, severity and eccentricity of mitral valvular regurgitation on basis of the scientific literature and a consensus of a panel of experts.

  8. Relationship of oscillating and average components of laser Doppler flowmetry signal (United States)

    Mizeva, Irina; Frick, Peter; Podtaev, Sergey


    Signals from laser Doppler flowmeters widely used in intravital studies of skin blood flow include, along with a slowly varying average component, an oscillating part. However, in most clinical studies, pulsations are usually smoothed by data preprocessing and only the mean blood flow is analyzed. To reveal the relationship between average and oscillating perfusion components measured by a laser Doppler flowmeter, we examined the microvascular response to the contralateral cold pressor test recorded at two different sites of the hand: dorsal part of the arm and finger pad. Such a protocol makes it possible to provide a wide range of perfusion. The average perfusion always decreases during cooling, while the oscillating component demonstrates a differently directed response. The wavelet analysis of laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) signals shows that the pulsatile component is nonlinearly related to the average perfusion. Under low perfusion, the amplitude of pulsations is proportional to its mean value, but, as perfusion increases, the amplitude of pulsations becomes lower. The type of response is defined by the basal perfusion and the degree of vasoconstriction caused by cooling. Interpretation of the results is complicated by the nonlinear transfer function of the LDF device, the contribution of which is studied using artificial examples.

  9. Clinical application of transcranial Doppler ultrasonography in premature, very-low-birth-weight neonates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabriel, Marta Lucia [Fundacao Faculdade Regional de Medicina (FUNFARME), Sao Jose do Rio Preto, SP (Brazil). Hospital de Base; Piatto, Vania Belintani [Faculdade de Medicina de Sao Jose do Rio Preto (FAMERP), SP (Brazil); Souza, Antonio Soares, E-mail: depimagem@famerp.b [Faculdade de Medicina de Sao Jose do Rio Preto (FAMERP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Diagnostico por Imagem


    Objective: the present study was aimed at analyzing the value of the early diagnosis of hemodynamic changes in hemorrhages and hypoxic-ischemic events in premature, very-low-birth-weight neonates through the evaluation of images and resistance index measurement by means of transcranial Doppler ultrasonography. Materials and methods: fifty premature, very-low-birth-weight neonates were submitted to transcranial Doppler ultrasonography with sequential transfontanellar and transtemporal techniques. Results: cerebral abnormalities were detected in 32% of the neonates (22% with intracranial hemorrhage, 8% with periventricular leukomalacia, and 2% with toxoplasmosis). Among the 34 cases (68%) of neonates in whom no brain lesion was detected at transcranial Doppler ultrasonography, 18 (53%) presented changes in the resistance index. Such resistance index varied according to the time of the examination. Conclusion: there is a correlation between the presence of cerebral hemodynamic changes demonstrated by resistance index measurements and the subsequent development of hemorrhages and hypoxic-ischemic lesions. Although not being a death predictor, changes in the resistance index are associated with the severity of the clinical conditions in preterm, very-low-birth-weight neonates. (author)

  10. Evaluation of Haemodynamic Changes of Proximal Arterial Occlusion in the Lower Extremities by Spectrum Doppler Ultrasonography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Wang


    Full Text Available Objective: The objective is to analyse the changes of haemodynamic and Doppler ultrasonography spectrum in the proximal arterial occlusion of lower extremities, and to explore the value of spectrum Doppler ultrasonography in the diagnosis of lower extremity arterial occlusive disease. Methods: Thirty-four patients (thirty-nine occlusion arteries were examined with two-dimensional ultrasound combined with colour Doppler flow imaging (CDFI, and the results were compared. Result: The waveform shape in the artery proximal to the occlusion shows that blood flow velocity becomes slower, and diastolic reverse wave slowly disappears even upward. Systolic waveform records a steep upstroke, a slow downstroke and a shoulder on the downstroke. The appearance of the shoulder on the downstroke is earlier than the diastolic upward wave. The differences of peak systolic velocity, acceleration time, deceleration time, systolic acceleration, deceleration, diastolic reverse flow velocity, systolic acceleration time/systolic duration and systolic deceleration time/systolic duration in the proximal occlusion segment compared with the control group are statistically significant (p < 0.05. Conclusion: Artery occlusion can lead to haemodynamic response and spectrum waveform change. Timely discovery of the changes of the spectrum can be of clinical significance in the diagnosis of lower extremity arterial occlusive disease.

  11. Noninvasive color Doppler sonography of uterine blood flow throughout pregnancy in sheep and goats. (United States)

    Elmetwally, M; Rohn, K; Meinecke-Tillmann, S


    In contrast to cattle or horses, uterine blood flow in small ruminants has been investigated predominantly after surgical intervention and chronic instrumentation. The objective of the present study was to investigate the clinical applicability of noninvasive color Doppler sonography to characterize blood flow in the maternal uterine artery of sheep, n = 11 (18 pregnancies) and goats, n = 11 (20 pregnancies). The following parameters were measured transrectally or transabdominally: blood flow volume, time-averaged maximum velocity (TAMV), resistance index (RI), pulsatility index (PI), Time-averaged mean velocity, impedance of blood flow (AB or systolic/diastolic [S/D] velocity ratio), peak velocity of blood flow and blood flow acceleration. Examinations started 2 weeks after breeding and continued at 2-week intervals until parturition. Outcomes for sheep and goats were similar and will be discussed together. Based on noninvasive color Doppler sonography, blood flow volume increased (approximately 60-fold, P sheep and goats. Furthermore, for uterine artery blood flow, there was an effect of stage of pregnancy on PI and RI (P sheep and goats, respectively, and then decreased until parturition. Similar to PI and RI, vascular impedance of the uterine decreased (P < 0.0001) throughout pregnancy. This is apparently the first study using noninvasive color Doppler sonography of uterine blood flow throughout physiological pregnancy in small ruminants. Clearly, this technology facilitates repeated, noninvasive assessments, with great potential for future studies.

  12. Quantification of cardiac blood flow by Doppler technique


    Meijboom, Erik Jan


    textabstractThe investigations described in this thesis started as part of the research program of the divisions of pediatric cardiology of the Universities of Arizona and California (San Diego). The investigations were part of an ongoing project designed by D.J. Sahn and L.M. Valdes-Cruz. This project was initiated to implement Doppler techniques in the daily practice of pediatric cardiology. New developments in medical technology made the Doppler techniques integrated into sophisticated two...

  13. Monitoring and Analysis of Respiratory Patterns Using Microwave Doppler Radar (United States)

    Pathirana, Pubudu N.; Steinfort, Christopher Louis; Caelli, Terry


    Noncontact detection characteristic of Doppler radar provides an unobtrusive means of respiration detection and monitoring. This avoids additional preparations, such as physical sensor attachment or special clothing, which can be useful for certain healthcare applications. Furthermore, robustness of Doppler radar against environmental factors, such as light, ambient temperature, interference from other signals occupying the same bandwidth, fading effects, reduce environmental constraints and strengthens the possibility of employing Doppler radar in long-term respiration detection, and monitoring applications such as sleep studies. This paper presents an evaluation in the of use of microwave Doppler radar for capturing different dynamics of breathing patterns in addition to the respiration rate. Although finding the respiration rate is essential, identifying abnormal breathing patterns in real-time could be used to gain further insights into respiratory disorders and refine diagnostic procedures. Several known breathing disorders were professionally role played and captured in a real-time laboratory environment using a noncontact Doppler radar to evaluate the feasibility of this noncontact form of measurement in capturing breathing patterns under different conditions associated with certain breathing disorders. In addition to that, inhalation and exhalation flow patterns under different breathing scenarios were investigated to further support the feasibility of Doppler radar to accurately estimate the tidal volume. The results obtained for both experiments were compared with the gold standard measurement schemes, such as respiration belt and spirometry readings, yielding significant correlations with the Doppler radar-based information. In summary, Doppler radar is highlighted as an alternative approach not only for determining respiration rates, but also for identifying breathing patterns and tidal volumes as a preferred nonwearable alternative to the conventional

  14. Radar target recognition based on micro-Doppler effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Wei-guang; LI Yan-jun


    Mechanical vibration of target structures will modulate the phase function of radar backscattering, and will induce thefrequency modulation of returned signals from the target. It generates a side bands of the target body Doppler frequencyshift, which is helpful for target recognition. Based on this.a micro-Doppler atomic storehouse is built for the targetrecognition, and four kinds of common classifiers are used separately to perform the classified recognition. The simulationexperimental results show that this method has high recognition rate above 90%.

  15. Using doppler radar images to estimate aircraft navigational heading error (United States)

    Doerry, Armin W [Albuquerque, NM; Jordan, Jay D [Albuquerque, NM; Kim, Theodore J [Albuquerque, NM


    A yaw angle error of a motion measurement system carried on an aircraft for navigation is estimated from Doppler radar images captured using the aircraft. At least two radar pulses aimed at respectively different physical locations in a targeted area are transmitted from a radar antenna carried on the aircraft. At least two Doppler radar images that respectively correspond to the at least two transmitted radar pulses are produced. These images are used to produce an estimate of the yaw angle error.

  16. Doppler visibility of coherent random noise radar systems (United States)

    Li, Zhixi; Narayanan, Ram M.


    Random noise radar has recently been used in a variety of imaging and surveillance applications. These systems can be made phase coherent using the technique of heterodyne correlation. Phase coherence has been exploited to measure Doppler and thereby the velocity of moving targets. The Doppler visibility, i.e., the ability to extract Doppler information over the inherent clutter spectra, is constrained by system parameters, especially the phase noise generated by microwave components. Our paper proposes a new phase noise model for the heterodyne mixer as applicable for ultrawideband (UWB) random noise radar and for the local oscillator in the time domain. The Doppler spectra are simulated by including phase noise contamination effects and compared to our previous experimental results. A Genetic Algorithm (GA) optimization routine is applied to synthesize the effects of a variety of parameter combinations to derive a suitable empirical formula for estimating the Doppler visibility in dB. According to the phase noise analysis and the simulation results, the Doppler visibility of UWB random noise radar depends primarily on the following parameters: (a) the local oscillator (LO) drive level of the receiver heterodyne mixer; (b) the saturation current in the receiver heterodyne mixer; (c) the bandwidth of the transmit noise source, and; (d) the target velocity. Other parameters such as the carrier frequency of the receiver LO and the loaded quality factor of the LO have a small effect over the range of applicability of the model and are therefore neglected in the model formulation. The Doppler visibility curves generated from this formula match the simulation results very well over the applicable parameter range within 1 dB. Our model may therefore be used to quickly estimate the Doppler visibility of random noise radars for trade-off analysis.

  17. Cytogenetic examination



    Cytogenetic examination on six normal persons, four men and two women, was carried out using a technique proposed by Dutrillaux with slight modification. Five drops of blood were taken from a peripheral vessel and was incubated on a PHA (phytohemarglutinine)-containing medium at 37°C for about 72 hours. Cell division was blocked by adding colchicine solution, an antimitotic agent, into this medium. A mixture of distilled water, magnesium chloride, hyaluronidase, and goat serum was used as hy...

  18. Single mode, extreme precision Doppler spectrographs

    CERN Document Server

    Schwab, Christian; Betters, Christopher H; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss; Mahadevan, Suvrath


    The 'holy grail' of exoplanet research today is the detection of an earth-like planet: a rocky planet in the habitable zone around a main-sequence star. Extremely precise Doppler spectroscopy is an indispensable tool to find and characterize earth-like planets; however, to find these planets around solar-type stars, we need nearly one order of magnitude better radial velocity (RV) precision than the best current spectrographs provide. Recent developments in astrophotonics (Bland-Hawthorn & Horton 2006, Bland-Hawthorn et al. 2010) and adaptive optics (AO) enable single mode fiber (SMF) fed, high resolution spectrographs, which can realize the next step in precision. SMF feeds have intrinsic advantages over multimode fiber or slit coupled spectrographs: The intensity distribution at the fiber exit is extremely stable, and as a result the line spread function of a well-designed spectrograph is fully decoupled from input coupling conditions, like guiding or seeing variations (Ihle et al. 2010). Modal noise, a...

  19. Satellite Doppler Fixation and International Boundaries (United States)

    Leppard, N. A. G.


    International boundaries have seldom been completely defined in geodetic terms. The existence of natural resources, which ignore the arbitrary boundaries of man, assume considerable importance when division of those resources becomes a point of issue between potential owners. This is particularly so when the boundary is illdefined in a geodetic sense. World-wide satellite reference systems, like natural resources, also have little regard for the internally less precise national or international systems. When the one is used to define the location of the other, great care must be taken to ensure equitable division, for financial gain and loss can be considerable. The definition of position is complicated by the existence of the two ephemerides for the N.N.S.S. satellites and the number of alternative reduction procedures available. The definition of the position of the Frigg Gas Field in the North Sea is an example of how the United Kingdom and Norway resolved the geodetic problem of reconciling geodetic and Doppler data.

  20. Doppler time-of-flight imaging

    KAUST Repository

    Heide, Felix


    Over the last few years, depth cameras have become increasingly popular for a range of applications, including human-computer interaction and gaming, augmented reality, machine vision, and medical imaging. Many of the commercially-available devices use the time-of-flight principle, where active illumination is temporally coded and analyzed on the camera to estimate a per-pixel depth map of the scene. In this paper, we propose a fundamentally new imaging modality for all time-of-flight (ToF) cameras: per-pixel velocity measurement. The proposed technique exploits the Doppler effect of objects in motion, which shifts the temporal frequency of the illumination before it reaches the camera. Using carefully coded illumination and modulation frequencies of the ToF camera, object velocities directly map to measured pixel intensities. We show that a slight modification of our imaging system allows for color, depth, and velocity information to be captured simultaneously. Combining the optical flow computed on the RGB frames with the measured metric axial velocity allows us to further estimate the full 3D metric velocity field of the scene. We believe that the proposed technique has applications in many computer graphics and vision problems, for example motion tracking, segmentation, recognition, and motion deblurring.

  1. Doppler cooling of a Coulomb crystal

    CERN Document Server

    Morigi, G; Morigi, Giovanna; Eschner, Juergen


    We study theoretically Doppler laser-cooling of a cluster of 2-level atoms confined in a linear ion trap. Using several consecutive steps of averaging we derive, from the full quantum mechanical master equation, an equation for the total mechanical energy of the one dimensional crystal, defined on a coarse-grained energy scale whose grid size is smaller than the linewidth of the electronic transition. This equation describes the cooling dynamics for an arbitrary number of ions and in the quantum regime. We discuss the validity of the ergodic assumption (i.e. that the phase space distribution is only a function of energy). From our equation we derive the semiclassical limit (i.e. when the mechanical motion can be treated classically) and the Lamb-Dicke limit (i.e. when the size of the mechanical wave function is much smaller than the laser wavelength). We find a Fokker-Planck equation for the total mechanical energy of the system, whose solution is in agreement with previous analytical calculations which were ...

  2. MEMS characterization using Laser Doppler Vibrometry (United States)

    Lawrence, Eric M.; Speller, Kevin E.; Yu, Duli


    The use of Laser Doppler Vibrometry (LDV) technology has been at the forefront of Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) research since the early 1990"s. By its nature as a sensitive laser optical technique, it is well suited for non-contact dynamic response measurements of microscopic structures. The art of the technology has culminated into the latest micro-scanning vibrometer for automated scan measurement and display of deflection shapes with sub-nanometer resolution. To exemplify the use of this technology, Polytec PI presents characterization measurements in collaboration with Applied MEMS on two of their devices used in commercial applications. LDV characterization measurements are used for validating the design of the Applied MEMS two-axis micro mirror. Scan measurements reveal distinct, isolated rotation modes about x- and y- axes that can be used to promote the mirror motion in either direction. Settling time performance is evaluated from impulse response and optimized using Input Shaping techniques. Scan measurements of a low-noise accelerometer device from Applied MEMS reveals spurious high frequency modes of support spring causing unwanted response effects. Further use of a new time domain animation feature shows ringing response of the accelerometer to step motions.

  3. Muscle activity characterization by laser Doppler Myography (United States)

    Scalise, Lorenzo; Casaccia, Sara; Marchionni, Paolo; Ercoli, Ilaria; Primo Tomasini, Enrico


    Electromiography (EMG) is the gold-standard technique used for the evaluation of muscle activity. This technique is used in biomechanics, sport medicine, neurology and rehabilitation therapy and it provides the electrical activity produced by skeletal muscles. Among the parameters measured with EMG, two very important quantities are: signal amplitude and duration of muscle contraction, muscle fatigue and maximum muscle power. Recently, a new measurement procedure, named Laser Doppler Myography (LDMi), for the non contact assessment of muscle activity has been proposed to measure the vibro-mechanical behaviour of the muscle. The aim of this study is to present the LDMi technique and to evaluate its capacity to measure some characteristic features proper of the muscle. In this paper LDMi is compared with standard superficial EMG (sEMG) requiring the application of sensors on the skin of each patient. sEMG and LDMi signals have been simultaneously acquired and processed to test correlations. Three parameters has been analyzed to compare these techniques: Muscle activation timing, signal amplitude and muscle fatigue. LDMi appears to be a reliable and promising measurement technique allowing the measurements without contact with the patient skin.

  4. Zeeman Doppler Maps: Always Unique, Never Spurious? (United States)

    Stift, Martin J.; Leone, Francesco


    Numerical models of atomic diffusion in magnetic atmospheres of ApBp stars predict abundance structures that differ from the empirical maps derived with (Zeeman) Doppler mapping (ZDM). An in-depth analysis of this apparent disagreement investigates the detectability by means of ZDM of a variety of abundance structures, including (warped) rings predicted by theory, but also complex spot-like structures. Even when spectra of high signal-to-noise ratio are available, it can prove difficult or altogether impossible to correctly recover shapes, positions, and abundances of a mere handful of spots, notwithstanding the use of all four Stokes parameters and an exactly known field geometry; the recovery of (warped) rings can be equally challenging. Inversions of complex abundance maps that are based on just one or two spectral lines usually permit multiple solutions. It turns out that it can by no means be guaranteed that any of the regularization functions in general use for ZDM (maximum entropy or Tikhonov) will lead to a true abundance map instead of some spurious one. Attention is drawn to the need for a study that would elucidate the relation between the stratified, field-dependent abundance structures predicted by diffusion theory on the one hand, and empirical maps obtained by means of “canonical” ZDM, i.e., with mean atmospheres and unstratified abundances, on the other hand. Finally, we point out difficulties arising from the three-dimensional nature of the atomic diffusion process in magnetic ApBp star atmospheres.

  5. Upper secondary students’ situational interest:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dohn, Niels Bonderup


    interest was investigated by a descriptive interpretive approach, based on data from classroom and field trip observations, video recording, and interviews. The findings provided evidence that substantial situational interest can be generated during a fieldtrip to a zoo. Students’ interest was triggered...

  6. Transcranial Doppler investigation of hemodynamic alterations associated with blunt cervical vascular injuries in trauma patients. (United States)

    Purvis, Dianna L; Crutchfield, Kevin; Trickey, Amber W; Aldaghlas, Tayseer; Rizzo, Anne; Sikdar, Siddhartha


    Blunt cervical vascular injuries, often missed with current screening methods, have substantial morbidity and mortality, and there is a need for improved screening. Elucidation of cerebral hemodynamic alterations may facilitate serial bedside monitoring and improved management. Thus, the objective of this study was to define cerebral flow alterations associated with single blunt cervical vascular injuries using transcranial Doppler sonography and subsequent Doppler waveform analyses in a trauma population. In this prospective pilot study, patients with suspected blunt cervical vascular injuries had diagnoses by computed tomographic angiography and were examined using transcranial Doppler sonography to define cerebral hemodynamics. Multiple vessel injuries were excluded for this analysis, as the focus was to identify hemodynamic alterations from isolated injuries. The inverse damping factor characterized altered extracranial flow patterns; middle cerebral artery flow velocities, the pulsatility index, and their asymmetries characterized altered intracranial flow patterns. Twenty-three trauma patients were evaluated: 4 with single internal carotid artery injuries, 5 with single vertebral artery injuries, and 14 without blunt cervical vascular injuries. All internal carotid artery injuries showed a reduced inverse damping factor in the internal carotid artery and dampened ipsilateral mean flow and peak systolic velocities in the middle cerebral artery. Vertebral artery injuries produced asymmetry of a similar magnitude in the middle cerebral artery mean flow velocity with end-diastolic velocity alterations. These data indicate that extracranial and intracranial hemodynamic alterations occur with internal carotid artery and vertebral artery blunt cervical vascular injuries and can be quantified in the acute injury phase by transcranial Doppler indices. Further study is required to elucidate cerebral flow changes resulting from a single blunt cervical vascular injury

  7. Intrahepatic portosystemic venous shunts: diagnosis by Doppler ultrasound; Cortocircuitos venosos portosistemicos intrahepaticos: diagnostico mediante ecografia Doppler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garofano, M. P.; Medina, A.; Lopez, G.; Garrido, C. [Hospital Universitario Virgen de las Nieves. Granada (Spain)


    Intrahepatic portosystemic venous shunts are venous vascular lesions that allow intrahepatic portal vessels to communicate with hepatic veins. They may present in patients with portal hypertension or b discovered incidentally; it is considered that the latter may be congenital or acquired. A noninvasive methods. Doppler ultrasound aids in the diagnosis of these anomalous communications by providing images of the vessels and the direction, velocity and volume of the blood flow through the shunt. We present four cases of intrahepatic portosystemic venous shunt. (Author) 8 refs.

  8. Features of remodeling of right heart chambers according to tissue Doppler and its correlation with cardiac rhythm disturbance in patients with COPD 2-3 severity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Zhuk


    Full Text Available The article presents the study of early sings of dysfunction of right and left chambers of heart in patients with COPD 2 - 3 severity, correlation between structural and electrical remodeling of heart according to the stages of pulmonary hypertension. Standard tissue Doppler echocardiographic parameters and modes were used for the diagnosing. We examined 35 patients with COPD 2 - 3 severity; the control group consisted of 15 patients. The ECG Holter monitoring was made for all patients to identify cardiac rhythm disturbance and correlation with the COPD severity. Standard method of the ECG with modes of tissue Doppler (pulsed wave Tissue Doppler Imaging - PW TDI, color tissue Doppler imaging -TDI, tissue myocardial Doppler - TMD, tissue Tracking - TT, Doppler for evaluation of myocardial strain and myocardial strain rate were made to identify the stage of dysfunction. The results of the study concluded that according to the TDI the dysfunction of right ventricle was more apparent in patients with COPD 3 severity. Pathological arrhythmias were significantly detected in group of patients with COPD 3 severity. In compliance with our observations, the reduce of rapid myocardial strain rates and its inverse proportion with the severity in accordance to the evaluation of longitudinal strain and rate of movement of fibrous ring in tricuspid valve were observed in patients with COPD. Thus the application of the TDI modes for evaluating of early signs of cardiac remodeling in patients with COPD and potential adequate jugulation for preventing chronic cor pulmonale is expedient.

  9. Low-Frequency Gravitational Wave Searches Using Spacecraft Doppler Tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armstrong J. W.


    Full Text Available This paper discusses spacecraft Doppler tracking, the current-generation detector technology used in the low-frequency (~millihertz gravitational wave band. In the Doppler method the earth and a distant spacecraft act as free test masses with a ground-based precision Doppler tracking system continuously monitoring the earth-spacecraft relative dimensionless velocity $2 Delta v/c = Delta u/ u_0$, where $Delta u$ is the Doppler shift and $ u_0$ is the radio link carrier frequency. A gravitational wave having strain amplitude $h$ incident on the earth-spacecraft system causes perturbations of order $h$ in the time series of $Delta u/ u_0$. Unlike other detectors, the ~1-10 AU earth-spacecraft separation makes the detector large compared with millihertz-band gravitational wavelengths, and thus times-of-flight of signals and radio waves through the apparatus are important. A burst signal, for example, is time-resolved into a characteristic signature: three discrete events in the Doppler time series. I discuss here the principles of operation of this detector (emphasizing transfer functions of gravitational wave signals and the principal noises to the Doppler time series, some data analysis techniques, experiments to date, and illustrations of sensitivity and current detector performance. I conclude with a discussion of how gravitational wave sensitivity can be improved in the low-frequency band.

  10. Doppler Monitoring of the WASP-47 Multiplanet System

    CERN Document Server

    Dai, Fei; Arriagada, Pamela; Butler, R Paul; Crane, Jeffrey D; Johnson, John Asher; Shectman, Stephen A; Teske, Johanna K; Thompson, Ian B; Vanderburg, Andrew; Wittenmyer, Robert A


    We present precise Doppler observations of WASP-47, a transiting planetary system featuring a hot Jupiter with both inner and outer planetary companions. This system has an unusual architecture and also provides a rare opportunity to measure planet masses in two different ways: the Doppler method, and the analysis of transit-timing variations (TTV). Based on the new Doppler data, obtained with the Planet Finder Spectrograph on the Magellan/Clay 6.5m telescope, the mass of the hot Jupiter is $370 \\pm 29~M_{\\oplus}$. This is consistent with the previous Doppler determination as well as the TTV determination. For the inner planet WASP-47e, the Doppler data lead to a mass of $12.2\\pm 3.7~ M_{\\oplus}$, in agreement with the TTV-based upper limit of $<$22~$M_{\\oplus}$ ($95\\%$ confidence). For the outer planet WASP-47d, the Doppler mass constraint of $10.4\\pm 8.4~M_{\\oplus}$ is consistent with the TTV-based measurement of $15.2^{+6.7}_{-7.6}~ M_{\\oplus}$.

  11. Analysis of Radar Doppler Signature from Human Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of time (autocorrelation and time-frequency (spectrogram analyses of radar signals returned from the moving human targets. When a radar signal falls on the human target which is moving toward or away from the radar, the signals reflected from different parts of his body produce a Doppler shift that is proportional to the velocity of those parts. Moving parts of the body causes the characteristic Doppler signature. The main contribution comes from the torso which causes the central Doppler frequency of target. The motion of arms and legs induces modulation on the returned radar signal and generates sidebands around the central Doppler frequency, referred to as micro-Doppler signatures. Through analyses on experimental data it was demonstrated that the human motion signature extraction is better using spectrogram. While the central Doppler frequency can be determined using the autocorrelation and the spectrogram, the extraction of the fundamental cadence frequency using the autocorrelation is unreliable when the target is in the clutter presence. It was shown that the fundamental cadence frequency increases with increasing dynamic movement of people and simultaneously the possibility of its extraction is proportional to the degree of synchronization movements of persons in the group.

  12. Gender Interest Differences with Multimedia Learning Interfaces. (United States)

    Passig, David; Levin, Haya


    This study of 90 kindergarten children examined gender differences in learning interest from different designs of multimedia interfaces. Results indicate a significant difference between boys and girls in the influence of the design of interactive multimedia stories on time on task and on level of satisfaction with the interfaces. (Author/LRW)

  13. Interest in medical therapy for celiac disease (United States)

    Tennyson, Christina A.; Simpson, Suzanne; Lebwohl, Benjamin; Lewis, Suzanne


    Objectives: A gluten-free diet is the treatment for celiac disease, but pharmaceutical agents are being developed. The level of interest amongst patients in using a medication to treat celiac disease is unknown. This study examined the level of interest amongst patients in medication to treat celiac disease. Methods: A questionnaire was distributed to celiac disease patients and data were collected on demographics, presentation, and interest in medication. Three validated celiac disease-specific instruments were incorporated: Celiac Disease Associated Quality of Life, the Celiac Symptom Index, and the Celiac Dietary Adherence Test. Results: Responses were received from 365 individuals with biopsy-proven celiac disease. Respondents were 78% (n = 276) female, 48% (n = 170) over 50 years of age, and experienced a classical (diarrhea predominant) presentation in 44% (n = 154). Of the 339 individuals answering the question regarding use of a medication to treat celiac disease, 66% were interested. Interest was greatest in older individuals (71% >50 years of age versus 60% celiac disease are interested in using a medication. Interest was highest among men, older individuals, frequent restaurant customers, individuals dissatisfied with their weight or concerned with the cost of a gluten-free diet, and those with a worse quality of life. PMID:24003336

  14. Calculation of the Doppler broadening function using Fourier analysis;Calculo da funcao de alargamento Doppler utilizando analise de Fourier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncalves, Alessandro da Cruz


    An efficient and precise method for calculation of Doppler broadening function is very important to obtain average group microscopic cross sections, self shielding factors, resonance integrals and others reactor physics parameter. In this thesis two different methods for calculation of Doppler broadening function and interference term will be presented. The main method is based on a new integral form for Doppler broadening function {psi}(x,{zeta}) which gives a mathematical interpretation of the approximation proposed by Bethe and Placzek, as the convolution of the Lorentzian function with a Gaussian function. This interpretation besides leading to a new integral form for {psi}(x,{zeta}), enables to obtain a simple analytic solution for the Doppler broadening function. (author)

  15. Sonographic imaging of extra-testicular focal lesions: comparison of grey-scale, colour Doppler and contrast-enhanced ultrasound. (United States)

    Rafailidis, Vasileios; Robbie, Hasti; Konstantatou, Eleni; Huang, Dean Y; Deganello, Annamaria; Sellars, Maria E; Cantisani, Vito; Isidori, Andrea M; Sidhu, Paul S


    Extra-testicular lesions are usually benign but present with nonspecific grey-scale sonography findings. This study assesses conventional sonographic characteristics in the differentiation of extra-testicular tumoural from inflammatory lesions and whether contrast-enhanced ultrasound has a role. A retrospective database analysis was performed. All patients were examined by experienced sonographers employing standard techniques combining grey-scale, colour Doppler sonography and contrast-enhanced ultrasound. Features recorded were: clinical symptoms, size, location, echogenicity, colour Doppler sonography and contrast-enhanced ultrasound enhancement. Vascularity on colour Doppler sonography and contrast-enhanced ultrasound was graded and compared. The lesions were classified as tumoural or inflammatory. The Chi-square test was used to analyse the sonographic patterns and kappa coefficient to measure the agreement between colour Doppler sonography and contrast-enhanced ultrasound. A total of 30 lesions were reviewed (median diameter 12 mm, range 5-80 mm, median age 52 years, range 18-86 years), including 13/30 tumoural and 17/30 inflammatory lesions. Lesions were hypoechoic (n = 12), isoechoic (n = 6), hyperechoic (n = 2) or mixed (n = 10). Grey-scale characteristics of tumoural vs. inflammatory lesions differed significantly (P = 0.026). On colour Doppler sonography, lesions had no vessels (n = 16), 2-3 vessels (n = 10) and ≥4 vessels (n = 4). On contrast-enhanced ultrasound, lesions showed no vascularity (n = 17), perfusion similar to testis (n = 7) and higher (n = 6). All abscesses identified (n = 9) showed no vascularity on both colour Doppler sonography and contrast-enhanced ultrasound. There was good agreement between these techniques in evaluating vascularity (κ = 0.719) and no significant difference between colour Doppler sonography and contrast-enhanced ultrasound of tumoural vs. inflammatory lesions

  16. Color Tissue Doppler to Analyze Fetal Cardiac Time Intervals: Normal Values and Influence of Sample Gate Size. (United States)

    Willruth, A M; Steinhard, J; Enzensberger, C; Axt-Fliedner, R; Gembruch, U; Doelle, A; Dimitriou, I; Fimmers, R; Bahlmann, F


    Purpose: To assess the time intervals of the cardiac cycle in healthy fetuses in the second and third trimester using color tissue Doppler imaging (cTDI) and to evaluate the influence of different sizes of sample gates on time interval values. Materials and Methods: Time intervals were measured from the cTDI-derived Doppler waveform using a small and large region of interest (ROI) in healthy fetuses. Results: 40 fetuses were included. The median gestational age at examination was 26 + 1 (range: 20 + 5 - 34 + 5) weeks. The median frame rate was 116/s (100 - 161/s) and the median heart rate 143 (range: 125 - 158) beats per minute (bpm). Using small and large ROIs, the second trimester right ventricular (RV) mean isovolumetric contraction times (ICTs) were 39.8 and 41.4 ms (p = 0.17), the mean ejection times (ETs) were 170.2 and 164.6 ms (p < 0.001), the mean isovolumetric relaxation times (IRTs) were 52.8 and 55.3 ms (p = 0.08), respectively. The left ventricular (LV) mean ICTs were 36.2 and 39.4 ms (p = 0.05), the mean ETs were 167.4 and 164.5 ms (p = 0.013), the mean IRTs were 53.9 and 57.1 ms (p = 0.05), respectively. The third trimester RV mean ICTs were 50.7 and 50.4 ms (p = 0.75), the mean ETs were 172.3 and 181.4 ms (p = 0.49), the mean IRTs were 50.2 and 54.6 ms (p = 0.03); the LV mean ICTs were 45.1 and 46.2 ms (p = 0.35), the mean ETs were 175.2 vs. 172.9 ms (p = 0.29), the mean IRTs were 47.1 and 50.0 ms (p = 0.01), respectively. Conclusion: Isovolumetric time intervals can be analyzed precisely and relatively independent of ROI size. In the near future, automatic time interval measurement using ultrasound systems will be feasible and the analysis of fetal myocardial function can become part of the clinical routine.

  17. Longitudinal study of aortic isthmus Doppler in appropriately grown and small-for-gestational-age fetuses with normal and abnormal umbilical artery Doppler.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kennelly, M M


    To establish reference ranges using longitudinal data for aortic isthmus (AoI) Doppler indices in appropriate-for-gestational-age (AGA) fetuses and to document the longitudinal trends in a cohort of small-for-gestational-age (SGA) fetuses with normal umbilical artery Doppler and in fetuses with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and abnormal umbilical artery Doppler.

  18. ADEPT - Abnormal Doppler Enteral Prescription Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCormick Kenny


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pregnancies complicated by abnormal umbilical artery Doppler blood flow patterns often result in the baby being born both preterm and growth-restricted. These babies are at high risk of milk intolerance and necrotising enterocolitis, as well as post-natal growth failure, and there is no clinical consensus about how best to feed them. Policies of both early milk feeding and late milk feeding are widely used. This randomised controlled trial aims to determine whether a policy of early initiation of milk feeds is beneficial compared with late initiation. Optimising neonatal feeding for this group of babies may have long-term health implications and if either of these policies is shown to be beneficial it can be immediately adopted into clinical practice. Methods and Design Babies with gestational age below 35 weeks, and with birth weight below 10th centile for gestational age, will be randomly allocated to an "early" or "late" enteral feeding regimen, commencing milk feeds on day 2 and day 6 after birth, respectively. Feeds will be gradually increased over 9-13 days (depending on gestational age using a schedule derived from those used in hospitals in the Eastern and South Western Regions of England, based on surveys of feeding practice. Primary outcome measures are time to establish full enteral feeding and necrotising enterocolitis; secondary outcomes include sepsis and growth. The target sample size is 400 babies. This sample size is large enough to detect a clinically meaningful difference of 3 days in time to establish full enteral feeds between the two feeding policies, with 90% power and a 5% 2-sided significance level. Initial recruitment period was 24 months, subsequently extended to 38 months. Discussion There is limited evidence from randomised controlled trials on which to base decisions regarding feeding policy in high risk preterm infants. This multicentre trial will help to guide clinical practice and may also

  19. Single Mode, Extreme Precision Doppler Spectrographs (United States)

    Schwab, Christian; Leon-Saval, Sergio G.; Betters, Christopher H.; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss; Mahadevan, Suvrath


    The `holy grail' of exoplanet research today is the detection of an earth-like planet: a rocky planet in the habitable zone around a main-sequence star. Extremely precise Doppler spectroscopy is an indispensable tool to find and characterize earth-like planets; however, to find these planets around solar-type stars, we need nearly one order of magnitude better radial velocity (RV) precision than the best current spectrographs provide. Recent developments in astrophotonics (Bland-Hawthorn & Horton 2006, Bland-Hawthorn et al. 2010) and adaptive optics (AO) enable single mode fiber (SMF) fed, high resolution spectrographs, which can realize the next step in precision. SMF feeds have intrinsic advantages over multimode fiber or slit coupled spectrographs: The intensity distribution at the fiber exit is extremely stable, and as a result the line spread function of a well-designed spectrograph is fully decoupled from input coupling conditions, like guiding or seeing variations (Ihle et al. 2010). Modal noise, a limiting factor in current multimode fiber fed instruments (Baudrand & Walker 2001), can be eliminated by proper design, and the diffraction limited input to the spectrograph allows for very compact instrument designs, which provide excellent optomechanical stability. A SMF is the ideal interface for new, very precise wavelength calibrators, like laser frequency combs (Steinmetz et al. 2008, Osterman et al. 2012), or SMF based Fabry-Perot Etalons (Halverson et al. 2013). At near infrared wavelengths, these technologies are ready to be implemented in on-sky instruments, or already in use. We discuss a novel concept for such a spectrograph.

  20. Interpreting laser Doppler recordings from free flaps. (United States)

    Svensson, H; Holmberg, J; Svedman, P


    Although the transfer of free flaps is nowadays accomplished with an increasing degree of safety, thrombosis of the microvascular anastomoses is still a problem. In order to avoid delay in re-operating, various methods for objective blood flow monitoring have been tried, among them Laser Doppler Flowmetry (LDF). When one reviews the literature, it is apparent that opinions differ about whether or not LDF is a reliable technique for this purpose. To focus on the need to interpret continuous recordings, this paper reports our findings in six latissimus dorsi free flaps chosen from our series of LDF monitoring procedures. One uneventful flap, no. 1, had an immediate postoperative LDF value of 4.5 perfusion units (PU). LDF values improved during the recovery period and the graphic recording showed fluctuations due to normal physiological variations of the blood flow in the flap. Another uneventful flap, no. 4, showed the same pattern, though at an appreciably lower level, 2 PU, on average. Flap no. 2 had an acceptably high value of 3.5 PU despite suffering a venous thrombosis. However, the LDF recording showed no fluctuations and the value declined gradually. Another flap, no. 3, showed fluctuations and blood flow was normal although the value decreased to 2.5 PU. In flap no. 5, any value between 2 and 3.5 PU could be obtained merely by adjusting the position of the probe in the holder. In no. 6, the LDF value suddenly dropped, accompanied by a decrease in the total amount of backscattered light, indicating venous obstruction which was confirmed at re-operation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    In this paper the relationship between Dutch and German short-term and long-term interest rates is examined. Using cointegration techniques, it is found that the covered interest parity hypothesis holds for short-term interest rates. This evidence supports the recent shift of emphasis of Dutch

  2. Political Socialization and Political Interest: The Role of School Reassessed (United States)

    Koskimaa, Vesa; Rapeli, Lauri


    There is a growing concern about the lack of political interest and engagement among Western youth. This has led to a revival of political socialization studies. One recent finding is that (late) adolescence is key to understanding the development of interest for politics. This study builds on this finding by examining political interest among…

  3. Quantifying and Interpreting Group Differences in Interest Profiles (United States)

    Armstrong, Patrick Ian; Fouad, Nadya A.; Rounds, James; Hubert, Lawrence


    Research on group differences in interests has often focused on structural hypotheses and mean-score differences in Holland's (1997) theory, with comparatively little research on basic interest measures. Group differences in interest profiles were examined using statistical methods for matching individuals with occupations, the C-index, Q…

  4. Quantifying and Interpreting Group Differences in Interest Profiles (United States)

    Armstrong, Patrick Ian; Fouad, Nadya A.; Rounds, James; Hubert, Lawrence


    Research on group differences in interests has often focused on structural hypotheses and mean-score differences in Holland's (1997) theory, with comparatively little research on basic interest measures. Group differences in interest profiles were examined using statistical methods for matching individuals with occupations, the C-index, Q…


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Showman, Adam P.; Lewis, Nikole K. [Department of Planetary Sciences and Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, The University of Arizona, 1629 University Boulevard, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Fortney, Jonathan J. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Shabram, Megan, E-mail: [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, 211 Bryant Space Science Center, Gainesville, FL 32611-2055 (United States)


    The meteorology of hot Jupiters has been characterized primarily with thermal measurements, but recent observations suggest the possibility of directly detecting the winds by observing the Doppler shift of spectral lines seen during transit. Motivated by these observations, we show how Doppler measurements can place powerful constraints on the meteorology. We show that the atmospheric circulation-and Doppler signature-of hot Jupiters splits into two regimes. Under weak stellar insolation, the day-night thermal forcing generates fast zonal jet streams from the interaction of atmospheric waves with the mean flow. In this regime, air along the terminator (as seen during transit) flows toward Earth in some regions and away from Earth in others, leading to a Doppler signature exhibiting superposed blueshifted and redshifted components. Under intense stellar insolation, however, the strong thermal forcing damps these planetary-scale waves, inhibiting their ability to generate jets. Strong frictional drag likewise damps these waves and inhibits jet formation. As a result, this second regime exhibits a circulation dominated by high-altitude, day-to-night airflow, leading to a predominantly blueshifted Doppler signature during transit. We present state-of-the-art circulation models including non-gray radiative transfer to quantify this regime shift and the resulting Doppler signatures; these models suggest that cool planets like GJ 436b lie in the first regime, HD 189733b is transitional, while planets hotter than HD 209458b lie in the second regime. Moreover, we show how the amplitude of the Doppler shifts constrains the strength of frictional drag in the upper atmospheres of hot Jupiters. If due to winds, the {approx}2 km s{sup -1} blueshift inferred on HD 209458b may require drag time constants as short as 10{sup 4}-10{sup 6} s, possibly the result of Lorentz-force braking on this planet's hot dayside.

  6. Arousing Students' Interest Through Games

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    As is well known,interest is the best teacher and it can cause motivation. "Motivation is what moves the students from boredom to interest, It's something like engine and steering wheel of an automobile . "(Spolsky. B. 1989 ) So I decided to adopt some different kinds of games in my lessons to arouse the learners' interest and motivate them , and help them keep up their English learning.

  7. Navy Interest Inventory: Approach Development (United States)


    lacking social skills” • Investigative is “analytical, intelligent , skeptical and having academic talent– lacking interpersonal skills” • Artistic is...occupational extroversion introversion scale, an educational orientation scale, and a variability of interests scale. A-25 Norms The General Themes and... introversion scale, an educational orientation scale, and a variability of interests scale. Norms The General Themes and Basic Interest Area scales were

  8. Animal rights and animal experiments: an interest-based approach


    Cochrane, Alasdair


    This paper examines whether non-human animals have a moral right not to be experimented upon. It adopts a Razian conception of rights, whereby an individual possesses a right if an interest of that individual is sufficient to impose a duty on another. To ascertain whether animals have a right not to be experimented on, three interests are examined which might found such a right: the interest in not suffering, the interest in staying alive, and the interest in being free. It is argued that whi...

  9. Comparison of near-infrared spectroscopy and laser Doppler flowmetry for detecting decreased hepatic inflow in the porcine liver. (United States)

    Kaneko, Junichi; Sugawara, Yasuhiko; Matsui, Yuichi; Sakata, Hiroshi; Kokudo, Norihiro


    Hepatic artery and portal vein thrombosis are devastating complications of partial liver transplantation. Early detection of inflow complications is important, as re-reconstruction can salvage the graft. Near-infrared spectroscopy or laser Doppler flowmetry can be used to detect tissue oxygenation or microcirculation on the liver surface. The aim of this study was to examine which of these two methods better detects changes in hepatic inflow. Sangen-strain pigs (n = 5) were used. The tips of the near-infrared spectroscopy and laser Doppler flowmetry probes were placed separately on the surface of the right liver. Inflow to the liver was controlled during the following seven conditions: control (not clamped), half- and totally clamped portal vein, half- and totally clamped hepatic artery, and half- and totally clamped portal vein and artery. Tissue blood flow was calculated using laser Doppler flowmetry. Oxyhemoglobin, deoxyhemoglobin, and the tissue oxygenation index were measured and calculated using a near-infrared spectroscopy system. The tissue blood flow and oxygenation index could not be used to differentiate between the half-clamped portal vein, half-clamped hepatic artery, and totally clamped portal vein conditions. The oxyhemoglobin minus deoxyhemoglobin value was significantly decreased after half or total clamping of the portal vein or hepatic artery (p <. 001 for each condition). The findings of the present study indicate that near-infrared spectroscopy was more sensitive than Doppler flowmetry for detecting changes in hepatic tissue inflow from the liver surface.

  10. Experimentally induced acute uric acid nephropathy in rabbits: Findings of high resolution gray scale and doppler ultrasonographies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Ik; Chung, Soo Young; Lee, Kyung Won; Kim, Hong Dae; Ko, Eun Young; Won, Mi Sook; Noh, Jung Woo [Hallym University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Moon Hyang [Hanyang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    To evaluate changes of the high-resolution (HR) gray scale and doppler ultrasonographic (US) characteristics of experimentally induced acute uric acid (UA) nephropathy in rabbits. Acute UA nephropathy was induced in ten rabbits using supersaturated lithium carbonate solution. The rabbits were divided in two groups. Group I consisted of five rabbits, and they were injected with a single dose of 150 ml of saturated UA over one hour. During tis period, serial US studies of the kidneys of these rabbits were performed every ten minutes. Group II consisted of the remaining five rabbits, and three injections of 50 ml of saturated UA solution were given on the first, fifth and eight day and follow-up was done upto twenty fifth day. Sequential HR and Doppler US, renal biopsy and blood sampling were performed on day 1, 5, 8, 21, and 25 in the group II rabbits. In group I, HR and Doppler US examination revealed the normal resistive index without significant abnormality. On the other hand, US studies of group II showed poor renal corticomedullary differentiation, decreased renal blood flow and elevated resistive index. There was statistically significant correlation among US findings, histologic characteristics and chemical index (BUN, creatinine) of renal function. In addition, sequentially increased size and volume of the kidney were noted in both groups. HR gray scale and doppler US characteristics of experimentally induced acute UA nephropathy in rabbits were similar to those of acute renal failure caused by other well-known causes.

  11. Defining and Classifying Interest Groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baroni, Laura; Carroll, Brendan; Chalmers, Adam;


    The interest group concept is defined in many different ways in the existing literature and a range of different classification schemes are employed. This complicates comparisons between different studies and their findings. One of the important tasks faced by interest group scholars engaged...... in large-N studies is therefore to define the concept of an interest group and to determine which classification scheme to use for different group types. After reviewing the existing literature, this article sets out to compare different approaches to defining and classifying interest groups with a sample...

  12. Management of interest rate risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šabović Šerif


    Full Text Available Interest rate risk is one of the biggest and most dangerous risks that a bank is exposed to. When a change of interest rates occurs, the incomes of a bank based on credits and securities endure significant changes. Banks resources also endure some changes. The change of interest rates changes the value of the assets and liabilities of the bank and it's net and investment worth . The change of interest rates also affects bank's balance sheet, income sheet statement and bank's share capital.

  13. Personality and specialty interest in medical students. (United States)

    Hojat, Mohammadreza; Zuckerman, Marvin


    Research on the relationship between personality and specialty interest is important because of its implications in student career counseling and in forecasting future specialty distribution. This study was designed to test the following hypotheses: 1. Students interested in 'surgical' specialties would obtain higher scores on a measure of 'impulsive sensation seeking' and lower scores on a measure of 'neuroticism-anxiety'. 2. Students interested in 'hospital-based' specialties would score lower on a measure of 'sociability' whereas those interested in 'primary care' would score higher on this measure. In addition to these two hypotheses, gender differences on personality were also examined. Study participants were 1,076 students who matriculated at Jefferson Medical College between 2002 to 2006. A short version of the Zuckerman-Kuhlman personality questionnaire (ZKPQ) measuring five personality factors of 'impulsive sensation Seeking', 'neuroticism-anxiety', 'aggression-hostility', 'sociability', and 'activity' was completed by research participants at the beginning of medical school. Students were also asked to note their specialty interests. Multivariate statistical analyses confirmed the first and partially confirmed the second research hypotheses. Results also showed that men scored higher on 'impulsive sensation seeking,' and women outscored men in the 'neuroticism-Anxiety' and 'activity' scales. Findings suggest that information about the personalities of medical students can help to predict their career interests. Implications for career counseling are discussed.

  14. Doppler examination of the periorbital arteries adds valuable hemodynamic information in carotid artery disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sillesen, H; Schroeder, T; Steenberg, H J;


    The periorbital flow direction and internal carotid artery (ICA) angiogram were compared to the ICA pressure gradient across the stenosis and the distal ICA pressure in 51 patients subjected to carotid endarterectomy. All 17 patients with inverted periorbital flow had stenoses exceeding 50%. The ...

  15. A laser-lock concept to reach cm/s-precision in Doppler experiments with Fabry-Perot wavelength calibrators

    CERN Document Server

    Reiners, A; Ulbrich, R G


    State-of-the-art Doppler experiments require wavelength calibration with precision at the cm/s level. A low-finesse Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) can provide a wavelength comb with a very large bandwidth as required for astronomical experiments, but unavoidable spectral drifts are difficult to control. Instead of actively controlling the FPI cavity, we propose to passively stabilize the interferometer and track the time-dependent cavity length drift externally. A dual-finesse cavity allows drift tracking during observation. The drift of the cavity length is monitored in the high-finesse range relative to an external standard: a single narrow transmission peak is locked to an external cavity diode laser and compared to an atomic frequency. Following standard locking schemes, tracking at sub-mm/s precision can be achieved. This is several orders of magnitude better than currently planned high-precision Doppler experiments. It allows freedom for relaxed designs rendering this approach particularly interesting...

  16. Characterization of ion-irradiated ODS Fe–Cr alloys by doppler broadening spectroscopy using a positron beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parente, P.; Leguey, T. [Departamento de Física and IAAB, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, 28911 Leganés (Spain); Castro, V. de, E-mail: [Departamento de Física and IAAB, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, 28911 Leganés (Spain); Gigl, T.; Reiner, M.; Hugenschmidt, C. [FRM II and Physics Department, Technische Universität München, 85747 Garching (Germany); Pareja, R. [Departamento de Física and IAAB, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, 28911 Leganés (Spain)


    The damage profile of oxide dispersion strengthened steels after single-, or simultaneous triple-ion irradiation at different conditions has been characterized using a low energy positron beam in order to provide information on microstructural changes induced by irradiation. Doppler broadening and coincident Doppler broadening measurements of the positron annihilation line have been performed on different Fe–Cr–(W,Ti) alloys reinforced with Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}, to identify the nature and stability of irradiation-induced open-volume defects and their possible association with the oxide nanoparticles. It was found that irradiation induced vacancy clusters are associated with Cr atoms. The results are of highest interest for modeling the damage induced by 14 MeV neutrons in reduced activation Fe–Cr alloys relevant for fusion devices.

  17. Changes in Doppler waveforms can predict pressure reduction across internal carotid artery stenoses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sillesen, H; Schroeder, T


    perfusion pressure. Forty-nine patients were examined consecutively with ultrasound Doppler prior to carotid endarterectomy. Pulsatility index (PI), pulse rise-time (RT), and systolic width (SW) were related to angiographic degree of stenosis and the ratio of distal ICA blood pressure to common carotid...... artery (CCA) blood pressure (ICA/CCA pressure ratio). The latter was determined during surgery. All three waveform parameters were significantly correlated with the ICA/CCA pressure ratio when calculated from the mean frequency curve (p less than 0.001). A reduction in ICA pressure of 20% could...

  18. Pulsed multigated Doppler ultrasonography in the diagnosis of carotid artery disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sillesen, H; Bitsch, K R; Schroeder, T


    To evaluate the accuracy of a pulsed multigated Doppler system, 128 carotid arteries were examined. The spectral broadening index was calculated from the power spectrum of a small sample volume located in the center of the stream according to the flow profile and was related to the degree...... of stenosis as determined by contrast angiography. Even minor wall irregularities seen on the angiogram were classified as disease. The ability of the system to discriminate between normal and diseased vessels reached a sensitivity of 94% and a specificity of 91%. Classification of greater than 50% or less...

  19. Effect of wind turbine micro-Doppler on SAR and GMTI signatures (United States)

    Bhalla, Rajan; Ling, Hao


    In this paper, we present the results of a modeling study to examine the interference effect of microDopplers caused by offshore wind farms on airborne sensors operating in the synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and ground moving target indicator (GMTI) modes. The modeling is carried out by generating CAD instantiations of the dynamic wind turbine and using the high-frequency electromagnetic code Xpatch to perform the scattering calculations. Artifacts in the resulting SAR and GMTI signatures are evaluated for interference with tracking of boats in coastal waters. Results of signal filtering algorithms to reduce the dynamic turbine clutter in both SAR images and GMTI displays are presented.

  20. The Evaluation of Light Conditions Influence and Corrections upon Doppler Blood Perfusion Imagining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Kubicek


    Full Text Available The paper deals with theoretical and experimental research of the ambient light influence upon the measuring reliability of the perfusion maps by the laser Doppler method using the device PeriScan PIM 3. The main applicable result of the analysis is a set of recommendations for the standardization, the improving of reliability and the compactness of the blood perfusion measuring in the clinical practise. The improvement of examination brings more accurate results and contributes to the optimization of diagnostic process and therapy.

  1. Personality, Vocational Interests, and Work Values of Medical Students (United States)

    Duffy, Ryan D.; Borges, Nicole J.; Hartung, Paul J.


    Interests, personality, and values figure prominently in work motivation, yet little research has examined the combined influence of these factors on vocational behavior. The present study therefore examined relationships among these variables in a sample of 282 medical students (169 women, 113 men) who responded to the Strong Interest Inventory,…

  2. Personality, Vocational Interests, and Work Values of Medical Students (United States)

    Duffy, Ryan D.; Borges, Nicole J.; Hartung, Paul J.


    Interests, personality, and values figure prominently in work motivation, yet little research has examined the combined influence of these factors on vocational behavior. The present study therefore examined relationships among these variables in a sample of 282 medical students (169 women, 113 men) who responded to the Strong Interest Inventory,…

  3. The value of micro-Doppler in stereotactic brain biopsy. (United States)

    Hertel, F; Feiden, W; Bettag, M


    The aim of this study was to analyse the value of intraoperative micro-Doppler in stereotactic brain biopsy (SBB). So far, only a few studies have reported about the usefulness of micro-Doppler in stereotactic brain biopsy. Between 1998 and 2003, 155 SBBs were performed in 153 patients with micro-Doppler (81 males, 72 females, mean age: 59 years). All operations were performed using a ZD-frame and a multiplanar computer tomography-guided trajectory planning system (Leibinger SPP). A 16 MHz micro-Doppler probe (diameter 1 mm, DWL) was used in all cases to explore the area of biopsy before the tissue probes were taken. Serial biopsies (mean, 6 samples) were taken with the Sedan side-cutting cannula (n = 145) or the small forceps (n = 10). We evaluated the number of intraoperative detectable vessel signals by micro-Doppler, intraoperative bleedings as well as bleedings detected by postoperative CT (which was performed in all cases). We compared our results according to bleeding-related complications with the data of stereotactic biopsy series from the recent literature. A conclusive histopathological diagnosis was achieved in 150/153 patients (98 %). A re-biopsy had to be undertaken in 2 cases. In 98 biopsies (63 %), no vessel could be detected with the micro-Doppler. In the remainder, a signal of arterial vessels was detected in 22 (14 %) and a signal of venous vessels in 35 cases (23 %). Detection of a vessel in the micro-Doppler led to a change of the biopsy site in each case within the same trajectory. Biopsy-related bleedings were detected in 4 cases (2.6 %). Among these, the only bleeding which occurred without any signs of vessels in the micro-Doppler happened in a case of a melanoma. The overall biopsy-related permanent morbidity was 0.6 % (n = 1). The biopsy-related mortality was 0. Despite the overall high security of SBB, the use of intraoperative micro-Doppler may lead to an additional reduction of the risk for a biopsy-related bleeding without enormous


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuhair Zuhair


    melekat dengan cara pasif. Kata kunci: Water ingress, reaktivitas Doppler, RGTT200K   In high temperature reactor, the negative temperature reactivity coefficient guarantees fission reaction in the core remain under the control and decay heat will not melt the fuel which cause the release of radioactive substances into the environment. But the entry of water (water ingress into the reactor core due to rupture of a steam generator tube heat exchanger, which is known as one of the design basis accidents, can introduce positive reactivity with other potential hazards such as graphite corrosion and damage of the reflector structure material. This paper will investigate the effect of water ingress accident on Doppler reactivity coefficient of RGTT200K core. The capability of the Doppler reactivity coefficient to compensate positive reactivity incurred during water ingress accident will be examined through a series of calculations with MCNPX code and ENDF/B-VII library for fuel temperature changes from 800K to 1800K. Three options of UO2, ThO2/UO2 and PuO2 fuel kernels with three lattice models of fuel pebble in the reactor core was applied for condition of water ingress with water density from 0 to 1000 kg/m3. The results of the calculations show that Doppler reactivity coefficient is negative for the entire fuel options being considered even for a large possibility of water ingress. The effects of water ingress becomes stronger in lattice model with lower packing fraction because more volume available for water entering the reactor core. The effect of water ingress is also stronger in the uranium core compared to thorium and plutonium cores as a consequence of the Doppler phenomenon where the neutron absorption in resonance region of 238U is greater than 232Th and 240Pu. It can be concluded overall that Doppler coefficient of RGTT200K core has capability to compensate the reactivity insertion introduced by water ingress accident. RGTT200K core with UO2, ThO2/UO2 and PuO2

  5. Laser Doppler perfusion monitoring and imaging of blood microcirculation (United States)

    Nilsson, Gert E.; Wardell, Karin


    Laser Doppler perfusion monitoring is a method of assessing tissue perfusion based on measurements performed using Doppler broadening of monochromatic light scattered in moving blood cells. Ever since laser Doppler perfusion monitors became available about 15 years ago they have been used in numerous applications in both clinical and laboratory settings. The high spatial resolution has in practice manifested itself as one of the main limitations of the method. The reason for this is the difficulty in attaining reproducible values at successive measurement sites because most skin tissue possesses a substantial variation in blood flow even at adjacent measurement sites. In order to overcome this difficulty the laser Doppler perfusion imager was developed. In this camera-like device, the laser beam successively scans the tissue and the Doppler components of the backscattered light are detected by a remote photodiode. After a scanning procedure is complete, a color-coded perfusion map showing the spatial variation of skin blood flow is displayed on a monitor. The operating principle and early applications of this emerging technology are addressed in further detail.

  6. Short period ionospheric perturbations from continuous Doppler sounding (United States)

    Fiser, Jiri; Chum, Jaroslav; Lastovicka, Jan; Buresova, Dalia


    Results of recent observations of ionospheric perturbations on short time scales obtained by international network (Czech Republic, Argentina, Taiwan and South Africa) of multipoint continuous Doppler sounders with time resolution about 10 s are presented. Examples of observation and analysis of propagation of gravity waves (GWs), equatorial spread F (ESF), infrasound from earthquake and large convective systems, as well as ionospheric perturbations caused by solar flares will be shown. It is documented that roughly poleward propagation of GWs dominates in the local summer, whereas mainly equatorward propagation is observed in the local winter. The analysis of occurrences and zonal drifts of ESF based on Doppler sounding are consistent with optical and satellite measurements. The observations of co-seismic perturbations by Doppler sounders in the vicinity of ionosondes and seismic sensors proved that the co-seismic perturbations are caused by approximately vertically propagating infrasound waves triggered by vertical motion of the ground surface. Numerical simulations and Doppler measurements confirmed that in the vicinity (up to about 1000 km) from epicenters of strong earthquake, the infrasound propagates in nonlinear regime in the upper atmosphere, which results in the formation of N-shaped pulse. Solar flares are observed both as sudden frequency deviations and amplitude attenuations of Doppler signal.

  7. Detector resolution in positron annihilation Doppler broadening experiments (United States)

    Heikinheimo, J.; Ala-Heikkilä, J.; Tuomisto, F.


    Positron annihilation Doppler broadening spectroscopy characterizes lattice point defects and is sensitive to very small vacancy densities. High-purity germanium detectors are generally used for recording the Doppler broadening spectrum because they provide good energy resolution and stability. However, the energy resolution of a germanium detector is somewhat dependent on the photon absorption geometry in the detector crystal. This change in the energy resolution changes also the Doppler broadening parameters. To observe the dependency of the resolution function and the Doppler broadening parameters, we performed experiments on Si samples in standard sandwich configuration with a Na-22 source. We changed the radiation geometry of the incident gamma photons via altering the distance of the sample-source package from the detector and by adding steel between the source and the detector. We observed the change of the absorption geometry in the germanium detector crystal by doing Monte Carlo simulations. The aim of this study is to help understand and decide what is the best way to compare the Doppler broadening parameters obtained with different measurement setups and even with the same setup when the geometry in the measurements has changed.

  8. Color Doppler US in the acute scrotal disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Yoo Mi; Yang, Dal Mo; Kang, Sook Wook; Kim, Hyung Sik; Lee, Young Seok; Kim, Hyeon Hoe [Chung Ang Gil Hospital, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)


    To evaluate the utility of Color doppler US in the patients with acute scrotal pain, we retrospectively analyzed 37 patients referred for Color Doppler US of the scrotum. The diagnosis was confirmed by means of appropriate response to antibiotic treatment (31 cases) or surgery (6 cases). Thirty one of 37 patients were diagnosed as inflammatory disease (24 cases of epididymitis, 7 cases of epididymo-orchitis). Twenty three of 24cases of epididymitis had increased epididymal flow, while 6 of 7 cases of epididymo-orchitis had increased epididymal and testicular flow. Five patients were confirmed as testicular torsion, and in all cases nointratesticular blood flow was identified on the symptomatic side. In one case of torsion of appendix testis, epididymis was enlarged and there were increased signals suggesting epididymitis on Color Doppler US, but was confirmed by surgery as torsion of appendix testis. Therefore, the differentiation between torsion and inflammatory disease was possible by using Color Doppler US of the scrotum in 34 of 37 cases in our study. On the basis of our results, we may conclude that Color Doppler US can simultaneously display blood flow and detailed anatomic images, and function as an effective means of evaluating patients with acute scrotal disease

  9. Influence of speckle effect on doppler velocity measurement (United States)

    Zheng, Zheng; Changming, Zhao; Haiyang, Zhang; Suhui, Yang; Dehua, Zhang; Xingyuan, Zheng; Hongzhi, Yang


    In a coherent Lidar system, velocity measurement of a target is achieved by measuring Doppler frequency shift between the echo and local oscillator (LO) signals. The measurement accuracy is proportional to the spectrum width of Doppler signal. Actually, the speckle effect caused by the scattering of laser from a target will broaden the Doppler signal's spectrum and bring uncertainty to the velocity measurement. In this paper, a theoretical model is proposed to predict the broadening of Doppler spectrum with respect to different target's surface and motion parameters. The velocity measurement uncertainty caused by the broadening of spectrum is analyzed. Based on the analysis, we design a coherent Lidar system to measure the velocity of the targets with different surface roughness and transverse velocities. The experimental results are in good agreement with theoretical analysis. It is found that the target's surface roughness and transverse velocity can significantly affect the spectrum width of Doppler signal. With the increase of surface roughness and transverse velocity, the measurement accuracy becomes worse. However, the influence of surface roughness becomes weaker when the spot size of laser beam on the target is smaller.

  10. Renal Power Doppler Ultrasonographic Evaluation of Children With Acute Pyelonephritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Pahlusi


    Full Text Available Urinary tract infections are common in children. The available gold standard method for diagnosis, Tc-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid scan is expensive and exposes patients to considerable amount of radiation. This study was performed to compare and assess the efficacy of Power Doppler Ultrasound versus Tc-99m DMSA scan for diagnosis of acute pyelonephritis. A quasi experimental study was conducted on 34 children with mean age of 2.82.7 years who were hospitalized with their first episode of febrile urinary tract infection. All children were evaluated in the first 3 days of admission by Doppler Ultrasound and Tc-99m DMSA scan. Patients with congenital structural anomalies were excluded. Each kidney was divided into three zones. The comparison between efficacy of Doppler Ultrasound and DMSA scan was carried out based on number of patients and on classified renal units. Based on the number of patients enrolled; the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values and accuracy of Doppler Ultrasound were 89%, 53%, 70%, 80% and 74%, respectively but based on the renal units, it was 66%, 81%, 46%, 91% and 79% , respectively. Although Doppler Ultrasound has the potential for identifying acute pyelonephritis in children, but it is still soon to replace DMSA scan.

  11. Lending Interest Rates’ Relationships of Malaysia and Other Countries


    Noor Azryani Auzairy; Chee Yong Thing


    This paper is to examine the relationship of Malaysia‟s lending interest rate with other countries which include China, Singapore, United States, Indonesia and Thailand. Those five countries are Malaysia‟s major trading partners. The daily base lending interest rates from 2006 to 2014 were applied to this study. The associations of the interest rates were tested by coefficient correlation and multivariate regression analysis. Results showed that Malaysian lending interest rate ...

  12. Interest in Mathematics = Interest in Mathematics? What General Measures of Interest Reflect When the Object of Interest Changes (United States)

    Ufer, Stefan; Rach, Stefanie; Kosiol, Timo


    Students' motivational characteristics, e.g., subject-related interest, are considered important predictors for successful learning processes. However, few empirical studies provide evidence for the assumed chain of effects between high interest and high achievement in mathematics. One reason for this result might be that the applied measures of…

  13. Medication interest in pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rok Antolič


    Medication interest is comparable to literature data: relatively high for acute problems, relatively low for iron supplementation and extremely low for preventative folic acid intake. As to our knowledge, we were the ones to introduce the term »medication interest« into professional literature in Slovenia.

  14. Committed to the Public Interest?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm Pedersen, Lene


    While politicians are often seen as being motivated by narrow self-interest, this article offers an alternative view. The relationship between two pro-social dimensions – Commitment to the Public Interest (CPI) and User Orientation (UO) – and behavioural outcomes among local councillors is analyzed...

  15. 78 FR 39434 - Interest Rates (United States)


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional ``peg'' rate (13 CFR 120.214) on a quarterly basis. This rate is a weighted average cost of money to...

  16. 75 FR 17453 - Interest Rates (United States)


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional ``peg'' rate (13 CFR 120.214) on a quarterly basis. This rate is a weighted average cost of money to...

  17. 75 FR 81326 - Interest Rates (United States)


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional ``peg'' rate (13 CFR 120.214) on a quarterly basis. This rate is a weighted average cost of money to...

  18. 76 FR 18821 - Interest Rates (United States)


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional ``peg'' rate (13 CFR 120.214) on a quarterly basis. This rate is a weighted average cost of money to...

  19. 76 FR 77581 - Interest Rates (United States)


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional ``peg'' rate (13 CFR 120.214) on a quarterly basis. This rate is a weighted average cost of money to...

  20. 78 FR 18664 - Interest Rates (United States)


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional ``peg'' rate (13 CFR 120.214) on a quarterly basis. This rate is a weighted average cost of money to...